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Sample records for cognitive behavioural intervention

  1. Towards a cognitive-behavioural intervention for adult grief reactions.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, D J

    1990-09-01

    Published accounts of behavioural interventions for grief have relied on exposure and habituation to grief cues as the primary strategy. Such an approach is excessively narrow, since it does not adequately confront the challenges that are posed by a bereavement. Many people cope with a bereavement by themselves, and for those, intervention may well be counterproductive. A cognitive-behavioural intervention, following models for depression/anxiety, can assist vulnerable individuals obtain a more rapid or complete adjustment.

  2. Intervention of Behavioural, Cognitive and Sex on Early Childhood's Aggressive Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purwati; Japar, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to find out the effect of behavioural intervention, cognitive intervention, and sex intervention toward the aggressive behaviour of early childhood. The study is conducted at two non-formal institutions of Education on Early Childhood in Magelang. This study obtains the data from two experimental groups consisting of 14 early…

  3. Using Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Intervention in School Settings with Pupils Who Have Externalizing Behavioural Difficulties: An Unexpected Result

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, Garry; Caddick, Katie

    2012-01-01

    There has been a growing interest in the use of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) in school settings by educational psychologists in England. This small-scale study set out to explore the effectiveness of a school-based, eight-session CBT intervention for 12-13-year-old children with externalizing behavioural difficulties. Twelve pupils were…

  4. Using Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Intervention in School Settings with Pupils Who Have Externalizing Behavioural Difficulties: An Unexpected Result

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, Garry; Caddick, Katie

    2012-01-01

    There has been a growing interest in the use of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) in school settings by educational psychologists in England. This small-scale study set out to explore the effectiveness of a school-based, eight-session CBT intervention for 12-13-year-old children with externalizing behavioural difficulties. Twelve pupils were…

  5. Behavioural and cognitive-behavioural interventions for outwardly-directed aggressive behaviour in people with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Ali, Afia; Hall, Ian; Blickwedel, Jessica; Hassiotis, Angela

    2015-04-07

    Outwardly-directed aggressive behaviour is a significant part of problem behaviours presented by people with intellectual disabilities. Prevalence rates of up to 50% have been reported in the literature, depending on the population sampled. Such behaviours often run a long-term course and are a major cause of social exclusion. This is an update of a previously published systematic review (see Hassiotis 2004; Hassiotis 2008). To evaluate the efficacy of behavioural and cognitive-behavioural interventions on outwardly-directed aggressive behaviour in people with intellectual disabilities when compared to standard intervention or wait-list controls. In April 2014 we searched CENTRAL, Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, and eight other databases. We also searched two trials registers, checked reference lists, and handsearched relevant journals to identify any additional trials. We included studies if more than four participants (children or adults) were allocated by random or quasi-random methods to either intervention, standard treatment, or wait-list control groups. Two review authors independently identified studies and extracted and assessed the quality of the data. We deemed six studies (309 participants), based on adult populations with intellectual disabilities, suitable for inclusion in the current version of this review. These studies examined a range of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) approaches: anger management (three studies (n = 235); one individual therapy and two group-based); relaxation (one study; n = 12), mindfulness based on meditation (one study; n = 34), problem solving and assertiveness training (one study; n = 28). We were unable to include any studies using behavioural interventions. There were no studies of children.Only one study reported moderate quality of evidence for outcomes of interest as assessed by the Grades of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. We judged the evidence for the remaining studies to be of

  6. Interventions combining motivational interviewing and cognitive behaviour to promote medication adherence: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Spoelstra, Sandra L; Schueller, Monica; Hilton, Melissa; Ridenour, Kimberly

    2015-05-01

    This article presents an integrative review of the evidence for combined motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioural interventions that promote medication adherence. We undertook this review to establish a scientific foundation for development of interventions to promote medication adherence and to guide clinical practice. The World Health Organization has designated medication adherence as a global problem. Motivational interviewing and cognitive behaviour interventions have been found to individually promote medication adherence. However, there is a gap in the literature on the effect of combined motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioural approaches to promote medication adherence. Integrative review. COCHRANE, PubMed and CINAHL were searched to access relevant studies between 2004-2014. Inclusion criteria were interventions combining motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioural therapy with medication adherence as the outcome. Articles were assessed for measures of adherence and methodological rigour. Analysis was performed using an integrative review process. Six articles met the inclusion criteria. A randomised controlled trial reported pretreatment missed doses of 5·58 and post-treatment of 0·92 and trended towards significance. Four cohort studies had effect sizes of 0·19-0·35 (p < 0·05). A case study had a pretreatment adherence rate of 25% and post-treatment 77% (p < 0·01). Although there were a limited number of studies on combined motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioural interventions, five out of six were effective at improving medication adherence. Future studies with large rigorous randomised trials are needed. This review provides clinicians with the state of the science in relation to combined motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioural therapy interventions that promote medication adherence. A summary of intervention components and talking points are provided to aid nurses in informing decision

  7. Multicomponent cognitive-behavioural intervention to improve sleep in adolescents: a multiple baseline design.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Melissa C; Ward, Cynthia M; Grodin, Lauren K; Slifer, Keith J

    2014-05-01

    Adolescents are prone to sleep problems that have unique developmental aspects and contribute to physical, emotional, and behavioural problems. This study evaluated an individualized, multicomponent intervention that considered developmental factors, and promoted age-appropriate autonomy in three adolescent females with disrupted sleep. Adolescents recorded sleep data on daily logs. A nonconcurrent multiple baseline design was used to evaluate a cognitive-behavioural intervention including sleep hygiene training, bedtime routine development, cognitive restructuring, relaxation training, stimulus control, sleep restriction, bedtime fading, and problem-solving, along with clinically indicated individualization. Outcomes demonstrated clinically meaningful improvements and decreased variability in sleep parameters following intervention. Each participant's sleep log data indicated improvement in, or maintenance of, adequate total sleep time (TST), decreased sleep onset latency (SOL), improved sleep efficiency (SE), improvement in time of sleep onset, and decreased or continued low frequency of night awakenings (NA). Anecdotally, adolescents and parents reported improvement in daytime functioning, coping, and sense of wellbeing. These cases highlight the potential for cognitive-behavioural interventions to facilitate healthy sleep in adolescents with challenging sleep problems.

  8. The Relationship between Competence and Patient Outcome with Low-Intensity Cognitive Behavioural Interventions.

    PubMed

    Branson, Amanda; Myles, Pamela; Mahdi, Mishka; Shafran, Roz

    2017-09-14

    Little is understood about the relationship between therapist competence and the outcomes of patients treated for common mental health disorders. Furthermore, the evidence is yet to extend to competence in the delivery of low-intensity cognitive behavioural interventions. Understanding this relationship is essential to the dissemination and implementation of low-intensity cognitive behavioural interventions. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between Psychological Well-being Practitioner (PWP) competence and patient outcome within the framework of the British government's Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) initiative. Forty-seven PWPs treating 3688 patients participated. Relationships between PWP scores on three observed standardized clinical examinations and reliable change in patients' symptoms of anxiety and depression were explored at two time points: during the year-long training phase, and over a 12-month follow-up. Results indicated that patients treated by qualified PWPs achieved superior outcomes than those treated by trainees. Little support was found for a general association between practitioner competence in delivering low-intensity cognitive behavioural interventions and patient outcome, either during or post-training; however, significantly more patients of the most competent PWPs demonstrated reliable improvement in their symptoms of anxiety and depression than would be expected by chance alone and fewer deteriorated compared with those treated by the least competent PWPs. Results were indicative of a complex, non-linear relationship, with patient outcome affected by PWP status (trainee or qualified) and by competence at its extremes. The implications of these results for the dissemination and implementation of low-intensity cognitive behavioural interventions are discussed.

  9. Treating Problem Gambling Samples with Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and Mindfulness-Based Interventions: A Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, C C; Crino, R D; O'Neill, K

    2016-12-01

    The problem gambling (PG) intervention literature is characterised by a variety of psychological treatments and approaches, with varying levels of evidence (PGRTC in Guideline for screening, assessment and treatment in problem and pathological gambling. Monash University, Melbourne, 2011). A recent PG systematic review (Maynard et al. in Res Soc Work Pract, 2015. doi: 10.1177/1049731515606977 ) and the success of mindfulness-based interventions to effectively treat disorders commonly comorbid with PG suggested mindfulness-based interventions may be effective for treating PG. The current study tested the effectiveness of three interventions to treat PGs: 1. case formulation driven Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT); 2. manualised CBT; and 3. mindfulness-based treatment. All three interventions tested returned large effect size improvements in PG behaviour after seven sessions (Cohen's d range 1.46-2.01), at post-treatment and at 3 and 6-month follow-up. All of the interventions were rated as acceptable by participants at post-treatment. This study suggests that the mindfulness-based and TAU interventions used in the current study appear to be effective at reducing PG behavior and associated distress and they also appear to generalise to improvements in other measures such as quality of life-mental functioning and certain mindfulness facets more effectively than the manualised form of CBT utilised used here. Secondly, a brief mindfulness intervention delivered after psycho-education and a brief CBT intervention may be a useful supplement to traditional CBT treatments by addressing transdiagnostic processes such as rumination and thought suppression. Thirdly, CBT interventions continue to report effectiveness in reducing PG behaviour and associated distress consistent with the prevailing literature and clinical direction.

  10. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Cognitive Behavioural Intervention for Anger Management in Children Diagnosed with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sofronoff, Kate; Attwood, Tony; Hinton, Sharon; Levin, Irina

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study described was to evaluate the effectiveness of a cognitive behavioural intervention for anger management with children diagnosed with Asperger syndrome. Forty-five children and their parents were randomly assigned to either intervention or wait-list control conditions. Children in the intervention participated in six 2-h…

  11. Do We Need Both Cognitive and Behavioural Components in Interventions for Depressed Mood in People with Mild Intellectual Disability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGillivray, J. A.; Kershaw, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A growing literature suggests that people with mild intellectual disability (ID) who have depressed mood may benefit from cognitive--behavioural interventions. There has been some speculation regarding the relative merit of the components of this approach. The aim of this study was to compare (i) cognitive strategies; (ii) behavioural…

  12. Do We Need Both Cognitive and Behavioural Components in Interventions for Depressed Mood in People with Mild Intellectual Disability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGillivray, J. A.; Kershaw, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A growing literature suggests that people with mild intellectual disability (ID) who have depressed mood may benefit from cognitive--behavioural interventions. There has been some speculation regarding the relative merit of the components of this approach. The aim of this study was to compare (i) cognitive strategies; (ii) behavioural…

  13. A Brief Cognitive Behavioural Intervention for Maladaptive Perfectionism in Students: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Arana, Fernán G; Miracco, Mariana C; Galarregui, Marina S; Keegan, Eduardo G

    2017-09-01

    Researchers focused on developing therapeutic strategies for perfectionism given its well-established link to the onset and maintenance of several mental disorders. Meta-analytical findings provided support for the efficacy of cognitive behavioural (CB) approaches. However, most studies have focused on the efficacy of interventions, without analysing their efficiency. To explore the feasibility of a brief (five weekly sessions) CB group intervention focused on reducing perfectionistic concerns in Argentine students. We also aimed to identify participants who benefited from the intervention and to explore their differences with non-respondents. A third aim was to explore the potential merits of the intervention in a different cultural context as this is the first attempt to adapt an English-spoken protocol to the Spanish language. A quasi-experimental design with two time points was used. Twenty-four out of 84 participants (mean age = 27.75 years, SD = 8.3) were classified as maladaptive perfectionists. Paired t-tests and reliable change index comparisons revealed that most students (75%) statistically and clinically reduced their levels of perfectionistic concerns as well as their perfectionistic strivings. General distress, operationalized as anxious and depressive symptoms, was also decreased. Students who completed and responded to the intervention were more dysfunctional in academic and psychological measures at baseline than non-completers and non-improvers. Findings support the feasibility, preliminary efficacy and efficiency of this five weekly session intervention when applied to a sample of Argentine university students.

  14. Treatment of Adult Sexual Offenders: A Therapeutic Cognitive-Behavioural Model of Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Pamela M.

    2003-01-01

    Recent research indicates that, of the various forms of treatment available to sexual offenders, cognitive-behavioural methods are likely to have the greatest impact in reducing rates of sexual re-offending. Cognitive-behavioural treatment typically targets attitudes that support sexual offending, anger management, victim empathy, deviant sexual…

  15. Breathing exercise combined with cognitive behavioural intervention improves sleep quality and heart rate variability in major depression.

    PubMed

    Chien, Hui-Ching; Chung, Yu-Chu; Yeh, Mei-Ling; Lee, Jia-Fu

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a cognitive behavioural intervention combined with a breathing relaxation exercise on sleep quality and heart rate variability in patients with major depression. Depression is a long-lasting illness with significant effects not only in individuals themselves, but on their family, work and social relationships as well. Cognitive behavioural therapy is considered to be an effective treatment for major depression. Breathing relaxation may improve heart rate variability, but few studies have comprehensively examined the effect of a cognitive behavioural intervention combined with relaxing breathing on patients with major depression. An experimental research design with a repeated measure was used. Eighty-nine participants completed this study and entered data analysed. The experimental group (n = 43) received the cognitive behavioural intervention combined with a breathing relaxation exercise for four weeks, whereas the control group (n = 46) did not. Sleep quality and heart rate variability were measured at baseline, posttest1, posttest2 and follow-up. Data were examined by chi-square tests, t-tests and generalised estimating equations. After adjusting for age, socioeconomic status, severity of disease and psychiatric history, the quality of sleep of the experimental group improved, with the results at posttest achieving significance. Heart rate variability parameters were also significantly improved. This study supported the hypothesis that the cognitive behavioural intervention combined with a breathing relaxation exercise could improve sleep quality and heart rate variability in patients with major depression, and the effectiveness was lasting. The cognitive behavioural intervention combined with a breathing relaxation exercise that included muscle relaxation, deep breathing and sleep hygiene could be provided with major depression during hospitalisation. Through group practice and experience sharing

  16. Cognitive-behavioural interventions for preventing youth gang involvement for children and young people (7-16).

    PubMed

    Fisher, H; Gardner, F E M; Montgomery, P

    2008-04-16

    Many studies document a robust and consistent relationship between gang membership and elevated delinquency, with gang members disproportionately involved in crime compared to non-gang peers. Research also indicates that both delinquent youth and youth who join gangs often show a wide range of deficient or distorted social-cognitive processes compared to non-delinquent peers. Cognitive-behavioural interventions are designed to address cognitive deficits in order to reduce maladaptive or dysfunctional behaviour, and studies have documented their positive impact on a number of behavioural and psychological disorders among children and youth. To determine the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural interventions for preventing youth gang involvement for children and young people (ages 7-16). Electronic searches of ASSIA, CINAHL, CJA, Cochrane Library, Dissertations Abstracts A, EMBASE, ERIC, IBSS, LILACs, LexisNexis Butterworths, MEDLINE, NCJR Service Abstracts Database, PsycINFO, and Sociological Abstracts, to April 2007. Reviewers contacted relevant organisations, individuals, and list-servs and searched pertinent websites and reference lists. All randomised controlled trials or quasi-randomised controlled trials of interventions with a cognitive-behavioural intervention as the majority component, delivered to youth and children aged 7-16 not involved in a gang. Searching yielded 2,284 unduplicated citations, 2,271 of which were excluded as irrelevant based on title and abstract. One was excluded following personal communication with investigators. One citation, of a large randomised prevention trial, awaits assessment; personal communication with study authors yielded unpublished reports addressing gang outcomes, but insufficient detail precluded determining inclusion status. Seven remaining reports were excluded as irrelevant because they were narrative reviews or descriptions of programs without evaluations, did not address a gang prevention programme, or did not

  17. Comparing the acceptability of a positive psychology intervention versus a cognitive behavioural therapy for clinical depression.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Gomez, Irene; Chaves, Covadonga; Hervas, Gonzalo; Vazquez, Carmelo

    2017-09-01

    There is growing evidence on the efficacy of positive psychology interventions (PPI) to treat clinical disorders. However, very few studies have addressed their acceptability. The present study aimed to analyse 2 key components of acceptability (i.e., client satisfaction and adherence to treatment) of a new PPI programme, the Integrative Positive Psychological Intervention for Depression (IPPI-D), in comparison to a standard cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) programme in the treatment of clinical depression. One hundred twenty-eight women with a DSM-IV diagnosis of major depression or dysthymia were allocated to a 10-session IPPI-D or CBT group intervention condition. Results showed that both interventions were highly acceptable for participants. Attendance rates were high, and there were no significant differences between conditions. However, the IPPI-D condition showed significantly higher client satisfaction than the CBT condition. Moreover, acceptability did not differ based on participants' severity of symptoms, regardless of condition. These findings encourage further investigations of the applicability of PPI in clinical settings in order to broaden the range of acceptable and suitable therapies for depressed patients. Key Practitioner Message This study sheds light on the client satisfaction and adherence to a positive intervention. For participants, positive psychology interventions (PPI) may be more satisfactory than CBT as PPI are framed within a positive mental health model and, consequently, may reduce the risk of stigmatization Because acceptability of treatments and preferences may affect the efficacy of treatments, this study provides an excellent opportunity to offer professionals more therapeutic options to tailor treatments to clients' needs and expectations. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. How much behaviour change should we expect from health promotion campaigns targeting cognitions? An approach to pre-intervention assessment.

    PubMed

    Fife-Schaw, Chris; Abraham, Charles

    2009-09-01

    For those planning interventions based on social cognition models, it is usually not clear what impact on behaviour will follow from attempts to change the cognitions specified in these models. We describe a statistical simulation technique to assess the likely impact of health promotion targeting Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA)-based predictors of condom use. We apply regression-based simulation techniques to data from the SHARE project (n = 756 Scottish adolescents) to assess the potential impact of changes in cognitions on condom use. Results support the predictive utility of TRA-based models of psychological antecedents of condom use but also provide a cautionary warning about the magnitude of behaviour change likely to be achieved by interventions based on such models.

  19. What students do schools allocate to a cognitive-behavioural intervention? Characteristics of adolescent participants in Northern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Zetterström Dahlqvist, Heléne; Landstedt, Evelina; Gillander Gådin, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescents are a vulnerable group when it comes to the risk of developing depression. Preventing the onset of depressive episodes in this group is therefore a major public health priority. In the last decades, school-based cognitive-behavioural interventions have been a common primary prevention approach. However, evidence on what girls actually are allocated to such interventions when no researchers are involved is scarce. Objective To explore how a selective cognitive-behavioural program (Depression In Swedish Adolescents) developed to prevent depression in adolescents, was implemented in a naturalistic setting in schools in northern part of Sweden. The focus was on characteristics of participants allocated to the intervention. Design Cross-sectional baseline data on depressive symptoms, school environment and socio-economic factors were collected in 2011 by means of questionnaires in schools in a municipality in the northern part of Sweden. Intervention participants were identified in a follow-up questionnaire in 2012. Students (n=288) included in the analyses were in the ages of 14–15. Results Sixty-six girls and no boys were identified as intervention participants. They reported higher levels of depressive symptoms, lower personal relative affluence, more sexual harassment victimization and less peer support compared to female non-participants (n=222). Intervention participants were more likely to attend schools with a higher proportion of low parental education levels and a lower proportion of students graduating with a diploma. Conclusions The developers of the intervention originally intended the program to be universal or selective, but it was implemented as targeted in these schools. It is important for school administrations to adhere to program fidelity when it comes to what students it is aimed for. Implications for effectivenss trials of cognitive-behavioural interventions in the school setting is discussed. PMID:26538463

  20. [Reason and emotion: integration of cognitive-behavioural and experiential interventions in the treatment of long evolution food disorders].

    PubMed

    Vilariño Besteiro, M P; Pérez Franco, C; Gallego Morales, L; Calvo Sagardoy, R; García de Lorenzo, A

    2009-01-01

    This paper intends to show the combination of therapeutical strategies in the treatment of long evolution food disorders. This fashion of work entitled "Modelo Santa Cristina" is based on several theoretical paradigms: Enabling Model, Action Control Model, Change Process Transtheoretical Model and Cognitive-Behavioural Model (Cognitive Restructuring and Learning Theories). Furthermore, Gestalt, Systemic and Psychodrama Orientation Techniques. The purpose of the treatment is both the normalization of food patterns and the increase in self-knowledge, self-acceptance and self-efficacy of patients. The exploration of ambivalence to change, the discovery of the functions of symptoms and the search for alternative behaviours, the normalization of food patterns, bodily image, cognitive restructuring, decision taking, communication skills and elaboration of traumatic experiences are among the main areas of intervention.

  1. A randomized controlled trial of a cognitive behavioural intervention for anger management in children diagnosed with Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sofronoff, Kate; Attwood, Tony; Hinton, Sharon; Levin, Irina

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of the study described was to evaluate the effectiveness of a cognitive behavioural intervention for anger management with children diagnosed with Asperger syndrome. Forty-five children and their parents were randomly assigned to either intervention or wait-list control conditions. Children in the intervention participated in six 2-h weekly sessions while parents participated in a larger parent group. Parent reports indicated a significant decrease in episodes of anger following intervention and a significant increase in their own confidence in managing anger in their child. Qualitative information gathered from parents and teachers indicated some generalization of strategies learned in the clinic setting to both home and school settings. Limitations of the study and suggestions for future research are also discussed.

  2. Competences required for the delivery of high and low-intensity cognitive behavioural interventions for chronic fatigue, chronic fatigue syndrome/ME and irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rimes, Katharine A; Wingrove, Janet; Moss-Morris, Rona; Chalder, Trudie

    2014-11-01

    Cognitive behavioural interventions are effective in the treatment of chronic fatigue, chronic fatigue syndrome (sometimes known as ME or CFS/ME) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Such interventions are increasingly being provided not only in specialist settings but in primary care settings such as Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) services. There are no existing competences for the delivery of "low-intensity" or "high-intensity" cognitive behavioural interventions for these conditions. To develop "high-intensity" and "low-intensity" competences for cognitive behavioural interventions for chronic fatigue, CFS/ME and IBS. The initial draft drew on a variety of sources including treatment manuals and other information from randomized controlled trials. Therapists with experience in providing cognitive behavioural interventions for CF, CFS/ME and IBS in research and clinical settings were consulted on the initial draft competences and their suggestions for minor amendments were incorporated into the final versions. Feedback from experienced therapists was positive. Therapists providing low intensity interventions reported that the competences were also helpful in highlighting training needs. These sets of competences should facilitate the training and supervision of therapists providing cognitive behavioural interventions for chronic fatigue, CFS/ME and IBS. The competences are available online (see table of contents for this issue: http://journals.cambridge.org/jid_BCP) or on request from the first author.

  3. Cognitive intervention therapy as treatment for behaviour disorders in Alzheimer disease: evidence on efficacy and neurobiological correlations.

    PubMed

    García-Alberca, J M

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of behavioural and psychological symptoms (BPS) is very high among patients with Alzheimer disease (AD); more than 90% of AD patients will present such symptoms during the course of the disease. These symptoms result in poorer quality of life for both patients and caregivers and increased healthcare costs. BPS are the main factors involved in increases to the caregiver burden, and they often precipitate the admission of patients to residential care centres. Current consensus holds that intervention models combining pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments are the most effective for AD patients. Several studies have shown cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine combined with cognitive intervention therapy (CIT) to be effective for improving patients' cognitive function and functional capacity for undertaking daily life activities. However, the efficacy of CIT as a treatment for BPS has not yet been clearly established, which limits its use for this purpose in clinical practice. The objective of this review is to gather available evidence on the efficacy of cognitive intervention therapy (CIT) on BPS in patients with AD. The results of this review suggest that CIT may have a beneficial effect on BPS in patients with AD and should therefore be considered a treatment option for patients with AD and BPS. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Brief cognitive behavioural intervention for depression and anxiety symptoms improves quality of life in chronic haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Lerma, Abel; Perez-Grovas, Héctor; Bermudez, Luis; Peralta-Pedrero, María L; Robles-García, Rebeca; Lerma, Claudia

    2017-03-01

    Psychological treatment of depression in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has focused on severely depressed patients. We designed and tested a brief (5 weeks) cognitive behavioural intervention (CBI) to reduce mild and moderate depression and anxiety symptoms in patients with ESRD. For the purpose of this study, a single-blind, randomized controlled design was used to compare patients with ESRD under haemodialysis treatment with and without the CBI. Depression and anxiety symptoms were screened in 152 subjects (18-60 years old, 84 male). Sixty participants (age 41.8 ± 14.7, 29 males) with mild or moderate scores of depression (Beck Depression Inventory) and anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory) were randomly assigned to CBI or the control group. CBI techniques consisted of positive self-reinforcement, deep breathing, muscle relaxation, and cognitive restructuring. Depression, anxiety, quality of life (QoL), and cognitive distortion scores were evaluated at baseline, after 5 weeks (end of treatment) and after 4-week follow-up. All scores were compared by ANOVA for repeated measures with post-hoc tests adjusted by Bonferroni's method (p < .05 was considered significant). At follow-up, depression, anxiety, and cognitive distortions had decreased, and QoL had increased in the intervention group, and there were no changes in the control group. Clinical utility was 33% for depression and 43% for anxiety. A brief CBI of 5 weeks is effective for decreasing mild or moderate depression and anxiety symptoms and improving QoL in ESRD haemodialysis patients. A brief, systematic and structured cognitive behavioural intervention (CBI) decreases anxiety and depression symptoms and improves quality of life in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who are being treated with haemodialysis. These benefits are not achieved when anxiety and depression symptoms are identified but not treated psychologically. This CBI consisted of cognitive restructuring of the distorted thoughts

  5. Cognitive-behavioural therapy and motivational intervention for schizophrenia and substance misuse. 18-month outcomes of a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Haddock, Gillian; Barrowclough, Christine; Tarrier, Nicholas; Moring, Jan; O'Brien, Robert; Schofield, Nichola; Quinn, Joanne; Palmer, Steven; Davies, Linda; Lowens, Ian; McGovern, John; Lewis, Shôn

    2003-11-01

    Comorbid substance misuse in people with schizophrenia is associated with poor clinical and social outcomes. There are few studies of psychological treatments for this population and little long-term follow-up of their benefits. To investigate symptom, substance use, functioning and health economy outcomes for patients with schizophrenia and their carers 18 months after a cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) programme. Patients with dual diagnosis from a randomised controlled trial of motivational intervention, individual CBT and family intervention were assessed on multiple outcomes at 18-month follow-up. Carers were assessed on symptom, functioning and needs over 12 months. Health economy data were collected over 18 months. There were significant improvements in patient functioning compared with routine care over 18 months. No significant differences between treatment groups were found in carer or cost outcomes. The treatment programme was superior to routine care on outcomes relating to illness and service use, and the cost was comparable to the control treatment.

  6. Persistent frequent attenders in primary care: costs, reasons for attendance, organisation of care and potential for cognitive behavioural therapeutic intervention

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The top 3% of frequent attendance in primary care is associated with 15% of all appointments in primary care, a fivefold increase in hospital expenditure, and more mental disorder and functional somatic symptoms compared to normal attendance. Although often temporary if these rates of attendance last more than two years, they may become persistent (persistent frequent or regular attendance). However, there is no long-term study of the economic impact or clinical characteristics of regular attendance in primary care. Cognitive behaviour formulation and treatment (CBT) for regular attendance as a motivated behaviour may offer an understanding of the development, maintenance and treatment of regular attendance in the context of their health problems, cognitive processes and social context. Methods/design A case control design will compare the clinical characteristics, patterns of health care use and economic costs over the last 10 years of 100 regular attenders (≥30 appointments with general practitioner [GP] over 2 years) with 100 normal attenders (6–22 appointments with GP over 2 years), from purposefully selected primary care practices with differing organisation of care and patient demographics. Qualitative interviews with regular attending patients and practice staff will explore patient barriers, drivers and experiences of consultation, and organisation of care by practices with its challenges. Cognitive behaviour formulation analysed thematically will explore the development, maintenance and therapeutic opportunities for management in regular attenders. The feasibility, acceptability and utility of CBT for regular attendance will be examined. Discussion The health care costs, clinical needs, patient motivation for consultation and organisation of care for persistent frequent or regular attendance in primary care will be explored to develop training and policies for service providers. CBT for regular attendance will be piloted with a view to

  7. An evaluation of the FRIENDS programme: a cognitive behaviour therapy intervention to promote emotional resilience.

    PubMed

    Stallard, P; Simpson, N; Anderson, S; Carter, T; Osborn, C; Bush, S

    2005-10-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and acceptability of the FRIENDS programme. Uncontrolled before and after assessment of the FRIENDS programme, a 10 session cognitive behaviour therapy programme. A total of 213 children aged 9-10 years from six primary schools were studied. Spence Children's Anxiety Scale, Culture Free Self-Esteem Questionnaire, qualitative assessment of acceptability. End of programme data from 197 children (92.5% of eligible sample) showed significantly lower rates of anxiety (t = 2.95, df = 384) and significantly improved levels of self-esteem (t = 3.13, df = 386). Significant improvements were obtained in over half of those children with the most severe emotional problems. A total of 190 children (89.2%) completed a qualitative assessment of acceptability: 154 (81%) thought it was fun, 147 (77.4%) would recommend it to a friend; 137 (72.8%) thought they had learned new skills, and 78 (41.1%) had helped someone else with their new skills. The FRIENDS programme appears to be an efficacious and acceptable way to promote emotional resilience (reduced anxiety and increased self-esteem) in primary school aged children, consistent with previous studies in Australia. Further controlled studies are needed to assess natural history of anxiety and self-esteem and whether benefits are maintained over time.

  8. Brief intervention, physical exercise and cognitive behavioural group therapy for patients with chronic low back pain (The CINS trial).

    PubMed

    Harris, A; Moe, T F; Eriksen, H R; Tangen, T; Lie, S A; Tveito, T H; Reme, S E

    2017-09-01

    Cognitive-behavioural treatments (CBT) and physical group exercise (PE) have both shown promising effects in reducing disability and increasing work participation among chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients. A brief cognitive intervention (BI) has previously been demonstrated to reduce work disability in CLBP. The aim of this study was to test if the effect of BI could be further increased by adding either group CBT or group PE. A total of 214 patients, all sick listed 2-10 months due to CLBP, were randomized to BI (n = 99), BI + group CBT (n = 55) or BI + group PE (n = 60). Primary outcome was increased work participation at 12 months, whereas secondary outcomes included pain-related disability, subjective health complaints, anxiety, depression, coping and fear avoidance. There were no significant differences between the groups in work participation at 12 months follow-up (χ(2)  = 1.15, p = 0.56). No significant differences were found on the secondary outcomes either, except for a statistically significant reduction (time by group) in pseudoneurology one domain of subjective health complaints (sleep problems, tiredness, dizziness, anxiety, depression, palpitation, heat flushes) (F2,136  = 3.109, p = 0.048) and anxiety (F2,143  = 4.899, p = 0.009) for the groups BI + group CBT and BI + group PE, compared to BI alone. However, these differences were not significant in post hoc analyses (Scheffé adjusted). There was no support for an effect of the added group CBT or group PE treatments to a brief cognitive intervention in this study of patients on sick leave due to low back pain. Our study demonstrates that treatments that previously were found to be effective and are included in most treatment guidelines, such as group cognitive-behavior therapy and exercise, were not effective in this given context compared to a brief, cognitive intervention. This implies that an optimized brief intervention is difficult to outperform in patients on

  9. Systematic review of cognitive behavioural interventions for HIV risk reduction in substance-using men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Melendez-Torres, G J; Bonell, Chris

    2014-08-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) experience disproportionately high rates of HIV and substance use. Though interventions based on cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) are effective for many psychiatric disorders, systematic reviews of CBT for substance use present mixed results and CBT has not been systematically reviewed for HIV risk reduction in MSM. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of non-pharmacological CBT for substance-using MSM were systematically reviewed to assess the evidence for these interventions' impact on unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). We searched 20 databases on 22 September 2012. Of the 2801 records identified, both authors separately assessed 70 full-text articles for inclusion. In three included RCTs, one RCT compared CBT against non-treatment control and two RCTs compared CBT against CBT variants. Across studies, CBT led to UAI reductions, though at one-year follow-up, these reductions were generally not greater than in other trial arms. This evidence of moderate quality indicates that while CBT may reduce UAI in substance-using MSM, it is unclear if CBT is more effective than mere assessment. All RCTs tested intensive, clinic-based interventions requiring sustained participant commitment, indicating a need for research into briefer interventions, with particular focus on episodic substance use and effectiveness trials. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  10. Cognitive science and behaviourism.

    PubMed

    Skinner, B F

    1985-08-01

    In this paper it is argued that cognitive scientists, claiming the support of brain science and computer simulation, have revived a traditional view that behaviour is initiated by an internal, autonomous mind. In doing so, they have misused the metaphor of storage and retrieval, given neurology a misleading assignment, frequently replaced controlled experimental conditions with mere descriptions of conditions and the assessment of behaviour with statements of expectations and intentions, given feelings and states of mind the status of causes of behaviour rather than the products of the causes, and failed to define many key terms in dimensions acceptable to science.

  11. Cognitive-Behavioural Intervention for People with Intellectual Disability and Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagnan, Dave; Jahoda, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Background: Distinct cognitive models and treatments have been developed for people without intellectual disability with a wide range of anxiety disorders. However, these have not been reported as applied to people with intellectual disabilities. In fact, much of the cognitive therapy literature for people with intellectual disabilities does not…

  12. A randomised, wait-list controlled trial: evaluation of a cognitive-behavioural group intervention on psycho-sexual adjustment for men with localised prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Siddons, Heather M; Wootten, Addie C; Costello, Anthony J

    2013-10-01

    To examine the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) group intervention to facilitate improved psycho-sexual adjustment to treatment side effects in prostate cancer survivors post-radical prostatectomy. A randomised, wait-list controlled trial was conducted with a total of 60 men who participated in a manualised 8-week cognitive-behavioural group intervention 6 months to 5 years post-radical prostatectomy for localised prostate cancer. Participants completed standardised questionnaires pre-intervention and post-intervention, which assessed mood state, stress, general and prostate cancer anxiety, quality of life and areas of sexual functioning. Paired samples t-tests identified a significant improvement in sexual confidence, masculine self-esteem, sexual drive/relationship and a significant decline in sexual behaviour from pre-intervention to post-intervention. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that after controlling for covariates, participation in the group intervention significantly improved sexual confidence, sexual intimacy, masculine self-esteem and satisfaction with orgasm. This group-based CBT intervention for men post-radical prostatectomy for localised prostate cancer shows promising results in terms of improving quality of life. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Effects of a brief cognitive behavioural therapy group intervention on baseline brain perfusion in adolescents with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Sosic-Vasic, Zrinka; Abler, Birgit; Grön, Georg; Plener, Paul; Straub, Joana

    2017-04-12

    A number of neuroimaging studies have identified altered regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) related to major depressive disorder (MDD) in adult samples, particularly in the lateral prefrontal, cingular and temporal regions. In contrast, neuroimaging investigations in adolescents with MDD are rare, although investigating young patients during a significant period of brain maturation might offer valuable insights into the neural mechanisms of MDD. We acquired perfusion images obtained with continuous arterial spin labelling in 21 medication-naive adolescents with MDD before and after a five-session cognitive behavioural group therapy (group CBT). A control group included medication-naive patients under treatment as usual while waiting for the psychotherapy. We found relatively increased rCBF in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC; BA 46), the right caudate nucleus and the left inferior parietal lobe (BA 40) after CBT compared with before CBT. Relatively increased rCBF in the right DLPFC postgroup CBT was confirmed by time (post vs. pre)×group (intervention/waiting list) interaction analyses. In the waiting group, relatively increased rCBF was found in the thalamus and the anterior cingulate cortex (BA 24). The relatively small number of patients included in this pilot study has to be considered. Our findings indicate that noninvasive resting perfusion scanning is suitable to identify CBT-related changes in adolescents with MDD. rCBF increase in the DLPFC following a significant reduction in MDD symptoms in adolescents might represent the core neural correlate of changes in 'top-down' cognitive processing, a possible correlate of improved self-regulation and cognitive control.

  14. Can Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience Inform Intervention for Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties (SEBD)?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederickson, Norah; Jones, Alice P.; Warren, Laura; Deakes, Tara; Allen, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    An initial evaluation of the utility of designing an intervention to address neuroscience-based subtyping of children who have conduct problems was undertaken in this pilot study. Drawing on the literature on callous-unemotional traits, a novel intervention programme, "Let's Get Smart", was implemented in a school for children with…

  15. Can Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience Inform Intervention for Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties (SEBD)?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederickson, Norah; Jones, Alice P.; Warren, Laura; Deakes, Tara; Allen, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    An initial evaluation of the utility of designing an intervention to address neuroscience-based subtyping of children who have conduct problems was undertaken in this pilot study. Drawing on the literature on callous-unemotional traits, a novel intervention programme, "Let's Get Smart", was implemented in a school for children with…

  16. Effect of a vocationally-focused brief cognitive behavioural intervention on employment-related outcomes for individuals with mood and anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Sean A; Boyd, Geoffrey M; Bieling, Peter; Pike, Shannon; Kazarian-Keith, Dawnna

    2008-01-01

    Despite an increasing emphasis on the importance of vocational success to the quality of life of individuals with mental illness (Bond, Drake, & Becker, 2008), minimal work has examined the impact of cognitive behavioural interventions that focus on vocational stressors. Vocational stressors commonly faced by persons with mental illness include difficulties with work task completion, obtaining employment, and coping with interpersonal stressors (Becker et al., 1998). The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the effectiveness of a brief cognitive behavioural therapy group intervention that targets vocational stressors for individuals whose vocational functioning had been significantly impacted by mental illness. Participants included 16 individuals with mood and anxiety disorder diagnoses. After this intervention, it was found that employed persons reported an improved sense of mastery in the completion of work tasks, improved satisfaction with work supervision, and decreased satisfaction with advancement and job security. Unemployed participants reported improved expectancy for employment success.

  17. [Cognitive-behaviour therapy of schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Keegan, Eduardo; Garay, Cristian Javier

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive-behaviour therapy is one of the evidence-based psychotherapies that have been successfully applied to the treatment of patients with psychotic symptoms. The article presents the core principles and objectives of cognitive models and interventions, and describes the generic steps of treatment. The results of the most methodologically-sound outcome studies are presented.

  18. Cultural adaptation of a cognitive-behavioural intervention to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy among people living with HIV/AIDS in Zimbabwe: Nzira Itsva.

    PubMed

    Bere, Tarisai; Nyamayaro, Primrose; Magidson, Jessica F; Chibanda, Dixon; Chingono, Alfred; Munjoma, Ronald; Macpherson, Kirsty; Ndhlovu, Chiratidzo Ellen; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Kidia, Khameer; Safren, Steven A; Abas, Melanie

    2016-02-18

    Few evidence-based interventions to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy have been adapted for use in Africa. We selected, culturally adapted and tested the feasibility of a cognitive-behavioural intervention for adherence and for delivery in a clinic setting in Harare, Zimbabwe. The intervention consisted of a single, 50-minute problem-solving cognitive-behavioural intervention session with four skill-based booster sessions, delivered by four lay adherence counsellors in the context of HIV care. Adaptation followed a theoretically driven approach to intervention adaptation, Assessment-Decision-Administration-Production-Topical Experts-Integration-Training-Testing (ADAPT-ITT), and included modifications to language, session length, tailoring content for delivery by lay counsellors and inclusion of culturally competent probes. The feasibility of the intervention was evaluated using a mixed-methods assessment, including ratings of provider fidelity of intervention delivery, and qualitative assessments of feasibility using individual semi-structured interviews with counsellors (n = 4) and patients (n = 15). The intervention was feasible and acceptable when administered to 42 patients and resulted in improved self-reported adherence in a subset of 15 patients who were followed up after 6 months. Next steps from this study include conducting a randomised control trial to evaluate the adapted intervention compared to standard of care in a larger sample over a long-term follow-up.

  19. Cognitive behaviour therapy for schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Lecomte, Tania

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is one of the major and potentially severe mental illnesses. Even with best practices, there are limitations to the effectiveness of treatments that include medications for this disorder. Relapse rates are high and often those with the illness remain symptomatic and functionally impaired. All the evidence suggests that individuals with schizophrenia do best with a combination of pharmacological and psychosocial intervention. One psychosocial treatment that has received much attention is cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). This brief review will address what we know about the use and effectiveness of CBT at all phases of schizophrenia and its strengths, weaknesses and its future. PMID:22403587

  20. The effectiveness of a group cognitive-behavioural breathlessness intervention on health status, mood and hospital admissions in elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Howard, Claire; Dupont, Simon; Haselden, Brigitte; Lynch, Johanna; Wills, Peter

    2010-08-01

    Non-pharmacological breathlessness interventions in lung cancer have proven beneficial. Breathlessness is also a major symptom in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study measured the effectiveness of a non-exercise-based four-week cognitive-behavioural breathlessness intervention, delivered in a group setting for elderly patients with severe COPD. The results of the one-year feasibility study are presented. Patients with COPD were asked to complete the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale six weeks before the intervention, at the start and end of the intervention and at six weeks follow-up. The multidisciplinary intervention used a cognitive-behavioural format to address understanding of COPD and medication, anxiety, panic and depression, activity pacing, relaxation, breathing retraining and goal-setting. Retrospective data on accident & emergency (A&E) attendances and length of hospital stay was collected six months before and six months after the intervention and the data compared to a matched waiting list control group. The results showed significant improvements in depression and health status. There was a non-significant improvement in anxiety. There was a significant reduction in A&E attendance and a non-significant reduction in length of hospital stay in the intervention group, compared to comparative increases in the control group, highlighting the cost-effectiveness of the intervention.

  1. Evaluation of a combined cognitive-behavioural and exercise intervention to manage fear of falling among elderly residents in nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tzu-Ting; Chung, Meng-Ling; Chen, Fan-Ru; Chin, Yen-Fan; Wang, Bi-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Although the fear of falling is common among elderly residents in long-term care facilities, interventions developed for fear of falling management is very rare. Of these limited interventions, most were exercise interventions with only limited testing. The cognitive-behavioural intervention can decrease the fear of falling; however no intervention of the kind was developed and assessed to decrease fear of falling among the elderly in long-term care facilities. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural strategies either with or without exercise in reducing fear of falling among elderly residents in nursing homes. A prospective randomized control trial was conducted in six nursing homes in northern Taiwan. Seventy-five elderly participants were randomly assigned to one of the three groups: the comparison group, the cognitive-behavioural strategies with or without exercise group. The fear of falling, falls, depressive inclination, mobility, and muscle strength of extremities were collected at the two-month and five-month follow-up sessions, in which the progress of the patients were assessed. The mixed model analysis revealed that elderly adults in the combination experimental group had significant improvements compared with the other two groups on fear of falling, depressive inclination, mobility, and muscle strength at five months. The incidences of falls, post intervention, in both experimental groups were significantly lower than those in the comparison group. The results suggest that the combination intervention helped elderly residents manage their fear of falling and falls, decrease their depressive inclination, and enhance their mobility and muscle strength.

  2. An evaluation of the effect of an educational intervention for Australian social workers on competence in delivering brief cognitive behavioural strategies: A randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Broad community access to high quality evidence-based primary mental health care is an ongoing challenge around the world. In Australia one approach has been to broaden access to care by funding psychologists and other allied health care professionals to deliver brief psychological treatments to general practitioners' patients. To date, there has been a scarcity of studies assessing the efficacy of social worker delivered psychological strategies. This study aims to build the evidence base by evaluating the impact of a brief educational intervention on social workers' competence in delivering cognitive behavioural strategies (strategies derived from cognitive behavioural therapy). Methods A randomised controlled trial design was undertaken with baseline and one-week follow-up measurement of both objective and self-perceived competence. Simulated consultations with standardised depressed patients were recorded on videotape and objective competence was assessed by blinded reviewers using the Cognitive Therapy Scale. Questionnaires completed by participants were used to measure self-perceived competence. The training intervention was a 15 hour face-to-face course involving presentations, video example consultations, written materials and rehearsal of skills in pairs. Results 40 Melbourne-based (Australia) social workers enrolled and were randomised and 9 of these withdrew from the study before the pre training simulated consultation. 30 of the remaining 31 social workers (97%) completed all phases of the intervention and evaluation protocol (16 from intervention and 14 from control group). The intervention group showed significantly greater improvements than the control group in objective competence (mean improvement of 14.2 (7.38-21.02) on the 66 point Cognitive Therapy Scale) and in subjective confidence (mean improvement of 1.28 (0.84-1.72) on a 5 point Likert scale). On average, the intervention group improved from below to above the base competency

  3. Description and design considerations of a randomized clinical trial investigating the effect of a multidisciplinary cognitive-behavioural intervention for patients undergoing lumbar spinal fusion surgery

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The ideal rehabilitation strategy following lumbar spinal fusion surgery has not yet been established. This paper is a study protocol, describing the rationale behind and the details of a cognitive-behavioural rehabilitation intervention for lumbar spinal fusion patients based on the best available evidence. Predictors of poor outcome following spine surgery have been identified to provide targets for the intervention, and the components of the intervention were structured in accordance with the cognitive-behavioural model. The study aims to compare the clinical and economical effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioural rehabilitation strategy to that of usual care for patients undergoing lumbar spinal fusion surgery. Methods/Design The study is a randomized clinical trial including 96 patients scheduled for lumbar spinal fusion surgery due to degenerative disease or spondylolisthesis. Patients were recruited in the period October 2011 to July 2013, and the follow-up period is one year from date of surgery. Patients are allocated on a 1:2 ratio (control: intervention) to either treatment as usual (control group), which implies surgery and the standard postoperative rehabilitation, or in addition to this, a patient education focusing on pain behaviour and pain coping (intervention group). It takes place in a hospital setting, and consists of six group-based sessions, managed by a multidisciplinary team of health professionals. The primary outcomes are disability (Oswestry Disability Index) and sick leave, while secondary outcomes include coping (Coping Strategies Questionnaire), fear-avoidance belief (Fear Avoidance Belief Questionnaire), pain (Low Back Pain Rating Scale, pain index), mobility during hospitalization (Cumulated Ambulation Score), generic health-related quality of life (EQ-5D) and resource use. Outcomes are measured using self report questionnaires, medical records and national registers. Discussion It is expected that the intervention can

  4. Research Protocol: Development, implementation and evaluation of a cognitive behavioural therapy-based intervention programme for the management of anxiety symptoms in South African children with visual impairments

    PubMed Central

    Visagie, Lisa; Silverman, Wendy K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood anxiety presents a serious mental health problem, and it is one of the most common forms of psychological distress reported by youth worldwide. The prevalence of anxiety symptoms amongst South African youth is reported to be significantly higher than in other parts of the world. These high prevalence rates become even more significant when viewed in terms of children with visual impairments, as it is suggested that children with physical disabilities may be more prone, than their non-disabled peers, for the development of psychological difficulties. Objectives The main aim of this study is to develop, implement and evaluate a specifically tailored anxiety intervention programme for use with South African children with visual impairments. Method A specifically tailored cognitive-behavioural therapy-based anxiety intervention, for 9–13 year old South African children with visual impairments, will be evaluated in two special schools. The study will employ a randomised wait-list control group design with pre- post- and follow-up intervention measures, with two groups each receiving a 10 session anxiety intervention programme. The main outcome measure relates to the participants’ symptoms of anxiety as indicated on the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale. Conclusion If the anxiety intervention programme is found to be effective in reducing symptoms of anxiety, this universal intervention will lay down the foundation upon which future contextually sensitive (South African) anxiety intervention programmes can be built. PMID:28730026

  5. Psychological wellness and health-related stigma: a pilot study of an acceptance-focused cognitive behavioural intervention for people with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Chambers, S K; Morris, B A; Clutton, S; Foley, E; Giles, L; Schofield, P; O'Connell, D; Dunn, J

    2015-01-01

    People with lung cancer experience health-related stigma that is related to poorer psychosocial and quality of life outcomes. The present Phase 1 study applied mixed methods to test the acceptability of an acceptance-focused cognitive behavioural intervention targeting stigma for this patient group. Fourteen lung cancer patients completed a 6-week Psychological Wellness intervention with pre- and post-test outcome measures of psychological and cancer-specific distress, depression, health-related stigma and quality of life. In-depth interviews applying interpretative phenomenological analysis assessed participants' experiences of the intervention. Moderate to large improvements were observed in psychological (ηp (2)  = 0.182) and cancer-specific distress (ηp (2)  = 0.056); depression (ηp (2)  = 0.621); health-related stigma (ηp (2)  = 0.139). In contrast, quality of life declined (ηp (2)  = 0.023). The therapeutic relationship; self-management of distress; and relationship support were highly valued aspects of the intervention. Barriers to intervention included avoidance and practical issues. The lung cancer patients who completed the Psychological Wellness intervention reported improvements in psychological outcomes and decreases in stigma in the face of declining quality of life with patients reporting personal benefit from their own perspectives. A randomised controlled trial is warranted to establish the effectiveness of this approach.

  6. Psychological wellness and health-related stigma: a pilot study of an acceptance-focused cognitive behavioural intervention for people with lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, SK; Morris, BA; Clutton, S; Foley, E; Giles, L; Schofield, P; O'Connell, D; Dunn, J

    2015-01-01

    People with lung cancer experience health-related stigma that is related to poorer psychosocial and quality of life outcomes. The present Phase 1 study applied mixed methods to test the acceptability of an acceptance-focused cognitive behavioural intervention targeting stigma for this patient group. Fourteen lung cancer patients completed a 6-week Psychological Wellness intervention with pre- and post-test outcome measures of psychological and cancer-specific distress, depression, health-related stigma and quality of life. In-depth interviews applying interpretative phenomenological analysis assessed participants' experiences of the intervention. Moderate to large improvements were observed in psychological (ηp2 = 0.182) and cancer-specific distress (ηp2 = 0.056); depression (ηp2 = 0.621); health-related stigma (ηp2 = 0.139). In contrast, quality of life declined (ηp2 = 0.023). The therapeutic relationship; self-management of distress; and relationship support were highly valued aspects of the intervention. Barriers to intervention included avoidance and practical issues. The lung cancer patients who completed the Psychological Wellness intervention reported improvements in psychological outcomes and decreases in stigma in the face of declining quality of life with patients reporting personal benefit from their own perspectives. A randomised controlled trial is warranted to establish the effectiveness of this approach. PMID:25053458

  7. A multi-component cognitive behavioural intervention for the treatment of fear of falling after hip fracture (FIT-HIP): protocol of a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Scheffers-Barnhoorn, Maaike N; van Haastregt, Jolanda C M; Schols, Jos M G A; Kempen, Gertrudis I J M; van Balen, Romke; Visschedijk, Jan H M; van den Hout, Wilbert B; Dumas, Eve M; Achterberg, Wilco P; van Eijk, Monica

    2017-03-20

    Hip fracture is a common injury in the geriatric population. Despite surgical repair and subsequent rehabilitation programmes, functional recovery is often limited, particularly in individuals with multi-morbidity. This leads to high care dependency and subsequent use of healthcare services. Fear of falling has a negative influence on recovery after hip fracture, due to avoidance of activity and subsequent restriction in mobility. Although fear of falling is highly prevalent after hip fracture, no structured treatment programme is currently available. This trial will evaluate whether targeted treatment of fear of falling in geriatric rehabilitation after hip fracture using a multi-component cognitive behavioural intervention (FIT-HIP), is feasible and (cost) effective in reducing fear of falling and associated activity restriction and thereby improves physical functioning. This multicentre cluster randomised controlled trial will be conducted among older patients with hip fracture and fear of falling who are admitted to a multidisciplinary inpatient geriatric rehabilitation programme in eleven post-acute geriatric rehabilitation units. Fifteen participants will be recruited from each site. Recruitment sites will be allocated by computer randomisation to either the control group, receiving usual care, or to the intervention group receiving the FIT-HIP intervention in addition to usual care. The FIT-HIP intervention is conducted by physiotherapists and will be embedded in usual care. It consists of various elements of cognitive behavioural therapy, including guided exposure to feared activities (that are avoided by the participants). Participants and outcome assessors are blinded to group allocation. Follow-up measurements will be performed at 3 and 6 months after discharge from geriatric rehabilitation. (Cost)-effectiveness and feasibility of the intervention will be evaluated. Primary outcome measures are fear of falling and mobility. Targeted treatment of fear of

  8. Online parent-targeted cognitive-behavioural therapy intervention to improve quality of life in families of young cancer survivors: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Claire E; Sansom-Daly, Ursula M; McGill, Brittany C; McCarthy, Maria; Girgis, Afaf; Grootenhuis, Martha; Barton, Belinda; Patterson, Pandora; Osborn, Michael; Lowe, Cherie; Anazodo, Antoinette; Miles, Gordon; Cohn, Richard J

    2015-04-11

    Due to advances in multimodal therapies, most children survive cancer. In addition to the stresses of diagnosis and treatment, many families are now navigating the challenges of survivorship. Without sufficient support, the ongoing distress that parents experience after their child's cancer treatment can negatively impact the quality of life and psychological wellbeing of all family members. The 'Cascade' (Cope, Adapt, Survive: Life after C AncEr) study is a three-arm randomised controlled trial to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a new intervention to improve the quality of life of parents of young cancer survivors. Cascade will be compared to a peer-support group control and a 6-month waitlist control. Parents (n = 120) whose child (under 16 years of age) has completed cancer treatment in the past 1 to 12 months will be recruited from hospitals across Australia. Those randomised to receive Cascade will participate in four, weekly, 90-minute online group sessions led live by a psychologist. Cascade involves peer discussion on cognitive-behavioural coping skills, including behavioural activation, thought challenging, mindfulness and acceptance, communication and assertiveness skills training, problem-solving and goal-setting. Participants randomised to peer support will receive four, weekly, 90-minute, live, sessions of non-directive peer support. Participants will complete measures at baseline, directly post-intervention, one month post-intervention, and 6 months post-intervention. The primary outcome will be parents' quality of life. Secondary outcomes include parent depression, anxiety, parenting self-agency, and the quality of life of children in the family. The child cancer survivor and all siblings aged 7 to 15 years will be invited to complete self-report quality of life measures covering physical, emotional, social and school-related domains. This article reviews the empirical rationale for group-based, online cognitive-behavioural therapy in

  9. Early intervention for relapse in schizophrenia: impact of cognitive behavioural therapy on negative beliefs about psychosis and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Gumley, Andrew; Karatzias, Athanasios; Power, Kevin; Reilly, James; McNay, Lisa; O'Grady, Margaret

    2006-06-01

    The study aimed to test two hypotheses. Firstly, that participants who relapsed during the 12-month follow-up period of our randomized controlled trial, would show increased negative beliefs about their illness and reduced self-esteem, in comparison to the non-relapsed participants. Secondly, that cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for early signs of relapse would result in a reduction in negative beliefs about psychosis and an improvement in self-esteem at 12 months. A total of 144 participants with schizophrenia or a related disorder were randomized to receive either treatment as usual (TAU; N=72) or CBT (N=72). Participants completed the Personal Beliefs about Illness Questionnaire (PBIQ; Birchwood, Mason, MacMillan, & Healy, 1993) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES; Rosenberg, 1965) at entry, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months. At 12 months, relapsers showed greater increase in scores for PBIQ entrapment compared with non-relapsers. In addition, after controlling for baseline covariates (treatment group and PBIQ self versus illness), relapsers also showed greater increase in scores for PBIQ self versus illness at 12 months. Furthermore, in comparison to treatment as usual, participants who received CBT showed greater improvement in PBIQ loss and in Rosenberg self-esteem. The study provides evidence that relapse is associated with the development of negative appraisals of entrapment and self-blame (self vs. illness). In addition, this is the first study to show that CBT reduces negative appraisals of loss arising from psychosis and improvements in self-esteem. Implications for future research and treatment are discussed.

  10. Low-intensity cognitive-behaviour therapy interventions for obsessive-compulsive disorder compared to waiting list for therapist-led cognitive-behaviour therapy: 3-arm randomised controlled trial of clinical effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Lovell, Karina; Bower, Peter; Gellatly, Judith; Byford, Sarah; Bee, Penny; McMillan, Dean; Arundel, Catherine; Gilbody, Simon; Gega, Lina; Hardy, Gillian; Reynolds, Shirley; Barkham, Michael; Mottram, Patricia; Lidbetter, Nicola; Pedley, Rebecca; Molle, Jo; Peckham, Emily; Knopp-Hoffer, Jasmin; Price, Owen; Connell, Janice; Heslin, Margaret; Foley, Christopher; Plummer, Faye; Roberts, Christopher

    2017-06-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is prevalent and without adequate treatment usually follows a chronic course. "High-intensity" cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) from a specialist therapist is current "best practice." However, access is difficult because of limited numbers of therapists and because of the disabling effects of OCD symptoms. There is a potential role for "low-intensity" interventions as part of a stepped care model. Low-intensity interventions (written or web-based materials with limited therapist support) can be provided remotely, which has the potential to increase access. However, current evidence concerning low-intensity interventions is insufficient. We aimed to determine the clinical effectiveness of 2 forms of low-intensity CBT prior to high-intensity CBT, in adults meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria for OCD. This study was approved by the National Research Ethics Service Committee North West-Lancaster (reference number 11/NW/0276). All participants provided informed consent to take part in the trial. We conducted a 3-arm, multicentre randomised controlled trial in primary- and secondary-care United Kingdom mental health services. All patients were on a waiting list for therapist-led CBT (treatment as usual). Four hundred and seventy-three eligible patients were recruited and randomised. Patients had a median age of 33 years, and 60% were female. The majority were experiencing severe OCD. Patients received 1 of 2 low-intensity interventions: computerised CBT (cCBT; web-based CBT materials and limited telephone support) through "OCFighter" or guided self-help (written CBT materials with limited telephone or face-to-face support). Primary comparisons concerned OCD symptoms, measured using the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale-Observer-Rated (Y-BOCS-OR) at 3, 6, and 12 months. Secondary outcomes included health-related quality of life, depression, anxiety, and functioning. At

  11. Using mobile technology to deliver a cognitive behaviour therapy-informed intervention in early psychosis (Actissist): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bucci, Sandra; Barrowclough, Christine; Ainsworth, John; Morris, Rohan; Berry, Katherine; Machin, Matthew; Emsley, Richard; Lewis, Shon; Edge, Dawn; Buchan, Iain; Haddock, Gillian

    2015-09-10

    Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is recommended for the treatment of psychosis; however, only a small proportion of service users have access to this intervention. Smartphone technology using software applications (apps) could increase access to psychological approaches for psychosis. This paper reports the protocol development for a clinical trial of smartphone-based CBT. We present a study protocol that describes a single-blind randomised controlled trial comparing a cognitive behaviour therapy-informed software application (Actissist) plus Treatment As Usual (TAU) with a symptom monitoring software application (ClinTouch) plus TAU in early psychosis. The study consists of a 12-week intervention period. We aim to recruit and randomly assign 36 participants registered with early intervention services (EIS) across the North West of England, UK in a 2:1 ratio to each arm of the trial. Our primary objective is to determine whether in people with early psychosis the Actissist app is feasible to deliver and acceptable to use. Secondary aims are to determine whether Actissist impacts on predictors of first episode psychosis (FEP) relapse and enhances user empowerment, functioning and quality of life. Assessments will take place at baseline, 12 weeks (post-treatment) and 22-weeks (10 weeks post-treatment) by assessors blind to treatment condition. The trial will report on the feasibility and acceptability of Actissist and compare outcomes between the randomised arms. The study also incorporates semi-structured interviews about the experience of participating in the Actissist trial that will be qualitatively analysed to inform future developments of the Actissist protocol and app. To our knowledge, this is the first controlled trial to test the feasibility, acceptability, uptake, attrition and potential efficacy of a CBT-informed smartphone app for early psychosis. Mobile applications designed to deliver a psychologically-informed intervention offer new possibilities to

  12. Cognitive intervention for voice hearers.

    PubMed

    England, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy is an emerging treatment being used to attenuate negative thoughts and emotions tied to the formation, expression, and maintenance of verbal auditory hallucinations. This paper describes the theoretical underpinnings for the intervention and a clinical application of a prototype cognitive nursing intervention for treating faulty thinking and beliefs linked with problematic voice hearing experiences. The paper ends with a review of current evidence and implications concerning the efficacy of cognitive intervention approaches with voice hearers.

  13. Effects of an internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy intervention on preventing major depressive episodes among workers: a protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Kotaro; Kawakami, Norito; Furukawa, Toshi A; Matsuyama, Yutaka; Shimazu, Akihito; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study is to examine the effects of an internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) program on decreasing the risk of major depressive episodes (MDEs) among workers employed in a private corporate group in Japan, using a randomised controlled trial design. Methods and analysis All of the workers in a corporate group (n=20 000) will be recruited through an invitation email. Participants who fulfil the inclusion criteria will be randomly allocated to intervention or control groups (planned N=4050 for each group). They will be allowed to complete the six lessons of the iCBT program within 10 weeks after the baseline survey. Those in the control group will receive the same iCBT after 12 months. The program includes several CBT skills: self-monitoring, cognitive restructuring, assertiveness, problem-solving and relaxation. The primary outcome measure is no new onset of MDE (using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR)/DSM-5 criteria) during the 12-month follow-up. Assessment will use the web version of the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview V.3.0 depression section. Ethics and dissemination The Research Ethics Review Board of Graduate School of Medicine, the University of Tokyo (No. 3083-(2)), approved the study procedures. Trial registration number The study protocol is registered at the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR; ID=UMIN000014146). PMID:25968004

  14. Protocol for a randomised controlled trial of a school based cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) intervention to prevent depression in high risk adolescents (PROMISE).

    PubMed

    Stallard, Paul; Montgomery, Alan A; Araya, Ricardo; Anderson, Rob; Lewis, Glynn; Sayal, Kapil; Buck, Rhiannon; Millings, Abigail; Taylor, John A

    2010-11-29

    Depression in adolescents is a significant problem that impairs everyday functioning and increases the risk of severe mental health disorders in adulthood. Relatively few adolescents with depression are identified and referred for treatment indicating the need to investigate alternative preventive approaches. A pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of a school based prevention programme on symptoms of depression in "high risk" adolescents (aged 12-16). The unit of allocation is year groups (n = 28) which are assigned to one of three conditions: an active intervention based upon cognitive behaviour therapy, attention control or treatment as usual. Assessments will be undertaken at screening, baseline, 6 months and 12 months. The primary outcome measure is change on the Short Mood and Feeling Questionnaire at 12 months. Secondary outcome measures will assess changes in negative thoughts, self esteem, anxiety, school connectedness, peer attachment, alcohol and substance misuse, bullying and self harm. As of August 2010, all 28 year groups (n = 5023) had been recruited and the assigned interventions delivered. Final 12 month assessments are scheduled to be completed by March 2011. ISRCTN19083628.

  15. Protocol for a randomised controlled trial of a school based cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) intervention to prevent depression in high risk adolescents (PROMISE)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Depression in adolescents is a significant problem that impairs everyday functioning and increases the risk of severe mental health disorders in adulthood. Relatively few adolescents with depression are identified and referred for treatment indicating the need to investigate alternative preventive approaches. Study Design A pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of a school based prevention programme on symptoms of depression in "high risk" adolescents (aged 12-16). The unit of allocation is year groups (n = 28) which are assigned to one of three conditions: an active intervention based upon cognitive behaviour therapy, attention control or treatment as usual. Assessments will be undertaken at screening, baseline, 6 months and 12 months. The primary outcome measure is change on the Short Mood and Feeling Questionnaire at 12 months. Secondary outcome measures will assess changes in negative thoughts, self esteem, anxiety, school connectedness, peer attachment, alcohol and substance misuse, bullying and self harm. Discussion As of August 2010, all 28 year groups (n = 5023) had been recruited and the assigned interventions delivered. Final 12 month assessments are scheduled to be completed by March 2011. Trial Registration ISRCTN19083628 PMID:21114808

  16. The evolution of behaviour therapy and cognitive behaviour therapy.

    PubMed

    Rachman, S

    2015-01-01

    The historical background of the development of behaviour therapy is described. It was based on the prevailing behaviourist psychology and constituted a fundamentally different approach to the causes and treatment of psychological disorders. It had a cold reception and the idea of treating the behaviour of neurotic and other patients was regarded as absurd. The opposition of the medical profession and psychoanalysts is explained. Parallel but different forms of behaviour therapy developed in the US and UK. The infusion of cognitive concepts and procedures generated a merger of behaviour therapy and cognitive therapy, cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). The strengths and limitations of the early and current approaches are evaluated.

  17. Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Children with Behavioural Difficulties in the Singapore Mainstream School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Lay See; Choi, Pui Meng

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) programme delivered by a school psychologist for children with behavioural difficulties in Singapore elementary school classrooms. It examined the impact of a 12-session, psychoeducational group intervention in helping misbehaving pupils to control their…

  18. Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Children with Behavioural Difficulties in the Singapore Mainstream School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Lay See; Choi, Pui Meng

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) programme delivered by a school psychologist for children with behavioural difficulties in Singapore elementary school classrooms. It examined the impact of a 12-session, psychoeducational group intervention in helping misbehaving pupils to control their…

  19. The STRIDE (Strategies to Increase confidence, InDependence and Energy) study: cognitive behavioural therapy-based intervention to reduce fear of falling in older fallers living in the community - study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Parry, Steve W; Deary, Vincent; Finch, Tracy; Bamford, Claire; Sabin, Neil; McMeekin, Peter; O'Brien, John; Caldwell, Alma; Steen, Nick; Whitney, Susan L; Macdonald, Claire; McColl, Elaine

    2014-06-06

    Around 30% to 62% of older individuals fall each year, with adverse consequences of falls being by no means limited to physical injury and escalating levels of dependence. Many older individuals suffer from a variety of adverse psychosocial difficulties related to falling including fear, anxiety, loss of confidence and subsequent increasing activity avoidance, social isolation and frailty. Such 'fear of falling' is common and disabling, but definitive studies examining the effective management of the syndrome are lacking. Cognitive behavioural therapy has been trialed with some success in a group setting, but there is no adequately powered randomised controlled study of an individually based cognitive behavioural therapy intervention, and none using non-mental health professionals to deliver the intervention. We are conducting a two-phase study examining the role of individual cognitive behavioural therapy delivered by healthcare assistants in improving fear of falling in older adults. In Phase I, the intervention was developed and taught to healthcare assistants, while Phase II is the pragmatic randomised controlled study examining the efficacy of the intervention in improving fear of falling in community-dwelling elders attending falls services. A qualitative process evaluation study informed by Normalization Process Theory is being conducted throughout to examine the potential promoters and inhibitors of introducing such an intervention into routine clinical practice, while a health economic sub-study running alongside the trial is examining the costs and benefits of such an approach to the wider health economy. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN78396615.

  20. Delivering an Optimised Behavioural Intervention (OBI) to people with low back pain with high psychological risk; results and lessons learnt from a feasibility randomised controlled trial of Contextual Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CCBT) vs. Physiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Pincus, Tamar; Anwar, Shamaila; McCracken, Lance M; McGregor, Alison; Graham, Liz; Collinson, Michelle; McBeth, John; Watson, Paul; Morley, Stephen; Henderson, Juliet; Farrin, Amanda J

    2015-06-16

    Low Back Pain (LBP) remains a common and costly problem. Psychological obstacles to recovery have been identified, but psychological and behavioural interventions have produced only moderate improvements. Reviews of trials have suggested that the interventions lack clear theoretical basis, are often compromised by low dose, lack of fidelity, and delivery by non-experts. In addition, interventions do not directly target known risk mechanisms. We identified a theory driven intervention (Contexual Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, CCBT) that directly targets an evidence-based risk mechanism (avoidance and ensured dose and delivery were optimised. This feasibility study was designed to test the credibility and acceptability of optimised CCBT against physiotherapy for avoidant LBP patients, and to test recruitment, delivery of the intervention and response rates prior to moving to a full definitive trial. A randomised controlled feasibility trial with patients randomised to receive CCBT or physiotherapy. CCBT was delivered by trained supervised psychologists on a one to one basis and comprised up to 8 one-hour sessions. Physiotherapy comprised back to fitness group exercises with at least 60 % of content exercise-based. Patients were eligible to take part if they had back pain for more than 3 months, and scored above a threshold indicating fear avoidance, catastrophic beliefs and distress. 89 patients were recruited. Uptake rates were above those predicted. Scores for credibility and acceptability of the interventions met the set criteria. Response rates at three and six months fell short of the 75 % target. Problems associated with poor response rates were identified and successfully resolved, rates increased to 77 % at 3 months, and 68 % at 6 months. Independent ratings of treatment sessions indicated that CCBT was delivered to fidelity. Numbers were too small for formal analysis. Although average scores for acceptance were higher in the CCBT group than in the group

  1. Embodied cognition and skilled health behaviour.

    PubMed

    Gangi, Cynthia; Sherman, David K; White, Marina L

    2011-08-01

    The present research examines health persuasion from an embodied cognition perspective by proposing that engaging the motor system during presentation of a health message will lead individuals to become more skilled at performing the prescribed behaviour. Participants watched a video on the importance of flossing while either imaging themselves flossing or imaging themselves flossing while minimally engaging the motor system (i.e. touching a piece of floss). Females (but not males) who touched an individual floss while watching the video demonstrated better flossing skills 1 week later. Over time, participants (both males and females) who engaged the motor system also developed more accessible attitudes and had a stronger relationship between their perceived flossing efficacy and actual flossing skill. Implications for the theories of embodied cognition and health interventions are discussed.

  2. Using theories of behaviour change to inform interventions for addictive behaviours.

    PubMed

    Webb, Thomas L; Sniehotta, Falko F; Michie, Susan

    2010-11-01

    This paper reviews a set of theories of behaviour change that are used outside the field of addiction and considers their relevance for this field. Ten theories are reviewed in terms of (i) the main tenets of each theory, (ii) the implications of the theory for promoting change in addictive behaviours and (iii) studies in the field of addiction that have used the theory. An augmented feedback loop model based on Control Theory is used to organize the theories and to show how different interventions might achieve behaviour change. Briefly, each theory provided the following recommendations for intervention: Control Theory: prompt behavioural monitoring, Goal-Setting Theory: set specific and challenging goals, Model of Action Phases: form 'implementation intentions', Strength Model of Self-Control: bolster self-control resources, Social Cognition Models (Protection Motivation Theory, Theory of Planned Behaviour, Health Belief Model): modify relevant cognitions, Elaboration Likelihood Model: consider targets' motivation and ability to process information, Prototype Willingness Model: change perceptions of the prototypical person who engages in behaviour and Social Cognitive Theory: modify self-efficacy. There are a range of theories in the field of behaviour change that can be applied usefully to addiction, each one pointing to a different set of modifiable determinants and/or behaviour change techniques. Studies reporting interventions should describe theoretical basis, behaviour change techniques and mode of delivery accurately so that effective interventions can be understood and replicated. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Effects of an internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy intervention on preventing major depressive episodes among workers: a protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Kotaro; Kawakami, Norito; Furukawa, Toshi A; Matsuyama, Yutaka; Shimazu, Akihito; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2015-05-12

    The aim of this study is to examine the effects of an internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) program on decreasing the risk of major depressive episodes (MDEs) among workers employed in a private corporate group in Japan, using a randomised controlled trial design. All of the workers in a corporate group (n=20,000) will be recruited through an invitation email. Participants who fulfil the inclusion criteria will be randomly allocated to intervention or control groups (planned N=4050 for each group). They will be allowed to complete the six lessons of the iCBT program within 10 weeks after the baseline survey. Those in the control group will receive the same iCBT after 12 months. The program includes several CBT skills: self-monitoring, cognitive restructuring, assertiveness, problem-solving and relaxation. The primary outcome measure is no new onset of MDE (using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR)/DSM-5 criteria) during the 12-month follow-up. Assessment will use the web version of the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview V.3.0 depression section. The Research Ethics Review Board of Graduate School of Medicine, the University of Tokyo (No. 3083-(2)), approved the study procedures. The study protocol is registered at the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR; ID=UMIN000014146). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Simple behavioural interventions for nocturnal enuresis in children.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Patrina H Y; Nankivell, Gail; Sureshkumar, Premala

    2013-07-19

    , which contains trials identified from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, MEDLINE in process, and handsearching of journals and conference proceedings (searched 15 December 2011). The reference lists of relevant articles were also searched. All randomised or quasi-randomised trials of simple behavioural interventions for treating nocturnal enuresis in children up to the age of 16. Studies which included children with daytime urinary incontinence or children with organic conditions were also included in this review if the focus of the study was on nocturnal enuresis. Trials focused solely on daytime wetting and trials of adults with nocturnal enuresis were excluded. Two reviewers independently assessed the quality of the eligible trials and extracted data. Differences between reviewers were settled by discussion with a third reviewer. Sixteen trials met the inclusion criteria, involving 1643 children of whom 865 received a simple behavioural intervention. Within each comparison, outcomes were mostly addressed by single trials, precluding meta-analysis. The only exception was bladder training versus enuresis alarm therapy which included two studies and demonstrated that alarm therapy was superior to bladder training.In single small trials, rewards, lifting and waking and bladder training were each associated with significantly fewer wet nights, higher full response rates and lower relapse rates compared to controls. Simple behavioural interventions appeared to be less effective when compared with other known effective interventions (such as enuresis alarm therapy and drug therapies with imipramine and amitriptyline). However, the effect was not sustained at follow-up after completion of treatment for the drug therapies. Based on one small trial, cognitive therapy also appeared to be more effective than rewards. When one simple behavioural therapy was compared with another, there did not appear to be one therapy that was more effective

  5. Designing interventions to change eating behaviours.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Lou; Michie, Susan

    2015-05-01

    Understanding and changing eating behaviours are central to the work of Nutrition Society members working in both research and applied settings. The present paper describes a recently published resource to guide the design of interventions to change behaviour, The Behaviour Change Wheel: A Guide to Designing Interventions (BCW Guide). This is a practical guide to intervention design that brings together recently-developed theory-based tools in behavioural science into a coherent step-by-step design process. It is based on the BCW, a synthesis of nineteen frameworks of behaviour change found in the research literature. The BCW has at its core a model of behaviour known as 'capability', 'opportunity', 'motivation' and 'behaviour'. The model recognises that behaviour is part of an interacting system involving all these components. The BCW identifies different intervention options that can be applied to changing each of the components and policies that can be adopted to deliver those intervention options. The book shows how the BCW links to theory-based frameworks to understand behaviour such as the Theoretical Domains Framework and the recently developed Behaviour Change Technique Taxonomy v1 for specifying intervention content. In essence, it shows how to link what is understood about a given behaviour to types of intervention likely to be effective and then translate this into a locally relevant intervention. In addition, the present paper sets out some principles of intervention design.

  6. Cognitive intervention in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Buschert, Verena; Bokde, Arun L W; Hampel, Harald

    2010-09-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is one of the most prevalent chronic medical conditions affecting the elderly population. The effectiveness of approved antidementia drugs, however, is limited-licensed AD medications provide only moderate relief of clinical symptoms. Cognitive intervention is a noninvasive therapy that could aid prevention and treatment of AD. Data suggest that specifically designed cognitive interventions could impart therapeutic benefits to patients with AD that are associated with substantial biological changes within the brain. Moreover, evidence indicates that a combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions could provide greater relief of clinical symptoms than either intervention given alone. Functional and structural MRI studies have increased our understanding of the underlying neurobiological mechanisms of aging and neurodegeneration, but the use of neuroimaging to investigate the effect of cognitive intervention on the brain remains largely unexplored. This Review provides an overview of the use of cognitive intervention in the healthy elderly population and patients with AD, and summarizes emerging findings that provide evidence for the effectiveness of this approach. Finally, we present recommendations for future research on the use of cognitive interventions in AD and discuss potential effects of this therapy on disease modification.

  7. Compulsive buying: a cognitive-behavioural model.

    PubMed

    Kellett, Stephen; Bolton, Jessica V

    2009-01-01

    Compulsive buying (CB) has only relatively recently become a topic of interest for researchers and clinicians alike. This hiatus means that (unlike other impulse control disorders) there is currently little theoretical guidance for clinicians attempting to intervene with CB clients and no established model for researchers to evaluate, distil and refine. The current paper summarizes and organizes the main extant identified factors in the CB literature into four distinct phases: (1) antecedents; (2) internal/external triggers; (3) the act of buying; and finally, (4) post-purchase. The relationships and interactions between the identified phases are then hypothesized, within the proposed cognitive-behavioural model. The model distinguishes the key cognitive, affective and behavioural factors within each phase and identifies how CB can become self-reinforcing over time. The over-arching treatment implication is that CB can be re-conceptualized as chronic and repetitive failure in self-regulation efforts, and that psychological interventions can accommodate this in attempting to facilitate change. A successful case example is provided of a 'co-dependent compulsive buyer' using the model, with psychometric evaluation of key aspects of CB and mental health at assessment, termination and 6-month follow-up. The research and clinical implications of the proposed model are discussed, alongside identified short-comings and the need for psychological services to respond appropriately to CB clients seeking help.

  8. Cognitive behavioural therapy group work with voice hearers. Part 1.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Terry; Morris, Mervyn; Birchwood, Max; Dovey, Alan

    This study presents a small, randomised control trial of cognitive behavioural interventions within a group setting for the treatment of auditory hallucinations. In a sample of 20 voice hearers, 10 were randomly allocated to an eight-session cognitive behavioural therapy group, and 10 underwent psychiatric 'treatment as usual'. Baseline assessments were undertaken. Measures of control, power, frequency and symptoms of distress and anxiety, were recorded on assessment and on completion of the group. The groups achieved a significant reduction in frequency of auditory hallucinations and in the beliefs about the power of the voice. Satisfaction measures also suggested that the group participants valued the group and benefited from the structured sessions. Universality, the recognition that other people experience very similar problems, was one of the most beneficial factors of the intervention. This study suggests that group cognitive behavioural therapy was helpful in the treatment of auditory hallucinations.

  9. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of telephone-based cognitive-behavioural therapy in primary care: study protocol of TIDe - telephone intervention for depression.

    PubMed

    Watzke, Birgit; Haller, Elisa; Steinmann, Maya; Heddaeus, Daniela; Härter, Martin; König, Hans-Helmut; Wegscheider, Karl; Rosemann, Thomas

    2017-07-19

    Despite the availability of evidence-based treatments for depression, a large proportion of patients remains untreated or adequate treatment is initiated with delay. This situation is particularly critical in primary care, where not only most individuals first seek help for their mental health problems, but also depressive disorders - particularly mild to moderate levels of severity - are highly prevalent given the high comorbidity of chronic somatic conditions and depression. Improving the access for evidence-based treatment, especially in primary care, is hence a priority challenge in the mental health care agenda. Telephone usage is widespread and has the potential of overcoming many barriers that individuals suffering from mental health problems are facing: Its implementation for treatment delivery presents an option for optimisation of treatment pathways and outcomes. This paper details the study protocol for a randomised controlled trial (RCT) evaluating the effectiveness of a telephone-administered short-term cognitive-behavioural therapy (T-CBT) for depression as compared to treatment as usual (TAU) in the Swiss primary care setting. The study aims at randomising a total of 216 mildly to moderately depressed patients, which are either identified by their General Practitioners (GPs) or who self-refer to the study programme in consultation with their GP. The trial will examine whether telephone-delivered, manualised treatment leads to clinically significant reduction in depression at follow-up. It will further investigate the cost-effectiveness and acceptability of the intervention in the primary care setting. Conducting a low-intensity treatment on the telephone allows for greater flexibility for both patient and therapist, can grant more anonymity and can thus lead to less hesitation in the patient about whether to attempt treatment or not. In order to benefit from this approach, large-scale studies need to prove superior effectiveness and cost

  10. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), third-wave CBT and interpersonal therapy (IPT) based interventions for preventing depression in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hetrick, Sarah E; Cox, Georgina R; Witt, Katrina G; Bir, Julliet J; Merry, Sally N

    2016-08-09

    Depression is common in young people. It has a marked negative impact and is associated with self-harm and suicide. Preventing its onset would be an important advance in public health. This is an update of a Cochrane review that was last updated in 2011. To determine whether evidence-based psychological interventions (including cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), interpersonal therapy (IPT) and third wave CBT)) are effective in preventing the onset of depressive disorder in children and adolescents. We searched the specialised register of the Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Group (CCMDCTR to 11 September 2015), which includes relevant randomised controlled trials from the following bibliographic databases: The Cochrane Library (all years), EMBASE (1974 to date), MEDLINE (1950 to date) and PsycINFO (1967 to date). We searched conference abstracts and reference lists of included trials and reviews, and contacted experts in the field. We included randomised controlled trials of an evidence-based psychological prevention programme compared with any comparison control for young people aged 5 to 19 years, who did not currently meet diagnostic criteria for depression. Two authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and rated their risk of bias. We adjusted sample sizes to take account of cluster designs and multiple comparisons. We contacted trial authors for additional information where needed. We assessed the quality of evidence for the primary outcomes using GRADE. We included 83 trials in this review. The majority of trials (67) were carried out in school settings with eight in colleges or universities, four in clinical settings, three in the community and four in mixed settings. Twenty-nine trials were carried out in unselected populations and 53 in targeted populations.For the primary outcome of depression diagnosis at medium-term follow-up (up to 12 months), there were 32 trials with 5965 participants and the risk of having a diagnosis of depression was

  11. [CHIP Germany: Impact of a Lifestyle Coaching Intervention on Nutritional Behaviour Change in Primary and Secondary Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes and the Importance of Social-Cognitive Variables].

    PubMed

    Tigges, C; Wennehorst, K; Saliger, B; Englert, H

    2017-08-01

    Background: A high fibre and moderate fat diet can reduce the metabolic risk in diabetics. This study is the first one to test which social-cognitive variables affect nutritional behaviour changes in an educational lifestyle intervention. Patients and Methods: Subjects with diabetes or at high risk (intervention: N=43; control: N=40) joined an initial and a final individual health-coaching, an 8-week comprehensive lifestyle programme und a 10-month follow-up-period. Beside anthropometric, vital und clinical parameters (e. g., weight, HbA1c, FINDRISK), behavioural stages (preintenders, intenders, actors), outcome-expectancies, action planning and self-efficacy were evaluated for a healthy diet in both groups. Results: Weight, nutritional behaviour, self-efficacy, action planning, and outcome expectancies improved in the intervention group. Improved self-efficacy after the lifestyle programme was linked to weight reduction. Discussion: The metabolic risk profile was reduced by the educational lifestyle programme. A highly developed self-efficacy seems to help to change nutritional behaviour and therefore prevent and deal with diabetes. Conclusion: Behavioural lifestyle-coachings should focus on the volitional phase and implicitly improve self-efficacy. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. The STRIDE (Strategies to Increase confidence, InDependence and Energy) study: cognitive behavioural therapy-based intervention to reduce fear of falling in older fallers living in the community - study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Around 30% to 62% of older individuals fall each year, with adverse consequences of falls being by no means limited to physical injury and escalating levels of dependence. Many older individuals suffer from a variety of adverse psychosocial difficulties related to falling including fear, anxiety, loss of confidence and subsequent increasing activity avoidance, social isolation and frailty. Such ‘fear of falling’ is common and disabling, but definitive studies examining the effective management of the syndrome are lacking. Cognitive behavioural therapy has been trialed with some success in a group setting, but there is no adequately powered randomised controlled study of an individually based cognitive behavioural therapy intervention, and none using non-mental health professionals to deliver the intervention. Methods/Design We are conducting a two-phase study examining the role of individual cognitive behavioural therapy delivered by healthcare assistants in improving fear of falling in older adults. In Phase I, the intervention was developed and taught to healthcare assistants, while Phase II is the pragmatic randomised controlled study examining the efficacy of the intervention in improving fear of falling in community-dwelling elders attending falls services. A qualitative process evaluation study informed by Normalization Process Theory is being conducted throughout to examine the potential promoters and inhibitors of introducing such an intervention into routine clinical practice, while a health economic sub-study running alongside the trial is examining the costs and benefits of such an approach to the wider health economy. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN78396615 PMID:24906406

  13. Effective Intervention for School Refusal Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttall, Clare; Woods, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of successful professional intervention for two case studies of female adolescents' school refusal behaviour is presented. Data gathered from the young person, professionals, and parents in each case are synthesised to propose a multi-level, ecologically situated model of intervention for school refusal behaviour. The proposed model…

  14. Effective Intervention for School Refusal Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttall, Clare; Woods, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of successful professional intervention for two case studies of female adolescents' school refusal behaviour is presented. Data gathered from the young person, professionals, and parents in each case are synthesised to propose a multi-level, ecologically situated model of intervention for school refusal behaviour. The proposed model…

  15. Behavioural and Cognitive-Behavioural Treatments of Parasomnias

    PubMed Central

    Galbiati, Andrea; Rinaldi, Fabrizio; Giora, Enrico; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Marelli, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Parasomnias are unpleasant or undesirable behaviours or experiences that occur predominantly during or within close proximity to sleep. Pharmacological treatments of parasomnias are available, but their efficacy is established only for few disorders. Furthermore, most of these disorders tend spontaneously to remit with development. Nonpharmacological treatments therefore represent valid therapeutic choices. This paper reviews behavioural and cognitive-behavioural managements employed for parasomnias. Referring to the ICSD-3 nosology we consider, respectively, NREM parasomnias, REM parasomnias, and other parasomnias. Although the efficacy of some of these treatments is proved, in other cases their clinical evidence cannot be provided because of the small size of the samples. Due to the rarity of some parasomnias, further multicentric researches are needed in order to offer a more complete account of behavioural and cognitive-behavioural treatments efficacy. PMID:26101458

  16. Behavioural and Cognitive-Behavioural Treatments of Parasomnias.

    PubMed

    Galbiati, Andrea; Rinaldi, Fabrizio; Giora, Enrico; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Marelli, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Parasomnias are unpleasant or undesirable behaviours or experiences that occur predominantly during or within close proximity to sleep. Pharmacological treatments of parasomnias are available, but their efficacy is established only for few disorders. Furthermore, most of these disorders tend spontaneously to remit with development. Nonpharmacological treatments therefore represent valid therapeutic choices. This paper reviews behavioural and cognitive-behavioural managements employed for parasomnias. Referring to the ICSD-3 nosology we consider, respectively, NREM parasomnias, REM parasomnias, and other parasomnias. Although the efficacy of some of these treatments is proved, in other cases their clinical evidence cannot be provided because of the small size of the samples. Due to the rarity of some parasomnias, further multicentric researches are needed in order to offer a more complete account of behavioural and cognitive-behavioural treatments efficacy.

  17. The Applicability of Behaviour Change in Intervention Programmes Targeted at Ending Female Genital Mutilation in the EU: Integrating Social Cognitive and Community Level Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Katherine; Barrett, Hazel

    2013-01-01

    With increased migration, female genital mutilation (FGM) also referred to as female circumcision or female genital cutting is no longer restricted to Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. The European Parliament estimates that up to half a million women living in the EU have been subjected to FGM, with a further 180,000 at risk. Aware of the limited success of campaigns addressing FGM, the World Health Organization recommended a behavioural change approach be implemented in order to end FGM. To date, however, little progress has been made in adopting a behaviour change approach in strategies aimed at ending FGM. Based on research undertaken as part of the EU's Daphne III programme, which researched FGM intervention programmes linked to African communities in the EU (REPLACE), this paper argues that behaviour change has not been implemented due to a lack of understanding relating to the application of the two broad categories of behaviour change approach: individualistic decision-theoretic and community-change game-theoretic approaches, and how they may be integrated to aid our understanding and the development of future intervention strategies. We therefore discuss how these can be integrated and implemented using community-based participatory action research methods with affected communities. PMID:23983698

  18. A cluster randomised controlled trial of a manualised cognitive behavioural anger management intervention delivered by supervised lay therapists to people with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Willner, P; Rose, J; Jahoda, A; Stenfert Kroese, B; Felce, D; MacMahon, P; Stimpson, A; Rose, N; Gillespie, D; Shead, J; Lammie, C; Woodgate, C; Townson, J K; Nuttall, J; Cohen, D; Hood, K

    2013-05-01

    Anger is a frequent problem for many people with intellectual disabilities, and is often expressed as verbal and/or physical aggression. Cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for common mental health problems, but CBT has only recently been adapted for people with intellectual disabilities. Anger is the main psychological presentation in which controlled trials have been used to evaluate CBT interventions for people with intellectual disabilities but these do not include rigorous randomised studies. To evaluate (1) the impact of a staff-delivered manualised CBT anger management intervention on (a) reported anger among people with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities, and (b) anger coping skills, aggression, mental health, quality of life and costs of health and social care; (2) factors that influence outcome; and (3) the experience of service users, lay therapists and service managers. A cluster randomised controlled trial based on 30 day centres (15 intervention and 15 control). Intention-to-treat comparisons of outcomes used a two-level linear regression model to allow for clustering within centres with baseline outcome levels as a covariate. Comparison of cost data used non-parametric bootstrapping. Qualitative analysis used interpretative phenomenological analysis and thematic analysis. Recruited day centres had four-plus service users with problem anger who were prepared to participate, two-plus staff willing to be lay therapists, a supportive manager and facilities for group work, and no current anger interventions. A total of 212 service users with problem anger were recruited. Thirty-three were deemed ineligible (30 could not complete assessments and three withdrew before randomisation). Retention at follow-up was 81%, with 17 withdrawals in each arm. Two to four staff per centre were recruited as lay therapists. Eleven service users, nine lay therapists and eight managers were interviewed. The manualised intervention comprised

  19. Using mixed methods evaluation to assess the feasibility of online clinical training in evidence based interventions: a case study of cognitive behavioural treatment for low back pain.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Helen; Hall, Amanda M; Hansen, Zara; Williamson, Esther; Davies, David; Lamb, Sarah E

    2016-06-18

    Cognitive behavioural (CB) approaches are effective in the management of non-specific low back pain (LBP). We developed the CB Back Skills Training programme (BeST) and previously provided evidence of clinical and cost effectiveness in a large pragmatic trial. However, practice change is challenged by a lack of treatment guidance and training for clinicians. We aimed to explore the feasibility and acceptability of an online programme (iBeST) for providing training in a CB approach. This mixed methods study comprised an individually randomised controlled trial of 35 physiotherapists and an interview study of 8 physiotherapists. Participants were recruited from 8 National Health Service departments in England and allocated by a computer generated randomisation list to receive iBeST (n = 16) or a face-to-face workshop (n = 19). Knowledge (of a CB approach), clinical skills (unblinded assessment of CB skills in practice), self-efficacy (reported confidence in using new skills), attitudes (towards LBP management), and satisfaction were assessed after training. Engagement with iBeST was assessed with user analytics. Interviews explored acceptability and experiences with iBeST. Data sets were analysed independently and jointly interpreted. Fifteen (94 %) participants in the iBeST group and 16 (84 %) participants in the workshop group provided data immediately after training. We observed similar scores on knowledge (MD (95 % CI): 0.97 (-1.33, 3.26)), and self-efficacy to deliver the majority of the programme (MD (95 % CI) 0.25 (-1.7; 0.7)). However, the workshop group showed greater reduction in biomedical attitudes to LBP management (MD (95 % CI): -7.43 (-10.97, -3.89)). Clinical skills were assessed in 5 (33 %) iBeST participants and 7 (38 %) workshop participants within 6 months of training and were similar between groups (MD (95 % CI): 0.17(-0.2; 0.54)). Interviews highlighted that while initially sceptical, participants found iBeST acceptable. A number

  20. Young people at risk of psychosis: their subjective experiences of monitoring and cognitive behaviour therapy in the early detection and intervention evaluation 2 trial.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Rory E; Morrison, Anthony P

    2014-09-01

    To explore participants' experiences of 'enhanced monitoring' and cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) within a randomized controlled trial evaluating early detection and prevention of psychosis ('early detection and intervention evaluation [EDIE] 2'). Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with a sample of participants at the end of their involvement with the trial. Ten young people were interviewed; six males and four females, with a mean age of 27.5. Nine participants identified themselves as White British and one Black British. All participants had received 'enhanced monitoring' during the trial, and 8 of 10 also received CBT. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis to identify central themes within and among participants' accounts. Three super-ordinate thematic areas were identified: 'a chance to talk', monitoring-specific themes, and CBT-specific themes. The central theme ('a chance to talk') was drawn from across all participants' accounts and represents the most consistently valued attribute of participants' experiences of the EDIE 2 trial. Sub-themes of this topic were identified as follows: interpersonal engagement, informality and normalization, and 'opening up'. Sub-themes related to monitoring include the following: clarity and reassurance, 'a therapeutic process', and challenges. CBT experience was most consistently conceptualized as 'rethinking things', and two additional CBT-specific sub-themes were identified: hard work and moving forward. Our findings suggest that for young people at risk of psychosis, a normalizing psychosocially oriented assessment and monitoring process may have benefits for many, while CBT may help to reduce the negative impact of unusual psychological experiences for both the short- and long term. Young people considered at risk of psychosis highly value normalizing, collaborative, and flexible approaches when engaging with research or clinical staff. All of our participants

  1. Towards improved measurement of cognitive and behavioural work demands.

    PubMed

    Lysaght, Rosemary; Shaw, Lynn; Almas, Andrea; Jogia, Anita; Larmour-Trode, Sherrey

    2008-01-01

    Determination of the cognitive and behavioural demands of work is an important part of holistic workplace intervention. Attention to these factors is especially important when developing return-to-work programs for persons with reduced cognitive, behavioural or psycho-emotional capacity, and when designing risk management programs in organizations. Occupational therapists have the background knowledge and skills to assess these components of work, but often lack valid and reliable measurement tools. This paper reports on three field studies that assessed the reliability and validity of ratings made by novice users of the City of Toronto Job Demands Analysis, which includes a measure of cognitive and behavioural work demands. Numerous challenges to accuracy and reliability that are common to empirical measurement were disclosed, including the necessity for clear and strong definitions, and the importance of thorough rater training. Implications for therapist training and mentorship are discussed.

  2. Stress Intervention Using Cognitive Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaret, Kathe

    This document describes "Coping with Stress: A Cognitive Intervention Program for Children," a six-session program that was designed to expand children's awareness of how their thoughts and feelings affect the process of coping with stress. The first three sessions concentrate on skill building; the last three sessions allow participants to apply…

  3. Protocol for a randomised controlled trial of risk screening and early intervention comparing child- and family-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy for PTSD in children following accidental injury.

    PubMed

    Kenardy, Justin; Cobham, Vanessa; Nixon, Reginald D V; McDermott, Brett; March, Sonja

    2010-11-16

    Accidental injury represents the most common type of traumatic event to which a child or adolescent may be exposed, with a significant number of these children going on to experience posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, very little research has examined potential interventions for the treatment of PTSD in these children. The present trial aims to evaluate and compare child- and family-focused versions of a cognitive-behavioural early intervention for PTSD following accidental injury. The principal clinical question under investigation is the efficacy of an early, trauma-focused cognitive-behavioural intervention for the treatment of PTSD in children following accidental injury. Specifically, we compare the efficacy of two active treatments (child-focused and family-focused CBT) and a waitlist control (no therapy) to determine which is associated with greater reductions in psychological and health-related outcome measures over time. The primary outcome will be a reduction in trauma symptoms on a diagnostic interview in the active treatments compared to the waitlist control and greater reductions in the family-compared to the child-focused condition. In doing so, this project will also trial a method of stepped screening and assessment to determine those children requiring early intervention for PTSD following accidental injury. The present trial will be one of the first controlled trials to examine a trauma-focused CBT, early intervention for children experiencing PTSD following accidental injury (as opposed to other types of traumatic events) and the first within a stepped care approach. In addition, it will provide the first evidence comparing the efficacy of child and family-focused interventions for this target group. Given the significant number of children and adolescents exposed to accidental injury, the successful implementation of this protocol has considerable implications. If efficacious, this early intervention will assist in reducing symptoms

  4. Exploring the question-behaviour effect: randomized controlled trial of motivational and question-behaviour interventions.

    PubMed

    Ayres, Karen; Conner, Mark; Prestwich, Andrew; Hurling, Robert; Cobain, Mark; Lawton, Rebecca; O'Connor, Daryl B

    2013-02-01

    Measuring intentions and other cognitions to perform a behaviour can promote performance of that behaviour (the question-behaviour effect, QBE). It has been suggested that this effect may be amplified for individuals motivated to perform the behaviour. The present research tested the efficacy of combining a motivational intervention (providing personal risk information) with measuring intentions and other cognitions in a fully crossed 2 × 2 design with an objective measure of behaviour in an at-risk population using a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Participants with elevated serum cholesterol levels were randomized to one of four conditions: a combined group receiving both a motivational intervention (personalized cardiovascular disease risk information) and a QBE manipulation (completing a questionnaire about diet), one group receiving a motivational intervention, one group receiving a QBE intervention, or one group receiving neither. All participants subsequently had the opportunity to obtain a personalized health plan linked to reducing personal risk for coronary heart disease. Neither the motivational nor the QBE manipulations alone significantly increased rates of obtaining the health plan. However, the interaction between conditions was significant. Decomposition of the interaction indicated that the combined condition (motivational plus QBE manipulation) produced significantly higher rates of obtaining the health plan (96.2%) compared to the other three groups combined (80.3%). The findings provide insights into the mechanism underlying the QBE and suggest the importance of motivation to perform the behaviour in observing the effect. What is already known on this subject? Research has indicated that merely asking questions about a behaviour may be sufficient to produce changes in that or related behaviours (referred to as the question-behaviour effect; QBE). Previous studies have suggested that the QBE may be moderated by the individual's motivation to

  5. Extending social cognition models of health behaviour.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Charles; Sheeran, Paschal; Henderson, Marion

    2011-08-01

    A cross-sectional study assessed the extent to which indices of social structure, including family socio-economic status (SES), social deprivation, gender and educational/lifestyle aspirations correlated with adolescent condom use and added to the predictive utility of a theory of planned behaviour model. Analyses of survey data from 824 sexually active 16-year-olds (505 women and 319 men) tested three hypotheses. Firstly, social structure measures will correlate with behaviour-specific cognitions that predict condom use. Secondly, cognition measures will not fully mediate the effects of social structural indices and thirdly, the effects of cognitions on condom use will be moderated by social structure indices. All three hypotheses were supported. SES, gender and aspirations accounted for between 2 and 7% of the variance in behaviour-specific cognitions predicting condom use. Aspirations explained a further 4% of the variance in condom use, controlling for cognition effects. Mother's SES and gender added an additional 5%, controlling for aspirations. Overall, including significant moderation effects, of social structure indices increased the variance explained from 20.5% (for cognition measures alone) to 31%. These data indicate that social structure measures should to be investigated in addition to cognitions when modelling antecedents of behaviour, including condom use.

  6. Protocol for a randomised controlled trial of risk screening and early intervention comparing child- and family-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy for PTSD in children following accidental injury

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Accidental injury represents the most common type of traumatic event to which a child or adolescent may be exposed, with a significant number of these children going on to experience posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, very little research has examined potential interventions for the treatment of PTSD in these children. The present trial aims to evaluate and compare child- and family-focused versions of a cognitive-behavioural early intervention for PTSD following accidental injury. Methods/Design The principal clinical question under investigation is the efficacy of an early, trauma-focused cognitive-behavioural intervention for the treatment of PTSD in children following accidental injury. Specifically, we compare the efficacy of two active treatments (child-focused and family-focused CBT) and a waitlist control (no therapy) to determine which is associated with greater reductions in psychological and health-related outcome measures over time. The primary outcome will be a reduction in trauma symptoms on a diagnostic interview in the active treatments compared to the waitlist control and greater reductions in the family-compared to the child-focused condition. In doing so, this project will also trial a method of stepped screening and assessment to determine those children requiring early intervention for PTSD following accidental injury. Discussion The present trial will be one of the first controlled trials to examine a trauma-focused CBT, early intervention for children experiencing PTSD following accidental injury (as opposed to other types of traumatic events) and the first within a stepped care approach. In addition, it will provide the first evidence comparing the efficacy of child and family-focused interventions for this target group. Given the significant number of children and adolescents exposed to accidental injury, the successful implementation of this protocol has considerable implications. If efficacious, this early

  7. [Non-randomised trial of an educational intervention based on cognitive-behavioural principles for patients with chronic low back pain attended in Primary Care Physiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Díaz-Cerrillo, Juan Luis; Rondón-Ramos, Antonio; Pérez-González, Rita; Clavero-Cano, Susana

    2016-01-01

    To assess the influence of an educational intervention in reducing «fear-avoidance» (FA) and «pain catastrophising» (CAT) in a population with unspecific chronic low back pain (UCLBP), attending physiotherapy in Primary Health Care. A pragmatic quasi-experimental study was conducted in Health Centres of a Costa del Sol Health District. Quasi-experimental study. Primary Health Care physiotherapy Back Schools in Health Centres of a Costa del Sol Health District. The selection criteria were: UCLBP; 18-65years; understanding of the Spanish language; absence of parallel educational interventions; absence of red flags; not showing cognitive impairment or fibromyalgia; absence of thoracic-lumbar surgery, and exercise tolerance. The control group received the usual Back Schools program. The experimental group also received a written document for home reading, plus the subsequent sharing, clarifying doubts, and beliefs and goals restructuring during the development of the sessions. Both interventions lasted about 280minutes (7 sessions×40min). The main variables included FA and CAT. Pain and disability were also assessed. Some «demographic» and «related disorder» variables were considered in the analysis. Statistically significant differences were observed in the experimental group versus control, in the variation of FA -14 (-25.5; 0) vs -4 (-13; 0) (P=.009), and CAT -9 (-18; -4) vs -4,5 (-8.25; 0) (P=.000), were observed. Also differences in disability (P=.046), but not in pain (P=.280). These results should be considered in light of possible limits imposed by the study. Its pragmatic nature would allow a potential transfer to usual care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Internet-based interventions for disordered gamblers: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial of online self-directed cognitive-behavioural motivational therapy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gambling disorders affect about one percent of adults. Effective treatments are available but only a small proportion of affected individuals will choose to attend formal treatment. As a result, self-directed treatments have also been developed and found effective. Self-directed treatments provide individuals with information and support to initiate a recovery program without attending formal treatment. In previous research we developed an telephone-based intervention package that helps people to be motivated to tackle their gambling problem and to use basic behavioral and cognitive change strategies. The present study will investigate the efficacy of this self-directed intervention offered as a free online resource. The Internet is an excellent modality in which to offer self-directed treatment for gambling problems. The Internet is increasingly accessible to members of the public and is frequently used to access health-related information. Online gambling sites are also becoming more popular gambling platforms. Method/Design A randomized clinical trial (N=180) will be conducted in which individuals with gambling problems who are not interested in attending formal treatment are randomly assigned to have access to an online self-directed intervention or to a comparison condition. The comparison condition will be an alternative website that offers a self-assessment of gambling involvement and gambling-related problems. The participant’s use of the resources and their gambling involvement (days of gambling, dollars loss) and their gambling problems will be tracked for a twelve month follow-up period. Discussion The results of this research will be important for informing policy-makers who are developing treatment systems. Trial registration ISRCTN06220098 PMID:23294668

  9. Exercise and cognitive-behavioural treatment in fibromyalgia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kurtais, Yesim; Kutlay, Sehim; Ergin, Süreyya

    2006-01-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome is a nonarticular rheumatic disorder characterised by diffuse musculoskeletal pain, stiffness, fatigue, disturbed sleep and tender points. The pathophysiology is not well understood and treatment remains a challenge. Although pharmacological therapy is still the primary treatment choice, a long-term effective intervention has not been demonstrated yet. Thus, besides pharmacotherapy, other multimodal interventions are often used. Exercise and cognitive-behavioural treatments which exist in the multimodal approach and encompass largely self-managed strategy, are reviewed in this article. Although, there is a great number of exercise studies, the large diversity of outcome measures and measurement instruments that have been used in studies, varying intensity and types of exercises, small sample sizes, high attrition rates, large variability in baseline function, symptom severity and psychosocial status limit to come to a conclusion about the efficacy of exercise in the treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome. There are also inconclusive results about the efficacy of cognitive-behavioural treatment because of limited number of studies with small sample sizes of patients with fibromyalgia syndrome. However, the results of the trials overall demonstrate the beneficial effects of both different types of exercise and cognitive-behavioural treatment, on the other hand, there is still a need for larger, more systematic and randomised controlled trials to evaluate the effectiveness.

  10. Beyond single behaviour theory: Adding cross-behaviour cognitions to the health action process approach.

    PubMed

    Fleig, Lena; Ngo, Joy; Roman, Blanca; Ntzani, Evangelia; Satta, Paolo; Warner, Lisa M; Schwarzer, Ralf; Brandi, Maria L

    2015-11-01

    Commonly, health behaviour theories have been applied to single behaviours, giving insights into specific behaviours but providing little knowledge on how individuals pursue an overall healthy lifestyle. In the context of diet and physical activity, we investigated the extent to which cross-behaviour cognitions, namely transfer cognitions and compensatory health beliefs, contribute to single behaviour theory. A total of 767 participants from two European regions (i.e., Germany n = 351, southern Europe n = 416) completed online questionnaires on physical activity and healthy dietary behaviour, behaviour-specific cognitions (i.e., self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, risk perception, intention, action planning, action control), as well as cross-behaviour cognitions, namely transfer cognitions and compensatory health beliefs. Nested path models were specified to investigate the importance of cross-behaviour cognitions over and above behaviour-specific predictors of physical activity and healthy nutrition. Across both health behaviours, transfer cognitions were positively associated with intention and self-regulatory strategies. Compensatory health beliefs were negatively associated with intention. Action planning and action control mediated the effect of intentions on behaviour. Cross-behaviour cognitions contribute to single behaviour theory and may explain how individuals regulate more than one health behaviour. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Cross-behaviour cognitions are related to a healthy lifestyle. Compensatory health beliefs hinder the adoption of a healthy lifestyle. Transfer cognitions encourage the engagement in a healthy lifestyle. What does this study add? Transfer cognitions were positively associated with intentions, action planning, and action control over and above behaviour-specific cognitions. Compensatory health beliefs were related to intentions only. Both facilitating and debilitating cross-behaviour cognitions

  11. Design considerations of a randomized clinical trial on a cognitive behavioural intervention using communication and information technologies for managing chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Domenech, Julio; Baños, Rosa; Peñalver, Lourdes; Garcia-Palacios, Azucena; Herrero, Rocio; Ezzedine, Aida; Martinez-Diaz, Monica; Ballester, Javier; Horta, Jaime; Botella, Cristina

    2013-04-22

    Psychological treatments have been successful in treating chronic low back pain (CLBP). However, the effect sizes are still modest and there is room for improvement. A way to progress is by enhancing treatment adherence and self-management using information and communication technologies (ICTs). Therefore, the objective of this study was to design a trial investigating the short- and long-term efficacy of cognitive behavioural treatment (CBT) for CLBP using or not ICTs. A secondary objective of this trial will be to evaluate the influence of relevant variables on treatment response. Possible barriers in the implementation of CBT with and without ICT will also be investigated. A randomised controlled trial with 180 CLBP patients recruited from specialised care will be conducted. Participants will be randomly assigned to three conditions: Control group (CG), CBT, and CBT supported by ICTs (CBT + ICT). Participants belonging to the three conditions will receive a conventional rehabilitation program (back school). The CBT group program will last six sessions. The CBT + ICT group will use the internet and SMS to practice the therapeutic strategies between sessions and in the follow-ups at their homes. Primary outcome variables will be self-reported disability and pain intensity. Assessment will be carried out by blinded assessors in five moments: pre-treatment, post-treatment and 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. The influence of catastrophizing, fear-avoidance beliefs, anxiety and depression in response to treatment in the primary outcomes will also be analysed. This study will show data of the possible benefits of using ICTs in the improvement of CBT for treating CLBP. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01802671.

  12. Design considerations of a randomized clinical trial on a cognitive behavioural intervention using communication and information technologies for managing chronic low back pain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychological treatments have been successful in treating chronic low back pain (CLBP). However, the effect sizes are still modest and there is room for improvement. A way to progress is by enhancing treatment adherence and self-management using information and communication technologies (ICTs). Therefore, the objective of this study was to design a trial investigating the short- and long-term efficacy of cognitive behavioural treatment (CBT) for CLBP using or not ICTs. A secondary objective of this trial will be to evaluate the influence of relevant variables on treatment response. Possible barriers in the implementation of CBT with and without ICT will also be investigated. Methods A randomised controlled trial with 180 CLBP patients recruited from specialised care will be conducted. Participants will be randomly assigned to three conditions: Control group (CG), CBT, and CBT supported by ICTs (CBT + ICT). Participants belonging to the three conditions will receive a conventional rehabilitation program (back school). The CBT group program will last six sessions. The CBT + ICT group will use the internet and SMS to practice the therapeutic strategies between sessions and in the follow-ups at their homes. Primary outcome variables will be self-reported disability and pain intensity. Assessment will be carried out by blinded assessors in five moments: pre-treatment, post-treatment and 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. The influence of catastrophizing, fear-avoidance beliefs, anxiety and depression in response to treatment in the primary outcomes will also be analysed. Discussion This study will show data of the possible benefits of using ICTs in the improvement of CBT for treating CLBP. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01802671 PMID:23607895

  13. Cognitive Benefits of Exercise Intervention.

    PubMed

    Archer, T; Ricci, S; Massoni, F; Ricci, L; Rapp-Ricciardi, M

    2016-01-01

    Exercise, as a potent epigenetic regulator, implies the potential to counteract pathophysiological processes and alterations in most cardiovascular/respiratory cells and tissues not withstanding a paucity of understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms and doseresponse relationships. In the present account, the assets accruing from physical exercise and its influence upon executive functioning are examined. Under conditions of neuropsychiatric and neurologic ill-health, age-related deterioration of functional and biomarker indicators during healthy and disordered trajectories, neuroimmune and affective unbalance, and epigenetic pressures, exercise offers a large harvest of augmentations in health and well-being. Both animal models and human studies support the premise of manifest gains from regular exercise within several domains, besides cognitive function and mood, notably as the agency of a noninvasive, readily available therapeutic intervention.

  14. A Cognitive Behavioural Group Approach for Adolescents with Disruptive Behaviour in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruttledge, Richard A.; Petrides, K. V.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive behavioural approaches emphasize the links between thoughts, feelings and behaviour (Greig, 2007). Previous research has indicated that these approaches are efficacious in reducing disruptive behaviour in adolescents. The aim of the current study was to provide further evaluation of cognitive behavioural group work to reduce disruptive…

  15. A Cognitive Behavioural Group Approach for Adolescents with Disruptive Behaviour in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruttledge, Richard A.; Petrides, K. V.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive behavioural approaches emphasize the links between thoughts, feelings and behaviour (Greig, 2007). Previous research has indicated that these approaches are efficacious in reducing disruptive behaviour in adolescents. The aim of the current study was to provide further evaluation of cognitive behavioural group work to reduce disruptive…

  16. A systematic review of cognitive and/or behavioural therapies for methamphetamine dependence

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nicole K; Rawson, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and aims The use of methamphetamine is widespread and poses significant challenges for treatment providers. Much of the treatment knowledge about this group has been extrapolated from studies of treatment for cocaine dependence. Medications have been shown to be of limited effectiveness for methamphetamine users, making psychological interventions the treatment of choice. Design and methods This paper describes a systematic review of cognitive-behavioural and behavioural interventions for methamphetamine users. A systematic search of published literature was undertaken focusing only on randomised trials. Results There were a relatively small number of intervention studies that compared cognitive-behavioural or behavioural interventions using randomised trial methodology. Most commonly, studies examined cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) and/or contingency management (CM). Treatment with CBT appears to be associated with reductions in methamphetamine use and other positive changes ,even over very short periods of treatment (2 and 4 sessions). CM studies found a significant reduction of methamphetamine during application of the procedure, but it is not clear if these gains are sustained at post-treatment follow-up. Discussion and conclusion Further research into cognitive behavioural and behavioural treatments for methamphetamine users is required, with a focus on improving longevity of the effect of intervention. PMID:18368613

  17. Behavioural interventions for enhancing life participation in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia and primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Kortte, Kathleen B; Rogalski, Emily J

    2013-04-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) and behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) are clinical syndromes under the umbrella term 'frontotemporal dementia' (FTD) and are caused by a neurodegenerative disease with an onset most typically in the productive years of adulthood. The cognitive and behavioural impairments associated with FTD interfere with successful engagement in typical life roles, such as parenting, working, and maintenance of interpersonal relationships. There are currently no treatments to stop or slow the degenerative process and there are only very limited medication options for the management of the cognitive-behavioural symptoms. However, alternative, non-pharmacological interventions may offer significant benefit to the quality of life of the diagnosed individual. The goal of this paper is to provide an overview of the approaches available through neurorehabilitation and community-based services that facilitate successful engagement in life activities and promote optimal quality of life for the individuals and families living with FTD. It is hoped that as medical providers become more familiar with behavioural interventions, referrals for services will increase thereby allowing individuals with FTD and their caregivers to learn ways to adapt, adjust, and participate in life to the fullest despite the impairments from this progressive disease.

  18. Teacher Strategies for Effective Intervention with Students Presenting Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties: An International Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Paul

    2011-01-01

    A review of international research literature on teacher strategies for effective intervention with students presenting social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (SEBD) is presented. Particular attention is given to evidence defining the qualities and skills of effective teachers and the value of behavioural and cognitive behavioural…

  19. Improving distress in dialysis (iDiD): a feasibility two-arm parallel randomised controlled trial of an online cognitive behavioural therapy intervention with and without therapist-led telephone support for psychological distress in patients undergoing haemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Joanna L; Moss-Morris, Rona; Game, David; Carroll, Amy; McCrone, Paul; Hotopf, Matthew; Yardley, Lucy; Chilcot, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Psychological distress is common in end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) and is associated with poorer health outcomes. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is recommended in UK clinical guidelines for the management of depression in people with long-term conditions. Access to skilled therapists competent in managing the competing mental and physical health demands of ESKD is limited. Online CBT treatments tailored to the needs of the ESKD population offers a pragmatic solution for under-resourced services. This study examines the feasibility and acceptability of implementing a two-arm parallel randomised controlled trial of online CBT with (intervention arm) and without (control arm) therapist support to improve psychological distress in patients undergoing haemodialysis. Methods Patients will be screened for depression and anxiety while attending for their haemodialysis treatments. We aim to recruit 60 adult patients undergoing haemodialysis who meet criteria for mild to moderately severe symptoms of depression and/or anxiety. Patients will be randomised individually (using a 1:1 computerised sequence ratio) to either online CBT with therapist telephone support (intervention arm), or online CBT with no therapist (control arm). Outcomes include feasibility and acceptability descriptive data on rates of recruitment, randomisation, retention and treatment adherence. Self-report outcomes include measures of depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), anxiety (Generalised Anxiety Disorder-7), quality of life (Euro-QoL), service use (client service receipt inventory) and illness cognitions (brief illness perception questionnaire). A qualitative process evaluation will also be conducted. The statistician will be blinded to treatment allocation. Ethics and dissemination A National Health Service (NHS) research ethics committee approved the study. Data from this study will provide essential information for the design and testing of further interventions to

  20. Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy for depression and anxiety.

    PubMed

    2013-11-01

    Internet-based, or computerised, cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) can be used to treat patients with depression or anxiety. Patients are engaged in structured programs of care, with several programs available either at no cost or moderate cost. Internet CBT (iCBT) may be particularly suited to patients with mobility issues or living in rural or remote areas. Although there are no adverse effects, clinicians should assess patients for risk issues and the need for more immediate assistance before recommending iCBT. Monitoring effectiveness of any intervention for the patient is important. iCBT has National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Level I evidence of efficacy.

  1. Behavioural and psychiatric symptoms in cognitive neurology.

    PubMed

    Robles Bayón, A; Gude Sampedro, F

    2017-03-01

    Behavioural and psychiatric symptoms (BPS) are frequent in neurological patients, contribute to disability, and decrease quality of life. We recorded BPS prevalence and type, as well as any associations with specific diagnoses, brain regions, and treatments, in consecutive outpatients examined in a cognitive neurology clinic. A retrospective analysis of 843 consecutive patients was performed, including a review of BPS, diagnosis, sensory impairment, lesion topography (neuroimaging), and treatment. The total sample was considered, and the cognitive impairment (CI) group (n=607) was compared to the non-CI group. BPS was present in 59.9% of the patients (61.3% in the CI group, 56.4% in the non-CI group). One BPS was present in 31.1%, two in 17.4%, and three or more in 11.4%. BPS, especially depression and anxiety, are more frequent in women than in men. Psychotic and behavioural symptoms predominate in subjects aged 65 and older, and anxiety in those younger than 65. Psychotic symptoms appear more often in patients with sensory impairment. Psychotic and behavioural symptoms are more prevalent in patients with degenerative dementia; depression and anxiety in those who suffer a psychiatric disease or adverse effects of substances; emotional lability in individuals with a metabolic or hormonal disorder; hypochondria in those with a pain syndrome; and irritability in subjects with chronic hypoxia. Behavioural symptoms are more frequent in patients with anomalies in the frontal or right temporal or parietal lobes, and antipsychotics constitute the first line of treatment. Leaving standard treatments aside, associations were observed between dysthymia and opioid analgesics, betahistine and statins, and between psychotic symptoms and levodopa, piracetam, and vasodilators. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Toothbrushing at School: Effects on Toothbrushing Behaviour, Cognitions and Habit Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wind, Marianne; Kremers, Stef; Thijs, Carel; Brug, Johannes

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of a school-based toothbrushing intervention aimed at encouraging primary school children to brush their teeth daily at school, on cognitions, toothbrushing behaviour and habit strength. Design/methodology/approach: The effects of an intervention were examined in a quasi-experimental trial among 296 fifth-graders in…

  3. Toothbrushing at School: Effects on Toothbrushing Behaviour, Cognitions and Habit Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wind, Marianne; Kremers, Stef; Thijs, Carel; Brug, Johannes

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of a school-based toothbrushing intervention aimed at encouraging primary school children to brush their teeth daily at school, on cognitions, toothbrushing behaviour and habit strength. Design/methodology/approach: The effects of an intervention were examined in a quasi-experimental trial among 296 fifth-graders in…

  4. Group cognitive-behavioural therapy for schizophrenia. Randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Barrowclough, Christine; Haddock, Gillian; Lobban, Fiona; Jones, Steve; Siddle, Ron; Roberts, Chris; Gregg, Lynsey

    2006-12-01

    The efficacy of cognitive-behavioural therapy for schizophrenia is established, but there is less evidence for a group format. To evaluate the effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioural therapy for schizophrenia. In all, 113 people with persistent positive symptoms of schizophrenia were assigned to receive group cognitive-behavioural therapy or treatment as usual. The primary outcome was positive symptom improvement on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scales. Secondary outcome measures included symptoms, functioning, relapses, hopelessness and self-esteem. There were no significant differences between the cognitive-behavioural therapy and treatment as usual on measures of symptoms or functioning or relapse, but group cognitive-behavioural therapy treatment resulted in reductions in feelings of hopelessness and in low self-esteem. Although group cognitive-behavioural therapy may not be the optimum treatment method for reducing hallucinations and delusions, it may have important benefits, including feeling less negative about oneself and less hopeless for the future.

  5. A randomized controlled trial of a cognitive-behavioural group intervention versus waiting-list control for women with uterovaginal agenesis (Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome: MRKH).

    PubMed

    Heller-Boersma, J G; Schmidt, U H; Edmonds, D K

    2007-08-01

    Uterovaginal agenesis (Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome: MRKH) is a congenital abnormality of the female genital tract, characterized by the non-formation of the vagina and uterus. There is a widespread agreement that MRKH has a lasting negative psychological impact on women with this condition, but as yet little is known about how to conceptualize and manage this. We developed a cognitive-behavioural group treatment (CBT) of MRKH. The aim of the present study was to determine whether this intervention, compared to waiting-list control, improves psychosocial outcomes in women with MRKH. After stratifying for age and type of MRKH (simple or complex), 39 women with MRKH were randomized to group CBT (n = 19) or waiting list (n = 20). Outcomes were assessed at pre-treatment, post-treatment (7 weeks) and at 3 months follow-up. The main outcome measure was the Symptom Check-List (SCL-90-R). Other outcomes included impact of event, self-esteem and interpersonal functioning. Participants allocated to group CBT showed significantly reduced psychological symptoms on the SCL-90-R and non-significant improvements on all secondary outcomes at the end of treatment and follow-up, whereas those on the waiting list remained unchanged. A group CBT intervention improves psychological outcomes in MRKH. This treatment may also be applicable to other gynaecological conditions.

  6. HIV behavioural interventions targeted towards older adults: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The increasing number of people living with HIV aged 50 years and older has been recognised around the world yet non-pharmacologic HIV behavioural and cognitive interventions specifically targeted to older adults are limited. Evidence is needed to guide the response to this affected group. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the available published literature in MEDLINE, Embase and the Education Resources Information Center. A search strategy was defined with high sensitivity but low specificity to identify behavioural interventions with outcomes in the areas of treatment adherence, HIV testing uptake, increased HIV knowledge and uptake of prevention measures. Data from relevant articles were extracted into excel. Results Twelve articles were identified all of which originated from the Americas. Eight of the interventions were conducted among older adults living with HIV and four for HIV-negative older adults. Five studies included control groups. Of the included studies, four focused on general knowledge of HIV, three emphasised mental health and coping, two focused on reduced sexual risk behaviour, two on physical status and one on referral for care. Only four of the studies were randomised controlled trials and seven – including all of the studies among HIV-negative older adults – did not include controls at all. A few of the studies conducted statistical testing on small samples of 16 or 11 older adults making inference based on the results difficult. The most relevant study demonstrated that using telephone-based interventions can reduce risky sexual behaviour among older adults with control reporting 3.24 times (95% CI 1.79-5.85) as many occasions of unprotected sex at follow-up as participants. Overall however, few of the articles are sufficiently rigorous to suggest broad replication or to be considered representative and applicable in other settings. Conclusions More evidence is needed on what interventions work among older adults to

  7. Temporal patterns of change in panic disorder during cognitive behaviour therapy: an Indian study.

    PubMed

    Manjula, M; Prasadarao, P S D V; Kumaraiah, V; Raguram, R

    2014-09-01

    CBT has been proven to be effective in the treatment of panic disorder; however, attempts to study the process of change are limited. The study evaluated the temporal patterns of change in the panic symptoms, cognitions, behaviours, and anxiety sensitivity in subjects with panic disorder being treated with CBT. Thirty subjects with panic disorder were allocated to two groups: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT, n = 15) and Behaviour Therapy (BT, n = 15). Assessments were carried out weekly for five consecutive weeks using the Semi-Structured Interview Schedule, the Anxiety Sensitivity Index, the Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire, and the Texas Panic Attack Record Form. The CBT group received comprehensive CBT and the BT group received psycho-education and Applied Relaxation. Following intervention the change was continuous and gradual on all the variables in the CBT group and the scores reduced to a functional range after 4-5 weeks of therapy. Such a change was not evident in the BT group. Significant change was evident in cognitive domains following the introduction of the exposure and cognitive restructuring within the CBT group. Both cognitive and behavioural techniques contributed to the overall change. CBT had an impact on the cognitive domains and significant changes were evident corresponding to the addition of cognitive restructuring and exposure techniques in the 3rd to 5th week. Both cognitive and behavioural components are therefore crucial for overall improvement to occur.

  8. Scaffolding rehabilitation behaviour using a voice-mediated assistive technology for cognition.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Brian; Moran, Kate; Gillespie, Alex

    2010-08-01

    A variety of cognitive deficits can lead to difficulties performing complex behavioural sequences and thus, disability in the performance of routine and rehabilitation behaviours. Interventions to date involve increasing support or providing behavioural training. Assistive technologies for cognition have the potential to augment cognitive capacity thus enabling the performance of behavioural sequences. Guide is an assistive technology for cognition that scaffolds task performance by providing verbal prompts and responding to verbal feedback. Guide was used to provide verbal support and guidance for eight amputees (mean age 64), with cognitive impairment of vascular origin, putting on their prosthetic limbs. Participants were referred to the research due to problems learning the correct behavioural sequence. The research used repeated trials with random assignment to intervention and baseline conditions. The voice-mediated assistive technology for cognition resulted in a significant reduction of safety critical errors and omitted steps. Discussion focuses upon the relation between voice-mediated cognitive support for memory and executive function, and suggestions are made for future research.

  9. Effects of a behaviour change intervention for Girl Scouts on child and parent energy-saving behaviours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudet, Hilary; Ardoin, Nicole M.; Flora, June; Armel, K. Carrie; Desai, Manisha; Robinson, Thomas N.

    2016-08-01

    Energy education programmes for children are hypothesized to have great potential to save energy. Such interventions are often assumed to impact child and family behaviours. Here, using a cluster-randomized controlled trial with 30 Girl Scout troops in Northern California, we assess the efficacy of two social cognitive theory-based interventions focused on residential and food-and-transportation energy-related behaviours of Girl Scouts and their families. We show that Girl Scouts and parents in troops randomly assigned to the residential energy intervention significantly increased their self-reported residential energy-saving behaviours immediately following the intervention and after more than seven months of follow-up, compared with controls. Girl Scouts in troops randomly assigned to the food-and-transportation energy intervention significantly increased their self-reported food-and-transportation energy-saving behaviours immediately following the intervention, compared with controls, but not at follow-up. The results demonstrate that theory-based, child-focused energy interventions have the potential to increase energy-saving behaviours among both children and their parents.

  10. Effectiveness of an individual school-based intervention for children with aggressive behaviour: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Stoltz, Sabine; van Londen, Monique; Deković, Maja; de Castro, Bram O; Prinzie, Peter; Lochman, John E

    2013-10-01

    For elementary school-children with aggressive behaviour problems, there is a strong need for effective preventive interventions to interrupt the developmental trajectory towards more serious behaviour problems. The aim of this RCT-study was to evaluate a school-based individual tailor-made intervention (Stay Cool Kids), designed to reduce aggressive behaviour in selected children by enhancing cognitive behavioural skills. The sample consisted of 48 schools, with 264 fourth-grade children selected by their teachers because of elevated levels of externalizing behaviour (TRF T-score>60), randomly assigned to the intervention or no-intervention control condition. The intervention was found to be effective in reducing reactive and proactive aggressive behaviour as reported by children, mothers, fathers or teachers, with effect sizes ranging from .11 to .32. Clinically relevant changes in teacher-rated externalizing behaviour were found: the intervention reduced behaviour problems to (sub) clinical or normative levels for significantly more children than the control condition. Some aspects of problems in social cognitive functioning were reduced and children showed more positive self-perception. Ethnic background and gender moderated intervention effects on child and teacher reported aggression and child response generation. The results of this study demonstrate the effectiveness on outcome behaviour and child cognitions of an individual tailor-made intervention across informants under real-world conditions.

  11. Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaycox, Lisa H.; Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Stein, Bradley D.; Langley, Audra K.; Wong, Marleen

    2012-01-01

    Developed out a community participatory research partnership with schools, the Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools Program is a targeted intervention for school children who have experienced a traumatic or violent event and have symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. This article describes the original development of the…

  12. Psychopathological Behaviour and Cognition in Morbid Obesity.

    PubMed

    Calderone, Alba; Calabro, Pasquale Fabio; Lippi, Chita; Jaccheri, Roberta; Vitti, Jacopo; Santini, Ferruccio

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic condition with high prevalence and multifaceted aetiology, accompanied by an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Obesity has several negative effects on the psychological status, and the severity of psychological disorders correlates with the degree of obesity. Aim of this review is to provide an overview of the literature concerning the psychological distress associated with severe obesity, which contributes to deterioration of the quality of life of affected patients. Dysfunctional eating behaviours and eating disorders, psychiatric comorbidity, cognition and quality of life will be discussed together with the most common drugs that can be employed to treat the various disorders in this peculiar clinical setting. The effects of bariatric surgery will be also reviewed. Obesity is often the result of pathological behaviours implemented in an eating disorder. Inconsistent results have been reported with regard to the effect of severe obesity on cognition, which recognize a multifaceted aetiology. Serotonergic agents play an important role in the management of patients with obesity and binge episodes, fluoxetine being currently a drug approved for this disorder. The efficacy of lorcaserin, a combination of bupropion and naltrexone, or antiepileptic medications (topiramate and zonisamide) has also been proposed. A neuroprotective role of leptin and oestrogen has been hypothesized. Bariatric surgery is a helpful treatment of morbid obese patients, with long-term favourable results on the psychopathological profile. Psychological, psychoeducational and psychopharmacological treatment can facilitate weight loss in morbid obese subjects with psychopathological comorbidities. A precise definition of the mechanisms affecting appetite, satiety and energy balance is expected to foster the development of new effective antiobesity drugs. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Simulating behaviour change interventions based on the theory of planned behaviour: Impacts on intention and action.

    PubMed

    Fife-Schaw, Chris; Sheeran, Paschal; Norman, Paul

    2007-03-01

    The theory of planned behaviour (TPB; Ajzen, 1991) has been used extensively to predict social and health behaviours. However, a critical test of the TPB is whether interventions that increased scores on the theory's predictors would engender behaviour change. The present research deployed a novel technique in order to provide this test. Statistical simulations were conducted on data for 30 behaviours (N=211) that estimated the impact of interventions that generated maximum positive changes in attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control (PBC) on subsequent intentions and behaviour. Findings indicated that interventions that maximized TPB variables had a substantial impact on behavioural intentions. Although TPB maximization increased the proportion of the sample that performed respective behaviours by 28% compared with baseline, the behaviour of a substantial minority of the sample (26%) did not change. The research also identified several interactions among TPB variables in predicting simulated intention and behaviour scores and investigated the mediating role of intentions in predicting behaviour.

  14. Nonpharmacological cognitive interventions in aging and dementia.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Amarilis; Loewenstein, David A

    2007-12-01

    There have been increasing efforts to develop cognitive interventions to ameliorate cognitive problems experienced by older adults. In healthy elderly populations, cognitive training has centered on the enhancement of memory and speed of processing, with the goal of maximizing current function and reducing the risk of cognitive decline. Among elderly persons with nonprogressive neurological conditions such as traumatic brain injury (TBI) and stroke, there has been an emphasis on rehabilitation to help restore function. Most recently, there has been increased attention on the development of new cognitive techniques to treat persons with progressive neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer disease. The literature is reviewed on current approaches to cognitive interventions in elderly healthy populations, and a particular emphasis is placed on the most recent strides in progressive neurocognitive conditions, particularly Alzheimer disease. Important issues such as study design, the use of ecologically and functionally valid outcome measures, the need to examine heterogeneous populations and cross-cultural variables, and the incorporation of technologically based systems are examined. It is concluded that cognitive interventions in the elderly show considerable promise and deserve further study.

  15. Cognitive behaviour therapy and inflammation: A systematic review of its relationship and the potential implications for the treatment of depression.

    PubMed

    Lopresti, Adrian L

    2017-06-01

    There is growing evidence confirming increased inflammation in a subset of adults with depression. The impact of this relationship has mostly been considered in biologically based interventions; however, it also has potential implications for psychological therapies. Cognitive behaviour therapy is the most commonly used psychological intervention for the treatment of depression with theories around its efficacy primarily based on psychological mechanisms. However, cognitive behaviour therapy may have an effect on, and its efficacy influenced by, physiological processes associated with depression. Accordingly, the purpose of this systematic review was to examine the relationship between cognitive behaviour therapy and inflammation. Studies examining the anti-inflammatory effects of cognitive behaviour therapy in people with depression and other medical conditions (e.g. cancer, diabetes and heart disease) were examined. In addition, the relationship between change in inflammatory markers and change in depressive symptoms following cognitive behaviour therapy, and the influence of pre-treatment inflammation on cognitive behaviour therapy treatment response were reviewed. A total of 23 studies investigating the anti-inflammatory effects of cognitive behaviour therapy were identified. In 14 of these studies, at least one reduction in an inflammatory marker was reported, increases were identified in three studies and no change was found in six studies. Three studies examined the relationship between change in inflammation and change in depressive symptoms following cognitive behaviour therapy. In two of these studies, change in depressive symptoms was associated with a change in at least one inflammatory marker. Finally, three studies examined the influence of pre-treatment inflammation on treatment outcome from cognitive behaviour therapy, and all indicated a poorer treatment response in people with higher premorbid inflammation. Preliminary evidence suggests

  16. Cognitive Interventions for Older Diabetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Sheila; Scogin, Forrest

    1998-01-01

    Older diabetic adults should receive memory training to improve their compliance with medication taking. The intervention should include comprehensible medical instructions, assistance with remembering the nutritional values of food, and higher order skills for disease management. (SK)

  17. Cognitive-behavioural treatment for women who binge eat.

    PubMed

    Shelley-Ummenhofer, Jill; MacMillan, Peter D

    2007-01-01

    A dietitian-administered, shortened form of the Apple and Agras cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) method was evaluated in a group setting to determine its effect on improving obese women's self-esteem and reducing binge-eating behaviours, depression, and negative body image. Participants were recruited through newspaper and radio advertisements. Respondents who met study selection criteria were randomly assigned to either a CBT group (n=13) or a delayed group (D-CBT) (n=9). The treatment was administered over six weekly sessions to the CBT group, and then twice weekly over three weeks to the D-CBT group. Two measures of bingeing behaviour (severity and frequency), three measures of mood (depression, body image, and self-esteem), and body weight were assessed. The intervention did not result in any changes in body weight. There were statistically significant and clinically important changes after treatment (p<0.05) for all five measures. Binge-eating severity and frequency decreased, depression decreased, body image improved, and self-esteem improved. All changes were greater in the six-week treatment group. The dietitian-administered, group setting CBT program is effective for reducing binge eating and improving emotional state in obese women.

  18. Behavioural Interventions for Urinary Incontinence in Community-Dwelling Seniors

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    also have cognitive deficits and/or motor deficits. A health care professional trains the senior’s caregiver to deliver an intervention such as prompted voiding, habit retraining, or timed voiding. The health care professional who trains the caregiver is commonly a nurse or a nurse with advanced training in the management of UI, such as a nurse continence advisor (NCA) or a clinical nurse specialist (CNS). The second category of behavioural interventions consists of patient-directed techniques targeted towards mobile, motivated seniors. Seniors in this population are cognitively able, free from any major physical deficits, and motivated to regain and/or improve their continence. A nurse or a nurse with advanced training in UI management, such as an NCA or CNS, delivers the patient-directed techniques. These are often provided as multicomponent interventions including a combination of bladder training techniques, pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT), education on bladder control strategies, and self-monitoring. Pelvic floor muscle training, defined as a program of repeated pelvic floor muscle contractions taught and supervised by a health care professional, may be employed as part of a multicomponent intervention or in isolation. Education is a large component of both caregiver-dependent and patient-directed behavioural interventions, and patient and/or caregiver involvement as well as continued practice strongly affect the success of treatment. Incontinence products, which include a large variety of pads and devices for effective containment of urine, may be used in conjunction with behavioural techniques at any point in the patient’s management. Evidence-Based Analysis Methods A comprehensive search strategy was used to identify systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials that examined the effectiveness, safety, and cost-effectiveness of caregiver-dependent and patient-directed behavioural interventions for the treatment of UI in community-dwelling seniors

  19. Walking the line: Understanding pedestrian behaviour and risk at rail level crossings with cognitive work analysis.

    PubMed

    Read, Gemma J M; Salmon, Paul M; Lenné, Michael G; Stanton, Neville A

    2016-03-01

    Pedestrian fatalities at rail level crossings (RLXs) are a public safety concern for governments worldwide. There is little literature examining pedestrian behaviour at RLXs and no previous studies have adopted a formative approach to understanding behaviour in this context. In this article, cognitive work analysis is applied to understand the constraints that shape pedestrian behaviour at RLXs in Melbourne, Australia. The five phases of cognitive work analysis were developed using data gathered via document analysis, behavioural observation, walk-throughs and critical decision method interviews. The analysis demonstrates the complex nature of pedestrian decision making at RLXs and the findings are synthesised to provide a model illustrating the influences on pedestrian decision making in this context (i.e. time, effort and social pressures). Further, the CWA outputs are used to inform an analysis of the risks to safety associated with pedestrian behaviour at RLXs and the identification of potential interventions to reduce risk.

  20. Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Command Hallucinations and Intellectual Disability: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrowcliff, Alastair L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: There is a paucity of literature detailing cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for psychosis in people with intellectual disability. Of the available literature, only two case studies involve people with command hallucinations and these do not address specific issues of intervention indicated in the wider literature for this type of…

  1. Embedding Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Training in Practice: Facilitators and Barriers for Trainee Educational Psychologists (TEPs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, Garry; Dunsmuir, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    At the national level there has been a call for more therapeutic interventions and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) has been identified as one approach that can be used. The training of educational psychologists (EPs) has been extended to three years and this provides an opportunity to increase the depth of knowledge of particular therapeutic…

  2. Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Command Hallucinations and Intellectual Disability: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrowcliff, Alastair L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: There is a paucity of literature detailing cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for psychosis in people with intellectual disability. Of the available literature, only two case studies involve people with command hallucinations and these do not address specific issues of intervention indicated in the wider literature for this type of…

  3. Cognitive-behaviour therapy and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Wykes, Til

    2014-08-01

    People who experience debilitating psychotic symptoms that affect their everyday life are often, but not always, given a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Although the first line of treatment is medication, many people experience a suboptimal response and after the acute symptoms resolve they can continue to experience both hallucinations and delusions. These are generally termed residual symptoms and are the phenomena that cognitive-behavioural therapy for psychosis (CBTp) was originally devised to target. The success of CBTp in randomised controlled trials from the early 90s and evidence of cost-effectiveness has meant that many healthcare services across the world include CBTp in their treatment armamentaria. For instance, in the UK the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidance says that all individuals who have a diagnosis of schizophrenia should be given the option of a course of CBTp. Recently, however, the treatment effects have been re-examined, the targets widened and the premise that CBTp should be solely an adjunct to medication has been questioned. This article will describe and probe some of these changes and reflect on the development of psychological treatments for psychosis.

  4. Evaluation of a Group CBT Early Intervention Program for Adolescents with Comorbid Depression and Behaviour Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wignall, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Depression and externalising behaviour disorders frequently occur together in adolescence and are associated with a marked increase in symptom severity and poorer outcome. Clinical treatment research and early intervention programs for depression have not addressed the specific cognitive and interpersonal deficits associated with comorbidity. This…

  5. Cognitive-behavioural therapy-based intervention to reduce fear of falling in older people: therapy development and randomised controlled trial - the Strategies for Increasing Independence, Confidence and Energy (STRIDE) study.

    PubMed

    Parry, Steve W; Bamford, Claire; Deary, Vincent; Finch, Tracy L; Gray, Jo; MacDonald, Claire; McMeekin, Peter; Sabin, Neil J; Steen, I Nick; Whitney, Sue L; McColl, Elaine M

    2016-07-01

    Falls cause fear, anxiety and loss of confidence, resulting in activity avoidance, social isolation and increasing frailty. The umbrella term for these problems is 'fear of falling', seen in up to 85% of older adults who fall. Evidence of effectiveness of physical and psychological interventions is limited, with no previous studies examining the role of an individually delivered cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) approach. Primary objective To develop and then determine the effectiveness of a new CBT intervention (CBTi) delivered by health-care assistants (HCAs) plus usual care compared with usual care alone in reducing fear of falling. Secondary objectives To measure the impact of the intervention on falls, injuries, functional abilities, anxiety/depression, quality of life, social participation and loneliness; investigate the acceptability of the intervention for patients, family members and professionals and factors that promote or inhibit its implementation; and measure the costs and benefits of the intervention. Phase I CBTi development. Phase II Parallel-group patient randomised controlled trial (RCT) of the new CBTi plus usual care compared with usual care alone. Multidisciplinary falls services. Consecutive community-dwelling older adults, both sexes, aged ≥ 60 years, with excessive or undue fear of falling per Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I) score of > 23. Phase I Development of the CBTi. The CBTi was developed following patient interviews and taught to HCAs to maximise the potential for uptake and generalisability to a UK NHS setting. Phase II RCT. The CBTi was delivered by HCAs weekly for 8 weeks, with a 6-month booster session plus usual care. These were assessed at baseline, 8 weeks, 6 months and 12 months. Primary outcome measure Fear of falling measured by change in FES-I scores at 12 months. Secondary outcome measures These comprised falls, injuries, anxiety/depression [Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS

  6. The contribution of behavioural science to primary care research: development and evaluation of behaviour change interventions.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Stephen

    2011-10-01

    Behavioural science is concerned with predicting, explaining and changing behaviour. Taking a personal perspective, this article aims to show how behavioural science can contribute to primary care research, specifically in relation to the development and evaluation of interventions to change behaviour. After discussing the definition and measurement of behaviour, the principle of compatibility and theories of behaviour change, the article outlines two examples of behaviour change trials (one on medication adherence and the other on physical activity), which were part of a research programme on prevention of chronic disease and its consequences. The examples demonstrate how, in a multidisciplinary context, behavioural science can contribute to primary care research in several important ways, including posing relevant research questions, defining the target behaviour, understanding the psychological determinants of behaviour, developing behaviour change interventions and selection or development of measures. The article concludes with a number of recommendations: (i) whether the aim is prediction, explanation or change, defining the target behaviour is a crucial first step; (ii) interventions should be explicitly based on theories that specify the factors that need to be changed in order to produce the desired change in behaviour; (iii) intervention developers need to be aware of the differences between different theories and select a theory only after careful consideration of the alternatives assessed against relevant criteria; and (iv) developers need to be aware that interventions can never be entirely theory based.

  7. Cognitive behavioural therapies versus treatment as usual for depression

    PubMed Central

    Hunot, Vivien; Moore, Theresa HM; Caldwell, Deborah; Davies, Philippa; Jones, Hannah; Furukawa, Toshi A; Lewis, Glyn; Churchill, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all cognitive behavioural therapies compared with treatment as usual/waiting list/attention placebo control conditions for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of different cognitive behavioural therapy models (cognitive therapy, rational emotive behaviour therapy, problem-solving therapy, self-control therapy and the Coping with Depression course) compared with treatment as usual/waiting list/attention placebo control conditions for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all cognitive behavioural therapies compared with different types of comparator (standard care, no treatment, waiting list, attention placebo) for acute depression. PMID:25411558

  8. Cognitive behavioural therapies versus treatment as usual for depression.

    PubMed

    Hunot, Vivien; Moore, Theresa Hm; Caldwell, Deborah; Davies, Philippa; Jones, Hannah; Furukawa, Toshi A; Lewis, Glyn; Churchill, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all cognitive behavioural therapies compared with treatment as usual/waiting list/attention placebo control conditions for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of different cognitive behavioural therapy models (cognitive therapy, rational emotive behaviour therapy, problem-solving therapy, self-control therapy and the Coping with Depression course) compared with treatment as usual/waiting list/attention placebo control conditions for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all cognitive behavioural therapies compared with different types of comparator (standard care, no treatment, waiting list, attention placebo) for acute depression.

  9. Contrasting styles in cognition and behaviour in bumblebees and honeybees.

    PubMed

    Sherry, David F; Strang, Caroline G

    2015-08-01

    Bumblebees and honeybees have been the subjects of a great deal of recent research in animal cognition. Many of the major topics in cognition, including memory, attention, concept learning, numerosity, spatial cognition, timing, social learning, and metacognition have been examined in bumblebees, honeybees, or both. Although bumblebees and honeybees are very closely related, they also differ in important ways, including social organization, development, and foraging behaviour. We examine whether differences between bumblebees and honeybees in cognitive processes are related to differences in their natural history and behaviour. There are differences in some cognitive traits, such as serial reversal learning and matching-to-sample, that appear related to differences between bumblebees and honeybees in foraging and social behaviour. Other cognitive processes, such as numerosity, appear to be very similar. Despite the wealth of information that is available on some aspects of bumblebee and honeybee cognition and behaviour, there are relatively few instances, however, in which adequate data exist to make direct comparisons. We highlight a number of phenomena, including concept learning, spatial cognition, timing, and metacognition, for which targeted comparative research may reveal unexpected adaptive variation in cognitive processes in these complex animals. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: In Honor of Jerry Hogan. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Cognition and Behaviour in Sotos Syndrome: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Chloe; Milne, Elizabeth; Freeth, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Background Research investigating cognition and behaviour in Sotos syndrome has been sporadic and to date, there is no published overview of study findings. Method A systematic review of all published literature (1964–2015) presenting empirical data on cognition and behaviour in Sotos syndrome. Thirty four journal articles met inclusion criteria. Within this literature, data relating to cognition and/or behaviour in 247 individuals with a diagnosis of Sotos syndrome were reported. Ten papers reported group data on cognition and/or behaviour. The remaining papers employed a case study design. Results Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores were reported in twenty five studies. Intellectual disability (IQ < 70) or borderline intellectual functioning (IQ 70–84) was present in the vast majority of individuals with Sotos syndrome. Seven studies reported performance on subscales of intelligence tests. Data from these studies indicate that verbal IQ scores are consistently higher than performance IQ scores. Fourteen papers provided data on behavioural features of individuals with Sotos syndrome. Key themes that emerged in the behavioural literature were overlap with ASD, ADHD, anxiety and high prevalence of aggression/tantrums. Conclusion Although a range of studies have provided insight into cognition and behaviour in Sotos syndrome, specific profiles have not yet been fully specified. Recommendations for future research are provided. PMID:26872390

  11. Cognitive Styles and Managerial Behaviour: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cools, Eva; Van Den Broeck, Herman

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute further insights into how cognitive styles influence managerial behaviour, using a qualitative approach. Design/methodology/approach: Written testimonies were gathered from people with different cognitive styles, and content analysed (n = 100). Findings: Qualitative evidence was found for…

  12. Rumination-focused cognitive behaviour therapy vs. cognitive behaviour therapy for depression: study protocol for a randomised controlled superiority trial.

    PubMed

    Hvenegaard, Morten; Watkins, Ed R; Poulsen, Stig; Rosenberg, Nicole K; Gondan, Matthias; Grafton, Ben; Austin, Stephen F; Howard, Henriette; Moeller, Stine B

    2015-08-11

    Cognitive behavioural therapy is an effective treatment for depression. However, one third of the patients do not respond satisfactorily, and relapse rates of around 30 % within the first post-treatment year were reported in a recent meta-analysis. In total, 30-50 % of remitted patients present with residual symptoms by the end of treatment. A common residual symptom is rumination, a process of recurrent negative thinking and dwelling on negative affect. Rumination has been demonstrated as a major factor in vulnerability to depression, predicting the onset, severity, and duration of future depression. Rumination-focused cognitive behavioural therapy is a psychotherapeutic treatment targeting rumination. Because rumination plays a major role in the initiation and maintenance of depression, targeting rumination with rumination-focused cognitive behavioural therapy may be more effective in treating depression and reducing relapse than standard cognitive behavioural therapy. This study is a two-arm pragmatic randomised controlled superiority trial comparing the effectiveness of group-based rumination-focused cognitive behaviour therapy with the effectiveness of group-based cognitive behavioural therapy for treatment of depression. One hundred twenty-eight patients with depression will be recruited from and given treatment in an outpatient service at a psychiatric hospital in Denmark. Our primary outcome will be severity of depressive symptoms (Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression) at completion of treatment. Secondary outcomes will be level of rumination, worry, anxiety, quality of life, behavioural activation, experimental measures of cognitive flexibility, and emotional attentional bias. A 6-month follow-up is planned and will include the primary outcome measure and assessment of relapse. The clinical outcome of this trial may guide clinicians to decide on the merits of including rumination-focused cognitive behavioural therapy in the treatment of depression in

  13. An augmented cognitive behavioural therapy for treating post-stroke depression: description of a treatment protocol.

    PubMed

    Kootker, Joyce A; Rasquin, Sascha M C; Smits, Peter; Geurts, Alexander C; van Heugten, Caroline M; Fasotti, Luciano

    2015-09-01

    Currently, no evidence-based treatment is available for mood problems after stroke. We present a new psychological intervention designed to reduce depressive complaints after stroke. This intervention was based on cognitive behavioural therapy principles and was shown feasible in a pilot study. In order to meet the specific needs of stroke patients (concerning both sensori-motor, cognitive, and behavioural problems), we incorporated motivational interviewing, grief resolution, and psycho-education. We emphasised for each session to take into account the cognitive deficits of the patients (i.e. be concrete, accessible, structured, specific, and repeat information). Moreover, we augmented the psychologist-administered therapy with the contribution of an occupational or movement therapist aimed at facilitating patients' goal-setting and attainment. The intervention consisted of 12 one-hour sessions with a psychologist and three or four one-hour sessions with an occupational or movement therapist. Currently, the effectiveness of the intervention is evaluated in a randomised controlled trial. The proposed psychological treatment protocol is innovative, as it applies cognitive behavioural therapy in a stroke-specific manner; moreover, it supports goal attainment by incorporating occupational or movement therapy sessions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Cognitive behavioural therapy and short-term psychoanalytical psychotherapy versus a brief psychosocial intervention in adolescents with unipolar major depressive disorder (IMPACT): a multicentre, pragmatic, observer-blind, randomised controlled superiority trial.

    PubMed

    Goodyer, Ian M; Reynolds, Shirley; Barrett, Barbara; Byford, Sarah; Dubicka, Bernadka; Hill, Jonathan; Holland, Fiona; Kelvin, Raphael; Midgley, Nick; Roberts, Chris; Senior, Rob; Target, Mary; Widmer, Barry; Wilkinson, Paul; Fonagy, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Psychological treatments for adolescents with unipolar major depressive disorder are associated with diagnostic remission within 28 weeks in 65-70% of patients. We aimed to assess the medium-term effects and costs of psychological therapies on maintenance of reduced depression symptoms 12 months after treatment. We did this multicentre, pragmatic, observer-blind, randomised controlled superiority trial (IMPACT) at 15 National Health Service child and adolescent mental health service (CAMHS) clinics in three regions in England. Adolescent patients (aged 11-17 years) with a diagnosis of DSM IV major depressive disorder were randomly assigned (1:1:1), via a web-based randomisation service, to receive cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) or short-term psychoanalytical therapy versus a reference brief psychological intervention. Randomisation was stochastically minimised by age, sex, self-reported depression sum score, and region. Patients and clinicians were aware of group allocation, but allocation was concealed from outcome assessors. Patients were followed up and reassessed at weeks 6, 12, 36, 52, and 86 post-randomisation. The primary outcome was self-reported depression symptoms at weeks 36, 52, and 86, as measured with the self-reported Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ). Because our aim was to compare the two psychological therapies with the brief psychosocial intervention, we first established whether CBT was inferior to short-term psychoanalytical psychotherapy for the same outcome. Primary analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with Current Controlled Trials, number ISRCTN83033550. Between June 29, 2010, and Jan 17, 2013, we randomly assigned 470 patients to receive the brief psychosocial intervention (n=158), CBT (n=155), or short-term psychoanalytical therapy (n=157); 465 patients comprised the intention-to-treat population. 392 (84%) patients had available data for primary analysis by the end of follow-up. Treatment fidelity and

  15. Health goal priming as a situated intervention tool: how to benefit from nonconscious motivational routes to health behaviour.

    PubMed

    Papies, Esther K

    2016-12-01

    Recent research has shown the limited effects of intentions on behaviour, so that novel methods to facilitate behaviour change are needed that do not rely on conscious intentions. Here, it is argued that nonintentional effects on health behaviour, such as the effects of habits, impulses, and nonconscious goals, occur through the activation of cognitive structures by specific situations. Interventions should therefore be situated to change these effects, either by changing the critical cognitive structures (training interventions), or by changing which cognitive structures get activated (cueing interventions). The current article presents this framework for situated interventions, as well as examples of interventions of each type. Then, it introduces goal priming as a cueing intervention tool to activate health goals and thus facilitate healthier behaviour, even in tempting situations that typically activate short-term hedonic goals. Following a review of empirical evidence, five principles for the effective application of health goal primes are proposed, namely (1) to target individuals who value the primed goals, (2) by activating their specific motivation, (3) through effective cues (4) that attract attention at the right time. Finally, (5) an effective goal-directed behaviour needs to be known and accessible to the primed individual. These principles are illustrated with examples of different health behaviours in order to facilitate their application for successful behaviour change.

  16. Health goal priming as a situated intervention tool: how to benefit from nonconscious motivational routes to health behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Papies, Esther K.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recent research has shown the limited effects of intentions on behaviour, so that novel methods to facilitate behaviour change are needed that do not rely on conscious intentions. Here, it is argued that nonintentional effects on health behaviour, such as the effects of habits, impulses, and nonconscious goals, occur through the activation of cognitive structures by specific situations. Interventions should therefore be situated to change these effects, either by changing the critical cognitive structures (training interventions), or by changing which cognitive structures get activated (cueing interventions). The current article presents this framework for situated interventions, as well as examples of interventions of each type. Then, it introduces goal priming as a cueing intervention tool to activate health goals and thus facilitate healthier behaviour, even in tempting situations that typically activate short-term hedonic goals. Following a review of empirical evidence, five principles for the effective application of health goal primes are proposed, namely (1) to target individuals who value the primed goals, (2) by activating their specific motivation, (3) through effective cues (4) that attract attention at the right time. Finally, (5) an effective goal-directed behaviour needs to be known and accessible to the primed individual. These principles are illustrated with examples of different health behaviours in order to facilitate their application for successful behaviour change. PMID:27144729

  17. Association between Sedentary Behaviour and Physical, Cognitive, and Psychosocial Status among Older Adults in Assisted Living

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Pet-Ming; van Schooten, Kimberley S.; Aziz, Omar; Feldman, Fabio; Mackey, Dawn C.; Ashe, Maureen C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Identification of the factors that influence sedentary behaviour in older adults is important for the design of appropriate intervention strategies. In this study, we determined the prevalence of sedentary behaviour and its association with physical, cognitive, and psychosocial status among older adults residing in Assisted Living (AL). Methods Participants (n = 114, mean age = 86.7) from AL sites in British Columbia wore waist-mounted activity monitors for 7 consecutive days, after being assessed with the Timed Up and Go (TUG), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Short Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and Modified Fall Efficacy Scale (MFES). Results On average, participants spent 87% of their waking hours in sedentary behaviour, which accumulated in 52 bouts per day with each bout lasting an average of 13 minutes. Increased sedentary behaviour associated significantly with scores on the TUG (r = 0.373, p < 0.001) and MFES (r = −0.261, p = 0.005), but not with the MoCA or GDS. Sedentary behaviour also associated with male gender, use of mobility aid, and multiple regression with increased age. Conclusion We found that sedentary behaviour among older adults in AL associated with TUG scores and falls-related self-efficacy, which are modifiable targets for interventions to decrease sedentary behaviour in this population. PMID:28913360

  18. Association between Sedentary Behaviour and Physical, Cognitive, and Psychosocial Status among Older Adults in Assisted Living.

    PubMed

    Leung, Pet-Ming; Ejupi, Andreas; van Schooten, Kimberley S; Aziz, Omar; Feldman, Fabio; Mackey, Dawn C; Ashe, Maureen C; Robinovitch, Stephen N

    2017-01-01

    Identification of the factors that influence sedentary behaviour in older adults is important for the design of appropriate intervention strategies. In this study, we determined the prevalence of sedentary behaviour and its association with physical, cognitive, and psychosocial status among older adults residing in Assisted Living (AL). Participants (n = 114, mean age = 86.7) from AL sites in British Columbia wore waist-mounted activity monitors for 7 consecutive days, after being assessed with the Timed Up and Go (TUG), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Short Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and Modified Fall Efficacy Scale (MFES). On average, participants spent 87% of their waking hours in sedentary behaviour, which accumulated in 52 bouts per day with each bout lasting an average of 13 minutes. Increased sedentary behaviour associated significantly with scores on the TUG (r = 0.373, p < 0.001) and MFES (r = -0.261, p = 0.005), but not with the MoCA or GDS. Sedentary behaviour also associated with male gender, use of mobility aid, and multiple regression with increased age. We found that sedentary behaviour among older adults in AL associated with TUG scores and falls-related self-efficacy, which are modifiable targets for interventions to decrease sedentary behaviour in this population.

  19. Health behaviour change interventions for couples: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Arden-Close, Emily; McGrath, Nuala

    2017-05-01

    Partners are a significant influence on individuals' health, and concordance in health behaviours increases over time in couples. Several theories suggest that couple-focused interventions for health behaviour change may therefore be more effective than individual interventions. A systematic review of health behaviour change interventions for couples was conducted. Systematic search methods identified randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomized interventions of health behaviour change for couples with at least one member at risk of a chronic physical illness, published from 1990-2014. We identified 14 studies, targeting the following health behaviours: cancer prevention (6), obesity (1), diet (2), smoking in pregnancy (2), physical activity (1) and multiple health behaviours (2). In four out of seven trials couple-focused interventions were more effective than usual care. Of four RCTs comparing a couple-focused intervention to an individual intervention, two found that the couple-focused intervention was more effective. The studies were heterogeneous, and included participants at risk of a variety of illnesses. In many cases the intervention was compared to usual care for an individual or an individual-focused intervention, which meant the impact of the couplebased content could not be isolated. Three arm studies could determine whether any added benefits of couple-focused interventions are due to adding the partner or specific content of couple-focused interventions. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Health behaviours and health behaviour change are more often concordant across couples than between individuals in the general population. Couple-focused interventions for chronic conditions are more effective than individual interventions or usual care (Martire, Schulz, Helgeson, Small, & Saghafi, ). What does this study add? Identified studies targeted a variety of health behaviours, with few studies in any one area. Further

  20. Cognitive behaviour therapy for adults with chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Price, J R; Couper, J

    2000-01-01

    1. To systematically review all randomised controlled trials of cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) for adults with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS); 2. To test the hypothesis that CBT is more effective than orthodox medical management or other interventions in adults with CFS. 1. Electronic searching of bibliographic databases, including Medline, PsycLIT, Biological Abstracts, Embase, SIGLE, Index to Theses, Index to Scientific and Technical Proceedings, and Science Citation Index, using multiple search terms in order to perform a highly sensitive search. 2. Electronic searching of the Trials Register of the Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis group. 3. Citation lists of relevant studies and reviews were perused for other relevant trials. 4. Contact with the principal authors of relevant studies, and with researchers in the field. All randomised controlled trials were included in which - adult patients with CFS; - received CBT or a control intervention, being either orthodox medical management or another intervention; - and whose outcomes were assessed in an appropriate way. CBT could be either type 'A' (encouraging return to 'normal' levels of rest and activity) or type 'B' (encouraging rest and activity which were within levels imposed by the disorder). The two reviewers worked independently throughout the selection of trials and data extraction, comparing findings only when there was disagreement. Relevant trials were allocated to one of three quality categories. Full data extraction, using a standardised data extraction sheet, was performed on studies which were of high or moderate quality. Trials of low quality were excluded from the review. The comparisons made to test the review hypothesis were of type 'A' CBT versus other intervention(s), and of type 'B' CBT versus other intervention(s). Functional outcome was used as the main outcome for comparison, but other appropriate outcomes were compared where possible. Results were synthesised using the Review Manager

  1. Cognitive-Behavioural Treatment for Men with Intellectual Disabilities and Sexually Abusive Behaviour: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Glynis; Powell, Simon; Guzman, Ana-Maria; Hays, Sarah-Jane

    2007-01-01

    Background: Cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) seems to be becoming the treatment of choice for non-disabled sex offenders. Nevertheless, there have been relatively few evaluations of such treatment for men with intellectual disabilities (ID) and sexually abusive behaviour. Method: A pilot study providing CBT for two groups of men with ID is…

  2. Is behavioural flexibility evidence of cognitive complexity? How evolution can inform comparative cognition.

    PubMed

    Mikhalevich, Irina; Powell, Russell; Logan, Corina

    2017-06-06

    Behavioural flexibility is often treated as the gold standard of evidence for more sophisticated or complex forms of animal cognition, such as planning, metacognition and mindreading. However, the evidential link between behavioural flexibility and complex cognition has not been explicitly or systematically defended. Such a defence is particularly pressing because observed flexible behaviours can frequently be explained by putatively simpler cognitive mechanisms. This leaves complex cognition hypotheses open to 'deflationary' challenges that are accorded greater evidential weight precisely because they offer putatively simpler explanations of equal explanatory power. This paper challenges the blanket preference for simpler explanations, and shows that once this preference is dispensed with, and the full spectrum of evidence-including evolutionary, ecological and phylogenetic data-is accorded its proper weight, an argument in support of the prevailing assumption that behavioural flexibility can serve as evidence for complex cognitive mechanisms may begin to take shape. An adaptive model of cognitive-behavioural evolution is proposed, according to which the existence of convergent trait-environment clusters in phylogenetically disparate lineages may serve as evidence for the same trait-environment clusters in other lineages. This, in turn, could permit inferences of cognitive complexity in cases of experimental underdetermination, thereby placing the common view that behavioural flexibility can serve as evidence for complex cognition on firmer grounds.

  3. Is behavioural flexibility evidence of cognitive complexity? How evolution can inform comparative cognition

    PubMed Central

    Mikhalevich, Irina

    2017-01-01

    Behavioural flexibility is often treated as the gold standard of evidence for more sophisticated or complex forms of animal cognition, such as planning, metacognition and mindreading. However, the evidential link between behavioural flexibility and complex cognition has not been explicitly or systematically defended. Such a defence is particularly pressing because observed flexible behaviours can frequently be explained by putatively simpler cognitive mechanisms. This leaves complex cognition hypotheses open to ‘deflationary’ challenges that are accorded greater evidential weight precisely because they offer putatively simpler explanations of equal explanatory power. This paper challenges the blanket preference for simpler explanations, and shows that once this preference is dispensed with, and the full spectrum of evidence—including evolutionary, ecological and phylogenetic data—is accorded its proper weight, an argument in support of the prevailing assumption that behavioural flexibility can serve as evidence for complex cognitive mechanisms may begin to take shape. An adaptive model of cognitive-behavioural evolution is proposed, according to which the existence of convergent trait–environment clusters in phylogenetically disparate lineages may serve as evidence for the same trait–environment clusters in other lineages. This, in turn, could permit inferences of cognitive complexity in cases of experimental underdetermination, thereby placing the common view that behavioural flexibility can serve as evidence for complex cognition on firmer grounds. PMID:28479981

  4. Preliminary effects of parent-implemented behavioural interventions for stereotypy.

    PubMed

    Lanovaz, Marc J; Rapp, John T; Maciw, Isabella; Dorion, Catherine; Prégent-Pelletier, Émilie

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of our study was to replicate and extend previous research on using multicomponent behavioural interventions designed to reduce engagement in stereotypy by examining their effects when implemented by parents over several months. We used an alternating treatment design to examine the effects of the parent-implemented interventions on engagement in stereotypy and appropriate behaviour in three children with autism and other developmental disabilities. The parent-implemented multicomponent treatments reduced vocal stereotypy in all three participants and increased engagement in appropriate behaviour in two participants. These effects persisted up to 24 weeks following the parent training sessions. Altogether, our preliminary results support (a) the involvement of parents as behaviour change agents to reduce engagement in stereotypy and (b) the scheduling of regular, but infrequent (i.e. weekly to monthly), follow-up meetings to monitor the effects of behavioural interventions in outpatient and home-based service delivery models.

  5. The behaviour change wheel: A new method for characterising and designing behaviour change interventions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Improving the design and implementation of evidence-based practice depends on successful behaviour change interventions. This requires an appropriate method for characterising interventions and linking them to an analysis of the targeted behaviour. There exists a plethora of frameworks of behaviour change interventions, but it is not clear how well they serve this purpose. This paper evaluates these frameworks, and develops and evaluates a new framework aimed at overcoming their limitations. Methods A systematic search of electronic databases and consultation with behaviour change experts were used to identify frameworks of behaviour change interventions. These were evaluated according to three criteria: comprehensiveness, coherence, and a clear link to an overarching model of behaviour. A new framework was developed to meet these criteria. The reliability with which it could be applied was examined in two domains of behaviour change: tobacco control and obesity. Results Nineteen frameworks were identified covering nine intervention functions and seven policy categories that could enable those interventions. None of the frameworks reviewed covered the full range of intervention functions or policies, and only a minority met the criteria of coherence or linkage to a model of behaviour. At the centre of a proposed new framework is a 'behaviour system' involving three essential conditions: capability, opportunity, and motivation (what we term the 'COM-B system'). This forms the hub of a 'behaviour change wheel' (BCW) around which are positioned the nine intervention functions aimed at addressing deficits in one or more of these conditions; around this are placed seven categories of policy that could enable those interventions to occur. The BCW was used reliably to characterise interventions within the English Department of Health's 2010 tobacco control strategy and the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence's guidance on reducing obesity

  6. Cognitive and behavioural effects of chronic stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus in patients with Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Daniele, A; Albanese, A; Contarino, M; Zinzi, P; Barbier, A; Gasparini, F; Romito, L; Bentivoglio, A; Scerrati, M

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate cognitive and behavioural effects of bilateral lead implants for high frequency stimulation (HFS) of the subthalamic nucleus in patients with Parkinson's disease; and to discriminate between HFS and the effects of surgical intervention on cognitive function by carrying out postoperative cognitive assessments with the stimulators turned on or off. Methods: Motor, cognitive, behavioural, and functional assessments were undertaken in 20 patients with Parkinson's disease before implantation and then at three, six, and 12 months afterwards. Nine patients were also examined 18 months after surgery. Postoperative cognitive assessments were carried out with stimulators turned off at three and 18 months, and turned on at six and 12 months. Results: Cognitive assessment showed a significant postoperative decline in performance on tasks of letter verbal fluency (across all postoperative assessments, but more pronounced at three months) and episodic verbal memory (only at three months, with stimulators off). At three, six, and 12 months after surgery, there was a significant improvement in the mini-mental state examination and in a task of executive function (modified Wisconsin card sorting test). On all postoperative assessments, there was an improvement in parkinsonian motor symptoms, quality of life, and activities of daily living while off antiparkinsonian drugs. A significant postoperative decrease in depressive and anxiety symptoms was observed across all assessments. Similar results were seen in the subgroup of nine patients with an 18 month follow up. Following implantation, three patients developed transient manic symptoms and one showed persistent psychic akinesia. Conclusions: Bilateral HFS of the subthalamic nucleus is a relatively safe procedure with respect to long term cognitive and behavioural morbidity, although individual variability in postoperative cognitive and behavioural outcome invites caution. Stimulation of the subthalamic

  7. Challenges with cost-utility analyses of behavioural interventions among older adults at risk for dementia.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jennifer C; Bryan, Stirling; Marra, Carlo A; Hsiung, Ging-Yuek R; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2015-10-01

    Cognitive decline is one of the most prominent healthcare issues of the 21st century. Within the context of combating cognitive decline through behavioural interventions, physical activity is a promising approach. There is a dearth of health economic data in the area of behavioural interventions for dementia prevention. Yet, economic evaluations are essential for providing information to policy makers for resource allocation. It is essential we first address population and intervention-specific methodological challenges prior to building a larger evidence base. We use a cost-utility analysis conducted alongside the exercise for cognition and everyday living (EXCEL) study to illustrate methodological challenges specific to assessing the cost-effectiveness of behavioural interventions aimed at older adults at risk of cognitive decline. A cost-utility analysis conducted concurrently with a 6-month, three-arm randomised controlled trial (ie, the EXCEL study) was used as an example to identify and discuss methodological challenges. Both the aerobic training and resistance training interventions were less costly than twice weekly balance and tone classes. In critically evaluating the economic evaluation of the EXCEL study we identified four category-specific challenges: (1) analysing costs; (2) assessing quality-adjusted life-years; (3) Incomplete data; and (4) 'Intervention' activities of the control group. Resistance training and aerobic training resulted in healthcare cost saving and were equally effective to balance and tone classes after only 6 months of intervention. To ensure this population is treated fairly in terms of claims on resources, we first need to identify areas for methodological improvement. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Interpersonal Processes in Psychoanalytic, Cognitive Analytical and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habicht, Manuela H.

    The aim of the review was to compare interpersonal processes in psychoanalytic therapy, cognitive analytical therapy, and cognitive-behavioral therapy. Since the emphasis is on psychodynamic therapy, Freud's conceptualization of the phenomenon of transference is discussed. Countertransference as an unconscious and defensive reaction to the…

  9. The Addition of an Individualized Cognitive Intervention to a Standardized Behavioral Intervention for Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLucia, Janice L.; Kalodner, Cynthia R.

    This study examined the effectiveness of the addition of a cognitive intervention based on individualized assessment to a behavioral intervention for obesity. Overweight subjects (N=63) were randomly assigned to either a behavioral intervention or a behavioral intervention combined with a cognitive intervention which focused on changing specific…

  10. Internet-Based Interventions for Addictive Behaviours: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Chebli, Jaymee-Lee; Blaszczynski, Alexander; Gainsbury, Sally M

    2016-12-01

    Internet-based interventions have emerged as a new treatment and intervention modality for psychological disorders. Given their features of treatment flexibility, anonymity and confidentiality, this modality may be well suited in the management of addictive behaviours. A systematic literature review of the effectiveness and treatment outcomes of Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation, problematic alcohol use, substance abuse and gambling was performed. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: clients received a structured therapeutic Internet-based intervention for a problematic and addictive behaviour; included more than five clients; effectiveness was based on at least one outcome; outcome variables were measured before and immediately following the interventions; had a follow-up period; and involved at least minimal therapist contact over the course of the program. Sixteen relevant studies were found; nine addressed the effects of Internet-based interventions on smoking cessation, four on gambling, two on alcohol and one on opioid dependence. All studies demonstrated positive treatment outcomes for their respective addictive behaviours. The current review concluded that Internet-based interventions are effective in achieving positive behavioural change through reducing problematic behaviours. This mode of therapy has been found to have the capacity to provide effective and practical services for those who might have remained untreated, subsequently reducing the barriers for help-seekers. This in turn provides imperative information to treatment providers, policy makers, and academic researchers.

  11. Suicidal behaviours in affective disorders: a deficit of cognitive inhibition?

    PubMed

    Richard-Devantoy, Stéphane; Gorwood, Philip; Annweiler, Cédric; Olié, Jean-Pierre; Le Gall, Didier; Beauchet, Olivier

    2012-04-01

    Suicide has been related to affective disorders. We hypothesized that suicide could be associated with cognitive inhibition deficit. Our study aimed to systematically review all published articles that examined the relation between cognitive inhibition deficit and suicidal behaviours (that is, suicide attempt or suicidal ideation) in patients with affective disorders. We performed an English and French MEDLINE and EMBASE search, ranging from 1970 to 2010, indexed under the MeSH terms of suicide, neuropsychology, neuropsychological tests, and executive function, combined with the following title and abstract terms: neuropsychological functions, executive functioning, and executive performance. Among the 164 selected studies, 9 observational studies met the selection criteria and were included in the final analysis. The number of participants ranged from 57 to 244 (28% to 66%, respectively, were men). Executive dysfunction was more frequently found among patients with suicidal behaviours. In particular, higher cognitive inhibition deficit was observed in depressed subjects with suicide behaviours, compared with depressed subjects without any suicidal behaviour. The results of the meta-analysis showed a higher impairment in inhibition score, according to the number of perseverations in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (Cohen d = 0.68) than in inhibition according to the time needed to perform the Trail-Making Test part B (d = 0.01) among patients with suicidal behaviour, compared with patients with no suicidal behaviour. This systematic review and meta-analysis showed a positive association between cognitive inhibition deficit and suicide attempts in patients with affective disorders. Future research should examine whether cognitive inhibition deficit precedes the suicidal behaviour.

  12. Behavioural phenotypes of the mucopolysaccharide disorders: a systematic literature review of cognitive, motor, social, linguistic and behavioural presentation in the MPS disorders.

    PubMed

    Cross, E M; Hare, D J

    2013-03-01

    The mucopolysaccharide disorders (MPS) are a group of recessively inherited metabolic disorders resulting in progressive physical and cognitive decline. MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Embase databases were searched, alongside manual screening, to identify relevant literature. Papers were included in the review if they were published in a peer reviewed journal and conducted empirical research into cognitive, motor, social or linguistic development or behaviour in one or more MPS disorders. Twenty-five papers were reviewed. Two papers used methodology of a sufficiently high standard to demonstrate a behavioural phenotype; both found sleep disturbance to be part of the phenotype of MPS III. Fearfulness and sleep disturbance were frequently observed in people with MPS I and II. Cognitive and motor impairment and decline, and challenging behaviour were highly prevalent in the severe form of MPS II. Cognitive decline and severe behavioural problems relating to aggression, hyperactivity, orality, unusual affect and temper tantrums were seen in MPS III. Sleep disturbance is part of the behavioural phenotype of MPS III, and challenging behaviour is highly prevalent in MPS II and MPS III, therefore the efficacy of behavioural interventions for these populations should be investigated. Further research into the behaviour and adaptive skills of children with MPS III and MPS IV is required.

  13. Stress management: a randomized study of cognitive behavioural therapy and yoga.

    PubMed

    Granath, Jens; Ingvarsson, Sara; von Thiele, Ulrica; Lundberg, Ulf

    2006-01-01

    In this study, a stress management program based on cognitive behavioural therapy principles was compared with a Kundaliniyoga program. A study sample of 26 women and 7 men from a large Swedish company were divided randomly into 2 groups for each of the different forms of intervention; a total of 4 groups. The groups were instructed by trained group leaders and 10 sessions were held with each of groups, over a period of 4 months. Psychological (self-rated stress and stress behaviour, anger, exhaustion, quality of life) and physiological (blood pressure, heart rate, urinary catecholamines, salivary cortisol) measurements obtained before and after treatment showed significant improvements on most of the variables in both groups as well as medium-to-high effect sizes. However, no significant difference was found between the 2 programs. The results indicate that both cognitive behaviour therapy and yoga are promising stress management techniques.

  14. Extending Social Cognition Models of Health Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Charles; Sheeran, Paschal; Henderson, Marion

    2011-01-01

    A cross-sectional study assessed the extent to which indices of social structure, including family socio-economic status (SES), social deprivation, gender and educational/lifestyle aspirations correlated with adolescent condom use and added to the predictive utility of a theory of planned behaviour model. Analyses of survey data from 824 sexually…

  15. Extending Social Cognition Models of Health Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Charles; Sheeran, Paschal; Henderson, Marion

    2011-01-01

    A cross-sectional study assessed the extent to which indices of social structure, including family socio-economic status (SES), social deprivation, gender and educational/lifestyle aspirations correlated with adolescent condom use and added to the predictive utility of a theory of planned behaviour model. Analyses of survey data from 824 sexually…

  16. Healthcare professionals' intentions and behaviours: A systematic review of studies based on social cognitive theories

    PubMed Central

    Godin, Gaston; Bélanger-Gravel, Ariane; Eccles, Martin; Grimshaw, Jeremy

    2008-01-01

    Background There is an important gap between the implications of clinical research evidence and the routine clinical practice of healthcare professionals. Because individual decisions are often central to adoption of a clinical-related behaviour, more information about the cognitive mechanisms underlying behaviours is needed to improve behaviour change interventions targeting healthcare professionals. The aim of this study was to systematically review the published scientific literature about factors influencing health professionals' behaviours based on social cognitive theories. These theories refer to theories where individual cognitions/thoughts are viewed as processes intervening between observable stimuli and responses in real world situations. Methods We searched psycINFO, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CIHNAL, Index to theses, PROQUEST dissertations and theses and Current Contents for articles published in English only. We included studies that aimed to predict healthcare professionals' intentions and behaviours with a clear specification of relying on a social cognitive theory. Information on percent of explained variance (R2) was used to compute the overall frequency-weighted mean R2 to evaluate the efficacy of prediction in several contexts and according to different methodological aspects. The cognitive factors most consistently associated with prediction of healthcare professionals' intention and behaviours were documented. Results Seventy eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Among these studies, 72 provided information on the determinants of intention and 16 prospective studies provided information on the determinants of behaviour. The theory most often used as reference was the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) or its extension the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). An overall frequency-weighted mean R2 of 0.31 was observed for the prediction of behaviour; 0.59 for the prediction of intention. A number of moderators influenced the efficacy of prediction

  17. PHASE: a randomised, controlled trial of supervised self-help cognitive behavioural therapy in primary care.

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Ann; Barkham, Michael; Cahill, Jane; Richards, David; Williams, Chris; Heywood, Phil

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Common mental health problems account for up to 40% of all general practitioner (GP) consultations. Patients have limited access to evidence-based psychological therapies. Cognitive behavioural therapy self-help strategies offer one potential solution. AIM: To determine differences in clinical outcome, patient satisfaction and costs, between a cognitive behavioural-based self-help package facilitated by practice nurses compared to ordinary care by GPs for mild to moderate anxiety and depression. DESIGN OF STUDY: Randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Seventeen primary healthcare teams. METHOD: Patients presenting to their GP with mild to moderate anxiety and/or depression were recruited to the study and randomised to receive either a self-help intervention facilitated by practice nurses or ordinary care. The self-help intervention consisted of up to three appointments: two 1 week apart and a third 3 months later. There were no restrictions on ordinary care. RESULTS: Intention-to-treat analysis showed that patients treated with practice nurse-supported cognitive behavioural therapy self-help attained similar clinical outcomes for similar costs and were more satisfied than patients treated by GPs with ordinary care. On-treatment analysis showed patients receiving the facilitated cognitive behavioural therapy self-help were more likely to be below clinical threshold at 1 month compared to the ordinary care group (odds ratio [OR] = 3.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.87 to 4.37). This difference was less well marked at 3 months (OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 0.52 to 3.56). CONCLUSION: Facilitated cognitive behavioural self-help may provide a short-term cost-effective clinical benefit for patients with mild to moderate anxiety and depression. This has the potential to help primary care provide a choice of effective psychological as well as pharmacological treatments for mental health problems. PMID:14601351

  18. Review of behaviour change interventions to reduce population salt intake.

    PubMed

    Trieu, Kathy; McMahon, Emma; Santos, Joseph Alvin; Bauman, Adrian; Jolly, Kellie-Ann; Bolam, Bruce; Webster, Jacqui

    2017-02-08

    Excess salt intake is a major cause of raised blood pressure-the leading risk factor for death and disability worldwide. Although behaviour change interventions such as awareness campaigns and health education programs are implemented to reduce salt intake, their effectiveness is unclear. This global systematic review investigates the impact of population-level behaviour change interventions that aim to reduce salt intake. A search for published and grey literature was conducted using PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, Web of Science, Sage, Scopus, OpenGrey, Google Scholar and other relevant organizations' websites. Studies were included if 1) published between 2005 and 2015; 2) the education or awareness-raising interventions were aimed at the population or sub-population and 3) salt intake and/or salt-related behaviours were outcome measures. Study and intervention characteristics were extracted for the descriptive synthesis and study quality was assessed. Twenty two studies involving 41,448 participants were included. Most were conducted in high income countries (n = 16), targeting adults (n = 21) in the general population (n = 16). Behaviour change interventions were categorised as health education interventions (n = 14), public awareness campaigns (n = 4) and multi-component interventions (including both health education and awareness campaigns, n = 4). 19 of the 22 studies demonstrated significant reductions in estimated salt intake and/or improvement in salt-related behaviours. All studies showed high risk of bias in one or more domains. Of the 10 higher quality studies, 5 found a significant effect on salt intake or salt behaviours based on the more objective outcome assessment method. Based on moderate quality of evidence, population-level behaviour change interventions can improve salt-related behaviours and/or reduce salt intake. However, closer analysis of higher quality studies show inconsistent evidence of the effectiveness and

  19. The Use of Group Therapy as a Means of Facilitating Cognitive-Behavioural Instruction for Adolescents with Disruptive Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larmar, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of an action research enquiry examining the efficacy of group therapy as a means of facilitating cognitive-behavioural instruction for students who exhibit disruptive behaviours. A curriculum comprising the key tenets of cognitive-behaviour modification was developed and taught over a 9-week period to a group…

  20. The Use of Group Therapy as a Means of Facilitating Cognitive-Behavioural Instruction for Adolescents with Disruptive Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larmar, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of an action research enquiry examining the efficacy of group therapy as a means of facilitating cognitive-behavioural instruction for students who exhibit disruptive behaviours. A curriculum comprising the key tenets of cognitive-behaviour modification was developed and taught over a 9-week period to a group…

  1. Cognitive interventions for addiction medicine: Understanding the underlying neurobiological mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zilverstand, Anna; Parvaz, Muhammad A; Moeller, Scott J; Goldstein, Rita Z

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging provides a tool for investigating the neurobiological mechanisms of cognitive interventions in addiction. The aim of this review was to describe the brain circuits that are recruited during cognitive interventions, examining differences between various treatment modalities while highlighting core mechanisms, in drug addicted individuals. Based on a systematic Medline search we reviewed neuroimaging studies on cognitive behavioral therapy, cognitive inhibition of craving, motivational interventions, emotion regulation, mindfulness, and neurofeedback training in addiction. Across intervention modalities, common results included the normalization of aberrant activity in the brain's reward circuitry, and the recruitment and strengthening of the brain's inhibitory control network. Results suggest that different cognitive interventions act, at least partly, through recruitment of a common inhibitory control network as a core mechanism. This implies potential transfer effects between training modalities. Overall, results confirm that chronically hypoactive prefrontal regions implicated in cognitive control in addiction can be normalized through cognitive means.

  2. Cognitive interventions for addiction medicine: Understanding the underlying neurobiological mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Zilverstand, Anna; Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Moeller, Scott J.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging provides a tool for investigating the neurobiological mechanisms of cognitive interventions in addiction. The aim of this review was to describe the brain circuits that are recruited during cognitive interventions, examining differences between various treatment modalities while highlighting core mechanisms, in drug addicted individuals. Based on a systematic Medline search we reviewed neuroimaging studies on cognitive behavioral therapy, cognitive inhibition of craving, motivational interventions, emotion regulation, mindfulness, and neurofeedback training in addiction. Across intervention modalities, common results included the normalization of aberrant activity in the brain’s reward circuitry, and the recruitment and strengthening of the brain’s inhibitory control network. Results suggest that different cognitive interventions act, at least partly, through recruitment of a common inhibitory control network as a core mechanism. This implies potential transfer effects between training modalities. Overall, results confirm that chronically hypoactive prefrontal regions implicated in cognitive control in addiction can be normalized through cognitive means. PMID:26822363

  3. Social Cognition in Children: A Model for Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enright, Robert D.

    1976-01-01

    An attempt to formulate a model of social cognition which will describe what may be involved in making social cognitive inferences in children. Techniques for intervention are then derived from the model. (Author/NG)

  4. Measures of readiness for cognitive behavioural therapy in people with intellectual disability: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Stott, Joshua; Charlesworth, Georgina; Scior, Katrina

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is a promising treatment for mental health problems in people with intellectual disabilities but some may not be suited or ready. This review critically evaluates the quality and utility of measures of CBT readiness in people with intellectual disabilities. Twelve studies of six measures based on three aspects of CBT readiness were identified through systematic review. Across measures, measurement quality was largely poor or un-assessed. Only one study evaluated measurement change over the course of CBT. Not all participants with intellectual disabilities could 'pass' readiness measures and performance may be affected by levels of language and cognitive functioning. There was some evidence that CBT readiness is trainable with brief interventions. Before using readiness measures in a clinical context, further work is needed to extend initial evidence on recognising cognitive mediation as a CBT readiness ability. Given the lack of consensus as to the definition of CBT readiness and the heterogeneity of CBT interventions, future research could also focus on developing readiness measures using a bottom up approach, developing measures within the context of CBT interventions themselves, before further refining and establishing their psychometric properties. This paper is the first to systematically review measures of skills thought necessary to be ready for cognitive behavioural therapy in intellectual disabilities. The findings suggest that while readiness skills may be trainable with brief interventions, the available measures of these skills have not been fully evaluated for quality. Levels of functioning on these measures have yet to be established relative to those without intellectual disabilities and critically, there is very little evidence as to whether these skills are important in cognitive behavioural therapy process and outcome. We suggest that future research could focus on those constructs where there is preliminary

  5. Low Self-Esteem: Group Cognitive Behaviour Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whelan, Anne; Haywood, Pennie; Galloway, Scott

    2007-01-01

    This article will describe a self-esteem cognitive behavioural therapy group run with adults with learning disabilities. The aim is to show how a group of this nature can be organized and run, using theory to inform practice. An introduction to the concept of self esteem will be given and then explored in relation to adults with learning…

  6. Development of Rostral Prefrontal Cortex and Cognitive and Behavioural Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumontheil, Iroise; Burgess, Paul W.; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2008-01-01

    Information on the development and functions of rostral prefrontal cortex (PFC), or Brodmann area 10, has been gathered from different fields, from anatomical development to functional neuroimaging in adults, and put forward in relation to three particular cognitive and behavioural disorders. Rostral PFC is larger and has a lower cell density in…

  7. Addressing Anger Using Sensorimotor Psychotherapy and Cognitive Behaviour Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Sarah M.

    2010-01-01

    A young woman initiated counselling services at a community agency to address her explosive anger that was a remnant of childhood physical and emotional abuse. Sensorimotor psychotherapy was used to help this client learn how to monitor and regulate her sensorimotor processes. In conjunction with this approach, Cognitive behavioural therapy was…

  8. Development of Rostral Prefrontal Cortex and Cognitive and Behavioural Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumontheil, Iroise; Burgess, Paul W.; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2008-01-01

    Information on the development and functions of rostral prefrontal cortex (PFC), or Brodmann area 10, has been gathered from different fields, from anatomical development to functional neuroimaging in adults, and put forward in relation to three particular cognitive and behavioural disorders. Rostral PFC is larger and has a lower cell density in…

  9. Low Self-Esteem: Group Cognitive Behaviour Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whelan, Anne; Haywood, Pennie; Galloway, Scott

    2007-01-01

    This article will describe a self-esteem cognitive behavioural therapy group run with adults with learning disabilities. The aim is to show how a group of this nature can be organized and run, using theory to inform practice. An introduction to the concept of self esteem will be given and then explored in relation to adults with learning…

  10. Relationship between homework completion and outcome in cognitive behaviour therapy.

    PubMed

    Rees, Clare S; McEvoy, Peter; Nathan, Paula R

    2005-01-01

    Homework or between-session learning has long been considered an essential aspect of effective cognitive behaviour therapy. However, it has received relatively less empirical attention than other components of cognitive behaviour therapy. In general, studies have found that homework completion is predictive of outcome in psychotherapy. However, the amount of homework completed by a patient represents only one aspect of this important therapeutic component. This study investigated both the quantity and the quality of homework completed during a 10-week group cognitive and behavioural treatment program for anxious and depressed patients. It explored the relationship between various aspects of homework completion and outcomes on several different variables. A total of 94 patients were included in the analysis. It was found that both quantity and quality of homework completed predicted outcome on measures of depression, anxiety and quality of life at post-treatment and at 1-month follow-up. The results were strongest for the amount of homework completed, suggesting that clinicians should encourage patients to complete homework even if the homework content is not entirely accurate. The results of this study highlight the importance of homework as a central part of effective cognitive and behavioural treatment.

  11. WITHDRAWN: Cognitive behaviour therapy versus other psychosocial treatments for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher; Hacker, David; Meaden, Alan; Cormac, Irene; Irving, Claire B

    2011-04-13

    convincingly favour either interventions (2 RCT, n=103, MD SFS 1.32 CI -4.90 to 7.54; n=37, MD EuroQOL -1.86 CI -19.20 to 15.48). For the outcome of leaving the study early we found no significant advantage when CBT was compared with either non-active control therapies (4 RCTs, n=433, RR 0.88 CI 0.63 to 1.23) or active therapies (6 RCTs, n=339, RR 0.75 CI 0.40 to 1.43) Trail-based evidence suggests no clear and convincing advantage for cognitive behavioural therapy over other and sometime much less sophisticated therapies for people with schizophrenia.

  12. Interventions for encouraging sexual behaviours intended to prevent cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Jonathan P; Frampton, Geoff K; Harris, Petra

    2011-04-13

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the key risk factor for cervical cancer. Continuing high rates of HPV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in young people demonstrate the need for effective behavioural interventions. To assess the effectiveness of behavioural interventions for young women to encourage safer sexual behaviours to prevent transmission of STIs (including HPV) and cervical cancer. Systematic literature searches were performed on the following databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL Issue 4, 2009) Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Review Group (CGCRG) Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Social Science Citation Index and Trials Register of Promoting Health Interventions (TRoPHI) up to the end of 2009. All references were screened for inclusion against selection criteria. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of behavioural interventions for young women up to the age of 25 years that included, amongst other things, information provision about the transmission and prevention of STIs. Trials had to measure behavioural outcomes (e.g. condom use) and/or biological outcomes (e.g. incidence of STIs, cervical cancer). A narrative synthesis was conducted. Meta-analysis was not considered appropriate due to heterogeneity between the interventions and trial populations. A total of 5271 references were screened and of these 23 RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Most were conducted in the USA and in health-care clinics (e.g. family planning).The majority of interventions provided information about STIs and taught safer sex skills (e.g. communication), occasionally supplemented with provision of resources (e.g. free sexual health services). They were heterogeneous in duration, contact time, provider, behavioural aims and outcomes. A variety of STIs were addressed including HIV and chlamydia. None of the trials explicitly mentioned HPV or cervical cancer prevention.Statistically significant effects for behavioural

  13. A behavioural approach in the development of work-related interventions for cancer survivors: an exploratory review.

    PubMed

    Duijts, S F A; Bleiker, E M A; Paalman, C H; van der Beek, A J

    2017-09-01

    The application of behavioural change models and theories has not been studied, and behavioural determinants have not been considered, in the context of cancer and work. The aim of this study is to assess the relevance of a behavioural approach in the development of work-related interventions for cancer survivors. Two search strategies were conducted to identify studies on (1) lifestyle interventions (exercise, smoking, alcohol intake and diet), based on behavioural models and theories, in cancer survivors; (2) behavioural determinants regarding work. Medline, Embase, PsycInfo, CINAHL and the Cochrane Controlled Trial Register were searched (2000-2015). Studies were assessed on their eligibility, and findings were listed and categorised. Thirty-four studies exploring lifestyle interventions in cancer survivors were retrieved. The behavioural change models and theories most regularly used were the Transtheoretical Model and Social Cognitive Theory. Furthermore, 26 studies on the role of behavioural determinants regarding work were found. The most frequently considered determinants were self-efficacy, social norms, workers' expectations towards work or recovery, attitude, motivation and meaning of work. The results indicate the significance of behavioural change models and theories and of behavioural determinants in related research areas, which encourages a behavioural approach in the development of work-related interventions for cancer survivors. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Group cognitive behavioural therapy and group recreational activity for adults with autism spectrum disorders: a preliminary randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hesselmark, Eva; Plenty, Stephanie; Bejerot, Susanne

    2014-08-01

    Although adults with autism spectrum disorder are an increasingly identified patient population, few treatment options are available. This preliminary randomized controlled open trial with a parallel design developed two group interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorders and intelligence within the normal range: cognitive behavioural therapy and recreational activity. Both interventions comprised 36 weekly 3-h sessions led by two therapists in groups of 6-8 patients. A total of 68 psychiatric patients with autism spectrum disorders participated in the study. Outcome measures were Quality of Life Inventory, Sense of Coherence Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and an exploratory analysis on measures of psychiatric health. Participants in both treatment conditions reported an increased quality of life at post-treatment (d = 0.39, p < 0.001), with no difference between interventions. No amelioration of psychiatric symptoms was observed. The dropout rate was lower with cognitive behavioural therapy than with recreational activity, and participants in cognitive behavioural therapy rated themselves as more generally improved, as well as more improved regarding expression of needs and understanding of difficulties. Both interventions appear to be promising treatment options for adults with autism spectrum disorder. The interventions' similar efficacy may be due to the common elements, structure and group setting. Cognitive behavioural therapy may be additionally beneficial in terms of increasing specific skills and minimizing dropout. © The Author(s) 2013.

  15. The Relationship Between Challenging Behaviour, Cognitions and Stress in Mothers of Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Rose, John; Nelson, Lisa; Hardiman, Rebecca

    2016-11-01

    Cognitions are starting to receive more prominence as important when examining a number of factors including the topography of challenging behaviour. This study examined the relationships between maternal stress, challenging behaviour (aggressive and self-injurious behaviours) and parental cognitions and specifically whether maternal cognitions mediated the effect of challenging behaviour on parenting stress. 46 mothers of children and young adults with ID completed questionnaires regarding their child's challenging behaviour, maternal cognitions and stress. Significant correlations were found between challenging behaviour and maternal stress. The overall mediation models for aggression and self-injurious behaviour were significant. The Challenging Behaviour Perception Questionnaire: Consequences client subscale was the only independent significant mediator for both behaviours. Cognitions do play an important part in mediating the relationship between challenging behaviour and stress. Further research is needed to examine the similarities and differences between the mediation models for aggression and self-injurious behaviour.

  16. From Behaviourism to Cognitive Behaviourism to Cognitive Development: Steps in the Evolution of Instructional Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Robbie; Bereiter, Carl

    1984-01-01

    Traces history of instructional technology, including Skinner's work, Gagne's task analytic approach, and contemporary efforts associated with the cognitive revolution. It is suggested that an understanding of cognitive development improves earlier approaches by adapting them directly to students' cognitive development levels. Recent instructional…

  17. Development, cognition, and behaviour in Pitt-Hopkins syndrome.

    PubMed

    Van Balkom, Ingrid D C; Vuijk, Pieter Jelle; Franssens, Marijke; Hoek, Hans W; Hennekam, Raoul C M

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the study was to collect detailed data on behavioural, adaptive, and psychological functioning in 10 individuals with Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS), with specific attention to manifestations of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The participants (four females, six males), residing in the Netherlands and Belgium, were ascertained through the Dutch national PTHS support group. Median age of participants was 10 years, the age range was between 32 and 289 months. They underwent psychiatric examinations and neuropsychological measurements using a comprehensive assessment battery. Additionally, parental information was gathered through standardized interviews and questionnaires. Findings were compared with those from the literature. All participants showed profound intellectual disability, amiable demeanour with minimal maladaptive behaviours, severe impairments of communication and language, and intense, frequent motor stereotypies. Impairments in all participants were beyond what would be expected for cognitive abilities, fitting a classification of ASD. Patients with PTHS are characterized not only by specific physical and genetic manifestations but also by specific behavioural and cognitive characteristics. Studying behaviour and cognition may improve diagnosis and prognosis, allows recognition of comorbidities, and contributes to adequate counselling of families. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2012 Mac Keith Press.

  18. Evaluation of a community intervention programme for preschool behaviour problems.

    PubMed

    Elliot, J; Prior, M; Merrigan, C; Ballinger, K

    2002-02-01

    To evaluate an early intervention project focused on improving child prereading skills and parent behaviour-management skills, for 4-year-old children in the western suburbs of Melbourne (Victoria, Australia). Following screening of a large sample of preschoolers, four groups were constructed: (i) children receiving a phonological skills-based prereading package in their normal preschool programme; (ii) children whose parents attended six sessions of child behaviour management skill training; (iii) children who received both interventions; and (iv) a control group. Pre-, post-, 1 and 2 year follow-up measures were taken to assess effects on child behavioural and learning adjustment. This community based intervention resulted in positive effects, despite being of low intensity, in achieving significantly less hyperactive/distractable behaviour in children from the combined intervention group at 2 years postintervention. Anxiety problems were also reduced at the post-treatment phase. The prereading package did not demonstrate any effects on reading skills and was deemed to be insufficiently intensive to affect a population of disadvantaged preschoolers. This universal-type of intervention was well accepted by the community, but there is need for further effort to increase recruitment of families of at-risk children into such programmes.

  19. Systematic review of efficacy of cognitive behaviour therapies in childhood and adolescent depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Richard; Whittaker, Jane; Shoebridge, Philip; Campbell, Fiona

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether cognitive behaviour therapy is an effective treatment for childhood and adolescent depressive disorder. Design: Systematic review of six randomised trials comparing the efficacy of cognitive behaviour therapy with inactive interventions in subjects aged 8 to 19 years with depressive disorder. Main outcome measure: Remission from depressive disorder. Results: The rate of remission from depressive disorder was higher in the therapy group (129/208; 62%) than in the comparison group (61/168; 36%). The pooled odds ratio was 3.2 (95% confidence interval 1.9 to 5.2), suggesting a significant benefit of active treatment. Most studies, however, were based on relatively mild cases of depression and were of only moderate quality. Conclusions: Cognitive behaviour therapy may be of benefit for depressive disorder of moderate severity in children and adolescents. It cannot, however, yet be recommended for severe depression. Definitive large trials will be required to determine whether the results of this systematic review are reliable. Key messages Depressive disorders are a common problem in child psychiatric clinics, but a recent systematic review found that tricyclic medication was of unproved benefit This systematic review identified six randomised trials of a psychological treatment—cognitive behaviour therapy—in subjects aged 8 to 19 years with depressive disorder The results seemed to show that cognitive behaviour therapy is an effective treatment for depressive disorder of moderate severity Because of the small number of trials available for this quantitative analysis definitive large trials will be required to determine whether the present results are reliable PMID:9596592

  20. Dissonance-based interventions for health behaviour change: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Freijy, Tanya; Kothe, Emily J

    2013-05-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that various health behaviours are amenable to change following the induction of cognitive dissonance. This systematic review sought to evaluate the effectiveness and methodological quality of dissonance-based health behaviour interventions and to explore identified sources of heterogeneity in intervention effects. Bibliographic databases were searched for relevant articles from inception to March 2012. Only studies targeting non-clinical health behaviour in non-clinical populations were included in the review. One author extracted data and assessed quality of evidence and a second author verified all content. Reports of 20 studies were included. A variety of health behaviours and outcome measures were addressed across studies. Most studies produced one or more significant effects on measures of behaviour, attitude or intention. Across studies, methodological risk for bias was frequently high, particularly for selection bias. Gender and self-esteem were identified as potential moderator variables. The evidence for the effectiveness of dissonance-based interventions was generally positive. The hypocrisy paradigm was found to be the most commonly applied research paradigm and was most effective at inciting change across a range of health behaviours. There was no observable link between type of target behaviour and positive outcomes. Researchers are encouraged to minimize potential for bias in future studies and explore moderators of the dissonance effect. What is already known on this subject? A recent meta-analysis indicates that dissonance-based interventions primarily based on the induced compliance paradigm are effective for eating disorder prevention (Stice, Shaw, Becker, & Rohde, 2008, Prev. Sci., 9, 114). However, it is currently unclear whether such outcomes are generalizable to interventions targeting non-clinical health behaviours such as smoking, sun protection and sexual risk taking. Other research indicates that studies based

  1. Cognitive behavioural therapy versus other psychosocial treatments for schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Christopher; Hacker, David; Cormac, Irene; Meaden, Alan; Irving, Claire B

    2014-01-01

    , mean difference (MD) Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) −6.21 CI −10.81 to −1.61). Few trials report on social functioning or quality of life. Findings do not convincingly favour either of the interventions (2 RCTs, n = 103, MD Social Functioning Scale(SFS) 1.32 CI −4.90 to 7.54; n = 37, MD EuroQOL −1.86 CI −19.20 to 15.48). For the outcome of leaving the study early, we found no significant advantage when CBT was compared with either non-active control therapies (4 RCTs, n = 433, RR 0.88 CI 0.63 to 1.23) or active therapies (6 RCTs, n = 339, RR 0.75 CI 0.40 to 1.43) Authors’ conclusions Trial-based evidence suggests no clear and convincing advantage for cognitive behavioural therapy over other - and sometime much less sophisticated - therapies for people with schizophrenia. PMID:22513966

  2. Cognitive behaviour therapy versus other psychosocial treatments for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher; Hacker, David; Cormac, Irene; Meaden, Alan; Irving, Claire B

    2012-04-18

    social functioning or quality of life. Findings do not convincingly favour either of the interventions (2 RCTs, n = 103, MD Social Functioning Scale (SFS) 1.32 CI -4.90 to 7.54; n = 37, MD EuroQOL -1.86 CI -19.20 to 15.48). For the outcome of leaving the study early, we found no significant advantage when CBT was compared with either non-active control therapies (4 RCTs, n = 433, RR 0.88 CI 0.63 to 1.23) or active therapies (6 RCTs, n = 339, RR 0.75 CI 0.40 to 1.43) Trial-based evidence suggests no clear and convincing advantage for cognitive behavioural therapy over other - and sometime much less sophisticated - therapies for people with schizophrenia.

  3. Active music therapy improves cognition and behaviour in chronic vascular encephalopathy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Giovagnoli, Anna Rita; Oliveri, Serena; Schifano, Letizia; Raglio, Alfredo

    2014-02-01

    This study describes the effects of active music therapy (AMT) on cognition and behaviour in chronic vascular encephalopathy. A single case study investigated different cognitive and psycho-behavioural changes after AMT. An adult patient with memory, attention, and verbal fluency deficits associated with Vascular Cognitive Impairment-No Dementia (VCI-ND) was treated. A four-months AMT course was based on creative and interactive music playing. Sixteen sessions were conducted simultaneously to the pharmacological therapy. Cognitive performances, mood, interpersonal interactions, and perceived abilities were assessed using standardized neuropsychological and psycho-behavioural measurements. At baseline, the patient reported a tendency to feel tense, nervous, and angry and difficulties in memory and visuospatial performances, frequently accompanied by attention drops. The social network was a habitual component of the patient's life, but not a source of sharing of personal experiences, safety or comfort. Neuropsychological tests showed deficits in object and figure naming, verbal fluency, short and long-term verbal memory, short-term spatial memory, selective attention, and visuomotor coordination. After AMT, the cognitive profile significantly improved in attention, visuomotor coordination, and verbal and spatial memory. Such positive changes were confirmed at the three-months follow-up. An increase of the interpersonal interactions and consistent reduction of anxiety were also observed. In selected patients with VCI-ND, a well-structured AMT intervention added to standard therapy may contribute in determining a stable improvement of cognitive and psycho-behavioural aspects. Controlled studies are needed to confirm these promising results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cognitive behavioural therapies versus other psychological therapies for depression

    PubMed Central

    Churchill, Rachel; Moore, Theresa HM; Caldwell, Deborah; Davies, Philippa; Jones, Hannah; Furukawa, Toshi A; Lewis, Glyn; Hunot, Vivien

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all CBT approaches compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depressionTo examine the effectiveness and acceptability of different CBT approaches (cognitive therapy, rational emotive behaviour therapy, problem-solving therapy, self-control therapy and Coping with Depression course) compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all CBT approaches compared with different psychological therapy approaches (psychodynamic, behavioural, humanistic, integrative, third wave CBT) for acute depression. PMID:25411559

  5. Cognitive behavioural therapies versus other psychological therapies for depression.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Rachel; Moore, Theresa Hm; Caldwell, Deborah; Davies, Philippa; Jones, Hannah; Furukawa, Toshi A; Lewis, Glyn; Hunot, Vivien

    2010-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all CBT approaches compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depressionTo examine the effectiveness and acceptability of different CBT approaches (cognitive therapy, rational emotive behaviour therapy, problem-solving therapy, self-control therapy and Coping with Depression course) compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all CBT approaches compared with different psychological therapy approaches (psychodynamic, behavioural, humanistic, integrative, third wave CBT) for acute depression.

  6. Inhibition of imitative behaviour and social cognition

    PubMed Central

    Brass, Marcel; Ruby, Perrine; Spengler, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    There is converging evidence that the observation of an action activates a corresponding motor representation in the observer through a ‘mirror-matching’ mechanism. However, research on such ‘shared representations’ of perception and action has widely neglected the question of how we can distinguish our own motor intentions from externally triggered motor representations. By investigating the inhibition of imitative response tendencies, as an index for the control of shared representations, we can show that self–other distinction plays a fundamental role in the control of shared representations. Furthermore, we demonstrate that overlapping brain activations can be found in the anterior fronto-median cortex (aFMC) and the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) area for the control of shared representations and complex social-cognitive tasks, such as mental state attribution. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, we functionally dissociate the roles of TPJ and aFMC during the control of shared representations. Finally, we propose a hypothesis stating that the control of shared representations might be the missing link between functions of the mirror system and mental state attribution. PMID:19620107

  7. Persuading school-age cyclists to use safety helmets: Effectiveness of an intervention based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Quine, Lyn; Rutter, D. R.; Arnold, Laurence

    2001-11-01

    OBJECTIVES: To design and evaluate a theory-based intervention to encourage the use of protective helmets in school-age cyclists. DESIGN: Two-by-three mixed design on 97 cyclists who did not initially use a helmet: Condition (intervention/control) x Time (pre-intervention/immediately post-intervention/5-month follow-up). METHOD: The intervention builds on a previous study using the Theory of Planned Behaviour in which we identified a small number of salient beliefs that predict intention to use a safety helmet and helmet use (Quine et al., 1998). Participants were randomly assigned to intervention or control conditions. The intervention group was presented with a booklet containing a series of persuasive messages based on the identified salient beliefs, and the control group was presented with a different series of messages concerning a cycling proficiency and bicycle maintenance course. Initial beliefs were measured just before the intervention at Time 1, by questionnaire. The immediate effects of the intervention were evaluated by questionnaire at Time 2. Five months later, at Time 3, the long-term effects of the intervention on beliefs, intentions, and behaviour were assessed. RESULTS: The behavioural, normative and control beliefs and intentions of intervention participants became more positive than those of control participants, and the effect was maintained over time. There was also a significant effect on behaviour: at 5-month follow-up, none of the 49 control children had taken up helmet wearing, while 12 (25%) of the 48 intervention children had. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that in order to promote lasting helmet use in young cyclists, we need to change their beliefs. The intervention reported here may present an inexpensive solution to the problem of persuading adolescents to use safety helmets. The results point to the value of social cognition theories such as the Theory of Planned Behaviour in the design of effective interventions to change health

  8. Changing health behaviour outcomes in asthmatic patients: a pilot intervention study.

    PubMed

    Maes, S; Schlösser, M

    1988-01-01

    Starting from a prior study, in which cognitive and coping variables proved to be related to well-being, the use of medical resources and the absence from work in asthmatic patients, the authors constructed a cognitive-educational (a combination of health education and rational emotive behaviour modification) intervention programme aiming at altering coping behaviour in asthmatic patients in order to influence emotional distress and use of medical resources. The effects of the programme were assessed by means of a pre-test-post-test control group design. The programme was offered to ten patients and their partners. Both before and after the intervention cognitive attitudes (optimism, locus of control, and shame or stigma), coping behaviour in attack situations (minimizing the seriousness of the attack, rational action and reacting emotionally), coping in daily life (maintaining a restrictive life-style, focussing on asthma and hiding asthma), emotional distress (anxiety, anger, and depression), and the use of medication were measured in the experimental and control group. It was found that patients who received the programme became less preoccupied with their asthma and reported significantly less emotional distress (anxiety and anger) in daily life. In addition, they used less maintenance medication (corticosteroids). The authors wish to stress the importance of using medical variables such as the number of attacks as covariates in this type of research.

  9. Group cognitive behavioural therapy and group recreational activity for adults with autism spectrum disorders: A preliminary randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Plenty, Stephanie; Bejerot, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Although adults with autism spectrum disorder are an increasingly identified patient population, few treatment options are available. This preliminary randomized controlled open trial with a parallel design developed two group interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorders and intelligence within the normal range: cognitive behavioural therapy and recreational activity. Both interventions comprised 36 weekly 3-h sessions led by two therapists in groups of 6–8 patients. A total of 68 psychiatric patients with autism spectrum disorders participated in the study. Outcome measures were Quality of Life Inventory, Sense of Coherence Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and an exploratory analysis on measures of psychiatric health. Participants in both treatment conditions reported an increased quality of life at post-treatment (d = 0.39, p < 0.001), with no difference between interventions. No amelioration of psychiatric symptoms was observed. The dropout rate was lower with cognitive behavioural therapy than with recreational activity, and participants in cognitive behavioural therapy rated themselves as more generally improved, as well as more improved regarding expression of needs and understanding of difficulties. Both interventions appear to be promising treatment options for adults with autism spectrum disorder. The interventions’ similar efficacy may be due to the common elements, structure and group setting. Cognitive behavioural therapy may be additionally beneficial in terms of increasing specific skills and minimizing dropout. PMID:24089423

  10. Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Program Shows Potential in Reducing Symptoms of Depression and Stress among Young People with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGillivray, J. A.; Evert, H. T.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the efficacy of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) delivered in groups on the reduction of symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress in young people on the autism spectrum. Utilising a quasi-experimental design, comparisons were made between individuals allocated to a group intervention program and individuals allocated to a…

  11. Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Program Shows Potential in Reducing Symptoms of Depression and Stress among Young People with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGillivray, J. A.; Evert, H. T.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the efficacy of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) delivered in groups on the reduction of symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress in young people on the autism spectrum. Utilising a quasi-experimental design, comparisons were made between individuals allocated to a group intervention program and individuals allocated to a…

  12. A long-term follow-up of cognitive, emotional, and behavioural sequelae to Reye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Meekin, S L; Glasgow, J F; McCusker, C G; Rooney, N

    1999-08-01

    Eighteen adolescents who had survived Reye syndrome (RS) in early childhood were assessed on cognitive, emotional, and behavioural variables in a second follow-up study tracking this group. Siblings were used as controls. The entire group with RS had survived with no obvious neurological damage at the first follow-up study. Indeed, current findings suggested that long-term cognitive, emotional, and behavioural functioning was comparable to siblings in approximately half of the group with RS. However, two factors were associated with a less favourable outcome. Cognitive, emotional, and behavioural functioning were significantly poorer in the subgroup of survivors whose illness had occurred in the first year of life. In addition, loss of consciousness, although the association with poor outcome was not as noticeable, was also associated with relative deficits on some scales of cognitive ability. Many of these deficits had not been obvious at the first follow-up and the importance of neurodevelopmental factors are considered. Finally, the implications of these findings for research and interventions in RS and other such encephalopathies are discussed.

  13. Cognitive behavioural therapy for weight gain associated with antipsychotic drugs.

    PubMed

    Khazaal, Yasser; Fresard, Emmanuelle; Rabia, Sophie; Chatton, Anne; Rothen, Stephane; Pomini, Valentino; Grasset, François; Borgeat, François; Zullino, Daniele

    2007-03-01

    Overweight and obesity are common concerns in individuals with severe mental disorders. In particular, antipsychotic drugs (AP) frequently induce weight gain. This phenomenon lacks current management and no previous controlled studies seem to use cognitive therapy to modify eating and weight-related cognitions. Moreover, none of these studies considered binge eating or eating and weight-related cognitions as possible outcomes. The main aim of this study is to assess the effectivity of cognitive and behavioural treatment (CBT) on eating and weight-related cognitions, binge eating symptomatology and weight loss in patients who reported weight gain during AP treatment. A randomized controlled study (12-week CBT vs. Brief Nutritional Education) was carried out on 61 patients treated with an antipsychotic drug who reported weight gain following treatment. Binge eating symptomatology, eating and weight-related cognitions, as well as weight and body mass index were assessed before treatment, at 12 weeks and at 24 weeks. The CBT group showed some improvement with respect to binge eating symptomatology and weight-related cognitions, whereas the control group did not. Weight loss occurred more progressively and was greater in the CBT group at 24 weeks. The proposed CBT treatment is particularly interesting for patients suffering from weight gain associated with antipsychotic treatment.

  14. Intervention Validity of Cognitive Assessment: Knowns, Unknowables, and Unknowns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braden, Jeffery P.; Shaw, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    The intervention validity of cognitive assessment batteries is considered within an historical context to identify what the evidence supports (knowns), what cannot be known (unknowables), and what is not yet known (unknowns). Two ways cognitive batteries could inform intervention are identified: a disordinal (i.e., aptitude-treatment interaction)…

  15. A taxonomy of behaviour change methods: an Intervention Mapping approach.

    PubMed

    Kok, Gerjo; Gottlieb, Nell H; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Parcel, Guy S; Ruiter, Robert A C; Fernández, María E; Markham, Christine; Bartholomew, L Kay

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we introduce the Intervention Mapping (IM) taxonomy of behaviour change methods and its potential to be developed into a coding taxonomy. That is, although IM and its taxonomy of behaviour change methods are not in fact new, because IM was originally developed as a tool for intervention development, this potential was not immediately apparent. Second, in explaining the IM taxonomy and defining the relevant constructs, we call attention to the existence of parameters for effectiveness of methods, and explicate the related distinction between theory-based methods and practical applications and the probability that poor translation of methods may lead to erroneous conclusions as to method-effectiveness. Third, we recommend a minimal set of intervention characteristics that may be reported when intervention descriptions and evaluations are published. Specifying these characteristics can greatly enhance the quality of our meta-analyses and other literature syntheses. In conclusion, the dynamics of behaviour change are such that any taxonomy of methods of behaviour change needs to acknowledge the importance of, and provide instruments for dealing with, three conditions for effectiveness for behaviour change methods. For a behaviour change method to be effective: (1) it must target a determinant that predicts behaviour; (2) it must be able to change that determinant; (3) it must be translated into a practical application in a way that preserves the parameters for effectiveness and fits with the target population, culture, and context. Thus, taxonomies of methods of behaviour change must distinguish the specific determinants that are targeted, practical, specific applications, and the theory-based methods they embody. In addition, taxonomies should acknowledge that the lists of behaviour change methods will be used by, and should be used by, intervention developers. Ideally, the taxonomy should be readily usable for this goal; but alternatively, it should be

  16. A taxonomy of behaviour change methods: an Intervention Mapping approach

    PubMed Central

    Kok, Gerjo; Gottlieb, Nell H.; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y.; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Parcel, Guy S.; Ruiter, Robert A.C.; Fernández, María E.; Markham, Christine; Bartholomew, L. Kay

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this paper, we introduce the Intervention Mapping (IM) taxonomy of behaviour change methods and its potential to be developed into a coding taxonomy. That is, although IM and its taxonomy of behaviour change methods are not in fact new, because IM was originally developed as a tool for intervention development, this potential was not immediately apparent. Second, in explaining the IM taxonomy and defining the relevant constructs, we call attention to the existence of parameters for effectiveness of methods, and explicate the related distinction between theory-based methods and practical applications and the probability that poor translation of methods may lead to erroneous conclusions as to method-effectiveness. Third, we recommend a minimal set of intervention characteristics that may be reported when intervention descriptions and evaluations are published. Specifying these characteristics can greatly enhance the quality of our meta-analyses and other literature syntheses. In conclusion, the dynamics of behaviour change are such that any taxonomy of methods of behaviour change needs to acknowledge the importance of, and provide instruments for dealing with, three conditions for effectiveness for behaviour change methods. For a behaviour change method to be effective: (1) it must target a determinant that predicts behaviour; (2) it must be able to change that determinant; (3) it must be translated into a practical application in a way that preserves the parameters for effectiveness and fits with the target population, culture, and context. Thus, taxonomies of methods of behaviour change must distinguish the specific determinants that are targeted, practical, specific applications, and the theory-based methods they embody. In addition, taxonomies should acknowledge that the lists of behaviour change methods will be used by, and should be used by, intervention developers. Ideally, the taxonomy should be readily usable for this goal; but alternatively, it

  17. [Easily implemented cognitive behaviour techniques in primary care (part 2)].

    PubMed

    Ibáñez-Tarín, C; Manzanera-Escartí, R

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive behavioural therapy has shown to be very effective for treating the vast majority of mental health disorders. In this second part of the article, we continue commenting on those techniques that can be easily used in the Primary Care setting. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  18. Complex cognition and behavioural innovation in New Caledonian crows

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Alex H.; Elliffe, Douglas; Hunt, Gavin R.; Gray, Russell D.

    2010-01-01

    Apes, corvids and parrots all show high rates of behavioural innovation in the wild. However, it is unclear whether this innovative behaviour is underpinned by cognition more complex than simple learning mechanisms. To investigate this question we presented New Caledonian crows with a novel three-stage metatool problem. The task involved three distinct stages: (i) obtaining a short stick by pulling up a string, (ii) using the short stick as a metatool to extract a long stick from a toolbox, and finally (iii) using the long stick to extract food from a hole. Crows with previous experience of the behaviours in stages 1–3 linked them into a novel sequence to solve the problem on the first trial. Crows with experience of only using string and tools to access food also successfully solved the problem. This innovative use of established behaviours in novel contexts was not based on resurgence, chaining and conditional reinforcement. Instead, the performance was consistent with the transfer of an abstract, causal rule: ‘out-of-reach objects can be accessed using a tool’. This suggests that high innovation rates in the wild may reflect complex cognitive abilities that supplement basic learning mechanisms. PMID:20410040

  19. Media-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy and behavioural therapy (self-help) for anxiety disorders in adults.

    PubMed

    Mayo-Wilson, Evan; Montgomery, Paul

    2013-09-09

    Anxiety disorders are the most common mental health problems. They are chronic and unremitting. Effective treatments are available, but access to services is limited. Media-delivered behavioural and cognitive behavioural interventions (self-help) aim to deliver treatment with less input from professionals compared with traditional therapies. To assess the effects of media-delivered behavioural and cognitive behavioural therapies for anxiety disorders in adults. Published and unpublished studies were considered without restriction by language or date. The Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Review Group's Specialized Register (CCDANCTR) was searched all years to 1 January 2013. The CCDANCTR includes relevant randomised controlled trials from the following bibliographic databases: The Cochrane Library (all years), EMBASE (1974 to date), MEDLINE (1950 to date) and PsycINFO (1967 to date). Complementary searches were carried out on Ovid MEDLINE (1950 to 23 February 2013) and PsycINFO (1987 to February, Week 2, 2013), together with International trial registries (the trials portal of the World Health Organization (ICTRP) and ClinicalTrials.gov). Reference lists from previous meta-analyses and reports of randomised controlled trials were checked, and authors were contacted for unpublished data. Randomised controlled trials of media-delivered behavioural or cognitive behavioural therapy in adults with anxiety disorders (other than post-traumatic stress disorder) compared with no intervention (including attention/relaxation controls) or compared with face-to-face therapy. Both review authors independently screened titles and abstracts. Study characteristics and outcomes were extracted in duplicate. Outcomes were combined using random-effects models, and tests for heterogeneity and for small study bias were conducted. We examined subgroup differences by type of disorder, type of intervention provided, type of media, and recruitment methods used. One hundred and

  20. Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy for young people with suicide-related behaviour (Reframe-IT): a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hetrick, Sarah E; Yuen, Hok P; Bailey, Eleanor; Cox, Georgina R; Templer, Kate; Rice, Simon M; Bendall, Sarah; Robinson, Jo

    2017-08-01

    Suicide-related behaviours are common in young people and associated with a range of negative outcomes. There are few evidence-based interventions; however, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) shows promise. Internet delivery of CBT is popular, with potential to increase reach and accessibility. To test the effectiveness of an internet-based CBT program (Reframe-IT) in reducing suicide-related behaviours, depression, anxiety, hopelessness and improving problem solving and cognitive and behavioural skills in school students with suicide-related behaviours. A parallel randomised controlled trial testing the effectiveness of Reframe-IT plus treatment as usual (TAU) compared with TAU alone in reducing suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, depression, hopelessness, symptoms of anxiety, negative problem orientation and cognitive and behavioural skill acquisition was undertaken. We recruited students experiencing suicidal ideation from 18 schools in Melbourne, Australia, between August 2013 and December 2016. The intervention comprised eight modules of CBT delivered online over 10 weeks with assessments conducted at baseline, 10 weeks and 22 weeks. Only 50 of the planned 169 participants were recruited. There were larger improvements in the Reframe-IT group compared with the TAU group for the primary outcome of suicidal ideation (intervention -61.6, SD 41.6; control -47.1, SD 42.3, from baseline to 22-week follow-up intervention); however, differences were non-significant (p=0.593). There were no increases in distress in the majority of participants (91.1%) after completion of each module. Changes in depression and hopelessness partly mediated the effect of acquisition of CBT skills on suicidal ideation. The trial was underpowered due to difficulties recruiting participants as a result of the complex recruitment procedures that were used to ensure safety of participants. Although there were no significant differences between groups, young people were safely and generally

  1. The effects of cognitive intervention on cognitive impairments after intensive care unit admission.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingjing; Yao, Li; Wang, Changqing; Sun, Yun; Sun, Zhongwu

    2017-04-01

    Patients who survive critical illness commonly suffer cognitive impairments. We aimed to study the effects of cognitive intervention to treat the long-term impairments observed among different populations of intensive care unit (ICU) survivors. The results showed that the intervention significantly suppressed the deterioration of cognitive function in these patients. Medical and neurological ICU survivors were more susceptible than post-anaesthesia ICU patients to severe cognitive damage. In the former, the deterioration of impairments can be slowed by cognitive intervention. In comparison, intervention exerted significantly positive effects on the recovery of the cognitive functions of post-anaesthesia care unit patients. Furthermore, young populations were more likely than older populations to recover from acute cognitive impairments, and the impairment observed among the older population seemed to be multi-factorial and irreversible.

  2. Cognitive behavioural therapy (brief versus standard duration) for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Naeem, Farooq; Farooq, Saeed; Kingdon, David

    2015-10-21

    Cognitive behavioural therapy for people with schizophrenia is a psychotherapeutic approach that establishes links between thoughts, emotions and behaviours and challenges dysfunctional thoughts. There is some evidence to suggest that cognitive behavioural therapy for people with psychosis (CBTp) might be an effective treatment for people with schizophrenia. There are however, limitations in its provision due to available resource and training issues. One way to tackle this issue might be to offer a brief version of CBTp. To review the effects of brief CBTp (6 to 10 regular sessions given in less than 4 months and using a manual) for people with schizophrenia compared with standard CBTp (12 to 20 regular sessions given in 4 to 6 months and using a manual). We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Trials Register (August 21, 2013 and August 26, 2015) which is based on regular searches of CINAHL, BIOSIS, AMED, EMBASE, PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and registries of Clinical Trials. There are no language, date, document type, or publication status limitations for inclusion of records in the register. We inspected all references of the selected articles for further relevant trials. We also contacted experts in the field regarding brief CBTp studies. Randomised controlled trials involving adults with schizophrenia or related disorders, comparing brief cognitive behavioural therapy for people with psychosis versus standard CBTp. Two review authors independently screened and assessed studies for inclusion using pre-specified inclusion criteria. We found only seven studies which used a brief version of CBTp, but no study compared brief CBTp with CBTp of standard duration. No studies could be included. Currently there is no literature available to compare brief with standard CBTp for people with schizophrenia. We cannot, therefore, conclude whether brief CBTp is as effective, less effective or even more effective than standard courses of the same therapy. This lack of

  3. Interventions for encouraging sexual behaviours intended to prevent cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Jonathan P; Frampton, Geoff K; Harris, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the key risk factor for cervical cancer. Continuing high rates of HPV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in young people demonstrate the need for effective behavioural interventions. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of behavioural interventions for young women to encourage safer sexual behaviours to prevent transmission of STIs (including HPV) and cervical cancer. Search methods Systematic literature searches were performed on the following databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL Issue 4, 2009) Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Review Group (CGCRG) Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Social Science Citation Index and Trials Register of Promoting Health Interventions (TRoPHI) up to the end of 2009. All references were screened for inclusion against selection criteria. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of behavioural interventions for young women up to the age of 25 years that included, amongst other things, information provision about the transmission and prevention of STIs. Trials had to measure behavioural outcomes (e.g. condom use) and/or biological outcomes (e.g. incidence of STIs, cervical cancer). Data collection and analysis A narrative synthesis was conducted. Meta-analysis was not considered appropriate due to heterogeneity between the interventions and trial populations. Main results A total of 5271 references were screened and of these 23 RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Most were conducted in the USA and in health-care clinics (e.g. family planning). The majority of interventions provided information about STIs and taught safer sex skills (e.g. communication), occasionally supplemented with provision of resources (e.g. free sexual health services). They were heterogeneous in duration, contact time, provider, behavioural aims and outcomes. A variety of STIs were addressed including HIV and chlamydia. None of the trials explicitly

  4. Family-Centred Applied Behaviour Analysis Verbal Behaviour Intervention for Young Taiwanese Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Szu-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Current educational policy promotes the use of evidence-based practices to maximize children's learning outcomes. With the goal of enhancing a child's ability to learn functional language, the purpose of this study was to focus on involving families through the utilization of evidence-based intervention based upon the Applied Behaviour Analysis…

  5. Explanations for variation in cognitive ability: Behavioural ecology meets comparative cognition.

    PubMed

    Healy, S D; Bacon, I E; Haggis, O; Harris, A P; Kelley, L A

    2009-03-01

    Sara Shettleworth has played a defining role in the development of animal cognition and its integration into other parts of biology, especially behavioural ecology. Here we chart some of that progress in understanding the causes and importance of variation in cognitive ability and highlight how Tinbergen's levels of explanation provide a useful framework for this field. We also review how experimental design is crucial in investigating cognition and stress the need for naturalistic experiments and field studies. We focus particularly on the example of the relationship among food hoarding, spatial cognition and hippocampal structure, and review the conflicting evidence for sex differences in spatial cognition. We finish with speculation that a combination of Tinbergen and Shettleworth-style approaches would be the way to grapple with the as-yet unanswered questions of why birds mimic heterospecifics.

  6. Association between alcohol drinking behaviour and cognitive function: results from a nationwide longitudinal study of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sujin; Kim, Yongjoo; Park, Sang Min

    2016-04-26

    This research intends to determine how drinking behaviour, such as episodic heavy drinking, is related to cognitive performance in middle-aged and old-aged people in South Korea. A cohort data of 5157 adults, age 45 years or older, with normal cognitive function (the Korean version of the Mini-mental state examination (K-MMSE) ≥24) at baseline (2006), was derived from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging. Alcohol drinking behaviour was assessed using the CAGE (Cut down, Annoyed, Guilty, Eye-opener) questionnaire. The relationships between baseline drinking behaviour (in 2006) to the extent of cognitive decline (between 2006 and 2012) and development of cognitive impairment (in 2012) were assessed. Individuals with problematic drinking behaviour at baseline experienced a faster decline in cognitive function than those with non-problematic drinking (p<0.05) during 6 years of follow-up, especially among those with relatively lownormal K-MMSE score (24-26) at baseline (p<0.05). Problematic alcohol drinking behaviour was also significantly associated with onset of severe cognitive impairment (SCI) (K-MMSE score ≤17) among those with relatively low-normal K-MMSE score (adjusted OR (aOR)=3.76, 95% CI 1.46 to 9.67). In addition, abstinence, compared with non-problematic drinking, was related to higher risk for developing SCI among men (aOR=1.62, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.39). Our results suggest that those with problematic alcohol drinking behaviour could be at an increased risk of cognitive impairment/decline. While further research will provide stronger evidence, intervention targeting alcohol abuse may play a role in prevention of cognitive impairment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Association between alcohol drinking behaviour and cognitive function: results from a nationwide longitudinal study of South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sujin; Kim, Yongjoo; Park, Sang Min

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This research intends to determine how drinking behaviour, such as episodic heavy drinking, is related to cognitive performance in middle-aged and old-aged people in South Korea. Methods A cohort data of 5157 adults, age 45 years or older, with normal cognitive function (the Korean version of the Mini-mental state examination (K-MMSE) ≥24) at baseline (2006), was derived from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging. Alcohol drinking behaviour was assessed using the CAGE (Cut down, Annoyed, Guilty, Eye-opener) questionnaire. The relationships between baseline drinking behaviour (in 2006) to the extent of cognitive decline (between 2006 and 2012) and development of cognitive impairment (in 2012) were assessed. Results Individuals with problematic drinking behaviour at baseline experienced a faster decline in cognitive function than those with non-problematic drinking (p<0.05) during 6 years of follow-up, especially among those with relatively lownormal K-MMSE score (24–26) at baseline (p<0.05). Problematic alcohol drinking behaviour was also significantly associated with onset of severe cognitive impairment (SCI) (K-MMSE score ≤17) among those with relatively low-normal K-MMSE score (adjusted OR (aOR)=3.76, 95% CI 1.46 to 9.67). In addition, abstinence, compared with non-problematic drinking, was related to higher risk for developing SCI among men (aOR=1.62, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.39). Conclusions Our results suggest that those with problematic alcohol drinking behaviour could be at an increased risk of cognitive impairment/decline. While further research will provide stronger evidence, intervention targeting alcohol abuse may play a role in prevention of cognitive impairment. PMID:27118285

  8. Effect of a family-based cognitive behavioural intervention on body mass index, self-esteem and symptoms of depression in children with obesity (aged 7-13): a randomised waiting list controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Danielsen, Yngvild S; Nordhus, Inger H; Júlíusson, Petur B; Mæhle, Magne; Pallesen, Ståle

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effect of a 12-week family-based cognitive behavioural weight management programme developed for use in primary care settings. The sample consisted of 49 children with obesity (aged 7-13 years; mean ± SD: 10.68 ± 1.24). Families were randomly assigned to immediate start-up of treatment or to a 12-week waiting list condition. Outcome measures were body mass index standard deviation score (BMI SDS), self-esteem, symptoms of depression and blood parameters indicative of cardio-metabolic risk. Assessments were conducted at baseline, post-treatment, post-waiting list and 12 months after treatment termination. The mean reduction for the treatment group was -0.16 BMI SDS units compared with an increase of 0.04 units for the waiting list group (p = .001). For the entire sample, there was a significant post-treatment improvement on BMI SDS (p = .001), all self-esteem measures (p = .001-.041) and symptoms of depression (p = .004). The mean BMI SDS reduction was -0.18 units post-treatment, and it was maintained at 12-month follow-up. Significant reductions were found in blood lipid levels of total cholesterol (p = .03), LDL-cholesterol (p = .005) and HDL-cholesterol (p = .01) at 12-month follow-up. The favourable effect on most of the psychological measures waned from post-treatment to follow-up, but not approaching baseline levels. Boys demonstrated significantly greater reductions in BMI SDS than girls (p = .001), while baseline psychiatric co-morbidity did not influence BMI SDS outcome. The treatment shows significant and favourable effects on BMI SDS, self-esteem and symptoms of depression compared with a waiting list condition. © 2013 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Reducing stillbirths: behavioural and nutritional interventions before and during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Yakoob, Mohammad Yawar; Menezes, Esme V; Soomro, Tanya; Haws, Rachel A; Darmstadt, Gary L; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2009-01-01

    Background The vast majority of global stillbirths occur in low- and middle-income countries, and in many settings, the majority of stillbirths occur antenatally, prior to the onset of labour. Poor nutritional status, lack of antenatal care and a number of behaviours increase women's risk of stillbirth in many resource-poor settings. Interventions to reduce these risks could reduce the resulting burden of stillbirths, but the evidence for the impact of such interventions has not yet been comprehensively evaluated. Methods This second paper of a systematic review of interventions that could plausibly impact stillbirth rates covers 12 different interventions relating to behavioural and socially mediated risk factors, including exposures to harmful practices and substances, antenatal care utilisation and quality, and maternal nutrition before and during pregnancy. The search strategy reviewed indexed medical journals on PubMed and the Cochrane Library. If any eligible randomised controlled trials were identified that were published after the most recent Cochrane review, they were added to generate new meta-analyses. Interventions covered in this paper have a focus on low- and middle-income countries, both because of the large burden of stillbirths and because of the high prevalence of risk factors including maternal malnutrition and harmful environmental exposures. The reviews and studies belonging to these interventions were graded and conclusions derived about the evidence of benefit of these interventions. Results From a programmatic perspective, none of the interventions achieved clear evidence of benefit. Evidence for some socially mediated risk factors were identified, such as exposure to indoor air pollution and birth spacing, but still require the development of appropriate interventions. There is a need for additional studies on culturally appropriate behavioural interventions and clinical trials to increase smoking cessation and reduce exposure to smokeless

  10. Combining and sequencing medication and cognitive-behaviour therapy for childhood anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Keeton, Courtney P; Ginsburg, Golda S

    2008-04-01

    Despite the absence of data on the efficacy of combination therapy (i.e., psychosocial and medication) for the treatment of anxiety disorders in youths, clinicians in clinical practice often utilize this treatment approach. This paper discusses issues related to sequencing, combining, and integrating cognitive behavioural and pharmacological interventions for anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. We briefly summarize the empirical evidence for mono and combination therapy and raise a variety of issues that should be considered when making treatment decisions. Finally, we present an integrated treatment model to facilitate the delivery of a comprehensive treatment approach across care providers. These suggestions are geared toward optimizing clinical outcomes for anxious youths.

  11. Cognitive and Emotion Regulation Change Processes in Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Mia S; Mennin, Douglas S; Hougaard, Esben; Zachariae, Robert; Rosenberg, Nicole K

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate variables, derived from both cognitive and emotion regulation conceptualizations of social anxiety disorder (SAD), as possible change processes in cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for SAD. Several proposed change processes were investigated: estimated probability, estimated cost, safety behaviours, acceptance of emotions, cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression. Participants were 50 patients with SAD, receiving a standard manualized CBT program, conducted in groups or individually. All variables were measured pre-therapy, mid-therapy and post-therapy. Lower level mediation models revealed that while a change in most process measures significantly predicted clinical improvement, only changes in estimated probability and cost and acceptance of emotions showed significant indirect effects of CBT for SAD. The results are in accordance with previous studies supporting the mediating role of changes in cognitive distortions in CBT for SAD. In addition, acceptance of emotions may also be a critical component to clinical improvement in SAD during CBT, although more research is needed on which elements of acceptance are most helpful for individuals with SAD. The study's lack of a control condition limits any conclusion regarding the specificity of the findings to CBT. Change in estimated probability and cost, and acceptance of emotions showed an indirect effect of CBT for SAD. Cognitive distortions appear relevant to target with cognitive restructuring techniques. Finding acceptance to have an indirect effect could be interpreted as support for contemporary CBT approaches that include acceptance-based strategies. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Identifying effective behavioural models and behaviour change strategies underpinning preschool- and school-based obesity prevention interventions aimed at 4-6-year-olds: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Nixon, C A; Moore, H J; Douthwaite, W; Gibson, E L; Vogele, C; Kreichauf, S; Wildgruber, A; Manios, Y; Summerbell, C D

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this comprehensive systematic review was to identify the most effective behavioural models and behaviour change strategies, underpinning preschool- and school-based interventions aimed at preventing obesity in 4-6-year-olds. Searching was conducted from April 1995 to April 2010 using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and The Cochrane Library. Epidemiological studies relevant to the research question with controlled assignment of participants were included in the review, if they had follow-up periods of 6 months or longer. Outcomes included markers of weight gain; markers of body composition; physical activity behaviour changes and dietary behaviour changes. Twelve studies were included in the review. The most commonly used model was social cognitive theory (SCT)/social learning theory (SLT) either as a single model or in combination with other behavioural models. Studies that used SCT/SLT in the development of the intervention had significant favourable changes in one, or more, outcome measures. In addition, interventions that (i) combined high levels of parental involvement and interactive school-based learning; (ii) targeted physical activity and dietary change; and (iii) included long-term follow-up, appeared most effective. It is suggested that interventions should also be focused on developing children's (and parents') perceived competence at making dietary and physical changes.

  13. Cognitive behavioural therapy group work with voice hearers. Part 2.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Terry; Morris, Mervyn; Birchwood, Max; Dovey, Alan

    This is the second of two papers that present a small, randomized control trial of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) within a group setting for the treatment of auditory hallucinations. In the previous paper, a method was described for an eight-session CBT group. Assessments were undertaken measuring control, power, frequency, and symptoms of distress and anxiety on commencement and on completion of the group. This second paper details the experience of the group and reports on the outcomes of the assessment measures. The study concludes that group CBT was helpful in the treatment of auditory hallucinations.

  14. How to reduce sitting time? A review of behaviour change strategies used in sedentary behaviour reduction interventions among adults.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Benjamin; Smith, Lee; Lorencatto, Fabiana; Hamer, Mark; Biddle, Stuart J H

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary behaviour - i.e., low energy-expending waking behaviour while seated or lying down - is a health risk factor, even when controlling for physical activity. This review sought to describe the behaviour change strategies used within interventions that have sought to reduce sedentary behaviour in adults. Studies were identified through existing literature reviews, a systematic database search, and hand-searches of eligible papers. Interventions were categorised as 'very promising', 'quite promising', or 'non-promising' according to observed behaviour changes. Intervention functions and behaviour change techniques were compared across promising and non-promising interventions. Twenty-six eligible studies reported thirty-eight interventions, of which twenty (53%) were worksite-based. Fifteen interventions (39%) were very promising, eight quite promising (21%), and fifteen non-promising (39%). Very or quite promising interventions tended to have targeted sedentary behaviour instead of physical activity. Interventions based on environmental restructuring, persuasion, or education were most promising. Self-monitoring, problem solving, and restructuring the social or physical environment were particularly promising behaviour change techniques. Future sedentary reduction interventions might most fruitfully incorporate environmental modification and self-regulatory skills training. The evidence base is, however, weakened by low-quality evaluation methods; more RCTs, employing no-treatment control groups, and collecting objective data are needed.

  15. How to reduce sitting time? A review of behaviour change strategies used in sedentary behaviour reduction interventions among adults

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Benjamin; Smith, Lee; Lorencatto, Fabiana; Hamer, Mark; Biddle, Stuart JH

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary behaviour – i.e., low energy-expending waking behaviour while seated or lying down – is a health risk factor, even when controlling for physical activity. This review sought to describe the behaviour change strategies used within interventions that have sought to reduce sedentary behaviour in adults. Studies were identified through existing literature reviews, a systematic database search, and hand-searches of eligible papers. Interventions were categorised as ‘very promising’, ‘quite promising’, or ‘non-promising’ according to observed behaviour changes. Intervention functions and behaviour change techniques were compared across promising and non-promising interventions. Twenty-six eligible studies reported thirty-eight interventions, of which twenty (53%) were worksite-based. Fifteen interventions (39%) were very promising, eight quite promising (21%), and fifteen non-promising (39%). Very or quite promising interventions tended to have targeted sedentary behaviour instead of physical activity. Interventions based on environmental restructuring, persuasion, or education were most promising. Self-monitoring, problem solving, and restructuring the social or physical environment were particularly promising behaviour change techniques. Future sedentary reduction interventions might most fruitfully incorporate environmental modification and self-regulatory skills training. The evidence base is, however, weakened by low-quality evaluation methods; more RCTs, employing no-treatment control groups, and collecting objective data are needed. PMID:26315814

  16. Psychological pain treatment in fibromyalgia syndrome: efficacy of operant behavioural and cognitive behavioural treatments

    PubMed Central

    Thieme, Kati; Flor, Herta; Turk, Dennis C

    2006-01-01

    The present study focused on the evaluation of the effects of operant behavioural (OBT) and cognitive behavioural (CBT) treatments for fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). One hundred and twenty-five patients who fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology criteria for FMS were randomly assigned to OBT (n = 43), CBT (n = 42), or an attention-placebo (AP) treatment (n = 40) that consisted of discussions of FMS-related problems. Assessments of physical functioning, pain, affective distress, and cognitive and behavioural variables were performed pre-treatment and post-treatment as well as 6 and 12 months post-treatment. Patients receiving the OBT or CBT reported a significant reduction in pain intensity post-treatment (all Fs > 3.89, all Ps < 0.01). In addition, the CBT group reported statistically significant improvements in cognitive (all Fs > 7.95, all P < 0.01) and affective variables (all Fs > 2.99, all Ps < 0.02), and the OBT group demonstrated statistically significant improvements in physical functioning and behavioural variables (all Fs > 5.99, all Ps < 0.001) compared with AP. The AP group reported no significant improvement but actually deterioration in the outcome variables. The post-treatment effects for the OBT and CBT groups were maintained at both the 6- and 12-month follow-ups. These results suggest that both OBT and CBT are effective in treating patients with FMS with some differences in the outcome measures specifically targeted by the individual treatments compared with an unstructured discussion group. The AP group showed that unstructured discussion of FMS-related problems may be detrimental. PMID:16859516

  17. Elderly Individuals with Diabetes: Adding Cognitive Training to Psychoeducational Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vianna Paulo, Debora Lee; Sanches Yassuda, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The present research examined the effects of a cognitive training program combined with psychoeducational intervention for diabetic elderly patients. Specifically, it aimed at assessing the effects of an eight-session cognitive training and educational program in diabetic elderly individuals and investigating changes in their awareness about…

  18. Increasing Children's Self-Control through Cognitive Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressley, Michael

    1979-01-01

    Research is reviewed on cognitive interventions which affect children's self-control. Five types of effective manipulations are discussed: self-verbalization; external verbalization; affect manipulation; cognitive transformation; and manipulation of attention. Self-control behaviors include modification of impulsive behaviors; delay of…

  19. Elderly Individuals with Diabetes: Adding Cognitive Training to Psychoeducational Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vianna Paulo, Debora Lee; Sanches Yassuda, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The present research examined the effects of a cognitive training program combined with psychoeducational intervention for diabetic elderly patients. Specifically, it aimed at assessing the effects of an eight-session cognitive training and educational program in diabetic elderly individuals and investigating changes in their awareness about…

  20. Do cognitive interventions alter the rate of age-related cognitive change?

    PubMed Central

    Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2015-01-01

    There has recently been a great deal of interest in cognitive interventions, particularly when applied in older adults with the goal of slowing or reversing age-related cognitive decline. Although seldom directly investigated, one of the fundamental questions concerning interventions is whether the intervention alters the rate of cognitive change, or affects the level of certain cognitive measures with no effect on the trajectory of change. This question was investigated with a very simple intervention consisting of the performance of three versions (treatment) or one version (control) of the relevant cognitive tests at an initial occasion. Participants were retested at intervals ranging from less than 1 to 12 years, which allowed rates of change to be examined in the control and treatment groups. Although the intervention can be considered modest, participants in the treatment group had about .25 standard deviations less negative cognitive change over an interval of approximately three years than those in the control group, which is comparable to effect sizes reported with more intensive interventions. However, there were no interactions of the intervention with length of the interval between occasions, and thus there was no evidence that the intervention affected the course of age-related cognitive decline. PMID:26478640

  1. Effects of problem-solving interventions on aggressive behaviours among primary school pupils in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Abdulmalik, Jibril; Ani, Cornelius; Ajuwon, Ademola J; Omigbodun, Olayinka

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive patterns of behavior often start early in childhood, and tend to remain stable into adulthood. The negative consequences include poor academic performance, disciplinary problems and encounters with the juvenile justice system. Early school intervention programs can alter this trajectory for aggressive children. However, there are no studies evaluating the feasibility of such interventions in Africa. This study therefore, assessed the effect of group-based problem-solving interventions on aggressive behaviors among primary school pupils in Ibadan, Nigeria. This was an intervention study with treatment and wait-list control groups. Two public primary schools in Ibadan Nigeria were randomly allocated to an intervention group and a waiting list control group. Teachers rated male Primary five pupils in the two schools on aggressive behaviors and the top 20 highest scorers in each school were selected. Pupils in the intervention school received 6 twice-weekly sessions of group-based intervention, which included problem-solving skills, calming techniques and attribution retraining. Outcome measures were; teacher rated aggressive behaviour (TRAB), self-rated aggression scale (SRAS), strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), attitude towards aggression questionnaire (ATAQ), and social cognition and attribution scale (SCAS). The participants were aged 12 years (SD = 1.2, range 9-14 years). Both groups had similar socio-demographic backgrounds and baseline measures of aggressive behaviors. Controlling for baseline scores, the intervention group had significantly lower scores on TRAB and SRAS 1-week post intervention with large Cohen's effect sizes of 1.2 and 0.9 respectively. The other outcome measures were not significantly different between the groups post-intervention. Group-based problem solving intervention for aggressive behaviors among primary school students showed significant reductions in both teachers' and students' rated aggressive behaviours

  2. Individual versus group family-focused cognitive-behaviour therapy for childhood anxiety: pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Jules; Cobham, Vanessa; Leong, Joyce; McDermott, Brett

    2007-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the relative effectiveness of group and individual formats of a family-focused cognitive-behavioural intervention, for the treatment of childhood anxiety disorders. Twenty-nine clinically anxious children aged between 7 and 12 years were randomly allocated to either individual cognitive-behaviour therapy (ICBT) or group cognitive-behaviour therapy (GCBT). At post-treatment assessment 57% of children in the ICBT condition no longer met criteria for any anxiety disorder, compared to 47% of children in the GCBT condition. At 3 month follow up these improvements were retained with some weakening. By the 6 month follow up 50% of children in the ICBT compared to 53% of children in the GCBT condition were anxiety diagnosis free. In terms of questionnaire data, no significant differences were detected between the ICBT and GCBT conditions at any of the follow-up points. However, a significant treatment effect for time was found, with both self-reports and parent reports indicating a significant reduction over time in anxiety symptoms. Overall, results suggest that children with anxiety disorders appear to improve following a family-focused cognitive behavioural intervention, regardless of individual or group administration. The interpretation and potential clinical implications of these findings are discussed, together with the limitations of this study and suggestions for future research.

  3. [The third wave of cognitive-behavioural psychotherapies: concepts and efficacy].

    PubMed

    Kahl, K G; Winter, L; Schweiger, U; Sipos, V

    2011-06-01

    During the last two decades a number of psychotherapies have been developed which are summarised as the third wave of cognitive behavioural therapies. Among these are dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT), acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), schema therapy, cognitive behavioural analysis system of psychotherapy (CBASP), mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), and metacognitive therapy (MCT). The purpose of this article is to describe the basic concepts of these treatments and to summarise available studies concerning their efficacy.

  4. Cognitive behavioural group training (CBGT) for patients with type 1 diabetes in persistent poor glycaemic control: who do we reach?

    PubMed

    van der Ven, Nicole C W; Lubach, Caroline H C; Hogenelst, Marloes H E; van Iperen, Ada; Tromp-Wever, Anita M E; Vriend, Annelies; van der Ploeg, Henk M; Heine, Robert J; Snoek, Frank J

    2005-03-01

    Approximately a quarter of adults with type 1 diabetes do not succeed in achieving satisfactory glycaemic control, partly due to problems with the demanding self-management regimen. To improve glycaemic control, interventions with a cognitive behavioural approach, aimed at modifying dysfunctional beliefs, reducing negative emotions and enhancing self-care practices are a potentially successful tool. Little is known about the reach of such an approach. This article describes characteristics of participants in a randomized, controlled trial of cognitive behavioural group training for patients with type 1 diabetes in poor glycaemic control. Results show that outpatients from seven hospitals in the area of Amsterdam, selected on long-standing high HbA1c and volunteering to participate, report high levels of psychological distress and depressive symptoms. Furthermore, self-care behaviours were perceived as important, but burdensome. Diabetes-specific self-efficacy was relatively low. It is concluded that this selected group of adults with type 1 diabetes would potentially benefit from a cognitive-behavioural intervention in order to reduce negative emotions, enhance diabetes self-efficacy, self-care behaviour and glycaemic outcomes.

  5. Social-cognitive theories for predicting physical activity behaviours of employed women with and without young children.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Leonor S; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Loucaides, Constantinos

    2009-03-01

    Chronic disease interventions for women have been understudied in the workplace domain. Understanding the role of cognitions in individual behaviour can help motivate change and suggest directions for achieving improvements in health. The purpose of this study was to identify psychosocial constructs and social-cognitive theories [e.g. Transtheoretical model (TTM), Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT)] that are most salient for explaining physical activity behaviour among employed women (n = 1183). Demographic information, and social-cognitive measures related to physical activity, intention and behaviours (e.g. stage of change, energy expenditure) were assessed. A series of multiple regression analyses predicting intention, energy expenditure and stage of change were conducted separately for: (1) women with young children (n = 302), and (2) women without young children (n = 881) for each of the respective social-cognitive theories. Although taken as a whole the results were relatively similar between the two sub-groups of women for each of the socio-cognitive theories examined in this study, differences were observed in the relative contributions of the theoretical constructs between the two sub-groups. Results also indicate that self-efficacy and intention were the strongest predictors of behaviour among both women with and without young children. The explained variances (R(2)) for the theories examined in this study for different sub-groups ranged from 16 to 60%, generally reflecting what has been reported in other studies within the physical activity domain. The results of this study could be useful in guiding future research and in designing physical activity intervention programs for these specific population groups. Integrating approaches of individual lifestyle change while addressing issues related to creating supportive environments for women in various life stages is a suggested strategy

  6. Cognitive behavioural therapy for men who physically abuse their female partner.

    PubMed

    Smedslund, G; Dalsbø, T K; Steiro, A K; Winsvold, A; Clench-Aas, J

    2007-07-18

    In national surveys between 10 % and 34 % of women have reported being physically assaulted by an intimate male partner. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) or programmes with elements of CBT are frequently used treatments for physically abusive men. Participants either enroll voluntarily or are obliged to participate in CBT by means of a court order. CBT not only seeks to change behaviour using established behavioural strategies, but also targets the thinking patterns and beliefs that are thought to contribute to violence. To measure the effects of CBT and similar interventions on men's physical abuse of their female partners. We searched the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (CENTRAL), C2-SPECTR, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, Care Data/Social Care Online, Sociological Abstracts, Criminal Justice Abstracts, Bibliography of Nordic Criminology (all to late 2006), and SIGLE to 2003. Santé mentale au Québec was handsearched from 1976 to 2003 and reference lists of articles. We also contacted field experts and the authors of included studies. Randomised controlled trials (including cluster-randomised and quasi-randomised trials) of cognitive behavioural therapy with men who physically abuse their partners and reporting effects on continued violence. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We contacted study authors for additional information. Six trials, all from the USA, involving 2343 people, were included. A meta-analysis of four trials comparing CBT with a no-intervention control with 1771 participants, reported that the relative risk of violence was 0.86 (favouring the intervention group) with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of 0.54 to 1.38. This is a small effect size, and the confidence interval is so wide that there is no clear evidence for an effect. One study (Wisconsin Study) compared CBT with process-psychodynamic group treatment and found a relative risk of new violence of 1.07 (95% CI 0.68 to 1

  7. Cognitive behavioural therapy for older adults with depression: a review.

    PubMed

    Jayasekara, Rasika; Procter, Nicholas; Harrison, Julie; Skelton, Kerim; Hampel, Sally; Draper, Russell; Deuter, Kate

    2015-06-01

    Depression is a major public health concern of global significance. The illness diminishes overall quality of life and has been associated with significant distress and disability in physical, interpersonal, and social role functioning. Over the past few decades, a consensus has evolved that cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) can be an effective treatment for depression in older adults; however, little attention has been given to its effect on them. The purpose of this review was to examine the current use of CBT and its effect on older adults with depression. A web-based literature search was performed to identify original research articles published from 2000 to 2013 using a three-step search strategy. Evidence indicates that cognitive behavioural therapies are likely to be efficacious in older people when compared with treatment as usual. This is consistent with the findings of several systematic reviews and meta-analyses undertaken across a wider age range. Given that many older adults with depression are reluctant to accept antidepressant medication or unable to tolerate their side effects, CBT can be used as an option in treating depression in older adults.

  8. Computer games supporting cognitive behaviour therapy in children.

    PubMed

    Brezinka, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic computer games might enhance children's motivation for psychotherapy, facilitate their understanding of important therapeutic concepts, structure therapy sessions, enhance treatment of migrant children and disseminate evidence-based treatment approaches. The game Treasure Hunt was developed to support cognitive behaviour therapy with children who come into treatment for various mental health problems. To evaluate the applicability and appropriateness of the game, 124 therapists answered a questionnaire on their impression of Treasure Hunt three months after download. Of these, 42 consented to participate in the further evaluation and sent questionnaires of 218 children in whose therapy Treasure Hunt had been used. A limitation of these data is an eventual positive bias, as therapists with a positive attitude towards therapeutic computer games may have been more likely to participate. Data show that the vast majority of children were satisfied their therapist had used the game during treatment. Therapists used Treasure Hunt for a broad range of diagnoses. They judged the game as helpful in the explanation of cognitive-behavioural concepts, used it as reinforcement and reported it enhanced child motivation for psychotherapy and strengthened the therapeutic relationship with the child.

  9. Experiences of Enhanced Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Bulimia Nervosa.

    PubMed

    Onslow, Louise; Woodward, Debbie; Hoefkens, Toni; Waddington, Louise

    2016-03-01

    Recent quantitative studies provide support for an "enhanced" transdiagnostic approach of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT-E) for eating disorders; however it is not yet known how recipients of CBT-E experience therapy. The current study used a qualitative approach to explore service users' experiences of CBT-E. Individuals with a diagnosis of bulimia nervosa and who had completed CBT-E from one service in Wales were invited to participate. Semi-structured interviews were completed with eight individuals and analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). Participants valued both specific and non-specific elements of CBT-E. Therapist specialism in eating disorders was considered to enhance therapist empathy. The most helpful aspects specific to CBT-E were gaining insight into maintenance cycles and experiential learning. The most challenging aspects of CBT-E were changing behaviours and cognitions "in the moment" and in the longer-term. The implication of therapist specialism and empathy is further discussed, as well as the difficulty for CBT-E in changing service users' long-standing core beliefs.

  10. [Cognitive training interventions for normal aging, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's].

    PubMed

    Bier, Nathalie; Desrosiers, Johanne; Gagnon, Lise

    2006-02-01

    In the past few years, occupational therapists have been increasingly working with geriatric clients and have used interventions focused on enhancing independance and quality of life. In this area of practice, the cognitive training intervention aimed more specifically at memory disorders, is a promising intervention for the area of aging and occupational therapy. The aim of this literature review is to present an overview of the fundamentals, objectives and procedures of the cognitive training intervention used with the following populations: aging people presenting a memory disorder associated with normal aging with mild cognitive impairment or with Alzheimer's disease. A discussion on the cognitive management of memory is presented with respect to the cognitive characteristics of each of these clients.

  11. Behavioural interventions to promote workers' use of respiratory protective equipment.

    PubMed

    Luong Thanh, Bao Yen; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Koh, David; Sakunkoo, Pornpun; Moe, Hla

    2016-12-07

    Respiratory hazards are common in the workplace. Depending on the hazard and exposure, the health consequences may include: mild to life-threatening illnesses from infectious agents, acute effects ranging from respiratory irritation to chronic lung conditions, or even cancer from exposure to chemicals or toxins. Use of respiratory protective equipment (RPE) is an important preventive measure in many occupational settings. RPE only offers protection when worn properly, when removed safely and when it is either replaced or maintained regularly. The effectiveness of behavioural interventions either directed at employers or organisations or directed at individual workers to promote RPE use in workers remains an important unanswered question. To assess the effects of any behavioural intervention either directed at organisations or at individual workers on observed or self-reported RPE use in workers when compared to no intervention or an alternative intervention. We searched the Cochrane Work Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2016, Issue 07), MEDLINE (1980 to 12 August 2016), EMBASE (1980 to 20 August 2016) and CINAHL (1980 to 12 August 2016). We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), controlled before and after (CBA) studies and interrupted time-series (ITS) comparing behavioural interventions versus no intervention or any other behavioural intervention to promote RPE use in workers. Four authors independently selected relevant studies, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. We contacted investigators to clarify information. We pooled outcome data from included studies where the studies were sufficiently similar. We included 14 studies that evaluated the effect of training and education on RPE use, which involved 2052 participants. The included studies had been conducted with farm, healthcare, production line, office and coke oven workers as well as nursing students and people with mixed occupations. All

  12. Intervention Fidelity for a Complex Behaviour Change Intervention in Community Pharmacy Addressing Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, K. P.; O'Reilly, S. L.; George, J.; Peterson, G. M.; Jackson, S. L.; Duncan, G.; Howarth, H.; Dunbar, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Delivery of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention programs by community pharmacists appears effective and enhances health service access. However, their capacity to implement complex behavioural change processes during patient counselling remains largely unexplored. This study aims to determine intervention fidelity by pharmacists…

  13. Intervention Fidelity for a Complex Behaviour Change Intervention in Community Pharmacy Addressing Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, K. P.; O'Reilly, S. L.; George, J.; Peterson, G. M.; Jackson, S. L.; Duncan, G.; Howarth, H.; Dunbar, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Delivery of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention programs by community pharmacists appears effective and enhances health service access. However, their capacity to implement complex behavioural change processes during patient counselling remains largely unexplored. This study aims to determine intervention fidelity by pharmacists…

  14. Do People with Intellectual Disabilities and Psychosis Have the Cognitive Skills Required to Undertake Cognitive Behavioural Therapy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oathamshaw, Stephen C.; Haddock, Gillian

    2006-01-01

    Background: Cognitive skills thought to be necessary to undertake cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) include the ability to recognize emotions, link events and emotions, and recognize cognitive mediation. These skills have been assessed in people with intellectual disabilities, but not in those who also have psychosis. Materials and methods:…

  15. Do People with Intellectual Disabilities and Psychosis Have the Cognitive Skills Required to Undertake Cognitive Behavioural Therapy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oathamshaw, Stephen C.; Haddock, Gillian

    2006-01-01

    Background: Cognitive skills thought to be necessary to undertake cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) include the ability to recognize emotions, link events and emotions, and recognize cognitive mediation. These skills have been assessed in people with intellectual disabilities, but not in those who also have psychosis. Materials and methods:…

  16. Personality in Parkinson's disease: Clinical, behavioural and cognitive correlates.

    PubMed

    Santangelo, Gabriella; Piscopo, Fausta; Barone, Paolo; Vitale, Carmine

    2017-03-15

    Affective disorders and personality changes have long been considered pre-motor aspects of Parkinson's disease (PD). Many authors have used the term "premorbid personality" to define distinctive features of PD patients' personality characterized by reduced exploration of new environmental stimuli or potential reward sources ("novelty seeking") and avoidance behaviour ("harm avoidance") present before motor features. The functional correlates underlying the personality changes described in PD, implicate dysfunction of meso-cortico-limbic and striatal circuits. As disease progresses, the imbalance of neurotransmitter systems secondary to degenerative processes, along with dopamine replacement therapy, can produce a reversal of behaviours and an increase in reward seeking, laying the foundations for the emergence of the impulse control disorders. Personality disorders can be interpreted, therefore, as the result of individual susceptibility arising from intrinsic degenerative processes and individual personality features, in combination with extrinsic factors such as lifestyle, PD motor dysfunction and drug treatment. For a better understanding of personality disorders observed in PD and their relationship with the prodromal stage of the disease, prospective clinical studies are needed that correlate different personality profiles with other disease progression markers. Here, we review previous studies investigating the clinical, cognitive and behavioural correlates of personality traits in PD patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Patients' perspective on homework assignments in cognitive-behavioural therapy.

    PubMed

    Fehm, Lydia; Mrose, Jana

    2008-01-01

    Homework assignments are an indispensable part of cognitive-behavioural therapy. During the past two decades, a growing number of studies have shed light on its characteristics and effects. However, most studies primarily consider the therapists' view, and little is known about the use of supportive strategies to implement homework assignments in psychotherapy and about patients' attitudes towards regular assignments. To fill this gap, we assessed the attitudes towards homework assignments of 80 outpatients. In addition, those who had received a task during the past session (75%) were asked to report characteristics of their task as well as therapists' behaviour strategies during the assignment of the task. One week later, therapists rated the extent of completion of the task. Results showed that the patients generally had a positive attitude towards homework and that they accomplished most of the tasks. With regard to the therapists' behaviour during the assignment of the task, there seems to be room for improvement. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. CHAMP: Cognitive behaviour therapy for health anxiety in medical patients, a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Abnormal health anxiety, also called hypochondriasis, has been successfully treated by cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in patients recruited from primary care, but only one pilot trial has been carried out among those attending secondary medical clinics where health anxiety is likely to be more common and have a greater impact on services. The CHAMP study extends this work to examine both the clinical and cost effectiveness of CBT in this population. Method/Design The study is a randomized controlled trial with two parallel arms and equal randomization of 466 eligible patients (assuming a 20% drop-out) to an active treatment group of 5-10 sessions of cognitive behaviour therapy and to a control group. The aim at baseline, after completion of all assessments but before randomization, was to give a standard simple explanation of the nature of health anxiety for all participants. Subsequently the control group was to receive whatever care might usually be available in the clinics, which is normally a combination of clinical assessment, appropriate tests and reassurance. Those allocated to the active treatment group were planned to receive between 5 and 10 sessions of an adapted form of cognitive behaviour therapy based on the Salkovskis/Warwick model, in which a set of treatment strategies are chosen aimed at helping patients understand the factors that drive and maintain health anxiety. The therapy was planned to be given by graduate research workers, nurses or other health professionals trained for this intervention whom would also have their competence assessed independently during the course of treatment. The primary outcome is reduction in health anxiety symptoms after one year and the main secondary outcome is the cost of care after two years. Discussion This represents the first trial of adapted cognitive behaviour therapy in health anxiety that is large enough to test not only the clinical benefits of treatment but also whether the cost of

  19. Cognitive Reserve: Implications for Assessment and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Yaakov

    2014-01-01

    The concept of reserve is used to explain the observation that some individuals function better than others in the presence of brain pathology. This paper reviews the concept of reserve from its theoretical basis to the implication of reserve for clinical practice. A distinction between brain reserve, referring to individual differences in the anatomic substrate, and cognitive reserve, referring to differences in the flexibility or adaptivity of cognitive networks, is useful. Epidemiologic evidence indicates that a set of life exposures including higher educational and occupational attainment, and engaging in leisure activities is associated with a lower risk of incident dementia, suggesting that these life exposures may enhance cognitive reserve. This provides a basis for controlled clinical studies can test specific exposures that may enhance reserve. The concept of cognitive reserve also has important implications for clinical practice in terms of diagnosis and prognosis. PMID:23941972

  20. Interpersonal Factors Are Associated with Lower Therapist Adherence in Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Panic Disorder.

    PubMed

    Zickgraf, Hana F; Chambless, Dianne L; McCarthy, Kevin S; Gallop, Robert; Sharpless, Brian A; Milrod, Barbara L; Barber, Jacques P

    2016-05-01

    The contributions of disorder severity, comorbidity and interpersonal variables to therapists' adherence to a cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) manual were tested. Thirty-eight patients received panic control therapy (PCT) for panic disorder. Trained observers watching videotapes of the sixth session of a 24-session protocol rated therapists' adherence to PCT and their use of interventions from outside the CBT model. Different observers rated patients' behavioural resistance to therapy in the same session using the client resistance code. Interview measures obtained before treatment included the Panic Disorder Severity Scale, the anxiety disorders interview schedule for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV and the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV, Axis II. Questionnaire measures were the anxiety sensitivity index at intake, and, at session 2, the therapist and client versions of the working alliance inventory-short form. The higher the patients' resistance and the more Axis II traits a patient had, the less adherent the therapist. Moreover, the more resistant the client, the more therapists resorted to interventions from outside the CBT model. Stronger therapist and patient alliance was also generally related to better adherence, but these results were somewhat inconsistent across therapists. Pretreatment disorder severity and comorbidity were not related to adherence. Interpersonal variables, particularly behavioural resistance to therapy, are related to therapists' ability to adhere to a treatment manual and to their use of interventions from outside of the CBT model. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Patients' behavioural resistance to therapy may make it more difficult for cognitive-behavioural clinicians to adhere to a structured treatment protocol and more likely for them to borrow interventions from outside the CBT model. Patients' Axis II traits may make adherence to treatment CBT protocol more difficult

  1. Cognitive behaviour therapy in addition to antispasmodic treatment for irritable bowel syndrome in primary care: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Tom; Jones, Roger; Darnley, Simon; Seed, Paul; Wessely, Simon; Chalder, Trudie

    2005-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy of cognitive behaviour therapy delivered in primary care for treating irritable bowel syndrome. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting 10 general practices in London. Participants 149 patients with moderate or severe irritable bowel syndrome resistant to the antispasmodic mebeverine. Interventions Cognitive behaviour therapy delivered by trained primary care nurses plus 270 mg mebeverine taken thrice daily compared with mebeverine treatment alone. Main outcome measures Primary measures were patients' scores on the irritable bowel syndrome symptom severity scale. Secondary measures were scores on the work and social adjustment scale and the hospital anxiety and depression scale. Results Of 334 referred patients, 72 were randomised to mebeverine plus cognitive behaviour therapy and 77 to mebeverine alone. Cognitive behaviour therapy had considerable initial benefit on symptom severity compared with mebeverine alone, with a mean reduction in score of 68 points (95% confidence interval 103 to 33), with the benefit persisting at three months and six months after therapy (mean reductions 71 points (109 to 32) and 11 points (20 to 3)) but not later. Cognitive behaviour therapy also showed significant benefit on the work and social adjustment scale that was still present 12 months after therapy (mean reduction 2.8 points (5.2 to 0.4)), but had an inconsistent effect on the hospital anxiety and depression scale. Conclusion Cognitive behaviour therapy delivered by primary care nurses offered additional benefit over mebeverine alone up to six months, although the effect had waned by 12 months. Such therapy may be useful for certain patients with irritable bowel syndrome in primary care. PMID:16093252

  2. Distinctive effects between cognitive stimulation and reminiscence therapy on cognitive function and quality of life for different types of behavioural problems in dementia.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiu-Ching; Yang, Ya-Ping; Cheng, Wen-Yun; Wang, Jing-Jy

    2017-09-07

    Among the various complementary therapies for patients with dementia (PwD), cognitive stimulation therapy (CST) and reminiscence therapy (RT) are frequently used to improve cognitive function and quality of life. However, no studies have examined the use of complementary therapies applied to different types of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia in PwD. The purpose of this study was to investigate the distinctive effects of CST and RT on cognitive function and quality of life for PwD with three types of behavioural problems - the dispute, return and dissociate types. A quasi-experimental design was employed. A total of PwD residing in 10 long-term care institutions participated in the study and were divided into three groups. The CST and RT groups received 50-minute sessions of intervention therapy once a week for 10 continuous weeks, and the control group participated in regular activities. The pretest (week 1), post-test (week 12) and follow-up (week 24) data were collected using the Mini-Mental State Examination and Quality of Life-Alzheimer's Disease. Two-way analysis of variance was used for data analysis. The results of our study revealed CST and RT interventions had positive effects on cognition and quality of life of PwD. For short-term effects on cognitive function, CST was the most positive intervention for the dispute type. With regard to short-term effects on quality of life, CST was greater than RT for PwD. For follow-up effects, CST and RT may have potentially sustained effects. This study suggests that CST and RT could be applied to improve the cognitive function and quality of life for PwD, as well as contribute to the effectiveness of nonpharmacological approaches to PwD with certain types of behavioural problems. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  3. Forensic anogenital exam interventions: potential contributions of cognitive appraisal theory.

    PubMed

    Waibel-Duncan, Mary Katherine; Sandier, Howard M

    2002-02-01

    This manuscript proposes that Smith and Lazarus's cognitive appraisal theory offers a useful conceptual guide for exploring the mechanisms underlying psychoeducation's apparent efficacy at reducing children's forensic anogenital exam distress. After presenting an overview of Smith and Lazarus's cognitive emotional relational theory of emotions, the authors suggest how this model of cognition-emotion associations might inform the refinement and evaluation of current preparatory interventions as well as the design of future patient/family education programs. Empirical evidence from the broader pediatric literature and direct observations of children's anogenital exam experiences suggest how cognitive appraisal theory translates into clinical research and practice. Avenues for future research are proposed.

  4. Music therapy and Alzheimer's disease: Cognitive, psychological, and behavioural effects.

    PubMed

    Gómez Gallego, M; Gómez García, J

    2017-06-01

    Music therapy is one of the types of active ageing programmes which are offered to elderly people. The usefulness of this programme in the field of dementia is beginning to be recognised by the scientific community, since studies have reported physical, cognitive, and psychological benefits. Further studies detailing the changes resulting from the use of music therapy with Alzheimer patients are needed. Determine the clinical improvement profile of Alzheimer patients who have undergone music therapy. Forty-two patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease underwent music therapy for 6 weeks. The changes in results on the Mini-mental State Examination, Neuropsychiatric Inventory, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Barthel Index scores were studied. We also analysed whether or not these changes were influenced by the degree of dementia severity. Significant improvement was observed in memory, orientation, depression and anxiety (HAD scale) in both mild and moderate cases; in anxiety (NPI scale) in mild cases; and in delirium, hallucinations, agitation, irritability, and language disorders in the group with moderate Alzheimer disease. The effect on cognitive measures was appreciable after only 4 music therapy sessions. In the sample studied, music therapy improved some cognitive, psychological, and behavioural alterations in patients with Alzheimer disease. Combining music therapy with dance therapy to improve motor and functional impairment would be an interesting line of research. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. A spatially explicit Bayesian framework for cognitive schooling behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Grünbaum, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Social aggregations such as schools, swarms, flocks and herds occur across a broad diversity of animal species, strongly impacting ecological and evolutionary dynamics of these species and their predators, prey and competitors. The mechanisms through which individual-level responses to neighbours generate group-level characteristics have been extensively investigated both experimentally and using mathematical models. Models of social groups typically adopt a ‘zone’ approach, in which individuals’ movement responses to neighbours are functions of instantaneous relative position. Empirical studies have demonstrated that most social animals such as fish exhibit well-developed spatial memory and other advanced cognitive capabilities. However, most models of social grouping do not explicitly include spatial memory, largely because a tractable framework for modelling acquisition of and response to historical spatial information has been lacking. Using fish schooling as a focal example, this study presents a framework for including cognitive responses to spatial memory in models of social aggregation. The framework utilizes Bayesian estimation parameters that are continuously distributed in time and space as proxies for animals’ spatial memory. The result is a hybrid Lagrangian–Eulerian model in which the effects of cognitive state and behavioural responses to historical spatial data on individual-, group- and population-level distributions of social animals can be explicitly investigated. PMID:24312727

  6. Riding the waves: A functional-cognitive perspective on the relations among behaviour therapy, cognitive behaviour therapy and acceptance and commitment therapy.

    PubMed

    De Houwer, Jan; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2016-02-01

    Different types of therapy explain psychopathology and the effects of psychotherapy differently. Different explanations are, however, not necessarily mutually exclusive. Based on the idea that functional and cognitive explanations are situated at different levels, we argue that functional therapies such as traditional Behaviour Therapy (BT) and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) are not necessarily incompatible with Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT). Whether a functional and a cognitive therapy actually align depends on whether they highlight the same type of environmental causes. This functional-cognitive perspective reveals various differences and communalities among BT, CBT and ACT. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  7. Developing a Complex Educational-Behavioural Intervention: The TREAT Intervention for Patients with Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Clarkesmith, Danielle E; Pattison, Helen M; Borg Xuereb, Christian; Lane, Deirdre A

    2016-01-14

    This article describes the theoretical and pragmatic development of a patient-centred intervention for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Theoretical models (Common Sense Model, Necessity-Concerns Framework), clinical frameworks, and AF patient feedback contributed to the design of a one-off hour-long behaviour-change intervention package. Intervention materials consisted of a DVD, educational booklet, diary and worksheet, which were patient-centred and easy to administer. The intervention was evaluated within a randomised controlled trial. Several "active theoretical ingredients" were identified (for e.g., where patients believed their medication was less harmful they spent more time within the therapeutic range (TTR), with general harm scores predicting TTR at 6 months). Allowing for social comparison and adopting behaviour change techniques enabled accurate patient understanding of their condition and medication. The process of developing the intervention using theory-derived content and evaluation tools allowed a greater understanding of the mechanisms by which this intervention was successful. Alleviating concerns about treatment medication by educating patients can help to improve adherence. This process of intervention development could be adopted for a range of chronic illnesses and treatments. Critical elements should include the use of: (1) clinical guidelines; (2) appropriate theoretical models; (3) patient input; and (4) appropriate evaluation tools.

  8. Developing a Complex Educational–Behavioural Intervention: The TREAT Intervention for Patients with Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Clarkesmith, Danielle E.; Pattison, Helen M.; Borg Xuereb, Christian; Lane, Deirdre A.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the theoretical and pragmatic development of a patient-centred intervention for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Theoretical models (Common Sense Model, Necessity-Concerns Framework), clinical frameworks, and AF patient feedback contributed to the design of a one-off hour-long behaviour-change intervention package. Intervention materials consisted of a DVD, educational booklet, diary and worksheet, which were patient-centred and easy to administer. The intervention was evaluated within a randomised controlled trial. Several “active theoretical ingredients” were identified (for e.g., where patients believed their medication was less harmful they spent more time within the therapeutic range (TTR), with general harm scores predicting TTR at 6 months). Allowing for social comparison and adopting behaviour change techniques enabled accurate patient understanding of their condition and medication. The process of developing the intervention using theory-derived content and evaluation tools allowed a greater understanding of the mechanisms by which this intervention was successful. Alleviating concerns about treatment medication by educating patients can help to improve adherence. This process of intervention development could be adopted for a range of chronic illnesses and treatments. Critical elements should include the use of: (1) clinical guidelines; (2) appropriate theoretical models; (3) patient input; and (4) appropriate evaluation tools. PMID:27417598

  9. Relationship between behavioural coping strategies and acceptance in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome: Elucidating targets of interventions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous research has found that acceptance of pain is more successful than cognitive coping variables for predicting adjustment to pain. This research has a limitation because measures of cognitive coping rely on observations and reports of thoughts or attempts to change thoughts rather than on overt behaviours. The purpose of the present study, therefore, is to compare the influence of acceptance measures and the influence of different behavioural coping strategies on the adjustment to chronic pain. Methods A sample of 167 individuals diagnosed with fibromyalgia syndrome completed the Chronic Pain Coping Inventory (CPCI) and the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ). Results Correlational analyses indicated that the acceptance variables were more related to distress and functioning than were behavioural coping variables. The average magnitudes of the coefficients for activity engagement and pain willingness (both subscales of pain acceptance) across the measures of distress and functioning were r = 0.42 and 0.25, respectively, meanwhile the average magnitude of the correlation between coping and functioning was r = 0.17. Regression analyses examined the independent, relative contributions of coping and acceptance to adjustment indicators and demonstrated that acceptance accounted for more variance than did coping variables. The variance contributed by acceptance scores ranged from 4.0 to 40%. The variance contributed by the coping variables ranged from 0 to 9%. Conclusions This study extends the findings of previous work in enhancing the adoption of acceptance-based interventions for maintaining accurate functioning in fibromyalgia patients. PMID:21714918

  10. A Systematic Review of Psychological Interventions to Alleviate Cognitive and Psychosocial Problems in Children with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Kimberley A.; Dorris, Liam; McMillan, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Aim: It is now generally accepted that paediatric acquired brain injury (ABI) can have an impact on a child's cognitive, social, and behavioural functioning. However, the lack of guidelines on effective interventions for the affected children and their families, particularly beyond the acute recovery phase, can limit access to effective support.…

  11. A Systematic Review of Psychological Interventions to Alleviate Cognitive and Psychosocial Problems in Children with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Kimberley A.; Dorris, Liam; McMillan, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Aim: It is now generally accepted that paediatric acquired brain injury (ABI) can have an impact on a child's cognitive, social, and behavioural functioning. However, the lack of guidelines on effective interventions for the affected children and their families, particularly beyond the acute recovery phase, can limit access to effective support.…

  12. Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy in a Hospital Setting for Children with Severe Emotional and/or Behaviour Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Lay See; Wong, Margaret; Gerken, Kathryn; Ansley, Timothy

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioural therapy programme for 13 children treated for severe emotional or behaviour disorders in a hospital setting. Data were obtained from multiple informants at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and three months follow-up. Results indicated statistically significant improvement in the…

  13. Parents' Use of Physical Interventions in the Management of Their Children's Severe Challenging Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, David; Hawkins, Sarah; Cooper, Viv

    2006-01-01

    Background: Although training staff supporting people with challenging behaviour in physical interventions has become accepted practice, parents are often left to fend for themselves while managing equivalent behaviours. The study explores parents' experience of managing severe challenging behaviours, their use of physical interventions and access…

  14. Efficacy of cognitive behavioural therapy for children and adolescents with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Valentina; Colombo, Katia; Liscio, Mariarosaria; Galbiati, Susanna; Adduci, Anna; Villa, Federica; Strazzer, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Behavioural and psychological disorders after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are very common. The purposes of this study were to estimate the frequency of these problems in our sample, to evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and to assess the predictive value of important clinical variables for the treatment outcome. Forty patients aged 4-18 years were included in this study. Twenty-eight patients received CBT at our Institute (clinical group), while 12 patients did not receive any treatment at all (control group). The CBCL/4-18 and the VABS were administered to parents at the beginning of the study and after 12 months. A high frequency of psychological and behavioural problems was found in both groups of patients. After CBT, the clinical group showed a significant advantage on several CBCL scales and a greater increase in adaptive behaviour on the VABS Socialisation domain. The Glasgow Coma Scale score, days of unconsciousness and age at injury were not predictors of the severity of psychological problems at the follow-up for the patients of the clinical group. Our results suggest that CBT is an effective intervention for young patients with psychological problems after TBI.

  15. Addressing challenging behaviour in children with Down syndrome: the use of applied behaviour analysis for assessment and intervention.

    PubMed

    Feeley, Kathleen M; Jones, Emily A

    2006-09-01

    Children with Down syndrome are at an increased risk for engaging in challenging behaviour that may be part of a behavioural phenotype characteristic of Down syndrome. The methodology of applied behaviour analysis has been demonstrated effective with a wide range of challenging behaviours, across various disabilities. Applications to children with Down syndrome and the examination of behaviourally based strategies to specifically address the unique characteristics of children with Down syndrome are limited. However, there are several studies in which a subset of the participants did have Down syndrome. A handful of these studies are reviewed within the context of functional behaviour assessment and Positive Behavioural Supports. Drawing from these studies and the behavioural literature, as well as the authors' clinical experience and research, suggestions regarding early intervention for challenging behaviour with children with Down syndrome are provided.

  16. Impact of a cognitive rehabilitation intervention on neuropsychiatric symptoms in mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Brunelle-Hamann, Laurence; Thivierge, Stéphanie; Simard, Martine

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of a cognitive rehabilitation programme on 12 behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD). This six-month single-blind block-randomised cross-over controlled study was conducted with 15 mild to moderate AD participants and their caregivers. All participants received a four-week home-based cognitive rehabilitation programme to learn/re-learn an instrumental activity of daily living. They were assessed up until three months following the end of the intervention. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI-12) was employed to evaluate patients' BPSD at seven assessment points during the course of the study. A general linear mixed model analysis performed on the NPI data revealed that aberrant motor behaviours (AMB) increased significantly more in the treatment condition than in the control condition. In addition, both groups registered a significant reduction of delusional symptoms during the second half of the study. Employing a multi-symptom approach to assess participants' BPSD, this cross-over randomised controlled study showed that an individualised cognitive rehabilitation intervention was generally well-tolerated by mild to moderate AD patients. Future cognitive rehabilitation studies conducted with this population should pay attention to AMB symptom changes.

  17. Treating prolactinoma and psychosis: medication and cognitive behavioural therapy.

    PubMed

    Nieman, D H; Sutterland, A L; Otten, J; Becker, H E; Drent, M L; van der Gaag, M; Birchwood, M; de Haan, L

    2011-02-09

    The patient in this case report had two severe medical conditions that require oppositional treatment: prolactinoma and psychosis. A prolactinoma is a benign tumour of the pituitary gland that produces prolactin. Dopamine agonist medication is the first-line treatment in patients with prolactinoma. The psychotic symptoms started after a dosage increase of a dopamine D2-receptor agonist. Several antipsychotic medications were tried with and without the dopamine D2-receptor agonist, but severe command hallucinations remained. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) was added which reduced the impact of the hallucinations to a great extent, indicating that CBT can have an additional positive effect in prolactinoma patients with psychosis that shows incomplete recovery after antipsychotic medication. Future research should be aimed at the severe and prolonged side effects of dopamine agonists in the treatment of prolactinoma patients with multiple risk factors for a psychotic decompensation.

  18. Treating prolactinoma and psychosis: medication and cognitive behavioural therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nieman, DH; Sutterland, AL; Otten, J; Becker, HE; Drent, ML; van der Gaag, M; Birchwood, M; de Haan, L

    2011-01-01

    The patient in this case report had two severe medical conditions that require oppositional treatment: prolactinoma and psychosis. A prolactinoma is a benign tumour of the pituitary gland that produces prolactin. Dopamine agonist medication is the first-line treatment in patients with prolactinoma. The psychotic symptoms started after a dosage increase of a dopamine D2-receptor agonist. Several antipsychotic medications were tried with and without the dopamine D2-receptor agonist, but severe command hallucinations remained. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) was added which reduced the impact of the hallucinations to a great extent, indicating that CBT can have an additional positive effect in prolactinoma patients with psychosis that shows incomplete recovery after antipsychotic medication. Future research should be aimed at the severe and prolonged side effects of dopamine agonists in the treatment of prolactinoma patients with multiple risk factors for a psychotic decompensation. PMID:22715200

  19. Status of computerized cognitive behavioural therapy for adults.

    PubMed

    Titov, Nickolai

    2007-02-01

    A growing body of evidence supports the efficacy of computerized cognitive behavioural therapy (CCBT). This technology has the potential to increase the capacity of mental health services, and to overcome some of the barriers to accessing mental health services, including stigma, traveling time for rural patients, treatment delays, and the low availability of skilled clinicians. This review discusses key issues around the implementation of CCBT in current mental health services, and summarizes recent evidence for the efficacy of CCBT in anxiety and depression. Many CCBT systems exist, and the evidence for each varies in quality and quantity. It is concluded that CCBT, particularly guided by a therapist, represents a promising resource. However, considerable work needs to be done to develop CCBT techniques that are appropriate to Australasian populations, acceptable to patients and clinicians, easy to use, and are clinically and cost effective. Suggestions are made for further research and useful website addresses are provided to assist clinicians in familiarizing themselves with CCBT.

  20. REDUCING SYMPTOM LIMITATIONS: A COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION RANDOMIZED TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    DOORENBOS, ARDITH; GIVEN, BARBARA; GIVEN, CHARLES; VERBITSKY, NATALYA; CIMPRICH, BERNADINE; MCCORKLE, RUTH

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY Until now, little research has been conducted examining the reactive dimension, or the degree to which a symptom limits an individual’s life, in a multiplicity of symptoms. This research examines how problem-solving therapy organizes an intervention to decrease symptom limitations. The purpose was threefold: to determine if a cognitive behavioral intervention decreases the impact of symptom limitations among individuals newly diagnosed with cancer, who are receiving chemotherapy; to determine, after adjusting for covariates, how symptom limitations change over time; and to describe which symptoms are most limiting. This randomized control trial was conducted in two comprehensive and four community cancer centers. Two hundred thirty-seven individuals, aged 31–87, newly diagnosed with solid tumor cancers, participated. The experimental group (118 individuals) received a 10-contact, 18-week cognitive behavioral intervention focused on cancer- and chemotherapy-related symptoms. The control group (119 individuals) received conventional care. Interviews occurred at baseline, 10, 20, and 32 weeks. Data analysis used a two-level hierarchical linear model. Participants receiving the cognitive behavioral intervention had lower scores of symptom limitation than did participants in the control group. At the onset of the study, younger patients reported more symptom limitations than their older counterparts; however, this was reversed by the end of the study. The cognitive behavioral intervention was key to decreasing symptom limitations. Findings also suggest that nursing interventions may be particularly helpful to younger individuals in managing cancer-related symptom limitations. PMID:15643674

  1. Reducing symptom limitations: a cognitive behavioral intervention randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Doorenbos, Ardith; Given, Barbara; Given, Charles; Verbitsky, Natalya; Cimprich, Bernadine; McCorkle, Ruth

    2005-07-01

    Until now, little research has been conducted examining the reactive dimension, or the degree to which a symptom limits an individual's life, in a multiplicity of symptoms. This research examines how problem-solving therapy organizes an intervention to decrease symptom limitations. The purpose was threefold: to determine if a cognitive behavioral intervention decreases the impact of symptom limitations among individuals newly diagnosed with cancer, who are receiving chemotherapy; to determine, after adjusting for covariates, how symptom limitations change over time; and to describe which symptoms are most limiting. This randomized control trial was conducted in two comprehensive and four community cancer centers. Two hundred thirty-seven individuals, aged 31-87, newly diagnosed with solid tumor cancers, participated. The experimental group (118 individuals) received a 10-contact, 18-week cognitive behavioral intervention focused on cancer- and chemotherapy-related symptoms. The control group (119 individuals) received conventional care. Interviews occurred at baseline, 10, 20, and 32 weeks. Data analysis used a two-level hierarchical linear model. Participants receiving the cognitive behavioral intervention had lower scores of symptom limitation than did participants in the control group. At the onset of the study, younger patients reported more symptom limitations than their older counterparts; however, this was reversed by the end of the study. The cognitive behavioral intervention was key to decreasing symptom limitations. Findings also suggest that nursing interventions may be particularly helpful to younger individuals in managing cancer-related symptom limitations. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Clients' experiences of formulation in cognitive behaviour therapy.

    PubMed

    Redhead, Susannah; Johnstone, Lucy; Nightingale, Jim

    2015-12-01

    To explore clients' experiences of formulation in cognitive behaviour therapy for depression and/or anxiety, as reported after the end of therapy. A qualitative study using inductive thematic analysis. Ten clients who had completed a course of cognitive behaviour therapy for depression and/or anxiety participated in semi-structured interviews within a month of finishing therapy. Four overarching themes were identified: Formulation helps me to understand my problems; formulation leads to feeling understood and accepted; formulation leads to an emotional shift and formulation enables me to move forward. Formulation is a powerful therapeutic tool that can be highly beneficial to clients, leading to an increased understanding of their difficulties, feeling understood and accepted and a sense of relief. The process of formulation can also result in distress, however, when associated with an increased awareness of the nature of one's difficulties, the implications of the formulation for one's sense of identity and being presented with a formulation that is perceived to be inaccurate. In some cases, this distress decreased during therapy, while for others, distress lasted beyond the end of therapy. Formulation enabled many participants to move forwards from their difficulties, leading them to feel empowered, helping them to cope, enabling them to talk more openly, in contrast to previous therapy which had not focused on formulation. Clinical implications indicate that formulation should be undertaken in a sensitive and collaborative way to maximize its benefits and minimize any possible negative effects. Formulation can be highly beneficial for clients enabling them to move forwards from their difficulties. It is important to be mindful of clients' possible adverse reactions to the formulation, so that these can be resolved during therapy. Formulation should be undertaken attentively sensitively and collaboratively to maximize its benefits and minimize negative effects.

  3. The influence of classroom peers on cognitive performance in children with behavioural problems.

    PubMed

    Bevington, J; Wishart, J G

    1999-03-01

    Identifying factors linked to underachievement is fundamental to understanding the associated academic difficulties and crucial to the development of effective intervention strategies. Underachievement in a number of academic domains has been shown to be associated with behavioural problems in the classroom but the nature of the association and direction of any causal link has yet to be clarified. This study explored the association between poor academic achievement and behavioural problems by examining the direct effects of peer presence on classroom performance in children with identified behavioural difficulties. Specifically, it was hypothesised that independent performance on a cognitive task would decrease as number of classroom peers present increased. A total of 24 children attending two special schools for children with emotional and behavioural difficulties participated in the study. Age range was 9-14 years. A within-subjects design was used in which performance on a set of perceptual/conceptual matching tasks was assessed under three conditions: the child working alone, alongside one other peer, or within a group of six. Measures of non-verbal intelligence and academic attainment were collected, along with teacher ratings of the severity of each child's problem behaviour. Performance was found to be significantly influenced by peer presence, both in terms of number of correct responses and time taken to complete the matching tasks. Direction of effects on these two performance indicators differed according to number of peers present. Findings highlight the importance of contextual factors in determining classroom performance in children with behavioural difficulties. Given the current pressure to educate all children in mainstream classes, findings have implications for classroom management.

  4. Cognitive-behaviour therapy for post-traumatic stress in schizophrenia. A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Steel, C; Hardy, A; Smith, B; Wykes, T; Rose, S; Enright, S; Hardcastle, M; Landau, S; Baksh, M F; Gottlieb, J D; Rose, D; Mueser, K T

    2017-01-01

    There is limited evidence for effective interventions in the treatment of post-traumatic stress symptoms within individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia. Clinicians have concerns about using exposure treatments with this patient group. The current trial was designed to evaluate a 16-session cognitive restructuring programme, without direct exposure, for the treatment of post-traumatic stress symptoms specifically within individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia. A multicentre randomized controlled single-blinded trial with assessments at 0 months, 6 months (post-treatment) and 12 months (follow-up) was conducted. A total of 61 participants diagnosed with schizophrenia and exhibiting post-traumatic stress symptoms were recruited. Those randomized to treatment were offered up to 16 sessions of cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT, including psychoeducation, breathing training and cognitive restructuring) over a 6-month period, with the control group offered routine clinical services. The main outcome was blind rating of post-traumatic stress symptoms using the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale for Schizophrenia. Secondary outcomes were psychotic symptoms as measured by the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale and the Psychotic Symptom Rating Scale. Both the treatment and control groups experienced a significant decrease in post-traumatic stress symptoms over time but there was no effect of the addition of CBT on either the primary or secondary outcomes. The current trial did not demonstrate any effect in favour of CBT. Cognitive restructuring programmes may require further adaptation to promote emotional processing of traumatic memories within people diagnosed with a psychotic disorder.

  5. Cognitive-behavioural theory and therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder in children and adolescents: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Turner, Cynthia M

    2006-11-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder is recognised to be much more common than once thought, and increased awareness of prevalence has been associated with an increase in clinical and research attention. However, while the cognitive behavioural model of OCD has received considerable empirical support from adult studies, there has been relatively little investigation of this model in childhood populations. Although this literature is beginning to emerge, initial evaluations suggest there may be important differences between childhood and adult OCD with regard to the cognitive, behavioural, and family factors implicated in the etiology and maintenance of the disorder. Despite this, cognitive-behavioural interventions have been largely modelled on their adult counterparts, and there has been little evaluation of the effectiveness of various treatment components. This paper therefore seeks to critically review the current status of CBT for children and adolescents with OCD, addressing both cognitive behavioural theory and therapy. Current issues in clinical practice will be identified, gaps in the knowledge base will be highlighted, and the paper will conclude by making specific recommendations regarding the integration of research and practice.

  6. Degradation of cognitive timing mechanisms in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia

    PubMed Central

    Henley, Susie M.D.; Downey, Laura E.; Nicholas, Jennifer M.; Kinnunen, Kirsi M.; Golden, Hannah L.; Buckley, Aisling; Mahoney, Colin J.; Crutch, Sebastian J.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined motor timing in frontotemporal dementia (FTD), which manifests as progressive deterioration in social, behavioural and cognitive functions. Twenty-patients fulfilling consensus clinical criteria for behavioural variant FTD (bvFTD), 11 patients fulfilling consensus clinical criteria for semantic-variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), four patients fulfilling criteria for nonfluent/agrammatic primary progressive aphasia (naPPA), eight patients fulfilling criteria for Alzheimer׳s disease (AD), and 31 controls were assessed on both an externally- and self-paced finger-tapping task requiring maintenance of a regular, 1500 ms beat over 50 taps. Grey and white matter correlates of deficits in motor timing were examined using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). bvFTD patients exhibited significant deficits in aspects of both externally- and self-paced tapping. Increased mean inter-response interval (faster than target tap time) in the self-paced task was associated with reduced grey matter volume in the cerebellum bilaterally, right middle temporal gyrus, and with increased axial diffusivity in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus, regions and tracts which have been suggested to be involved in a subcortical–cortical network of structures underlying timing abilities. This suggests that such structures can be affected in bvFTD, and that impaired motor timing may underlie some characteristics of the bvFTD phenotype. PMID:25447066

  7. Behavioural interventions for urinary incontinence in community-dwelling seniors: an evidence-based analysis.

    PubMed

    2008-01-01

    (LTC) home. Urinary incontinence is a health problem that affects a substantial proportion of Ontario's community-dwelling seniors (and indirectly affects caregivers), impacting their health, functioning, well-being and quality of life. Based on Canadian studies, prevalence estimates range from 9% to 30% for senior men and nearly double from 19% to 55% for senior women. The direct and indirect costs associated with UI are substantial. It is estimated that the total annual costs in Canada are $1.5 billion (Cdn), and that each year a senior living at home will spend $1,000 to $1,500 on incontinence supplies. Interventions to treat and manage UI can be classified into broad categories which include lifestyle modification, behavioural techniques, medications, devices (e.g., continence pessaries), surgical interventions and adjunctive measures (e.g., absorbent products). The focus of this review is behavioural interventions, since they are commonly the first line of treatment considered in seniors given that they are the least invasive options with no reported side effects, do not limit future treatment options, and can be applied in combination with other therapies. In addition, many seniors would not be ideal candidates for other types of interventions involving more risk, such as surgical measures. It is recognized that the terms "senior" and "elderly" carry a range of meanings for different audiences; this report generally uses the former, but the terms are treated here as essentially interchangeable. Behavioural interventions can be divided into 2 categories according to the target population: caregiver-dependent techniques and patient-directed techniques. Caregiver-dependent techniques (also known as toileting assistance) are targeted at medically complex, frail individuals living at home with the assistance of a caregiver, who tends to be a family member. These seniors may also have cognitive deficits and/or motor deficits. A health care professional trains the

  8. Specifying and reporting complex behaviour change interventions: the need for a scientific method

    PubMed Central

    Michie, Susan; Fixsen, Dean; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Eccles, Martin P

    2009-01-01

    Complex behaviour change interventions are not well described; when they are described, the terminology used is inconsistent. This constrains scientific replication, and limits the subsequent introduction of successful interventions. Implementation Science is introducing a policy of initially encouraging and subsequently requiring the scientific reporting of complex behaviour change interventions. PMID:19607700

  9. Reducing the fear of falling among community-dwelling elderly adults through cognitive-behavioural strategies and intense Tai Chi exercise: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tzu-Ting; Yang, Lin-Hui; Liu, Chia-Yih

    2011-05-01

    To examine the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural strategies with/without intense Tai Chi exercise in reducing fear of falling among community-dwelling elderly adults. Background.  Fear of falling is a major health problem among community-dwelling older persons. The prevalence of this fear ranges from 29% to 77%, indicating the importance of developing effective strategies to reduce fear of falling among elderly adults. Data were collected from January to December 2007. A randomized controlled trial with three groups (control, cognitive-behavioural and cognitive-behavioural with Tai Chi). Participants were assessed at baseline for demographic data, falls-related history, and fear of falling. Data on these variables plus falls, mobility, social support behaviour and satisfaction, and quality of life were also collected at 2 and 5 months after interventions. Participants in the three groups differed significantly in both measures of fear of falling (F = 20·89, P < 0·001; F = 6·09, P < 0·001) and mobility (F = 30·33, P < 0·001), social support behaviour and satisfaction (F = 3·32, P < 0·05 and F = 6·35, P < 0·001, respectively), and quality of life (F = 16·66, P< 0·001). In addition, participants who received the cognitive-behavioural intervention with Tai Chi had significantly lower fear of falling scores (P < 0·001) and higher mobility (P < 0·001), social support satisfaction (P < 0·01) and quality of life (P < 0·001) than the cognitive-behavioural alone and control groups at 5 months. The three groups did not differ significantly in falls. The results of this trial suggest that the cognitive-behavioural intervention with Tai Chi exercise helped community-dwelling elderly adults to enhance their mobility, to manage their fear of falling and to increase their quality of life. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Coping styles predict responsiveness to cognitive behaviour therapy in psychosis.

    PubMed

    Premkumar, Preethi; Peters, Emmanuelle R; Fannon, Dominic; Anilkumar, Anantha P; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Kumari, Veena

    2011-05-30

    The study aimed to determine the clinical and neuropsychological predictors of responsiveness to cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis (CBTp). Sixty patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 25 healthy individuals took part in the study. Thirty patients (25 protocol completers) received CBTp in addition to standard care (SC); 30 patients (18 protocol completers) received SC only. All patients were assessed on symptoms using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and clinical and neuropsychological function before and after CBTp. Symptoms and self-esteem improved to a greater extent in the CBTp+SC than SC control group. Greater pre-therapy coping ability and the self-reflectiveness dimension of cognitive insight at baseline predicted improvement in symptoms in the CBTp+SC group, but not the SC control group, explaining up to 21% of the variance in symptom improvement. Pre-therapy neuropsychological function, duration of illness, clinical insight and gender did not predict CBTp responsiveness. Being able to have a range of coping strategies and reflect on one's experiences while refraining from overconfidence in one's interpretations before therapy is conducive to better CBTp responsiveness. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Does emotional reasoning change during cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety?

    PubMed

    Berle, David; Moulds, Michelle L; Starcevic, Vladan; Milicevic, Denise; Hannan, Anthony; Dale, Erin; Viswasam, Kirupamani; Brakoulias, Vlasios

    2016-01-01

    Emotional reasoning refers to the use of subjective emotions, rather than objective evidence, to form conclusions about oneself and the world. It is a key interpretative bias in cognitive models of anxiety disorders and appears to be especially evident in individuals with anxiety disorders. However, the amenability of emotional reasoning to change during treatment has not yet been investigated. We sought to determine whether emotional reasoning tendencies change during a course of routine cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT). Emotional reasoning tendencies were assessed in 36 individuals with a primary anxiety disorder who were seeking treatment at an outpatient clinic. Changes in anxiety and depressive symptoms as well as emotional reasoning tendencies after 12 sessions of CBT were examined in 25 individuals for whom there was complete data. Emotional reasoning tendencies were evident at pretreatment assessment. Although anxiety and depressive symptoms decreased during CBT, only one of six emotional reasoning interpretative styles (pertaining to conclusions that one is incompetent) changed significantly during the course of therapy. Attrition rates were high and there was not enough information regarding the extent to which therapy specifically focused on addressing emotional reasoning tendencies. Individuals seeking treatment for anxiety disorders appear to engage in emotional reasoning, however routine individual CBT does not appear to result in changes in emotional reasoning tendencies.

  12. Coping styles predict responsiveness to cognitive behaviour therapy in psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Premkumar, Preethi; Peters, Emmanuelle R.; Fannon, Dominic; Anilkumar, Anantha P.; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Kumari, Veena

    2011-01-01

    The study aimed to determine the clinical and neuropsychological predictors of responsiveness to cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis (CBTp). Sixty patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 25 healthy individuals took part in the study. Thirty patients (25 protocol completers) received CBTp in addition to standard care (SC); 30 patients (18 protocol completers) received SC only. All patients were assessed on symptoms using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and clinical and neuropsychological function before and after CBTp. Symptoms and self-esteem improved to a greater extent in the CBTp + SC than SC control group. Greater pre-therapy coping ability and the self-reflectiveness dimension of cognitive insight at baseline predicted improvement in symptoms in the CBTp + SC group, but not the SC control group, explaining up to 21% of the variance in symptom improvement. Pre-therapy neuropsychological function, duration of illness, clinical insight and gender did not predict CBTp responsiveness. Being able to have a range of coping strategies and reflect on one's experiences while refraining from overconfidence in one's interpretations before therapy is conducive to better CBTp responsiveness. PMID:21262541

  13. Cognitive Mediation of Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy Outcomes for Anxiety-Based School Refusal

    PubMed Central

    Maric, Marija; Heyne, David A.; MacKinnon, David P.; van Widenfelt, Brigit M.; Westenberg, P. Michiel

    2013-01-01

    Background Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) has proven to be effective for anxiety-based school refusal, but it is still unknown how CBT for school refusal works, or through which mechanisms. Aims Innovative statistical approaches for analyzing small uncontrolled samples were used to investigate the role of self-efficacy in mediating CBT outcomes for anxiety-based school refusal. Method Participants were 19 adolescents (12 to 17 years) who completed a manual-based cognitive-behavioural treatment. Primary outcomes (school attendance; school-related fear; anxiety) and secondary outcomes (depression; internalizing problems) were assessed at post-treatment and 2-month follow-up. Results Post-treatment increases in school attendance and decreases in fear about attending school the next day were found to be mediated by self-efficacy. Mediating effects were not observed at 2-month follow-up. Conclusions These findings provide partial support for the role of self-efficacy in mediating the outcome of CBT for school refusal. They contribute to a small body of literature suggesting that cognitive change enhances CBT outcomes for young people with internalizing problems. Regarding methodology, the product of coefficient test appears to be a valuable way to study mediation in outcome studies involving small samples. PMID:23017774

  14. Behavioural treatment strategies improve adherence to lifestyle intervention programmes in adults with obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Burgess, E; Hassmén, P; Welvaert, M; Pumpa, K L

    2017-04-01

    Poor adherence to lifestyle intervention remains a key factor hindering treatment effectiveness and health outcomes for adults with obesity. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to determine if behavioural treatment strategies (e.g. goal setting, motivational interviewing, relapse prevention, cognitive restructuring etc.) improve adherence to lifestyle intervention programmes in adults with obesity. Randomized controlled trials that investigated the use of behavioural treatment strategies in obesity management were identified by systematically reviewing the literature within Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science from their inception to August 2016. This meta-analysis shows that behavioural treatment interventions have a significant positive effect on session attendance (percentage) and physical activity (total min/week) in adults with obesity (M = 17.63 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 10.77, 24.50), z =5.0337, P < 0.0001 and M = 105.98 (95% CI = 58.64, 153.32), z =4.3878, P < 0.0001, respectively). This meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials provides evidence that behavioural treatment strategies improve adherence to lifestyle intervention programmes in adults with obesity. These strategies should be routinely incorporated into lifestyle intervention, obesity management and weight loss programmes with the aim of improving engagement and adherence. If adherence were improved, treatment effectiveness, health outcomes and the ultimate burden of chronic disease could also be improved. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  15. Cognitive behavioural therapy for auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia: A review

    PubMed Central

    Pontillo, Maria; De Crescenzo, Franco; Vicari, Stefano; Pucciarini, Maria Laura; Averna, Roberto; Santonastaso, Ornella; Armando, Marco

    2016-01-01

    AIM To provide an updated of recent findings about efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) in reduction of command hallucinations. METHODS PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsycINFO, ClinicalTrial.gov searches were performed using the keywords “hallucinations”, “behavioural therapy” and “ cognitive therapy” in order to identify relevant articles published during the years of 2011 to 2016. No language limits were used. Studies conducted within control group, reviews, editorials, were excluded. Data on efficacy, acceptability and tolerability were extracted by three authors independently. Disagreements were resolved in a consensus meeting or by another reviewer. RESULTS A total of eight articles were eligible for inclusion. Two are randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and six are observational studies. The two RCTs included showed a greater efficacy of CBT compared to standard care on auditory hallucinations (AHs). Nevertheless, they considered different CBT models, particularly Treatment of Resistant Command Hallucinations and Cognitive Therapy for Command Hallucinations. As regards non RCT-studies, all papers included showed reduction on frequency and severity of AHs and distress related to them. However, the lack of content details within non-RCTs studies decreased their comparability. In terms of predictive variables, our findings show that negative symptoms at baseline appeared to be the strongest predictor of the treatment efficacy. Indeed, negative symptoms showed a significant negative correlation on outcome. CONCLUSION Although more conclusive studies are still needed, we found some preliminary evidence for the efficacy of CBT in the treatment of command hallucinations. PMID:27679778

  16. Cognitive behavioural therapy for depression: systematic review of imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Franklin, George; Carson, Alan J; Welch, Killian A

    2016-04-01

    Although cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has been shown to be an effective treatment for depression, the biological mechanisms underpinning it are less clear. This review examines if it is associated with changes identifiable with current brain imaging technologies. To better understand the mechanisms by which CBT exerts its effects, we undertook a systematic review of studies examining brain imaging changes associated with CBT treatment of depression. Ten studies were identified, five applying functional magnetic resonance imaging, three positron emission tomography, one single photon emission computer tomography, and one magnetic resonance spectroscopy. No studies used structural MRI. Eight studies included a comparator group; in only one of these studies was there randomised allocation to another treatment. CBT-associated changes were most commonly observed in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), posterior cingulate, ventromedial prefrontal cortex/orbitofrontal cortex (VMPFC/OFC) and amygdala/hippocampus. The evidence, such as it is, suggests resting state activity in the dorsal ACC is decreased by CBT. It has previously been suggested that treatment with CBT may result in increased efficiency of a putative 'dorsal cognitive circuit', important in cognitive control and effortful regulation of emotion. It is speculated this results in an increased capacity for 'top-down' emotion regulation, which is employed when skills taught in CBT are engaged. Though changes in activity of the dorsal ACC could be seen as in-keeping with this model, the data are currently insufficient to make definitive statements about how CBT exerts its effects. Data do support the contention that CBT is associated with biological brain changes detectable with current imaging technologies.

  17. Interventions with depressed mothers and their infants: modifying interactive behaviours.

    PubMed

    Jung, Vivienne; Short, Robert; Letourneau, Nicole; Andrews, Debra

    2007-03-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) has a prevalence ranging from 3% to 30% and is associated with serious infant growth and developmental problems. Interventions directed at improving maternal mood have been unsuccessful in producing changes in observed face-to-face interactions between mother and infant. The Keys to Caregiving (KTC) is an intervention program that helps parents to understand and respond to infant behaviours, with a goal of increasing positive affective expressions in infants. In this pilot study, KTC was used with mothers suffering from mild to moderate PPD and their infants. PPD was confirmed by scores on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory. Eleven dyads completed the study. KTC was carried out in 5 weekly group sessions, beginning at infant age of 3 months. Dyads were videotaped prior to and after KTC, using the Face-to-Face Still-Face paradigm, which assesses infants' responses during normal play and the effects of the Still-Face perturbation. The tapes were scored for infant facial emotion expressions. After intervention, infants displayed a marked increase in Interest and Joy when interacting face-to-face with their mothers, even though mothers' depression ratings did not change. This pilot study is limited by lack of control dyads, however, it provides the foundation necessary for a full trial. This study suggests that intervention that focuses on what mothers do with their infants instead of how they feel can be effective in increasing infants' positive responsiveness and improving infant outcomes. Such interventions can be an essential component of treatment when mothers present with postpartum depression.

  18. Sensory and cognitive plasticity: implications for academic interventions

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Emily A.; Mackey, Allyson P.

    2016-01-01

    Research in neuroscience has great potential for transforming education. However, the brain systems that support academic and cognitive skills are poorly understood in comparison to the systems that support sensory processing. Decades of basic research have examined the role that brain plasticity plays in the genesis and treatment of developmental visual disorders, which may help to inform how cognitive training approaches can be tailored for students who experience environmental disadvantage. In this review, we draw parallels between visual and cognitive intervention approaches, and suggest research avenues that could inform educational practice in the future. PMID:27231716

  19. Effectiveness of cognitive behavioural coaching in improving the well-being and retention of rural general practitioners.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Maria; Kearns, Hugh; Tiggemann, Marika

    2013-06-01

    To determine the relationship between cognitive behavioural coaching, the well-being of rural general practitioners (GPs), their intentions to leave and actual leaving of rural general practice. Quasi-experimental study utilising an intervention group of rural GPs and deidentified data for a baseline group and a control group consisting of the remaining population of rural GPs in South Australia. Rural general practice. Rural GPs in South Australia: intervention group (n = 69), baseline group (n = 205) and control group (n = 312). A 9-hour cognitive behavioural coaching program. Rural doctor distress, intention to leave rural general practice and actual retention rate of rural GPs. GPs who underwent cognitive behavioural coaching had lower rural doctor distress scores (mean = 24.50; confidence interval, 21.71-27.29) than the baseline group (mean = 28.63; confidence interval, 27.08-30.17). Before coaching, 81% of rural GPs in the intervention group had considered leaving general practice, which reduced to 40% after coaching (χ(2) (2) = 16.31, P < .001). Over a 3-year period, 94% of the coaching group remained in general practice compared with 80% of the control group (χ(2) (1) = 4.89, P = 0.027). Cognitive behavioural coaching reduced the stress levels of rural GPs who self-identified the need for managing stress and reduced their intention to leave rural general practice. Further, despite initially being more stressed compared with the general population of rural GPs, more GPs from the coaching group remained in rural general practice. © 2013 The Authors. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  20. Rumination-focused cognitive behaviour therapy for residual depression: a case series.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Ed; Scott, Jan; Wingrove, Janet; Rimes, Katharine; Bathurst, Neil; Steiner, Herbert; Kennell-Webb, Sandra; Moulds, Michelle; Malliaris, Yanni

    2007-09-01

    The treatment of chronic and recurrent depression is a priority for the development of new interventions. The maintenance of residual symptoms following acute treatment for depression is a risk factor for both chronic depression and further relapse/recurrence. This open case series provides the first data on a cognitive-behavioural treatment for residual depression that explicitly targets depressive rumination. Rumination has been identified as a key factor in the onset and maintenance of depression, which is found to remain elevated following remission from depression. Fourteen consecutively recruited participants meeting criteria for medication--refractory residual depression [Paykel, E.S., Scott, J., Teasdale, J.D., Johnson, A.L., Garland, A., Moore, R. et al., 1999. Prevention of relapse in residual depression by cognitive therapy--a controlled trial. Archives of General Psychiatry 56, 829-835] were treated individually for up to 12 weekly 60-min sessions. Treatment specifically focused on switching patients from less helpful to more helpful styles of thinking through the use of functional analysis, experiential/imagery exercises and behavioural experiments. Treatment produced significant improvements in depressive symptoms, rumination and co-morbid disorders: 71% responded (50% reduction on Hamilton Depression Rating Scale) and 50% achieved full remission. Treating depressive rumination appears to yield generalised improvement in depression and co-morbidity. This study provides preliminary evidence that rumination-focused CBT may be an efficacious treatment for medication--refractory residual depression.

  1. Yoga-enhanced cognitive behavioural therapy (Y-CBT) for anxiety management: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Khalsa, Manjit K; Greiner-Ferris, Julie M; Hofmann, Stefan G; Khalsa, Sat Bir S

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for generalized anxiety disorder, but there is still room for improvement. The aim of the present study was to examine the potential benefit of enriching CBT with kundalini yoga (Y-CBT). Participants consisted of treatment resistant clients at a community mental health clinic. A total of 32 participants enrolled in the study and 22 completed the programme. After the Y-CBT intervention, pre-post comparisons showed statistically significant improvements in state and trait anxiety, depression, panic, sleep and quality of life. Results from this preliminary study suggest that Y-CBT may have potential as a promising treatment for those suffering from generalized anxiety disorder. Yoga-enhanced cognitive behavioural therapy (Y-CBT) may be a promising new treatment for those suffering from generalized anxiety disorder. Y-CBT may also reduce depression in those suffering from generalized anxiety. Y-CBT may reduce depression and anxiety in a clinic population where clients suffer from multiple diagnoses including generalized anxiety disorder. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Effects of Cognitive Training Interventions With Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Karlene; Berch, Daniel B.; Helmers, Karin F.; Jobe, Jared B.; Leveck, Mary D.; Marsiske, Michael; Morris, John N.; Rebok, George W.; Smith, David M.; Tennstedt, Sharon L.; Unverzagt, Frederick W.; Willis, Sherry L.

    2010-01-01

    Context Cognitive function in older adults is related to independent living and need for care. However, few studies have addressed whether improving cognitive functions might have short- or long-term effects on activities related to living independently. Objective To evaluate whether 3 cognitive training interventions improve mental abilities and daily functioning in older, independent-living adults. Design Randomized, controlled, single-blind trial with recruitment conducted from March 1998 to October 1999 and 2-year follow-up through December 2001. Setting and Participants Volunteer sample of 2832 persons aged 65 to 94 years recruited from senior housing, community centers, and hospital/clinics in 6 metropolitan areas in the United States. Interventions Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: 10-session group training for memory (verbal episodic memory; n=711), or reasoning (ability to solve problems that follow a serial pattern; n=705), or speed of processing (visual search and identification; n=712); or a no-contact control group (n=704). For the 3 treatment groups, 4-session booster training was offered to a 60% random sample 11 months later. Main Outcome Measures Cognitive function and cognitively demanding everyday functioning. Results Thirty participants were incorrectly randomized and were excluded from the analysis. Each intervention improved the targeted cognitive ability compared with baseline, durable to 2 years (P<.001 for all). Eighty-seven percent of speed-, 74% of reasoning-, and 26% of memory-trained participants demonstrated reliable cognitive improvement immediately after the intervention period. Booster training enhanced training gains in speed (P<.001) and reasoning (P<.001) interventions (speed booster, 92%; no booster, 68%; reasoning booster, 72%; no booster, 49%), which were maintained at 2-year follow-up (P<.001 for both). No training effects on everyday functioning were detected at 2 years. Conclusions Results support the

  3. Providing Training in Positive Behavioural Support and Physical Interventions for Parents of Children with Autism and Related Behavioural Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preece, David

    2014-01-01

    Though professionals working with children on the autism spectrum who display challenging behaviour routinely receive training in the use of both positive behavioural support techniques and physical interventions, such training is rarely provided for the parents of these children. This article reports on the impact of training provided for family…

  4. Providing Training in Positive Behavioural Support and Physical Interventions for Parents of Children with Autism and Related Behavioural Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preece, David

    2014-01-01

    Though professionals working with children on the autism spectrum who display challenging behaviour routinely receive training in the use of both positive behavioural support techniques and physical interventions, such training is rarely provided for the parents of these children. This article reports on the impact of training provided for family…

  5. Behavioural Intervention Practices for Stereotypic and Repetitive Behaviour in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Stephanie Y.; Smith, Veronica; Jelen, Michaela

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the quality of conduct of experimental studies contributing to our empirical understanding of function-based behavioural interventions for stereotypic and repetitive behaviours (SRBs) in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Method: Systematic review methodology was used to…

  6. Cognitive training and Bacopa monnieri: Evidence for a combined intervention to alleviate age associated cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    McPhee, Grace M; Downey, Luke A; Noble, Anthony; Stough, Con

    2016-10-01

    As the elderly population grows the impact of age associated cognitive decline as well as neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and dementia will increase. Ageing is associated with consistent impairments in cognitive processes (e.g., processing speed, memory, executive function and learning) important for work, well-being, life satisfaction and overall participation in society. Recently, there has been increased effort to conduct research examining methods to improve cognitive function in older citizens. Cognitive training has been shown to improve performance in some cognitive domains; including memory, processing speed, executive function and attention in older adults. These cognitive changes are thought to be related to improvements in brain connectivity and neural circuitry. Bacopa monnieri has also been shown to improve specific domains of cognition, sensitive to age associated cognitive decline (particularly processing speed and memory). These Bacopa monnieri dependent improvements may be due to the increase in specific neuro-molecular mechanisms implicated in the enhancement of neural connections in the brain (i.e. synaptogenesis). In particular, a number of animal studies have shown Bacopa monnieri consumption upregulates calcium dependent kinases in the synapse and post-synaptic cell, crucial for strengthening and growing connections between neurons. These effects have been shown to occur in areas important for cognitive processes, such as the hippocampus. As Bacopa monnieri has shown neuro-molecular mechanisms that encourage synaptogenesis, while cognitive training enhances brain connectivity, Bacopa monnieri supplementation could theoretically enhance and strengthen synaptic changes acquired through cognitive training. Therefore, the current paper hypothesises that the combination of these two interventions could improve cognitive outcomes, over and above the effects of administrating these interventions independently, as an effective

  7. Assessment of cognitive and adaptive behaviour among individuals with congenital insensitivity to pain and anhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Levy Erez, Daniella; Levy, Jacov; Friger, Michael; Aharoni-Mayer, Yael; Cohen-Iluz, Moran; Goldstein, Esther

    2010-06-01

    Individuals with congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA) are reported to have mental retardation* but to our knowledge no detailed study on the subject has ever been published. The present study assessed and documented cognitive and adaptive behaviour among Arab Bedouin children with CIPA. Twenty-three Arab Bedouin children (12 females, 11 males) with CIPA aged between 3 and 17 years (mean 9 y 7 mo, SD 4 y 2 mo) were assessed. They were compared with 19 healthy siblings of the affected children aged between 5 and 13 years (mean 8 y 11 mo, SD 2 y 10 m). All of the children in the comparison group, but only half of the CIPA group, were attending school. The children were evaluated using a standardized, non-verbal intelligence test, the Leiter International Performance Scale--Revised, and an adaptive behaviour questionnaire, the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales, 2nd edition. Based on scores on the intelligence test and the adaptive behaviour scale, children with CIPA functioned in the mental retardation range (mean IQ scores: CIPA group 53.8, comparison group 83.32 [p<0.001]; adaptive behaviour: CIPA group 68.1, comparison group 104.88 [p<0.001]). IQ was significantly higher among the children with CIPA aged up to 7 years 11 months than among the older children 73.83 vs 45.21 (p<0.001). As a group, the younger children with CIPA may be functioning above the mental retardation range. We propose that early intervention addressing these children's needs and developing an appropriate educational system, might improve their outcome.

  8. Improving hand hygiene behaviour among adolescents by a planning intervention.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guangyu; Jiang, Tingting; Knoll, Nina; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    To improve regular hand hygiene in adolescents, educational messages based on medical information have not been very successful. Therefore, a theory-guided self-regulatory intervention has been designed with a particular focus on planning strategies. A randomised controlled trial with 307 adolescents, aged 12-18 years, was conducted in high schools. The control group received educational hand hygiene leaflets, whereas the experimental group received a self-regulatory treatment which required them to generate specific action plans and coping plans. Three times during one month, both groups received verbal reminder messages about planning to wash their hands properly. At one-month follow-up, hand hygiene behaviour as well as planning to practise hand hygiene were higher in the self-regulation than in the education group (p < .01). Moreover, changes in planning levels operated as a mediator between experimental conditions and changes in behavioural outcomes. Teaching self-regulatory planning strategies may constitute a superior approach than educational messages to improve regular hand hygiene practice in adolescents.

  9. Cognitive Somatic Behavioral Interventions for Maximizing Gymnastic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravizza, Kenneth; Rotella, Robert

    Psychological training programs developed and implemented for gymnasts of a wide range of age and varying ability levels are examined. The programs utilized strategies based on cognitive-behavioral intervention. The approach contends that mental training plays a crucial role in maximizing performance for most gymnasts. The object of the training…

  10. Feasibility of a Mobile Cognitive Intervention in Childhood Absence Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Glynn, Peter; Eom, Soyong; Zelko, Frank; Koh, Sookyong

    2016-01-01

    Children with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) frequently present with cognitive comorbidities and school performance concerns. The present study evaluated the feasibility of an intervention for such comorbidities using a mobile cognitive therapy application on an iPad. Eight children with CAE and school concerns aged 7–11 participated in a 4-week intervention. They were asked to use the application for 80 min per week (20 min/day, 4 times/week). Parents and children completed satisfaction surveys regarding the application. Participants were evaluated before and after the intervention using the Cognitive Domain of the NIH Toolbox and by parental completion of the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function. All eight patients completed the study, using the iPad for an average of 78 min/week. Children and parents reported high satisfaction with the application. Though a demonstration of efficacy was not the focus of the study, performance improvements were noted on a processing speed task and on a measure of fluid intelligence. An iPad based cognitive therapy was found to be a feasible intervention for children with CAE. PMID:27895568

  11. Cognitive Alignment with Performance Targeted Training Intervention Model: CAPTTIM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    Neurophysiological markers, as captured by eyetracking and electroencephalography ( EEG ), can assist in determining why misalignment between cognitive state...it indicates that a training intervention is needed. Neurophysiological markers as captured by eyetracking and electroencephalography ( EEG ) can...performance are necessary to truly understand optimal military decision making. In the process of operationalizing the definitions of exploration

  12. Teaching Effort and the Future of Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Michael M.; Solari, Emily J.

    2005-01-01

    In this article we discuss two impediments to widespread adoption and implementation of cognitive-behavioral intervention (CBI) procedures by teachers of students with behavior disorders. First, its principles can be difficult, even for researchers and other specialists. Second, despite ample demonstration that teachers can be taught CBI…

  13. Emotion awareness and cognitive behavioural therapy in young people with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Roberts-Collins, Cara; Mahoney-Davies, Gerwyn; Russell, Ailsa; Booth, Anne; Loades, Maria

    2017-07-01

    Young people with autism spectrum disorder experience high levels of emotional problems, including anxiety and depression. Adapted cognitive behavioural therapy is recommended for such difficulties. However, no evidence suggests whether emotion awareness is important in treatment outcome for young people on the autism spectrum. This study aimed to investigate the potential differences in emotion awareness between (1) young people on the autism spectrum and typically developing youth and (2) young people on the autism spectrum with and without experience of cognitive behavioural therapy. Three groups (aged 11-20 years) participated: (1) typically developing young people ( n = 56); (2) young people on the autism spectrum with no experience of cognitive behavioural therapy ( n = 23); and (3) young people on the autism spectrum who had attended cognitive behavioural therapy ( n = 33). All participants completed the Emotion Awareness Questionnaire-30 item version. Young people on the autism spectrum differed significantly from typically developing young people on the emotional awareness measure. Young people on the autism spectrum who had attended cognitive behavioural therapy scored significantly lower on the Differentiating Emotions subscale, and significantly higher on the Attending to Others' Emotions subscale, compared to young people on the autism spectrum who had not attended cognitive behavioural therapy. This study highlights the importance of psycho-educational components of cognitive behavioural therapy when adapting for young people on the autism spectrum.

  14. The validation of the Italian Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS).

    PubMed

    Poletti, Barbara; Solca, Federica; Carelli, Laura; Madotto, Fabiana; Lafronza, Annalisa; Faini, Andrea; Monti, Alessia; Zago, Stefano; Calini, Daniela; Tiloca, Cinzia; Doretti, Alberto; Verde, Federico; Ratti, Antonia; Ticozzi, Nicola; Abrahams, Sharon; Silani, Vincenzo

    This study presents the Italian validation of the recently developed Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS), a short screen for cognitive/behavioural alterations in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We evaluated the psychometric properties of the ECAS Italian version in terms of reliability and convergent validity for both cognitive and behavioural features. Furthermore, we investigated the relationship with affective and clinical variables, in addition to ECAS usability and patients' insight into cognitive/behaviour changes. Finally, correlations between genetic and cognitive/behavioural data were analysed. We recruited 107 patients with ALS. Normative data were collected on 248 healthy subjects. Participants were administered the ECAS and two standard cognitive screening tools (FAB, MoCA), two psychological questionnaires (BDI, STAI/Y) and an ad hoc usability questionnaire. The FBI was also carried out with caregivers. Results showed that the ECAS Italian version discriminated well between patients and controls. The most prevalent deficit occurred in executive functions and fluency. Correlations were observed between the ECAS and standard cognitive screening tools and between the ECAS carer interview and the FBI, supporting its full convergent validity. In conclusion, the ECAS Italian version provides clinicians with a rapid, feasible and sensitive tool, useful to identify different profiles of cognitive-behavioural impairment in ALS.

  15. Analysis of health behaviour change interventions for preventing dental caries delivered in primary schools.

    PubMed

    Adair, P M; Burnside, G; Pine, C M

    2013-01-01

    To improve oral health in children, the key behaviours (tooth brushing and sugar control) responsible for development of dental caries need to be better understood, as well as how to promote these behaviours effectively so they become habitual; and, the specific, optimal techniques to use in interventions. The aim of this paper is to describe and analyse the behaviour change techniques that have been used in primary school-based interventions to prevent dental caries (utilizing a Cochrane systematic review that we have undertaken) and to identify opportunities for improving future interventions by incorporating a comprehensive range of behaviour change techniques. Papers of five interventions were reviewed and data were independently extracted. Results indicate that behaviour change techniques were limited to information-behaviour links, information on consequences, instruction and demonstration of behaviours. None of the interventions were based on behaviour change theory. We conclude that behaviour change techniques used in school interventions to reduce dental caries were limited and focused around providing information about how behaviour impacts on health and the consequences of not developing the correct health behaviours as well as providing oral hygiene instruction. Establishing which techniques are effective is difficult due to poor reporting of interventions in studies. Future design of oral health promotion interventions using behaviour change theory for development and evaluation (and reporting results in academic journals) could strengthen the potential for efficacy and provide a framework to use a much wider range of behaviour change techniques. Future studies should include development and publication of intervention manuals which is becoming standard practice in other health promoting programmes.

  16. Cost-effectiveness of blended vs. face-to-face cognitive behavioural therapy for severe anxiety disorders: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Romijn, Geke; Riper, Heleen; Kok, Robin; Donker, Tara; Goorden, Maartje; van Roijen, Leona Hakkaart; Kooistra, Lisa; van Balkom, Anton; Koning, Jeroen

    2015-12-12

    Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent psychiatric conditions, and are associated with poor quality of life and substantial economic burden. Cognitive behavioural therapy is an effective treatment to reduce anxiety symptoms, but is also costly and labour intensive. Cost-effectiveness could possibly be improved by delivering cognitive behavioural therapy in a blended format, where face-to-face sessions are partially replaced by online sessions. The aim of this trial is to determine the cost-effectiveness of blended cognitive behavioural therapy for adults with anxiety disorders, i.e. panic disorder, social phobia or generalized anxiety disorder, in specialized mental health care settings compared to face-to-face cognitive behavioural therapy. In this paper, we present the study protocol. It is hypothesized that blended cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety disorders is clinically as effective as face-to-face cognitive behavioural therapy, but that intervention costs may be reduced. We thus hypothesize that blended cognitive behavioural therapy is more cost-effective than face-to-face cognitive behavioural therapy. In a randomised controlled equivalence trial 156 patients will be included (n = 78 in blended cognitive behavioural therapy, n = 78 in face-to-face cognitive behavioural therapy) based on a power of 0.80, calculated by using a formula to estimate the power of a cost-effectiveness analysis: [Formula: see text]. Measurements will take place at baseline, midway treatment (7 weeks), immediately after treatment (15 weeks) and 12-month follow-up. At baseline a diagnostic interview will be administered. Primary clinical outcomes are changes in anxiety symptom severity as measured with the Beck Anxiety Inventory. An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio will be calculated to obtain the costs per quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) measured by the EQ-5D (5-level version). Health-economic outcomes will be explored from a societal and health care

  17. Psychologists experience of cognitive behaviour therapy in a developing country: a qualitative study from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Psychological therapies especially Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) are used widely in the West to help patients with psychiatric problems. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy has an established evidence base for the treatment of different emotional disorders. In spite of these developments in the developed world, patients in most developing countries hardly benefit from non pharmacological interventions. Although a significant number of psychologists are trained in Pakistan each year, psychological interventions play only a minor role in treatment plans in Pakistan. We conducted interviews with psychologists in Pakistan, to explore their experiences and their views on "providing CBT in Pakistan". These interviews were conducted as part of a project whose focus was to try to develop culturally-sensitive CBT in Pakistan. Methods In depth semi structured interviews were conducted with 5 psychologists working in psychiatry departments in Lahore, Pakistan. Results All the psychologists reported that psychotherapies, including CBT, need adjustments for use in Pakistan, although they were not able to elicit on these in details. Four major themes were discovered, hurdles in therapy, therapy related issues, involvement of the family and modification in therapy. The biggest hurdles in therapy were described to be service and resource issues. Conclusions For CBT to be acceptable, accessible and effective in Non Western cultures numerous adjustments need to be made, taking into consideration; factors related to service structure and delivery, patient's knowledge and beliefs about health and the therapy itself. Interviews with the psychologists in these countries can give us insights which can guide development of therapy and manuals to support its delivery. PMID:20181039

  18. Disordered eating cognitions and behaviours among slimming organization competition winners.

    PubMed

    Green, G C; Buckroyd, J

    2008-02-01

    Long-term success in weight loss treatments for obesity is elusive. The most widely used approach after diet books is slimming clubs. A percentage of members achieve dramatic and lasting weight losses. The study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of binge eating and unhealthy eating-related thought patterns among a group of highly successful weight losers. Sixty-five slimming competition winners self reported their weight history and eating habits in a semi-structured questionnaire. The Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and the Emotional Eating Scale (EES) were also administered. Despite substantial weight loss (mean = 38%, SD = 10%) and widespread maintenance of losses, participants evidenced high levels of dietary restraint and weight, shape and eating overconcern. Emotional eating levels were significantly higher than those seen in noneating disordered populations on two of three subscales. Seventy-one per cent also reported bingeing in the past 3 months. Commercial slimming organizations should engage with broader psychological and behavioural features of obesity, including bingeing and eating-related cognitive patterns.

  19. Emotion beliefs and cognitive behavioural therapy for social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    De Castella, Krista; Goldin, Philippe; Jazaieri, Hooria; Heimberg, Richard G; Dweck, Carol S; Gross, James J

    2015-01-01

    Despite strong support for the efficacy of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD), little is known about mechanisms of change in treatment. Within the context of a randomized controlled trial of CBT, this study examined patients' beliefs about the fixed versus malleable nature of anxiety-their 'implicit theories'-as a key variable in CBT for SAD. Compared to waitlist (n = 29; 58% female), CBT (n = 24; 52% female) led to significantly lower levels of fixed beliefs about anxiety (Mbaseline = 11.70 vs. MPost = 7.08, d = 1.27). These implicit beliefs indirectly explained CBT-related changes in social anxiety symptoms (κ(2) = .28, [95% CI = 0.12, 0.46]). Implicit beliefs also uniquely predicted treatment outcomes when controlling for baseline social anxiety and other kinds of maladaptive beliefs (perceived social costs, perceived social self-efficacy, and maladaptive interpersonal beliefs). Finally, implicit beliefs continued to predict social anxiety symptoms at 12 months post-treatment. These findings suggest that changes in patients' beliefs about their emotions may play an important role in CBT for SAD.

  20. Non-Pharmacologic Interventions for Older Adults with Subjective Cognitive Decline: Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis, and Preliminary Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Smart, Colette M; Karr, Justin E; Areshenkoff, Corson N; Rabin, Laura A; Hudon, Carol; Gates, Nicola; Ali, Jordan I; Arenaza-Urquijo, Eider M; Buckley, Rachel F; Chetelat, Gael; Hampel, Harald; Jessen, Frank; Marchant, Natalie L; Sikkes, Sietske A M; Tales, Andrea; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Wesselman, Linda

    2017-03-07

    In subjective cognitive decline (SCD), older adults present with concerns about self-perceived cognitive decline but are found to have clinically normal function. However, a significant proportion of those adults are subsequently found to develop mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's dementia or other neurocognitive disorder. In other cases, SCD may be associated with mood, personality, and physical health concerns. Regardless of etiology, adults with SCD may benefit from interventions that could enhance current function or slow incipient cognitive decline. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis, conducted in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines, is to examine the benefits of non-pharmacologic intervention (NPI) in persons with SCD. Inclusion criteria were studies of adults aged 55 + with SCD defined using published criteria, receiving NPI or any control condition, with cognitive, behavioural, or psychological outcomes in controlled trails. Published empirical studies were obtained through a standardized search of CINAHL Complete, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE with Full Text, PsycINFO, and PsycARTICLES, supplemented by a manual retrieval of relevant articles. Study quality and bias was determined using PEDro. Nine studies were included in the review and meta-analysis. A wide range of study quality was observed. Overall, a small effect size was found on cognitive outcomes, greater for cognitive versus other intervention types. The available evidence suggests that NPI may benefit current cognitive function in persons with SCD. Recommendations are provided to improve future trials of NPI in SCD.

  1. Towards Medication-Enhancement of Cognitive Interventions in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Hsun-Hua; Twamley, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Current antipsychotic medications do little to improve real-life function in most schizophrenia patients. A dispassionate view of the dispersed and variable neuropathology of schizophrenia strongly suggests that it is not currently, and may never be, correctable with drugs. In contrast, several forms of cognitive therapy have been demonstrated to have modest but lasting positive effects on cognition, symptoms, and functional outcomes in schizophrenia patients. To date, attempts to improve clinical outcomes in schizophrenia by adding pro-cognitive drugs to antipsychotic regimens have had limited success, but we propose that a more promising strategy would be to pair drugs that enhance specific neurocognitive functions with cognitive therapies that challenge and reinforce those functions. By using medications that engage spared neural resources in the service of cognitive interventions, it might be possible to significantly enhance the efficacy of cognitive therapies. We review and suggest several laboratory measures that might detect potential pro-neurocognitive effects of drugs in individual patients, using a “test dose” design, aided by specific biomarkers predicting an individual’s drug sensitivity. Lastly, we argue that drug classes viewed as “counter-intuitive” based on existing models for the pathophysiology of schizophrenia—including pro-catecholaminergic and NMDA-antagonistic drugs—might be important candidate “pro-cognitive therapy” drugs. PMID:23027413

  2. A novel cognitive intervention for compulsive checking: Targeting maladaptive beliefs about memory.

    PubMed

    Alcolado, Gillian M; Radomsky, Adam S

    2016-12-01

    Compulsive checking is one of the most common symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Recently it has been proposed that those who check compulsively may believe their memory is poor, rather than having an actual memory impairment. The current study sought to develop and assess a brief cognitive intervention focused on improving maladaptive beliefs about memory, as they pertain to both checking symptoms and memory performance. Participants (N = 24) with a diagnosis of OCD and clinical levels of checking symptomatology were randomly assigned either to receive two weekly 1-hour therapy sessions or to self-monitor during a similar waitlist period. Time spent checking, checking symptoms, maladaptive beliefs about memory, and visuospatial memory were assessed both pre- and post-treatment/waitlist. Results showed that compared to the waitlist condition, individuals in the treatment condition displayed significant decreases in their maladaptive beliefs about memory and checking symptoms from pre- to post-intervention. They also exhibited increased recall performance on a measure of visuospatial memory. Changes in beliefs about memory were predictors of reduced post-intervention checking, but were not predictive of increased post-intervention memory scores. The lack of long term follow-up data and use of a waitlist control leave questions about the stability and specificity of the intervention. Findings provide preliminary evidence that strategies targeting beliefs about memory may be worthy of inclusion in cognitive-behavioural approaches to treating compulsive checking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cost and outcome of behavioural activation versus cognitive behaviour therapy for depression (COBRA): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Shelley; Richards, David A; Ekers, David; McMillan, Dean; Byford, Sarah; Farrand, Paul A; Gilbody, Simon; Hollon, Steven D; Kuyken, Willem; Martell, Christopher; O'Mahen, Heather A; O'Neill, Emer; Reed, Nigel; Taylor, Rod S; Watkins, Ed R; Wright, Kim A

    2014-01-21

    Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for depression. However, CBT is a complex therapy that requires highly trained and qualified practitioners, and its scalability is therefore limited by the costs of training and employing sufficient therapists to meet demand. Behavioural activation (BA) is a psychological treatment for depression that may be an effective alternative to CBT and, because it is simpler, might also be delivered by less highly trained and specialised mental health workers. COBRA is a two-arm, non-inferiority, patient-level randomised controlled trial, including clinical, economic, and process evaluations comparing CBT delivered by highly trained professional therapists to BA delivered by junior professional or para-professional mental health workers to establish whether the clinical effectiveness of BA is non-inferior to CBT and if BA is cost effective compared to CBT. Four hundred and forty patients with major depressive disorder will be recruited through screening in primary care. We will analyse for non-inferiority in per-protocol and intention-to-treat populations. Our primary outcome will be severity of depression symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9) at 12 months follow-up. Secondary outcomes will be clinically significant change and severity of depression at 18 months, and anxiety (General Anxiety Disorder-7 questionnaire) and health-related quality of life (Short-Form Health Survey-36) at 12 and 18 months. Our economic evaluation will take the United Kingdom National Health Service/Personal Social Services perspective to include costs of the interventions, health and social care services used, plus productivity losses. Cost-effectiveness will explored in terms of quality-adjusted life years using the EuroQol-5D measure of health-related quality of life. The clinical and economic outcomes of this trial will provide the evidence to help policy makers, clinicians and guideline developers decide on the merits of

  4. Quality of Life and Marital Adjustment after Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and Behavioural Marital Therapy in Couples with Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kavitha, Chirumamilla; Rangan, Uma

    2014-01-01

    Background: Anxiety disorders may affect nearly one in four persons and may cause significant impairment of interpersonal relationships including marital relationships. The effect of the disorder on the spouse and the impact of including the spouse in therapy are not well studied. Aim: To determine if Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) improves the quality of life of participants with anxiety disorders and if marital adjustment of couples with anxiety disorders can be improved with Behavioural Marital Therapy (BMT), relative to standard care of pharmacotherapy and psychoeducation. Methods: An open label randomised controlled trial. Participants were randomly assigned to CBT+BMT or standard of care. Final assessments were carried out at 3.5 months after baseline. Quality of life was assessed using the WHOQOL-Bref instrument and Marital adjustment was measured using a marital quality scale. Chi-square test, student’s t-test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Effect sizes with Cohen’s d were used to compare differences between groups. Results: Clinically meaningful effect sizes for the CBT+ BMT intervention were evident for the marital adjustment scores among participants (d=0.63) and their spouses (d=1.29), and for the psychological (d=0.84), social (d=0.72) and environmental (d=0.52) domains of the WHOQOL of participants and psychological (d=0.86), social (d=0.32) and environmental domains (d=1.01) of the WHOQOL of spouses of participants. Conclusion: CBT for the partner with anxiety disorder and BMT for couples with anxiety disorders and marital discord and involvement of the spouse in the therapy will be a useful addition to the management of a couple where one partner has an anxiety disorder. PMID:25302250

  5. Peer Acceptance and the Development of Emotional and Behavioural Problems: Results from a Preventive Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menting, Barbara; Koot, Hans; van Lier, Pol

    2015-01-01

    Difficulties in peer acceptance during elementary school have been associated with emotional and behavioural problems. This study used a randomized controlled intervention design to test whether improvements in peer acceptance mediated reduced rates of emotional and behavioural problems in intervention compared to control-group children. A total…

  6. Effects of an Emotional Literacy Intervention for Students Identified with Bullying Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowler, Claire; Frederickson, Norah

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of a 12-week, small group emotional literacy (EL) intervention in reducing bullying behaviour in school was evaluated. Participants were 50 primary school pupils identified through peer nomination as engaging in bullying behaviours. The intervention was implemented in schools already engaged with a universal social and emotional…

  7. Peer Acceptance and the Development of Emotional and Behavioural Problems: Results from a Preventive Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menting, Barbara; Koot, Hans; van Lier, Pol

    2015-01-01

    Difficulties in peer acceptance during elementary school have been associated with emotional and behavioural problems. This study used a randomized controlled intervention design to test whether improvements in peer acceptance mediated reduced rates of emotional and behavioural problems in intervention compared to control-group children. A total…

  8. A Meta-Analysis of Intervention Effects on Challenging Behaviour among Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyvaert, M.; Maes, B.; Onghena, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) often show challenging behaviour. We review distinct interventions that are applied to treat these challenging behaviours, and analyse intervention effects and moderating variables. Methods: A literature search was conducted using the databases "ERIC," "PsycINFO," "Web of Science" and…

  9. Effects of an Emotional Literacy Intervention for Students Identified with Bullying Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowler, Claire; Frederickson, Norah

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of a 12-week, small group emotional literacy (EL) intervention in reducing bullying behaviour in school was evaluated. Participants were 50 primary school pupils identified through peer nomination as engaging in bullying behaviours. The intervention was implemented in schools already engaged with a universal social and emotional…

  10. Evidence-based selection of theories for designing behaviour change interventions: using methods based on theoretical construct domains to understand clinicians' blood transfusion behaviour.

    PubMed

    Francis, Jill J; Stockton, Charlotte; Eccles, Martin P; Johnston, Marie; Cuthbertson, Brian H; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Hyde, Chris; Tinmouth, Alan; Stanworth, Simon J

    2009-11-01

    Many theories of behaviour are potentially relevant to predictive and intervention studies but most studies investigate a narrow range of theories. Michie et al. (2005) agreed 12 'theoretical domains' from 33 theories that explain behaviour change. They developed a 'Theoretical Domains Interview' (TDI) for identifying relevant domains for specific clinical behaviours, but the framework has not been used for selecting theories for predictive studies. It was used here to investigate clinicians' transfusion behaviour in intensive care units (ICU). Evidence suggests that red blood cells transfusion could be reduced for some patients without reducing quality of care. (1) To identify the domains relevant to transfusion practice in ICUs and neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), using the TDI. (2) To use the identified domains to select appropriate theories for a study predicting transfusion behaviour. An adapted TDI about managing a patient with borderline haemoglobin by watching and waiting instead of transfusing red blood cells was used to conduct semi-structured, one-to-one interviews with 18 intensive care consultants and neonatologists across the UK. Relevant theoretical domains were: knowledge, beliefs about capabilities, beliefs about consequences, social influences, behavioural regulation. Further analysis at the construct level resulted in selection of seven theoretical approaches relevant to this context: Knowledge-Attitude-Behaviour Model, Theory of Planned Behaviour, Social Cognitive Theory, Operant Learning Theory, Control Theory, Normative Model of Work Team Effectiveness and Action Planning Approaches. This study illustrated, the use of the TDI to identify relevant domains in a complex area of inpatient care. This approach is potentially valuable for selecting theories relevant to predictive studies and resulted in greater breadth of potential explanations than would be achieved if a single theoretical model had been adopted.

  11. Effects of cognitive remediation therapy versus other interventions on cognitive functioning in schizophrenia inpatients.

    PubMed

    Linke, Magdalena; Jankowski, Konrad S; Wichniak, Adam; Jarema, Marek; Wykes, Til

    2017-05-01

    Computerised cognitive remediation therapy (CCRT) has been shown to improve cognitive function in individuals with schizophrenia beyond effects of other forms of therapy. However, results vary between studies, and most are aimed at individuals who are living in the community. Very few studies have investigated its efficacy in psychiatric wards in order to assess whether or not this is a suitable site to start the therapy. This study evaluated CCRT efficacy among schizophrenia inpatients who received a broad range of therapeutic interventions in a psychiatric ward. A randomised controlled trial of CCRT versus an active control in 66 young inpatients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia was conducted. The intervention lasted for 6 weeks and its efficacy was assessed with the composite score of the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery. Both groups improved similarly in cognitive function and psychopathological symptoms. However, the CCRT group improved more than the controls in negative symptoms. This result shows that providing a drill and practice cognitive remediation to inpatients does not produce benefits for cognitive functioning substantially greater than other forms of therapy provided in a ward, but it is more efficient in reduction of negative symptoms. Our results suggest that CRT might be considered as a promising intervention for reducing negative symptoms in schizophrenia individuals.

  12. Evaluation of an online cognitive behavioural therapy program by patients with traumatic brain injury and depression.

    PubMed

    Topolovec-Vranic, Jane; Cullen, Nora; Michalak, Alicja; Ouchterlony, Donna; Bhalerao, Shree; Masanic, Cheryl; Cusimano, Michael D

    2010-01-01

    The most frequently reported psychiatric symptom after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is depression. This study examined whether internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) could be appropriate and effective for patients with mild or moderate TBI and depression. Patients were recruited for an at-home, 6-week internet-based CBT program (MoodGYM). Participants were assessed during this period by weekly telephone calls and at 12 months post-enrolment. Intervention completion rates, predictors of adherence, user feedback and changes in scores on validated depression scales were assessed. Twenty-one patients were recruited: 64% and 43% completed the 6-week intervention and the 12-month follow-up, respectively. Adherence rates were not predicted by demographic or injury characteristics in this small sample. Patients identified reading, memory and comprehension requirements as limitations of the program. Scores on the depression scales were significantly decreased upon completion of the intervention and at the 12-month follow-up. The MoodGYM program may be effective for treating symptoms of depression in patients with TBI. While adherence rates were not predicted by age, education level or injury severity, demands upon memory and concentration which may already be compromised in these patients need to be considered.

  13. A comparative study of cognitive behavioural therapy and shared reading for chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Billington, Josie; Farrington, Grace; Lampropoulou, Sofia; Lingwood, Jamie; Jones, Andrew; Ledson, James; McDonnell, Kate; Duirs, Nicky; Humphreys, Anne-Louise

    2016-12-09

    The case for psychosocial interventions in relation to chronic pain, one of the most common health issues in contemporary healthcare, is well-established as a means of managing the emotional and psychological difficulties experienced by sufferers. Using mixed methods, this study compared a standard therapy for chronic pain, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), with a specific literature-based intervention, shared reading (SR) developed by national charity, The Reader. A 5-week CBT group and a 22-week SR group for patients with chronic pain ran in parallel, with CBT group members joining the SR group after the completion of CBT. In addition to self-report measures of positive and negative affect before and after each experience of the intervention, the 10 participants kept twice-daily (12-hourly) pain and emotion diaries. Qualitative data were gathered via literary-linguistic analysis of audio/video-recordings and transcriptions of the CBT and SR sessions and video-assisted individual qualitative interviews with participants. Qualitative evidence indicates SR's potential as an alternative or long-term follow-up or adjunct to CBT in bringing into conscious awareness areas of emotional pain otherwise passively suffered by patients with chronic pain. In addition, quantitative analysis, albeit of limited pilot data, indicated possible improvements in mood/pain for up to 2 days following SR. Both findings lay the basis for future research involving a larger sample size.

  14. Behaviour change interventions to promote physical activity in rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Louise; Gallagher, Stephen; Cramp, Fiona; Brand, Charles; Fraser, Alexander; Kennedy, Norelee

    2015-10-01

    Research has shown that people who have rheumatoid arthritis (RA) do not usually participate in enough physical activity to obtain the benefits of optimal physical activity levels, including quality of life, aerobic fitness and disease-related characteristics. Behaviour change theory underpins the promotion of physical activity. The aim of this systematic review was to explore behaviour change interventions which targeted physical activity behaviour in people who have RA, focusing on the theory underpinning the interventions and the behaviour change techniques utilised using specific behaviour change taxonomy. An electronic database search was conducted via EBSCOhost, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Web of Science databases in August 2014, using Medical Subject Headings and keywords. A manual search of reference lists was also conducted. Randomised control trials which used behaviour change techniques and targeted physical activity behaviour in adults who have RA were included. Two reviewers independently screened studies for inclusion. Methodological quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Five studies with 784 participants were included in the review. Methodological quality of the studies was mixed. The studies consisted of behaviour change interventions or combined practical physical activity and behaviour change interventions and utilised a large variety of behaviour change techniques. Four studies reported increased physical activity behaviour. All studies used subjective methods of assessing physical activity with only one study utilising an objective measure. There has been varied success of behaviour change interventions in promoting physical activity behaviour in people who have RA. Further studies are required to develop and implement the optimal behaviour change intervention in this population.

  15. Internet-based cognitive behavioural self-help for premenstrual syndrome: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kues, Johanna N; Janda, Carolyn; Kleinstäuber, Maria; Weise, Cornelia

    2014-12-02

    With a prevalence of 3 to 8% among women of reproductive age, severe premenstrual symptoms are very common. Symptoms range from emotional and cognitive to physical changes. Severe symptoms (that is, premenstrual syndrome) can have a strong impact on everyday functioning and quality of life. Impairment can be as serious as that of dysthymic disorders. Many affected women receive either no treatment at all or are unsatisfied with their treatment. Although there is some evidence for the reduction of distress through cognitive behavioural therapy, there are only a small number of randomised controlled trials carefully investigating the efficacy of this psychotherapeutic approach. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the efficacy of a cognitive behavioural self-help treatment for women suffering from premenstrual syndrome. The study is conducted as a randomised controlled trial. The complex diagnostic assessment includes the completion of a symptom diary over two consecutive cycles and a telephone interview. Eligible women are randomly assigned to either a treatment or a wait-list control group. The intervention is based on cognitive behavioural therapy principles and is provided via the internet. It consists of 14 different modules on which participants work over 8 consecutive weeks. In addition to written information, participants receive email feedback from a clinical psychologist on a weekly basis. Participants assigned to the wait-list receive the treatment after the end of the waiting period (8 weeks). The primary outcome measure is the Premenstrual Syndrome Impairment Measure. Secondary outcomes include the Premenstrual Syndrome Coping Measure, the Short-Form Social Support Questionnaire, the Questionnaire for the Assessment of Relationship Quality, and the Perceived Stress Scale. Data is collected during the premenstrual (luteal) phase at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 6-month follow-up. So far, there is no study investigating internet-based cognitive

  16. Treating women with perinatal mood and anxiety disorders (PMADs) with a hybrid cognitive behavioural and art therapy treatment (CB-ART).

    PubMed

    Sarid, Orly; Cwikel, Julie; Czamanski-Cohen, Johanna; Huss, Ephrat

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents an overview of a combined, evaluated protocol, cognitive behavioural and art therapy treatment (CB-ART), for the treatment of women with perinatal mood and anxiety disorders (PMADs). The protocol integrates cognitive behavioural interventions and art therapy. CB-ART focuses on changing distressing image, symptom or memory (ISM) that interferes with functioning. The method directs clients to identify compositional elements that characterize their stressful ISM and to alter the element in their imagination, in bodily sensations and on the page. Examples are provided to illustrate the therapeutic process.

  17. A systematic review of the behavioural outcomes following exercise interventions for children and youth with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Bremer, Emily; Crozier, Michael; Lloyd, Meghann

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this review was to systematically search and critically analyse the literature pertaining to behavioural outcomes of exercise interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder aged ⩽16 years. This systematic review employed a comprehensive peer-reviewed search strategy, two-stage screening process and rigorous critical appraisal, which resulted in the inclusion of 13 studies. Results demonstrated that exercise interventions consisting individually of jogging, horseback riding, martial arts, swimming or yoga/dance can result in improvements to numerous behavioural outcomes including stereotypic behaviours, social-emotional functioning, cognition and attention. Horseback riding and martial arts interventions may produce the greatest results with moderate to large effect sizes, respectively. Future research with well-controlled designs, standardized assessments, larger sample sizes and longitudinal follow-ups is necessary, in addition to a greater focus on early childhood (aged 0-5 years) and adolescence (aged 12-16 years), to better understand the extent of the behavioural benefits that exercise may provide these populations.

  18. Cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety disorders in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    James, A; Soler, A; Weatherall, R

    2005-10-19

    Childhood and adolescent anxiety disorders are relatively common, occurring in between 5-18% of all children and adolescents. They are associated with significant morbidity and impairment in social and academic functioning, and when persistent, there is a risk of depression, suicide attempts and substance abuse in adulthood. There is accumulating evidence for the efficacy of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), with a number of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) suggesting benefit. To determine whether CBT is an effective treatment for childhood and adolescent anxiety disorders in comparison to waiting list or attention controls. Search of the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials and the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Group Register, which includes relevant randomised controlled trials from the bibliographic databases - The Cochrane Library ( to January 2004), EMBASE, (1970-2004) MEDLINE (1970-2004) and PsycINFO (1970-2004). We also searched the references of all included studies and relevant textbooks, and contacted authors in order to identify further trials. . Each identified study was assessed for possible inclusion by two reviewers independently. Inclusion criteria consisted of randomised controlled trials of CBT versus waiting list/attention controls in children (more than six years of age) and adolescents (under the age of 19 years) with a DSM (Diagnostic Statistical Manual) or ICD (International Classification of Diseases) anxiety diagnosis; and excluding simple phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. Each study was required to conform to the principles of CBT through use of a protocol and comprising at least eight sessions of CBT. The methodological quality of included trials was assessed by two reviewers independently. The dichotomous outcome of remission of anxiety diagnosis was pooled using relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals. Means and standard deviations of anxiety symptom continuous scores

  19. Interaction of Cognitive Distortions and Cognitive Deficits in the Formulation and Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Behaviours in a Woman with an Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willner, Paul; Goodey, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    Aims: This case study describes the formulation and cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) of obsessive-compulsive thoughts and behaviours in a woman with an intellectual disability. The report aimed to distinguish the cognitive deficits that reflect her disability from the cognitive distortions integral to her obsessive-compulsive disorder. Case…

  20. Understanding process in group cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis.

    PubMed

    Lecomte, Tania; Leclerc, Claude; Wykes, Til; Nicole, Luc; Abdel Baki, Amal

    2015-06-01

    Group cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis (GCBTp) has shown to be effective in diminishing symptoms, as well as in improving other psychosocial dimensions such as self-esteem. But little is known regarding the processes that generate these therapeutic improvements and might be harnessed to further improve its effectiveness. The current study aimed at investigating these processes, particularly those linked to interpersonal relationships. The participants were all assessed at baseline, were given 24 sessions of GCBTp over the course of 3 months and were assessed again at post-treatment as well as 6 months later (9 months from baseline). Sixty-six individuals with early psychosis took part in a study of GCBTp where therapist alliance and group cohesion were assessed at three time points during the therapy, and punctual (each session) self-perceptions on symptoms and optimism were collected. Improvements in symptoms (BPRS), self-esteem (SERS-SF) and in self-perceived therapeutic improvements (CHOICE) were linked to specific aspects of the alliance, group cohesion, as well as optimism. The variables retained were not always overall scores, suggesting the importance of the variables at key moments during the therapy. The results clearly demonstrate the importance of the alliance and group cohesion, together significantly explaining improvements measured at post-therapy or follow-up. This study has attempted to focus mostly on relational aspects, as well as on self-perceptions, in the context of a GCBTp for individuals with early psychosis. This study also showed that these therapeutic relationships are especially useful when they are more stable and at specific moments during the therapy, namely when more difficult psychological work is done. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Discontinuation of hypnotics during cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Zavesicka, Lucie; Brunovsky, Martin; Matousek, Milos; Sos, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Background In practical sleep medicine, therapists face the question of whether or not to discontinue the ongoing use of hypnotics in patients, as well as the possible effects of discontinuation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of discontinuing third-generation hypnotics on the results of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for primary insomnia in patients after long-term abuse. Methods Twenty-eight outpatients were treated by CBT for 8 weeks. The treatment outcome was estimated by means of differences among subjective clinical scales and polysomnography variables assessed before and after the treatment period. The therapeutic effect in a subgroup of 15 patients who had previously received hypnotics and were successively withdrawn during weeks 2–6 was compared to the effect achieved in patients who had not used hypnotics before CBT. Results There were no significant differences in baseline subjective and objective sleep characteristics between the hypnotic abusers and non-abusers. According to clinical scales and most polysomnographic measures, CBT was highly effective in both groups of subjects; it produced the greatest changes in total sleep time, REM sleep and sleep efficiency. Unexpectedly, discontinuation of hypnotics, as a factor in the analysis, was followed by an additional improvement of sleep efficiency and wake after sleep onset parameters. Conclusion Our study confirmed the efficacy of CBT in both hypnotic-abusing and non-abusing patients with chronic insomnia. The results of this study suggest that tapered withdrawal of third-generation hypnotics during CBT therapy for chronic insomnia could be associated with improvement rather than worsening of sleep continuity. PMID:18801160

  2. Changes in illness perceptions mediated the effect of cognitive behavioural therapy in severe functional somatic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Sara Sletten; Frostholm, Lisbeth; Ørnbøl, Eva; Schröder, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Although there is substantial evidence that cognitive behavioural therapy alleviates symptoms in functional somatic syndromes, the mechanisms of change are less investigated. This study examined whether changes in illness perceptions mediated the effect of cognitive behavioural therapy. We analysed additional data from a randomised controlled trial comparing completers of cognitive behavioural group therapy (46 patients) to an enhanced usual care group (66 patients). Proposed mediators (illness perceptions) and primary (physical health) and secondary (somatic symptoms and illness worry) outcomes were assessed by means of questionnaires at referral, baseline, end of treatment, and 10 and 16 months after randomisation. Multiple mediation analysis determined whether (1) changes in specific illness perceptions during treatment mediated the effect of cognitive behavioural therapy (primary analysis), and (2) whether changes in illness perceptions during the whole trial period were associated with improved outcome (secondary analysis). Improvements in illness perceptions during treatment partially mediated the effect of cognitive behavioural therapy on physical health one year after treatment (sum of indirect effects 1.556, BCa 95% CI (0.006; 3.620)). Improving perceived control was particularly important. Changes in illness perceptions from baseline to 16 months after randomisation were associated with clinically meaningful improvements in physical health, somatic symptoms and illness worry during the same period. Our results suggest that changing patients' illness perceptions is an important process in cognitive behavioural therapy for functional somatic syndromes. Challenging patients' own understanding of their illness may hence be a key element of successful treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Using memories to motivate future behaviour: an experimental exercise intervention.

    PubMed

    Biondolillo, Mathew J; Pillemer, David B

    2015-01-01

    This study tested a novel memory-based experimental intervention to increase exercise activity. Undergraduate students completed a two-part online survey ostensibly regarding college activity choices. At Time 1, they completed questionnaires that included assessments of exercise-related attitudes, motivation and self-reported behaviours. Next, they described a memory of a positive or negative experience that would increase their motivation to exercise; students in a control condition did not receive a memory prompt. Finally, they rated their intentions to exercise in the future. Eight days following Time 1, students received a Time 2 survey that included an assessment of their self-reported exercise during the prior week. Students in the positive memory condition reported higher levels of subsequent exercise than those in the control condition; students in the negative memory condition reported intermediate levels of exercise. Activating a positive motivational memory had a significant effect on students' self-reported exercise activity even after controlling for prior attitudes, motivation and exercise activity.

  4. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for people with chronic fatigue syndrome still experiencing excessive fatigue after cognitive behaviour therapy: a pilot randomized study.

    PubMed

    Rimes, Katharine A; Wingrove, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS; sometimes known as myalgic encephalomyelitis). However, only a minority of patients fully recover after CBT; thus, methods for improving treatment outcomes are required. This pilot study concerned a mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) intervention adapted for people with CFS who were still experiencing excessive fatigue after CBT. The study aimed to investigate the acceptability of this new intervention and the feasibility of conducting a larger-scale randomized trial in the future. Preliminary efficacy analyses were also undertaken. Participants were randomly allocated to MBCT or waiting list. Sixteen MBCT participants and 19 waiting-list participants completed the study, with the intervention being delivered in two separate groups. Acceptability, engagement and participant-rated helpfulness of the intervention were high. Analysis of covariance controlling for pre-treatment scores indicated that, at post-treatment, MBCT participants reported lower levels of fatigue (the primary clinical outcome) than the waiting-list group. Similarly, there were significant group differences in fatigue at 2-month follow-up, and when the MBCT group was followed up to 6 months post-treatment, these improvements were maintained. The MBCT group also had superior outcomes on measures of impairment, depressed mood, catastrophic thinking about fatigue, all-or-nothing behavioural responses, unhelpful beliefs about emotions, mindfulness and self-compassion. In conclusion, MBCT is a promising and acceptable additional intervention for people still experiencing excessive fatigue after CBT for CFS, which should be investigated in a larger randomized controlled trial. Only about 30% of people with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) recover after cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT); thus, methods for improving treatment outcomes are needed. This is the first pilot randomized study to demonstrate that

  5. Stability and Change in the Cognitive and Adaptive Behaviour Scores of Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Helen E.; Smith, Isabel M.; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Duku, Eric; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Mirenda, Pat; Roberts, Wendy; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Bennett, Teresa; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Georgiades, Stelios

    2015-01-01

    We examined the stability of cognitive and adaptive behaviour standard scores in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) between diagnosis and school entry approximately age 6. IQ increased 18 points in 2-year-olds, 12 points in 3-year-olds, and 9 points in 4-year-olds (N = 281). Adaptive behaviour scores increased 4 points across age groups…

  6. Stability and Change in the Cognitive and Adaptive Behaviour Scores of Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Helen E.; Smith, Isabel M.; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Duku, Eric; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Mirenda, Pat; Roberts, Wendy; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Bennett, Teresa; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Georgiades, Stelios

    2015-01-01

    We examined the stability of cognitive and adaptive behaviour standard scores in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) between diagnosis and school entry approximately age 6. IQ increased 18 points in 2-year-olds, 12 points in 3-year-olds, and 9 points in 4-year-olds (N = 281). Adaptive behaviour scores increased 4 points across age groups…

  7. Preschoolers' Sleep Behaviour: Associations with Parental Hardiness, Sleep-Related Cognitions and Bedtime Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Nikki; McMahon, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    Background: Childhood sleep problems which are prevalent in Western societies are associated with a wide range of emotional, cognitive and behavioural disturbances. Growing evidence suggests that parents play a pivotal role in children's sleep behaviour and that a parenting style which promotes self-regulation is beneficial. This study tested a…

  8. Development and Behaviour in Marshall-Smith Syndrome: An Exploratory Study of Cognition, Phenotype and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Balkom, I. D. C.; Shaw, A.; Vuijk, P. J.; Franssens, M.; Hoek, H. W.; Hennekam, R. C. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Marshall-Smith syndrome (MSS) is an infrequently described entity characterised by failure to thrive, developmental delay, abnormal bone maturation and a characteristic face. In studying the physical features of a group of patients, we noticed unusual behavioural traits. This urged us to study cognition, behavioural phenotype and…

  9. Development and Behaviour in Marshall-Smith Syndrome: An Exploratory Study of Cognition, Phenotype and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Balkom, I. D. C.; Shaw, A.; Vuijk, P. J.; Franssens, M.; Hoek, H. W.; Hennekam, R. C. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Marshall-Smith syndrome (MSS) is an infrequently described entity characterised by failure to thrive, developmental delay, abnormal bone maturation and a characteristic face. In studying the physical features of a group of patients, we noticed unusual behavioural traits. This urged us to study cognition, behavioural phenotype and…

  10. Problem Behaviours of Kindergartners: The Affects of Children's Cognitive Ability, Creativity, and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chi, Sung-Ae; Kim, Seong Hyun; Kim, HyunJin

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the affects of cognitive ability, creativity, and self-esteem on kindergartners' problem behaviour. Participants were 203 children (mean age = 65.8 months) attending kindergartens in Korea. Data collection used the Korean version of Child Behaviour Checklist, the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, the Torrance Test of…

  11. Studying nursing interventions in acutely ill, cognitively impaired older adults

    PubMed Central

    McCauley, Kathleen; Bradway, Christine; Hirschman, Karen B; Naylor, Mary D

    2015-01-01

    Background Between one and two of every five hospitalized older adults have cognitive deficits, often not accurately assessed or well managed. Cognitive impairment adds substantially to the complexity of these patients’ care, places them at high risk for poor outcomes and increases the cost of health care. Methods We describe three evidence-based interventions, each capitalizing on the unique contributions of nurses and designed to improve outcomes of hospitalized older adults who have cognitive deficits. Interventions of varying intensity were compared across three hospitals (Phase I) and subsequently within the same hospitals (Phase II). All enrolled patients were screened during their index hospitalizations and cognitive deficits were communicated to relevant health care team members (Augmented Standard Care-ASC, lowest intensity). At one hospital, ASC was the only intervention. Patients at a second hospital also had care influenced by specially prepared registered nurses (Resource Nurse Care-RNC, medium intensity). Finally, patients at third hospital also received advanced practice nurse coordinated care (Transitional Care Model-TCM, higher intensity). In Phase II, newly enrolled patients at these same hospitals all received the TCM. We summarize major themes from review of multiple data sources and researcher recollections related to facilitators and barriers to implementing a complex research study. Findings Effective implementation of the three intervention strategies depended on clinician engagement and communication; degree of participation by nurses in the educational program with subsequent practice improvement; and success of advanced practice nurses in implementing the TCM with both with patients, family caregivers and clinicians. Implications Based on lessons learned in implementing complex research studies within the “real world” of clinical practice settings, recommendations focus on strengthening facilitators, minimizing barriers and gaining

  12. Planning for, implementing and assessing the impact of health promotion and behaviour change interventions: a way forward for health psychologists.

    PubMed

    Wallace, L M; Brown, K E; Hilton, S

    2014-01-01

    Researchers in the field of health psychology have increasingly been involved in translating a body of knowledge about psychological factors associated with health-relevant behaviours, into the development and evaluation of interventions that seek to apply that knowledge. In this paper we argue that a changing economic and political climate, and the strong behavioural contribution to disease morbidity and mortality in developed nations, requires health psychologists to plan more rigorously for, and communicate more effectively, about how health promotion, social cognition and behaviour change interventions will have impact and be increasingly embedded into health services or health promotion activity. We explain academic and wider socio-economic uses of 'impact' in health services research. We describe the relationship between impact and dissemination, and impact as distinct from, but often used interchangeably with the terms 'implementation', 'knowledge transfer' and 'knowledge translation' (KT). The evidence for establishing impact is emergent. We therefore draw on a number of impact planning and KT frameworks, with reference to two self- management interventions, to describe a framework that we hope will support health psychologists in embedding impact planning and execution in research. We illustrate this further in an on-line annexe with reference to one of our own interventions, Mums-and-MS (see Supplemental Material).

  13. Do cognitive interventions improve general cognition in dementia? A meta-analysis and meta-regression

    PubMed Central

    Huntley, J D; Gould, R L; Liu, K; Smith, M; Howard, R J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To review the efficacy of cognitive interventions on improving general cognition in dementia. Method Online literature databases and trial registers, previous systematic reviews and leading journals were searched for relevant randomised controlled trials. A systematic review, random-effects meta-analyses and meta-regression were conducted. Cognitive interventions were categorised as: cognitive stimulation (CS), involving a range of social and cognitive activities to stimulate multiple cognitive domains; cognitive training (CT), involving repeated practice of standardised tasks targeting a specific cognitive function; cognitive rehabilitation (CR), which takes a person-centred approach to target impaired function; or mixed  CT and stimulation (MCTS). Separate analyses were conducted for general cognitive outcome measures and for studies using ‘active’ (designed to control for non-specific therapeutic effects) and non-active (minimal or no intervention) control groups. Results 33 studies were included. Significant positive effect sizes (Hedges’ g) were found for CS with the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) (g=0.51, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.69; p<0.001) compared to non-active controls and (g=0.35, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.65; p=0.019) compared to active controls. Significant benefit was also seen with the Alzheimer's disease Assessment Scale-Cognition (ADAS-Cog) (g=−0.26, 95% CI −0.445 to −0.08; p=0.005). There was no evidence that CT or MCTS produced significant improvements on general cognition outcomes and not enough CR studies for meta-analysis. The lowest accepted minimum clinically important difference was reached in 11/17 CS studies for the MMSE, but only 2/9 studies for the ADAS-Cog. Additionally, 95% prediction intervals suggested that although statistically significant, CS may not lead to benefits on the ADAS-Cog in all clinical settings. Conclusions CS improves scores on MMSE and ADAS-Cog in dementia, but benefits on the ADAS-Cog are generally

  14. Using cognitive-behavioural techniques to improve exclusive breastfeeding in a low-literacy disadvantaged population.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Atif; Haq, Zaeem; Sikander, Siham; Ahmad, Ikhlaq; Ahmad, Mansoor; Hafeez, Assad

    2012-01-01

    Despite being an important component of Pakistan's primary health care programme, the rates of exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months remain among the lowest in the world. Low levels of literacy in women and deeply held cultural beliefs and practices have been found to contribute to the ineffectiveness of routine counselling delivered universally by community health workers in Pakistan. We aimed to address this by incorporating techniques of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) into the routine counselling process. We conducted qualitative studies of stakeholders' opinions (mothers, community health workers, their trainers and programme managers) and used this data to develop a psycho-educational approach that combined education with techniques of CBT that could be integrated into the health workers' routine work. The workers were trained to use this approach and feedback was obtained after implementation. The new intervention was successfully integrated into the community health worker programme and found to be culturally acceptable, feasible and useful. Incorporating techniques of CBT into routine counselling may be useful to promote health behaviours in traditional societies with low literacy rates.

  15. Working Memory, Cognitive Style, and Behavioural Predictors of GCSE Exam Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimley, Michael; Banner, Gloria

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the interplay of working memory, cognitive style, and behaviour. Year 8 (aged 13 years) students (n = 205) at a UK urban secondary school were tested to ascertain predictors of General Certificate of School Education (GCSE) achievement. Assessment included Riding's cognitive style dimensions, working memory capacity, and a…

  16. Brief Report: Are ADHD Traits Dissociable from the Autistic Profile? Links between Cognition and Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ames, Catherine S.; White, Sarah J.

    2011-01-01

    Reports of co-morbid symptoms of ADHD in children with ASD have increased. This research sought to identify ADHD-related behaviours in a sample of children with ASD, and their relationship with the ASD triad of impairments and related cognitive impairments. Children with ASD (n = 55) completed a comprehensive cognitive assessment whilst a…

  17. The Relationship between Specific Cognitive Impairment and Behaviour in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodcock, K. A.; Oliver, C.; Humphreys, G. W.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) have been shown to demonstrate a particular cognitive deficit in attention switching and high levels of preference for routine and temper outbursts. This study assesses whether a specific pathway between a cognitive deficit and behaviour via environmental interaction can exist in individuals…

  18. The Relationship between Specific Cognitive Impairment and Behaviour in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodcock, K. A.; Oliver, C.; Humphreys, G. W.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) have been shown to demonstrate a particular cognitive deficit in attention switching and high levels of preference for routine and temper outbursts. This study assesses whether a specific pathway between a cognitive deficit and behaviour via environmental interaction can exist in individuals…

  19. The Role of Social-Cognitive Abilities in Preschoolers' Aggressive Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Rebecca Stetson; Cassidy, Kimberly Wright; Juliano, Mariel

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between preschool children's social-cognitive abilities (theory of mind and social information processing; SIP) and their observed physical and relational aggressive behaviour. Children with more advanced social-cognitive abilities engaged in fewer acts of physical aggression; however, much of the ability…

  20. Brief Report: Are ADHD Traits Dissociable from the Autistic Profile? Links between Cognition and Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ames, Catherine S.; White, Sarah J.

    2011-01-01

    Reports of co-morbid symptoms of ADHD in children with ASD have increased. This research sought to identify ADHD-related behaviours in a sample of children with ASD, and their relationship with the ASD triad of impairments and related cognitive impairments. Children with ASD (n = 55) completed a comprehensive cognitive assessment whilst a…

  1. Working Memory, Cognitive Style, and Behavioural Predictors of GCSE Exam Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimley, Michael; Banner, Gloria

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the interplay of working memory, cognitive style, and behaviour. Year 8 (aged 13 years) students (n = 205) at a UK urban secondary school were tested to ascertain predictors of General Certificate of School Education (GCSE) achievement. Assessment included Riding's cognitive style dimensions, working memory capacity, and a…

  2. The Role of Social-Cognitive Abilities in Preschoolers' Aggressive Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Rebecca Stetson; Cassidy, Kimberly Wright; Juliano, Mariel

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between preschool children's social-cognitive abilities (theory of mind and social information processing; SIP) and their observed physical and relational aggressive behaviour. Children with more advanced social-cognitive abilities engaged in fewer acts of physical aggression; however, much of the ability…

  3. Neural changes following cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Fannon, Dominic; Peters, Emmanuelle R.; ffytche, Dominic H.; Sumich, Alexander L.; Premkumar, Preethi; Anilkumar, Anantha P.; Andrew, Christopher; Phillips, Mary L.; Williams, Steven C. R.; Kuipers, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of evidence demonstrates that persistent positive symptoms, particularly delusions, can be improved by cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis. Heightened perception and processing of threat are believed to constitute the genesis of delusions. The present study aimed to examine functional brain changes following cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis. The study involved 56 outpatients with one or more persistent positive distressing symptoms of schizophrenia. Twenty-eight patients receiving cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis for 6–8 months in addition to their usual treatment were matched with 28 patients receiving treatment as usual. Patients’ symptoms were assessed by a rater blind to treatment group, and they underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during an affect processing task at baseline and end of treatment follow-up. The two groups were comparable at baseline in terms of clinical and demographic parameters and neural and behavioural responses to facial and control stimuli. The cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis with treatment-as-usual group (22 subjects) showed significant clinical improvement compared with the treatment-as-usual group (16 subjects), which showed no change at follow-up. The cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis with treatment-as-usual group, but not the treatment-as-usual group, showed decreased activation of the inferior frontal, insula, thalamus, putamen and occipital areas to fearful and angry expressions at treatment follow-up compared with baseline. Reduction of functional magnetic resonance imaging response during angry expressions correlated directly with symptom improvement. This study provides the first evidence that cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis attenuates brain responses to threatening stimuli and suggests that cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis may mediate symptom reduction by promoting processing of threats in a less distressing way. PMID:21772062

  4. Social cognitive determinants of ecstasy use to target in evidence-based interventions: a meta-analytical review.

    PubMed

    Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y; Kok, Gerjo; Abraham, Charles

    2008-01-01

    The health hazards and prevalence of ecstasy use have been documented in two decades of research, but no review reporting on potentially modifiable antecedents of use is available. The aim of this study was to integrate systematically research identifying cognitive correlates of ecstasy use. Such research has the potential to identify targets for evidence-based interventions designed to discourage use. The databases PsycINFO and MedLine were searched, inclusion criteria applied to resulting hits, and descendency and ancestry approaches applied to the selected publications. Reported associations between cognitive determinants, including intention to use and ecstasy use measures, were synthesized by calculating a weighted mean effect size, r. The pattern of associations lent support both to the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and the expectancy approach as descriptions of potentially useful determinants. Attitudes were associated most strongly with intention and use, followed by subjective norm and perceived behavioural control. Consideration of the strength of associations and the potential modifiability of identified cognitions suggests that evidence-based interventions to discourage ecstasy use should target negative expectancies, perceived behavioural control and anticipated regret, and consider tailoring perceived behavioural control elements.

  5. Negative symptoms and social cognition: identifying targets for psychological interventions.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, Tania M; Mehl, Stephanie; Kesting, Marie-Luise; Rief, Winfried

    2011-09-01

    How to improve treatment for negative symptoms is a continuing topic of debate. Suggestions have been made to advance psychological understanding of negative symptoms by focusing on the social cognitive processes involved in symptom formation and maintenance. Following the recommendations by the National Institute of Mental Health workshop on social cognition in schizophrenia, this study investigated associations between negative symptoms and various aspects of social cognition including Theory of Mind (ToM), attribution, empathy, self-esteem, and interpersonal self-concepts in 75 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 75 healthy controls. Negative symptoms were significantly associated with difficulties in ToM, less readiness to be empathic, lower self-esteem, less self-serving bias, negative self-concepts related to interpersonal abilities, and dysfunctional acceptance beliefs. Different aspects of social cognition were mildly to moderately correlated and interacted in their impact on negative symptoms: Difficulties in ToM were associated with negative symptoms in persons with low but not in persons with medium or high levels of self-esteem. Taken together, the social cognition variables and their hypothesized interaction explained 39% of the variance in negative symptoms after controlling for neurocognition and depression. The results highlight the relevance of self-concepts related to social abilities, dysfunctional beliefs, and global self-worth alone and in interaction with ToM deficits for negative symptoms and thereby provide a helpful basis for advancing psychosocial interventions.

  6. Of babies and birds: complex tool behaviours are not sufficient for the evolution of the ability to create a novel causal intervention

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Alex H.; Cheke, Lucy G.; Waismeyer, Anna; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Miller, Rachael; Gopnik, Alison; Clayton, Nicola S.; Gray, Russell D.

    2014-01-01

    Humans are capable of simply observing a correlation between cause and effect, and then producing a novel behavioural pattern in order to recreate the same outcome. However, it is unclear how the ability to create such causal interventions evolved. Here, we show that while 24-month-old children can produce an effective, novel action after observing a correlation, tool-making New Caledonian crows cannot. These results suggest that complex tool behaviours are not sufficient for the evolution of this ability, and that causal interventions can be cognitively and evolutionarily disassociated from other types of causal understanding. PMID:24920476

  7. Of babies and birds: complex tool behaviours are not sufficient for the evolution of the ability to create a novel causal intervention.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Alex H; Cheke, Lucy G; Waismeyer, Anna; Meltzoff, Andrew N; Miller, Rachael; Gopnik, Alison; Clayton, Nicola S; Gray, Russell D

    2014-07-22

    Humans are capable of simply observing a correlation between cause and effect, and then producing a novel behavioural pattern in order to recreate the same outcome. However, it is unclear how the ability to create such causal interventions evolved. Here, we show that while 24-month-old children can produce an effective, novel action after observing a correlation, tool-making New Caledonian crows cannot. These results suggest that complex tool behaviours are not sufficient for the evolution of this ability, and that causal interventions can be cognitively and evolutionarily disassociated from other types of causal understanding. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Changing health-promoting behaviours through narrative interventions: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Perrier, Marie-Josée; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A

    2016-07-07

    The objective of this review was to summarize the literature supporting narrative interventions that target health-promoting behaviours. Eligible articles were English-language peer-reviewed studies that quantitatively reported the results of a narrative intervention targeting health-promoting behaviours or theoretical determinants of behaviour. Five public health and psychology databases were searched. A total of 52 studies met inclusion criteria. In all, 14 studies found positive changes in health-promoting behaviours after exposure to a narrative intervention. The results for the changes in theoretical determinants were mixed. While narrative appears to be a promising intervention strategy, more research is needed to determine how and when to use these interventions.

  9. Reducing the decline in physical activity during pregnancy: a systematic review of behaviour change interventions.

    PubMed

    Currie, Sinead; Sinclair, Marlene; Murphy, Marie H; Madden, Elaine; Dunwoody, Lynn; Liddle, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) typically declines throughout pregnancy. Low levels of PA are associated with excessive weight gain and subsequently increase risk of pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, hypertension disorders, delivery by caesarean section and stillbirth. Systematic reviews on PA during pregnancy have not explored the efficacy of behaviour change techniques or related theory in altering PA behaviour. This systematic review evaluated the content of PA interventions to reduce the decline of PA in pregnant women with a specific emphasis on the behaviour change techniques employed to elicit this change. Literature searches were conducted in eight databases. Strict inclusion and exclusion criteria were employed. Two reviewers independently evaluated each intervention using the behaviour change techniques (BCT) taxonomy to identify the specific behaviour change techniques employed. Two reviewers independently assessed the risk of bias using the guidelines from the Cochrane Collaboration. Overall quality was determined using the GRADE approach. A total of 1140 potentially eligible papers were identified from which 14 studies were selected for inclusion. Interventions included counselling (n = 6), structured exercise (n = 6) and education (n = 2). Common behaviour change techniques employed in these studies were goal setting and planning, feedback, repetition and substitution, shaping knowledge and comparison of behaviours. Regular face-to-face meetings were also commonly employed. PA change over time in intervention groups ranged from increases of 28% to decreases of 25%. In 8 out of 10 studies, which provided adequate data, participants in the intervention group were more physically active post intervention than controls. Physical activity interventions incorporating behaviour change techniques help reduce the decline in PA throughout pregnancy. Range of behaviour change techniques can be implemented to reduce this decline including goals and

  10. Alleviating distressing intrusive memories in depression: a comparison between computerised cognitive bias modification and cognitive behavioural education.

    PubMed

    Newby, Jill M; Lang, Tamara; Werner-Seidler, Aliza; Holmes, Emily; Moulds, Michelle L

    2014-05-01

    Negative appraisals maintain intrusive memories and intrusion-distress in depression, but treatment is underdeveloped. This study compared the efficacy of computerised bias modification positive appraisal training (CBM) versus a therapist-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy session (CB-Education) that both aimed to target and alter negative appraisals of a negative intrusive autobiographical memory. Dysphoric participants (Mean BDI-II = 27.85; N = 60) completed baseline ratings of a negative intrusive memory, negative appraisals and the Impact of Event Scale, and were randomly allocated either one session of CBM, CB-Education, or a no intervention monitoring control condition (Control). Mood and intrusion symptoms were assessed at one week follow-up. For all groups, there were significant reductions over one week in mood (depression and anxiety), memory intrusiveness and negative appraisals. Groups differed in terms of intrusion-related distress, with the CB-Education group showing greatest reduction, followed by the CBM group. The study provides evidence for the link between maladaptive appraisals of intrusive memories and distress in depressed mood. Further, both a single session of CB-Education and (to a lesser degree) CBM are useful in reducing intrusion-related distress. This study may have been underpowered to detect differences and replication is needed with larger samples. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for anxiety and depression in adults with mild intellectual disabilities (ID): a pilot randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several studies have showed that people with intellectual disabilities (ID) have suitable skills to undergo cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). Case studies have reported successful use of cognitive behavioural therapy techniques (with adaptations) in people with ID. Modified cognitive behavioural therapy may be a feasible and effective approach for the treatment of depression, anxiety, and other mood disorders in ID. To date, two studies have reported group-based manaulised cognitive behavioural treatment programs for depression in people with mild ID. However, there is no individual manualised programme for anxiety or depression in people with intellectual disabilities. The aims of the study are to determine the feasibility of conducting a randomised controlled trial for CBT in people with ID. The data will inform the power calculation and other aspects of carrying out a definitive randomised controlled trial. Methods Thirty participants with mild ID will be allocated randomly to either CBT or treatment as usual (TAU). The CBT group will receive up to 20 hourly individual CBT over a period of 4 months. TAU is the standard treatment which is available to any adult with an intellectual disability who is referred to the intellectual disability service (including care management, community support, medical, nursing or social support). Beck Youth Inventories (Beck Anxiety Inventory & Beck Depression Inventory) will be administered at baseline; end of treatment (4 months) and at six months to evaluate the changes in depression and anxiety. Client satisfaction, quality of life and the health economics will be secondary outcomes. Discussion The broad outcome of the study will be to produce clear guidance for therapists to apply an established psychological intervention and identify how and whether it works with people with intellectual disabilities. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN38099525 PMID:21492437

  12. A Behavioural Approach to Helping an Older Adult with a Learning Disability and Mild Cognitive Impairment Overcome Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is a considerable body of evidence to suggest that behavioural activation for depression is an equally effective but less complex treatment than cognitive behavioural therapy. It may therefore be more suitable for those who are cognitively impaired (i.e. early-stage dementia or mild cognitive impairment) or have a learning…

  13. A Behavioural Approach to Helping an Older Adult with a Learning Disability and Mild Cognitive Impairment Overcome Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is a considerable body of evidence to suggest that behavioural activation for depression is an equally effective but less complex treatment than cognitive behavioural therapy. It may therefore be more suitable for those who are cognitively impaired (i.e. early-stage dementia or mild cognitive impairment) or have a learning…

  14. The Cognitive and Behavioural Profile of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Application of the Consensus Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Consonni, Monica; Iannaccone, Sandro; Cerami, Chiara; Frasson, Paola; Lacerenza, Marco; Lunetta, Christian; Corbo, Massimo; Cappa, Stefano F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The study aims to assess the spectrum of cognitive and behavioural disorders in patients affected by Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) according to the recent consensus criteria [9]. The study also intends to assess the impact of physical disability on cognitive and behavioural abnormalities. Methods: Detailed neurological, neuropsychological and neurobehavioral evaluations were administered to 23 ALS patients, 11 Lower Motor Neuron Disease (LMND) patients and 39 healthy controls. Strong et al.’s criteria [9] were applied to diagnose the presence of cognitive/behavioural impairment. Clinical and neuropsychological scores were used for group comparisons and correlation analyses. Results: In comparison with LMND and controls, a subgroup of ALS patients (∼30%) manifested executive dysfunction, which was severe enough to classify them as cognitively impaired. Action naming difficulties and short-term memory deficits were also observed. Aspontaneity, disorganization and mental rigidity reached clinical relevance in 20% of ALS patients. A small percentage of ALS patients (13%) also had comorbid dementia. The cognitive or behavioural status was not related to the clinical features of ALS. Conclusion: The use of consensus criteria for cognitive and behavioural impairment and the comparison with the LMND group proved useful in defining the spectrum of non-motor manifestations of ALS. PMID:23001631

  15. Impact of disease, cognitive and behavioural factors on caregiver outcome in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Watermeyer, Tamlyn J; Brown, Richard G; Sidle, Katie C L; Oliver, David J; Allen, Christopher; Karlsson, Joanna; Ellis, Cathy; Shaw, Christopher E; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Goldstein, Laura H

    2015-01-01

    Up to 50% of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) show mild to moderate cognitive-behavioural change alongside their progressive functional impairment. This study examines the relative impact of patients' disease symptoms, behavioural change and current executive function and social cognition abilities on psychosocial outcomes in spouse caregivers of people with ALS. Thirty-five spouse caregivers rated their own levels of depression and anxiety, subjective burden and marital satisfaction. Caregivers also rated their partner's everyday behaviour. The patients were assessed for disease severity and cognitive function, with composite scores derived for executive function and social cognition. Regression analyses revealed that caregiver burden was predicted by the severity of patients' limb involvement and behavioural problems. Depression was predicted by patients' limb involvement, while behavioural problems and patient age predicted caregiver anxiety. Current marital satisfaction was predicted by patient behavioural problems beyond the level of pre-illness marital satisfaction. In conclusion, the study highlights the potential impact of ALS patients' functional impairment and behavioural change on ALS caregivers' psychosocial functioning. Clinical communication with ALS families should emphasise both physical and psychological challenges presented by the disease.

  16. Guided Internet-delivered cognitive behavioural treatment for insomnia: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    van Straten, A; Emmelkamp, J; de Wit, J; Lancee, J; Andersson, G; van Someren, E J W; Cuijpers, P

    2014-05-01

    Insomnia is a prevalent problem with a high burden of disease (e.g. reduced quality of life, reduced work capacity) and a high co-morbidity with other mental and somatic disorders. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is effective in the treatment of insomnia but is seldom offered. CBT delivered through the Internet might be a more accessible alternative. In this study we examined the effectiveness of a guided Internet-delivered CBT for adults with insomnia using a randomized controlled trial (RCT). A total of 118 patients, recruited from the general population, were randomized to the 6-week guided Internet intervention (n = 59) or to a wait-list control group (n = 59). Patients filled out an online questionnaire and a 7-day sleep diary before (T0) and after (T1) the 6-week period. The intervention group received a follow-up questionnaire 3 months after baseline (T2). Almost three-quarters (72.9%) of the patients completed the whole intervention. Intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis showed that the treatment had statistically significant medium to large effects (p < 0.05; Cohen's d between 0.40 and 1.06), and resulted more often in clinically relevant changes, on all sleep and secondary outcomes with the exception of sleep onset latency (SOL) and number of awakenings (NA). There was a non-significant difference in the reduction in sleep medication between the intervention (a decrease of 6.8%) and control (an increase of 1.8%) groups (p = 0.20). Data on longer-term effects were inconclusive. This study adds to the growing body of literature that indicates that guided CBT for insomnia can be delivered through the Internet. Patients accept the format and their sleep improves.

  17. Systematic review of cognitive behavioural therapy for the management of headaches and migraines in adults

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Petra; Loveman, Emma; Clegg, Andy; Easton, Simon; Berry, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This systematic review aimed to establish if cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) can reduce the physical symptoms of chronic headache and migraines in adults. Methods: Evidence from searches of eight databases was systematically sought, appraised and synthesised. Screening of title and abstracts was conducted independently by two reviewers. Full papers were screened, data extracted and quality assessed by one reviewer and checked by a second. Data were synthesised narratively by intervention due to the heterogeneity of the studies. The inclusion criteria specified randomised controlled trials with CBT as an intervention in adults suffering from chronic headaches/migraines not associated with an underlying pathology/medication overuse. CBT was judged on the basis of authors describing the intervention as CBT. The diagnosis of the condition had to be clinician verified. Studies had to include a comparator and employ headache/migraine-specific outcomes such as patient-reported headache days. Results: Out of 1126 screened titles and abstracts and 20 assessed full papers, 10 studies met the inclusion criteria of the review. Some studies combined CBT with another intervention, as well as employing varying numbers of comparators. CBT was statistically significantly more effective in improving some headaches-related outcomes in CBT comparisons with waiting lists (three studies), in combination with relaxation compared with relaxation only (three studies) or antidepressant medication (one study), with no statistically significant differences in three studies. Conclusions: The findings of this review were mixed, with some studies providing evidence in support of the suggestion that people experiencing headaches or migraines can benefit from CBT, and that CBT can reduce the physical symptoms of headache and migraines. However, methodology inadequacies in the evidence base make it difficult to draw any meaningful conclusions or to make any recommendations. PMID:26526604

  18. Electroacupuncture and cognitive behavioural therapy for sub-syndromal depression among undergraduates: a controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Tianwei; Guo, Zhuo; Zhang, Wenyue; Ma, Wenhao; Yang, Xinjing; Yang, Xueqin; Hwang, Jiwon; He, Xiaotian; Chen, Xinyi; Ya, Tu

    2016-01-01

    Background Individuals with sub-syndromal depression (SSD) are at increased risk of incident depressive disorders; however, the ideal therapeutic approach to SSD remains unknown. Objective To evaluate the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), alone or in combination, on depressive symptoms. Methods Undergraduate students with SSD were recruited and allocated to one of four groups based on their preferences: EA (n=6), CBT (n=10), EA+CBT (n=6), and untreated control (n=11) groups. Six weeks of treatment were provided in the first three groups. Clinical outcomes were measured using the 17-item Hamilton Depression (HAMD-17) rating scale, Center for Epidemiologic Depression (CES-D) scale, WHO Quality of Life-Brief version (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire, and clinical remission rate. Results All 33 subjects were included in an intent-to-treat analysis. Statistically significant improvements in HAMD-17, CES-D, and WHOQOL-BREF scores and a higher remission rate were found in the EA, CBT, and EA+CBT intervention groups compared with the control group (all p<0.05). No significant differences were found between the three intervention groups. HAMD-17 factor score analysis revealed that EA reduced sleep disturbance scores more than CBT or EA+CBT (p<0.05), and CBT reduced retardation scores more than EA (p<0.01). EA+CBT reduced anxiety/somatisation scores more than EA or CBT (p<0.05) and retardation scores more than EA (p<0.05). Conclusions Early intervention may alleviate depressive symptoms in SSD. EA and CBT may have differential effects on certain symptoms. Combination therapy targeting both physical and psychological symptoms may represent an ideal strategy for SSD intervention. However, randomised trials with larger sample sizes are needed. Trial registration number ChiCTR-TRC-10000889; Results. PMID:27083200

  19. Reducing the risk of sexually transmitted infections in genitourinary medicine clinic patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of behavioural interventions.

    PubMed

    Ward, D J; Rowe, B; Pattison, H; Taylor, R S; Radcliffe, K W

    2005-10-01

    Are behavioural interventions effective in reducing the rate of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinic patients? Systematic review and meta-analysis of published articles. Medline, CINAHL, Embase, PsychINFO, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, Cochrane Library Controlled Clinical Trials Register, National Research Register (1966 to January 2004). Randomised controlled trials of behavioural interventions in sexual health clinic patients were included if they reported change to STI rates or self reported sexual behaviour. Trial quality was assessed using the Jadad score and results pooled using random effects meta-analyses where outcomes were consistent across studies. 14 trials were included; 12 based in the United States. Experimental interventions were heterogeneous and most control interventions were more structured than typical UK care. Eight trials reported data on laboratory confirmed infections, of which four observed a greater reduction in their intervention groups (in two cases this result was statistically significant, p < 0.05). Seven trials reported consistent condom use, of which six observed a greater increase among their intervention subjects. Results for other measures of sexual behaviour were inconsistent. Success in reducing STIs was related to trial quality, use of social cognition models, and formative research in the target population. However, effectiveness was not related to intervention format or length. While results were heterogeneous, several trials observed reductions in STI rates. The most effective interventions were developed through extensive formative research. These findings should encourage further research in the United Kingdom where new approaches to preventing STIs are urgently required.

  20. Brain and cognitive-behavioural development after asphyxia at term birth.

    PubMed

    de Haan, Michelle; Wyatt, John S; Roth, Simon; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Gadian, David; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2006-07-01

    Perinatal asphyxia occurs in approximately 1-6 per 1000 live full-term births. Different patterns of brain damage can result, though the relation of these patterns to long-term cognitive-behavioural outcome remains under investigation. The hippocampus is one brain region that can be damaged (typically not in isolation), and this site of damage has been implicated in two different long-term outcomes, cognitive memory impairment and the psychiatric disorder schizophrenia. Factors in addition to the acute episode of asphyxia likely contribute to these specific outcomes, making prediction difficult. Future studies that better document long-term cognitive-behavioural outcome, quantitatively identify patterns of brain injury over development and consider additional variables that may modulate the impact of asphyxia on cognitive and behavioural function will forward the goals of predicting long-term outcome and understanding the mechanisms by which it unfolds.

  1. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Paruresis or "Shy Bladder Syndrome": A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Hambrook, David; Taylor, Tracey; Bream, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Paruresis, or "shy bladder syndrome", is a relatively common anxiety disorder, yet little is known about the causes of, and effective treatments for this disabling condition. This report describes a case study in which a man (Peter) presenting with paruresis was treated using formulation-driven CBT, which aimed to address the idiosyncratic processes that were maintaining his anxiety and avoidance of urinating in public. Peter attended 12 sessions of CBT including one follow-up session a month after treatment had ended. Treatment involved collaboratively developing an idiosyncratic case conceptualization (identifying longitudinal and cross-sectional factors involved in the development and maintenance of his difficulties), followed by a number of standard cognitive and behavioural interventions commonly used in evidence-based CBT protocols for other anxiety disorders. Peter completed sessional outcome measures of paruresis symptomatology, anxiety, depression, social anxiety and functional impairment. Peter subjectively found the intervention helpful and his scores on all of the outcome measures reduced over the course of his therapy, and were maintained at one month follow-up. This report adds to the scarce literature regarding effective treatments for individuals suffering with paruresis. Limitations of the design are acknowledged and ideas for further research in this area are discussed.

  2. Comorbidity and internet-delivered transdiagnostic cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Luke; Titov, Nickolai; Andrews, Gavin; Dear, Blake F; Spence, Jay

    2013-01-01

    Internet-delivered transdiagnostic anxiety interventions aim to reduce symptoms across several anxiety disorders using one treatment protocol. However, it is unclear whether comorbidity affects outcomes of such treatment. This study re-examined data from a recent randomised controlled trial (N = 129) that evaluated the efficacy of an Internet-delivered transdiagnostic cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) intervention for participants with principal diagnoses of generalised anxiety disorder (GAD), social phobia (SP) panic disorder and agoraphobia (PDA), of whom 72% met criteria for a comorbid anxiety disorder or depression. Participants were divided into two groups based on whether or not they had a comorbid disorder before treatment. Participants with comorbid conditions reported higher symptom levels at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and follow-up across a range of measures. Both groups showed significant reductions in symptoms over treatment; however, participants with comorbid disorders showed greater reductions in measures of GAD, PDA, SP, depression, and neuroticism. In addition, treatment significantly reduced the number of comorbid diagnoses at follow-up. These results indicate transdiagnostic iCBT protocols have the potential to reduce comorbidity.

  3. Computer-based cognitive intervention for dementia: preliminary results of a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Galante, E; Venturini, G; Fiaccadori, C

    2007-01-01

    Dementia is a highly invalidating condition and, given the progressive aging of the population, one of the major issues that health systems will have to face in future years. Recently there has been an increase in the potential of diagnostic tools and pharmacological treatments for dementia; moreover, considerable interest has been expressed regarding non pharmacological interventions. However, the current evidence in support of non pharmacological treatments in patients affected by dementia still does not allow to draw definitive conclusions on what is the most effective treatment to apply, largely because of methodological difficulties and limitations of the studies so far carried out due to the complex nature of the disease. To address this need, we carried out a single blind randomized controlled study on the efficacy of computer cognitive rehabilitation in patients with mild cognitive decline. We here present preliminary data on 11 patients with diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and mild cognitive decline randomly assigned to treatment (a) or control (b) condition (i.e. specific vs. aspecific treatment). The specific treatment (a) consisted in a cycle of 12 individual sessions of computer exercises, while the control condition (b) consisted in sessions of semi-structured interviews with patients, conducted with the same frequency and time period as (a). Cognitive, behavioural and functional assessment was performed by an expert evaluator, blinded to the patients' group allocation. Preliminary results show a significant performance decline only in the control group at the 9-month follow-up compared to both baseline and the 3-month follow-up. Our results suggest that computer based cognitive training in patients with AD and mild cognitive decline is effective at least in delaying the continuous progression of cognitive impairment in AD.

  4. Dejian Mind-Body Intervention Improves the Cognitive Functions of a Child with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Agnes S.; Sze, Sophia L.; Cheung, Mei-Chun; Han, Yvonne M. Y.; Leung, Winnie W. M.; Shi, Dejian

    2011-01-01

    There has been increasing empirical evidence for the enhancing effects of Dejian Mind-Body Intervention (DMBI), a traditional Chinese Shaolin healing approach, on human frontal brain activity/functions, including patients with autism who are well documented to have frontal lobe problems. This study aims to compare the effects of DMBI with a conventional behavioural/cognitive intervention (CI) on enhancing the executive functions and memory of a nine-year-old boy with low-functioning autism (KY) and to explore possible underlying neural mechanism using EEG theta cordance. At post-one-month DMBI, KY's inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and memory functioning have significantly improved from “severely-to-moderately impaired” to “within-normal” range. This improvement was not observed from previous 12-month CI. Furthermore, KY showed increased cordance gradually extending from the anterior to the posterior brain region, suggesting possible neural mechanism underlying his cognitive improvement. These findings have implicated potential applicability of DMBI as a rehabilitation program for patients with severe frontal lobe and/or memory disorders. PMID:21584249

  5. The Impact of a Preoperative Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) on Dysfunctional Eating Behaviours, Affective Symptoms and Body Weight 1 Year after Bariatric Surgery: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Gade, Hege; Friborg, Oddgeir; Rosenvinge, Jan H; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Hjelmesæth, Jøran

    2015-11-01

    To examine whether a preoperative cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) intervention exceeds usual care in the improvements of dysfunctional eating behaviours, mood, affective symptoms and body weight 1 year after bariatric surgery. This is a 1-year follow-up of a single centre parallel-group randomised controlled trial ( http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01403558). A total of 80 (55 females) patients mean (SD) age 44 (10) years were included. The intervention group received 10 weeks of CBT prior to bariatric surgery, and the control group received nutritional support and education. Both groups were assessed at baseline (T0), post CBT intervention/preoperatively (T1), and 1 year postoperatively (T2). Using a mixed modelling statistical approach, we examined if the CBT group improved more across time than the control group. Our hypothesis was not supported as both groups had comparable improvements in all outcomes except for anxiety symptoms. Body weight declined by 30.2 % (37.3 kg) in the CBT group and by 31.2 % (40.0 kg) in the control group from baseline to follow-up, p = 0.82. There were statistically significant reductions in anxiety and depression symptoms in the CBT group between T0 and T1 and between T1 and T2 for depression only. However, in the control group, the anxiety score did not change significantly. The CBT group showed an earlier onset of improvements in all eating behaviours and affective symptoms than the control group. The 10-week CBT intervention showed beneficial effects preoperatively, but the non-significant group differences postoperatively indicate a genuine effect of surgery.

  6. Behaviour Difficulties and Cognitive Function in Children Born Very Prematurely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayless, Sarah; Pit-ten Cate, Ineke M.; Stevenson, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Children born very prematurely are at risk of low average IQ and behaviour difficulties throughout childhood and adolescence. Associations among preterm birth, IQ and behaviour have been reported; however, the nature of the relationship among these outcomes is not fully understood. Some studies have proposed that the consequences of preterm birth,…

  7. Behaviour Difficulties and Cognitive Function in Children Born Very Prematurely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayless, Sarah; Pit-ten Cate, Ineke M.; Stevenson, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Children born very prematurely are at risk of low average IQ and behaviour difficulties throughout childhood and adolescence. Associations among preterm birth, IQ and behaviour have been reported; however, the nature of the relationship among these outcomes is not fully understood. Some studies have proposed that the consequences of preterm birth,…

  8. Efficacy of a cognitive and behavioural psychotherapy applied by primary care psychologists in patients with mixed anxiety-depressive disorder: a research protocol.

    PubMed

    Jauregui, Amale; Ponte, Joaquín; Salgueiro, Monika; Unanue, Saloa; Donaire, Carmen; Gómez, Maria Cruz; Burgos-Alonso, Natalia; Grandes, Gonzalo

    2015-03-20

    In contrast with the recommendations of clinical practice guidelines, the most common treatment for anxiety and depressive disorders in primary care is pharmacological. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioural psychological intervention, delivered by primary care psychologists in patients with mixed anxiety-depressive disorder compared to usual care. This is an open-label, multicentre, randomized, and controlled study with two parallel groups. A random sample of 246 patients will be recruited with mild-to-moderate mixed anxiety-depressive disorder, from the target population on the lists of 41 primary care doctors. Patients will be randomly assigned to the intervention group, who will receive standardised cognitive-behavioural therapy delivered by psychologists together with usual care, or to a control group, who will receive usual care alone. The cognitive-behavioural therapy intervention is composed of eight individual 60-minute face-to face sessions conducted in eight consecutive weeks. A follow-up session will be conducted over the telephone, for reinforcement or referral as appropriate, 6 months after the intervention, as required. The primary outcome variable will be the change in scores on the Short Form-36 General Health Survey. We will also measure the change in the frequency and intensity of anxiety symptoms (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) and depression (Beck Depression Inventory) at baseline, and 3, 6 and 12 months later. Additionally, we will collect information on the use of drugs and health care services. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of a primary care-based cognitive-behavioural psychological intervention in patients with mixed anxiety-depressive disorder. The international scientific evidence has demonstrated the need for psychologists in primary care. However, given the differences between health policies and health services, it is important to test the effect of these psychological interventions

  9. Cognitive behaviour therapy for low self-esteem: a preliminary randomized controlled trial in a primary care setting.

    PubMed

    Waite, Polly; McManus, Freda; Shafran, Roz

    2012-12-01

    Low self-esteem (LSE) is associated with psychiatric disorder, and is distressing and debilitating in its own right. Hence, it is frequent target for treatment in cognitive behavioural interventions, yet it has rarely been the primary focus for intervention. This paper reports on a preliminary randomized controlled trial of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for LSE using Fennell's (1997) cognitive conceptualisation and transdiagnostic treatment approach (1997, 1999). Twenty-two participants were randomly allocated to either immediate treatment (IT) (n=11) or to a waitlist condition (WL) (n=11). Treatment consisted of 10 sessions of individual CBT accompanied by workbooks. Participants allocated to the WL condition received the CBT intervention once the waitlist period was completed and all participants were followed up 11 weeks after completing CBT. The IT group showed significantly better functioning than the WL group on measures of LSE, overall functioning and depression and had fewer psychiatric diagnoses at the end of treatment. The WL group showed the same pattern of response to CBT as the group who had received CBT immediately. All treatment gains were maintained at follow-up assessment. The sample size is small and consists mainly of women with a high level of educational attainment and the follow-up period was relatively short. These preliminary findings suggest that a focused, brief CBT intervention can be effective in treating LSE and associated symptoms and diagnoses in a clinically representative group of individuals with a range of different and co-morbid disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Seven Pervasive Statistical Flaws in Cognitive Training Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, David; Kirk, Ian J.; Waldie, Karen E.

    2016-01-01

    The prospect of enhancing cognition is undoubtedly among the most exciting research questions currently bridging psychology, neuroscience, and evidence-based medicine. Yet, convincing claims in this line of work stem from designs that are prone to several shortcomings, thus threatening the credibility of training-induced cognitive enhancement. Here, we present seven pervasive statistical flaws in intervention designs: (i) lack of power; (ii) sampling error; (iii) continuous variable splits; (iv) erroneous interpretations of correlated gain scores; (v) single transfer assessments; (vi) multiple comparisons; and (vii) publication bias. Each flaw is illustrated with a Monte Carlo simulation to present its underlying mechanisms, gauge its magnitude, and discuss potential remedies. Although not restricted to training studies, these flaws are typically exacerbated in such designs, due to ubiquitous practices in data collection or data analysis. The article reviews these practices, so as to avoid common pitfalls when designing or analyzing an intervention. More generally, it is also intended as a reference for anyone interested in evaluating claims of cognitive enhancement. PMID:27148010

  11. Environmental interventions for altering eating behaviours of employees in the workplace: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Allan, J; Querstret, D; Banas, K; de Bruin, M

    2017-02-01

    Environmental, or 'choice-architecture', interventions aim to change behaviour by changing properties/contents of the environment and are commonly used in the workplace to promote healthy behaviours in employees. The present review aimed to evaluate and synthesize the evidence surrounding the effectiveness of environmental interventions targeting eating behaviour in the workplace. A systematic search identified 8157 articles, of which 22 were included in the current review. All included studies were coded according to risk of bias and reporting quality and were classified according to the emergent typology of choice-architecture interventions. More than half of included studies (13/22) reported significant changes in primary measures of eating behaviour (increased fruit/veg consumption, increased sales of healthy options and reduction in calories purchased). However, only one study produced a small significant improvement in weight/body mass index. Many studies had a high or unknown risk of bias; reporting of interventions was suboptimal; and the only trial to measure compensatory behaviours found that intervention participants who ate less during the intervention ate more out with the workplace later in the day. Hence, we conclude that more rigorous, well-reported studies that account for compensatory behaviours are needed to fully understand the impact of environmental interventions on diet and importantly on weight/body mass index outcomes. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  12. Cost effectiveness of internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy and behavioural stress management for severe health anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Hedman, Erik; Andersson, Erik; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Axelsson, Erland; Lekander, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Internet-delivered exposure-based cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of severe health anxiety. The health economic effects of the treatment have, however, been insufficiently studied and no prior study has investigated the effect of ICBT compared with an active psychological treatment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cost effectiveness of ICBT compared with internet-delivered behavioural stress management (IBSM) for adults with severe health anxiety defined as Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) hypochondriasis. ICBT was hypothesised to be the more cost-effective treatment. Setting This was a cost-effectiveness study within the context of a randomised controlled trial conducted in a primary care/university setting. Participants from all of Sweden could apply to participate. Participants Self-referred adults (N=158) with a principal diagnosis of DSM-IV hypochondriasis, of whom 151 (96%) provided baseline and post-treatment data. Interventions ICBT or IBSM for 12 weeks. Primary and secondary measures The primary outcome was the Health Anxiety Inventory. The secondary outcome was the EQ-5D. Other secondary measures were used in the main outcome study but were not relevant for the present health economic analysis. Results Both treatments led to significant reductions in gross total costs, costs of healthcare visits, direct non-medical costs and costs of domestic work cutback (p=0.000–0.035). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) indicated that the cost of one additional case of clinically significant improvement in ICBT compared with IBSM was $2214. The cost-utility ICER, that is, the cost of one additional quality-adjusted life year, was estimated to be $10 000. Conclusions ICBT is a cost-effective treatment compared with IBSM and treatment costs are offset by societal net cost reductions in a short time. A cost-benefit analysis

  13. Low-income groups and behaviour change interventions: a review of intervention content, effectiveness and theoretical frameworks.

    PubMed

    Michie, S; Jochelson, K; Markham, W A; Bridle, C

    2009-08-01

    Interventions to change health-related behaviours have potential to increase health inequalities. This review investigated the effectiveness of interventions targeting low-income groups to reduce smoking or increase physical activity and/or healthy eating. Of 9766 papers identified by the search strategy, 13 met the inclusion criteria. Intervention content was coded into component technique and theoretical basis, and examined as a potential source of effect heterogeneity. Interventions were heterogeneous, comprising 4-19 techniques. Nine interventions had positive effects, seven resulted in no change and one had an adverse effect. Effective interventions had a tendency to have fewer techniques than ineffective interventions, with no evidence for any technique being generally effective or ineffective. Only six studies cited theory relative to intervention development, with little information about how theory was used and no obvious association with intervention content or effect. This review shows that behaviour change interventions, particularly those with fewer techniques, can be effective in low-income groups, but highlights the lack of evidence to draw on in informing the design of interventions for disadvantaged groups.

  14. A systematic review of community-based parenting interventions for adolescents with challenging behaviours.

    PubMed

    Medlow, Sharon; Klineberg, Emily; Jarrett, Carmen; Steinbeck, Katharine

    2016-10-01

    Parenting skills training is an established means of treating challenging behaviours among young children, but there has been limited research on its efficacy when used to treat challenging adolescent behaviour. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the efficacy and effectiveness of community-based parenting interventions designed for families with adolescents, as judged in terms of increased knowledge and skills among parents, improvements in adolescent behaviour, and program feasibility within community settings. Results indicated that intervention group parents typically made greater gains than did control group parents on measures of good parenting, with positive flow-on effects to some aspects of challenging adolescent behaviours. Limited evidence suggests that group and individual intervention formats may be equally effective and that there is no advantage to the participation of the target adolescent in the intervention. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. All rights reserved.

  15. Sudden gains in internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy for severe health anxiety.

    PubMed

    Hedman, Erik; Lekander, Mats; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Lindefors, Nils; Rück, Christian; Hofmann, Stefan G; Andersson, Erik; Andersson, Gerhard; Schulz, Stefan M

    2014-03-01

    A sudden gain is defined as a large and stable individual improvement occurring between two consecutive treatment sessions. Sudden gains have been shown to predict better long-term improvement in several treatment studies, including cognitive behavioural therapy for depression and anxiety disorders, but have not been studied in the treatment of health anxiety or any form of internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of sudden gains in internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy for severe health anxiety. We examined the occurrence and significance of sudden gains in measures of health anxiety in 81 participants receiving internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy. We compared patients with sudden gains, patients without sudden gains, and patients with gradual gains. Thirteen participants (16%) experienced one sudden gain in health anxiety with individual sudden gains distributed across the treatment. As expected, patients with a sudden gain showed larger improvements than patients without a sudden gain at post-treatment (d = 1.04) and at one-year follow-up (d = 0.91) on measures of health anxiety. Consistent with previous studies, sudden gains in internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy are associated with significantly larger and stable treatment effects up to one-year follow-up. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Cognitive enrichment in zoo and farm animals--implications for animal behaviour and welfare].

    PubMed

    Meyer, Susann; Puppe, Birger; Langbein, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Animals in the wild are facing a wide variety of challenges and ever-changing environmental stimuli. For successful coping, animals use both innate behavioural programs and their cognitive skills. In contrast, zoo- and farm animals have to cope with restricted husbandry conditions, which offer only few opportunities to adequately satisfy their various needs. Consequences could be sensory and cognitive underchallenge that can cause boredom and frustration as well as behavioural disturbances. Initially intended for improvement of management and husbandry, different forms of operant behavioural training have been applied firstly in zoo- and later also in farm animals. It has been suggested that successful coping with appropriate cognitive challenges is a source of positive emotions and may lead to improved welfare. Under the term cognitive enrichment, new approaches have been developed to integrate cognitive challenges into the housing of zoo- and farm animals. The present article reviews actual research in the field. Previous results indicate that, beyond improvement of management and handling routines, such approaches can positively affect animal behaviour and welfare. The combination of explorative and appetitive behaviour with successful learning improves environmental predictability and controllability for the animals, activates reward-related brain systems and can directly affect emotional processes of appraisal. For practical implementation in farm animal husbandry, it sounds promising to link individual access to e.g. automated feeders or milking systems with previously conditioned stimuli and/or discriminatory learning tasks. First experimental approaches in pigs, dwarf goats and cattle are available and will be discussed in the present article.

  17. Homework Adherence and Cognitive Behaviour Treatment Outcome for Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorders.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Kristian; Thastum, Mikael; Hougaard, Esben

    2016-03-01

    Homework assignments are considered an essential component for a successful outcome of cognitive behavioural therapy for youths with anxiety disorders. However, only two studies have examined the association between homework adherence and outcome of cognitive behavioural therapy for youths with anxiety disorders. The study examined the association between homework adherence and treatment outcome following a generic group cognitive behaviour treatment program (Cool Kids) for anxiety disordered youths and their parents. The treatment program was completed by 98 children and adolescents (ages 7-16). Homework adherence was measured as time spent doing homework assignments between each session, reported by youths as well as parents. Outcome criteria consisted of youth-reported anxiety symptoms and clinician rated severity of primary anxiety diagnosis at posttreatment and 3-month follow-up. Results did not support an association between homework adherence and treatment outcome when controlling for pretreatment severity. The study found no convincing evidence that homework adherence predicted outcome of cognitive behavioural therapy for youths with anxiety disorders. Reasons for divergent findings on homework adherence in cognitive behavioural therapy for youths compared to adults are discussed.

  18. Predicting sugar-sweetened behaviours with theory of planned behaviour constructs: Outcome and process results from the SIPsmartER behavioural intervention.

    PubMed

    Zoellner, Jamie M; Porter, Kathleen J; Chen, Yvonnes; Hedrick, Valisa E; You, Wen; Hickman, Maja; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2017-05-01

    Guided by the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and health literacy concepts, SIPsmartER is a six-month multicomponent intervention effective at improving SSB behaviours. Using SIPsmartER data, this study explores prediction of SSB behavioural intention (BI) and behaviour from TPB constructs using: (1) cross-sectional and prospective models and (2) 11 single-item assessments from interactive voice response (IVR) technology. Quasi-experimental design, including pre- and post-outcome data and repeated-measures process data of 155 intervention participants. Validated multi-item TPB measures, single-item TPB measures, and self-reported SSB behaviours. Hypothesised relationships were investigated using correlation and multiple regression models. TPB constructs explained 32% of the variance cross sectionally and 20% prospectively in BI; and explained 13-20% of variance cross sectionally and 6% prospectively. Single-item scale models were significant, yet explained less variance. All IVR models predicting BI (average 21%, range 6-38%) and behaviour (average 30%, range 6-55%) were significant. Findings are interpreted in the context of other cross-sectional, prospective and experimental TPB health and dietary studies. Findings advance experimental application of the TPB, including understanding constructs at outcome and process time points and applying theory in all intervention development, implementation and evaluation phases.

  19. Predicting sugar-sweetened behaviours with theory of planned behaviour constructs: Outcome and process results from the SIPsmartER behavioural intervention

    PubMed Central

    Zoellner, Jamie M.; Porter, Kathleen J.; Chen, Yvonnes; Hedrick, Valisa E.; You, Wen; Hickman, Maja; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Guided by the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and health literacy concepts, SIPsmartER is a six-month multicomponent intervention effective at improving SSB behaviours. Using SIPsmartER data, this study explores prediction of SSB behavioural intention (BI) and behaviour from TPB constructs using: (1) cross-sectional and prospective models and (2) 11 single-item assessments from interactive voice response (IVR) technology. Design Quasi-experimental design, including pre- and post-outcome data and repeated-measures process data of 155 intervention participants. Main Outcome Measures Validated multi-item TPB measures, single-item TPB measures, and self-reported SSB behaviours. Hypothesised relationships were investigated using correlation and multiple regression models. Results TPB constructs explained 32% of the variance cross sectionally and 20% prospectively in BI; and explained 13–20% of variance cross sectionally and 6% prospectively. Single-item scale models were significant, yet explained less variance. All IVR models predicting BI (average 21%, range 6–38%) and behaviour (average 30%, range 6–55%) were significant. Conclusion Findings are interpreted in the context of other cross-sectional, prospective and experimental TPB health and dietary studies. Findings advance experimental application of the TPB, including understanding constructs at outcome and process time points and applying theory in all intervention development, implementation and evaluation phases. PMID:28165771

  20. Cognitive function is associated with prison behaviour among women in prison but not with subjective perception of adjustment to prison.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Nuno B F; Fonseca, Duarte A; Marques, Alina B; Rocha, Susana A; Hoaken, Peter N S

    2015-12-01

    There is considerable evidence that aspects of cognitive function, especially executive function, are associated with antisocial behaviour and violence, but most research to date has measured current cognition and previous criminal behaviour. Furthermore, this research has been conducted almost exclusively with male offenders. The aim of this study is to examine relationships between a wide range of cognitive functions and behaviours among women in prison. Our hypotheses were that cognitive functioning would be associated with both more-or-less contemporaneously observed behaviour problems and self-rated adjustment to the environment. Forty-five drug-free imprisoned female offenders were individually assessed on a battery of cognitive measures. Prison staff rated their behaviour on the Prison Behaviour Rating Scale and the women rated their own sense of adjustment to the environment on the Prison Adjustment Questionnaire. Stepwise hierarchical regressions indicated that attention was independently associated with behaviours reflecting tension, depression, isolation, fear, victimisation and worry, whereas processing speed was independently associated with behaviours reflecting lack of energy, mental slowness and lack of awareness of the surrounding environment and total Prison Adjustment Questionnaire score. There was no relationship between cognitive functioning and subjective perception of adjustment to prison. Results indicate that cognition contributes to some of the behavioural problems displayed by inmates in the prison context. Future studies should evaluate the role of programmes to improve cognitive processes in also improving prison behaviour and also test for continuities and discontinuities with post-release integrative success. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Cognitive shifting and externalising problem behaviour in intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Visser, E M; Berger, H J C; Van Schrojenstein Lantman-De Valk, H M J; Prins, J B; Teunisse, J P

    2015-08-01

    Behavioural problems are frequently reported in residential care for people with an intellectual disability (ID) in particular when they are additionally diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). There are indications that impairment in cognitive shifting may be associated with problem behaviour. The objectives of this study were (1) to examine the relationship of cognitive shifting and severity of ASD symptoms with externalising problem behaviour in individuals with ID, with and without ASD, and (2) to examine whether a diagnosis based on shifting impairment is more predictive of externalising problem behaviour than an ASD diagnosis. Participants consisted of adolescents and young adults with mild ID, with and without ASD (n = 41). Pearson intercorrelations were computed to explore the relationship between shifting impairment and severity of ASD symptoms on the one hand and ratings of externalising problem behaviour on the other hand. t-Tests were performed to analyse differences in externalising problem behaviour. Unlike ASD symptom severity, shifting scores were found to be associated with externalising problem behaviour, but only if shifting was measured using rating scales and not when using neuropsychological tasks. Externalising problem behaviour scores significantly differed when groups were classified according to shifting impairment (impaired vs. non-impaired) but not when they were classified according to ID and ASD diagnoses. It is proposed to use a cognition-based approach when analysing problem behaviour, thus concentrating not so much on ID and ASD diagnosis and their corresponding symptoms, but rather placing the focus on cognitive symptoms. © 2015 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. A pilot randomized controlled trial of telephone-based cognitive behavioural therapy for preoperative bariatric surgery patients

    PubMed Central

    Cassin, Stephanie E.; Sockalingam, Sanjeev; Du, Chau; Wnuk, Susan; Hawa, Raed; Parikh, Sagar V.

    2017-01-01

    Background Psychosocial interventions can improve eating behaviours and psychosocial functioning in bariatric surgery candidates. However, those that involve face-to-face sessions are problematic for individuals with severe obesity due to mobility issues and practical barriers. Objective To examine the efficacy of a pre-operative telephone-based cognitive behavioural therapy (Tele-CBT) intervention versus standard pre-operative care for improving eating psychopathology and psychosocial functioning. Methods Preoperative bariatric surgery patients (N = 47) were randomly assigned to receive standard preoperative care (n = 24) or 6 sessions of Tele-CBT (n = 23). Results Retention was 74.5% at post-intervention. Intent-to-treat analyses indicated that the Tele-CBT group reported significant improvements on the Binge Eating Scale (BES), t (22) = 2.81, p = .01, Emotional Eating Scale (EES), t (22) = 3.44, p = .002, and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), t (22) = 2.71, p = .01, whereas the standard care control group actually reported significant increases on the EES, t (23) = 4.86, p < .001, PHQ-9, t (23) = 2.75, p = .01, and General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), t (23) = 2.93, p = .008 over the same time period. Conclusions Tele-CBT holds promise as a brief intervention for improving eating psychopathology and depression in bariatric surgery candidates. PMID:26990279

  3. An intervention to reduce disruptive behaviours in children with brain injury.

    PubMed

    Mottram, Lisa; Berger-Gross, Paul

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a behavioural intervention programme in reducing disruptive behaviours in children with brain injury. The behavioural package included programme rules, a token economy with response cost and mystery motivators. Participants were three male patients in an after-school programme at a rehabilitation hospital who were identified as having both a brain injury and disruptive behaviours in the classroom setting. Two control composites were formed, one with children who behaved appropriately and one with children who behaved in a disruptive manner. This study employed a multiple baseline design across individuals. The participants' disruptive behaviour decreased during the intervention phase by an average of 69%; the effect size of each participant's improvement was 'large'. The comparisons' disruptive behaviour was unchanged. This pronounced decrease in disruptive behaviours for the three participants was maintained in the follow-up phase. This short-term, easily implemented package altered important programme and social behaviours positively, were well received by children and staff and resulted in long-term improvements to behavioural deficits secondary to brain injury. These results are discussed in terms of theoretical disagreements, methodological issues and practical community-based interventions in brain-injured children.

  4. Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy for subthreshold depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ting; Li, Xue; Pei, Ye; Gao, Jianan; Kong, Junhui

    2016-10-21

    Subthreshold depression has a considerable impact on individuals' subjective well-being and psychosocial functioning and is a predictor of major depressive disorder. Internet-based cognitive behavioural treatments (iCBTs) have been used to reduce the symptoms of subthreshold depression. This meta-analysis aims to systematically review evidence indicating the efficacy of iCBT programs on the improvement of depressive symptoms in this population. Articles published from January 2005 to July 2016 were searched in the following databases: Medline, PubMed, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, PsycArticles and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Only randomized controlled trials comparing the efficacy of iCBT programs with control groups for participants with subthreshold depression were selected. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses were conducted to examine the efficacy of iCBT interventions. Tenarticles from 8 randomized controlled trials were identified in this systematic review. The results suggested that iCBT programs had a superior efficacy compared to results from a non-active control group at the post-intervention stage (SMD = - 0.28, CI [- 0.42, - 0.14]; I(2) = 49 %). However, evidence on the long-term efficacy of iCBT programs is still insufficient and needs further exploration. There has been substantial evidence that iCBT intervention has a superior short-term efficacy compared to the results of control groups, while its long-term efficacy of iCBT for subthreshold depressive symptoms is inconclusive and must be examined in further research. The protocol of this review has been registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO), Protocol No. CRD42015023390 .

  5. Semantic memory functional MRI and cognitive function after exercise intervention in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Smith, J Carson; Nielson, Kristy A; Antuono, Piero; Lyons, Jeri-Annette; Hanson, Ryan J; Butts, Alissa M; Hantke, Nathan C; Verber, Matthew D

    2013-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is associated with early memory loss, Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology, inefficient or ineffective neural processing, and increased risk for AD. Unfortunately, treatments aimed at improving clinical symptoms or markers of brain function generally have been of limited value. Physical exercise is often recommended for people diagnosed with MCI, primarily because of its widely reported cognitive benefits in healthy older adults. However, it is unknown if exercise actually benefits brain function during memory retrieval in MCI. Here, we examined the effects of exercise training on semantic memory activation during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Seventeen MCI participants and 18 cognitively intact controls, similar in sex, age, education, genetic risk, and medication use, volunteered for a 12-week exercise intervention consisting of supervised treadmill walking at a moderate intensity. Both MCI and control participants significantly increased their cardiorespiratory fitness by approximately 10% on a treadmill exercise test. Before and after the exercise intervention, participants completed an fMRI famous name discrimination task and a neuropsychological battery, Performance on Trial 1 of a list-learning task significantly improved in the MCI participants. Eleven brain regions activated during the semantic memory task showed a significant decrease in activation intensity following the intervention that was similar between groups (p-values ranged 0.048 to 0.0001). These findings suggest exercise may improve neural efficiency during semantic memory retrieval in MCI and cognitively intact older adults, and may lead to improvement in cognitive function. Clinical trials are needed to determine if exercise is effective to delay conversion to AD.

  6. Semantic Memory fMRI and Cognitive Function After Exercise Intervention in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J. Carson; Nielson, Kristy A.; Antuono, Piero; Lyons, Jeri-Annette; Hanson, Ryan J.; Butts, Alissa M.; Hantke, Nathan C.; Verber, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is associated with early memory loss, Alzheimer neuropathology, inefficient or ineffective neural processing, and increased risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Unfortunately, treatments aimed at improving clinical symptoms or markers of brain function generally have been of limited value. Physical exercise is often recommended for people diagnosed with MCI, primarily because of its widely reported cognitive benefits in healthy older adults. However, it is unknown if exercise actually benefits brain function during memory retrieval in MCI. Here, we examined the effects of exercise training on semantic memory activation during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Seventeen MCI participants and 18 cognitively intact controls, similar in sex, age, education, genetic risk, and medication use, volunteered for a 12-week exercise intervention consisting of supervised treadmill walking at a moderate intensity. Both MCI and control participants significantly increased their cardiorespiratory fitness by approximately 10% on a treadmill exercise test. Before and after the exercise intervention, participants completed a fMRI famous name discrimination task and a neuropsychological battery, Performance on Trial 1 of a list-learning task significantly improved in the MCI participants. Eleven brain regions activated during the semantic memory task showed a significant decrease in activation intensity following the intervention that was similar between groups (p-values ranged .048 to .0001). These findings suggest exercise may improve neural efficiency during semantic memory retrieval in MCI and cognitively intact older adults, and may lead to improvement in cognitive function. Clinical trials are needed to determine if exercise is effective to delay conversion to AD. PMID:23803298

  7. Effects of alternative interventions among hospitalized, cognitively impaired older adults

    PubMed Central

    Naylor, Mary D; Hirschman, Karen B; Hanlon, Alexandra L; Bowles, Kathryn H; Bradway, Christine; McCauley, Kathleen M; Pauly, Mark V

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Compare within site effects of three interventions designed to enhance outcomes of hospitalized cognitively impaired elders. Methods: Prospective, nonrandomized, confirmatory phased study. In Phase I, 183 patients received one of three interventions: augmented standard care (ASC), resource nurse care (RNC) or Transitional Care Model (TCM). In Phase II, 205 patients received the TCM. Results: Time to first rehospitalization or death was longer for the TCM versus ASC group (p = 0.017). Rates for total all-cause rehospitalizations and days were significantly reduced in the TCM versus ASC group (p < 0.001, both). No differences were observed between RNC versus TCM. Conclusion: Findings suggest the TCM is more effective than ASC. However, potential effects of the RNC relative to the TCM warrant further study. PMID:27146416

  8. Training a Family in Physical Interventions as Part of a Positive Behaviour Support Intervention for Challenging Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Olivia; Keeling, Natalie; Pearce, Malcom

    2016-01-01

    Between 10% and 15% of people with a learning disability have behaviour that challenges others, and half of these people live within the family home (Emerson et al., "Research in Developmental Disabilities," 2001; 22, 77). Current best practice in managing challenging behaviour combines person-centred planning, functional analysis, and…

  9. Training a Family in Physical Interventions as Part of a Positive Behaviour Support Intervention for Challenging Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Olivia; Keeling, Natalie; Pearce, Malcom

    2016-01-01

    Between 10% and 15% of people with a learning disability have behaviour that challenges others, and half of these people live within the family home (Emerson et al., "Research in Developmental Disabilities," 2001; 22, 77). Current best practice in managing challenging behaviour combines person-centred planning, functional analysis, and…

  10. The clinical practice of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for children and young people with a diagnosis of Asperger's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Donoghue, Kate; Stallard, Paul; Kucia, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Children and young people diagnosed with Asperger's Syndrome (AS) have significant social-communication difficulties and impaired empathy and theory of mind skills. These difficulties place them at risk of developing mental health problems, particularly anxiety, depression and obsessive compulsive disorder. Although Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is recognised as an effective intervention for these problems in both child and adult populations, little research has specifically looked at the use of CBT with children and young people with an AS diagnosis. However, limited evidence suggests that CBT, if suitably adapted, is a feasible and potentially helpful treatment option. This paper focuses on the clinical practice of CBT and explores how the underpinning therapeutic relationship can be modified to meet the cognitive needs of this particular group of young clients.

  11. The experience of pain severity and pain interference in vulvodynia patients: The role of cognitive-behavioural factors, psychological distress and fatigue.

    PubMed

    Chisari, Claudia; Chilcot, Joseph

    2017-02-01

    Vulvodynia is a chronic pain condition characterised by severe pain affecting the vulva. Biopsychosocial models have revealed the importance of illness perceptions, cognitive-behavioural variables and psychological distress in explaining the experience of pain and disability across several conditions. These factors have never been collectively examined in vulvodynia. We predicted that distress, fatigue, illness perceptions, and cognitive-behavioural factors would be associated with pain severity and interference among women with vulvodynia. This online cross-sectional study recruited 335 vulvodynia patients from an Italian charity association (Vulvodiniapuntoinfo.com), who completed pain severity and interference measures in addition to the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale, Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire, Chalder Fatigue Questionnaire, Cognitive-Behavioural Symptom Questionnaire and a demographic questionnaire. Hierarchical regression models controlling for demographic and illness characteristics, revealed that lower treatment control beliefs, greater illness identity, catastrophizing and psychological distress, were significant predictors of pain severity, explaining 35% of the variance. A second adjusted hierarchical regression model revealed that low treatment-control, higher fatigue, distress, and avoidance/resting behaviours were significant predictors of pain interference, explaining 48% of the variance. Distress, illness perceptions, fatigue, and cognitive-behavioural factors are associated with pain severity and interference in patients with vulvodynia, highlighting the importance of adopting a biopsychosocial approach in this setting. Future research should examine these factors over time to inform the development of future tailored interventions to help support women better manage vulvodynia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Association of the family environment with behavioural and cognitive outcomes in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Allen, T. M.; Hersh, J.; Schoch, K.; Curtiss, K.; Hooper, S. R.; Shashi, V.

    2014-01-01

    Background Children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) are at risk for social-behavioural and neurocognitive sequelae throughout development. The current study examined the impact of family environmental characteristics on social-behavioural and cognitive outcomes in this pediatric population. Method Guardians of children with 22q11DS were recruited through two medical genetics clinics. Con senting guardians were asked to complete several questionnaires regarding their child's social, emotional and behavioural functioning, as well as family social environment and parenting styles. Children with 22q11DS were asked to undergo a cognitive assessment, including IQ and achievement testing, and measures of attention, executive function and memory. Results Modest associations were found between aspects of the family social environment and parenting styles with social-behavioural and cognitive/academic outcomes. Regression models indicated that physical punishment, socioeconomic status, parental control and family organisation significantly predicted social-behavioural and cognitive outcomes in children with 22q11DS. Conclusion Characteristics of the family social environment and parenting approaches appear to be associated with functional outcomes of children with 22q11DS. Understanding the impact of environmental variables on developmental outcomes can be useful in determining more effective targets for intervention. This will be important in order to improve the quality of life of individuals affected by 22q11DS. PMID:23742203

  13. A dynamical model for describing behavioural interventions for weight loss and body composition change.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Barrientos, J-Emeterio; Rivera, Daniel E; Collins, Linda M

    2011-01-12

    We present a dynamical model incorporating both physiological and psychological factors that predicts changes in body mass and composition during the course of a behavioral intervention for weight loss. The model consists of a three-compartment energy balance integrated with a mechanistic psychological model inspired by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The latter describes how important variables in a behavioural intervention can influence healthy eating habits and increased physical activity over time. The novelty of the approach lies in representing the behavioural intervention as a dynamical system, and the integration of the psychological and energy balance models. Two simulation scenarios are presented that illustrate how the model can improve the understanding of how changes in intervention components and participant differences affect outcomes. Consequently, the model can be used to inform behavioural scientists in the design of optimised interventions for weight loss and body composition change.

  14. Effects of an emotional literacy intervention for students identified with bullying behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Knowler, Claire; Frederickson, Norah

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of a 12-week, small group emotional literacy (EL) intervention in reducing bullying behaviour in school was evaluated. Participants were 50 primary school pupils identified through peer nomination as engaging in bullying behaviours. The intervention was implemented in schools already engaged with a universal social and emotional learning initiative, including an anti-bullying component. Within schools, participants were randomly assigned to an intervention or a wait-list comparison group. Response to the intervention was found to be dependent on baseline levels of EL. Only children whose baseline level was low showed a significant reduction in peer-rated bullying behaviour. No effect of the intervention was detected on victimisation or adjustment scores, although positive changes in adjustment were associated with increased EL. PMID:26494932

  15. Effects of an emotional literacy intervention for students identified with bullying behaviour.

    PubMed

    Knowler, Claire; Frederickson, Norah

    2013-12-01

    The effectiveness of a 12-week, small group emotional literacy (EL) intervention in reducing bullying behaviour in school was evaluated. Participants were 50 primary school pupils identified through peer nomination as engaging in bullying behaviours. The intervention was implemented in schools already engaged with a universal social and emotional learning initiative, including an anti-bullying component. Within schools, participants were randomly assigned to an intervention or a wait-list comparison group. Response to the intervention was found to be dependent on baseline levels of EL. Only children whose baseline level was low showed a significant reduction in peer-rated bullying behaviour. No effect of the intervention was detected on victimisation or adjustment scores, although positive changes in adjustment were associated with increased EL.

  16. Contextual Mediators influencing the Effectiveness of Behavioural Change Interventions: A Case of HIV/AIDS Prevention Behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Musiimenta, Angella

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although Uganda had recorded declines in HIV infection rates around 1990’s, it is argued that HIV/AIDS risk sexual behaviour, especially among the youth, started increasing again from early 2000. School-based computer-assisted HIV interventions can provide interactive ways of improving the youth’s HIV knowledge, attitudes and skills. However, these interventions have long been reported to have limited success in improving the youth’s sexual behaviours, which is always the major aim of implementing such interventions. This could be because the commonly used health promotion theories employed by these interventions have limited application in HIV prevention. These theories tend to lack sufficient attention to contextual mediators that influence ones sexual behaviours. Moreover, literature increasingly expresses dissatisfaction with the dominant prevailing descriptive survey-type HIV/AIDS-related research. Objective and Methods: The objective of this research was to identify contextual mediators that influence the youth’s decision to adopt and maintain the HIV/AIDS preventive behaviour advocated by a computer-assisted intervention. To achieve this objective, this research employed qualitative method, which provided in-depth understanding of how different contexts interact to influence the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS interventions. The research question was: What contextual mediators are influencing the youth’s decision to adopt and maintain the HIV/AIDS preventive behaviour advocated by a computer-assisted intervention? To answer this research question, 20 youth who had previously completed the WSWM intervention when they were still in secondary schools were telephone interviewed between Sept.08 and Dec.08. The collected data was then analysed, based on grounded theory’s coding scheme. Results: Findings demonstrate that although often ignored by HIV interventionists and researchers, variety of contextual mediators influence individual uptake of

  17. A pilot study of cognitive behaviour therapy for panic disorder augmented by panic surfing.

    PubMed

    Lamplugh, Claire; Berle, David; Milicevic, Denise; Starcevic, Vladan

    2008-01-01

    This pilot study reports the outcome of cognitive behaviour therapy for panic disorder augmented by panic surfing. This treatment approach encourages acceptance of feelings rather than control of symptoms and anxiety, at the same time also targeting catastrophic misinterpretations, bodily vigilance and safety-seeking behaviours. Eighteen participants completed a brief group treatment for panic disorder incorporating psychoeducation, panic surfing, interoceptive exposure, graded exposure and cognitive restructuring. Significant improvements occurred over the course of this treatment and were maintained at a 1-month follow-up. Results suggest that cognitive behaviour therapy augmented by panic surfing may be effective in the treatment of panic disorder, but there is a need for controlled studies and investigation of the relative contribution of its various components.

  18. The efficacy of individual treatment of subjective tinnitus with cognitive behavioural therapy.

    PubMed

    Canals, Pascual; Pérez Del Valle, Belén; Lopez, Francisco; Marco, Amparo

    2016-01-01

    It has been a long time since subjective tinnitus cases were described for the first time but they still lack a treatment with proven effectiveness. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy in these patients. Between 2012 and 2013, 310 patients that suffered from subjective tinnitus were studied. Of these, 267 were included in treatment based on cognitive behavioural therapy. The monitoring period lasted 18 months for most cases, while it lasted 21 months for 11 patients. Considering patients that interrupted their treatment as failures, the percentage of recovery was 95.7%. Cognitive behavioural therapy should always be included in the treatment of people suffering from tinnitus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  19. Restricted and repetitive behaviours, sensory processing and cognitive style in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Han; Rodgers, Jacqui; McConachie, Helen

    2009-04-01

    Many individuals with autism tend to focus on details. It has been suggested that this cognitive style may underlie the presence of stereotyped routines, repetitive interests and behaviours, and both relate in some way to sensory abnormalities. Twenty-nine children with diagnosis of high functioning autism or Asperger syndrome completed the Embedded Figures Test (EFT), and their parents the Short Sensory Profile and Childhood Routines Inventory. Significant correlations were found between degree of sensory abnormalities and amount of restricted and repetitive behaviours reported. Repetitive behaviours, age and IQ significantly predicted completion time on the EFT. The results suggest a cognitive link between an individual's detail-focused cognitive style and their repetitiveness. No such relationship was found with sensory processing abnormalities, which may arise at a more peripheral level of functioning.

  20. Effects of cognitive-behavioural therapy on anxiety for children with high-functioning autistic spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Y P; Lam, C M; Sung, M; Tan, W T S; Goh, T J; Fung, D S S; Pathy, P; Ang, R P; Chua, A

    2008-03-01

    Children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) often exhibit one or more comorbid disorders, including anxiety, disruptive behaviour, mental retardation, and depression. Various studies have documented the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) in treating children with anxiety. Although studies have indicated a high prevalence of anxiety in individuals with ASD, there is a lack of systematic studies substantiating the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural interventions among children with high-functioning autism. This pilot study investigated the effects of a 16-session CBT programme on six high-functioning children diagnosed with ASD (mean age 11.50 years, standard deviation 0.84 years). These children were diagnosed with ASD or Asperger's syndrome by the DSM-IV criteria. Measures on levels of child's anxiety, parental and teacher stress were administered at pre- and post-treatment. Children showed lower levels of anxiety at post-treatment. Parents and teachers also reported lower levels of stress following the CBT programme. Findings from the present study provided some evidence of the effects of CBT for high-functioning autistic children in reducing anxiety, parental and teacher stress. Interpretation of the findings, recommendations for future research and implications of the present study are presented.

  1. Treatment of comorbid alcohol use disorders and depression with cognitive-behavioural therapy and motivational interviewing: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Riper, Heleen; Andersson, Gerhard; Hunter, Sarah B; de Wit, Jessica; Berking, Matthias; Cuijpers, Pim

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims To review published studies on the effectiveness of combining cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and motivational interviewing (MI) to treat comorbid clinical and subclinical alcohol use disorder (AUD) and major depression (MDD) and estimate the effect of this compared with usual care. Methods We conducted systematic literature searches in PubMed, PsycINFO and Embase up to June 2013 and identified additional studies through cross-references in included studies and systematic reviews. Twelve studies comprising 1721 patients met our inclusion criteria. The studies had sufficient statistical power to detect small effect sizes. Results CBT/MI proved effective for treating subclinical and clinical AUD and MDD compared with controls, with small overall effect sizes at post-treatment [g = 0.17, confidence interval (CI) = 0.07–0.28, P < 0.001 for decrease of alcohol consumption and g = 0.27, CI: 0.13–0.41, P < 0.001 for decrease of symptoms of depression, respectively]. Subgroup analyses revealed no significant differences for both AUD and MDD. However, digital interventions showed a higher effect size for depression than face-to-face interventions (g = 0.73 and g = 0.23, respectively, P = 0.030). Conclusions Combined cognitive-behavioural therapy and motivational interviewing for clinical or subclinical depressive and alcohol use disorders has a small but clinically significant effect in treatment outcomes compared with treatment as usual. PMID:24304463

  2. Personality, Alzheimer's disease and behavioural and cognitive symptoms of dementia: the PACO prospective cohort study protocol.

    PubMed

    Rouch, Isabelle; Dorey, Jean-Michel; Boublay, Nawèle; Henaff, Marie-Anne; Dibie-Racoupeau, Florence; Makaroff, Zaza; Harston, Sandrine; Benoit, Michel; Barrellon, Marie-Odile; Fédérico, Denis; Laurent, Bernard; Padovan, Catherine; Krolak-Salmon, Pierre

    2014-10-10

    Alzheimer's disease is characterised by a loss of cognitive function and behavioural problems as set out in the term "Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia". These behavioural symptoms have heavy consequences for the patients and their families. A greater understanding of behavioural symptoms risk factors would allow better detection of those patients, a better understanding of crisis situations and better management of these patients. Some retrospective studies or simple observations suggested that personality could play a role in the occurrence of behavioural symptoms. Finally, performance in social cognition like facial recognition and perspective taking could be linked to certain personality traits and the subsequent risks of behavioural symptoms. We propose to clarify this through a prospective, multicentre, multidisciplinary study. Main Objective: -To assess the effect of personality and life events on the risk of developing behavioural symptoms. Secondary Objectives: -To evaluate, at the time of inclusion, the connection between personality and performance in social cognition tests; -To evaluate the correlation between performance in social cognition at inclusion and the risks of occurrence of behavioural symptoms; -To evaluate the correlation between regional cerebral atrophy, using brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging at baseline, and the risk of behavioural symptoms. Study type and Population: Prospective multicentre cohort study with 252 patients with Alzheimer's disease at prodromal or mild dementia stage. The inclusion period will be of 18 months and the patients will be followed during 18 months. The initial evaluation will include: a clinical and neuropsychological examination, collection of behavioural symptoms data (Neuropsychiatric-Inventory scale) and their risk factors, a personality study using both a dimensional (personality traits) and categorical approach, an inventory of life events, social cognition tests and an Magnetic Resonance

  3. Promoting prosocial pupil behaviour: 2-secondary school intervention and pupil effects.

    PubMed

    Mooij, T

    1999-12-01

    In an earlier article (Mooij, 1999c) a theoretical multilevel model to promote prosocial pupil behaviour by stimulating specific educational conditions was developed. To carry out school interventions to check empirically whether pupil level effects occur because of educational changes at the classroom and school level. Seven secondary schools with relatively high degrees of pupil aggression were selected. Four schools took part as intervention schools, three schools served as control schools. In 1995 (pretest) and 1997 (post-test) pupils and form teachers of the first and third school years participated by completing questionnaires. Within the pupil cohorts, a longitudinal group of 352 pupils was included. Pretest questionnaires in 1995 were followed by intervention in the intervention schools. Teachers collaborated with staff and researchers to increase pupils' participation and responsibility in specifying and controlling behavioural and didactic rules, related to didactic differentiation during lessons. The validity of the intervention implementation was checked using qualitative information and quantitative data from both pre- and post-test. Longitudinal intervention effects were tested by applying two-level multiple regression analyses. After controlling for pretest and covariables in school year 1, school intervention effects were found in school year 3 with the prediction of being a perpetrator of aggressive behaviour at school, aggressive behaviour outside school, and criminal behaviour. Some small effects were found with respect to victim behaviour. Social-pedagogical and didactic class and school variables, but also home variables and support by peers without problematic behaviour, could be integrated more systematically to promote prosocial development of a pupil's behaviour from the beginning in school.

  4. Developmental changes in cognitive and behavioural functioning of adolescents with fragile-X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Frolli, A; Piscopo, S; Conson, M

    2015-07-01

    Individuals with fragile-X syndrome exhibit developmental delay, hyperexcitation and social anxiety; they also show lack of attention and hyperactivity. Few studies have investigated whether levels of functioning change with increasing age. Here, we explored developmental changes across adolescence in the cognitive and behavioural profile of individuals with fragile-X syndrome. To this scope, we assessed intellectual functioning, adaptive behaviour, autistic symptomatology, behavioural problems (e.g. hyperactivity/lack of attention) and strengths (prosocial behaviours). Thirty-six participants underwent standardised outcome measures (i.e. the Wechsler Intelligence Scales-Revised, the Childhood Autism Rating Scale, the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, and the Strengths and Difficulty Questionnaire) in three time points (Time 1: 9-11; Time 2: 11-13, and Time 3: 13-15 years). Verbal IQ improved across time, whereas Nonverbal IQ declined and Full Scale IQ was quite unchanged. Autism ratings decreased; communication and social aspects of adaptive behaviour also enhanced. Finally, elevated levels of hyperactivity/lack of attention at Time 1 significantly improved across the three time points, whereas emotional symptoms, behavioural difficulties, problems with peers and prosocial behaviours remained stable over time. These findings revealed specific developmental changes in cognitive and behavioural functioning of individuals with fragile-X syndrome, likely related to a progressive maturation of brain systems devoted to attentional control. © 2014 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Evidence-based practice and the need for paradigmatic pluralism in cognitive behavioural psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Grant, A

    2009-05-01

    The scientist-practitioner model, which is based on positivistic methodological assumptions, is influential in the development, training and practice of cognitive behavioural psychotherapists. As the emergence of 'Nurse Cognitive Behavioural Therapist' training in the early 1970s in Britain, many of those trained have been mental health nurses and with the emergence of the Increased Access to Psychological Therapies agenda many more are likely to undergo training. Despite some acceptance of its relevance, the scientist-practitioner model is subject of criticism on the grounds of its achievability and contemporary relevance, and its exclusion of other modalities of counselling and psychotherapy without an, as yet, disseminated evidence base. In line with key policy-related work, the empirical and political issues inscribed within the scientist-practitioner model have direct implications for the educational preparation and ongoing professional development of cognitive behavioural practitioners. Specifically, in this polemical paper it is argued that there is a moral and educational need for 'senior' practitioners to question the philosophy of science assumptions underpinning the overwhelming dominance of the quantitative-experimental approach in cognitive behavioural psychotherapy. Such a critically evaluative and pluralistic stance would arguably distinguish senior practitioners in terms of them being able to make broad rather than narrow appraisals of the evidence base for their practice. A recognition of the relevance of paradigmatic and epistemological pluralism in cognitive behavioural work would, it is argued, confer considerable advantages on our practice communities and clients. A range of emerging implications for cognitive behavioural education, practice and relational ethics are described and discussed.

  6. [The case of Giorgia: a systemic cognitive postrationalist intervention].

    PubMed

    Cimbolli, Paola

    2011-01-01

    To describe and to explain a clinical case from a cognitive systemic perspective means to focus on "how" the different data were set in order and organized during the therapy. The theoretical and clinical experience that uses this approach is based upon the integration of two conceptual models: the cognitive postrationalist one and the relational systemic one. These two approaches are founded upon the concept of system. The first one addresses the internal dimension, focusing on something that is not directly observable, taking into account the development processes and the maintenance of identity, that is to say the self organization of personal meaning. On the other hand, the second approach considers the structure of relations, its path and boundary, focusing on the mode of communication. The cognitive systemic model springs out of the integration of these two different ways of observing our object of investigation, intending to better the knowledge of the individual and of its context. The essay describes a clinical case study along a processual systemic method, in every phase, beginning with the intervention on the individual's system, subsequently engaging the family's system and all the sub systems that are part of the subjective experience.

  7. EEG-Based Cognitive Control Behaviour Assessment: an Ecological study with Professional Air Traffic Controllers.

    PubMed

    Borghini, Gianluca; Aricò, Pietro; Di Flumeri, Gianluca; Cartocci, Giulia; Colosimo, Alfredo; Bonelli, Stefano; Golfetti, Alessia; Imbert, Jean Paul; Granger, Géraud; Benhacene, Railane; Pozzi, Simone; Babiloni, Fabio

    2017-04-03

    Several models defining different types of cognitive human behaviour are available. For this work, we have selected the Skill, Rule and Knowledge (SRK) model proposed by Rasmussen in 1983. This model is currently broadly used in safety critical domains, such as the aviation. Nowadays, there are no tools able to assess at which level of cognitive control the operator is dealing with the considered task, that is if he/she is performing the task as an automated routine (skill level), as procedures-based activity (rule level), or as a problem-solving process (knowledge level). Several studies tried to model the SRK behaviours from a Human Factor perspective. Despite such studies, there are no evidences in which such behaviours have been evaluated from a neurophysiological point of view, for example, by considering brain activity variations across the different SRK levels. Therefore, the proposed study aimed to investigate the use of neurophysiological signals to assess the cognitive control behaviours accordingly to the SRK taxonomy. The results of the study, performed on 37 professional Air Traffic Controllers, demonstrated that specific brain features could characterize and discriminate the different SRK levels, therefore enabling an objective assessment of the degree of cognitive control behaviours in realistic settings.

  8. Computer-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy: effective and getting ready for dissemination

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Gavin; Sachdev, Perminder

    2010-01-01

    Computer-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy (CCBT) is emerging as a promising strategy for improving access to mental health services. Randomized controlled trials have confirmed the efficacy of guided CCBT in treating depression, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social phobia, and other common mental disorders. With proper guidance, effect sizes are comparable to those obtained in face-to-face cognitive behavioural therapy, treatment is cost-effective, and preliminary data indicate that CCBT is acceptable to patients. Trials are beginning to evaluate optimal strategies for integrating CCBT within existing systems of mental health care. PMID:20948835

  9. A practical approach for applying best practices in behavioural interventions to injury prevention

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsohn, Lela

    2010-01-01

    Behavioural science when combined with engineering, epidemiology and other disciplines creates a full picture of the often fragmented injury puzzle and informs comprehensive solutions. To assist efforts to include behavioural science in injury prevention strategies, this paper presents a methodological tutorial that aims to introduce best practices in behavioural intervention development and testing to injury professionals new to behavioural science. This tutorial attempts to bridge research to practice through the presentation of a practical, systematic, six-step approach that borrows from established frameworks in health promotion and disease prevention. Central to the approach is the creation of a programme theory that links a theoretically grounded, empirically tested behaviour change model to intervention components and their evaluation. Serving as a compass, a programme theory allows for systematic focusing of resources on the likely most potent behavioural intervention components and directs evaluation of intervention impact and implementation. For illustration, the six-step approach is applied to the creation of a new peer-to-peer campaign, Ride Like a Friend/Drive Like You Care, to promote safe teen driver and passenger behaviours. PMID:20363817

  10. Behavioural Interventions for Self Injurious Behaviour: A Review of Recent Evidence (1998-2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prangnell, Simon J.

    2010-01-01

    Estimates suggest that up to one quarter of people who have a severe learning disability engage in self injurious behaviour (SIB). SIB poses serious risks, both to the person's physical health and their quality of life. Behavioural approaches have made a contribution to supporting people who engage in SIB, although the last review of these…

  11. Applied Behaviour Analysis: Does Intervention Intensity Relate to Family Stressors and Maternal Well-Being?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwichtenberg, A.; Poehlmann, J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Interventions based on applied behaviour analysis (ABA) are commonly recommended for children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, few studies address how this intervention model impacts families. The intense requirements that ABA programmes place on children and families are often cited as a critique of the programme,…

  12. The Use of Humour in Classroom Interventions with Students with Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fovet, Frederic

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the use made of humour by teachers during classroom interventions with adolescent students with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (SEBD). Literature mentions the use of humour as a key tool in successful classroom interventions with students with SEBD and yet there is little quantified research on this topic.…

  13. Applied Behaviour Analysis: Does Intervention Intensity Relate to Family Stressors and Maternal Well-Being?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwichtenberg, A.; Poehlmann, J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Interventions based on applied behaviour analysis (ABA) are commonly recommended for children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, few studies address how this intervention model impacts families. The intense requirements that ABA programmes place on children and families are often cited as a critique of the programme,…

  14. Young drivers at railway crossings: an exploration of risk perception and target behaviours for intervention.

    PubMed

    Davey, J; Wallace, A; Stenson, N; Freeman, J

    2008-06-01

    Research into motorist understanding and behaviour at railway crossings is currently limited in Australia, despite 74 fatalities being recorded due to collisions between trains and motor vehicles from 1997 to 2002. The present study explored the knowledge, attitudes and self-reported behaviour of younger drivers aged 17-24 years, as an 'at risk' group. The objective of this study was to develop a formative understanding of the nature and underlying beliefs of younger drivers' behaviours at railway crossings, in order to inform specific crossing safety interventions for this group. Fifty-three young drivers from metropolitan and regional settings participated in semi-structured focused group interviews. Differences were detected between the groups, with regional participants displaying a higher level of risk-taking behaviours and lower risk perceptions. The results are discussed with reference to actual risk as indicated by a panel of experts in the field. Implications for intervention design targeting attitudes and behaviours are discussed.

  15. The more the better? A meta-analysis on effects of combined cognitive and physical intervention on cognition in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xinyi; Yin, Shufei; Lang, Minjia; He, Rongqiao; Li, Juan

    2016-11-01

    Both cognitive intervention and physical exercise benefit cognitive function in older adults. It has been suggested that combined cognitive and physical intervention may induce larger effects than cognitive or physical intervention alone, but existing literature has shown mixed results. This meta-analysis aimed at assessing the efficacy of combined intervention on cognition by comparing combined intervention to control group, cognitive intervention and physical exercise. Eligible studies were controlled trials examining the effects of combined intervention on cognition in older adults without known cognitive impairment. Twenty interventional studies comprising 2667 participants were included. Results showed that the overall effect size for combined intervention versus control group was 0.29 (random effects model, p=0.001). Compared to physical exercise, combined intervention produced greater effects on overall effect size (0.22, p<0.01), while no significant difference was found between combined intervention and cognitive intervention. Effects of combined intervention were moderated by age of participants, intervention frequency and setting. The findings suggest that combined intervention demonstrates advantages over control group and physical exercise, while evidence is still lacking for superiority when compared combined intervention to cognitive intervention. More well-designed studies with long follow-ups are needed to clarify the potential unique efficacy of combined intervention for older adults.

  16. Neurocognitive and Behavioural Outcomes Following Intervention for Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Syndrome in Children.

    PubMed

    Konstantinopoulou, Sofia; Tapia, Ignacio E

    2016-09-01

    The obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is common in children and results in several complications when untreated. Considering that children are undergoing important brain development, recent research has focused on neurocognitive and behavioural (NCB) complications of OSAS. Studies have shown that treatment of paediatric OSAS may improve a child's long-term cognitive and social potential and school performance. There is demonstrated benefit in terms of behaviour, attention, and social interactions, as well as likely improvement in cognitive abilities with academic and social achievements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Association between speech-language, general cognitive functioning and behaviour problems in individuals with Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rossi, N F; Giacheti, C M

    2017-07-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) phenotype is described as unique and intriguing. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between speech-language abilities, general cognitive functioning and behavioural problems in individuals with WS, considering age effects and speech-language characteristics of WS sub-groups. The study's participants were 26 individuals with WS and their parents. General cognitive functioning was assessed with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Token Test and the Cookie Theft Picture test were used as speech-language measures. Five speech-language characteristics were evaluated from a 30-min conversation (clichés, echolalia, perseverative speech, exaggerated prosody and monotone intonation). The Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL 6-18) was used to assess behavioural problems. Higher single-word receptive vocabulary and narrative vocabulary were negatively associated with CBCL T-scores for Social Problems, Aggressive Behaviour and Total Problems. Speech rate was negatively associated with the CBCL Withdrawn/Depressed T-score. Monotone intonation was associated with shy behaviour, as well as exaggerated prosody with talkative behaviour. WS with perseverative speech and exaggerated prosody presented higher scores on Thought Problems. Echolalia was significantly associated with lower Verbal IQ. No significant association was found between IQ and behaviour problems. Age-associated effects were observed only for the Aggressive Behaviour scale. Associations reported in the present study may represent an insightful background for future predictive studies of speech-language, cognition and behaviour problems in WS. © 2017 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. 'Third wave' cognitive and behavioural therapies versus treatment as usual for depression.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Rachel; Moore, Theresa H M; Furukawa, Toshi A; Caldwell, Deborah M; Davies, Philippa; Jones, Hannah; Shinohara, Kiyomi; Imai, Hissei; Lewis, Glyn; Hunot, Vivien

    2013-10-18

    So-called 'third wave' cognitive and behavioural therapies represent a new generation of psychological therapies that are increasingly being used in the treatment of psychological problems. However, the effectiveness and acceptability of third-wave cognitive and behavioural therapy (CBT) approaches as treatment for acute depression remain unclear. 1. To examine the effects of all third wave CBT approaches compared with treatment as usual/waiting list/attention placebo/psychological placebo control conditions for acute depression.2. To examine the effects of different third wave CBT approaches (ACT, compassionate mind training, functional analytic psychotherapy, dialectical behaviour therapy, MBCT, extended behavioural activation and metacognitive therapy) compared with treatment as usual/waiting list/attention placebo/psychological placebo control conditions for acute depression.3. To examine the effects of all third wave CBT approaches compared with different types of comparators (treatment as usual, no treatment, waiting list, attention placebo, psychological placebo) for acute depression. We searched the Cochrane Depression Anxiety and Neurosis Group Trials Specialised Register (CCDANCTR to 01/01/12), which includes relevant randomised controlled trials from The Cochrane Library (all years), EMBASE, (1974-), MEDLINE (1950-) and PsycINFO (1967-). We also searched CINAHL (May 2010) and PSYNDEX (June 2010) and reference lists of the included studies and relevant reviews for additional published and unpublished studies. An updated search of CCDANCTR restricted to search terms relevant to third wave CBT therapies was conducted in March 2013 (CCDANCTR to 01/02/13). Randomised controlled trials that compared third wave CBT therapies with control conditions for acute depression in adults. Two review authors independently identified studies, assessed trial quality and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for additional information when required. We rated the

  19. Comparative costs and cost-effectiveness of behavioural interventions as part of HIV prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Justine; Zinsou, Cyprien; Parkhurst, Justin; N'Dour, Marguerite; Foyet, Léger; Mueller, Dirk H

    2013-01-01

    Behavioural interventions have been widely integrated in HIV/AIDS social marketing prevention strategies and are considered valuable in settings with high levels of risk behaviours and low levels of HIV/AIDS awareness. Despite their widespread application, there is a lack of economic evaluations comparing different behaviour change communication methods. This paper analyses the costs to increase awareness and the cost-effectiveness to influence behaviour change for five interventions in Benin. Cost and cost-effectiveness analyses used economic costs and primary effectiveness data drawn from surveys. Costs were collected for provider inputs required to implement the interventions in 2009 and analysed by 'person reached'. Cost-effectiveness was analysed by 'person reporting systematic condom use'. Sensitivity analyses were performed on all uncertain variables and major assumptions. Cost-per-person reached varies by method, with public outreach events the least costly (US$2.29) and billboards the most costly (US$25.07). Influence on reported behaviour was limited: only three of the five interventions were found to have a significant statistical correlation with reported condom use (i.e. magazines, radio broadcasts, public outreach events). Cost-effectiveness ratios per person reporting systematic condom use resulted in the following ranking: magazines, radio and public outreach events. Sensitivity analyses indicate rankings are insensitive to variation of key parameters although ratios must be interpreted with caution. This analysis suggests that while individual interventions are an attractive use of resources to raise awareness, this may not translate into a cost-effective impact on behaviour change. The study found that the extensive reach of public outreach events did not seem to influence behaviour change as cost-effectively when compared with magazines or radio broadcasts. Behavioural interventions are context-specific and their effectiveness influenced by a

  20. Cost and outcome of behavioural activation versus cognitive behavioural therapy for depression (COBRA): a qualitative process evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Finning, Katie; Moore, Lucy; Ekers, David; McMillan, Dean; Farrand, Paul A; O’Mahen, Heather A; Watkins, Edward R; Wright, Kim A; Fletcher, Emily; Rhodes, Shelley; Woodhouse, Rebecca; Wray, Faye

    2017-01-01

    Objective To explore participant views on acceptability, mechanisms of change and impact of behavioural activation (BA) delivered by junior mental health workers (MHWs) versus cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) delivered by professional psychotherapists. Design Semistructured qualitative interviews analysed using a framework approach. Participants 36 participants with major depressive disorder purposively sampled from a randomised controlled trial of BA versus CBT (the COBRA trial). Setting Primary care psychological therapies services in Devon, Durham and Leeds, UK. Results Elements of therapy considered to be beneficial included its length and regularity, the opportunity to learn and not dwelling on the past. Homework was an important, although challenging aspect of treatment. Therapists were perceived as experts who played an important role in treatment. For some participants the most important element of therapy was having someone to talk to, but for others the specific factors associated with BA and CBT were crucial, with behavioural change considered important for participants in both treatments, and cognitive change unsurprisingly discussed more by those receiving CBT. Both therapies were considered to have a positive impact on symptoms of depression and other areas of life including feelings about themselves, self-care, work and relationships. Barriers to therapy included work, family life and emotional challenges. A subset (n=2) of BA participants commented that therapy felt too simple, and MHWs could be perceived as inexperienced. Many participants saw therapy as a learning experience, providing them with tools to take away, with work on relapse prevention essential. Conclusions Despite barriers for some participants, BA and CBT were perceived to have many benefits, to have brought about cognitive and behavioural change and to produce improvements in many domains of participants’ lives. To optimise the delivery of BA, inexperienced junior MHWs should

  1. Cost and outcome of behavioural activation versus cognitive behavioural therapy for depression (COBRA): a qualitative process evaluation.

    PubMed

    Finning, Katie; Richards, David A; Moore, Lucy; Ekers, David; McMillan, Dean; Farrand, Paul A; O'Mahen, Heather A; Watkins, Edward R; Wright, Kim A; Fletcher, Emily; Rhodes, Shelley; Woodhouse, Rebecca; Wray, Faye

    2017-04-13

    To explore participant views on acceptability, mechanisms of change and impact of behavioural activation (BA) delivered by junior mental health workers (MHWs) versus cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) delivered by professional psychotherapists. Semistructured qualitative interviews analysed using a framework approach. 36 participants with major depressive disorder purposively sampled from a randomised controlled trial of BA versus CBT (the COBRA trial). Primary care psychological therapies services in Devon, Durham and Leeds, UK. Elements of therapy considered to be beneficial included its length and regularity, the opportunity to learn and not dwelling on the past. Homework was an important, although challenging aspect of treatment. Therapists were perceived as experts who played an important role in treatment. For some participants the most important element of therapy was having someone to talk to, but for others the specific factors associated with BA and CBT were crucial, with behavioural change considered important for participants in both treatments, and cognitive change unsurprisingly discussed more by those receiving CBT. Both therapies were considered to have a positive impact on symptoms of depression and other areas of life including feelings about themselves, self-care, work and relationships. Barriers to therapy included work, family life and emotional challenges. A subset (n=2) of BA participants commented that therapy felt too simple, and MHWs could be perceived as inexperienced. Many participants saw therapy as a learning experience, providing them with tools to take away, with work on relapse prevention essential. Despite barriers for some participants, BA and CBT were perceived to have many benefits, to have brought about cognitive and behavioural change and to produce improvements in many domains of participants' lives. To optimise the delivery of BA, inexperienced junior MHWs should be supported through good quality training and ongoing

  2. Comparing outcomes for children with different anxiety disorders following cognitive behavioural therapy.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Jennifer L; Rapee, Ronald M; Lyneham, Heidi J; McLellan, Lauren F; Wuthrich, Viviana M; Schniering, Carolyn A

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare treatment outcomes following a group family-based cognitive behavioural therapy for children with different anxiety disorders (social anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, generalised anxiety disorder, specific phobia and obsessive compulsive disorder). This study utilised a clinical sample of 842 children and adolescents (aged between 6 and 18 years) and assessed outcome using diagnostic interview, parent-report and child-report. Based on diagnostic data and parent-reported symptoms, results revealed that children with a diagnosis of social anxiety disorder experienced a slower rate of change and poorer diagnostic outcomes at post treatment and follow-up than children with other anxiety disorders. Children with GAD showed better response to this broad-based intervention and children with OCD showed better response on one measure. This study provides evidence for differential response to broad-based CBT for children, based on type of anxiety diagnoses. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. School lunch and learning behaviour in primary schools: an intervention study.

    PubMed

    Golley, R; Baines, E; Bassett, P; Wood, L; Pearce, J; Nelson, M

    2010-11-01

    In addition to the nutritional benefits of healthier school food, anecdotes describe improvements in children's behaviour and educational outcomes when school food or the school dining room environment is improved. This study hypothesized that a school food and dining room intervention would improve pupils' learning-related classroom behaviour. A controlled intervention trial involving six primary schools matched in triplets and randomly assigned to a 12-week intervention (promotion of healthier school food at lunchtime and changes in the school dining environment) or 12-week wait-listed control group. Study outcome was learning-related behaviours measured in a random sample of 146 pupils in years 3-5. On-task and off-task behaviours were observed and used as proxy measures for concentration and disengagement (disruption), respectively. Teacher-pupil on-task engagement was 3.4 times more likely in the intervention schools compared with the control schools (adjusted model odds ratio (OR)=3.40 (95% confidence interval (CI)=1.56, 7.36), P=0.009). However, on-task pupil-pupil behaviour was less likely in the intervention group (adjusted model OR=0.45 (95% CI=0.28, 0.70), P<0.001). Similarly, off-task pupil-pupil behaviour was more likely in the intervention group than in the control group in both the unadjusted model (OR=2.18 (95% CI=1.52, 3.13), P<0.001) and the adjusted model (OR=2.28 (95% CI=1.25, 4.17), P=0.007). This study offers some support for the hypothesis that a school food and dining room intervention can have a positive impact on pupils' alertness. However, if raised alertness is not channelled and supervised, it may result in increased off-task behaviour when pupils are working together.

  4. Interventions for sustained healthcare professional behaviour change: a protocol for an overview of reviews.

    PubMed

    Dombrowski, Stephan U; Campbell, Pauline; Frost, Helen; Pollock, Alex; McLellan, Julie; MacGillivray, Steve; Gavine, Anna; Maxwell, Margaret; O'Carroll, Ronan; Cheyne, Helen; Presseau, Justin; Williams, Brian

    2016-10-13

    Failure to successfully implement and sustain change over the long term continues to be a major problem in health and social care. Translating evidence into routine clinical practice is notoriously complex, and it is recognised that to implement new evidence-based interventions and sustain them over time, professional behaviour needs to change accordingly. A number of theories and frameworks have been developed to support behaviour change among health and social care professionals, and models of sustainability are emerging, but few have translated into valid and reliable interventions. The long-term success of healthcare professional behavioural change interventions is variable, and the characteristics of successful interventions unclear. Previous reviews have synthesised the evidence for behaviour change, but none have focused on sustainability. In addition, multiple overlapping reviews have reported inconsistent results, which do not aid translation of evidence into practice. Overviews of reviews can provide accessible succinct summaries of evidence and address barriers to evidence-based practice. We aim to compile an overview of reviews, identifying, appraising and synthesising evidence relating to sustained social and healthcare professional behaviour change. We will conduct a systematic review of Cochrane reviews (an Overview). We plan to systematically search the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. We will include all systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials comparing a healthcare professional targeted behaviour change intervention to a standard care or no intervention control group. Two reviewers will independently assess the eligibility of the reviews and the methodological quality of included reviews using the ROBIS tool. The quality of evidence within each comparison in each review will be judged based on the GRADE criteria. Disagreements will be resolved through discussion. Effects of interventions will be systematically tabulated and the

  5. Comparing cognitive behavioural therapy for eating disorders integrated with behavioural weight loss therapy to cognitive behavioural therapy-enhanced alone in overweight or obese people with bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Palavras, Marly Amorim; Hay, Phillipa; Touyz, Stephen; Sainsbury, Amanda; da Luz, Felipe; Swinbourne, Jessica; Estella, Nara Mendes; Claudino, Angélica

    2015-12-18

    Around 40 % of individuals with eating disorders of recurrent binge eating, namely bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder, are obese. In contrast to binge eating disorder, currently there is no evidence base for weight management or weight loss psychological therapies in the treatment of bulimia nervosa despite their efficacy in binge eating disorder. Thus, a manualised therapy called HAPIFED (Healthy APproach to weIght management and Food in Eating Disorders) has been developed. HAPIFED integrates the leading evidence-based psychological therapies, cognitive behavioural therapy-enhanced (CBT-E) and behavioural weight loss treatment (BWLT) for binge eating disorder and obesity respectively. The aim of the present study is to detail the protocol for a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of HAPIFED versus CBT-E for people with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder who are overweight/obese. A single-blind superiority RCT is proposed. One hundred Brazilian participants aged ≥ 18 years, with a diagnosis of bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder, BMI > 27 to < 40 kg/m(2), will be recruited from both community and clinics and individually randomised to a therapy arm. Five groups of ten participants will receive the experimental intervention (HAPIFED) and the other five groups of ten the control intervention (CBT-E). Both therapies are manualised, and in this RCT will comprise 1 individual session and 29 office-based group sessions over 6 months. Assessment points will be at baseline, end of therapy, and 6 and 12 months after end of therapy. The primary outcome of this intervention will be reduced weight. Secondary outcomes will be improved metabolic indicators of weight management, reduction in eating disorder symptoms including improved control over eating, improved adaptive function, physical and mental health-related quality of life, and reduced levels of depression and anxiety. This study will be the first to investigate a psychological therapy

  6. Parental beliefs about behaviour problems of their asthmatic children and interventions to support parenting.

    PubMed

    Morawska, Alina; Gregory, Caroline; Burgess, Scott

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore parents' attributions for their children's behaviour and their beliefs about treatment efficacy, and to investigate the specific topics and strategies parents believe would be most beneficial in a parenting intervention. A survey of 165 parents and qualitative interviews with 13 parents were conducted, assessing child behaviour, parental attributions and intervention characteristics. The findings indicated that parents were confident in their ability to manage the challenges of asthma, and in general, believed that five key asthma treatment recommendations were at least moderately helpful in managing their child's asthma. Many parents believed that asthma medications were related to behavioural difficulties including hyperactivity, disruptiveness, and disobedience. Nearly half of the parents were concerned about how to best manage their child's asthma, and a number of themes were identified as important intervention elements. The implications of these findings for intervention development are discussed.

  7. Analysis and modification of verbal coaching behaviour: the usefulness of a data-driven intervention strategy.

    PubMed

    More, K G; Franks, I M

    1996-12-01

    This study tested a computer-aided coaching analysis instrument (CAI) as part of an intervention strategy designed to modify verbal coaching behaviour. Four coaches were observed and analysed over 12 practice sessions. Coaches A, B and C received intervention feedback through CAI data, where selected behaviours were highlighted for discussion, and videotape images were used to illustrate discussion points. Coach D was provided with videotapes of his own performance and told to formulate and implement any of his own recommendations. The CAI data are primarily quantitative, so target values were created for the different dimensions of verbal behaviour. This benefited the coaches in interpreting their effectiveness and provided a reference to evaluate the magnitude of change. Written journals and audiotape recordings were also used to promote insight into the complexity of verbal behaviour and the "human factors' (e.g. relationship with players, attitude to researcher) that affect behaviour modification. Instructional effectiveness was assessed by time-series analysis. There was evidence from each behaviour dimension that change can occur and be maintained as a result of exposure to the CAI intervention strategy. However, this is clearly contingent upon the coach understanding what is asked of him or her, and remains focused and committed to changing these particular behaviours. The analysis of Coach D's behavioural change suggests there are limitations to the sensitivity of discretionary viewing, as only two dimensions of behaviour were identified for, and resulted in, positive change. The results of this study provide support for Locke's (1984) contention that behaviour modification can occur by using data as direct feedback, as reinforcement and as information in the form of recommendations. However, the study also illuminates several factors that can negate the modification and maintenance of verbal coaching behaviour.

  8. Augmentation of cognitive and behavioural therapies (CBT) with d-cycloserine for anxiety and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Ori, Rasmita; Amos, Taryn; Bergman, Hanna; Soares-Weiser, Karla; Ipser, Jonathan C; Stein, Dan J

    2015-05-10

    A significant number of patients who suffer with anxiety and related disorders (that is post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), social anxiety disorder (SAnD), panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (PD), specific phobia (SPh) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)) fail to respond optimally to first-line treatment with medication or cognitive and behavioural therapies. The addition of d-cycloserine (DCS) to cognitive and behavioural therapies may improve treatment response by impacting the glutamatergic system. This systematic review aimed to investigate the effects of adding DCS to cognitive and behavioural therapies by synthesising data from relevant randomised controlled trials and following the guidelines recommended by Cochrane. To assess the effect of DCS augmentation of cognitive and behavioural therapies compared to placebo augmentation of cognitive and behavioural therapies in the treatment of anxiety and related disorders. Additionally, to assess the efficacy and tolerability of DCS across different anxiety and related disorders. This review fully incorporates studies identified from a search of the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Controlled Trials Register (CCDANCTR) to 12 March 2015. This register includes relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) from: the Cochrane Library (all years), EMBASE (1974 to date), MEDLINE (1950 to date), PsycINFO (1967 to date), the World Health Organization's trials portal (ICTRP) and ClinicalTrials.gov . Reference lists from previous meta-analyses and reports of RCTs were also checked. No restrictions were placed on language, setting, date or publication status. All RCTs of DCS augmentation of cognitive and behavioural therapies versus placebo augmentation of cognitive and behavioural therapies for anxiety and related disorders were included. Two authors (RO and TA) independently assessed RCTs for eligibility and inclusion, extracted outcomes and risk of bias data and entered these into a customised

  9. Cognitive Modelling and the Behaviour Genetics of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castles, Anne; Bates, Timothy; Coltheart, Max; Luciano, Michelle; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2006-01-01

    While it is well known that reading is highly heritable, less has been understood about the bases of these genetic influences. In this paper, we review the research that we have been conducting in recent years to examine genetic and environmental influences on the particular reading processes specified in the "dual-route" cognitive model of…

  10. Dyslexia at a Behavioural and a Cognitive Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helland, Turid

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to see whether patterns of neuro-cognitive assets and deficits seen in dyslexia also would lead to different patterns of reading and writing. A group of dyslexic children was subgrouped by language comprehension and mathematics skills in accordance with the definition of the British Dyslexia Association of 1998. This…

  11. Dyslexia at a Behavioural and a Cognitive Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helland, Turid

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to see whether patterns of neuro-cognitive assets and deficits seen in dyslexia also would lead to different patterns of reading and writing. A group of dyslexic children was subgrouped by language comprehension and mathematics skills in accordance with the definition of the British Dyslexia Association of 1998. This…

  12. The Cognitive Structure Underlying Heroin-Injecting Behaviour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnigan, Frances

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the identification of critical elements that will induce and maintain behavior change in drug education. Demonstrates how the Theory of Reasoned Action can be used to identify these elements. Data were gathered from a sample of heroin injectors and the cognitive structures underlying drug use were investigated. Discusses findings with…

  13. Early improvement in eating attitudes during cognitive behavioural therapy for eating disorders: the impact of personality disorder cognitions.

    PubMed

    Park, Emma C; Waller, Glenn; Gannon, Kenneth

    2014-03-01

    The personality disorders are commonly comorbid with the eating disorders. Personality disorder pathology is often suggested to impair the treatment of axis 1 disorders, including the eating disorders. This study examined whether personality disorder cognitions reduce the impact of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for eating disorders, in terms of treatment dropout and change in eating disorder attitudes in the early stages of treatment. Participants were individuals with a diagnosed eating disorder, presenting for individual outpatient CBT. They completed measures of personality disorder cognitions and eating disorder attitudes at sessions one and six of CBT. Drop-out rates prior to session six were recorded. CBT had a relatively rapid onset of action, with a significant reduction in eating disorder attitudes over the first six sessions. Eating disorder attitudes were most strongly associated with cognitions related to anxiety-based personality disorders (avoidant, obsessive-compulsive and dependent). Individuals who dropped out of treatment prematurely had significantly higher levels of dependent personality disorder cognitions than those who remained in treatment. For those who remained in treatment, higher levels of avoidant, histrionic and borderline personality disorder cognitions were associated with a greater change in global eating disorder attitudes. CBT's action and retention of patients might be improved by consideration of such personality disorder cognitions when formulating and treating the eating disorders.

  14. Preventive interventions in families with parental depression: children's psychosocial symptoms and prosocial behaviour.

    PubMed

    Solantaus, Tytti; Paavonen, E Juulia; Toikka, Sini; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2010-12-01

    The aim is to document the effectiveness of a preventive family intervention (Family Talk Intervention, FTI) and a brief psychoeducational discussion with parents (Let's Talk about the Children, LT) on children's psychosocial symptoms and prosocial behaviour in families with parental mood disorder, when the interventions are practiced in psychiatric services for adults in the finnish national health service. Patients with mood disorder were invited to participate with their families. Consenting families were randomized to the two intervention groups. The initial sample comprised 119 families and their children aged 8-16. Of these, 109 completed the interventions and the baseline evaluation. Mothers and fathers filled out questionnaires including standardized rating scales for children's symptoms and prosocial behaviour at baseline and at 4, 10 and 18 months post-intervention. The final sample consisted of parental reports on 149 children with 83 complete data sets. Both interventions were effective in decreasing children's emotional symptoms, anxiety, and marginally hyperactivity and in improving children's prosocial behaviour. The FTI was more effective than the LT on emotional symptoms particularly immediately after the intervention, while the effect of the LT emerged after a longer interval. The study supports the effectiveness of both interventions in families with depressed parents. The FTI is applicable in cultural settings other than the USA. Our findings provide support for including preventive child mental health measures as part of psychiatric services for mentally ill parents.

  15. Group cognitive behavioural therapy for stroke survivors with depression and their carers.

    PubMed

    K Ward, Susan; Turner, Alyna; A Hambridge, John; A Halpin, Sean; E Valentine, Megan; L Sweetapple, Anne; H White, Jennifer; Hackett, Maree L

    2016-10-01

    Depression in stroke survivors is common, leads to poorer outcomes and often not treated. A group cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) program (Brainstorm) for stroke survivors with depression, and their carers has been running as part of usual care since 2007. To evaluate the implementation and acceptability of Brainstorm, a closed group intervention consisting of up to 10 sessions of education, activity planning, problem solving and thought challenging. Participating stroke survivors and their carers complete assessment measures at baseline, post-treatment and 1-month and 6-months follow-up. A mixed models for repeated measures data was conducted with depression and anxiety scores for stroke survivors (Beck Depression Inventory-II; Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) and the assessment of depression, anxiety and carer burden for carers. Acceptability was assessed by session attendance and written and open participant feedback upon completion of the program. Forty-eight community dwelling stroke survivors and 34 carers attended Brainstorm, with a median attendance of 88% of sessions. Follow-up assessments were completed by 77% (post-treatment), 46% (1-month) and 38% (6-month) of stroke survivors. Stroke survivors' depression scores decreased from baseline to post-treatment (p<.001); maintained at 1-month (p<.001) but not at 6-month (p=.056). Anxiety scores decreased between baseline and 1-month (p=.013). Carer burden, depression and anxiety scores at 1-month and 6-month follow-up, for carers, were all reduced when compared with baseline (p<.05). The Brainstorm group intervention for depression in stroke survivors appears to have been effectively implemented and is acceptable to stroke survivors and carers.

  16. Impact of Treatment Adherence Intervention on a Social Skills Program Targeting Criticism Behaviours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piccinin, Serge; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Investigated effect of cognitive-behavioral treatment adherence intervention in course of criticism skill group training program. Assigned 86 participants to treatment condition with or without adherence intervention or to control. Results suggest that adherence activities facilitated arousal optimal to greater program attendance and outcome gains…

  17. Interventions to modify sexual risk behaviours for preventing HIV in homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Naranbhai, Vivek; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha; Meyer-Weitz, Anna

    2011-01-19

    Homeless youth are at high risk for HIV infection as a consequence of risky sexual behaviour. Interventions for homeless youth are challenging. Assessment of the effectiveness of interventions to modify sexual risk behaviours for preventing HIV in homeless youth is needed. To evaluate and summarize the effectiveness of interventions for modifying sexual risk behaviours and preventing transmission of HIV among homeless youth. We searched electronic databases (CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, AIDSearch, Gateway, PsycInfo, LILACS), reference lists of eligible articles, international health agency publication lists, and clinical trial registries. The search was updated January 2010. We contacted authors of published reports and other key role players. Randomised studies of interventions to modify sexual risk behaviour (biological, self-reporting of sexual-risk behaviour or health-seeking behaviour) in homeless youth (12-24 years). Data from eligible studies were extracted by two reviewers. We assessed risk of bias per the Cochrane Collaborations tool. None of the eligible studies reported any primary biological outcomes for this review. Reports of self-reporting sexual risk behaviour outcomes varied across studies precluding calculation of summary measures of effect; we present the outcomes descriptively for each study. We contacted authors for missing or ambiguous data. We identified three eligible studies after screening a total of 255 unique records. All three were performed in the United States of America and recruited substance-abusing male and female adolescents (total N=615) through homeless shelters into randomised controlled trials of independent and non-overlapping behavioural interventions. The three trials differed in theoretical background, delivery method, dosage (number of sessions,) content and outcome assessments. Overall, the variability in delivery and outcomes precluded estimation of summary of effect measures. We assessed the risk of bias to be high for

  18. Correlations among cognitive and behavioural assessments in patients with dementia due to Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Fabricio Ferreira; Wajman, Jose Roberto; Bertolucci, Paulo Henrique Ferreira; Chen, Elizabeth Suchi; Smith, Marilia Cardoso

    2015-08-01

    Primarily, we sought to verify correlations among assessments for cognition, behaviour and functional independence in a sample of patients with dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Secondarily, impacts of education, APOE haplotypes, length of dementia, age and alcohol use over the neuropsychiatric assessment were estimated. Patients with AD were assessed for demographic features, neuropsychiatric symptoms, cognitive test scores, functional impairment, caregiver burden and APOE haplotypes. Statistical comparisons were undertaken by way of Kruskal-Wallis test, linear regressions and Spearman correlations, significance at ρ < 0.05. A total of 217 patients were included. Mean schooling was 4.21 ± 3.7 years, with significant impacts over cognitive tests. Mean age at examination was 78 ± 6.19 years-old, significantly influencing instrumental functionality. The mean length of the dementia syndrome was 5.4 ± 2.9 years, significantly impacting cognitive decline and functionality. Apathy was the most common behavioural symptom, negatively correlated with anxiety and delusions, and positively correlated with lifetime alcohol load. Patients with previous smoking or drinking habits were more likely to continue smoking or drinking later in life. APOE4+ haplotypes led to earlier dementia onset and significantly lower caregiver burden in mild dementia stages. Most correlations among test results were highly significant, confirming that cognition, behaviour and functionality are usually interrelated in all stages of AD. Caregiver burden was correlated with behaviour, but not with cognition, and was lower for patients with APOE4+ haplotypes in mild dementia stages. Education is a major impact factor for cognitive performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. An Exploration Based Cognitive Bias Test for Mice: Effects of Handling Method and Stereotypic Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Janja; Bailoo, Jeremy D.; Melotti, Luca; Rommen, Jonas; Würbel, Hanno

    2015-01-01

    Behavioural tests to assess affective states are widely used in human research and have recently been extended to animals. These tests assume that affective state influences cognitive processing, and that animals in a negative affective state interpret ambiguous information as expecting a negative outcome (displaying a negative cognitive bias). Most of these tests however, require long discrimination training. The aim of the study was to validate an exploration based cognitive bias test, using two different handling methods, as previous studies have shown that standard tail handling of mice increases physiological and behavioural measures of anxiety compared to cupped handling. Therefore, we hypothesised that tail handled mice would display a negative cognitive bias. We handled 28 female CD-1 mice for 16 weeks using either tail handling or cupped handling. The mice were then trained in an eight arm radial maze, where two adjacent arms predicted a positive outcome (darkness and food), while the two opposite arms predicted a negative outcome (no food, white noise and light). After six days of training, the mice were also given access to the four previously unavailable intermediate ambiguous arms of the radial maze and tested for cognitive bias. We were unable to validate this test, as mice from both handling groups displayed a similar pattern of exploration. Furthermore, we examined whether maze exploration is affected by the expression of stereotypic behaviour in the home cage. Mice with higher levels of stereotypic behaviour spent more time in positive arms and avoided ambiguous arms, displaying a negative cognitive bias. While this test needs further validation, our results indicate that it may allow the assessment of affective state in mice with minimal training—a major confound in current cognitive bias paradigms. PMID:26154309

  20. An Exploration Based Cognitive Bias Test for Mice: Effects of Handling Method and Stereotypic Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Novak, Janja; Bailoo, Jeremy D; Melotti, Luca; Rommen, Jonas; Würbel, Hanno

    2015-01-01

    Behavioural tests to assess affective states are widely used in human research and have recently been extended to animals. These tests assume that affective state influences cognitive processing, and that animals in a negative affective state interpret ambiguous information as expecting a negative outcome (displaying a negative cognitive bias). Most of these tests however, require long discrimination training. The aim of the study was to validate an exploration based cognitive bias test, using two different handling methods, as previous studies have shown that standard tail handling of mice increases physiological and behavioural measures of anxiety compared to cupped handling. Therefore, we hypothesised that tail handled mice would display a negative cognitive bias. We handled 28 female CD-1 mice for 16 weeks using either tail handling or cupped handling. The mice were then trained in an eight arm radial maze, where two adjacent arms predicted a positive outcome (darkness and food), while the two opposite arms predicted a negative outcome (no food, white noise and light). After six days of training, the mice were also given access to the four previously unavailable intermediate ambiguous arms of the radial maze and tested for cognitive bias. We were unable to validate this test, as mice from both handling groups displayed a similar pattern of exploration. Furthermore, we examined whether maze exploration is affected by the expression of stereotypic behaviour in the home cage. Mice with higher levels of stereotypic behaviour spent more time in positive arms and avoided ambiguous arms, displaying a negative cognitive bias. While this test needs further validation, our results indicate that it may allow the assessment of affective state in mice with minimal training-a major confound in current cognitive bias paradigms.

  1. Characteristics of interventions targeting multiple lifestyle risk behaviours in adult populations: a systematic scoping review.

    PubMed

    King, Kristel; Meader, Nick; Wright, Kath; Graham, Hilary; Power, Christine; Petticrew, Mark; White, Martin; Sowden, Amanda J

    2015-01-01

    Modifiable lifestyle risk behaviours such as smoking, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and alcohol misuse are the leading causes of major, non-communicable diseases worldwide. It is increasingly being recognised that interventions which target more than one risk behaviour may be an effective and efficient way of improving people's lifestyles. To date, there has been no attempt to summarise the global evidence base for interventions targeting multiple risk behaviours. To identify and map the characteristics of studies evaluating multiple risk behaviour change interventions targeted at adult populations in any country. Seven bibliographic databases were searched between January, 1990, and January/ May, 2013. Authors of protocols, conference abstracts, and other relevant articles were contacted. Study characteristics were extracted and inputted into Eppi-Reviewer 4. In total, 220 studies were included in the scoping review. Most were randomised controlled trials (62%) conducted in the United States (49%), and targeted diet and physical activity (56%) in people from general populations (14%) or subgroups of general populations (45%). Very few studies had been conducted in the Middle East (2%), Africa (0.5%), or South America (0.5%). There was also a scarcity of studies conducted among young adults (1%), or racial and minority ethnic populations (4%) worldwide. Research is required to investigate the interrelationships of lifestyle risk behaviours in varying cultural contexts around the world. Cross-cultural development and evaluation of multiple risk behaviour change interventions is also needed, particularly in populations of young adults and racial and minority ethnic populations.

  2. Restoring normal eating behaviour in adolescents with anorexia nervosa: A video analysis of nursing interventions.

    PubMed

    Beukers, Laura; Berends, Tamara; de Man-van Ginkel, Janneke M; van Elburg, Annemarie A; van Meijel, Berno

    2015-12-01

    An important part of inpatient treatment for adolescents with anorexia nervosa is to restore normal eating behaviour. Health-care professionals play a significant role in this process, but little is known about their interventions during patients' meals. The purpose of the present study was to describe nursing interventions aimed at restoring normal eating behaviour in patients with anorexia nervosa. The main research question was: 'Which interventions aimed at restoring normal eating behaviour do health-care professionals in a specialist eating disorder centre use during meal times for adolescents diagnosed with anorexia nervosa? The present study was a qualitative, descriptive study that used video recordings made during mealtimes. Thematic data analysis was applied. Four categories of interventions emerged from the data: (i) monitoring and instructing; (ii) encouraging and motivating; (iii) supporting and understanding; and (iv) educating. The data revealed a directive attitude aimed at promoting behavioural change, but always in combination with empathy and understanding. In the first stage of clinical treatment, health-care professionals focus primarily on changing patients' eating behaviour. However, they also address the psychosocial needs that become visible in patients as they struggle to restore normal eating behaviour. The findings of the present study can be used to assist health-care professionals, and improve multidisciplinary guidelines and health-care professionals' training programmes.

  3. An evaluation of an intervention sequence outline in positive behaviour support for people with autism and severe escape-motivated challenging behaviour.

    PubMed

    McClean, Brian; Grey, Ian

    2012-09-01

    Positive behaviour support emphasises the impact of contextual variables to enhance participation, choice, and quality of life. This study evaluates a sequence for implementing changes to key contextual variables for 4 individuals. Interventions were maintained and data collection continued over a 3-year period. Functional assessments were conducted with 4 individuals with exceptionally severe challenging behaviours. Interventions were based on the multi-element model of behavioural support (LaVigna & Willis, 2005a). Dependent variables were behavioural ratings of (1) frequency, (2) episodic severity, (3) episodic management difficulty, and measures of (4) mental health status, and (5) quality of life. The intervention sequence was low arousal environment, rapport building, predictability, functionally equivalent skills teaching, and differential reinforcement strategies. Substantial reductions in target behaviours were observed, along with incremental improvement in mental health scores and quality-of-life scores. The study demonstrates the efficacy of positive behaviour support for people with exceptionally severe behaviour in individually designed services.

  4. Acute Sedentary Behaviour and Markers of Cardiometabolic Risk: A Systematic Review of Intervention Studies

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Travis J.; Larouche, Richard; Colley, Rachel C.; Tremblay, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    North Americans spend half their waking hours engaging in sedentary behaviour. Although several recent interventions suggest that short bouts of uninterrupted sedentary behaviour may result in acute increases in cardiometabolic risk, this literature has not been reviewed systematically. This study performed a systematic review of the impact of uninterrupted sedentary behaviour lasting ≤7 days on markers of cardiometabolic risk (insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, and fasting insulin, glucose, and lipid levels) in humans. Interventions were identified through systematic searches of Medline and Embase and screened by 2 independent reviewers. A total of 25 interventions were identified that examined the impact of imposed sedentary behaviour on biomarkers of interest. The majority of these studies focused on healthy young men, with very little identified research on females or other age groups. We found consistent, moderate quality evidence that uninterrupted sedentary behaviour ≤7 days results in moderate and deleterious changes in insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, and plasma triglyceride levels. In contrast, there is inconsistent, very low-quality evidence linking uninterrupted sedentary behaviour with changes in insulin, glucose, and HDL- and LDL-cholesterol levels. These findings suggest that uninterrupted bouts of sedentary behaviour should be avoided in order to prevent or attenuate transient increases in metabolic risk. PMID:22754695

  5. Clinical supervision in cognitive behavioural psychotherapy: development of a model for mental health nursing through grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Townend, M

    2008-05-01

    This study focuses on the development of a cognitive behavioural model of supervision for mental health nurses. The study utilized a grounded theory approach with cognitive behavioural psychotherapy training course directors. The aim was to more fully understand cognitive behavioural supervision from the perspective of expert supervisors, and develop a model of supervision for mental health nurses who are also cognitive behavioural psychotherapists. For this purpose, 16 course directors were interviewed in-depth, with data analysis taking place after each interview. Through a process of inductive reasoning, core categories were identified from the participants themselves. The relationships between the categories are described. The findings are discussed in terms of a new model that can be used to underpin cognitive behavioural psychotherapy supervision in mental health nursing.

  6. Brain and Cognitive-Behavioural Development after Asphyxia at Term Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Haan, Michelle; Wyatt, John S.; Roth, Simon; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Gadian, David; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2006-01-01

    Perinatal asphyxia occurs in approximately 1-6 per 1000 live full-term births. Different patterns of brain damage can result, though the relation of these patterns to long-term cognitive-behavioural outcome remains under investigation. The hippocampus is one brain region that can be damaged (typically not in isolation), and this site of damage has…

  7. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviours, Sensory Processing and Cognitive Style in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yu-Han; Rodgers, Jacqui; McConachie, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Many individuals with autism tend to focus on details. It has been suggested that this cognitive style may underlie the presence of stereotyped routines, repetitive interests and behaviours, and both relate in some way to sensory abnormalities. Twenty-nine children with diagnosis of high functioning autism or Asperger syndrome completed the…

  8. Efficacy and Utility of Computer-Assisted Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Przeworski, Amy; Newman, Michelle G.

    2006-01-01

    Despite the efficacy of cognitive behavioural treatment for anxiety disorders, more than 70% of individuals with anxiety disorders go untreated every year. This is partially due to obstacles to treatment including limited access to mental health services for rural residents, the expense of treatment and the inconvenience of attending weekly…

  9. Evaluation of 11th Grade Students' Cognitive Behaviour on Some Subjects of Analysis According to Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevin, Orhun

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate students' cognitive behaviour in the subjects of function, limit, and derivative according to gender. The research was conducted with the participation of 67 female and 58 male 11th grade students of Gazi High School in Eskisehir in the academic year 2000/2001. The data were obtained through a test…

  10. How Does Cognitive Behaviour Therapy Work with Opioid-Dependent Clients? Results of the UKCBTMM Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouimtsidis, Christos; Reynolds, Martina; Coulton, Simon; Drummond, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Process research in psychotherapy is important to understand how treatment works. The National Institute of Clinical Excellence guidelines suggest that in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) for opioid dependence, drug key-working should be based on cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) principles. This article reports the findings…

  11. Digital Leisure-Time Activities, Cognition, Learning Behaviour and Information Literacy: What Are Our Children Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimley, Mick

    2012-01-01

    Recent developments in digital technology have resulted in the unprecedented uptake of digital technology engagement as a leisure-time pursuit across the age span. This has resulted in the speculation that such use of digital technology is responsible for changes in cognition and learning behaviour. This study investigated two groups of…

  12. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy: From Face to Face Interaction to a Broader Contextual Understanding of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahoda, A.; Dagnan, D.; Kroese, B. Stenfert; Pert, C.; Trower, P.

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is increasingly used to address the emotional and interpersonal problems of people with ID. There is a limited but promising evidence base supporting this activity. However, these individuals face real and continuing challenges in their lives that have implications for their self and interpersonal perceptions.…

  13. Behavioural and Cognitive Outcomes in Young Children of Mothers with Intellectual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, R. M.; Parish, S. L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite an increase in international studies examining the experiences of parents with intellectual impairments and their children, few have utilised population-based data. This study investigated the behavioural and cognitive outcomes of 3-year-old US children of mothers with intellectual impairments compared with children of mothers…

  14. Managing resistance in cognitive behavioural therapy: the application of motivational interviewing in mixed anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Westra, Henny A

    2004-01-01

    While cognitive behavioural therapy is highly effective in the treatment of anxiety and depression, a substantive number of individuals either refuse treatment, fail to respond to treatment or respond only partially. Arguably, ambivalence about change or about engaging in treatment tasks may in part be related to incomplete recovery rates in cognitive behavioural therapy. Motivational interviewing is a client-centred, directive treatment originally developed in the addictions domain whose goal is to enhance motivation for change by understanding and resolving ambivalence. This method has consistently received support for enhancing outcomes in the addictions domain, particularly when used as an adjunct to further treatment. As yet, motivational methods have not been generalized to the treatment of prevalent mental health problems, such as anxiety and depression. The present paper presents the application of a treatment targeting motivation (motivational interviewing adapted for anxiety and depression) to the management of resistance in cognitive behavioural therapy for 3 clients with mixed anxiety and depression. Motivational interviewing is conceived as an adjunct to highly effective traditional cognitive behavioural therapy methods, which is indicated for use with clients resistant to and significantly ambivalent about change-based techniques for managing anxiety or alleviating depression.

  15. Febrile Seizures and Behavioural and Cognitive Outcomes in Preschool Children: The Generation R Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser, Annemarie M.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Schenk, Jacqueline J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Hofman, Albert; Tiemeier, Henning; Moll, Henriette A.; Arts, Willem Frans M.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: General developmental outcome is known to be good in school-aged children who experienced febrile seizures. We examined cognitive and behavioural outcomes in preschool children with febrile seizures, including language and executive functioning outcomes. Method: This work was performed in the Generation R Study, a population-based cohort…

  16. Is Talent in Autism Spectrum Disorders Associated with a Specific Cognitive and Behavioural Phenotype?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Emily; Heaton, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Parents of 125 children, adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorders completed a newly developed questionnaire aimed at identifying cognitive and behavioural characteristics associated with savant skills in this group. Factors distinguishing skilled individuals were then further investigated in case studies of three individuals…

  17. Treatment of Depression and Anxiety in Parkinson's Disease: A Pilot Study Using Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feeney, Farah; Egan, Sarah; Gasson, Natalie

    2005-01-01

    Depression and anxiety affect up to 50% of people with Parkinson's Disease (PD) (Marsh, 2000; Murray, 1996), however, few studies have examined the effectiveness of psychological treatment. This study examined the effectiveness of group cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in treating depression and anxiety in PD. Four participants, aged between 56…

  18. Assessment of Cognitive and Adaptive Behaviour among Individuals with Congenital Insensitivity to Pain and Anhidrosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erez, Daniella Levy; Levy, Jacov; Friger, Michael; Aharoni-Mayer, Yael; Cohen-Iluz, Moran; Goldstein, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Individuals with congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA) are reported to have mental retardation but to our knowledge no detailed study on the subject has ever been published. The present study assessed and documented cognitive and adaptive behaviour among Arab Bedouin children with CIPA. Methods: Twenty-three Arab Bedouin…

  19. A Brief Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Psychoeducational Group for Chinese People with Chronic Illnesses: An Evaluation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Daniel F. K.; Ip, Priscilla S. Y.; Lee, Kim Man

    2017-01-01

    This pilot study attempted to examine the effectiveness of a brief cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) psychoeducational group for Chinese people with chronic illness in Hong Kong. It adopted a single group design, and 52 participants joined the group. A questionnaire with three outcome measures, measuring general mental health, quality of life…

  20. Cognitive Behaviour Therapies and Their Implications for Applied Educational Psychology Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rait, Shami; Monsen, Jeremy J.; Squires, Garry

    2010-01-01

    This paper critically considers the growing interest in the use of Cognitive Behaviour Therapies to support children and young people presenting with a wide range of social-emotional difficulties. This focus has emerged since the prevalence of such difficulties in children and young people has increased over the past four decades, and the…

  1. ADHD and Adaptability: The Roles of Cognitive, Behavioural, and Emotional Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Emma; Martin, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptability has been recently proposed as cognitive, behavioural, and emotional regulation assisting individuals to effectively respond to change, uncertainty and novelty. Given students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have known impairments with regulatory functions, they may be at particular disadvantage as they seek to…

  2. Increase in Prefrontal Cortical Volume following Cognitive Behavioural Therapy in Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Lange, Floris P.; Koers, Anda; Kalkman, Joke S.; Bleijenberg, Gijs; Hagoort, Peter; van der Meer, Jos W. M.; Toni, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a disabling disorder, characterized by persistent or relapsing fatigue. Recent studies have detected a decrease in cortical grey matter volume in patients with CFS, but it is unclear whether this cerebral atrophy constitutes a cause or a consequence of the disease. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is an…

  3. Brain and Cognitive-Behavioural Development after Asphyxia at Term Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Haan, Michelle; Wyatt, John S.; Roth, Simon; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Gadian, David; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2006-01-01

    Perinatal asphyxia occurs in approximately 1-6 per 1000 live full-term births. Different patterns of brain damage can result, though the relation of these patterns to long-term cognitive-behavioural outcome remains under investigation. The hippocampus is one brain region that can be damaged (typically not in isolation), and this site of damage has…

  4. A Pilot Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Program for Problem Gamblers in a Rural Australian Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakes, Jane; Gardiner, Paula; McLaughlin, Kristin; Battersby, Malcolm

    2012-01-01

    An innovative pilot treatment program was developed for problem gamblers living in rural areas of Australia using cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) modified from an established specialist therapy service. The standard 12 weekly group program was delivered on site by adapting it to two 1 week blocks with daily group sessions and 1 week of patient…

  5. Behavioural and Cognitive Phenotypes in Idiopathic Autism versus Autism Associated with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissanayake, Cheryl; Bui, Quang; Bulhak-Paterson, Danuta; Huggins, Richard; Loesch, Danuta Z.

    2009-01-01

    Background: In order to better understand the underlying biological mechanism/s involved in autism, it is important to investigate the cognitive and behavioural phenotypes associated with idiopathic autism (autism without a known cause) and comorbid autism (autism associated with known genetic/biological disorders such as fragile X syndrome).…

  6. Increase in Prefrontal Cortical Volume following Cognitive Behavioural Therapy in Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Lange, Floris P.; Koers, Anda; Kalkman, Joke S.; Bleijenberg, Gijs; Hagoort, Peter; van der Meer, Jos W. M.; Toni, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a disabling disorder, characterized by persistent or relapsing fatigue. Recent studies have detected a decrease in cortical grey matter volume in patients with CFS, but it is unclear whether this cerebral atrophy constitutes a cause or a consequence of the disease. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is an…

  7. Is Talent in Autism Spectrum Disorders Associated with a Specific Cognitive and Behavioural Phenotype?