Entangled coherent states versus entangled photon pairs for practical quantum-information processing
Park, Kimin; Jeong, Hyunseok
2010-12-15
We compare effects of decoherence and detection inefficiency on entangled coherent states (ECSs) and entangled photon pairs (EPPs), both of which are known to be particularly useful for quantum-information processing (QIP). When decoherence effects caused by photon losses are heavy, the ECSs outperform the EPPs as quantum channels for teleportation both in fidelities and in success probabilities. On the other hand, when inefficient detectors are used, the teleportation scheme using the ECSs suffers undetected errors that result in the degradation of fidelity, while this is not the case for the teleportation scheme using the EPPs. Our study reveals the merits and demerits of the two types of entangled states in realizing practical QIP under realistic conditions.
Generalized quantum interference of correlated photon pairs
Kim, Heonoh; Lee, Sang Min; Moon, Han Seb
2015-01-01
Superposition and indistinguishablility between probability amplitudes have played an essential role in observing quantum interference effects of correlated photons. The Hong-Ou-Mandel interference and interferences of the path-entangled photon number state are of special interest in the field of quantum information technologies. However, a fully generalized two-photon quantum interferometric scheme accounting for the Hong-Ou-Mandel scheme and path-entangled photon number states has not yet been proposed. Here we report the experimental demonstrations of the generalized two-photon interferometry with both the interferometric properties of the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect and the fully unfolded version of the path-entangled photon number state using photon-pair sources, which are independently generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion. Our experimental scheme explains two-photon interference fringes revealing single- and two-photon coherence properties in a single interferometer setup. Using the proposed interferometric measurement, it is possible to directly estimate the joint spectral intensity of a photon pair source. PMID:25951143
Two-photon absorption by a quantum dot pair
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scheibner, Michael; Economou, Sophia E.; Ponomarev, Ilya V.; Jennings, Cameron; Bracker, Allan S.; Gammon, Daniel
2015-08-01
The biexciton absorption spectrum of a pair of InAs/GaAs quantum dots is being studied by photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy. An absorption resonance with the characteristics of an instantaneous two-photon process reveals a coherent interdot two-photon transition. Pauli-selective tunneling is being used to demonstrate the transduction of the two-photon coherence into a nonlocal spin singlet state. The two-photon transition can be tuned spectrally by electric field, enabling amplification of its transition strength.
Coherence revivals in two-photon frequency combs
Torres-Company, Victor; Lancis, Jesus; Lajunen, Hanna; Friberg, Ari T.
2011-09-15
We describe and theoretically analyze the self-imaging Talbot effect of entangled photon pairs in the time domain. Rich phenomena are observed in coherence propagation along dispersive media of mode-locked two-photon states with frequency entanglement exhibiting a comblike correlation function. Our results can be used to remotely transfer frequency standards through optical fiber networks with two-photon light, avoiding the requirement of dispersion compensation.
Engineering a factorable photon pair source
Zielnicki, Kevin; Kwiat, Paul
2014-12-04
Spontaneous parametric downconversion is an important process for producing pairs of photons for quantum optics. We discuss a scheme for eliminating undesired inter-photon correlations inherent in this process, and an efficient characterization of spectral correlations.
Dynamics of two-photon paired superradiance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshimura, M.; Sasao, N.; Tanaka, M.
2012-07-01
We develop for dipole-forbidden transition a dynamical theory of two-photon paired superradiance (PSR). This is a cooperative process characterized by two photons emitted back to back with equal energies. By irradiating the trigger laser from two target ends, with its frequency tuned at the half energy between two levels, a macroscopically coherent state of medium and fields dynamically emerges as time evolves, and a large signal of amplified output occurs with a time delay. The basic semiclassical equations in 1+1 space-time dimensions are derived for the field-plus-medium system to describe the space-time evolution of the entire system and are numerically solved to demonstrate the existence of both explosive and weak PSR phenomena in the presence of relaxation terms. The explosive PSR event terminates accompanying a sudden release of most of the energy stored in the target. Our numerical simulations are performed using the vibrational transition X1Σg+v=1→0 of a para-H2 molecule and taking many different excited atom number densities and different initial coherences between the metastable and the ground states. In an example with a number density close to O(1021 cm-3) and a high initial coherence, the explosive event terminates several nanoseconds after the trigger irradiation, when the phase relaxation time larger than O(10 ns) is taken. After PSR events the system is expected to follow a steady-state solution which is obtained by analytic means and is made of many objects of field condensates endowed with a topological stability.
Ultrabright source of entangled photon pairs.
Dousse, Adrien; Suffczyński, Jan; Beveratos, Alexios; Krebs, Olivier; Lemaître, Aristide; Sagnes, Isabelle; Bloch, Jacqueline; Voisin, Paul; Senellart, Pascale
2010-07-01
A source of triggered entangled photon pairs is a key component in quantum information science; it is needed to implement functions such as linear quantum computation, entanglement swapping and quantum teleportation. Generation of polarization entangled photon pairs can be obtained through parametric conversion in nonlinear optical media or by making use of the radiative decay of two electron-hole pairs trapped in a semiconductor quantum dot. Today, these sources operate at a very low rate, below 0.01 photon pairs per excitation pulse, which strongly limits their applications. For systems based on parametric conversion, this low rate is intrinsically due to the Poissonian statistics of the source. Conversely, a quantum dot can emit a single pair of entangled photons with a probability near unity but suffers from a naturally very low extraction efficiency. Here we show that this drawback can be overcome by coupling an optical cavity in the form of a 'photonic molecule' to a single quantum dot. Two coupled identical pillars-the photonic molecule-were etched in a semiconductor planar microcavity, using an optical lithography method that ensures a deterministic coupling to the biexciton and exciton energy states of a pre-selected quantum dot. The Purcell effect ensures that most entangled photon pairs are emitted into two cavity modes, while improving the indistinguishability of the two optical recombination paths. A polarization entangled photon pair rate of 0.12 per excitation pulse (with a concurrence of 0.34) is collected in the first lens. Our results open the way towards the fabrication of solid state triggered sources of entangled photon pairs, with an overall (creation and collection) efficiency of 80%. PMID:20613838
Quantum physics: Photons paired with phonons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blencowe, Miles
2016-02-01
The force exerted by light on an object has been used to pair photons with quantum units of mechanical vibration. This paves the way for mechanical oscillators to act as interfaces between photons and other quantum systems. See Letter p.313
Coherent dynamics of a telecom-wavelength entangled photon source
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ward, M. B.; Dean, M. C.; Stevenson, R. M.; Bennett, A. J.; Ellis, D. J. P.; Cooper, K.; Farrer, I.; Nicoll, C. A.; Ritchie, D. A.; Shields, A. J.
2014-02-01
Quantum networks can interconnect remote quantum information processors, allowing interaction between different architectures and increasing net computational power. Fibre-optic telecommunications technology offers a practical platform for routing weakly interacting photonic qubits, allowing quantum correlations and entanglement to be established between distant nodes. Although entangled photons have been produced at telecommunications wavelengths using spontaneous parametric downconversion in nonlinear media, as system complexity increases their inherent excess photon generation will become limiting. Here we demonstrate entangled photon pair generation from a semiconductor quantum dot at a telecommunications wavelength. Emitted photons are intrinsically anti-bunched and violate Bell’s inequality by 17 standard deviations High-visibility oscillations of the biphoton polarization reveal the time evolution of the emitted state with exceptional clarity, exposing long coherence times. Furthermore, we introduce a method to evaluate the fidelity to a time-evolving Bell state, revealing entanglement between photons emitted up to 5 ns apart, exceeding the exciton lifetime.
Auxiliary Entanglement in Photon Pairs for Multi-Photon Entanglement
Grice, Warren P; Bennink, Ryan S; Evans, Philip G; Humble, Travis S; Schaake, Jason
2012-01-01
A growing number of experiments make use of multiple pairs of photons generated in the process of spontaneous parametric down-conversion. We show that entanglement in unwanted degrees of freedom can adversely affect the results of these experiments. We also discuss techniques to reduce or eliminate spectral and spatial entanglement, and we present results from two-photon polarization-entangled source with almost no entanglement in these degrees of freedom. Finally, we present two methods for the generation of four-photon polarization- entangled states. In one of these methods, four-photon can be generated without the need for intermediate two-photon entanglement.
Photon pair generation in birefringent optical fibers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Brian J.; Mahou, P.; Cohen, Offir; Lundeen, J. S.; Walmsley, I. A.
2009-12-01
We study both experimentally and theoretically the generation of photon pairs by spontaneous four-wave mixing (SFWM) in standard birefringent optical fibers. The ability to produce a range of two-photon spectral states, from highly correlated (entangled) to completely factorable, by means of cross-polarized birefringent phase matching, is explored. A simple model is developed to predict the spectral state of the photon pair which shows how this can be adjusted by choosing the appropriate pump bandwidth, fiber length and birefringence. Spontaneous Raman scattering is modeled to determine the tradeoff between SFWM and background Raman noise, and the predicted results are shown to agree with experimental data.
A simple and general strategy for generating frequency-anticorrelated photon pairs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xin; Xu, Chang; Ren, Zhongzhou
2016-04-01
Currently, two-photon excitation microscopy is the method of choice for imaging living cells within thick specimen. A remaining problem for this technique is the damage caused by the high photon flux in the excitation region. To reduce the required flux, a promising solution is to use highly frequency-anticorrelated photon pairs, which are known to induce two-photon transitions much more efficiently. It is still an open question what the best scheme is for generating such photon pairs. Here we propose one simple general strategy for this task. As an example, we show explicitly that this general strategy can be realized faithfully within the widely applicable coherently pumped Jaynes-Cummings model. It is shown quantitatively that this strategy can generate highly frequency-anticorrelated photon pairs which can dramatically enhance two-photon excitation efficiency. We believe the proposed strategy can guide new designs for generating frequency-anticorrelated photon pairs.
A simple and general strategy for generating frequency-anticorrelated photon pairs
Zhang, Xin; Xu, Chang; Ren, Zhongzhou
2016-01-01
Currently, two-photon excitation microscopy is the method of choice for imaging living cells within thick specimen. A remaining problem for this technique is the damage caused by the high photon flux in the excitation region. To reduce the required flux, a promising solution is to use highly frequency-anticorrelated photon pairs, which are known to induce two-photon transitions much more efficiently. It is still an open question what the best scheme is for generating such photon pairs. Here we propose one simple general strategy for this task. As an example, we show explicitly that this general strategy can be realized faithfully within the widely applicable coherently pumped Jaynes-Cummings model. It is shown quantitatively that this strategy can generate highly frequency-anticorrelated photon pairs which can dramatically enhance two-photon excitation efficiency. We believe the proposed strategy can guide new designs for generating frequency-anticorrelated photon pairs. PMID:27087255
Two-photon interferences with degenerate and nondegenerate paired photons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Chang; Chen, J. F.; Zhang, Shanchao; Zhou, Shuyu; Kim, Yoon-Ho; Loy, M. M. T.; Wong, G. K. L.; Du, Shengwang
2012-02-01
We generate narrow-band frequency-tunable entangled photon pairs from spontaneous four-wave mixing in three-level cold atoms and study their two-photon quantum interference after a beam splitter. We find that the path-exchange symmetry plays a more important role in the Hong-Ou-Mandel interference than the temporal or frequency indistinguishability, and observe coalescence interference for both degenerate and nondegenerate photons. We also observe a quantum beat in the same experimental setup using either slow or fast detectors.
Noncommutative q -photon-added coherent states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dey, Sanjib; Hussin, Véronique
2016-05-01
We construct the photon-added coherent states of a noncommutative harmonic oscillator associated to a q -deformed oscillator algebra. Various nonclassical properties of the corresponding system are explored, first, by studying two different types of higher-order quadrature squeezing, namely, the Hillery type and the Hong-Mandel type, and second, by testing the sub-Poissonian nature of photon statistics in higher order with the help of the correlation function and the Mandel parameter. Also, we compare the behavior of different types of quadrature and photon number squeezing of our system with those of the ordinary harmonic oscillator by considering the same set of parameters.
Photonic-lantern-based coherent LIDAR system.
Ozdur, Ibrahim; Toliver, Paul; Woodward, T K
2015-02-23
In this work, a photonic-lantern-based coherent LIDAR system is experimentally demonstrated and the voltage signal-to-noise ratio improvement is analyzed. A voltage signal-to-noise ratio (SNR(V)) improvement of 2.8 is demonstrated experimentally for photonic-lantern-based coherent receivers relative to single-mode coherent receivers. The voltage signal-to-noise ratio improvement is obtained when other parameters are kept constant. We have also analyzed the effect of random optical power distribution among the single-mode fibers. We found that the distribution does not significantly impact the SNR(V) improvement. The mean value of voltage signal-to-noise ratio improvement is found to be ~ 2.4.
Efficient quantum computing using coherent photon conversion.
Langford, N K; Ramelow, S; Prevedel, R; Munro, W J; Milburn, G J; Zeilinger, A
2011-10-12
Single photons are excellent quantum information carriers: they were used in the earliest demonstrations of entanglement and in the production of the highest-quality entanglement reported so far. However, current schemes for preparing, processing and measuring them are inefficient. For example, down-conversion provides heralded, but randomly timed, single photons, and linear optics gates are inherently probabilistic. Here we introduce a deterministic process--coherent photon conversion (CPC)--that provides a new way to generate and process complex, multiquanta states for photonic quantum information applications. The technique uses classically pumped nonlinearities to induce coherent oscillations between orthogonal states of multiple quantum excitations. One example of CPC, based on a pumped four-wave-mixing interaction, is shown to yield a single, versatile process that provides a full set of photonic quantum processing tools. This set satisfies the DiVincenzo criteria for a scalable quantum computing architecture, including deterministic multiqubit entanglement gates (based on a novel form of photon-photon interaction), high-quality heralded single- and multiphoton states free from higher-order imperfections, and robust, high-efficiency detection. It can also be used to produce heralded multiphoton entanglement, create optically switchable quantum circuits and implement an improved form of down-conversion with reduced higher-order effects. Such tools are valuable building blocks for many quantum-enabled technologies. Finally, using photonic crystal fibres we experimentally demonstrate quantum correlations arising from a four-colour nonlinear process suitable for CPC and use these measurements to study the feasibility of reaching the deterministic regime with current technology. Our scheme, which is based on interacting bosonic fields, is not restricted to optical systems but could also be implemented in optomechanical, electromechanical and superconducting
Entangled photon-added coherent states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Domínguez-Serna, Francisco A.; Mendieta-Jimenez, Francisco J.; Rojas, Fernando
2016-08-01
We study the degree of entanglement of arbitrary superpositions of m, n photon-added coherent states (PACS) {|{ψ }rangle } ∝ u {|{{α },m}rangle }{|{{β },n }rangle }+ v {|{{β },n}rangle }{|{{α },m}rangle } using the concurrence and obtain the general conditions for maximal entanglement. We show that photon addition process can be identified as an entanglement enhancer operation for superpositions of coherent states (SCS). Specifically for the known bipartite positive SCS: {|{ψ }rangle } ∝ {|{α }rangle }_a{|{-α }rangle }_b + {|{-α }rangle }_a{|{α }rangle }_b whose entanglement tends to zero for α → 0, can be maximal if al least one photon is added in a subsystem. A full family of maximally entangled PACS is also presented. We also analyzed the decoherence effects in the entangled PACS induced by a simple depolarizing channel . We find that robustness against depolarization is increased by adding photons to the coherent states of the superposition. We obtain the dependence of the critical depolarization p_{ {crit}} for null entanglement as a function of m,n, α and β.
Two-photon coherent states of the radiation field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yuen, H. P.
1976-01-01
The concept of a two-photon coherent state is introduced for applications in quantum optics. It is a simple generalization of the well-known minimum-uncertainty wave packets. The detailed properties of two-photon coherent states are developed and distinguished from ordinary coherent states. These two-photon coherent states are mathematically generated from coherent states through unitary operators associated with quadratic Hamiltonians. Physically they are the radiation states of ideal two-photon lasers operating far above threshold, according to the self-consistent-field approximation. The mean-square quantum noise behavior of these states, which is basically the same as those of minimum-uncertainty states, leads to applications not obtainable from coherent states or one-photon lasers. The essential behavior of two-photon coherent states is unchanged by small losses in the system. The counting rates or distributions these states generate in photocount experiments also reveal their difference from coherent states.
Beamlike photon pairs entangled by a 2x2 fiber
Lo, Hsin-Pin; Yabushita, Atsushi; Luo, Chih-Wei; Chen, Pochung; Kobayashi, Takayoshi
2011-08-15
Polarization-entangled photon pairs have been widely used as a light source of quantum communication. The polarization-entangled photon pairs are generally obtained at the crossing points of the light cones that are generated from a type-II nonlinear crystal. However, it is hard to pick up the photon pairs coming out from the crossing points because of their invisible wavelength and low intensity. In our previous work, we succeeded in generating polarization-entangled photon pairs by overlapping two light paths for the photon-pair generation. The photon pairs could be entangled in all of the generated photon pairs without clipping the crossing points, even with some difficulty in its alignment to overlap the two light paths. In this paper, we have developed an optical system which generates polarization-entangled photon pairs using a beamlike photon pair, without the difficulty in alignment. The measured results show that the photon pairs generated in the system are entangled in their polarizations.
Tsujimoto, Yoshiaki; Sugiura, Yukihiro; Ando, Makoto; Katsuse, Daisuke; Ikuta, Rikizo; Yamamoto, Takashi; Koashi, Masato; Imoto, Nobuyuki
2015-05-18
We experimentally demonstrated entanglement extraction scheme by using photons at the telecommunication band for optical-fiber-based quantum communications. We generated two pairs of non-degenerate polarization entangled photons at 780 nm and 1551 nm by spontaneous parametric down-conversion and distributed the two photons at 1551 nm through a collective phase damping channel which gives the same amount of random phase shift on the two photons. Through local operation and classical communication, we extracted an entangled photon pair from two phase-disturbed photon pairs. An observed fidelity of the extracted photon pair to a maximally entangled photon pair was 0.73 ± 0.07 which clearly shows the recovery of entanglement.
Generation of photon-added coherent states via photon-subtracted generalised coherent states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mojaveri, Bashir; Dehghani, Alireza
2014-10-01
Based on previous work [A. Dehghani, B. Mojaveri, J. Phys. A 45, 095304 (2012)], we introduce photon-subtracted generalised coherent states (PSGCSs) |z,m⟩r: = am|z⟩r, where m is a nonnegative integer and |z⟩r denote the generalised coherent states (GCSs). We have shown that the states |z,m⟩r are eigenstates of a non-Hermitian operator f(n̂,m)â, where f(n̂,m) is a nonlinear function of the number operator N̂ . Also, the states | z, - m ⟩ r can be considered as another set of eigenstates for negative values of m. They span the truncated Fock space without the first m lowest-lying basis states: | 0 ⟩ , | 1 ⟩ , | 2 ⟩ ,...,| m - 1 ⟩ which are reminiscent of the so-called photon-added coherent states. The resolution of the identity property, which is the most important property of coherent states, is realised for |z,m⟩r as well as for |z, - m⟩r. Some nonclassical features such as sub-Poissonian statistics and quadrature squeezing of the states |z, ± m⟩r are compared. We show that the annihilation operator diminishes the mean number of photons of the initial state |z⟩r. Finally we show that |z,m⟩r can be produced through a simple theoretical scheme.
Rybak, Leonid; Levin, Liat; Amitay, Zohar; Amaran, Saieswari; Kosloff, Ronnie; Tomza, Michal; Moszynski, Robert; Koch, Christiane P.
2011-12-30
The formation of diatomic molecules with rotational and vibrational coherence is demonstrated experimentally in free-to-bound two-photon femtosecond photoassociation of hot atoms. In a thermal gas at a temperature of 1000 K, pairs of magnesium atoms, colliding in their electronic ground state, are excited into coherent superpositions of bound rovibrational levels in an electronically excited state. The rovibrational coherence is probed by a time-delayed third photon, resulting in quantum beats in the UV fluorescence. A comprehensive theoretical model based on ab initio calculations rationalizes the generation of coherence by Franck-Condon filtering of collision energies and partial waves, quantifying it in terms of an increase in quantum purity of the thermal ensemble. Our results open the way to coherent control of a binary reaction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rybak, Leonid; Amaran, Saieswari; Levin, Liat; Tomza, Michał; Moszynski, Robert; Kosloff, Ronnie; Koch, Christiane P.; Amitay, Zohar
2011-12-01
The formation of diatomic molecules with rotational and vibrational coherence is demonstrated experimentally in free-to-bound two-photon femtosecond photoassociation of hot atoms. In a thermal gas at a temperature of 1000 K, pairs of magnesium atoms, colliding in their electronic ground state, are excited into coherent superpositions of bound rovibrational levels in an electronically excited state. The rovibrational coherence is probed by a time-delayed third photon, resulting in quantum beats in the UV fluorescence. A comprehensive theoretical model based on ab initio calculations rationalizes the generation of coherence by Franck-Condon filtering of collision energies and partial waves, quantifying it in terms of an increase in quantum purity of the thermal ensemble. Our results open the way to coherent control of a binary reaction.
Elliptic jets, part 2. Dynamics of coherent structures: Pairing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Husain, Hyder S.; Hussain, Fazle
1992-01-01
The dynamics of the jet column mode of vortex pairing in the near field of an elliptic jet was investigated. Hot-wire measurements and flow visualization were used to examine the details of the pairing mechanism of nonplanar vortical elliptic structures and its effect on such turbulence measures as coherent velocities, incoherent turbulence intensities, incoherent and coherent Reynolds, stresses, turbulence production, and mass entrainment. It was found that pairing of elliptic vortices in the jet column does not occur uniformly around the entire perimeter, unlike in a circular jet. Merger occurs only in the initial major-axis plane. In the initial minor-axis plane, the trailing vortex rushes through the leading vortex without pairing and then breaks down violently, producing considerably greater entrainment and mixing than in circular or plane jets.
Angular distribution of positrons in coherent pair production in deformed crystals.
Parazian, V V
2009-05-01
We investigate the angular distribution of positrons in the coherent process electron-positron pair creation process by high-energy photons in a periodically deformed single crystal with a complex base. The formula for the corresponding differential cross section is derived for an arbitrary deformation field. The case is considered in detail when the photon enters into the crystal at small angles with respect to a crystallographic axis. The results of the numerical calculations are presented for SiO(2) and diamond single crystals and Moliere parameterization of the screened atomic potentials in the case of the deformation field generated by an acoustic wave of S-type.
Coherent combs of antimatter from nonlinear electron-positron-pair creation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krajewska, K.; Kamiński, J. Z.
2014-11-01
Electron-positron-pair creation in collisions of a modulated laser pulse with a high-energy photon (nonlinear Breit-Wheeler process) is studied by means of strong-field quantum electrodynamics. It is shown that the driving pulse modulations lead to the appearance of comb structures in the energy spectra of produced positrons (electrons). It is demonstrated that these combs result from a coherent enhancement of probability amplitudes of pair creation from different modulations of the laser pulse, thus resembling the Young-type double-slit experiment for antimatter (matter) waves.
Three-photon coherence of Rydberg atomic states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwak, Hyo Min; Jeong, Taek; Lee, Yoon-Seok; Moon, Han Seb
2016-05-01
We investigated three-photon coherence effects of the Rydberg state in a four-level ladder-type atomic system for the 5 S1/2 (F = 3) - 5 P3/2 (F' = 4) - 50 D5/2 - 51 P3/2 transition of 85 Rb atoms. By adding a resonant electric field of microwave (MW) at electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in Rydberg state scheme, we observed experimentally that splitting of EIT signal appears under the condition of three-photon resonance in the Doppler-broadened atomic system. Discriminating the two- and three-photon coherence terms from the calculated spectrum in a simple four-level ladder-type Doppler-broadened atomic system, we found that the physical origin of splitting of EIT was three-photon coherence effect, but not three-photon quantum interference phenomena such as three-photon electromagnetically induced absorption (TPEIA).
Measurement device-independent quantum key distribution with heralded pair coherent state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Dong; Shang-Hong, Zhao; Lei, Shi
2016-10-01
The original measurement device-independent quantum key distribution is reviewed, and a modified protocol using heralded pair coherent state (HPCS) is proposed to overcome the quantum bit error rate associated with the dark count rate of the detectors in long-distance quantum key distribution. Our simulation indicates that the secure transmission distance can be improved evidently with HPCS owing to the lower probability of vacuum events when compared with weak coherent source scenario, while the secure key rate can be increased with HPCS due to the higher probability of single-photon events when compared with heralded single-photon source scenario. Furthermore, we apply the finite key analysis to the decoy state MDI-QKD with HPCS and obtain a practical key rate.
Measurement device-independent quantum key distribution with heralded pair coherent state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Dong; Shang-Hong, Zhao; Lei, Shi
2016-07-01
The original measurement device-independent quantum key distribution is reviewed, and a modified protocol using heralded pair coherent state (HPCS) is proposed to overcome the quantum bit error rate associated with the dark count rate of the detectors in long-distance quantum key distribution. Our simulation indicates that the secure transmission distance can be improved evidently with HPCS owing to the lower probability of vacuum events when compared with weak coherent source scenario, while the secure key rate can be increased with HPCS due to the higher probability of single-photon events when compared with heralded single-photon source scenario. Furthermore, we apply the finite key analysis to the decoy state MDI-QKD with HPCS and obtain a practical key rate.
Correlated photon pairs generated from a warm atomic ensemble
Willis, R. T.; Orozco, L. A.; Rolston, S. L.; Becerra, F. E.
2010-11-15
We present measurements of the cross-correlation function of photon pairs at 780 and 1367 nm, generated in a hot rubidium vapor cell. The temporal character of the biphoton is determined by the dispersive properties of the medium where the pair generation takes place. We show that short correlation times occur for optically thick samples, which can be understood in terms of off-resonant pair generation. By modifying the linear response of the sample, we produce near-resonant photon pairs, which could in principle be used for entanglement distribution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verma, J. K.; Pathak, P. K.
2016-08-01
We propose two schemes to realize a highly efficient solid-state source of photon pairs using four-wave mixing and stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in a single quantum dot embedded in a microcavity. A resonant continuous-wave laser applied between biexciton and exciton states and a pulsed laser applied between a ground state and exciton state are utilized to facilitate coherent pumping. We show in the case of four-wave mixing that, although the probability of generating two photons in a cavity mode is small without cavity damping, two-photon-resonant emission is enhanced by cavity damping within the strong-coupling regime. For strong continuous-wave laser, a single photon from a pulsed laser and two-photon-resonant transition through a strongly coupled cavity mode lead to a (1+2)-type Raman transition through the generated Autler-Townes doublet. We also discuss the spectrum of the generated photon pair and the photon-photon correlations in the generated photon pair.
High spectral purity silicon ring resonator photon-pair source
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steidle, Jeffrey A.; Fanto, Michael L.; Tison, Christopher C.; Wang, Zihao; Preble, Stefan F.; Alsing, Paul M.
2015-05-01
Here we present the experimental demonstration of a Silicon ring resonator photon-pair source. The crystalline Silicon ring resonator (radius of 18.5μm) was designed to realize low dispersion across multiple resonances, which allows for operation with a high quality factor of Q~50k. In turn, the source exhibits very high brightness of >3x105 photons/s/mW2/GHz since the produced photon pairs have a very narrow bandwidth. Furthermore, the waveguidefiber coupling loss was minimized to <1.5dB using an inverse tapered waveguide (tip width of ~150nm over a 300μm length) that is butt-coupled to a high-NA fiber (Nufern UHNA-7). This ensured minimal loss of photon pairs to the detectors, which enabled very high purity photon pairs with minimal noise, as exhibited by a very high Coincidental-Accidental Ratio of >1900. The low coupling loss (3dB fiber-fiber) also allowed for operation with very low off-chip pump power of <200μW. In addition, the zero dispersion of the ring resonator resulted in the production of a photon-pair comb across multiple resonances symmetric about the pump resonance (every ~5nm spanning >20nm), which could be used in future wavelength division multiplexed quantum networks.
Experimental extraction of an entangled photon pair from two identically decohered pairs.
Yamamoto, Takashi; Koashi, Masato; Ozdemir, Sahin Kaya; Imoto, Nobuyuki
2003-01-23
Entanglement is considered to be one of the most important resources in quantum information processing schemes, including teleportation, dense coding and entanglement-based quantum key distribution. Because entanglement cannot be generated by classical communication between distant parties, distribution of entangled particles between them is necessary. During the distribution process, entanglement between the particles is degraded by the decoherence and dissipation processes that result from unavoidable coupling with the environment. Entanglement distillation and concentration schemes are therefore needed to extract pairs with a higher degree of entanglement from these less-entangled pairs; this is accomplished using local operations and classical communication. Here we report an experimental demonstration of extraction of a polarization-entangled photon pair from two decohered photon pairs. Two polarization-entangled photon pairs are generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion and then distributed through a channel that induces identical phase fluctuations to both pairs; this ensures that no entanglement is available as long as each pair is manipulated individually. Then, through collective local operations and classical communication we extract from the two decohered pairs a photon pair that is observed to be polarization-entangled.
Phase coherence and pairing amplitude in photo-excited superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perfetti, Luca; Piovera, Christian; Zhang, Zailan
2016-05-01
New data on Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ (Bi2212) reveal interesting aspects of photoexcited superconductors. The electrons dynamics show that inelastic scattering by nodal quasiparticles decreases when the temperature is lowered below the critical value of the superconducting phase transition. This drop of electronic dissipation is astonishingly robust and survives to photoexcitation densities much larger than the value sustained by long-range superconductivity. The unconventional behavior of quasiparticle scattering is ascribed to superconducting correlations extending on a length scale comparable to the inelastic mean-free path. Our measurements indicate that strongly driven superconductors enter in a regime without phase coherence but finite pairing amplitude.
Broadband photon pair generation at 3 ω/2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suchowski, Haim; Bruner, Barry D.; Israel, Yonatan; Ganany-Padowicz, Ayelet; Arie, Ady; Silberberg, Yaron
2016-02-01
We experimentally demonstrate a method for creating broad bandwidth photon pairs in the visible spectral region, centered at a frequency that is higher than that of the initial pump source. Spontaneous down conversion of a narrowband 1053 nm pulsed Nd:YLF laser is followed by highly efficient upconversion in adiabatic nonlinear frequency-conversion process. Photon pairs are generated from 693 to 708 nm, and the complete conversion process occurs within a single monolithic 5-cm-long stoichiometric lithium tantalate nonlinear crystal. We have characterized the dependence of this structure with respect to pump intensity and crystal temperature.
Entanglement dynamics of photon pairs emitted from quantum dots
Zou, Yang; Gong, Ming; Li, Chuan-Feng; Chen, Geng; Tang, Jian-Shun; Guo, Guang-Can
2010-06-15
We present a model that describes states of photon pairs, which have been generated by biexciton cascade decays of self-assembled quantum dots, the use of which yields a finding that agrees well with the experimental result. Furthermore, we calculate the concurrence and determine the temperature behavior associated with the so-called entanglement sudden death that prevents quantum dots emitting entangled photon pairs at raised temperatures. The relationship between the fine-structure splitting and the sudden death temperature is also provided.
Generation of hyper-entangled photon pairs in coupled microcavities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Portolan, S.; Einkemmer, L.; Vörös, Z.; Weihs, G.; Rabl, P.
2014-06-01
We propose and theoretically analyze a new scheme for generating hyper-entangled photon pairs (EPPs) in a system of polaritons in coupled planar microcavities. Starting from a microscopic model, we evaluate the relevant parametric scattering processes and numerically simulate the phonon-induced noise background under continuous-wave excitation. Our results show that, compared to other polariton entanglement proposals, our scheme enables the generation of photon pairs that are entangled in both the path and polarization degrees of freedom, and simultaneously leads to a strong reduction in the photoluminescence noise background. This can significantly improve the fidelity of the EPPs under realistic experimental conditions.
Electrically Injected Photon-Pair Source at Room Temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boitier, Fabien; Orieux, Adeline; Autebert, Claire; LemaÃ®tre, Aristide; Galopin, Elisabeth; Manquest, Christophe; Sirtori, Carlo; Favero, Ivan; Leo, Giuseppe; Ducci, Sara
2014-05-01
One of the main challenges for future quantum information technologies is the miniaturization and integration of high performance components in a single chip. In this context, electrically driven sources of nonclassical states of light have a clear advantage over optically driven ones. Here we demonstrate the first electrically driven semiconductor source of photon pairs working at room temperature and telecom wavelengths. The device is based on type-II intracavity spontaneous parametric down-conversion in an AlGaAs laser diode and generates pairs at 1.57 μm. Time-correlation measurements of the emitted pairs give an internal generation efficiency of 7×10-11 pairs/injected electron. The capability of our platform to support the generation, manipulation, and detection of photons opens the way to the demonstration of massively parallel systems for complex quantum operations.
Coherent States on Riemann Surfaces as m-Photon States
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vourdas, A.
1996-01-01
Coherent states on the m-sheeted sphere (for the SU(2) group) are used to define analytic representations. The corresponding generators create and annihilate clusters of m-photons. Non-linear Hamiltonians that contain these generators are considered and their eigenvectors and eigenvalues are explicitly calculated. The Holstein-Primakoff and Schwinger formalisms in this context are also discussed.
Observation of strongly entangled photon pairs from a nanowire quantum dot.
Versteegh, Marijn A M; Reimer, Michael E; Jöns, Klaus D; Dalacu, Dan; Poole, Philip J; Gulinatti, Angelo; Giudice, Andrea; Zwiller, Val
2014-10-31
A bright photon source that combines high-fidelity entanglement, on-demand generation, high extraction efficiency, directional and coherent emission, as well as position control at the nanoscale is required for implementing ambitious schemes in quantum information processing, such as that of a quantum repeater. Still, all of these properties have not yet been achieved in a single device. Semiconductor quantum dots embedded in nanowire waveguides potentially satisfy all of these requirements; however, although theoretically predicted, entanglement has not yet been demonstrated for a nanowire quantum dot. Here, we demonstrate a bright and coherent source of strongly entangled photon pairs from a position-controlled nanowire quantum dot with a fidelity as high as 0.859±0.006 and concurrence of 0.80±0.02. The two-photon quantum state is modified via the nanowire shape. Our new nanoscale entangled photon source can be integrated at desired positions in a quantum photonic circuit, single-electron devices and light-emitting diodes.
Spectral correlation control in down-converted photon pairs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gajewski, Andrzej; Kolenderski, Piotr
2016-07-01
Sources of photon pairs based on the spontaneous parametric down-conversion process are commonly used for long-distance quantum communication and quantum information processing. The key feature for improving the range of transmission is engineering their spectral properties. Our analysis shows the way for full control of spectral correlation within a fiber-coupled photon pair. The result of extensive numerical simulations allows us to specify the settings for the generation of pairs featuring positive-energy correlation, which can potentially improve the signal-to-noise ratio in practical implementation of quantum communication protocols. We analytically and numerically analyze the characteristics of a source based on a β -barium borate crystal cut for type-II phase matching at the degenerated frequencies 755 nm →1550 nm +1550 nm . The presented framework is general and can be applied to other crystals.
Strong Interactions of Photon Pairs in Cavity QED
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kimble, H. J.
2008-05-01
The charge and spin degrees of freedom of massive particles have relatively large long-range interactions, which enable nonlinear coupling between pairs of atoms, ions, electrons, and diverse quasi-particles. By contrast, photons have vanishingly small cross-sections for direct coupling. Instead, photon interactions must be mediated by a material system. Even then,typical materials produce photon-photon couplings that are orders of magnitude too small for nontrivial dynamics with individual photon pairs. The leading exception to this state of affairs is cavity quantum electrodynamics (cQED), where strong interactions between light and matter at the single-photon level have enabled a wide set of scientific advances [1]. My presentation will describe two experiments in the Caltech Quantum Optics Group where strong interactions of photon pairs have been observed. The work in Ref. [2] provided the initial realization of photon blockade for an atomic system by using a Fabry-Perot cavity containing one atom strongly coupled to the cavity field. The underlying blockade mechanism was the quantum anharmonicity of the ladder of energy levels for the composite atom-cavity system. Beyond this structural effect, a new % dynamical mechanism was identified in Ref. [3] for which photon transport is regulated by the conditional state of one intracavity atom, leading to an efficient mechanism that is insensitive to many experimental imperfections and which achieves high efficiency for single-photon transport. The experiment utilized the interaction of an atom with the fields of a microtoroidal resonator [4]. Regulation was achieved by way of an interference effect involving the directly transmitted optical field, the intracavity field in the absence of the atom, and the polarization field radiated by the atom, with the requisite nonlinearity provided by the quantum character of the emission from one atom.[1] R. Miller, T. E. Northup, K. M. Birnbaum, A. Boca, A. D. Boozer, and H. J
On the completeness of photon-added coherent states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sixdeniers, J.-M.; Penson, K. A.
2001-04-01
We demonstrate explicitly the completeness of photon-added coherent states (PACSs), introduced by Agarwal and Tara (Agarwal G S and Tara K 1991 Phys. Rev. A 43 492) and defined, up to normalization, by (†)M|z>, M = 0,1,2,...,, where † is the boson creation operator and |z> are conventional Glauber-Klauder coherent states. We find the analytical form of the positive weight function in their resolution of unity by solving the associated Stieltjes power-moment problem. We furnish an example of generation of another set of PACSs which are complete.
Nonclassical correlation of cascaded photon pairs emitted from quantum dots
Li, Chuan-Feng; Zou, Yang; Xu, Jin-Shi; Ge, Rong-Chun; Guo, Guang-Can
2011-11-15
We studied the quantum correlation of the photon pairs generated by biexciton cascade decays of self-assembled quantum dots, and determined the correlation sudden-change temperature, which is shown to be independent of the background noise, far lower than the entanglement sudden-death temperature, and therefore, easier to be observed in experiments. The relationship between the fine-structure splitting and the sudden-change temperature is also provided.
Efficiently heralded silicon ring resonator photon-pair source
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steidle, Jeffrey A.; Fanto, Michael L.; Tison, Christopher C.; Wang, Zihao; Alsing, Paul M.; Preble, Stefan F.
2016-05-01
Presented here are results on a silicon ring resonator photon pair source with a high heralding efficiency. Previous ring resonator sources suffered from an effective 50% loss because, in order to generate the photons, the pump must be able to couple into the resonator which is an effective loss channel. However, in practice the optical loss of the pump can be traded off for a dramatic increase in heralding efficiency. This research found theoretically that the heralding efficiency should increase by a factor of ~ 3:75 with a factor of 10 increase in the required pump power. This was demonstrated experimentally by varying the separation (gap) between the input waveguide and the ring while maintaining a constant drop port gap. The ring (R = 18:5μm, W = 500nm, and H = 220nm) was pumped by a tunable laser (λ ≍ 1550nm). The non-degenerate photons, produced via spontaneous four wave mixing, exited the ring and were coupled to fiber upon which they were filtered symmetrically about the pump. Coincidence counts were collected for all possible photon path combinations (through and drop port) and the ratio of the drop port coincidences to the sum of the drop port and cross term coincidences (one photon from the drop port and one from the through port) was calculated. With a 350nm pump waveguide gap (2:33 times larger than the drop port gap) we confirmed our theoretical predictions, with an observed improvement in heralding efficiency by a factor of ~ 2:61 (96:7% of correlated photons coupled out of the drop port). These results will enable increased photon flux integrated photon sources which can be utilized for high performance quantum computing and communication systems.
Wave-Particle Properties and Pair Formation of the Photon
Lehnert, B.
2008-10-15
Models of an individual photon having joint wave-particle properties, needle-like geometry, and spin cannot be based on conventional theory, but be deduced in terms of a revised quantum electrodynamic approach. In this paper the latter is applied to two-slit configurations and electron-positron pair formation: (a) Two-slit experiments performed earlier by Tsuchiya et al. and recently by Afshar et al. demonstrate the joint wave-particle properties of the individual photon, and agree with Einstein's argument against Complementarity. The present theory is consistent with these results, (b) The elementary electron-positron pair formation process is considered, with special attention to the involved orbits, conservation of energy, spin, and electric charge. The obtained model appears to be consistent with the process in which the created electron and positron move along two rays and have original directions along the path of the incoming photon. The nonzero electric field divergence of the theory is associated with an intrinsic local electric charge density. This may explain that the photon can decay on account of the impact from an external electric field.
Coherent storage of photon states in atomic ensembles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lukin, Mikhail
2001-05-01
We describes a technique that allows to transfer quantum information from traveling-wave light fields to meta-stable atomic states and vice versa. This is achieved by adiabatically reducing the group velocity of light to zero, thereby ``trapping'' the photon states in the medium. The specific mechanism is based on dark-state polaritons associated with with light propagation in electromagnetically induced transparency. The properties of the polaritons such as the group velocity are determined by the mixing angle between light and matter components and can be controlled by an external coherent field as the pulse propagates. We discuss the basic properties of such a coherent quantum memory for light as well as the experimental progress towards implementation of these ideas. In particular, we report an experiment in which a coherent light pulse is effectively decelerated and trapped in a vapor of Rb atoms, stored for a controlled period of time, and then released on demand. We further report experimental results probing directly phase-coherence properties of the present technique. Finally we outline several approaches for coherent processing of quantum information stored in collective atomic excitations.
Approaching Tsirelson's Bound in a Photon Pair Experiment.
Poh, Hou Shun; Joshi, Siddarth K; Cerè, Alessandro; Cabello, Adán; Kurtsiefer, Christian
2015-10-30
We present an experimental test of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell inequality on photon pairs in a maximally entangled state of polarization in which a value S=2.82759±0.00051 is observed. This value comes close to the Tsirelson bound of |S|≤2sqrt[2], with S-2sqrt[2]=0.00084±0.00051. It also violates the bound |S|≤2.82537 introduced by Grinbaum by 4.3 standard deviations. This violation allows us to exclude that quantum mechanics is only an effective description of a more fundamental theory.
Multi-user distribution of polarization entangled photon pairs
Trapateau, J.; Orieux, A.; Diamanti, E.; Zaquine, I.; Ghalbouni, J.
2015-10-14
We experimentally demonstrate multi-user distribution of polarization entanglement using commercial telecom wavelength division demultiplexers. The entangled photon pairs are generated from a broadband source based on spontaneous parametric down conversion in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal using a double path setup employing a Michelson interferometer and active phase stabilisation. We test and compare demultiplexers based on various technologies and analyze the effect of their characteristics, such as losses and polarization dependence, on the quality of the distributed entanglement for three channel pairs of each demultiplexer. In all cases, we obtain a Bell inequality violation, whose value depends on the demultiplexer features. This demonstrates that entanglement can be distributed to at least three user pairs of a network from a single source. Additionally, we verify for the best demultiplexer that the violation is maintained when the pairs are distributed over a total channel attenuation corresponding to 20 km of optical fiber. These techniques are therefore suitable for resource-efficient practical implementations of entanglement-based quantum key distribution and other quantum communication network applications.
A neural-network approach to the problem of photon-pair combinatorics
Awes, T.C.
1990-06-01
A recursive neural-network algorithm is applied to the problem of correctly pairing photons from {pi}{sup 0}, {eta}, and higher resonance decays in the presence of a large background of photons resulting from many simultaneous decays. The method uses the full information of the multi-photon final state to suppress the selection of false photon pairs which arise from the many combinatorial possibilities. The method is demonstrated for simulated photon events under semirealistic experimental conditions. 3 refs., 3 figs.
Combined two-photon microscopy and angiographic optical coherence tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Bumju; Wang, Tae Jun; Li, Qingyun; Nam, Jutaek; Hwang, Sekyu; Chung, Euiheon; Kim, Sungjee; Kim, Ki Hean
2013-08-01
A combined two-photon microscopy (TPM) and angiographic optical coherence tomography (OCT) is developed, which can provide molecular, cellular, structural, and vascular information of tissue specimens in vivo. This combined system is implemented by adding an OCT vasculature visualization method to the previous combined TPM and OCT, and then is applied to in vivo tissue imaging. Two animal models, a mouse brain cranial window model and a mouse ear cancer model, are used. Both molecular, cellular information at local regions of tissues, and structural, vascular information at relatively larger regions are visualized in the same sections. In vivo tissue microenvironments are better elucidated by the combined TPM and angiographic OCT.
Combined two-photon microscopy and angiographic optical coherence tomography.
Kim, Bumju; Wang, Tae Jun; Li, Qingyun; Nam, Jutaek; Hwang, Sekyu; Chung, Euiheon; Kim, Sungjee; Kim, Ki Hean
2013-08-01
A combined two-photon microscopy (TPM) and angiographic optical coherence tomography (OCT) is developed, which can provide molecular, cellular, structural, and vascular information of tissue specimens in vivo. This combined system is implemented by adding an OCT vasculature visualization method to the previous combined TPM and OCT, and then is applied to in vivo tissue imaging. Two animal models, a mouse brain cranial window model and a mouse ear cancer model, are used. Both molecular, cellular information at local regions of tissues, and structural, vascular information at relatively larger regions are visualized in the same sections. In vivo tissue microenvironments are better elucidated by the combined TPM and angiographic OCT.
Coherent thermal conductance of 1-D photonic crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tschikin, Maria; Ben-Abdallah, Philippe; Biehs, Svend-Age
2012-10-01
We present an exact calculation of coherent thermal conductance in 1-D multilayer photonic crystals using the S-matrix method. In particular, we study the thermal conductance in a bilayer structure of Si/vacuum or Al2O3/vacuum slabs by means of the exact radiative heat flux expression. Based on the results obtained for the Al2O3/vacuum structure we show by comparison with previous works that the material losses and (localized) surface modes supported by the inner layers play a fundamental role and cannot be omitted in the definition of thermal conductance. Our results could have significant implications in the conception of efficient thermal barriers.
Broadband illumination of superconducting pair breaking photon detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guruswamy, T.; Goldie, D. J.; Withington, S.
2016-04-01
Understanding the detailed behaviour of superconducting pair breaking photon detectors such as Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs) requires knowledge of the nonequilibrium quasiparticle energy distributions. We have previously calculated the steady state distributions resulting from uniform absorption of monochromatic sub gap and above gap frequency radiation by thin films. In this work, we use the same methods to calculate the effect of illumination by broadband sources, such as thermal radiation from astrophysical phenomena or from the readout system. Absorption of photons at multiple above gap frequencies is shown to leave unchanged the structure of the quasiparticle energy distribution close to the superconducting gap. Hence for typical absorbed powers, we find the effects of absorption of broadband pair breaking radiation can simply be considered as the sum of the effects of absorption of many monochromatic sources. Distribution averaged quantities, like quasiparticle generation efficiency η, match exactly a weighted average over the bandwidth of the source of calculations assuming a monochromatic source. For sub gap frequencies, however, distributing the absorbed power across multiple frequencies does change the low energy quasiparticle distribution. For moderate and high absorbed powers, this results in a significantly larger η-a higher number of excess quasiparticles for a broadband source compared to a monochromatic source of equal total absorbed power. Typically in KIDs the microwave power absorbed has a very narrow bandwidth, but in devices with broad resonance characteristics (low quality factors), this increase in η may be measurable.
Photon pair generation in multimode optical fibers via intermodal phase matching
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pourbeyram, Hamed; Mafi, Arash
2016-08-01
We present a detailed study of photon pair generation in a multimode optical fiber via nonlinear four-wave mixing and intermodal phase matching. We show that in multimode optical fibers, it is possible to generate correlated photon pairs in different fiber modes with large spectral shifts from the pump wavelength, such that the photon pairs are immune to contamination from spontaneous Raman scattering and residual pump photons. We also show that it is possible to generate factorable two-photon states exhibiting minimal spectral correlations between the photon pair components in conventional multimode fibers using commonly available pump lasers. It is also possible to simultaneously generate multiple factorable states from different FWM processes in the same fiber and over a wide range of visible spectrum by varying the pump wavelength without affecting the factorability of the states. Therefore, photon pair generation in multimode optical fibers exhibits considerable potential for producing state engineered photons for quantum communications and quantum information processing applications.
A fully photonics-based coherent radar system.
Ghelfi, Paolo; Laghezza, Francesco; Scotti, Filippo; Serafino, Giovanni; Capria, Amerigo; Pinna, Sergio; Onori, Daniel; Porzi, Claudio; Scaffardi, Mirco; Malacarne, Antonio; Vercesi, Valeria; Lazzeri, Emma; Berizzi, Fabrizio; Bogoni, Antonella
2014-03-20
The next generation of radar (radio detection and ranging) systems needs to be based on software-defined radio to adapt to variable environments, with higher carrier frequencies for smaller antennas and broadened bandwidth for increased resolution. Today's digital microwave components (synthesizers and analogue-to-digital converters) suffer from limited bandwidth with high noise at increasing frequencies, so that fully digital radar systems can work up to only a few gigahertz, and noisy analogue up- and downconversions are necessary for higher frequencies. In contrast, photonics provide high precision and ultrawide bandwidth, allowing both the flexible generation of extremely stable radio-frequency signals with arbitrary waveforms up to millimetre waves, and the detection of such signals and their precise direct digitization without downconversion. Until now, the photonics-based generation and detection of radio-frequency signals have been studied separately and have not been tested in a radar system. Here we present the development and the field trial results of a fully photonics-based coherent radar demonstrator carried out within the project PHODIR. The proposed architecture exploits a single pulsed laser for generating tunable radar signals and receiving their echoes, avoiding radio-frequency up- and downconversion and guaranteeing both the software-defined approach and high resolution. Its performance exceeds state-of-the-art electronics at carrier frequencies above two gigahertz, and the detection of non-cooperating aeroplanes confirms the effectiveness and expected precision of the system. PMID:24646997
A fully photonics-based coherent radar system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghelfi, Paolo; Laghezza, Francesco; Scotti, Filippo; Serafino, Giovanni; Capria, Amerigo; Pinna, Sergio; Onori, Daniel; Porzi, Claudio; Scaffardi, Mirco; Malacarne, Antonio; Vercesi, Valeria; Lazzeri, Emma; Berizzi, Fabrizio; Bogoni, Antonella
2014-03-01
The next generation of radar (radio detection and ranging) systems needs to be based on software-defined radio to adapt to variable environments, with higher carrier frequencies for smaller antennas and broadened bandwidth for increased resolution. Today's digital microwave components (synthesizers and analogue-to-digital converters) suffer from limited bandwidth with high noise at increasing frequencies, so that fully digital radar systems can work up to only a few gigahertz, and noisy analogue up- and downconversions are necessary for higher frequencies. In contrast, photonics provide high precision and ultrawide bandwidth, allowing both the flexible generation of extremely stable radio-frequency signals with arbitrary waveforms up to millimetre waves, and the detection of such signals and their precise direct digitization without downconversion. Until now, the photonics-based generation and detection of radio-frequency signals have been studied separately and have not been tested in a radar system. Here we present the development and the field trial results of a fully photonics-based coherent radar demonstrator carried out within the project PHODIR. The proposed architecture exploits a single pulsed laser for generating tunable radar signals and receiving their echoes, avoiding radio-frequency up- and downconversion and guaranteeing both the software-defined approach and high resolution. Its performance exceeds state-of-the-art electronics at carrier frequencies above two gigahertz, and the detection of non-cooperating aeroplanes confirms the effectiveness and expected precision of the system.
The photon pair source that survived a rocket explosion.
Tang, Zhongkan; Chandrasekara, Rakhitha; Tan, Yue Chuan; Cheng, Cliff; Durak, Kadir; Ling, Alexander
2016-01-01
We report on the performance of a compact photon pair source that was recovered intact from a failed space launch. The source had been embedded in a nanosatellite and was designed to perform pathfinder experiments leading to global quantum communication networks using spacecraft. Despite the launch vehicle explosion soon after takeoff, the nanosatellite was successfully retrieved from the accident site and the source within it was found to be fully operational. We describe the assembly technique for the rugged source. Post-recovery data is compared to baseline measurements collected before the launch attempt and no degradation in brightness or polarization correlation was observed. The survival of the source through an extreme environment provides strong evidence that it is possible to engineer rugged quantum optical systems. PMID:27161541
The photon pair source that survived a rocket explosion
Tang, Zhongkan; Chandrasekara, Rakhitha; Tan, Yue Chuan; Cheng, Cliff; Durak, Kadir; Ling, Alexander
2016-01-01
We report on the performance of a compact photon pair source that was recovered intact from a failed space launch. The source had been embedded in a nanosatellite and was designed to perform pathfinder experiments leading to global quantum communication networks using spacecraft. Despite the launch vehicle explosion soon after takeoff, the nanosatellite was successfully retrieved from the accident site and the source within it was found to be fully operational. We describe the assembly technique for the rugged source. Post-recovery data is compared to baseline measurements collected before the launch attempt and no degradation in brightness or polarization correlation was observed. The survival of the source through an extreme environment provides strong evidence that it is possible to engineer rugged quantum optical systems. PMID:27161541
The photon pair source that survived a rocket explosion.
Tang, Zhongkan; Chandrasekara, Rakhitha; Tan, Yue Chuan; Cheng, Cliff; Durak, Kadir; Ling, Alexander
2016-05-10
We report on the performance of a compact photon pair source that was recovered intact from a failed space launch. The source had been embedded in a nanosatellite and was designed to perform pathfinder experiments leading to global quantum communication networks using spacecraft. Despite the launch vehicle explosion soon after takeoff, the nanosatellite was successfully retrieved from the accident site and the source within it was found to be fully operational. We describe the assembly technique for the rugged source. Post-recovery data is compared to baseline measurements collected before the launch attempt and no degradation in brightness or polarization correlation was observed. The survival of the source through an extreme environment provides strong evidence that it is possible to engineer rugged quantum optical systems.
The photon pair source that survived a rocket explosion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Zhongkan; Chandrasekara, Rakhitha; Tan, Yue Chuan; Cheng, Cliff; Durak, Kadir; Ling, Alexander
2016-05-01
We report on the performance of a compact photon pair source that was recovered intact from a failed space launch. The source had been embedded in a nanosatellite and was designed to perform pathfinder experiments leading to global quantum communication networks using spacecraft. Despite the launch vehicle explosion soon after takeoff, the nanosatellite was successfully retrieved from the accident site and the source within it was found to be fully operational. We describe the assembly technique for the rugged source. Post-recovery data is compared to baseline measurements collected before the launch attempt and no degradation in brightness or polarization correlation was observed. The survival of the source through an extreme environment provides strong evidence that it is possible to engineer rugged quantum optical systems.
Single spontaneous photon as a coherent beamsplitter for an atomic matter-wave
Tomkovič, Jiří; Welte, Joachim; Oberthaler, Markus K.; Schreiber, Michael; Kiffner, Martin; Schmiedmayer, Jörg
2014-12-04
In free space the spontaneous emission of a single photon destroys motional coherence. Close to a mirror surface the reflection erases the which-path information and the single emitted photon can be regarded as a coherent beam splitter for an atomic matter-wavewhich can be verified by atom interferometry. Our experiment is a realization of the recoiling slit Gedanken experiment by Einstein.
Tuning Locality of Pair Coherence in Graphene-based Andreev Interferometers
Kim, Minsoo; Jeong, Dongchan; Lee, Gil-Ho; Shin, Yun-Sok; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Lee, Hu-Jong
2015-01-01
We report on gate-tuned locality of superconductivity-induced phase-coherent magnetoconductance oscillations in a graphene-based Andreev interferometer, consisting of a T-shaped graphene bar in contact with a superconducting Al loop. The conductance oscillations arose from the flux change through the superconducting Al loop, with gate-dependent Fraunhofer-type modulation of the envelope. We confirm a transitional change in the character of the pair coherence, between local and nonlocal, in the same device as the effective length-to-width ratio of the device was modulated by tuning the pair-coherence length ξT in the graphene layer. PMID:25737106
Ikuta, Rikizo; Kato, Hiroshi; Kusaka, Yoshiaki; Yamamoto, Takashi; Imoto, Nobuyuki; Miki, Shigehito; Yamashita, Taro; Terai, Hirotaka; Wang, Zhen; Fujiwara, Mikio; Sasaki, Masahide; Koashi, Masato
2014-12-04
We experimentally demonstrate a high-fidelity visible-to-telecommunicationwavelength conversion of a photon by using a solid-state-based difference frequency generation. In the experiment, one half of a pico-second visible entangled photon pair at 780 nm is converted to a 1522-nm photon. Using superconducting single-photon detectors with low dark count rates and small timing jitters, we observed a fidelity of 0.93±0.04 after the wavelength conversion.
Geometric phase and entanglement of Raman photon pairs in the presence of photonic band gap
Berrada, K.; Ooi, C. H. Raymond; Abdel-Khalek, S.
2015-03-28
Robustness of the geometric phase (GP) with respect to different noise effects is a basic condition for an effective quantum computation. Here, we propose a useful quantum system with real physical parameters by studying the GP of a pair of Stokes and anti-Stokes photons, involving Raman emission processes with and without photonic band gap (PBG) effect. We show that the properties of GP are very sensitive to the change of the Rabi frequency and time, exhibiting collapse phenomenon as the time becomes significantly large. The system allows us to obtain a state which remains with zero GP for longer times. This result plays a significant role to enhance the stabilization and control of the system dynamics. Finally, we investigate the nonlocal correlation (entanglement) between the pair photons by taking into account the effect of different parameters. An interesting correlation between the GP and entanglement is observed showing that the PBG stabilizes the fluctuations in the system and makes the entanglement more robust against the change of time and frequency.
Higgs boson pair production at a photon-photon collision in the two Higgs doublet model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asakawa, Eri; Harada, Daisuke; Kanemura, Shinya; Okada, Yasuhiro; Tsumura, Koji
2009-03-01
We calculate the cross section of Higgs boson pair production at a photon collider in the two Higgs doublet model. We focus on the scenario in which the lightest CP even Higgs boson (h) has the Standard Model like couplings to the gauge bosons. We take into account the one-loop correction to the hhh coupling as well as additional one-loop diagrams due to charged Higgs bosons to the γγ → hh helicity amplitudes. It is found that the full cross section can be enhanced by both these effects to a considerable level. We discuss the impact of these corrections on the hhh coupling measurement at the photon collider.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kirsebom, K.; Kononets, Yu. V.; Mikkelsen, U.; Møller, S. P.; Uggerhøj, E.; Worm, T.; Biino, C.; Elsener, K.; Ballestrero, S.; Sona, P.; Connell, S. H.; Sellschop, J. P. F.; Vilakazi, Z. Z.; Apyan, A.; Avakian, R. O.; Ispirian, K.
1998-02-01
Experimental results for pair production by 20-150 GeV photons in a Ge crystal cooled to 100 K are presented. The results include total and differential enhancements for incidence of the photons along the (1 1 0) plane with angles 0-4.5 mrad to the <1 1 0> axis. For the first time, a comparison can be made with theoretical results which for incidence along the plane predict pronounced structural changes of a resonance type in the pair production yield as a function of angle to the axis. These changes originate from the coherent interaction with the strong field of the atomic strings in the crystal. Furthermore, results for pair production by 5-55 GeV photons in W and Ir crystals at temperatures between 100 and 300 K are presented. These results are for total enhancements with photons incident along the strongest axes in these materials, i.e. the <1 1 1> axis in W and the <1 1 0> axis in Ir. A clear disagreement with theoretical curves calls for improved calculations.
Conditional production of superpositions of coherent states with inefficient photon detection
Lund, A.P.; Jeong, H.; Ralph, T.C.; Kim, M.S.
2004-08-01
It is shown that a linear superposition of two macroscopically distinguishable optical coherent states can be generated using a single photon source and simple all-optical operations. Weak squeezing on a single photon, beam mixing with an auxiliary coherent state, and photon detecting with imperfect threshold detectors are enough to generate a coherent state superposition in a free propagating optical field with a large coherent amplitude ({alpha}>2) and high fidelity (F>0.99). In contrast to all previous schemes to generate such a state, our scheme does not need photon number resolving measurements nor Kerr-type nonlinear interactions. Furthermore, it is robust to detection inefficiency and exhibits some resilience to photon production inefficiency.
Position-momentum-entangled photon pairs in nonlinear waveguides and transmission lines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sherkunov, Y.; Whittaker, David M.; Fal'ko, Vladimir
2016-04-01
We analyze the correlation properties of light in nonlinear waveguides and transmission lines, predict the position-momentum realization of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox for photon pairs in Kerr-type nonlinear photonic circuits, and we show how two-photon entangled states can be generated and detected.
Coherent manipulation of a solid-state artificial atom with few photons.
Giesz, V; Somaschi, N; Hornecker, G; Grange, T; Reznychenko, B; De Santis, L; Demory, J; Gomez, C; Sagnes, I; Lemaître, A; Krebs, O; Lanzillotti-Kimura, N D; Lanco, L; Auffeves, A; Senellart, P
2016-06-17
In a quantum network based on atoms and photons, a single atom should control the photon state and, reciprocally, a single photon should allow the coherent manipulation of the atom. Both operations require controlling the atom environment and developing efficient atom-photon interfaces, for instance by coupling the natural or artificial atom to cavities. So far, much attention has been drown on manipulating the light field with atomic transitions, recently at the few-photon limit. Here we report on the reciprocal operation and demonstrate the coherent manipulation of an artificial atom by few photons. We study a quantum dot-cavity system with a record cooperativity of 13. Incident photons interact with the atom with probability 0.95, which radiates back in the cavity mode with probability 0.96. Inversion of the atomic transition is achieved for 3.8 photons on average, showing that our artificial atom performs as if fully isolated from the solid-state environment.
The Pair Beam Production Spectrum from Photon-Photon Annihilation in Cosmic Voids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schlickeiser, R.; Elyiv, A.; Ibscher, D.; Miniati, F.
2012-10-01
Highly beamed relativistic e ±-pair energy distributions result in double photon collisions of the beamed gamma rays from TeV blazars at cosmological distances with the isotropically distributed extragalactic background light (EBL) in the intergalactic medium. The typical energies k 0 ~= 10-7 in units of mec 2 of the EBL are more than 10 orders of magnitude smaller than the observed gamma-ray energies k 1 >= 107. Using the limit k 0 Lt k 1, we demonstrate that the angular distribution of the generated pairs in the lab frame is highly beamed in the direction of the initial gamma-ray photons. For the astrophysically important case of power-law distributions of the emitted gamma-ray beam up to the maximum energy M interacting with Wien-type N(k 0)vpropkq 0exp (- k 0/Θ) soft photon distributions with total number density N 0, we calculate analytical approximations for the electron production spectrum. For distant objects with luminosity distances dL Gt r 0 = (σ T N 0)-1 = 0.49N -1 0 Mpc (with Thomson cross section σ T ), the implied large values of the optical depth τ0 = dL /r 0 indicate that the electron production spectra differ at energies inside and outside the interval [(Θln τ0)-1, τ0/Θ], given the maximum gamma-ray energy M Gt Θ-1. In the case M Gt Θ-1, the production spectrum is strongly peaked near E ~= Θ-1, being exponentially reduced at small energies and decreasing with the steep power law vpropE -1 - p up to the maximum energy E = M - (1/2).
Sequential and coherent, optical and x-ray two-photon processes in atoms and molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mills, Jeffrey Dean
1997-09-01
Vibronic and rovibronic implementations of conventional semiclassical theories, employing a phenomenological lineshape and descriptive of the absorption of a single photon by isolated chemical particles, are used to account for the absolute magnitude of the highly structured, broadband optical absorption, emission, radiation transfer, and refractive index of high- temperature (T ≈ 2000K), rare-gas-buffered, and locally equilibrated atomic and diatomic metal vapors (Li, Na, Al, and Li/Al). The polarized, resonant, inelastic scattering of x-rays (hν /approx 2.5 keV) from the K-edges of unoriented, chlorine- and sulfur- containing molecular gases (CH3Cl, H2S, and Cl2) is also modeled by means of the fully quantum- mechanical, time-independent Kramers-Heisenberg formalism applied in electronic and vibronic resolution. This accounts for the energy, polarization, and direction dependence of the anisotropic signal, concretely treats the demise of core-excited states by Auger-electron emission within the Feshbach-Fano theory of resonance- continuum mixing, and is in general valid for resonant, nonresonant, inelastic, and 'distinguishable' elastic scattering. Unusual, coherent interference phenomena within and between vibronic and electronic channels and related novel, otherwise-forbidden nondipole features expected to arise in molecules with equivalent atomic centers and recently observed in the chlorine molecule are explored along with their implications for common conceptions of 'localized, equivalent core-hole excited states.' Transition coherence, especially as manifested within the quantum-mechanical treatment of the spectral lineshape, is shown to provide the key to unifying the present single-step interpretation of two-photon x-ray scattering with that involving a pair of successive absorption and emission transitions generally regarded as two independent single-photon processes of the type described in the first portion of the work.
Heisenberg-limited interferometry with pair coherent states and parity measurements
Gerry, Christopher C.; Mimih, Jihane
2010-07-15
After reviewing parity-measurement-based interferometry with twin Fock states, which allows for supersensitivity (Heisenberg limited) and super-resolution, we consider interferometry with two different superpositions of twin Fock states, namely, two-mode squeezed vacuum states and pair coherent states. This study is motivated by the experimental challenge of producing twin Fock states on opposite sides of a beam splitter. We find that input two-mode squeezed states, while allowing for Heisenberg-limited sensitivity, do not yield super-resolutions, whereas both are possible with input pair coherent states.
System and method for clock synchronization and position determination using entangled photon pairs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shih, Yanhua (Inventor)
2010-01-01
A system and method for clock synchronization and position determination using entangled photon pairs is provided. The present invention relies on the measurement of the second order correlation function of entangled states. Photons from an entangled photon source travel one-way to the clocks to be synchronized. By analyzing photon registration time histories generated at each clock location, the entangled states allow for high accuracy clock synchronization as well as high accuracy position determination.
Two-color ghost interference with photon pairs generated in hot atoms
Ding Dongsheng; Zhou Zhiyuan; Shi Baosen; Zou Xubo; Guo Guangcan
2012-09-15
We report on an experimental observation of a two-photon ghost interference experiment. A distinguishing feature of our experiment is that the photons are generated via a non-degenerated spontaneous four-wave mixing process in a hot atomic ensemble; therefore the photon has narrow bandwidth. Besides, there is a large difference in frequency between two photons in a pair. Our works may be important to achieve more secure, large transmission capacity long-distance quantum communication.
Qubit dephasing due to photon shot noise from coherent and thermal sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gustavsson, S.; Yan, F.; Kamal, A.; Orlando, T. P.; Oliver, W. D.; Birenbaum, J.; Sears, A.; Hover, D.; Gudmundsen, T.; Yoder, J.
We investigate qubit dephasing due to photon shot noise in a superconducting flux qubit transversally coupled to a coplanar microwave resonator. Due to the AC Stark effect, photon fluctuations in the resonator cause frequency shifts of the qubit, which in turn lead to dephasing. While this is universally understood, we have made the first quantitative spectroscopy of this noise for both thermal (i.e., residual photons from higher temperature stages) and coherent photons (residual photons from the readout and control pulses). We find that the bandwidth of the shot noise from thermal and coherent photons differ by approximately a factor of two, which we attribute to differences in the correlation time for the two noise sources. By comparing the results with noise spectra measured without any externally applied photons, we conclude that the qubit coherence times in our setup were limited by photon shot noise from thermal radiation, with an average resonator photon population of 0.006. Equipped with this knowledge, we improved the filtering for thermal noise and thereby improved the qubit coherence times by more than a factor of two, with T2 echo times approaching 100 us. From the measured T2 decay, we determine an upper bound on the residual photon population of 0.0004. This research was funded by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA) via MIT LL under Air Force Contract No. FA8721-05-C-0002.
Coherent control of the waveforms of recoilless γ-ray photons.
Vagizov, Farit; Antonov, Vladimir; Radeonychev, Y V; Shakhmuratov, R N; Kocharovskaya, Olga
2014-04-01
The concepts and ideas of coherent, nonlinear and quantum optics have been extended to photon energies in the range of 10-100 kiloelectronvolts, corresponding to soft γ-ray radiation (the term used when the radiation is produced in nuclear transitions) or, equivalently, hard X-ray radiation (the term used when the radiation is produced by electron motion). The recent experimental achievements in this energy range include the demonstration of parametric down-conversion in the Langevin regime, electromagnetically induced transparency in a cavity, the collective Lamb shift, vacuum-assisted generation of atomic coherences and single-photon revival in nuclear absorbing multilayer structures. Also, realization of single-photon coherent storage and stimulated Raman adiabatic passage were recently proposed in this regime. More related work is discussed in a recent review. However, the number of tools for the coherent manipulation of interactions between γ-ray photons and nuclear ensembles remains limited. Here we suggest and implement an efficient method to control the waveforms of γ-ray photons coherently. In particular, we demonstrate the conversion of individual recoilless γ-ray photons into a coherent, ultrashort pulse train and into a double pulse. Our method is based on the resonant interaction of γ-ray photons with an ensemble of nuclei with a resonant transition frequency that is periodically modulated in time. The frequency modulation, which is achieved by a uniform vibration of the resonant absorber, owing to the Doppler effect, renders resonant absorption and dispersion both time dependent, allowing us to shape the waveforms of the incident γ-ray photons. We expect that this technique will lead to advances in the emerging fields of coherent and quantum γ-ray photon optics, providing a basis for the realization of γ-ray-photon/nuclear-ensemble interfaces and quantum interference effects at nuclear γ-ray transitions.
Coherent control of the waveforms of recoilless γ-ray photons.
Vagizov, Farit; Antonov, Vladimir; Radeonychev, Y V; Shakhmuratov, R N; Kocharovskaya, Olga
2014-04-01
The concepts and ideas of coherent, nonlinear and quantum optics have been extended to photon energies in the range of 10-100 kiloelectronvolts, corresponding to soft γ-ray radiation (the term used when the radiation is produced in nuclear transitions) or, equivalently, hard X-ray radiation (the term used when the radiation is produced by electron motion). The recent experimental achievements in this energy range include the demonstration of parametric down-conversion in the Langevin regime, electromagnetically induced transparency in a cavity, the collective Lamb shift, vacuum-assisted generation of atomic coherences and single-photon revival in nuclear absorbing multilayer structures. Also, realization of single-photon coherent storage and stimulated Raman adiabatic passage were recently proposed in this regime. More related work is discussed in a recent review. However, the number of tools for the coherent manipulation of interactions between γ-ray photons and nuclear ensembles remains limited. Here we suggest and implement an efficient method to control the waveforms of γ-ray photons coherently. In particular, we demonstrate the conversion of individual recoilless γ-ray photons into a coherent, ultrashort pulse train and into a double pulse. Our method is based on the resonant interaction of γ-ray photons with an ensemble of nuclei with a resonant transition frequency that is periodically modulated in time. The frequency modulation, which is achieved by a uniform vibration of the resonant absorber, owing to the Doppler effect, renders resonant absorption and dispersion both time dependent, allowing us to shape the waveforms of the incident γ-ray photons. We expect that this technique will lead to advances in the emerging fields of coherent and quantum γ-ray photon optics, providing a basis for the realization of γ-ray-photon/nuclear-ensemble interfaces and quantum interference effects at nuclear γ-ray transitions. PMID:24670656
Discrete Frequency Entangled Photon Pair Generation Based on Silicon Micro-ring Cavities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suo, Jing; Zhang, Wei; Dong, Shuai; Huang, Yidong; Peng, Jiangde
2016-10-01
In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a scheme to generate discrete frequency entangled photon pairs based on a silicon micro-ring resonator. The resonator is placed in a Sagnac fiber loop. Stimulated by two pump lights at two different resonance wavelengths of the resonator, photon pairs at another two resonance wavelengths are generated along two opposite directions in the fiber loop, by the nondegenerate spontaneous four wave mixing in the resonator. Their states are superposed and interfered at the output ports of the fiber loop to generate frequency entangled photon pairs. On the other hand, since the pump lights come from two continuous wave lasers, energy-time entanglement is an intrinsic property of the generated photon pairs. The entanglements on frequency and energy-time are demonstrated experimentally by the experiments of spatial quantum beating and Franson-type interference, respectively, showing that the silicon micro-ring resonators are ideal candidates to realize complex photonic quantum state generation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vavulin, D. N.; Sukhorukov, A. A.
2016-08-01
We present an analytical description of the process of spontaneous four-wave mixing in a cubic nonlinear fiber with linear losses. We consider the generation of photon pairs in the fiber when in the input of fiber is fed the pumping wave and single signal photon. The focus of attention is on three cases: when the signal photon propagates in the fiber without generating of biphotons; when the photon pair is generated; and when the photon is lost in the fiber. We also consider the cascade processes, but do not give them an analytical description because of their smallness. Description of the biphotons generation process we provide using the Schrodinger-type equation, and take into account the losses in the fiber through the introduction of the virtual beam splitters. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the generation of photon pairs through parametric processes.
Gao Jinwei; Bao Qianqian; Wan Rengang; Cui Cuili; Wu Jinhui
2011-05-15
We study a cold atomic sample coherently driven into the five-level triple-{Lambda} configuration for attaining a dynamically controlled triple photonic band-gap structure. Our numerical calculations show that three photonic band gaps with homogeneous reflectivities up to 92% can be induced on demand around the probe resonance by a standing-wave driving field in the presence of spontaneously generated coherence. All these photonic band gaps are severely malformed with probe reflectivities declining rapidly to very low values when spontaneously generated coherence is gradually weakened. The triple photonic band-gap structure can also be attained in a five-level chain-{Lambda} system of cold atoms in the absence of spontaneously generated coherence, which however requires two additional traveling-wave fields to couple relevant levels.
Dominey, Peter Ford; Ventre-Dominey, Jocelyne
2015-01-01
The present study investigates how sequential coherence in sentence pairs (events in sequence vs. unrelated events) affects the perceived ability to form a mental image of the sentences for both auditory and visual presentations. In addition, we investigated how the ease of event imagery affected online comprehension (word reading times) in the case of sequentially coherent and incoherent sentence pairs. Two groups of comprehenders were identified based on their self-reported ability to form vivid mental images of described events. Imageability ratings were higher and faster for pairs of sentences that described events in coherent sequences rather than non-sequential events, especially for high imagers. Furthermore, reading times on individual words suggested different comprehension patterns with respect to sequence coherence for the two groups of imagers, with high imagers activating richer mental images earlier than low imagers. The present results offer a novel link between research on imagery and discourse coherence, with specific contributions to our understanding of comprehension patterns for high and low imagers. PMID:26383115
Leo, François; Gorza, Simon-Pierre; Coen, Stéphane; Kuyken, Bart; Roelkens, Gunther
2015-01-01
We demonstrate a fully coherent supercontinuum spectrum spanning 500 nm from a silicon-on-insulator photonic wire waveguide pumped at 1575 nm wavelength. An excellent agreement with numerical simulations is reported. The simulations also show that a high level of two-photon absorption can essentially enforce the coherence of the spectral broadening process irrespective of the pump pulse duration.
Coherent perfect absorption in deeply subwavelength films in the single-photon regime.
Roger, Thomas; Vezzoli, Stefano; Bolduc, Eliot; Valente, Joao; Heitz, Julius J F; Jeffers, John; Soci, Cesare; Leach, Jonathan; Couteau, Christophe; Zheludev, Nikolay I; Faccio, Daniele
2015-05-05
The technologies of heating, photovoltaics, water photocatalysis and artificial photosynthesis depend on the absorption of light and novel approaches such as coherent absorption from a standing wave promise total dissipation of energy. Extending the control of absorption down to very low light levels and eventually to the single-photon regime is of great interest and yet remains largely unexplored. Here we demonstrate the coherent absorption of single photons in a deeply subwavelength 50% absorber. We show that while the absorption of photons from a travelling wave is probabilistic, standing wave absorption can be observed deterministically, with nearly unitary probability of coupling a photon into a mode of the material, for example, a localized plasmon when this is a metamaterial excited at the plasmon resonance. These results bring a better understanding of the coherent absorption process, which is of central importance for light harvesting, detection, sensing and photonic data processing applications.
Coherent perfect absorption in deeply subwavelength films in the single-photon regime
Roger, Thomas; Vezzoli, Stefano; Bolduc, Eliot; Valente, Joao; Heitz, Julius J. F.; Jeffers, John; Soci, Cesare; Leach, Jonathan; Couteau, Christophe; Zheludev, Nikolay I.; Faccio, Daniele
2015-01-01
The technologies of heating, photovoltaics, water photocatalysis and artificial photosynthesis depend on the absorption of light and novel approaches such as coherent absorption from a standing wave promise total dissipation of energy. Extending the control of absorption down to very low light levels and eventually to the single-photon regime is of great interest and yet remains largely unexplored. Here we demonstrate the coherent absorption of single photons in a deeply subwavelength 50% absorber. We show that while the absorption of photons from a travelling wave is probabilistic, standing wave absorption can be observed deterministically, with nearly unitary probability of coupling a photon into a mode of the material, for example, a localized plasmon when this is a metamaterial excited at the plasmon resonance. These results bring a better understanding of the coherent absorption process, which is of central importance for light harvesting, detection, sensing and photonic data processing applications. PMID:25991584
Okano, Masayuki; Lim, Hwan Hong; Okamoto, Ryo; Nishizawa, Norihiko; Kurimura, Sunao; Takeuchi, Shigeki
2015-01-01
Quantum information technologies harness the intrinsic nature of quantum theory to beat the limitations of the classical methods for information processing and communication. Recently, the application of quantum features to metrology has attracted much attention. Quantum optical coherence tomography (QOCT), which utilizes two-photon interference between entangled photon pairs, is a promising approach to overcome the problem with optical coherence tomography (OCT): As the resolution of OCT becomes higher, degradation of the resolution due to dispersion within the medium becomes more critical. Here we report on the realization of 0.54 μm resolution two-photon interference, which surpasses the current record resolution 0.75 μm of low-coherence interference for OCT. In addition, the resolution for QOCT showed almost no change against the dispersion of a 1 mm thickness of water inserted in the optical path, whereas the resolution for OCT dramatically degrades. For this experiment, a highly-efficient chirped quasi-phase-matched lithium tantalate device was developed using a novel 'nano-electrode-poling' technique. The results presented here represent a breakthrough for the realization of quantum protocols, including QOCT, quantum clock synchronization, and more. Our work will open up possibilities for medical and biological applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okano, Masayuki; Lim, Hwan Hong; Okamoto, Ryo; Nishizawa, Norihiko; Kurimura, Sunao; Takeuchi, Shigeki
2015-12-01
Quantum information technologies harness the intrinsic nature of quantum theory to beat the limitations of the classical methods for information processing and communication. Recently, the application of quantum features to metrology has attracted much attention. Quantum optical coherence tomography (QOCT), which utilizes two-photon interference between entangled photon pairs, is a promising approach to overcome the problem with optical coherence tomography (OCT): As the resolution of OCT becomes higher, degradation of the resolution due to dispersion within the medium becomes more critical. Here we report on the realization of 0.54 μm resolution two-photon interference, which surpasses the current record resolution 0.75 μm of low-coherence interference for OCT. In addition, the resolution for QOCT showed almost no change against the dispersion of a 1 mm thickness of water inserted in the optical path, whereas the resolution for OCT dramatically degrades. For this experiment, a highly-efficient chirped quasi-phase-matched lithium tantalate device was developed using a novel ‘nano-electrode-poling’ technique. The results presented here represent a breakthrough for the realization of quantum protocols, including QOCT, quantum clock synchronization, and more. Our work will open up possibilities for medical and biological applications
THE PAIR BEAM PRODUCTION SPECTRUM FROM PHOTON-PHOTON ANNIHILATION IN COSMIC VOIDS
Schlickeiser, R.; Ibscher, D.; Elyiv, A.; Miniati, F. E-mail: ibscher@tp4.rub.de E-mail: fm@phys.ethz.ch
2012-10-20
Highly beamed relativistic e {sup {+-}}-pair energy distributions result in double photon collisions of the beamed gamma rays from TeV blazars at cosmological distances with the isotropically distributed extragalactic background light (EBL) in the intergalactic medium. The typical energies k {sub 0} {approx_equal} 10{sup -7} in units of m{sub e}c {sup 2} of the EBL are more than 10 orders of magnitude smaller than the observed gamma-ray energies k {sub 1} {>=} 10{sup 7}. Using the limit k {sub 0} << k {sub 1}, we demonstrate that the angular distribution of the generated pairs in the lab frame is highly beamed in the direction of the initial gamma-ray photons. For the astrophysically important case of power-law distributions of the emitted gamma-ray beam up to the maximum energy M interacting with Wien-type N(k {sub 0}){proportional_to}k{sup q} {sub 0}exp (- k {sub 0}/{Theta}) soft photon distributions with total number density N {sub 0}, we calculate analytical approximations for the electron production spectrum. For distant objects with luminosity distances d{sub L} >> r {sub 0} = ({sigma} {sub T} N {sub 0}){sup -1} = 0.49N {sup -1} {sub 0} Mpc (with Thomson cross section {sigma} {sub T}), the implied large values of the optical depth {tau}{sub 0} = d{sub L} /r {sub 0} indicate that the electron production spectra differ at energies inside and outside the interval [({Theta}ln {tau}{sub 0}){sup -1}, {tau}{sub 0}/{Theta}], given the maximum gamma-ray energy M >> {Theta}{sup -1}. In the case M >> {Theta}{sup -1}, the production spectrum is strongly peaked near E {approx_equal} {Theta}{sup -1}, being exponentially reduced at small energies and decreasing with the steep power law {proportional_to}E {sup -1-p} up to the maximum energy E = M - (1/2).
Realization of non-linear coherent states by photonic lattices
Dehdashti, Shahram Li, Rujiang; Chen, Hongsheng; Liu, Jiarui Yu, Faxin
2015-06-15
In this paper, first, by introducing Holstein-Primakoff representation of α-deformed algebra, we achieve the associated non-linear coherent states, including su(2) and su(1, 1) coherent states. Second, by using waveguide lattices with specific coupling coefficients between neighbouring channels, we generate these non-linear coherent states. In the case of positive values of α, we indicate that the Hilbert size space is finite; therefore, we construct this coherent state with finite channels of waveguide lattices. Finally, we study the field distribution behaviours of these coherent states, by using Mandel Q parameter.
The generalized pair coherent states and the corresponding entangled coherent states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chung, Won Sang
2015-02-01
In this paper, we consider the generalized Schrödinger cat states. Using these states, we obtain the corresponding quasi-Bell states and the reduced density operator. For these quasi-Bell states, we investigate the non-classical effects such as oscillatory photon statistics, sub-Poissonian property and violation of the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality.
On-chip coherent conversion of photonic quantum entanglement between different degrees of freedom.
Feng, Lan-Tian; Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Ming; Xiong, Xiao; Yu, Le; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guo-Ping; Dai, Dao-Xin; Ren, Xi-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can
2016-01-01
In the quantum world, a single particle can have various degrees of freedom to encode quantum information. Controlling multiple degrees of freedom simultaneously is necessary to describe a particle fully and, therefore, to use it more efficiently. Here we introduce the transverse waveguide-mode degree of freedom to quantum photonic integrated circuits, and demonstrate the coherent conversion of a photonic quantum state between path, polarization and transverse waveguide-mode degrees of freedom on a single chip. The preservation of quantum coherence in these conversion processes is proven by single-photon and two-photon quantum interference using a fibre beam splitter or on-chip beam splitters. These results provide us with the ability to control and convert multiple degrees of freedom of photons for quantum photonic integrated circuit-based quantum information process. PMID:27321821
On-chip coherent conversion of photonic quantum entanglement between different degrees of freedom
Feng, Lan-Tian; Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Ming; Xiong, Xiao; Yu, Le; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guo-Ping; Dai, Dao-Xin; Ren, Xi-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can
2016-01-01
In the quantum world, a single particle can have various degrees of freedom to encode quantum information. Controlling multiple degrees of freedom simultaneously is necessary to describe a particle fully and, therefore, to use it more efficiently. Here we introduce the transverse waveguide-mode degree of freedom to quantum photonic integrated circuits, and demonstrate the coherent conversion of a photonic quantum state between path, polarization and transverse waveguide-mode degrees of freedom on a single chip. The preservation of quantum coherence in these conversion processes is proven by single-photon and two-photon quantum interference using a fibre beam splitter or on-chip beam splitters. These results provide us with the ability to control and convert multiple degrees of freedom of photons for quantum photonic integrated circuit-based quantum information process. PMID:27321821
On-chip coherent conversion of photonic quantum entanglement between different degrees of freedom.
Feng, Lan-Tian; Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Ming; Xiong, Xiao; Yu, Le; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guo-Ping; Dai, Dao-Xin; Ren, Xi-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can
2016-06-20
In the quantum world, a single particle can have various degrees of freedom to encode quantum information. Controlling multiple degrees of freedom simultaneously is necessary to describe a particle fully and, therefore, to use it more efficiently. Here we introduce the transverse waveguide-mode degree of freedom to quantum photonic integrated circuits, and demonstrate the coherent conversion of a photonic quantum state between path, polarization and transverse waveguide-mode degrees of freedom on a single chip. The preservation of quantum coherence in these conversion processes is proven by single-photon and two-photon quantum interference using a fibre beam splitter or on-chip beam splitters. These results provide us with the ability to control and convert multiple degrees of freedom of photons for quantum photonic integrated circuit-based quantum information process.
Proposal for the generation of photon pairs with nonzero orbital angular momentum in a ring fiber.
Javůrek, D; Svozilík, J; Peřina, J
2014-09-22
We present a method for the generation of correlated photon pairs in desired orbital-angular-momentum states using a non-linear silica ring fiber and spontaneous parametric down-conversion. Photon-pair emission under quasi-phase-matching conditions with quantum conversion efficiency 6 × 10(-11) is found in a 1-m long fiber with a thermally induced χ(2) nonlinearity in a ring-shaped core.
Jeong, H.; Lund, A.P.; Ralph, T.C.
2005-07-15
We develop an all-optical scheme to generate superpositions of macroscopically distinguishable coherent states in traveling optical fields. It nondeterministically distills coherent-state superpositions (CSS's) with large amplitudes out of CSS's with small amplitudes using inefficient photon detection. The small CSS's required to produce CSS's with larger amplitudes are extremely well approximated by squeezed single photons. We discuss some remarkable features of this scheme: it effectively purifies mixed initial states emitted from inefficient single-photon sources and boosts negativity of Wigner functions of quantum states.
Double pair production by ultra-high-energy cosmic ray photons
Demidov, S. V. Kalashev, O. E.
2009-05-15
Using the CompHEP package, we provide a detailed estimate of the influence of double e{sup +}e{sup -} pair production (DPP) by photons on the propagation of ultra-high-energy electromagnetic cascades. We show that in the models where the cosmic ray photon energy reaches a few 10{sup 3} EeV, a refined DPP analysis may lead to a substantial difference in the predicted photon spectrum compared to the previous rough estimates.
Two-photon interference with continuous-wave multi-mode coherent light.
Kim, Yong-Su; Slattery, Oliver; Kuo, Paulina S; Tang, Xiao
2014-02-10
We report two-photon interference with continuous-wave multi-mode coherent light. We show that the two-photon interference, in terms of the detection time difference, reveals two-photon beating fringes with the visibility V = 0.5. While scanning the optical delay of the interferometer, Hong-Ou-Mandel dips or peaks are measured depending on the chosen detection time difference. The HOM dips/peaks are repeated when the optical delay and the first-order coherence revival period of the multi-mode coherent light are the same. These results help to understand the nature of two-photon interference and also can be useful for quantum information science.
Dudley, John M; Coen, Stéphane
2002-07-01
Numerical simulations have been used in studies of the temporal and spectral features of supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal and tapered optical fibers. In particular, an ensemble average over multiple simulations performed with random quantum noise on the input pulse allows the coherence of the supercontinuum to be quantified in terms of the dependence of the degree of first-order coherence on the wavelength. The coherence is shown to depend strongly on the input pulse's duration and wavelength, and optimal conditions for the generation of coherent supercontinua are discussed. PMID:18026400
Tian, Y. X.; Jin, X. L. Yan, W. Z.; Li, J. Q.; Li, B.; Yu, J. Q.
2015-12-15
The model of photon and pair production in strong field quantum electrodynamics is implemented into our 1D3V particle-in-cell code with Monte Carlo algorithm. Using this code, the evolution of the particles in ultrahigh intensity laser (∼10{sup 23} W/cm{sup 2}) interaction with aluminum foil target is observed. Four different initial plasma profiles are considered in the simulations. The effects of initial plasma profiles on photon and pair production, energy spectra, and energy evolution are analyzed. The results imply that one can set an optimal initial plasma profile to obtain the desired photon distributions.
Confinement and precession of vortex pairs in coherently coupled Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tylutki, Marek; Pitaevskii, Lev P.; Recati, Alessio; Stringari, Sandro
2016-04-01
The dynamic behavior of vortex pairs in two-component coherently (Rabi) coupled Bose-Einstein condensates is investigated in the presence of harmonic trapping. We discuss the role of the surface tension associated with the domain wall connecting two vortices in condensates of atoms occupying different spin states and its effect on the precession of the vortex pair. The results, based on the numerical solution of the Gross-Pitaevskii equations, are compared with the predictions of an analytical macroscopic model and are discussed as a function of the size of the pair, the Rabi coupling, and the intercomponent interaction. We show that the increase of the Rabi coupling results in the disintegration of the domain wall into smaller pieces, connecting vortices of newly created vortex pairs. The resulting scenario is the analog of quark confinement and string breaking in quantum chromodynamics.
Power-efficient production of photon pairs in a tapered chalcogenide microwire
Meyer-Scott, Evan Dot, Audrey; Ahmad, Raja; Li, Lizhu; Rochette, Martin; Jennewein, Thomas
2015-02-23
Using tapered fibers of As{sub 2}Se{sub 3} chalcogenide glass, we produce photon pairs at telecommunication wavelengths with low pump powers. We found maximum coincidences-to-accidentals ratios of 2.13 ± 0.07 for degenerate pumping with 3.2 μW average power, and 1.33 ± 0.03 for non-degenerate pumping with 1.0 μW and 1.5 μW average power of the two pumps. Our results show that the ultrahigh nonlinearity in these microwires could allow single-photon pumping to produce photon pairs, enabling the production of large entangled states, heralding of single photons after lossy transmission, and photonic quantum information processing with nonlinear optics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Türkpençe, Deniz; Müstecaplıoǧlu, Özgür E.
2016-01-01
We investigate scaling of work and efficiency of a photonic Carnot engine with a number of quantum coherent resources. Specifically, we consider a generalization of the "phaseonium fuel" for the photonic Carnot engine, which was first introduced as a three-level atom with two lower states in a quantum coherent superposition by M. O. Scully, M. Suhail Zubairy, G. S. Agarwal, and H. Walther [Science 299, 862 (2003), 10.1126/science.1078955], to the case of N +1 level atoms with N coherent lower levels. We take into account atomic relaxation and dephasing as well as the cavity loss and derive a coarse-grained master equation to evaluate the work and efficiency analytically. Analytical results are verified by microscopic numerical examination of the thermalization dynamics. We find that efficiency and work scale quadratically with the number of quantum coherent levels. Quantum coherence boost to the specific energy (work output per unit mass of the resource) is a profound fundamental difference of quantum fuel from classical resources. We consider typical modern resonator set ups and conclude that multilevel phaseonium fuel can be utilized to overcome the decoherence in available systems. Preparation of the atomic coherences and the associated cost of coherence are analyzed and the engine operation within the bounds of the second law is verified. Our results bring the photonic Carnot engines much closer to the capabilities of current resonator technologies.
Türkpençe, Deniz; Müstecaplıoğlu, Özgür E
2016-01-01
We investigate scaling of work and efficiency of a photonic Carnot engine with a number of quantum coherent resources. Specifically, we consider a generalization of the "phaseonium fuel" for the photonic Carnot engine, which was first introduced as a three-level atom with two lower states in a quantum coherent superposition by M. O. Scully, M. Suhail Zubairy, G. S. Agarwal, and H. Walther [Science 299, 862 (2003)SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1078955], to the case of N+1 level atoms with N coherent lower levels. We take into account atomic relaxation and dephasing as well as the cavity loss and derive a coarse-grained master equation to evaluate the work and efficiency analytically. Analytical results are verified by microscopic numerical examination of the thermalization dynamics. We find that efficiency and work scale quadratically with the number of quantum coherent levels. Quantum coherence boost to the specific energy (work output per unit mass of the resource) is a profound fundamental difference of quantum fuel from classical resources. We consider typical modern resonator set ups and conclude that multilevel phaseonium fuel can be utilized to overcome the decoherence in available systems. Preparation of the atomic coherences and the associated cost of coherence are analyzed and the engine operation within the bounds of the second law is verified. Our results bring the photonic Carnot engines much closer to the capabilities of current resonator technologies.
Resonant generation of an electron–positron pair by two photons to excited Landau levels
Diachenko, M. M. Novak, O. P.; Kholodov, R. I.
2015-11-15
We consider the resonant generation of an electron–positron pair by two polarized photons to arbitrarily low Landau levels. The resonance occurs when the energy of one photon exceeds the one-photon generation threshold, and the energy of the other photon is multiple to the spacing between the levels. The cross section of the process is determined taking into account the spins of particles. The order of magnitude of the cross section is the highest when the magnetic moments of the particles are oriented along the magnetic field.
Chiral nucleon-Δ using the coherent-pion pair approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sayed Aly, Tarek; McNeil, J. A.
1996-10-01
Despite significant strides in the numerical assault on QCD, this candidate theory of the strong interactions remains a computational challenge and models incorporating its important symmetries remain attractive alternatives for gaining insight into the nucleon problem. One such class of models which does not incorporate confinement but does respect chiral symmetry is the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model and in particular its bosonized variant, the linear sigma model using quarks and mesonic degrees of freedom. About a decade ago several groups made significant progress in understanding fundamental nucleon properties using such models. In this work we re-visit one such effort undertaken by K. Goeke et al.(K. Goeke, M. Harvey, F. Grümmer, and J. N. Urbano, Phys. Rev. D37), 754 (1988). who computed nucleon and Δ properties using the so-called coherent pair approximation to treat the quantum nature of the pion field in a more realistic fashion. In rederiving their equations we have discovered some discrepancies in the treatment of the coherent pair Fock states. In this work we present alternative equations for the coherent-pair states. Numerical work to evaluate the new equations for the nucleon-Δ sector are underway.
Coherent chemical kinetics as quantum walks. I. Reaction operators for radical pairs.
Chia, A; Tan, K C; Pawela, Ł; Kurzyński, P; Paterek, T; Kaszlikowski, D
2016-03-01
Classical chemical kinetics uses rate-equation models to describe how a reaction proceeds in time. Such models are sufficient for describing state transitions in a reaction where coherences between different states do not arise, in other words, a reaction that contains only incoherent transitions. A prominent example of a reaction containing coherent transitions is the radical-pair model. The kinetics of such reactions is defined by the so-called reaction operator that determines the radical-pair state as a function of intermediate transition rates. We argue that the well-known concept of quantum walks from quantum information theory is a natural and apt framework for describing multisite chemical reactions. By composing Kraus maps that act only on two sites at a time, we show how the quantum-walk formalism can be applied to derive a reaction operator for the standard avian radical-pair reaction. Our reaction operator predicts the same recombination dephasing rate as the conventional Haberkorn model, which is consistent with recent experiments [K. Maeda et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 234309 (2013)], in contrast to previous work by Jones and Hore [J. A. Jones and P. J. Hore, Chem. Phys. Lett. 488, 90 (2010)]. The standard radical-pair reaction has conventionally been described by either a normalized density operator incorporating both the radical pair and reaction products or a trace-decreasing density operator that considers only the radical pair. We demonstrate a density operator that is both normalized and refers only to radical-pair states. Generalizations to include additional dephasing processes and an arbitrary number of sites are also discussed.
Lee, Su-Yong; Kim, Ho-Joon; Ji, Se-Wan; Nha, Hyunchul
2011-07-15
We investigate how the entanglement properties of a two-mode state can be improved by performing a coherent superposition operation ta+ra{sup {dagger}} of photon subtraction and addition, proposed by Lee and Nha [Phys. Rev. A 82, 053812 (2010)], on each mode. We show that the degree of entanglement, the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-type correlation, and the performance of quantum teleportation can be all enhanced for the output state when the coherent operation is applied to a two-mode squeezed state. The effects of the coherent operation are more prominent than those of the mere photon subtraction a and the addition a{sup {dagger}} particularly in the small-squeezing regime, whereas the optimal operation becomes the photon subtraction (case of r=0) in the large-squeezing regime.
Spatial properties of entangled photon pairs generated in nonlinear layered structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peřina, Jan, Jr.
2011-11-01
A spatial quantum model of spontaneous parametric down-conversion in nonlinear layered structures is developed expanding the interacting vectorial fields into monochromatic plane waves. A two-photon spectral amplitude depending on the signal- and idler-field frequencies and propagation directions is used to derive transverse profiles of the emitted fields as well as their spatial correlations. Intensity spatial profiles and their spatial correlations are mainly determined by the positions of transmission peaks formed in these structures with photonic bands. A method for geometry optimization of the structures with respect to efficiency of the nonlinear process is suggested. Several structures composed of GaN/AlN layers are analyzed as typical examples. They allow the generation of photon pairs correlated in several emission directions. Photon-pair generation rates increasing better than the second power of the number of layers can be reached. Also, structures efficiently generated photon pairs showing antibunching and anticoalescence can be obtained. Three reasons for splitting the correlated area in photonic-band-gap structures are revealed: zig-zag movement of photons inside the structure, spatial symmetry, and polarization-dependent properties. Also, spectral splitting can be observed in these structures.
Generating single-photon catalyzed coherent states with quantum-optical catalysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Xue-xiang; Yuan, Hong-chun
2016-07-01
We theoretically generate single-photon catalyzed coherent states (SPCCSs) by means of quantum-optical catalysis based on the beam splitter (BS) or the parametric amplifier (PA). These states are obtained in one of the BS (or PA) output channels if a coherent state and a single-photon Fock state are present in two input ports and a single photon is registered in the other output port. The success probabilities of the detection (also the normalization factors) are discussed, which is different for BS and PA catalysis. In addition, we prove that the generated states catalyzed by BS and PA devices are actually the same quantum states after analyzing photon number distribution of the SPCCSs. The quantum properties of the SPCCSs, such as sub-Poissonian distribution, anti-bunching effect, quadrature squeezing effect, and the negativity of the Wigner function are investigated in detail. The results show that the SPCCSs are non-Gaussian states with an abundance of nonclassicality.
Cavity-photon-switched coherent transient transport in a double quantum waveguide
Abdullah, Nzar Rauf Gudmundsson, Vidar; Tang, Chi-Shung; Manolescu, Andrei
2014-12-21
We study a cavity-photon-switched coherent electron transport in a symmetric double quantum waveguide. The waveguide system is weakly connected to two electron reservoirs, but strongly coupled to a single quantized photon cavity mode. A coupling window is placed between the waveguides to allow electron interference or inter-waveguide transport. The transient electron transport in the system is investigated using a quantum master equation. We present a cavity-photon tunable semiconductor quantum waveguide implementation of an inverter quantum gate, in which the output of the waveguide system may be selected via the selection of an appropriate photon number or “photon frequency” of the cavity. In addition, the importance of the photon polarization in the cavity, that is, either parallel or perpendicular to the direction of electron propagation in the waveguide system is demonstrated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy-Choudhury, Kaushik; Mann, Nishan; Manson, Ross; Hughes, Stephen
2016-06-01
Using a polaron master equation approach, we investigate the resonance fluorescence spectra from coherently driven quantum dots (QDs) coupled to an acoustic phonon bath and photonic crystal waveguides with a rich local density of photon states (LDOS). Resonance fluorescence spectra from QDs in semiconductor crystals are known to show strong signatures of electron-phonon interactions, but when coupled to a structured photonic reservoir, the QD emission properties are also determined by the frequency dependence of the LDOS of the photon reservoir. Here, we investigate the simultaneous role of coupled photon and phonon baths on the characteristic Mollow triplet spectra from a strongly driven QD. As an example structured photonic reservoir, we first study a photonic crystal coupled cavity waveguide, and find that photons and phonons have counterinteracting effects near the upper mode edge of the coupled-cavity waveguide, thus establishing the importance of their separate roles in determining the emission spectra. The general theory is developed for arbitrary photonic reservoirs and is further applied to determine the resonance fluorescence spectra from a realistic, disordered W1 photonic crystal waveguide showing important photon-phonon interaction effects that are directly relevant to emerging experiments and theoretical proposals.
Systematic study of real photon and Drell-Yan pair production in p+A (d+A) interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krelina, M.; Basso, E.; Goncalves, V. P.; Nemchik, J.; Pasechnik, R.
2016-07-01
We study nuclear effects in production of Drell-Yan pairs and direct photons in proton-nucleus collisions. For the first time, these effects are studied within the color dipole approach using the Green function formalism which naturally incorporates the color transparency and quantum coherence effects. The corresponding numerical results for the nuclear modification factor are compared with available data. Besides, we present a variety of predictions for the nuclear suppression as a function of transverse momentum pT, Feynman variable xF and invariant mass M of the lepton pair which can be verified by experiments at RHIC and LHC. We found that the nuclear suppression is caused predominantly by effects of quantum coherence (shadowing corrections) and by the effective energy loss induced by multiple initial state interactions. Whereas the former dominate at small Bjorken x2 in the target, the latter turns out to be significant at large x1 in the projectile beam and is universal at different energies and transverse momenta.
Coherent manipulation of a solid-state artificial atom with few photons
Giesz, V.; Somaschi, N.; Hornecker, G.; Grange, T.; Reznychenko, B.; De Santis, L.; Demory, J.; Gomez, C.; Sagnes, I.; Lemaître, A.; Krebs, O.; Lanzillotti-Kimura, N. D.; Lanco, L.; Auffeves, A.; Senellart, P.
2016-01-01
In a quantum network based on atoms and photons, a single atom should control the photon state and, reciprocally, a single photon should allow the coherent manipulation of the atom. Both operations require controlling the atom environment and developing efficient atom–photon interfaces, for instance by coupling the natural or artificial atom to cavities. So far, much attention has been drown on manipulating the light field with atomic transitions, recently at the few-photon limit. Here we report on the reciprocal operation and demonstrate the coherent manipulation of an artificial atom by few photons. We study a quantum dot-cavity system with a record cooperativity of 13. Incident photons interact with the atom with probability 0.95, which radiates back in the cavity mode with probability 0.96. Inversion of the atomic transition is achieved for 3.8 photons on average, showing that our artificial atom performs as if fully isolated from the solid-state environment. PMID:27312189
Quantum teleportation in the spin-orbit variables of photon pairs
Khoury, A. Z.; Milman, P.
2011-06-15
We propose a polarization to orbital angular momentum teleportation scheme using entangled photon pairs generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion. By making a joint detection of the polarization and angular momentum parity of a single photon, we are able to detect all the Bell states and perform, in principle, perfect teleportation from a discrete to a continuous system using minimal resources. The proposed protocol implementation demands experimental resources that are currently available in quantum optics laboratories.
The coherent production of (K+π0) Pairs by K+ beam on copper nuclei in OKA detector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burtovoy, V. S.
2015-12-01
The detection of coherent (K+π0) pairs was made in collisions of K+ beam with copper nuclei in the OKA detector. The number of electromagnetic and strong coherent events and the number of interference events were counted here. The difference between the electromagnetic and strong phases was also measured.
Measurement of pair-production by high energy photons in an aligned tungsten crystal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moore, R.; Parker, M. A.; Baurichter, A.; Kirsebom, K.; Medenwaldt, R.; Mikkelsen, U.; Møller, S. P.; Uggerhøj, E.; Worm, T.; Doble, N.; Elsener, K.; Ballestrero, S.; Sona, P.; Strakhovenko, V. M.; Biino, C.; Vilakazi, Z. Z.
1996-10-01
A new measurement has been made of the rate of pair-production in a 3.2 mm thick tungsten crystal, exposed to photons with energies in the range 10 to 150 GeV, for angles of incidence up to 10 mrad from the crystal axis. A strong enhancement of the pair-production rate is observed when the beam is aligned along the <100> crystal axis, as compared to a random orientation. This effect can be exploited in the NA48 CP-violation experiment by using a thin crystal rather than an amorphous material to convert photons, thus minimising the scattering of kaons in the converter.
Time-bin entangled photon pair generation from Si micro-ring resonator.
Wakabayashi, Ryota; Fujiwara, Mikio; Yoshino, Ken-Ichiro; Nambu, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Masahide; Aoki, Takao
2015-01-26
We demonstrate time-bin entanglement generation in telecom wavelength using a 7 μm radius Si micro-ring resonator pumped by a continuous wave laser. The resonator structure can enhance spontaneous four wave mixing, leading to a photon pair generation rate of about 90-100 Hz with a laser pump power of as low as -3.92 dBm (0.41 mW). We succeed in observing time-bin entanglement with the visibility over 92%. Moreover, wavelength-tunability of the entangled photon pair is demonstrated by changing the operation temperature.
The Radical Pair Mechanism and the Avian Chemical Compass: Quantum Coherence and Entanglement
Zhang, Yiteng; Kais, Sabre; Berman, Gennady Petrovich
2015-02-02
We review the spin radical pair mechanism which is a promising explanation of avian navigation. This mechanism is based on the dependence of product yields on 1) the hyperfine interaction involving electron spins and neighboring nuclear spins and 2) the intensity and orientation of the geomagnetic field. One surprising result is that even at ambient conditions quantum entanglement of electron spins can play an important role in avian magnetoreception. This review describes the general scheme of chemical reactions involving radical pairs generated from singlet and triplet precursors; the spin dynamics of the radical pairs; and the magnetic field dependence of product yields caused by the radical pair mechanism. The main part of the review includes a description of the chemical compass in birds. We review: the general properties of the avian compass; the basic scheme of the radical pair mechanism; the reaction kinetics in cryptochrome; quantum coherence and entanglement in the avian compass; and the effects of noise. We believe that the quantum avian compass can play an important role in avian navigation and can also provide the foundation for a new generation of sensitive and selective magnetic-sensing nano-devices.
Entangled Photon Pairs Produced by a Quantum Dot Strongly Coupled to a Microcavity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johne, R.; Gippius, N. A.; Pavlovic, G.; Solnyshkov, D. D.; Shelykh, I. A.; Malpuech, G.
2008-06-01
We show theoretically that entangled photon pairs can be produced on demand through the biexciton decay of a quantum dot strongly coupled to the modes of a photonic crystal. The strong coupling allows us to tune the energy of the mixed exciton-photon (polariton) eigenmodes and to overcome the natural splitting existing between the exciton states coupled with different linear polarizations of light. Polariton states are moreover well protected against dephasing due to their lifetime of ten to a hundred times shorter than that of a bare exciton. Our analysis shows that the scheme proposed is achievable with the present technology.
High heralding-efficiency of near-IR fiber coupled photon pairs for quantum technologies
Dixon, P. Ben; Murphy, Ryan; Rosenberg, Danna; Grein, Matthew E.; Stelmakh, Veronika; Bennink, Ryan S; Wong, Franco N. C.
2015-01-01
We report on the development and use of a high heralding-efficiency, single-mode-fiber coupled telecom-band source of entangled photons for quantum technology applications. The source development efforts consisted of theoretical and experimental efforts and we demonstrated a correlated-mode coupling efficiency of 97% 2%, the highest efficiency yet achieved for this type of system. We then incorporated these beneficial source development techniques in a Sagnac configured telecom-band entangled photon source that generates photon pairs entangled in both time/energy and polarization degrees of freedom. We made use of these highly desirable entangled states to investigate several promising quantum technologies.
Quantum cloning of a pair of orthogonally polarized photons with linear optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fiurášek, Jaromír; Cerf, Nicolas J.
2008-05-01
A linear optical probabilistic scheme for the optimal cloning of a pair of orthogonally polarized photons is devised, based on single- and two-photon interferences. It consists in a partial symmetrization device realized with a modified unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer, followed by two balanced beam splitters where the Hong-Ou-Mandel photon bunching occurs. This scheme has the advantage that it enables quantum cloning without the need for stimulated amplification in a nonlinear medium. It can also be modified so to make an optical two-qubit partial SWAP gate, thereby providing a potentially useful tool to linear optics quantum computing.
Fekete, Julia; Rieländer, Daniel; Cristiani, Matteo; de Riedmatten, Hugues
2013-05-31
We report on a source of ultranarrow-band photon pairs generated by widely nondegenerate cavity-enhanced spontaneous down-conversion. The source is designed to be compatible with Pr(3+) solid state quantum memories and telecommunication optical fibers, with signal and idler photons close to 606 nm and 1436 nm, respectively. Both photons have a spectral bandwidth around 2 MHz, matching the bandwidth of Pr(3+) doped quantum memories. This source is ideally suited for long distance quantum communication architectures involving solid state quantum memories.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fekete, Julia; Rieländer, Daniel; Cristiani, Matteo; de Riedmatten, Hugues
2013-05-01
We report on a source of ultranarrow-band photon pairs generated by widely nondegenerate cavity-enhanced spontaneous down-conversion. The source is designed to be compatible with Pr3+ solid state quantum memories and telecommunication optical fibers, with signal and idler photons close to 606 nm and 1436 nm, respectively. Both photons have a spectral bandwidth around 2 MHz, matching the bandwidth of Pr3+ doped quantum memories. This source is ideally suited for long distance quantum communication architectures involving solid state quantum memories.
Miao, Qiang; Zheng, Yujun
2016-01-01
In this paper, the nature of the multi-order resonance and coherent destruction of tunneling (CDT) for two-level system driven cross avoided crossing is investigated by employing the emitted photons 〈N〉 and the Mandel’s Q parameter based on the photon counting statistics. An asymmetric feature of CDT is shown in the spectrum of Mandel’s Q parameter. Also, the CDT can be employed to suppress the spontaneous decay and prolong waiting time noticeably. The photon emission pattern is of monotonicity in strong relaxation, and homogeneity in pure dephasing regime, respectively. PMID:27353375
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Otsuji, Taiichi; Sugawara, Kenta; Tamamushi, Gen; Dobroiu, Adrian; Suemitsu, Tetsuya; Ryzhii, Victor; Iwatsuki, Katsumi; Kuwano, Shigeru; Kani, Jun-ichi; Terada, Jun
2016-02-01
This paper reviews advances in sub-THz photonic frequency conversion using optoelectronic transistors for future fully coherent access network systems. Graphene-channel field effect transistors (G-FETs) and InP-based high electron mobility transistors (inP-HEMT) are experimentally examined as photonic frequency converters. Optoelectronic properties and three-terminal functionalities of the G-FETs and InP-HEMTs are exploited to perform single-chip photonic double-mixing operation over the 120 GHz wireless communication band. A single transistor can photomix the optical subcarriers to generate LO and mix down the RF data on the sub-THz carrier to the IF band.
Miao, Qiang; Zheng, Yujun
2016-01-01
In this paper, the nature of the multi-order resonance and coherent destruction of tunneling (CDT) for two-level system driven cross avoided crossing is investigated by employing the emitted photons 〈N〉 and the Mandel's Q parameter based on the photon counting statistics. An asymmetric feature of CDT is shown in the spectrum of Mandel's Q parameter. Also, the CDT can be employed to suppress the spontaneous decay and prolong waiting time noticeably. The photon emission pattern is of monotonicity in strong relaxation, and homogeneity in pure dephasing regime, respectively. PMID:27353375
Enhancing coherent transport in a photonic network using controllable decoherence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biggerstaff, Devon N.; Heilmann, René; Zecevik, Aidan A.; Gräfe, Markus; Broome, Matthew A.; Fedrizzi, Alessandro; Nolte, Stefan; Szameit, Alexander; White, Andrew G.; Kassal, Ivan
2016-04-01
Transport phenomena on a quantum scale appear in a variety of systems, ranging from photosynthetic complexes to engineered quantum devices. It has been predicted that the efficiency of coherent transport can be enhanced through dynamic interaction between the system and a noisy environment. We report an experimental simulation of environment-assisted coherent transport, using an engineered network of laser-written waveguides, with relative energies and inter-waveguide couplings tailored to yield the desired Hamiltonian. Controllable-strength decoherence is simulated by broadening the bandwidth of the input illumination, yielding a significant increase in transport efficiency relative to the narrowband case. We show integrated optics to be suitable for simulating specific target Hamiltonians as well as open quantum systems with controllable loss and decoherence.
Enhancing coherent transport in a photonic network using controllable decoherence.
Biggerstaff, Devon N; Heilmann, René; Zecevik, Aidan A; Gräfe, Markus; Broome, Matthew A; Fedrizzi, Alessandro; Nolte, Stefan; Szameit, Alexander; White, Andrew G; Kassal, Ivan
2016-01-01
Transport phenomena on a quantum scale appear in a variety of systems, ranging from photosynthetic complexes to engineered quantum devices. It has been predicted that the efficiency of coherent transport can be enhanced through dynamic interaction between the system and a noisy environment. We report an experimental simulation of environment-assisted coherent transport, using an engineered network of laser-written waveguides, with relative energies and inter-waveguide couplings tailored to yield the desired Hamiltonian. Controllable-strength decoherence is simulated by broadening the bandwidth of the input illumination, yielding a significant increase in transport efficiency relative to the narrowband case. We show integrated optics to be suitable for simulating specific target Hamiltonians as well as open quantum systems with controllable loss and decoherence.
Enhancing coherent transport in a photonic network using controllable decoherence
Biggerstaff, Devon N.; Heilmann, René; Zecevik, Aidan A.; Gräfe, Markus; Broome, Matthew A.; Fedrizzi, Alessandro; Nolte, Stefan; Szameit, Alexander; White, Andrew G.; Kassal, Ivan
2016-01-01
Transport phenomena on a quantum scale appear in a variety of systems, ranging from photosynthetic complexes to engineered quantum devices. It has been predicted that the efficiency of coherent transport can be enhanced through dynamic interaction between the system and a noisy environment. We report an experimental simulation of environment-assisted coherent transport, using an engineered network of laser-written waveguides, with relative energies and inter-waveguide couplings tailored to yield the desired Hamiltonian. Controllable-strength decoherence is simulated by broadening the bandwidth of the input illumination, yielding a significant increase in transport efficiency relative to the narrowband case. We show integrated optics to be suitable for simulating specific target Hamiltonians as well as open quantum systems with controllable loss and decoherence. PMID:27080915
Overlapping single photons on coherent states with two independent laser sources: a proposal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calvo, Maria L.; Alvarez-Estrada, Ramon F.
2016-10-01
Some very interesting pure non-Gaussian states in quantum optics have already been produced experimentally (with one pulsed laser): the single-photon-added coherent states, among others. Important interference phenomena by superposing beams from two independent masers or lasers have been investigated earlier experimentally and theoretically. By pursuing on both subjects altogether, we propose a possible new experiment to generate single-photon-added coherent states, by employing two independent laser sources, both in continuous regime and having approximately equal frequencies and coherence times tc: we expect that such generations could occur during times of the order of tc/3 (possibly, a bit shorter). This expectation follows from a fully quantized multimode analysis of the temporal mode structure, which extends previous studies of parametric down conversion and balanced homodyne detection
Optical phase estimation via the coherent state and displaced-photon counting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Izumi, Shuro; Takeoka, Masahiro; Wakui, Kentaro; Fujiwara, Mikio; Ema, Kazuhiro; Sasaki, Masahide
2016-09-01
We consider the phase sensing via a weak optical coherent state at quantum limit precision. A detection scheme for the phase estimation is proposed, which is inspired by the suboptimal quantum measurement in coherent optical communication. We theoretically analyze a performance of our detection scheme, which we call the displaced-photon counting, for phase sensing in terms of the Fisher information and show that the displaced-photon counting outperforms the static homodyne and heterodyne detections in a wide range of the target phase. The proof-of-principle experiment is performed with linear optics and a superconducting nanowire single-photon detector. The result shows that our scheme overcomes the limit of the ideal homodyne measurement, even under practical imperfections.
Quantitative study of coherent pairing modes with two-neutron transfer: Sn isotopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Potel, G.; Idini, A.; Barranco, F.; Vigezzi, E.; Broglia, R. A.
2013-05-01
Pairing rotations and pairing vibrations are collective modes associated with a field, the pair field, which changes the number of particles by two. Consequently, they can be studied at profit with the help of two-particle transfer reactions in superfluid and in normal nuclei, respectively. The advent of exotic beams has opened, for the first time, the possibility to carry out such studies in medium heavy nuclei, within the same isotopic chain. The case studied in the present paper is that of the Sn isotopes [essentially from closed (Z=N=50) to closed (Z=50, N=82) shells]. The static and dynamic off-diagonal, long-range order phase coherence in gauge space displayed by pairing rotations and vibrations, respectively, leads to coherent states which behave almost classically. Consequently, these modes are amenable to an accurate nuclear structure description in terms of simple models containing the right physics, in particular, BCS plus quasiparticle random-phase approximation and Hartree-Fock mean field plus random-phase approximation, respectively. The associated two-nucleon transfer spectroscopic amplitudes predicted by such model calculations can thus be viewed as essentially “exact.” This fact, together with the availability of optical potentials for the different real and virtual channels involved in the reactions considered, namely A+2Sn+p, A+1Sn+d, and ASn+t, allows for the calculation of the associated absolute cross sections without, arguably, free parameters. The numerical predictions of the absolute differential cross sections, obtained making use of the above-mentioned nuclear structure and optical potential inputs, within the framework of second-order distorted-wave Born approximation, taking into account simultaneous, successive, and nonorthogonality contributions, provide, within experimental errors in general, and below 10% uncertainty in particular, an overall account of the experimental findings for all of the measured A+2Sn
Hadroproduction of t-anti-t pair with two isolated photons with PowHel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kardos, A.; Trócsányi, Z.
2015-08-01
We simulate the hadroproduction of a t t bar pair in association with two isolated hard photons at 13 TeV LHC using the PowHel package. We use the generated events, stored according to the Les-Houches event format, to make predictions for differential distributions formally at the next-to-leading order (NLO) accuracy. We present predictions at the hadron level employing the cone-type isolation of the photons used by experiments. We also compare the kinematic distributions to the same distributions obtained in the t t bar H final state when the Higgs-boson decays into a photon pair, to which the process discussed here is an irreducible background.
Qubit entanglement between ring-resonator photon-pair sources on a silicon chip.
Silverstone, J W; Santagati, R; Bonneau, D; Strain, M J; Sorel, M; O'Brien, J L; Thompson, M G
2015-08-06
Entanglement--one of the most delicate phenomena in nature--is an essential resource for quantum information applications. Scalable photonic quantum devices must generate and control qubit entanglement on-chip, where quantum information is naturally encoded in photon path. Here we report a silicon photonic chip that uses resonant-enhanced photon-pair sources, spectral demultiplexers and reconfigurable optics to generate a path-entangled two-qubit state and analyse its entanglement. We show that ring-resonator-based spontaneous four-wave mixing photon-pair sources can be made highly indistinguishable and that their spectral correlations are small. We use on-chip frequency demultiplexers and reconfigurable optics to perform both quantum state tomography and the strict Bell-CHSH test, both of which confirm a high level of on-chip entanglement. This work demonstrates the integration of high-performance components that will be essential for building quantum devices and systems to harness photonic entanglement on the large scale.
Qubit entanglement between ring-resonator photon-pair sources on a silicon chip.
Silverstone, J W; Santagati, R; Bonneau, D; Strain, M J; Sorel, M; O'Brien, J L; Thompson, M G
2015-01-01
Entanglement--one of the most delicate phenomena in nature--is an essential resource for quantum information applications. Scalable photonic quantum devices must generate and control qubit entanglement on-chip, where quantum information is naturally encoded in photon path. Here we report a silicon photonic chip that uses resonant-enhanced photon-pair sources, spectral demultiplexers and reconfigurable optics to generate a path-entangled two-qubit state and analyse its entanglement. We show that ring-resonator-based spontaneous four-wave mixing photon-pair sources can be made highly indistinguishable and that their spectral correlations are small. We use on-chip frequency demultiplexers and reconfigurable optics to perform both quantum state tomography and the strict Bell-CHSH test, both of which confirm a high level of on-chip entanglement. This work demonstrates the integration of high-performance components that will be essential for building quantum devices and systems to harness photonic entanglement on the large scale. PMID:26245267
Qubit entanglement between ring-resonator photon-pair sources on a silicon chip
Silverstone, J. W.; Santagati, R.; Bonneau, D.; Strain, M. J.; Sorel, M.; O'Brien, J. L.; Thompson, M. G.
2015-01-01
Entanglement—one of the most delicate phenomena in nature—is an essential resource for quantum information applications. Scalable photonic quantum devices must generate and control qubit entanglement on-chip, where quantum information is naturally encoded in photon path. Here we report a silicon photonic chip that uses resonant-enhanced photon-pair sources, spectral demultiplexers and reconfigurable optics to generate a path-entangled two-qubit state and analyse its entanglement. We show that ring-resonator-based spontaneous four-wave mixing photon-pair sources can be made highly indistinguishable and that their spectral correlations are small. We use on-chip frequency demultiplexers and reconfigurable optics to perform both quantum state tomography and the strict Bell-CHSH test, both of which confirm a high level of on-chip entanglement. This work demonstrates the integration of high-performance components that will be essential for building quantum devices and systems to harness photonic entanglement on the large scale. PMID:26245267
Control of coherent information via on-chip photonic-phononic emitter-receivers.
Shin, Heedeuk; Cox, Jonathan A; Jarecki, Robert; Starbuck, Andrew; Wang, Zheng; Rakich, Peter T
2015-01-01
Rapid progress in integrated photonics has fostered numerous chip-scale sensing, computing and signal processing technologies. However, many crucial filtering and signal delay operations are difficult to perform with all-optical devices. Unlike photons propagating at luminal speeds, GHz-acoustic phonons moving at slower velocities allow information to be stored, filtered and delayed over comparatively smaller length-scales with remarkable fidelity. Hence, controllable and efficient coupling between coherent photons and phonons enables new signal processing technologies that greatly enhance the performance and potential impact of integrated photonics. Here we demonstrate a mechanism for coherent information processing based on travelling-wave photon-phonon transduction, which achieves a phonon emit-and-receive process between distinct nanophotonic waveguides. Using this device, physics--which supports GHz frequencies--we create wavelength-insensitive radiofrequency photonic filters with frequency selectivity, narrow-linewidth and high power-handling in silicon. More generally, this emit-receive concept is the impetus for enabling new signal processing schemes. PMID:25740405
Electron-Hole Pairs Created by Photons and Intrinsic Properties in Detector Materials
Gao, Fei; Campbell, Luke W.; Xie, YuLong; Devanathan, Ram; Peurrung, Anthony J.; Weber, William J.
2008-06-26
A Monte Carlo (MC) code has been developed to simulate the interaction of gamma-rays with semiconductors and scintillators, and the subsequent energy partitioning of fast electrons. The results provide insights on the processes involved in the electron-hole pair yield and intrinsic variance through simulations of full electron energy cascades. The MC code has been applied to simulate the production of electron-hole pairs and to evaluate intrinsic resolution in a number of semiconductors. In addition, the MC code is also able to consider the spatial distribution of electron-hole pairs induced by photons and electrons in detector materials, and has been employed to obtain details of the spatial distribution of electron-hole pairs in Ge, as a benchmark case. The preliminary results show that the distribution of electron-hole pairs exhibit some important features; (a) the density of electron-hole pairs along the main electron track is very high and (b) most electron-hole pairs produced by interband transitions are distributed at the periphery of the cascade volume. The spatial distribution and density of thermalized electron-hole pairs along the primary and secondary tracks are important for large scale simulations of electron-hole pair transport.
Shevchenko, Andriy; Roussey, Matthieu; Friberg, Ari T; Setälä, Tero
2015-11-30
We measure the recently introduced electromagnetic temporal degree of coherence of a stationary, partially polarized, classical optical beam. Instead of recording the visibility of intensity fringes, the spectrum, or the polarization characteristics, we introduce a novel technique based on two-photon absorption. Using a Michelson interferometer equipped with polarizers and a specific GaAs photocount tube, we obtain the two fundamental quantities pertaining to the fluctuations of light: the degree of coherence and the degree of polarization. We also show that the electromagnetic intensity-correlation measurements with two-photon absorption require that the polarization dynamics, i.e., the time evolution of the instantaneous polarization state, is properly taken into account. We apply the technique to unpolarized and polarized sources of amplified spontaneous emission (Gaussian statistics) and to a superposition of two independent, narrow-band laser beams of different mid frequencies (non-Gaussian statistics). For these two sources femtosecond-range coherence times are found that are in good agreement with the traditional spectral measurements. Although previously employed for laser pulses, two-photon absorption provides a new physical principle to study electromagnetic coherence phenomena in classical and quantum continuous-wave light at extremely short time scales.
Shevchenko, Andriy; Roussey, Matthieu; Friberg, Ari T; Setälä, Tero
2015-11-30
We measure the recently introduced electromagnetic temporal degree of coherence of a stationary, partially polarized, classical optical beam. Instead of recording the visibility of intensity fringes, the spectrum, or the polarization characteristics, we introduce a novel technique based on two-photon absorption. Using a Michelson interferometer equipped with polarizers and a specific GaAs photocount tube, we obtain the two fundamental quantities pertaining to the fluctuations of light: the degree of coherence and the degree of polarization. We also show that the electromagnetic intensity-correlation measurements with two-photon absorption require that the polarization dynamics, i.e., the time evolution of the instantaneous polarization state, is properly taken into account. We apply the technique to unpolarized and polarized sources of amplified spontaneous emission (Gaussian statistics) and to a superposition of two independent, narrow-band laser beams of different mid frequencies (non-Gaussian statistics). For these two sources femtosecond-range coherence times are found that are in good agreement with the traditional spectral measurements. Although previously employed for laser pulses, two-photon absorption provides a new physical principle to study electromagnetic coherence phenomena in classical and quantum continuous-wave light at extremely short time scales. PMID:26698754
Photon correlations in a two-site nonlinear cavity system under coherent drive and dissipation
Ferretti, Sara; Andreani, Lucio Claudio; Tuereci, Hakan E.; Gerace, Dario
2010-07-15
We calculate the normalized second-order correlation function for a system of two tunnel-coupled photonic resonators, each one exhibiting a single-photon nonlinearity of the Kerr type. We employ a full quantum formulation: The master equation for the model, which takes into account both a coherent continuous drive and radiative as well as nonradiative dissipation channels, is solved analytically in steady state through a perturbative approach, and the results are compared to exact numerical simulations. The degree of second-order coherence displays values between 0 and 1, and divides the diagram identified by the two energy scales of the system - the tunneling and the nonlinear Kerr interaction - into two distinct regions separated by a crossover. When the tunneling term dominates over the nonlinear one, the system state is delocalized over both cavities, and the emitted light is coherent. In the opposite limit, photon blockade sets in, and the system shows an insulatorlike state with photons locked on each cavity, identified by antibunching of emitted light.
Scattering of two coherent photons inside a one-dimensional coupled-resonator waveguide
Alexanian, Moorad
2010-01-15
We consider the coherent propagation of n photons in a one-dimensional coupled-resonator waveguide for n=2,3,4.... The scattering by a three-level atom, which resides in one of the resonators of the waveguide and gives rise to only two-photon transitions, results in a perfect quantum switch that allows either total reflection or total transmission. This is to be contrasted to the case of a single photon inside a one-dimensional resonant waveguide scattered by a two-level system with single-photon transitions where only total reflection can be accomplished; viz. the system behaves only as a perfect mirror but not as an ideal, transparent medium.
Complete tomography of a high-fidelity solid-state entangled spin-photon qubit pair.
De Greve, Kristiaan; McMahon, Peter L; Yu, Leo; Pelc, Jason S; Jones, Cody; Natarajan, Chandra M; Kim, Na Young; Abe, Eisuke; Maier, Sebastian; Schneider, Christian; Kamp, Martin; Höfling, Sven; Hadfield, Robert H; Forchel, Alfred; Fejer, M M; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa
2013-01-01
Entanglement between stationary quantum memories and photonic qubits is crucial for future quantum communication networks. Although high-fidelity spin-photon entanglement was demonstrated in well-isolated atomic and ionic systems, in the solid-state, where massively parallel, scalable networks are most realistically conceivable, entanglement fidelities are typically limited due to intrinsic environmental interactions. Distilling high-fidelity entangled pairs from lower-fidelity precursors can act as a remedy, but the required overhead scales unfavourably with the initial entanglement fidelity. With spin-photon entanglement as a crucial building block for entangling quantum network nodes, obtaining high-fidelity entangled pairs becomes imperative for practical realization of such networks. Here we report the first results of complete state tomography of a solid-state spin-photon-polarization-entangled qubit pair, using a single electron-charged indium arsenide quantum dot. We demonstrate record-high fidelity in the solid-state of well over 90%, and the first (99.9%-confidence) achievement of a fidelity that will unambiguously allow for entanglement distribution in solid-state quantum repeater networks.
Ultrafast double-quantum-coherence spectroscopy of excitons with entangled photons
Richter, Marten; Mukamel, Shaul
2010-07-15
We calculate the four-wave-mixing signal of excitons generated at k{sub 4}=k{sub 1}+k{sub 2}-k{sub 3} by two pulsed entangled photon pairs (k{sub 1}, k{sub 2}) and (k{sub 3}, k{sub 4}), where all four modes are chronologically ordered. Entangled photons offer an unusual combination of bandwidths and temporal resolution not possible by classical beams. Contributions from different resonances can be selected by varying the parameters of the photon wave function. The signal scales linearly rather than quadratically with the laser field intensity, which allows performance of the measurements at low powers.
Direct Observation of the Coherent Nuclear Response after the Absorption of a Photon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liebel, M.; Schnedermann, C.; Bassolino, G.; Taylor, G.; Watts, A.; Kukura, P.
2014-06-01
How molecules convert light energy to perform a specific transformation is a fundamental question in photophysics. Ultrafast spectroscopy reveals the kinetics associated with electronic energy flow, but little is known about how absorbed photon energy drives nuclear motion. Here we used ultrabroadband transient absorption spectroscopy to monitor coherent vibrational energy flow after photoexcitation of the retinal chromophore. In the proton pump bacteriorhodopsin, we observed coherent activation of hydrogen-out-of-plane wagging and backbone torsional modes that were replaced by unreactive coordinates in the solution environment, concomitant with a deactivation of the reactive relaxation pathway.
Construction of photon-added spin coherent states and their statistical properties
Berrada, K.
2015-07-15
In the present work, we construct and investigate some properties of the photon-added spin coherent states (PA-SCSs). The Klauder’s minimal set of conditions required to obtain coherent states are discussed. We give the analytical form for the positive weight function in the resolution of unity. Finally, we examine the statistical properties of the PA-SCSs in terms of different parameters using the Mandel’s Q-parameter. All these quantities are expressed in terms of hypergeometric and Meijer G-functions, and so, the PA-SCSs are a new field of application for these functions.
Harvesting, Coupling, and Control of Single-Exciton Coherences in Photonic Waveguide Antennas.
Mermillod, Q; Jakubczyk, T; Delmonte, V; Delga, A; Peinke, E; Gérard, J-M; Claudon, J; Kasprzak, J
2016-04-22
We perform coherent nonlinear spectroscopy of individual excitons strongly confined in single InAs quantum dots (QDs). The retrieval of their intrinsically weak four-wave mixing (FWM) response is enabled by a one-dimensional dielectric waveguide antenna. Compared to a similar QD embedded in bulk media, the FWM detection sensitivity is enhanced by up to 4 orders of magnitude, over a broad operation bandwidth. Three-beam FWM is employed to investigate coherence and population dynamics within individual QD transitions. We retrieve their homogenous dephasing in a presence of low-frequency spectral wandering. Two-dimensional FWM reveals off-resonant Förster coupling between a pair of distinct QDs embedded in the antenna. We also detect a higher order QD nonlinearity (six-wave mixing) and use it to coherently control the FWM transient. Waveguide antennas enable us to conceive multicolor coherent manipulation schemes of individual emitters.
Harvesting, Coupling, and Control of Single-Exciton Coherences in Photonic Waveguide Antennas.
Mermillod, Q; Jakubczyk, T; Delmonte, V; Delga, A; Peinke, E; Gérard, J-M; Claudon, J; Kasprzak, J
2016-04-22
We perform coherent nonlinear spectroscopy of individual excitons strongly confined in single InAs quantum dots (QDs). The retrieval of their intrinsically weak four-wave mixing (FWM) response is enabled by a one-dimensional dielectric waveguide antenna. Compared to a similar QD embedded in bulk media, the FWM detection sensitivity is enhanced by up to 4 orders of magnitude, over a broad operation bandwidth. Three-beam FWM is employed to investigate coherence and population dynamics within individual QD transitions. We retrieve their homogenous dephasing in a presence of low-frequency spectral wandering. Two-dimensional FWM reveals off-resonant Förster coupling between a pair of distinct QDs embedded in the antenna. We also detect a higher order QD nonlinearity (six-wave mixing) and use it to coherently control the FWM transient. Waveguide antennas enable us to conceive multicolor coherent manipulation schemes of individual emitters. PMID:27152807
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savanier, Marc; Mookherjea, Shayan
2016-06-01
Generation of photon pairs from compact, manufacturable, and inexpensive silicon (Si) photonic devices at room temperature may help develop practical applications of quantum photonics. An important characteristic of photon-pair generation is the two-photon joint spectral intensity, which describes the frequency correlations of the photon pair. Recent attempts to generate a factorizable photon-pair state suitable for heralding have used short optical pump pulses from mode-locked lasers, which are much more expensive and bigger table-top or rack-sized instruments compared with the Si microchip used for generating photon pairs, and thus dominate the cost and inhibit the miniaturization of the source. Here, we generate photon pairs from an Si microring resonator by using an electronic step-recovery diode to drive an electro-optic modulator which carves the pump light from a continuous-wave laser diode into pulses of the appropriate width, thus potentially eliminating the need for optical mode-locked lasers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savanier, Marc; Kumar, Ranjeet; Mookherjea, Shayan
2015-03-01
Silicon photonics has drawn a lot of attention over the last decades, mainly in telecom-related application fields where the nonlinear optical properties of silicon are ignored or minimized. However, silicon's high χ(3) Kerr optical nonlinearity in sub-micron-scale high-confinement waveguides can enable significant improvements in traditional nonlinear devices, such as for wavelength conversion, and also enable some device applications in quantum optics or for quantum key distribution. In order to establish the viability of silicon photonics in practical applications, some big challenges are to improve the optical performance (e.g., optimize nonlinearity or minimize loss) and integration of optics with microelectronics. In this context, we discuss how electronic PIN diodes improve the performance of wavelength conversion in a microring resonator based four-wave mixing device, which achieves a continuous-wave four-wave mixing conversion efficiency of -21.3 dB at 100 mW pump power, with enough bandwidth for the wavelength conversion of a 10 Gbps signal. In the regime of quantum optics, we describe a coupled microring device that can serve as a tunable source of entangled photon pairs at telecommunications wavelengths, operating at room temperature with a low pump power requirement. By controlling either the optical pump wavelength, or the chip temperature, we show that the output bi-photon spectrum can be varied, with implications on the degree of frequency correlation of the generated quantum state.
Adaptive wavefront correction in two-photon microscopy using coherence-gated wavefront sensing
Rueckel, Markus; Mack-Bucher, Julia A.; Denk, Winfried
2006-01-01
The image quality of a two-photon microscope is often degraded by wavefront aberrations induced by the specimen. We demonstrate here that resolution and signal size in two-photon microcopy can be substantially improved, even in living biological specimens, by adaptive wavefront correction based on sensing the wavefront of coherence-gated backscattered light (coherence-gated wavefront sensing, CGWS) and wavefront control by a deformable mirror. A nearly diffraction-limited focus can be restored even for strong aberrations. CGWS-based wavefront correction should be applicable to samples with a wide range of scattering properties and it should be possible to perform real-time pixel-by-pixel correction even at fast scan speeds. PMID:17088565
Longhi, S.
2010-02-15
The phenomenon of vacuum decay, that is, electron-positron pair production due to the instability of the quantum electrodynamics vacuum in an external field, is a remarkable prediction of Dirac theory whose experimental observation is still lacking. Here a classic wave optics analog of vacuum decay, based on light propagation in curved waveguide superlattices, is proposed. This photonic analog enables a simple and experimentally accessible visualization in space of the process of pair production as breakup of an initially negative-energy Gaussian wave packet, representing an electron in the Dirac sea, under the influence of an oscillating electric field.
A monolithically integrated polarization entangled photon pair source on a silicon chip
Matsuda, Nobuyuki; Le Jeannic, Hanna; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Tsuchizawa, Tai; Munro, William John; Shimizu, Kaoru; Yamada, Koji; Tokura, Yasuhiro; Takesue, Hiroki
2012-01-01
Integrated photonic circuits are one of the most promising platforms for large-scale photonic quantum information systems due to their small physical size and stable interferometers with near-perfect lateral-mode overlaps. Since many quantum information protocols are based on qubits defined by the polarization of photons, we must develop integrated building blocks to generate, manipulate, and measure the polarization-encoded quantum state on a chip. The generation unit is particularly important. Here we show the first integrated polarization-entangled photon pair source on a chip. We have implemented the source as a simple and stable silicon-on-insulator photonic circuit that generates an entangled state with 91 ± 2% fidelity. The source is equipped with versatile interfaces for silica-on-silicon or other types of waveguide platforms that accommodate the polarization manipulation and projection devices as well as pump light sources. Therefore, we are ready for the full-scale implementation of photonic quantum information systems on a chip. PMID:23150781
Studies of Four Wave Mixing in a Cold Atomic Ensemble for Efficient Generation of Photon Pairs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferdinand, Andrew Richard; Luo, Xijie; Becerra, Francisco Elohim
2016-05-01
Photon pairs generated by spontaneous four-wave mixing (FWM) in atomic ensembles provide a natural path toward quantum light-matter interfaces due to their intrinsic compatibility with atomic quantum memories. We study the generation of light from a semi-classical FWM process in an elongated ensemble of cold cesium (Cs) atoms. We investigate the generation efficiency as a function of power, detuning, and polarization of the pump fields in the process. This study will allow us to determine the pump-field parameters in our system for the efficient generation of correlated photon pairs from a spontaneous FWM process. This work is supported by AFOSR Grant FA9550-14-1-0300.
Quantum teleportation in space and frequency using entangled pairs of photons from a frequency comb
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Hongbin; Yonezawa, Hidehiro; Kuntz, Katanya B.; Heurs, Michele; Huntington, Elanor H.
2014-10-01
Using entangled pairs of photons from a frequency comb and wide-band frequency-resolved homodyne detection, we propose a sequential quantum teleportation protocol for continuous variables that teleports an unknown state in space and frequency. A subthreshold optical parametric oscillator (OPO) produces a comb of entangled pairs of photons separated by the free spectral range of the OPO cavity. Wide-band frequency-resolved homodyne detection enables direct access to the sum and difference of quadratures between different teeth in the comb. Such measurements are Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen nullifiers, and can be used as the basis for teleportation protocols. Our protocol for space-and-frequency teleportation effectively links arbitrary frequency channels for frequency-division multiplexing, which has applications in universal quantum computation and large-capacity quantum communication.
Spatial correlation of photon pairs produced in spontaneous parametric down-conversion
Procopio, L. M.; Rosas-Ortiz, O.; Velazquez, V.
2010-10-11
We report the observation of spatial biphoton correlation in spontaneous parametric down conversion. The optical bench includes a type-I BBO crystal of effective length 2 mm, pumped by a 100 mW violet laser diode centered at 405.38 nm. Photon pairs are created with degenerate wavelength {approx_equal}810.76 nm. Once the horizontal counting rates have been measured, a simple geometrical recipe is shown to be useful in calculating bounds for the width of vertical counting rates. The spatial correlation between idler and signal photons is illustrated with a coincidence distribution of the coordinate pair (x{sub s},x{sub i}), with x{sub i,s} the idler (signal) detector position in horizontal scan.
Broadband photon pair generation in green fluorescent proteins through spontaneous four-wave mixing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Siyuan; Thomas, Abu; Corzo, Neil V.; Kumar, Prem; Huang, Yuping; Lee, Kim Fook
2016-04-01
Recent studies in quantum biology suggest that quantum mechanics help us to explore quantum processes in biological system. Here, we demonstrate generation of photon pairs through spontaneous four-wave mixing process in naturally occurring fluorescent proteins. We develop a general empirical method for analyzing the relative strength of nonlinear optical interaction processes in five different organic fluorophores. Our results indicate that the generation of photon pairs in green fluorescent proteins is subject to less background noises than in other fluorophores, leading to a coincidence-to-accidental ratio ~145. As such proteins can be genetically engineered and fused to many biological cells, our experiment enables a new platform for quantum information processing in a biological environment such as biomimetic quantum networks and quantum sensors.
Resonant two-photon annihilation of an electron-positron pair in a pulsed electromagnetic wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Voroshilo, A. I.; Roshchupkin, S. P.; Nedoreshta, V. N.
2016-09-01
Two-photon annihilation of an electron-positron pair in the field of a plane low-intensity circularly polarized pulsed electromagnetic wave was studied. The conditions for resonance of the process which are related to an intermediate particle that falls within the mass shell are studied. In the resonant approximation the probability of the process was obtained. It is demonstrated that the resonant probability of two-photon annihilation of an electron-positron pair may be several orders of magnitude higher than the probability of this process in the absence of the external field. The obtained results may be experimentally verified by the laser facilities of the international megaprojects, for example, SLAC (National Accelerator Laboratory), FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research), and XFEL (European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser).
Broadband photon pair generation in green fluorescent proteins through spontaneous four-wave mixing.
Shi, Siyuan; Thomas, Abu; Corzo, Neil V; Kumar, Prem; Huang, Yuping; Lee, Kim Fook
2016-04-14
Recent studies in quantum biology suggest that quantum mechanics help us to explore quantum processes in biological system. Here, we demonstrate generation of photon pairs through spontaneous four-wave mixing process in naturally occurring fluorescent proteins. We develop a general empirical method for analyzing the relative strength of nonlinear optical interaction processes in five different organic fluorophores. Our results indicate that the generation of photon pairs in green fluorescent proteins is subject to less background noises than in other fluorophores, leading to a coincidence-to-accidental ratio ~145. As such proteins can be genetically engineered and fused to many biological cells, our experiment enables a new platform for quantum information processing in a biological environment such as biomimetic quantum networks and quantum sensors.
Broadband photon pair generation in green fluorescent proteins through spontaneous four-wave mixing
Shi, Siyuan; Thomas, Abu; Corzo, Neil V.; Kumar, Prem; Huang, Yuping; Lee, Kim Fook
2016-01-01
Recent studies in quantum biology suggest that quantum mechanics help us to explore quantum processes in biological system. Here, we demonstrate generation of photon pairs through spontaneous four-wave mixing process in naturally occurring fluorescent proteins. We develop a general empirical method for analyzing the relative strength of nonlinear optical interaction processes in five different organic fluorophores. Our results indicate that the generation of photon pairs in green fluorescent proteins is subject to less background noises than in other fluorophores, leading to a coincidence-to-accidental ratio ~145. As such proteins can be genetically engineered and fused to many biological cells, our experiment enables a new platform for quantum information processing in a biological environment such as biomimetic quantum networks and quantum sensors. PMID:27076032
Broadband photon pair generation in green fluorescent proteins through spontaneous four-wave mixing.
Shi, Siyuan; Thomas, Abu; Corzo, Neil V; Kumar, Prem; Huang, Yuping; Lee, Kim Fook
2016-01-01
Recent studies in quantum biology suggest that quantum mechanics help us to explore quantum processes in biological system. Here, we demonstrate generation of photon pairs through spontaneous four-wave mixing process in naturally occurring fluorescent proteins. We develop a general empirical method for analyzing the relative strength of nonlinear optical interaction processes in five different organic fluorophores. Our results indicate that the generation of photon pairs in green fluorescent proteins is subject to less background noises than in other fluorophores, leading to a coincidence-to-accidental ratio ~145. As such proteins can be genetically engineered and fused to many biological cells, our experiment enables a new platform for quantum information processing in a biological environment such as biomimetic quantum networks and quantum sensors. PMID:27076032
Photon pair production from a hot atomic ensemble in the diamond configuration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Willis, Richard Thomas
This thesis discusses four-wave mixing (4WM) in a warm ensemble of rubidium using the diamond configuration level structure. Both classical 4WM and nonclassical photon-pair production are investigated. Quantum information science has spawned a great amount of experimental work on the interaction of light with collective modes of excitation in atomic ensembles. Plans to build quantum networks and quantum repeaters with atom ensembles take advantage of nonlinear interactions to produce and store non-classical states of light. These technologies will require photon sources that not only generate nonclassical light, but also resonant, narrow band light. Here we investigate a system which could be used as such a source. We take advantage of the 4WM interaction in a warm ensemble of Rubidium atoms. Our scheme utilizes the diamond energy level configuration which, in rubidium, allows for correlated pairs at telecommunications wavelengths. We start by examining the properties of classical 4WM in the system. We measure the resonance structure and see that it can be understood in terms of velocity class selective resonant enhancement and power splitting effects. The efficiency of the process is low and limited by linear absorption of the pumps. Our observations agree with a semi-classical Maxwell-Bloch theoretical treatment. Next we observe pair generation by spontaneous 4WM from the warm ensemble. The temporal profile of the cross-correlation function (CCF) for the photons depends on pump-laser power and detuning. This allows us to produce biphotons with controllable spectra. A simple quantum optical theoretical treatment based on linear filtering gives qualitative agreement with the data. We show that the photon pairs are polarization entangled, clearly violating Bell's Inequality. A perturbative quantum optical treatment predicts the polarization state of the pairs and agrees with our measurements. We analyze the photon statistics of the source and find the largest
Experimental demonstration of photon efficient coherent temporal combining for data rate scaling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geisler, D. J.; Yarnall, T. M.; Stevens, M. L.; Schieler, C. M.; Robinson, B. S.; Hamilton, S. A.
2016-03-01
The next generation free-space optical (FSO) communications infrastructure will need to support a wide range of links from space-based terminals at LEO, GEO, and deep space to the ground. Efficiently enabling such a diverse mission set requires a common ground station architecture capable of providing excellent sensitivity (i.e., few photons-per-bit) while supporting a wide range of data rates. One method for achieving excellent sensitivity performance is to use integrated digital coherent receivers. Additionally, coherent receivers provide full-field information, which enables efficient temporal coherent combining of block repeated signals. This method allows system designers to trade excess link margin for increased data rate without requiring hardware modifications. We present experimental results that show a 45-dB scaling in data rate over a 41-dB range of input powers by block-repeating and combining a PRBS sequence up to 36,017 times.
Coherent transmission and reflection of a two-dimensional planar photonic crystal
Miskevich, A. A.; Loiko, V. A.
2011-07-15
A method for modeling the radial distribution function for particles of a two-dimensional planar photonic crystal in the form of a monolayer of spatially ordered monodisperse spherical particles is proposed. The coherent transmission and reflection coefficients for layers under normal illumination are calculated in the quasi-crystalline approximation of the multiple wave scattering theory. The dependence of the coherent transmission and reflection of the layer on the degree of ordering of the spherical particles is investigated. The influence of the long-range order on the coherent transmission and reflection coefficients for layers with triangular, square, and hexagonal lattices is estimated. Monolayers of weakly absorbing dielectric and strongly absorbing metallic particles are considered.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nazarkin, A.; Korn, G.
1997-12-01
We predict the possibility of using two-photon coherent propagation effects for generating pulses at the difference frequency with duration significantly shorter and intensity higher than those of the input pump and injection pulse.
Fang, B; Liscidini, M; Sipe, J E; Lorenz, V O
2016-05-01
Using stimulated emission tomography, we characterize an entangled photon-pair source in the energy and polarization degrees of freedom, with a precision far exceeding what could be obtained by quantum state tomography. Through this multidimensional tomography we find that energy-polarization correlations are a cause of polarization-entanglement degradation, demonstrating that this technique provides useful information for source engineering and can accelerate the development of quantum information processing systems dependent on many degrees of freedom. PMID:27137611
Electro-optic modulation for high-speed characterization of entangled photon pairs
Lukens, Joseph M.; Odele, Ogaga D.; Leaird, Daniel E.; Weiner, Andrew M.
2015-11-10
In this study, we demonstrate a new biphoton manipulation and characterization technique based on electro-optic intensity modulation and time shifting. By applying fast modulation signals with a sharply peaked cross-correlation to each photon from an entangled pair, it is possible to measure temporal correlations with significantly higher precision than that attainable using standard single-photon detection. Low-duty-cycle pulses and maximal-length sequences are considered as modulation functions, reducing the time spread in our correlation measurement by a factor of five compared to our detector jitter. With state-of-the-art electro-optic components, we expect the potential to surpass the speed of any single-photon detectors currently available.
Electro-optic modulation for high-speed characterization of entangled photon pairs
Lukens, Joseph M.; Odele, Ogaga D.; Leaird, Daniel E.; Weiner, Andrew M.
2015-11-10
In this study, we demonstrate a new biphoton manipulation and characterization technique based on electro-optic intensity modulation and time shifting. By applying fast modulation signals with a sharply peaked cross-correlation to each photon from an entangled pair, it is possible to measure temporal correlations with significantly higher precision than that attainable using standard single-photon detection. Low-duty-cycle pulses and maximal-length sequences are considered as modulation functions, reducing the time spread in our correlation measurement by a factor of five compared to our detector jitter. With state-of-the-art electro-optic components, we expect the potential to surpass the speed of any single-photon detectors currentlymore » available.« less
Neutral Higgs boson pair production in photon-photon annihilation in the two Higgs doublet model
Arhrib, Abdesslam; Benbrik, Rachid; Chen, C.-H.; Santos, Rui
2009-07-01
We study double Higgs production in photon-photon collisions as a probe of the new dynamics of Higgs interactions in the framework of two Higgs doublet models. We analyze neutral Higgs bosons production and decay in the fusion processes, {gamma}{gamma}{yields}S{sub i}S{sub j}, S{sub i}=h{sup 0}, H{sup 0}, A{sup 0}, and show that both h{sup 0}h{sup 0} and A{sup 0}A{sup 0} production can be enhanced by threshold effects in the region E{sub {gamma}}{sub {gamma}}{approx_equal}2m{sub H{+-}}. Resonant effects due to the heavy Higgs H{sup 0} can also play a role in the cross section enhancement when it is allowed to decay to two light CP-even h{sup 0} or to two light CP-odd A{sup 0} scalars. We have scanned the allowed parameter space of the two Higgs doublet model and found a vast region of the parameter space where the cross section is 2 orders of magnitude above the standard model cross section. We further show that the standard model experimental analysis can be used to discover or to constrain the two Higgs doublet model parameter space.
Modeling and optimization of photon pair sources based on spontaneous parametric down-conversion
Kolenderski, Piotr; Banaszek, Konrad; Wasilewski, Wojciech
2009-07-15
We address the problem of efficient modeling of photon pairs generated in spontaneous parametric down-conversion and coupled into single-mode fibers. It is shown that when the range of relevant transverse wave vectors is restricted by the pump and fiber modes, the computational complexity can be reduced substantially with the help of the paraxial approximation, while retaining the full spectral characteristics of the source. This approach can serve as a basis for efficient numerical calculations or can be combined with analytically tractable approximations of the phase-matching function. We introduce here a cosine-Gaussian approximation of the phase-matching function that works for a broader range of parameters than the Gaussian model used previously. The developed modeling tools are used to evaluate characteristics of the photon pair sources such as the pair production rate and the spectral purity quantifying frequency correlations. Strategies to generate spectrally uncorrelated photons, necessary in multiphoton interference experiments, are analyzed with respect to trade-offs between parameters of the source.
CW-pumped telecom band polarization entangled photon pair generation in a Sagnac interferometer.
Li, Yan; Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Ding, Dong-Sheng; Shi, Bao-Sen
2015-11-01
Polarization entangled photon pair source is widely used in many quantum information processing applications such as teleportation, quantum communications, quantum computation and high precision quantum metrology. We report on the generation of a continuous-wave pumped 1550 nm polarization entangled photon pair source at telecom wavelength using a type-II periodically poled KTiOPO(4) (PPKTP) crystal in a Sagnac interferometer. Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference measurement yields signal and idler photon bandwidth of 2.4 nm. High quality of entanglement is verified by various kinds of measurements, for example two-photon interference fringes, Bell inequality and quantum states tomography. The source can be tuned over a broad range against temperature or pump power without loss of visibilities. This source will be used in our future experiments such as generation of orbital angular momentum entangled source at telecom wavelength for quantum frequency up-conversion, entanglement based quantum key distributions and many other quantum optics experiments at telecom wavelengths. PMID:26561148
Multi-photon excited coherent random laser emission in ZnO powders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tolentino Dominguez, Christian; Gomes, Maria De A.; Macedo, Zélia S.; de Araújo, Cid B.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.
2014-11-01
We report the observation and analysis of anti-Stokes coherent random laser (RL) emission from zinc oxide (ZnO) powders excited by one-, two- or three-photon femtosecond laser radiation. The ZnO powders were produced via a novel proteic sol-gel, low-cost and environmentally friendly route using coconut water in the polymerization step of the metal precursor. One- and two-photon excitation at 354 nm and 710 nm, respectively, generated single-band emissions centred at about 387 nm. For three-photon excitation, the emission spectra showed a strong ultraviolet (UV) band (380-396 nm) attributed to direct three-photon absorption from the valence band to the conduction band. The presence of an intensity threshold and a bandwidth narrowing of the UV band from about 20 to 4 nm are clear evidence of RL action. The observation of multiple sub-nanometre narrow peaks in the emission spectra for excitation above the RL threshold is consistent with random lasing by coherent feedback.
Wigner spectrum and coherent feedback control of continuous-mode single-photon Fock states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Zhiyuan; Cui, Lei; Zhang, Guofeng; Fu, Hongchen
2016-10-01
Single photons are very useful resources in quantum information science. In real applications it is often required that the photons have a well-defined spectral (or equivalently temporal) modal structure. For example, a rising exponential pulse is able to fully excite a two-level atom while a Gaussian pulse cannot. This motivates the study of continuous-mode single-photon Fock states. Such states are characterized by a spectral (or temporal) pulse shape. In this paper we investigate the statistical property of continuous-mode single-photon Fock states. Instead of the commonly used normal ordering (Wick order), the tool we proposed is the Wigner spectrum. The Wigner spectrum has two advantages: (1) it allows to study continuous-mode single-photon Fock states in the time domain and frequency domain simultaneously; (2) because it can deal with the Dirac delta function directly, it has the potential to provide more information than the normal ordering where the Dirac delta function is always discarded. We also show how various control methods in particular coherent feedback control can be used to manipulate the pulse shapes of continuous-mode single-photon Fock states.
Photonic Band Gap via Quantum Coherence in Vortex Lattices of Bose-Einstein Condensates
Muestecaplioglu, Oe.E.; Oktel, M.Oe.
2005-06-10
We investigate the optical response of an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate with a vortex lattice. We find that it is possible for the vortex lattice to act as a photonic crystal and create photonic band gaps, by enhancing the refractive index of the condensate via a quantum coherent scheme. If high enough index contrast between the vortex core and the atomic sample is achieved, a photonic band gap arises depending on the healing length and the lattice spacing. A wide range of experimentally accessible parameters are examined and band gaps in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum are found. We also show how directional band gaps can be used to directly measure the rotation frequency of the condensate.
Zhang Yanbao; Knill, Emanuel; Glancy, Scott
2010-03-15
Because of the fundamental importance of Bell's theorem, a loophole-free demonstration of a violation of local realism (LR) is highly desirable. Here, we study violations of LR involving photon pairs. We quantify the experimental evidence against LR by using measures of statistical strength related to the Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence, as suggested by van Dam et al.[W. van Dam, R. D. Gill, and P. D. Grunwald, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory. 51, 2812 (2005)]. Specifically, we analyze a test of LR with entangled states created from two independent polarized photons passing through a polarizing beam splitter. We numerically study the detection efficiency required to achieve a specified statistical strength for the rejection of LR depending on whether photon counters or detectors are used. Based on our results, we find that a test of LR free of the detection loophole requires photon counters with efficiencies of at least 89.71%, or photon detectors with efficiencies of at least 91.11%. For comparison, we also perform this analysis with ideal unbalanced Bell states, which are known to allow rejection of LR with detector efficiencies above 2/3.
Savanier, Marc Kumar, Ranjeet; Mookherjea, Shayan
2015-09-28
Silicon photonic microchips may be useful for compact, inexpensive, room-temperature optically pumped photon-pair sources, which unlike conventional photon-pair generators based on crystals or optical fibers, can be manufactured using CMOS-compatible processes on silicon wafers. It has been shown that photon pairs can be created in simple structures such as microring resonators at a rate of a few hundred kilohertz using less than a milliwatt of optical pump power, based on the process of spontaneous four-wave mixing. To create a practical photon-pair source, however, also requires some way of monitoring the device and aligning the pump wavelength when the temperature varies, since silicon resonators are highly sensitive to temperature. In fact, monitoring photodiodes are standard components in classical laser diodes, but the incorporation of germanium or InGaAs photodiodes would raise the cost and fabrication complexity. Here, we present a simple and effective all-electronic technique for finding the optimum operating point for the microring used to generate photon pairs, based on measuring the reverse-biased current in a silicon p-i-n junction diode fabricated across the waveguide that constitutes the silicon microring. We show that by monitoring the current, and using it to tune the pump laser wavelength, the photon-pair generation properties of the microring can be preserved over a temperature range of more than 30 °C.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savanier, Marc; Kumar, Ranjeet; Mookherjea, Shayan
2015-09-01
Silicon photonic microchips may be useful for compact, inexpensive, room-temperature optically pumped photon-pair sources, which unlike conventional photon-pair generators based on crystals or optical fibers, can be manufactured using CMOS-compatible processes on silicon wafers. It has been shown that photon pairs can be created in simple structures such as microring resonators at a rate of a few hundred kilohertz using less than a milliwatt of optical pump power, based on the process of spontaneous four-wave mixing. To create a practical photon-pair source, however, also requires some way of monitoring the device and aligning the pump wavelength when the temperature varies, since silicon resonators are highly sensitive to temperature. In fact, monitoring photodiodes are standard components in classical laser diodes, but the incorporation of germanium or InGaAs photodiodes would raise the cost and fabrication complexity. Here, we present a simple and effective all-electronic technique for finding the optimum operating point for the microring used to generate photon pairs, based on measuring the reverse-biased current in a silicon p-i-n junction diode fabricated across the waveguide that constitutes the silicon microring. We show that by monitoring the current, and using it to tune the pump laser wavelength, the photon-pair generation properties of the microring can be preserved over a temperature range of more than 30 °C.
Coherent beam control through inhomogeneous media in multi-photon microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paudel, Hari Prasad
Multi-photon fluorescence microscopy has become a primary tool for high-resolution deep tissue imaging because of its sensitivity to ballistic excitation photons in comparison to scattered excitation photons. The imaging depth of multi-photon microscopes in tissue imaging is limited primarily by background fluorescence that is generated by scattered light due to the random fluctuations in refractive index inside the media, and by reduced intensity in the ballistic focal volume due to aberrations within the tissue and at its interface. We built two multi-photon adaptive optics (AO) correction systems, one for combating scattering and aberration problems, and another for compensating interface aberrations. For scattering correction a MEMS segmented deformable mirror (SDM) was inserted at a plane conjugate to the objective back-pupil plane. The SDM can pre-compensate for light scattering by coherent combination of the scattered light to make an apparent focus even at a depths where negligible ballistic light remains (i.e. ballistic limit). This problem was approached by investigating the spatial and temporal focusing characteristics of a broad-band light source through strongly scattering media. A new model was developed for coherent focus enhancement through or inside the strongly media based on the initial speckle contrast. A layer of fluorescent beads under a mouse skull was imaged using an iterative coherent beam control method in the prototype two-photon microscope to demonstrate the technique. We also adapted an AO correction system to an existing in three-photon microscope in a collaborator lab at Cornell University. In the second AO correction approach a continuous deformable mirror (CDM) is placed at a plane conjugate to the plane of an interface aberration. We demonstrated that this "Conjugate AO" technique yields a large field-of-view (FOV) advantage in comparison to Pupil AO. Further, we showed that the extended FOV in conjugate AO is maintained over a
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Förtsch, Michael; Schunk, Gerhard; Fürst, Josef U.; Strekalov, Dmitry; Gerrits, Thomas; Stevens, Martin J.; Sedlmeir, Florian; Schwefel, Harald G. L.; Nam, Sae Woo; Leuchs, Gerd; Marquardt, Christoph
2015-02-01
We report a highly efficient source of narrow-band photon pairs based on parametric down-conversion in a crystalline whispering-gallery-mode resonator. Remarkably, each photon of a pair is detected in a single spatial and temporal mode, as witnessed by Glauber's autocorrelation function. We explore the phase-matching conditions in spherical geometries, and determine the requirements for single-mode operation. Understanding these conditions has allowed us to experimentally demonstrate a single-mode pair-detection efficiency of 1.13 ×106 pairs/s per mW pump power per 26.8 MHz bandwidth.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Liang-Liang; Xu, Ping; Xu, Jian-Ning; He, Guang-Qiang; Zhu, Shi-Ning
2015-12-01
Spontaneous four wave mixing in nonlinear waveguide is one of the excellent technique for generating photon pairs in well-defined guided modes. Here we present a comprehensive study of the frequency characteristic of correlated photon pairs generated in telecom C-band from a dispersion-engineered silicon wire waveguide. We have demonstrated that the waveguide configuration, shape of pump pulse, two-photon absorption as well as linear losses have significant influences on the biphoton spectral characteristics and the amount of frequency entanglement generated. The superior performance as well as the structural compactness and CMOS compatibility makes the silicon wire waveguide an ideal integrated platform for the implementation of on-chip quantum technologies. Supported by the State Key Program for Basic Research of China under Grant No. 2012CB921802, the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 91321312, 91121001, 11321063, 11174121, and 61475099, and the Project Funded by the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (PAPD), and the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University (NCET), and a Foundation for the Author of National Excellent Doctoral Dissertation of People's Republic of China (FANEDD)
Multiplexed entangled photon-pair sources for all-fiber quantum networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yin-Hai; Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Xu, Zhao-Huai; Xu, Li-Xin; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can
2016-10-01
The ultimate goal of quantum information science is to build a global quantum network, which enables quantum resources to be distributed and shared between remote parties. Such a quantum network can be realized using only fiber elements, thus deriving the advantages of low transmission loss, low cost, scalability, and integrability through mature fiber communication techniques such as dense wavelength division multiplexing. Hence high-quality entangled-photon sources based on fibers are in high demand. Here we report multiplexed polarization- and time-bin-entangled photon-pair sources based on the dispersion-shifted fiber operating at room temperature. The associated high quality of entanglement is characterized using interference, Bell's inequality, and quantum state tomography. The simultaneous presence of both types of entanglement in multichannel pairs of a 100-GHz dense wavelength division multiplexing device indicates a great capacity in distributing entangled photons over multiple users. Our design provides a versatile platform and takes a big step toward constructing an all-fiber quantum network.
Experimental evidence of the spatial coherence moiré and the filtering of classes of radiator pairs.
Castaneda, Roman; Usuga-Castaneda, Mario; Herrera-Ramírez, Jorge
2007-08-01
Evidence of the physical existence of the spatial coherence moiré is obtained by confronting numerical results with experimental results of spatially partial interference. Although it was performed for two particular cases, the results reveal a general behavior of the optical fields in any state of spatial coherence. Moreover, the study of the spatial coherence moiré deals with a new type of filtering, named filtering of classes of radiator pairs, which allows changing the power spectrum at the observation plane by modulating the complex degree of spatial coherence, without altering the power distribution at the aperture plane or introducing conventional spatial filters. This new procedure can optimize some technological applications of actual interest, as the beam shaping for instance.
Coherent neutrinoproduction of photons and pions in a chiral effective field theory for nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xilin; Serot, Brian D.
2012-09-01
Background: The neutrinoproduction of photons and pions from nucleons and nuclei is relevant to the background analysis in neutrino-oscillation experiments [for example, the MiniBooNE; MiniBooNE Collaboration, A. A. Aquilar-Arevalo , Phys. Rev. Lett.0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.100.032301 100, 032301 (2008)]. The production from nucleons and incoherent production with Eν⩽0.5GeV have been studied in B. D. Serot and X. Zhang, Phys. Rev. CPRVCAN0556-281310.1103/PhysRevC.86.015501 86, 015501 (2012); and X. Zhang and B. D. Serot, Phys. Rev. C1110-865710.1103/PhysRevC.86.035502 86, 035502 (2012).Purpose: Study coherent productions with Eν⩽0.5GeV. Also address the contributions of two contact terms in neutral current (NC) photon production that are partially related to the proposed anomalous ω(ρ), Z boson, and photon interactions.Methods: We work in the framework of a Lorentz-covariant effective field theory (EFT), which contains nucleons, pions, the Δ (1232) (Δs), isoscalar scalar (σ) and vector (ω) fields, and isovector vector (ρ) fields, and incorporates a nonlinear realization of (approximate) SU(2)L⊗SU(2)R chiral symmetry. A revised version of the so-called “optimal approximation” is applied, where one-nucleon interaction amplitude is factorized out and the medium-modifications and pion wave function distortion are included. The calculation is tested against the coherent pion photoproduction data.Results: The computation shows an agreement with the pion photoproduction data, although precisely determining the Δ modification is entangled with one mentioned contact term. The uncertainty in the Δ modification leads to uncertainties in both pion and photon neutrinoproductions. In addition, the contact term plays a significant role in NC photon production.Conclusions: First, the contact term increases NC photon production by ˜10% assuming a reasonable range of the contact coupling, which however seems not significant enough to explain the Mini
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Minkov, Momchil; Savona, Vincenzo
2016-05-01
The third-order nonlinearity of silicon gives rise to a spontaneous four-wave mixing process in which correlated photon pairs are generated. Sources based on this effect can be used for quantum computation and cryptography, and can in principle be integrated with standard CMOS fabrication technology and components. However, one of the major challenges is the on-chip demultiplexing of the photons, and in particular the filtering of the pump power, which is many orders of magnitude larger than that of the signal and idler photons. Here, we propose a photonic crystal coupled-cavity system designed so that the coupling of the pump mode to the output channel is strictly zero due to symmetry. We further analyze this effect in the presence of fabrication disorder and find that, even then, a pump suppression of close to 40 dB can be achieved in state-of-the-art systems. Due to the small mode volumes and high quality factors, our system is also expected to have a generation efficiency much higher than in standard micro-ring systems. Those two considerations make a strong case for the integration of our proposed design in future on-chip quantum technologies.
Quantum theory for generation of nonclassical photon pairs by a medium with collective atomic memory
Sisakyan, Narek; Malakyan, Yuri
2005-10-15
We present the quantum theory for creation of collective atomic memory and generation of nonclassically correlated photon pairs from an ensemble via the protocol of Duan et al. [Nature (London) 414, 413 (2001)]. The temporal evolution of photon numbers, photon statistics, and cross-correlation between the Stokes and anti-Stokes fields is found by solving the equation of motion for atomic spin-wave excitations. We consider a low-finesse cavity model with collectively enhanced signal-to-noise ratio, which remains still considerably large in the free-space limit. Our results describe analytically the dependence of quantum correlations on spin decoherence time and time delay between the write and read lasers and reproduce the observed data very well including the generated pulse shapes, strong violation of Cauchy-Schwarz inequality and conditional generation of anti-Stokes single-photon pulse. The approach we developed may be used also for quantum description of storage and retrieval of quantum information, especially when the statistical properties of nonclassical pulses are studied.
Controlling the transmitted information of a multi-photon interacting with a single-Cooper pair box
Kadry, Heba Abdel-Aty, Abdel-Haleem Zakaria, Nordin; Cheong, Lee Yen
2014-10-24
We study a model of a multi-photon interaction of a single Cooper pair box with a cavity field. The exchange of the information using this system is studied. We quantify the fidelity of the transmitted information. The effect of the system parameters (detuning parameter, field photons, state density and mean photon number) in the fidelity of the transmitted information is investigated. We found that the fidelity of the transmitted information can be controlled using the system parameters.
Indistinguishability of photon pair in a periodically poled KTiOPO4
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Hee Jung; Kim, Heonoh; Lee, Sang Min; Moon, Han Seb
2015-12-01
We report the two-photon interference properties of a photon pair generated in a type-II collinear periodically poled KTiOPO4 (PPKTP) crystal pumped by a 406-nm diode laser capable of producing a single or dual longitudinal mode (LM). When the Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference signals in the PPKTP crystal pumped by a dual-mode diode laser were investigated at various crystal temperatures, it was found that the maximum visibility of the HOM interference signal depends on the relative strength of the dual LMs of the pump laser. The HOM interference pattern was numerically calculated considering the dual LM components of the pump laser diode and the crystal temperature, and was found to be in good agreement with the experimental results.
Goergen, Craig J; Chen, Howard H; Sakadžić, Sava; Srinivasan, Vivek J; Sosnovik, David E
2016-09-01
Myocardial infarction leads to complex changes in the fiber architecture of the heart. Here, we present a novel optical approach to characterize these changes in intact hearts in three dimensions. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to derive a depth-resolved field of orientation on which tractography was performed. Tractography of healthy myocardium revealed a smooth linear transition in fiber inclination or helix angle from the epicardium to endocardium. Conversely, in infarcted hearts, no coherent microstructure could be identified in the infarct with OCT Additional characterization of the infarct was performed by the measurement of light attenuation and with two-photon microscopy. Myofibers were imaged using autofluorescence and collagen fibers using second harmonic generation. This revealed the presence of two distinct microstructural patterns in areas of the infarct with high light attenuation. In the presence of residual myofibers, the surrounding collagen fibers were aligned in a coherent manner parallel to the myofibers. In the absence of residual myofibers, the collagen fibers were randomly oriented and lacked any microstructural coherence. The presence of residual myofibers thus exerts a profound effect on the microstructural properties of the infarct scar and consequently the risk of aneurysm formation and arrhythmias. Catheter-based approaches to segment and image myocardial microstructure in humans are feasible and could play a valuable role in guiding the development of strategies to improve infarct healing. PMID:27650248
Photonic aided bandpass sampling in coherent phase modulated radio-over-fiber links
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Minghua; Li, Jianqiang; Dai, Jian; Dai, Yitang; Yin, Feifei; Zhou, Yue; Xu, Kun
2016-06-01
We have experimentally presented a digital coherent receiver employing photonic aided bandpass sampling technology for phase-modulated radio-over-fiber (RoF) links. An optical intensity modulator (IM) is utilized as the bandpass sampler which performs encoded on-off keyed pulse sequence on the optical local oscillator. Quaternary Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) modulated data signal with 20 MHz bandwidth at 5.2 GHz, 10.2 GHz and 15.2 GHz RF carrier frequency is experimentally demonstrated to be successfully detected by using balanced photodiodes (BPDs) with only 800 MHz analog bandwidth. It demonstrates that the required analog bandwidth of BPDs and ADCs can be dramatically reduced in a direct sampled coherent RoF communications system.
Hybrid receiver system for single photon sensitive direct and coherent detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kondratko, Piotr K.; Bratcher, Andrew; Glennon, John; Suni, Paul
2015-05-01
Hybrid receivers that enable switching between direct and coherent detection provide many imaging functions beneficial to scientific and defense applications. A hybrid receiver system is presented wherein a single detector is switched between the Geiger-mode and linear amplification modes of operation. This system benefits from enhanced functionality and lower size, weight, power, cost, and complexity compared with dual receiver implementations. The hybrid receiver sensing modality is reconfigurable on-the-fly between single photon direct detection and amplitude/phase coherent detection. The reconfiguration is achieved by adjusting detector bias (electrically) and by simultaneously enabling or disabling the local oscillator (optically). This work describes these two sensing scenarios, discusses the operation of the receiver system and shows laboratory-scale imaging results for each mode of hybrid receiver operation.
A monolithic polarization-independent frequency-filter system for filtering of photon pairs
Ahlrichs, Andreas; Berkemeier, Christoph; Sprenger, Benjamin; Benson, Oliver
2013-12-09
We set up a long-term stable filtering system that consists of cascaded monolithic Fabry-Pérot filters to enhance the suppression and free spectral range. An effective free spectral range of hundreds of GHz allows the system to be used as a high resolution monochromator, with a linewidth of 192 MHz. As an important application a single mode is filtered from photon pairs generated by a parametric down-conversion source, and their indistinguishability is proven by measuring the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect with a visibility of 96%. We report that undesired birefringence, which is often encountered with monolithic cavities, can be avoided by stress-free mounting.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yuen, H. P.; Shapiro, J. H.
1980-01-01
Homodyne detection is shown to achieve the same signal-to-noise ratio as the quantum field quadrature measurement, thus providing a receiver which realizes linear modulation TCS performance gain. The full equivalence of homodyne detection and single-quadrature field measurement is established. A heterodyne configuration which uses a TCS image-band oscillator in addition to the usual coherent state local oscillator is studied. Results are obtained by means of a representation theorem which shows that photoemissive detection realizes the photon flux density measurement.
Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar; Hua, Weijie; Zhang, Yu; Mukamel, Shaul; Harbola, Upendra
2015-06-07
The nonlinear optical response of a current-carrying single molecule coupled to two metal leads and driven by a sequence of impulsive optical pulses with controllable phases and time delays is calculated. Coherent (stimulated, heterodyne) detection of photons and incoherent detection of the optically induced current are compared. Using a diagrammatic Liouville space superoperator formalism, the signals are recast in terms of molecular correlation functions which are then expanded in the many-body molecular states. Two dimensional signals in benzene-1,4-dithiol molecule show cross peaks involving charged states. The correlation between optical and charge current signal is also observed.
Polarization-entangled photon pairs from a periodically poled crystalline waveguide.
Levine, Zachary H; Fan, Jingyun; Chen, Jun; Migdall, Alan L
2011-03-28
A proposal is made for the generation of polarization-entangled photon pairs from a periodically poled crystal allowing for high collection efficiency, high entanglement, and stable operation. The theory is formulated for colinear propagation for application to waveguides. The key feature of the theory is the use of type II phase matching using both the +1 and -1 diffraction orders of the poling structure. Although these conditions are fairly restrictive in terms of operating parameters, practical operating conditions can be found. For example, we find that a HeNe pump laser may be used for a periodically poled rubidium-doped potassium titanyl phosphate (Rb:KTP) waveguide to yield single mode polarization-entangled pairs. Fidelities of 0.98 are possible under practical conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jian, Yifan; Cua, Michelle; Bonora, Stefano; Pugh, Edward N.; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Sarunic, Marinko V.
2016-03-01
We present a novel system for adaptive optics two photon imaging. We utilize the bandwidth of the femtosecond excitation beam to perform coherence gated imaging (OCT) of the sample. The location of the focus is directly observable in the cross sectional OCT images, and adjusted to the desired depth plane. Next, using real time volumetric OCT, we perform Wavefront Sensorless Adaptive Optics (WSAO) aberration correction using a multi-element adaptive lens capable of correcting up to 4th order Zernike polynomials. The aberration correction is performed based on an image quality metric, for example intensity. The optimization time is limited only by the OCT acquisition rate, and takes ~30s. Following aberration correction, two photon fluorescence images are acquired, and compared to results without adaptive optics correction. This technique is promising for multiphoton imaging in multi-layered, scattering samples such as eye and brain, in which traditional wavefront sensing and guide-star sensorless adaptive optics approaches may not be suitable.
Wittmann, Christoffer; Sych, Denis; Leuchs, Gerd; Takeoka, Masahiro
2010-06-15
We investigate quantum measurement strategies capable of discriminating two coherent states probabilistically with significantly smaller error probabilities than can be obtained using nonprobabilistic state discrimination. We apply a postselection strategy to the measurement data of a homodyne detector as well as a photon number resolving detector in order to lower the error probability. We compare the two different receivers with an optimal intermediate measurement scheme where the error rate is minimized for a fixed rate of inconclusive results. The photon number resolving (PNR) receiver is experimentally demonstrated and compared to an experimental realization of a homodyne receiver with postselection. In the comparison, it becomes clear that the performance of the PNR receiver surpasses the performance of the homodyne receiver, which we prove to be optimal within any Gaussian operations and conditional dynamics.
The grand unified photon spectrum: A coherent view of the diffuse extragalactic background radiation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ressell, M. Ted; Turner, Michael S.
1989-01-01
The spectrum of diffuse extragalactic background radiation (DEBRA) at wavelengths from 10(exp 5) to 10(exp -24) cm is presented in a coherent fashion. Each wavelength region, from the radio to ultra-high energy photons and cosmic rays, is treated both separately and as part of the grand unified photon spectrum (GUPS). A discussion of, and references to, the relevant literature for each wavelength region is included. This review should provide a useful tool for those interested in diffuse backgrounds, the epoch of galaxy formation, astrophysical/cosmological constraints to particle properties, exotic early Universe processes, and many other astrophysical and cosmological enterprises. As a worked example, researchers derive the cosmological constraints to an unstable-neutrino spies (with arbitrary branching ratio to a radiative decay mode) that follow from the GUPS.
Examples of modern quantum sensing and metrology with new results on photon-added coherent states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luine, Jerome; Singh, Anjali; Gard, Bryan; Olson, Jonathan
2016-02-01
Quantum sensing and metrology is the application of non-classical resources to the measurement of physical quantities with precision or accuracy beyond that allowed by classical physics. For many years non-classical resources such as atomic energy quantization, Josephson Effect, and Quantum Hall Effect have been used to define the fundamental units of time, voltage, and resistance, respectively. In recent years non-classical resources such as quantum squeezing and entanglement have been exploited to expand the range of physical phenomena measured with unprecedented precision or accuracy. We summarize some of the recent research on advanced quantum sensing and metrology and discuss our analyses of photon-added coherent states (PACS) of light. These analyses take into account imperfect photon addition and detection processes and show that PACS enable beyond-classical signal-to-noise ratio for photon counting even in cases where the probability of intended photon addition is 80%. We also show that there remains undiscovered fundamental properties of PACS related to their production and implementation.
Photon-in photon-out hard X-ray spectroscopy at the Linac Coherent Light Source
Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Zhu, Diling; Kroll, Thomas; Chollet, Mathieu; Feng, Yiping; Glownia, James M.; Kern, Jan; Lemke, Henrik T.; Nordlund, Dennis; Robert, Aymeric; Sikorski, Marcin; Song, Sanghoon; Weng, Tsu -Chien; Bergmann, Uwe
2015-04-15
X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) have opened unprecedented possibilities to study the structure and dynamics of matter at an atomic level and ultra-fast timescale. Many of the techniques routinely used at storage ring facilities are being adapted for experiments conducted at FELs. In order to take full advantage of these new sources several challenges have to be overcome. They are related to the very different source characteristics and its resulting impact on sample delivery, X-ray optics, X-ray detection and data acquisition. Here it is described how photon-in photon-out hard X-ray spectroscopy techniques can be applied to study the electronic structure and its dynamics of transition metal systems with ultra-bright and ultra-short FEL X-ray pulses. In particular, some of the experimental details that are different compared with synchrotron-based setups are discussed and illustrated by recent measurements performed at the Linac Coherent Light Source.
Photon-in photon-out hard X-ray spectroscopy at the Linac Coherent Light Source
Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Zhu, Diling; Kroll, Thomas; Chollet, Mathieu; Feng, Yiping; Glownia, James M.; Kern, Jan; Lemke, Henrik T.; Nordlund, Dennis; et al
2015-04-15
X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) have opened unprecedented possibilities to study the structure and dynamics of matter at an atomic level and ultra-fast timescale. Many of the techniques routinely used at storage ring facilities are being adapted for experiments conducted at FELs. In order to take full advantage of these new sources several challenges have to be overcome. They are related to the very different source characteristics and its resulting impact on sample delivery, X-ray optics, X-ray detection and data acquisition. Here it is described how photon-in photon-out hard X-ray spectroscopy techniques can be applied to study the electronic structure andmore » its dynamics of transition metal systems with ultra-bright and ultra-short FEL X-ray pulses. In particular, some of the experimental details that are different compared with synchrotron-based setups are discussed and illustrated by recent measurements performed at the Linac Coherent Light Source.« less
Guo, Yuan; Zhang, Wei; Lv, Ning; Zhou, Qiang; Huang, Yidong; Peng, Jiangde
2014-02-10
In this paper, 1.5 μm correlated photon pairs are generated under continuous wave (CW) pumping in a silicon micro-ring cavity with a Q factor of 8.1 × 10(4). The ratio of coincidences to accidental coincidences (CAR) is up to 200 under a coincidence time bin width of 5 ns. The experiment result of single side photon count shows that the generation rate does not increase as the square of the pump level due to the nonlinear losses in the cavity which reduce the Q factor and impact the field enhancement effect in the cavity under high pump level. Theoretical analysis shows that the photon pair generation rate in the cavity is proportional to the seventh power of the Q factor, which agrees well with the experiment result. It provides a way to analyze the performance of CW pumping correlated photon pair generation in silicon micro-ring cavities under high pump levels.
Generation of high-photon flux-coherent soft x-ray radiation with few-cycle pulses.
Demmler, Stefan; Rothhardt, Jan; Hädrich, Steffen; Krebs, Manuel; Hage, Arvid; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas
2013-12-01
We present a tabletop source of coherent soft x-ray radiation with high-photon flux. Two-cycle pulses delivered by a fiber-laser-pumped optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier operating at 180 kHz repetition rate are upconverted via high harmonic generation in neon to photon energies beyond 200 eV. A maximum photon flux of 1.3·10(8) photons/s is achieved within a 1% bandwidth at 125 eV photon energy. This corresponds to a conversion efficiency of ~10(-9), which can be reached due to a gas jet simultaneously providing a high target density and phase matching. Further scaling potential toward higher photon flux as well as higher photon energies are discussed.
Generation of high-photon flux-coherent soft x-ray radiation with few-cycle pulses.
Demmler, Stefan; Rothhardt, Jan; Hädrich, Steffen; Krebs, Manuel; Hage, Arvid; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas
2013-12-01
We present a tabletop source of coherent soft x-ray radiation with high-photon flux. Two-cycle pulses delivered by a fiber-laser-pumped optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier operating at 180 kHz repetition rate are upconverted via high harmonic generation in neon to photon energies beyond 200 eV. A maximum photon flux of 1.3·10(8) photons/s is achieved within a 1% bandwidth at 125 eV photon energy. This corresponds to a conversion efficiency of ~10(-9), which can be reached due to a gas jet simultaneously providing a high target density and phase matching. Further scaling potential toward higher photon flux as well as higher photon energies are discussed. PMID:24281507
Gerrits, Thomas; Glancy, Scott; Clement, Tracy S.; Calkins, Brice; Lita, Adriana E.; Nam, Sae Woo; Mirin, Richard P.; Knill, Emanuel; Miller, Aaron J.; Migdall, Alan L.
2010-09-15
We have created heralded coherent-state superpositions (CSSs) by subtracting up to three photons from a pulse of squeezed vacuum light. To produce such CSSs at a sufficient rate, we used our high-efficiency photon-number-resolving transition edge sensor to detect the subtracted photons. This experiment is enabled by and utilizes the full photon-number-resolving capabilities of this detector. The CSS produced by three-photon subtraction had a mean-photon number of 2.75{sub -0.24}{sup +0.06} and a fidelity of 0.59{sub -0.14}{sup +0.04} with an ideal CSS. This confirms that subtracting more photons results in higher-amplitude CSSs.
Higgs boson pair production in new physics models at hadron, lepton, and photon colliders
Asakawa, Eri; Harada, Daisuke; Okada, Yasuhiro; Kanemura, Shinya; Tsumura, Koji
2010-12-01
We study Higgs boson pair production processes at future hadron and lepton colliders including the photon collision option in several new physics models; i.e., the two-Higgs-doublet model, the scalar leptoquark model, the sequential fourth generation fermion model and the vectorlike quark model. Cross sections for these processes can deviate significantly from the standard model predictions due to the one-loop correction to the triple Higgs boson coupling constant. For the one-loop induced processes such as gg{yields}hh and {gamma}{gamma}{yields}hh, where h is the (lightest) Higgs boson and g and {gamma} respectively represent a gluon and a photon, the cross sections can also be affected by new physics particles via additional one-loop diagrams. In the two-Higgs-doublet model and scalar leptoquark models, cross sections of e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}hhZ and {gamma}{gamma}{yields}hh can be enhanced due to the nondecoupling effect in the one-loop corrections to the triple Higgs boson coupling constant. In the sequential fourth generation fermion model, the cross section for gg{yields}hh becomes very large because of the loop effect of the fermions. In the vectorlike quark model, effects are small because the theory has decoupling property. Measurements of the Higgs boson pair production processes can be useful to explore new physics through the determination of the Higgs potential.
Heralding efficiency and correlated-mode coupling of near-IR fiber-coupled photon pairs
Dixon, P. Ben; Rosenberg, Danna; Stelmakh, Veronika; Grein, Matthew E.; Bennink, Ryan S.; Dauler, Eric A.; Kerman, Andrew J.; Molnar, Richard J.; Wong, Franco N. C.
2014-10-06
We report on a systematic experimental study of heralding efficiency and generation rate of telecom-band infrared photon pairs generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion and coupled to single mode optical fibers. We define the correlated-mode coupling efficiency--an inherent source efficiency--and explain its relation to heralding efficiency. For our experiment, we developed a reconfigurable computer controlled pump-beam and collection-mode optical apparatus which we used to measure the generation rate and correlated-mode coupling efficiency. The use of low-noise, high-efficiency superconducting-nanowire single-photon-detectors in this setup allowed us to explore focus configurations with low overall photon flux. The measured data agree well with theory and we demonstrated a correlated-mode coupling efficiency of 97%±2%, which is the highest efficiency yet achieved for this type of system. These results confirm theoretical treatments and demonstrate that very high overall heralding efficiencies can, in principle, be achieved in quantum optical systems. We expect that these results and techniques will be widely incorporated into future systems that require, or benefit from, a high heralding efficiency.
Heralding efficiency and correlated-mode coupling of near-IR fiber-coupled photon pairs
Dixon, P. Ben; Rosenberg, Danna; Stelmakh, Veronika; Grein, Matthew E.; Bennink, Ryan S.; Dauler, Eric A.; Kerman, Andrew J.; Molnar, Richard J.; Wong, Franco N. C.
2014-10-06
We report on a systematic experimental study of heralding efficiency and generation rate of telecom-band infrared photon pairs generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion and coupled to single mode optical fibers. We define the correlated-mode coupling efficiency--an inherent source efficiency--and explain its relation to heralding efficiency. For our experiment, we developed a reconfigurable computer controlled pump-beam and collection-mode optical apparatus which we used to measure the generation rate and correlated-mode coupling efficiency. The use of low-noise, high-efficiency superconducting-nanowire single-photon-detectors in this setup allowed us to explore focus configurations with low overall photon flux. The measured data agree well with theory andmore » we demonstrated a correlated-mode coupling efficiency of 97%±2%, which is the highest efficiency yet achieved for this type of system. These results confirm theoretical treatments and demonstrate that very high overall heralding efficiencies can, in principle, be achieved in quantum optical systems. We expect that these results and techniques will be widely incorporated into future systems that require, or benefit from, a high heralding efficiency.« less
High-security communication by coherence modulation at the photon-counting level.
Rhodes, William T; Boughanmi, Abdellatif; Moreno, Yezid Torres
2016-05-20
We show that key-specified interferometer path-length difference modulation (often referred to as coherence modulation), operating in the photon-counting regime with a broadband source, can provide a quantifiably high level of physics-guaranteed security for binary signal transmission. Each signal bit is associated with many photocounts, perhaps numbering in the thousands. Of great importance, the presence of an eavesdropper can be quickly detected. We first review the operation of key-specified coherence modulation at high light levels, illustrating by means of an example its lack of security against attack. We then show, using the same example, that, through the reduction of light intensities to photon-counting levels, a high level of security can be attained. A particular attack on the system is analyzed to demonstrate the quantifiability of the scheme's security, and various remaining research issues are discussed. A potential weakness of the scheme lies in a possible vulnerability to light amplification by an attacker. PMID:27411120
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarunic, Marinko V.; Han, Shuo; Wu, Jigang; Yaqoob, Zahid; Humayun, Mark; Yang, Changhuei
2007-02-01
Vitrectomy (removal of the vitreous humor) is an ophthalmic surgery required as a precursor to several posterior chamber procedures. Vitrectomy is commonly performed using an endoscopic vitreous cutter and fiber based light delivery for observation through a surgical microscope. Cross-sectional visualization of the retina and remnant vitreous layers during surgery using an external optical coherence tomography (OCT) scanner is impractical due to deformation in the shape of the eye and the cornea. We present a forward imaging probe with 820 μm outer diameter (21 gauge needle) for cross-sectional endoscopic OCT imaging during ophthalmic surgeries. The Paired-Angle-Rotating Scanner (PARS) OCT probe is based on angle polished gradient index (GRIN) lenses which are rotated about the optical axis. The scan pattern is determined by the angle between the GRIN lenses and the relative angular velocity. Endoscopic placement of the PARS-OCT probe tip near the retinal surface permits use of a longer wavelength light, in particular 1310 nm, which would otherwise suffer significant attenuation traversing the vitreous humor. The prototype endoscopic PARS-OCT probe is coupled to a commercially available 1310 nm swept laser source, and uses commercial software for data acquisition, processing, and display of retinal images in real time at an A-scan rate of 16 kHz. We present an analysis of aberrations due to off axis use of GRIN lenses and measure the scan pattern of the PARS probe. Images acquired on an ex vivo porcine retina are presented, motivating development of the endoscopic PARS-OCT probe for clinical evaluation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yuen, H. P.; Shapiro, J. H.
1978-01-01
To determine the ultimate performance limitations imposed by quantum effects, it is also essential to consider optimum quantum-state generation. Certain 'generalized' coherent states of the radiation field possess novel quantum noise characteristics that offer the potential for greatly improved optical communications. These states have been called two-photon coherent states because they can be generated, in principle, by stimulated two-photon processes. The use of two-photon coherent state (TCS) radiation in free-space optical communications is considered. A simple theory of quantum state propagation is developed. The theory provides the basis for representing the free-space channel in a quantum-mechanical form convenient for communication analysis. The new theory is applied to TCS radiation.
New class of generalized photon-added coherent states and some of their non-classical properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mojaveri, B.; Dehghani, A.; Mahmoodi, S.
2014-08-01
In this paper, we construct a new class of generalized photon added coherent states (GPACSs), |z,m{{\\rangle }_{r}} by excitations on a newly introduced family of generalized coherent states (GCSs) |z{{\\rangle }_{r}} (A Dehghani and B Mojaveri 2012 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 45 095304), obtained via generalized hypergeometric type displacement operators acting on the vacuum state of the simple harmonic oscillator. We show that these states realize resolution of the identity property through positive definite measures on the complex plane. Meanwhile, we demonstrate that the introduced states can also be interpreted as nonlinear coherent states (NLCSs), with a spacial nonlinearity function. Finally, some of their non-classical features as well as their quantum statistical properties are compared with Agarwal's photon-added coherent states (PACSs), \\left| z,m \\right\\rangle .
Kwan, Alex C; Dietz, Shelby B; Zhong, Guisheng; Harris-Warrick, Ronald M; Webb, Watt W
2010-12-01
In rhythmic neural circuits, a neuron often fires action potentials with a constant phase to the rhythm, a timing relationship that can be functionally significant. To characterize these phase preferences in a large-scale, cell type-specific manner, we adapted multitaper coherence analysis for two-photon calcium imaging. Analysis of simulated data showed that coherence is a simple and robust measure of rhythmicity for calcium imaging data. When applied to the neonatal mouse hindlimb spinal locomotor network, the phase relationships between peak activity of >1,000 ventral spinal interneurons and motor output were characterized. Most interneurons showed rhythmic activity that was coherent and in phase with the ipsilateral motor output during fictive locomotion. The phase distributions of two genetically identified classes of interneurons were distinct from the ensemble population and from each other. There was no obvious spatial clustering of interneurons with similar phase preferences. Together, these results suggest that cell type, not neighboring neuron activity, is a better indicator of an interneuron's response during fictive locomotion. The ability to measure the phase preferences of many neurons with cell type and spatial information should be widely applicable for studying other rhythmic neural circuits. PMID:20861442
Coherent light transmission properties of commercial photonic crystal hollow core optical fiber.
Cranch, G A; Miller, G A
2015-11-01
Photonic crystal hollow core fiber (PC-HCF) has enabled many exciting new applications in nonlinear optics and spectroscopy. However, to date there has been less impact in coherent applications where preservation of optical phase over long fiber lengths is crucial. This paper presents characteristics of three commercially available PC-HCFs relevant to coherent applications including higher-order mode analysis, birefringence and polarization-dependent loss, and their impact on coherent light transmission in PC-HCF. Multipath interference due to higher-order mode propagation and Fresnel reflection is shown to generate excess intensity noise in transmission, which can be suppressed by up to 20 dB through high frequency phase modulation of the source laser. To demonstrate the potential of PC-HCF in high performance sensing, a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) incorporating 10 m of PC-HCF in each arm is characterized and demonstrates a phase resolution (59×10(-9) rad/Hz(1/2) at 30 kHz) close to the shot noise limit, which is better than can be achieved in a MZI made with the same length of single mode solid core fiber because of the limit set by fundamental thermodynamic noise (74×10(-9) rad/Hz(1/2) at 30 kHz).
Coherent light transmission properties of commercial photonic crystal hollow core optical fiber.
Cranch, G A; Miller, G A
2015-11-01
Photonic crystal hollow core fiber (PC-HCF) has enabled many exciting new applications in nonlinear optics and spectroscopy. However, to date there has been less impact in coherent applications where preservation of optical phase over long fiber lengths is crucial. This paper presents characteristics of three commercially available PC-HCFs relevant to coherent applications including higher-order mode analysis, birefringence and polarization-dependent loss, and their impact on coherent light transmission in PC-HCF. Multipath interference due to higher-order mode propagation and Fresnel reflection is shown to generate excess intensity noise in transmission, which can be suppressed by up to 20 dB through high frequency phase modulation of the source laser. To demonstrate the potential of PC-HCF in high performance sensing, a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) incorporating 10 m of PC-HCF in each arm is characterized and demonstrates a phase resolution (59×10(-9) rad/Hz(1/2) at 30 kHz) close to the shot noise limit, which is better than can be achieved in a MZI made with the same length of single mode solid core fiber because of the limit set by fundamental thermodynamic noise (74×10(-9) rad/Hz(1/2) at 30 kHz). PMID:26560626
High-speed modelocked semiconductor lasers and applications in coherent photonic systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Wangkuen
1.55-mum high-speed modelocked semiconductor lasers are theoretically and experimentally studied for various coherent photonic system applications. The modelocked semiconductor lasers (MSLs) are designed with high-speed (>5 GHz) external cavity configurations utilizing monolithic two-section curved semiconductor optical amplifiers. By exploiting the saturable absorber section of the monolithic device, passive or hybrid mode-locking techniques are used to generate short optical pulses with broadband optical frequency combs. Laser frequency stability is improved by applying the Pound-Drever-Hall (PDH) frequency stabilization technique to the MSLs. The improved laser performance after the frequency stabilization (a frequency drifting of less than 350 MHz), is extensively studied with respect to the laser linewidth (˜ 3 MHz), the relative intensity noise (RIN) (< -150 dB/Hz), as well as the modal RIN (˜ 3 dB reduction). MSL to MSL, and tunable laser to MSL synchronization is demonstrated by using a dual-mode injection technique and a modulation sideband injection technique, respectively. Dynamic locking behavior and locking bandwidth are experimentally and theoretically studied. Stable laser synchronization between two MSLs is demonstrated with an injection seed power on the order of a few microwatt. Several coherent heterodyne detections based on the synchronized MSL systems are demonstrated for applications in microwave photonic links and ultra-dense wavelength division multiplexing (UD-WDM) system. In addition, efficient coherent homodyne balanced receivers based on synchronized MSLs are developed and demonstrated for a spectrally phase-encoded optical CDMA (SPE-OCDMA) system.
Overcoming charge noise decoherence by photon-assisted pair-breaking in a charge qubit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Graaf, Sebastian; Leppäkangas, Juha; Adamyan, Astghik; Danilov, Andrey; Lindström, Tobias; Fogelström, Mikael; Johansson, Göran; Kubatkin, Sergey
2014-03-01
We report on recent measurements of a charge qubit, a Cooper-pair box, coupled to a high-Q microwave cavity in the strong driving regime. This we model using a dressed state formalism, and we find evidence for a process that involves energy transfer corresponding to a large number (~14) of photons. This energy is sufficient to break a Cooper-pair on the island, and it results in a new relaxation channel for the qubit. Specifically, this relaxation resets the qubit into a charge state determined by the static bias conditions, resulting in a sudden population inversion around each dressed state degeneracy point. At low driving strengths, decoherence is governed by charge noise in the environment, while in the discovered strong driving regime the relaxation rate due to pair-breaking can overcome the environmental charge relaxation rate. This results in a regime that is especially attractive for charge sensing since the qubit response becomes immune to non-equilibrium quasiparticle poisoning and less susceptible to its charge noise environment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhen; Li, Heng-Mei; Yuan, Hong-Chun
2016-10-01
We theoretically introduce a kind of non-Gaussian entangled states, i.e., photon-subtracted two-mode squeezed coherent states (PSTMSCS), by successively subtracting photons from each mode of the two-mode squeezed coherent states. The normalization factor which is related to bivariate Hermite polynomials is obtained by virtue of the two-mode squeezing operator in entangled-states representation. The sub-Poissonian photon statistics, antibunching effects, and partial negative Wigner function, respectively, are observed numerically, which fully reflect the nonclassicality of the resultant states. Finally, employing the SV criteria and the EPR correlation, respectively, the entangled property of PSTMSCS is analyzed. It is shown that the photon subtraction operation can effectively enhance the inseparability between the two modes.
Grassani, Davide; Simbula, Angelica; Pirotta, Stefano; Galli, Matteo; Menotti, Matteo; Harris, Nicholas C.; Baehr-Jones, Tom; Hochberg, Michael; Galland, Christophe; Liscidini, Marco; Bajoni, Daniele
2016-01-01
Compact silicon integrated devices, such as micro-ring resonators, have recently been demonstrated as efficient sources of quantum correlated photon pairs. The mass production of integrated devices demands the implementation of fast and reliable techniques to monitor the device performances. In the case of time-energy correlations, this is particularly challenging, as it requires high spectral resolution that is not currently achievable in coincidence measurements. Here we reconstruct the joint spectral density of photons pairs generated by spontaneous four-wave mixing in a silicon ring resonator by studying the corresponding stimulated process, namely stimulated four wave mixing. We show that this approach, featuring high spectral resolution and short measurement times, allows one to discriminate between nearly-uncorrelated and highly-correlated photon pairs. PMID:27032688
Grassani, Davide; Simbula, Angelica; Pirotta, Stefano; Galli, Matteo; Menotti, Matteo; Harris, Nicholas C; Baehr-Jones, Tom; Hochberg, Michael; Galland, Christophe; Liscidini, Marco; Bajoni, Daniele
2016-01-01
Compact silicon integrated devices, such as micro-ring resonators, have recently been demonstrated as efficient sources of quantum correlated photon pairs. The mass production of integrated devices demands the implementation of fast and reliable techniques to monitor the device performances. In the case of time-energy correlations, this is particularly challenging, as it requires high spectral resolution that is not currently achievable in coincidence measurements. Here we reconstruct the joint spectral density of photons pairs generated by spontaneous four-wave mixing in a silicon ring resonator by studying the corresponding stimulated process, namely stimulated four wave mixing. We show that this approach, featuring high spectral resolution and short measurement times, allows one to discriminate between nearly-uncorrelated and highly-correlated photon pairs. PMID:27032688
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grassani, Davide; Simbula, Angelica; Pirotta, Stefano; Galli, Matteo; Menotti, Matteo; Harris, Nicholas C.; Baehr-Jones, Tom; Hochberg, Michael; Galland, Christophe; Liscidini, Marco; Bajoni, Daniele
2016-04-01
Compact silicon integrated devices, such as micro-ring resonators, have recently been demonstrated as efficient sources of quantum correlated photon pairs. The mass production of integrated devices demands the implementation of fast and reliable techniques to monitor the device performances. In the case of time-energy correlations, this is particularly challenging, as it requires high spectral resolution that is not currently achievable in coincidence measurements. Here we reconstruct the joint spectral density of photons pairs generated by spontaneous four-wave mixing in a silicon ring resonator by studying the corresponding stimulated process, namely stimulated four wave mixing. We show that this approach, featuring high spectral resolution and short measurement times, allows one to discriminate between nearly-uncorrelated and highly-correlated photon pairs.
Parameter dependence in the atmospheric decoherence of modally entangled photon pairs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ibrahim, Alpha Hamadou; Roux, Filippus S.; Konrad, Thomas
2014-11-01
When a pair of photons that are entangled in terms of their transverse modes, such as an orbital angular momentum (OAM) basis, propagates through atmospheric turbulence, the scintillation causes a decay of the entanglement. Here, we use numerical simulations to study how this decoherence process depends on the various dimension parameters of the system. The relevant dimension parameters are the propagation distance, the wavelength, the beam radius, and the refractive index structure constant, indicating the strength of the turbulence. We show that beyond the weak scintillation regime, the entanglement evolution cannot be accurately modeled by a single phase screen that is specified by a single dimensionless parameter. Two dimensionless parameters are necessary to describe the OAM entanglement evolution. Furthermore, it is found that higher OAM modes are not more robust in turbulence beyond the weak scintillation regime.
Cruz-Delgado, Daniel; Monroy-Ruz, Jorge; Barragan, Angela M; Ortiz-Ricardo, Erasto; Cruz-Ramirez, Hector; Ramirez-Alarcon, Roberto; Garay-Palmett, Karina; U'Ren, Alfred B
2014-06-15
We present an experimental and theoretical study of photon pairs generated by spontaneous four-wave mixing (SFWM), based on birefringent phasematching, in a fiber that supports more than one transverse mode. We present SFWM spectra, obtained through single-channel and coincidence photon counting, which exhibit multiple peaks shown here to be the result of multiple SFWM processes associated with different combinations of transverse modes for the pump, signal, and idler waves.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeong, Hyunseok; Bae, Seunglee; Choi, Seongjeon
2016-02-01
We study quantum teleportation between two different types of optical qubits using hybrid entanglement as a quantum channel under decoherence effects. One type of qubit employs the vacuum and single-photon states for the basis, called a single-rail single-photon qubit, and the other utilizes coherent states of opposite phases. We find that teleportation from a single-rail single-photon qubit to a coherent-state qubit is better than the opposite direction in terms of fidelity and success probability. We compare our results with those using a different type of hybrid entanglement between a polarized single-photon qubit and a coherent state.
Backward Secondary-Wave Coherence Errors in Photonic Bandgap Fiber Optic Gyroscopes
Xu, Xiaobin; Song, Ningfang; Zhang, Zuchen; Jin, Jing
2016-01-01
Photonic bandgap fiber optic gyroscope (PBFOG) is a novel fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) with excellent environment adaptability performance compared to a conventional FOG. In this work we find and investigate the backward secondary-wave coherence (BSC) error, which is a bias error unique to the PBFOG and caused by the interference between back-reflection-induced and backscatter-induced secondary waves. Our theoretical and experimental results show a maximum BSC error of ~4.7°/h for a 300-m PBF coil with a diameter of 10 cm. The BSC error is an important error source contributing to bias instability in the PBFOG and has to be addressed before practical applications of the PBFOG can be implemented. PMID:27338388
Backward Secondary-Wave Coherence Errors in Photonic Bandgap Fiber Optic Gyroscopes.
Xu, Xiaobin; Song, Ningfang; Zhang, Zuchen; Jin, Jing
2016-01-01
Photonic bandgap fiber optic gyroscope (PBFOG) is a novel fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) with excellent environment adaptability performance compared to a conventional FOG. In this work we find and investigate the backward secondary-wave coherence (BSC) error, which is a bias error unique to the PBFOG and caused by the interference between back-reflection-induced and backscatter-induced secondary waves. Our theoretical and experimental results show a maximum BSC error of ~4.7°/h for a 300-m PBF coil with a diameter of 10 cm. The BSC error is an important error source contributing to bias instability in the PBFOG and has to be addressed before practical applications of the PBFOG can be implemented. PMID:27338388
Generation of coherent states of photon-added type via pathway of eigenfunctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Górska, K.; Penson, K. A.; Duchamp, G. H. E.
2010-09-01
We obtain and investigate the regular eigenfunctions of simple differential operators xr dr + 1/dxr + 1, r = 1, 2, ..., with the eigenvalues equal to 1. With the help of these eigenfunctions, we construct a non-unitary analogue of a boson displacement operator which will be acting on the vacuum. In this way, we generate collective quantum states of the Fock space which are normalized and equipped with the resolution of unity with the positive weight functions that we obtain explicitly. These states are thus coherent states in the sense of Klauder. They span the truncated Fock space without first r lowest-lying basis states: |0rang, |1rang, ..., |r - 1rang. These states are squeezed, sub-Poissonian in nature and reminiscent of photon-added states in Agarwal and Tara (1991 Phys. Rev. A 43 492).
Klarskov, Pernille; Isomäki, Antti; Hansen, Kim P; Andersen, Peter E
2011-12-19
Photonic crystal fiber (PCF) designs with two zero-dispersion wavelengths (ZDWs) are experimentally investigated in order to suggest a novel PCF for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy. From our investigation, we select the optimum PCF design and demonstrate a tailored spectrum with power concentrated around the relevant wavelengths for lipid imaging (648 nm and 1027 nm). This new PCF is characterized by varying the fiber length, the average power, and the pulse width of the fs pump pulses. It was found that the selected PCF design gave a significantly improved spectral distribution compared to an existing PCF for CARS microscopy. Furthermore, the PCF is designed in a twofold symmetric structure allowing for polarization maintaining propagation. Finally, the pulse propagation is investigated numerically showing good agreement with the measured spectrum. From the numerical analysis, the nonlinear effects responsible for the spectral broadening are explained to be soliton fission processes, dispersive waves, and stimulated Raman scattering. PMID:22274252
Backward Secondary-Wave Coherence Errors in Photonic Bandgap Fiber Optic Gyroscopes.
Xu, Xiaobin; Song, Ningfang; Zhang, Zuchen; Jin, Jing
2016-01-01
Photonic bandgap fiber optic gyroscope (PBFOG) is a novel fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) with excellent environment adaptability performance compared to a conventional FOG. In this work we find and investigate the backward secondary-wave coherence (BSC) error, which is a bias error unique to the PBFOG and caused by the interference between back-reflection-induced and backscatter-induced secondary waves. Our theoretical and experimental results show a maximum BSC error of ~4.7°/h for a 300-m PBF coil with a diameter of 10 cm. The BSC error is an important error source contributing to bias instability in the PBFOG and has to be addressed before practical applications of the PBFOG can be implemented.
Istomin, Ya. N. Sob'yanin, D. N.
2011-10-15
The production of electron-positron pairs in a vacuum neutron star magnetosphere is investigated for both low (compared to the Schwinger one) and high magnetic fields. The case of a strong longitudinal electric field where the produced electrons and positrons acquire a stationary Lorentz factor in a short time is considered. The source of electron-positron pairs has been calculated with allowance made for the pair production by curvature and synchrotron photons. Synchrotron photons are shown to make a major contribution to the total pair production rate in a weak magnetic field. At the same time, the contribution from bremsstrahlung photons may be neglected. The existence of a time delay due to the finiteness of the electron and positron acceleration time leads to a great reduction in the electron-positron plasma generation rate compared to the case of a zero time delay. The effective local source of electron-positron pairs has been constructed. It can be used in the hydrodynamic equations that describe the development of a cascade after the absorption of a photon from the cosmic gamma-ray background in a neutron star magnetosphere.
Chen, Geng; Zou, Yang; Zhang, Wen-Hao; Zhang, Zi-Huai; Zhou, Zong-Quan; He, De-Yong; Tang, Jian-Shun; Liu, Bi-Heng; Yu, Ying; Zha, Guo-Wei; Ni, Hai-Qiao; Niu, Zhi-Chuan; Han, Yong-Jian; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can
2016-01-01
Quantum emitters generating individual entangled photon pairs (IEPP) have significant fundamental advantages over schemes that suffer from multiple photon emission, or schemes that require post-selection techniques or the use of photon-number discriminating detectors. Quantum dots embedded within nanowires (QD-NWs) represent one of the most promising candidate for quantum emitters that provide a high collection efficiency of photons. However, a quantum emitter that generates IEPP in the telecom band is still an issue demanding a prompt solution. Here, we demonstrate in principle that IEPPs in the telecom band can be created by combining a single QD-NW and a nonlinear crystal waveguide. The QD-NW system serves as the single photon source, and the emitted visible single photons are split into IEPPs at approximately 1.55 μm through the process of spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) in a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide. The compatibility of the QD-PPLN interface is the determinant factor in constructing this novel hybrid-quantum-emitter (HQE). Benefiting from the desirable optical properties of QD-NWs and the extremely high nonlinear conversion efficiency of PPLN waveguides, we successfully generate IEPPs in the telecom band with the polarization degree of freedom. The entanglement of the generated photon pairs is confirmed by the entanglement witness. Our experiment paves the way to producing HQEs inheriting the advantages of multiple systems. PMID:27225881
Chen, Geng; Zou, Yang; Zhang, Wen-Hao; Zhang, Zi-Huai; Zhou, Zong-Quan; He, De-Yong; Tang, Jian-Shun; Liu, Bi-Heng; Yu, Ying; Zha, Guo-Wei; Ni, Hai-Qiao; Niu, Zhi-Chuan; Han, Yong-Jian; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can
2016-01-01
Quantum emitters generating individual entangled photon pairs (IEPP) have significant fundamental advantages over schemes that suffer from multiple photon emission, or schemes that require post-selection techniques or the use of photon-number discriminating detectors. Quantum dots embedded within nanowires (QD-NWs) represent one of the most promising candidate for quantum emitters that provide a high collection efficiency of photons. However, a quantum emitter that generates IEPP in the telecom band is still an issue demanding a prompt solution. Here, we demonstrate in principle that IEPPs in the telecom band can be created by combining a single QD-NW and a nonlinear crystal waveguide. The QD-NW system serves as the single photon source, and the emitted visible single photons are split into IEPPs at approximately 1.55 μm through the process of spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) in a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide. The compatibility of the QD-PPLN interface is the determinant factor in constructing this novel hybrid-quantum-emitter (HQE). Benefiting from the desirable optical properties of QD-NWs and the extremely high nonlinear conversion efficiency of PPLN waveguides, we successfully generate IEPPs in the telecom band with the polarization degree of freedom. The entanglement of the generated photon pairs is confirmed by the entanglement witness. Our experiment paves the way to producing HQEs inheriting the advantages of multiple systems. PMID:27225881
Burtovoy, V. S.
2015-12-15
The detection of coherent (K{sup +}π{sup 0}) pairs was made in collisions of K{sup +} beam with copper nuclei in the OKA detector. The number of electromagnetic and strong coherent events and the number of interference events were counted here. The difference between the electromagnetic and strong phases was also measured.
Phase sensitive properties and coherent manipulation of a photonic crystal microcavity.
Quiring, Wadim; Jonas, Björn; Förstner, Jens; Rai, Ashish K; Reuter, Dirk; Wieck, Andreas D; Zrenner, Artur
2016-09-01
We present phase sensitive cavity field measurements on photonic crystal microcavities. The experiments have been performed as autocorrelation measurements with ps double pulse laser excitation for resonant and detuned conditions. Measured E-field autocorrelation functions reveal a very strong detuning dependence of the phase shift between laser and cavity field and of the autocorrelation amplitude of the cavity field. The fully resolved phase information allows for a precise frequency discrimination and hence for a precise measurement of the detuning between laser and cavity. The behavior of the autocorrelation amplitude and phase and their detuning dependence can be fully described by an analytic model. Furthermore, coherent control of the cavity field is demonstrated by tailored laser excitation with phase and amplitude controlled pulses. The experimental proof and verification of the above described phenomena became possible by an electric detection scheme, which employs planar photonic crystal microcavity photo diodes with metallic Schottky contacts in the defect region of the resonator. The applied photo current detection was shown to work also efficiently at room temperature, which make electrically contacted microcavities attractive for real world applications. PMID:27607671
Sekatski, Pavel; Sangouard, Nicolas; Gisin, Nicolas; Afzelius, Mikael; Riedmatten, Hugues de
2011-05-15
Spontaneous Raman emission in atomic gases provides an attractive source of photon pairs with a controllable delay. We show how this technique can be implemented in solid state systems by appropriately shaping the inhomogeneous broadening. Our proposal is eminently feasible with current technology and provides a realistic solution to entangle remote rare-earth-metal-doped solids in a heralded way.
Andrianov, A. V. Alekseev, P. S.; Klimko, G. V.; Ivanov, S. V.; Shcheglov, V. L.; Sedova, M. A.; Zakhar'in, A. O.
2013-11-15
The generation of coherent terahertz radiation upon the band-to-band femtosecond laser photoexcitation of GaAs/AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well structures in a transverse electric field at room temperature is investigated. The properties of the observed terahertz radiation suggest that it is generated on account of the excitation of a time-dependent dipole moment as a result of the polarization of nonequilibrium electron-hole pairs in quantum wells by the electric field. The proposed theoretical model taking into account the dynamic screening of the electric field in the quantum wells by nonequilibrium charge carriers describes the properties of the observed terahertz signal.
Modelling gamma-ray photon emission and pair production in high-intensity laser–matter interactions
Ridgers, C.P.; Kirk, J.G.; Duclous, R.; Blackburn, T.G.; Brady, C.S.; Bennett, K.; Arber, T.D.; Bell, A.R.
2014-03-01
In high-intensity (>10{sup 21} Wcm{sup −2}) laser–matter interactions gamma-ray photon emission by the electrons can strongly affect the electron's dynamics and copious numbers of electron–positron pairs can be produced by the emitted photons. We show how these processes can be included in simulations by coupling a Monte Carlo algorithm describing the emission to a particle-in-cell code. The Monte Carlo algorithm includes quantum corrections to the photon emission, which we show must be included if the pair production rate is to be correctly determined. The accuracy, convergence and energy conservation properties of the Monte Carlo algorithm are analysed in simple test problems.
High-statistics study of neutral-pion pair production in two-photon collisions
Uehara, S.; Haba, J.; Hazumi, M.; Iwasaki, Y.; Katayama, N.; Kichimi, H.; Krokovny, P.; Nakao, M.; Nishida, S.; Sakai, Y.; Tanaka, M.; Uno, S.; Watanabe, Y.; Okuno, S.; Nakazawa, H.; Chen, A.; Aihara, H.; Arinstein, K.; Aulchenko, V.; Bondar, A.
2009-03-01
The differential cross sections for the process {gamma}{gamma}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} have been measured in the kinematic range 0.6 GeV
Coherent state quantum key distribution based on entanglement sudden death
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaeger, Gregg; Simon, David; Sergienko, Alexander V.
2016-03-01
A method for quantum key distribution (QKD) using entangled coherent states is discussed which is designed to provide key distribution rates and transmission distances surpassing those of traditional entangled photon pair QKD by exploiting entanglement sudden death. The method uses entangled electromagnetic signal states of `macroscopic' average photon numbers rather than single photon or entangled photon pairs, which have inherently limited rate and distance performance as bearers of quantum key data. Accordingly, rather than relying specifically on Bell inequalities as do entangled photon pair-based methods, the security of this method is based on entanglement witnesses and related functions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cao, Chang-Qi
1996-01-01
The amplitude and transverse quadrature component squeezing of coherent light in high Q cavity by injection of atoms of two-photon transition are studied. The Golubev-Sokolov master equation and generating function approach are utilized to derive the exact variances of photon number and of transverse quadrature component as function of t. The correlation functions and power spectrums of photon number noise and of output photon current noise are also investigated.
Ljunggren, Daniel; Tengner, Maria
2005-12-15
We present a theoretical and experimental investigation of the emission characteristics and the flux of photon pairs generated by spontaneous parametric downconversion in quasi-phase matched bulk crystals for the use in quantum communication sources. We show that, by careful design, one can attain well defined modes close to the fundamental mode of optical fibers and obtain high coupling efficiencies also for bulk crystals, these being more easily aligned than crystal waveguides. We distinguish between singles coupling, {gamma}{sub s} and {gamma}{sub i}, conditional coincidence, {mu}{sub i|s}, and pair coupling, {gamma}{sub c}, and show how each of these parameters can be maximized by varying the focusing of the pump mode and the fiber-matched modes using standard optical elements. Specifically we analyze a periodically poled KTP-crystal pumped by a 532 nm laser creating photon pairs at 810 nm and 1550 nm. Numerical calculations lead to coupling efficiencies above 93% at optimal focusing, which is found by the geometrical relation L/z{sub R} to be {approx_equal}1 to 2 for the pump mode and {approx_equal}2 to 3 for the fiber-modes, where L is the crystal length and z{sub R} is the Rayleigh-range of the mode-profile. These results are independent on L. By showing that the single-mode bandwidth decreases {proportional_to}1/L, we can therefore design the source to produce and couple narrow bandwidth photon pairs well into the fibers. Smaller bandwidth means both less chromatic dispersion for long propagation distances in fibers, and that telecom Bragg gratings can be utilized to compensate for broadened photon packets--a vital problem for time-multiplexed qubits. Longer crystals also yield an increase in fiber photon flux {proportional_to}{radical}(L), and so, assuming correct focusing, we can only see advantages using long crystals.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arahira, Shin; Namekata, Naoto; Kishimoto, Tadashi; Yaegashi, Hiroki; Inoue, Shuichiro
2011-08-01
We report the generation of high-purity correlated photon-pairs and polarization entanglement in a 1.5 μm telecommunication wavelength-band using cascaded χ(2):χ(2) processes, second-harmonic generation (SHG) and the following spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC), in a periodically poled LiNbO3 (PPLN) ridge-waveguide device. By using a PPLN module with 600%/W of the SHG efficiency, we have achieved a coincidence-to-accidental ratio (CAR) higher than 4000 at 7.45x10-5 of the mean number of the photon-pair per pulse. We also demonstrated that the maximum reach of the CAR was truly dark-count-limited by the single-photon detectors used here. This indicates that the fake (noise) photons were negligibly small in this system, even though the photon-pairs, the Raman noise photons, and the pump photons were in the same wavelength band. Polarization entangled photon pairs were also generated by constructing a Sagnac-loop-type interferometer which included the PPLN module and an optical phase-difference compensator to observe maximum entanglement. We achieved two-photon interference visibilities of 99.6% in the H/V basis and 98.7% in the diagonal basis. The peak coincidence count rate was approximately 50 counts per second at 10-3 of the mean number of the photon-pair per pulse.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eom, Joo Beom; Min, Eun Jung; Lee, Byeong Ha
2012-01-01
We report the fabrication and performance of the 2×2 photonic crystal fiber (PCF) splitter that was designed as a single mode splitter at the visible and near infrared and used as the beam splitter for a spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) system. The PCF splitter has been made by coupling PCFs to a planar lightwave circuit (PLC) splitter chip. The PLC splitter chip was fabricated to have a single mode property with 630 nm cutoff wavelength and the PCFs were securely connected to the PLC chip through PCF block arrays having lithographically fabricated V grooves. The core width of the splitter chip was about 4 μm×4 μm and the core-cladding index difference was about 0.15%. With the implemented PCF PLC splitter, we have obtained a low excess loss of 1.2 dB and a low polarization-dependent loss of 0.19 dB at 680 nm with wide band coupling property. With the proposed 2×2 PCF splitter, SD-OCT images of human finger, nail, and tooth successfully obtained by using 680 nm, 840 nm, and 930 nm SLD source. This PCF PLC splitter is expected to have high resolution OCT.
Combined two-photon microscopy and optical coherence tomography using individually optimized sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeong, Bosu; Lee, Byunghak; Jang, Min Seong; Nam, Hyoseok; Kim, Hae Koo; Yoon, Sang June; Doh, Junsang; Lee, Sang-Joon; Yang, Bo-Gie; Jang, Myoung Ho; Kim, Ki Hean
2011-03-01
Two-photon microscopy (TPM) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) are 3D tissue imaging techniques based on different contrast mechanisms. We developed a combined system of TPM and OCT to provide information of both imaging modalities for in-vivo tissue study. TPM and OCT were implemented by using separate light sources, a Ti-Sapphire laser and a wavelength-swept source centered at 1300 nm respectively, and scanners. Light from the two sources was combined for the simultaneous imaging of tissue samples. TPM provided molecular, cellular information of tissues in the region of a few hundred microns on one side at a sub-cellular resolution, and ran at approximately 40 frames per second. OCT provided structural information in the tissue region larger than TPM images at a sub-tenth micron resolution by using 0.1 numerical aperture. OCT had the field of view of 800 um × 800 um based on a 20x objective, the sensitivity of 97dB, and the imaging speed of 0.8 volumes per second. This combined system was tested with simple microsphere specimens, and then was applied to image the explanted intestine of a mouse model and the plant leaves. Morphology and micro-structures of the intestine villi and immune cells within the villi were shown in the intestine image, and chloroplasts and various microstructures of the maize leaves were visualized in 3D by the combined system.
In vivo visualization of skin inflammation by optical coherence tomography and two-photon microscopy
Kim, Bumju; Lee, Seung Hun; Yoon, Calvin J.; Gho, Yong Song; Ahn, G-One; Kim, Ki Hean
2015-01-01
Inflammation is a non-specific immune response to injury intended to protect biological tissue from harmful stimuli such as pathogens, irritants, and damaged cells. In vivo optical tissue imaging has been used to provide spatial and dynamic characteristics of inflammation within the tissue. In this paper, we report in vivo visualization of inflammation in the skin at both cellular and physiological levels by using a combination of label-free two-photon microscopy (TPM) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Skin inflammation was induced by topically applying lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the mouse ear. Temporal OCT imaging visualized tissue swelling, vasodilation, and increased capillary density 30 min and 1 hour after application. TPM imaging showed immune cell migration within the inflamed skin. Combined OCT and TPM was applied to obtain complementary information from each modality in the same region of interest. The information provided by each modality were consistent with previous reports about the characteristics of inflammation. Therefore, the combination of OCT and TPM holds potential for studying inflammation of the skin. PMID:26203377
Coherent Contributions to Isospin Mixing in the Mirror Pair {sup 67}As and {sup 67}Se
Orlandi, R.; Angelis, G. de; Gadea, A.; Della Vedova, F.; Napoli, D. R.; Recchia, F.; Sahin, E.; Valiente-Dobon, J. J.; Bizzeti, P. G.; Bizzeti-Sona, A. M.; Lunardi, S.; Brandolini, F.; Farnea, E.; Lenzi, S. M.; Marginean, N.; Mengoni, D.; Ur, C. A.; Bracco, A.; Leoni, S.; Carpenter, M. P.
2009-07-31
Isospin symmetry breaking has been investigated in mass A=67 mirror nuclei through the experimental determination of the E1 strengths of analog electromagnetic transitions. Lifetimes of excited states have been measured in {sup 67}Se and {sup 67}As with the centroid shift method. Through the comparison of the B(E1) strengths of the mirror 9/2{sup +}->7/2{sup -} transitions, the isovector and the isoscalar components of the electromagnetic transition amplitude were extracted. The presence of a large isoscalar component provides evidence for coherent contributions to isospin mixing, probably involving the isovector giant monopole resonance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Wu
2015-12-01
We discuss a novel method for generating hyper-broadband mid-infrared (MIR) supercontinua (SC) with coherent bandwidth from ~2 μm to ~10 μm by using As2Se3 photonic crystal fiber (PCF) and a 4.1 μm pump with femtosecond (fs) Airy pulse profile. Our simulations confirm that, when pumping in the normal dispersion region, the deceleration and self-healing properties of the Airy pulse can suppress the incoherent noise in modulational instability (MI) induced SC generation and maintain the pulse coherence over a long propagation distance. We also find that fs Airy pulse can generate an MIR SC with a broader coherent bandwidth than these can be achieved with fs parabolic secant pulse.
Stern, Boris E.; Poutanen, Juri E-mail: juri.poutanen@utu.fi
2014-10-10
We re-analyze Fermi/LAT γ-ray spectra of bright blazars using the new Pass 7 version of the detector response files and detect breaks at ∼5 GeV in the rest-frame spectra of 3C 454.3 and possibly also 4C +21.35, associated with the photon-photon pair production absorption by the He II Lyman continuum (LyC). We also detect significant breaks at ∼20 GeV associated with hydrogen LyC in both the individual spectra and the stacked redshift-corrected spectrum of several bright blazars. The detected breaks in the stacked spectra univocally prove that they are associated with atomic ultraviolet emission features of the quasar broad-line region (BLR). The dominance of the absorption by the hydrogen Ly complex over He II, a small detected optical depth, and break energy consistent with head-on collisions with LyC photons imply that the γ-ray emission site is located within the BLR, but most of the BLR emission comes from a flat disk-like structure producing little opacity. Alternatively, the LyC emission region size might be larger than the BLR size measured from reverberation mapping, and/or the γ-ray emitting region is extended. These solutions would resolve the long-standing issue of how the multi-hundred GeV photons can escape from the emission zone without being absorbed by softer photons.
Martins, D. E.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Sá Borges, J.; Rebello Teles, P.
2015-04-10
We study the W and Z pair production from two-photon exchange in proton-proton collisions at the LHC in order to evaluate the contributions of anomalous photon-gauge boson couplings, that simulates new particles and couplings predicted in many Standard Model (SM) extensions. The experimental results of W{sup +} W{sup −} exclusive production (pp → pW{sup +}W{sup −} p) at 7 TeV from the CMS collaboration [1] updates the experimental limits on anomalous couplings obtained at the Large Electron-Positron Collider (LEP). This motivates our present analysis hopefully anticipating the expected results using the Precision Proton Spectrometer (PPS) to be installed as part of CMS. In this work, we consider the W{sup +}W{sup −} exclusive production to present the p{sub T} distribution of the lepton pair corresponding to the SM signal with p{sub T} (e, μ) > 10 GeV. Next, we consider the photon-gauge boson anomalous couplings by calculating, from the FPMC and MadGraph event generators, the process γγ → W{sup +}W{sup −} from a model with gauge boson quartic couplings, by considering a 1 TeV scale for new physical effects. We present our results for an integrated luminosity of 5 fb{sup −1} at center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV and for an integrated luminosity of 100 fb{sup −1} at 13 TeV. We present our preliminary results for Z pair exclusive production from two-photon exchange with anomalous couplings, where the ZZγγ quartic coupling is absent in the SM. We calculate the total cross section for the exclusive process and present the four lepton invariant mass distribution. Finally we present an outlook for the present analysis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martins, D. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Sá Borges, J.
2015-04-01
We study the W and Z pair production from two-photon exchange in proton-proton collisions at the LHC in order to evaluate the contributions of anomalous photon-gauge boson couplings, that simulates new particles and couplings predicted in many Standard Model (SM) extensions. The experimental results of W+ W- exclusive production (pp → pW+W- p) at 7 TeV from the CMS collaboration [1] updates the experimental limits on anomalous couplings obtained at the Large Electron-Positron Collider (LEP). This motivates our present analysis hopefully anticipating the expected results using the Precision Proton Spectrometer (PPS) to be installed as part of CMS. In this work, we consider the W+W- exclusive production to present the pT distribution of the lepton pair corresponding to the SM signal with pT (e, μ) > 10 GeV. Next, we consider the photon-gauge boson anomalous couplings by calculating, from the FPMC and MadGraph event generators, the process γγ → W+W- from a model with gauge boson quartic couplings, by considering a 1 TeV scale for new physical effects. We present our results for an integrated luminosity of 5 fb-1 at center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV and for an integrated luminosity of 100 fb-1 at 13 TeV. We present our preliminary results for Z pair exclusive production from two-photon exchange with anomalous couplings, where the ZZγγ quartic coupling is absent in the SM. We calculate the total cross section for the exclusive process and present the four lepton invariant mass distribution. Finally we present an outlook for the present analysis.
Calculation of electron-pair production by 7. 5-MeV photons on Sn and U
Sud, K.K. ); Soto Vargas, C.W. )
1991-05-01
We present in this Brief Report the results of the distorted-wave Born approximation calculations of the electron-pair-creation cross section by 7.5-MeV photons on Sn and U. The results are compared with the cross sections obtained by using semiempirical formulas of Overbo (Phys. Lett. 71B, 412 (1977)) and of Maximon and Gimm (Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.). Internal Report No. 78-1456 (1978)) and the interpolated experimental data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pracht, Uwe S.; Bachar, Nimrod; Benfatto, Lara; Deutscher, Guy; Farber, Eli; Dressel, Martin; Scheffler, Marc
2016-03-01
The development of the fundamental superconducting (SC) energy scales—the SC energy gap Δ and the superfluid stiffness J —of granular aluminum, i.e., thin films composed of coupled nanograins, is studied by means of optical THz spectroscopy. Starting from well-coupled grains, Δ grows as the grains are progressively decoupled, causing the unconventional increase of Tc with sample resistivity. When the grain coupling is suppressed further, Δ saturates while the critical temperature Tc decreases, concomitantly with a sharp decline of J , delimiting a SC dome in the phase diagram. This crossover to a phase-driven SC transition is accompanied by an optical gap surviving into the normal state above Tc. We demonstrate that granular aluminum is an ideal testbed to understand the interplay between quantum confinement and global SC phase coherence due to nanoinhomogeneity.
Coherent Generation of Nonclassical Light on Chip via Detuned Photon Blockade.
Müller, Kai; Rundquist, Armand; Fischer, Kevin A; Sarmiento, Tomas; Lagoudakis, Konstantinos G; Kelaita, Yousif A; Sánchez Muñoz, Carlos; del Valle, Elena; Laussy, Fabrice P; Vučković, Jelena
2015-06-12
The on-chip generation of nonclassical states of light is a key requirement for future optical quantum hardware. In solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics, such nonclassical light can be generated from self-assembled quantum dots strongly coupled to photonic crystal cavities. Their anharmonic strong light-matter interaction results in large optical nonlinearities at the single photon level, where the admission of a single photon into the cavity may enhance (photon tunneling) or diminish (photon blockade) the probability for a second photon to enter the cavity. Here, we demonstrate that detuning the cavity and quantum-dot resonances enables the generation of high-purity nonclassical light from strongly coupled systems. For specific detunings we show that not only the purity but also the efficiency of single-photon generation increases significantly, making high-quality single-photon generation by photon blockade possible with current state-of-the-art samples. PMID:26196801
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jiaxiang; Wildmann, Johannes S.; Ding, Fei; Trotta, Rinaldo; Huo, Yongheng; Zallo, Eugenio; Huber, Daniel; Rastelli, Armando; Schmidt, Oliver G.
2015-12-01
Triggered sources of entangled photon pairs are key components in most quantum communication protocols. For practical quantum applications, electrical triggering would allow the realization of compact and deterministic sources of entangled photons. Entangled-light-emitting-diodes based on semiconductor quantum dots are among the most promising sources that can potentially address this task. However, entangled-light-emitting-diodes are plagued by a source of randomness, which results in a very low probability of finding quantum dots with sufficiently small fine structure splitting for entangled-photon generation (~10-2). Here we introduce strain-tunable entangled-light-emitting-diodes that exploit piezoelectric-induced strains to tune quantum dots for entangled-photon generation. We demonstrate that up to 30% of the quantum dots in strain-tunable entangled-light-emitting-diodes emit polarization-entangled photons. An entanglement fidelity as high as 0.83 is achieved with fast temporal post selection. Driven at high speed, that is 400 MHz, strain-tunable entangled-light-emitting-diodes emerge as promising devices for high data-rate quantum applications.
Zhang, Jiaxiang; Wildmann, Johannes S; Ding, Fei; Trotta, Rinaldo; Huo, Yongheng; Zallo, Eugenio; Huber, Daniel; Rastelli, Armando; Schmidt, Oliver G
2015-01-01
Triggered sources of entangled photon pairs are key components in most quantum communication protocols. For practical quantum applications, electrical triggering would allow the realization of compact and deterministic sources of entangled photons. Entangled-light-emitting-diodes based on semiconductor quantum dots are among the most promising sources that can potentially address this task. However, entangled-light-emitting-diodes are plagued by a source of randomness, which results in a very low probability of finding quantum dots with sufficiently small fine structure splitting for entangled-photon generation (∼10(-2)). Here we introduce strain-tunable entangled-light-emitting-diodes that exploit piezoelectric-induced strains to tune quantum dots for entangled-photon generation. We demonstrate that up to 30% of the quantum dots in strain-tunable entangled-light-emitting-diodes emit polarization-entangled photons. An entanglement fidelity as high as 0.83 is achieved with fast temporal post selection. Driven at high speed, that is 400 MHz, strain-tunable entangled-light-emitting-diodes emerge as promising devices for high data-rate quantum applications.
Zhang, Jiaxiang; Wildmann, Johannes S.; Ding, Fei; Trotta, Rinaldo; Huo, Yongheng; Zallo, Eugenio; Huber, Daniel; Rastelli, Armando; Schmidt, Oliver G.
2015-01-01
Triggered sources of entangled photon pairs are key components in most quantum communication protocols. For practical quantum applications, electrical triggering would allow the realization of compact and deterministic sources of entangled photons. Entangled-light-emitting-diodes based on semiconductor quantum dots are among the most promising sources that can potentially address this task. However, entangled-light-emitting-diodes are plagued by a source of randomness, which results in a very low probability of finding quantum dots with sufficiently small fine structure splitting for entangled-photon generation (∼10−2). Here we introduce strain-tunable entangled-light-emitting-diodes that exploit piezoelectric-induced strains to tune quantum dots for entangled-photon generation. We demonstrate that up to 30% of the quantum dots in strain-tunable entangled-light-emitting-diodes emit polarization-entangled photons. An entanglement fidelity as high as 0.83 is achieved with fast temporal post selection. Driven at high speed, that is 400 MHz, strain-tunable entangled-light-emitting-diodes emerge as promising devices for high data-rate quantum applications. PMID:26621073
Non-thermal gamma-ray emission from delayed pair breakdown in a magnetized and photon-rich outflow
Gill, Ramandeep; Thompson, Christopher
2014-12-01
We consider delayed, volumetric heating in a magnetized outflow that has broken out of a confining medium and expanded to a high Lorentz factor (Γ ∼ 10{sup 2}-10{sup 3}) and low optical depth to scattering (τ {sub T} ∼ 10{sup –3}-10{sup –2}). The energy flux at breakout is dominated by the magnetic field, with a modest contribution from quasi-thermal gamma rays whose spectrum was calculated in Paper I. We focus on the case of extreme baryon depletion in the magnetized material, but allow for a separate baryonic component that is entrained from a confining medium. Dissipation is driven by relativistic motion between these two components, which develops once the photon compactness drops below 4 × 10{sup 3}(Y{sub e} /0.5){sup –1}. We first calculate the acceleration of the magnetized component following breakout, showing that embedded MHD turbulence provides significant inertia, the neglect of which leads to unrealistically high estimates of flow Lorentz factor. After reheating begins, the pair and photon distributions are evolved self-consistently using a one-zone kinetic code that incorporates an exact treatment of Compton scattering, pair production and annihilation, and Coulomb scattering. Heating leads to a surge in pair creation, and the scattering depth saturates at τ {sub T} ∼ 1-4. The plasma maintains a very low ratio of particle to magnetic pressure, and can support strong anisotropy in the charged particle distribution, with cooling dominated by Compton scattering. High-energy power-law spectra with photon indices in the range observed in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs; –3 < β < –3/2) are obtained by varying the ratio of heat input to the seed energy in quasi-thermal photons. We contrast our results with those for continuous heating across an expanding photosphere, and show that the latter model produces soft-to-hard evolution that is inconsistent with observations of GRBs.
Bound on the Photon Charge from the Phase Coherence of Extragalactic Radiation
Altschul, Brett
2007-06-29
If the photon possessed a nonzero charge, then electromagnetic waves traveling along different paths would acquire Aharonov-Bohm phase differences. The fact that such an effect has not hindered interferometric astronomy places a bound on the photon charge estimated to be at the 10{sup -32}e level if all photons have the same charge and 10{sup -46}e if different photons can carry different charges.
Exclusive photon-photon production of muon pairs in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV
Chatrchyan, Serguei; Khachatryan, Vardan; Sirunyan, Albert M.; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; ErÃ¶, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; /Yerevan Phys. Inst. /Vienna, OAW /Minsk, High Energy Phys. Ctr. /Antwerp U., WISINF /Vrije U., Brussels /Brussels U. /Gent U. /Louvain U. /UMH, Mons /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Rio de Janeiro State U.
2011-11-01
A measurement of the exclusive two-photon production of muon pairs in proton-proton collisions at {radical}s = 7 TeV, pp {yields} p{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}p, is reported using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 40 pb{sup -1}. For muon pairs with invariant mass greater than 11.5 GeV, transverse momentum p{sub T}({mu}) > 4 GeV and pseudorapidity |{eta}({mu})| < 2.1, a fit to the dimuon p{sub T}({mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}) distribution results in a measured cross section of {sigma}(p {yields} p{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}) = 3.38{sub -0.55}{sup +0.58}(stat.) {+-} 0.16(syst.) {+-} 0.14(lumi.) pb, consistent with the theoretical prediction evaluated with the event generator LPAIR. The ratio to the predicted cross section is 0.83{sub -0.13}{sup +0.14}(stat.) {+-} 0.04(syst.) {+-} 0.03(lumi.). The characteristic distributions of the muon pairs produced via {gamma}{gamma} fusion, such as the muon acoplanarity, the muon pair invariant mass and transverse momentum agree with those from the theory.
Wang, Haifeng; Huff, Terry B.; Cheng, Ji-Xin
2009-01-01
We demonstrate laser-scanning coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging with two excitation laser beams delivered by a large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber. The group-velocity dispersion and self-phase modulation effects are largely suppressed due to the large mode area of the fiber and the use of pico-second pulses. The fiber delivery preserves the signal level and image spatial resolution well. High-quality images of live spinal cord tissues are acquired using the fiber-delivered laser source. Our method provides a basic platform for developing a flexible and compact CARS imaging system. PMID:16642124
Additional one-photon coherence-induced transparency in a Doppler-broadened V-type system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anil Kumar, M.; Singh, Suneel
2013-06-01
We illustrate an alternate mechanism which causes probe transparency in a Doppler-broadened V-type system. Our numerical results obtained for very low control field amplitudes clearly indicate the feasibility of attaining nearly perfect probe transparency that originates from an additional one-photon coherence induced by the control field in a Doppler-broadened V-type system. In this regime of control field amplitudes, the criterion for electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is not fulfilled and hence the contribution of the usual EIT term is found to be negligible.
New coherent cancellation effect involving four-photon excitation and the related ionization
Payne, M.G.; Garrett, W.R.; Judish, J.P.; McCann, M.P.
1988-11-01
We describe here an effect which occurs when a first laser is tuned near a dipole allowed three-photon resonance and a second laser is used to complete a dipole allowed four-photon resonance between the ground state /vert bar/0 > and an excited state /vert bar/2 >. In this process three photons are absorbed from the first laser and one photon from the second; so that if the /vert bar/0 >--/vert bar/2 > transition is two-photon allowed the transition is also pumped resonantly by the third harmonic field due to the first laser and the second laser field. When the second laser is strong enough to cause strong absorption of the third harmonic light, and the phase mismatch, /DELTA/kappa is large and dominated by the nearby resonance, a destructive interference occurs between the pumping of the /vert bar/0 >--/vert bar/2 > transition by two- and four-photon process. 7 refs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrosyan, Sh.; Malakyan, Yu.
2013-12-01
Single-photon coherent optics represents a fundamental importance for the investigation of quantum light-matter interactions. While most work has considered the interaction in the steady-state regime, here we demonstrate that a single-photon pulse shorter than any relaxation time in a medium propagates without energy loss and is consistently transformed into a zero-area pulse. A general analytical solution is found for photon passage through a cold ensemble of Λ-type atoms confined inside a hollow core of a single-mode photonic-crystal fiber. We use the robust far-off-resonant Raman scheme to control the pulse reshaping by an intense control laser beam and show that in the case of cw control field, for exact two-photon resonance, the outgoing photon displays an oscillating temporal distribution, which is the quantum counterpart of a classical field ringing, while for nonzero two-photon detuning a slow photon is produced. We demonstrate also that a train of readout control pulses coherently recalls the stored photon in many well-separated temporal modes, thus producing time-bin entangled single-photon states. Such states, which allow sharing quantum information among many users, are highly demanded for applications in long-distance quantum communication.
Annihilation of the scalar pair into a photon in a de Sitter universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Băloi, Mihaela-Andreea
2016-05-01
The annihilation of massive scalar particles in one photon in de Sitter expanding universe is studied, using perturbative QED. The amplitude and probability corresponding to this process is computed using the exact solutions of the Klein-Gordon and Maxwell equations on de Sitter geometry. Our results show that the expression of the total probability of photon emission is a function dependent on the ratio mass/expansion factor. We perform a graphical study of the total probability in terms of the parameter mass/expansion factor, showing that this effect is significant only in strong gravitational fields. We also obtain that the total probability for this process vanishes in the Minkowski limit.
Photon pair sources in AlGaAs: from electrical injection to quantum state engineering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Autebert, C.; Boucher, G.; Boitier, F.; Eckstein, A.; Favero, I.; Leo, G.; Ducci, S.
2015-11-01
Integrated quantum photonics is a very active field of quantum information, communication, and processing. One of the main challenges to achieve massively parallel systems for complex operations is the generation, manipulation, and detection of many qubits within the same chip. Here, we present our last achievements on AlGaAs quantum photonic devices emitting nonclassical states of light at room temperature by spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC). The choice of this platform combines the advantages of a mature fabrication technology, a high nonlinear coefficient, a SPDC wavelength in the C-telecom band and the possibility of electrical injection.
Lebreton, A; Abram, I; Braive, R; Sagnes, I; Robert-Philip, I; Beveratos, A
2013-04-19
We present a novel experimental technique that can differentiate unequivocally between chaotic light and coherent light with amplitude fluctuations, and thus permits us to characterize unambiguously the output of a laser. This technique consists of measuring the second-order intensity cross correlation at the outputs of an unbalanced Michelson interferometer. It is applied to a chaotic light source and to the output of a semiconductor nanolaser whose "standard" intensity correlation function above threshold displays values compatible with a mixture of coherent and chaotic light. Our experimental results demonstrate that the output of such lasers is not partially chaotic but is indeed a coherent state with amplitude fluctuations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kraft, Manuel; Hein, Sven M.; Lehnert, Judith; Schöll, Eckehard; Hughes, Stephen; Knorr, Andreas
2016-08-01
Quantum coherent feedback control is a measurement-free control method fully preserving quantum coherence. In this paper we show how time-delayed quantum coherent feedback can be used to control the degree of squeezing in the output field of a cavity containing a degenerate parametric oscillator. We focus on the specific situation of Pyragas-type feedback control where time-delayed signals are fed back directly into the quantum system. Our results show how time-delayed feedback can enhance or decrease the degree of squeezing as a function of time delay and feedback strength.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roslyak, O.; Gumbs, Godfrey; Mukamel, S.
2012-05-01
We study the localization of dressed Dirac electrons in a cylindrical quantum dot (QD) formed on monolayer and bilayer graphene by spatially different potential profiles. Short lived excitonic states which are too broad to be resolved in linear spectroscopy are revealed by cross peaks in the photon-echo nonlinear technique. Signatures of the dynamic gap in the two-dimensional spectra are discussed. The effect of the Coulomb induced exciton-exciton scattering and the formation of biexciton molecules are demonstrated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caspani, Lucia; Reimer, Christian; Kues, Michael; Roztocki, Piotr; Clerici, Matteo; Wetzel, Benjamin; Jestin, Yoann; Ferrera, Marcello; Peccianti, Marco; Pasquazi, Alessia; Razzari, Luca; Little, Brent E.; Chu, Sai T.; Moss, David J.; Morandotti, Roberto
2016-06-01
Recent developments in quantum photonics have initiated the process of bringing photonic-quantumbased systems out-of-the-lab and into real-world applications. As an example, devices to enable the exchange of a cryptographic key secured by the laws of quantum mechanics are already commercially available. In order to further boost this process, the next step is to transfer the results achieved by means of bulky and expensive setups into miniaturized and affordable devices. Integrated quantum photonics is exactly addressing this issue. In this paper, we briefly review the most recent advancements in the generation of quantum states of light on-chip. In particular, we focus on optical microcavities, as they can offer a solution to the problem of low efficiency that is characteristic of the materials typically used in integrated platforms. In addition, we show that specifically designed microcavities can also offer further advantages, such as compatibility with telecom standards (for exploiting existing fibre networks) and quantum memories (necessary to extend the communication distance), as well as giving a longitudinal multimode character for larger information transfer and processing. This last property (i.e., the increased dimensionality of the photon quantum state) is achieved through the ability to generate multiple photon pairs on a frequency comb, corresponding to the microcavity resonances. Further achievements include the possibility of fully exploiting the polarization degree of freedom, even for integrated devices. These results pave the way for the generation of integrated quantum frequency combs that, in turn, may find important applications toward the realization of a compact quantum-computing platform.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ocegueda, M.; Hernandez, E.; Stepanov, S.; Agruzov, P.; Shamray, A.
2014-06-01
Experimental observations of nonstationary coherent optical phenomena, i.e., optical nutation, free induction, and photon echo, in the acetylene (12C2H2) filled hollow-core photonic-crystal fiber (PCF) are reported. The presented results were obtained for the acetylene vibration-rotational transition P9 at wavelength 1530.37 nm at room temperature under a gas pressure of <0.5 Torr. An all-fiber pumped-through cell based on the commercial 2.6-m-long PCF with a 10-μm hollow-core diameter was used. The characteristic relaxation time T2 during which the optical coherent effects were typically observed in our experiments was estimated to be ≈8 ns. This time is governed by the limited time of the acetylene molecules' presence inside the effective PCF modal area and by intermolecule collisions. An accelerated attenuation of the optical nutation oscillations is explained by a random orientation of acetylene molecules.
Allaria, Enrico; Callegari, Carlo; Cocco, Daniele; Fawley, William M.; Kiskinova, Maya; Masciovecchio, Claudio; Parmigiani, Fulvio
2010-04-05
FERMI@Elettra is comprised of two free electron lasers (FELs) that will generate short pulses (tau ~;; 25 to 200 fs) of highly coherent radiation in the XUV and soft X-ray region. The use of external laser seeding together with a harmonic upshift scheme to obtain short wavelengths will give FERMI@Elettra the capability to produce high quality, longitudinal coherent photon pulses. This capability together with the possibilities of temporal synchronization to external lasers and control of the output photon polarization will open new experimental opportunities not possible with currently available FELs. Here we report on the predicted radiation coherence properties and important configuration details of the photon beam transport system. We discuss the several experimental stations that will be available during initial operations in 2011, and we give a scientific perspective on possible experiments that can exploit the critical parameters of this new light source.
Roslyak, O.; Gumbs, Godfrey; Mukamel, S.
2012-01-01
We study the localization of dressed Dirac electrons in a cylindrical quantum dot (QD) formed on monolayer and bilayer graphene by spatially different potential profiles. Short lived excitonic states which are too broad to be resolved in linear spectroscopy are revealed by cross peaks in the photon-echo nonlinear technique. Signatures of the dynamic gap in the two-dimensional spectra are discussed. The effect of the Coulomb induced exciton-exciton scattering and the formation of biexciton molecules are demonstrated. PMID:22612079
Bina, Matteo; Allevi, Alessia; Bondani, Maria; Olivares, Stefano
2016-01-01
Phase estimation represents a crucial challenge in many fields of Physics, ranging from Quantum Metrology to Quantum Information Processing. This task is usually pursued by means of interferometric schemes, in which the choice of the input states and of the detection apparatus is aimed at minimizing the uncertainty in the estimation of the relative phase between the inputs. State discrimination protocols in communication channels with coherent states also require the monitoring of the optical phase. Therefore, the problem of phase estimation is relevant to face the issue of coherent states discrimination. Here we consider a quasi-optimal Kennedy-like receiver, based on the interference of two coherent signals, to be discriminated, with a reference local oscillator. By means of the Bayesian processing of a small amount of data drawn from the outputs of the shot-by-shot discrimination protocol, we demonstrate the achievement of the minimum uncertainty in phase estimation, also in the presence of uniform phase noise. Moreover, we show that the use of photon-number resolving detectors in the receiver improves the phase-estimation strategy, especially with respect to the usually employed on/off detectors. From the experimental point of view, this comparison is realized by employing hybrid photodetectors. PMID:27189140
Bina, Matteo; Allevi, Alessia; Bondani, Maria; Olivares, Stefano
2016-01-01
Phase estimation represents a crucial challenge in many fields of Physics, ranging from Quantum Metrology to Quantum Information Processing. This task is usually pursued by means of interferometric schemes, in which the choice of the input states and of the detection apparatus is aimed at minimizing the uncertainty in the estimation of the relative phase between the inputs. State discrimination protocols in communication channels with coherent states also require the monitoring of the optical phase. Therefore, the problem of phase estimation is relevant to face the issue of coherent states discrimination. Here we consider a quasi-optimal Kennedy-like receiver, based on the interference of two coherent signals, to be discriminated, with a reference local oscillator. By means of the Bayesian processing of a small amount of data drawn from the outputs of the shot-by-shot discrimination protocol, we demonstrate the achievement of the minimum uncertainty in phase estimation, also in the presence of uniform phase noise. Moreover, we show that the use of photon-number resolving detectors in the receiver improves the phase-estimation strategy, especially with respect to the usually employed on/off detectors. From the experimental point of view, this comparison is realized by employing hybrid photodetectors. PMID:27189140
Egorova, Dassia
2015-06-07
Several recent experiments report on possibility of dark-state detection by means of so called beating maps of two-dimensional photon-echo spectroscopy [Ostroumov et al., Science 340, 52 (2013); Bakulin et al., Ultrafast Phenomena XIX (Springer International Publishing, 2015)]. The main idea of this detection scheme is to use coherence induced upon the laser excitation as a very sensitive probe. In this study, we investigate the performance of ground-state coherence in the detection of dark electronic states. For this purpose, we simulate beating maps of several models where the excited-state coherence can be hardly detected and is assumed not to contribute to the beating maps. The models represent strongly coupled electron-nuclear dynamics involving avoided crossings and conical intersections. In all the models, the initially populated optically accessible excited state decays to a lower-lying dark state within few hundreds femtoseconds. We address the role of Raman modes and of interstate-coupling nature. Our findings suggest that the presence of low-frequency Raman active modes significantly increases the chances for detection of dark states populated via avoided crossings, whereas conical intersections represent a more challenging task.
Continuous Energy MC Neutron/Photon
1991-10-10
VIM solves the three-dimensional steady-state multiplication eigenvalue or fixed source neutron or photon (VIM3.0) transport problem using continuous energy-dependent nuclear data. It was designed for the analysis of fast critical experiments. In VIM3.0, the photon interactions i.e., pair production, coherent and incoherent scattering, and photoelectric events, and photon heating are tallied by group, region, and isotope.
Excess-noise-enhanced photon-pair generation in unstable resonators.
Lamprecht, Claus; Ritsch, Helmut
2002-05-01
We investigate a degenerate optical parametric device with a transversely finite unstable cavity configuration operated below threshold. Using an approximate quantum description in terms of a biorthogonal set of effective cavity-matched modes and their adjoint modes, we predict an intracavity field intensity enhancement by the Petermann excess-noise factor, K . This enhancement is accompanied by a reduction of photon bunching and quadrature squeezing. PMID:18007923
Paul, E. C.; Hor-Meyll, M.; Ribeiro, P. H. Souto; Walborn, S. P.
2014-01-01
We demonstrate the use of a phase-only spatial light modulator for the measurement of transverse spatial distributions of coincidence counts between twin photon beams, in a fully automated fashion. This is accomplished by means of the polarization dependence of the modulator, which allows the conversion of a phase pattern into an amplitude pattern. We also present a correction procedure, that accounts for unwanted coincidence counts due to polarization decoherence effects. PMID:24939691
Yurtsever, Günay; Považay, Boris; Alex, Aneesh; Zabihian, Behrooz; Drexler, Wolfgang; Baets, Roel
2014-01-01
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive, three-dimensional imaging modality with several medical and industrial applications. Integrated photonics has the potential to enable mass production of OCT devices to significantly reduce size and cost, which can increase its use in established fields as well as enable new applications. Using silicon nitride (Si3N4) and silicon dioxide (SiO2) waveguides, we fabricated an integrated interferometer for spectrometer-based OCT. The integrated photonic circuit consists of four splitters and a 190 mm long reference arm with a foot-print of only 10 × 33 mm2. It is used as the core of a spectral domain OCT system consisting of a superluminescent diode centered at 1320 nm with 100 nm bandwidth, a spectrometer with 1024 channels, and an x-y scanner. The sensitivity of the system was measured at 0.25 mm depth to be 65 dB with 0.1 mW on the sample. Using the system, we imaged human skin in vivo. With further optimization in design and fabrication technology, Si3N4/SiO2 waveguides have a potential to serve as a platform for passive photonic integrated circuits for OCT. PMID:24761288
New coherent cancellation effect involving four-photon excitation and the related ionization
Payne, M.G.; Garrett, W.R.; Judish, J.P.; McCann, M.P. )
1989-10-20
We describe here an effect which occurs when a first laser is tuned near a dipole allowed three-photon resonance and a second laser is used to complete a dipole allowed four-photon resonance between the ground state {vert bar}0{r angle} and an excited state {vert bar}2{r angle}. In this process three photons are absorbed from the first laser and one photon from the second; so that if the {vert bar}0{r angle} to {vert bar}2{r angle} transition is two-photon allowed the transition is also pumped resonantly by the third harmonic field due to the first laser and the second laser field. When the second laser is strong enough to cause strong absorption of the third harmonic light, and the phase mismatch, {Delta}{ital k} is large and dominated by the nearby resonance, a destructive interference occurs between the pumping of the {vert bar}0{r angle} to {vert bar} 2{r angle} transition by two- and four-photon processes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Zhan; Wu, Xing-Gang; Zhang, Hong-Fei
2015-10-01
We present a systematical study on the prompt J /ψ production in association with a c c ¯ pair via the process, γ γ →H (c c ¯)+c +c ¯, within the framework of nonrelativistic QCD at the future high-energy e+e- collider—International Linear Collider (ILC), including both direct and feed-down contributions. For direct J /ψ production, the states with color-octet channels, especially the P3 J[8] and S1 0[8] ones, provide a dominant contribution to the production cross section, which are about 52 times over that of the color-singlet one. This is clearly shown by the transverse momentum (pt) and rapidity distributions. The feed-down contribution from ψ' and χc J (J =0 , 1, 2) is sizable, which is about 20% to the total prompt cross section. Besides the yields, we also calculate the J /ψ polarization parameter λ . In the small pt region, the polarization of the prompt J /ψ is longitudinal due to large contributions through the P3 J[8] channel, and becomes transverse in the high pt region due to the S3 1[8] channel. Thus the J /ψ production via photon-photon collisions at the ILC shall provide a useful platform for testing the color-octet mechanism.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmadov, Azad I.; Kuraev, Eduard A.
2014-08-01
We considered the three jet production processes in the region of the incident lepton, photon, quark or gluon fragmentation. The fourth jet is created by the recoil proton. The kinematics of jet production is discussed in jets production in the fragmentation region. The non-trivial relation between the momenta of the recoil proton and the polar angle of its emission was derived. Based on this formalism the differential cross sections of QCD processes gp→(ggg)p; qp→(qQbarQ)p; gp→(gQQbar)p were obtained, including the distribution on transverse momentum component of jets fragments. It was shown that the role of the contribution of “non-Abelian” nature may become dominant in a particular kinematics of the final particles. The kinematics, in which the initial particle changes the direction of movement to the opposite one, was considered in the case of heavy quark-antiquark pair production. Different distributions, including spectral, azimuthal and polar angle distribution on the fragments of jets can be arranged using our results. We present besides the behavior of the ratio of non-Abelian contribution to the cross section to the total contribution. We show that it dominates for large values of the transverse momenta of jets component (gluons or quarks). Some historical introduction to the cross-sections of peripheral processes, including 2γ creation mechanism production, including the result Brodsky-Kinoshita-Terazawa, is given.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cardoso B., W.; Almeida G. de, N.
2008-07-01
We propose a scheme to partially teleport an unknown entangled atomic state. A high-Q cavity, supporting one mode of a weak coherent state, is needed to accomplish this process. By partial teleportation we mean that teleportation will occur by changing one of the partners of the entangled state to be teleported. The entangled state to be teleported is composed by one pair of particles, we called this surprising characteristic of maintaining the entanglement, even when one of the particle of the entangled pair being teleported is changed, of divorce of entangled states.
Taylor, R J E; Childs, D T D; Ivanov, P; Stevens, B J; Babazadeh, N; Crombie, A J; Ternent, G; Thoms, S; Zhou, H; Hogg, R A
2015-01-01
We demonstrate a semiconductor PCSEL array that uniquely combines an in-plane waveguide structure with nano-scale patterned PCSEL elements. This novel geometry allows two-dimensional electronically controllable coherent coupling of remote vertically emitting lasers. Mutual coherence of the PCSEL elements is verified through the demonstration of a two-dimensional Young's Slits experiment. In addition to allowing the all-electronic control of the interference pattern, this type of device offers new routes to power and brightness scaling in semiconductor lasers, and opportunities for all-electronic beam steering. PMID:26289621
Taylor, R. J. E.; Childs, D. T. D.; Ivanov, P.; Stevens, B. J.; Babazadeh, N.; Crombie, A. J.; Ternent, G.; Thoms, S.; Zhou, H.; Hogg, R. A.
2015-01-01
We demonstrate a semiconductor PCSEL array that uniquely combines an in-plane waveguide structure with nano-scale patterned PCSEL elements. This novel geometry allows two-dimensional electronically controllable coherent coupling of remote vertically emitting lasers. Mutual coherence of the PCSEL elements is verified through the demonstration of a two-dimensional Young’s Slits experiment. In addition to allowing the all-electronic control of the interference pattern, this type of device offers new routes to power and brightness scaling in semiconductor lasers, and opportunities for all-electronic beam steering. PMID:26289621
Liu, X.; Kumano, H.; Nakajima, H.; Odashima, S.; Asano, T.; Suemune, I.; Kuroda, T.
2014-07-28
We have recently reported the successful fabrication of bright single-photon sources based on Ag-embedded nanocone structures that incorporate InAs quantum dots. The source had a photon collection efficiency as high as 24.6%. Here, we show the results of various types of photonic characterizations of the Ag-embedded nanocone structures that confirm their versatility as regards a broad range of quantum optical applications. We measure the first-order autocorrelation function to evaluate the coherence time of emitted photons, and the second-order correlation function, which reveals the strong suppression of multiple photon generation. The high indistinguishability of emitted photons is shown by the Hong-Ou-Mandel-type two-photon interference. With quasi-resonant excitation, coherent population flopping is demonstrated through Rabi oscillations. Extremely high single-photon purity with a g{sup (2)}(0) value of 0.008 is achieved with π-pulse quasi-resonant excitation.
Uncovering dispersion properties in semiconductor waveguides to study photon-pair generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laiho, K.; Pressl, B.; Schlager, A.; Suchomel, H.; Kamp, M.; Höfling, S.; Schneider, C.; Weihs, G.
2016-10-01
We investigate the dispersion properties of ridge Bragg-reflection waveguides to deduce their phasematching characteristics. These are crucial for exploiting them as sources of parametric down-conversion (PDC). In order to estimate the phasematching bandwidth we first determine the group refractive indices of the interacting modes via Fabry-Perot experiments in two distant wavelength regions. Second, by measuring the spectra of the emitted PDC photons, we gain access to their group index dispersion. Our results offer a simple approach for determining the PDC process parameters in the spectral domain, and provide important feedback for designing such sources, especially in the broadband case.
Realization of the Contextuality-Nonlocality Tradeoff with a Qubit-Qutrit Photon Pair
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhan, Xiang; Zhang, Xin; Li, Jian; Zhang, Yongsheng; Sanders, Barry C.; Xue, Peng
2016-03-01
We report our experimental results on the no-disturbance principle, which imposes a fundamental monogamy relation on contextuality versus nonlocality. We employ a photonic qutrit-qubit hybrid to explore no-disturbance monogamy at the quantum boundary spanned by noncontextuality and locality inequalities. In particular, we realize the single point where the quantum boundary meets the no-disturbance boundary. Our results agree with quantum theory and satisfy the stringent monogamy relation thereby providing direct experimental evidence of a tradeoff between locally contextual correlations and spatially separated correlations. Thus, our experiment provides evidence that entanglement is a particular manifestation of a more fundamental quantum resource.
Excessive production of electron pairs by soft photons in low multiplicity ion interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burnett, T. H.; Dake, S.; Fuki, M.; Gregory, J. C.; Hayashi, T.; Holynski, R.; Iwai, J.; Jones, W. V.; Jurak, A.; Lord, J. J.
1985-01-01
Three multiply charged primary cosmic ray interactions with carbon nuclei are reported, in which the number of materialized electron pairs within a distance of about 0.3 conversion length is larger than predicted from isospin considerations. These are the most energetic (sigma E gamma 4 TeV) of the low multiplicity ( 15 tracks) events observed in the Japanese-American Cooperative Experiment (JACEE-2) emulsion chamber.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Woldeyohannes, Mesfin; Idehenre, Ighodalo; Hardin, Tyler
2015-08-01
The coherent control of cooperative spontaneous emission from two identical non-overlapping three-level atoms in the V-configuration located within a photonic band gap (PBG) material with two resonant frequencies near the upper band edge of the PBG and confined to a region small in comparison to their radiation wavelengths but still greater than their atomic sizes is investigated. The dependencies of cooperative effects in which a photon emitted by one atom is reabsorbed by the other atom on the inter-atomic separation, on the initial state of the two-atom system, on the strength of the driving control laser field, and on the detuning of the atomic resonant frequencies from the upper band edge frequency is analyzed so as to identify the conditions for which these cooperative effects are enhanced or inhibited. Cooperative effects between atoms are shown to be influenced more by the PBG than by the nature of the atomic transitions involved. Excited state populations as well as coherences between excited levels are expressed in terms of time-dependent amplitudes which are shown to satisfy coupled integro-differential equations for which analytic solutions are derived under special conditions. Unlike for the case of one atom in a PBG where the fractional non-zero steady state populations on the excited levels as well as the coherence between the excited levels are constants independent of time, in the case of two atoms in PBG these quantities continuously oscillate as a manifestation of beating due to the continuous exchange between the two atoms of the photon trapped by the PBG. The values of these quantities as well as the amplitudes and frequencies of their oscillations depend of the parameters of the system, providing different ways of manipulating the system. The general formalism presented here is shown to recapture the special results of investigations of similar systems in free space when the non-Markovian memory kernels of the PBG are replaced by delta
Coherent states on the m-sheeted complex plane as m-photon states
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vourdas, Apostolos
1994-01-01
Coherent states on the m-sheeted complex plane are introduced and properties like overcompleteness and resolution of the identity are studied. They are eigenstates of the operators a(sub m)(+), a(sub m) which create and annihilate clusters of m-particles. Applications of this formalism in the study of Hamiltonians that describe m-particle clustering are also considered.
Coherence time limit of the biphotons generated in a dense cold atom cloud.
Han, Zhiguang; Qian, Peng; Zhou, L; Chen, J F; Zhang, Weiping
2015-01-01
Biphotons with narrow bandwidth and long coherence time can enhance light-atom interaction, which leads to strong coupling between photonic and atomic qubits. Such strong coupling is desirable in quantum information processing, quantum storage and communication. In particular, paired photons with a long coherence time over submicroseconds facilitate the direct manipulation of biphoton wavefunction. In this paper, we report the narrow-band biphotons with a coherence time of 2.34 μs generated from spontaneous four-wave mixing (SFWM) in a dense cold atom cloud, in which the anti-Stokes photons go through a narrow electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT) window. In our knowledge, this is the best record of coherence time for paired photons achieved so far. A number of factors limiting the coherence time are analyzed in detail. We find the EIT coherence plays an essential role in determining the coherence time for paired photons. The EIT dephasing rate is the ultimate limit to the coherence time, and an ultra-long coherence time above ten microseconds is possible by further improvement of the dephasing rate below 100 kHz. PMID:25778764
Coherence time limit of the biphotons generated in a dense cold atom cloud
Han, Zhiguang; Qian, Peng; Zhou, L.; Chen, J. F.; Zhang, Weiping
2015-01-01
Biphotons with narrow bandwidth and long coherence time can enhance light-atom interaction, which leads to strong coupling between photonic and atomic qubits. Such strong coupling is desirable in quantum information processing, quantum storage and communication. In particular, paired photons with a long coherence time over submicroseconds facilitate the direct manipulation of biphoton wavefunction. In this paper, we report the narrow-band biphotons with a coherence time of 2.34 μs generated from spontaneous four-wave mixing (SFWM) in a dense cold atom cloud, in which the anti-Stokes photons go through a narrow electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT) window. In our knowledge, this is the best record of coherence time for paired photons achieved so far. A number of factors limiting the coherence time are analyzed in detail. We find the EIT coherence plays an essential role in determining the coherence time for paired photons. The EIT dephasing rate is the ultimate limit to the coherence time, and an ultra-long coherence time above ten microseconds is possible by further improvement of the dephasing rate below 100 kHz. PMID:25778764
Reimer, Christian; Kues, Michael; Caspani, Lucia; Wetzel, Benjamin; Roztocki, Piotr; Clerici, Matteo; Jestin, Yoann; Ferrera, Marcello; Peccianti, Marco; Pasquazi, Alessia; Little, Brent E; Chu, Sai T; Moss, David J; Morandotti, Roberto
2015-01-01
Nonlinear optical processes are one of the most important tools in modern optics with a broad spectrum of applications in, for example, frequency conversion, spectroscopy, signal processing and quantum optics. For practical and ultimately widespread implementation, on-chip devices compatible with electronic integrated circuit technology offer great advantages in terms of low cost, small footprint, high performance and low energy consumption. While many on-chip key components have been realized, to date polarization has not been fully exploited as a degree of freedom for integrated nonlinear devices. In particular, frequency conversion based on orthogonally polarized beams has not yet been demonstrated on chip. Here we show frequency mixing between orthogonal polarization modes in a compact integrated microring resonator and demonstrate a bi-chromatically pumped optical parametric oscillator. Operating the device above and below threshold, we directly generate orthogonally polarized beams, as well as photon pairs, respectively, that can find applications, for example, in optical communication and quantum optics.
Reimer, Christian; Kues, Michael; Caspani, Lucia; Wetzel, Benjamin; Roztocki, Piotr; Clerici, Matteo; Jestin, Yoann; Ferrera, Marcello; Peccianti, Marco; Pasquazi, Alessia; Little, Brent E.; Chu, Sai T.; Moss, David J.; Morandotti, Roberto
2015-01-01
Nonlinear optical processes are one of the most important tools in modern optics with a broad spectrum of applications in, for example, frequency conversion, spectroscopy, signal processing and quantum optics. For practical and ultimately widespread implementation, on-chip devices compatible with electronic integrated circuit technology offer great advantages in terms of low cost, small footprint, high performance and low energy consumption. While many on-chip key components have been realized, to date polarization has not been fully exploited as a degree of freedom for integrated nonlinear devices. In particular, frequency conversion based on orthogonally polarized beams has not yet been demonstrated on chip. Here we show frequency mixing between orthogonal polarization modes in a compact integrated microring resonator and demonstrate a bi-chromatically pumped optical parametric oscillator. Operating the device above and below threshold, we directly generate orthogonally polarized beams, as well as photon pairs, respectively, that can find applications, for example, in optical communication and quantum optics. PMID:26364999
A pseudoscalar decaying to photon pairs in the early LHC Run 2 data
Low, Matthew; Tesi, Andrea; Wang, Lian -Tao
2016-03-16
In this paper we explore the possibility of a pseudoscalar resonance to account for the 750 GeV diphoton excess observed both at ATLAS and at CMS. We analyze the ingredients needed from the low energy perspective to obtain a sufficiently large diphoton rate to explain the signal while avoiding constraints from other channels. Additionally, we point out composite Higgs models in which one can naturally obtain a pseudoscalar at the 750 GeV mass scale and we estimate the pseudoscalar couplings to standard model particles that one would have in such models. A generic feature of models that can explain themore » excess is the presence of new particles in addition to the 750 GeV state. In conclusion, we note that due to the origin of the coupling of the resonance to photons, one expects to see comparable signals in the Zγ, ZZ, and W W channels.« less
Heidt, Alexander M; Hartung, Alexander; Bosman, Gurthwin W; Krok, Patrizia; Rohwer, Erich G; Schwoerer, Heinrich; Bartelt, Hartmut
2011-02-14
We present the first detailed demonstrations of octave-spanning SC generation in all-normal dispersion photonic crystal fibers (ANDi PCF) in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions. The resulting spectral profiles are extremely flat without significant fine structure and with excellent stability and coherence properties. The key benefit of SC generation in ANDi PCF is the conservation of a single ultrashort pulse in the time domain with smooth and recompressible phase distribution. For the first time we confirm the exceptional temporal properties of the generated SC pulses experimentally and demonstrate their applicability in ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations, which are used to illustrate the SC generation dynamics by self-phase modulation and optical wave breaking. To our knowledge, we present the broadest spectra generated in the normal dispersion regime of an optical fiber. PMID:21369202
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lassen, Mikael; Sabuncu, Metin; Huck, Alexander; Niset, Julien; Leuchs, Gerd; Cerf, Nicolas J.; Andersen, Ulrik L.
2010-10-01
A fundamental requirement for enabling fault-tolerant quantum information processing is an efficient quantum error-correcting code that robustly protects the involved fragile quantum states from their environment. Just as classical error-correcting codes are indispensible in today's information technologies, it is believed that quantum error-correcting code will play a similarly crucial role in tomorrow's quantum information systems. Here, we report on the experimental demonstration of a quantum erasure-correcting code that overcomes the devastating effect of photon losses. Our quantum code is based on linear optics, and it protects a four-mode entangled mesoscopic state of light against erasures. We investigate two approaches for circumventing in-line losses, and demonstrate that both approaches exhibit transmission fidelities beyond what is possible by classical means. Because in-line attenuation is generally the strongest limitation to quantum communication, such an erasure-correcting code provides a new tool for establishing quantum optical coherence over longer distances.
Gagnon, Louis; Sakadžić, Sava; Lesage, Fréderic; Mandeville, Emiri T.; Fang, Qianqian; Yaseen, Mohammad A.; Boas, David A.
2015-01-01
Abstract. Computing microvascular cerebral blood flow (μCBF) in real cortical angiograms is challenging. Here, we investigated whether the use of Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) flow measurements in individual vessel segments can help in reconstructing μCBF across the entire vasculature of a truncated cortical angiogram. A μCBF computational framework integrating DOCT measurements is presented. Simulations performed on a synthetic angiogram showed that the addition of DOCT measurements, especially close to large inflowing or outflowing vessels, reduces the impact of pressure boundary conditions and estimated vessel resistances resulting in a more accurate reconstruction of μCBF. Our technique was then applied to reconstruct microvascular flow distributions in the mouse cortex down to 660 μm by combining two-photon laser scanning microscopy angiography with DOCT. PMID:26157987
Gagnon, Louis; Sakadžić, Sava; Lesage, Fréderic; Mandeville, Emiri T; Fang, Qianqian; Yaseen, Mohammad A; Boas, David A
2015-01-01
Computing microvascular cerebral blood flow ([Formula: see text]) in real cortical angiograms is challenging. Here, we investigated whether the use of Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) flow measurements in individual vessel segments can help in reconstructing [Formula: see text] across the entire vasculature of a truncated cortical angiogram. A [Formula: see text] computational framework integrating DOCT measurements is presented. Simulations performed on a synthetic angiogram showed that the addition of DOCT measurements, especially close to large inflowing or outflowing vessels, reduces the impact of pressure boundary conditions and estimated vessel resistances resulting in a more accurate reconstruction of [Formula: see text]. Our technique was then applied to reconstruct microvascular flow distributions in the mouse cortex down to [Formula: see text] by combining two-photon laser scanning microscopy angiography with DOCT.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biró, L. P.; Bálint, Zs.; Kertész, K.; Vértesy, Z.; Márk, G. I.; Horváth, Z. E.; Balázs, J.; Méhn, D.; Kiricsi, I.; Lousse, V.; Vigneron, J.-P.
2003-02-01
One of the possible functions of the photonic-crystal structure found on the wing scales of some butterflies is investigated. The optical and electron microscopic investigation of two male butterflies—blue (colored) and brown (discolored)—representing a sister species pair and originating from different altitudes, revealed that the blue color can be attributed unambiguously to the fine, spongelike medium, called “pepper-pot structure,” present between the ridges and the cross ribs in the scales of the colored butterfly. Only traces of this structure can be found on the scales of the discolored butterfly. Other physical measurements, mainly optical reflectivity, transmission, and thermal measurements, are correlated with structural data and simulation results. The thermal measurements reveal that under identical illumination conditions the high-altitude butterfly reaches a temperature 1.3 1.5 times the temperature reached by the low-altitude butterfly. This is attributed to the photonic-crystal-like behavior of the pepper-pot structure, which significantly reduces the penetration of light with wavelength in the blue region of the spectrum into the body of the scales. This sheds some light on the adaptation that enhances the survival chance of the butterfly in a cold environment rich in blue and UV radiation.
Rabi oscillations of two-photon states in nonlinear optical resonators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sherkunov, Y.; Whittaker, David M.; Fal'ko, Vladimir
2016-02-01
We demonstrate that four-wave mixing processes in high-quality nonlinear resonators can lead to Rabi-like oscillations in photon occupation numbers and second-order correlation functions, being a characteristic feature of the presence of entangled photon pairs in the optical signal. In the case of a system driven by a continuous coherent pump, the oscillations occur in the transient regime. We show that driving the system with pulsed coherent pumping would generate strongly antibunched photon states.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aeineh, N.; Tavassoly, M. K.
2015-08-01
In this paper, we investigate the higher-order nonclassical properties of a particular class of generalized coherent states namely the deformed photon-added nonlinear coherent states (DPACS) A†m |α, f, m>. To achieve this purpose we pay attention to higher-orders of squeezing (both Hillery- and Hong-Mandel-types), sub-Poissonian statistics and anti-bunching of the mentioned states with a well-known nonlinearity function. It is shown that for enough large values of field intensity (|α|2) for a fixed N (the order of squeezing) by increasing m (the order of excitation) the degree of squeezing evaluated by Hillery and Hong-Mandel approaches increases, while for a chosen fixed value of m, by increasing N for Hillery (Hong-Mandel) type of squeezing the strength of squeezing decreases (increases). Similarly, the degree of higher-order sub-Poissonian statistics (with fixed K) becomes lower when m increases, while (with fixed m) it gets greater values when the order of sub-Poissonian K increases. At last, higher-order anti-bunching of the DPACS is evaluated, by which we established that its (always) negative values increase with increasing m, α and l (the order of anti-bunching) individually, i.e. the degree of anti-bunching increases.
Sulkanen, M.E.; Gisler, G.R.
1989-01-01
This present study constitutes the first attempt to include, in a particle-in-cell code, the effects of radiation losses, photon production and transport, and charged-particle production by photons scattering in an intense background magnetic field. We discuss the physics and numerical issues that had to be addressed in including these effects in the ISIS code. Then we present a test simulation of the propagation of a pulse of high-energy photons across an intense magnetic field using this modified version of ISIS. This simulation demonstrates dissipation of the photon pulse with charged-particle production, emission of secondary synchrotron and curvature photons and the concomitant momentum dissipation of the charged particles, and subsequent production of lower-energy pairs. 5 refs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ben Salem, Amine; Diouf, Mbaye; Cherif, Rim; Wague, Ahmadou; Zghal, Mourad
2016-06-01
We report more than two octave spanning mid-IR flat-top supercontinuum (SC) generation using all normal As2S5-borosilicate hybrid photonic crystal fiber. Our design is based on a chalcogenide As2S5 photonic crystal fiber (PCF), where the first ring composed of six air holes is made by borosilicate glass. By injecting 50-fs pulses with 1.6 nJ energy at 2.5 μm in the all normal dispersion (ANDi) regime, a flat-top broadband SC extending from 1 to 5 μm with high-spectral flatness of 8 dB is obtained in only 4-mm fiber length. To the best of our knowledge, we present the broadest flat mid-IR spectrum generated in the ANDi regime of an optical fiber. The self-phase modulation and the optical wave breaking are identified as the main broadening mechanisms. The obtained broadband light source can be potentially used in the field of spectroscopy and in high-resolution optical coherent tomography owing to the high-spectral SC flatness generated by our designed fiber.
Quan, Runai; Zhai, Yiwei; Wang, Mengmeng; Hou, Feiyan; Wang, Shaofeng; Xiang, Xiao; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Shougang; Dong, Ruifang
2016-01-01
Based on the second-order quantum interference between frequency entangled photons that are generated by parametric down conversion, a quantum strategic algorithm for synchronizing two spatially separated clocks has been recently presented. In the reference frame of a Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interferometer, photon correlations are used to define simultaneous events. Once the HOM interferometer is balanced by use of an adjustable optical delay in one arm, arrival times of simulta- neously generated photons are recorded by each clock. The clock offset is determined by correlation measurement of the recorded arrival times. Utilizing this algorithm, we demonstrate a proof-of-principle experiment for synchronizing two clocks separated by 4 km fiber link. A minimum timing stability of 0.44 ps at averaging time of 16000 s is achieved with an absolute time accuracy of 73.2 ps. The timing stability is verified to be limited by the correlation measurement device and ideally can be better than 10 fs. Such results shine a light to the application of quantum clock synchronization in the real high-accuracy timing system. PMID:27452276
Quan, Runai; Zhai, Yiwei; Wang, Mengmeng; Hou, Feiyan; Wang, Shaofeng; Xiang, Xiao; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Shougang; Dong, Ruifang
2016-01-01
Based on the second-order quantum interference between frequency entangled photons that are generated by parametric down conversion, a quantum strategic algorithm for synchronizing two spatially separated clocks has been recently presented. In the reference frame of a Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interferometer, photon correlations are used to define simultaneous events. Once the HOM interferometer is balanced by use of an adjustable optical delay in one arm, arrival times of simulta- neously generated photons are recorded by each clock. The clock offset is determined by correlation measurement of the recorded arrival times. Utilizing this algorithm, we demonstrate a proof-of-principle experiment for synchronizing two clocks separated by 4 km fiber link. A minimum timing stability of 0.44 ps at averaging time of 16000 s is achieved with an absolute time accuracy of 73.2 ps. The timing stability is verified to be limited by the correlation measurement device and ideally can be better than 10 fs. Such results shine a light to the application of quantum clock synchronization in the real high-accuracy timing system. PMID:27452276
Progress in hollow core photonic crystal fiber for atomic vapour based coherent optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bradley, T. D.; Wang, Y. Y.; Alharbi, M.; Fourcade Dutin, C.; Mangan, B. J.; Wheeler, N. V.; Benabid, F.
2012-03-01
We report on progress in different hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) design and fabrication for atomic vapor based applications. We have fabricated a Photonic bandgap (PBG) guiding HC-PCF with a record loss of 107dB/km at 785nm in this class of fiber. A double photonic bandgap (DPBG) guiding HC-PCF with guidance bands centred at 780nm and 1064nm is reported. A 7-cell 3-ring Kagome HC-PCF with hypocycloid core is reported, the optical loss at 780nm has been reduced to 70dB/km which to the best of our knowledge is the lowest optical loss reported at this wavelength using HC-PCF. Details on experimental loading of alkali metal vapours using a far off red detuned laser are reported. This optical loading has been shown to decrease the necessary loading time for Rb into the hollow core of a fiber. The quantity of Rb within the fiber core has been enhanced by a maximum of 14% through this loading procedure.
Large-core photonic microcells for coherent optics and laser metrology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wheeler, N. V.; Grogan, M. D. W.; Wang, Y. Y.; Murphy, D. F.; Birks, T. A.; Benabid, F.
2011-03-01
A photonic microcell (PMC) is a length of gas-filled hollow core-photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) which is hermetically sealed at both ends by splicing to standard single mode fiber. We describe advances in the fabrication technique of PMCs which enable large core Kagome-lattice HC-PCFs to be integrated into PMC form. The modified fabrication technique uses fiber-tapering to accommodate the large dimensions of the fiber and enables low loss splices with single mode fiber by reducing mode field mismatch. Splice losses as low as 0.6 dB are achieved between 1-cell defect Kagome HC-PCF and single mode fiber. Relative to the previously reported PMCs, which were based on photonic bandgap HC-PCF, the present Kagome HC-PCF based PMC provides broad optical transmission, surface mode-free guidance and larger core at the cost of slightly increased fiber attenuation (~0.2 dB/m). Therefore, the integration of this fiber into PMC form opens up new applications for PMC-based devices. The advantage of the large core dimensions and surface mode free guidance for quantum optics in gas-filled HC-PCF are demonstrated by generation of narrow sub-Doppler features in an acetylenefilled large core PMC.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quan, Runai; Zhai, Yiwei; Wang, Mengmeng; Hou, Feiyan; Wang, Shaofeng; Xiang, Xiao; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Shougang; Dong, Ruifang
2016-07-01
Based on the second-order quantum interference between frequency entangled photons that are generated by parametric down conversion, a quantum strategic algorithm for synchronizing two spatially separated clocks has been recently presented. In the reference frame of a Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interferometer, photon correlations are used to define simultaneous events. Once the HOM interferometer is balanced by use of an adjustable optical delay in one arm, arrival times of simulta- neously generated photons are recorded by each clock. The clock offset is determined by correlation measurement of the recorded arrival times. Utilizing this algorithm, we demonstrate a proof-of-principle experiment for synchronizing two clocks separated by 4 km fiber link. A minimum timing stability of 0.44 ps at averaging time of 16000 s is achieved with an absolute time accuracy of 73.2 ps. The timing stability is verified to be limited by the correlation measurement device and ideally can be better than 10 fs. Such results shine a light to the application of quantum clock synchronization in the real high-accuracy timing system.
$H \\to \\gamma\\gamma$ search and direct photon pair production differential cross section
Bu, Xuebing
2010-06-01
context of the particular fermiophobic Higgs model. The corresponding results have reached the same sensitivity as a single LEP experiement, setting a lower limit on the fermiophobic Higgs of M_{hf} > 102.5 GeV (M_{hf} > 107.5 GeV expected). We are slightly below the combined LEP limit (M_{hf} > 109.7 GeV). We also provide access to the M_{hf} > 125 GeV region which was inaccessible at LEP. During the study, we found the major and irreducible background direct γγ (DPP) production is not well modelled by the current theoretical predictions: RESBOS, DIPHOX or PYTHIA. There is ~20% theoretical uncertainty for the predicted values. Thus, for our Higgs search, we use the side-band fitting method to estimate DPP contribution directly from the data events. Furthermore, DPP production is also a significant background in searches for new phenomena, such as new heavy resonances, extra spatial dimensions, or cascade decays of heavy new particles. Thus, precise measurements of the DPP cross sections for various kinematic variables and their theoretical understanding are extremely important for future Higgs and new phenomena searches. In this thesis, we also present a precise measurement of the DPP single differential cross sections as a function of the diphoton mass, the transverse momentum of the diphoton system, the azimuthal angle between the photons, and the polar scattering angle of the photons, as well as the double differential cross sections considering the last three kinematic variables in three diphoton mass bins, using 4.2 fb^{-1} data. These results are the first of their kind at D0 Run II, and in fact the double differential measurements are the first of their kind at Tevatron. The results are compared with different perturbative QCD predictions and event generators.
Conkey, Donald B; Stasio, Nicolino; Morales-Delgado, Edgar E; Romito, Marilisa; Moser, Christophe; Psaltis, Demetri
2016-04-30
We performed near-diffraction limited two-photon fluorescence (TPF) imaging through a lensless, multicore-fiber (MCF) endoscope utilizing digital phase conjugation. The phase conjugation technique is compatible with commercially available MCFs with high core density. We demonstrate focusing of ultrashort pulses through an MCF and show that the method allows for resolution that is not limited by the MCF core spacing. We constructed TPF images of fluorescent beads and cells by digital scanning of the phase-conjugated focus on the target object and collection of the emitted fluorescence through the MCF.
Yim, Sin Hyuk; Cho, D
2010-02-01
We produced a pair of coherent laser beams with a 3-GHz frequency difference by optically phase locking two modes from a single, multimode extended-cavity diode laser. This method is complementary to either a direct modulation or an optical phase locking of two independent lasers. A large differential frequency shift between the two modes of the laser allows efficient phase locking. We developed a simple theory to account for the large differential frequency shift. Allan deviation of the beat frequency when the two modes are phase-locked drops as an inverse of the measurement time and it reaches 10(-14) when the time is 1 h. Coherent population trapping spectroscopy of Rb atoms using the phase-locked beams resulted in a spectrum as narrow as that of the case using direct modulation by a stable frequency synthesizer.
Fully Programmable Ring-Resonator-Based Integrated Photonic Circuit for Phase Coherent Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agarwal, Anjali; Toliver, Paul; Menendez, Ronald; Etemad, Shahab; Jackel, Janet; Young, Jeffrey; Banwell, Thomas; Little, B. E.; Chu, S. T.; Chen, Wei; Chen, Wenlu; Hryniewicz, J.; Johnson, F.; Gill, D.; King, O.; Davidson, R.; Donovan, K.; Delfyett, Peter J.
2006-01-01
A novel ring-resonator-based integrated photonic chip with ultrafine frequency resolution, providing programmable, stable, and accurate optical-phase control is demonstrated. The ability to manipulate the optical phase of the individual frequency components of a signal is a powerful tool for optical communications, signal processing, and RF photonics applications. As a demonstration of the power of these components, we report their use as programmable spectral-phase encoders (SPEs) and decoders for wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM)-compatible optical code-division multiple access (OCDMA). Most important for the application here, the high resolution of these ring-resonator circuits makes possible the independent control of the optical phase of the individual tightly spaced frequency lines of a mode-locked laser (MLL). This unique approach allows us to limit the coded signal's spectral bandwidth, thereby allowing for high spectral efficiency (compared to other OCDMA systems) and compatibility with existing WDM systems with a rapidly reconfigurable set of codes. A four-user OCDMA system using polarization multiplexing is shown to operate at data rates of 2.5 Gb/s within a 40-GHz transparent optical window with a bit error rate (BER) better than 10-9 and a spectral efficiency of 25%.
Optical radio-photonic channel for transmission of a coherent narrowband analog signal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhuk, D. I.; Denisyuk, I. Yu.; Fokina, M. I.
2015-10-01
The channel of an optical transmission line of coherent narrowband analog signal consisting of a continuous-wave laser, an electro-optic modulator, and a vector phase rotator based on electrically controlled fiber-optical 1 × 2 splitter and fixed delay lines is analyzed. The scheme is constructed from commercially available components used in digital optical communication systems. The applicability of components for analog and small-signal circuits is determined. Variation of radio signal phase in the range from 0° to 170° for radio signal frequencies between 1 and 2 GHz is demonstrated experimentally. It is shown that phase variation is a linear function of frequency in this range.
An ultra-sensitive coherent detector capable of single photon detection for lidar applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Amimoto, Sherwin; Gross, Rolf; Lacy, Bob; Garman-Duvalle, Lissa; Good, Tom
1992-01-01
The properties of Ultra-Sensitive Coherent Detectors (USCD's) are nearly that of an ideal detector for lidar applications. Recent progress in the development of USCD's is briefly reviewed, and its imaging capability is demonstrated. These new detectors possess properties with significant improvements over conventional technology. These improvements include a high quantum efficiency of 0.95, gain in excess of 10 exp 13, a narrow bandwidth of 180-300 MHz at 1 micron, imaging capability, and phase conjugation ability. We have constructed a USCD using two Nd:YAG laser amplifiers and a four-wave Brillouin mirror (FWBM) using SnCl4 as the Brillouin medium. Using a 10 Hz repetitively-pulsed single frequency laser, we have shown that the Brillouin medium is free from thermal blooming and from optical breakdown.
Tu, Haohua; Liu, Yuan; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Sharma, Utkarsh; Siegel, Martin; Kopf, Daniel; Boppart, Stephen A.
2010-01-01
We quantitatively predict the observed continuum-like spectral broadening in a 90-mm weakly birefringent all-normal dispersion-flattened photonic crystal fiber pumped by 1041-nm 229-fs 76-MHz pulses from a solid-state Yb:KYW laser. The well-characterized continuum pulses span a bandwidth of up to 300 nm around the laser wavelength, allowing high spectral power density pulse shaping useful for various coherent control applications. We also identify the nonlinear polarization effect that limits the bandwidth of these continuum pulses, and therefore report the path toward a series of attractive alternative broadband coherent optical sources. PMID:21197060
Su, Tiehui; Scott, Ryan P; Djordjevic, Stevan S; Fontaine, Nicolas K; Geisler, David J; Cai, Xinran; Yoo, S J B
2012-04-23
We propose and demonstrate silicon photonic integrated circuits (PICs) for free-space spatial-division-multiplexing (SDM) optical transmission with multiplexed orbital angular momentum (OAM) states over a topological charge range of -2 to +2. The silicon PIC fabricated using a CMOS-compatible process exploits tunable-phase arrayed waveguides with vertical grating couplers to achieve space division multiplexing and demultiplexing. The experimental results utilizing two silicon PICs achieve SDM mux/demux bit-error-rate performance for 1‑b/s/Hz, 10-Gb/s binary phase shifted keying (BPSK) data and 2-b/s/Hz, 20-Gb/s quadrature phase shifted keying (QPSK) data for individual and two simultaneous OAM states.
Photon echo studies of biexcitons and coherences in colloidal CdSe quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colonna, Anne E.; Yang, Xiujuan; Scholes, Gregory D.
2005-04-01
The cover picture shows the size-dependent photoluminescence from CdSe colloidal quantum dots that were investigated in the work [1]. Ultrafast photon echo experiments were undertaken in conjunction with simulations based on a realistic many-body theory, shown in the picture, to ascertain the significance of many-body contributions to the third-order nonlinear response.The first author Anne E. Colonna undertook this research during a summer internship in the Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto. She is currently pursuing graduate studies at École Polytechnique, Saclay, in the Laboratoire d'Optique et Biosciences.The author Gregory D. Scholes is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto. His research interests include synthesis and shape control of quantum dots, as well as the application of ultrafast laser spectroscopy to investigate the electronic structure of inorganic and organic semiconductors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Breunig, Hans Georg; Weinigel, Martin; Bückle, Rainer; Kellner-Höfer, Marcel; Lademann, Jürgen; Darvin, Maxim E.; Sterry, Wolfram; König, Karsten
2013-02-01
We report on in vivo coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy (CARS), two-photon fluorescence and second-harmonic-generation imaging on human skin with a novel multimodal clinical CARS/multiphoton tomograph. CARS imaging is realized by a combination of femtosecond pulses with broadband continuum pulses generated by a photonic crystal fiber. The images reveal the microscopic distribution of (i) non-fluorescent lipids, (ii) endogenous fluorophores and (iii) the collagen network inside the human skin in vivo with subcellular resolution. Examples of healthy as well as cancer-affected skin are presented.
Chatrchyan, S.; et al.,
2012-01-01
The integrated and differential cross sections for the production of pairs of isolated photons is measured in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC. A data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36 inverse picobarns is analysed. A next-to-leading-order perturbative QCD calculation is compared to the measurements. A discrepancy is observed for regions of the phase space where the two photons have an azimuthal angle difference, $\\Delta(\\phi)$, less than approximately 2.8.
Wang, Zhao; Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Vermeulen, Diedrik; Chen, Long; Nielsen, Torben; Park, Seo Yeon; Ghaemi, Allan; Swanson, Eric; Doerr, Chris; Fujimoto, James
2015-01-01
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a widely used three-dimensional (3D) optical imaging method with many biomedical and non-medical applications. Miniaturization, cost reduction, and increased functionality of OCT systems will be critical for future emerging clinical applications. We present a silicon photonic integrated circuit swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) coherent receiver with dual polarization, dual balanced, in-phase and quadrature (IQ) detection. We demonstrate multiple functional capabilities of IQ polarization resolved detection including: complex-conjugate suppressed full-range OCT, polarization diversity detection, and polarization-sensitive OCT. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a silicon photonic integrated receiver for OCT. The integrated coherent receiver provides a miniaturized, low-cost solution for SS-OCT, and is also a key step towards a fully integrated high speed SS-OCT system with good performance and multi-functional capabilities. With further performance improvement and cost reduction, photonic integrated technology promises to greatly increase penetration of OCT systems in existing applications and enable new applications. PMID:26203382
Wang, Zhao; Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Vermeulen, Diedrik; Chen, Long; Nielsen, Torben; Park, Seo Yeon; Ghaemi, Allan; Swanson, Eric; Doerr, Chris; Fujimoto, James
2015-07-01
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a widely used three-dimensional (3D) optical imaging method with many biomedical and non-medical applications. Miniaturization, cost reduction, and increased functionality of OCT systems will be critical for future emerging clinical applications. We present a silicon photonic integrated circuit swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) coherent receiver with dual polarization, dual balanced, in-phase and quadrature (IQ) detection. We demonstrate multiple functional capabilities of IQ polarization resolved detection including: complex-conjugate suppressed full-range OCT, polarization diversity detection, and polarization-sensitive OCT. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a silicon photonic integrated receiver for OCT. The integrated coherent receiver provides a miniaturized, low-cost solution for SS-OCT, and is also a key step towards a fully integrated high speed SS-OCT system with good performance and multi-functional capabilities. With further performance improvement and cost reduction, photonic integrated technology promises to greatly increase penetration of OCT systems in existing applications and enable new applications.
Cruz-Delgado, D.; Ramirez-Alarcon, R.; Ortiz-Ricardo, E.; Monroy-Ruz, J.; Dominguez-Serna, F.; Cruz-Ramirez, H.; Garay-Palmett, K.; U’Ren, A. B.
2016-01-01
We have designed and implemented a photon-pair source, based on the spontaneous four wave mixing (SFWM) process in a few-mode fiber, in a geometry which permits multiple, simultaneous SFWM processes, each associated with a distinct combination of transverse modes for the four participating waves. In our source: i) each process is group-velocity-matched so that it is, by design, nearly-factorable, and ii) the spectral separation between neighboring processes is greater than the marginal spectral width of each process. Consequently, there is a direct correspondence between the joint amplitude of each process and each of the Schmidt mode pairs of the overall two-photon state. Our approach permits hybrid entanglement in discrete frequency and in transverse mode, whereby control of the number of supported fiber transverse modes allows scalability to higher dimensions while spectral filtering may be used for straightforward Schmidt mode discrimination. PMID:27271284
Cruz-Delgado, D; Ramirez-Alarcon, R; Ortiz-Ricardo, E; Monroy-Ruz, J; Dominguez-Serna, F; Cruz-Ramirez, H; Garay-Palmett, K; U'Ren, A B
2016-01-01
We have designed and implemented a photon-pair source, based on the spontaneous four wave mixing (SFWM) process in a few-mode fiber, in a geometry which permits multiple, simultaneous SFWM processes, each associated with a distinct combination of transverse modes for the four participating waves. In our source: i) each process is group-velocity-matched so that it is, by design, nearly-factorable, and ii) the spectral separation between neighboring processes is greater than the marginal spectral width of each process. Consequently, there is a direct correspondence between the joint amplitude of each process and each of the Schmidt mode pairs of the overall two-photon state. Our approach permits hybrid entanglement in discrete frequency and in transverse mode, whereby control of the number of supported fiber transverse modes allows scalability to higher dimensions while spectral filtering may be used for straightforward Schmidt mode discrimination. PMID:27271284
Cruz-Delgado, D; Ramirez-Alarcon, R; Ortiz-Ricardo, E; Monroy-Ruz, J; Dominguez-Serna, F; Cruz-Ramirez, H; Garay-Palmett, K; U'Ren, A B
2016-06-07
We have designed and implemented a photon-pair source, based on the spontaneous four wave mixing (SFWM) process in a few-mode fiber, in a geometry which permits multiple, simultaneous SFWM processes, each associated with a distinct combination of transverse modes for the four participating waves. In our source: i) each process is group-velocity-matched so that it is, by design, nearly-factorable, and ii) the spectral separation between neighboring processes is greater than the marginal spectral width of each process. Consequently, there is a direct correspondence between the joint amplitude of each process and each of the Schmidt mode pairs of the overall two-photon state. Our approach permits hybrid entanglement in discrete frequency and in transverse mode, whereby control of the number of supported fiber transverse modes allows scalability to higher dimensions while spectral filtering may be used for straightforward Schmidt mode discrimination.
Photoelectric converters with quantum coherence.
Su, Shan-He; Sun, Chang-Pu; Li, Sheng-Wen; Chen, Jin-Can
2016-05-01
Photon impingement is capable of liberating electrons in electronic devices and driving the electron flux from the lower chemical potential to higher chemical potential. Previous studies hinted that the thermodynamic efficiency of a nanosized photoelectric converter at maximum power is bounded by the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency η_{CA}. In this study, we apply quantum effects to design a photoelectric converter based on a three-level quantum dot (QD) interacting with fermionic baths and photons. We show that, by adopting a pair of suitable degenerate states, quantum coherences induced by the couplings of QDs to sunlight and fermion baths can coexist steadily in nanoelectronic systems. Our analysis indicates that the efficiency at maximum power is no longer limited to η_{CA} through manipulation of carefully controlled quantum coherences. PMID:27300826
Photoelectric converters with quantum coherence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Shan-He; Sun, Chang-Pu; Li, Sheng-Wen; Chen, Jin-Can
2016-05-01
Photon impingement is capable of liberating electrons in electronic devices and driving the electron flux from the lower chemical potential to higher chemical potential. Previous studies hinted that the thermodynamic efficiency of a nanosized photoelectric converter at maximum power is bounded by the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency ηCA. In this study, we apply quantum effects to design a photoelectric converter based on a three-level quantum dot (QD) interacting with fermionic baths and photons. We show that, by adopting a pair of suitable degenerate states, quantum coherences induced by the couplings of QDs to sunlight and fermion baths can coexist steadily in nanoelectronic systems. Our analysis indicates that the efficiency at maximum power is no longer limited to ηCA through manipulation of carefully controlled quantum coherences.
Photoelectric converters with quantum coherence.
Su, Shan-He; Sun, Chang-Pu; Li, Sheng-Wen; Chen, Jin-Can
2016-05-01
Photon impingement is capable of liberating electrons in electronic devices and driving the electron flux from the lower chemical potential to higher chemical potential. Previous studies hinted that the thermodynamic efficiency of a nanosized photoelectric converter at maximum power is bounded by the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency η_{CA}. In this study, we apply quantum effects to design a photoelectric converter based on a three-level quantum dot (QD) interacting with fermionic baths and photons. We show that, by adopting a pair of suitable degenerate states, quantum coherences induced by the couplings of QDs to sunlight and fermion baths can coexist steadily in nanoelectronic systems. Our analysis indicates that the efficiency at maximum power is no longer limited to η_{CA} through manipulation of carefully controlled quantum coherences.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mari, M.; Mouras, R.; Downes, A.; Elfick, A.
2011-06-01
We have used a versatile and powerful microscope[1] for multi-modal biomedical imaging on which we combine Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) with Two Photon Excitation Fluorescence (TPEF) using a Nd: YVO4 pump laser. We acquired 2PEF, CARS, and phase contrast images of Multilamellar Vesicles (MLVs) and Giant Unilamellar Vesicles (GUVs), as well as Raman spectra of the constituent lipids. A wide range of peptides are harmful to cells by altering the structure of the biological membranes. This effect depends on the composition of the membrane and the chemical structure of the peptide. The peptide we studied is the beta amyloid Aβ which is a major component of the amyloid plaques deposited on neuronal membranes of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. AD is neurodegenerative disorder in which the hallmark symptoms include cognitive decline and dementia[2] and is characterized by the formation of extracellular amyloid fibrils on the neuronal membranes of the brain. Many questions still remain unanswered concerning the destabilization of cellular ionic homeostasis due to pores formed during the interactions of lipid membranes with peptides. In this project, biomimics of cell membranes are used. The structures that best mimic the plasma membranes are MLVs or GUVs. These vesicles are formed using the gentle hydration technique[3] or the electroformation technique[4] respectively and are composed of phospholipids such as DOPC, DPPC, D62PPC and their binary mixtures. The MLVs and GUVs imaging by CARS and TPEF microscopy not only permits the direct imaging of the leakage phenomenon caused by the toxic peptide (Aβ) on the lipid bilayer, but also records simultaneously the lateral structure of the bilayer and peptide distribution in the plane across the membrane.
A novel technique to achieve atomic macro-coherence as a tool to determine the nature of neutrinos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boyero García, R.; Carpentier, A. V.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; Peralta Conde, A.
2016-10-01
The photon spectrum in macro-coherent atomic deexcitation via radiative emission of neutrino pairs has been proposed as a sensitive probe of the neutrino mass spectrum, capable of competing with conventional neutrino experiments. In this paper, we revisit this intriguing possibility, presenting an alternative method for inducing large coherence in a target based on adiabatic techniques. More concretely, we propose the use of a modified version of coherent population return (CPR), namely two-photon CPR, that turns out to be extremely robust with respect to the experimental parameters and capable of inducing a coherence close to 100 % in the target.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hosseinkhani, Amin; Dezfouli, Bahareh Ghannad; Ghasemipour, Fatemeh; Rezakhani, Ali T.; Saberi, Hamed
2014-06-01
We propose a flexible numerical framework for extracting the energy spectra and photon transfer dynamics of a unit kagome cell with disordered cavity-cavity couplings under realistic experimental conditions. A projected-entangled pair state (PEPS) Ansatz to the many-photon wave function allows us to gain a detailed understanding of the effects of undesirable disorder in fabricating well-controlled and scalable photonic quantum simulators. The correlation functions associated with the propagation of two-photon excitations reveal intriguing interference patterns peculiar to the kagome geometry and promise at the same time a highly tunable quantum interferometry device with a signature for the formation of resonant or Fabry-Peŕot-like transmission of photons. Our results justify the use of the proposed PEPS technique for addressing the role of disorder in such quantum simulators in the microwave regime and promises sophisticated numerical machinery for yet further explorations of the scalability of the resulting kagome arrays. The introduced methodology and the physical results may also pave the way for unraveling exotic phases of correlated light on a kagome geometry.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pedullà, E.; Genovese, C.; Scolaro, C.; Cutroneo, M.; Tempera, G.; Rapisarda, E.; Torrisi, L.
2014-04-01
The aim of this ex vivo study was to assess the antibacterial effectiveness of coherent photon initiated photoacoustic streaming (PIPS) of irrigants using an Er:YAG laser equipped with a newly designed, stripped and tapered, tip in extracted teeth with infected root canals. One hundred-forty-eight single-rooted extracted teeth were prepared using a rotary abrasive instrument providing a root channel with a suitable size. The samples were sterilized and all teeth except ten (negative control group) were inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis and incubated in a CO2 chamber at 37°C for 15 days in Eppendorff tubes filled with trypticase soy broth medium changed every 2 days. Infected teeth were then randomly divided into 4 test groups (n=32 for each): pulsed erbium:YAG laser at non-ablative settings for 30 seconds with sterile bi-distilled water (Group A) or 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) (Group B); without laser activated sterile bi-distilled water irrigation for 30 seconds (Group C) or 5% NaOCl irrigation for 30 seconds (Group D); the positive control group received no treatment in infected teeth (n=10). Colony-forming units (CFUs) were counted from bacteriologic samples taken before (S1) and after treatment (S2). Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and post hoc Dunn's multiple comparison tests. CFU counts were significantly lower in groups B and D than in group C (P<0.001). Moreover, there was a significant difference between Group A and C (P<0.001). Group B showed the highest CFU reduction, which was significantly greater than that evident in groups A or C (P<0.001). There were no statistically significant differences between group B and D (P>0.05). None of the four groups predictably generated negative samples. Under the conditions of this ex vivo study, statistically significant difference wasn't found in planktonic bacteria reduction between the laser and NaOCl or NaOCl alone groups.
Frequency-bin entangled photons
Olislager, L.; Emplit, P.; Nguyen, A. T.; Massar, S.; Merolla, J.-M.; Huy, K. Phan
2010-07-15
A monochromatic laser pumping a parametric down-conversion crystal generates frequency-entangled photon pairs. We study this experimentally by addressing such frequency-entangled photons at telecommunication wavelengths (around 1550 nm) with fiber-optics components such as electro-optic phase modulators and narrow-band frequency filters. The theory underlying our approach uses the notion of frequency-bin entanglement. Our results show that the phase modulators address coherently up to eleven frequency bins, leading to an interference pattern which can violate by more than five standard deviations a Bell inequality adapted to our setup.
Photon-initiated processes at high mass
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harland-Lang, L. A.; Khoze, V. A.; Ryskin, M. G.
2016-10-01
We consider the influence of photon-initiated processes on high-mass particle production. We discuss in detail the photon parton distribution function (PDF) at relatively high parton x , relevant to such processes, and evaluate its uncertainties. In particular we show that, as the dominant contribution to the input photon distribution is due to coherent photon emission, at phenomenologically relevant scales the photon PDF is already well determined in this region, with the corresponding uncertainties under good control. We then demonstrate the implications of this result for the example processes of high-mass lepton and W boson pair production at the LHC and FCC. While for the former process the photon-initiated contribution is expected to be small, in the latter case we find that it is potentially significant, in particular at larger masses.
Tu, Haohua; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Xiaomin; Turchinovich, Dmitry; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Boppart, Stephen A.
2012-01-01
Dispersion-flattened dispersion-decreased all-normal dispersion (DFDD-ANDi) photonic crystal fibers have been identified as promising candidates for high-spectral-power coherent supercontinuum (SC) generation. However, the effects of the unintentional birefringence of the fibers on the SC generation have been ignored. This birefringence is widely present in nonlinear non-polarization maintaining fibers with a typical core size of 2 µm, presumably due to the structural symmetry breaks introduced in the fiber drawing process. We find that an intrinsic form-birefringence on the order of 10−5 profoundly affects the SC generation in a DFDD-ANDi photonic crystal fiber. Conventional simulations based on the scalar generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation (GNLSE) fail to reproduce the prominent observed features of the SC generation in a short piece (9-cm) of this fiber. However, these features can be qualitatively or semi-quantitatively understood by the coupled GNLSE that takes into account the form-birefringence. The nonlinear polarization effects induced by the birefringence significantly distort the otherwise simple spectrotemporal field of the SC pulses. We therefore propose the fabrication of polarization-maintaining DFDD-ANDi fibers to avoid these adverse effects in pursuing a practical coherent fiber SC laser. PMID:22274457
Chatrchyan, Serguei
2014-11-12
A measurement of differential cross sections for the production of a pair of isolated photons in proton–proton collisions at √s=7TeV is presented. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.0fb^{-1} collected with the CMS detector. A data-driven isolation template method is used to extract the prompt diphoton yield. The measured cross section for two isolated photons, with transverse energy above 40 and 25GeV respectively, in the pseudorapidity range |η|<2.5, |η|ϵ[1.44,1.57] and with an angular separation ΔR>0.45, is 17.2±0.2(stat)±1.9(syst)±0.4(lumi) \\,pb. Differential cross sections are measured as a function of the diphoton invariant mass, the diphoton transverse momentum, the azimuthal angle difference between the two photons, and the cosine of the polar angle in the Collins–Soper reference frame of the diphoton system. The results are compared to theoretical predictions at leading, next-to-leading, and next-to-next-to-leading order in quantum chromodynamics.
Chatrchyan, Serguei
2014-11-12
A measurement of differential cross sections for the production of a pair of isolated photons in proton–proton collisions at √s=7TeV is presented. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.0fb-1 collected with the CMS detector. A data-driven isolation template method is used to extract the prompt diphoton yield. The measured cross section for two isolated photons, with transverse energy above 40 and 25GeV respectively, in the pseudorapidity range |η|<2.5, |η|ϵ[1.44,1.57] and with an angular separation ΔR>0.45, is 17.2±0.2(stat)±1.9(syst)±0.4(lumi) \\,pb. Differential cross sections are measured as a function of the diphoton invariant mass, the diphoton transverse momentum, the azimuthalmore » angle difference between the two photons, and the cosine of the polar angle in the Collins–Soper reference frame of the diphoton system. The results are compared to theoretical predictions at leading, next-to-leading, and next-to-next-to-leading order in quantum chromodynamics.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flanigan, D.; McCarrick, H.; Jones, G.; Johnson, B. R.; Abitbol, M. H.; Ade, P.; Araujo, D.; Bradford, K.; Cantor, R.; Che, G.; Day, P.; Doyle, S.; Kjellstrand, C. B.; Leduc, H.; Limon, M.; Luu, V.; Mauskopf, P.; Miller, A.; Mroczkowski, T.; Tucker, C.; Zmuidzinas, J.
2016-02-01
We report photon-noise limited performance of horn-coupled, aluminum lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors at millimeter wavelengths. The detectors are illuminated by a millimeter-wave source that uses an active multiplier chain to produce radiation between 140 and 160 GHz. We feed the multiplier with either amplified broadband noise or a continuous-wave tone from a microwave signal generator. We demonstrate that the detector response over a 40 dB range of source power is well-described by a simple model that considers the number of quasiparticles. The detector noise-equivalent power (NEP) is dominated by photon noise when the absorbed power is greater than approximately 1 pW, which corresponds to NEP≈2 ×10-17 W Hz-1 /2 , referenced to absorbed power. At higher source power levels, we observe the relationships between noise and power expected from the photon statistics of the source signal: NEP∝P for broadband (chaotic) illumination and NEP∝P1 /2 for continuous-wave (coherent) illumination.
Secured Optical Communications Using Quantum Entangled Two-Photon Transparency Modulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kojima, Jun (Inventor); Nguyen, Quang-Viet (Inventor); Lekki, John (Inventor)
2015-01-01
A system and method is disclosed wherein optical signals are coded in a transmitter by tuning or modulating the interbeam delay time (which modulates the fourth-order coherence) between pairs of entangled photons. The photon pairs are either absorbed or not absorbed (transparent) by an atomic or molecular fluorescer in a receiver, depending on the inter-beam delay that is introduced in the entangled photon pairs. Upon the absorption, corresponding fluorescent optical emissions follow at a certain wavelength, which are then detected by a photon detector. The advantage of the disclosed system is that it eliminates a need of a coincidence counter to realize the entanglement-based secure optical communications because the absorber acts as a coincidence counter for entangled photon pairs.
Tunable two-photon correlation in a double-cavity optomechanical system
Feng, Zhi-Bo; Zhang, Jian-Qi
2015-12-15
Correlated photons are essential sources for quantum information processing. We propose a practical scheme to generate pairs of correlated photons in a controllable fashion from a double-cavity optomechanical system, where the variable optomechanical coupling strength makes it possible to tune the photon correlation at our will. The key operation is based on the repulsive or attractive interaction between the two photons intermediated by the mechanical resonator. The present protocol could provide a potential approach to coherent control of the photon correlation using the optomechanical cavity.
1.12 Tb/s superchannel coherent PM-QPSK InP transmitter photonic integrated circuit (PIC).
Evans, P; Fisher, M; Malendevich, R; James, A; Goldfarb, G; Vallaitis, T; Kato, M; Samra, P; Corzine, S; Strzelecka, E; Studenkov, P; Salvatore, R; Sedgwick, F; Kuntz, M; Lal, V; Lambert, D; Dentai, A; Pavinski, D; Zhang, J; Cornelius, J; Tsai, T; Behnia, B; Bostak, J; Dominic, V; Nilsson, A; Taylor, B; Rahn, J; Sanders, S; Sun, H; Wu, K-T; Pleumeekers, J; Muthiah, R; Missey, M; Schneider, R; Stewart, J; Reffle, M; Butrie, T; Nagarajan, R; Ziari, M; Kish, F; Welch, D
2011-12-12
In this work, a 10-wavelength, polarization-multiplexed, monolithically integrated InP coherent QPSK transmitter PIC is demonstrated to operate at 112 Gb/sec per wavelength and total chip superchannel bandwidth of 1.12 Tb/s. This demonstration suggests that increasing data capacity to multi-Tb/s per chip is possible and likely in the future.
Narrowband-biphoton generation due to long-lived coherent population oscillations
Sharypov, A. V.; Wilson-Gordon, A. D.
2011-09-15
We study the generation of paired photons due to the effect of four-wave mixing in an ensemble of pumped two-level systems that decay via an intermediate metastable state. The slow population relaxation of the metastable state creates long-lived coherent population oscillations, leading to a narrowband nonlinear response of the medium which determines the narrow spectral width and long coherence time of the biphotons.
Search for long-lived particles decaying into electron or photon pairs with the D0 detector.
Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguilo, E; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Andrieu, B; Anzelc, M S; Aoki, M; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; Asman, B; Assis Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Avila, C; Badaud, F; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A-F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benitez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Biscarat, C; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Bu, X B; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Calfayan, P; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Carrera, E; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Cheu, E; Chevallier, F; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cuplov, V; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; da Motta, H; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; DeVaughan, K; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dong, H; Dorland, T; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Garcia, C; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Geng, W; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gollub, N; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hauptman, J M; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hoeth, H; Hohlfeld, M; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jarvis, C; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Johnston, D; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Kajfasz, E; Kalk, J M; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y M; Khatidze, D; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J-P; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kuhl, T; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kuzmin, V A; Kvita, J; Lacroix, F; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lellouch, J; Li, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lim, J K; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Luna, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; Melnitchouk, A; Mendoza, L; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Mitrevski, J; Mommsen, R K; Mondal, N K; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Nogima, H; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Oshima, N; Osman, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Otero Y Garzón, G J; Owen, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S-J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Pétroff, P; Petteni, M; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M-E; Polozov, P; Pope, B G; Popov, A V; Potter, C; Prado da Silva, W L; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rakitine, A; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Rich, P; Rieger, J; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Rominsky, M; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Sanghi, B; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schlobohm, S; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Siccardi, V; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Steele, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strang, M A; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Sznajder, A; Tamburello, P; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Tiller, B; Tissandier, F; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Torchiani, I; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; van den Berg, P J; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vilanova, D; Villeneuve-Seguier, F; Vint, P; Vokac, P; Voutilainen, M; Wagner, R; Wahl, H D; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, G; Weber, M; Welty-Rieger, L; Wenger, A; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Williams, M; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yang, W-C; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yin, H; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Zeitnitz, C; Zelitch, S; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zivkovic, L; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G
2008-09-12
In this Letter we report on a search for long-lived particles that decay into final states with two electrons or photons. Such long-lived particles arise in a variety of theoretical models, such as hidden valleys and supersymmetry with gauge-mediated breaking. By precisely reconstructing the direction of the electromagnetic shower we are able to probe much longer lifetimes than previously explored. We see no evidence of the existence of such long-lived particles and interpret this search as a quasi model-independent limit on their production cross section, as well as a limit on a long-lived fourth generation quark. PMID:18851273
Pachón, Leonardo A; Yu, Li; Brumer, Paul
2013-01-01
The underlying mechanisms for one photon phase control are revealed through a master equation approach. Specifically, two mechanisms are identified, one operating on the laser time scale and the other on the time scale of the system-bath interaction. The effects of the secular and non-secular Markovian approximations are carefully examined.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Jheng-Syong; Yu, Li-Ping; Chou, Chien
2016-06-01
The surface effect close to the boundary of a small light-scattering object in a highly scattering medium is experimentally demonstrated. This is the first attempt to measure the surface effect of a small spherical scattering object in 1% intralipid solution by use of developed diffuse photon-pairs density wave (DPPDW) in terms of the amplitude and phase detection. Theoretically, the surface effect of a small scattering object in turbid media is localized close to the boundary according to the perturbation theory, concerning an inhomogeneous distribution of the diffusion coefficient in the frequency-domain diffusion equation. Hence, an improvement of the spatial resolution of the image via an inverse algorithm, which relates to detection sensitivity of localization to the boundary of the image object in a multiple scattering medium, is anticipated. In this study, we demonstrate that DPPDW is able to sense the surface effect of a 2-mm spherical scattering object in 1% intralipid solution, with high sensitivity. Subsequently, an improvement of spatial resolution of imaging in turbid media by using DPPDW in comparison with conventional diffuse photon density wave (DPDW) using inverse algorithm is discussed.
Quantum imaging with undetected photons.
Lemos, Gabriela Barreto; Borish, Victoria; Cole, Garrett D; Ramelow, Sven; Lapkiewicz, Radek; Zeilinger, Anton
2014-08-28
Information is central to quantum mechanics. In particular, quantum interference occurs only if there exists no information to distinguish between the superposed states. The mere possibility of obtaining information that could distinguish between overlapping states inhibits quantum interference. Here we introduce and experimentally demonstrate a quantum imaging concept based on induced coherence without induced emission. Our experiment uses two separate down-conversion nonlinear crystals (numbered NL1 and NL2), each illuminated by the same pump laser, creating one pair of photons (denoted idler and signal). If the photon pair is created in NL1, one photon (the idler) passes through the object to be imaged and is overlapped with the idler amplitude created in NL2, its source thus being undefined. Interference of the signal amplitudes coming from the two crystals then reveals the image of the object. The photons that pass through the imaged object (idler photons from NL1) are never detected, while we obtain images exclusively with the signal photons (from NL1 and NL2), which do not interact with the object. Our experiment is fundamentally different from previous quantum imaging techniques, such as interaction-free imaging or ghost imaging, because now the photons used to illuminate the object do not have to be detected at all and no coincidence detection is necessary. This enables the probe wavelength to be chosen in a range for which suitable detectors are not available. To illustrate this, we show images of objects that are either opaque or invisible to the detected photons. Our experiment is a prototype in quantum information--knowledge can be extracted by, and about, a photon that is never detected. PMID:25164751
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernabé, S.; Olivier, S.; Myko, A.; Fournier, M.; Blampey, B.; Abraham, A.; Menezo, S.; Hauden, J.; Mottet, A.; Frigui, K.; Ngoho, S.; Frigui, B.; Bila, S.; Marris-Morini, D.; Pérez-Galacho, D.; Brindel, P.; Charlet, G.
2016-05-01
Silicon photonics technology is an enabler for the integration of complex circuits on a single chip, for various optical link applications such as routing, optical networks on chip, short range links and long haul transmitters. Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) transmitters is one of the typical circuits that can be achieved using silicon photonics integrated circuits. The achievement of 25GBd QPSK transmitter modules requires several building blocks to be optimized: the pn junction used to build a BPSK (Binary Shift Phase Keying) modulator, the RF access and the optical interconnect at the package level. In this paper, we describe the various design steps of a BPSK module and the related tests that are needed at every stage of the fabrication process.
Heralded single-photon source from spontaneous four-wave mixing process in lossy waveguides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silva, Nuno A.; Pinto, Armando N.
2015-10-01
We investigate theoretically the spontaneous four-wave mixing (FWM) process that occurs in optical waveguides, as a source of quantum correlated photon-pairs. We consider that the waveguide used to implement the spontaneous FWM process presents a high value of nonlinear parameter, γ = 93.4 W-1m-1, and a non-negligible value of loss coefficient, α = 133.3 dB/m. Moreover, the theoretical model also consider the Raman scattering that inevitably accompanies the FWM process, and generates time-uncorrelated (noise) photon pairs. We use the coincident-to-accidental ratio (CAR) as a figure of merit of the photon pair source, and we were able to observe a CAR of the order of 65 in a high loss regime. After, we use the time-correlated photon pairs generated by the spontaneous FWM process to implement a heralded single photon source at waveguide output. In this scenario, the detection of one photon of the pair heralds the presence of the other photon. The quality of the source was studied by the evaluation of the second order coherence function for one photon of the pair conditioned by the detection of its twin photon. We observe that the presence of a high loss coefficient tends to improve the quality of the photon source, when compared with the lossless regime, even considering the Raman noise photons. We obtain a value for the conditional second order coherence function of the order of 0.11 in absence of loss, and a value of 0.03 for a loss coefficient of 133.3 dB/m.
Two photon production of pion pairs in e/sup +/e/sub /minus// collisions at 29 GeV
Boyer, J.H.
1989-05-01
We present a new measurement of the cross section for the process e/sup +/e/sup /minus// /yields/ e/sup +/e/sup /minus///pi//sup +//pi//sup /minus// at center-of-mass energy 29 GeV for invariant pion pair masses M/sub /phi//phi// between 350 MeV/c/sup 2/ and 3.5 GeV/c/sup 2/. For M/sub /pi//pi// above 2.1 GeV/c/sup 2/, we find approximate agreement with the hard-scattering prediction of Brodsky and Lepage. In the low mass region, we observe the f/sub 2/(1270), and measure its radiative width to be 3.15 /plus minus/ .04 /plus minus/ .39 keV. We also observe an enhancement in the /pi//sup +//pi//sup /minus// spectrum near 1 GeV. We hypothesize that it is the f/sub 0/(975) and determine it's radiative width to be 0.29 /plus minus/ .07 /plus minus/ .12 keV. 48 refs.
Efficient Generation of Frequency-Multiplexed Entangled Single Photons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiu, Tian-Hui; Xie, Min
2016-08-01
We present two schemes to generate frequency-multiplexed entangled (FME) single photons by coherently mapping photonic entanglement into and out of a quantum memory based on Raman interactions. By splitting a single photon and performing subsequent state transfer, we separate the generation of entanglement and its frequency conversion, and find that the both progresses have the characteristic of inherent determinacy. Our theory can reproduce the prominent features of observed results including pulse shapes and the condition for deterministically generating the FME single photons. The schemes are suitable for the entangled photon pairs with a wider frequency range, and could be immune to the photon loss originating from cavity-mode damping, spontaneous emission, and the dephasing due to atomic thermal motion. The sources might have significant applications in wavelength-division-multiplexing quantum key distribution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Li; Guo, Qin; Jiang, Li-ying; Chen, Ge; Xu, Xue-xiang; Yuan, Wen
2015-08-01
We introduce a new non-Gaussian state (MCSO-OSCS), generated by m times coherent superposition operation acos θ + a †sin θ (MCSO) on odd-Schrődinger-cat state | α 0> - | - α 0>(OSCS), whose normalized constant is shown to be related to Hermite polynomials. We investigate the nonclassical properties of the MCSO-OSCS through Mandel's Q-parameter, quadrature squeezing, the photocount distribution and Wigner function (WF), which is turned out to be influenced by parameters m, θ and α 0. Especially the volume of negative region of WF could increase through controlling the parameters m, θ and α 0. We also investigate the decoherence of the MCSO-OSCS in terms of the fadeaway of the negativity of WF in a thermal environment.
Single-photon-level quantum image memory based on cold atomic ensembles
Ding, Dong-Sheng; Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can
2013-01-01
A quantum memory is a key component for quantum networks, which will enable the distribution of quantum information. Its successful development requires storage of single-photon light. Encoding photons with spatial shape through higher-dimensional states significantly increases their information-carrying capability and network capacity. However, constructing such quantum memories is challenging. Here we report the first experimental realization of a true single-photon-carrying orbital angular momentum stored via electromagnetically induced transparency in a cold atomic ensemble. Our experiments show that the non-classical pair correlation between trigger photon and retrieved photon is retained, and the spatial structure of input and retrieved photons exhibits strong similarity. More importantly, we demonstrate that single-photon coherence is preserved during storage. The ability to store spatial structure at the single-photon level opens the possibility for high-dimensional quantum memories. PMID:24084711
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bradley, T. D.; McFerran, J. J.; Jouin, J.; Ilinova, E.; Thomas, P.; Benabid, F.
2013-03-01
We report a comparative study on dephasing mechanisms between inner core coated and uncoated sections of the same Kagome hypocycloid-shaped core hollow core photonic crystal fibers (HC-PCF) filled with rubidium vapor. The comparison is performed by measuring the atomic polarization relaxation and electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) linewidth in Rb loaded polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) inner wall coated and bare silica core Kagome HC-PCF. The measurements show a polarization relaxation time of 32μs in a PDMS coated Kagome HC-PCF and 24μs in uncoated Kagome HC-PCF. A minimum EIT linewidth of 6.2±0.8MHz is achieved in PDMS coated Kagome HC-PCF, and 8.3±0.9 MHz for the uncoated Kagome HC-PCF.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Xiaoxin; Li, Xiaoying; Cui, Liang; Guo, Xueshi; Yang, Lei
2011-08-01
Temporal coherence of individual signal or idler beam, determined by the spectral correlation property of photon pairs, is important for realizing quantum interference among independent sources. Based on spontaneous four-wave mixing in optical fibers, we study the effect of chirp on the temporal coherence property by introducing a different amount of chirp into either the pulsed pump or individual signal (idler) beam. The investigation shows that the pump chirp induces additional frequency correlation into photon pairs; the mutual spectral correlation of photon pairs and the coherence of individual beam can be characterized by measuring the intensity correlation function g(2) of the individual beam. To improve the coherence degree, the pump chirp should be minimized. Moreover, a Hong-Ou-Mandel-type two-photon interference experiment with the signal beams generated in two different fibers illustrates that the chirp of the individual signal (idler) beam does not change the temporal coherence degree, but affects the temporal mode matching. To achieve high visibility among multiple sources, apart from improving the coherence degree, mode matching should be optimized by managing the chirps of individual beams.
Quantum photonics at telecom wavelengths based on lithium niobate waveguides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alibart, Olivier; D'Auria, Virginia; De Micheli, Marc; Doutre, Florent; Kaiser, Florian; Labonté, Laurent; Lunghi, Tommaso; Picholle, Éric; Tanzilli, Sébastien
2016-10-01
Integrated optical components on lithium niobate play a major role in standard high-speed communication systems. Over the last two decades, after the birth and positioning of quantum information science, lithium niobate waveguide architectures have emerged as one of the key platforms for enabling photonics quantum technologies. Due to mature technological processes for waveguide structure integration, as well as inherent and efficient properties for nonlinear optical effects, lithium niobate devices are nowadays at the heart of many photon-pair or triplet sources, single-photon detectors, coherent wavelength-conversion interfaces, and quantum memories. Consequently, they find applications in advanced and complex quantum communication systems, where compactness, stability, efficiency, and interconnectability with other guided-wave technologies are required. In this review paper, we first introduce the material aspects of lithium niobate, and subsequently discuss all of the above mentioned quantum components, ranging from standard photon-pair sources to more complex and advanced circuits.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; König, A.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rad, N.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Lauwers, J.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; De Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Lowette, S.; Moortgat, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Parijs, I.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Delannoy, H.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Goldouzian, R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Luetic, J.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Randle-conde, A.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Cimmino, A.; Cornelis, T.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; Poyraz, D.; Salva, S.; Schöfbeck, R.; Tytgat, M.; Van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; De Visscher, S.; Delaere, C.; Delcourt, M.; Francois, B.; Giammanco, A.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Magitteri, A.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Nuttens, C.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Wertz, S.; Beliy, N.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Hensel, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; Da Silveira, G. G.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mora Herrera, C.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dogra, S.; Tomei, T. R. Fernandez Perez; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Fang, W.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, T.; Jiang, C. H.; Leggat, D.; Liu, Z.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhao, J.; Ban, Y.; Chen, G.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; González Hernández, C. F.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Sculac, T.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Ferencek, D.; Kadija, K.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Susa, T.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Carrera Jarrin, E.; Assran, Y.; Elkafrawy, T.; Mahrous, A.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Perrini, L.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Peltola, T.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Ghosh, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Kucher, I.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Abdulsalam, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Davignon, O.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Jo, M.; Lisniak, S.; Miné, P.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Merlin, J. A.; Skovpen, K.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Courbon, B.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grenier, G.; Ille, B.; Lagarde, F.; Laktineh, I. B.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Pequegnot, A. L.; Perries, S.; Popov, A.; Sabes, D.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Toriashvili, T.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Feld, L.; Heister, A.; Kiesel, M. K.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Ostapchuk, A.; Preuten, M.; Raupach, F.; Schael, S.; Schomakers, C.; Schulte, J. F.; Schulz, J.; Verlage, T.; Weber, H.; Zhukov, V.; Brodski, M.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Endres, M.; Erdmann, M.; Erdweg, S.; Esch, T.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hamer, M.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Knutzen, S.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Millet, P.; Mukherjee, S.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Pook, T.; Radziej, M.; Reithler, H.; Rieger, M.; Scheuch, F.; Sonnenschein, L.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Cherepanov, V.; Flügge, G.; Haj Ahmad, W.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Künsken, A.; Lingemann, J.; Müller, T.; Nehrkorn, A.; Nowack, A.; Nugent, I. M.; Pistone, C.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Beernaert, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrens, U.; Bin Anuar, A. A.; Borras, K.; Campbell, A.; Connor, P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Costanza, F.; Diez Pardos, C.; Dolinska, G.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eren, E.; Gallo, E.; Garay Garcia, J.; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Grados Luyando, J. M.; Gunnellini, P.; Harb, A.; Hauk, J.; Hempel, M.; Jung, H.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Karacheban, O.; Kasemann, M.; Keaveney, J.; Kieseler, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Korol, I.; Krücker, D.; Lange, W.; Lelek, A.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lobanov, A.; Lohmann, W.; Mankel, R.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mittag, G.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Ntomari, E.; Pitzl, D.; Raspereza, A.; Roland, B.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Saxena, P.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Seitz, C.; Spannagel, S.; Stefaniuk, N.; Trippkewitz, K. D.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Blobel, V.; Centis Vignali, M.; Draeger, A. R.; Dreyer, T.; Garutti, E.; Gonzalez, D.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Junkes, A.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Kovalchuk, N.; Lapsien, T.; Lenz, T.; Marchesini, I.; Marconi, D.; Meyer, M.; Niedziela, M.; Nowatschin, D.; Pantaleo, F.; Peiffer, T.; Perieanu, A.; Poehlsen, J.; Sander, C.; Scharf, C.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schumann, S.; Schwandt, J.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Stober, F. M.; Stöver, M.; Tholen, H.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanelderen, L.; Vanhoefer, A.; Vormwald, B.; Barth, C.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Butz, E.; Chwalek, T.; Colombo, F.; De Boer, W.; Dierlamm, A.; Fink, S.; Friese, R.; Giffels, M.; Gilbert, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Haitz, D.; Hartmann, F.; Heindl, S. M.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Maier, B.; Mildner, H.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, Th.; Plagge, M.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Röcker, S.; Roscher, F.; Schröder, M.; Shvetsov, I.; Sieber, G.; Simonis, H. J.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weber, M.; Weiler, T.; Williamson, S.; Wöhrmann, C.; Wolf, R.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Giakoumopoulou, V. A.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Topsis-Giotis, I.; Agapitos, A.; Kesisoglou, S.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Tziaferi, E.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Loukas, N.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Filipovic, N.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Karancsi, J.; Makovec, A.; Molnar, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Bartók, M.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Bahinipati, S.; Choudhury, S.; Mal, P.; Mandal, K.; Nayak, A.; Sahoo, D. K.; Sahoo, N.; Swain, S. K.; Bansal, S.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Chawla, R.; Bhawandeep, U.; Kalsi, A. K.; Kaur, A.; Kaur, M.; Kumar, R.; Mehta, A.; Mittal, M.; Singh, J. B.; Walia, G.; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Garg, R. B.; Keshri, S.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Nishu, N.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, R.; Sharma, V.; Bhattacharya, R.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chatterjee, K.; Dey, S.; Dutt, S.; Dutta, S.; Ghosh, S.; Majumdar, N.; Modak, A.; Mondal, K.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Nandan, S.; Purohit, A.; Roy, A.; Roy, D.; Roy Chowdhury, S.; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Thakur, S.; Behera, P. K.; Chudasama, R.; Dutta, D.; Jha, V.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Topkar, A.; Aziz, T.; Dugad, S.; Kole, G.; Mahakud, B.; Mitra, S.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sur, N.; Sutar, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bhowmik, S.; Dewanjee, R. K.; Ganguly, S.; Guchait, M.; Jain, Sa.; Kumar, S.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Sarkar, T.; Wickramage, N.; Chauhan, S.; Dube, S.; Hegde, V.; Kapoor, A.; Kothekar, K.; Rane, A.; Sharma, S.; Behnamian, H.; Chenarani, S.; Eskandari Tadavani, E.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Khakzad, M.; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M.; Naseri, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, F.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Felcini, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Caputo, C.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; Cristella, L.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Miniello, G.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Ranieri, A.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Abbiendi, G.; Battilana, C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Chhibra, S. S.; Codispoti, G.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Perrotta, A.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. P.; Tosi, N.; Albergo, S.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Di Mattia, A.; Giordano, F.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Gori, V.; Lenzi, P.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Viliani, L.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.; Piccolo, D.; Primavera, F.; Calvelli, V.; Ferro, F.; Lo Vetere, M.; Monge, M. R.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Brianza, L.; Dinardo, M. E.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Ghezzi, A.; Govoni, P.; Malberti, M.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Marzocchi, B.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Paganoni, M.; Pedrini, D.; Pigazzini, S.; Ragazzi, S.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; De Nardo, G.; Di Guida, S.; Esposito, M.; Fabozzi, F.; Iorio, A. O. M.; Lanza, G.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Paolucci, P.; Sciacca, C.; Thyssen, F.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Benato, L.; Bisello, D.; Boletti, A.; Carlin, R.; Carvalho Antunes De Oliveira, A.; Checchia, P.; Dall'Osso, M.; De Castro Manzano, P.; Dorigo, T.; Dosselli, U.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Gozzelino, A.; Lacaprara, S.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Pazzini, J.; Pozzobon, N.; Ronchese, P.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Zanetti, M.; Zotto, P.; Zucchetta, A.; Zumerle, G.; Braghieri, A.; Magnani, A.; Montagna, P.; Ratti, S. P.; Re, V.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vai, I.; Vitulo, P.; Alunni Solestizi, L.; Bilei, G. M.; Ciangottini, D.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Leonardi, R.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bernardini, J.; Boccali, T.; Castaldi, R.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Donato, S.; Fedi, G.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. T.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; Cipriani, M.; D'imperio, G.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Gelli, S.; Jorda, C.; Longo, E.; Margaroli, F.; Meridiani, P.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Preiato, F.; Rahatlou, S.; Rovelli, C.; Santanastasio, F.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Bartosik, N.; Bellan, R.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Cenna, F.; Costa, M.; Covarelli, R.; Degano, A.; Demaria, N.; Finco, L.; Kiani, B.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Monteil, E.; Obertino, M. M.; Pacher, L.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinna Angioni, G. L.; Ravera, F.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Shchelina, K.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Traczyk, P.; Belforte, S.; Casarsa, M.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; La Licata, C.; Schizzi, A.; Zanetti, A.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, M. 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H.; Neumeister, N.; Shi, X.; Sun, J.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Northup, M.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Rorie, J.; Tu, Z.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Duh, Y. t.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Han, J.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Lo, K. H.; Tan, P.; Verzetti, M.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gómez Espinosa, T. A.; Halkiadakis, E.; Heindl, M.; Hidas, D.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R.; Kyriacou, S.; Lath, A.; Nash, K.; Saka, H.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Foerster, M.; Heideman, J.; Riley, G.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; Thapa, K.; Bouhali, O.; Celik, A.; Dalchenko, M.; De Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Gilmore, J.; Huang, T.; Juska, E.; Kamon, T.; Mueller, R.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Perniè, L.; Rathjens, D.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Wang, Z.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Melo, A.; Ni, H.; Sheldon, P.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Barria, P.; Cox, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Neu, C.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Wang, Y.; Wolfe, E.; Xia, F.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Gomber, B.; Grothe, M.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ruggles, T.; Savin, A.; Sharma, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Woods, N.; CMS Collaboration
2016-07-01
A search for the resonant production of high-mass photon pairs is presented. The analysis is based on samples of proton-proton collision data collected by the CMS experiment at center-of-mass energies of 8 and 13 TeV, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 19.7 and 3.3 fb-1 , respectively. The interpretation of the search results focuses on spin-0 and spin-2 resonances with masses between 0.5 and 4 TeV and with widths, relative to the mass, between 1.4 ×10-4 and 5.6 ×10-2. Limits are set on scalar resonances produced through gluon-gluon fusion, and on Randall-Sundrum gravitons. A modest excess of events compatible with a narrow resonance with a mass of about 750 GeV is observed. The local significance of the excess is approximately 3.4 standard deviations. The significance is reduced to 1.6 standard deviations once the effect of searching under multiple signal hypotheses is considered. More data are required to determine the origin of this excess.
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2016-07-29
A search for the resonant production of high-mass photon pairs is presented. The analysis is based on samples of proton-proton collision data collected by the CMS experiment at center-of-mass energies of 8 and 13 TeV, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 19.7 and 3.3 fb^{-1}, respectively. The interpretation of the search results focuses on spin-0 and spin-2 resonances with masses between 0.5 and 4 TeV and with widths, relative to the mass, between 1.4×10^{-4} and 5.6×10^{-2}. Limits are set on scalar resonances produced through gluon-gluon fusion, and on Randall-Sundrum gravitons. A modest excess of events compatible with a narrow resonance with a mass of about 750 GeV is observed. The local significance of the excess is approximately 3.4 standard deviations. The significance is reduced to 1.6 standard deviations once the effect of searching under multiple signal hypotheses is considered. More data are required to determine the origin of this excess. PMID:27517765
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2016-07-29
A search for the resonant production of high-mass photon pairs is presented. The analysis is based on samples of proton-proton collision data collected by the CMS experiment at center-of-mass energies of 8 and 13 TeV, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 19.7 and 3.3 fb^{-1}, respectively. The interpretation of the search results focuses on spin-0 and spin-2 resonances with masses between 0.5 and 4 TeV and with widths, relative to the mass, between 1.4×10^{-4} and 5.6×10^{-2}. Limits are set on scalar resonances produced through gluon-gluon fusion, and on Randall-Sundrum gravitons. A modest excess of events compatible with a narrow resonance with a mass of about 750 GeV is observed. The local significance of the excess is approximately 3.4 standard deviations. The significance is reduced to 1.6 standard deviations once the effect of searching under multiple signal hypotheses is considered. More data are required to determine the origin of this excess.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chien, Cheng-Hao; Chen, Wei-Wen; Wu, June-Tai; Chang, Ta-Chau
2012-03-01
A group of specialized cells in Drosophila called oenocyte, sharing certain similar properties of hepatocytes in mammals, is known to play an important role in lipid metabolism. During starvation, the lipids are released from the fat body, and oenocytes then would accumulate lipid droplets and probably further oxidize them into shorter fatty acids chain as an energy source. Any genetic defect in lipid metabolism may result in different responses of oenocytes to starvation. To investigate this process in vivo, we used coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPE-F) microscopy to monitor oenocytes in living Drosophila larvae during starvation. We identified oenocytes by their intrinsic fluorescence and visualized lipid droplets by CARS signals at ~2845 cm-1 without any labeling. Compared with the wild-type, mutants with defects in lipid metabolism show different accumulation of lipid droplets in oenocytes. While some mutant accumulates much less lipid droplets in oenocytes during starvation, some has many lipid droplets in oenocytes even though they were fed with plenty of foods. Unlike traditional tissue staining, in vivo imaging allows us to specifically monitor the changes in individual, and provides us more information on the dynamic process of lipid metabolism in Drosophila.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chien, Cheng-Hao; Chen, Wei-Wen; Wu, June-Tai; Chang, Ta-Chau
2011-01-01
Drosophila is one of the most valuable model organisms for studying genetics and developmental biology. The fat body in Drosophila, which is analogous to the liver and adipose tissue in human, stores lipids that act as an energy source during its development. At the early stages of metamorphosis, the fat body remodeling occurs involving the dissociation of the fat body into individual fat cells. Here we introduce a combination of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and two-photon excitation autofluorescence (TPE-F) microscopy to achieve label-free imaging of Drosophila in vivo at larval and pupal stages. The strong CARS signal from lipids allows direct imaging of the larval fat body and pupal fat cells. In addition, the use of TPE-F microscopy allows the observation of other internal organs in the larva and autofluorescent globules in fat cells. During the dissociation of the fat body, the findings of the degradation of lipid droplets and an increase in autofluorescent globules indicate the consumption of lipids and the recruitment of proteins in fat cells. Through in vivo imaging and direct monitoring, CARS microscopy may help elucidate how metamorphosis is regulated and study the lipid metabolism in Drosophila.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonora, Stefano; Lee, Sujin; Jian, Yifan; Cua, Michelle; Pugh, Edward N.; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Sarunic, Marinko V.
2016-03-01
We present a new type of adaptive lens with 18 actuators that can correct up the 4th order of aberration. The Multi-actuator Adaptive Lens (M-AL) can guarantee a good level of aberration correction for many applications and, with respect to deformable mirror, it allows the realization of more compact and simple optical systems. The adaptive lens is based on the use of piezoelectric actuators and, without any obstruction or electrodes in the clear aperture, can guarantee a fast response time, in the order of about 10ms. The clear aperture of the M-AL allows its use in "classical" Adaptive Optics configuration together with a wavefront sensor. To introduce a further simplification to the optical system design we show that the adaptive lens can be also driven with a wavefront sensorless control algorithm during in vivo optical coherence tomography of the human retina and for two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy. In the experimental setup we used two aberration correcting devices a commercial adaptive lens (AL) with a high dynamic range to correct for defocus and the Multi-actuator Adaptive Lens (M-AL) to correct for the Zernike aberrations up to the 4th order. Experimental results show that the ocular aberrations of human eyes can be successfully corrected with our M-AL for pupils of 5mm and that retinal cones can be readily imaged.
Zhang, X; Li, R; Wu, Haibin
2016-01-01
Manipulating the nature of photons emission is one of the basic tasks in quantum optics and photonics. The ever growing list of quantum applications requires a robust means of controlling the strongly coupled coherent interaction of photons and matter. Here, we investigate three-photon transmission spectra in a strongly coupled cavity polariton system and show that the correlation functions and transmitted photon stream can be optically manipulated. The dynamics of single photons and photon pairs at the polariton resonances can be changed by light from a single external coupling laser. At the "dark-state polariton," three-photon transmission is a perfectly coherent field in contrast to the strong photon-bunching behavior of a typical cavity quantum electrodynamics system. When the detuned probe light is tuned to the "bright polariton," the light exhibits a dramatic photon antibunching effect. Remarkably, the Fano-resonant asymmetric three-photon transmission caused by the interference between the dressed states leads to a new quantum feature that is strongly nonclassical (the third-order correlation function g((3))(0, 0) ≪ 1) and has a wide and tunable bandwidth. The dependence of the intrinsic third-order correlation and time symmetry of the photon stream on the controlled parameters is also examined. Strongly nonclassical, all-optically controllable multi-photon dynamics are very important for future quantum devices and metrology. PMID:26936334
Zhang, X.; Li, R.; Wu, Haibin
2016-01-01
Manipulating the nature of photons emission is one of the basic tasks in quantum optics and photonics. The ever growing list of quantum applications requires a robust means of controlling the strongly coupled coherent interaction of photons and matter. Here, we investigate three-photon transmission spectra in a strongly coupled cavity polariton system and show that the correlation functions and transmitted photon stream can be optically manipulated. The dynamics of single photons and photon pairs at the polariton resonances can be changed by light from a single external coupling laser. At the “dark-state polariton,” three-photon transmission is a perfectly coherent field in contrast to the strong photon-bunching behavior of a typical cavity quantum electrodynamics system. When the detuned probe light is tuned to the “bright polariton,” the light exhibits a dramatic photon antibunching effect. Remarkably, the Fano-resonant asymmetric three-photon transmission caused by the interference between the dressed states leads to a new quantum feature that is strongly nonclassical (the third-order correlation function g(3)(0, 0) ≪ 1) and has a wide and tunable bandwidth. The dependence of the intrinsic third-order correlation and time symmetry of the photon stream on the controlled parameters is also examined. Strongly nonclassical, all-optically controllable multi-photon dynamics are very important for future quantum devices and metrology. PMID:26936334
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marchal, J.; Horswell, I.; Willis, B.; Plackett, R.; Gimenez, E. N.; Spiers, J.; Ballard, D.; Booker, P.; Thompson, J. A.; Gibbons, P.; Burge, S. R.; Nicholls, T.; Lipp, J.; Tartoni, N.
2013-03-01
Coherent X-ray diffraction experiments on synchrotron X-ray beamlines require detectors with high spatial resolution and large detection area. The read-out chip developed by the MEDIPIX3 collaboration offers a small pixel size of 55 microns resulting in a very high spatial resolution when coupled to a direct X-ray conversion segmented silicon sensor. MEDIPIX3 assemblies present also the advantages of hybrid pixel detectors working in single photon counting mode: noiseless imaging, large dynamic range, extremely high frame rate. The EXCALIBUR detector is under development for the X-ray Coherence and Imaging Beamline I13 of the Diamond Light Source. This new detector consists of three modules, each with 16 MEDIPIX3 chips which can be read-out at 100 frames per second in continuous mode or 1000 frames per second in burst mode. In each module, the sensor is a large single silicon die covering 2 rows of 8 individual MEDIPIX3 read-out chips and provides a continuous active detection region within a module. Each module includes 1 million solder bumps connecting the 55 microns pixels of the silicon sensor to the 55 microns pixels of the 16 MEDIPIX3 read-out chips. The detection area of the 3-module EXCALIBUR detector is 115 mm × 100 mm with a small 6.8 mm wide inactive region between modules. Each detector module is connected to 2 FPGA read-out boards via a flexi-rigid circuit to allow a fully parallel read-out of the 16 MEDIPIX3 chips. The 6 FPGA read-out boards used in the EXCALIBUR detector are interfaced to 6 computing nodes via 10Gbit/s fibre-optic links to maintain the very high frame-rate capability. The standard suite of EPICS control software is used to operate the detector and to integrate it with the Diamond Light Source beamline software environment. This article describes the design, fabrication and characterisation of the MEDIPIX3-based modules composing the EXCALIBUR detector.
Quantum computation with optical coherent states
Ralph, T.C.; Gilchrist, A.; Milburn, G.J.; Munro, W.J.; Glancy, S.
2003-10-01
We show that quantum computation circuits using coherent states as the logical qubits can be constructed from simple linear networks, conditional photon measurements, and 'small' coherent superposition resource states.
Khadzhi, P I; Vasiliev, V V
2010-12-09
The peculiarities of two-photon nutation in a system of coherent biexcitons in CuCl semiconductors are considered taking into account the elastic biexciton - biexciton interaction. It is shown that depending on the system parameters, optical nutation represents a process of periodic transformation of photon pairs into biexcitons and vice versa. The possibility of exercising the phase control of the optical nutation process is predicted. (nonlinear optical phenomena)
En-face polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cucu, Radu G.; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.; Rosen, Richard B.; Boxer, Aaron B.; Jackson, David A.
2003-10-01
We report the first (to the best of out knowledge) en face polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) system. The transverse raster scanning of the target is achieved using a pair of galvo-scanner mirrors. The set-up is based on incoherent detection in two optical and electronic channels and employs balanced detection to reduce the excess photon noise generated by the low coherence source (superluminescent diode). The outputs of the two channels are processed using software to provide a polarisation insensitive (pure reflectivity) image and a birefringence retardation map. Images from ex vivo (human tooth) and in vivo targets (human retina) have been acquired. Particulars of en face optical coherence tomography imaging of birefringent tissue are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ran, Du; Yang, Zhen-Biao
2016-04-01
We address the entanglement transfer from a bipartite continuous-variable(CV) system to a pair of localized discrete systems. The dynamics behavior can be implemented by two two-level atoms flying through spatially separated identical cavities where two quantized modes are injected. We assume each CV mode couples to one atom via the resonant Jaynes-Cummings interaction. The CV systems are initially prepared in a two-mode anti-correlated SU(2) coherent state, while with the initial atomic states of the cases: |g⟩1|g⟩2, |e⟩1|e⟩2 and |g⟩1|e⟩2, respectively. We find that the entanglement transfer for single-photon excitation case is more efficient than that for multi-photon excitation case. Under same conditions, we also note that the entanglement transfer is more efficient for SU(2) coherent state than for twin-bean (TWB) and pair-coherent (TMC) state. Besides, we show that, for a given total photon number of the initial SU(2) coherent state, the efficiency of entanglement transfer depends upon the distribution of photons in the two CV modes. We also consider the influences of the dissipation and the white noise on the entanglement transfer.
Photon echo without a free induction decay in a double-Λ system.
Beavan, Sarah E; Ledingham, Patrick M; Longdell, Jevon J; Sellars, Matthew J
2011-04-01
We have characterized a novel photon-echo pulse sequence for a double-Λ-type energy level system where the input and rephasing transitions are different from the applied π pulses. We show that, despite having imperfect π-pulses associated with large coherent emission due to free induction decay (FID), the noise added in the echo mode is only 0.2 ± 0.1 photons per shot, compared to 4 × 10⁴ photons in the FID modes. Using this echo pulse sequence in the "rephased amplified spontaneous emission" (RASE) scheme [Phys. Rev. A 81, 012301 (2010)] will allow for generation of entangled photon pairs that are in different frequency, temporal, and potentially spatial modes to any bright driving fields. The coherence and efficiency properties of this sequence were characterized in a Pr(3+):Y₂SiO₅ crystal.
Coherence and multimode correlations from vacuum fluctuations in a microwave superconducting cavity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lähteenmäki, Pasi; Paraoanu, Gheorghe Sorin; Hassel, Juha; Hakonen, Pertti J.
2016-08-01
The existence of vacuum fluctuations is one of the most important predictions of modern quantum field theory. In the vacuum state, fluctuations occurring at different frequencies are uncorrelated. However, if a parameter in the Lagrangian of the field is modulated by an external pump, vacuum fluctuations stimulate spontaneous downconversion processes, creating squeezing between modes symmetric with respect to half of the frequency of the pump. Here we show that by double parametric pumping of a superconducting microwave cavity, it is possible to generate another type of correlation, namely coherence between photons in separate frequency modes. The coherence correlations are tunable by the phases of the pumps and are established by a quantum fluctuation that stimulates the simultaneous creation of two photon pairs. Our analysis indicates that the origin of this vacuum-induced coherence is the absence of which-way information in the frequency space.
Coherence and multimode correlations from vacuum fluctuations in a microwave superconducting cavity.
Lähteenmäki, Pasi; Paraoanu, Gheorghe Sorin; Hassel, Juha; Hakonen, Pertti J
2016-01-01
The existence of vacuum fluctuations is one of the most important predictions of modern quantum field theory. In the vacuum state, fluctuations occurring at different frequencies are uncorrelated. However, if a parameter in the Lagrangian of the field is modulated by an external pump, vacuum fluctuations stimulate spontaneous downconversion processes, creating squeezing between modes symmetric with respect to half of the frequency of the pump. Here we show that by double parametric pumping of a superconducting microwave cavity, it is possible to generate another type of correlation, namely coherence between photons in separate frequency modes. The coherence correlations are tunable by the phases of the pumps and are established by a quantum fluctuation that stimulates the simultaneous creation of two photon pairs. Our analysis indicates that the origin of this vacuum-induced coherence is the absence of which-way information in the frequency space. PMID:27562246
Coherence and multimode correlations from vacuum fluctuations in a microwave superconducting cavity
Lähteenmäki, Pasi; Paraoanu, Gheorghe Sorin; Hassel, Juha; Hakonen, Pertti J.
2016-01-01
The existence of vacuum fluctuations is one of the most important predictions of modern quantum field theory. In the vacuum state, fluctuations occurring at different frequencies are uncorrelated. However, if a parameter in the Lagrangian of the field is modulated by an external pump, vacuum fluctuations stimulate spontaneous downconversion processes, creating squeezing between modes symmetric with respect to half of the frequency of the pump. Here we show that by double parametric pumping of a superconducting microwave cavity, it is possible to generate another type of correlation, namely coherence between photons in separate frequency modes. The coherence correlations are tunable by the phases of the pumps and are established by a quantum fluctuation that stimulates the simultaneous creation of two photon pairs. Our analysis indicates that the origin of this vacuum-induced coherence is the absence of which-way information in the frequency space. PMID:27562246
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakanishi, Toshihiro; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Sugiyama, Kazuhiko; Kitano, Masao
2009-10-01
For dissipation-free photon-photon interaction at the single photon level, we analyze one-photon and two-photon transitions induced by photon pairs in three-level atoms using two-photon wave functions. We show that two-photon absorption can be substantially enhanced by adjusting the time correlation of photon pairs. We study two typical cases: a Gaussian wave function and a rectangular wave function. In the latter, we find that under special conditions one-photon transition is completely suppressed, while two-photon transition is maintained with a high probability.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xingmin; Wei, L. F.
2016-05-01
Weak dipolar interactions exist widely in various atomic, nuclear and molecular systems, and could be utilized to implement the desired quantum information processings. However, these interactions are relatively weak and hard to be measured precisely. Here, we propose an approach to detect such a weak interaction by probing the transport of a single waveguide-photon scattered by two aside qubits with a single dipolar exchange-interaction. By a full quantum theory of photon transports in optical waveguide, we show that the dipolar interaction between the aside two qubits significantly influence the transmitted spectra of the photon traveling along the one-dimensional waveguide. Thus, probing the relevant changes in the transmitted spectra and the transmission probability distribution specifically for the resonant photons, compared with those scattered by the two individual qubits, the information of the single dipolar interaction between the qubits could be extracted. The feasibility of the proposal is also discussed.
Segawa, Hiroki; Okuno, Masanari; Leproux, Philippe; Couderc, Vincent; Ozawa, Takeaki; Kano, Hideaki
2015-01-01
The subnanosecond "white-light laser" source has been applied to multimodal, multiphoton, and multiplex spectroscopic imaging (M(3) spectroscopic imaging) with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), third-order sum frequency generation (TSFG), and two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF). As the proof-of-principle experiment, we performed simultaneous imaging of polystyrene beads with TSFG and TPEF. This technique is then applied to live cell imaging. Mouse L929 fibroblastic cells are clearly visualized by CARS, TSFG, and TPEF processes. M(3) spectroscopic imaging provides various and unique cellular information with different image contrast based on each multiphoton process.
Segawa, Hiroki; Okuno, Masanari; Leproux, Philippe; Couderc, Vincent; Ozawa, Takeaki; Kano, Hideaki
2015-01-01
The subnanosecond "white-light laser" source has been applied to multimodal, multiphoton, and multiplex spectroscopic imaging (M(3) spectroscopic imaging) with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), third-order sum frequency generation (TSFG), and two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF). As the proof-of-principle experiment, we performed simultaneous imaging of polystyrene beads with TSFG and TPEF. This technique is then applied to live cell imaging. Mouse L929 fibroblastic cells are clearly visualized by CARS, TSFG, and TPEF processes. M(3) spectroscopic imaging provides various and unique cellular information with different image contrast based on each multiphoton process. PMID:25864673
Towards Long-Distance Atom-Photon Entanglement
Rosenfeld, W.; Hocke, F.; Henkel, F.; Krug, M.; Volz, J.; Weber, M.; Weinfurter, H.
2008-12-31
We report the observation of entanglement between a single trapped atom and a single photon at remote locations. The degree of coherence of the entangled atom-photon pair is verified via appropriate local correlation measurements, after communicating the photon via an optical fiber link of 300 m length to a receiver 3.5 m apart. In addition, we measured the temporal evolution of the atomic density matrix after projecting the atom via a state measurement of the photon onto several well-defined spin states. We find that the state of the single atom dephases on a time scale of 150 {mu}s, which represents an important step towards long-distance quantum networking with individual neutral atoms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oszetzky, Dániel; Nagy, Attila; Czitrovszky, Aladár
2006-10-01
We have developed our pervious experimental setup using correlated photon pairs (to the calibration of photo detectors) to realize a controllable photon source. For the generation of such photon pairs we use the non-linear process of parametric down conversion. When a photon of the pump beam is incident to a nonlinear crystal with phase matching condition, a pair of photons (signal and idler) is created at the same time with certain probability. We detect the photons in the signal beam with a single photon counting module (SPCM), while delaying those in the idler beam. Recently we have developed a fast electronic unit to control an optical shutter (a Pockels cell) placed to the optical output of the idler beam. When we detect a signal photon with the controlling electronic unit we are also able to open or close the fast optical shutter. Thus we can control which idler photons can propagate through the Pockels cell. So with this photon source we are able to program the number of photons in a certain time window. This controllable photon source that is able to generate a known number of photons with specified wavelength, direction, and polarization could be useful for applications in high-accuracy optical characterisation of photometric devices at the ultra-low intensities. This light source can also serve as a standard in testing of optical image intensifiers, night vision devices, and in the accurate measurement of spectral distribution of transmission and absorption in optical materials.
Coherent Absorption of N00N States.
Roger, Thomas; Restuccia, Sara; Lyons, Ashley; Giovannini, Daniel; Romero, Jacquiline; Jeffers, John; Padgett, Miles; Faccio, Daniele
2016-07-01
Recent results in deeply subwavelength thickness films demonstrate coherent control and logical gate operations with both classical and single-photon light sources. However, quantum processing and devices typically involve more than one photon and nontrivial input quantum states. Here we experimentally investigate two-photon N00N state coherent absorption in a multilayer graphene film. Depending on the N00N state input phase, it is possible to selectively choose between single- or two-photon absorption of the input state in the graphene film. These results demonstrate that coherent absorption in the quantum regime exhibits unique features, opening up applications in multiphoton spectroscopy and imaging. PMID:27447505
Coherent Absorption of N00N States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roger, Thomas; Restuccia, Sara; Lyons, Ashley; Giovannini, Daniel; Romero, Jacquiline; Jeffers, John; Padgett, Miles; Faccio, Daniele
2016-07-01
Recent results in deeply subwavelength thickness films demonstrate coherent control and logical gate operations with both classical and single-photon light sources. However, quantum processing and devices typically involve more than one photon and nontrivial input quantum states. Here we experimentally investigate two-photon N00N state coherent absorption in a multilayer graphene film. Depending on the N00N state input phase, it is possible to selectively choose between single- or two-photon absorption of the input state in the graphene film. These results demonstrate that coherent absorption in the quantum regime exhibits unique features, opening up applications in multiphoton spectroscopy and imaging.
Tesfa, Sintayehu
2010-11-15
A detailed derivation of the master equation and the corresponding time evolution of the cavity radiation of a coherent beat laser when the atoms are initially prepared in a partial coherent superposition is presented. It turns out that the quantum features and intensity of the cavity radiation are considerably modified by the phase fluctuation arising due to the practical incapability of preparing atoms in the intended perfect coherent superposition. New terms having opposite signs than the contribution of the driving radiation emerged in the master equation. This can be taken as an indication of a competing effect between the two in the manifestation of the nonclassical features. This, on the other hand, means that there is a chance to regain the quantum properties that might have been lost due to faulty preparation in engineering the driving mechanism and vice versa. In light of this, quite remarkably, the cavity radiation is shown to exhibit nonclassical features including two-mode squeezing and entanglement when there is no driving and when the atoms are initially prepared in a partial maximum atomic coherence superposition, contrary to earlier predictions for the case of perfect coherence.
Catalytic coherence transformations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bu, Kaifeng; Singh, Uttam; Wu, Junde
2016-04-01
Catalytic coherence transformations allow the otherwise impossible state transformations using only incoherent operations with the aid of an auxiliary system with finite coherence that is not being consumed in any way. Here we find the necessary and sufficient conditions for the deterministic and stochastic catalytic coherence transformations between a pair of pure quantum states. In particular, we show that the simultaneous decrease of a family of Rényi entropies of the diagonal parts of the states under consideration is a necessary and sufficient condition for the deterministic catalytic coherence transformations. Similarly, for stochastic catalytic coherence transformations we find the necessary and sufficient conditions for achieving a higher optimal probability of conversion. We thus completely characterize the coherence transformations among pure quantum states under incoherent operations. We give numerous examples to elaborate our results. We also explore the possibility of the same system acting as a catalyst for itself and find that indeed self-catalysis is possible. Further, for the cases where no catalytic coherence transformation is possible we provide entanglement-assisted coherence transformations and find the necessary and sufficient conditions for such transformations.
Measurement of spin coherence using Raman scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Z.; Delteil, A.; Faelt, S.; Imamoǧlu, A.
2016-06-01
Ramsey interferometry provides a natural way to determine the coherence time of most qubit systems. Recent experiments on quantum dots, however, demonstrated that dynamical nuclear spin polarization can strongly influence the measurement process, making it difficult to extract the T2* coherence time using standard optical Ramsey pulses. Here, we demonstrate an alternative method for spin coherence measurement that is based on first-order coherence of photons generated in spin-flip Raman scattering. We show that if a quantum emitter is driven by a weak monochromatic laser, Raman coherence is determined exclusively by spin coherence, allowing for a direct determination of spin T2* time. When combined with coherence measurements on Rayleigh scattered photons, our technique enables us to identify coherent and incoherent contributions to resonance fluorescence, and to minimize the latter. We verify the validity of our technique by comparing our results to those determined from Ramsey interferometry for electron and heavy-hole spins.
Observation of quantum recoherence of photons by spatial propagation
Bouchard, Frédéric; Harris, Jérémie; Mand, Harjaspreet; Bent, Nicolas; Santamato, Enrico; Boyd, Robert W.; Karimi, Ebrahim
2015-01-01
Entanglement is at the heart of many unusual and counterintuitive features of quantum mechanics. Once two quantum subsystems have become entangled, it is no longer possible to ascribe an independent state to either; instead, the subsystems are completely described only as part of a greater, composite system. As a consequence of this, each entangled subsystem experiences a loss of coherence following entanglement. We refer to this decrease in coherence as decoherence. Decoherence leads inevitably to the leaking of information from each subsystem to the composite entangled system. Here, we demonstrate a process of decoherence reversal, whereby we recover information lost from the entanglement of the optical orbital angular momentum and radial profile degrees of freedom possessed by a photon pair. These results carry great potential significance, since quantum memories and quantum communication schemes depend on an experimenter’s ability to retain the coherent properties of a particular quantum system. PMID:26469000
Observation of quantum recoherence of photons by spatial propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouchard, Frédéric; Harris, Jérémie; Mand, Harjaspreet; Bent, Nicolas; Santamato, Enrico; Boyd, Robert W.; Karimi, Ebrahim
2015-10-01
Entanglement is at the heart of many unusual and counterintuitive features of quantum mechanics. Once two quantum subsystems have become entangled, it is no longer possible to ascribe an independent state to either; instead, the subsystems are completely described only as part of a greater, composite system. As a consequence of this, each entangled subsystem experiences a loss of coherence following entanglement. We refer to this decrease in coherence as decoherence. Decoherence leads inevitably to the leaking of information from each subsystem to the composite entangled system. Here, we demonstrate a process of decoherence reversal, whereby we recover information lost from the entanglement of the optical orbital angular momentum and radial profile degrees of freedom possessed by a photon pair. These results carry great potential significance, since quantum memories and quantum communication schemes depend on an experimenter’s ability to retain the coherent properties of a particular quantum system.
Approaching the Ultimate Limits of Communication Efficiency with a Photon-Counting Detector
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Erkmen, Baris; Moision, Bruce; Dolinar, Samuel J.; Birnbaum, Kevin M.; Divsalar, Dariush
2012-01-01
Coherent states achieve the Holevo capacity of a pure-loss channel when paired with an optimal measurement, but a physical realization of this measurement is as of yet unknown, and it is also likely to be of high complexity. In this paper, we focus on the photon-counting measurement and study the photon and dimensional efficiencies attainable with modulations over classical- and nonclassical-state alphabets. We first review the state-of-the-art coherent on-off-keying (OOK) with a photoncounting measurement, illustrating its asymptotic inefficiency relative to the Holevo limit. We show that a commonly made Poisson approximation in thermal noise leads to unbounded photon information efficiencies, violating the conjectured Holevo limit. We analyze two binary-modulation architectures that improve upon the dimensional versus photon efficiency tradeoff achievable with conventional OOK. We show that at high photon efficiency these architectures achieve an efficiency tradeoff that differs from the best possible tradeoff--determined by the Holevo capacity--by only a constant factor. The first architecture we analyze is a coherent-state transmitter that relies on feedback from the receiver to control the transmitted energy. The second architecture uses a single-photon number-state source.
Coherence dynamics in photosynthesis: protein protection of excitonic coherence.
Lee, Hohjai; Cheng, Yuan-Chung; Fleming, Graham R
2007-06-01
The role of quantum coherence in promoting the efficiency of the initial stages of photosynthesis is an open and intriguing question. We performed a two-color photon echo experiment on a bacterial reaction center that enabled direct visualization of the coherence dynamics in the reaction center. The data revealed long-lasting coherence between two electronic states that are formed by mixing of the bacteriopheophytin and accessory bacteriochlorophyll excited states. This coherence can only be explained by strong correlation between the protein-induced fluctuations in the transition energy of neighboring chromophores. Our results suggest that correlated protein environments preserve electronic coherence in photosynthetic complexes and allow the excitation to move coherently in space, enabling highly efficient energy harvesting and trapping in photosynthesis.
Adare, A.; Awes, Terry C; Cianciolo, Vince; Efremenko, Yuri; Enokizono, Akitomo; Read Jr, Kenneth F; Silvermyr, David O; Sorensen, Soren P; Stankus, Paul W; Young, Glenn R; PHENIX, Collaboration
2010-01-01
PHENIX has measured the e{sup +}e{sup -} pair continuum in {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV Au+Au and p+p collisions over a wide range of mass and transverse momenta. The e{sup +}e{sup -} yield is compared to the expectations from hadronic sources, based on PHENIX measurements. In the intermediate-mass region, between the masses of the {phi} and the J/{psi} meson, the yield is consistent with expectations from correlated cc production, although other mechanisms are not ruled out. In the low-mass region, below the {phi}, the p+p inclusive mass spectrum is well described by known contributions from light meson decays. In contrast, the Au+Au minimum bias inclusive mass spectrum in this region shows an enhancement by a factor of 4.7 {+-} 0.4{sup stat} {+-} 1.5{sup syst} {+-} 0.9{sup model}. At low mass (m{sub ee} < 0.3 GeV/c{sup 2}) and high p{sub T} (1 < p{sub T} < 5 GeV/c) an enhanced e{sup +}e{sup -} pair yield is observed that is consistent with production of virtual direct photons. This excess is used to infer the yield of real direct photons. In central Au+Au collisions, the excess of the direct photon yield over the p+p is exponential in p{sub T}, with inverse slope T = 221 {+-} 19{sup stat} {+-} 19{sup syst} MeV. Hydrodynamical models with initial temperatures ranging from T{sub init} = 300-600 MeV at times of 0.6-0.15 fm/c after the collision are in qualitative agreement with the direct photon data in Au+Au. For low p{sub T} < 1 GeV/c the low-mass region shows a further significant enhancement that increases with centrality and has an inverse slope of T = 100 MeV. Theoretical models underpredict the low-mass, low-p{sub T} enhancement.
Flux Quantization Without Cooper Pairs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kadin, Alan
2013-03-01
It is universally accepted that the superconducting flux quantum h/2e requires the existence of a phase-coherent macroscopic wave function of Cooper pairs, each with charge 2e. On the contrary, we assert that flux quantization can be better understood in terms of single-electron quantum states, localized on the scale of the coherence length and organized into a real-space phase-antiphase structure. This packing configuration is consistent with the Pauli exclusion principle for single-electron states, maintains long-range phase coherence, and is compatible with much of the BCS formalism. This also accounts for h/2e in the Josephson effect, without Cooper pairs. Experimental evidence for this alternative picture may be found in deviations from h/2e in loops and devices much smaller than the coherence length. A similar phase-antiphase structure may also account for superfluids, without the need for boson condensation.
Abbott, B.; D0 Collaboration
1997-10-01
A search for new physics in the channel p{anti p} {yields} {gamma}{gamma}jj has been studied. In some extended Higgs models, a light neutral scalar Higgs boson is produced with suppressed couplings to fermions and standard model(SM) strength couplings to vector bosons(bosonic Higgs), thus enhancing the H {yields} {gamma}{gamma} channel. We required one photon in the event with E{sup {gamma}}{sub T} > 20 GeV, {vert_bar}{eta}{sup {gamma}}{vert_bar} < 1.1 or 1.5 < {vert_bar}{eta}{sup {gamma}}{vert_bar} < 2.0 and a second photon with E{sup {gamma}}{sub T} > 15 GeV, {vert_bar}{eta}{sup {gamma}}{vert_bar} < 1.1 or 1.5 < {vert_bar}{eta}{sup {gamma}}{vert_bar} < 2.25. Additionally, we required one hadronic jet in the event with E{sup jet}{sub T} > 20 GeV, {vert_bar}{eta}{sup jet}{vert_bar} < 2.0 and a second hadronic jet with E{sup jet}{sub T} > 15 GeV, {vert_bar}{eta}{sup jet}{vert_bar} < 2.25. The photons are required to have a {summation}{rvec E}{sub T}({gamma}) {>=} 10 GeV, and likewise the jets are required to have a {summation}{rvec E}{sub T}(jet) {>=} 10 GeV. The final M{sub {gamma}{gamma}} distribution is consistent with background and no resonance is observed. A 90(95)% C.L. upper limit cross section vs M{sub {gamma}{gamma}} is calculated, which ranges from 0.6(0.7) pb{sup -1} for M{sub {gamma}{gamma}} = 60 GeV/c{sup 2} to 0.3(0.4) pb{sup -1} for M{sub {gamma}{gamma}} = 130 GeV/c{sup 2}. With standard model coupling strengths between the bosonic Higgs and vector bosons, a 90(95)% C.L. bosonic Higgs lower mass limit is set at 86(81) GeV/c{sup 2}.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ji, Y.; Han, H.; Lee, H.
2014-12-01
Analysis of the surface properties of Antarctica is very important to study the change of environment and climate in the polar region. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has been widely used to study Antarctic surface properties because it is independent of sun altitude and atmospheric conditions. Interferometric SAR (InSAR) observes surface topography and deformation, by calculating the phase differences between two or more SAR images obtained over same area. InSAR technique can be used for height mapping in stable areas with a few meter accuracy. However, the InSAR-derived height map can have errors if the phase differences due to surface deformation or change of the scattering center by microwave penetration into snow are misinterpreted as the elevation. In this study, we generated the height maps around Terra Nova Bay in East Antarctica from 13 COSMO-SkyMed one-day tandem InSAR pairs obtained from December 2010 to January 2012. By analyzing the height maps averaged over the 13 interferograms and its standard deviation (STD) map, we could classify the surface types into glacier, mountains and basin areas covered with snow. The mountain areas showed very small STD because its surface property is unchanged with time, except for the small STD values caused by the errors from the unwrapping processing, satellite orbit or atmospheric phase distortion. Over the basin areas, however, the STD of the height was much larger than the mountain area due to the variation of scattering center either from the change in surface property such as snowfall and sublimation or by the surface displacement of snow mass that are too slow. A year-long constant motion of such slow-creeping snow body was positively identified by its linear relationship between the misinterpreted elevation and the baseline perpendicular component of InSAR pair. Analysis of time-series coherence maps and amplitude maps have also contributed to clarify the surface properties and its changes due to various
Pair production and escape in accretion disks.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meirelles Filho, C.; Liang, E. P.
It is shown that, in the absence of confining mechanisms, there will be a non-negligible amount of pairs escaping from the inner region of a Comptonized soft photon two-temperature accretion disk, when pair production is not balanced by annihilation. Assuming conditions such that the photons and particles in the disk can be regarded as close to a Wien plasma (Svensson, 1984), the authors calculate the rate of pair escape from the disk for both a situation close to pair balance and a situation with the rate of escape exceeding annihilation. The pairs are assumed to be created by photon-photon processes. Within this model one can account for the 511 keV γ-ray luminosity due to pair annihilation in the ISM, as recently observed in the Einstein source.
On Approaching the Ultimate Limits of Communication Using a Photon-Counting Detector
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Erkmen, Baris I.; Moision, Bruce E.; Dolinar, Samuel J.; Birnbaum, Kevin M.; Divsalar, Dariush
2012-01-01
Coherent states achieve the Holevo capacity of a pure-loss channel when paired with an optimal measurement, but a physical realization of this measurement scheme is as of yet unknown, and it is also likely to be of high complexity. In this paper, we focus on the photon-counting measurement and study the photon and dimensional efficiencies attainable with modulations over classical- and nonclassical-state alphabets. We analyze two binary modulation architectures that improve upon the dimensional versus photon efficiency tradeoff achievable with the state-of-the-art coherent-state on-off keying modulation. We show that at high photon efficiency these architectures achieve an efficiency tradeoff that differs from the best possible tradeoff--determined by the Holevo capacity--by only a constant factor. The first architecture we analyze is a coherent-state transmitter that relies on feedback from the receiver to control the transmitted energy. The second architecture uses a single-photon number-state source.
Two-photon spectroscopy of excitons with entangled photons.
Schlawin, Frank; Mukamel, Shaul
2013-12-28
The utility of quantum light as a spectroscopic tool is demonstrated for frequency-dispersed pump-probe, integrated pump-probe, and two-photon fluorescence signals which show Ramsey fringes. Simulations of the frequency-dispersed transmission of a broadband pulse of entangled photons interacting with a three-level model of matter reveal how the non-classical time-bandwidth properties of entangled photons can be used to disentangle congested spectra, and reveal otherwise unresolved features. Quantum light effects are most pronounced at weak intensities when entangled photon pairs are well separated, and are gradually diminished at higher intensities when different photon pairs overlap.
Two-photon spectroscopy of excitons with entangled photons
Schlawin, Frank; Mukamel, Shaul
2013-12-28
The utility of quantum light as a spectroscopic tool is demonstrated for frequency-dispersed pump-probe, integrated pump-probe, and two-photon fluorescence signals which show Ramsey fringes. Simulations of the frequency-dispersed transmission of a broadband pulse of entangled photons interacting with a three-level model of matter reveal how the non-classical time-bandwidth properties of entangled photons can be used to disentangle congested spectra, and reveal otherwise unresolved features. Quantum light effects are most pronounced at weak intensities when entangled photon pairs are well separated, and are gradually diminished at higher intensities when different photon pairs overlap.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siwicki, Bartłomiej; Kasztelanic, Rafał; Klimczak, Mariusz; Cimek, Jarosław; Pysz, Dariusz; Stępień, Ryszard; Buczyński, Ryszard
2016-06-01
The bandwidth of coherent supercontinuum generated in optical fibres is strongly determined by the all-normal dispersion characteristic of the fibre. We investigate all-normal dispersion limitations in all-solid oxide-based soft glass photonic crystal fibres with various relative inclusion sizes and lattice constants. The influence of material dispersion on fibre dispersion characteristics for a selected pair of glasses is also examined. A relation between the material dispersion of the glasses and the fibre dispersion has been described. We determined the parameters which limit the maximum range of flattened all-normal dispersion profile achievable for the considered pair of heavy-metal-oxide soft glasses.
Nonclassical properties of coherent states and excited coherent states for continuous spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Honarasa, G. R.; Tavassoly, M. K.; Hatami, M.; Roknizadeh, R.
2011-02-01
Based on the definition of coherent states for continuous spectra and analogous to photon-added coherent states for discrete spectra, we introduce the excited coherent states for continuous spectra. It is shown that the main axioms of Gazeau-Klauder coherent states will be satisfied, properly. Nonclassical properties and quantum statistics of coherent states, as well as the introduced excited coherent states, are discussed. In particular, through the study of quadrature squeezing and amplitude-squared squeezing, it will be observed that both classes of the above states can be classified in the intelligent states category.
Guan, Binbin; Scott, Ryan P; Qin, Chuan; Fontaine, Nicolas K; Su, Tiehui; Ferrari, Carlo; Cappuzzo, Mark; Klemens, Fred; Keller, Bob; Earnshaw, Mark; Yoo, S J B
2014-01-13
We demonstrate free-space space-division-multiplexing (SDM) with 15 orbital angular momentum (OAM) states using a three-dimensional (3D) photonic integrated circuit (PIC). The hybrid device consists of a silica planar lightwave circuit (PLC) coupled to a 3D waveguide circuit to multiplex/demultiplex OAM states. The low excess loss hybrid device is used in individual and two simultaneous OAM states multiplexing and demultiplexing link experiments with a 20 Gb/s, 1.67 b/s/Hz quadrature phase shift keyed (QPSK) signal, which shows error-free performance for 379,960 tested bits for all OAM states.
Langer, L; Poltavtsev, S V; Yugova, I A; Yakovlev, D R; Karczewski, G; Wojtowicz, T; Kossut, J; Akimov, I A; Bayer, M
2012-10-12
We report on magnetic field-induced oscillations of the photon echo signal from negatively charged excitons in a CdTe/(Cd,Mg)Te semiconductor quantum well. The oscillatory signal is due to Larmor precession of the electron spin about a transverse magnetic field and depends sensitively on the polarization configuration of the exciting and refocusing pulses. The echo amplitude can be fully tuned from the maximum down to zero depending on the time delay between the two pulses and the magnetic-field strength. The results are explained in terms of the optical Bloch equations accounting for the spin level structure of electrons and trions.
The cavity-embedded-cooper pair transistor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Fei
Nearly eight decades after Erwin Schrodinger proposed his famous cat paradox, the boundary between classical and quantum physics is becoming accessible to experimental study in condensed matter systems, in which macroscopic and microscopic degrees of freedom interact with each other. The cavity-embedded-Cooper pair transistor (cCPT) is an ideal candidate for such a study in that it is not only strongly and intrinsically nonlinear but also fully quantum mechanical. A novel technique, based on the circuit quantum electrodynamics architecture, is first introduced for applying a dc bias to a high-Q superconducting microwave cavity. The development and investigation of the cCPT system, in which a Cooper pair transistor acting as a single artificial atom is directly coupled to an on-chip dc-biased high-Q resonator, is then presented. Self-oscillations in the cCPT, internally driven by the ac Josephson effect, demonstrate the strong and phase coherent coupling between matter and light in the cCPT. Meanwhile, photons continually produced by the system are collected and characterized by quantum state tomography, which indicates the non-classical nature of the emitted light and the nonlinear quantum dynamics of the cCPT system.
Bischel, W.K.; Jacobs, R.R.; Prosnitz, D.P.; Rhodes, C.K.; Kelly, P.J.
1979-02-20
Method and apparatus are disclosed for producing laser radiation by two-photon optical pumping of an atomic or molecular gaseous medium and subsequent lasing action. A population inversion is created as a result of two-photon absorption of the gaseous species. Stark tuning is utilized, if necessary, in order to tune the two-photon transition into exact resonance. In particular, gaseous ammonia (NH[sub 3]) or methyl fluoride (CH[sub 3]F) is optically pumped by a pair of CO[sub 2] lasers to create a population inversion resulting from simultaneous two-photon excitation of a high-lying vibrational state, and laser radiation is produced by stimulated emission of coherent radiation from the inverted level. 3 figs.
Bischel, William K. [Menlo Park, CA; Jacobs, Ralph R. [Livermore, CA; Prosnitz, Donald [Hamden, CT; Rhodes, Charles K. [Palo Alto, CA; Kelly, Patrick J. [Fort Lewis, WA
1979-02-20
Method and apparatus for producing laser radiation by two-photon optical pumping of an atomic or molecular gaseous medium and subsequent lasing action. A population inversion is created as a result of two-photon absorption of the gaseous species. Stark tuning is utilized, if necessary, in order to tune the two-photon transition into exact resonance. In particular, gaseous ammonia (NH.sub.3) or methyl fluoride (CH.sub.3 F) is optically pumped by a pair of CO.sub.2 lasers to create a population inversion resulting from simultaneous two-photon excitation of a high-lying vibrational state, and laser radiation is produced by stimulated emission of coherent radiation from the inverted level.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
To, Wing H.
2005-01-01
Quantum optical experiments require all the components involved to be extremely stable relative to each other. The stability can be "measured" by using an interferometric experiment. A pair of coherent photons produced by parametric down-conversion could be chosen to be orthogonally polarized initially. By rotating the polarization of one of the wave packets, they can be recombined at a beam splitter such that interference will occur. Theoretically, the interference will create four terms in the wave function. Two terms with both photons going to the same detector, and two terms will have the photons each going to different detectors. However, the latter will cancel each other out, thus no photons will arrive at the two detectors simultaneously under ideal conditions. The stability Of the test-bed can then be inferred by the dependence of coincidence count on the rotation angle.
Photoelectric devices with quantum coherence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shanhe, Su
A phtotoelectric device consisting of a three-level system contacted with two fermionic baths and a photon bath is built. Making the Born-Markov approximation, the equation of motion for the density operator in a Lindblad-like form is derived. We obtain the coherence and the efficiency of the system under the steady-state condition. Results show that quantum coherence can enhance the photoelectric conversion efficiency. The efficiency at maximum power can be larger than the CA efficiency bound with the existence of coherence.
Kang, I; Liu, X; Chandrasekhar, S; Rasras, M; Jung, H; Cappuzzo, M; Gomez, L T; Chen, Y F; Buhl, L; Cabot, S; Jaques, J
2012-01-16
We propose a novel energy-efficient coherent-optical OFDM transmission scheme based on hybrid optical-electronic signal processing. We demonstrate transmission of a 0.26-Tb/s OFDM superchannel, consisting of 13 x 20-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed QPSK subcarrier channels, over 400-km standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) with BER less than 6.3x10(-4) using all-optical Fourier transform processing and electronic 7-tap blind digital equalization per subchannel. We further explore long-haul transmission over up to 960 km SSMF and show that the electronic signal processing is capable of compensating chromatic dispersion up to 16,000 ps/nm using only 15 taps per subchannel, even in the presence of strong inter-carrier interference.
Second-order coherence of supercontinuum light.
Genty, Goëry; Surakka, Minna; Turunen, Jari; Friberg, Ari T
2010-09-15
We analyze the coherence properties of supercontinuum generated in photonic crystal fibers by applying the second-order coherence theory of nonstationary light. Using an ensemble of simulated realizations, we construct two-frequency cross-spectral density and two-time mutual coherence functions. This allows us to introduce measures of temporal and spectral coherence. We show that, in the long-pulse regime, supercontinuum light can be decomposed into a sum of coherent and quasi-stationary contributions. Our approach and findings are also applicable in the short-pulse regime. PMID:20847777
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Miller, Pat
2005-01-01
Cold February weather and pancakes are a traditional pairing. Pancake Day began as a way to eat up the foods that were abstained from in Lent--traditionally meat, fat, eggs and dairy products. The best-known pancake event is The Pancake Day Race in Buckinghamshire, England, which has been run since 1445. This column describes pairs of books that…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abouzeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Agustoni, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allison, L. J.; Allport, P. P.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Backus Mayes, J.; Badescu, E.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Balek, P.; Balli, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Bartsch, V.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernat, P.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao de Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, T. T.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borri, M.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boutouil, S.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brazzale, S. F.; Brelier, B.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, K.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bromberg, C.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Brown, J.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Bucci, F.; Buchholz, P.; Buckingham, R. M.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, L.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bundock, A. C.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burghgrave, B.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Busato, E.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butler, B.; Butler, J. M.; Butt, A. I.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Byszewski, M.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarda, S.; Cameron, D.; Caminada, L. M.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Cano Bret, M.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Casolino, M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castelli, A.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Catastini, P.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerio, B. C.; Cerny, K.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cerv, M.; Cervelli, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chalupkova, I.; Chang, P.; Chapleau, B.; Chapman, J. D.; Charfeddine, D.; Charlton, D. G.; Chau, C. C.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Cheatham, S.; Chegwidden, A.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chen, L.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. C.; Cheng, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Chiefari, G.; Childers, J. T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chislett, R. T.; Chitan, A.; Chizhov, M. V.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, B. K. B.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M. L.; Chudoba, J.; Chwastowski, J. J.; Chytka, L.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciocio, A.; Cirkovic, P.; Citron, Z. H.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J. C.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coffey, L.; Cogan, J. G.; Coggeshall, J.; Cole, B.; Cole, S.; Colijn, A. P.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Colon, G.; Compostella, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Conidi, M. C.; Connell, S. H.; Connelly, I. A.; Consonni, S. M.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cooper-Smith, N. J.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Côté, D.; Cottin, G.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Cree, G.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Cribbs, W. A.; Crispin Ortuzar, M.; Cristinziani, M.; Croft, V.; Crosetti, G.; Cuciuc, C.-M.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Cuthbert, C.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; Czyczula, Z.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; da Cunha Sargedas de Sousa, M. J.; da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dafinca, A.; Dai, T.; Dale, O.; Dallaire, F.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Daniells, A. C.; Dano Hoffmann, M.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darmora, S.; Dassoulas, J.; Dattagupta, A.; Davey, W.; David, C.; Davidek, T.; Davies, E.; Davies, M.; Davignon, O.; Davison, A. R.; Davison, P.; Davygora, Y.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R. K.; de, K.; de Asmundis, R.; de Castro, S.; de Cecco, S.; de Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; de la Torre, H.; de Lorenzi, F.; de Nooij, L.; de Pedis, D.; de Salvo, A.; de Sanctis, U.; de Santo, A.; de Vivie de Regie, J. B.; Dearnaley, W. J.; Debbe, R.; Debenedetti, C.; Dechenaux, B.; Dedovich, D. V.; Deigaard, I.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Deliot, F.; Delitzsch, C. M.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Dell'Orso, M.; Della Pietra, M.; Della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delsart, P. A.; Deluca, C.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demilly, A.; Denisov, S. P.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deterre, C.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dhaliwal, S.; di Ciaccio, A.; di Ciaccio, L.; di Domenico, A.; di Donato, C.; di Girolamo, A.; di Girolamo, B.; di Mattia, A.; di Micco, B.; di Nardo, R.; di Simone, A.; di Sipio, R.; di Valentino, D.; Dias, F. A.; Diaz, M. A.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Dietzsch, T. A.; Diglio, S.; Dimitrievska, A.; Dingfelder, J.; Dionisi, C.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Djuvsland, J. I.; Do Vale, M. A. B.; Do Valle Wemans, A.; Doan, T. K. O.; Dobos, D.; Doglioni, C.; Doherty, T.; Dohmae, T.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Donadelli, M.; Donati, S.; Dondero, P.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doyle, A. T.; Dris, M.; Dubbert, J.; Dube, S.; Dubreuil, E.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Ducu, O. A.; Duda, D.; Dudarev, A.; Dudziak, F.; Duflot, L.; Duguid, L.; Dührssen, M.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Düren, M.; Durglishvili, A.; Dwuznik, M.; Dyndal, M.; Ebke, J.; Edson, W.; Edwards, N. C.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Enari, Y.; Endner, O. C.; Endo, M.; Engelmann, R.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Eriksson, D.; Ernis, G.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Ernwein, J.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Esch, H.; Escobar, C.; Esposito, B.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Ezhilov, A.; Fabbri, L.; Facini, G.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Falla, R. J.; Faltova, J.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farooque, T.; Farrell, S.; Farrington, S. M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Favareto, A.; Fayard, L.; Federic, P.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, W.; Fehling-Kaschek, M.; Feigl, S.; Feligioni, L.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Feng, H.; Fenyuk, A. B.; Fernandez Perez, S.; Ferrag, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferreira de Lima, D. E.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Ferretto Parodi, A.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipčič, A.; Filipuzzi, M.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Finelli, K. D.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, A.; Fischer, J.; Fisher, W. C.; Fitzgerald, E. A.; Flechl, M.; Fleck, I.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleischmann, S.; Fletcher, G. T.; Fletcher, G.; Flick, T.; Floderus, A.; Flores Castillo, L. R.; Florez Bustos, A. C.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Fortin, D.; Fournier, D.; Fox, H.; Fracchia, S.; Francavilla, P.; Franchini, M.; Franchino, S.; Francis, D.; Franklin, M.; Franz, S.; Fraternali, M.; French, S. T.; Friedrich, C.; Friedrich, F.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J. A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fulsom, B. G.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gabrielli, A.; Gabrielli, A.; Gadatsch, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Galhardo, B.; Gallas, E. J.; Gallo, V.; Gallop, B. J.; Gallus, P.; Galster, G.; Gan, K. K.; Gandrajula, R. P.; Gao, J.; Gao, Y. S.; Garay Walls, F. M.; Garberson, F.; García, C.; García Navarro, J. E.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Gardner, R. W.; Garelli, N.; Garonne, V.; Gatti, C.; Gaudio, G.; Gaur, B.; Gauthier, L.; Gauzzi, P.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.; Gazis, E. N.; Ge, P.; Gecse, Z.; Gee, C. N. P.; Geerts, D. A. A.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch.; Gellerstedt, K.; Gemme, C.; Gemmell, A.; Genest, M. H.; Gentile, S.; George, M.; George, S.; Gerbaudo, D.; Gershon, A.; Ghazlane, H.; Ghodbane, N.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giangiobbe, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gianotti, F.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, S. M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gillam, T. P. 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A.; Oliveira Damazio, D.; Oliver Garcia, E.; Olszewski, A.; Olszowska, J.; Onofre, A.; Onyisi, P. U. E.; Oram, C. J.; Oreglia, M. J.; Oren, Y.; Orestano, D.; Orlando, N.; Oropeza Barrera, C.; Orr, R. S.; Osculati, B.; Ospanov, R.; Otero Y Garzon, G.; Otono, H.; Ouchrif, M.; Ouellette, E. A.; Ould-Saada, F.; Ouraou, A.; Oussoren, K. P.; Ouyang, Q.; Ovcharova, A.; Owen, M.; Ozcan, V. E.; Ozturk, N.; Pachal, K.; Pacheco Pages, A.; Padilla Aranda, C.; Pagáčová, M.; Pagan Griso, S.; Paganis, E.; Pahl, C.; Paige, F.; Pais, P.; Pajchel, K.; Palacino, G.; Palestini, S.; Palka, M.; Pallin, D.; Palma, A.; Palmer, J. D.; Pan, Y. B.; Panagiotopoulou, E.; Panduro Vazquez, J. G.; Pani, P.; Panikashvili, N.; Panitkin, S.; Pantea, D.; Paolozzi, L.; Papadopoulou, Th. D.; Papageorgiou, K.; Paramonov, A.; Paredes Hernandez, D.; Parker, M. A.; Parodi, F.; Parsons, J. A.; Parzefall, U.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passaggio, S.; Passeri, A.; Pastore, F.; Pastore, Fr.; Pásztor, G.; Pataraia, S.; Patel, N. D.; Pater, J. R.; Patricelli, S.; Pauly, T.; Pearce, J.; Pedersen, M.; Pedraza Lopez, S.; Pedro, R.; Peleganchuk, S. V.; Pelikan, D.; Peng, H.; Penning, B.; Penwell, J.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Perez Codina, E.; Pérez García-Estañ, M. T.; Perez Reale, V.; Perini, L.; Pernegger, H.; Perrino, R.; Peschke, R.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Peters, K.; Peters, R. F. Y.; Petersen, B. A.; Petersen, T. C.; Petit, E.; Petridis, A.; Petridou, C.; Petrolo, E.; Petrucci, F.; Pettersson, N. E.; Pezoa, R.; Phillips, P. W.; Piacquadio, G.; Pianori, E.; Picazio, A.; Piccaro, E.; Piccinini, M.; Piegaia, R.; Pignotti, D. T.; Pilcher, J. E.; Pilkington, A. D.; Pina, J.; Pinamonti, M.; Pinder, A.; Pinfold, J. L.; Pingel, A.; Pinto, B.; Pires, S.; Pitt, M.; Pizio, C.; Plazak, L.; Pleier, M.-A.; Pleskot, V.; Plotnikova, E.; Plucinski, P.; Poddar, S.; Podlyski, F.; Poettgen, R.; Poggioli, L.; Pohl, D.; Pohl, M.; Polesello, G.; Policicchio, A.; Polifka, R.; Polini, A.; Pollard, C. S.; Polychronakos, V.; Pommès, K.; Pontecorvo, L.; Pope, B. G.; Popeneciu, G. A.; Popovic, D. S.; Poppleton, A.; Portell Bueso, X.; Pospisil, S.; Potamianos, K.; Potrap, I. N.; Potter, C. J.; Potter, C. T.; Poulard, G.; Poveda, J.; Pozdnyakov, V.; Pralavorio, P.; Pranko, A.; Prasad, S.; Pravahan, R.; Prell, S.; Price, D.; Price, J.; Price, L. E.; Prieur, D.; Primavera, M.; Proissl, M.; Prokofiev, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Protopapadaki, E.; Protopopescu, S.; Proudfoot, J.; Przybycien, M.; Przysiezniak, H.; Ptacek, E.; Puddu, D.; Pueschel, E.; Puldon, D.; Purohit, M.; Puzo, P.; Qian, J.; Qin, G.; Qin, Y.; Quadt, A.; Quarrie, D. R.; Quayle, W. B.; Queitsch-Maitland, M.; Quilty, D.; Qureshi, A.; Radeka, V.; Radescu, V.; Radhakrishnan, S. K.; Radloff, P.; Rados, P.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rammensee, M.; Rammes, M.; Randle-Conde, A. S.; Rangel-Smith, C.; Rao, K.; Rauscher, F.; Rave, T. C.; Ravenscroft, T.; Raymond, M.; Read, A. L.; Readioff, N. P.; Rebuzzi, D. M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reeves, K.; Rehnisch, L.; Reisin, H.; Relich, M.; Rembser, C.; Ren, H.; Ren, Z. L.; Renaud, A.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Rezanova, O. L.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Richter, R.; Ridel, M.; Rieck, P.; Rieger, J.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Ritsch, E.; Riu, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E.; Robertson, S. H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, J. E. M.; Robson, A.; Roda, C.; Rodrigues, L.; Roe, S.; Røhne, O.; Rolli, S.; Romaniouk, A.; Romano, M.; Romero Adam, E.; Rompotis, N.; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rosbach, K.; Rose, M.; Rosendahl, P. L.; Rosenthal, O.; Rossetti, V.; Rossi, E.; Rossi, L. P.; Rosten, R.; Rotaru, M.; Roth, I.; Rothberg, J.; Rousseau, D.; Royon, C. R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Rubbo, F.; Rubinskiy, I.; Rud, V. I.; Rudolph, C.; Rudolph, M. S.; Rühr, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakovich, N. A.; Ruschke, A.; Rutherfoord, J. P.; Ruthmann, N.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Rybar, M.; Rybkin, G.; Ryder, N. C.; Saavedra, A. F.; Sacerdoti, S.; Saddique, A.; Sadeh, I.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sadykov, R.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Sakamoto, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Saleem, M.; Salek, D.; Sales de Bruin, P. H.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sampsonidis, D.; Sanchez, A.; Sánchez, J.; Sanchez Martinez, V.; Sandaker, H.; Sandbach, R. L.; Sander, H. G.; Sanders, M. P.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandoval, T.; Sandoval, C.; Sandstroem, R.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sansoni, A.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, H.; Santoyo Castillo, I.; Sapp, K.; Sapronov, A.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarrazin, B.; Sartisohn, G.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, Y.; Sauvage, G.; Sauvan, E.; Savard, P.; Savu, D. O.; Sawyer, C.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, D. H.; Saxon, J.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scanlon, T.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Scarcella, M.; Scarfone, V.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schaefer, D.; Schaefer, R.; Schaepe, S.; Schaetzel, S.; Schäfer, U.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Scherzer, M. I.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schillo, C.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schmidt, E.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, B.; Schnellbach, Y. J.; Schnoor, U.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoening, A.; Schoenrock, B. D.; Schorlemmer, A. L. S.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schramm, S.; Schreyer, M.; Schroeder, C.; Schuh, N.; Schultens, M. J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schulz, H.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwegler, Ph.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwindling, J.; Schwindt, T.; Schwoerer, M.; Sciacca, F. G.; Scifo, E.; Sciolla, G.; Scott, W. G.; Scuri, F.; Scutti, F.; Searcy, J.; Sedov, G.; Sedykh, E.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Sekula, S. J.; Selbach, K. E.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Sellers, G.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Serkin, L.; Serre, T.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sfiligoj, T.; Sforza, F.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L. Y.; Shang, R.; Shank, J. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaw, K.; Shehu, C. Y.; Sherwood, P.; Shi, L.; Shimizu, S.; Shimmin, C. O.; Shimojima, M.; Shiyakova, M.; Shmeleva, A.; Shochet, M. J.; Short, D.; Shrestha, S.; Shulga, E.; Shupe, M. A.; Shushkevich, S.; Sicho, P.; Sidiropoulou, O.; Sidorov, D.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simioni, E.; Simmons, B.; Simoniello, R.; Simonyan, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sircar, A.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skovpen, K. Yu.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smestad, L.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, K. M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snidero, G.; Snyder, S.; Sobie, R.; Socher, F.; Soffer, A.; Soh, D. A.; Solans, C. A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Soldatov, E. Yu.; Soldevila, U.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Solodkov, A. A.; Soloshenko, A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Solovyev, V.; Sommer, P.; Song, H. Y.; Soni, N.; Sood, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sopko, B.; Sopko, V.; Sorin, V.; Sosebee, M.; Soualah, R.; Soueid, P.; Soukharev, A. M.; South, D.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanò, F.; Spearman, W. R.; Spettel, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spiller, L. A.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Spurlock, B.; St. Denis, R. D.; Staerz, S.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staszewski, R.; Stavina, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stern, S.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoicea, G.; Stolte, P.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Subramaniam, R.; Succurro, A.; Sugaya, Y.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, S.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, Y.; Svatos, M.; Swedish, S.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Taccini, C.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tam, J. Y. C.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tanasijczuk, A. J.; Tannenwald, B. B.; Tannoury, N.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, W.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Teoh, J. J.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Therhaag, J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, R. J.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thong, W. M.; Thun, R. P.; Tian, F.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tiouchichine, E.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Topilin, N. D.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Tran, H. L.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; True, P.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turra, R.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ughetto, M.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urbaniec, D.; Urquijo, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; van den Wollenberg, W.; van der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Leeuw, R.; van der Ster, D.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vannucci, F.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veloso, F.; Velz, T.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigne, R.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Virzi, J.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, A.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Waller, P.; Walsh, B.; Wang, C.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Warsinsky, M.; Washbrook, A.; Wasicki, C.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weigell, P.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wendland, D.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wijeratne, P. A.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M. A.; Wilkens, H. G.; Will, J. Z.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, A.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittig, T.; Wittkowski, J.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wright, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wulf, E.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xiao, M.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y.; Yanush, S.; Yao, L.; Yao, W.-M.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.; Atlas Collaboration
2015-04-01
A search is performed for top-quark pairs (t t ¯) produced together with a photon (γ ) with transverse energy greater than 20 GeV using a sample of t t ¯ candidate events in final states with jets, missing transverse momentum, and one isolated electron or muon. The data set used corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 4.59 fb-1 of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV recorded by the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. In total, 140 and 222 t t ¯γ candidate events are observed in the electron and muon channels, to be compared to the expectation of 79 ±26 and 120 ±39 non-t t ¯γ background events, respectively. The production of t t ¯γ events is observed with a significance of 5.3 standard deviations away from the null hypothesis. The t t ¯γ production cross section times the branching ratio (BR) of the single-lepton decay channel is measured in a fiducial kinematic region within the ATLAS acceptance. The measured value is σtt ¯ γ fid×BR =63 ±8 (stat)-13+17(syst)±1 (lumi) fb per lepton flavor, in good agreement with the leading-order theoretical calculation normalized to the next-to-leading-order theoretical prediction of 48 ±10 fb .
Blockus, D.; Dunwoodie, W.; Leith, D.W.G.S.
1981-07-01
The production of prompt electron-positron pairs in 16 GeV/c ..pi../sup -/p collisions has been measured using the LASS spectrometer at SLAC. An excess of events is observed above the estimated contributions of direct and Dalitz decay of known resonances in the kinematic range defined by 0.1 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 0.45, 0 less than or equal to P/sub T/ less than or equal to 0.8 GeV/c and 0.2 less than or equal to M(e/sup +/e/sup -/) less than or equal to 0.7 GeV/c/sup 2/. The excess signal decreases slowly with increasing M, but exhibits very steep x and P/sub T//sup 2/ dependence. The contribution of this signal to the e/sup +/e/sup -//..pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/ and ..gamma../..pi.. ratios is discussed. Detailed comparisons are made between e/sup +/e/sup -/ distributions and the corresponding low mass ..mu../sup +/..mu../sup -/ distributions, and a simple production mechanism is proposed which describes the 16 GeV/c data well. The implications for direct photon production are presented, and it is shown that the model provides simultaneously a good description of the experimental data on the (e/..pi..) and (..mu../..pi..) ratios for p/sub T/ < 1 GeV/c.
Spectral control of spin qubits in diamond photonic structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Acosta, Victor; Santori, Charles; Faraon, Andrei; Huang, Zhihong; Beausoleil, Raymond
2012-06-01
Integrated photonic networks based on cavity-coupled spin impurities offer a promising platform for scalable quantum computing. A key ingredient for this technology involves heralding entanglement by interfering indistinguishable photons emitted by pairs of identical spin qubits. The nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond is an attractive candidate for such a spin-photon interface, as it exhibits long-lived electronic spin coherence, rapid spin manipulation and readout, and the coexistence of both robust cycling and spin-altering Lambda-type transitions. We discuss current research in our lab to control the spectral properties of single NV centers by dynamic Stark tuning [1] and cavity Purcell enhancement [2]. In particular, we report progress on fabricating photonic structures in ultra-pure diamond, where NV centers are likely to have favorable optical properties. [4pt] [1] V. M. Acosta et al., Dynamic stabilization of the optical resonances of single nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond, arXiv:1112.5490v1 [quant-ph]. [0pt] [2] A. Faraon et al., Coupling of nitrogen-vacancy centers to photonic crystal cavities in monocrystalline diamond, Submitted.
Superfluid state of coherent light in nonlinear waveguides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Ze
2014-01-01
We establish the photonic superfluid theory in waveguides made of self-defocussing polar crystals. In quantum theory it is shown that photons can sense an attractive effective interaction by exchange of virtual optical phonons. Such an interaction leads to the photonic superfluid state, in which a propagating photon pair consists of a combination of two photons with opposite transverse wave vector and spins. The most important property of the photonic superfluid state is that the system of photon pairs evolves without scattering attenuations. The traveling-wave superfluid state has the squeezing property and the soliton effect.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lawrence, C. R.; Church, S.; Gaier, T.; Lai, R.; Ruf, C.; Wollack, E.
2009-03-01
Coherent systems offer significant advantages in simplicity, testability, control of systematics, and cost. Although quantum noise sets the fundamental limit to their performance at high frequencies, recent breakthroughs suggest that near-quantum-limited noise up to 150 or even 200 GHz could be realized within a few years. If the demands of component separation can be met with frequencies below 200 GHz, coherent systems will be strong competitors for a space CMB polarization mission. The rapid development of digital correlator capability now makes space interferometers with many hundreds of elements possible. Given the advantages of coherent interferometers in suppressing systematic effects, such systems deserve serious study.
Burke, D.L.
1982-10-01
Studies of photon-photon collisions are reviewed with particular emphasis on new results reported to this conference. These include results on light meson spectroscopy and deep inelastic e..gamma.. scattering. Considerable work has now been accumulated on resonance production by ..gamma gamma.. collisions. Preliminary high statistics studies of the photon structure function F/sub 2//sup ..gamma../(x,Q/sup 2/) are given and comments are made on the problems that remain to be solved.
Imaging and tuning of coupled photonic crystal cavities (Conference Presentation)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gurioli, Massimo
2016-04-01
Photonic microcavities (PMC) coupled through their evanescent field are used for a large variety of classical and quantum devices. In such systems, a molecular-like spatial delocalization of the coupled modes is achieved by an evanescent tunnelling. The tunnelling rate depends on the height and depth of the photonic barrier between two adjacent resonators and therefore it is sensitive to the fabrication-induced disorder present in the center of the molecule. In this contribution, we address the problem of developing a post fabrication control of the tunnelling rate in photonic crystal coupled PMCs. The value of the photonic coupling (proportional to the tunnelling rate) is directly measured by the molecular mode splitting at the anticrossing point. By exploiting a combination of tuning techniques such as local infiltration of water, micro-evaporation, and laser induced non thermal micro-oxidation, we are able to either increase or decrease the detuning and the photonic coupling, independently. Near field imaging is also used for mapping the modes and establish delocalization. By water micro-infiltration, we were able to increase the photon coupling by 28%. On the contrary, by laser induced non thermal oxidation, we got a reduction of g by 30%. The combination of the two methods would therefore give a complete control of g with excellent accuracy. This could make possible the realization of array of photonic cavities with on demand tunnelling rate between each pair of coupled resonators. We believe that this peculiar engineering of photonic crystal molecules would open the road to possible progress in the exploitation of coherent interference between coupled optical resonators both for quantum information processing and optical communication.
Superconductivity: The persistence of pairs
Edelman, Alex; Littlewood, Peter
2015-05-20
Superconductivity stems from a weak attraction between electrons that causes them to form bound pairs and behave much like bosons. These so-called Cooper pairs are phase coherent, which leads to the astonishing properties of zero electrical resistance and magnetic flux expulsion typical of superconducting materials. This coherent state may be qualitatively understood within the Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) model, which predicts that a gas of interacting bosons will become unstable below a critical temperature and condense into a phase of matter with a macroscopic, coherent population in the lowest energy state, as happens in ^{4}He or cold atomic gases. The successful theory proposed by Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer (BCS) predicts that at the superconducting transition temperature T_{c}, electrons simultaneously form pairs and condense, with no sign of pairing above T_{c}. Theorists have long surmised that the BCS and BEC models are opposite limits of a single theory and that strong interactions or low density can, in principle, drive the system to a paired state at a temperature Tpair higher than T_{c}, making the transition to the superconducting state BEC-like (Fig. 1). Yet most superconductors to date are reasonably well described by BCS theory or its extensions, and there has been scant evidence in electronic materials for the existence of pairing independent of the full superconducting state (though an active debate rages over the cuprate superconductors). Writing in Nature, Jeremy Levy and colleagues have now used ingenious nanostructured devices to provide evidence for electron pairing1. Perhaps surprisingly, the material they have studied is a venerable, yet enigmatic, low-temperature superconductor, SrTiO_{3}.
Sessler, A.M.
1995-04-01
Since the seminal work by Ginsburg, et at., the subject of giving the Next Linear Collider photon-photon capability, as well as electron-positron capability, has drawn much attention. A 1990 article by V.I. Teinov describes the situation at that time. In March 1994, the first workshop on this subject was held. This report briefly reviews the physics that can be achieved through the photon-photon channel and then focuses on the means of achieving such a collider. Also reviewed is the spectrum of backscattered Compton photons -- the best way of obtaining photons. We emphasize the spectrum actually obtained in a collider with both polarized electrons and photons (peaked at high energy and very different from a Compton spectrum). Luminosity is estimated for the presently considered colliders, and interaction and conversion-point geometries are described. Also specified are laser requirements (such as wavelength, peak power, and average power) and the lasers that might be employed. These include conventional and free-electron lasers. Finally, we describe the R&D necessary to make either of these approaches viable and explore the use of the SLC as a test bed for a photon-photon collider of very high energy.
Coherence current, coherence vortex, and the conservation law of coherence.
Wang, Wei; Takeda, Mitsuo
2006-06-01
Introducing scalar and vector densities for a mutual coherence function, we present a new conservation law for optical coherence of scalar wave fields in the form of a continuity equation. This coherence conservation law provides new insights into topological phenomena for the complex coherence function. Some properties related to the newly introduced coherence vector density, such as a circulating coherence current associated with a coherence vortex, are investigated both theoretically and experimentally for the first time.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeilinger, Anton; Weihs, Gregor; Jennewein, Thomas; Aspelmeyer, Markus
2005-01-01
One hundred years ago Albert Einstein introduced the concept of the photon. Although in the early years after 1905 the evidence for the quantum nature of light was not compelling, modern experiments - especially those using photon pairs - have beautifully confirmed its corpuscular character. Research on the quantum properties of light (quantum optics) triggered the evolution of the whole field of quantum information processing, which now promises new technology, such as quantum cryptography and even quantum computers.
Sessler, Andrew M.
1996-01-01
Since the seminal work by Ginsburg, et al., the subject of giving the Next Linear Collider photon-photon capability, as well as electron-positron capability, has drawn much attention [1]. A 1990 article by V.I. Telnov describes the situation at that time [2]. In March 1994, the first workshop on this subject was held [3]. This report briefly reviews the physics that can be achieved through the photon-photon channel and then focuses on the means of achieving such a collider. Also reviewed is the spectrum of backscattered Compton photons—the best way of obtaining photons. We emphasize the spectrum actually obtained in a collider with both polarized electrons and photons (peaked at high energy and very different from a Compton spectrum). Luminosity is estimated for the presently considered colliders, and interaction and conversion-point geometries are described. Also specified are laser requirements (such as wavelength, peak power, and average power) and the lasers that might be employed. These include conventional and free-electron lasers. Finally, we describe the R&D necessary to make either of these approaches viable and explore the use of the SLC as a test bed for a photon-photon collider of very high energy.
Brodsky, S.J.
1988-07-01
Highlights of the VIIIth International Workshop on Photon-Photon Collisions are reviewed. New experimental and theoretical results were reported in virtually every area of ..gamma gamma.. physics, particularly in exotic resonance production and tests of quantum chromodynamics where asymptotic freedom and factorization theorems provide predictions for both inclusive and exclusive ..gamma gamma.. reactions at high momentum transfer. 73 refs., 12 figs.
Single-pulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy via fiber Bragg grating
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oh, Seung Ryeol; Park, Joo Hyun; Kwon, Won Sik; Kim, Jin Hwan; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Jae Yong; Kim, Soohyun
2016-03-01
Fiber Bragg grating is used in a variety of applications. In this study, we suggest compact, cost-effective coherent anti- Stokes Raman spectroscopy which is based on the pulse shaping methods via commercialized fiber Bragg grating. The experiment is performed incorporating a commercialized femtosecond pulse laser system (MICRA, Coherent) with a 100 mm length of 780-HP fiber which is inscribed 50 mm of Bragg grating. The pump laser for coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy has a bandwidth of 90 nm and central wavelength of 815 nm with a notch shaped at 785 nm. The positive chirped pulse is compensated by chirped mirror set. We compensate almost 14000 fs2 of positive group delay dispersion for the transform-limited pulse at the sample position. The pulse duration was 15 fs with average power of 50 mW, and showed an adequate notch shape. Finally, coherent anti-Stokes Raman signals are observed using a spectrometer (Jobin Yvon Triax320 and TE-cooled Andor Newton EMCCD). We obtained coherent anti-Stokes Raman signal of acetone sample which have Raman peak at the spectral finger-print region. In conclusion, the proposed method is more simple and cost-effective than the methods of previous research which use grating pairs and resonant photonic crystal slab. Furthermore, the proposed method can be used as endoscope application.
Photonic crystal fibers in biophotonics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tuchin, Valery V.; Skibina, Julia S.; Malinin, Anton V.
2011-12-01
We observed recent experimental results in area of photonic crystal fibers appliance. Possibility of creation of fiberbased broadband light sources for high resolution optical coherence tomography is discussed. Using of femtosecond pulse laser allows for generation of optical radiation with large spectral width in highly nonlinear solid core photonic crystal fibers. Concept of exploitation of hollow core photonic crystal fibers in optical sensing is demonstrated. The use of photonic crystal fibers as "smart cuvette" gives rise to efficiency of modern optical biomedical analysis methods.
The quantum coherent mechanism for singlet fission: experiment and theory.
Chan, Wai-Lun; Berkelbach, Timothy C; Provorse, Makenzie R; Monahan, Nicholas R; Tritsch, John R; Hybertsen, Mark S; Reichman, David R; Gao, Jiali; Zhu, X-Y
2013-06-18
The absorption of one photon by a semiconductor material usually creates one electron-hole pair. However, this general rule breaks down in a few organic semiconductors, such as pentacene and tetracene, where one photon absorption may result in two electron-hole pairs. This process, where a singlet exciton transforms to two triplet excitons, can have quantum yields as high as 200%. Singlet fission may be useful to solar cell technologies to increase the power conversion efficiency beyond the so-called Shockley-Queisser limit. Through time-resolved two-photon photoemission (TR-2PPE) spectroscopy in crystalline pentacene and tetracene, our lab has recently provided the first spectroscopic signatures in singlet fission of a critical intermediate known as the multiexciton state (also called a correlated triplet pair). More importantly, we found that population of the multiexciton state rises at the same time as the singlet state on the ultrafast time scale upon photoexcitation. This observation does not fit with the traditional view of singlet fission involving the incoherent conversion of a singlet to a triplet pair. However, it provides an experimental foundation for a quantum coherent mechanism in which the electronic coupling creates a quantum superposition of the singlet and the multiexciton state immediately after optical excitation. In this Account, we review key experimental findings from TR-2PPE experiments and present a theoretical analysis of the quantum coherent mechanism based on electronic structural and density matrix calculations for crystalline tetracene lattices. Using multistate density functional theory, we find that the direct electronic coupling between singlet and multiexciton states is too weak to explain the experimental observation. Instead, indirect coupling via charge transfer intermediate states is two orders of magnitude stronger, and dominates the dynamics for ultrafast multiexciton formation. Density matrix calculation for the crystalline
The quantum coherent mechanism for singlet fission: experiment and theory.
Chan, Wai-Lun; Berkelbach, Timothy C; Provorse, Makenzie R; Monahan, Nicholas R; Tritsch, John R; Hybertsen, Mark S; Reichman, David R; Gao, Jiali; Zhu, X-Y
2013-06-18
The absorption of one photon by a semiconductor material usually creates one electron-hole pair. However, this general rule breaks down in a few organic semiconductors, such as pentacene and tetracene, where one photon absorption may result in two electron-hole pairs. This process, where a singlet exciton transforms to two triplet excitons, can have quantum yields as high as 200%. Singlet fission may be useful to solar cell technologies to increase the power conversion efficiency beyond the so-called Shockley-Queisser limit. Through time-resolved two-photon photoemission (TR-2PPE) spectroscopy in crystalline pentacene and tetracene, our lab has recently provided the first spectroscopic signatures in singlet fission of a critical intermediate known as the multiexciton state (also called a correlated triplet pair). More importantly, we found that population of the multiexciton state rises at the same time as the singlet state on the ultrafast time scale upon photoexcitation. This observation does not fit with the traditional view of singlet fission involving the incoherent conversion of a singlet to a triplet pair. However, it provides an experimental foundation for a quantum coherent mechanism in which the electronic coupling creates a quantum superposition of the singlet and the multiexciton state immediately after optical excitation. In this Account, we review key experimental findings from TR-2PPE experiments and present a theoretical analysis of the quantum coherent mechanism based on electronic structural and density matrix calculations for crystalline tetracene lattices. Using multistate density functional theory, we find that the direct electronic coupling between singlet and multiexciton states is too weak to explain the experimental observation. Instead, indirect coupling via charge transfer intermediate states is two orders of magnitude stronger, and dominates the dynamics for ultrafast multiexciton formation. Density matrix calculation for the crystalline
Zhang, Ying-Tao; Deng, Xinzhou; Sun, Qing-Feng; Qiao, Zhenhua
2015-10-09
The quantum entanglement between two qubits is crucial for applications in the quantum communication. After the entanglement of photons was experimentally realized, much effort has been taken to exploit the entangled electrons in solid-state systems. Here, we propose a Cooper-pair splitter, which can generate spatially-separated but entangled electrons, in a quantum anomalous Hall insulator proximity-coupled with a superconductor. After coupling with a superconductor, the chiral edge states of the quantum anomalous Hall insulator can still survive, making the backscattering impossible. Thus, the local Andreev reflection becomes vanishing, while the crossed Andreev reflection becomes dominant in the scattering process. This indicates that our device can serve as an extremely high-efficiency Cooper-pair splitter. Furthermore, because of the chiral characteristic, our Cooper-pair splitter is robust against disorders and can work in a wide range of system parameters. Particularly, it can still function even if the system length exceeds the superconducting coherence length.
Bayer, T.; Wollenhaupt, M.; Sarpe-Tudoran, C.; Baumert, T.
2009-01-16
We experimentally demonstrate a strong-field coherent control mechanism that combines the advantages of photon locking (PL) and rapid adiabatic passage (RAP). Unlike earlier implementations of PL and RAP by pulse sequences or chirped pulses, we use shaped pulses generated by phase modulation of the spectrum of a femtosecond laser pulse with a generalized phase discontinuity. The novel control scenario is characterized by a high degree of robustness achieved via adiabatic preparation of a state of maximum coherence. Subsequent phase control allows for efficient switching among different target states. We investigate both properties by photoelectron spectroscopy on potassium atoms interacting with the intense shaped light field.
Rury, Aaron S; Sorenson, Shayne; Dawlaty, Jahan M
2016-03-14
Organic materials that produce coherent lattice phonon excitations in response to external stimuli may provide next generation solutions in a wide range of applications. However, for these materials to lead to functional devices in technology, a full understanding of the possible driving forces of coherent lattice phonon generation must be attained. To facilitate the achievement of this goal, we have undertaken an optical spectroscopic study of an organic charge-transfer material formed from the ubiquitous reduction-oxidation pair hydroquinone and p-benzoquinone. Upon pumping this material, known as quinhydrone, on its intermolecular charge transfer resonance as well as an intramolecular resonance of p-benzoquinone, we find sub-cm(-1) oscillations whose dispersion with probe energy resembles that of a coherent acoustic phonon that we argue is coherently excited following changes in the electron density of quinhydrone. Using the dynamical information from these ultrafast pump-probe measurements, we find that the fastest process we can resolve does not change whether we pump quinhydrone at either energy. Electron-phonon coupling from both ultrafast coherent vibrational and steady-state resonance Raman spectroscopies allows us to determine that intramolecular electronic excitation of p-benzoquinone also drives the electron transfer process in quinhydrone. These results demonstrate the wide range of electronic excitations of the parent of molecules found in many functional organic materials that can drive coherent lattice phonon excitations useful for applications in electronics, photonics, and information technology.
Rury, Aaron S; Sorenson, Shayne; Dawlaty, Jahan M
2016-03-14
Organic materials that produce coherent lattice phonon excitations in response to external stimuli may provide next generation solutions in a wide range of applications. However, for these materials to lead to functional devices in technology, a full understanding of the possible driving forces of coherent lattice phonon generation must be attained. To facilitate the achievement of this goal, we have undertaken an optical spectroscopic study of an organic charge-transfer material formed from the ubiquitous reduction-oxidation pair hydroquinone and p-benzoquinone. Upon pumping this material, known as quinhydrone, on its intermolecular charge transfer resonance as well as an intramolecular resonance of p-benzoquinone, we find sub-cm(-1) oscillations whose dispersion with probe energy resembles that of a coherent acoustic phonon that we argue is coherently excited following changes in the electron density of quinhydrone. Using the dynamical information from these ultrafast pump-probe measurements, we find that the fastest process we can resolve does not change whether we pump quinhydrone at either energy. Electron-phonon coupling from both ultrafast coherent vibrational and steady-state resonance Raman spectroscopies allows us to determine that intramolecular electronic excitation of p-benzoquinone also drives the electron transfer process in quinhydrone. These results demonstrate the wide range of electronic excitations of the parent of molecules found in many functional organic materials that can drive coherent lattice phonon excitations useful for applications in electronics, photonics, and information technology. PMID:26979698
Measuring spatial coherence by using a mask with multiple apertures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mejía, Yobani; González, Aura Inés
2007-05-01
A simple method to measure the complex degree of spatial coherence of a partially coherent quasi-monochromatic light field is presented. The Fourier spectrum of the far-field interferogram generated by a mask with multiple apertures (small circular holes) is analyzed in terms of classes of aperture pairs. A class of aperture pairs is defined as the set of aperture pairs with the same separation vector. The height of the peaks in the magnitude spectrum determines the modulus of the complex degree of spatial coherence and the corresponding value in the phase spectrum determines the phase of the complex degree of spatial coherence. The method is illustrated with experimental results.
Coherent perfect absorption in one-sided reflectionless media
Wu, Jin-Hui; Artoni, M.; La Rocca, G. C.
2016-01-01
In optical experiments one-sided reflectionless (ORL) and coherent perfect absorption (CPA) are unusual scattering properties yet fascinating for their fundamental aspects and for their practical interest. Although these two concepts have so far remained separated from each other, we prove that the two phenomena are indeed strictly connected. We show that a CPA–ORL connection exists between pairs of points lying along lines close to each other in the 3D space-parameters of a realistic lossy atomic photonic crystal. The connection is expected to be a generic feature of wave scattering in non-Hermitian optical media encompassing, as a particular case, wave scattering in parity-time (PT) symmetric media. PMID:27759020
Improved photon counting efficiency calibration using superconducting single photon detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gan, Haiyong; Xu, Nan; Li, Jianwei; Sun, Ruoduan; Feng, Guojin; Wang, Yanfei; Ma, Chong; Lin, Yandong; Zhang, Labao; Kang, Lin; Chen, Jian; Wu, Peiheng
2015-10-01
The quantum efficiency of photon counters can be measured with standard uncertainty below 1% level using correlated photon pairs generated through spontaneous parametric down-conversion process. Normally a laser in UV, blue or green wavelength range with sufficient photon energy is applied to produce energy and momentum conserved photon pairs in two channels with desired wavelengths for calibration. One channel is used as the heralding trigger, and the other is used for the calibration of the detector under test. A superconducting nanowire single photon detector with advantages such as high photon counting speed (<20 MHz), low dark count rate (<50 counts per second), and wideband responsivity (UV to near infrared) is used as the trigger detector, enabling correlated photons calibration capabilities into shortwave visible range. For a 355nm single longitudinal mode pump laser, when a superconducting nanowire single photon detector is used as the trigger detector at 1064nm and 1560nm in the near infrared range, the photon counting efficiency calibration capabilities can be realized at 532nm and 460nm. The quantum efficiency measurement on photon counters such as photomultiplier tubes and avalanche photodiodes can be then further extended in a wide wavelength range (e.g. 400-1000nm) using a flat spectral photon flux source to meet the calibration demands in cutting edge low light applications such as time resolved fluorescence and nonlinear optical spectroscopy, super resolution microscopy, deep space observation, and so on.
Chakrabarti, R.; Stoilova, N. I.; Van der Jeugt, J.
2010-02-15
It is known that the defining relations of the orthosymplectic Lie superalgebra osp(1 | 2n) are equivalent to the defining (triple) relations of n pairs of paraboson operators b{sub i}{sup {+-}.} In particular, the 'parabosons of order p' correspond to a unitary irreducible (infinite-dimensional) lowest weight representation V(p) of osp(1 | 2n). Recently we constructed these representations V(p) giving the explicit actions of the osp(1 | 2n) generators. We apply these results for the n = 2 case in order to obtain 'coherent state' representations of the paraboson operators.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fork, Richard Lynn (Inventor); Jones, Darryl Keith (Inventor); Keys, Andrew Scott (Inventor)
2000-01-01
By applying a photonic signal to a microresonator that includes a photonic bandgap delay apparatus having a photonic band edge transmission resonance at the frequency of the photonic signal, the microresonator imparts a predetermined delay to the photonic signal. The photonic bandgap delay apparatus also preferably has a photonic band edge transmission resonance bandwidth which is at least as wide as the bandwidth of the photonic signal such that a uniform delay is imparted over the entire bandwidth of the photonic signal. The microresonator also includes a microresonator cavity, typically defined by a pair of switchable mirrors, within which the photonic bandgap delay apparatus is disposed. By requiring the photonic signal to oscillate within the microresonator cavity so as to pass through the photonic bandgap delay apparatus several times, the microresonator can controllably impart an adjustable delay to the photonic signal.
Spence, W.L.
1987-11-01
The radiation coherently emitted by a high energy bunched beam suffering an arbitrarily large disruption in a collision with an idealized undisrupted beam is calculated. The near-luminal velocity of the beam - such that the emitted radiation moves very slowly with respect to the bunch - implies that only a small part of the bunch radiates coherently and necessitates a careful treatment of the disrupted beam phase space during emission. The angular distribution and spectral density are presented. It is found that most of the radiation is at wave lengths greater than or equal to the bunch length and that the total energy lost by the beam due to coherent effects should be negligible in high energy-high luminosity linear colliders. 4 refs.
XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database
National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway
SRD 8 XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database (Web, free access) A web database is provided which can be used to calculate photon cross sections for scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair production, as well as total attenuation coefficients, for any element, compound or mixture (Z <= 100) at energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mück, Wolfgang
2015-12-01
The electromagnetic field inside a spherical cavity of large radius R is considered in the presence of stationary charge and current densities. R provides infra-red regularisation while maintaining gauge invariance. The quantum ground state of physical photons forming the magnetic field is found to be a coherent state with a definite mean occupation number. The electric field, which is determined by the Gauss law constraint, is maintained by a minimum uncertainty coherent state, according to the projection operator approach to the quantisation of constrained systems. The mean occupation number of this state is proportional to the square of the total charge. The results confirm formulae obtained previously from a calculation with a finite photon mass for infra-red regularisation.
Coherent-state-induced transparency
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gogyan, A.; Malakyan, Yu.
2016-04-01
We examine electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in an ensemble of cold Λ -type atoms induced by a quantum control field in multimode coherent states and compare it with the transparency created by the classical light of the same intensity. We show that the perfect coincidence is achieved only in the case of a single-mode coherent state, whereas the transparency sharply decreases, when the number of the modes exceeds the mean number of control photons in the medium. The origin of the effect is the modification of photon statistics in the control field with increasing the number of the modes that weakens its interaction with atoms resulting in a strong probe absorption. For the same reason, the probe pulse transforms from EIT-based slow light into superluminal propagation caused by the absorption.
Single-photon quadratic optomechanics
Liao, Jie-Qiao; Nori, Franco
2014-01-01
We present exact analytical solutions to study the coherent interaction between a single photon and the mechanical motion of a membrane in quadratic optomechanics. We consider single-photon emission and scattering when the photon is initially inside the cavity and in the fields outside the cavity, respectively. Using our solutions, we calculate the single-photon emission and scattering spectra, and find relations between the spectral features and the system's inherent parameters, such as: the optomechanical coupling strength, the mechanical frequency, and the cavity-field decay rate. In particular, we clarify the conditions for the phonon sidebands to be visible. We also study the photon-phonon entanglement for the long-time emission and scattering states. The linear entropy is employed to characterize this entanglement by treating it as a bipartite one between a single mode of phonons and a single photon. PMID:25200128
Kuzay, Tuncer M.; Shu, Deming
1995-01-01
A photon beam position monitor for use in the front end of a beamline of a high heat flux and high energy photon source such as a synchrotron radiation storage ring detects and measures the position and, when a pair of such monitors are used in tandem, the slope of a photon beam emanating from an insertion device such as a wiggler or an undulator inserted in the straight sections of the ring. The photon beam position monitor includes a plurality of spaced blades for precisely locating the photon beam, with each blade comprised of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond with an outer metal coating of a photon sensitive metal such as tungsten, molybdenum, etc., which combination emits electrons when a high energy photon beam is incident upon the blade. Two such monitors are contemplated for use in the front end of the beamline, with the two monitors having vertically and horizontally offset detector blades to avoid blade "shadowing". Provision is made for aligning the detector blades with the photon beam and limiting detector blade temperature during operation.
Kuzay, T.M.; Shu, D.
1995-02-07
A photon beam position monitor is disclosed for use in the front end of a beamline of a high heat flux and high energy photon source such as a synchrotron radiation storage ring detects and measures the position and, when a pair of such monitors are used in tandem, the slope of a photon beam emanating from an insertion device such as a wiggler or an undulator inserted in the straight sections of the ring. The photon beam position monitor includes a plurality of spaced blades for precisely locating the photon beam, with each blade comprised of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond with an outer metal coating of a photon sensitive metal such as tungsten, molybdenum, etc., which combination emits electrons when a high energy photon beam is incident upon the blade. Two such monitors are contemplated for use in the front end of the beamline, with the two monitors having vertically and horizontally offset detector blades to avoid blade ''shadowing''. Provision is made for aligning the detector blades with the photon beam and limiting detector blade temperature during operation. 18 figs.
Coherent amplified optical coherence tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jun; Rao, Bin; Chen, Zhongping
2007-07-01
A technique to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a high speed 1300 nm swept source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) system was demonstrated. A semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) was employed in the sample arm to coherently amplify the weak light back-scattered from sample tissue without increasing laser power illuminated on the sample. The image quality improvement was visualized and quantified by imaging the anterior segment of a rabbit eye at imaging speed of 20,000 A-lines per second. The theory analysis of SNR gain is given followed by the discussion on the technologies that can further improve the SNR gain.
Source of coherent short wavelength radiation
Villa, Francesco
1990-01-01
An apparatus for producing coherent radiation ranging from X-rays to the far ultraviolet (i.e., 1 Kev to 10 eV) utilizing the Compton scattering effect. A photon beam from a laser is scattered on a high energy electron bunch from a pulse power linac. The short wavelength radiation produced by such scattering has sufficient intensity and spatial coherence for use in high resolution applications such as microscopy.
Moreira, B. D.; Goncalves, V. P.; De Santana Amaral, J. T.
2013-03-25
In this contribution we study coherent interactions as a probe of the nonlinear effects in the Quantum Electrodynamics (QED). In particular, we study the multiphoton effects in the production of leptons pairs for proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions for heavy nuclei. In the proton-nucleus we assume the ultrarelativistic proton as a source of photons and estimate the photoproduction of lepton pairs on nuclei at RHIC and LHC energies considering the multiphoton effects associated to multiple rescattering of the projectile photon on the proton of the nucleus. In nucleus - nucleus colllisions we consider the two nuclei as a source of photons. As each scattering contributes with a factor {alpha}Z to the cross section, this contribution must be taken into account for heavy nuclei. We consider the Coulomb corrections to calculate themultiple scatterings and estimate the total cross section for muon and tau pair production in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and LHC energies.
Brodsky, S.J.
1985-01-01
The study of photon-photon collisions has progressed enormously, stimulated by new data and new calculational tools for QCD. In the future we can expect precise determinations of ..cap alpha../sub s/ and ..lambda../sup ms/ from the ..gamma..*..gamma.. ..-->.. ..pi../sup 0/ form factor and the photon structure function, as well as detailed checks of QCD, determination of the shape of the hadron distribution amplitudes from ..gamma gamma.. ..-->.. H anti H, reconstruction of sigma/sub ..gamma gamma../ from exclusive channels at low W/sub ..gamma gamma../, definitive studies of high p/sub T/ hadron and jet production, and studies of threshold production of charmed systems. Photon-photon collisions, along with radiative decays of the psi and UPSILON, are ideal for the study of multiquark and gluonic resonances. We have emphasized the potential for resonance formation near threshold in virtually every hadronic exclusive channel, including heavy quark states c anti c c anti c, c anti c u anti u, etc. At higher energies SLC, LEP, ...) parity-violating electroweak effects and Higgs production due to equivalent Z/sup 0/ and W/sup + -/ beams from e ..-->.. eZ/sup 0/ and e ..-->.. nu W will become important. 44 references.
Robust quantum receivers for coherent state discrimination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Becerra, Francisco Elohim
2014-05-01
Quantum state discrimination is a central task for quantum information and is a fundamental problem in quantum mechanics. Nonorthogonal states, such as coherent states which have intrinsic quantum noise, cannot be discriminated with total certainty because of their intrinsic overlap. This nonorthogonality is at the heart of quantum key distribution for ensuring absolute secure communications between a transmitter and a receiver, and can enable many quantum information protocols based on coherent states. At the same time, while coherent states are used for communications because of their robustness to loss and simplicity of generation and detection, their nonorthogonality inherently produces errors in the process of decoding the information. The minimum error probability in the discrimination of nonorthogonal coherent states measured by an ideal lossless and noiseless conventional receiver is given by the standard quantum limit (SQL). This limit sets strict bounds on the ultimate performance of coherent communications and many coherent-state-based quantum information protocols. However, measurement strategies based on the quantum properties of these states can allow for better measurements that surpass the SQL and approach the ultimate measurement limits allowed by quantum mechanics. These measurement strategies can allow for optimally extracting information encoded in these states for coherent and quantum communications. We present the demonstration of a receiver based on adaptive measurements and single-photon counting that unconditionally discriminates multiple nonorthogonal coherent states below the SQL. We also discuss the potential of photon-number-resolving detection to provide robustness and high sensitivity under realistic conditions for an adaptive coherent receiver with detectors with finite photon-number resolution.
Higher-order photon correlations in pulsed photonic crystal nanolasers
Elvira, D.; Hachair, X.; Braive, R.; Beaudoin, G.; Robert-Philip, I.; Sagnes, I.; Abram, I.; Beveratos, A.; Verma, V. B.; Baek, B.; Nam, S. W.; Stevens, M. J.; Dauler, E. A.
2011-12-15
We report on the higher-order photon correlations of a high-{beta} nanolaser under pulsed excitation at room temperature. Using a multiplexed four-element superconducting single-photon detector we measured g{sup (n)}(0-vector) with n=2,3,4. All orders of correlation display partially chaotic statistics, even at four times the threshold excitation power. We show that this departure from coherence and Poisson statistics is due to the quantum fluctuations associated with the small number of photons at the lasing threshold.
Photonic Crystal Microchip Laser
Gailevicius, Darius; Koliadenko, Volodymyr; Purlys, Vytautas; Peckus, Martynas; Taranenko, Victor; Staliunas, Kestutis
2016-01-01
The microchip lasers, being very compact and efficient sources of coherent light, suffer from one serious drawback: low spatial quality of the beam strongly reducing the brightness of emitted radiation. Attempts to improve the beam quality, such as pump-beam guiding, external feedback, either strongly reduce the emission power, or drastically increase the size and complexity of the lasers. Here it is proposed that specially designed photonic crystal in the cavity of a microchip laser, can significantly improve the beam quality. Experiments show that a microchip laser, due to spatial filtering functionality of intracavity photonic crystal, improves the beam quality factor M2 reducing it by a factor of 2, and increase the brightness of radiation by a factor of 3. This comprises a new kind of laser, the “photonic crystal microchip laser”, a very compact and efficient light source emitting high spatial quality high brightness radiation. PMID:27683066
Photonic Crystal Microchip Laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gailevicius, Darius; Koliadenko, Volodymyr; Purlys, Vytautas; Peckus, Martynas; Taranenko, Victor; Staliunas, Kestutis
2016-09-01
The microchip lasers, being very compact and efficient sources of coherent light, suffer from one serious drawback: low spatial quality of the beam strongly reducing the brightness of emitted radiation. Attempts to improve the beam quality, such as pump-beam guiding, external feedback, either strongly reduce the emission power, or drastically increase the size and complexity of the lasers. Here it is proposed that specially designed photonic crystal in the cavity of a microchip laser, can significantly improve the beam quality. Experiments show that a microchip laser, due to spatial filtering functionality of intracavity photonic crystal, improves the beam quality factor M2 reducing it by a factor of 2, and increase the brightness of radiation by a factor of 3. This comprises a new kind of laser, the “photonic crystal microchip laser”, a very compact and efficient light source emitting high spatial quality high brightness radiation.
Linac Coherent Light Source Monte Carlo Simulation
2006-03-15
This suite consists of codes to generate an initial x-ray photon distribution and to propagate the photons through various objects. The suite is designed specifically for simulating the Linac Coherent Light Source, and x-ray free electron laser (XFEL) being built at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The purpose is to provide sufficiently detailed characteristics of the laser to engineers who are designing the laser diagnostics.
Investigating photonic quantum computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Myers, Casey Robert
The use of photons as qubits is a promising implementation for quantum computation. The inability of photons to interact, especially with the environment, makes them an ideal physical candidate. However, this also makes them a difficult system to perform two qubit gates on. Recent breakthroughs in photonic quantum computing have shown methods around the requirement of direct photon-photon interaction. In this thesis we study three recently discovered schemes for optical quantum computation. We first investigate the so called linear optical quantum computing (LOQC) scheme, exploring a method to improve the original proposal by constructing a photon-number QND detector that succeeds with a high probability. In doing this we present a new type of LOQC teleporter, one that can detect the presence of a single photon in an arbitrary polarisation state when the input state is a sum of vacuum and multi-photon terms. This new type of teleporter is an improvement on the original scheme in that the entangled states required can be made offline with fewer entangling operations. We next investigate the so called quantum bus (qubus) scheme for photonic quantum computing. We show a scheme to measure the party of n qubit states by using a single qubus mode, controlled rotations and displacements. This allows for the syndrome measurements of any stabilizer quantum error correcting code. We extend these results to a fault tolerant scheme to measure an arbitrary Pauli operator of weight n, incorporating so called single bit teleportations. We investigate the construction of a Toffoli gate by using a single qubus mode, controlled rotations and displacements that works with a success probability of at least 25%. We also investigate the use of single bit teleportations to construct a universal set of gates on coherent state type logic and in the construction of cluster states. We finally investigate the optical Zeno gate, a gate that uses the Zeno effect in the form of two photon
Phase-Sensitive Coherence and the Classical-Quantum Boundary in Ghost Imaging
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Erkmen, Baris I.; Hardy, Nicholas D.; Venkatraman, Dheera; Wong, Franco N. C.; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.
2011-01-01
The theory of partial coherence has a long and storied history in classical statistical optics. the vast majority of this work addresses fields that are statistically stationary in time, hence their complex envelopes only have phase-insensitive correlations. The quantum optics of squeezed-state generation, however, depends on nonlinear interactions producing baseband field operators with phase-insensitive and phase-sensitive correlations. Utilizing quantum light to enhance imaging has been a topic of considerable current interest, much of it involving biphotons, i.e., streams of entangled-photon pairs. Biphotons have been employed for quantum versions of optical coherence tomography, ghost imaging, holography, and lithography. However, their seemingly quantum features have been mimicked with classical-sate light, questioning wherein lies the classical-quantum boundary. We have shown, for the case of Gaussian-state light, that this boundary is intimately connected to the theory of phase-sensitive partial coherence. Here we present that theory, contrasting it with the familiar case of phase-insensitive partial coherence, and use it to elucidate the classical-quantum boundary of ghost imaging. We show, both theoretically and experimentally, that classical phase-sensitive light produces ghost imaging most closely mimicking those obtained in biphotons, and we derived the spatial resolution, image contrast, and signal-to-noise ratio of a standoff-sensing ghost imager, taking into account target-induced speckle.
Linear-optic heralded photon source
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferreira da Silva, Thiago; Amaral, Gustavo C.; Temporão, Guilherme P.; von der Weid, Jean Pierre
2015-09-01
We present a heralded photon source based only on linear optics and weak coherent states. By time-tuning a Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer fed with frequency-displaced coherent states, the output photons can be synchronously heralded following sub-Poisson statistics, which is indicated by the second-order correlation function [ g2(0 )=0.556 ]. The absence of phase-matching restrictions makes the source widely tunable, with 100-nm spectral tunability on the telecom bands. The technique presents yield comparable to state-of-the-art spontaneous parametric down-conversion-based sources, with high coherence and fiber-optic quantum communication compatibility.
Photonic-resonant left-handed medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Jian Qi
2006-08-01
A new scheme to realize simultaneously negative permittivity and permeability in a coherent atomic vapor medium (photonic-resonant material) via a coherent driving mechanism is suggested. It is verified that the atomic system coherently driven by a strong optical field will give rise to a negative refractive index in certain probe frequency ranges. One of the most remarkable features of the present scheme is such that a slab fabricated by the left-handed vapor medium is an ideal candidate for designing perfect lenses since the photonic-resonant atomic vapor cannot only exhibit an isotropic negative refractive index, but also provide a good impedance match at the air-medium interfaces.
Search for dark photons from supersymmetric hidden valleys.
Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguilo, E; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Anzelc, M S; Aoki, M; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; Asman, B; Atramentov, O; Avila, C; BackusMayes, J; Badaud, F; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A-F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benitez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Bu, X B; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Calfayan, P; Calpas, B; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Carrasco-Lizarraga, M A; Carrera, E; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Cheu, E; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cuplov, V; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; DeVaughan, K; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dorland, T; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dutt, S; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Escalier, M; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Facini, G; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Geng, W; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hauptman, J M; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Heredia-De La Cruz, I; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hoang, T; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Huske, N; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jamin, D; Jarvis, C; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Johnston, D; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Kajfasz, E; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y N; Khatidze, D; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J-P; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kuhl, T; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kuzmin, V A; Kvita, J; Lacroix, F; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lellouch, J; Li, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lim, J K; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Luna-Garcia, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Mättig, P; Magerkurth, A; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; McGivern, C L; Meijer, M M; Melnitchouk, A; Mendoza, L; Menezes, D; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Mitrevski, J; Mommsen, R K; Mondal, N K; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Nogima, H; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Orduna, J; Oshima, N; Osman, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Otero y Garzón, G J; Owen, M; Padilla, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S-J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Pétroff, P; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M-E; Polozov, P; Popov, A V; Potter, C; Prado da Silva, W L; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rakitine, A; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Rich, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Rominsky, M; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Sanghi, B; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schlobohm, S; Schwanenberger, C; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Siccardi, V; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strang, M A; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Takahashi, M; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Tiller, B; Tissandier, F; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Torchiani, I; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; van den Berg, P J; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vilanova, D; Vint, P; Vokac, P; Voutilainen, M; Wagner, R; Wahl, H D; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, G; Weber, M; Welty-Rieger, L; Wenger, A; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Williams, M R J; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Xu, C; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yang, W-C; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Ye, Z; Yin, H; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Zeitnitz, C; Zelitch, S; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zivkovic, L; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G
2009-08-21
We search for a new light gauge boson, a dark photon, with the D0 experiment. In the model we consider, supersymmetric partners are pair produced and cascade to the lightest neutralinos that can decay into the hidden sector state plus either a photon or a dark photon. The dark photon decays through its mixing with a photon into fermion pairs. We therefore investigate a previously unexplored final state that contains a photon, two spatially close leptons, and large missing transverse energy. We do not observe any evidence for dark photons and set a limit on their production. PMID:19792716
Gabor,D.
2008-07-29
Direct photons are ideal tools to investigate kinematical and thermodynamical conditions of heavy ion collisions since they are emitted from all stages of the collision and once produced they leave the interaction region without further modification by the medium. The PHENIX experiment at RHIC has measured direct photon production in p+p and Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV over a wide transverse momentum (p{sub T}) range. The p+p measurements allow a fundamental test of QCD, and serve as a baseline when we try to disentangle more complex mechanisms producing high p{sub T} direct photons in Au+Au. As for thermal photons in Au+Au we overcome the difficulties due to the large background from hadronic decays by measuring 'almost real' virtual photons which appear as low invariant mass e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs: a significant excess of direct photons is measured above the above next-to-leading order perturbative quantum chromodynamics calculations. Additional insights on the origin of direct photons can be gained with the study of the azimuthal anisotropy which benefits from the increased statistics and reaction plane resolution achieved in RHIC Year-7 data.
Coherent control of photoelectron wavepacket angular interferograms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hockett, P.; Wollenhaupt, M.; Baumert, T.
2015-11-01
Coherent control over photoelectron wavepackets, via the use of polarization-shaped laser pulses, can be understood as a time and polarization-multiplexed process, where the final (time-integrated) observable coherently samples all instantaneous states of the light-matter interaction. In this work, we investigate this multiplexing via computation of the observable photoelectron angular interferograms resulting from multi-photon atomic ionization with polarization-shaped laser pulses. We consider the polarization sensitivity of both the instantaneous and cumulative continuum wavefunction; the nature of the coherent control over the resultant photoelectron interferogram is thus explored in detail. Based on this understanding, the use of coherent control with polarization-shaped pulses as a methodology for a highly multiplexed coherent quantum metrology is also investigated, and defined in terms of the information content of the observable.
Dephasing in coherently split quasicondensates
Stimming, H.-P.; Mauser, N. J.; Mazets, I. E.
2011-02-15
We numerically model the evolution of a pair of coherently split quasicondensates. A truly one-dimensional case is assumed, so that the loss of the (initially high) coherence between the two quasicondensates is due to dephasing only, but not due to the violation of integrability and subsequent thermalization (which are excluded from the present model). We confirm the subexponential time evolution of the coherence between two quasicondensates {proportional_to}exp[-(t/t{sub 0}){sup 2/3}], experimentally observed by Hofferberth et al. [Nature 449, 324 (2007)]. The characteristic time t{sub 0} is found to scale as the square of the ratio of the linear density of a quasicondensate to its temperature, and we analyze the full distribution function of the interference contrast and the decay of the phase correlation.
Bloch oscillations of path-entangled photons.
Bromberg, Yaron; Lahini, Yoav; Silberberg, Yaron
2010-12-31
We show that when photons in N-particle path-entangled |N,0)+|0,N) or N00N states undergo Bloch oscillations, they exhibit a periodic transition between spatially bunched and antibunched states. The period of the bunching-antibunching oscillation is N times faster than the period of the oscillation of the photon density, manifesting the unique coherence properties of N00N states. The transition occurs even when the photons are well separated in space.
Coherent diffractive imaging and partial coherence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williams, Garth J.; Quiney, Harry M.; Peele, Andrew G.; Nugent, Keith A.
2007-03-01
We formulate coherent diffractive imaging in the framework of partially spatially coherent diffraction. We find that the reconstruction can be critically dependent on the degree of coherence in the illuminating field and that even a small departure from full coherence may invalidate the conventional assumption that a mapping exists between an exit surface wave of finite support and a far field diffraction pattern. We demonstrate that the introduction of sufficient phase curvature in the illumination can overcome the adverse effects of partial coherence.
Reversal of Photon-Scattering Errors in Atomic Qubits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akerman, N.; Kotler, S.; Glickman, Y.; Ozeri, R.
2012-09-01
Spontaneous photon scattering by an atomic qubit is a notable example of environment-induced error and is a fundamental limit to the fidelity of quantum operations. In the scattering process, the qubit loses its distinctive and coherent character owing to its entanglement with the photon. Using a single trapped ion, we show that by utilizing the information carried by the photon, we are able to coherently reverse this process and correct for the scattering error. We further used quantum process tomography to characterize the photon-scattering error and its correction scheme and demonstrate a correction fidelity greater than 85% whenever a photon was measured.
The high-order quantum coherence of thermal light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Hui
Thermal light, such as sunlight, is usually considered classical light. In a macroscopic picture, classical theory successfully explained the first-order coherence phenomena of thermal light. The macroscopic theory, based on the statistical behavior of light intensity fluctuations, however, can only phenomenologically explain the second- or higher-order coherence phenomena of thermal light. This thesis introduces a microscopic quantum picture, based on the interferences of a large number of randomly distributed and randomly radiated subfields, wavepackets or photons, to the study of high-order coherence of thermal light. This thesis concludes that the second-order intensity fluctuation correlation is caused by nonlocal interference: a pair of wavepackets, which are randomly paired together, interferes with the pair itself at two distant space-time coordinates. This study has the following practical motivations: (1) to simulate N-qbits. Practical quantum computing requires quantum bits(qubits) of N-digit to represent all possible integers from 0 to 2N-1 simultaneously. A large number of independent particles can be prepared to represent a large set of N orthogonal |0> and |1> bits. In fact, based on our recent experiments of simulating the high-order correlation of entangled photons, thermal radiation is suggested as a promising source for quantum information processing. (2) to achieve sunlight ghost imaging. Ghost imaging has three attractive non-classical features: (a) the ghost camera can "see" targets that can never be seen by a classic camera; (2) it is turbulence-free; and (3) its spatial resolution is mainly determined by the angular diameter of the light source. For example, a sunlight ghost image of an object on earth may achieve a spatial resolution of 200 micrometer because the angular diameter of sun is 0.53 degree with respect to Earth. Although ghost imaging has been experimental demonstrated by using entangled photon pairs and "pseudo-thermal light
Pairing Learners in Pair Work Activity
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Storch, Neomy; Aldosari, Ali
2013-01-01
Although pair work is advocated by major theories of second language (L2) learning and research findings suggest that pair work facilitates L2 learning, what is unclear is how to best pair students in L2 classes of mixed L2 proficiency. This study investigated the nature of pair work in an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) class in a college in…
Photon correlation in single-photon frequency upconversion.
Gu, Xiaorong; Huang, Kun; Pan, Haifeng; Wu, E; Zeng, Heping
2012-01-30
We experimentally investigated the intensity cross-correlation between the upconverted photons and the unconverted photons in the single-photon frequency upconversion process with multi-longitudinal mode pump and signal sources. In theoretical analysis, with this multi-longitudinal mode of both signal and pump sources system, the properties of the signal photons could also be maintained as in the single-mode frequency upconversion system. Experimentally, based on the conversion efficiency of 80.5%, the joint probability of simultaneously detecting at upconverted and unconverted photons showed an anti-correlation as a function of conversion efficiency which indicated the upconverted photons were one-to-one from the signal photons. While due to the coherent state of the signal photons, the intensity cross-correlation function g(2)(0) was shown to be equal to unity at any conversion efficiency, agreeing with the theoretical prediction. This study will benefit the high-speed wavelength-tunable quantum state translation or photonic quantum interface together with the mature frequency tuning or longitudinal mode selection techniques.
Confining the state of light to a quantum manifold by engineered two-photon loss
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leghtas, Zaki
2015-03-01
Physical systems usually exhibit quantum behavior, such as superpositions and entanglement, only when they are sufficiently decoupled from a lossy environment. Paradoxically, a specially engineered interaction with the environment can become a resource for the generation and protection of quantum states. This notion can be generalized to the confinement of a system into a manifold of quantum states, consisting of all coherent superpositions of multiple stable steady states. We have experimentally confined the state of a harmonic oscillator to the quantum manifold spanned by two coherent states of opposite phases. In particular, we have observed a Schrodinger cat state spontaneously squeeze out of vacuum, before decaying into a classical mixture. This was accomplished by designing a superconducting microwave resonator whose coupling to a cold bath is dominated by photon pair exchange. This experiment opens new avenues in the fields of nonlinear quantum optics and quantum information, where systems with multi-dimensional steady state manifolds can be used as error corrected logical qubits.
Ultimate Limits to Resource Efficiency in Photonic Communication
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Erkmen, Baris I.; Moision, Bruce E.; Dolinar, Sam
2013-01-01
We review resource-efficiency metrics for transferring classical information with photon, present an overview of the ultimate limits to photon and dimensional efficiency permitted by quantum mechanics, as well as that acheived with structured transmitter-receiver pairs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Youn, Sun-Hyun
2016-08-01
Conditions to generate high-purity entangled vacuum-evacuated coherent states (| 0 > | α>0 - | - α>0 | 0 >) were studied for two cascade-placed beam splitters, with one squeezed state input and two coherent state inputs whenever a single photon is detected. Controlling the amplitudes and the phases of the beams allows for various amplitudes of the vacuum-evacuated coherent states (| α>0 = | α > -e - | α|2 | 0 >) up to α = 2.160 to be manipulated with high-purity.
Security improvement by using a modified coherent state for quantum cryptography
Lu, Y.J.; Zhu, Luobei; Ou, Z.Y.
2005-03-01
Weak coherent states as a photon source for quantum cryptography have a limit in secure data rate and transmission distance because of the presence of multiphoton events and loss in transmission line. Two-photon events in a coherent state can be taken out by a two-photon interference scheme. We investigate the security issue of utilizing this modified coherent state in quantum cryptography. A 4-dB improvement in the secure data rate or a nearly twofold increase in transmission distance over the coherent state are found. With a recently proposed and improved encoding strategy, further improvement is possible.
Measurement of a weak transition moment using Coherent Control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antypas, Dionysios
We have developed a two-pathway Coherent Control technique for measurements of weak optical transition moments. We demonstrate this technique through a measurement of the transition moment of the highly-forbidden magnetic dipole transition between the 6s2S 1/21/2 and 7s2S 1/21/2 states in atomic Cesium. The experimental principle is based on a two-pathway excitation, using two phase-coherent laser fields, a fundamental field at 1079 nm and its second harmonic at 539.5 nm. The IR field induces a strong two-photon transition, while the 539.5 nm field drives a pair of weak one-photon transitions: a Stark-induced transition of controllable strength as well as the magnetic dipole transition. Observations of the interference between these transitions for different Stark-induced transition amplitudes, allow a measurement of the ratio of the magnetic dipole to the Stark-induced moment. The interference between the transitions is controlled by modulation of the phase-delay between the two optical fields. Our determination of the magnetic dipole moment is at the 0.4% level and in good agreement with previous measurements, and serves as a benchmark for our technique and apparatus. We anticipate that with further improvement of the apparatus detection sensitivity, the demonstrated scheme can be used for measurements of the very weak Parity Violation transition moment on the Cesium 6s2 S1/2→7s2 S1/2 transition.
Cavity-enhanced coherent light scattering from a quantum dot.
Bennett, Anthony J; Lee, James P; Ellis, David J P; Meany, Thomas; Murray, Eoin; Floether, Frederik F; Griffths, Jonathan P; Farrer, Ian; Ritchie, David A; Shields, Andrew J
2016-04-01
The generation of coherent and indistinguishable single photons is a critical step for photonic quantum technologies in information processing and metrology. A promising system is the resonant optical excitation of solid-state emitters embedded in wavelength-scale three-dimensional cavities. However, the challenge here is to reject the unwanted excitation to a level below the quantum signal. We demonstrate this using coherent photon scattering from a quantum dot in a micropillar. The cavity is shown to enhance the fraction of light that is resonantly scattered toward unity, generating antibunched indistinguishable photons that are 16 times narrower than the time-bandwidth limit, even when the transition is near saturation. Finally, deterministic excitation is used to create two-photon N00N states with which we make superresolving phase measurements in a photonic circuit. PMID:27152337
Cavity-enhanced coherent light scattering from a quantum dot.
Bennett, Anthony J; Lee, James P; Ellis, David J P; Meany, Thomas; Murray, Eoin; Floether, Frederik F; Griffths, Jonathan P; Farrer, Ian; Ritchie, David A; Shields, Andrew J
2016-04-01
The generation of coherent and indistinguishable single photons is a critical step for photonic quantum technologies in information processing and metrology. A promising system is the resonant optical excitation of solid-state emitters embedded in wavelength-scale three-dimensional cavities. However, the challenge here is to reject the unwanted excitation to a level below the quantum signal. We demonstrate this using coherent photon scattering from a quantum dot in a micropillar. The cavity is shown to enhance the fraction of light that is resonantly scattered toward unity, generating antibunched indistinguishable photons that are 16 times narrower than the time-bandwidth limit, even when the transition is near saturation. Finally, deterministic excitation is used to create two-photon N00N states with which we make superresolving phase measurements in a photonic circuit.
Cavity-enhanced coherent light scattering from a quantum dot
Bennett, Anthony J.; Lee, James P.; Ellis, David J. P.; Meany, Thomas; Murray, Eoin; Floether, Frederik F.; Griffths, Jonathan P.; Farrer, Ian; Ritchie, David A.; Shields, Andrew J.
2016-01-01
The generation of coherent and indistinguishable single photons is a critical step for photonic quantum technologies in information processing and metrology. A promising system is the resonant optical excitation of solid-state emitters embedded in wavelength-scale three-dimensional cavities. However, the challenge here is to reject the unwanted excitation to a level below the quantum signal. We demonstrate this using coherent photon scattering from a quantum dot in a micropillar. The cavity is shown to enhance the fraction of light that is resonantly scattered toward unity, generating antibunched indistinguishable photons that are 16 times narrower than the time-bandwidth limit, even when the transition is near saturation. Finally, deterministic excitation is used to create two-photon N00N states with which we make superresolving phase measurements in a photonic circuit. PMID:27152337
Nonlinear neutrino-photon interactions inside strong laser pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meuren, Sebastian; Keitel, Christoph H.; Di Piazza, Antonino
2015-06-01
Even though neutrinos are neutral particles and interact only via the exchange of weak gauge bosons, charged leptons and quarks can mediate a coupling to the photon field beyond tree level. Inside a relativistically strong laser field nonlinear effects in the laser amplitude can play an important role, as electrons and positrons interact nonperturbatively with the coherent part of the photon field. Here, we calculate for the first time the leading-order contribution to the axial-vector-vector current-coupling tensor inside an arbitrary plane-wave laser field (which is taken into account exactly by employing the Furry picture). The current-coupling tensor appears in the calculation of various electroweak processes inside strong laser fields like photon emission or trident electron-positron pair production by a neutrino. Moreover, as we will see below, the axial-vector-vector current-coupling tensor contains the Adler-Bell-Jackiw (ABJ) anomaly. This occurrence renders the current-coupling tensor also interesting from a fundamental point of view, as it is the simplest Feynman diagram in an external field featuring this kind of anomaly.
Spatially correlated fluctuations and coherence dynamics in photosynthesis.
Yu, Z G; Berding, M A; Wang, Haobin
2008-11-01
Recent multicolor photon-echo experiments revealed a long-lasting quantum coherence between excitations on the donor and acceptor in photosynthetic systems. Identifying the origin of the quantum coherence is essential to fully understand photosynthesis. Here we present a generic model in which a strong intermolecular steric restoring force in densely packed pigment-protein complexes results in a spatial correlation in conformational (static) variations of chromophores, which in turn induces an effective coupling between high-frequency (dynamic) fluctuations in donor and acceptor. The spatially correlated static and dynamic fluctuations provide a favorable environment to maintain quantum coherence, which can consistently explain the photon-echo measurements.
The evolution of σ γP with coherence length
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caldwell, Allen
2016-07-01
Assuming the form {σ }γ {{P}}\\propto {l}{λ {{eff}}} at fixed Q 2 for the behavior of the virtual-photon proton scattering cross section, where l is the coherence length of the photon fluctuations, it is seen that the extrapolated values of {σ }γ {{P}} for different Q 2 cross for l≈ {10}8 fm. It is argued that this behavior is not physical, and that the behavior of the cross sections must change before this coherence length l is reached. This could set the scale for the onset of saturation of the parton densities in the photon, and thereby saturation of parton densities in general.
Rhodopsin photochemistry is vibrationally coherent
Mathies, R.A.; Wang, Q.; Peteanu, L.A.
1995-12-31
Visual excitation is initiated by the absorption of a photon by the 11-cis retinal chromophore bound within the pigment called rhodopsin. We have used a variety of vibrational spectroscopies to obtain information about the vibrational nuclear dynamics that lead to this efficient photochemical isomerization. The cis-trans isomerization in rhodopsin is complete in only 200 fs. The extreme speed of this process, which is consistent with the {approximately}50 fs lifetime indicated by the spontaneous emission yield, suggests that the photochemistry involves non-stationary states or vibrational coherence. Recent studies have in fact observed vibrationally coherent oscillations of the ground state photoproduct called bathorhodopsin following impulsive excitation of the rhodopsin reactant. This conclusively demonstrates that the isomerization process in rhodopsin is vibrationally coherent. These observations further suggest that the isomerization quantum yield is directly dependent on the excited-state torsional velocity and can be thought of as a Landau-Zener tunneling process. This work establishes a vibrationally coherent paradigm for the photochemistry of vision that may be relevant for many other photochemical and photobiological processes including photosynthesis and proton pumping in bacteriorhodopsin.
Experimental Measurement of the Second-Order Coherence of Supercontinuum.
Närhi, Mikko; Turunen, Jari; Friberg, Ari T; Genty, Goëry
2016-06-17
We measure experimentally the second-order coherence properties of supercontinuum generated in a photonic crystal fiber. Our approach is based on measuring separately the quasicoherent and quasistationary contributions to the cross-spectral density and mutual coherence functions using a combination of interferometric and nonlinear gating techniques. This allows us to introduce two-dimensional coherence spectrograms which provide a direct characterization and convenient visualization of the spectrotemporal coherence properties. The measured second-order coherence functions are in very good agreement with numerical simulations based on the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Our results pave the way towards the full experimental characterization of supercontinuum coherence properties. More generally, they provide a generic approach for the complete experimental measurement of the coherence of broadband sources. PMID:27367389
Experimental Measurement of the Second-Order Coherence of Supercontinuum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Närhi, Mikko; Turunen, Jari; Friberg, Ari T.; Genty, Goëry
2016-06-01
We measure experimentally the second-order coherence properties of supercontinuum generated in a photonic crystal fiber. Our approach is based on measuring separately the quasicoherent and quasistationary contributions to the cross-spectral density and mutual coherence functions using a combination of interferometric and nonlinear gating techniques. This allows us to introduce two-dimensional coherence spectrograms which provide a direct characterization and convenient visualization of the spectrotemporal coherence properties. The measured second-order coherence functions are in very good agreement with numerical simulations based on the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Our results pave the way towards the full experimental characterization of supercontinuum coherence properties. More generally, they provide a generic approach for the complete experimental measurement of the coherence of broadband sources.
Quantum dot spin coherence governed by a strained nuclear environment.
Stockill, R; Le Gall, C; Matthiesen, C; Huthmacher, L; Clarke, E; Hugues, M; Atatüre, M
2016-01-01
The interaction between a confined electron and the nuclei of an optically active quantum dot provides a uniquely rich manifestation of the central spin problem. Coherent qubit control combines with an ultrafast spin-photon interface to make these confined spins attractive candidates for quantum optical networks. Reaching the full potential of spin coherence has been hindered by the lack of knowledge of the key irreversible environment dynamics. Through all-optical Hahn echo decoupling we now recover the intrinsic coherence time set by the interaction with the inhomogeneously strained nuclear bath. The high-frequency nuclear dynamics are directly imprinted on the electron spin coherence, resulting in a dramatic jump of coherence times from few tens of nanoseconds to the microsecond regime between 2 and 3 T magnetic field and an exponential decay of coherence at high fields. These results reveal spin coherence can be improved by applying large magnetic fields and reducing strain inhomogeneity.
Quantum dot spin coherence governed by a strained nuclear environment
Stockill, R.; Le Gall, C.; Matthiesen, C.; Huthmacher, L.; Clarke, E.; Hugues, M.; Atatüre, M.
2016-01-01
The interaction between a confined electron and the nuclei of an optically active quantum dot provides a uniquely rich manifestation of the central spin problem. Coherent qubit control combines with an ultrafast spin–photon interface to make these confined spins attractive candidates for quantum optical networks. Reaching the full potential of spin coherence has been hindered by the lack of knowledge of the key irreversible environment dynamics. Through all-optical Hahn echo decoupling we now recover the intrinsic coherence time set by the interaction with the inhomogeneously strained nuclear bath. The high-frequency nuclear dynamics are directly imprinted on the electron spin coherence, resulting in a dramatic jump of coherence times from few tens of nanoseconds to the microsecond regime between 2 and 3 T magnetic field and an exponential decay of coherence at high fields. These results reveal spin coherence can be improved by applying large magnetic fields and reducing strain inhomogeneity. PMID:27615704
Quantum dot spin coherence governed by a strained nuclear environment.
Stockill, R; Le Gall, C; Matthiesen, C; Huthmacher, L; Clarke, E; Hugues, M; Atatüre, M
2016-01-01
The interaction between a confined electron and the nuclei of an optically active quantum dot provides a uniquely rich manifestation of the central spin problem. Coherent qubit control combines with an ultrafast spin-photon interface to make these confined spins attractive candidates for quantum optical networks. Reaching the full potential of spin coherence has been hindered by the lack of knowledge of the key irreversible environment dynamics. Through all-optical Hahn echo decoupling we now recover the intrinsic coherence time set by the interaction with the inhomogeneously strained nuclear bath. The high-frequency nuclear dynamics are directly imprinted on the electron spin coherence, resulting in a dramatic jump of coherence times from few tens of nanoseconds to the microsecond regime between 2 and 3 T magnetic field and an exponential decay of coherence at high fields. These results reveal spin coherence can be improved by applying large magnetic fields and reducing strain inhomogeneity. PMID:27615704
Quantum dot spin coherence governed by a strained nuclear environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stockill, R.; Le Gall, C.; Matthiesen, C.; Huthmacher, L.; Clarke, E.; Hugues, M.; Atatüre, M.
2016-09-01
The interaction between a confined electron and the nuclei of an optically active quantum dot provides a uniquely rich manifestation of the central spin problem. Coherent qubit control combines with an ultrafast spin-photon interface to make these confined spins attractive candidates for quantum optical networks. Reaching the full potential of spin coherence has been hindered by the lack of knowledge of the key irreversible environment dynamics. Through all-optical Hahn echo decoupling we now recover the intrinsic coherence time set by the interaction with the inhomogeneously strained nuclear bath. The high-frequency nuclear dynamics are directly imprinted on the electron spin coherence, resulting in a dramatic jump of coherence times from few tens of nanoseconds to the microsecond regime between 2 and 3 T magnetic field and an exponential decay of coherence at high fields. These results reveal spin coherence can be improved by applying large magnetic fields and reducing strain inhomogeneity.
Detecting a preformed pair phase: Response to a pairing forcing field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tagliavini, A.; Capone, M.; Toschi, A.
2016-10-01
The normal state of strongly coupled superconductors is characterized by the presence of "preformed" Cooper pairs well above the superconducting critical temperature. In this regime, the electrons are paired, but they lack the phase coherence necessary for superconductivity. The existence of preformed pairs implies the existence of a characteristic energy scale associated with a pseudogap. Preformed pairs are often invoked to interpret systems where some signatures of pairing are present without actual superconductivity, but an unambiguous theoretical characterization of a preformed-pair system is still lacking. To fill this gap, we consider the response to an external pairing field of an attractive Hubbard model, which hosts one of the cleanest realizations of a preformed pair phase, and a repulsive model where s -wave superconductivity cannot be realized. Using dynamical mean-field theory to study this response, we identify the characteristic features which distinguish the reaction of a preformed pair state from a normal metal without any precursor of pairing. The theoretical detection of preformed pairs is associated with the behavior of the second derivative of the order parameter with respect to the external field, as confirmed by analytic calculations in limiting cases. Our findings provide a solid test bed for the interpretation of state-of-the-art calculations for the normal state of the doped Hubbard model in terms of d -wave preformed pairs and, in perspective, of nonequilibrium experiments in high-temperature superconductors.
Quantum complementarity of cavity photons coupled to a three-level system
Vilardi, R.; Savasta, S.; Di Stefano, O.; Ridolfo, A.; Portolan, S.
2011-12-15
Recently a device enabling the ultrafast all-optical control of the wave-particle duality of light was proposed [Ridolfo et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 013601 (2011)]. It is constituted by a three-level quantum emitter strongly coupled to a microcavity and can be realized by exploiting a great variety of systems ranging from atomic physics and semiconductor quantum dots to intersubband polaritons and Cooper pair boxes. Control pulses with specific arrival times, performing which-path and quantum-eraser operations, are able to destroy and recover interference almost instantaneously. Here we show that the coherence sudden death implies the sudden birth of a higher order correlation function storing coherence. Such storing enables coherence rebirth after the arrival of an additional suitable control pulse. We derive analytical calculations describing the all-optical control of the wave-particle duality and the entanglement-induced switch-off of the strong coupling regime. We also present analytical calculations describing a homodynelike method exploiting pairs of phase locked pulses with precise arrival times to probe the optical control of wave-particle duality of this system. Within such a method the optical control of wave-particle duality can be directly probed by just detecting the photons escaping the microcavity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larré, Pierre-Élie; Carusotto, Iacopo
2016-03-01
We study the coherence properties of a laser beam after propagation along a one-dimensional lossless nonlinear optical waveguide. Within the paraxial, slowly-varying-envelope, and single-transverse-mode approximations, the quantum propagation of the light field in the nonlinear medium is mapped onto a quantum Gross-Pitaevskii-type evolution of a closed one-dimensional system of many interacting photons. Upon crossing the entrance and the back faces of the waveguide, the photon-photon interaction parameter undergoes two sudden jumps, resulting in a pair of quantum quenches of the system's Hamiltonian. In the weak-interaction regime, we use the modulus-phase Bogoliubov theory of dilute Bose gases to describe the quantum fluctuations of the fluid of light and predict that correlations typical of a prethermalized state emerge locally in their final form and propagate in a light-cone way at the Bogoliubov speed of sound in the photon fluid. This peculiar relaxation dynamics, visible in the light exiting the waveguide, results in a loss of long-lived coherence in the beam of light.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asher, D. J.; Clube, S. V. M.; Napier, W. M.; Steel, D. I.
We review the theoretical and observational evidence that, on timescales relevant to mankind, the prime collision hazard is posed by temporally correlated impacts (coherent catastrophism, Δt ˜ 10 2-10 4 yr) rather than random ones (stochastic catastrophism, Δt ˜ 10 5-10 8 yr). The mechanism whereby coherent incursions into and through the terrestrial atmosphere occur is described as being the result of giant cometary bodies arriving in orbits with perihelia in the inner solar system. Hierarchical fragmentation of such large (100 km-plus) bodies — due to thermal stresses near perihelion, collisions in the asteroid belt, or passages through the Jovian Roche radius — results in numerous ˜kilometre-sized objects being left in short-period orbits, and appearing in telescopic searches as Apollo-type asteroids. Many more smaller objects, in the 10-100 metre size range and only recently observed, by the Spacewatch team, are expected to be in replenished clusters in particular orbits as a result of continuing disintegrations of large, differentiated, cometary objects. Gravitational perturbations by Jupiter bring these clusters around to have a node at 1 AU in a cyclic fashion, leading to impacts at certain times of year every few years during active periods lasting a few centuries, such periods being separated by intervals of a few millennia. Furthermore, fragmentations within the hierarchy result in significant bombardment commensurabilities ( Δt ˜ 10-10 2 yr) during active periods occurring at random intervals ( Δt ˜ 10 2-10 3 yr). It appears that the Earth has been subject to such impacts since the break-up of such a comet ˜2×10 4 years ago; currently we are not passing through a high-risk epoch, although some phenomena originating in the products of this break-up have been observed in the 20th century. This most recent hierarchical disintegration, associated with four well-known meteor showers and termed the Taurid Complex, is now recognized as resulting
Measuring the two-photon decay width of intermediate-mass Higgs bosons at a photon-photon collider
Ohgaki, T.; Takahashi, T.; Watanabe, I.
1997-08-01
The feasibility of a measurement of the partial decay width of the intermediate-mass Higgs boson into two photons at a photon-photon collider is studied by a simulation. The QCD radiative correction for quark pair background processes is taken into account for the realistic background estimation. It is found that the two-photon decay width can be measured with the statistical error of 7.6{percent} with about one year of experiment. The impact of the measurement of the two-photon decay width to look for the new physics beyond is demonstrated. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Gerrits, Thomas; Calkins, Brice; Tomlin, Nathan; Lita, Adriana E; Migdall, Alan; Mirin, Richard; Nam, Sae Woo
2012-10-01
Typically, transition edge sensors resolve photon number of up to 10 or 20 photons, depending on the wavelength and TES design. We extend that dynamic range up to 1000 photons, while maintaining sub-shot noise detection process uncertainty of the number of detected photons and beyond that show a monotonic response up to ≈ 6 · 10(6) photons in a single light pulse. This mode of operation, which heats the sensor far beyond its transition edge into the normal conductive regime, offers a technique for connecting single-photon-counting measurements to radiant-power measurements at picowatt levels. Connecting these two usually incompatible operating regimes in a single detector offers significant potential for directly tying photon counting measurements to conventional cryogenic radiometric standards. In addition, our measurements highlight the advantages of a photon-number state source over a coherent pulse source as a tool for characterizing such a detector.
Resonant photonic States in coupled heterostructure photonic crystal waveguides.
Cox, Jd; Sabarinathan, J; Singh, Mr
2010-01-01
In this paper, we study the photonic resonance states and transmission spectra of coupled waveguides made from heterostructure photonic crystals. We consider photonic crystal waveguides made from three photonic crystals A, B and C, where the waveguide heterostructure is denoted as B/A/C/A/B. Due to the band structure engineering, light is confined within crystal A, which thus act as waveguides. Here, photonic crystal C is taken as a nonlinear photonic crystal, which has a band gap that may be modified by applying a pump laser. We have found that the number of bound states within the waveguides depends on the width and well depth of photonic crystal A. It has also been found that when both waveguides are far away from each other, the energies of bound photons in each of the waveguides are degenerate. However, when they are brought close to each other, the degeneracy of the bound states is removed due to the coupling between them, which causes these states to split into pairs. We have also investigated the effect of the pump field on photonic crystal C. We have shown that by applying a pump field, the system may be switched between a double waveguide to a single waveguide, which effectively turns on or off the coupling between degenerate states. This reveals interesting results that can be applied to develop new types of nanophotonic devices such as nano-switches and nano-transistors.
Coherence brightened laser source for atmospheric remote sensing.
Traverso, Andrew J; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Yuan, Luqi; Wang, Kai; Voronine, Dmitri V; Zheltikov, Aleksei M; Rostovtsev, Yuri; Sautenkov, Vladimir A; Sokolov, Alexei V; North, Simon W; Scully, Marlan O
2012-09-18
We have studied coherent emission from ambient air and demonstrated efficient generation of laser-like beams directed both forward and backward with respect to a nanosecond ultraviolet pumping laser beam. The generated optical gain is a result of two-photon photolysis of atmospheric O(2), followed by two-photon excitation of atomic oxygen. We have analyzed the temporal shapes of the emitted pulses and have observed very short duration intensity spikes as well as a large Rabi frequency that corresponds to the emitted field. Our results suggest that the emission process exhibits nonadiabatic atomic coherence, which is similar in nature to Dicke superradiance where atomic coherence is large and can be contrasted with ordinary lasing where atomic coherence is negligible. This atomic coherence in oxygen adds insight to the optical emission physics and holds promise for remote sensing techniques employing nonlinear spectroscopy. PMID:22949687
Coherence brightened laser source for atmospheric remote sensing.
Traverso, Andrew J; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Yuan, Luqi; Wang, Kai; Voronine, Dmitri V; Zheltikov, Aleksei M; Rostovtsev, Yuri; Sautenkov, Vladimir A; Sokolov, Alexei V; North, Simon W; Scully, Marlan O
2012-09-18
We have studied coherent emission from ambient air and demonstrated efficient generation of laser-like beams directed both forward and backward with respect to a nanosecond ultraviolet pumping laser beam. The generated optical gain is a result of two-photon photolysis of atmospheric O(2), followed by two-photon excitation of atomic oxygen. We have analyzed the temporal shapes of the emitted pulses and have observed very short duration intensity spikes as well as a large Rabi frequency that corresponds to the emitted field. Our results suggest that the emission process exhibits nonadiabatic atomic coherence, which is similar in nature to Dicke superradiance where atomic coherence is large and can be contrasted with ordinary lasing where atomic coherence is negligible. This atomic coherence in oxygen adds insight to the optical emission physics and holds promise for remote sensing techniques employing nonlinear spectroscopy.
Coherence brightened laser source for atmospheric remote sensing
Traverso, Andrew J.; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Yuan, Luqi; Wang, Kai; Voronine, Dmitri V.; Zheltikov, Aleksei M.; Rostovtsev, Yuri; Sautenkov, Vladimir A.; Sokolov, Alexei V.; North, Simon W.; Scully, Marlan O.
2012-01-01
We have studied coherent emission from ambient air and demonstrated efficient generation of laser-like beams directed both forward and backward with respect to a nanosecond ultraviolet pumping laser beam. The generated optical gain is a result of two-photon photolysis of atmospheric O2, followed by two-photon excitation of atomic oxygen. We have analyzed the temporal shapes of the emitted pulses and have observed very short duration intensity spikes as well as a large Rabi frequency that corresponds to the emitted field. Our results suggest that the emission process exhibits nonadiabatic atomic coherence, which is similar in nature to Dicke superradiance where atomic coherence is large and can be contrasted with ordinary lasing where atomic coherence is negligible. This atomic coherence in oxygen adds insight to the optical emission physics and holds promise for remote sensing techniques employing nonlinear spectroscopy. PMID:22949687
Regimes of Pulsar Pair Formation and Particle Energetics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harding, Alice K.; Muslimov, Alexander G.; Zhang, Bing; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
We investigate the conditions required for the production of electron-positron pairs above a pulsar polar cap (PC) and the influence of pair production on the energetics of the primary particle acceleration. Assuming space-charge limited flow acceleration including the inertial frame-dragging effect, we allow both one-photon and two-photon pair production by either curvature radiation (CR) photons or photons resulting from inverse-Compton scattering of thermal photons from the PC by primary electrons. We find that,, while only the younger pulsars can produce pairs through CR, nearly all known radio pulsars are capable of producing pairs through non-resonant inverse-Compton scatterings. The effect of the neutron star equations of state on the pair death lines is explored. We show that pair production is facilitated in more compact stars and more a massive stars. Therefore accretion of mass by pulsars in binary systems may allow pair production in most of the millisecond purser population. We also find that two-photon pair production may be important in millisecond pursers if their surface temperatures are above approx. or equal to three million degrees K. Pursers that produce pairs through CRT wilt have their primary acceleration limited by the effect of screening of the electric field. In this regime, the high-energy luminosity should follow a L(sub HE) proportional to dot-E(sup 1/2, sub rot) dependence. The acceleration voltage drop in pursers that produce pairs only through inverse-Compton emission will not be limited by electric field screening. In this regime, the high-energy luminosity should follow a L(sub HE) proportional to dot-E(sub rot) dependence. Thus, older pursers will have significantly lower gamma-ray luminosity.
Slow Images and Entangled Photons
Swordy, Simon
2007-06-20
I will discuss some recent experiments using slow light and entangled photons. We recently showed that it was possible to map a two dimensional image onto very low light level signals, slow them down in a hot atomic vapor while preserving the amplitude and phase of the images. If time remains, I will discuss some of our recent work with time-energy entangled photons for quantum cryptography. We were able to show that we could have a measurable state space of over 1000 states for a single pair of entangled photons in fiber.
Gerry, Christopher C.
2003-04-01
Two-photon interferometric quantum photon lithography for light of wavelength {lambda} is capable of beating the Rayleigh diffraction limit of resolution {lambda}/4 to the level of {lambda}/8. The required twin single-photon states |1>{sub a}|1>{sub b}, which are converted into maximally entangled states by a 50:50 beam splitter, can be generated from a nondegenerate parametric amplifier initially in vacuum states and with a weak pump field. Increasing the pump strength can slightly increase the production rate of the desired state and it will also increase the production of the twin two-photon states |2>{sub a}|2>{sub b}, which leads to an unwanted background term. In this paper we show that, assuming a weak pair coherent state as input to the amplifier, quantum interference can be used to quench the production of the |2>{sub a}|2>{sub b} state and to enhance the production of the |1>{sub a}|1>{sub b} state by almost sixfold.
Optical emission of a molecular nanoantenna pair
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rice, E. M.; Andrews, D. L.
2012-06-01
The optical emission from a pair of nanoantennas is investigated within the theoretical framework of quantum electrodynamics. The analysis of fluorescent emission from a pair of molecular antenna species in close proximity is prompted by experimental work on oriented semiconductor polymer nanostructures. Each physically different possibility for separation-dependent features in photon emission by any such pair is explored in detail, leading to the identification of three distinct mechanisms: emission from a pair-delocalized exciton state, emission that engages electrodynamic coupling through quantum interference, and correlated photon emission from the two components of the pair. Although each mechanism produces a damped oscillatory dependence on the pair separation, each of the corresponding results exhibits an analytically different form. Significant differences in the associated spatial frequencies enable an apparent ambiguity in the interpretation of experiments to be resolved. Other major differences are found in the requisite conditions, the associated selection rules, and the variation with angular disposition of the emitters, together offering grounds for experimental discrimination between the coupling mechanisms. The analysis paves the way for investigations of pair-wise coupling effects in the emission from nanoantenna arrays.