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Sample records for coherence photon pair

  1. Entangled coherent states versus entangled photon pairs for practical quantum-information processing

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Kimin; Jeong, Hyunseok

    2010-12-15

    We compare effects of decoherence and detection inefficiency on entangled coherent states (ECSs) and entangled photon pairs (EPPs), both of which are known to be particularly useful for quantum-information processing (QIP). When decoherence effects caused by photon losses are heavy, the ECSs outperform the EPPs as quantum channels for teleportation both in fidelities and in success probabilities. On the other hand, when inefficient detectors are used, the teleportation scheme using the ECSs suffers undetected errors that result in the degradation of fidelity, while this is not the case for the teleportation scheme using the EPPs. Our study reveals the merits and demerits of the two types of entangled states in realizing practical QIP under realistic conditions.

  2. Coherent terahertz photonics.

    PubMed

    Seeds, Alwyn J; Fice, Martyn J; Balakier, Katarzyna; Natrella, Michele; Mitrofanov, Oleg; Lamponi, Marco; Chtioui, Mourad; van Dijk, Frederic; Pepper, Michael; Aeppli, Gabriel; Davies, A Giles; Dean, Paul; Linfield, Edmund; Renaud, Cyril C

    2013-09-23

    We present a review of recent developments in THz coherent systems based on photonic local oscillators. We show that such techniques can enable the creation of highly coherent, thus highly sensitive, systems for frequencies ranging from 100 GHz to 5 THz, within an energy efficient integrated platform. We suggest that such systems could enable the THz spectrum to realize its full applications potential. To demonstrate how photonics-enabled THz systems can be realized, we review the performance of key components, show recent demonstrations of integrated platforms, and give examples of applications.

  3. Generalized quantum interference of correlated photon pairs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Heonoh; Lee, Sang Min; Moon, Han Seb

    2015-01-01

    Superposition and indistinguishablility between probability amplitudes have played an essential role in observing quantum interference effects of correlated photons. The Hong-Ou-Mandel interference and interferences of the path-entangled photon number state are of special interest in the field of quantum information technologies. However, a fully generalized two-photon quantum interferometric scheme accounting for the Hong-Ou-Mandel scheme and path-entangled photon number states has not yet been proposed. Here we report the experimental demonstrations of the generalized two-photon interferometry with both the interferometric properties of the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect and the fully unfolded version of the path-entangled photon number state using photon-pair sources, which are independently generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion. Our experimental scheme explains two-photon interference fringes revealing single- and two-photon coherence properties in a single interferometer setup. Using the proposed interferometric measurement, it is possible to directly estimate the joint spectral intensity of a photon pair source. PMID:25951143

  4. Two-photon absorption by a quantum dot pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheibner, Michael; Economou, Sophia E.; Ponomarev, Ilya V.; Jennings, Cameron; Bracker, Allan S.; Gammon, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    The biexciton absorption spectrum of a pair of InAs/GaAs quantum dots is being studied by photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy. An absorption resonance with the characteristics of an instantaneous two-photon process reveals a coherent interdot two-photon transition. Pauli-selective tunneling is being used to demonstrate the transduction of the two-photon coherence into a nonlocal spin singlet state. The two-photon transition can be tuned spectrally by electric field, enabling amplification of its transition strength.

  5. Photon and neutrino-pair emission from circulating quantum ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, M.; Sasao, N.

    2016-06-01

    The recent proposal of a photon and a neutrino-pair beam is investigated in detail. Production rates, both differential and total, of a single photon, two photons, and a neutrino pair emitted from quantum ions in circular motion are given for any velocity of ion. This part is an extension of our previous calculations at highest energies to lower energies of circulating ions, and hopefully helps to identify the new process of quantum ion circulation at a low energy ring. We clarify how to utilize the circulating ion for a new source of coherent neutrino beam despite much stronger background photons. Once one verifies that the coherence is maintained in the initial phases of time evolution after laser irradiation, large background photon emission rates are not an obstacle against utilizing the extracted neutrino-pair beam.

  6. Calculating coherent pair production with Monte Carlo methods

    SciTech Connect

    Bottcher, C.; Strayer, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    We discuss calculations of the coherent electromagnetic pair production in ultra-relativistic hadron collisions. This type of production, in lowest order, is obtained from three diagrams which contain two virtual photons. We discuss simple Monte Carlo methods for evaluating these classes of diagrams without recourse to involved algebraic reduction schemes. 19 refs., 11 figs.

  7. Ultrabright source of entangled photon pairs.

    PubMed

    Dousse, Adrien; Suffczyński, Jan; Beveratos, Alexios; Krebs, Olivier; Lemaître, Aristide; Sagnes, Isabelle; Bloch, Jacqueline; Voisin, Paul; Senellart, Pascale

    2010-07-08

    A source of triggered entangled photon pairs is a key component in quantum information science; it is needed to implement functions such as linear quantum computation, entanglement swapping and quantum teleportation. Generation of polarization entangled photon pairs can be obtained through parametric conversion in nonlinear optical media or by making use of the radiative decay of two electron-hole pairs trapped in a semiconductor quantum dot. Today, these sources operate at a very low rate, below 0.01 photon pairs per excitation pulse, which strongly limits their applications. For systems based on parametric conversion, this low rate is intrinsically due to the Poissonian statistics of the source. Conversely, a quantum dot can emit a single pair of entangled photons with a probability near unity but suffers from a naturally very low extraction efficiency. Here we show that this drawback can be overcome by coupling an optical cavity in the form of a 'photonic molecule' to a single quantum dot. Two coupled identical pillars-the photonic molecule-were etched in a semiconductor planar microcavity, using an optical lithography method that ensures a deterministic coupling to the biexciton and exciton energy states of a pre-selected quantum dot. The Purcell effect ensures that most entangled photon pairs are emitted into two cavity modes, while improving the indistinguishability of the two optical recombination paths. A polarization entangled photon pair rate of 0.12 per excitation pulse (with a concurrence of 0.34) is collected in the first lens. Our results open the way towards the fabrication of solid state triggered sources of entangled photon pairs, with an overall (creation and collection) efficiency of 80%.

  8. Temporal Multimode Storage of Entangled Photon Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiranov, Alexey; Strassmann, Peter C.; Lavoie, Jonathan; Brunner, Nicolas; Huber, Marcus; Verma, Varun B.; Nam, Sae Woo; Mirin, Richard P.; Lita, Adriana E.; Marsili, Francesco; Afzelius, Mikael; Bussières, Félix; Gisin, Nicolas

    2016-12-01

    Multiplexed quantum memories capable of storing and processing entangled photons are essential for the development of quantum networks. In this context, we demonstrate and certify the simultaneous storage and retrieval of two entangled photons inside a solid-state quantum memory and measure a temporal multimode capacity of ten modes. This is achieved by producing two polarization-entangled pairs from parametric down-conversion and mapping one photon of each pair onto a rare-earth-ion-doped (REID) crystal using the atomic frequency comb (AFC) protocol. We develop a concept of indirect entanglement witnesses, which can be used as Schmidt number witnesses, and we use it to experimentally certify the presence of more than one entangled pair retrieved from the quantum memory. Our work puts forward REID-AFC as a platform compatible with temporal multiplexing of several entangled photon pairs along with a new entanglement certification method, useful for the characterization of multiplexed quantum memories.

  9. A simple and general strategy for generating frequency-anticorrelated photon pairs

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xin; Xu, Chang; Ren, Zhongzhou

    2016-01-01

    Currently, two-photon excitation microscopy is the method of choice for imaging living cells within thick specimen. A remaining problem for this technique is the damage caused by the high photon flux in the excitation region. To reduce the required flux, a promising solution is to use highly frequency-anticorrelated photon pairs, which are known to induce two-photon transitions much more efficiently. It is still an open question what the best scheme is for generating such photon pairs. Here we propose one simple general strategy for this task. As an example, we show explicitly that this general strategy can be realized faithfully within the widely applicable coherently pumped Jaynes-Cummings model. It is shown quantitatively that this strategy can generate highly frequency-anticorrelated photon pairs which can dramatically enhance two-photon excitation efficiency. We believe the proposed strategy can guide new designs for generating frequency-anticorrelated photon pairs. PMID:27087255

  10. Noncommutative q -photon-added coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Sanjib; Hussin, Véronique

    2016-05-01

    We construct the photon-added coherent states of a noncommutative harmonic oscillator associated to a q -deformed oscillator algebra. Various nonclassical properties of the corresponding system are explored, first, by studying two different types of higher-order quadrature squeezing, namely, the Hillery type and the Hong-Mandel type, and second, by testing the sub-Poissonian nature of photon statistics in higher order with the help of the correlation function and the Mandel parameter. Also, we compare the behavior of different types of quadrature and photon number squeezing of our system with those of the ordinary harmonic oscillator by considering the same set of parameters.

  11. Photon-added coherent states in parametric down-conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Sivakumar, S.

    2011-03-15

    Photon-added coherent states have been realized in optical parametric down-conversion by Zavatta et al. [Science 306, 660 (2004)]. In this report, it is established that the states generated in the process are ideal photon-added coherent states. It is shown that the scheme can generate higher-order photon-added coherent states. A comparative study of the down-conversion process and atom-cavity interaction in generating the photon-added coherent states is presented.

  12. Efficient quantum computing using coherent photon conversion.

    PubMed

    Langford, N K; Ramelow, S; Prevedel, R; Munro, W J; Milburn, G J; Zeilinger, A

    2011-10-12

    Single photons are excellent quantum information carriers: they were used in the earliest demonstrations of entanglement and in the production of the highest-quality entanglement reported so far. However, current schemes for preparing, processing and measuring them are inefficient. For example, down-conversion provides heralded, but randomly timed, single photons, and linear optics gates are inherently probabilistic. Here we introduce a deterministic process--coherent photon conversion (CPC)--that provides a new way to generate and process complex, multiquanta states for photonic quantum information applications. The technique uses classically pumped nonlinearities to induce coherent oscillations between orthogonal states of multiple quantum excitations. One example of CPC, based on a pumped four-wave-mixing interaction, is shown to yield a single, versatile process that provides a full set of photonic quantum processing tools. This set satisfies the DiVincenzo criteria for a scalable quantum computing architecture, including deterministic multiqubit entanglement gates (based on a novel form of photon-photon interaction), high-quality heralded single- and multiphoton states free from higher-order imperfections, and robust, high-efficiency detection. It can also be used to produce heralded multiphoton entanglement, create optically switchable quantum circuits and implement an improved form of down-conversion with reduced higher-order effects. Such tools are valuable building blocks for many quantum-enabled technologies. Finally, using photonic crystal fibres we experimentally demonstrate quantum correlations arising from a four-colour nonlinear process suitable for CPC and use these measurements to study the feasibility of reaching the deterministic regime with current technology. Our scheme, which is based on interacting bosonic fields, is not restricted to optical systems but could also be implemented in optomechanical, electromechanical and superconducting

  13. Light Propagation and Paired Superradiance in Coherent Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, M.

    2011-01-01

    The problem of light propagation of frequency corresponding to half of the energy difference between a metastable excited state and the ground state of atoms is examined, and solved for coherent medium by analytic means. We demonstrate that the non-linear system of Maxwell-Bloch equation for the effective model of the Λ-type three levels is integrable in the mathematical sense. Analytic solutions thus obtained describe pulse splitting accompanied by compression, indicating a kind of non-linear instability of propagating pulses. The instability is eventually terminated by coherent two photon emission (called paired superradiance or PSR in short). These results are displayed by numerical outputs for visual understanding, as well. It is further shown that the integrable system allows a new class of soliton solutions. Solitons, implying the phenomenon of self-induced transparancy at non-resonant frequencies, are stable against PSR. One of our goals of the present work is construction of a calculable theoretical framework for PSR rates associated with a trigger pulse propagation, which is achieved by combining analytic results with perturbative methods. PSR photon spectrum and its rate ∝(target number density)^2, along with their time structure, are clarified this way. These results may open a new path for interesting technological applications such as quantum entanglement and for solving the remaining problems of the still mysterious neutrino. Some basic strategy for realistic experiments of PSR detection and soliton production is also outlined.

  14. Nonclassical photon pair generation in atomic vapors

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhya, S. N.

    2007-07-15

    A scheme for the generation of nonclassical pairs of photons in atomic vapors is proposed. The scheme exploits the fact that the cross correlation of the emission of photons from the extreme transitions of a four-level cascade system shows antibunching, unlike the case of the three-level cascade emission, which shows bunching. The Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, which is the ratio of the cross-correlation to the autocorrelation function, in this case is estimated to be 10{sup 3}-10{sup 6} for controllable time delay, and is one to four orders of magnitude larger compared to previous experiments. The choice of Doppler-free geometry, in addition to the fact that at three-photon resonance the excitation and deexcitation processes occur in a very narrow frequency band, ensures cleaner signa0008.

  15. Optimal Photon Blockade on the Maximal Atomic Coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Jun; Yu, Chang-shui

    2016-12-01

    There is generally no obvious evidence in any direct relation between photon blockade and atomic coherence. Here instead of only illustrating the photon statistics, we show an interesting relation between the steady-state photon blockade and the atomic coherence by designing a weakly driven cavity QED system with a two-level atom trapped. It is shown for the first time that the maximal atomic coherence has a perfect correspondence with the optimal photon blockade. The negative effects of the strong dissipations on photon statistics, atomic coherence and their correspondence are also addressed. The numerical simulation is also given to support all of our results.

  16. Interference in the recombination of frequency-entangled photon pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, Kevin A.; Garces, Veneranda G.

    2015-11-01

    We present experimental studies of the recombination of frequency-entangled photon pairs into single photons in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal. With a delay ? between pair members, the measured rate of pair recombination ? presents a width of 25.6 fsec. It is observed that, depending on experimental conditions, ? can contain interference fringes that arise from the spatial correlations of the photon pairs. In particular, these correlations imply that each photon of a pair interferes with itself in the experiment before pair recombination, leading to the fringes in ?. A theoretical model is developed that provides favorable comparisons with the experimental results.

  17. State-projective scheme for generating pair coherent states in traveling-wave optical fields

    SciTech Connect

    Gerry, Christopher C.; Mimih, Jihane; Birrittella, Richard

    2011-08-15

    The pair coherent states of a two-mode quantized electromagnetic field introduced by Agarwal [Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 827 (1986)] have yet to be generated in the laboratory. The states can mathematically be obtained from a product of ordinary coherent states via projection onto a subspace wherein identical photon number states of each mode are paired. We propose a scheme by which this projection can be engineered. The scheme requires relatively weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities, the ability to perform a displacement operation on a beam mode, and photon detection ability able to distinguish between zero and any other number of photons. These requirements can be fulfilled with currently available technology or technology that is on the horizon.

  18. Extracting an entangled photon pair from collectively decohered pairs at a telecommunication wavelength.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Yoshiaki; Sugiura, Yukihiro; Ando, Makoto; Katsuse, Daisuke; Ikuta, Rikizo; Yamamoto, Takashi; Koashi, Masato; Imoto, Nobuyuki

    2015-05-18

    We experimentally demonstrated entanglement extraction scheme by using photons at the telecommunication band for optical-fiber-based quantum communications. We generated two pairs of non-degenerate polarization entangled photons at 780 nm and 1551 nm by spontaneous parametric down-conversion and distributed the two photons at 1551 nm through a collective phase damping channel which gives the same amount of random phase shift on the two photons. Through local operation and classical communication, we extracted an entangled photon pair from two phase-disturbed photon pairs. An observed fidelity of the extracted photon pair to a maximally entangled photon pair was 0.73 ± 0.07 which clearly shows the recovery of entanglement.

  19. Parasitic Photon-Pair Suppression via Photonic Stop-Band Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helt, L. G.; Brańczyk, Agata M.; Liscidini, Marco; Steel, M. J.

    2017-02-01

    We calculate that an appropriate modification of the field associated with only one of the photons of a photon pair can suppress generation of the pair entirely. From this general result, we develop a method for suppressing the generation of undesired photon pairs utilizing photonic stop bands. For a third-order nonlinear optical source of frequency-degenerate photons, we calculate the modified frequency spectrum (joint spectral intensity) and show a significant increase in a standard metric, the coincidence to accidental ratio. These results open a new avenue for photon-pair frequency correlation engineering.

  20. Tracking the coherent generation of polaron pairs in conjugated polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sio, Antonietta; Troiani, Filippo; Maiuri, Margherita; Réhault, Julien; Sommer, Ephraim; Lim, James; Huelga, Susana F.; Plenio, Martin B.; Rozzi, Carlo Andrea; Cerullo, Giulio; Molinari, Elisa; Lienau, Christoph

    2016-12-01

    The optical excitation of organic semiconductors not only generates charge-neutral electron-hole pairs (excitons), but also charge-separated polaron pairs with high yield. The microscopic mechanisms underlying this charge separation have been debated for many years. Here we use ultrafast two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy to study the dynamics of polaron pair formation in a prototypical polymer thin film on a sub-20-fs time scale. We observe multi-period peak oscillations persisting for up to about 1 ps as distinct signatures of vibronic quantum coherence at room temperature. The measured two-dimensional spectra show pronounced peak splittings revealing that the elementary optical excitations of this polymer are hybridized exciton-polaron-pairs, strongly coupled to a dominant underdamped vibrational mode. Coherent vibronic coupling induces ultrafast polaron pair formation, accelerates the charge separation dynamics and makes it insensitive to disorder. These findings open up new perspectives for tailoring light-to-current conversion in organic materials.

  1. Highly bright photon-pair generation in Doppler-broadened ladder-type atomic system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoon-Seok; Lee, Sang Min; Kim, Heonoh; Moon, Han Seb

    2016-11-28

    We report a bright photon-pair source with a coincidence counting rate per input power (cps/mW) of tens of thousands, obtained via spontaneous four-wave mixing from a Doppler-broadened atomic ensemble of the 5S1/2-5P3/2-5D5/2 transition of 87Rb. The photon-pair generation rate is enhanced by the two-photon coherence contributions from almost all the atomic velocity groups in the Doppler-broadened ladder-type atomic system. We obtained the violation of the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality by a factor of 2370 ± 150. We believe that our scheme for highly bright paired photons is important as a useful quantum light source for quantum entanglement swapping between completely autonomous sources.

  2. Physical Mechanism of Photon Pairing in a Kerr Nonlinear Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ze

    2017-01-01

    We establish that Cooper instability of the ground state of a normal blackbody triggers the attractive photons to form the pairs. We next find that however small the effective interphoton attraction V 0 is, Cooper pairs of photon always exist in the ground state of a Kerr nonlinear blackbody. It has been pointed out that there are the three fundamental properties of the Cooper pair of photon: the extremely large binding energy, the extremely small radius, and the extremely high critical temperature. These properties are reflected in the many-photon bound state described by the optical superfluid theory.

  3. Generating Molecular Rovibrational Coherence by Two-Photon Femtosecond Photoassociation of Thermally Hot Atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Rybak, Leonid; Levin, Liat; Amitay, Zohar; Amaran, Saieswari; Kosloff, Ronnie; Tomza, Michal; Moszynski, Robert; Koch, Christiane P.

    2011-12-30

    The formation of diatomic molecules with rotational and vibrational coherence is demonstrated experimentally in free-to-bound two-photon femtosecond photoassociation of hot atoms. In a thermal gas at a temperature of 1000 K, pairs of magnesium atoms, colliding in their electronic ground state, are excited into coherent superpositions of bound rovibrational levels in an electronically excited state. The rovibrational coherence is probed by a time-delayed third photon, resulting in quantum beats in the UV fluorescence. A comprehensive theoretical model based on ab initio calculations rationalizes the generation of coherence by Franck-Condon filtering of collision energies and partial waves, quantifying it in terms of an increase in quantum purity of the thermal ensemble. Our results open the way to coherent control of a binary reaction.

  4. Elliptic jets, part 2. Dynamics of coherent structures: Pairing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Husain, Hyder S.; Hussain, Fazle

    1992-01-01

    The dynamics of the jet column mode of vortex pairing in the near field of an elliptic jet was investigated. Hot-wire measurements and flow visualization were used to examine the details of the pairing mechanism of nonplanar vortical elliptic structures and its effect on such turbulence measures as coherent velocities, incoherent turbulence intensities, incoherent and coherent Reynolds, stresses, turbulence production, and mass entrainment. It was found that pairing of elliptic vortices in the jet column does not occur uniformly around the entire perimeter, unlike in a circular jet. Merger occurs only in the initial major-axis plane. In the initial minor-axis plane, the trailing vortex rushes through the leading vortex without pairing and then breaks down violently, producing considerably greater entrainment and mixing than in circular or plane jets.

  5. Three-photon coherence of Rydberg atomic states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Hyo Min; Jeong, Taek; Lee, Yoon-Seok; Moon, Han Seb

    2016-05-01

    We investigated three-photon coherence effects of the Rydberg state in a four-level ladder-type atomic system for the 5 S1/2 (F = 3) - 5 P3/2 (F' = 4) - 50 D5/2 - 51 P3/2 transition of 85 Rb atoms. By adding a resonant electric field of microwave (MW) at electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in Rydberg state scheme, we observed experimentally that splitting of EIT signal appears under the condition of three-photon resonance in the Doppler-broadened atomic system. Discriminating the two- and three-photon coherence terms from the calculated spectrum in a simple four-level ladder-type Doppler-broadened atomic system, we found that the physical origin of splitting of EIT was three-photon coherence effect, but not three-photon quantum interference phenomena such as three-photon electromagnetically induced absorption (TPEIA).

  6. Slow-light enhanced correlated photon pair generation in a silicon photonic crystal waveguide.

    PubMed

    Xiong, C; Monat, Christelle; Clark, Alex S; Grillet, Christian; Marshall, Graham D; Steel, M J; Li, Juntao; O'Faolain, Liam; Krauss, Thomas F; Rarity, John G; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2011-09-01

    We report the generation of correlated photon pairs in the telecom C-band at room temperature from a dispersion-engineered silicon photonic crystal waveguide. The spontaneous four-wave mixing process producing the photon pairs is enhanced by slow-light propagation enabling an active device length of less than 100 μm. With a coincidence to accidental ratio of 12.8 at a pair generation rate of 0.006 per pulse, this ultracompact photon pair source paves the way toward scalable quantum information processing realized on-chip.

  7. Coherent fluorescence emission by using hybrid photonic-plasmonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lei; Yuan, Xiaowen; Zhang, Yafeng; Hakala, Tommi; Yin, Shaoyu; Han, Dezhuan; Zhu, Xiaolong; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Xiaohan; Törmä, Päivi; Lu, Wei; Zi, Jian

    2014-09-01

    The spatial and temporal coherence of the fluorescence emission controlled by a quasi-two-dimensional hybrid photonic-plasmonic crystal structure covered with a thin fluorescent-molecular-doped dielectric film is investigated experimentally. A simple theoretical model to describe how a confined quasi-two-dimensional optical mode may induce coherent fluorescence emission is also presented. Concerning the spatial coherence, it is experimentally observed that the coherence area in the plane of the light source is in excess of 49 μm(2), which results in enhanced directional fluorescence emission. Concerning temporal coherence, the obtained coherence time is 4 times longer than that of the normal fluorescence emission in vacuum. Moreover, a Young's double-slit interference experiment is performed to directly confirm the spatially coherent emission. This smoking gun proof of spatial coherence is reported here for the first time for the optical-mode-modified emission.

  8. The compact photon pair source that survived a rocket explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zhongkan; Chandrasekara, Rakhitha; Tan, Yue Chuan; Cheng, Cliff; Durak, Kadir; Ling, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    We report on the performance of a compact photon pair source that was retrieved from a failed space launch. The source had been installed in a nanosatellite and was found to be completely operational upon recovery. Comparison of post-recovery and baseline data suggests that there is no degradation in brightness or polarization correlation between photon pairs. We describe the assembly technique for the robust source. Its survival provides strong evidence that it is possible to design rugged quantum optical systems.

  9. Photon-pair generation in arrays of cubic nonlinear waveguides.

    PubMed

    Solntsev, Alexander S; Sukhorukov, Andrey A; Neshev, Dragomir N; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2012-11-19

    We study photon-pair generation in arrays of cubic nonlinear waveguides through spontaneous four-wave mixing. We analyze numerically the quantum statistics of photon pairs at the array output as a function of waveguide dispersion and pump beam power. We show flexible spatial quantum state control such as pump-power-controlled transition between bunching and anti-bunching correlations due to nonlinear self-focusing.

  10. Coherent and incoherent spectral broadening in a photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Gross, C; Best, Th; van Oosten, D; Bloch, I

    2007-07-01

    The coherence of the spectral broadening process is the key requisite for the application of supercontinua in frequency combs. We investigate the coherence of two subsequent supercontinuum pulses created in a photonic crystal fiber pumped by a femtosecond laser. We measure Young interference fringes from a Michelson-type interferometer at different wavelengths of the output spectrum and analyze their dependence on pump intensity and polarization. The visibility of these fringes is a direct measure of the coherence of the spectral broadening processes.

  11. Quantum optical coherence tomography using three time-energy entangled photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Mago, Dorilian; Burguete, Arturo; Campos, Eernesto

    2016-09-01

    Quantum Optical Coherence Tomography can achieve a greater image resolution compared to its classical counterpart, due to the entanglement of the photon pairs. Following the idea that higher the number of entangled photons, higher the resolution, we study the physical underpinnings that appear when using photon triplets. Unlike the usual Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer used for QOCT, a much simpler implementation in the form of a Michelson interferometer is used in this work. We find that axial resolution can be improved by a factor of four. Additionally, we provide the numerical method to reconstruct the image given the triple coincidence rate.

  12. Photon-pair shot noise in electron shot noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoneau, Jean Olivier; Virally, Stéphane; Lupien, Christian; Reulet, Bertrand

    2017-02-01

    We report the measurement of the statistics of photons in the nonclassical radiation emitted by a tunnel junction. This is obtained by measuring up to the fourth cumulant of the voltage fluctuations generated by the sample. When the electron shot noise generates a squeezed electromagnetic field, the measurement provides a strong signature of the presence of photon pairs, characterized by a Fano factor of the photon flux above unity.

  13. Twin photon pairs in a high-Q silicon microresonator

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Steven; Lu, Xiyuan; Jiang, Wei C.; Lin, Qiang

    2015-07-27

    We report the generation of high-purity twin photon pairs through cavity-enhanced non-degenerate four-wave mixing (FWM) in a high-Q silicon microdisk resonator. Twin photon pairs are created within the same cavity mode and are consequently expected to be identical in all degrees of freedom. The device is able to produce twin photons at telecommunication wavelengths with a pair generation rate as large as (3.96 ± 0.03) × 10{sup 5} pairs/s, within a narrow bandwidth of 0.72 GHz. A coincidence-to-accidental ratio of 660 ± 62 was measured, the highest value reported to date for twin photon pairs, at a pair generation rate of (2.47 ± 0.04) × 10{sup 4} pairs/s. Through careful engineering of the dispersion matching window, we have reduced the ratio of photons resulting from degenerate FWM to non-degenerate FWM to less than 0.15.

  14. Hyperfine Coherence in the Presence of Spontaneous Photon Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozeri, R.; Langer, C.; Jost, J. D.; Demarco, B.; Ben-Kish, A.; Blakestad, B. R.; Britton, J.; Chiaverini, J.; Itano, W. M.; Hume, D. B.; Leibfried, D.; Rosenband, T.; Schmidt, P. O.; Wineland, D. J.

    2005-07-01

    The coherence of a hyperfine-state superposition of a trapped 9Be+ ion in the presence of off-resonant light is studied experimentally. It is shown that Rayleigh elastic scattering of photons that does not change state populations also does not affect coherence. We observe coherence times that exceed the average scattering time of 19 photons which is determined from measured Stark shifts. This result implies that, with sufficient control over its parameters, laser light can be used to manipulate hyperfine-state superpositions with very little decoherence.

  15. Quantum spectra of Raman photon pairs from a mesoscopic particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooi, C. H. Raymond; Loh, W. M. Edmund; Kam, C. H.

    2015-06-01

    Quantum Langevin formalism with noise operators is used to provide quantum descriptions of photon pairs (the Stokes and anti-Stokes fields) emitted by a mesoscopic spherical particle composed of quantum particles in a double Raman configuration. The spectra of the fields obtained are sensitive to the dimension of the microsphere and can be controlled by pump and control laser fields. Spectral peaks due to quantum coherence are Stark shifted by the laser fields experiencing autofocusing inside the spherical particle, causing broadening of peaks as the size of the microsphere increases. The antinormal-order spectrum is found to be identical to the normal-order spectrum. The anti-Stokes spectrum is identical to the Stokes spectrum when the linear dispersion is neglected. Frequency-dependent dielectric functions of the Stokes and anti-Stokes spectra corresponding to the linear dispersions of the particle yield narrow morphology-dependent resonance gain peaks at certain frequencies of the Stokes and anti-Stokes spectra that depend not only on the particle size but also on the angle of observation.

  16. Observation of pair tunneling and coherent destruction of tunneling in arrays of optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Sebabrata; Valiente, Manuel; Goldman, Nathan; Spracklen, Alexander; Andersson, Erika; Öhberg, Patrik; Thomson, Robert R.

    2016-11-01

    We report on the experimental realization of a photonic system that simulates the one-dimensional two-particle Hubbard model. This analogy is realized by means of two-dimensional arrays of coupled optical waveguides, fabricated using femtosecond laser inscription. By tuning the analogous "interaction strength," we reach the strongly interacting regime of the Hubbard Hamiltonian, and demonstrate the suppression of standard tunneling for individual "particles." In this regime the formation of bound states is identified through the direct observation of pair tunneling. We then demonstrate the coherent destruction of tunneling (CDT) for the paired particles in the presence of an engineered oscillating force of high frequency. The precise control over the analogous "interaction strength" and driving force offered by our experimental system opens an exciting route towards quantum simulation of few-body physics in photonics.

  17. Coherence length of photons from a single quantum system

    SciTech Connect

    Jelezko, F.; Volkmer, A.; Popa, I.; Wrachtrup, J.; Rebane, K.K.

    2003-04-01

    We present a methodology that allows recording the coherence length of photons emitted by a single quantum system in a solid. The feasibility of this approach is experimentally demonstrated by measuring the self-interference of photons from the zero-phonon line emission of a single nitrogen-vacancy defect in diamond at 1.6 K. The first-order correlation function has been recorded and analyzed in terms of a single exponential decay time. A coherence time of {approx}5 ps has been obtained, which is in good agreement with the corresponding spectral line width and demonstrates the feasibility of the Fourier-transform spectroscopy with single photons.

  18. Tracking the coherent generation of polaron pairs in conjugated polymers

    PubMed Central

    De Sio, Antonietta; Troiani, Filippo; Maiuri, Margherita; Réhault, Julien; Sommer, Ephraim; Lim, James; Huelga, Susana F.; Plenio, Martin B.; Rozzi, Carlo Andrea; Cerullo, Giulio; Molinari, Elisa; Lienau, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The optical excitation of organic semiconductors not only generates charge-neutral electron-hole pairs (excitons), but also charge-separated polaron pairs with high yield. The microscopic mechanisms underlying this charge separation have been debated for many years. Here we use ultrafast two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy to study the dynamics of polaron pair formation in a prototypical polymer thin film on a sub-20-fs time scale. We observe multi-period peak oscillations persisting for up to about 1 ps as distinct signatures of vibronic quantum coherence at room temperature. The measured two-dimensional spectra show pronounced peak splittings revealing that the elementary optical excitations of this polymer are hybridized exciton-polaron-pairs, strongly coupled to a dominant underdamped vibrational mode. Coherent vibronic coupling induces ultrafast polaron pair formation, accelerates the charge separation dynamics and makes it insensitive to disorder. These findings open up new perspectives for tailoring light-to-current conversion in organic materials. PMID:27929115

  19. Tracking the coherent generation of polaron pairs in conjugated polymers.

    PubMed

    De Sio, Antonietta; Troiani, Filippo; Maiuri, Margherita; Réhault, Julien; Sommer, Ephraim; Lim, James; Huelga, Susana F; Plenio, Martin B; Rozzi, Carlo Andrea; Cerullo, Giulio; Molinari, Elisa; Lienau, Christoph

    2016-12-08

    The optical excitation of organic semiconductors not only generates charge-neutral electron-hole pairs (excitons), but also charge-separated polaron pairs with high yield. The microscopic mechanisms underlying this charge separation have been debated for many years. Here we use ultrafast two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy to study the dynamics of polaron pair formation in a prototypical polymer thin film on a sub-20-fs time scale. We observe multi-period peak oscillations persisting for up to about 1 ps as distinct signatures of vibronic quantum coherence at room temperature. The measured two-dimensional spectra show pronounced peak splittings revealing that the elementary optical excitations of this polymer are hybridized exciton-polaron-pairs, strongly coupled to a dominant underdamped vibrational mode. Coherent vibronic coupling induces ultrafast polaron pair formation, accelerates the charge separation dynamics and makes it insensitive to disorder. These findings open up new perspectives for tailoring light-to-current conversion in organic materials.

  20. Coherent control with qudit photon states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, I.; Cosme, O.; Pádua, S.

    2010-06-01

    In this paper the two-photon absorption by a molecule is studied when photons are prepared in a high-dimension entangled state. The light field is prepared in a spatial two-photon qudit state and its interaction with a molecule shows new interference effects observed in the calculated absorption cross-section. Oscillations in the absorption cross-section demonstrate its dependence on the path phases of the two-qudit state. The two-photon absorption cross-section is dependent on the dimension of the two-qudit photonic state.

  1. Direct generation of photon triplets using cascaded photon-pair sources.

    PubMed

    Hübel, Hannes; Hamel, Deny R; Fedrizzi, Alessandro; Ramelow, Sven; Resch, Kevin J; Jennewein, Thomas

    2010-07-29

    Non-classical states of light, such as entangled photon pairs and number states, are essential for fundamental tests of quantum mechanics and optical quantum technologies. The most widespread technique for creating these quantum resources is spontaneous parametric down-conversion of laser light into photon pairs. Conservation of energy and momentum in this process, known as phase-matching, gives rise to strong correlations that are used to produce two-photon entanglement in various degrees of freedom. It has been a longstanding goal in quantum optics to realize a source that can produce analogous correlations in photon triplets, but of the many approaches considered, none has been technically feasible. Here we report the observation of photon triplets generated by cascaded down-conversion. Each triplet originates from a single pump photon, and therefore quantum correlations will extend over all three photons in a way not achievable with independently created photon pairs. Our photon-triplet source will allow experimental interrogation of novel quantum correlations, the generation of tripartite entanglement without post-selection and the generation of heralded entangled photon pairs suitable for linear optical quantum computing. Two of the triplet photons have a wavelength matched for optimal transmission in optical fibres, suitable for three-party quantum communication. Furthermore, our results open interesting regimes of non-linear optics, as we observe spontaneous down-conversion pumped by single photons, an interaction also highly relevant to optical quantum computing.

  2. Slow light enhanced correlated photon pair generation in photonic-crystal coupled-resonator optical waveguides.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Nobuyuki; Takesue, Hiroki; Shimizu, Kaoru; Tokura, Yasuhiro; Kuramochi, Eiichi; Notomi, Masaya

    2013-04-08

    We demonstrate the generation of quantum-correlated photon pairs from a Si photonic-crystal coupled-resonator optical waveguide. A slow-light supermode realized by the collective resonance of high-Q and small-mode-volume photonic-crystal cavities successfully enhanced the efficiency of the spontaneous four-wave mixing process. The generation rate of photon pairs was improved by two orders of magnitude compared with that of a photonic-crystal line defect waveguide without a slow-light effect.

  3. Photon-noise effect on detection in coherent active images.

    PubMed

    Réfrégier, Philippe; Goudail, François; Delyon, Guillaume

    2004-01-15

    We analyze photon-noise effects on target detection performance in low-flux coherent active imagery systems. We show that when photon noise is expected, the performance of classical detection techniques designed for pure and fully developed speckle images can be improved with no increase in algorithm complexity. Furthermore, the mean photon number under which photon noise becomes sensitive is higher when the target and background mean values are unknown than in the idealized case, where they are assumed to be known, and when the reflectivity ratio between the target and the background is low.

  4. Degenerate photon-pair generation in an ultracompact silicon photonic crystal waveguide.

    PubMed

    He, Jiakun; Clark, Alex S; Collins, Matthew J; Li, Juntao; Krauss, Thomas F; Eggleton, Benjamin J; Xiong, Chunle

    2014-06-15

    We demonstrate degenerate, correlated photon-pair generation via slow-light-enhanced spontaneous four-wave mixing in a 96 μm long silicon photonic crystal waveguide. Our device represents a more than 50 times smaller footprint than silicon nanowires. We have achieved a coincidence-to-accidental ratio as high as 47 at a photon generation rate of 0.001 pairs per pulse and 14 at a photon generation rate of 0.023 pairs per pulse, which are both higher than the useful level of 10. This demonstration provides a path to generate indistinguishable photons in an ultracompact platform for future quantum photonic technologies.

  5. Orienting molecules via an ir and uv pulse pair: Implications for coherent Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Alexei V.; Lehmann, Kevin K.; Scully, Marlan O.; Herschbach, Dudley

    2009-05-01

    Spatial orientation of molecules is a pervasive issue in chemical physics and, by breaking inversion symmetry, has major consequences in nonlinear optics. In this paper, we propose and analyze an approach to molecular orientation. This extracts from an ensemble of aligned diatomic molecules (equally AB and BA , relative to the E vector) a subensemble that is oriented (mostly AB or BA ). Subjecting an aligned molecule to a tailored infrared (ir) laser pulse creates a pair of coherent wave packets that correlate vibrational phase with the AB or BA orientation. Subsequent, suitably phased ultraviolet (uv) or visible pulses dissociate one of these vibrational wave packets, thereby “weeding out” either AB or BA but leaving intact the other orientation. Molecular orientation has significant implications for coherent Raman spectroscopy. In the absence of orientation, coherence between vibrational levels is generated by a pair of laser pulses off which a probe pulse is scattered to produce a signal. Orientation allows direct one-photon ir excitation to achieve (in principle) maximal Raman coherence.

  6. Photon pair generation in hydrogenated amorphous silicon microring resonators

    PubMed Central

    Hemsley, Elizabeth; Bonneau, Damien; Pelc, Jason; Beausoleil, Ray; O’Brien, Jeremy L.; Thompson, Mark G.

    2016-01-01

    We generate photon pairs in a-Si:H microrings using a CW pump, and find the Kerr coefficient of a-Si:H to be 3.73 ± 0.25 × 10−17m2/W. By measuring the Q factor with coupled power we find that the loss in the a-Si:H micro-rings scales linearly with power, and therefore cannot originate from two photon absorption. Theoretically comparing a-Si:H and c-Si micro-ring pair sources, we show that the high Kerr coefficient of this sample of a-Si:H is best utilized for microrings with Q factors below 103, but that for higher Q factor devices the photon pair rate is greatly suppressed due to the first order loss. PMID:27996014

  7. Photon pair generation in hydrogenated amorphous silicon microring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemsley, Elizabeth; Bonneau, Damien; Pelc, Jason; Beausoleil, Ray; O’Brien, Jeremy L.; Thompson, Mark G.

    2016-12-01

    We generate photon pairs in a-Si:H microrings using a CW pump, and find the Kerr coefficient of a-Si:H to be 3.73 ± 0.25 × 10‑17m2/W. By measuring the Q factor with coupled power we find that the loss in the a-Si:H micro-rings scales linearly with power, and therefore cannot originate from two photon absorption. Theoretically comparing a-Si:H and c-Si micro-ring pair sources, we show that the high Kerr coefficient of this sample of a-Si:H is best utilized for microrings with Q factors below 103, but that for higher Q factor devices the photon pair rate is greatly suppressed due to the first order loss.

  8. Coherent States on Riemann Surfaces as m-Photon States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vourdas, A.

    1996-01-01

    Coherent states on the m-sheeted sphere (for the SU(2) group) are used to define analytic representations. The corresponding generators create and annihilate clusters of m-photons. Non-linear Hamiltonians that contain these generators are considered and their eigenvectors and eigenvalues are explicitly calculated. The Holstein-Primakoff and Schwinger formalisms in this context are also discussed.

  9. Observation of strongly entangled photon pairs from a nanowire quantum dot

    PubMed Central

    Versteegh, Marijn A. M.; Reimer, Michael E.; Jöns, Klaus D.; Dalacu, Dan; Poole, Philip J.; Gulinatti, Angelo; Giudice, Andrea; Zwiller, Val

    2014-01-01

    A bright photon source that combines high-fidelity entanglement, on-demand generation, high extraction efficiency, directional and coherent emission, as well as position control at the nanoscale is required for implementing ambitious schemes in quantum information processing, such as that of a quantum repeater. Still, all of these properties have not yet been achieved in a single device. Semiconductor quantum dots embedded in nanowire waveguides potentially satisfy all of these requirements; however, although theoretically predicted, entanglement has not yet been demonstrated for a nanowire quantum dot. Here, we demonstrate a bright and coherent source of strongly entangled photon pairs from a position-controlled nanowire quantum dot with a fidelity as high as 0.859±0.006 and concurrence of 0.80±0.02. The two-photon quantum state is modified via the nanowire shape. Our new nanoscale entangled photon source can be integrated at desired positions in a quantum photonic circuit, single-electron devices and light-emitting diodes. PMID:25358656

  10. Pion and kaon pair production in photon-photon collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Aihara, H.; Alston-Garnjost, M.; Avery, R.E.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barker, A.R.; Barnes, A.V.; Barnett, B.A.; Bauer, D.A.; Bengtsson, H.; Bintinger, D.L.; Blumenfeld, B.J.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bross, A.D.; Buchanan, C.D.; Buijs, A.; Cain, M.P.; Caldwell, D.O.; Chamberlain, O.; Chien, C.; Clark, A.R.; Cowan, G.D.; Crane, D.A.; Dahl, O.I.; Derby, K.A.; Eastman, J.J.; Eberhard, P.H.; Eisner, A.M.; Enomoto, R.; Erne-acute-accent, F.C.; Fujii, T.; Gabioud, B.; Gary, J.W.; Gorn, W.; Hauptman, J.M.; Hofmann, W.; Huth, J.E.; Hylen, J.; Joshi, U.P.; Kamae, T.; Kaye, H.S.; Kees, K.H.; Kenney, R.W.; Kerth, L.T.; Ko, W.; Koda, R.I.; Kofler, R.R.; Kwong, K.K.; Lander, R.L.; Langeveld, W.G.J.; Layter, J.G.; Linde, F.L.; Lindsey, C.S.; Loken, S.C.; Lu, A.; Lu, X.; Lynch, G.R.; Madaras, R.J.; Maeshima, K.; Magnuson, B.D.; Marx, J.N.; Maruyama, K.; Masek, G.E.; Mathis, L.G.; Matthews, J.A.J.; Maxfield, S.J.; Melnikoff, S.O.; Miller, E.S.; Moses, W.; McNeil, R.R.; Nemethy, P.; Nygren, D.R.; Oddone, P.J.; Pa

    1986-07-28

    We report measurements of the two-photon processes e-italic/sup +/e/sup -/..-->..e/sup +/e/sup -/..pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/ and e-italic/sup +/e/sup -/..-->..e/sup +/e/sup -/K/sup +/K/sup -/, at an e-italic/sup +/e/sup -/ center-of-mass energy of 29 GeV. In the ..pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/ data a high-statistics analysis of the f-italic(1270) results in a ..gamma gamma.. width GAMMA(..gamma gamma -->..f-italic) = 3.2 +- 0.4 keV. The ..pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/ continuum below the f-italic mass is well described by a QED Born approximation, whereas above the f-italic mass it is consistent with a QCD-model calculation if a large contribution from the f-italic is assumed. For the K-italic/sup +/K/sup -/ data we find agreement of high-mass continuum with the QCD prediction; limits on f-italic'(1520) and t-italich-italice-italict-italica-italic(1720) formation are presented.

  11. Spectral correlation control in down-converted photon pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajewski, Andrzej; Kolenderski, Piotr

    2016-07-01

    Sources of photon pairs based on the spontaneous parametric down-conversion process are commonly used for long-distance quantum communication and quantum information processing. The key feature for improving the range of transmission is engineering their spectral properties. Our analysis shows the way for full control of spectral correlation within a fiber-coupled photon pair. The result of extensive numerical simulations allows us to specify the settings for the generation of pairs featuring positive-energy correlation, which can potentially improve the signal-to-noise ratio in practical implementation of quantum communication protocols. We analytically and numerically analyze the characteristics of a source based on a β -barium borate crystal cut for type-II phase matching at the degenerated frequencies 755 nm →1550 nm +1550 nm . The presented framework is general and can be applied to other crystals.

  12. Theory of coherent two-photon NMR: Standard-basis operators and coherent averaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepišnik, Janez

    1980-05-01

    Theory of the two-photon coherent transitions for the multilevel spin system is developed by using the coherent averaging of the time-evolution operator and the spin description by the standard-basis operators. The employed formalism provides a clear picture of the interactions which cause the multi-quantum transitions and make possible to evaluate not only the two-photon but also the multiphoton transitions. The theory has been applied to the quadrupole perturbed spin-systems with s = 1 and s = {3}/{2} where the effective double-quantum rf field has been evaluated.

  13. Strong Interactions of Photon Pairs in Cavity QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimble, H. J.

    2008-05-01

    The charge and spin degrees of freedom of massive particles have relatively large long-range interactions, which enable nonlinear coupling between pairs of atoms, ions, electrons, and diverse quasi-particles. By contrast, photons have vanishingly small cross-sections for direct coupling. Instead, photon interactions must be mediated by a material system. Even then,typical materials produce photon-photon couplings that are orders of magnitude too small for nontrivial dynamics with individual photon pairs. The leading exception to this state of affairs is cavity quantum electrodynamics (cQED), where strong interactions between light and matter at the single-photon level have enabled a wide set of scientific advances [1]. My presentation will describe two experiments in the Caltech Quantum Optics Group where strong interactions of photon pairs have been observed. The work in Ref. [2] provided the initial realization of photon blockade for an atomic system by using a Fabry-Perot cavity containing one atom strongly coupled to the cavity field. The underlying blockade mechanism was the quantum anharmonicity of the ladder of energy levels for the composite atom-cavity system. Beyond this structural effect, a new % dynamical mechanism was identified in Ref. [3] for which photon transport is regulated by the conditional state of one intracavity atom, leading to an efficient mechanism that is insensitive to many experimental imperfections and which achieves high efficiency for single-photon transport. The experiment utilized the interaction of an atom with the fields of a microtoroidal resonator [4]. Regulation was achieved by way of an interference effect involving the directly transmitted optical field, the intracavity field in the absence of the atom, and the polarization field radiated by the atom, with the requisite nonlinearity provided by the quantum character of the emission from one atom.[1] R. Miller, T. E. Northup, K. M. Birnbaum, A. Boca, A. D. Boozer, and H. J

  14. Control of decoherence in the generation of photon pairs from atomic ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felinto, D.; Chou, C. W.; de Riedmatten, H.; Polyakov, S. V.; Kimble, H. J.

    2005-11-01

    We report an investigation to establish the physical mechanisms responsible for decoherence in the generation of photon pairs from atomic ensembles, via the protocol of Duan et al. for long-distance quantum communication [Nature (London) 414, 413 (2001)] and present the experimental techniques necessary to properly control the process. We develop a theory to model in detail the decoherence process in experiments with magneto-optical traps. The inhomogeneous broadening of the ground state by the trap magnetic field is identified as the principal mechanism for decoherence. The theory includes the Zeeman structure of the atomic hyperfine levels used in the experiment, and the polarization of both excitation fields and detected photons. In conjunction with our theoretical analysis, we report a series of measurements to characterize and control the coherence time in our experimental setup. We use copropagating stimulated Raman spectroscopy to access directly the ground-state energy distribution of the ensemble. These spectroscopic measurements allow us to switch off the trap magnetic field in a controlled way, optimizing the repetition rate for single-photon measurements. With the magnetic field off, we then measure nonclassical correlations for pairs of photons generated by the ensemble as a function of the storage time of the single collective atomic excitation. We report coherence times longer than 10 μs , corresponding to an increase of two orders of magnitude compared to previous results in cold ensembles. The coherence time is now two orders of magnitude longer than the duration of the excitation pulses. The comparison between these experimental results and the theory shows good agreement. Finally, we employ our theory to devise ways to improve the experiment by optical pumping to specific initial states.

  15. Entanglement of Photon-Added Nonlinear Coherent States Via a Beam Splitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honarasa, Gholamreza; Bagheri, Alireza; Gharaati, Abdolrasoul

    2016-10-01

    Nonlinear coherent states, photon-added coherent states and photon-added nonlinear coherent states are three of the important generalizations of standard coherent states. In this article, a photon-added nonlinear coherent state and a vacuum state are injected on two input modes of a beam splitter and the entanglement of the output state is investigated using linear entropy as the measure. Then, the impact of nonclassicality of the photon-added nonlinear coherent state on entanglement of the output state is studied.

  16. Photon-added coherent states for the Morse oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dusan; Zaharie, Ioan; Dong, Shi-Hai

    2006-02-01

    In the paper we have constructed and investigated some properties of the Perelomov's “generalized coherent states” and photon-added coherent states for the Morse one-dimensional Hamiltonian (MO-PACSs), using the SU(2) group generators. We have found the integration measure in the resolution of unity and we have calculated some expectation values in the MO-PACSs representation. Using these states, the diagonal P-representation of the density operator is constructed as a new result for Morse potential. In addition, we have calculated some thermal expectation values for the quantum canonical diatomic gas of the Morse oscillators.

  17. Efficiently heralded silicon ring resonator photon-pair source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steidle, Jeffrey A.; Fanto, Michael L.; Tison, Christopher C.; Wang, Zihao; Alsing, Paul M.; Preble, Stefan F.

    2016-05-01

    Presented here are results on a silicon ring resonator photon pair source with a high heralding efficiency. Previous ring resonator sources suffered from an effective 50% loss because, in order to generate the photons, the pump must be able to couple into the resonator which is an effective loss channel. However, in practice the optical loss of the pump can be traded off for a dramatic increase in heralding efficiency. This research found theoretically that the heralding efficiency should increase by a factor of ~ 3:75 with a factor of 10 increase in the required pump power. This was demonstrated experimentally by varying the separation (gap) between the input waveguide and the ring while maintaining a constant drop port gap. The ring (R = 18:5μm, W = 500nm, and H = 220nm) was pumped by a tunable laser (λ ≍ 1550nm). The non-degenerate photons, produced via spontaneous four wave mixing, exited the ring and were coupled to fiber upon which they were filtered symmetrically about the pump. Coincidence counts were collected for all possible photon path combinations (through and drop port) and the ratio of the drop port coincidences to the sum of the drop port and cross term coincidences (one photon from the drop port and one from the through port) was calculated. With a 350nm pump waveguide gap (2:33 times larger than the drop port gap) we confirmed our theoretical predictions, with an observed improvement in heralding efficiency by a factor of ~ 2:61 (96:7% of correlated photons coupled out of the drop port). These results will enable increased photon flux integrated photon sources which can be utilized for high performance quantum computing and communication systems.

  18. Round-robin differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution with heralded pair-coherent sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Le; Zhao, Shengmei

    2017-04-01

    Round-robin differential-phase-shift (RRDPS) quantum key distribution (QKD) scheme provides an effective way to overcome the signal disturbance from the transmission process. However, most RRDPS-QKD schemes use weak coherent pulses (WCPs) as the replacement of the perfect single-photon source. Considering the heralded pair-coherent source (HPCS) can efficiently remove the shortcomings of WCPs, we propose a RRDPS-QKD scheme with HPCS in this paper. Both infinite-intensity decoy-state method and practical three-intensity decoy-state method are adopted to discuss the tight bound of the key rate of the proposed scheme. The results show that HPCS is a better candidate for the replacement of the perfect single-photon source, and both the key rate and the transmission distance are greatly increased in comparison with those results with WCPs when the length of the pulse trains is small. Simultaneously, the performance of the proposed scheme using three-intensity decoy states is close to that result using infinite-intensity decoy states when the length of pulse trains is small.

  19. Coherent electron-positron pair production in ultra-peripheral AuAu collisions at STAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehbein, Matthew; STAR Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The focus of this study is coherent photoproduction of electron-positron pairs in 200 GeV ultraperipheral AuAu collisions detected by STAR, with an integrated luminosity of 1.9 inverse nanobarns. Because hadronic interactions are suppressed in ultra-peripheral collisions, these events provide an opportunity to study purely electromagnetic interaction in the non-perturbative regime. This presentation will provide a description of the techniques used to select exclusive electron-positron events, as well as the resulting kinematic distributions for pair invariant mass greater than 0.35 GeV, pair transverse momentum less than 0.1 GeV, and absolute value of pair pseudorapidity less than 0.8. Efficiency correction techniques will also be discussed. In previous measurements at the same energy at STAR, the shape of the transverse momentum distribution could not be fully described by the equivalent photon approximation (EPA). Measurements at the LHC indicate that the cross section is reduced by approximately 25 percent compared to the EPA. This study ultimately seeks to examine these effects in more detail at RHIC energies. Partial funding provided by DOE Grant #DE-FG02-96ER40991.

  20. Telecom-band two-photon Michelson interferometer using frequency entangled photon pairs generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshizawa, Akio; Fukuda, Daiji; Tsuchida, Hidemi

    2014-02-01

    We demonstrate a telecom-band fiber-optic two-photon Michelson interferometer using near-degenerate and collinear photon pairs with frequency entanglement. For spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC), a continuous-wave laser diode pumps a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide. Two threshold single-photon detectors record coincidence counts to observe two-photon interference and evaluate the correlation function. Multi-pair emission events are inevitable in SPDC and photon pairs without frequency entanglement are unintentionally registered as coincidence counts. In the demonstrated experiment, a mixture of photon pairs with and without frequency entanglement is present. The effects of such a mixed state on the correlation function are experimentally investigated. Two-photon interference of photon pairs without frequency entanglement is also measured for comparison.

  1. Temporal coherence and indistinguishability in two-photon interference effects

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, Anand Kumar; O'Sullivan, Malcolm N.; Chan, Kam Wai Clifford; Boyd, Robert W.

    2008-02-15

    We show that temporal two-photon interference effects involving the signal and idler photons created by parametric down-conversion can be fully characterized in terms of the variations of two length parameters--called the biphoton path-length difference and the biphoton path-asymmetry-length difference--which we construct using the six different length parameters that a general two-photon interference experiment involves. We perform an experiment in which the effects of the variations of these two parameters can be independently controlled and studied. In our experimental setup, which does not involve mixing of signal and idler photons at a beam splitter, we further report observations of Hong-Ou-Mandel- (HOM-)like effects both in coincidence and in one-photon count rates. As an important consequence, we argue that the HOM and the HOM-like effects are best described as observations of how two-photon coherence changes as a function of the biphoton path-asymmetry-length difference.

  2. Photon Pairs for Scalable Quantum Communication with Atomic Ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmich, A.; Bowen, W. P.; Boozer, A. D.; Boca, A.; Chou, C.; Duan, L.-M.; Kimble, H. J.

    2003-05-01

    Quantum information science attempts to exploit capabilities from the quantum realm to accomplish tasks that are otherwise impossible in the classical domain. In this regard, a significant advance is the invention of a protocol by Duan, Lukin, Cirac, and Zoller (DLCZ) for the realization of scalable long distance quantum communication and the distribution of entanglement over quantum networks [1]. Here we report the first enabling step in the realization of the protocol of DLCZ, namely the observation of quantum correlations for photon pairs generated in the collective emission from an atomic ensemble. An optically thick sample of three-level atoms in a lambda-configuration is exploited to produce correlated photons. The atomic sample for our experiment is provided by Cesium atoms in a magneto-optical trap (MOT). We find a significant violation of the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality clearly demonstrating the nonclassical character of the correlations between the two photons generated by sequential (write,read) beams. Moreover, the measured coincidence rates clearly demonstrate the cooperative nature of the emission process. These capabilities should help to enable other advances in the field of quantum information, including the implementation of quantum memory and fully controllable single-photon sources, which, combined together, pave the avenue for realization of universal quantum computation. [1] L.-M. Duan, M. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, Nature 414, 413 (2001).

  3. Approaching Tsirelson's Bound in a Photon Pair Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poh, Hou Shun; Joshi, Siddarth K.; Cerè, Alessandro; Cabello, Adán; Kurtsiefer, Christian

    2015-10-01

    We present an experimental test of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell inequality on photon pairs in a maximally entangled state of polarization in which a value S =2.82759 ±0.00051 is observed. This value comes close to the Tsirelson bound of |S |≤2 √{2 } , with S -2 √{2 }=0.00084 ±0.00051 . It also violates the bound |S |≤2.82537 introduced by Grinbaum by 4.3 standard deviations. This violation allows us to exclude that quantum mechanics is only an effective description of a more fundamental theory.

  4. Multi-user distribution of polarization entangled photon pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trapateau, J.; Ghalbouni, J.; Orieux, A.; Diamanti, E.; Zaquine, I.

    2015-10-01

    We experimentally demonstrate multi-user distribution of polarization entanglement using commercial telecom wavelength division demultiplexers. The entangled photon pairs are generated from a broadband source based on spontaneous parametric down conversion in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal using a double path setup employing a Michelson interferometer and active phase stabilisation. We test and compare demultiplexers based on various technologies and analyze the effect of their characteristics, such as losses and polarization dependence, on the quality of the distributed entanglement for three channel pairs of each demultiplexer. In all cases, we obtain a Bell inequality violation, whose value depends on the demultiplexer features. This demonstrates that entanglement can be distributed to at least three user pairs of a network from a single source. Additionally, we verify for the best demultiplexer that the violation is maintained when the pairs are distributed over a total channel attenuation corresponding to 20 km of optical fiber. These techniques are therefore suitable for resource-efficient practical implementations of entanglement-based quantum key distribution and other quantum communication network applications.

  5. Multi-user distribution of polarization entangled photon pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Trapateau, J.; Orieux, A.; Diamanti, E.; Zaquine, I.; Ghalbouni, J.

    2015-10-14

    We experimentally demonstrate multi-user distribution of polarization entanglement using commercial telecom wavelength division demultiplexers. The entangled photon pairs are generated from a broadband source based on spontaneous parametric down conversion in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal using a double path setup employing a Michelson interferometer and active phase stabilisation. We test and compare demultiplexers based on various technologies and analyze the effect of their characteristics, such as losses and polarization dependence, on the quality of the distributed entanglement for three channel pairs of each demultiplexer. In all cases, we obtain a Bell inequality violation, whose value depends on the demultiplexer features. This demonstrates that entanglement can be distributed to at least three user pairs of a network from a single source. Additionally, we verify for the best demultiplexer that the violation is maintained when the pairs are distributed over a total channel attenuation corresponding to 20 km of optical fiber. These techniques are therefore suitable for resource-efficient practical implementations of entanglement-based quantum key distribution and other quantum communication network applications.

  6. Trapping of coherence and entanglement in photonic band-gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Ling-Juan; Zhang, Ying-Jie; Xing, Gui-Chao; Xia, Yun-Jie; Gong, Shang-Qing

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the coherence trapping of a two-level atom transversally interacting with a reservoir with a photonic band-gap structure function. We then focus on the multipartite entanglement dynamics via genuinely multipartite concurrence among N independent atoms each locally coupled with its own reservoir. By considering the Lorentzian width and the system size, we find that for the resonant and near-resonant conditions, the increase of Lorentzian width and the decrease of system size can lead to the occurrence of coherence trapping and entanglement trapping. By choosing the multipartite GHZ state as atomic initial state, we show that the multipartite entanglement may exhibit entanglement sudden death depending on the initial condition and the system size. In addition, we also analyze how the crossover behaviors of two dynamical regimes are influenced by the Lorentzian width and the weight ratio, in terms of the non-Markovianity.

  7. Broadband illumination of superconducting pair breaking photon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guruswamy, T.; Goldie, D. J.; Withington, S.

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the detailed behaviour of superconducting pair breaking photon detectors such as Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs) requires knowledge of the nonequilibrium quasiparticle energy distributions. We have previously calculated the steady state distributions resulting from uniform absorption of monochromatic sub gap and above gap frequency radiation by thin films. In this work, we use the same methods to calculate the effect of illumination by broadband sources, such as thermal radiation from astrophysical phenomena or from the readout system. Absorption of photons at multiple above gap frequencies is shown to leave unchanged the structure of the quasiparticle energy distribution close to the superconducting gap. Hence for typical absorbed powers, we find the effects of absorption of broadband pair breaking radiation can simply be considered as the sum of the effects of absorption of many monochromatic sources. Distribution averaged quantities, like quasiparticle generation efficiency η, match exactly a weighted average over the bandwidth of the source of calculations assuming a monochromatic source. For sub gap frequencies, however, distributing the absorbed power across multiple frequencies does change the low energy quasiparticle distribution. For moderate and high absorbed powers, this results in a significantly larger η-a higher number of excess quasiparticles for a broadband source compared to a monochromatic source of equal total absorbed power. Typically in KIDs the microwave power absorbed has a very narrow bandwidth, but in devices with broad resonance characteristics (low quality factors), this increase in η may be measurable.

  8. Monte Carlo study of coherent diffuse photon transport in a homogeneous turbid medium: a degree-of-coherence based approach.

    PubMed

    Moon, Seyoung; Kim, Donghyun; Sim, Eunji

    2008-01-20

    We employ a Monte Carlo (MC) algorithm to investigate the decoherence of diffuse photons in turbid media. For the MC simulation of coherent photons, the degree of coherence, defined as a random variable for a photon packet, is associated with a decoherence function that depends on the scattering angle and is updated as a photon interacts with a medium via scattering. Using a slab model, the effects of medium scattering properties were studied, which reveals that a linear random variable model for the degree of coherence is in better agreement with experimental results than a sinusoidal model and that decoherence is quick for the initial few scattering events followed by a slow and gradual decrease of coherence.

  9. Separating pairing from quantum phase coherence dynamics above the superconducting transition by femtosecond spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Madan, I.; Kurosawa, T.; Toda, Y.; Oda, M.; Mertelj, T.; Kusar, P.; Mihailovic, D.

    2014-01-01

    In classical superconductors an energy gap and phase coherence appear simultaneously with pairing at the transition to the superconducting state. In high-temperature superconductors, the possibility that pairing and phase coherence are distinct and independent processes has led to intense experimental search of their separate manifestations. Using femtosecond spectroscopy methods we now show that it is possible to clearly separate fluctuation dynamics of the superconducting pairing amplitude from the phase relaxation above the critical transition temperature. Empirically establishing a close correspondence between the superfluid density measured by THz spectroscopy and superconducting optical pump-probe response over a wide region of temperature, we find that in differently doped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ crystals the pairing gap amplitude monotonically extends well beyond Tc, while the phase coherence shows a pronounced power-law divergence as T → Tc, thus showing that phase coherence and gap formation are distinct processes which occur on different timescales. PMID:25014162

  10. Vernier-like super resolution with guided correlated photon pairs.

    PubMed

    Nespoli, Matteo; Goan, Hsi-Sheng; Shih, Min-Hsiung

    2016-01-11

    We describe a dispersion-enabled, ultra-low power realization of super-resolution in an integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Our scheme is based on a Vernier-like effect in the coincident detection of frequency correlated, non-degenerate photon pairs at the sensor output in the presence of group index dispersion. We design and simulate a realistic integrated refractive index sensor in a silicon nitride on silica platform and characterize its performance in the proposed scheme. We present numerical results showing a sensitivity improvement upward of 40 times over a traditional sensing scheme. The device we design is well within the reach of modern semiconductor fabrication technology. We believe this is the first metrology scheme that uses waveguide group index dispersion as a resource to attain super-resolution.

  11. The photon pair source that survived a rocket explosion.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhongkan; Chandrasekara, Rakhitha; Tan, Yue Chuan; Cheng, Cliff; Durak, Kadir; Ling, Alexander

    2016-05-10

    We report on the performance of a compact photon pair source that was recovered intact from a failed space launch. The source had been embedded in a nanosatellite and was designed to perform pathfinder experiments leading to global quantum communication networks using spacecraft. Despite the launch vehicle explosion soon after takeoff, the nanosatellite was successfully retrieved from the accident site and the source within it was found to be fully operational. We describe the assembly technique for the rugged source. Post-recovery data is compared to baseline measurements collected before the launch attempt and no degradation in brightness or polarization correlation was observed. The survival of the source through an extreme environment provides strong evidence that it is possible to engineer rugged quantum optical systems.

  12. The photon pair source that survived a rocket explosion

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhongkan; Chandrasekara, Rakhitha; Tan, Yue Chuan; Cheng, Cliff; Durak, Kadir; Ling, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We report on the performance of a compact photon pair source that was recovered intact from a failed space launch. The source had been embedded in a nanosatellite and was designed to perform pathfinder experiments leading to global quantum communication networks using spacecraft. Despite the launch vehicle explosion soon after takeoff, the nanosatellite was successfully retrieved from the accident site and the source within it was found to be fully operational. We describe the assembly technique for the rugged source. Post-recovery data is compared to baseline measurements collected before the launch attempt and no degradation in brightness or polarization correlation was observed. The survival of the source through an extreme environment provides strong evidence that it is possible to engineer rugged quantum optical systems. PMID:27161541

  13. A fully photonics-based coherent radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghelfi, Paolo; Laghezza, Francesco; Scotti, Filippo; Serafino, Giovanni; Capria, Amerigo; Pinna, Sergio; Onori, Daniel; Porzi, Claudio; Scaffardi, Mirco; Malacarne, Antonio; Vercesi, Valeria; Lazzeri, Emma; Berizzi, Fabrizio; Bogoni, Antonella

    2014-03-01

    The next generation of radar (radio detection and ranging) systems needs to be based on software-defined radio to adapt to variable environments, with higher carrier frequencies for smaller antennas and broadened bandwidth for increased resolution. Today's digital microwave components (synthesizers and analogue-to-digital converters) suffer from limited bandwidth with high noise at increasing frequencies, so that fully digital radar systems can work up to only a few gigahertz, and noisy analogue up- and downconversions are necessary for higher frequencies. In contrast, photonics provide high precision and ultrawide bandwidth, allowing both the flexible generation of extremely stable radio-frequency signals with arbitrary waveforms up to millimetre waves, and the detection of such signals and their precise direct digitization without downconversion. Until now, the photonics-based generation and detection of radio-frequency signals have been studied separately and have not been tested in a radar system. Here we present the development and the field trial results of a fully photonics-based coherent radar demonstrator carried out within the project PHODIR. The proposed architecture exploits a single pulsed laser for generating tunable radar signals and receiving their echoes, avoiding radio-frequency up- and downconversion and guaranteeing both the software-defined approach and high resolution. Its performance exceeds state-of-the-art electronics at carrier frequencies above two gigahertz, and the detection of non-cooperating aeroplanes confirms the effectiveness and expected precision of the system.

  14. A fully photonics-based coherent radar system.

    PubMed

    Ghelfi, Paolo; Laghezza, Francesco; Scotti, Filippo; Serafino, Giovanni; Capria, Amerigo; Pinna, Sergio; Onori, Daniel; Porzi, Claudio; Scaffardi, Mirco; Malacarne, Antonio; Vercesi, Valeria; Lazzeri, Emma; Berizzi, Fabrizio; Bogoni, Antonella

    2014-03-20

    The next generation of radar (radio detection and ranging) systems needs to be based on software-defined radio to adapt to variable environments, with higher carrier frequencies for smaller antennas and broadened bandwidth for increased resolution. Today's digital microwave components (synthesizers and analogue-to-digital converters) suffer from limited bandwidth with high noise at increasing frequencies, so that fully digital radar systems can work up to only a few gigahertz, and noisy analogue up- and downconversions are necessary for higher frequencies. In contrast, photonics provide high precision and ultrawide bandwidth, allowing both the flexible generation of extremely stable radio-frequency signals with arbitrary waveforms up to millimetre waves, and the detection of such signals and their precise direct digitization without downconversion. Until now, the photonics-based generation and detection of radio-frequency signals have been studied separately and have not been tested in a radar system. Here we present the development and the field trial results of a fully photonics-based coherent radar demonstrator carried out within the project PHODIR. The proposed architecture exploits a single pulsed laser for generating tunable radar signals and receiving their echoes, avoiding radio-frequency up- and downconversion and guaranteeing both the software-defined approach and high resolution. Its performance exceeds state-of-the-art electronics at carrier frequencies above two gigahertz, and the detection of non-cooperating aeroplanes confirms the effectiveness and expected precision of the system.

  15. High-fidelity frequency down-conversion of visible entangled photon pairs with superconducting single-photon detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Ikuta, Rikizo; Kato, Hiroshi; Kusaka, Yoshiaki; Yamamoto, Takashi; Imoto, Nobuyuki; Miki, Shigehito; Yamashita, Taro; Terai, Hirotaka; Wang, Zhen; Fujiwara, Mikio; Sasaki, Masahide; Koashi, Masato

    2014-12-04

    We experimentally demonstrate a high-fidelity visible-to-telecommunicationwavelength conversion of a photon by using a solid-state-based difference frequency generation. In the experiment, one half of a pico-second visible entangled photon pair at 780 nm is converted to a 1522-nm photon. Using superconducting single-photon detectors with low dark count rates and small timing jitters, we observed a fidelity of 0.93±0.04 after the wavelength conversion.

  16. Coherent integrated receiver for highly linear microwave photonic links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klamkin, Jonathan

    Phase modulation can be used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio and spurfree dynamic range (SFDR) of microwave photonic links because phase modulation is not limited in input modulation swing and is inherently linear using certain electro-optic devices. Traditional interferometer-based phase demodulators have a sinusoidal response therefore a novel approach is required for achieving linear coherent detection at the receive end of a photonic link employing phase modulation. In this work, a balanced receiver with feedback to a reference tracking phase modulator was developed. With sufficient feedback loop gain, the received signal phase is closely tracked and the phase detection falls within the linear regime of the interferometer response. For stable operation at high frequency the delay of the feedback loop must be kept short, therefore a monolithic approach is required to realize a compact receiver architecture. The monolithic photonic integrated circuit (PIC) developed here consists of a high power balanced uni-traveling-carrier photodiode (UTC-PD), a compact 2x2 multimode interference (MMI) coupler, and multi-quantum well reference phase modulators. This PIC is hybrid integrated with an electronic IC that provides transconductance amplification of the feedback signal for increased loop gain. Novel concepts such as charge compensation, partially depleted absorption, and absorption profile modification were incorporated into the design of the waveguide UTCPDs resulting in record output saturation current and linearity. Both general interference surface ridge (SR) MMI couplers and restricted interference deep ridge (DR) MMI couplers were explored, the latter for reducing the loop delay. Current injection tuning was incorporated into the MMI couplers for fine tuning the output power splitting ratio. The quantum well design of the reference phase modulators was optimized for realizing low Vpi, low insertion loss, low absorption modulation, and improved linearity

  17. Geometric phase and entanglement of Raman photon pairs in the presence of photonic band gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrada, K.; Ooi, C. H. Raymond; Abdel-Khalek, S.

    2015-03-01

    Robustness of the geometric phase (GP) with respect to different noise effects is a basic condition for an effective quantum computation. Here, we propose a useful quantum system with real physical parameters by studying the GP of a pair of Stokes and anti-Stokes photons, involving Raman emission processes with and without photonic band gap (PBG) effect. We show that the properties of GP are very sensitive to the change of the Rabi frequency and time, exhibiting collapse phenomenon as the time becomes significantly large. The system allows us to obtain a state which remains with zero GP for longer times. This result plays a significant role to enhance the stabilization and control of the system dynamics. Finally, we investigate the nonlocal correlation (entanglement) between the pair photons by taking into account the effect of different parameters. An interesting correlation between the GP and entanglement is observed showing that the PBG stabilizes the fluctuations in the system and makes the entanglement more robust against the change of time and frequency.

  18. Geometric phase and entanglement of Raman photon pairs in the presence of photonic band gap

    SciTech Connect

    Berrada, K.; Ooi, C. H. Raymond; Abdel-Khalek, S.

    2015-03-28

    Robustness of the geometric phase (GP) with respect to different noise effects is a basic condition for an effective quantum computation. Here, we propose a useful quantum system with real physical parameters by studying the GP of a pair of Stokes and anti-Stokes photons, involving Raman emission processes with and without photonic band gap (PBG) effect. We show that the properties of GP are very sensitive to the change of the Rabi frequency and time, exhibiting collapse phenomenon as the time becomes significantly large. The system allows us to obtain a state which remains with zero GP for longer times. This result plays a significant role to enhance the stabilization and control of the system dynamics. Finally, we investigate the nonlocal correlation (entanglement) between the pair photons by taking into account the effect of different parameters. An interesting correlation between the GP and entanglement is observed showing that the PBG stabilizes the fluctuations in the system and makes the entanglement more robust against the change of time and frequency.

  19. Tuning Locality of Pair Coherence in Graphene-based Andreev Interferometers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Minsoo; Jeong, Dongchan; Lee, Gil-Ho; Shin, Yun-Sok; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Lee, Hu-Jong

    2015-01-01

    We report on gate-tuned locality of superconductivity-induced phase-coherent magnetoconductance oscillations in a graphene-based Andreev interferometer, consisting of a T-shaped graphene bar in contact with a superconducting Al loop. The conductance oscillations arose from the flux change through the superconducting Al loop, with gate-dependent Fraunhofer-type modulation of the envelope. We confirm a transitional change in the character of the pair coherence, between local and nonlocal, in the same device as the effective length-to-width ratio of the device was modulated by tuning the pair-coherence length ξT in the graphene layer. PMID:25737106

  20. Higgs boson pair production at a photon-photon collision in the two Higgs doublet model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, Eri; Harada, Daisuke; Kanemura, Shinya; Okada, Yasuhiro; Tsumura, Koji

    2009-03-01

    We calculate the cross section of Higgs boson pair production at a photon collider in the two Higgs doublet model. We focus on the scenario in which the lightest CP even Higgs boson (h) has the Standard Model like couplings to the gauge bosons. We take into account the one-loop correction to the hhh coupling as well as additional one-loop diagrams due to charged Higgs bosons to the γγ → hh helicity amplitudes. It is found that the full cross section can be enhanced by both these effects to a considerable level. We discuss the impact of these corrections on the hhh coupling measurement at the photon collider.

  1. Position-momentum-entangled photon pairs in nonlinear waveguides and transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherkunov, Y.; Whittaker, David M.; Fal'ko, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    We analyze the correlation properties of light in nonlinear waveguides and transmission lines, predict the position-momentum realization of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox for photon pairs in Kerr-type nonlinear photonic circuits, and we show how two-photon entangled states can be generated and detected.

  2. Coherent manipulation of a solid-state artificial atom with few photons.

    PubMed

    Giesz, V; Somaschi, N; Hornecker, G; Grange, T; Reznychenko, B; De Santis, L; Demory, J; Gomez, C; Sagnes, I; Lemaître, A; Krebs, O; Lanzillotti-Kimura, N D; Lanco, L; Auffeves, A; Senellart, P

    2016-06-17

    In a quantum network based on atoms and photons, a single atom should control the photon state and, reciprocally, a single photon should allow the coherent manipulation of the atom. Both operations require controlling the atom environment and developing efficient atom-photon interfaces, for instance by coupling the natural or artificial atom to cavities. So far, much attention has been drown on manipulating the light field with atomic transitions, recently at the few-photon limit. Here we report on the reciprocal operation and demonstrate the coherent manipulation of an artificial atom by few photons. We study a quantum dot-cavity system with a record cooperativity of 13. Incident photons interact with the atom with probability 0.95, which radiates back in the cavity mode with probability 0.96. Inversion of the atomic transition is achieved for 3.8 photons on average, showing that our artificial atom performs as if fully isolated from the solid-state environment.

  3. Bright Phase-Stable Broadband Fiber-Based Source of Polarization-Entangled Photon Pairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-24

    distribution 2, and quantum - state teleportation 3. For example, it is now well known that two parties, each sharing half of an entangled photon pair...FUNDING NUMBERS Bright Phase-Stable Broadband Fiber-Based Source of MURI Center for Photonic Quantum Information Systems: ARO/ARDA Program Polarization...wide range of quantum -information applications. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES single photon source, microstructure fiber, photon correlation

  4. Bridging visible and telecom wavelengths with a single-mode broadband photon pair source

    SciTech Connect

    Soeller, C.; Brecht, B.; Mosley, P. J.; Zang, L. Y.; Podlipensky, A.; Joly, N. Y.; Russell, P. St. J.; Silberhorn, C.

    2010-03-15

    We present a spectrally decorrelated photon pair source bridging the visible and telecom wavelength regions. Tailored design and fabrication of a solid-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) lead to the emission of signal and idler photons into only a single spectral and spatial mode. Thus no narrowband filtering is necessary and the heralded generation of pure photon number states in ultrafast wave packets at telecom wavelengths becomes possible.

  5. System and method for clock synchronization and position determination using entangled photon pairs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Yanhua (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A system and method for clock synchronization and position determination using entangled photon pairs is provided. The present invention relies on the measurement of the second order correlation function of entangled states. Photons from an entangled photon source travel one-way to the clocks to be synchronized. By analyzing photon registration time histories generated at each clock location, the entangled states allow for high accuracy clock synchronization as well as high accuracy position determination.

  6. Two-color ghost interference with photon pairs generated in hot atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Ding Dongsheng; Zhou Zhiyuan; Shi Baosen; Zou Xubo; Guo Guangcan

    2012-09-15

    We report on an experimental observation of a two-photon ghost interference experiment. A distinguishing feature of our experiment is that the photons are generated via a non-degenerated spontaneous four-wave mixing process in a hot atomic ensemble; therefore the photon has narrow bandwidth. Besides, there is a large difference in frequency between two photons in a pair. Our works may be important to achieve more secure, large transmission capacity long-distance quantum communication.

  7. Generation of Narrow-Band Polarization-Entangled Photon Pairs at a Rubidium D1 Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Long; Li, Shujing; Yuan, Haoxiang; Wang, Hai

    2016-12-01

    Using the process of cavity-enhanced spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC), we generate a narrow-band polarization-entangled photon pair resonant on the rubidium (Rb) D1 line (795 nm). The degenerate single-mode photon pair is selected by multiple temperature controlled etalons. The linewidth of generated polarization-entangled photon pairs is 15 MHz which matches the typical atomic memory bandwidth. The measured Bell parameter for the polarization-entangled photons S = 2.73 ± 0.04 which violates the Bell-CHSH inequality by ˜18 standard deviations. The presented entangled photon pair source could be utilized in quantum communication and quantum computing based on quantum memories in atomic ensemble.

  8. Heisenberg-limited interferometry with pair coherent states and parity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Gerry, Christopher C.; Mimih, Jihane

    2010-07-15

    After reviewing parity-measurement-based interferometry with twin Fock states, which allows for supersensitivity (Heisenberg limited) and super-resolution, we consider interferometry with two different superpositions of twin Fock states, namely, two-mode squeezed vacuum states and pair coherent states. This study is motivated by the experimental challenge of producing twin Fock states on opposite sides of a beam splitter. We find that input two-mode squeezed states, while allowing for Heisenberg-limited sensitivity, do not yield super-resolutions, whereas both are possible with input pair coherent states.

  9. Coherent control of the waveforms of recoilless γ-ray photons.

    PubMed

    Vagizov, Farit; Antonov, Vladimir; Radeonychev, Y V; Shakhmuratov, R N; Kocharovskaya, Olga

    2014-04-03

    The concepts and ideas of coherent, nonlinear and quantum optics have been extended to photon energies in the range of 10-100 kiloelectronvolts, corresponding to soft γ-ray radiation (the term used when the radiation is produced in nuclear transitions) or, equivalently, hard X-ray radiation (the term used when the radiation is produced by electron motion). The recent experimental achievements in this energy range include the demonstration of parametric down-conversion in the Langevin regime, electromagnetically induced transparency in a cavity, the collective Lamb shift, vacuum-assisted generation of atomic coherences and single-photon revival in nuclear absorbing multilayer structures. Also, realization of single-photon coherent storage and stimulated Raman adiabatic passage were recently proposed in this regime. More related work is discussed in a recent review. However, the number of tools for the coherent manipulation of interactions between γ-ray photons and nuclear ensembles remains limited. Here we suggest and implement an efficient method to control the waveforms of γ-ray photons coherently. In particular, we demonstrate the conversion of individual recoilless γ-ray photons into a coherent, ultrashort pulse train and into a double pulse. Our method is based on the resonant interaction of γ-ray photons with an ensemble of nuclei with a resonant transition frequency that is periodically modulated in time. The frequency modulation, which is achieved by a uniform vibration of the resonant absorber, owing to the Doppler effect, renders resonant absorption and dispersion both time dependent, allowing us to shape the waveforms of the incident γ-ray photons. We expect that this technique will lead to advances in the emerging fields of coherent and quantum γ-ray photon optics, providing a basis for the realization of γ-ray-photon/nuclear-ensemble interfaces and quantum interference effects at nuclear γ-ray transitions.

  10. Generation of photon pairs through parametric processes in nonlinear waveguides with the account of losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavulin, D. N.; Sukhorukov, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    We present an analytical description of the process of spontaneous four-wave mixing in a cubic nonlinear fiber with linear losses. We consider the generation of photon pairs in the fiber when in the input of fiber is fed the pumping wave and single signal photon. The focus of attention is on three cases: when the signal photon propagates in the fiber without generating of biphotons; when the photon pair is generated; and when the photon is lost in the fiber. We also consider the cascade processes, but do not give them an analytical description because of their smallness. Description of the biphotons generation process we provide using the Schrodinger-type equation, and take into account the losses in the fiber through the introduction of the virtual beam splitters. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the generation of photon pairs through parametric processes.

  11. Electroweak corrections to top quark pair production in association with a hard photon at hadron colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Yong; Song, Mao; Li, Gang

    2017-03-01

    We present the next-to-leading order (NLO) electroweak (EW) corrections to the top quark pair production associated with a hard photon at the current and future hadron colliders. The dependence of the leading order (LO) and NLO EW corrected cross sections on the photon transverse momentum cut are investigated. We also provide the LO and NLO EW corrected distributions of the transverse momentum of final top quark and photon and the invariant mass of top quark pair and top-antitop-photon system. The results show that the NLO EW corrections are significant in high energy regions due to the EW Sudakov effect.

  12. Generation of polarization-entangled photon pairs in a Bragg reflection waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallés, A.; Hendrych, M.; Svozilík, J.; Machulka, R.; Abolghasem, P.; Kang, D.; Bijlani, B. J.; Helmy, A. S.; Torres, J. P.

    2013-05-01

    We demonstrate experimentally that spontaneous parametric down-conversion in an AlGaAs semiconductor Bragg reflection waveguide can make for paired photons highly entangled in the polarization degree of freedom at the telecommunication wavelength of 1550 nm. The pairs of photons show visibility higher than 90% in several polarization bases and violate a Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell-like inequality by more than 3 standard deviations. This represents a significant step toward the realization of efficient and versatile self pumped sources of entangled photon pairs on-chip.

  13. Coherent perfect absorption in deeply subwavelength films in the single-photon regime

    PubMed Central

    Roger, Thomas; Vezzoli, Stefano; Bolduc, Eliot; Valente, Joao; Heitz, Julius J. F.; Jeffers, John; Soci, Cesare; Leach, Jonathan; Couteau, Christophe; Zheludev, Nikolay I.; Faccio, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    The technologies of heating, photovoltaics, water photocatalysis and artificial photosynthesis depend on the absorption of light and novel approaches such as coherent absorption from a standing wave promise total dissipation of energy. Extending the control of absorption down to very low light levels and eventually to the single-photon regime is of great interest and yet remains largely unexplored. Here we demonstrate the coherent absorption of single photons in a deeply subwavelength 50% absorber. We show that while the absorption of photons from a travelling wave is probabilistic, standing wave absorption can be observed deterministically, with nearly unitary probability of coupling a photon into a mode of the material, for example, a localized plasmon when this is a metamaterial excited at the plasmon resonance. These results bring a better understanding of the coherent absorption process, which is of central importance for light harvesting, detection, sensing and photonic data processing applications. PMID:25991584

  14. THE PAIR BEAM PRODUCTION SPECTRUM FROM PHOTON-PHOTON ANNIHILATION IN COSMIC VOIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Schlickeiser, R.; Ibscher, D.; Elyiv, A.; Miniati, F. E-mail: ibscher@tp4.rub.de E-mail: fm@phys.ethz.ch

    2012-10-20

    Highly beamed relativistic e {sup {+-}}-pair energy distributions result in double photon collisions of the beamed gamma rays from TeV blazars at cosmological distances with the isotropically distributed extragalactic background light (EBL) in the intergalactic medium. The typical energies k {sub 0} {approx_equal} 10{sup -7} in units of m{sub e}c {sup 2} of the EBL are more than 10 orders of magnitude smaller than the observed gamma-ray energies k {sub 1} {>=} 10{sup 7}. Using the limit k {sub 0} << k {sub 1}, we demonstrate that the angular distribution of the generated pairs in the lab frame is highly beamed in the direction of the initial gamma-ray photons. For the astrophysically important case of power-law distributions of the emitted gamma-ray beam up to the maximum energy M interacting with Wien-type N(k {sub 0}){proportional_to}k{sup q} {sub 0}exp (- k {sub 0}/{Theta}) soft photon distributions with total number density N {sub 0}, we calculate analytical approximations for the electron production spectrum. For distant objects with luminosity distances d{sub L} >> r {sub 0} = ({sigma} {sub T} N {sub 0}){sup -1} = 0.49N {sup -1} {sub 0} Mpc (with Thomson cross section {sigma} {sub T}), the implied large values of the optical depth {tau}{sub 0} = d{sub L} /r {sub 0} indicate that the electron production spectra differ at energies inside and outside the interval [({Theta}ln {tau}{sub 0}){sup -1}, {tau}{sub 0}/{Theta}], given the maximum gamma-ray energy M >> {Theta}{sup -1}. In the case M >> {Theta}{sup -1}, the production spectrum is strongly peaked near E {approx_equal} {Theta}{sup -1}, being exponentially reduced at small energies and decreasing with the steep power law {proportional_to}E {sup -1-p} up to the maximum energy E = M - (1/2).

  15. 0.54 μm resolution two-photon interference with dispersion cancellation for quantum optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Okano, Masayuki; Lim, Hwan Hong; Okamoto, Ryo; Nishizawa, Norihiko; Kurimura, Sunao; Takeuchi, Shigeki

    2015-12-14

    Quantum information technologies harness the intrinsic nature of quantum theory to beat the limitations of the classical methods for information processing and communication. Recently, the application of quantum features to metrology has attracted much attention. Quantum optical coherence tomography (QOCT), which utilizes two-photon interference between entangled photon pairs, is a promising approach to overcome the problem with optical coherence tomography (OCT): As the resolution of OCT becomes higher, degradation of the resolution due to dispersion within the medium becomes more critical. Here we report on the realization of 0.54 μm resolution two-photon interference, which surpasses the current record resolution 0.75 μm of low-coherence interference for OCT. In addition, the resolution for QOCT showed almost no change against the dispersion of a 1 mm thickness of water inserted in the optical path, whereas the resolution for OCT dramatically degrades. For this experiment, a highly-efficient chirped quasi-phase-matched lithium tantalate device was developed using a novel 'nano-electrode-poling' technique. The results presented here represent a breakthrough for the realization of quantum protocols, including QOCT, quantum clock synchronization, and more. Our work will open up possibilities for medical and biological applications.

  16. 0.54 μm resolution two-photon interference with dispersion cancellation for quantum optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Okano, Masayuki; Lim, Hwan Hong; Okamoto, Ryo; Nishizawa, Norihiko; Kurimura, Sunao; Takeuchi, Shigeki

    2015-01-01

    Quantum information technologies harness the intrinsic nature of quantum theory to beat the limitations of the classical methods for information processing and communication. Recently, the application of quantum features to metrology has attracted much attention. Quantum optical coherence tomography (QOCT), which utilizes two-photon interference between entangled photon pairs, is a promising approach to overcome the problem with optical coherence tomography (OCT): As the resolution of OCT becomes higher, degradation of the resolution due to dispersion within the medium becomes more critical. Here we report on the realization of 0.54 μm resolution two-photon interference, which surpasses the current record resolution 0.75 μm of low-coherence interference for OCT. In addition, the resolution for QOCT showed almost no change against the dispersion of a 1 mm thickness of water inserted in the optical path, whereas the resolution for OCT dramatically degrades. For this experiment, a highly-efficient chirped quasi-phase-matched lithium tantalate device was developed using a novel ‘nano-electrode-poling’ technique. The results presented here represent a breakthrough for the realization of quantum protocols, including QOCT, quantum clock synchronization, and more. Our work will open up possibilities for medical and biological applications PMID:26657190

  17. 0.54 μm resolution two-photon interference with dispersion cancellation for quantum optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okano, Masayuki; Lim, Hwan Hong; Okamoto, Ryo; Nishizawa, Norihiko; Kurimura, Sunao; Takeuchi, Shigeki

    2015-12-01

    Quantum information technologies harness the intrinsic nature of quantum theory to beat the limitations of the classical methods for information processing and communication. Recently, the application of quantum features to metrology has attracted much attention. Quantum optical coherence tomography (QOCT), which utilizes two-photon interference between entangled photon pairs, is a promising approach to overcome the problem with optical coherence tomography (OCT): As the resolution of OCT becomes higher, degradation of the resolution due to dispersion within the medium becomes more critical. Here we report on the realization of 0.54 μm resolution two-photon interference, which surpasses the current record resolution 0.75 μm of low-coherence interference for OCT. In addition, the resolution for QOCT showed almost no change against the dispersion of a 1 mm thickness of water inserted in the optical path, whereas the resolution for OCT dramatically degrades. For this experiment, a highly-efficient chirped quasi-phase-matched lithium tantalate device was developed using a novel ‘nano-electrode-poling’ technique. The results presented here represent a breakthrough for the realization of quantum protocols, including QOCT, quantum clock synchronization, and more. Our work will open up possibilities for medical and biological applications

  18. Photon pair-state preparation with tailored spectral properties by spontaneous four-wave mixing in photonic-crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Garay-Palmett, K; McGuinness, H J; Cohen, Offir; Lundeen, J S; Rangel-Rojo, R; U'ren, A B; Raymer, M G; McKinstrie, C J; Radic, S; Walmsley, I A

    2007-10-29

    We study theoretically the generation of photon pairs by spontaneous four-wave mixing (SFWM) in photonic crystal optical fiber. We show that it is possible to engineer two-photon states with specific spectral correlation ("entanglement") properties suitable for quantum information processing applications. We focus on the case exhibiting no spectral correlations in the two-photon component of the state, which we call factorability, and which allows heralding of single-photon pure-state wave packets without the need for spectral post filtering. We show that spontaneous four wave mixing exhibits a remarkable flexibility, permitting a wider class of two-photon states, including ultra-broadband, highly-anticorrelated states.

  19. Realization of non-linear coherent states by photonic lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Dehdashti, Shahram Li, Rujiang; Chen, Hongsheng; Liu, Jiarui Yu, Faxin

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, first, by introducing Holstein-Primakoff representation of α-deformed algebra, we achieve the associated non-linear coherent states, including su(2) and su(1, 1) coherent states. Second, by using waveguide lattices with specific coupling coefficients between neighbouring channels, we generate these non-linear coherent states. In the case of positive values of α, we indicate that the Hilbert size space is finite; therefore, we construct this coherent state with finite channels of waveguide lattices. Finally, we study the field distribution behaviours of these coherent states, by using Mandel Q parameter.

  20. Miniature optical coherence tomography system based on silicon photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margallo-Balbás, Eduardo; Pandraud, Gregory; French, Patrick J.

    2008-02-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a promising medical imaging technique. It has found applications in many fields of medicine and has a large potential for the optical biopsy of tumours. One of the technological challenges impairing faster adoption of OCT is the relative complexity of the optical instrumentation required, which translates into expensive and bulky setups. In this paper we report an implementation of Time Domain OCT (TD-OCT) based on a silicon photonic platform. The devices are fabricated using Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) wafers, on which rib waveguides are defined. While most of the components needed are well-known in this technology, a fast delay line with sufficient scanning range is a specific requirement of TD-OCT. In the system reported, this was obtained making use of the thermo-optical effect of silicon. By modulating the thermal resistance of the waveguide to the substrate, it is possible to establish a trade-off between maximum working frequency and power dissipation. Within this trade-off, the systems obtained can be operated in the kHz range, and they achieve temperature shifts corresponding to scanning ranges of over 2mm. Though the current implementation still requires external sources and detectors to be coupled to the Planar Lightwave Circuit (PLC), future work will include three-dimensional integration of these components onto the substrate. With the potential to include the read-out and driving electronics on the same die, the reported approach can yield extremely compact and low-cost TD-OCT systems, enabling a wealth of new applications, including gastrointestinal pills with optical biopsy capabilities.

  1. On-chip coherent conversion of photonic quantum entanglement between different degrees of freedom

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Lan-Tian; Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Ming; Xiong, Xiao; Yu, Le; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guo-Ping; Dai, Dao-Xin; Ren, Xi-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2016-01-01

    In the quantum world, a single particle can have various degrees of freedom to encode quantum information. Controlling multiple degrees of freedom simultaneously is necessary to describe a particle fully and, therefore, to use it more efficiently. Here we introduce the transverse waveguide-mode degree of freedom to quantum photonic integrated circuits, and demonstrate the coherent conversion of a photonic quantum state between path, polarization and transverse waveguide-mode degrees of freedom on a single chip. The preservation of quantum coherence in these conversion processes is proven by single-photon and two-photon quantum interference using a fibre beam splitter or on-chip beam splitters. These results provide us with the ability to control and convert multiple degrees of freedom of photons for quantum photonic integrated circuit-based quantum information process. PMID:27321821

  2. On-chip coherent conversion of photonic quantum entanglement between different degrees of freedom.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lan-Tian; Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Ming; Xiong, Xiao; Yu, Le; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guo-Ping; Dai, Dao-Xin; Ren, Xi-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2016-06-20

    In the quantum world, a single particle can have various degrees of freedom to encode quantum information. Controlling multiple degrees of freedom simultaneously is necessary to describe a particle fully and, therefore, to use it more efficiently. Here we introduce the transverse waveguide-mode degree of freedom to quantum photonic integrated circuits, and demonstrate the coherent conversion of a photonic quantum state between path, polarization and transverse waveguide-mode degrees of freedom on a single chip. The preservation of quantum coherence in these conversion processes is proven by single-photon and two-photon quantum interference using a fibre beam splitter or on-chip beam splitters. These results provide us with the ability to control and convert multiple degrees of freedom of photons for quantum photonic integrated circuit-based quantum information process.

  3. On-chip coherent conversion of photonic quantum entanglement between different degrees of freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Lan-Tian; Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Ming; Xiong, Xiao; Yu, Le; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guo-Ping; Dai, Dao-Xin; Ren, Xi-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2016-06-01

    In the quantum world, a single particle can have various degrees of freedom to encode quantum information. Controlling multiple degrees of freedom simultaneously is necessary to describe a particle fully and, therefore, to use it more efficiently. Here we introduce the transverse waveguide-mode degree of freedom to quantum photonic integrated circuits, and demonstrate the coherent conversion of a photonic quantum state between path, polarization and transverse waveguide-mode degrees of freedom on a single chip. The preservation of quantum coherence in these conversion processes is proven by single-photon and two-photon quantum interference using a fibre beam splitter or on-chip beam splitters. These results provide us with the ability to control and convert multiple degrees of freedom of photons for quantum photonic integrated circuit-based quantum information process.

  4. Coherent storage and phase modulation of single hard-x-ray photons using nuclear excitons.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wen-Te; Pálffy, Adriana; Keitel, Christoph H

    2012-11-09

    The coherent storage and phase modulation of x-ray single-photon wave packets in the resonant scattering of light off nuclei is theoretically investigated. We show that by switching off and on again the magnetic field in the nuclear sample, phase-sensitive storage of photons in the keV regime can be achieved. Corresponding π phase modulation of the stored photon can be accomplished if the retrieving magnetic field is rotated by 180°. The development of such x-ray single-photon control techniques is a first step towards forwarding quantum optics and quantum information to shorter wavelengths and more compact photonic devices.

  5. Concurrence of a pair of time-bin entangled photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ávila, M.; Morales-Cadena, J. A.

    2016-02-01

    A metastable state ? subjected to a couple of pulses transits to an excited level ? of an atom with probabilities ? and ?, respectively. One photon is emitted in the transition from the level ? to a lower atomic level ?. A second photon is emitted in the transition from the level ? to a lowest atomic level ?. The first photon must be emitted before than the second one so they are both time ordered (time-bin) and entangled. It is calculated that the concurrence of the two produced time-bin photons as a function of ?, ? and the branching ratios of the two transitions ? and (?). It is found that the two produced photons are maximally entangled if the branching ratios are greater than 80%. It is also found that certain values of ?, ? and the branching ratios preclude entanglement between the two produced photons. Intervals of values for ? and ? where the concurrence is large enough and then two-qubit quantum information processing protocols can be optimally implemented are found.

  6. Coherent photon scattering background in sub-GeV /c2 direct dark matter searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Alan E.

    2017-01-01

    Proposed dark matter detectors with eV-scale sensitivities will detect a large background of atomic (nuclear) recoils from coherent photon scattering of MeV-scale photons. This background climbs steeply below ˜10 eV , far exceeding the declining rate of low-energy Compton recoils. The upcoming generation of dark matter detectors will not be limited by this background, but further development of eV-scale and sub-eV detectors will require strategies, including the use of low nuclear mass target materials, to maximize dark matter sensitivity while minimizing the coherent photon scattering background.

  7. A Silicon-Chip Source of Bright Photon-Pair Comb

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-16

    through surface passivation48). Such a high coherence would enable teleporting quantum entan- glement intra-chip, inter-chip, or off-chip over far distance...Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 Abstract Integrated quantum photonics relies critically on the purity, scalability, integrability, and...flexibility of a photon source to support diverse quantum functionalities on a single chip. Up to date, it remains an open challenge to realize an

  8. Effects of the plasma profiles on photon and pair production in ultrahigh intensity laser solid interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Y. X.; Jin, X. L. Yan, W. Z.; Li, J. Q.; Li, B.; Yu, J. Q.

    2015-12-15

    The model of photon and pair production in strong field quantum electrodynamics is implemented into our 1D3V particle-in-cell code with Monte Carlo algorithm. Using this code, the evolution of the particles in ultrahigh intensity laser (∼10{sup 23} W/cm{sup 2}) interaction with aluminum foil target is observed. Four different initial plasma profiles are considered in the simulations. The effects of initial plasma profiles on photon and pair production, energy spectra, and energy evolution are analyzed. The results imply that one can set an optimal initial plasma profile to obtain the desired photon distributions.

  9. Power-efficient production of photon pairs in a tapered chalcogenide microwire

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer-Scott, Evan Dot, Audrey; Ahmad, Raja; Li, Lizhu; Rochette, Martin; Jennewein, Thomas

    2015-02-23

    Using tapered fibers of As{sub 2}Se{sub 3} chalcogenide glass, we produce photon pairs at telecommunication wavelengths with low pump powers. We found maximum coincidences-to-accidentals ratios of 2.13 ± 0.07 for degenerate pumping with 3.2 μW average power, and 1.33 ± 0.03 for non-degenerate pumping with 1.0 μW and 1.5 μW average power of the two pumps. Our results show that the ultrahigh nonlinearity in these microwires could allow single-photon pumping to produce photon pairs, enabling the production of large entangled states, heralding of single photons after lossy transmission, and photonic quantum information processing with nonlinear optics.

  10. Resonant generation of an electron–positron pair by two photons to excited Landau levels

    SciTech Connect

    Diachenko, M. M. Novak, O. P.; Kholodov, R. I.

    2015-11-15

    We consider the resonant generation of an electron–positron pair by two polarized photons to arbitrarily low Landau levels. The resonance occurs when the energy of one photon exceeds the one-photon generation threshold, and the energy of the other photon is multiple to the spacing between the levels. The cross section of the process is determined taking into account the spins of particles. The order of magnitude of the cross section is the highest when the magnetic moments of the particles are oriented along the magnetic field.

  11. Confinement and precession of vortex pairs in coherently coupled Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tylutki, Marek; Pitaevskii, Lev P.; Recati, Alessio; Stringari, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    The dynamic behavior of vortex pairs in two-component coherently (Rabi) coupled Bose-Einstein condensates is investigated in the presence of harmonic trapping. We discuss the role of the surface tension associated with the domain wall connecting two vortices in condensates of atoms occupying different spin states and its effect on the precession of the vortex pair. The results, based on the numerical solution of the Gross-Pitaevskii equations, are compared with the predictions of an analytical macroscopic model and are discussed as a function of the size of the pair, the Rabi coupling, and the intercomponent interaction. We show that the increase of the Rabi coupling results in the disintegration of the domain wall into smaller pieces, connecting vortices of newly created vortex pairs. The resulting scenario is the analog of quark confinement and string breaking in quantum chromodynamics.

  12. Quantum fuel with multilevel atomic coherence for ultrahigh specific work in a photonic Carnot engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Türkpençe, Deniz; Müstecaplıoǧlu, Özgür E.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate scaling of work and efficiency of a photonic Carnot engine with a number of quantum coherent resources. Specifically, we consider a generalization of the "phaseonium fuel" for the photonic Carnot engine, which was first introduced as a three-level atom with two lower states in a quantum coherent superposition by M. O. Scully, M. Suhail Zubairy, G. S. Agarwal, and H. Walther [Science 299, 862 (2003), 10.1126/science.1078955], to the case of N +1 level atoms with N coherent lower levels. We take into account atomic relaxation and dephasing as well as the cavity loss and derive a coarse-grained master equation to evaluate the work and efficiency analytically. Analytical results are verified by microscopic numerical examination of the thermalization dynamics. We find that efficiency and work scale quadratically with the number of quantum coherent levels. Quantum coherence boost to the specific energy (work output per unit mass of the resource) is a profound fundamental difference of quantum fuel from classical resources. We consider typical modern resonator set ups and conclude that multilevel phaseonium fuel can be utilized to overcome the decoherence in available systems. Preparation of the atomic coherences and the associated cost of coherence are analyzed and the engine operation within the bounds of the second law is verified. Our results bring the photonic Carnot engines much closer to the capabilities of current resonator technologies.

  13. Femtosecond correlated photon echo in CdS crystal under two-photon excitation by two pairs of crossed laser beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samartsev, V. V.; Leontiev, A. V.; Mitrofanova, T. G.

    2015-07-01

    We consider the possibility of observing a femtosecond correlated photon echo (FCPE) under two-photon excitation of CdS crystal by two pairs of crossed laser beams. The peculiarities of FCPE signals and their possible applications are discussed.

  14. Chiral nucleon-Δ using the coherent-pion pair approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayed Aly, Tarek; McNeil, J. A.

    1996-10-01

    Despite significant strides in the numerical assault on QCD, this candidate theory of the strong interactions remains a computational challenge and models incorporating its important symmetries remain attractive alternatives for gaining insight into the nucleon problem. One such class of models which does not incorporate confinement but does respect chiral symmetry is the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model and in particular its bosonized variant, the linear sigma model using quarks and mesonic degrees of freedom. About a decade ago several groups made significant progress in understanding fundamental nucleon properties using such models. In this work we re-visit one such effort undertaken by K. Goeke et al.(K. Goeke, M. Harvey, F. Grümmer, and J. N. Urbano, Phys. Rev. D37), 754 (1988). who computed nucleon and Δ properties using the so-called coherent pair approximation to treat the quantum nature of the pion field in a more realistic fashion. In rederiving their equations we have discovered some discrepancies in the treatment of the coherent pair Fock states. In this work we present alternative equations for the coherent-pair states. Numerical work to evaluate the new equations for the nucleon-Δ sector are underway.

  15. Enhancing quantum entanglement for continuous variables by a coherent superposition of photon subtraction and addition

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Su-Yong; Kim, Ho-Joon; Ji, Se-Wan; Nha, Hyunchul

    2011-07-15

    We investigate how the entanglement properties of a two-mode state can be improved by performing a coherent superposition operation ta+ra{sup {dagger}} of photon subtraction and addition, proposed by Lee and Nha [Phys. Rev. A 82, 053812 (2010)], on each mode. We show that the degree of entanglement, the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-type correlation, and the performance of quantum teleportation can be all enhanced for the output state when the coherent operation is applied to a two-mode squeezed state. The effects of the coherent operation are more prominent than those of the mere photon subtraction a and the addition a{sup {dagger}} particularly in the small-squeezing regime, whereas the optimal operation becomes the photon subtraction (case of r=0) in the large-squeezing regime.

  16. Quantum interference between a single-photon Fock state and a coherent state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windhager, A.; Suda, M.; Pacher, C.; Peev, M.; Poppe, A.

    2011-04-01

    We derive analytical expressions for the single mode quantum field state at the individual output ports of a beam splitter when a single-photon Fock state and a coherent state are incident on the input ports. The output states turn out to be a statistical mixture between a displaced Fock state and a coherent state. Consequently we are able to find an analytical expression for the corresponding Wigner function. Because of the generality of our calculations the obtained results are valid for all passive and lossless optical four port devices. We show further how the results can be adapted to the case of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer. In addition we consider the case for which the single-photon Fock state is replaced with a general input state: a coherent input state displaces each general quantum state at the output port of a beam splitter with the displacement parameter being the amplitude of the coherent state.

  17. Coherent chemical kinetics as quantum walks. I. Reaction operators for radical pairs.

    PubMed

    Chia, A; Tan, K C; Pawela, Ł; Kurzyński, P; Paterek, T; Kaszlikowski, D

    2016-03-01

    Classical chemical kinetics uses rate-equation models to describe how a reaction proceeds in time. Such models are sufficient for describing state transitions in a reaction where coherences between different states do not arise, in other words, a reaction that contains only incoherent transitions. A prominent example of a reaction containing coherent transitions is the radical-pair model. The kinetics of such reactions is defined by the so-called reaction operator that determines the radical-pair state as a function of intermediate transition rates. We argue that the well-known concept of quantum walks from quantum information theory is a natural and apt framework for describing multisite chemical reactions. By composing Kraus maps that act only on two sites at a time, we show how the quantum-walk formalism can be applied to derive a reaction operator for the standard avian radical-pair reaction. Our reaction operator predicts the same recombination dephasing rate as the conventional Haberkorn model, which is consistent with recent experiments [K. Maeda et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 234309 (2013)], in contrast to previous work by Jones and Hore [J. A. Jones and P. J. Hore, Chem. Phys. Lett. 488, 90 (2010)]. The standard radical-pair reaction has conventionally been described by either a normalized density operator incorporating both the radical pair and reaction products or a trace-decreasing density operator that considers only the radical pair. We demonstrate a density operator that is both normalized and refers only to radical-pair states. Generalizations to include additional dephasing processes and an arbitrary number of sites are also discussed.

  18. Coherent chemical kinetics as quantum walks. I. Reaction operators for radical pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chia, A.; Tan, K. C.; Pawela, Ł.; Kurzyński, P.; Paterek, T.; Kaszlikowski, D.

    2016-03-01

    Classical chemical kinetics uses rate-equation models to describe how a reaction proceeds in time. Such models are sufficient for describing state transitions in a reaction where coherences between different states do not arise, in other words, a reaction that contains only incoherent transitions. A prominent example of a reaction containing coherent transitions is the radical-pair model. The kinetics of such reactions is defined by the so-called reaction operator that determines the radical-pair state as a function of intermediate transition rates. We argue that the well-known concept of quantum walks from quantum information theory is a natural and apt framework for describing multisite chemical reactions. By composing Kraus maps that act only on two sites at a time, we show how the quantum-walk formalism can be applied to derive a reaction operator for the standard avian radical-pair reaction. Our reaction operator predicts the same recombination dephasing rate as the conventional Haberkorn model, which is consistent with recent experiments [K. Maeda et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 234309 (2013), 10.1063/1.4844355], in contrast to previous work by Jones and Hore [J. A. Jones and P. J. Hore, Chem. Phys. Lett. 488, 90 (2010), 10.1016/j.cplett.2010.01.063]. The standard radical-pair reaction has conventionally been described by either a normalized density operator incorporating both the radical pair and reaction products or a trace-decreasing density operator that considers only the radical pair. We demonstrate a density operator that is both normalized and refers only to radical-pair states. Generalizations to include additional dephasing processes and an arbitrary number of sites are also discussed.

  19. The Coherent Photon Scattering Background in Sub-GeV/$c^2$ Direct Dark Matter Searches

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Alan E.

    2016-10-24

    Proposed dark matter detectors with eV-scale sensitivities will detect a large background of atomic (nuclear) recoils from coherent photon scattering. This background climbs steeply below $\\sim10$~eVnr, far exceeding the declining rate of low-energy Compton recoils. The upcoming generation of dark matter detectors will not be limited by this background, but further development of eV-scale and sub-eV detectors will require the use of low-$Z$ target materials, such as helium, to avoid a large rate of coherent photon scattering.

  20. Semiconductor devices for entangled photon pair generation: a review.

    PubMed

    Orieux, Adeline; Versteegh, Marijn A M; Jöns, Klaus; Ducci, Sara

    2017-03-27

    Entanglement is one of the most fascinating properties of quantum mechanical systems; when two particles are entangled the measurement of the properties of one of the two allows to instantaneously know the properties of the other, whatever the distance separating them. In parallel with fundamental research on the foundations of quantum mechanics performed on complex experimental set-ups, we assist today to a bourgeoning of quantum information technologies bound to exploit entanglement for a large variety of applications such as secure communications, metrology and computation. Among the different physical systems under investigation, those involving photonic components are likely to play a central role and in this context semiconductor materials exhibit a huge potential in terms of integration of several quantum components in miniature chips. In this article we review the recent progress in the development of semiconductor devices emitting entangled photons. We will present the physical processes allowing to generate entanglement and the tools to characterize it; we will give an overview of major recent results of the last years and highlight perspectives for future developments.

  1. Cavity-photon-switched coherent transient transport in a double quantum waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, Nzar Rauf Gudmundsson, Vidar; Tang, Chi-Shung; Manolescu, Andrei

    2014-12-21

    We study a cavity-photon-switched coherent electron transport in a symmetric double quantum waveguide. The waveguide system is weakly connected to two electron reservoirs, but strongly coupled to a single quantized photon cavity mode. A coupling window is placed between the waveguides to allow electron interference or inter-waveguide transport. The transient electron transport in the system is investigated using a quantum master equation. We present a cavity-photon tunable semiconductor quantum waveguide implementation of an inverter quantum gate, in which the output of the waveguide system may be selected via the selection of an appropriate photon number or “photon frequency” of the cavity. In addition, the importance of the photon polarization in the cavity, that is, either parallel or perpendicular to the direction of electron propagation in the waveguide system is demonstrated.

  2. Experimental Generation of Narrow-Band Paired Photons: from Damped Rabi Oscillation to Group Delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Kai-Yu; Yan, Hui; He, Jun-Yu; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Zhi-Ming; Zhu, Shi-Liang

    2014-03-01

    We report the experimental generation of narrow-band paired photons through electromagnetically induced transparency and spontaneous four-wave mixing in a two-dimensional magneto-optical trap (2D MOT). By controlling the optical depth of the 2D MOT from 0 to 40, the temporal length of the generated narrow-band paired photons can be varied from 50 to 900 ns. The ‘transition’ between damped Rabi oscillation and group delay is observed undisputedly. In the damped Rabi oscillation regime, a violation factor of the Cauchy—Schwartz inequality as large as 6642 is observed. In the group delay regime, sub-MHz linewidth (~ 0.65 MHz) paired photons are obtained with a generation rate of about 0.8 × 105 s-1.

  3. Coherent manipulation of a solid-state artificial atom with few photons

    PubMed Central

    Giesz, V.; Somaschi, N.; Hornecker, G.; Grange, T.; Reznychenko, B.; De Santis, L.; Demory, J.; Gomez, C.; Sagnes, I.; Lemaître, A.; Krebs, O.; Lanzillotti-Kimura, N. D.; Lanco, L.; Auffeves, A.; Senellart, P.

    2016-01-01

    In a quantum network based on atoms and photons, a single atom should control the photon state and, reciprocally, a single photon should allow the coherent manipulation of the atom. Both operations require controlling the atom environment and developing efficient atom–photon interfaces, for instance by coupling the natural or artificial atom to cavities. So far, much attention has been drown on manipulating the light field with atomic transitions, recently at the few-photon limit. Here we report on the reciprocal operation and demonstrate the coherent manipulation of an artificial atom by few photons. We study a quantum dot-cavity system with a record cooperativity of 13. Incident photons interact with the atom with probability 0.95, which radiates back in the cavity mode with probability 0.96. Inversion of the atomic transition is achieved for 3.8 photons on average, showing that our artificial atom performs as if fully isolated from the solid-state environment. PMID:27312189

  4. Quantum teleportation in the spin-orbit variables of photon pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Khoury, A. Z.; Milman, P.

    2011-06-15

    We propose a polarization to orbital angular momentum teleportation scheme using entangled photon pairs generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion. By making a joint detection of the polarization and angular momentum parity of a single photon, we are able to detect all the Bell states and perform, in principle, perfect teleportation from a discrete to a continuous system using minimal resources. The proposed protocol implementation demands experimental resources that are currently available in quantum optics laboratories.

  5. Correlated photon pair generation in low-loss double-stripe silicon nitride waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Yanbing; Xiong, Chunle; Eggleton, Benjamin J.

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate correlated photon pair generation via spontaneous four-wave mixing in a low-loss double-stripe silicon nitride waveguide with a coincidence-to-accidental ratio over 10. The coincidence-to-accidental ratio is limited by spontaneous Raman scattering, which can be mitigated by cooling in the future. This demonstration suggests that this waveguide structure is a potential platform to develop integrated quantum photonic chips for quantum information processing.

  6. Dead time correction in coincidence counting of photon pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, M. S.; Lee, D.-H.; Lee, J.; Lee, J. Y.; Choi, S.-K.; Park, H. S.

    2008-08-01

    We describe two methods for evaluating the dead time of a time-to-amplitude converter (TAC). The dead time is obtained by measuring either the corresponding time interval in an oscilloscope trace or the relation between the single count rate and the coincidence count rate. Values for the TAC dead time are obtained in the range from 3.4 µs to 14.3 µs for the two methods with respective standard uncertainties of 2.9 × 10-8 s and 3.3 × 10-9 s. The TAC dead time is applied to the calibration of coincidence-counting measurements of optical transmission and photon-heralding efficiency.

  7. Time-bin entangled photon pairs from spontaneous parametric down-conversion pumped by a cw multi-mode diode laser.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Osung; Park, Kwang-Kyoon; Ra, Young-Sik; Kim, Yong-Su; Kim, Yoon-Ho

    2013-10-21

    Generation of time-bin entangled photon pairs requires the use of the Franson interferometer which consists of two spatially separated unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometers through which the signal and idler photons from spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) are made to transmit individually. There have been two SPDC pumping regimes where the scheme works: the narrowband regime and the double-pulse regime. In the narrowband regime, the SPDC process is pumped by a narrowband cw laser with the coherence length much longer than the path length difference of the Franson interferometer. In the double-pulse regime, the longitudinal separation between the pulse pair is made equal to the path length difference of the Franson interferometer. In this paper, we propose another regime by which the generation of time-bin entanglement is possible and demonstrate the scheme experimentally. In our scheme, differently from the previous approaches, the SPDC process is pumped by a cw multi-mode (i.e., short coherence length) laser and makes use of the coherence revival property of such a laser. The high-visibility two-photon Franson interference demonstrates clearly that high-quality time-bin entanglement source can be developed using inexpensive cw multi-mode diode lasers for various quantum communication applications.

  8. Bragg reflection waveguides as a source of photon pairs: theory and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svozilik, Jiři; Valles, Adam; Hendrych, Martin; Torres, Juan P.

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we present Bragg reflection waveguides as a novel universal platform for reaching the phasematching of spontaneous parametric downconversion process in semiconductor materials. We have designed two different waveguide structures. The first one is based on AlGaN and it is able to produce spectrally uncorrelated photon pairs. The second one is based on AlGaAs and it allows us to generate entangled photon pairs with ultra-broad spectra. Spontaneous-parametric-downconversion and second-harmonic-generation experiments are presented.

  9. Continuous-wave quasi-phase-matched waveguide correlated photon pair source on a III–V chip

    SciTech Connect

    Sarrafi, Peyman Zhu, Eric Y.; Dolgaleva, Ksenia; Aitchison, J. Stewart; Qian, Li; Holmes, Barry M.; Hutchings, David C.

    2013-12-16

    We report on the demonstration of correlated photon pair generation in a quasi-phase-matched superlattice GaAs/AlGaAs waveguide using a continuous-wave pump. Our photon pair source has a low noise level and achieves a high coincidence-to-accidental ratio greater than 100, which is the highest value reported in III–V chips so far. This correlated photon pair source has the potential to be monolithically integrated with on-chip pump laser sources fabricated on the same superlattice wafer structure, enabling direct correlated/entangled photon pair production from a compact electrically powered chip.

  10. Collapse of the Cooper pair phase coherence length at a superconductor-to-insulator transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollen, S. M.; Fernandes, G. E.; Xu, J. M.; Valles, J. M., Jr.

    2013-02-01

    We present investigations of the superconductor-to-insulator transition (SIT) of uniform a-Bi films using a technique sensitive to Cooper pair phase coherence. The films are perforated with a nanohoneycomb array of holes to form a multiply connected geometry and subjected to a perpendicular magnetic field. Film magnetoresistances on the superconducting side of the SIT oscillate with a period dictated by the superconducting flux quantum and the areal hole density. The oscillations disappear close to the SIT critical point to leave a monotonically rising magnetoresistance that persists in the insulating phase. These observations indicate that the Cooper pair phase coherence length, which is infinite in the superconducting phase, collapses to a value less than the interhole spacing at this SIT. This behavior is inconsistent with the gradual reduction of the phase coherence length expected for a bosonic phase-fluctuation-driven SIT. This result starkly contrasts with previous observations of oscillations persisting in the insulating phase of other films implying that there must be at least two distinct classes of disorder-tuned SITs.

  11. Quantum diffraction and interference of spatially correlated photon pairs and its Fourier-optical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, Ryosuke; Edamatsu, Keiichi; Itoh, Tadashi

    2006-07-15

    We present one- and two-photon diffraction and interference experiments involving parametric down-converted photon pairs. By controlling the divergence of the pump beam in parametric down-conversion, the diffraction-interference pattern produced by an object changes from a quantum (perfectly correlated) case to a classical (uncorrelated) one. The observed diffraction and interference patterns are accurately reproduced by Fourier-optical analysis taking into account the quantum spatial correlation. We show that the relation between the spatial correlation and the object size plays a crucial role in the formation of both one- and two-photon diffraction-interference patterns.

  12. Coherent destruction of tunneling in two-level system driven across avoided crossing via photon statistics.

    PubMed

    Miao, Qiang; Zheng, Yujun

    2016-06-29

    In this paper, the nature of the multi-order resonance and coherent destruction of tunneling (CDT) for two-level system driven cross avoided crossing is investigated by employing the emitted photons 〈N〉 and the Mandel's Q parameter based on the photon counting statistics. An asymmetric feature of CDT is shown in the spectrum of Mandel's Q parameter. Also, the CDT can be employed to suppress the spontaneous decay and prolong waiting time noticeably. The photon emission pattern is of monotonicity in strong relaxation, and homogeneity in pure dephasing regime, respectively.

  13. Dicke coherent narrowing in two-photon and Raman spectroscopy of thin vapor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dutier, Gabriel; Todorov, Petko; Hamdi, Ismahene; Maurin, Isabelle; Saltiel, Solomon; Bloch, Daniel; Ducloy, Martial

    2005-10-15

    The principle of coherent Dicke narrowing in a thin vapor cell, in which sub-Doppler spectral line shapes are observed under a normal irradiation for a {lambda}/2 thickness, is generalized to two-photon spectroscopy. Only the sum of the two wave vectors must be normal to the cell, making the two-photon scheme highly versatile. A comparison is provided between the Dicke narrowing with copropagating fields, and the residual Doppler broadening occurring with counterpropagating geometries. The experimental feasibility is discussed on the basis of a first observation of a two-photon resonance in a 300-nm-thick Cs cell. Extension to the Raman situation is finally considered.

  14. Coherent destruction of tunneling in two-level system driven across avoided crossing via photon statistics

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Qiang; Zheng, Yujun

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the nature of the multi-order resonance and coherent destruction of tunneling (CDT) for two-level system driven cross avoided crossing is investigated by employing the emitted photons 〈N〉 and the Mandel’s Q parameter based on the photon counting statistics. An asymmetric feature of CDT is shown in the spectrum of Mandel’s Q parameter. Also, the CDT can be employed to suppress the spontaneous decay and prolong waiting time noticeably. The photon emission pattern is of monotonicity in strong relaxation, and homogeneity in pure dephasing regime, respectively. PMID:27353375

  15. Coherent destruction of tunneling in two-level system driven across avoided crossing via photon statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Qiang; Zheng, Yujun

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the nature of the multi-order resonance and coherent destruction of tunneling (CDT) for two-level system driven cross avoided crossing is investigated by employing the emitted photons and the Mandel’s Q parameter based on the photon counting statistics. An asymmetric feature of CDT is shown in the spectrum of Mandel’s Q parameter. Also, the CDT can be employed to suppress the spontaneous decay and prolong waiting time noticeably. The photon emission pattern is of monotonicity in strong relaxation, and homogeneity in pure dephasing regime, respectively.

  16. Communication: Conditions for one-photon coherent phase control in isolated and open quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Spanner, Michael; Arango, Carlos A.; Brumer, Paul

    2010-10-21

    Coherent control of observables using the phase properties of weak light that induces one-photon transitions is considered. Measurable properties are shown to be categorizable as either class A, where control is not possible, or class B, where control is possible. Using formal arguments, we show that phase control in open systems can be environmentally assisted.

  17. High-accurate nonlocal timing and positioning using entangled photon pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia Gonzalez, Alejandra C.

    One of the most surprising consequences of quantum mechanics is the concept of entanglement. This concept has intrigued the scientific community since it was first proposed by Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen in 1935 because of its connection to fundamental aspects regarding our conception of the universe. Nowadays, there are still open questions about the fundamental issues of quantum mechanics. Nevertheless, the unique characteristics of entanglement have been proposed for practical applications in the last years. Spontaneous Parametric Down Conversion (SPDC) has been recognized as a convenient source of entangled photon pairs. SPDC is a nonlinear optical process in which a pump laser beam is shone into a nonlinear crystal and occasionally one pump photon is down-converted to a pair of lower frequency photons that are entangled. Two photons in an entangled state are characterized by a single two-photon effective wavefunction, or Biphoton. They cannot be considered as the simple juxtaposition of two individual systems. This is a consequence of the quantum correlations between the two photons and implies that a measurement in one of the subsystems affects the total state of the composite system and, therefore, affects the output of a measurement performed in the other photon. The purpose of this dissertation is to show the potential of entangled photon pairs for high-accurate timing and positioning measurements. The entangled nature of the two-photon states allows, in principle, precise space-time correlation measurements to the femtosecond level, providing the physical foundations for high-accurate nonlocal distant clock synchronization. In this dissertation, the proof-of-principle demonstration of a "one-way" distant clock synchronization protocol is presented. The novel method is based on the measurements of the second order correlation function of entangled photon pairs. An experimental study of the behavior of the Biphoton when it travels through a dispersive

  18. The Radical Pair Mechanism and the Avian Chemical Compass: Quantum Coherence and Entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yiteng; Kais, Sabre; Berman, Gennady Petrovich

    2015-02-02

    We review the spin radical pair mechanism which is a promising explanation of avian navigation. This mechanism is based on the dependence of product yields on 1) the hyperfine interaction involving electron spins and neighboring nuclear spins and 2) the intensity and orientation of the geomagnetic field. One surprising result is that even at ambient conditions quantum entanglement of electron spins can play an important role in avian magnetoreception. This review describes the general scheme of chemical reactions involving radical pairs generated from singlet and triplet precursors; the spin dynamics of the radical pairs; and the magnetic field dependence of product yields caused by the radical pair mechanism. The main part of the review includes a description of the chemical compass in birds. We review: the general properties of the avian compass; the basic scheme of the radical pair mechanism; the reaction kinetics in cryptochrome; quantum coherence and entanglement in the avian compass; and the effects of noise. We believe that the quantum avian compass can play an important role in avian navigation and can also provide the foundation for a new generation of sensitive and selective magnetic-sensing nano-devices.

  19. Enhancing coherent transport in a photonic network using controllable decoherence

    PubMed Central

    Biggerstaff, Devon N.; Heilmann, René; Zecevik, Aidan A.; Gräfe, Markus; Broome, Matthew A.; Fedrizzi, Alessandro; Nolte, Stefan; Szameit, Alexander; White, Andrew G.; Kassal, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Transport phenomena on a quantum scale appear in a variety of systems, ranging from photosynthetic complexes to engineered quantum devices. It has been predicted that the efficiency of coherent transport can be enhanced through dynamic interaction between the system and a noisy environment. We report an experimental simulation of environment-assisted coherent transport, using an engineered network of laser-written waveguides, with relative energies and inter-waveguide couplings tailored to yield the desired Hamiltonian. Controllable-strength decoherence is simulated by broadening the bandwidth of the input illumination, yielding a significant increase in transport efficiency relative to the narrowband case. We show integrated optics to be suitable for simulating specific target Hamiltonians as well as open quantum systems with controllable loss and decoherence. PMID:27080915

  20. Overlapping single photons on coherent states with two independent laser sources: a proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, Maria L.; Alvarez-Estrada, Ramon F.

    2016-10-01

    Some very interesting pure non-Gaussian states in quantum optics have already been produced experimentally (with one pulsed laser): the single-photon-added coherent states, among others. Important interference phenomena by superposing beams from two independent masers or lasers have been investigated earlier experimentally and theoretically. By pursuing on both subjects altogether, we propose a possible new experiment to generate single-photon-added coherent states, by employing two independent laser sources, both in continuous regime and having approximately equal frequencies and coherence times tc: we expect that such generations could occur during times of the order of tc/3 (possibly, a bit shorter). This expectation follows from a fully quantized multimode analysis of the temporal mode structure, which extends previous studies of parametric down conversion and balanced homodyne detection

  1. Statistical Properties of Photon-Added Two-Mode Squeezed Coherent States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen; Li, Heng-Mei; Yuan, Hong-Chun; Wan, Zhi-Long; Meng, Xiang-Guo

    2017-03-01

    The nonclassical and non-Gaussian quantum states—photon-added two-mode squeezed coherent states have been theoretically introduced by adding multiple photons to each mode of the two-mode squeezed coherent states. Starting from the new expression of two-mode squeezing operator in entangled states representation, the normalization factor is obtained, which is directly related to bivariate Hermite polynomials. The sub-Poissonian photon statistics, cross-correlation between two modes, partial negative Wigner function are observed, which fully reflect the nonclassicality of the target states. The negative Wigner function often display non-Gaussian distribution meanwhile. The investigations may provide experimentalists with some better references in quantum engineering.

  2. The analysis of photon pair source at telecom wavelength based on the BBO crystal (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajewski, Andrzej; Kolenderski, Piotr L.

    2016-10-01

    There are several problems that must be solved in order to increase the distance of quantum communication protocols based on photons as an information carriers. One of them is the dispersion, whose effects can be minimized by engineering spectral properties of transmitted photons. In particular, it is expected that positively correlated photon pairs can be very useful. We present the full characterization of a source of single photon pairs at a telecom wavelength based on type II spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) process in a beta-barium borate (BBO) crystal. In the type II process, a pump photon, which is polarized extraordinarily, splits in a nonlinear medium into signal and idler photons, which are polarized perpendicularly to each other. In order for the process to be efficient a phase matching condition must be fulfilled. These conditions originate from momentum and energy conservation rules and put severe restrictions on source parameters. Seemingly, these conditions force the photon pair to be negatively correlated in their spectral domain. However, it is possible to achieve positive correlation for pulsed pumping. The experimentally available degrees of freedom of a source are the width of the pumping beam, the collected modes' widths, the length of the nonlinear crystal and the duration of the pumping pulse. In our numerical model we use the following figures of merit: the pair production rate, the efficiency of photon coupling into a single mode fiber, the spectral correlation of the coupled photon pair. The last one is defined as the Pearson correlation parameter for a joint spectral distribution. The aim here is to find the largest positive spectral correlation and the highest coupling efficiency. By resorting to the numerical model Ref. [1] we showed in Ref. [2], that by careful adjustment of the pump's and the collected modes' characteristics, one can optimize any of the source's parameters. Our numerical outcomes conform to the

  3. Quantum Zeno switch for single-photon coherent transport

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Lan; Yang, S.; Liu Yuxi; Sun, C. P.; Nori, Franco

    2009-12-15

    Using a dynamical quantum Zeno effect, we propose a general approach to control the coupling between a two-level system (TLS) and its surroundings, by modulating the energy-level spacing of the TLS with a high-frequency signal. We show that the TLS-surroundings interaction can be turned off when the ratio between the amplitude and the frequency of the modulating field is adjusted to be a zero of a Bessel function. The quantum Zeno effect of the TLS can also be observed by the vanishing of the photon reflection at these zeros. Based on these results, we propose a quantum switch to control the transport of a single photon in a one-dimensional waveguide. Our analytical results agree well with numerical results using Floquet theory.

  4. Qubit entanglement between ring-resonator photon-pair sources on a silicon chip

    PubMed Central

    Silverstone, J. W.; Santagati, R.; Bonneau, D.; Strain, M. J.; Sorel, M.; O'Brien, J. L.; Thompson, M. G.

    2015-01-01

    Entanglement—one of the most delicate phenomena in nature—is an essential resource for quantum information applications. Scalable photonic quantum devices must generate and control qubit entanglement on-chip, where quantum information is naturally encoded in photon path. Here we report a silicon photonic chip that uses resonant-enhanced photon-pair sources, spectral demultiplexers and reconfigurable optics to generate a path-entangled two-qubit state and analyse its entanglement. We show that ring-resonator-based spontaneous four-wave mixing photon-pair sources can be made highly indistinguishable and that their spectral correlations are small. We use on-chip frequency demultiplexers and reconfigurable optics to perform both quantum state tomography and the strict Bell-CHSH test, both of which confirm a high level of on-chip entanglement. This work demonstrates the integration of high-performance components that will be essential for building quantum devices and systems to harness photonic entanglement on the large scale. PMID:26245267

  5. Digital coherent superposition of optical OFDM subcarrier pairs with Hermitian symmetry for phase noise mitigation.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xingwen; Chen, Xuemei; Sharma, Dinesh; Li, Chao; Luo, Ming; Yang, Qi; Li, Zhaohui; Qiu, Kun

    2014-06-02

    Digital coherent superposition (DCS) provides an approach to combat fiber nonlinearities by trading off the spectrum efficiency. In analogy, we extend the concept of DCS to the optical OFDM subcarrier pairs with Hermitian symmetry to combat the linear and nonlinear phase noise. At the transmitter, we simply use a real-valued OFDM signal to drive a Mach-Zehnder (MZ) intensity modulator biased at the null point and the so-generated OFDM signal is Hermitian in the frequency domain. At receiver, after the conventional OFDM signal processing, we conduct DCS of the optical OFDM subcarrier pairs, which requires only conjugation and summation. We show that the inter-carrier-interference (ICI) due to phase noise can be reduced because of the Hermitain symmetry. In a simulation, this method improves the tolerance to the laser phase noise. In a nonlinear WDM transmission experiment, this method also achieves better performance under the influence of cross phase modulation (XPM).

  6. Control of coherent information via on-chip photonic-phononic emitter-receivers.

    PubMed

    Shin, Heedeuk; Cox, Jonathan A; Jarecki, Robert; Starbuck, Andrew; Wang, Zheng; Rakich, Peter T

    2015-03-05

    Rapid progress in integrated photonics has fostered numerous chip-scale sensing, computing and signal processing technologies. However, many crucial filtering and signal delay operations are difficult to perform with all-optical devices. Unlike photons propagating at luminal speeds, GHz-acoustic phonons moving at slower velocities allow information to be stored, filtered and delayed over comparatively smaller length-scales with remarkable fidelity. Hence, controllable and efficient coupling between coherent photons and phonons enables new signal processing technologies that greatly enhance the performance and potential impact of integrated photonics. Here we demonstrate a mechanism for coherent information processing based on travelling-wave photon-phonon transduction, which achieves a phonon emit-and-receive process between distinct nanophotonic waveguides. Using this device, physics--which supports GHz frequencies--we create wavelength-insensitive radiofrequency photonic filters with frequency selectivity, narrow-linewidth and high power-handling in silicon. More generally, this emit-receive concept is the impetus for enabling new signal processing schemes.

  7. Diffraction of collinear correlated photon pairs by an ultrasonic wave within Raman-Nath and intermediate region.

    PubMed

    Kwiek, Piotr

    2015-03-01

    The phenomenon of collinear correlated photon pairs diffraction by an ultrasonic wave is investigated within Raman-Nath and intermediate region. The numbers of single photons and photon pairs counts in discrete diffraction orders were measured as functions of the Raman-Nath parameter. Similarly, the number of coincidence photon counts in separate diffraction orders was also investigated. It was shown experimentally that the phenomenon of photon pairs diffraction by an ultrasonic wave happens at angles identical to those corresponding to single photons diffraction. It was also demonstrated that in case of Raman-Nath diffraction the number of photon pairs in a selected, n(th), diffraction order varies with the Raman-Nath parameter changes as an n(th) order Bessel function of the first kind, raised to the fourth power. Whilst in the so-called intermediate diffraction zone, the number of diffracted photon pairs varies as squared intensity of a diffracted light beam consisting of single photons. Moreover, it was revealed that correlations between photons in selected diffraction orders change with the Raman-Nath parameter variation as products of relevant intensities of light in the considered diffraction orders. Finally, it should be emphasized that the presented formulae describing diffraction of collinear correlated proton pairs by an ultrasonic wave are in a very good agreement with corresponding experimental data, for both Raman-Nath and intermediate diffraction.

  8. Electron-Hole Pairs Created by Photons and Intrinsic Properties in Detector Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Fei; Campbell, Luke W.; Xie, YuLong; Devanathan, Ram; Peurrung, Anthony J.; Weber, William J.

    2008-06-26

    A Monte Carlo (MC) code has been developed to simulate the interaction of gamma-rays with semiconductors and scintillators, and the subsequent energy partitioning of fast electrons. The results provide insights on the processes involved in the electron-hole pair yield and intrinsic variance through simulations of full electron energy cascades. The MC code has been applied to simulate the production of electron-hole pairs and to evaluate intrinsic resolution in a number of semiconductors. In addition, the MC code is also able to consider the spatial distribution of electron-hole pairs induced by photons and electrons in detector materials, and has been employed to obtain details of the spatial distribution of electron-hole pairs in Ge, as a benchmark case. The preliminary results show that the distribution of electron-hole pairs exhibit some important features; (a) the density of electron-hole pairs along the main electron track is very high and (b) most electron-hole pairs produced by interband transitions are distributed at the periphery of the cascade volume. The spatial distribution and density of thermalized electron-hole pairs along the primary and secondary tracks are important for large scale simulations of electron-hole pair transport.

  9. Zero Quantum Coherence in a Series of Covalent Spin-Correlated Radical Pairs.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jordan N; Krzyaniak, Matthew D; Horwitz, Noah E; Rugg, Brandon K; Phelan, Brian T; Wasielewski, Michael R

    2017-03-14

    Photoinitiated subnanosecond electron transfer within covalently linked electron donor-acceptor molecules can result in the formation of a spin-correlated radical pair (SCRP) with a well-defined initial singlet spin configuration. Subsequent coherent mixing between the SCRP singlet and triplet ms = 0 spin states, the so-called zero quantum coherence (ZQC), is of potential interest in quantum information processing applications because the ZQC can be probed using pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (pulse-EPR) techniques. Here, pulse-EPR spectroscopy is utilized to examine the ZQC oscillation frequencies and ZQC dephasing in three structurally well-defined D-A systems. While transitions between the singlet and triplet ms = 0 spin states are formally forbidden (Δms = 0), they can be addressed using specific microwave pulse turning angles to map information from the ZQC onto observable single quantum coherences. In addition, by using structural variations to tune the singlet-triplet energy gap, the ZQC frequencies determined for this series of molecules indicate a stronger dependence on the electronic g-factor than on electron-nuclear hyperfine interactions.

  10. Photon correlations in a two-site nonlinear cavity system under coherent drive and dissipation

    SciTech Connect

    Ferretti, Sara; Andreani, Lucio Claudio; Tuereci, Hakan E.; Gerace, Dario

    2010-07-15

    We calculate the normalized second-order correlation function for a system of two tunnel-coupled photonic resonators, each one exhibiting a single-photon nonlinearity of the Kerr type. We employ a full quantum formulation: The master equation for the model, which takes into account both a coherent continuous drive and radiative as well as nonradiative dissipation channels, is solved analytically in steady state through a perturbative approach, and the results are compared to exact numerical simulations. The degree of second-order coherence displays values between 0 and 1, and divides the diagram identified by the two energy scales of the system - the tunneling and the nonlinear Kerr interaction - into two distinct regions separated by a crossover. When the tunneling term dominates over the nonlinear one, the system state is delocalized over both cavities, and the emitted light is coherent. In the opposite limit, photon blockade sets in, and the system shows an insulatorlike state with photons locked on each cavity, identified by antibunching of emitted light.

  11. Generation and analysis of correlated pairs of photons on board a nanosatellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekara, R.; Tang, Z.; Tan, Y. C.; Cheng, C.; Sha, L.; Hiang, G. C.; Oi, D.; Ling, A.

    2016-10-01

    Progress in quantum computers and their threat to conventional public key infrastructure is driving new forms of encryption. Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) using entangled photons is a promising approach. A global QKD network can be achieved using satellites equipped with optical links. Despite numerous proposals, actual experimental work demonstrating relevant entanglement technology in space is limited due to the prohibitive cost of traditional satellite development. To make progress, we have designed a photon pair source that can operate on modular spacecraft called CubeSats. We report the in-orbit operation of the photon pair source on board an orbiting CubeSat and demonstrate pair generation and polarisation correlation under space conditions. The in-orbit polarisation correlations are compatible with ground-based tests, validating our design. This successful demonstration is a major experimental milestone towards a space-based quantum network. Our approach provides a cost-effective method for proving the space-worthiness of critical components used in entangled photon technology. We expect that it will also accelerate efforts to probe the overlap between quantum and relativistic models of physics.

  12. Entangled photon-pair two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (EPP-2DFS).

    PubMed

    Raymer, M G; Marcus, Andrew H; Widom, Julia R; Vitullo, Dashiell L P

    2013-12-12

    We introduce a new method, called entangled photon-pair two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (EPP-2DFS), to sensitively probe the nonlinear electronic response of molecular systems. The method incorporates a separated two-photon ('Franson') interferometer, which generates time-frequency-entangled photon pairs, into the framework of a fluorescence-detected 2D optical spectroscopic experiment. The entangled photons are temporally shaped and phase-modulated in the interferometer, and are used to excite a two-photon-absorbing (TPA) sample, whose excited-state population is selectively detected by simultaneously monitoring the sample fluorescence and the exciting fields. In comparison to 'classical' 2DFS techniques, major advantages of this scheme are the suppression of uncorrelated background signals, the enhancement of simultaneous time-and-frequency resolution, the suppression of diagonal 2D spectral features, and the enhancement and narrowing of off-diagonal spectral cross-peaks that contain information about electronic couplings. These effects are a consequence of the pure-state field properties unique to a parametric down-conversion light source, which must be included in the quantum mechanical description of the composite field-molecule system. We numerically simulate the EPP-2DFS observable for the case of an electronically coupled molecular dimer. The EPP-2DFS spectrum is greatly simplified in comparison to its classical 2D counterpart. Our results indicate that EPP-2DFS can provide previously unattainable resolution to extract model Hamiltonian parameters from electronically coupled molecular dimers.

  13. Ultrafast double-quantum-coherence spectroscopy of excitons with entangled photons

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, Marten; Mukamel, Shaul

    2010-07-15

    We calculate the four-wave-mixing signal of excitons generated at k{sub 4}=k{sub 1}+k{sub 2}-k{sub 3} by two pulsed entangled photon pairs (k{sub 1}, k{sub 2}) and (k{sub 3}, k{sub 4}), where all four modes are chronologically ordered. Entangled photons offer an unusual combination of bandwidths and temporal resolution not possible by classical beams. Contributions from different resonances can be selected by varying the parameters of the photon wave function. The signal scales linearly rather than quadratically with the laser field intensity, which allows performance of the measurements at low powers.

  14. Direct Observation of the Coherent Nuclear Response after the Absorption of a Photon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebel, M.; Schnedermann, C.; Bassolino, G.; Taylor, G.; Watts, A.; Kukura, P.

    2014-06-01

    How molecules convert light energy to perform a specific transformation is a fundamental question in photophysics. Ultrafast spectroscopy reveals the kinetics associated with electronic energy flow, but little is known about how absorbed photon energy drives nuclear motion. Here we used ultrabroadband transient absorption spectroscopy to monitor coherent vibrational energy flow after photoexcitation of the retinal chromophore. In the proton pump bacteriorhodopsin, we observed coherent activation of hydrogen-out-of-plane wagging and backbone torsional modes that were replaced by unreactive coordinates in the solution environment, concomitant with a deactivation of the reactive relaxation pathway.

  15. Construction of photon-added spin coherent states and their statistical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Berrada, K.

    2015-07-15

    In the present work, we construct and investigate some properties of the photon-added spin coherent states (PA-SCSs). The Klauder’s minimal set of conditions required to obtain coherent states are discussed. We give the analytical form for the positive weight function in the resolution of unity. Finally, we examine the statistical properties of the PA-SCSs in terms of different parameters using the Mandel’s Q-parameter. All these quantities are expressed in terms of hypergeometric and Meijer G-functions, and so, the PA-SCSs are a new field of application for these functions.

  16. Dispersion-tolerant two-photon Michelson interferometer using telecom-band frequency-entangled photon pairs generated by spontaneous parametric downconversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshizawa, Akio; Fukuda, Daiji; Tsuchida, Hidemi; Yamamoto, Noritsugu

    2015-05-01

    The chromatic group velocity dispersion tolerance of a fiber-optic two-photon interferometer is characterized for telecom-band photon pairs that are frequency entangled. Two indium-gallium-arsenide single-photon detectors are used to record the coincidence counts. A single-wavelength laser diode continuously pumps a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide of 1-mm length. For near-degenerate spontaneous parametric downconversion, it generates wideband entangled collinear photon pairs. The spectral width of 115.8 nm is centered at 1550 nm. It is restricted by the performance of the single-photon detectors whose efficiency is poor beyond 1610 nm. Using a Michelson interferometer, two-photon interference signals are recorded with and without frequency entanglement. The frequency-entangled photon pairs are found to exhibit dispersion-tolerant two-photon interference, even though the two paths through the interferometer have different group velocity dispersion. The observed two-photon interference signal has a correlation time of 42.7 fs, in good agreement with calculations for a 115.8-nm spectral width. For comparison, results are also presented for photon pairs lacking frequency entanglement.

  17. Generating photon pairs from a silicon microring resonator using an electronic step recovery diode for pump pulse generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savanier, Marc; Mookherjea, Shayan

    2016-06-01

    Generation of photon pairs from compact, manufacturable, and inexpensive silicon (Si) photonic devices at room temperature may help develop practical applications of quantum photonics. An important characteristic of photon-pair generation is the two-photon joint spectral intensity, which describes the frequency correlations of the photon pair. Recent attempts to generate a factorizable photon-pair state suitable for heralding have used short optical pump pulses from mode-locked lasers, which are much more expensive and bigger table-top or rack-sized instruments compared with the Si microchip used for generating photon pairs, and thus dominate the cost and inhibit the miniaturization of the source. Here, we generate photon pairs from an Si microring resonator by using an electronic step-recovery diode to drive an electro-optic modulator which carves the pump light from a continuous-wave laser diode into pulses of the appropriate width, thus potentially eliminating the need for optical mode-locked lasers.

  18. Measurement-based generation of shaped single photons and coherent state superpositions in optical cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecamwasam, Ruvindha L.; Hush, Michael R.; James, Matthew R.; Carvalho, André R. R.

    2017-01-01

    We propose related schemes to generate arbitrarily shaped single photons, i.e., photons with an arbitrary temporal profile, and coherent state superpositions using simple optical elements. The first system consists of two coupled cavities, a memory cavity and a shutter cavity, containing a second-order optical nonlinearity and electro-optic modulator (EOM), respectively. Photodetection events of the shutter cavity output herald preparation of a single photon in the memory cavity, which may be stored by immediately changing the optical length of the shutter cavity with the EOM after detection. On-demand readout of the photon, with arbitrary shaping, can be achieved through modulation of the EOM. The second scheme consists of a memory cavity with two outputs, which are interfered, phase shifted, and measured. States that closely approximate a coherent state superposition can be produced through postselection for sequences of detection events, with more photon detection events leading to a larger superposition. We furthermore demonstrate that no-knowledge feedback can be easily implemented in this system and used to preserve the superposition state, as well as provide an extra control mechanism for state generation.

  19. "Either-or" two-slit interference: stable coherent propagation of individual photons through separate slits.

    PubMed Central

    Alkon, D L

    2001-01-01

    In quantum theory, nothing that is observable, be it physical, chemical, or biological, is separable from the observer. Furthermore, ". all possible knowledge concerning that object is given by its wave function" (Wigner, E. 1967. Symmetries and Reflections. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, IN), which can only describe probabilities of future events. In physical systems, quantum mechanical probabilistic events that are microscopic must, in turn, account for macroscopic events that are associated with a greater degree of certainty. In biological systems, probabilistic statistical mechanical events, such as secretion of microscopic synaptic vesicles, must account for macroscopic postsynaptic potentials; probabilistic single-channel events sum to produce a macroscopic ionic current across a cell membrane; and bleaching of rhodopsin molecules (responsible for quantal potential "bumps") produces a photoreceptor generator potential. Among physical systems, a paradigmatic example of how quantum theory applies to the observation of events concerns the interactions of particles (e.g., photons, electrons) with the two-slit apparatus to generate an interference pattern from a single common light source. For two-slit systems that use two independent laser sources with brief (<1 ms) intervals of mutual coherence (Paul, H. 1986. Rev. Modern Phys. 58:209-231), each photon has been considered to arise from both beams and has a probability amplitude to pass through each of the two slits. Here, a single laser source two-slit interference system was constructed so that each photon has a probability amplitude to pass through only one or the other, but not both slits. Furthermore, all photons passing through one slit could be distinguished from all photons passing through the other slit before their passage. This "either-or" system produced a stable interference pattern indistinguishable from the interference produced when both slits were accessible to each photon. Because this

  20. "Either-or" two-slit interference: stable coherent propagation of individual photons through separate slits.

    PubMed

    Alkon, D L

    2001-05-01

    In quantum theory, nothing that is observable, be it physical, chemical, or biological, is separable from the observer. Furthermore, ". all possible knowledge concerning that object is given by its wave function" (Wigner, E. 1967. Symmetries and Reflections. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, IN), which can only describe probabilities of future events. In physical systems, quantum mechanical probabilistic events that are microscopic must, in turn, account for macroscopic events that are associated with a greater degree of certainty. In biological systems, probabilistic statistical mechanical events, such as secretion of microscopic synaptic vesicles, must account for macroscopic postsynaptic potentials; probabilistic single-channel events sum to produce a macroscopic ionic current across a cell membrane; and bleaching of rhodopsin molecules (responsible for quantal potential "bumps") produces a photoreceptor generator potential. Among physical systems, a paradigmatic example of how quantum theory applies to the observation of events concerns the interactions of particles (e.g., photons, electrons) with the two-slit apparatus to generate an interference pattern from a single common light source. For two-slit systems that use two independent laser sources with brief (<1 ms) intervals of mutual coherence (Paul, H. 1986. Rev. Modern Phys. 58:209-231), each photon has been considered to arise from both beams and has a probability amplitude to pass through each of the two slits. Here, a single laser source two-slit interference system was constructed so that each photon has a probability amplitude to pass through only one or the other, but not both slits. Furthermore, all photons passing through one slit could be distinguished from all photons passing through the other slit before their passage. This "either-or" system produced a stable interference pattern indistinguishable from the interference produced when both slits were accessible to each photon. Because this

  1. A monolithically integrated polarization entangled photon pair source on a silicon chip

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Nobuyuki; Le Jeannic, Hanna; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Tsuchizawa, Tai; Munro, William John; Shimizu, Kaoru; Yamada, Koji; Tokura, Yasuhiro; Takesue, Hiroki

    2012-01-01

    Integrated photonic circuits are one of the most promising platforms for large-scale photonic quantum information systems due to their small physical size and stable interferometers with near-perfect lateral-mode overlaps. Since many quantum information protocols are based on qubits defined by the polarization of photons, we must develop integrated building blocks to generate, manipulate, and measure the polarization-encoded quantum state on a chip. The generation unit is particularly important. Here we show the first integrated polarization-entangled photon pair source on a chip. We have implemented the source as a simple and stable silicon-on-insulator photonic circuit that generates an entangled state with 91 ± 2% fidelity. The source is equipped with versatile interfaces for silica-on-silicon or other types of waveguide platforms that accommodate the polarization manipulation and projection devices as well as pump light sources. Therefore, we are ready for the full-scale implementation of photonic quantum information systems on a chip. PMID:23150781

  2. Adaptive wavefront correction in two-photon microscopy using coherence-gated wavefront sensing

    PubMed Central

    Rueckel, Markus; Mack-Bucher, Julia A.; Denk, Winfried

    2006-01-01

    The image quality of a two-photon microscope is often degraded by wavefront aberrations induced by the specimen. We demonstrate here that resolution and signal size in two-photon microcopy can be substantially improved, even in living biological specimens, by adaptive wavefront correction based on sensing the wavefront of coherence-gated backscattered light (coherence-gated wavefront sensing, CGWS) and wavefront control by a deformable mirror. A nearly diffraction-limited focus can be restored even for strong aberrations. CGWS-based wavefront correction should be applicable to samples with a wide range of scattering properties and it should be possible to perform real-time pixel-by-pixel correction even at fast scan speeds. PMID:17088565

  3. Coherent control with optical pulses for deterministic spin-photon entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truex, Katherine; Webster, L. A.; Duan, L.-M.; Sham, L. J.; Steel, D. G.

    2013-11-01

    We present a procedure for the optical coherent control of quantum bits within a quantum dot spin-exciton system, as a preliminary step to implementing a proposal by Yao, Liu, and Sham [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.95.030504 95, 030504 (2005)] for deterministic spin-photon entanglement. The experiment proposed here utilizes a series of picosecond optical pulses from a single laser to coherently control a single self-assembled quantum dot in a magnetic field, creating the precursor state in 25 ps with a predicted fidelity of 0.991. If allowed to decay in an appropriate cavity, the ideal precursor superposition state would create maximum spin-photon entanglement. Numerical simulations using values typical of InAs quantum dots give a predicted entropy of entanglement of 0.929, largely limited by radiative decay and electron spin flips.

  4. Resonant two-photon annihilation of an electron-positron pair in a pulsed electromagnetic wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voroshilo, A. I.; Roshchupkin, S. P.; Nedoreshta, V. N.

    2016-09-01

    Two-photon annihilation of an electron-positron pair in the field of a plane low-intensity circularly polarized pulsed electromagnetic wave was studied. The conditions for resonance of the process which are related to an intermediate particle that falls within the mass shell are studied. In the resonant approximation the probability of the process was obtained. It is demonstrated that the resonant probability of two-photon annihilation of an electron-positron pair may be several orders of magnitude higher than the probability of this process in the absence of the external field. The obtained results may be experimentally verified by the laser facilities of the international megaprojects, for example, SLAC (National Accelerator Laboratory), FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research), and XFEL (European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser).

  5. Broadband photon pair generation in green fluorescent proteins through spontaneous four-wave mixing

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Siyuan; Thomas, Abu; Corzo, Neil V.; Kumar, Prem; Huang, Yuping; Lee, Kim Fook

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies in quantum biology suggest that quantum mechanics help us to explore quantum processes in biological system. Here, we demonstrate generation of photon pairs through spontaneous four-wave mixing process in naturally occurring fluorescent proteins. We develop a general empirical method for analyzing the relative strength of nonlinear optical interaction processes in five different organic fluorophores. Our results indicate that the generation of photon pairs in green fluorescent proteins is subject to less background noises than in other fluorophores, leading to a coincidence-to-accidental ratio ~145. As such proteins can be genetically engineered and fused to many biological cells, our experiment enables a new platform for quantum information processing in a biological environment such as biomimetic quantum networks and quantum sensors. PMID:27076032

  6. Quantum teleportation in space and frequency using entangled pairs of photons from a frequency comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hongbin; Yonezawa, Hidehiro; Kuntz, Katanya B.; Heurs, Michele; Huntington, Elanor H.

    2014-10-01

    Using entangled pairs of photons from a frequency comb and wide-band frequency-resolved homodyne detection, we propose a sequential quantum teleportation protocol for continuous variables that teleports an unknown state in space and frequency. A subthreshold optical parametric oscillator (OPO) produces a comb of entangled pairs of photons separated by the free spectral range of the OPO cavity. Wide-band frequency-resolved homodyne detection enables direct access to the sum and difference of quadratures between different teeth in the comb. Such measurements are Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen nullifiers, and can be used as the basis for teleportation protocols. Our protocol for space-and-frequency teleportation effectively links arbitrary frequency channels for frequency-division multiplexing, which has applications in universal quantum computation and large-capacity quantum communication.

  7. Broadband photon pair generation in green fluorescent proteins through spontaneous four-wave mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Siyuan; Thomas, Abu; Corzo, Neil V.; Kumar, Prem; Huang, Yuping; Lee, Kim Fook

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies in quantum biology suggest that quantum mechanics help us to explore quantum processes in biological system. Here, we demonstrate generation of photon pairs through spontaneous four-wave mixing process in naturally occurring fluorescent proteins. We develop a general empirical method for analyzing the relative strength of nonlinear optical interaction processes in five different organic fluorophores. Our results indicate that the generation of photon pairs in green fluorescent proteins is subject to less background noises than in other fluorophores, leading to a coincidence-to-accidental ratio ~145. As such proteins can be genetically engineered and fused to many biological cells, our experiment enables a new platform for quantum information processing in a biological environment such as biomimetic quantum networks and quantum sensors.

  8. Photon pair production from a hot atomic ensemble in the diamond configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, Richard Thomas

    This thesis discusses four-wave mixing (4WM) in a warm ensemble of rubidium using the diamond configuration level structure. Both classical 4WM and nonclassical photon-pair production are investigated. Quantum information science has spawned a great amount of experimental work on the interaction of light with collective modes of excitation in atomic ensembles. Plans to build quantum networks and quantum repeaters with atom ensembles take advantage of nonlinear interactions to produce and store non-classical states of light. These technologies will require photon sources that not only generate nonclassical light, but also resonant, narrow band light. Here we investigate a system which could be used as such a source. We take advantage of the 4WM interaction in a warm ensemble of Rubidium atoms. Our scheme utilizes the diamond energy level configuration which, in rubidium, allows for correlated pairs at telecommunications wavelengths. We start by examining the properties of classical 4WM in the system. We measure the resonance structure and see that it can be understood in terms of velocity class selective resonant enhancement and power splitting effects. The efficiency of the process is low and limited by linear absorption of the pumps. Our observations agree with a semi-classical Maxwell-Bloch theoretical treatment. Next we observe pair generation by spontaneous 4WM from the warm ensemble. The temporal profile of the cross-correlation function (CCF) for the photons depends on pump-laser power and detuning. This allows us to produce biphotons with controllable spectra. A simple quantum optical theoretical treatment based on linear filtering gives qualitative agreement with the data. We show that the photon pairs are polarization entangled, clearly violating Bell's Inequality. A perturbative quantum optical treatment predicts the polarization state of the pairs and agrees with our measurements. We analyze the photon statistics of the source and find the largest

  9. Developing Topological Insulator Fiber Based Photon Pairs Source for Ultrafast Optoelectronic Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    singular opportunity for accurate quantum operations in secure quantum communications and quantum computation. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Topological insulator...entangled photon pairs; quantum computation 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT U 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF...the magneto- optic effect together with a large third order nonlinearity in TI: Bi2Se3 offers a singular opportunity for accurate quantum operations

  10. Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer with one and two photon pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosme, Olavo; Pádua, S.; Bovino, Fabio A.; Mazzei, A.; Sciarrino, Fabio; de Martini, Francesco

    2008-05-01

    We study the Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer in the regime of spontaneous parametric down-conversion with high pump beam power at the crystal. In this regime one and two photons from a pump pulsed laser beam generate one and two pairs of photons, respectively. These photons are then directed to the beam splitter of the interferometer and detected at its exit in coincidence. An interesting phenomenon is observed: The reduction of the visibility of the Hong-Ou-Mandel coincidence peak (or dip) with the increase of pump power. We study the relation between the visibility of the fourth-order interference pattern and the power of the pumping laser beam for type I and type II phase-matching crystals. Our theoretical calculations are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  11. Electro-optic modulation for high-speed characterization of entangled photon pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Lukens, Joseph M.; Odele, Ogaga D.; Leaird, Daniel E.; Weiner, Andrew M.

    2015-11-10

    In this study, we demonstrate a new biphoton manipulation and characterization technique based on electro-optic intensity modulation and time shifting. By applying fast modulation signals with a sharply peaked cross-correlation to each photon from an entangled pair, it is possible to measure temporal correlations with significantly higher precision than that attainable using standard single-photon detection. Low-duty-cycle pulses and maximal-length sequences are considered as modulation functions, reducing the time spread in our correlation measurement by a factor of five compared to our detector jitter. With state-of-the-art electro-optic components, we expect the potential to surpass the speed of any single-photon detectors currently available.

  12. Electro-optic modulation for high-speed characterization of entangled photon pairs

    DOE PAGES

    Lukens, Joseph M.; Odele, Ogaga D.; Leaird, Daniel E.; ...

    2015-11-10

    In this study, we demonstrate a new biphoton manipulation and characterization technique based on electro-optic intensity modulation and time shifting. By applying fast modulation signals with a sharply peaked cross-correlation to each photon from an entangled pair, it is possible to measure temporal correlations with significantly higher precision than that attainable using standard single-photon detection. Low-duty-cycle pulses and maximal-length sequences are considered as modulation functions, reducing the time spread in our correlation measurement by a factor of five compared to our detector jitter. With state-of-the-art electro-optic components, we expect the potential to surpass the speed of any single-photon detectors currentlymore » available.« less

  13. Neutral Higgs boson pair production in photon-photon annihilation in the two Higgs doublet model

    SciTech Connect

    Arhrib, Abdesslam; Benbrik, Rachid; Chen, C.-H.; Santos, Rui

    2009-07-01

    We study double Higgs production in photon-photon collisions as a probe of the new dynamics of Higgs interactions in the framework of two Higgs doublet models. We analyze neutral Higgs bosons production and decay in the fusion processes, {gamma}{gamma}{yields}S{sub i}S{sub j}, S{sub i}=h{sup 0}, H{sup 0}, A{sup 0}, and show that both h{sup 0}h{sup 0} and A{sup 0}A{sup 0} production can be enhanced by threshold effects in the region E{sub {gamma}}{sub {gamma}}{approx_equal}2m{sub H{+-}}. Resonant effects due to the heavy Higgs H{sup 0} can also play a role in the cross section enhancement when it is allowed to decay to two light CP-even h{sup 0} or to two light CP-odd A{sup 0} scalars. We have scanned the allowed parameter space of the two Higgs doublet model and found a vast region of the parameter space where the cross section is 2 orders of magnitude above the standard model cross section. We further show that the standard model experimental analysis can be used to discover or to constrain the two Higgs doublet model parameter space.

  14. Coherent transmission and reflection of a two-dimensional planar photonic crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Miskevich, A. A.; Loiko, V. A.

    2011-07-15

    A method for modeling the radial distribution function for particles of a two-dimensional planar photonic crystal in the form of a monolayer of spatially ordered monodisperse spherical particles is proposed. The coherent transmission and reflection coefficients for layers under normal illumination are calculated in the quasi-crystalline approximation of the multiple wave scattering theory. The dependence of the coherent transmission and reflection of the layer on the degree of ordering of the spherical particles is investigated. The influence of the long-range order on the coherent transmission and reflection coefficients for layers with triangular, square, and hexagonal lattices is estimated. Monolayers of weakly absorbing dielectric and strongly absorbing metallic particles are considered.

  15. Mode expansion and Bragg filtering for a high-fidelity fiber-based photon-pair Source.

    PubMed

    Ling, Alexander; Chen, Jun; Fan, Jingyun; Migdall, Alan

    2009-11-09

    We report the development of a fiber-based single spatial-mode source of photon-pairs where the efficiency of extracting photon-pairs is increased through the use of fiber-end expansion and Bragg filters. This improvement in efficiency enabled a spectrally bright and pure photon-pair source having a small second-order correlation function (0.03) and a raw spectral brightness of 44,700 pairs s(-1)nm(-1)mW(-1). The source can be configured to generate entangled photon-pairs, characterized via optimal and minimal quantum state tomography, to have a fidelity of 97% and tangle of 92%, without subtracting any background.

  16. Modeling and optimization of photon pair sources based on spontaneous parametric down-conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Kolenderski, Piotr; Banaszek, Konrad; Wasilewski, Wojciech

    2009-07-15

    We address the problem of efficient modeling of photon pairs generated in spontaneous parametric down-conversion and coupled into single-mode fibers. It is shown that when the range of relevant transverse wave vectors is restricted by the pump and fiber modes, the computational complexity can be reduced substantially with the help of the paraxial approximation, while retaining the full spectral characteristics of the source. This approach can serve as a basis for efficient numerical calculations or can be combined with analytically tractable approximations of the phase-matching function. We introduce here a cosine-Gaussian approximation of the phase-matching function that works for a broader range of parameters than the Gaussian model used previously. The developed modeling tools are used to evaluate characteristics of the photon pair sources such as the pair production rate and the spectral purity quantifying frequency correlations. Strategies to generate spectrally uncorrelated photons, necessary in multiphoton interference experiments, are analyzed with respect to trade-offs between parameters of the source.

  17. Multi-photon excited coherent random laser emission in ZnO powders.

    PubMed

    Tolentino Dominguez, Christian; Gomes, Maria de A; Macedo, Zélia S; de Araújo, Cid B; Gomes, Anderson S L

    2015-01-07

    We report the observation and analysis of anti-Stokes coherent random laser (RL) emission from zinc oxide (ZnO) powders excited by one-, two- or three-photon femtosecond laser radiation. The ZnO powders were produced via a novel proteic sol-gel, low-cost and environmentally friendly route using coconut water in the polymerization step of the metal precursor. One- and two-photon excitation at 354 nm and 710 nm, respectively, generated single-band emissions centred at about 387 nm. For three-photon excitation, the emission spectra showed a strong ultraviolet (UV) band (380-396 nm) attributed to direct three-photon absorption from the valence band to the conduction band. The presence of an intensity threshold and a bandwidth narrowing of the UV band from about 20 to 4 nm are clear evidence of RL action. The observation of multiple sub-nanometre narrow peaks in the emission spectra for excitation above the RL threshold is consistent with random lasing by coherent feedback.

  18. Multi-photon excited coherent random laser emission in ZnO powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolentino Dominguez, Christian; Gomes, Maria De A.; Macedo, Zélia S.; de Araújo, Cid B.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.

    2014-11-01

    We report the observation and analysis of anti-Stokes coherent random laser (RL) emission from zinc oxide (ZnO) powders excited by one-, two- or three-photon femtosecond laser radiation. The ZnO powders were produced via a novel proteic sol-gel, low-cost and environmentally friendly route using coconut water in the polymerization step of the metal precursor. One- and two-photon excitation at 354 nm and 710 nm, respectively, generated single-band emissions centred at about 387 nm. For three-photon excitation, the emission spectra showed a strong ultraviolet (UV) band (380-396 nm) attributed to direct three-photon absorption from the valence band to the conduction band. The presence of an intensity threshold and a bandwidth narrowing of the UV band from about 20 to 4 nm are clear evidence of RL action. The observation of multiple sub-nanometre narrow peaks in the emission spectra for excitation above the RL threshold is consistent with random lasing by coherent feedback.

  19. Wigner spectrum and coherent feedback control of continuous-mode single-photon Fock states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Zhiyuan; Cui, Lei; Zhang, Guofeng; Fu, Hongchen

    2016-10-01

    Single photons are very useful resources in quantum information science. In real applications it is often required that the photons have a well-defined spectral (or equivalently temporal) modal structure. For example, a rising exponential pulse is able to fully excite a two-level atom while a Gaussian pulse cannot. This motivates the study of continuous-mode single-photon Fock states. Such states are characterized by a spectral (or temporal) pulse shape. In this paper we investigate the statistical property of continuous-mode single-photon Fock states. Instead of the commonly used normal ordering (Wick order), the tool we proposed is the Wigner spectrum. The Wigner spectrum has two advantages: (1) it allows to study continuous-mode single-photon Fock states in the time domain and frequency domain simultaneously; (2) because it can deal with the Dirac delta function directly, it has the potential to provide more information than the normal ordering where the Dirac delta function is always discarded. We also show how various control methods in particular coherent feedback control can be used to manipulate the pulse shapes of continuous-mode single-photon Fock states.

  20. Coherent optical propagation and ultrahigh resolution mass sensor based on photonic molecules optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hua-Jun; Chen, Chang-Zhao; Li, Yang; Fang, Xian-Wen; Tang, Xu-Dong

    2017-01-01

    We theoretically demonstrate the coherent optical propagation properties based on a photonic molecules optomechanics. With choosing a suitable detuning of the pump field from optomechanical cavity resonance, both the slow- and fast-light effect of the probe field appear in the system. The coupling strength of the two cavities play a key role, which affords a quantum channel and influences the width of the transparency window. Based on the photonic molecules optomechanical system, a high resolution mass sensor is also proposed. The mass of external nanoparticles deposited onto the cavity can be measured straightforward via tracking the mechanical resonance frequency shifts due to mass changes in the probe transmission spectrum. Compared with the single-cavity optomechanics mass sensors, the mass resolution is improved significantly due to the cavity-cavity coupling. The photonic molecules optomechanics provide a new platform for on-chip applications in quantum information processing and ultrahigh resolution sensor devices.

  1. Ultra-compact silicon photonic integrated interferometer for swept-source optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Yurtsever, Günay; Weiss, Nicolás; Kalkman, Jeroen; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Baets, Roel

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate an ultra-compact silicon integrated photonic interferometer for swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). The footprint of the integrated interferometer is only 0.75×5  mm2. The design consists of three 2×2 splitters, a 13 cm physical length (50.4 cm optical length) reference arm, and grating couplers. The photonic integrated circuit was used as the interferometer of an SS-OCT system. The sensitivity of the system was measured to be -62  dB with 115 μW power delivered to the sample. Using the system, we demonstrate cross-sectional OCT imaging of a layered tissue phantom. We also discuss potential improvements in passive silicon photonic integrated circuit design and integration with active components.

  2. Statistical strength of experiments to reject local realism with photon pairs and inefficient detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yanbao; Knill, Emanuel; Glancy, Scott

    2010-03-15

    Because of the fundamental importance of Bell's theorem, a loophole-free demonstration of a violation of local realism (LR) is highly desirable. Here, we study violations of LR involving photon pairs. We quantify the experimental evidence against LR by using measures of statistical strength related to the Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence, as suggested by van Dam et al.[W. van Dam, R. D. Gill, and P. D. Grunwald, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory. 51, 2812 (2005)]. Specifically, we analyze a test of LR with entangled states created from two independent polarized photons passing through a polarizing beam splitter. We numerically study the detection efficiency required to achieve a specified statistical strength for the rejection of LR depending on whether photon counters or detectors are used. Based on our results, we find that a test of LR free of the detection loophole requires photon counters with efficiencies of at least 89.71%, or photon detectors with efficiencies of at least 91.11%. For comparison, we also perform this analysis with ideal unbalanced Bell states, which are known to allow rejection of LR with detector efficiencies above 2/3.

  3. Free-space quantum key distribution with a high generation rate potassium titanyl phosphate waveguide photon-pair source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Chaffee, Dalton W.; Wilson, Nathaniel C.; Lekki, John D.; Tokars, Roger P.; Pouch, John J.; Roberts, Tony D.; Battle, Philip R.; Floyd, Bertram; Lind, Alexander J.; Cavin, John D.; Helmick, Spencer R.

    2016-09-01

    A high generation rate photon-pair source using a dual element periodically-poled potassium titanyl phosphate (PP KTP) waveguide is described. The fully integrated photon-pair source consists of a 1064-nm pump diode laser, fiber-coupled to a dual element waveguide within which a pair of 1064-nm photons are up-converted to a single 532-nm photon in the first stage. In the second stage, the 532-nm photon is down-converted to an entangled photon-pair at 800 nm and 1600 nm which are fiber-coupled at the waveguide output. The photon-pair source features a high pair generation rate, a compact power-efficient package, and continuous wave (CW) or pulsed operation. This is a significant step towards the long term goal of developing sources for high-rate Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) to enable Earth-space secure communications. Characterization and test results are presented. Details and preliminary results of a laboratory free space QKD experiment with the B92 protocol are also presented.

  4. Optimizing photon-pair generation electronically using a p-i-n diode incorporated in a silicon microring resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Savanier, Marc Kumar, Ranjeet; Mookherjea, Shayan

    2015-09-28

    Silicon photonic microchips may be useful for compact, inexpensive, room-temperature optically pumped photon-pair sources, which unlike conventional photon-pair generators based on crystals or optical fibers, can be manufactured using CMOS-compatible processes on silicon wafers. It has been shown that photon pairs can be created in simple structures such as microring resonators at a rate of a few hundred kilohertz using less than a milliwatt of optical pump power, based on the process of spontaneous four-wave mixing. To create a practical photon-pair source, however, also requires some way of monitoring the device and aligning the pump wavelength when the temperature varies, since silicon resonators are highly sensitive to temperature. In fact, monitoring photodiodes are standard components in classical laser diodes, but the incorporation of germanium or InGaAs photodiodes would raise the cost and fabrication complexity. Here, we present a simple and effective all-electronic technique for finding the optimum operating point for the microring used to generate photon pairs, based on measuring the reverse-biased current in a silicon p-i-n junction diode fabricated across the waveguide that constitutes the silicon microring. We show that by monitoring the current, and using it to tune the pump laser wavelength, the photon-pair generation properties of the microring can be preserved over a temperature range of more than 30 °C.

  5. Optimizing photon-pair generation electronically using a p-i-n diode incorporated in a silicon microring resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savanier, Marc; Kumar, Ranjeet; Mookherjea, Shayan

    2015-09-01

    Silicon photonic microchips may be useful for compact, inexpensive, room-temperature optically pumped photon-pair sources, which unlike conventional photon-pair generators based on crystals or optical fibers, can be manufactured using CMOS-compatible processes on silicon wafers. It has been shown that photon pairs can be created in simple structures such as microring resonators at a rate of a few hundred kilohertz using less than a milliwatt of optical pump power, based on the process of spontaneous four-wave mixing. To create a practical photon-pair source, however, also requires some way of monitoring the device and aligning the pump wavelength when the temperature varies, since silicon resonators are highly sensitive to temperature. In fact, monitoring photodiodes are standard components in classical laser diodes, but the incorporation of germanium or InGaAs photodiodes would raise the cost and fabrication complexity. Here, we present a simple and effective all-electronic technique for finding the optimum operating point for the microring used to generate photon pairs, based on measuring the reverse-biased current in a silicon p-i-n junction diode fabricated across the waveguide that constitutes the silicon microring. We show that by monitoring the current, and using it to tune the pump laser wavelength, the photon-pair generation properties of the microring can be preserved over a temperature range of more than 30 °C.

  6. Free-Space Quantum Key Distribution with a High Generation Rate Potassium Titanyl Phosphate Waveguide Photon-Pair Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Chaffee, Dalton W.; Wilson, Nathaniel C.; Lekki, John D.; Tokars, Roger P.; Pouch, John J.; Roberts, Tony D.; Battle, Philip; Floyd, Bertram M.; Lind, Alexander J.; Cavin, John D.; Helmick, Spencer R.

    2016-01-01

    A high generation rate photon-pair source using a dual element periodically-poled potassium titanyl phosphate (PP KTP) waveguide is described. The fully integrated photon-pair source consists of a 1064-nanometer pump diode laser, fiber-coupled to a dual element waveguide within which a pair of 1064-nanometer photons are up-converted to a single 532-nanometer photon in the first stage. In the second stage, the 532-nanometer photon is down-converted to an entangled photon-pair at 800 nanometer and 1600 nanometer which are fiber-coupled at the waveguide output. The photon-pair source features a high pair generation rate, a compact power-efficient package, and continuous wave (CW) or pulsed operation. This is a significant step towards the long term goal of developing sources for high-rate Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) to enable Earth-space secure communications. Characterization and test results are presented. Details and preliminary results of a laboratory free-space QKD experiment with the B92 protocol are also presented.

  7. Full analysis of multi-photon pair effects in spontaneous parametric down conversion based photonic quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeoka, Masahiro; Jin, Rui-Bo; Sasaki, Masahide

    2015-04-01

    In spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) based quantum information processing (QIP) experiments, there is a tradeoff between the coincidence count rates (i.e. the pumping power of the SPDC), which limits the rate of the protocol, and the visibility of the quantum interference, which limits the quality of the protocol. This tradeoff is mainly caused by the multi-photon pair emissions from the SPDCs. In theory, the problem is how to model the experiments without truncating these multi-photon emissions while including practical imperfections. In this paper, we establish a method to theoretically simulate SPDC-based QIPs which fully incorporates the effect of multi-photon emissions and various practical imperfections. The key ingredient in our method is the application of the characteristic function formalism which has been used in continuous variable QIPs. We apply our method to three examples, the Hong-Ou-Mandel interference and the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen interference experiments, and the concatenated entanglement swapping protocol. For the first two examples, we show that our theoretical results quantitatively agree with the recent experimental results. Also we provide the closed expressions for these interference visibilities with the full multi-photon components and various imperfections. For the last example, we provide the general theoretical form of the concatenated entanglement swapping protocol in our method and show the numerical results up to five concatenations. Our method requires only a small computational resource (a few minutes by a commercially available computer), which was not possible in the previous theoretical approach. Our method will have applications in a wide range of SPDC-based QIP protocols with high accuracy and a reasonable computational resource.

  8. Single photon self-interference via inelastic two-wave mixing in a coherently prepared cold medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, M. G.; Deng, L.

    2007-03-01

    We investigate a coherently prepared cold medium for efficient single-photon inelastic two-wave mixing (ITWM), maximum Fock state entanglement and single photon self-interference. We show the possibility of generating maximally entangled single-photon state, and near 100% conversion efficiency for generating a frequency shifted TWM photon by proper choice of medium length and concentration. In addition, we demonstrate a new type of transparency effect produced by an efficient single photon self-interference, a transparency effect that is very different from the conventional electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) process.

  9. Theoretical Analysis of Spectral Correlations Between Photon Pairs Generated in Nanoscale Silicon Waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Liang-Liang; Xu, Ping; Xu, Jian-Ning; He, Guang-Qiang; Zhu, Shi-Ning

    2015-12-01

    Spontaneous four wave mixing in nonlinear waveguide is one of the excellent technique for generating photon pairs in well-defined guided modes. Here we present a comprehensive study of the frequency characteristic of correlated photon pairs generated in telecom C-band from a dispersion-engineered silicon wire waveguide. We have demonstrated that the waveguide configuration, shape of pump pulse, two-photon absorption as well as linear losses have significant influences on the biphoton spectral characteristics and the amount of frequency entanglement generated. The superior performance as well as the structural compactness and CMOS compatibility makes the silicon wire waveguide an ideal integrated platform for the implementation of on-chip quantum technologies. Supported by the State Key Program for Basic Research of China under Grant No. 2012CB921802, the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 91321312, 91121001, 11321063, 11174121, and 61475099, and the Project Funded by the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (PAPD), and the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University (NCET), and a Foundation for the Author of National Excellent Doctoral Dissertation of People's Republic of China (FANEDD)

  10. Multiplexed entangled photon-pair sources for all-fiber quantum networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Yin-Hai; Xu, Li-Xin; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can

    2016-11-01

    The ultimate goal of quantum information science is to build a global quantum network, which enables quantum resources to be distributed and shared between remote parties. Such a quantum network can be realized using only fiber elements, thus deriving the advantages of low transmission loss, low cost, scalability, and integrability through mature fiber communication techniques such as dense wavelength division multiplexing. Hence high-quality entangled-photon sources based on fibers are in high demand. Here we report multiplexed polarization- and time-bin-entangled photon-pair sources based on the dispersion-shifted fiber operating at room temperature. The associated high quality of entanglement is characterized using interference, Bell's inequality, and quantum state tomography. The simultaneous presence of both types of entanglement in multi-channel pairs of a 100-GHz dense wavelength division multiplexing device indicates a great capacity in distributing entangled photons over multiple users. Our design provides a versatile platform and takes a big step toward constructing an all-fiber quantum network.

  11. Multiplexed entangled photon-pair sources for all-fiber quantum networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yin-Hai; Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Xu, Zhao-Huai; Xu, Li-Xin; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can

    2016-10-01

    The ultimate goal of quantum information science is to build a global quantum network, which enables quantum resources to be distributed and shared between remote parties. Such a quantum network can be realized using only fiber elements, thus deriving the advantages of low transmission loss, low cost, scalability, and integrability through mature fiber communication techniques such as dense wavelength division multiplexing. Hence high-quality entangled-photon sources based on fibers are in high demand. Here we report multiplexed polarization- and time-bin-entangled photon-pair sources based on the dispersion-shifted fiber operating at room temperature. The associated high quality of entanglement is characterized using interference, Bell's inequality, and quantum state tomography. The simultaneous presence of both types of entanglement in multichannel pairs of a 100-GHz dense wavelength division multiplexing device indicates a great capacity in distributing entangled photons over multiple users. Our design provides a versatile platform and takes a big step toward constructing an all-fiber quantum network.

  12. Controlling the transmitted information of a multi-photon interacting with a single-Cooper pair box

    SciTech Connect

    Kadry, Heba Abdel-Aty, Abdel-Haleem Zakaria, Nordin; Cheong, Lee Yen

    2014-10-24

    We study a model of a multi-photon interaction of a single Cooper pair box with a cavity field. The exchange of the information using this system is studied. We quantify the fidelity of the transmitted information. The effect of the system parameters (detuning parameter, field photons, state density and mean photon number) in the fidelity of the transmitted information is investigated. We found that the fidelity of the transmitted information can be controlled using the system parameters.

  13. A compact, integrated silicon device for the generation of spectrally filtered, pair-correlated photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minkov, Momchil; Savona, Vincenzo

    2016-05-01

    The third-order nonlinearity of silicon gives rise to a spontaneous four-wave mixing process in which correlated photon pairs are generated. Sources based on this effect can be used for quantum computation and cryptography, and can in principle be integrated with standard CMOS fabrication technology and components. However, one of the major challenges is the on-chip demultiplexing of the photons, and in particular the filtering of the pump power, which is many orders of magnitude larger than that of the signal and idler photons. Here, we propose a photonic crystal coupled-cavity system designed so that the coupling of the pump mode to the output channel is strictly zero due to symmetry. We further analyze this effect in the presence of fabrication disorder and find that, even then, a pump suppression of close to 40 dB can be achieved in state-of-the-art systems. Due to the small mode volumes and high quality factors, our system is also expected to have a generation efficiency much higher than in standard micro-ring systems. Those two considerations make a strong case for the integration of our proposed design in future on-chip quantum technologies.

  14. Indistinguishability of photon pair in a periodically poled KTiOPO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hee Jung; Kim, Heonoh; Lee, Sang Min; Moon, Han Seb

    2015-12-01

    We report the two-photon interference properties of a photon pair generated in a type-II collinear periodically poled KTiOPO4 (PPKTP) crystal pumped by a 406-nm diode laser capable of producing a single or dual longitudinal mode (LM). When the Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference signals in the PPKTP crystal pumped by a dual-mode diode laser were investigated at various crystal temperatures, it was found that the maximum visibility of the HOM interference signal depends on the relative strength of the dual LMs of the pump laser. The HOM interference pattern was numerically calculated considering the dual LM components of the pump laser diode and the crystal temperature, and was found to be in good agreement with the experimental results.

  15. Experimental evidence of the spatial coherence moiré and the filtering of classes of radiator pairs.

    PubMed

    Castaneda, Roman; Usuga-Castaneda, Mario; Herrera-Ramírez, Jorge

    2007-08-01

    Evidence of the physical existence of the spatial coherence moiré is obtained by confronting numerical results with experimental results of spatially partial interference. Although it was performed for two particular cases, the results reveal a general behavior of the optical fields in any state of spatial coherence. Moreover, the study of the spatial coherence moiré deals with a new type of filtering, named filtering of classes of radiator pairs, which allows changing the power spectrum at the observation plane by modulating the complex degree of spatial coherence, without altering the power distribution at the aperture plane or introducing conventional spatial filters. This new procedure can optimize some technological applications of actual interest, as the beam shaping for instance.

  16. Photonic aided bandpass sampling in coherent phase modulated radio-over-fiber links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Minghua; Li, Jianqiang; Dai, Jian; Dai, Yitang; Yin, Feifei; Zhou, Yue; Xu, Kun

    2016-06-01

    We have experimentally presented a digital coherent receiver employing photonic aided bandpass sampling technology for phase-modulated radio-over-fiber (RoF) links. An optical intensity modulator (IM) is utilized as the bandpass sampler which performs encoded on-off keyed pulse sequence on the optical local oscillator. Quaternary Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) modulated data signal with 20 MHz bandwidth at 5.2 GHz, 10.2 GHz and 15.2 GHz RF carrier frequency is experimentally demonstrated to be successfully detected by using balanced photodiodes (BPDs) with only 800 MHz analog bandwidth. It demonstrates that the required analog bandwidth of BPDs and ADCs can be dramatically reduced in a direct sampled coherent RoF communications system.

  17. Coherent blue emission generated by Rb two-photon excitation using diode and femtosecond lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Jesus P.; Moreno, Marco P.; de Miranda, Marcio H. G.; Vianna, Sandra S.

    2017-04-01

    The coherent blue light generated in rubidium vapor due to the combined action of an ultrashort pulse train and a continuous wave diode laser is investigated. Each step of the two-photon transition 5S–5P{}3/2–5D is excited by one of the lasers, and the induced coherence between the 5S and 6P{}3/2 states is responsible for generating the blue beam. Measurements of the excitation spectrum reveal the frequency comb structure and allow us to identify the resonant modes responsible for inducing the nonlinear process. Further, each resonant mode excites a different group of atoms, making the process selective in atomic velocity. The signal dependency on the atomic density is characterized by a sharp growth and a rapid saturation. We also show that for high intensity of the diode laser, the Stark shift at resonance causes the signal suppression observed at low atomic density.

  18. A monolithic polarization-independent frequency-filter system for filtering of photon pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlrichs, Andreas; Berkemeier, Christoph; Sprenger, Benjamin; Benson, Oliver

    2013-12-09

    We set up a long-term stable filtering system that consists of cascaded monolithic Fabry-Pérot filters to enhance the suppression and free spectral range. An effective free spectral range of hundreds of GHz allows the system to be used as a high resolution monochromator, with a linewidth of 192 MHz. As an important application a single mode is filtered from photon pairs generated by a parametric down-conversion source, and their indistinguishability is proven by measuring the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect with a visibility of 96%. We report that undesired birefringence, which is often encountered with monolithic cavities, can be avoided by stress-free mounting.

  19. Exclusive production of pion and kaon meson pairs in two photon collisions at LEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ALEPH Collaboration; Heister, A.; Schael, S.; Barate, R.; Brunelière, R.; de Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Goy, C.; Jezequel, S.; Lees, J.-P.; Martin, F.; Merle, E.; Minard, M.-N.; Pietrzyk, B.; Trocmé, B.; Bravo, S.; Casado, M. P.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J. M.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, Ll.; Martinez, M.; Pacheco, A.; Ruiz, H.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; de Filippis, N.; de Palma, M.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Tricomi, A.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Abbaneo, D.; Barklow, T.; Buchmüller, O.; Cattaneo, M.; Clerbaux, B.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Frank, M.; Gianotti, F.; Hansen, J. B.; Harvey, J.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Kado, M.; Mato, P.; Moutoussi, A.; Ranjard, F.; Rolandi, L.; Schlatter, D.; Sguazzoni, G.; Teubert, F.; Valassi, A.; Videau, I.; Badaud, F.; Dessagne, S.; Falvard, A.; Fayolle, D.; Gay, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Pallin, D.; Pascolo, J. M.; Perret, P.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Kraan, A. C.; Nilsson, B. S.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Blondel, A.; Brient, J.-C.; Machefert, F.; Rougé, A.; Videau, H.; Ciulli, V.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Bossi, F.; Capon, G.; Cerutti, F.; Chiarella, V.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Kennedy, J.; Lynch, J. G.; Negus, P.; O'Shea, V.; Thompson, A. S.; Wasserbaech, S.; Cavanaugh, R.; Dhamotharan, S.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Stenzel, H.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Cameron, W.; Davies, G.; Dornan, P. J.; Girone, M.; Hill, R. D.; Marinelli, N.; Nowell, J.; Rutherford, S. A.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Thompson, J. C.; White, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Girtler, P.; Kneringer, E.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Bouhova-Thacker, E.; Bowdery, C. K.; Clarke, D. P.; Ellis, G.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jones, R. W. L.; Pearson, M. R.; Robertson, N. A.; Smizanska, M.; van der Aa, O.; Delaere, C.; Leibenguth, G.; Lemaitre, V.; Blumenschein, U.; Hölldorfer, F.; Jakobs, K.; Kayser, F.; Kleinknecht, K.; Müller, A.-S.; Renk, B.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmeling, S.; Wachsmuth, H.; Zeitnitz, C.; Ziegler, T.; Bonissent, A.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; Ealet, A.; Fouchez, D.; Payre, P.; Tilquin, A.; Ragusa, F.; David, A.; Dietl, H.; Ganis, G.; Hüttmann, K.; Lütjens, G.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Settles, R.; Villegas, M.; Wolf, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Jacholkowska, A.; Serin, L.; Veillet, J.-J.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Boccali, T.; Foà, L.; Giammanco, A.; Giassi, A.; Ligabue, F.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciabà, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Tenchini, R.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Awunor, O.; Blair, G. A.; Cowan, G.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Green, M. G.; Jones, L. T.; Medcalf, T.; Misiejuk, A.; Strong, J. A.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Norton, P. R.; Tomalin, I. R.; Ward, J. J.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Boumediene, D.; Colas, P.; Fabbro, B.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M.-C.; Locci, E.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Tuchming, B.; Vallage, B.; Litke, A. M.; Taylor, G.; Booth, C. N.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Hodgson, P. N.; Lehto, M.; Thompson, L. F.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Grupen, C.; Hess, J.; Ngac, A.; Prange, G.; Borean, C.; Giannini, G.; He, H.; Putz, J.; Rothberg, J.; Armstrong, S. R.; Berkelman, K.; Cranmer, K.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y.; González, S.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; Jin, S.; Kile, J.; McNamara, P. A.; Nielsen, J.; Pan, Y. B.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wu, J.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Zobernig, G.; Dissertori, G.

    2003-09-01

    Exclusive production of /π and K meson pairs in two photon collisions is measured with ALEPH data collected between 1992 and 2000. Cross-sections are presented as a function of cosθ* and invariant mass, for cosθ*<0.6 and invariant masses between 2.0 and 6.0 GeV/c2 (2.25 and 4.0 GeV/c2) for pions (kaons). The shape of the distributions are found to be well described by QCD predictions but the data have a significantly higher normalization.

  20. Coherent (photon) vs incoherent (current) detection of multidimensional optical signals from single molecules in open junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar; Hua, Weijie; Zhang, Yu; Mukamel, Shaul; Harbola, Upendra

    2015-06-07

    The nonlinear optical response of a current-carrying single molecule coupled to two metal leads and driven by a sequence of impulsive optical pulses with controllable phases and time delays is calculated. Coherent (stimulated, heterodyne) detection of photons and incoherent detection of the optically induced current are compared. Using a diagrammatic Liouville space superoperator formalism, the signals are recast in terms of molecular correlation functions which are then expanded in the many-body molecular states. Two dimensional signals in benzene-1,4-dithiol molecule show cross peaks involving charged states. The correlation between optical and charge current signal is also observed.

  1. Non-Gaussianity of quantum states: An experimental test on single-photon-added coherent states

    SciTech Connect

    Barbieri, Marco; Ferreyrol, Franck; Blandino, Remi; Grangier, Philippe; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Spagnolo, Nicolo; Genoni, Marco G.; Paris, Matteo G. A.

    2010-12-15

    Non-Gaussian states and processes are useful resources in quantum information with continuous variables. An experimentally accessible criterion has been proposed to measure the degree of non-Gaussianity of quantum states based on the conditional entropy of the state with a Gaussian reference. Here we adopt such a criterion to characterize an important class of nonclassical states: single-photon-added coherent states. Our studies demonstrate the reliability and sensitivity of this measure and use it to quantify how detrimental is the role of experimental imperfections in our implementation.

  2. Optical communication with two-photon coherent states. III - Quantum measurements realizable with photoemissive detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, H. P.; Shapiro, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    Homodyne detection is shown to achieve the same signal-to-noise ratio as the quantum field quadrature measurement, thus providing a receiver which realizes linear modulation TCS performance gain. The full equivalence of homodyne detection and single-quadrature field measurement is established. A heterodyne configuration which uses a TCS image-band oscillator in addition to the usual coherent state local oscillator is studied. Results are obtained by means of a representation theorem which shows that photoemissive detection realizes the photon flux density measurement.

  3. Possibility of single biomolecule imaging with coherent amplification of weak scattering x-ray photons.

    PubMed

    Shintake, Tsumoru

    2008-10-01

    The number of photons produced by coherent x-ray scattering from a single biomolecule is very small because of its extremely small elastic-scattering cross section and low damage threshold. Even with a high x-ray flux of 3 x 10;{12} photons per 100-nm -diameter spot and an ultrashort pulse of 10 fs driven by a future x-ray free electron laser (x-ray FEL), it has been predicted that only a few 100 photons will be produced from the scattering of a single lysozyme molecule. In observations of scattered x rays on a detector, the transfer of energy from wave to matter is accompanied by the quantization of the photon energy. Unfortunately, x rays have a high photon energy of 12 keV at wavelengths of 1A , which is required for atomic resolution imaging. Therefore, the number of photoionization events is small, which limits the resolution of imaging of a single biomolecule. In this paper, I propose a method: instead of directly observing the photons scattered from the sample, we amplify the scattered waves by superimposing an intense coherent reference pump wave on it and record the resulting interference pattern on a planar x-ray detector. Using a nanosized gold particle as a reference pump wave source, we can collect 10;{4}-10;{5} photons in single shot imaging where the signal from a single biomolecule is amplified and recorded as two-dimensional diffraction intensity data. An iterative phase retrieval technique can be used to recover the phase information and reconstruct the image of the single biomolecule and the gold particle at the same time. In order to precisely reconstruct a faint image of the single biomolecule in Angstrom resolution, whose intensity is much lower than that of the bright gold particle, I propose a technique that combines iterative phase retrieval on the reference pump wave and the digital Fourier transform holography on the sample. By using a large number of holography data, the three-dimensional electron density map can be assembled.

  4. The grand unified photon spectrum: A coherent view of the diffuse extragalactic background radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ressell, M. Ted; Turner, Michael S.

    1989-10-01

    The spectrum of diffuse extragalactic background radiation (DEBRA) at wavelengths from 105 to 10-24 cm is presented in a coherent fashion. Each wavelength region, from the radio to ultra-high energy photons and cosmic rays, is treated both separately and as part of the grand unified photon spectrum (GUPS). A discussion of, and references to, the relevant literature for each wavelength region is included. This review should provide a useful tool for those interested in diffuse backgrounds, the epoch of galaxy formation, astrophysical/cosmological constraints to particle properties, exotic early Universe processes, and many other astrophysical and cosmological enterprises. As a worked example, researchers derive the cosmological constraints to an unstable-neutrino spies (with arbitrary branching ratio to a radiative decay mode) that follow from the GUPS.

  5. Microwave-induced three-photon coherence of Rydberg atomic states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Hyo Min; Jeong, Taek; Lee, Yoon-Seok; Moon, Han Seb

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the three-photon coherence (TPC) effects of the Rydberg state in a Doppler-broadened four-level ladder-type atomic system for the 5S1/2(F=3)-5P3/2(F‧=4)-50D5/2-51P3/2 transition of 85Rb atoms. Upon interaction of the Rydberg Rb atom of the ladder-type electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) scheme with a resonant microwave (MW) field, we numerically analyze the spectral features of the Rydberg TPC from two viewpoints, Autler-Townes splitting (AT-splitting) of the Rydberg EIT and three-photon electromagnetically induced absorption (TPEIA). We determine the criterion to differentiate between AT-splitting of the Rydberg EIT and TPEIA in the Doppler-broadened ladder-type atomic system.

  6. High-dimensional quantum key distribution with the entangled single-photon-added coherent state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang; Bao, Wan-Su; Bao, Hai-Ze; Zhou, Chun; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Li, Hong-Wei

    2017-04-01

    High-dimensional quantum key distribution (HD-QKD) can generate more secure bits for one detection event so that it can achieve long distance key distribution with a high secret key capacity. In this Letter, we present a decoy state HD-QKD scheme with the entangled single-photon-added coherent state (ESPACS) source. We present two tight formulas to estimate the single-photon fraction of postselected events and Eve's Holevo information and derive lower bounds on the secret key capacity and the secret key rate of our protocol. We also present finite-key analysis for our protocol by using the Chernoff bound. Our numerical results show that our protocol using one decoy state can perform better than that of previous HD-QKD protocol with the spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) using two decoy states. Moreover, when considering finite resources, the advantage is more obvious.

  7. Discrimination of binary coherent states using a homodyne detector and a photon number resolving detector

    SciTech Connect

    Wittmann, Christoffer; Sych, Denis; Leuchs, Gerd; Takeoka, Masahiro

    2010-06-15

    We investigate quantum measurement strategies capable of discriminating two coherent states probabilistically with significantly smaller error probabilities than can be obtained using nonprobabilistic state discrimination. We apply a postselection strategy to the measurement data of a homodyne detector as well as a photon number resolving detector in order to lower the error probability. We compare the two different receivers with an optimal intermediate measurement scheme where the error rate is minimized for a fixed rate of inconclusive results. The photon number resolving (PNR) receiver is experimentally demonstrated and compared to an experimental realization of a homodyne receiver with postselection. In the comparison, it becomes clear that the performance of the PNR receiver surpasses the performance of the homodyne receiver, which we prove to be optimal within any Gaussian operations and conditional dynamics.

  8. The grand unified photon spectrum: A coherent view of the diffuse extragalactic background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ressell, M. Ted; Turner, Michael S.

    1989-01-01

    The spectrum of diffuse extragalactic background radiation (DEBRA) at wavelengths from 10(exp 5) to 10(exp -24) cm is presented in a coherent fashion. Each wavelength region, from the radio to ultra-high energy photons and cosmic rays, is treated both separately and as part of the grand unified photon spectrum (GUPS). A discussion of, and references to, the relevant literature for each wavelength region is included. This review should provide a useful tool for those interested in diffuse backgrounds, the epoch of galaxy formation, astrophysical/cosmological constraints to particle properties, exotic early Universe processes, and many other astrophysical and cosmological enterprises. As a worked example, researchers derive the cosmological constraints to an unstable-neutrino spies (with arbitrary branching ratio to a radiative decay mode) that follow from the GUPS.

  9. Paired-angle-rotation scanning optical coherence tomography forward-imaging probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jigang; Conry, Michael; Gu, Chunhui; Wang, Fei; Yaqoob, Zahid; Yang, Changhuei

    2006-05-01

    We report a novel forward-imaging optical coherence tomography (OCT), needle-probe paired-angle-rotation scanning OCT (PARS-OCT) probe. The probe uses two rotating angled gradient-index lenses to scan the output OCT probe beam over a wide angular arc (˜19° half-angle) of the region forward of the probe. Among other advantages, this probe design is readily amenable to miniaturization and is capable of a variety of scan modes, including volumetric scans. To demonstrate the advantages of the probe design, we have constructed a prototype probe with an outer diameter of 1.65 mm and employed it to acquire four OCT images, with a 45° angle between adjacent images, of the gill structure of a Xenopus laevis tadpole. The system sensitivity was measured to be 93 dB by using the prototype probe with an illumination power of 450 μW on the sample. Moreover, the axial and the lateral resolutions of the probe are 9.3 and 10.3-12.5 μm, respectively.

  10. Observation of the Collapse of the Cooper Pair Phase Coherence Length at a Superconductor to Insulator Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valles, James; Hollen, Shawna; Fernandes, Gustavo; Xu, Jimmy

    2013-03-01

    Experiments on ultrathin amorphous Bi films provided one of the best known examples of a Superconductor to Insulator quantum phase transition (SIT). Nevertheless, controversy persists over whether this thickness tuned SIT is ``fermionic'' or ``bosonic''. Early data suggested fermionic with the suppression of the amplitude of the superconductor order parameter creating a weakly-localized, phase incoherent, single electron insulator. However, recent work on other uniformly disordered materials suggests that bosonic physics universally dominates at the SIT to produce insulators of locally phase coherent Cooper pair islands. To address this issue, we used a technique that previously revealed local Cooper pair phase coherence in insulating non-uniformly thick films. We measured the strength of flux periodic magneto-resistance oscillations of ultrathin a-Bi films patterned with a nano-array of holes. The data indicate that the Cooper pair phase coherence length collapses at this SIT. This collapse is inconsistent with the continuous decrease of the phase coherence length expected for a bosonic SIT. It is consistent with the order parameter amplitude disappearing at a fermionic SIT. Supported by NSF DMR-0907357, AFRL, ONR, AFOSR, and the WCU program at SNU, Korea.

  11. Examples of modern quantum sensing and metrology with new results on photon-added coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luine, Jerome; Singh, Anjali; Gard, Bryan; Olson, Jonathan

    2016-02-01

    Quantum sensing and metrology is the application of non-classical resources to the measurement of physical quantities with precision or accuracy beyond that allowed by classical physics. For many years non-classical resources such as atomic energy quantization, Josephson Effect, and Quantum Hall Effect have been used to define the fundamental units of time, voltage, and resistance, respectively. In recent years non-classical resources such as quantum squeezing and entanglement have been exploited to expand the range of physical phenomena measured with unprecedented precision or accuracy. We summarize some of the recent research on advanced quantum sensing and metrology and discuss our analyses of photon-added coherent states (PACS) of light. These analyses take into account imperfect photon addition and detection processes and show that PACS enable beyond-classical signal-to-noise ratio for photon counting even in cases where the probability of intended photon addition is 80%. We also show that there remains undiscovered fundamental properties of PACS related to their production and implementation.

  12. Photon-in photon-out hard X-ray spectroscopy at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Zhu, Diling; Kroll, Thomas; Chollet, Mathieu; Feng, Yiping; Glownia, James M.; Kern, Jan; Lemke, Henrik T.; Nordlund, Dennis; Robert, Aymeric; Sikorski, Marcin; Song, Sanghoon; Weng, Tsu -Chien; Bergmann, Uwe

    2015-04-15

    X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) have opened unprecedented possibilities to study the structure and dynamics of matter at an atomic level and ultra-fast timescale. Many of the techniques routinely used at storage ring facilities are being adapted for experiments conducted at FELs. In order to take full advantage of these new sources several challenges have to be overcome. They are related to the very different source characteristics and its resulting impact on sample delivery, X-ray optics, X-ray detection and data acquisition. Here it is described how photon-in photon-out hard X-ray spectroscopy techniques can be applied to study the electronic structure and its dynamics of transition metal systems with ultra-bright and ultra-short FEL X-ray pulses. In particular, some of the experimental details that are different compared with synchrotron-based setups are discussed and illustrated by recent measurements performed at the Linac Coherent Light Source.

  13. Photon-in photon-out hard X-ray spectroscopy at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE PAGES

    Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Zhu, Diling; ...

    2015-04-15

    X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) have opened unprecedented possibilities to study the structure and dynamics of matter at an atomic level and ultra-fast timescale. Many of the techniques routinely used at storage ring facilities are being adapted for experiments conducted at FELs. In order to take full advantage of these new sources several challenges have to be overcome. They are related to the very different source characteristics and its resulting impact on sample delivery, X-ray optics, X-ray detection and data acquisition. Here it is described how photon-in photon-out hard X-ray spectroscopy techniques can be applied to study the electronic structure andmore » its dynamics of transition metal systems with ultra-bright and ultra-short FEL X-ray pulses. In particular, some of the experimental details that are different compared with synchrotron-based setups are discussed and illustrated by recent measurements performed at the Linac Coherent Light Source.« less

  14. Generation of high-photon flux-coherent soft x-ray radiation with few-cycle pulses.

    PubMed

    Demmler, Stefan; Rothhardt, Jan; Hädrich, Steffen; Krebs, Manuel; Hage, Arvid; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2013-12-01

    We present a tabletop source of coherent soft x-ray radiation with high-photon flux. Two-cycle pulses delivered by a fiber-laser-pumped optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier operating at 180 kHz repetition rate are upconverted via high harmonic generation in neon to photon energies beyond 200 eV. A maximum photon flux of 1.3·10(8) photons/s is achieved within a 1% bandwidth at 125 eV photon energy. This corresponds to a conversion efficiency of ~10(-9), which can be reached due to a gas jet simultaneously providing a high target density and phase matching. Further scaling potential toward higher photon flux as well as higher photon energies are discussed.

  15. Generation of optical coherent-state superpositions by number-resolved photon subtraction from the squeezed vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Gerrits, Thomas; Glancy, Scott; Clement, Tracy S.; Calkins, Brice; Lita, Adriana E.; Nam, Sae Woo; Mirin, Richard P.; Knill, Emanuel; Miller, Aaron J.; Migdall, Alan L.

    2010-09-15

    We have created heralded coherent-state superpositions (CSSs) by subtracting up to three photons from a pulse of squeezed vacuum light. To produce such CSSs at a sufficient rate, we used our high-efficiency photon-number-resolving transition edge sensor to detect the subtracted photons. This experiment is enabled by and utilizes the full photon-number-resolving capabilities of this detector. The CSS produced by three-photon subtraction had a mean-photon number of 2.75{sub -0.24}{sup +0.06} and a fidelity of 0.59{sub -0.14}{sup +0.04} with an ideal CSS. This confirms that subtracting more photons results in higher-amplitude CSSs.

  16. Ultra stable all-fiber telecom-band entangled photon-pair source for turnkey quantum communication applications.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chuang; Lee, Kim Fook; Levin, Todd; Chen, Jun; Kumar, Prem

    2006-07-24

    We demonstrate a novel alignment-free all-fiber source for generating telecom-band polarization-entangled photon pairs. Polarization entanglement is created by injecting two relatively delayed, orthogonally polarized pump pulses into a piece of dispersion-shifted fiber, where each one independently engages in four-photon scattering, and then removing any distinguishability between the correlated photon-pairs produced by each pulse at the fiber output. Our scheme uses a Michelson-interferometer configuration with Faraday mirrors to achieve practically desirable features such as ultra-stable performance and turnkey operation. Up to 91.7% two-photon-interference visibility is observed without subtracting the accidental coincidences that arise from background photons while operating the source at room temperature.

  17. Higgs boson pair production in new physics models at hadron, lepton, and photon colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Asakawa, Eri; Harada, Daisuke; Okada, Yasuhiro; Kanemura, Shinya; Tsumura, Koji

    2010-12-01

    We study Higgs boson pair production processes at future hadron and lepton colliders including the photon collision option in several new physics models; i.e., the two-Higgs-doublet model, the scalar leptoquark model, the sequential fourth generation fermion model and the vectorlike quark model. Cross sections for these processes can deviate significantly from the standard model predictions due to the one-loop correction to the triple Higgs boson coupling constant. For the one-loop induced processes such as gg{yields}hh and {gamma}{gamma}{yields}hh, where h is the (lightest) Higgs boson and g and {gamma} respectively represent a gluon and a photon, the cross sections can also be affected by new physics particles via additional one-loop diagrams. In the two-Higgs-doublet model and scalar leptoquark models, cross sections of e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}hhZ and {gamma}{gamma}{yields}hh can be enhanced due to the nondecoupling effect in the one-loop corrections to the triple Higgs boson coupling constant. In the sequential fourth generation fermion model, the cross section for gg{yields}hh becomes very large because of the loop effect of the fermions. In the vectorlike quark model, effects are small because the theory has decoupling property. Measurements of the Higgs boson pair production processes can be useful to explore new physics through the determination of the Higgs potential.

  18. Heralding efficiency and correlated-mode coupling of near-IR fiber-coupled photon pairs

    DOE PAGES

    Dixon, P. Ben; Rosenberg, Danna; Stelmakh, Veronika; ...

    2014-10-06

    We report on a systematic experimental study of heralding efficiency and generation rate of telecom-band infrared photon pairs generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion and coupled to single mode optical fibers. We define the correlated-mode coupling efficiency--an inherent source efficiency--and explain its relation to heralding efficiency. For our experiment, we developed a reconfigurable computer controlled pump-beam and collection-mode optical apparatus which we used to measure the generation rate and correlated-mode coupling efficiency. The use of low-noise, high-efficiency superconducting-nanowire single-photon-detectors in this setup allowed us to explore focus configurations with low overall photon flux. The measured data agree well with theory andmore » we demonstrated a correlated-mode coupling efficiency of 97%±2%, which is the highest efficiency yet achieved for this type of system. These results confirm theoretical treatments and demonstrate that very high overall heralding efficiencies can, in principle, be achieved in quantum optical systems. We expect that these results and techniques will be widely incorporated into future systems that require, or benefit from, a high heralding efficiency.« less

  19. Heralding efficiency and correlated-mode coupling of near-IR fiber-coupled photon pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, P. Ben; Rosenberg, Danna; Stelmakh, Veronika; Grein, Matthew E.; Bennink, Ryan S.; Dauler, Eric A.; Kerman, Andrew J.; Molnar, Richard J.; Wong, Franco N. C.

    2014-10-06

    We report on a systematic experimental study of heralding efficiency and generation rate of telecom-band infrared photon pairs generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion and coupled to single mode optical fibers. We define the correlated-mode coupling efficiency--an inherent source efficiency--and explain its relation to heralding efficiency. For our experiment, we developed a reconfigurable computer controlled pump-beam and collection-mode optical apparatus which we used to measure the generation rate and correlated-mode coupling efficiency. The use of low-noise, high-efficiency superconducting-nanowire single-photon-detectors in this setup allowed us to explore focus configurations with low overall photon flux. The measured data agree well with theory and we demonstrated a correlated-mode coupling efficiency of 97%±2%, which is the highest efficiency yet achieved for this type of system. These results confirm theoretical treatments and demonstrate that very high overall heralding efficiencies can, in principle, be achieved in quantum optical systems. We expect that these results and techniques will be widely incorporated into future systems that require, or benefit from, a high heralding efficiency.

  20. Optical communication with two-photon coherent stages. I - Quantum-state propagation and quantum-noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, H. P.; Shapiro, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    To determine the ultimate performance limitations imposed by quantum effects, it is also essential to consider optimum quantum-state generation. Certain 'generalized' coherent states of the radiation field possess novel quantum noise characteristics that offer the potential for greatly improved optical communications. These states have been called two-photon coherent states because they can be generated, in principle, by stimulated two-photon processes. The use of two-photon coherent state (TCS) radiation in free-space optical communications is considered. A simple theory of quantum state propagation is developed. The theory provides the basis for representing the free-space channel in a quantum-mechanical form convenient for communication analysis. The new theory is applied to TCS radiation.

  1. Coherent light transmission properties of commercial photonic crystal hollow core optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Cranch, G A; Miller, G A

    2015-11-01

    Photonic crystal hollow core fiber (PC-HCF) has enabled many exciting new applications in nonlinear optics and spectroscopy. However, to date there has been less impact in coherent applications where preservation of optical phase over long fiber lengths is crucial. This paper presents characteristics of three commercially available PC-HCFs relevant to coherent applications including higher-order mode analysis, birefringence and polarization-dependent loss, and their impact on coherent light transmission in PC-HCF. Multipath interference due to higher-order mode propagation and Fresnel reflection is shown to generate excess intensity noise in transmission, which can be suppressed by up to 20 dB through high frequency phase modulation of the source laser. To demonstrate the potential of PC-HCF in high performance sensing, a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) incorporating 10 m of PC-HCF in each arm is characterized and demonstrates a phase resolution (59×10(-9)  rad/Hz(1/2) at 30 kHz) close to the shot noise limit, which is better than can be achieved in a MZI made with the same length of single mode solid core fiber because of the limit set by fundamental thermodynamic noise (74×10(-9)  rad/Hz(1/2) at 30 kHz).

  2. Optical communication with two-photon coherent states. II - Photoemissive detection and structured receiver performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, J. H.; Yuen, H. P.; Machado Mata, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    In a previous paper (1978), the authors developed a method of analyzing the performance of two-photon coherent state (TCS) systems for free-space optical communications. General theorems permitting application of classical point process results to detection and estimation of signals in arbitrary quantum states were derived. The present paper examines the general problem of photoemissive detection statistics. On the basis of the photocounting theory of Kelley and Kleiner (1964) it is shown that for arbitrary pure state illumination, the resulting photocurrent is in general a self-exciting point process. The photocount statistics for first-order coherent fields reduce to those of a special class of Markov birth processes, which the authors term single-mode birth processes. These general results are applied to the structure of TCS radiation, and it is shown that the use of TCS radiation with direct or heterodyne detection results in minimal performance increments over comparable coherent-state systems. However, significant performance advantages are offered by use of TCS radiation with homodyne detection. The abstract quantum descriptions of homodyne and heterodyne detection are derived and a synthesis procedure for obtaining quantum measurements described by arbitrary TCS is given.

  3. High-speed modelocked semiconductor lasers and applications in coherent photonic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wangkuen

    1.55-mum high-speed modelocked semiconductor lasers are theoretically and experimentally studied for various coherent photonic system applications. The modelocked semiconductor lasers (MSLs) are designed with high-speed (>5 GHz) external cavity configurations utilizing monolithic two-section curved semiconductor optical amplifiers. By exploiting the saturable absorber section of the monolithic device, passive or hybrid mode-locking techniques are used to generate short optical pulses with broadband optical frequency combs. Laser frequency stability is improved by applying the Pound-Drever-Hall (PDH) frequency stabilization technique to the MSLs. The improved laser performance after the frequency stabilization (a frequency drifting of less than 350 MHz), is extensively studied with respect to the laser linewidth (˜ 3 MHz), the relative intensity noise (RIN) (< -150 dB/Hz), as well as the modal RIN (˜ 3 dB reduction). MSL to MSL, and tunable laser to MSL synchronization is demonstrated by using a dual-mode injection technique and a modulation sideband injection technique, respectively. Dynamic locking behavior and locking bandwidth are experimentally and theoretically studied. Stable laser synchronization between two MSLs is demonstrated with an injection seed power on the order of a few microwatt. Several coherent heterodyne detections based on the synchronized MSL systems are demonstrated for applications in microwave photonic links and ultra-dense wavelength division multiplexing (UD-WDM) system. In addition, efficient coherent homodyne balanced receivers based on synchronized MSLs are developed and demonstrated for a spectrally phase-encoded optical CDMA (SPE-OCDMA) system.

  4. Nonclassicality and Entanglement of Photon-Subtracted Two-Mode Squeezed Coherent States Studied via Entangled-States Representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen; Li, Heng-Mei; Yuan, Hong-Chun

    2016-10-01

    We theoretically introduce a kind of non-Gaussian entangled states, i.e., photon-subtracted two-mode squeezed coherent states (PSTMSCS), by successively subtracting photons from each mode of the two-mode squeezed coherent states. The normalization factor which is related to bivariate Hermite polynomials is obtained by virtue of the two-mode squeezing operator in entangled-states representation. The sub-Poissonian photon statistics, antibunching effects, and partial negative Wigner function, respectively, are observed numerically, which fully reflect the nonclassicality of the resultant states. Finally, employing the SV criteria and the EPR correlation, respectively, the entangled property of PSTMSCS is analyzed. It is shown that the photon subtraction operation can effectively enhance the inseparability between the two modes.

  5. Multimodal imaging of lung tissue using optical coherence tomography and two photon microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaertner, Maria; Cimalla, Peter; Geissler, Stefan; Meissner, Sven; Schnabel, Christian; Kuebler, Wolfgang M.; Koch, Edmund

    2012-02-01

    In the context of protective artificial ventilation strategies for patients with severe lung diseases, the contribution of ventilator settings to tissue changes on the alveolar level of the lung is still a question under debate. To understand the impact of respiratory settings as well as the dynamic process of respiration, high-resolution monitoring and visualization of the dynamics of lung alveoli are essential. An instrument allowing 3D imaging of lung tissue as well as imaging of functional constituents, such as elastin fibers, in in situ experimental conditions is presented in this study using a combination of Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) and fiber-guided two photon microscopy. In a comparative study, fixed lung tissue, stained with sulforhodamine B for elastin fibers, was used to illustrate the ability of fiber-guided two photon excitation and single photon excitation for the visualization of elastin fibers within the tissue. Together with the fast 3D imaging capability of OCT, a new tool is given for the monitoring of alveolar lung dynamics in future in vivo experiments.

  6. Nonlinear theory of a two-photon correlated-spontaneous-emission laser: A coherently pumped two-level--two-photon laser

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, N.; Zhao, F.; Bergou, J.

    1989-05-15

    We develop a nonlinear theory of a two-photon correlated-spontaneous-emission laser (CEL) by using an effective interaction Hamiltonian for a two-level system coupled by a two-photon transition. Assuming that the active atoms are prepared initially in a coherent superposition of two atomic levels involved in the two-photon transition, we derive a master equation for the field-density operator by using our quantum theory for coherently pumped lasers. The steady-state properties of the two-photon CEL are studied by converting the field master equation into a Fokker-Planck equation for the antinormal-ordering Q representation of the field-density operator. Because of the injected atomic coherence, the drift and diffusion coefficients become phase sensitive. This leads to laser phase locking and an extra two-photon CEL gain. The laser field can build up from a vacuum in the no-population-inversion region, in contrast to an ordinary two-photon laser for which triggering is needed. We find an approximate steady-state solution of the Q representation for the laser field, which consists of two identical peaks of elliptical type. We calculate the phase variance and, for any given mean photon number, obtain the minimum variance in the phase quadrature as a function of the initial atomic variables. Squeezing of the quantum noise in the phase quadrature is found and it exhibits the following features: (1) it is possible only when the laser intensity is smaller than a certain value; (2) it becomes most significant for small mean photon number, which is achievable in the no-population-inversion region; and (3) a maximum of 50% squeezing can be asymptotically approached in the small laser intensity limit.

  7. Energy correlations of photon pairs generated by a silicon microring resonator probed by Stimulated Four Wave Mixing.

    PubMed

    Grassani, Davide; Simbula, Angelica; Pirotta, Stefano; Galli, Matteo; Menotti, Matteo; Harris, Nicholas C; Baehr-Jones, Tom; Hochberg, Michael; Galland, Christophe; Liscidini, Marco; Bajoni, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    Compact silicon integrated devices, such as micro-ring resonators, have recently been demonstrated as efficient sources of quantum correlated photon pairs. The mass production of integrated devices demands the implementation of fast and reliable techniques to monitor the device performances. In the case of time-energy correlations, this is particularly challenging, as it requires high spectral resolution that is not currently achievable in coincidence measurements. Here we reconstruct the joint spectral density of photons pairs generated by spontaneous four-wave mixing in a silicon ring resonator by studying the corresponding stimulated process, namely stimulated four wave mixing. We show that this approach, featuring high spectral resolution and short measurement times, allows one to discriminate between nearly-uncorrelated and highly-correlated photon pairs.

  8. Energy correlations of photon pairs generated by a silicon microring resonator probed by Stimulated Four Wave Mixing

    PubMed Central

    Grassani, Davide; Simbula, Angelica; Pirotta, Stefano; Galli, Matteo; Menotti, Matteo; Harris, Nicholas C.; Baehr-Jones, Tom; Hochberg, Michael; Galland, Christophe; Liscidini, Marco; Bajoni, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Compact silicon integrated devices, such as micro-ring resonators, have recently been demonstrated as efficient sources of quantum correlated photon pairs. The mass production of integrated devices demands the implementation of fast and reliable techniques to monitor the device performances. In the case of time-energy correlations, this is particularly challenging, as it requires high spectral resolution that is not currently achievable in coincidence measurements. Here we reconstruct the joint spectral density of photons pairs generated by spontaneous four-wave mixing in a silicon ring resonator by studying the corresponding stimulated process, namely stimulated four wave mixing. We show that this approach, featuring high spectral resolution and short measurement times, allows one to discriminate between nearly-uncorrelated and highly-correlated photon pairs. PMID:27032688

  9. Exploitation of transverse spatial modes in spontaneous four wave mixing photon-pair sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Ramirez, Hector; Ramirez-Alarcon, Roberto; Cruz-Delgado, Daniel; Monroy-Ruz, Jorge; Ortiz-Ricardo, Erasto; Dominguez-Serna, Francisco; Garay-Palmett, Karina; U'Ren, Alfred B.

    2016-09-01

    We present a source for which multiple spontaneous four-wave mixing (SFWM) processes are supported in a few mode birefringent fiber, each process associated with a particular combination of transverse modes for the four participating waves. Within the weakly guiding regime, for which the propagation modes may be well approximated by linearly polarized (LP) modes, the departure from circular symmetry due to the fiber birefringence translates into orbital angular momentum (OAM) and parity conservation rules, i.e. reflecting elements from both azimuthal and rectangular symmetries. In our source: i) each process is group-velocity-matched so that it is, by design, nearly-factorable, and ii) the spectral separation between neighboring processes is greater than the marginal spectral width of each process. Consequently, there is a direct correspondence between the joint amplitude of each process and each of the Schmidt mode pairs of the overall two-photon state. The present paper covers work presented in Refs.1 and.2

  10. Study of π0 pair production in single-tag two-photon collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, M.; Uehara, S.; Watanabe, Y.; Nakazawa, H.; Abdesselam, A.; Adachi, I.; Aihara, H.; Al Said, S.; Asner, D. M.; Atmacan, H.; Aulchenko, V.; Aushev, T.; Babu, V.; Badhrees, I.; Bakich, A. M.; Barberio, E.; Behera, P.; Bhuyan, B.; Biswal, J.; Bobrov, A.; Bonvicini, G.; Bozek, A.; Bračko, M.; Browder, T. E.; Červenkov, D.; Chekelian, V.; Chen, A.; Cheon, B. G.; Chilikin, K.; Chistov, R.; Cho, K.; Chobanova, V.; Choi, S.-K.; Choi, Y.; Cinabro, D.; Dalseno, J.; Danilov, M.; Dash, N.; Dingfelder, J.; Doležal, Z.; Drásal, Z.; Dutta, D.; Eidelman, S.; Epifanov, D.; Farhat, H.; Fast, J. E.; Ferber, T.; Fulsom, B. G.; Gaur, V.; Gabyshev, N.; Garmash, A.; Gillard, R.; Giordano, F.; Glattauer, R.; Goh, Y. M.; Goldenzweig, P.; Golob, B.; Haba, J.; Hayasaka, K.; Hayashii, H.; He, X. H.; Hou, W.-S.; Iijima, T.; Inami, K.; Ishikawa, A.; Itoh, R.; Iwasaki, Y.; Jaegle, I.; Joffe, D.; Joo, K. K.; Julius, T.; Kang, K. H.; Kato, E.; Kawasaki, T.; Kim, D. Y.; Kim, J. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, K. T.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. J.; Ko, B. R.; Korpar, S.; Križan, P.; Krokovny, P.; Kumita, T.; Kuzmin, A.; Kwon, Y.-J.; Lange, J. S.; Lee, D. H.; Lee, I. S.; Li, C.; Li, L.; Li, Y.; Libby, J.; Liventsev, D.; Lukin, P.; Matvienko, D.; Miyabayashi, K.; Miyata, H.; Mizuk, R.; Mohanty, G. B.; Mohanty, S.; Moll, A.; Moon, H. K.; Mori, T.; Mussa, R.; Nakano, E.; Nakao, M.; Nanut, T.; Natkaniec, Z.; Nayak, M.; Nisar, N. K.; Nishida, S.; Ogawa, S.; Pakhlov, P.; Pakhlova, G.; Pal, B.; Park, C. W.; Park, H.; Pedlar, T. K.; Pestotnik, R.; Petrič, M.; Piilonen, L. E.; Rauch, J.; Ribežl, E.; Ritter, M.; Rostomyan, A.; Sandilya, S.; Santelj, L.; Sanuki, T.; Sato, Y.; Savinov, V.; Schneider, O.; Schnell, G.; Schwanda, C.; Seino, Y.; Senyo, K.; Seon, O.; Sevior, M. E.; Shebalin, V.; Shen, C. P.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shiu, J.-G.; Shwartz, B.; Simon, F.; Sohn, Y.-S.; Sokolov, A.; Solovieva, E.; Starič, M.; Sumihama, M.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Tamponi, U.; Tanida, K.; Teramoto, Y.; Uglov, T.; Unno, Y.; Uno, S.; Van Hulse, C.; Vanhoefer, P.; Varner, G.; Vinokurova, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Vossen, A.; Wagner, M. N.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, M.-Z.; Wang, P.; Williams, K. M.; Won, E.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamashita, Y.; Yashchenko, S.; Ye, H.; Yusa, Y.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhilich, V.; Zhulanov, V.; Zupanc, A.; Belle Collaboration

    2016-02-01

    We report a measurement of the differential cross section of π0 pair production in single-tag two-photon collisions, γ*γ →π0π0, in e+e- scattering. The cross section is measured for Q2 up to 30 GeV2, where Q2 is the negative of the invariant mass squared of the tagged photon, in the kinematic range 0.5 GeV

  11. Superconducting transition temperatures and coherence length in non-s-wave pairing materials correlated with spin-fluctuation mediated interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angilella, G. G.; March, N. H.; Pucci, R.

    2002-03-01

    Following earlier work on electron or hole liquids flowing through assemblies with magnetic fluctuations, we have recently exposed a marked correlation of the superconducting temperature Tc, for non-s-wave pairing materials, with coherence length ξ and effective mass m*. The very recent study of Abanov et al. [Europhys. Lett. 54, 488 (2001)] and the prior investigation of Monthoux and Lonzarich [Phys. Rev. B 59, 14 598 (1999)] have each focused on the concept of a spin-fluctuation temperature Tsf, which again is intimately related to Tc. For the d-wave pairing via antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations in the cuprates, these studies are brought into close contact with our own work, and the result is that kBTsf~ħ2/m*ξ2. This demonstrates that ξ is also determined by such antiferromagnetic spin-fluctuation mediated pair interaction. The coherence length in units of the lattice spacing is then essentially given in the cuprates as the square root of the ratio of two characteristic energies, namely, the kinetic energy of localization of a charge carrier of mass m* in a specified magnetic correlation length to the hopping energy. The quasi-two-dimensional ruthenate Sr2RuO4, with Tc~1.3 K, has p-wave spin-triplet pairing and so is also briefly discussed here.

  12. Generation of non-classical correlated photon pairs via a ladder-type atomic configuration: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Ding, Dong-Sheng; Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Shi, Bao-Sen; Zou, Xu-Bo; Guo, Guang-Can

    2012-05-07

    We experimentally generate a non-classical correlated two-color photon pair at 780 and 1529.4 nm in a ladder-type configuration using a hot 85Rb atomic vapor with the production rate of ~10(7)/s. The non-classical correlation between these two photons is demonstrated by strong violation of Cauchy-Schwarz inequality by the factor R = 48 ± 12. Besides, we experimentally investigate the relations between the correlation and some important experimental parameters such as the single-photon detuning, the powers of pumps. We also make a theoretical analysis in detail and the theoretical predictions are in reasonable agreement with our experimental results.

  13. Backward Secondary-Wave Coherence Errors in Photonic Bandgap Fiber Optic Gyroscopes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaobin; Song, Ningfang; Zhang, Zuchen; Jin, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Photonic bandgap fiber optic gyroscope (PBFOG) is a novel fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) with excellent environment adaptability performance compared to a conventional FOG. In this work we find and investigate the backward secondary-wave coherence (BSC) error, which is a bias error unique to the PBFOG and caused by the interference between back-reflection-induced and backscatter-induced secondary waves. Our theoretical and experimental results show a maximum BSC error of ~4.7°/h for a 300-m PBF coil with a diameter of 10 cm. The BSC error is an important error source contributing to bias instability in the PBFOG and has to be addressed before practical applications of the PBFOG can be implemented. PMID:27338388

  14. Multiloop Euler-Heisenberg Lagrangians, Schwinger Pair Creation, and the Photon S-Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huet, I.; de Traubenberg, M. R.; Schubert, C.

    2017-03-01

    Although the perturbation series in quantum electrodynamics has been studied for eighty years concerning its high-order behavior, our present understanding is still poorer than for many other field theories. An interesting case is Schwinger pair creation in a constant electric field, which may possibly provide a window to high loop orders; simple non-perturbative closed-form expressions have been conjectured for the pair creation rate in the weak field limit, for scalar QED in 1982 by Affleck, Alvarez, and Manton, and for spinor QED by Lebedev and Ritus in 1984. Using Borel analysis, these can be used to obtain non-perturbative information on the on-shell renormalized N-photon amplitudes at large N and low energy. This line of reasoning also leads to a number of nontrivial predictions for the effective QED Lagrangian in either four or two dimensions at any loop order, and preliminary results of a calculation of the three-loop Euler-Heisenberg Lagrangian in two dimensions are presented.

  15. Experimental Demonstration of a Hybrid-Quantum-Emitter Producing Individual Entangled Photon Pairs in the Telecom Band

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Geng; Zou, Yang; Zhang, Wen-Hao; Zhang, Zi-Huai; Zhou, Zong-Quan; He, De-Yong; Tang, Jian-Shun; Liu, Bi-Heng; Yu, Ying; Zha, Guo-Wei; Ni, Hai-Qiao; Niu, Zhi-Chuan; Han, Yong-Jian; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2016-01-01

    Quantum emitters generating individual entangled photon pairs (IEPP) have significant fundamental advantages over schemes that suffer from multiple photon emission, or schemes that require post-selection techniques or the use of photon-number discriminating detectors. Quantum dots embedded within nanowires (QD-NWs) represent one of the most promising candidate for quantum emitters that provide a high collection efficiency of photons. However, a quantum emitter that generates IEPP in the telecom band is still an issue demanding a prompt solution. Here, we demonstrate in principle that IEPPs in the telecom band can be created by combining a single QD-NW and a nonlinear crystal waveguide. The QD-NW system serves as the single photon source, and the emitted visible single photons are split into IEPPs at approximately 1.55 μm through the process of spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) in a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide. The compatibility of the QD-PPLN interface is the determinant factor in constructing this novel hybrid-quantum-emitter (HQE). Benefiting from the desirable optical properties of QD-NWs and the extremely high nonlinear conversion efficiency of PPLN waveguides, we successfully generate IEPPs in the telecom band with the polarization degree of freedom. The entanglement of the generated photon pairs is confirmed by the entanglement witness. Our experiment paves the way to producing HQEs inheriting the advantages of multiple systems. PMID:27225881

  16. An intensity modulation and coherent balanced detection intersatellite microwave photonic link using polarization direction control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuan; Zhu, Zihang; Zhao, Shanghong; Li, Yongjun; Han, Lei; Zhao, Jing

    2014-03-01

    A simple approach for high loss intersatellite microwave photonic link with intensity modulation and coherent balanced detection is proposed. In the transmitter, the double sideband-suppressed carrier (DSB-SC) modulated optical signal and optical carrier (OC) are combined by employing a polarization combiner to chose and control the signals polarization directions, while in the receiver, they are selected respectively by using a polarization splitter for they have orthogonal polarization directions. The separated DSB-SC signal and OC put into balanced detectors and the coherent detection is realized without a local oscillator (LO). At the output, the fundamental signal is augmented and the third-order distortion is suppressed for the DSB-SC modulation, the second-order distortion is removed for the balanced detection and the noise is reduced for the polarization direction control. The signal to noise and distortion ratio (SNDR) can be optimized by adjusting the power of OC and modulation index. The simulation results show that, a SNDR higher than 30 dB can be obtained for the proposed method, which is in agreement with the theoretical analysis.

  17. Molecular spectroscopy by stepwise two-photon ion-pair production at 71 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, A.H.; Page, R.H.; Larkin, R.J.; Shen, Y.R.; Lee, Y.T.

    1985-06-01

    The Rydberg states of H/sub 2/ have been a continuing subject of intensive study by various research groups. However, understanding of the high lying electronic states of this molecule has been inhibited by the lack of spectroscopic data in the region <75 nm. Experimental studies have been difficult because spectroscopic features are generally buried under an intense absorption or photoionization continuum. Intense, high-resolution excitation sources are not easily available. Recent developments on tunable, narrowband, coherent xuv sources provide new means of studying the spectroscopy in this region with high resolution (+- .0005 nm). We have applied the technique of stepwise two-photon excitation to study photoionization of H/sub 2/ in a molecular beam using the two lowest excited states of H/sub 2/ as the intermediate level. This excitation, coupled with the detection of background-free H/sup -/ ions has enabled us to uncover, for the first time, spectroscopic features that are difficult to observe in positive ion detection. These features have been successfully assigned to new Rydberg series converging to the high vibrations of the H/sub 2//sup +/ ground electronic state.

  18. Optical coherence tomography system mass-producible on a silicon photonic chip.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Simon; Lauermann, Matthias; Dietrich, Philipp-Immanuel; Weimann, Claudius; Freude, Wolfgang; Koos, Christian

    2016-01-25

    Miniaturized integrated optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems have the potential to unlock a wide range of both medical and industrial applications. This applies in particular to multi-channel OCT schemes, where scalability and low cost per channel are important, to endoscopic implementations with stringent size demands, and to mechanically robust units for industrial applications. We demonstrate that fully integrated OCT systems can be realized using the state-of-the-art silicon photonic device portfolio. We present two different implementations integrated on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) photonic chip, one with an integrated reference path (OCTint) for imaging objects in distances of 5 mm to 10 mm from the chip edge, and another one with an external reference path (OCText) for use with conventional scan heads. Both OCT systems use integrated photodiodes and an external swept-frequency source. In our proof-of-concept experiments, we achieve a sensitivity of -64 dB (-53 dB for OCTint) and a dynamic range of 60 dB (53 dB for OCTint). The viability of the concept is demonstrated by imaging of biological and technical objects.

  19. Integrated photonic circuit in silicon on insulator for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurtsever, Gunay; Dumon, Pieter; Bogaerts, Wim; Baets, Roel

    2010-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a medical imaging technology capable of producing high-resolution, crosssectional images through inhomogeneous samples, such as biological tissue. It has been widely adopted in clinical ophthalmology and a number of other clinical applications are in active research. Other applications of OCT include material characterization and non-destructive testing. In addition to current uses, OCT has a potential for a much wider range of applications and further commercialization. One of the reasons for slow penetration of OCT in clinical and industrial use is probably the cost and the size of the current systems. Current commercial and research OCT systems are fiber/free space optics based. Although fiber and micro-optical components have made these systems portable, further significant miniaturization and cost reduction could be achieved through the use of integrated photonic components. We demonstrate a Michelson interferometer using integrated photonic waveguides on nanophotonic silicon on insulator platform. The size of the interferometer is 1500 μm x 50 μm. The structure has been tested using a mirror as a reflector. We can achieve 40 μm axial resolution and 25 dB sensitivity which can be substantially improved.

  20. Phase sensitive properties and coherent manipulation of a photonic crystal microcavity.

    PubMed

    Quiring, Wadim; Jonas, Björn; Förstner, Jens; Rai, Ashish K; Reuter, Dirk; Wieck, Andreas D; Zrenner, Artur

    2016-09-05

    We present phase sensitive cavity field measurements on photonic crystal microcavities. The experiments have been performed as autocorrelation measurements with ps double pulse laser excitation for resonant and detuned conditions. Measured E-field autocorrelation functions reveal a very strong detuning dependence of the phase shift between laser and cavity field and of the autocorrelation amplitude of the cavity field. The fully resolved phase information allows for a precise frequency discrimination and hence for a precise measurement of the detuning between laser and cavity. The behavior of the autocorrelation amplitude and phase and their detuning dependence can be fully described by an analytic model. Furthermore, coherent control of the cavity field is demonstrated by tailored laser excitation with phase and amplitude controlled pulses. The experimental proof and verification of the above described phenomena became possible by an electric detection scheme, which employs planar photonic crystal microcavity photo diodes with metallic Schottky contacts in the defect region of the resonator. The applied photo current detection was shown to work also efficiently at room temperature, which make electrically contacted microcavities attractive for real world applications.

  1. The coherent production of (K{sup +}π{sup 0}) Pairs by K{sup +} beam on copper nuclei in OKA detector

    SciTech Connect

    Burtovoy, V. S.

    2015-12-15

    The detection of coherent (K{sup +}π{sup 0}) pairs was made in collisions of K{sup +} beam with copper nuclei in the OKA detector. The number of electromagnetic and strong coherent events and the number of interference events were counted here. The difference between the electromagnetic and strong phases was also measured.

  2. Spatial soliton pairs of the vectorial Thirring model realized in a coherent atomic system via electromagnetically induced transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui-jun; Zhang, Kun

    2017-01-01

    We propose a scheme to realize a (2+1)-dimensional vectorial Thirring model in a coherent atomic system via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We show that under EIT conditions the probe field envelopes obey coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations, which are reduced to a Thirring model when system parameters are suitably chosen. We present spatial soliton-pair solutions exhibiting many interesting features, including controllability (i.e., the soliton property of one component can be adjusted by the propagation constant of another component in which the soliton remains unchanged), diversity (i.e., many different types of soliton-pair solutions can be found, including bright-bright, dark-bright, dark-dark, darklike-dark, dark-dipole, darklike-multidark, and high-dimensional bright-bright, dark-darklike soliton pairs), and stability. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the stability of soliton pairs in the system can be strengthened by adjusting the propagation constant. Comparing with previous studies, in addition to supporting much more stable (1+1)-dimensional and (2+1)-dimensional spatial soliton-pair solutions, the present scheme needs only a single atomic species and hence is easy to realize experimentally.

  3. Generation of coherent terahertz radiation by polarized electron-hole pairs in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Andrianov, A. V. Alekseev, P. S.; Klimko, G. V.; Ivanov, S. V.; Shcheglov, V. L.; Sedova, M. A.; Zakhar'in, A. O.

    2013-11-15

    The generation of coherent terahertz radiation upon the band-to-band femtosecond laser photoexcitation of GaAs/AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well structures in a transverse electric field at room temperature is investigated. The properties of the observed terahertz radiation suggest that it is generated on account of the excitation of a time-dependent dipole moment as a result of the polarization of nonequilibrium electron-hole pairs in quantum wells by the electric field. The proposed theoretical model taking into account the dynamic screening of the electric field in the quantum wells by nonequilibrium charge carriers describes the properties of the observed terahertz signal.

  4. Source of statistical noises in the Monte Carlo sampling techniques for coherently scattered photons.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Wazir; Lee, Sang Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Detailed comparisons of the predictions of the Relativistic Form Factors (RFFs) and Modified Form Factors (MFFs) and their advantages and shortcomings in calculating elastic scattering cross sections can be found in the literature. However, the issues related to their implementation in the Monte Carlo (MC) sampling for coherently scattered photons is still under discussion. Secondly, the linear interpolation technique (LIT) is a popular method to draw the integrated values of squared RFFs/MFFs (i.e. A(Z, v(i)²)) over squared momentum transfer (v(i)² = v(1)²,......, v(59)²). In the current study, the role/issues of RFFs/MFFs and LIT in the MC sampling for the coherent scattering were analyzed. The results showed that the relative probability density curves sampled on the basis of MFFs are unable to reveal any extra scientific information as both the RFFs and MFFs produced the same MC sampled curves. Furthermore, no relationship was established between the multiple small peaks and irregular step shapes (i.e. statistical noise) in the PDFs and either RFFs or MFFs. In fact, the noise in the PDFs appeared due to the use of LIT. The density of the noise depends upon the interval length between two consecutive points in the input data table of A(Z, v(i)²) and has no scientific background. The probability density function curves became smoother as the interval lengths were decreased. In conclusion, these statistical noises can be efficiently removed by introducing more data points in the A(Z, v(i)²) data tables.

  5. Amplitude and Transverse Quadrature Component Squeezing of Coherent Light in High Q Cavity by Injection of Atoms of Two-Photon Transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, Chang-Qi

    1996-01-01

    The amplitude and transverse quadrature component squeezing of coherent light in high Q cavity by injection of atoms of two-photon transition are studied. The Golubev-Sokolov master equation and generating function approach are utilized to derive the exact variances of photon number and of transverse quadrature component as function of t. The correlation functions and power spectrums of photon number noise and of output photon current noise are also investigated.

  6. Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking and Phase Coherence of a Photon Bose-Einstein Condensate Coupled to a Reservoir.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Julian; Damm, Tobias; Dung, David; Wahl, Christian; Vewinger, Frank; Klaers, Jan; Weitz, Martin

    2016-01-22

    We examine the phase evolution of a Bose-Einstein condensate of photons generated in a dye microcavity by temporal interference with a phase reference. The photoexcitable dye molecules constitute a reservoir of variable size for the condensate particles, allowing for grand canonical statistics with photon bunching, as in a lamp-type source. We directly observe phase jumps of the condensate associated with the large statistical number fluctuations and find a separation of correlation time scales. For large systems, our data reveal phase coherence and a spontaneously broken symmetry, despite the statistical fluctuations.

  7. Generation of polarization entangled photon pairs at telecommunication wavelength using cascaded χ(2) processes in a periodically poled LiNbO3 ridge waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arahira, Shin; Namekata, Naoto; Kishimoto, Tadashi; Yaegashi, Hiroki; Inoue, Shuichiro

    2011-08-01

    We report the generation of high-purity correlated photon-pairs and polarization entanglement in a 1.5 μm telecommunication wavelength-band using cascaded χ(2):χ(2) processes, second-harmonic generation (SHG) and the following spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC), in a periodically poled LiNbO3 (PPLN) ridge-waveguide device. By using a PPLN module with 600%/W of the SHG efficiency, we have achieved a coincidence-to-accidental ratio (CAR) higher than 4000 at 7.45x10-5 of the mean number of the photon-pair per pulse. We also demonstrated that the maximum reach of the CAR was truly dark-count-limited by the single-photon detectors used here. This indicates that the fake (noise) photons were negligibly small in this system, even though the photon-pairs, the Raman noise photons, and the pump photons were in the same wavelength band. Polarization entangled photon pairs were also generated by constructing a Sagnac-loop-type interferometer which included the PPLN module and an optical phase-difference compensator to observe maximum entanglement. We achieved two-photon interference visibilities of 99.6% in the H/V basis and 98.7% in the diagonal basis. The peak coincidence count rate was approximately 50 counts per second at 10-3 of the mean number of the photon-pair per pulse.

  8. Universality of Coherent Raman Gain Suppression in Gas-Filled Broadband-Guiding Photonic Crystal Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, P.; Mridha, M. K.; Novoa, D.; Abdolvand, A.; Russell, P. St. J.

    2017-03-01

    As shown in the early 1960s, the gain in stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) is drastically suppressed when the rate of creation of phonons (via a pump-to-Stokes conversion) is exactly balanced by the rate of phonon annihilation (via a pump-to-anti-Stokes conversion). This occurs when the phonon coherence waves—synchronized vibrations of a large population of molecules—have identical propagation constants for both processes; i.e., they are phase-velocity matched. As recently demonstrated, hydrogen-filled photonic crystal fiber pumped in the vicinity of its zero-dispersion wavelength provides an ideal system for observing this effect. Here we report that Raman gain suppression is actually a universal feature of SRS in gas-filled hollow-core fibers and that it can strongly impair SRS even when the phase mismatch is high, particularly at high pump powers when it is normally assumed that nonlinear processes become more (not less) efficient. This counterintuitive result means that intermodal stimulated Raman scattering (for example, between LP01 and LP11 core modes) begins to dominate at high power levels. The results reported have important implications for fiber-based Raman shifters, amplifiers, or frequency combs, especially for operation in the ultraviolet, where the Raman gain is much higher.

  9. Inductive equation of motion approach for a semiconductor QD-QED: coherence induced control of photon statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Kabuss, Julia; Carmele, A.; Richter, M.; Chow, Weng W.; Knorr, A.

    2011-01-10

    This paper presents an inductive method for the microscopic description of quantum dot (QD) QED. Our description reproduces known effects up to an arbitrary accuracy, and is extendable to typical semiconductor effects, like many electron- and phonon-interactions. As an application, this method is used to theoretically examine quantum coherence phenomena and their impact on photon statistics for a Λ-type semiconductor QD strongly coupled to a single mode cavity and simultaneously excited with an external laser.

  10. Anomalous photon-gauge boson coupling contribution to the exclusive vector boson pair production from two photon exchange in pp collisions at 13 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, D. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Sá Borges, J.

    2015-04-01

    We study the W and Z pair production from two-photon exchange in proton-proton collisions at the LHC in order to evaluate the contributions of anomalous photon-gauge boson couplings, that simulates new particles and couplings predicted in many Standard Model (SM) extensions. The experimental results of W+ W- exclusive production (pp → pW+W- p) at 7 TeV from the CMS collaboration [1] updates the experimental limits on anomalous couplings obtained at the Large Electron-Positron Collider (LEP). This motivates our present analysis hopefully anticipating the expected results using the Precision Proton Spectrometer (PPS) to be installed as part of CMS. In this work, we consider the W+W- exclusive production to present the pT distribution of the lepton pair corresponding to the SM signal with pT (e, μ) > 10 GeV. Next, we consider the photon-gauge boson anomalous couplings by calculating, from the FPMC and MadGraph event generators, the process γγ → W+W- from a model with gauge boson quartic couplings, by considering a 1 TeV scale for new physical effects. We present our results for an integrated luminosity of 5 fb-1 at center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV and for an integrated luminosity of 100 fb-1 at 13 TeV. We present our preliminary results for Z pair exclusive production from two-photon exchange with anomalous couplings, where the ZZγγ quartic coupling is absent in the SM. We calculate the total cross section for the exclusive process and present the four lepton invariant mass distribution. Finally we present an outlook for the present analysis.

  11. Anomalous photon-gauge boson coupling contribution to the exclusive vector boson pair production from two photon exchange in pp collisions at 13 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Martins, D. E.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Sá Borges, J.; Rebello Teles, P.

    2015-04-10

    We study the W and Z pair production from two-photon exchange in proton-proton collisions at the LHC in order to evaluate the contributions of anomalous photon-gauge boson couplings, that simulates new particles and couplings predicted in many Standard Model (SM) extensions. The experimental results of W{sup +} W{sup −} exclusive production (pp → pW{sup +}W{sup −} p) at 7 TeV from the CMS collaboration [1] updates the experimental limits on anomalous couplings obtained at the Large Electron-Positron Collider (LEP). This motivates our present analysis hopefully anticipating the expected results using the Precision Proton Spectrometer (PPS) to be installed as part of CMS. In this work, we consider the W{sup +}W{sup −} exclusive production to present the p{sub T} distribution of the lepton pair corresponding to the SM signal with p{sub T} (e, μ) > 10 GeV. Next, we consider the photon-gauge boson anomalous couplings by calculating, from the FPMC and MadGraph event generators, the process γγ → W{sup +}W{sup −} from a model with gauge boson quartic couplings, by considering a 1 TeV scale for new physical effects. We present our results for an integrated luminosity of 5 fb{sup −1} at center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV and for an integrated luminosity of 100 fb{sup −1} at 13 TeV. We present our preliminary results for Z pair exclusive production from two-photon exchange with anomalous couplings, where the ZZγγ quartic coupling is absent in the SM. We calculate the total cross section for the exclusive process and present the four lepton invariant mass distribution. Finally we present an outlook for the present analysis.

  12. Wavelength division multiplexed and double-port pumped time-bin entangled photon pair generation using Si ring resonator.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Mikio; Wakabayashi, Ryota; Sasaki, Masahide; Takeoka, Masahiro

    2017-02-20

    We report a wavelength division multiplexed time-bin entangled photon pair source in telecom wavelength using a 10 μm radius Si ring resonator. This compact resonator has two add ports and two drop ports. By pumping one add port by a continuous laser, we demonstrate an efficient generation of two-wavelength division multiplexed time-bin entangled photon pairs in the telecom C-band, which come out of one drop port, and are then split into the signal and idler photons via a wavelength filter. The resonator structure enhances four-wave mixing for pair generation. Moreover, we demonstrate the double-port pumping where two counter propagating pump lights are injected to generate entanglement from the two drop ports simultaneously. We successfully observe the highly entangled outputs from both two drop ports. Surprisingly, the count rate at each drop port is even increased by twice that of the single-port pumping. Possible mechanisms of this observation are discussed. Our technique allows for the efficient use of the Si ring resonator and widens its functionality for variety of applications.

  13. Simultaneous Creation of Electron-Positron Pairs and Photons in Robertson-Walker Universes with Statically Bounded Expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotze, K.-H.

    We present, based upon quantum electrodynamics in Robertson-Walker flat universes, a thorough analysis of the creation of mutually interacting electron-positron pairs and photons from vacuum. Therefore we discuss at least qualitatively all processes contributing to the number densities of created particles up to the second order in the coupling constant. For two particular expansion laws with Minkowskian in respectively in and out regions, we obtain exact solutions to the Dirac equation and investigate in detail the process of simultaneous creation of electron-positron pairs and photons and the related attenuation effect for fermionic particles. This is done for electrons and positrons which have nonrelativistic momenta at Compton time in rapidly expanding universes. The results are compared with the zeroth-order creation of electron-positron pairs. Despite being smaller by a factor of roughly e02 /4π ≈ 1 /137, the interacting-particle creation is important mainly as a source of photons even in conformally flat universes.

  14. Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type and W-type entangled coherent states: Generation and Bell-type inequality tests without photon counting

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Hyunseok; Nguyen Ba An

    2006-08-15

    We study Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type (GHZ-type) and W-type three-mode entangled coherent states. Both types of entangled coherent states violate Mermin's version of the Bell inequality with threshold photon detection (i.e., without photon counting). Such an experiment can be performed using linear optics elements and threshold detectors with significant Bell violations for GHZ-type entangled coherent states. However, to demonstrate Bell-type inequality violations for W-type entangled coherent states, additional nonlinear interactions are needed. We also propose an optical scheme to generate W-type entangled coherent states in free-traveling optical fields. The required resources for the generation are a single-photon source, a coherent state source, beam splitters, phase shifters, photodetectors, and Kerr nonlinearities. Our scheme does not necessarily require strong Kerr nonlinear interactions; i.e., weak nonlinearities can be used for the generation of the W-type entangled coherent states. Furthermore, it is also robust against inefficiencies of the single-photon source and the photon detectors.

  15. High yield and ultrafast sources of electrically triggered entangled-photon pairs based on strain-tunable quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiaxiang; Wildmann, Johannes S.; Ding, Fei; Trotta, Rinaldo; Huo, Yongheng; Zallo, Eugenio; Huber, Daniel; Rastelli, Armando; Schmidt, Oliver G.

    2015-12-01

    Triggered sources of entangled photon pairs are key components in most quantum communication protocols. For practical quantum applications, electrical triggering would allow the realization of compact and deterministic sources of entangled photons. Entangled-light-emitting-diodes based on semiconductor quantum dots are among the most promising sources that can potentially address this task. However, entangled-light-emitting-diodes are plagued by a source of randomness, which results in a very low probability of finding quantum dots with sufficiently small fine structure splitting for entangled-photon generation (~10-2). Here we introduce strain-tunable entangled-light-emitting-diodes that exploit piezoelectric-induced strains to tune quantum dots for entangled-photon generation. We demonstrate that up to 30% of the quantum dots in strain-tunable entangled-light-emitting-diodes emit polarization-entangled photons. An entanglement fidelity as high as 0.83 is achieved with fast temporal post selection. Driven at high speed, that is 400 MHz, strain-tunable entangled-light-emitting-diodes emerge as promising devices for high data-rate quantum applications.

  16. High yield and ultrafast sources of electrically triggered entangled-photon pairs based on strain-tunable quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiaxiang; Wildmann, Johannes S.; Ding, Fei; Trotta, Rinaldo; Huo, Yongheng; Zallo, Eugenio; Huber, Daniel; Rastelli, Armando; Schmidt, Oliver G.

    2015-01-01

    Triggered sources of entangled photon pairs are key components in most quantum communication protocols. For practical quantum applications, electrical triggering would allow the realization of compact and deterministic sources of entangled photons. Entangled-light-emitting-diodes based on semiconductor quantum dots are among the most promising sources that can potentially address this task. However, entangled-light-emitting-diodes are plagued by a source of randomness, which results in a very low probability of finding quantum dots with sufficiently small fine structure splitting for entangled-photon generation (∼10−2). Here we introduce strain-tunable entangled-light-emitting-diodes that exploit piezoelectric-induced strains to tune quantum dots for entangled-photon generation. We demonstrate that up to 30% of the quantum dots in strain-tunable entangled-light-emitting-diodes emit polarization-entangled photons. An entanglement fidelity as high as 0.83 is achieved with fast temporal post selection. Driven at high speed, that is 400 MHz, strain-tunable entangled-light-emitting-diodes emerge as promising devices for high data-rate quantum applications. PMID:26621073

  17. Experiments in Quantum Coherence and Computation With Single Cooper-Pair Electronics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-22

    34V2 sz − e CgCSÎ"vrLc sa† + ad 3f1 − 2Ng − cossudsz + sinsudsxg . s16d Here, sx and sz are Pauli matrices in the eigenbasis hu↑ l , u↓ lj, u...1 2 D − vmwGsz + "g«std D sx + "svr − vmwda†a + "«stdsa† + ad s31d in a frame rotating at the drive frequency vmw. Choosing vmw=V+ s2n+1dg2 /D, H1q...and the ith cavity photon mode, and tan1EJ=Eel. At the charge degeneracy point ( CDP ), that is, Ng 1=2, HI reduces to the Jaynes-Cummings

  18. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering in isolated air-guided modes of a hollow-core photonic-crystal fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Fedotov, A.B.; Zheltikov, A.M.; Konorov, S.O.; Mitrokhin, V.P.; Serebryannikov, E.E

    2004-10-01

    Hollow-core photonic-crystal fibers are shown to offer the unique possibility of coherent excitation and probing of Raman-active vibrations in molecules by isolated air-guided modes of electromagnetic radiation. A 3-cm section of a hollow photonic-crystal fiber is used to prepare isolated air-guided modes of pump and probe fields for a coherent excitation of 2331-cm{sup -1} Q-branch vibrations of molecular nitrogen in the gas filling the fiber core, enhancing coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering through these vibrations by a factor of 15 relative to the regime of tight focusing.

  19. Bound on the Photon Charge from the Phase Coherence of Extragalactic Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Altschul, Brett

    2007-06-29

    If the photon possessed a nonzero charge, then electromagnetic waves traveling along different paths would acquire Aharonov-Bohm phase differences. The fact that such an effect has not hindered interferometric astronomy places a bound on the photon charge estimated to be at the 10{sup -32}e level if all photons have the same charge and 10{sup -46}e if different photons can carry different charges.

  20. Generation of High Purity Photon-Pair in a Short Highly Non-Linear Fiber

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    HNLF) has yielded relatively little success [9]. In addition, it is claimed that the higher Raman noise photons due to the Germanium oxide doping...in HNLF deteriorate its performance compared to DSF and HNMSF [10]. Nonetheless, it is also shown that Raman noise photons can be reduced by...pump pulse at 1554.1 nm with the pulse duration ≈ 5 ps and repetition rate of 46.5 MHz is spectrally carved out from a mode-locked femtosecond fiber

  1. Exclusive photon-photon production of muon pairs in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Khachatryan, Vardan; Sirunyan, Albert M.; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; /Yerevan Phys. Inst. /Vienna, OAW /Minsk, High Energy Phys. Ctr. /Antwerp U., WISINF /Vrije U., Brussels /Brussels U. /Gent U. /Louvain U. /UMH, Mons /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Rio de Janeiro State U.

    2011-11-01

    A measurement of the exclusive two-photon production of muon pairs in proton-proton collisions at {radical}s = 7 TeV, pp {yields} p{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}p, is reported using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 40 pb{sup -1}. For muon pairs with invariant mass greater than 11.5 GeV, transverse momentum p{sub T}({mu}) > 4 GeV and pseudorapidity |{eta}({mu})| < 2.1, a fit to the dimuon p{sub T}({mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}) distribution results in a measured cross section of {sigma}(p {yields} p{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}) = 3.38{sub -0.55}{sup +0.58}(stat.) {+-} 0.16(syst.) {+-} 0.14(lumi.) pb, consistent with the theoretical prediction evaluated with the event generator LPAIR. The ratio to the predicted cross section is 0.83{sub -0.13}{sup +0.14}(stat.) {+-} 0.04(syst.) {+-} 0.03(lumi.). The characteristic distributions of the muon pairs produced via {gamma}{gamma} fusion, such as the muon acoplanarity, the muon pair invariant mass and transverse momentum agree with those from the theory.

  2. Generation of a pair of photons through the three-body dissociation of a multiply excited water molecule around the double ionization potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odagiri, Takeshi; Nakano, Motoyoshi; Tanabe, Takehiko; Kumagai, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Isao H.; Kouchi, Noriyuki

    2009-11-01

    The cross sections for the generation of a photon-pair from excited fragments in photoexcitation of H2O have been measured as a function of incident photon energy. The multiply excited states of H2O have been observed even above the adiabatic double ionization potential.

  3. Study of π0 pair production in single-tag two-photon collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Masuda, M.; Uehara, S.; Watanabe, Y.; Nakazawa, H.; Abdesselam, A.; Adachi, I.; Aihara, H.; Al Said, S.; Asner, D. M.; Atmacan, H.; Aulchenko, V.; Aushev, T.; Babu, V.; Badhrees, I.; Bakich, A. M.; Barberio, E.; Behera, P.; Bhuyan, B.; Biswal, J.; Bobrov, A.; Bonvicini, G.; Bozek, A.; Bračko, M.; Browder, T. E.; Červenkov, D.; Chekelian, V.; Chen, A.; Cheon, B. G.; Chilikin, K.; Chistov, R.; Cho, K.; Chobanova, V.; Choi, S. -K.; Choi, Y.; Cinabro, D.; Dalseno, J.; Danilov, M.; Dash, N.; Dingfelder, J.; Doležal, Z.; Drásal, Z.; Dutta, D.; Eidelman, S.; Epifanov, D.; Farhat, H.; Fast, J. E.; Ferber, T.; Fulsom, B. G.; Gaur, V.; Gabyshev, N.; Garmash, A.; Gillard, R.; Giordano, F.; Glattauer, R.; Goh, Y. M.; Goldenzweig, P.; Golob, B.; Haba, J.; Hayasaka, K.; Hayashii, H.; He, X. H.; Hou, W. -S.; Iijima, T.; Inami, K.; Ishikawa, A.; Itoh, R.; Iwasaki, Y.; Jaegle, I.; Joffe, D.; Joo, K. K.; Julius, T.; Kang, K. H.; Kato, E.; Kawasaki, T.; Kim, D. Y.; Kim, J. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, K. T.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. J.; Ko, B. R.; Korpar, S.; Križan, P.; Krokovny, P.; Kumita, T.; Kuzmin, A.; Kwon, Y. -J.; Lange, J. S.; Lee, D. H.; Lee, I. S.; Li, C.; Li, L.; Li, Y.; Libby, J.; Liventsev, D.; Lukin, P.; Matvienko, D.; Miyabayashi, K.; Miyata, H.; Mizuk, R.; Mohanty, G. B.; Mohanty, S.; Moll, A.; Moon, H. K.; Mori, T.; Mussa, R.; Nakano, E.; Nakao, M.; Nanut, T.; Natkaniec, Z.; Nayak, M.; Nisar, N. K.; Nishida, S.; Ogawa, S.; Pakhlov, P.; Pakhlova, G.; Pal, B.; Park, C. W.; Park, H.; Pedlar, T. K.; Pestotnik, R.; Petrič, M.; Piilonen, L. E.; Rauch, J.; Ribežl, E.; Ritter, M.; Rostomyan, A.; Sandilya, S.; Santelj, L.; Sanuki, T.; Sato, Y.; Savinov, V.; Schneider, O.; Schnell, G.; Schwanda, C.; Seino, Y.; Senyo, K.; Seon, O.; Sevior, M. E.; Shebalin, V.; Shen, C. P.; Shibata, T. -A.; Shiu, J. -G.; Shwartz, B.; Simon, F.; Sohn, Y. -S.; Sokolov, A.; Solovieva, E.; Starič, M.; Sumihama, M.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Tamponi, U.; Tanida, K.; Teramoto, Y.; Uglov, T.; Unno, Y.; Uno, S.; Van Hulse, C.; Vanhoefer, P.; Varner, G.; Vinokurova, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Vossen, A.; Wagner, M. N.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, M. -Z.; Wang, P.; Williams, K. M.; Won, E.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamashita, Y.; Yashchenko, S.; Ye, H.; Yusa, Y.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhilich, V.; Zhulanov, V.; Zupanc, A.

    2016-02-01

    We report a measurement of the differential cross section of π^0 pair production in single-tag two-photon collisions, y*y->π^0π^0, in e+e- scattering. The cross section is measured for Q^2up to 30 GeV^2 is the negative of the invariant mass squared of the tagged photon

  4. Photon-pair generation by intermodal spontaneous four-wave mixing in birefringent, weakly guiding optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garay-Palmett, K.; Cruz-Delgado, D.; Dominguez-Serna, F.; Ortiz-Ricardo, E.; Monroy-Ruz, J.; Cruz-Ramirez, H.; Ramirez-Alarcon, R.; U'Ren, A. B.

    2016-03-01

    We present a theoretical and experimental study of the generation of photon pairs through the process of spontaneous four-wave mixing (SFWM) in a few-mode, birefringent fiber. Under these conditions, multiple SFWM processes are in fact possible, each associated with a different combination of transverse modes for the four waves involved. We show that in the weakly guiding regime, for which the propagation modes may be well approximated by linearly polarized modes, the departure from circular symmetry due to the fiber birefringence translates into conservation rules, which retain elements from azimuthal and rectangular symmetries: both OAM and parity must be conserved for a process to be viable. We have implemented a SFWM source based on a bowtie birefringent fiber, and have measured for a collection of pump wavelengths the SFWM spectra of each of the signal and idler photons in coincidence with its partner photon. We have used this information, together with knowledge of the transverse modes into which the signal and idler photons are emitted, as input for a genetic algorithm, which accomplishes two tasks: (i) the identification of the particular SFWM processes that are present in the source, and (ii) the characterization of the fiber used.

  5. Coherent supercontinuum bandwidth limitations under femtosecond pumping at 2 µm in all-solid soft glass photonic crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Klimczak, Mariusz; Siwicki, Bartłomiej; Zhou, Binbin; Bache, Morten; Pysz, Dariusz; Bang, Ole; Buczyński, Ryszard

    2016-12-26

    Two all-solid glass photonic crystal fibers with all-normal dispersion profiles are evaluated for coherent supercontinuum generation under pumping in the 2.0 μm range. In-house boron-silicate and commercial lead-silicate glasses were used to fabricate fibers optimized for either flat dispersion, albeit with lower nonlinearity, or with larger dispersion profile curvature but with much higher nonlinearity. Recorded spectra at the redshifted edge reached 2500-2800 nm depending on fiber type. Possible factors behind these differences are discussed with numerical simulations. The fiber enabling the broadest spectrum is suggested as an efficient first stage of an all-normal dispersion cascade for coherent supercontinuum generation exceeding 3000 nm.

  6. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging with a laser source delivered by a photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haifeng; Huff, Terry B; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2006-05-15

    We demonstrate laser-scanning coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging with two excitation laser beams delivered by a large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber. The group-velocity dispersion and self-phase modulation effects are largely suppressed due to the large mode area of the fiber and the use of picosecond pulses. The fiber delivery preserves the signal level and image spatial resolution well. High-quality images of live spinal cord tissues are acquired using the fiber-delivered laser source. Our method provides a basic platform for developing a flexible and compact CARS imaging system.

  7. Nonclassicality Generated by Applying Hermite-Polynomials Photon-Added Operator on the Even/Odd Coherent States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Gang; Du, Jian-ming; Zhang, Wen-hai; Yu, Hai-jun

    2017-02-01

    We examine nonclassical properties of the quantum state generated by applying Hermite polynomials photon-added operator on the even/odd coherent state (HPECS/HPOCS). Explicit expressions for its nonclassical properties, such as quantum statistical properties and squeezing phenomenon, are obtained. It is interesting to find that the HPECS/HPOCS exhibits sub-Poissonian distribution, anti-bunching effects and negative values of the Wigner function. Thus, we confirm the HPPECS/HPPOCS is a new nonclassical state. Finally, we reveal that the HPPECS/HPPOCS is a novel intelligent state by its squeezing effects in position distribution and quadrature squeezing.

  8. Direct photon pair production at the LHC to O(α) in TeV scale gravity models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, M. C.; Mathews, Prakash; Ravindran, V.; Tripathi, Anurag

    2009-09-01

    The first results on next-to-leading order QCD corrections to production of direct photon pairs in hadronic collisions in the extra dimension models — ADD and RS are presented. Various kinematical distributions are obtained to order α in QCD by taking into account all the parton level subprocesses. Our Monte Carlo based code incorporates all the experimental cuts suitable for physics studies at the LHC. We estimate the impact of the QCD corrections on various observables and find that they are significant. We also show the reduction in factorization scale uncertainty when O(α) effects are included.

  9. Pair creation in heavy ion channeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, N. A.; Harman, Z.

    2016-04-01

    Heavy ions channeled through crystals with multi-GeV kinetic energies can create electron-positron pairs. In the framework of the ion, the energy of virtual photons arising from the periodic crystal potential may exceed the threshold 2mec2. The repeated periodic collisions with the crystal ions yield high pair production rates. When the virtual photon frequency matches a nuclear transition in the ion, the production rate can be resonantly increased. In this two-step excitation-pair conversion scheme, the excitation rates are coherently enhanced, and scale approximately quadratically with the number of crystal sites along the channel.

  10. Coherent photon interference elimination and spectral correction in femtosecond time-resolved fluorescence non-collinear optical parametric amplification spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dang, Wei; Mao, Pengcheng; Weng, Yuxiang

    2013-07-01

    We report an improved setup of femtosecond time-resolved fluorescence non-collinear optical parametric amplification spectroscopy (FNOPAS) with a 210 fs temporal response. The system employs a Cassegrain objective to collect and focus fluorescence photons, which eliminates the interference from the coherent photons in the fluorescence amplification by temporal separation of the coherent photons and the fluorescence photons. The gain factor of the Cassegrain objective-assisted FNOPAS is characterized as 1.24 × 10(5) for Rhodamine 6G. Spectral corrections have been performed on the transient fluorescence spectra of Rhodamine 6G and Rhodamine 640 in ethanol by using an intrinsic calibration curve derived from the spectrum of superfluorescence, which is generated from the amplification of the vacuum quantum noise. The validity of spectral correction is illustrated by comparisons of spectral shape and peak wavelength between the corrected transient fluorescence spectra of these two dyes acquired by FNOPAS and their corresponding standard reference spectra collected by the commercial streak camera. The transient fluorescence spectra of the Rhodamine 6G were acquired in an optimized phase match condition, which gives a deviation in the peak wavelength between the retrieved spectrum and the reference spectrum of 1.0 nm, while those of Rhodamine 640 were collected in a non-optimized phase match condition, leading to a deviation in a range of 1.0-3.0 nm. Our results indicate that the improved FNOPAS can be a reliable tool in the measurement of transient fluorescence spectrum for its high temporal resolution and faithfully corrected spectrum.

  11. Photon pair sources in AlGaAs: from electrical injection to quantum state engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Autebert, C.; Boucher, G.; Boitier, F.; Eckstein, A.; Favero, I.; Leo, G.; Ducci, S.

    2015-11-01

    Integrated quantum photonics is a very active field of quantum information, communication, and processing. One of the main challenges to achieve massively parallel systems for complex operations is the generation, manipulation, and detection of many qubits within the same chip. Here, we present our last achievements on AlGaAs quantum photonic devices emitting nonclassical states of light at room temperature by spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC). The choice of this platform combines the advantages of a mature fabrication technology, a high nonlinear coefficient, a SPDC wavelength in the C-telecom band and the possibility of electrical injection.

  12. Multifrequency sources of quantum correlated photon pairs on-chip: a path toward integrated Quantum Frequency Combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caspani, Lucia; Reimer, Christian; Kues, Michael; Roztocki, Piotr; Clerici, Matteo; Wetzel, Benjamin; Jestin, Yoann; Ferrera, Marcello; Peccianti, Marco; Pasquazi, Alessia; Razzari, Luca; Little, Brent E.; Chu, Sai T.; Moss, David J.; Morandotti, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    Recent developments in quantum photonics have initiated the process of bringing photonic-quantumbased systems out-of-the-lab and into real-world applications. As an example, devices to enable the exchange of a cryptographic key secured by the laws of quantum mechanics are already commercially available. In order to further boost this process, the next step is to transfer the results achieved by means of bulky and expensive setups into miniaturized and affordable devices. Integrated quantum photonics is exactly addressing this issue. In this paper, we briefly review the most recent advancements in the generation of quantum states of light on-chip. In particular, we focus on optical microcavities, as they can offer a solution to the problem of low efficiency that is characteristic of the materials typically used in integrated platforms. In addition, we show that specifically designed microcavities can also offer further advantages, such as compatibility with telecom standards (for exploiting existing fibre networks) and quantum memories (necessary to extend the communication distance), as well as giving a longitudinal multimode character for larger information transfer and processing. This last property (i.e., the increased dimensionality of the photon quantum state) is achieved through the ability to generate multiple photon pairs on a frequency comb, corresponding to the microcavity resonances. Further achievements include the possibility of fully exploiting the polarization degree of freedom, even for integrated devices. These results pave the way for the generation of integrated quantum frequency combs that, in turn, may find important applications toward the realization of a compact quantum-computing platform.

  13. Single Crystal as a High Energy Photons Detector for γ-Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galper, A. M.; Kalashnikov, N. P.; Mulyarchik, E. I.; Olchak, A. S.

    One of the important problems of modern astrophysics and gamma-astronomy is in designing detectors for high energy photons (more than 1 GeV) with high angular resolution. In this energy range the dominating phenomenon in interaction of photons with matter is the e-e+ pair production. High angular resolution can be achieved using single crystals as effective converters of photons into e-e+ pairs due to coherent production of pairs in the channeling regime.

  14. Time-delayed quantum coherent Pyragas feedback control of photon squeezing in a degenerate parametric oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, Manuel; Hein, Sven M.; Lehnert, Judith; Schöll, Eckehard; Hughes, Stephen; Knorr, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Quantum coherent feedback control is a measurement-free control method fully preserving quantum coherence. In this paper we show how time-delayed quantum coherent feedback can be used to control the degree of squeezing in the output field of a cavity containing a degenerate parametric oscillator. We focus on the specific situation of Pyragas-type feedback control where time-delayed signals are fed back directly into the quantum system. Our results show how time-delayed feedback can enhance or decrease the degree of squeezing as a function of time delay and feedback strength.

  15. Nonstationary coherent optical effects caused by pulse propagation through acetylene-filled hollow-core photonic-crystal fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocegueda, M.; Hernandez, E.; Stepanov, S.; Agruzov, P.; Shamray, A.

    2014-06-01

    Experimental observations of nonstationary coherent optical phenomena, i.e., optical nutation, free induction, and photon echo, in the acetylene (12C2H2) filled hollow-core photonic-crystal fiber (PCF) are reported. The presented results were obtained for the acetylene vibration-rotational transition P9 at wavelength 1530.37 nm at room temperature under a gas pressure of <0.5 Torr. An all-fiber pumped-through cell based on the commercial 2.6-m-long PCF with a 10-μm hollow-core diameter was used. The characteristic relaxation time T2 during which the optical coherent effects were typically observed in our experiments was estimated to be ≈8 ns. This time is governed by the limited time of the acetylene molecules' presence inside the effective PCF modal area and by intermolecule collisions. An accelerated attenuation of the optical nutation oscillations is explained by a random orientation of acetylene molecules.

  16. The FERMI@Elettra free-electron-laser source for coherent X-ray physics: photon properties, beam transport system, and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Allaria, Enrico; Callegari, Carlo; Cocco, Daniele; Fawley, William M.; Kiskinova, Maya; Masciovecchio, Claudio; Parmigiani, Fulvio

    2010-04-05

    FERMI@Elettra is comprised of two free electron lasers (FELs) that will generate short pulses (tau ~;; 25 to 200 fs) of highly coherent radiation in the XUV and soft X-ray region. The use of external laser seeding together with a harmonic upshift scheme to obtain short wavelengths will give FERMI@Elettra the capability to produce high quality, longitudinal coherent photon pulses. This capability together with the possibilities of temporal synchronization to external lasers and control of the output photon polarization will open new experimental opportunities not possible with currently available FELs. Here we report on the predicted radiation coherence properties and important configuration details of the photon beam transport system. We discuss the several experimental stations that will be available during initial operations in 2011, and we give a scientific perspective on possible experiments that can exploit the critical parameters of this new light source.

  17. Trapping photon-dressed Dirac electrons in a quantum dot studied by coherent two dimensional photon echo spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Roslyak, O.; Gumbs, Godfrey; Mukamel, S.

    2012-01-01

    We study the localization of dressed Dirac electrons in a cylindrical quantum dot (QD) formed on monolayer and bilayer graphene by spatially different potential profiles. Short lived excitonic states which are too broad to be resolved in linear spectroscopy are revealed by cross peaks in the photon-echo nonlinear technique. Signatures of the dynamic gap in the two-dimensional spectra are discussed. The effect of the Coulomb induced exciton-exciton scattering and the formation of biexciton molecules are demonstrated. PMID:22612079

  18. Detection of dark states in two-dimensional electronic photon-echo signals via ground-state coherence

    SciTech Connect

    Egorova, Dassia

    2015-06-07

    Several recent experiments report on possibility of dark-state detection by means of so called beating maps of two-dimensional photon-echo spectroscopy [Ostroumov et al., Science 340, 52 (2013); Bakulin et al., Ultrafast Phenomena XIX (Springer International Publishing, 2015)]. The main idea of this detection scheme is to use coherence induced upon the laser excitation as a very sensitive probe. In this study, we investigate the performance of ground-state coherence in the detection of dark electronic states. For this purpose, we simulate beating maps of several models where the excited-state coherence can be hardly detected and is assumed not to contribute to the beating maps. The models represent strongly coupled electron-nuclear dynamics involving avoided crossings and conical intersections. In all the models, the initially populated optically accessible excited state decays to a lower-lying dark state within few hundreds femtoseconds. We address the role of Raman modes and of interstate-coupling nature. Our findings suggest that the presence of low-frequency Raman active modes significantly increases the chances for detection of dark states populated via avoided crossings, whereas conical intersections represent a more challenging task.

  19. Phase-reference monitoring in coherent-state discrimination assisted by a photon-number resolving detector

    PubMed Central

    Bina, Matteo; Allevi, Alessia; Bondani, Maria; Olivares, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Phase estimation represents a crucial challenge in many fields of Physics, ranging from Quantum Metrology to Quantum Information Processing. This task is usually pursued by means of interferometric schemes, in which the choice of the input states and of the detection apparatus is aimed at minimizing the uncertainty in the estimation of the relative phase between the inputs. State discrimination protocols in communication channels with coherent states also require the monitoring of the optical phase. Therefore, the problem of phase estimation is relevant to face the issue of coherent states discrimination. Here we consider a quasi-optimal Kennedy-like receiver, based on the interference of two coherent signals, to be discriminated, with a reference local oscillator. By means of the Bayesian processing of a small amount of data drawn from the outputs of the shot-by-shot discrimination protocol, we demonstrate the achievement of the minimum uncertainty in phase estimation, also in the presence of uniform phase noise. Moreover, we show that the use of photon-number resolving detectors in the receiver improves the phase-estimation strategy, especially with respect to the usually employed on/off detectors. From the experimental point of view, this comparison is realized by employing hybrid photodetectors. PMID:27189140

  20. Phase-reference monitoring in coherent-state discrimination assisted by a photon-number resolving detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bina, Matteo; Allevi, Alessia; Bondani, Maria; Olivares, Stefano

    2016-05-01

    Phase estimation represents a crucial challenge in many fields of Physics, ranging from Quantum Metrology to Quantum Information Processing. This task is usually pursued by means of interferometric schemes, in which the choice of the input states and of the detection apparatus is aimed at minimizing the uncertainty in the estimation of the relative phase between the inputs. State discrimination protocols in communication channels with coherent states also require the monitoring of the optical phase. Therefore, the problem of phase estimation is relevant to face the issue of coherent states discrimination. Here we consider a quasi-optimal Kennedy-like receiver, based on the interference of two coherent signals, to be discriminated, with a reference local oscillator. By means of the Bayesian processing of a small amount of data drawn from the outputs of the shot-by-shot discrimination protocol, we demonstrate the achievement of the minimum uncertainty in phase estimation, also in the presence of uniform phase noise. Moreover, we show that the use of photon-number resolving detectors in the receiver improves the phase-estimation strategy, especially with respect to the usually employed on/off detectors. From the experimental point of view, this comparison is realized by employing hybrid photodetectors.

  1. Prompt J /ψ production in association with a c c ¯ pair within the framework of nonrelativistic QCD via photon-photon collisions at the International Linear Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhan; Wu, Xing-Gang; Zhang, Hong-Fei

    2015-10-01

    We present a systematical study on the prompt J /ψ production in association with a c c ¯ pair via the process, γ γ →H (c c ¯)+c +c ¯, within the framework of nonrelativistic QCD at the future high-energy e+e- collider—International Linear Collider (ILC), including both direct and feed-down contributions. For direct J /ψ production, the states with color-octet channels, especially the P3 J[8] and S1 0[8] ones, provide a dominant contribution to the production cross section, which are about 52 times over that of the color-singlet one. This is clearly shown by the transverse momentum (pt) and rapidity distributions. The feed-down contribution from ψ' and χc J (J =0 , 1, 2) is sizable, which is about 20% to the total prompt cross section. Besides the yields, we also calculate the J /ψ polarization parameter λ . In the small pt region, the polarization of the prompt J /ψ is longitudinal due to large contributions through the P3 J[8] channel, and becomes transverse in the high pt region due to the S3 1[8] channel. Thus the J /ψ production via photon-photon collisions at the ILC shall provide a useful platform for testing the color-octet mechanism.

  2. Photonic integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer with an on-chip reference arm for optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Yurtsever, Günay; Považay, Boris; Alex, Aneesh; Zabihian, Behrooz; Drexler, Wolfgang; Baets, Roel

    2014-04-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive, three-dimensional imaging modality with several medical and industrial applications. Integrated photonics has the potential to enable mass production of OCT devices to significantly reduce size and cost, which can increase its use in established fields as well as enable new applications. Using silicon nitride (Si3N4) and silicon dioxide (SiO2) waveguides, we fabricated an integrated interferometer for spectrometer-based OCT. The integrated photonic circuit consists of four splitters and a 190 mm long reference arm with a foot-print of only 10 × 33 mm(2). It is used as the core of a spectral domain OCT system consisting of a superluminescent diode centered at 1320 nm with 100 nm bandwidth, a spectrometer with 1024 channels, and an x-y scanner. The sensitivity of the system was measured at 0.25 mm depth to be 65 dB with 0.1 mW on the sample. Using the system, we imaged human skin in vivo. With further optimization in design and fabrication technology, Si3N4/SiO2 waveguides have a potential to serve as a platform for passive photonic integrated circuits for OCT.

  3. A proposed fibre optic time domain optical coherence tomography system using a micro-photonic stationary optical delay line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansz, Paul Vernon; Wild, Graham; Hinckley, Steven

    2008-04-01

    Conventional time domain Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) relies on a reference Optical Delay Line (ODL). These reference ODLs require the physical movement of a mirror to scan a given depth range. This movement results in instrument degradation. We propose a new optical fibre based time domain OCT system that makes use of a micro-photonic structure as a stationary ODL. The proposed system uses an in-fibre interferometer, either a Michelson or a Mach-Zhender. The reference ODL makes use of a collimator to expand the light from the optical fibre. This is them expanded in one dimension via planar optics, that is, a cylindrical lens based telescope, using a concave and convex lens. The expanded beam is them passed through a transmissive Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), specifically a liquid crystal light valve used as an optical switch. Light is then reflected back through the system off the micro-photonic structure. The micro-photonic structure is a one dimensional array of stagged mirror steps, called a Stepped Mirror Structure (SMS). The system enables the selection of discrete optical delay lengths. The proposed ODL is capable of depth hoping and multicasting. We discuss the fabrication of the SMS, which consists of eight steps, each approximately 150 μm high. A change in notch frequency using an in-fibre Mach Zhender interferometer was used to gauge the average step height. The results gave an average step height of 146 μm.

  4. Photonic integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer with an on-chip reference arm for optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Yurtsever, Günay; Považay, Boris; Alex, Aneesh; Zabihian, Behrooz; Drexler, Wolfgang; Baets, Roel

    2014-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive, three-dimensional imaging modality with several medical and industrial applications. Integrated photonics has the potential to enable mass production of OCT devices to significantly reduce size and cost, which can increase its use in established fields as well as enable new applications. Using silicon nitride (Si3N4) and silicon dioxide (SiO2) waveguides, we fabricated an integrated interferometer for spectrometer-based OCT. The integrated photonic circuit consists of four splitters and a 190 mm long reference arm with a foot-print of only 10 × 33 mm2. It is used as the core of a spectral domain OCT system consisting of a superluminescent diode centered at 1320 nm with 100 nm bandwidth, a spectrometer with 1024 channels, and an x-y scanner. The sensitivity of the system was measured at 0.25 mm depth to be 65 dB with 0.1 mW on the sample. Using the system, we imaged human skin in vivo. With further optimization in design and fabrication technology, Si3N4/SiO2 waveguides have a potential to serve as a platform for passive photonic integrated circuits for OCT. PMID:24761288

  5. Two-photon interference and coherent control of single InAs quantum dot emissions in an Ag-embedded structure

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, X.; Kumano, H.; Nakajima, H.; Odashima, S.; Asano, T.; Suemune, I.; Kuroda, T.

    2014-07-28

    We have recently reported the successful fabrication of bright single-photon sources based on Ag-embedded nanocone structures that incorporate InAs quantum dots. The source had a photon collection efficiency as high as 24.6%. Here, we show the results of various types of photonic characterizations of the Ag-embedded nanocone structures that confirm their versatility as regards a broad range of quantum optical applications. We measure the first-order autocorrelation function to evaluate the coherence time of emitted photons, and the second-order correlation function, which reveals the strong suppression of multiple photon generation. The high indistinguishability of emitted photons is shown by the Hong-Ou-Mandel-type two-photon interference. With quasi-resonant excitation, coherent population flopping is demonstrated through Rabi oscillations. Extremely high single-photon purity with a g{sup (2)}(0) value of 0.008 is achieved with π-pulse quasi-resonant excitation.

  6. Excessive production of electron pairs by soft photons in low multiplicity ion interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, T. H.; Dake, S.; Fuki, M.; Gregory, J. C.; Hayashi, T.; Holynski, R.; Iwai, J.; Jones, W. V.; Jurak, A.; Lord, J. J.

    1985-01-01

    Three multiply charged primary cosmic ray interactions with carbon nuclei are reported, in which the number of materialized electron pairs within a distance of about 0.3 conversion length is larger than predicted from isospin considerations. These are the most energetic (sigma E gamma 4 TeV) of the low multiplicity ( 15 tracks) events observed in the Japanese-American Cooperative Experiment (JACEE-2) emulsion chamber.

  7. Electronic control of coherence in a two-dimensional array of photonic crystal surface emitting lasers.

    PubMed

    Taylor, R J E; Childs, D T D; Ivanov, P; Stevens, B J; Babazadeh, N; Crombie, A J; Ternent, G; Thoms, S; Zhou, H; Hogg, R A

    2015-08-20

    We demonstrate a semiconductor PCSEL array that uniquely combines an in-plane waveguide structure with nano-scale patterned PCSEL elements. This novel geometry allows two-dimensional electronically controllable coherent coupling of remote vertically emitting lasers. Mutual coherence of the PCSEL elements is verified through the demonstration of a two-dimensional Young's Slits experiment. In addition to allowing the all-electronic control of the interference pattern, this type of device offers new routes to power and brightness scaling in semiconductor lasers, and opportunities for all-electronic beam steering.

  8. Electronic control of coherence in a two-dimensional array of photonic crystal surface emitting lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, R. J. E.; Childs, D. T. D.; Ivanov, P.; Stevens, B. J.; Babazadeh, N.; Crombie, A. J.; Ternent, G.; Thoms, S.; Zhou, H.; Hogg, R. A.

    2015-08-01

    We demonstrate a semiconductor PCSEL array that uniquely combines an in-plane waveguide structure with nano-scale patterned PCSEL elements. This novel geometry allows two-dimensional electronically controllable coherent coupling of remote vertically emitting lasers. Mutual coherence of the PCSEL elements is verified through the demonstration of a two-dimensional Young’s Slits experiment. In addition to allowing the all-electronic control of the interference pattern, this type of device offers new routes to power and brightness scaling in semiconductor lasers, and opportunities for all-electronic beam steering.

  9. Electronic control of coherence in a two-dimensional array of photonic crystal surface emitting lasers

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, R. J. E.; Childs, D. T. D.; Ivanov, P.; Stevens, B. J.; Babazadeh, N.; Crombie, A. J.; Ternent, G.; Thoms, S.; Zhou, H.; Hogg, R. A.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a semiconductor PCSEL array that uniquely combines an in-plane waveguide structure with nano-scale patterned PCSEL elements. This novel geometry allows two-dimensional electronically controllable coherent coupling of remote vertically emitting lasers. Mutual coherence of the PCSEL elements is verified through the demonstration of a two-dimensional Young’s Slits experiment. In addition to allowing the all-electronic control of the interference pattern, this type of device offers new routes to power and brightness scaling in semiconductor lasers, and opportunities for all-electronic beam steering. PMID:26289621

  10. FUNDAMENTAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY (INCLUDING APPLICATIONS): Teleportation of Entangled States through Divorce of Entangled Pair Mediated by a Weak Coherent Field in a High-Q Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso B., W.; Almeida G. de, N.

    2008-07-01

    We propose a scheme to partially teleport an unknown entangled atomic state. A high-Q cavity, supporting one mode of a weak coherent state, is needed to accomplish this process. By partial teleportation we mean that teleportation will occur by changing one of the partners of the entangled state to be teleported. The entangled state to be teleported is composed by one pair of particles, we called this surprising characteristic of maintaining the entanglement, even when one of the particle of the entangled pair being teleported is changed, of divorce of entangled states.

  11. Coherent states on the m-sheeted complex plane as m-photon states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vourdas, Apostolos

    1994-01-01

    Coherent states on the m-sheeted complex plane are introduced and properties like overcompleteness and resolution of the identity are studied. They are eigenstates of the operators a(sub m)(+), a(sub m) which create and annihilate clusters of m-particles. Applications of this formalism in the study of Hamiltonians that describe m-particle clustering are also considered.

  12. Cross-polarized photon-pair generation and bi-chromatically pumped optical parametric oscillation on a chip

    PubMed Central

    Reimer, Christian; Kues, Michael; Caspani, Lucia; Wetzel, Benjamin; Roztocki, Piotr; Clerici, Matteo; Jestin, Yoann; Ferrera, Marcello; Peccianti, Marco; Pasquazi, Alessia; Little, Brent E.; Chu, Sai T.; Moss, David J.; Morandotti, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear optical processes are one of the most important tools in modern optics with a broad spectrum of applications in, for example, frequency conversion, spectroscopy, signal processing and quantum optics. For practical and ultimately widespread implementation, on-chip devices compatible with electronic integrated circuit technology offer great advantages in terms of low cost, small footprint, high performance and low energy consumption. While many on-chip key components have been realized, to date polarization has not been fully exploited as a degree of freedom for integrated nonlinear devices. In particular, frequency conversion based on orthogonally polarized beams has not yet been demonstrated on chip. Here we show frequency mixing between orthogonal polarization modes in a compact integrated microring resonator and demonstrate a bi-chromatically pumped optical parametric oscillator. Operating the device above and below threshold, we directly generate orthogonally polarized beams, as well as photon pairs, respectively, that can find applications, for example, in optical communication and quantum optics. PMID:26364999

  13. Coherence time limit of the biphotons generated in a dense cold atom cloud

    PubMed Central

    Han, Zhiguang; Qian, Peng; Zhou, L.; Chen, J. F.; Zhang, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Biphotons with narrow bandwidth and long coherence time can enhance light-atom interaction, which leads to strong coupling between photonic and atomic qubits. Such strong coupling is desirable in quantum information processing, quantum storage and communication. In particular, paired photons with a long coherence time over submicroseconds facilitate the direct manipulation of biphoton wavefunction. In this paper, we report the narrow-band biphotons with a coherence time of 2.34 μs generated from spontaneous four-wave mixing (SFWM) in a dense cold atom cloud, in which the anti-Stokes photons go through a narrow electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT) window. In our knowledge, this is the best record of coherence time for paired photons achieved so far. A number of factors limiting the coherence time are analyzed in detail. We find the EIT coherence plays an essential role in determining the coherence time for paired photons. The EIT dephasing rate is the ultimate limit to the coherence time, and an ultra-long coherence time above ten microseconds is possible by further improvement of the dephasing rate below 100 kHz. PMID:25778764

  14. A pseudoscalar decaying to photon pairs in the early LHC Run 2 data

    DOE PAGES

    Low, Matthew; Tesi, Andrea; Wang, Lian -Tao

    2016-03-16

    In this paper we explore the possibility of a pseudoscalar resonance to account for the 750 GeV diphoton excess observed both at ATLAS and at CMS. We analyze the ingredients needed from the low energy perspective to obtain a sufficiently large diphoton rate to explain the signal while avoiding constraints from other channels. Additionally, we point out composite Higgs models in which one can naturally obtain a pseudoscalar at the 750 GeV mass scale and we estimate the pseudoscalar couplings to standard model particles that one would have in such models. A generic feature of models that can explain themore » excess is the presence of new particles in addition to the 750 GeV state. In conclusion, we note that due to the origin of the coupling of the resonance to photons, one expects to see comparable signals in the Zγ, ZZ, and W W channels.« less

  15. A pseudoscalar decaying to photon pairs in the early LHC Run 2 data

    SciTech Connect

    Low, Matthew; Tesi, Andrea; Wang, Lian -Tao

    2016-03-16

    In this paper we explore the possibility of a pseudoscalar resonance to account for the 750 GeV diphoton excess observed both at ATLAS and at CMS. We analyze the ingredients needed from the low energy perspective to obtain a sufficiently large diphoton rate to explain the signal while avoiding constraints from other channels. Additionally, we point out composite Higgs models in which one can naturally obtain a pseudoscalar at the 750 GeV mass scale and we estimate the pseudoscalar couplings to standard model particles that one would have in such models. A generic feature of models that can explain the excess is the presence of new particles in addition to the 750 GeV state. In conclusion, we note that due to the origin of the coupling of the resonance to photons, one expects to see comparable signals in the Zγ, ZZ, and W W channels.

  16. Resonant single-photon and multiphoton coherent transitions in a detuned regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertaina, S.; Martens, M.; Egels, M.; Barakel, D.; Chiorescu, I.

    2015-07-01

    We performed quantum manipulations of the multilevel spin system S =5 /2 of a Mn2 + ion, by means of a two-tone pulse drive. The detuning between the excitation and readout radio frequency pulses allows one to select the number of photons involved in a Rabi oscillation as well as increase the frequency of this nutation. Thus detuning can lead to a resonant multiphoton process. Our analytical model for a two-photon process as well as a numerical generalization fit well the experimental findings, with implications for the use of multilevel spin systems as tunable solid state qubits.

  17. High-statistics study of K0S pair production in two-photon collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uehara, S.; Watanabe, Y.; Nakazawa, H.; Adachi, I.; Aihara, H.; Asner, D. M.; Aulchenko, V.; Aushev, T.; Bakich, A. M.; Bala, A.; Bhardwaj, V.; Bhuyan, B.; Bondar, A.; Bonvicini, G.; Bozek, A.; Bračko, M.; Chekelian, V.; Chen, A.; Chen, P.; Cheon, B. G.; Chilikin, K.; Chistov, R.; Cho, K.; Chobanova, V.; Choi, S.-K.; Choi, Y.; Cinabro, D.; Dalseno, J.; Dingfelder, J.; Doležal, Z.; Dutta, D.; Eidelman, S.; Epifanov, D.; Farhat, H.; Fast, J. E.; Feindt, M.; Ferber, T.; Frey, A.; Gaur, V.; Gabyshev, N.; Ganguly, S.; Gillard, R.; Giordano, F.; Goh, Y. M.; Golob, B.; Haba, J.; Hayasaka, K.; Hayashii, H.; Hoshi, Y.; Hou, W.-S.; Hyun, H. J.; Iijima, T.; Ishikawa, A.; Itoh, R.; Iwasaki, Y.; Julius, T.; Kah, D. H.; Kang, J. H.; Kato, E.; Kawai, H.; Kawasaki, T.; Kiesling, C.; Kim, D. Y.; Kim, H. O.; Kim, J. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, Y. J.; Klucar, J.; Ko, B. R.; Kodyš, P.; Korpar, S.; Križan, P.; Krokovny, P.; Kumita, T.; Kuzmin, A.; Kwon, Y.-J.; Lee, S.-H.; Li, J.; Li, Y.; Liu, C.; Liu, Z. Q.; Liventsev, D.; Lukin, P.; Matvienko, D.; Miyabayashi, K.; Miyata, H.; Mizuk, R.; Moll, A.; Mori, T.; Muramatsu, N.; Mussa, R.; Nagasaka, Y.; Nakao, M.; Ng, C.; Nisar, K. N.; Nishida, S.; Nitoh, O.; Ogawa, S.; Okuno, S.; Pakhlova, G.; Park, C. W.; Park, H.; Park, H. K.; Pedlar, T. K.; Pestotnik, R.; Petrič, M.; Piilonen, L. E.; Ritter, M.; Röhrken, M.; Rostomyan, A.; Sahoo, H.; Saito, T.; Sakai, Y.; Sandilya, S.; Santelj, L.; Sanuki, T.; Savinov, V.; Schneider, O.; Schnell, G.; Schwanda, C.; Seidl, R.; Senyo, K.; Seon, O.; Shapkin, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shiu, J.-G.; Shwartz, B.; Sibidanov, A.; Simon, F.; Sohn, Y.-S.; Sokolov, A.; Solovieva, E.; Starič, M.; Steder, M.; Sumihama, M.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Tamponi, U.; Tanida, K.; Tatishvili, G.; Teramoto, Y.; Uchida, M.; Uglov, T.; Unno, Y.; Uno, S.; Urquijo, P.; Vahsen, S. E.; Van Hulse, C.; Varner, G.; Wagner, M. N.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, M.-Z.; Wang, P.; Wang, X. L.; Williams, K. M.; Won, E.; Yamashita, Y.; Yashchenko, S.; Yook, Y.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yusa, Y.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhilich, V.; Zhulanov, V.; Zupanc, A.

    2013-12-01

    We report a high-statistics measurement of the differential cross section of the process γ γ to K^0_S K^0_S in the range 1.05 {GeV} ≤ W ≤ 4.00 GeV, where W is the center-of-mass energy of the colliding photons, using 972 fb^{-1} of data collected with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e^+ e^- collider operated at and near the Upsilon -resonance region. The differential cross section is fitted by parameterized S-, D_0-, D_2-, G_0-, and G_2-wave amplitudes. In the D_2 wave, the f_2(1270), a_2(1320), and f_2'(1525) are dominant and a resonance, the f_2(2200), is also present. The f_0(1710) and possibly the f_0(2500) are seen in the S wave. The mass, total width, and product of the two-photon partial decay width and decay branching fraction to the K bar {K} state Γ _{γ γ }mathcal {B}(K bar {K}) are extracted for the f_2'(1525), f_0(1710), f_2(2200), and f_0(2500). The destructive interference between the f_2(1270) and a_2(1320) is confirmed by measuring their relative phase. The parameters of the charmonium states χ _{c0} and χ _{c2} are updated. Possible contributions from the χ _{c0}(2P) and χ _{c2}(2P) states are discussed. A new upper limit for the branching fraction of the P- and CP-violating decay channel η _c to K^0_S K^0_S is reported. The detailed behavior of the cross section is updated and compared with QCD-based calculations.

  18. Role of photonic-crystal-type structures in the thermal regulation of a Lycaenid butterfly sister species pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biró, L. P.; Bálint, Zs.; Kertész, K.; Vértesy, Z.; Márk, G. I.; Horváth, Z. E.; Balázs, J.; Méhn, D.; Kiricsi, I.; Lousse, V.; Vigneron, J.-P.

    2003-02-01

    One of the possible functions of the photonic-crystal structure found on the wing scales of some butterflies is investigated. The optical and electron microscopic investigation of two male butterflies—blue (colored) and brown (discolored)—representing a sister species pair and originating from different altitudes, revealed that the blue color can be attributed unambiguously to the fine, spongelike medium, called “pepper-pot structure,” present between the ridges and the cross ribs in the scales of the colored butterfly. Only traces of this structure can be found on the scales of the discolored butterfly. Other physical measurements, mainly optical reflectivity, transmission, and thermal measurements, are correlated with structural data and simulation results. The thermal measurements reveal that under identical illumination conditions the high-altitude butterfly reaches a temperature 1.3 1.5 times the temperature reached by the low-altitude butterfly. This is attributed to the photonic-crystal-like behavior of the pepper-pot structure, which significantly reduces the penetration of light with wavelength in the blue region of the spectrum into the body of the scales. This sheds some light on the adaptation that enhances the survival chance of the butterfly in a cold environment rich in blue and UV radiation.

  19. Multimodal reconstruction of microvascular-flow distributions using combined two-photon microscopy and Doppler optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Louis; Sakadžić, Sava; Lesage, Fréderic; Mandeville, Emiri T.; Fang, Qianqian; Yaseen, Mohammad A.; Boas, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Computing microvascular cerebral blood flow (μCBF) in real cortical angiograms is challenging. Here, we investigated whether the use of Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) flow measurements in individual vessel segments can help in reconstructing μCBF across the entire vasculature of a truncated cortical angiogram. A μCBF computational framework integrating DOCT measurements is presented. Simulations performed on a synthetic angiogram showed that the addition of DOCT measurements, especially close to large inflowing or outflowing vessels, reduces the impact of pressure boundary conditions and estimated vessel resistances resulting in a more accurate reconstruction of μCBF. Our technique was then applied to reconstruct microvascular flow distributions in the mouse cortex down to 660  μm by combining two-photon laser scanning microscopy angiography with DOCT. PMID:26157987

  20. Multimodal reconstruction of microvascular-flow distributions using combined two-photon microscopy and Doppler optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Louis; Sakadžić, Sava; Lesage, Fréderic; Mandeville, Emiri T; Fang, Qianqian; Yaseen, Mohammad A; Boas, David A

    2015-01-01

    Computing microvascular cerebral blood flow ([Formula: see text]) in real cortical angiograms is challenging. Here, we investigated whether the use of Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) flow measurements in individual vessel segments can help in reconstructing [Formula: see text] across the entire vasculature of a truncated cortical angiogram. A [Formula: see text] computational framework integrating DOCT measurements is presented. Simulations performed on a synthetic angiogram showed that the addition of DOCT measurements, especially close to large inflowing or outflowing vessels, reduces the impact of pressure boundary conditions and estimated vessel resistances resulting in a more accurate reconstruction of [Formula: see text]. Our technique was then applied to reconstruct microvascular flow distributions in the mouse cortex down to [Formula: see text] by combining two-photon laser scanning microscopy angiography with DOCT.

  1. Experimental demonstration of coherent perfect absorption in a silicon photonic racetrack resonator.

    PubMed

    Rothenberg, Jacob M; Chen, Christine P; Ackert, Jason J; Dadap, Jerry I; Knights, Andrew P; Bergman, Keren; Osgood, Richard M; Grote, Richard R

    2016-06-01

    We present the first experimental demonstration of coherent perfect absorption (CPA) in an integrated device using a silicon racetrack resonator at telecommunication wavelengths. Absorption in the racetrack is achieved by Si+-ion-implantation, allowing for phase controllable amplitude modulation at the resonant wavelength. The device is measured to have an extinction of 24.5 dB and a quality-factor exceeding 3000. Our results will enable integrated CPA devices for data modulation and detection.

  2. Characterization of a photonic crystal fiber mode converter using low coherence interferometry.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Purnananda; Chen, Zilun; Witkowska, Agata; Wadsworth, William J; Birks, Timothy A; Knight, Jonathan C

    2009-04-01

    The relative group delay of the different modes present in an all-fiber LP11 mode converter at a central wavelength of 750 nm is observed using low coherence interferometric imaging. We have simultaneously measured the relative group delay and computed the intensity and the phase distribution of the modes emitted from the mode converter end face using a Fourier technique, providing unequivocal identification of the modes involved.

  3. Higher-Orders of Squeezing, Sub-Poissonian Statistics and Anti-Bunching of Deformed Photon-Added Coherent States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aeineh, N.; Tavassoly, M. K.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we investigate the higher-order nonclassical properties of a particular class of generalized coherent states namely the deformed photon-added nonlinear coherent states (DPACS) A†m |α, f, m>. To achieve this purpose we pay attention to higher-orders of squeezing (both Hillery- and Hong-Mandel-types), sub-Poissonian statistics and anti-bunching of the mentioned states with a well-known nonlinearity function. It is shown that for enough large values of field intensity (|α|2) for a fixed N (the order of squeezing) by increasing m (the order of excitation) the degree of squeezing evaluated by Hillery and Hong-Mandel approaches increases, while for a chosen fixed value of m, by increasing N for Hillery (Hong-Mandel) type of squeezing the strength of squeezing decreases (increases). Similarly, the degree of higher-order sub-Poissonian statistics (with fixed K) becomes lower when m increases, while (with fixed m) it gets greater values when the order of sub-Poissonian K increases. At last, higher-order anti-bunching of the DPACS is evaluated, by which we established that its (always) negative values increase with increasing m, α and l (the order of anti-bunching) individually, i.e. the degree of anti-bunching increases.

  4. Ultraflat-top midinfrared coherent broadband supercontinuum using all normal As2S5-borosilicate hybrid photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Salem, Amine; Diouf, Mbaye; Cherif, Rim; Wague, Ahmadou; Zghal, Mourad

    2016-06-01

    We report more than two octave spanning mid-IR flat-top supercontinuum (SC) generation using all normal As2S5-borosilicate hybrid photonic crystal fiber. Our design is based on a chalcogenide As2S5 photonic crystal fiber (PCF), where the first ring composed of six air holes is made by borosilicate glass. By injecting 50-fs pulses with 1.6 nJ energy at 2.5 μm in the all normal dispersion (ANDi) regime, a flat-top broadband SC extending from 1 to 5 μm with high-spectral flatness of 8 dB is obtained in only 4-mm fiber length. To the best of our knowledge, we present the broadest flat mid-IR spectrum generated in the ANDi regime of an optical fiber. The self-phase modulation and the optical wave breaking are identified as the main broadening mechanisms. The obtained broadband light source can be potentially used in the field of spectroscopy and in high-resolution optical coherent tomography owing to the high-spectral SC flatness generated by our designed fiber.

  5. Low coherence technique to interrogate optical sensors based on selectively filled double-core photonic crystal fiber for temperature measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kun; Jiang, Meng; Zhao, Zhongze; Wang, Zeming

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, an optical fiber sensing system based on low coherence interferometry (LCI) is proposed and demonstrated to interrogate sensors comprised of selectively filled double-core photonic crystal fiber (SFDC-PCF). The sensor used here is made by selectively filling about 1/3 area of air holes in the cladding of photonic crystal fiber with distilled water. So the dual-core in the sensor has different effective refractive indices, resulting in a phase delay between two lights transmitting in the fiber. The phase delay of the sensor can be compensated by a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a scanning optical tunable delay line in one arm of the interferometer, namely temporal interrogation. By tracking the value of phase delay, the change of the measurand can be detected. Temperature measurement is carried out to testify the system performance. An average sensitivity of 0.9 μm/°C is achieved within the temperature range of 29-92 °C. This work provides a new thinking for fiber sensing technology based on LCI. The proposed all-fiber sensing system, with the merits of cost-effective, stability, and flexibility, can demodulate the SFDC-PCF sensor signals well. Further improvements such as better sensitivity, larger measurement range and multiplexing efficiency can be realized by tailoring the PCF sensor's structure.

  6. Demonstration of quantum synchronization based on second-order quantum coherence of entangled photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Runai; Zhai, Yiwei; Wang, Mengmeng; Hou, Feiyan; Wang, Shaofeng; Xiang, Xiao; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Shougang; Dong, Ruifang

    2016-07-01

    Based on the second-order quantum interference between frequency entangled photons that are generated by parametric down conversion, a quantum strategic algorithm for synchronizing two spatially separated clocks has been recently presented. In the reference frame of a Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interferometer, photon correlations are used to define simultaneous events. Once the HOM interferometer is balanced by use of an adjustable optical delay in one arm, arrival times of simulta- neously generated photons are recorded by each clock. The clock offset is determined by correlation measurement of the recorded arrival times. Utilizing this algorithm, we demonstrate a proof-of-principle experiment for synchronizing two clocks separated by 4 km fiber link. A minimum timing stability of 0.44 ps at averaging time of 16000 s is achieved with an absolute time accuracy of 73.2 ps. The timing stability is verified to be limited by the correlation measurement device and ideally can be better than 10 fs. Such results shine a light to the application of quantum clock synchronization in the real high-accuracy timing system.

  7. Demonstration of quantum synchronization based on second-order quantum coherence of entangled photons

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Runai; Zhai, Yiwei; Wang, Mengmeng; Hou, Feiyan; Wang, Shaofeng; Xiang, Xiao; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Shougang; Dong, Ruifang

    2016-01-01

    Based on the second-order quantum interference between frequency entangled photons that are generated by parametric down conversion, a quantum strategic algorithm for synchronizing two spatially separated clocks has been recently presented. In the reference frame of a Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interferometer, photon correlations are used to define simultaneous events. Once the HOM interferometer is balanced by use of an adjustable optical delay in one arm, arrival times of simulta- neously generated photons are recorded by each clock. The clock offset is determined by correlation measurement of the recorded arrival times. Utilizing this algorithm, we demonstrate a proof-of-principle experiment for synchronizing two clocks separated by 4 km fiber link. A minimum timing stability of 0.44 ps at averaging time of 16000 s is achieved with an absolute time accuracy of 73.2 ps. The timing stability is verified to be limited by the correlation measurement device and ideally can be better than 10 fs. Such results shine a light to the application of quantum clock synchronization in the real high-accuracy timing system. PMID:27452276

  8. Theory and experimental consequences of generation of a pair of photon-dressed discrete states by external electromagnetic fields in the atomic or molecular continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lami, Alessandro; Rahman, Naseem K.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown theoretically that double resonance through the continuum can be utilized to produce two photon-dressed discrete states embedded in the continuum. The significance of creating such a pair of states is discussed, along with its experimental consequences. Especially important are quantum beats of population, which offer novel spectroscopic opportunities.

  9. Photons with a Twist: Coherent Optical Vortices From Relativistic Electron Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knyazik, Andrey

    The purpose of this dissertation is to examine a proof of principle experiment and its background that generates and amplifies coherent light that carries orbital angular momentum (OAM) in a single pass via free-electron laser (FEL) at the fundamental operating frequency using the HGHMG (High Gain High Mode Generation) scheme. The background to this experiment was done uniting two rapidly expanding and distinct fields of study: (a) high-order OAM light modes, which interact in new ways with matter, and (b) FELs, in which a relativistic electron beam emits coherent, ultra bright, frequency-tunable light via Bremsstrahlung radiation. Due to the medium less nature of FELs, the OAM light generated via FEL interaction enables new frontiers of exploration at Angstrom wavelengths and femtosecond time scales. This dissertation will be divided into two parts: theory and background necessary to perform a proof of principle experiment described in Chapters 1 through 3; and physical description of insertion devices and experiment setup, execution and data analysis described in Chapters 4 and 5.

  10. Experimental investigation in transmission performance of polarization-entangled photon-pairs generated by cascaded χ(2) processes over standard single-mode optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Arahira, Shin; Murai, Hitoshi

    2012-07-02

    In this paper we report experimental investigation in transmission performance over standard single-mode optical fibers (SMFs) of polarization-entangled photon-pairs in a 1.5-μm band generated by cascaded second-harmonic generation and spontaneous parametric down conversion (c-SHG/SPDC) from a periodically poled LiNbO(3) (PPLN) ridge-waveguide device. Clear two-photon interference fringes were observed even after the transmission over 140 km of the SMF spools, remaining small degradation in the visibilities of less than 3%. The performance was also investigated by using optical attenuators, instead of the SMF spools, to study the maximum reach of the distribution of the entanglement in terms of loss penalty. The results show that the quantum entanglement could be distributed even with 50 dB of the transmission loss with violation of Bell inequality by using the c-SHG/SPDC-based photon-pair source.

  11. Lensless two-photon imaging through a multicore fiber with coherence-gated digital phase conjugation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conkey, Donald B.; Stasio, Nicolino; Morales-Delgado, Edgar E.; Romito, Marilisa; Moser, Christophe; Psaltis, Demetri

    2016-04-01

    We performed near-diffraction limited two-photon fluorescence (TPF) imaging through a lensless, multicore-fiber (MCF) endoscope utilizing digital phase conjugation. The phase conjugation technique is compatible with commercially available MCFs with high core density. We demonstrate focusing of ultrashort pulses through an MCF and show that the method allows for resolution that is not limited by the MCF core spacing. We constructed TPF images of fluorescent beads and cells by digital scanning of the phase-conjugated focus on the target object and collection of the emitted fluorescence through the MCF.

  12. Plant photonics: application of optical coherence tomography to monitor defects and rots in onion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meglinski, I. V.; Buranachai, C.; Terry, L. A.

    2010-04-01

    The incidence of physiological and/or pathological defects in many fresh produce types is still unacceptably high and accounts for a large proportion of waste. With increasing interest in food security their remains strong demand in developing reliable and cost effective technologies for non-destructive screening of internal defects and rots, these being deemed unacceptable by consumers. It is well recognized that the internal defects and structure of turbid scattering media can be effectively visualized by using optical coherence tomography (OCT). In the present study, the high spatial resolution and advantages of OCT have been demonstrated for imaging the skins and outer laminae (concentric tissue layers) of intact whole onion bulbs with a view to non-invasively visualizing potential incidence/severity of internal defects.

  13. Optical radio-photonic channel for transmission of a coherent narrowband analog signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuk, D. I.; Denisyuk, I. Yu.; Fokina, M. I.

    2015-10-01

    The channel of an optical transmission line of coherent narrowband analog signal consisting of a continuous-wave laser, an electro-optic modulator, and a vector phase rotator based on electrically controlled fiber-optical 1 × 2 splitter and fixed delay lines is analyzed. The scheme is constructed from commercially available components used in digital optical communication systems. The applicability of components for analog and small-signal circuits is determined. Variation of radio signal phase in the range from 0° to 170° for radio signal frequencies between 1 and 2 GHz is demonstrated experimentally. It is shown that phase variation is a linear function of frequency in this range.

  14. Scalar generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation-quantified continuum generation in an all-normal dispersion photonic crystal fiber for broadband coherent optical sources

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Haohua; Liu, Yuan; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Sharma, Utkarsh; Siegel, Martin; Kopf, Daniel; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    We quantitatively predict the observed continuum-like spectral broadening in a 90-mm weakly birefringent all-normal dispersion-flattened photonic crystal fiber pumped by 1041-nm 229-fs 76-MHz pulses from a solid-state Yb:KYW laser. The well-characterized continuum pulses span a bandwidth of up to 300 nm around the laser wavelength, allowing high spectral power density pulse shaping useful for various coherent control applications. We also identify the nonlinear polarization effect that limits the bandwidth of these continuum pulses, and therefore report the path toward a series of attractive alternative broadband coherent optical sources. PMID:21197060

  15. Demonstration of free space coherent optical communication using integrated silicon photonic orbital angular momentum devices.

    PubMed

    Su, Tiehui; Scott, Ryan P; Djordjevic, Stevan S; Fontaine, Nicolas K; Geisler, David J; Cai, Xinran; Yoo, S J B

    2012-04-23

    We propose and demonstrate silicon photonic integrated circuits (PICs) for free-space spatial-division-multiplexing (SDM) optical transmission with multiplexed orbital angular momentum (OAM) states over a topological charge range of -2 to +2. The silicon PIC fabricated using a CMOS-compatible process exploits tunable-phase arrayed waveguides with vertical grating couplers to achieve space division multiplexing and demultiplexing. The experimental results utilizing two silicon PICs achieve SDM mux/demux bit-error-rate performance for 1‑b/s/Hz, 10-Gb/s binary phase shifted keying (BPSK) data and 2-b/s/Hz, 20-Gb/s quadrature phase shifted keying (QPSK) data for individual and two simultaneous OAM states.

  16. Pair Creation at Large Inherent Angles

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P.; Tauchi, T.; Schroeder, D.V.; /SLAC

    2007-04-25

    In the next-generation linear colliders, the low-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs created during the collision of high-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} beams would cause potential deleterious background problems to the detectors. At low collider energies, the pairs are made essentially by the incoherent process, where the pair is created by the interaction of beamstrahlung photons on the individual particles in the oncoming beam. This problem was first identified by Zolotarev, et al[1]. At energies where the beamstrahlung parameter {Upsilon} lies approximately in the range 0.6 {approx}< {Upsilon} {approx}< 100, pair creation from the beamstrahlung photons is dominated by a coherent process, first noted by Chen[2]. The seriousness of this pair creation problem lies in the transverse momenta that the pair particles carry when leaving the interaction point (IP) with large angles. One source of transverse momentum is from the kick by the field of the oncoming beam which results in an outcoming angle {theta} {proportional_to} 1/{radical}x, where x is the fractional energy of the particle relative to the initial beam particle energy[2,3]. As was shown in Ref. 131, there in fact exists an energy threshold for the coherent pairs, where x{sub th} {approx}> 1/2{Upsilon}. Thus within a tolerable exiting angle, there exists an upper limit for {Upsilon} where all coherent pairs would leave the detector through the exhaust port[4]. A somewhat different analysis has been done by Schroeder[5]. In the next generation of linear colliders, as it occurs, the coherent pairs can be exponentially suppressed[2] by properly choosing the {Upsilon}({approx}< 0.6). When this is achieved, the incoherent pairs becomes dominant. Since the central issue is the transverse momentum for particles with large angles, we notice that there is another source for it. Namely, when the pair particles are created at low energies, the intrinsic angles of these pairs when produced may already be large. This issue was

  17. Coherent all-optical switching by resonant quantum-dot distributions in photonic band-gap waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vujic, Dragan; John, Sajeev

    2007-12-01

    We study the detailed propagative characteristics of optical pulses in photonic band-gap (PBG) waveguides, coupled near resonantly to inhomogeneously broadened distributions of quantum dots. The line centers of the quantum-dot (QD) distributions are placed near a sharp discontinuity in the local electromagnetic density of states. Using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations of optical pulse dynamics and independent QD susceptibilities associated with resonance fluorescence, we demonstrate subpicosecond switching from pulse absorption to pulse amplification using steady-state optical holding and gate fields with power levels on the order of 1 milliwatt. In the case of collective response of QDs within the periodic dielectric microstructure, the gate power level is reduced to 200 microwatt for room temperature operation. In principle, this enables 200 Gbits per second optical information processing at wavelengths near 1.5 microns in various wavelength channels. The allowed pulse bandwidth in a given waveguide channel exceeds 0.5 THz allowing switching of subpicosecond laser pulses without pulse distortion. The switching contrast from absorption to gain is governed by the QD oscillator strength and dipole dephasing time scale. We consider dephasing time scales ranging from nanoseconds (low-temperature operation) to one picosecond (room-temperature operation). This all-optical transistor action is based on simple Markovian models of single-dot and collective-dot inversion and switching by coherent resonant pumping near the photon density of states discontinuity. The structured electromagnetic vacuum is provided by two-mode waveguide architectures in which one waveguide mode has a cutoff that occurs, with very large Purcell factor, near the QDs resonance, while the other waveguide mode exhibits nearly linear dispersion for fast optical propagation and modulation. Unlike optical switching based on Kerr nonlinearities in an optical cavity resonator, switching

  18. VIM3.0. Continuous Energy MC Neutron/Photon

    SciTech Connect

    Blomquist, R.N.

    1991-08-01

    VIM solves the three-dimensional steady-state multiplication eigenvalue or fixed source neutron or photon (VIM3.0) transport problem using continuous energy-dependent nuclear data. It was designed for the analysis of fast critical experiments. In VIM3.0, the photon interactions i.e., pair production, coherent and incoherent scattering, and photoelectric events, and photon heating are tallied by group, region, and isotope.

  19. VIM3.0. Continuous Energy MC Neutron/Photon

    SciTech Connect

    Blomquist, R.N.

    1991-10-10

    VIM solves the three-dimensional steady-state multiplication eigenvalue or fixed source neutron or photon (VIM3.0) transport problem using continuous energy-dependent nuclear data. It was designed for the analysis of fast critical experiments. In VIM3.0, the photon interactions i.e., pair production, coherent and incoherent scattering, and photoelectric events, and photon heating are tallied by group, region, and isotope.

  20. Clinical coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and multiphoton tomography of human skin with a femtosecond laser and photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breunig, Hans Georg; Weinigel, Martin; Bückle, Rainer; Kellner-Höfer, Marcel; Lademann, Jürgen; Darvin, Maxim E.; Sterry, Wolfram; König, Karsten

    2013-02-01

    We report on in vivo coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy (CARS), two-photon fluorescence and second-harmonic-generation imaging on human skin with a novel multimodal clinical CARS/multiphoton tomograph. CARS imaging is realized by a combination of femtosecond pulses with broadband continuum pulses generated by a photonic crystal fiber. The images reveal the microscopic distribution of (i) non-fluorescent lipids, (ii) endogenous fluorophores and (iii) the collagen network inside the human skin in vivo with subcellular resolution. Examples of healthy as well as cancer-affected skin are presented.

  1. Continuous Energy Photon Transport Implementation in MCATK

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Terry R.; Trahan, Travis John; Sweezy, Jeremy Ed; Nolen, Steven Douglas; Hughes, Henry Grady; Pritchett-Sheats, Lori A.; Werner, Christopher John

    2016-10-31

    The Monte Carlo Application ToolKit (MCATK) code development team has implemented Monte Carlo photon transport into the MCATK software suite. The current particle transport capabilities in MCATK, which process the tracking and collision physics, have been extended to enable tracking of photons using the same continuous energy approximation. We describe the four photoatomic processes implemented, which are coherent scattering, incoherent scattering, pair-production, and photoelectric absorption. The accompanying background, implementation, and verification of these processes will be presented.

  2. Measurement of the Production Cross Section for Pairs of Isolated Photons in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Chatrchyan, S.; et al.,

    2012-01-01

    The integrated and differential cross sections for the production of pairs of isolated photons is measured in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC. A data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36 inverse picobarns is analysed. A next-to-leading-order perturbative QCD calculation is compared to the measurements. A discrepancy is observed for regions of the phase space where the two photons have an azimuthal angle difference, $\\Delta(\\phi)$, less than approximately 2.8.

  3. Generation of polarization-entangled photon pairs and violation of Bell's inequality using spontaneous four-wave mixing in a fiber loop

    SciTech Connect

    Takesue, Hiroki; Inoue, Kyo

    2004-09-01

    We report the generation of polarization entangled photon pairs in the 1550-nm wavelength band using spontaneous four-wave mixing in a dispersion-shifted fiber loop. The use of the fiber-loop configuration made it possible to generate polarization entangled states very stably. With accidental coincidences subtracted, we obtained coincidence fringes with >90% visibilities, and observed a violation of Bell's inequality by seven standard deviations. We also confirmed the preservation of the quantum correlation between the photons even after they had been separated by 20 km of optical fiber.

  4. Intermodulation and harmonic distortion in slow light Microwave Photonic phase shifters based on Coherent Population Oscillations in SOAs.

    PubMed

    Gasulla, Ivana; Sancho, Juan; Capmany, José; Lloret, Juan; Sales, Salvador

    2010-12-06

    We theoretically and experimentally evaluate the propagation, generation and amplification of signal, harmonic and intermodulation distortion terms inside a Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (SOA) under Coherent Population Oscillation (CPO) regime. For that purpose, we present a general optical field model, valid for any arbitrarily-spaced radiofrequency tones, which is necessary to correctly describe the operation of CPO based slow light Microwave Photonic phase shifters which comprise an electrooptic modulator and a SOA followed by an optical filter and supplements another recently published for true time delay operation based on the propagation of optical intensities. The phase shifter performance has been evaluated in terms of the nonlinear distortion up to 3rd order, for a modulating signal constituted of two tones, in function of the electrooptic modulator input RF power and the SOA input optical power, obtaining a very good agreement between theoretical and experimental results. A complete theoretical spectral analysis is also presented which shows that under small signal operation conditions, the 3rd order intermodulation products at 2Ω1 + Ω2 and 2Ω2 + Ω1 experience a power dip/phase transition characteristic of the fundamental tones phase shifting operation.

  5. Red-shifted solitons for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microspectroscopy in a polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jinhui; Sang, Xinzhu; Wu, Qiang; Zhou, Guiyao; Li, Feng; Yu, Chongxiu; Wang, Kuiru; Yan, Binbin; Han, Ying; Tam, Hwa Yaw; Wai, Ping-kong Alexander

    2015-05-01

    An alternative light source for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microspectroscopy based on red-shifted solitons in a polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber (PM-PCF) is experimentally demonstrated. By coupling femtosecond pulses into the anomalous dispersion region of the fundamental mode of a PM-PCF along the slow and fast axes, the red-shifted solitons generated can be used as the Stokes beams when the pump pulses are chosen as the pump beams. Through the process of red-shift, the frequency differences of the pump-Stokes beams are tunable in the ranges of 0 to 4068 cm-1 and 0 to 4594 cm-1, respectively. Moreover, because of the well maintained polarization states of the pump and Stokes beams and the high output powers of the solitons, CARS microspectroscopy using the proposed source will have a high signal-to-noise ratio and short data acquisition time. CARS microspectroscopy based on the proposed all-fiber light source can be used for studying a wide range of vibrational Raman spectra.

  6. Silicon photonic integrated circuit swept-source optical coherence tomography receiver with dual polarization, dual balanced, in-phase and quadrature detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao; Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Vermeulen, Diedrik; Chen, Long; Nielsen, Torben; Park, Seo Yeon; Ghaemi, Allan; Swanson, Eric; Doerr, Chris; Fujimoto, James

    2015-07-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a widely used three-dimensional (3D) optical imaging method with many biomedical and non-medical applications. Miniaturization, cost reduction, and increased functionality of OCT systems will be critical for future emerging clinical applications. We present a silicon photonic integrated circuit swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) coherent receiver with dual polarization, dual balanced, in-phase and quadrature (IQ) detection. We demonstrate multiple functional capabilities of IQ polarization resolved detection including: complex-conjugate suppressed full-range OCT, polarization diversity detection, and polarization-sensitive OCT. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a silicon photonic integrated receiver for OCT. The integrated coherent receiver provides a miniaturized, low-cost solution for SS-OCT, and is also a key step towards a fully integrated high speed SS-OCT system with good performance and multi-functional capabilities. With further performance improvement and cost reduction, photonic integrated technology promises to greatly increase penetration of OCT systems in existing applications and enable new applications.

  7. Silicon photonic integrated circuit swept-source optical coherence tomography receiver with dual polarization, dual balanced, in-phase and quadrature detection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhao; Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Vermeulen, Diedrik; Chen, Long; Nielsen, Torben; Park, Seo Yeon; Ghaemi, Allan; Swanson, Eric; Doerr, Chris; Fujimoto, James

    2015-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a widely used three-dimensional (3D) optical imaging method with many biomedical and non-medical applications. Miniaturization, cost reduction, and increased functionality of OCT systems will be critical for future emerging clinical applications. We present a silicon photonic integrated circuit swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) coherent receiver with dual polarization, dual balanced, in-phase and quadrature (IQ) detection. We demonstrate multiple functional capabilities of IQ polarization resolved detection including: complex-conjugate suppressed full-range OCT, polarization diversity detection, and polarization-sensitive OCT. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a silicon photonic integrated receiver for OCT. The integrated coherent receiver provides a miniaturized, low-cost solution for SS-OCT, and is also a key step towards a fully integrated high speed SS-OCT system with good performance and multi-functional capabilities. With further performance improvement and cost reduction, photonic integrated technology promises to greatly increase penetration of OCT systems in existing applications and enable new applications. PMID:26203382

  8. Fiber-based photon-pair source capable of hybrid entanglement in frequency and transverse mode, controllably scalable to higher dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Delgado, D.; Ramirez-Alarcon, R.; Ortiz-Ricardo, E.; Monroy-Ruz, J.; Dominguez-Serna, F.; Cruz-Ramirez, H.; Garay-Palmett, K.; U’Ren, A. B.

    2016-06-01

    We have designed and implemented a photon-pair source, based on the spontaneous four wave mixing (SFWM) process in a few-mode fiber, in a geometry which permits multiple, simultaneous SFWM processes, each associated with a distinct combination of transverse modes for the four participating waves. In our source: i) each process is group-velocity-matched so that it is, by design, nearly-factorable, and ii) the spectral separation between neighboring processes is greater than the marginal spectral width of each process. Consequently, there is a direct correspondence between the joint amplitude of each process and each of the Schmidt mode pairs of the overall two-photon state. Our approach permits hybrid entanglement in discrete frequency and in transverse mode, whereby control of the number of supported fiber transverse modes allows scalability to higher dimensions while spectral filtering may be used for straightforward Schmidt mode discrimination.

  9. Fiber-based photon-pair source capable of hybrid entanglement in frequency and transverse mode, controllably scalable to higher dimensions.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Delgado, D; Ramirez-Alarcon, R; Ortiz-Ricardo, E; Monroy-Ruz, J; Dominguez-Serna, F; Cruz-Ramirez, H; Garay-Palmett, K; U'Ren, A B

    2016-06-07

    We have designed and implemented a photon-pair source, based on the spontaneous four wave mixing (SFWM) process in a few-mode fiber, in a geometry which permits multiple, simultaneous SFWM processes, each associated with a distinct combination of transverse modes for the four participating waves. In our source: i) each process is group-velocity-matched so that it is, by design, nearly-factorable, and ii) the spectral separation between neighboring processes is greater than the marginal spectral width of each process. Consequently, there is a direct correspondence between the joint amplitude of each process and each of the Schmidt mode pairs of the overall two-photon state. Our approach permits hybrid entanglement in discrete frequency and in transverse mode, whereby control of the number of supported fiber transverse modes allows scalability to higher dimensions while spectral filtering may be used for straightforward Schmidt mode discrimination.

  10. Fiber-based photon-pair source capable of hybrid entanglement in frequency and transverse mode, controllably scalable to higher dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Delgado, D.; Ramirez-Alarcon, R.; Ortiz-Ricardo, E.; Monroy-Ruz, J.; Dominguez-Serna, F.; Cruz-Ramirez, H.; Garay-Palmett, K.; U’Ren, A. B.

    2016-01-01

    We have designed and implemented a photon-pair source, based on the spontaneous four wave mixing (SFWM) process in a few-mode fiber, in a geometry which permits multiple, simultaneous SFWM processes, each associated with a distinct combination of transverse modes for the four participating waves. In our source: i) each process is group-velocity-matched so that it is, by design, nearly-factorable, and ii) the spectral separation between neighboring processes is greater than the marginal spectral width of each process. Consequently, there is a direct correspondence between the joint amplitude of each process and each of the Schmidt mode pairs of the overall two-photon state. Our approach permits hybrid entanglement in discrete frequency and in transverse mode, whereby control of the number of supported fiber transverse modes allows scalability to higher dimensions while spectral filtering may be used for straightforward Schmidt mode discrimination. PMID:27271284

  11. Spontaneous transient ultrafast coherent raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meiselman, Seth

    I explore the application of Transient Coherent Ultrafast Phonon Spectroscopy (TCUPS) to the measurement of vibrational coherence dynamics of liquid alcohols. The demonstrated technique is complementary to and, in some cases, simpler than traditional stimulated spectroscopy techniques in that it does not require more than one laser and is free of non-resonant background. I demonstrate coherence measurements of single-photon-level collective excitations: a single vibrational state at 1033 (1/cm) in; a pair of simultaneous excited vibrational states at 2834 and 2944 (1/cm) in methanol; and three simultaneous excited states at 2885, ˜2930, and 2976 (1/cm) in isopropanol. I develop a Fourier-transform-based analysis of the TCUPS data that overcomes poor signal-to-noise ratio and signal degradation due to etaloning and fluorescence. The coherence lifetimes and oscillation frequencies agree with frequency-domain line-shape measurements and femtosecond Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) measurements.

  12. Photon wave mechanics and position eigenvectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawton, Margaret

    2007-06-01

    One and two photon wave functions are derived by projecting the quantum state vector onto simultaneous eigenvectors of the number operator and a recently constructed photon position operator [Phys. Rev. A 59, 954 (1999)] that couples spin and orbital angular momentum. While only the Landau-Peierls wave function defines a positive definite photon density, a similarity transformation to a biorthogonal field-potential pair of positive frequency solutions of Maxwell’s equations preserves eigenvalues and expectation values. We show that this real space description of photons is compatible with all of the usual rules of quantum mechanics and provides a framework for understanding the relationships amongst different forms of the photon wave function in the literature. It also gives a quantum picture of the optical angular momentum of beams that applies to both one photon and coherent states. According to the rules of quantum mechanics, this wave function gives the probability to count a photon at any position in space.

  13. Selective two-photon fluorescence suppression by ultrafast pulse-pair excitation: control by selective one-color stimulated emission.

    PubMed

    Kumar De, Arijit; Roy, Debjit; Goswami, Debabrata

    2011-10-01

    Controlling two-photon molecular fluorescence leading to selective fluorophore excitation has been a long sought after goal in fluorescence microscopy. In this letter, we thoroughly explore selective fluorescence suppression through simultaneous two-photon absorption by two different fluorophores followed by selective one-photon stimulated emission for one particular fluorophore. We achieve this by precisely controlling the time delay between two identical ultrafast near infrared laser pulses.

  14. Photoelectric converters with quantum coherence.

    PubMed

    Su, Shan-He; Sun, Chang-Pu; Li, Sheng-Wen; Chen, Jin-Can

    2016-05-01

    Photon impingement is capable of liberating electrons in electronic devices and driving the electron flux from the lower chemical potential to higher chemical potential. Previous studies hinted that the thermodynamic efficiency of a nanosized photoelectric converter at maximum power is bounded by the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency η_{CA}. In this study, we apply quantum effects to design a photoelectric converter based on a three-level quantum dot (QD) interacting with fermionic baths and photons. We show that, by adopting a pair of suitable degenerate states, quantum coherences induced by the couplings of QDs to sunlight and fermion baths can coexist steadily in nanoelectronic systems. Our analysis indicates that the efficiency at maximum power is no longer limited to η_{CA} through manipulation of carefully controlled quantum coherences.

  15. Photoelectric converters with quantum coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Shan-He; Sun, Chang-Pu; Li, Sheng-Wen; Chen, Jin-Can

    2016-05-01

    Photon impingement is capable of liberating electrons in electronic devices and driving the electron flux from the lower chemical potential to higher chemical potential. Previous studies hinted that the thermodynamic efficiency of a nanosized photoelectric converter at maximum power is bounded by the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency ηCA. In this study, we apply quantum effects to design a photoelectric converter based on a three-level quantum dot (QD) interacting with fermionic baths and photons. We show that, by adopting a pair of suitable degenerate states, quantum coherences induced by the couplings of QDs to sunlight and fermion baths can coexist steadily in nanoelectronic systems. Our analysis indicates that the efficiency at maximum power is no longer limited to ηCA through manipulation of carefully controlled quantum coherences.

  16. Specific features of two-photon optical nutation in a system of biexcitons in semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Khadzhi, P. I. Vasil'ev, V. V.

    2007-05-15

    Specific features of two-photon nutation in a system of coherent biexcitons in CuCl-type semiconductors are studied. It is shown that, depending on the parameters of the system, nutation represents a process of periodic conversion of photon pairs into biexcitons and vice versa. The possibility of phase control of optical nutation is predicted.

  17. Exploring the interactions between peptides and lipid bilayers using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and two-photon fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mari, M.; Mouras, R.; Downes, A.; Elfick, A.

    2011-06-01

    We have used a versatile and powerful microscope[1] for multi-modal biomedical imaging on which we combine Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) with Two Photon Excitation Fluorescence (TPEF) using a Nd: YVO4 pump laser. We acquired 2PEF, CARS, and phase contrast images of Multilamellar Vesicles (MLVs) and Giant Unilamellar Vesicles (GUVs), as well as Raman spectra of the constituent lipids. A wide range of peptides are harmful to cells by altering the structure of the biological membranes. This effect depends on the composition of the membrane and the chemical structure of the peptide. The peptide we studied is the beta amyloid Aβ which is a major component of the amyloid plaques deposited on neuronal membranes of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. AD is neurodegenerative disorder in which the hallmark symptoms include cognitive decline and dementia[2] and is characterized by the formation of extracellular amyloid fibrils on the neuronal membranes of the brain. Many questions still remain unanswered concerning the destabilization of cellular ionic homeostasis due to pores formed during the interactions of lipid membranes with peptides. In this project, biomimics of cell membranes are used. The structures that best mimic the plasma membranes are MLVs or GUVs. These vesicles are formed using the gentle hydration technique[3] or the electroformation technique[4] respectively and are composed of phospholipids such as DOPC, DPPC, D62PPC and their binary mixtures. The MLVs and GUVs imaging by CARS and TPEF microscopy not only permits the direct imaging of the leakage phenomenon caused by the toxic peptide (Aβ) on the lipid bilayer, but also records simultaneously the lateral structure of the bilayer and peptide distribution in the plane across the membrane.

  18. Theoretical calculation on ICI reduction using digital coherent superposition of optical OFDM subcarrier pairs in the presence of laser phase noise.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xingwen; Xu, Bo; Zhang, Jing; Lin, Yun; Qiu, Kun

    2014-12-15

    Digital coherent superposition (DCS) of optical OFDM subcarrier pairs with Hermitian symmetry can reduce the inter-carrier-interference (ICI) noise resulted from phase noise. In this paper, we show two different implementations of DCS-OFDM that have the same performance in the presence of laser phase noise. We complete the theoretical calculation on ICI reduction by using the model of pure Wiener phase noise. By Taylor expansion of the ICI, we show that the ICI power is cancelled to the second order by DCS. The fourth order term is further derived out and only decided by the ratio of laser linewidth to OFDM subcarrier symbol rate, which can greatly simplify the system design. Finally, we verify our theoretical calculations in simulations and use the analytical results to predict the system performance. DCS-OFDM is expected to be beneficial to certain optical fiber transmissions.

  19. Revealing Hidden Coherence in Partially Coherent Light.

    PubMed

    Svozilík, Jiří; Vallés, Adam; Peřina, Jan; Torres, Juan P

    2015-11-27

    Coherence and correlations represent two related properties of a compound system. The system can be, for instance, the polarization of a photon, which forms part of a polarization-entangled two-photon state, or the spatial shape of a coherent beam, where each spatial mode bears different polarizations. Whereas a local unitary transformation of the system does not affect its coherence, global unitary transformations modifying both the system and its surroundings can enhance its coherence, transforming mutual correlations into coherence. The question naturally arises of what is the best measure that quantifies the correlations that can be turned into coherence, and how much coherence can be extracted. We answer both questions, and illustrate its application for some typical simple systems, with the aim at illuminating the general concept of enhancing coherence by modifying correlations.

  20. Revealing Hidden Coherence in Partially Coherent Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svozilík, Jiří; Vallés, Adam; Peřina, Jan; Torres, Juan P.

    2015-11-01

    Coherence and correlations represent two related properties of a compound system. The system can be, for instance, the polarization of a photon, which forms part of a polarization-entangled two-photon state, or the spatial shape of a coherent beam, where each spatial mode bears different polarizations. Whereas a local unitary transformation of the system does not affect its coherence, global unitary transformations modifying both the system and its surroundings can enhance its coherence, transforming mutual correlations into coherence. The question naturally arises of what is the best measure that quantifies the correlations that can be turned into coherence, and how much coherence can be extracted. We answer both questions, and illustrate its application for some typical simple systems, with the aim at illuminating the general concept of enhancing coherence by modifying correlations.

  1. Frequency-bin entangled photons

    SciTech Connect

    Olislager, L.; Emplit, P.; Nguyen, A. T.; Massar, S.; Merolla, J.-M.; Huy, K. Phan

    2010-07-15

    A monochromatic laser pumping a parametric down-conversion crystal generates frequency-entangled photon pairs. We study this experimentally by addressing such frequency-entangled photons at telecommunication wavelengths (around 1550 nm) with fiber-optics components such as electro-optic phase modulators and narrow-band frequency filters. The theory underlying our approach uses the notion of frequency-bin entanglement. Our results show that the phase modulators address coherently up to eleven frequency bins, leading to an interference pattern which can violate by more than five standard deviations a Bell inequality adapted to our setup.

  2. Root canals decontamination by coherent photons initiated photoacustic streaming (PIPS) of irrigants: an ex-vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedullà, E.; Genovese, C.; Scolaro, C.; Cutroneo, M.; Tempera, G.; Rapisarda, E.; Torrisi, L.

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this ex vivo study was to assess the antibacterial effectiveness of coherent photon initiated photoacoustic streaming (PIPS) of irrigants using an Er:YAG laser equipped with a newly designed, stripped and tapered, tip in extracted teeth with infected root canals. One hundred-forty-eight single-rooted extracted teeth were prepared using a rotary abrasive instrument providing a root channel with a suitable size. The samples were sterilized and all teeth except ten (negative control group) were inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis and incubated in a CO2 chamber at 37°C for 15 days in Eppendorff tubes filled with trypticase soy broth medium changed every 2 days. Infected teeth were then randomly divided into 4 test groups (n=32 for each): pulsed erbium:YAG laser at non-ablative settings for 30 seconds with sterile bi-distilled water (Group A) or 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) (Group B); without laser activated sterile bi-distilled water irrigation for 30 seconds (Group C) or 5% NaOCl irrigation for 30 seconds (Group D); the positive control group received no treatment in infected teeth (n=10). Colony-forming units (CFUs) were counted from bacteriologic samples taken before (S1) and after treatment (S2). Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and post hoc Dunn's multiple comparison tests. CFU counts were significantly lower in groups B and D than in group C (P<0.001). Moreover, there was a significant difference between Group A and C (P<0.001). Group B showed the highest CFU reduction, which was significantly greater than that evident in groups A or C (P<0.001). There were no statistically significant differences between group B and D (P>0.05). None of the four groups predictably generated negative samples. Under the conditions of this ex vivo study, statistically significant difference wasn't found in planktonic bacteria reduction between the laser and NaOCl or NaOCl alone groups.

  3. Analytical and experimental performance evaluation of an integrated Si-photonic balanced coherent receiver in a colorless scenario.

    PubMed

    Morsy-Osman, Mohamed; Chagnon, Mathieu; Xu, Xian; Zhuge, Qunbi; Poulin, Michel; Painchaud, Yves; Pelletier, Martin; Paquet, Carl; Plant, David V

    2014-03-10

    We study analytically and experimentally the performance limits of a Si-photonic (SiP) balanced coherent receiver (CRx) co-packaged with transimpedance amplifiers (TIAs) in a colorless WDM scheme. Firstly, the CRx architecture is depicted and characterization results are presented. Secondly, an analytical expression for the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the CRx output is rigorously developed and various noise sources in the context of colorless reception are outlined. Thirdly, we study experimentally the system-level CRx performance in colorless reception of 16 × 112 Gbps PDM-QPSK WDM channels. Using a 15.5 dBm local oscillator (LO) power, error free transmissions over 4800 and 4160 km at received powers of -3 and -21 dBm per channel, respectively, were achieved in a fully colorless and preamplifierless reception. Next, a set of measurements on one of the center WDM channels is performed where the LO power, received signal power, distance, and number of channels presented to the CRx are swept to evaluate the performance limits of colorless reception. Results reveal that the LO beating with optical noise incoming with the signal is a dominant noise source regardless of received signal power. In the high received signal power regime (~0 dBm/channel), the self-beat noise from out-of-band (OOB) channels is an additional major noise source especially for small LO-to-signal power ratio, short reach and large number of OOB channels. For example, at a received signal power of 0 dBm/channel after 1600 km transmission, the SNR difference between the fully filtered and colorless scenarios, where 1 and 16 channels are passed to the CRx respectively, grows from 0.5 to 3.3 dB as the LO power changes from 12 to 0 dBm. For low received power (~-12 dBm/channel), the effect of OOB channels becomes minor while the receiver shot and thermal noises become more significant. We identify the common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) and sensitivity as the two important CRx specifications that

  4. Double transverse wave-vector correlations in photon pairs generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion pumped by Bessel-Gauss beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicuña-Hernández, Verónica; Santiago, José T.; Jerónimo-Moreno, Yasser; Ramírez-Alarcón, Roberto; Cruz-Ramírez, Héctor; U'Ren, Alfred B.; Jáuregui-Renaud, Rocio

    2016-12-01

    We present an experimental and theoretical study of type I, frequency-degenerate spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) with a Bessel-Gauss pump in which we include both paraxial and nonparaxial pump beam configurations. We present measurements of the SPDC angular spectrum (AS), of the conditional angular spectrum (CAS) of signal-mode single photons as heralded by the detection of an idler photon, and of the transverse wave-vector signal-idler correlations (TWC). We show that as the pump is made increasingly nonparaxial, the AS acquires a nonconcentric double-cone structure, with the CAS shape depending on the azimuthal location of the heralding detector, while the signal-idler wave-vector correlation region splits into characteristic doublet stripes, representing as yet unexplored nontrivial, nonlocal quantum correlations between the signal and idler photons. Our work provides further understanding of SPDC with a particular class of structured pump beams, and we believe that the controlled presence of double wave-vector correlations represents an interesting resource for photon-pair quantum-state engineering.

  5. Nonlinear polarization dynamics in a weakly birefringent all-normal dispersion photonic crystal fiber: toward a practical coherent fiber supercontinuum laser

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Haohua; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Xiaomin; Turchinovich, Dmitry; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    Dispersion-flattened dispersion-decreased all-normal dispersion (DFDD-ANDi) photonic crystal fibers have been identified as promising candidates for high-spectral-power coherent supercontinuum (SC) generation. However, the effects of the unintentional birefringence of the fibers on the SC generation have been ignored. This birefringence is widely present in nonlinear non-polarization maintaining fibers with a typical core size of 2 µm, presumably due to the structural symmetry breaks introduced in the fiber drawing process. We find that an intrinsic form-birefringence on the order of 10−5 profoundly affects the SC generation in a DFDD-ANDi photonic crystal fiber. Conventional simulations based on the scalar generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation (GNLSE) fail to reproduce the prominent observed features of the SC generation in a short piece (9-cm) of this fiber. However, these features can be qualitatively or semi-quantitatively understood by the coupled GNLSE that takes into account the form-birefringence. The nonlinear polarization effects induced by the birefringence significantly distort the otherwise simple spectrotemporal field of the SC pulses. We therefore propose the fabrication of polarization-maintaining DFDD-ANDi fibers to avoid these adverse effects in pursuing a practical coherent fiber SC laser. PMID:22274457

  6. Measurement of differential cross sections for the production of a pair of isolated photons in pp collisions at √s=7TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Chatrchyan, Serguei

    2014-11-12

    A measurement of differential cross sections for the production of a pair of isolated photons in proton–proton collisions at √s=7TeV is presented. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.0fb-1 collected with the CMS detector. A data-driven isolation template method is used to extract the prompt diphoton yield. The measured cross section for two isolated photons, with transverse energy above 40 and 25GeV respectively, in the pseudorapidity range |η|<2.5, |η|ϵ[1.44,1.57] and with an angular separation ΔR>0.45, is 17.2±0.2(stat)±1.9(syst)±0.4(lumi) \\,pb. Differential cross sections are measured as a function of the diphoton invariant mass, the diphoton transverse momentum, the azimuthal angle difference between the two photons, and the cosine of the polar angle in the Collins–Soper reference frame of the diphoton system. The results are compared to theoretical predictions at leading, next-to-leading, and next-to-next-to-leading order in quantum chromodynamics.

  7. Measurement of differential cross sections for the production of a pair of isolated photons in pp collisions at [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

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    A measurement of differential cross sections for the production of a pair of isolated photons in proton-proton collisions at [Formula: see text] is presented. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.0[Formula: see text] collected with the CMS detector. A data-driven isolation template method is used to extract the prompt diphoton yield. The measured cross section for two isolated photons, with transverse energy above 40 and 25[Formula: see text] respectively, in the pseudorapidity range [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and with an angular separation [Formula: see text], is [Formula: see text][Formula: see text]. Differential cross sections are measured as a function of the diphoton invariant mass, the diphoton transverse momentum, the azimuthal angle difference between the two photons, and the cosine of the polar angle in the Collins-Soper reference frame of the diphoton system. The results are compared to theoretical predictions at leading, next-to-leading, and next-to-next-to-leading order in quantum chromodynamics.

  8. Measurement of differential cross sections for the production of a pair of isolated photons in pp collisions at √s=7TeV

    DOE PAGES

    Chatrchyan, Serguei

    2014-11-12

    A measurement of differential cross sections for the production of a pair of isolated photons in proton–proton collisions at √s=7TeV is presented. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.0fb-1 collected with the CMS detector. A data-driven isolation template method is used to extract the prompt diphoton yield. The measured cross section for two isolated photons, with transverse energy above 40 and 25GeV respectively, in the pseudorapidity range |η|<2.5, |η|ϵ[1.44,1.57] and with an angular separation ΔR>0.45, is 17.2±0.2(stat)±1.9(syst)±0.4(lumi) \\,pb. Differential cross sections are measured as a function of the diphoton invariant mass, the diphoton transverse momentum, the azimuthalmore » angle difference between the two photons, and the cosine of the polar angle in the Collins–Soper reference frame of the diphoton system. The results are compared to theoretical predictions at leading, next-to-leading, and next-to-next-to-leading order in quantum chromodynamics.« less

  9. Secured Optical Communications Using Quantum Entangled Two-Photon Transparency Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojima, Jun (Inventor); Nguyen, Quang-Viet (Inventor); Lekki, John (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A system and method is disclosed wherein optical signals are coded in a transmitter by tuning or modulating the interbeam delay time (which modulates the fourth-order coherence) between pairs of entangled photons. The photon pairs are either absorbed or not absorbed (transparent) by an atomic or molecular fluorescer in a receiver, depending on the inter-beam delay that is introduced in the entangled photon pairs. Upon the absorption, corresponding fluorescent optical emissions follow at a certain wavelength, which are then detected by a photon detector. The advantage of the disclosed system is that it eliminates a need of a coincidence counter to realize the entanglement-based secure optical communications because the absorber acts as a coincidence counter for entangled photon pairs.

  10. Tunable two-photon correlation in a double-cavity optomechanical system

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Zhi-Bo; Zhang, Jian-Qi

    2015-12-15

    Correlated photons are essential sources for quantum information processing. We propose a practical scheme to generate pairs of correlated photons in a controllable fashion from a double-cavity optomechanical system, where the variable optomechanical coupling strength makes it possible to tune the photon correlation at our will. The key operation is based on the repulsive or attractive interaction between the two photons intermediated by the mechanical resonator. The present protocol could provide a potential approach to coherent control of the photon correlation using the optomechanical cavity.

  11. Search for long-lived particles decaying into electron or photon pairs with the D0 detector.

    PubMed

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguilo, E; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Andrieu, B; Anzelc, M S; Aoki, M; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; Asman, B; Assis Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Avila, C; Badaud, F; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A-F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benitez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Biscarat, C; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Bu, X B; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Calfayan, P; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Carrera, E; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Cheu, E; Chevallier, F; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cuplov, V; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; da Motta, H; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; DeVaughan, K; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dong, H; Dorland, T; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Garcia, C; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Geng, W; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gollub, N; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hauptman, J M; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hoeth, H; Hohlfeld, M; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jarvis, C; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Johnston, D; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Kajfasz, E; Kalk, J M; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y M; Khatidze, D; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J-P; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kuhl, T; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kuzmin, V A; Kvita, J; Lacroix, F; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lellouch, J; Li, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lim, J K; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Luna, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; Melnitchouk, A; Mendoza, L; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Mitrevski, J; Mommsen, R K; Mondal, N K; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Nogima, H; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Oshima, N; Osman, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Otero Y Garzón, G J; Owen, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S-J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Pétroff, P; Petteni, M; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M-E; Polozov, P; Pope, B G; Popov, A V; Potter, C; Prado da Silva, W L; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rakitine, A; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Rich, P; Rieger, J; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Rominsky, M; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Sanghi, B; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schlobohm, S; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Siccardi, V; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Steele, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strang, M A; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Sznajder, A; Tamburello, P; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Tiller, B; Tissandier, F; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Torchiani, I; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; van den Berg, P J; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vilanova, D; Villeneuve-Seguier, F; Vint, P; Vokac, P; Voutilainen, M; Wagner, R; Wahl, H D; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, G; Weber, M; Welty-Rieger, L; Wenger, A; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Williams, M; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yang, W-C; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yin, H; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Zeitnitz, C; Zelitch, S; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zivkovic, L; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G

    2008-09-12

    In this Letter we report on a search for long-lived particles that decay into final states with two electrons or photons. Such long-lived particles arise in a variety of theoretical models, such as hidden valleys and supersymmetry with gauge-mediated breaking. By precisely reconstructing the direction of the electromagnetic shower we are able to probe much longer lifetimes than previously explored. We see no evidence of the existence of such long-lived particles and interpret this search as a quasi model-independent limit on their production cross section, as well as a limit on a long-lived fourth generation quark.

  12. 1.12 Tb/s superchannel coherent PM-QPSK InP transmitter photonic integrated circuit (PIC).

    PubMed

    Evans, P; Fisher, M; Malendevich, R; James, A; Goldfarb, G; Vallaitis, T; Kato, M; Samra, P; Corzine, S; Strzelecka, E; Studenkov, P; Salvatore, R; Sedgwick, F; Kuntz, M; Lal, V; Lambert, D; Dentai, A; Pavinski, D; Zhang, J; Cornelius, J; Tsai, T; Behnia, B; Bostak, J; Dominic, V; Nilsson, A; Taylor, B; Rahn, J; Sanders, S; Sun, H; Wu, K-T; Pleumeekers, J; Muthiah, R; Missey, M; Schneider, R; Stewart, J; Reffle, M; Butrie, T; Nagarajan, R; Ziari, M; Kish, F; Welch, D

    2011-12-12

    In this work, a 10-wavelength, polarization-multiplexed, monolithically integrated InP coherent QPSK transmitter PIC is demonstrated to operate at 112 Gb/sec per wavelength and total chip superchannel bandwidth of 1.12 Tb/s. This demonstration suggests that increasing data capacity to multi-Tb/s per chip is possible and likely in the future.

  13. Coherent one-photon phase control in closed and open quantum systems: a general master equation approach.

    PubMed

    Pachón, Leonardo A; Yu, Li; Brumer, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The underlying mechanisms for one photon phase control are revealed through a master equation approach. Specifically, two mechanisms are identified, one operating on the laser time scale and the other on the time scale of the system-bath interaction. The effects of the secular and non-secular Markovian approximations are carefully examined.

  14. Multiplexing photons with a binary division strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmiegelow, Christian Tomás; Larotonda, Miguel Antonio

    2014-08-01

    We present a scheme to produce clock-synchronized photons from a single parametric downconversion source with a binary division strategy. The time difference between a clock and detections of the herald photons determines the amount of delay that must be imposed to a photon by actively switching different temporal segments, so that all photons emerge from the output with their wavepackets temporally synchronized with the temporal reference. The operation is performed using a binary division configuration which minimizes the passages through switches. Finally, we extend this scheme to the production of many synchronized photons and find expressions for the optimal amount of correction stages as a function of the pair generation rate and the target coherence time. Our results show that, for the generation of this heralded single-photon per output state at an optimized input photon flux, the output rate of our scheme scales essentially with the reciprocal of the target output photon number. With current technology, rates of up to 104 synchronized pairs per second could be observed with only 7 correction stages.

  15. Measurement of the surface effect of a small scattering object in a highly scattering medium by use of diffuse photon-pairs density wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jheng-Syong; Yu, Li-Ping; Chou, Chien

    2016-06-01

    The surface effect close to the boundary of a small light-scattering object in a highly scattering medium is experimentally demonstrated. This is the first attempt to measure the surface effect of a small spherical scattering object in 1% intralipid solution by use of developed diffuse photon-pairs density wave (DPPDW) in terms of the amplitude and phase detection. Theoretically, the surface effect of a small scattering object in turbid media is localized close to the boundary according to the perturbation theory, concerning an inhomogeneous distribution of the diffusion coefficient in the frequency-domain diffusion equation. Hence, an improvement of the spatial resolution of the image via an inverse algorithm, which relates to detection sensitivity of localization to the boundary of the image object in a multiple scattering medium, is anticipated. In this study, we demonstrate that DPPDW is able to sense the surface effect of a 2-mm spherical scattering object in 1% intralipid solution, with high sensitivity. Subsequently, an improvement of spatial resolution of imaging in turbid media by using DPPDW in comparison with conventional diffuse photon density wave (DPDW) using inverse algorithm is discussed.

  16. Heralded single-photon source from spontaneous four-wave mixing process in lossy waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Nuno A.; Pinto, Armando N.

    2015-10-01

    We investigate theoretically the spontaneous four-wave mixing (FWM) process that occurs in optical waveguides, as a source of quantum correlated photon-pairs. We consider that the waveguide used to implement the spontaneous FWM process presents a high value of nonlinear parameter, γ = 93.4 W-1m-1, and a non-negligible value of loss coefficient, α = 133.3 dB/m. Moreover, the theoretical model also consider the Raman scattering that inevitably accompanies the FWM process, and generates time-uncorrelated (noise) photon pairs. We use the coincident-to-accidental ratio (CAR) as a figure of merit of the photon pair source, and we were able to observe a CAR of the order of 65 in a high loss regime. After, we use the time-correlated photon pairs generated by the spontaneous FWM process to implement a heralded single photon source at waveguide output. In this scenario, the detection of one photon of the pair heralds the presence of the other photon. The quality of the source was studied by the evaluation of the second order coherence function for one photon of the pair conditioned by the detection of its twin photon. We observe that the presence of a high loss coefficient tends to improve the quality of the photon source, when compared with the lossless regime, even considering the Raman noise photons. We obtain a value for the conditional second order coherence function of the order of 0.11 in absence of loss, and a value of 0.03 for a loss coefficient of 133.3 dB/m.

  17. High-speed coherent silicon modulator module using photonic integrated circuits: from circuit design to packaged module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernabé, S.; Olivier, S.; Myko, A.; Fournier, M.; Blampey, B.; Abraham, A.; Menezo, S.; Hauden, J.; Mottet, A.; Frigui, K.; Ngoho, S.; Frigui, B.; Bila, S.; Marris-Morini, D.; Pérez-Galacho, D.; Brindel, P.; Charlet, G.

    2016-05-01

    Silicon photonics technology is an enabler for the integration of complex circuits on a single chip, for various optical link applications such as routing, optical networks on chip, short range links and long haul transmitters. Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) transmitters is one of the typical circuits that can be achieved using silicon photonics integrated circuits. The achievement of 25GBd QPSK transmitter modules requires several building blocks to be optimized: the pn junction used to build a BPSK (Binary Shift Phase Keying) modulator, the RF access and the optical interconnect at the package level. In this paper, we describe the various design steps of a BPSK module and the related tests that are needed at every stage of the fabrication process.

  18. A photonic analog-to-digital converter using phase modulation and self-coherent detection with spatial oversampling.

    PubMed

    Golani, Ori; Mauri, Luca; Pasinato, Fabiano; Cattaneo, Cristian; Consonnni, Guido; Balsamo, Stefano; Marom, Dan M

    2014-05-19

    We propose a new type of photonic analog-to-digital converter (ADC), designed for high-resolution (>7 bit) and high sampling rates (scalable to tens of GS/s). It is based on encoding the input analog voltage signal onto the phase of an optical pulse stream originating from a mode-locked laser, and uses spatial oversampling as a means to improve the conversion resolution. This paper describes the concept of spatial oversampling and draws its similarities to the commonly used temporal oversampling. The design and fabrication of a LiNbO(3)/silica hybrid photonic integrated circuit for implementing the spatial oversampling is shown, and its abilities are demonstrated experimentally by digitizing gigahertz signals (frequencies up to 18GHz) at an undersampled rate of 2.56GS/s with a conversion resolution of up to 7.6 effective bits. Oversampling factors of 1-4 are demonstrated.

  19. Transfer and retrieval of optical coherence to strain-compensated quantum dots using a heterodyne photon-echo technique

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Kazumasa; Ishi-Hayase, Junko; Akahane, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Naokatsu

    2013-12-04

    We performed the proof-of-principle demonstration of photon-echo quantum memory using strain-compensated InAs quantum dot ensemble in the telecommunication wavelength range. We succeeded in transfer and retrieval of relative phase of a time-bin pulse with a high fidelity. Our demonstration suggests the possibility of realizing ultrabroadband, high time-bandwidth products, multi-mode quantum memory which is operable at telecommunication wavelength.

  20. Measurement of the second-order coherence of pseudothermal light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuusela, Tom A.

    2017-04-01

    We describe photon statistics experiments using pseudothermal light that can be performed in an undergraduate physics laboratory. We examine the light properties in terms of a second-order coherence function, as determined either by measuring the light intensity as a function of time or via coincidence analysis of a pair of photon detectors. We determine the coherence time and intensity distribution of the pseudothermal light source that exhibits either Gaussian or non-Gaussian statistics as a function of their optical parameters, and then compare the results with theoretical predictions. The simple photodiode method can be used for the qualitative analysis of the coherence time, but more accurate measurements are achieved using the coincidence method.

  1. Efficient Generation of Frequency-Multiplexed Entangled Single Photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Tian-Hui; Xie, Min

    2016-12-01

    We present two schemes to generate frequency-multiplexed entangled (FME) single photons by coherently mapping photonic entanglement into and out of a quantum memory based on Raman interactions. By splitting a single photon and performing subsequent state transfer, we separate the generation of entanglement and its frequency conversion, and find that the both progresses have the characteristic of inherent determinacy. Our theory can reproduce the prominent features of observed results including pulse shapes and the condition for deterministically generating the FME single photons. The schemes are suitable for the entangled photon pairs with a wider frequency range, and could be immune to the photon loss originating from cavity-mode damping, spontaneous emission, and the dephasing due to atomic thermal motion. The sources might have significant applications in wavelength-division-multiplexing quantum key distribution.

  2. M Times Photon Subtraction-Addition Coherent Superposition Operated Odd-Schrődinger-cat State: Nonclassicality and Decoherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Li; Guo, Qin; Jiang, Li-ying; Chen, Ge; Xu, Xue-xiang; Yuan, Wen

    2015-08-01

    We introduce a new non-Gaussian state (MCSO-OSCS), generated by m times coherent superposition operation acos θ + a †sin θ (MCSO) on odd-Schrődinger-cat state | α 0> - | - α 0>(OSCS), whose normalized constant is shown to be related to Hermite polynomials. We investigate the nonclassical properties of the MCSO-OSCS through Mandel's Q-parameter, quadrature squeezing, the photocount distribution and Wigner function (WF), which is turned out to be influenced by parameters m, θ and α 0. Especially the volume of negative region of WF could increase through controlling the parameters m, θ and α 0. We also investigate the decoherence of the MCSO-OSCS in terms of the fadeaway of the negativity of WF in a thermal environment.

  3. Narrowband high-fidelity all-fibre source of heralded single photons at 1570 nm.

    PubMed

    McMillan, A R; Fulconis, J; Halder, M; Xiong, C; Rarity, J G; Wadsworth, W J

    2009-04-13

    An all-fibre heralded single photon source operating at 1570 nm has been demonstrated. The device generates correlated photon pairs, widely spaced in frequency, through four-wave mixing in a photonic crystal fibre. Separation of the pair photons and narrowband filtering is all achieved in fibre. The output heralded single photon rate was 9.2 x 10(4) per second, with a counts-to-accidentals ratio of 10.4 and a heralding fidelity of 52 %. Furthermore, narrowband filtering ensured that the output single photon state was near time-bandwidth limited with a coherence length of 4 ps. Such a source is well suited to quantum information processing applications.

  4. Quantum photonics at telecom wavelengths based on lithium niobate waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alibart, Olivier; D'Auria, Virginia; De Micheli, Marc; Doutre, Florent; Kaiser, Florian; Labonté, Laurent; Lunghi, Tommaso; Picholle, Éric; Tanzilli, Sébastien

    2016-10-01

    Integrated optical components on lithium niobate play a major role in standard high-speed communication systems. Over the last two decades, after the birth and positioning of quantum information science, lithium niobate waveguide architectures have emerged as one of the key platforms for enabling photonics quantum technologies. Due to mature technological processes for waveguide structure integration, as well as inherent and efficient properties for nonlinear optical effects, lithium niobate devices are nowadays at the heart of many photon-pair or triplet sources, single-photon detectors, coherent wavelength-conversion interfaces, and quantum memories. Consequently, they find applications in advanced and complex quantum communication systems, where compactness, stability, efficiency, and interconnectability with other guided-wave technologies are required. In this review paper, we first introduce the material aspects of lithium niobate, and subsequently discuss all of the above mentioned quantum components, ranging from standard photon-pair sources to more complex and advanced circuits.

  5. Search for Resonant Production of High-Mass Photon Pairs in Proton-Proton Collisions at sqrt[s]=8 and 13 TeV.

    PubMed

    Khachatryan, V; Sirunyan, A M; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Asilar, E; Bergauer, T; Brandstetter, J; Brondolin, E; Dragicevic, M; Erö, J; Flechl, M; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hartl, C; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; König, A; Krätschmer, I; Liko, D; Matsushita, T; Mikulec, I; Rabady, D; Rad, N; Rahbaran, B; Rohringer, H; Schieck, J; Strauss, J; Treberer-Treberspurg, W; Waltenberger, W; Wulz, C-E; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Alderweireldt, S; De Wolf, E A; Janssen, X; Lauwers, J; Van De Klundert, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Van Spilbeeck, A; Abu Zeid, S; Blekman, F; D'Hondt, J; Daci, N; De Bruyn, I; Deroover, K; Heracleous, N; Lowette, S; Moortgat, S; Moreels, L; Olbrechts, A; Python, Q; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Parijs, I; Brun, H; Caillol, C; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Delannoy, H; Fasanella, G; Favart, L; Goldouzian, R; Grebenyuk, A; Karapostoli, G; Lenzi, T; Léonard, A; Luetic, J; Maerschalk, T; Marinov, A; 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    2016-07-29

    A search for the resonant production of high-mass photon pairs is presented. The analysis is based on samples of proton-proton collision data collected by the CMS experiment at center-of-mass energies of 8 and 13 TeV, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 19.7 and 3.3  fb^{-1}, respectively. The interpretation of the search results focuses on spin-0 and spin-2 resonances with masses between 0.5 and 4 TeV and with widths, relative to the mass, between 1.4×10^{-4} and 5.6×10^{-2}. Limits are set on scalar resonances produced through gluon-gluon fusion, and on Randall-Sundrum gravitons. A modest excess of events compatible with a narrow resonance with a mass of about 750 GeV is observed. The local significance of the excess is approximately 3.4 standard deviations. The significance is reduced to 1.6 standard deviations once the effect of searching under multiple signal hypotheses is considered. More data are required to determine the origin of this excess.

  6. Search for Resonant Production of High-Mass Photon Pairs in Proton-Proton Collisions at √{s }=8 and 13 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; König, A.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rad, N.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Lauwers, J.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; De Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Lowette, S.; Moortgat, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Parijs, I.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Delannoy, H.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Goldouzian, R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Luetic, J.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Randle-conde, A.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Cimmino, A.; Cornelis, T.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; Poyraz, D.; Salva, S.; Schöfbeck, R.; Tytgat, M.; Van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; De Visscher, S.; Delaere, C.; Delcourt, M.; Francois, B.; Giammanco, A.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Magitteri, A.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Nuttens, C.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Wertz, S.; Beliy, N.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Hensel, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; Da Silveira, G. G.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mora Herrera, C.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dogra, S.; Tomei, T. R. Fernandez Perez; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Fang, W.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, T.; Jiang, C. H.; Leggat, D.; Liu, Z.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhao, J.; Ban, Y.; Chen, G.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; González Hernández, C. F.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Sculac, T.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Ferencek, D.; Kadija, K.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Susa, T.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Carrera Jarrin, E.; Assran, Y.; Elkafrawy, T.; Mahrous, A.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Perrini, L.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Peltola, T.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Ghosh, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Kucher, I.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Abdulsalam, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Davignon, O.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Jo, M.; Lisniak, S.; Miné, P.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Merlin, J. A.; Skovpen, K.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Courbon, B.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grenier, G.; Ille, B.; Lagarde, F.

    2016-07-01

    A search for the resonant production of high-mass photon pairs is presented. The analysis is based on samples of proton-proton collision data collected by the CMS experiment at center-of-mass energies of 8 and 13 TeV, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 19.7 and 3.3 fb-1 , respectively. The interpretation of the search results focuses on spin-0 and spin-2 resonances with masses between 0.5 and 4 TeV and with widths, relative to the mass, between 1.4 ×10-4 and 5.6 ×10-2. Limits are set on scalar resonances produced through gluon-gluon fusion, and on Randall-Sundrum gravitons. A modest excess of events compatible with a narrow resonance with a mass of about 750 GeV is observed. The local significance of the excess is approximately 3.4 standard deviations. The significance is reduced to 1.6 standard deviations once the effect of searching under multiple signal hypotheses is considered. More data are required to determine the origin of this excess.

  7. Effect of chromatic-dispersion-induced chirp on the temporal coherence properties of individual beams from spontaneous four-wave mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Xiaoxin; Li Xiaoying; Cui Liang; Guo Xueshi; Yang Lei

    2011-08-15

    Temporal coherence of individual signal or idler beam, determined by the spectral correlation property of photon pairs, is important for realizing quantum interference among independent sources. Based on spontaneous four-wave mixing in optical fibers, we study the effect of chirp on the temporal coherence property by introducing a different amount of chirp into either the pulsed pump or individual signal (idler) beam. The investigation shows that the pump chirp induces additional frequency correlation into photon pairs; the mutual spectral correlation of photon pairs and the coherence of individual beam can be characterized by measuring the intensity correlation function g{sup (2)} of the individual beam. To improve the coherence degree, the pump chirp should be minimized. Moreover, a Hong-Ou-Mandel-type two-photon interference experiment with the signal beams generated in two different fibers illustrates that the chirp of the individual signal (idler) beam does not change the temporal coherence degree, but affects the temporal mode matching. To achieve high visibility among multiple sources, apart from improving the coherence degree, mode matching should be optimized by managing the chirps of individual beams.

  8. Control of Four-Level Quantum Coherence via Discrete Spectral Shaping of an Optical Frequency Comb

    SciTech Connect

    Stowe, Matthew C.; Peer, Avi; Ye Jun

    2008-05-23

    We present experiments demonstrating high-resolution and wide-bandwidth coherent control of a four-level atomic system in a diamond configuration. A femtosecond frequency comb is used to excite a specific pair of two-photon transitions in cold {sup 87}Rb. The optical-phase-sensitive response of the closed-loop diamond system is studied by controlling the phase of the comb modes with a pulse shaper. Finally, the pulse shape is optimized resulting in a 256% increase in the two-photon transition rate by forcing constructive interference between the mode pairs detuned from an intermediate resonance.

  9. Numerical simulation of coherent visible-to-near-infrared supercontinuum generation in the CHCl3-filled photonic crystal fiber with 1.06 μm pump pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chun-can; Li, Wei-min; Li, Na; Wang, Wen-quan

    2017-02-01

    The hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) is filled by highly nonlinear liquid chloroform (CHCl3) in the center core. The CHCl3-filled PCF with an appropriate geometric parameters exhibits a normal dispersion profile in the visible-to-near-infrared (NIR) region, where the values of group velocity dispersion (GVD) in the vicinity of 1060-nm pump wavelength can be tuned in the range from -20 to -50 ps/nm/km. Furthermore, the nonlinear parameters at wavelengths <1100 nm are higher than 0.7 W-1 m-1, which can lead to a significant enhancement of the spectral broadening, especially on the blue side. The numerical results show that, when 100-fs pulses centered at 1060 nm are launched in the 0.01 m-long fiber (47 kW peak power), the generated supercontinuum (SC) spectra with high degree of coherence can cover near 2 octaves spanning from 340 to 1360 nm at -20 dB level. The spectral variations are < 5 dB in the wavelength range of 365-1315 nm.

  10. Label-free imaging of Drosophila in vivo by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and two-photon excitation autofluorescence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Cheng-Hao; Chen, Wei-Wen; Wu, June-Tai; Chang, Ta-Chau

    2011-01-01

    Drosophila is one of the most valuable model organisms for studying genetics and developmental biology. The fat body in Drosophila, which is analogous to the liver and adipose tissue in human, stores lipids that act as an energy source during its development. At the early stages of metamorphosis, the fat body remodeling occurs involving the dissociation of the fat body into individual fat cells. Here we introduce a combination of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and two-photon excitation autofluorescence (TPE-F) microscopy to achieve label-free imaging of Drosophila in vivo at larval and pupal stages. The strong CARS signal from lipids allows direct imaging of the larval fat body and pupal fat cells. In addition, the use of TPE-F microscopy allows the observation of other internal organs in the larva and autofluorescent globules in fat cells. During the dissociation of the fat body, the findings of the degradation of lipid droplets and an increase in autofluorescent globules indicate the consumption of lipids and the recruitment of proteins in fat cells. Through in vivo imaging and direct monitoring, CARS microscopy may help elucidate how metamorphosis is regulated and study the lipid metabolism in Drosophila.

  11. Ellipsis and discourse coherence

    PubMed Central

    Frazier, Lyn; Clifton, Charles

    2006-01-01

    VP-ellipsis generally requires a syntactically matching antecedent. However, many documented examples exist where the antecedent is not appropriate. Kehler (2000, 2002) proposed an elegant theory which predicts a syntactic antecedent for an elided VP is required only for a certain discourse coherence relation (resemblance) not for cause-effect relations. Most of the data Kehler used to motivate his theory come from corpus studies and thus do not consist of true minimal pairs. We report five experiments testing predictions of the coherence theory, using standard minimal pair materials. The results raise questions about the empirical basis for coherence theory because parallelism is preferred for all coherence relations, not just resemblance relations. Further, strict identity readings, which should not be available when a syntactic antecedent is required, are influenced by parallelism per se, holding the discourse coherence relation constant. This draws into question the causal role of coherence relations in processing VP ellipsis. PMID:16896367

  12. All-optical control of three-photon spectra and time asymmetry in a strongly coupled cavity polariton system

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, X.; Li, R.; Wu, Haibin

    2016-01-01

    Manipulating the nature of photons emission is one of the basic tasks in quantum optics and photonics. The ever growing list of quantum applications requires a robust means of controlling the strongly coupled coherent interaction of photons and matter. Here, we investigate three-photon transmission spectra in a strongly coupled cavity polariton system and show that the correlation functions and transmitted photon stream can be optically manipulated. The dynamics of single photons and photon pairs at the polariton resonances can be changed by light from a single external coupling laser. At the “dark-state polariton,” three-photon transmission is a perfectly coherent field in contrast to the strong photon-bunching behavior of a typical cavity quantum electrodynamics system. When the detuned probe light is tuned to the “bright polariton,” the light exhibits a dramatic photon antibunching effect. Remarkably, the Fano-resonant asymmetric three-photon transmission caused by the interference between the dressed states leads to a new quantum feature that is strongly nonclassical (the third-order correlation function g(3)(0, 0) ≪ 1) and has a wide and tunable bandwidth. The dependence of the intrinsic third-order correlation and time symmetry of the photon stream on the controlled parameters is also examined. Strongly nonclassical, all-optically controllable multi-photon dynamics are very important for future quantum devices and metrology. PMID:26936334

  13. Recoil Redsfhit with Coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo, C. F.

    2009-05-01

    ``Recoil Redshift'' is due to the elastic interaction of photons/light with any individual electron, proton, ion, atom or molecule. This generalized Compton effect describes an individual photon-particle interaction where Energy, Linear Momentum and Angular Momentum are conserved, with NO change in the internal energy of the particle. Per Compton, the lost photon energy is zero in the forward photon propagation direction, and the energy loss increases with scattering angle. This is an INDIVIDUAL INcoherent process. To describe collective coherent effects, add/include Huygens forward reconstruction from multiple photon/particle redshifted scatterings. A coherent redshift will occur if the scattered photons' energies are WITHIN the initial linewidth. This yields an asymmetrically broadened redshifted line in the forward coherent direction with clear imaging properties. This is a coherent redshifted version of Rayleigh scattering which assumes identical non-redshifted photons. BUT the Compton Conservation energy-loss process must occur. The search for this small Recoil redshift is a good research project for ultra- precise ``frequency combs'' in gases (atomic and molecular), plasmas and combinations.

  14. Cooper pair splitting in parallel quantum dot Josephson junctions

    PubMed Central

    Deacon, R. S.; Oiwa, A.; Sailer, J.; Baba, S.; Kanai, Y.; Shibata, K.; Hirakawa, K.; Tarucha, S.

    2015-01-01

    Devices to generate on-demand non-local spin entangled electron pairs have potential application as solid-state analogues of the entangled photon sources used in quantum optics. Recently, Andreev entanglers that use two quantum dots as filters to adiabatically split and separate the quasi-particles of Cooper pairs have shown efficient splitting through measurements of the transport charge but the spin entanglement has not been directly confirmed. Here we report measurements on parallel quantum dot Josephson junction devices allowing a Josephson current to flow due to the adiabatic splitting and recombination of the Cooper pair between the dots. The evidence for this non-local transport is confirmed through study of the non-dissipative supercurrent while tuning independently the dots with local electrical gates. As the Josephson current arises only from processes that maintain the coherence, we can confirm that a current flows from the spatially separated entangled pair. PMID:26130172

  15. EXCALIBUR: a small-pixel photon counting area detector for coherent X-ray diffraction - Front-end design, fabrication and characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchal, J.; Horswell, I.; Willis, B.; Plackett, R.; Gimenez, E. N.; Spiers, J.; Ballard, D.; Booker, P.; Thompson, J. A.; Gibbons, P.; Burge, S. R.; Nicholls, T.; Lipp, J.; Tartoni, N.

    2013-03-01

    Coherent X-ray diffraction experiments on synchrotron X-ray beamlines require detectors with high spatial resolution and large detection area. The read-out chip developed by the MEDIPIX3 collaboration offers a small pixel size of 55 microns resulting in a very high spatial resolution when coupled to a direct X-ray conversion segmented silicon sensor. MEDIPIX3 assemblies present also the advantages of hybrid pixel detectors working in single photon counting mode: noiseless imaging, large dynamic range, extremely high frame rate. The EXCALIBUR detector is under development for the X-ray Coherence and Imaging Beamline I13 of the Diamond Light Source. This new detector consists of three modules, each with 16 MEDIPIX3 chips which can be read-out at 100 frames per second in continuous mode or 1000 frames per second in burst mode. In each module, the sensor is a large single silicon die covering 2 rows of 8 individual MEDIPIX3 read-out chips and provides a continuous active detection region within a module. Each module includes 1 million solder bumps connecting the 55 microns pixels of the silicon sensor to the 55 microns pixels of the 16 MEDIPIX3 read-out chips. The detection area of the 3-module EXCALIBUR detector is 115 mm × 100 mm with a small 6.8 mm wide inactive region between modules. Each detector module is connected to 2 FPGA read-out boards via a flexi-rigid circuit to allow a fully parallel read-out of the 16 MEDIPIX3 chips. The 6 FPGA read-out boards used in the EXCALIBUR detector are interfaced to 6 computing nodes via 10Gbit/s fibre-optic links to maintain the very high frame-rate capability. The standard suite of EPICS control software is used to operate the detector and to integrate it with the Diamond Light Source beamline software environment. This article describes the design, fabrication and characterisation of the MEDIPIX3-based modules composing the EXCALIBUR detector.

  16. Peculiarities of two-photon optical nutation of biexcitons in semiconductors taking into account elastic interparticle interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Khadzhi, P I; Vasiliev, V V

    2010-12-09

    The peculiarities of two-photon nutation in a system of coherent biexcitons in CuCl semiconductors are considered taking into account the elastic biexciton - biexciton interaction. It is shown that depending on the system parameters, optical nutation represents a process of periodic transformation of photon pairs into biexcitons and vice versa. The possibility of exercising the phase control of the optical nutation process is predicted. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  17. Time-resolved measurement of the quantum states of photons using two-photon interference with short-time reference pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Ren Changliang; Hofmann, Holger F.

    2011-09-15

    To fully utilize the energy-time degree of freedom of photons for optical quantum-information processes, it is necessary to control and characterize the temporal quantum states of the photons at extremely short time scales. For measurements of the temporal coherence of the quantum states beyond the time resolution of available detectors, two-photon interference with a photon in a short-time reference pulse may be a viable alternative. In this paper, we derive the temporal measurement operators for the bunching statistics of a single-photon input state with a photon from a weak coherent reference pulse. It is shown that the effects of the pulse shape of the reference pulse can be expressed in terms of a spectral filter selecting the bandwidth within which the measurement can be treated as an ideal projection on eigenstates of time. For full quantum tomography, temporal coherence can be determined by using superpositions of reference pulses at two different times. Moreover, energy-time entanglement can be evaluated based on the two-by-two entanglement observed in the coherences between pairs of detection times.

  18. Exploring Electrical and Magnetic Resonances from Coherently Correlated Long-Lived Radical Pairs towards Development of Negative Refractive-Index Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-08

    permeability by using radical pairs, (4) mutual coupling between permittivity and permeability, and (5) high Seebeck effect from hybrid metal/polymer...foundation for realizing electromagnetic resonance towards the development of molecular metamaterials. 5. High Seebeck effects have been achieved by...permeability. 5. We discovered a new approach to develop high Seebeck effects by using common metal and conducting polymer materials based on

  19. New results for a photon-photon collider

    SciTech Connect

    David Asner et al.

    2002-09-26

    We present new results from studies in progress on physics at a two-photon collider. We report on the sensitivity to top squark parameters of MSSM Higgs boson production in two-photon collisions; Higgs boson decay to two photons; radion production in models of warped extra dimensions; chargino pair production; sensitivity to the trilinear Higgs boson coupling; charged Higgs boson pair production; and we discuss the backgrounds produced by resolved photon-photon interactions.

  20. An experimental study of nonclassical effects in two-photon interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Junlin

    Two-photon interferometry is a relatively new field with applications ranging from precise measurements of optical phase shifts to fundamental tests of quantum mechanics. In contrast to conventional single-photon interferometry, two-photon interferometry typically involves measuring correlations between two detectors placed in two different output ports of an interferometer. Of particular interest is two-photon interferometry with entangled photon pairs, in which case it is often possible to observe effects that are not possible with classical fields. Because these entanglement effects are becoming increasingly important in Quantum Information Processing (QIP) applications, there is currently a strong need for further exploration of new ideas, basic physics, and experimental techniques of two-photon interferometry. Contained herein are the results of three new two-photon interferometry experiments using entangled photon pairs produced by a Type-I Parametric Down-Conversion (PDC) source. In the first experiment, we demonstrate a new technique for compensating for two-photon interferometer beamsplitter asymmetries by manipulating the polarization degree of freedom in the system. Roughly speaking, projective polarization measurements are used to re-balance the magnitude of various two-photon amplitudes that were made distinguishable by non-ideal refection and transmission coefficients of a key beamsplitter. In the second experiment, we utilize a short coherence-length continuous-wave (CW) PDC pump laser to explore two-photon interferometry in a new intermediate regime between the more familiar extremal cases which use either a long coherence-length CW pump or an ultra-short pulsed pump laser. These results provide new insight into the role of PDC pump coherence in two-photon interferometry. Finally, we use two-photon interferometry to experimentally investigate entangled "photon holes", which is a new form of entanglement that arises from the correlated absence of

  1. Entanglement transfer from two-mode anti-correlated continuous-variable systems to a pair of localized discrete systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Du; Yang, Zhen-Biao

    2016-04-01

    We address the entanglement transfer from a bipartite continuous-variable(CV) system to a pair of localized discrete systems. The dynamics behavior can be implemented by two two-level atoms flying through spatially separated identical cavities where two quantized modes are injected. We assume each CV mode couples to one atom via the resonant Jaynes-Cummings interaction. The CV systems are initially prepared in a two-mode anti-correlated SU(2) coherent state, while with the initial atomic states of the cases: |g⟩1|g⟩2, |e⟩1|e⟩2 and |g⟩1|e⟩2, respectively. We find that the entanglement transfer for single-photon excitation case is more efficient than that for multi-photon excitation case. Under same conditions, we also note that the entanglement transfer is more efficient for SU(2) coherent state than for twin-bean (TWB) and pair-coherent (TMC) state. Besides, we show that, for a given total photon number of the initial SU(2) coherent state, the efficiency of entanglement transfer depends upon the distribution of photons in the two CV modes. We also consider the influences of the dissipation and the white noise on the entanglement transfer.

  2. Coherence and multimode correlations from vacuum fluctuations in a microwave superconducting cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lähteenmäki, Pasi; Paraoanu, Gheorghe Sorin; Hassel, Juha; Hakonen, Pertti J.

    2016-08-01

    The existence of vacuum fluctuations is one of the most important predictions of modern quantum field theory. In the vacuum state, fluctuations occurring at different frequencies are uncorrelated. However, if a parameter in the Lagrangian of the field is modulated by an external pump, vacuum fluctuations stimulate spontaneous downconversion processes, creating squeezing between modes symmetric with respect to half of the frequency of the pump. Here we show that by double parametric pumping of a superconducting microwave cavity, it is possible to generate another type of correlation, namely coherence between photons in separate frequency modes. The coherence correlations are tunable by the phases of the pumps and are established by a quantum fluctuation that stimulates the simultaneous creation of two photon pairs. Our analysis indicates that the origin of this vacuum-induced coherence is the absence of which-way information in the frequency space.

  3. Coherence and multimode correlations from vacuum fluctuations in a microwave superconducting cavity

    PubMed Central

    Lähteenmäki, Pasi; Paraoanu, Gheorghe Sorin; Hassel, Juha; Hakonen, Pertti J.

    2016-01-01

    The existence of vacuum fluctuations is one of the most important predictions of modern quantum field theory. In the vacuum state, fluctuations occurring at different frequencies are uncorrelated. However, if a parameter in the Lagrangian of the field is modulated by an external pump, vacuum fluctuations stimulate spontaneous downconversion processes, creating squeezing between modes symmetric with respect to half of the frequency of the pump. Here we show that by double parametric pumping of a superconducting microwave cavity, it is possible to generate another type of correlation, namely coherence between photons in separate frequency modes. The coherence correlations are tunable by the phases of the pumps and are established by a quantum fluctuation that stimulates the simultaneous creation of two photon pairs. Our analysis indicates that the origin of this vacuum-induced coherence is the absence of which-way information in the frequency space. PMID:27562246

  4. Generation of tunable entanglement and violation of a Bell-like inequality between different degrees of freedom of a single photon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallés, Adam; D'Ambrosio, Vincenzo; Hendrych, Martin; Mičuda, Michal; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Sciarrino, Fabio; Torres, Juan P.

    2014-11-01

    We demonstrate a scheme to generate noncoherent and coherent correlations, i.e., a tunable degree of entanglement, between degrees of freedom of a single photon. Its nature is analogous to the tuning of the purity (first-order coherence) of a single photon forming part of a two-photon state by tailoring the correlations between the paired photons. Therefore, well-known tools such as the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) Bell-like inequality can also be used to characterize entanglement between degrees of freedom. More specifically, CHSH inequality tests are performed, making use of the polarization and the spatial shape of a single photon. The four modes required are two polarization modes and two spatial modes with different orbital angular momentum.

  5. Single-photon and photon pair emission from MOVPE-grown In(Ga)As quantum dots: shifting the emission wavelength from 1.0 to 1.3 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettler, Jan; Paul, Matthias; Olbrich, Fabian; Zeuner, Katharina; Jetter, Michael; Michler, Peter

    2016-03-01

    InAs quantum dots grown on a GaAs substrate have been one of the most successful semiconductor material systems to demonstrate single-photon-based quantum optical phenomena. In this context, we present the feasibility to extend the low-temperature photoluminescence emission range of In(Ga)As/GaAs quantum dots grown by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy from the typical window between 880 and 960 nm to wavelengths above 1.3 μm. A low quantum dot density can be obtained throughout this range, enabling the demonstration of single- and cascaded photon emission. We further analyze polarization-resolved micro-photoluminescence from a large number of individual quantum dots with respect to anisotropy and size of the underlying fine-structure splittings in the emission spectra. For samples with elevated emission wavelengths, we observe an increasing tendency of the emitted photons to be polarized along the main crystal axes.

  6. Super-flat coherent supercontinuum source in As38.8Se61.2 chalcogenide photonic crystal fiber with all-normal dispersion engineering at a very low input energy.

    PubMed

    Diouf, Mbaye; Salem, Amine Ben; Cherif, Rim; Saghaei, Hamed; Wague, Ahmadou

    2017-01-10

    We numerically report super-flat coherent mid-infrared supercontinuum (MIR-SC) generation in a chalcogenide As38.8Se61.2 photonic crystal fiber (PCF). The dispersion and nonlinear parameters of As38.8Se61.2 chalcogenide PCFs by varying the diameter of the air holes are engineered to obtain all-normal dispersion (ANDi) with high nonlinearities. We show that launching low-energy 50 fs optical pulses with 0.88 kW peak power (corresponding to pulse energy of 0.05 nJ) at a central wavelength of 3.7 μm into a 5 cm long ANDi-PCF generates a flat-top coherent MIR-SC spanning from 2900 to 4575 nm with a high spectral flatness of 3 dB. This ultra-wide and flattened spectrum has excellent stability and coherence properties that can be used for MIR applications such as medical diagnosis of diseases, atmospheric pollution monitoring, and drug detection.

  7. Direct frequency comb spectroscopy and high-resolution coherent control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stowe, Matthew C.

    transition rate by tuning the comb such that the two-photon amplitudes from all comb mode pairs destructively interfere. One of the unique features of DFCS is the large bandwidth over which atomic coherence may be established. We tuned the comb frequencies to not only be two-photon resonant, but also resonant with two different intermediate states separated by 7 THz. In this experiment we demonstrate the phase sensitive excitation of a closed-loop four-level system in a diamond configuration. Using a spatial light modulator based pulse shaper, we adjusted the relative phase of the two different two-photon transition pathways. We measured a sinusoidally varying two-photon transition rate as a function of the pulse shaper phase, with a fringe visibility of up to 69%. As a final example of high-resolution coherent control, we adjusted the spectral phase of the pulses to force constructive interference between the two-photon amplitudes that arise from the many thousands of mode pairs detuned from an intermediate state. This resulted in an increase of the two-photon transition rate by approximately 250%.

  8. Generation of High-Energy Photons with Large Orbital Angular Momentum by Compton Backscattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jentschura, U. D.; Serbo, V. G.

    2011-01-01

    Usually, photons are described by plane waves with a definite 4-momentum. In addition to plane-wave photons, “twisted photons” have recently entered the field of modern laser optics; these are coherent superpositions of plane waves with a defined projection ℏm of the orbital angular momentum onto the propagation axis, where m is an integer. In this Letter, we show that it is possible to produce high-energy twisted photons by Compton backscattering of twisted laser photons off ultrarelativistic electrons. Such photons may be of interest for experiments related to the excitation and disintegration of atoms and nuclei, and for studying the photoeffect and pair production off nuclei in previously unexplored experimental regimes.

  9. Changes in the statistical and quantum features of the cavity radiation of a two-photon coherent beat laser due to phase fluctuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesfa, Sintayehu

    2010-11-01

    A detailed derivation of the master equation and the corresponding time evolution of the cavity radiation of a coherent beat laser when the atoms are initially prepared in a partial coherent superposition is presented. It turns out that the quantum features and intensity of the cavity radiation are considerably modified by the phase fluctuation arising due to the practical incapability of preparing atoms in the intended perfect coherent superposition. New terms having opposite signs than the contribution of the driving radiation emerged in the master equation. This can be taken as an indication of a competing effect between the two in the manifestation of the nonclassical features. This, on the other hand, means that there is a chance to regain the quantum properties that might have been lost due to faulty preparation in engineering the driving mechanism and vice versa. In light of this, quite remarkably, the cavity radiation is shown to exhibit nonclassical features including two-mode squeezing and entanglement when there is no driving and when the atoms are initially prepared in a partial maximum atomic coherence superposition, contrary to earlier predictions for the case of perfect coherence.

  10. Technology: Photonics illuminates the future of radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinney, Jason D.

    2014-03-01

    The first implementation of a fully photonics-based coherent radar system shows how photonic methods for radio-frequency signal generation and measurement may facilitate the development of software-defined radar systems. See Letter p.341

  11. Approaching the Ultimate Limits of Communication Efficiency with a Photon-Counting Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erkmen, Baris; Moision, Bruce; Dolinar, Samuel J.; Birnbaum, Kevin M.; Divsalar, Dariush

    2012-01-01

    Coherent states achieve the Holevo capacity of a pure-loss channel when paired with an optimal measurement, but a physical realization of this measurement is as of yet unknown, and it is also likely to be of high complexity. In this paper, we focus on the photon-counting measurement and study the photon and dimensional efficiencies attainable with modulations over classical- and nonclassical-state alphabets. We first review the state-of-the-art coherent on-off-keying (OOK) with a photoncounting measurement, illustrating its asymptotic inefficiency relative to the Holevo limit. We show that a commonly made Poisson approximation in thermal noise leads to unbounded photon information efficiencies, violating the conjectured Holevo limit. We analyze two binary-modulation architectures that improve upon the dimensional versus photon efficiency tradeoff achievable with conventional OOK. We show that at high photon efficiency these architectures achieve an efficiency tradeoff that differs from the best possible tradeoff--determined by the Holevo capacity--by only a constant factor. The first architecture we analyze is a coherent-state transmitter that relies on feedback from the receiver to control the transmitted energy. The second architecture uses a single-photon number-state source.

  12. Simulating single photons with realistic photon sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiao; Zhang, Zhen; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Ma, Xiongfeng

    2016-12-01

    Quantum information processing provides remarkable advantages over its classical counterpart. Quantum optical systems have been proved to be sufficient for realizing general quantum tasks, which, however, often rely on single-photon sources. In practice, imperfect single-photon sources, such as a weak-coherent-state source, are used instead, which will inevitably limit the power in demonstrating quantum effects. For instance, with imperfect photon sources, the key rate of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) quantum key distribution protocol will be very low, which fortunately can be resolved by utilizing the decoy-state method. As a generalization, we investigate an efficient way to simulate single photons with imperfect ones to an arbitrary desired accuracy when the number of photonic inputs is small. Based on this simulator, we can thus replace the tasks that involve only a few single-photon inputs with the ones that make use of only imperfect photon sources. In addition, our method also provides a quantum simulator to quantum computation based on quantum optics. In the main context, we take a phase-randomized coherent state as an example for analysis. A general photon source applies similarly and may provide some further advantages for certain tasks.

  13. Measurement of spin coherence using Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Z.; Delteil, A.; Faelt, S.; Imamoǧlu, A.

    2016-06-01

    Ramsey interferometry provides a natural way to determine the coherence time of most qubit systems. Recent experiments on quantum dots, however, demonstrated that dynamical nuclear spin polarization can strongly influence the measurement process, making it difficult to extract the T2* coherence time using standard optical Ramsey pulses. Here, we demonstrate an alternative method for spin coherence measurement that is based on first-order coherence of photons generated in spin-flip Raman scattering. We show that if a quantum emitter is driven by a weak monochromatic laser, Raman coherence is determined exclusively by spin coherence, allowing for a direct determination of spin T2* time. When combined with coherence measurements on Rayleigh scattered photons, our technique enables us to identify coherent and incoherent contributions to resonance fluorescence, and to minimize the latter. We verify the validity of our technique by comparing our results to those determined from Ramsey interferometry for electron and heavy-hole spins.

  14. Pairing and the phase diagram of the normal coherence length ξN(T, x) above Tc of La2−xSrxCuO4 thin films probed by the Josephson effect

    PubMed Central

    Kirzhner, Tal; Koren, Gad

    2014-01-01

    The long range proximity effect in high-Tc c-axis Josephson junctions with a high-Tc barrier of lower Tc is still a puzzling phenomenon. It leads to supercurrents in junctions with much thicker barriers than would be allowed by the conventional proximity effect. Here we measured the T − x (Temperature-doping level) phase diagram of the barrier coherence length ξN(T, x), and found an enhancement of ξN at moderate under-doping and high temperatures. This indicates that a possible origin of the long range proximity effect in the cuprate barrier is the conjectured pre-formed pairs in the pseudogap regime, which increase the length scale over which superconducting correlations survive in the seemingly normal barrier. In more details, we measured the supercurrents Ic of Superconducting - Normal - Superconducting SNS c-axis junctions, where S was optimally doped Y Ba2Cu3O7−δ below Tc (90 K) and N was La2−xSrxCuO4 above its Tc (<25 K) but in the pseudogap regime. From the exponential decay of Ic(T) ∝ exp[−d/ξN(T)], where d is the barrier thickness, the ξN(T) values were extracted. By repeating these measurements for different barrier doping levels x, the whole phase diagram of ξN(T, x) was obtained. PMID:25175417

  15. Pairing and the phase diagram of the normal coherence length ξN(T, x) above Tc of La2-xSrxCuO4 thin films probed by the Josephson effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirzhner, Tal; Koren, Gad

    2014-09-01

    The long range proximity effect in high-Tc c-axis Josephson junctions with a high-Tc barrier of lower Tc is still a puzzling phenomenon. It leads to supercurrents in junctions with much thicker barriers than would be allowed by the conventional proximity effect. Here we measured the T - x (Temperature-doping level) phase diagram of the barrier coherence length ξN(T, x), and found an enhancement of ξN at moderate under-doping and high temperatures. This indicates that a possible origin of the long range proximity effect in the cuprate barrier is the conjectured pre-formed pairs in the pseudogap regime, which increase the length scale over which superconducting correlations survive in the seemingly normal barrier. In more details, we measured the supercurrents Ic of Superconducting - Normal - Superconducting SNS c-axis junctions, where S was optimally doped Y Ba2Cu3O7-δ below Tc (90 K) and N was La2-xSrxCuO4 above its Tc (<25 K) but in the pseudogap regime. From the exponential decay of Ic(T) ~ exp[-d/ξN(T)], where d is the barrier thickness, the ξN(T) values were extracted. By repeating these measurements for different barrier doping levels x, the whole phase diagram of ξN(T, x) was obtained.

  16. Protected Flux Pairing Qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Matthew; Zhang, Wenyuan; Ioffe, Lev; Gershenson, Michael

    2014-03-01

    We have studied the coherent flux tunneling in a qubit containing two submicron Josephson junctions shunted by a superinductor (a dissipationless inductor with an impedance much greater than the resistance quantum). The two low energy quantum states of this device, 0 and 1, are represented by even and odd number of fluxes in the loop, respectively. This device is dual to the charge pairing Josephson rhombi qubit. The spectrum of the device, studied by microwave spectroscopy, reflects the interference between coherent quantum phase slips in the two junctions (the Aharonov-Casher effect). The time domain measurements demonstrate the suppression of the qubit's energy relaxation in the protected regime, which illustrates the potential of this flux pairing device as a protected quantum circuit. Templeton Foundation, NSF, and ARO.

  17. Coherence Dynamics in Photosynthesis: Protein Protection of Excitonic Coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hohjai; Cheng, Yuan-Chung; Fleming, Graham R.

    2007-06-01

    The role of quantum coherence in promoting the efficiency of the initial stages of photosynthesis is an open and intriguing question. We performed a two-color photon echo experiment on a bacterial reaction center that enabled direct visualization of the coherence dynamics in the reaction center. The data revealed long-lasting coherence between two electronic states that are formed by mixing of the bacteriopheophytin and accessory bacteriochlorophyll excited states. This coherence can only be explained by strong correlation between the protein-induced fluctuations in the transition energy of neighboring chromophores. Our results suggest that correlated protein environments preserve electronic coherence in photosynthetic complexes and allow the excitation to move coherently in space, enabling highly efficient energy harvesting and trapping in photosynthesis.

  18. Coherence dynamics in photosynthesis: protein protection of excitonic coherence.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hohjai; Cheng, Yuan-Chung; Fleming, Graham R

    2007-06-08

    The role of quantum coherence in promoting the efficiency of the initial stages of photosynthesis is an open and intriguing question. We performed a two-color photon echo experiment on a bacterial reaction center that enabled direct visualization of the coherence dynamics in the reaction center. The data revealed long-lasting coherence between two electronic states that are formed by mixing of the bacteriopheophytin and accessory bacteriochlorophyll excited states. This coherence can only be explained by strong correlation between the protein-induced fluctuations in the transition energy of neighboring chromophores. Our results suggest that correlated protein environments preserve electronic coherence in photosynthetic complexes and allow the excitation to move coherently in space, enabling highly efficient energy harvesting and trapping in photosynthesis.

  19. Programmable atom-photon quantum interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurz, Christoph; Eich, Pascal; Schug, Michael; Müller, Philipp; Eschner, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    We present the implementation of a programmable atom-photon quantum interface, employing a single trapped +40Ca ion and single photons. Depending on its mode of operation, the interface serves as a bidirectional atom-photon quantum-state converter, as a source of entangled atom-photon states, or as a quantum frequency converter of single photons. The interface lends itself particularly to interfacing ions with spontaneous parametric down-conversion-based single-photon or entangled-photon-pair sources.

  20. Search for high mass photon pairs in p{anti p}{yields}{gamma}{gamma}jj events at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, B.; D0 Collaboration

    1997-10-01

    A search for new physics in the channel p{anti p} {yields} {gamma}{gamma}jj has been studied. In some extended Higgs models, a light neutral scalar Higgs boson is produced with suppressed couplings to fermions and standard model(SM) strength couplings to vector bosons(bosonic Higgs), thus enhancing the H {yields} {gamma}{gamma} channel. We required one photon in the event with E{sup {gamma}}{sub T} > 20 GeV, {vert_bar}{eta}{sup {gamma}}{vert_bar} < 1.1 or 1.5 < {vert_bar}{eta}{sup {gamma}}{vert_bar} < 2.0 and a second photon with E{sup {gamma}}{sub T} > 15 GeV, {vert_bar}{eta}{sup {gamma}}{vert_bar} < 1.1 or 1.5 < {vert_bar}{eta}{sup {gamma}}{vert_bar} < 2.25. Additionally, we required one hadronic jet in the event with E{sup jet}{sub T} > 20 GeV, {vert_bar}{eta}{sup jet}{vert_bar} < 2.0 and a second hadronic jet with E{sup jet}{sub T} > 15 GeV, {vert_bar}{eta}{sup jet}{vert_bar} < 2.25. The photons are required to have a {summation}{rvec E}{sub T}({gamma}) {>=} 10 GeV, and likewise the jets are required to have a {summation}{rvec E}{sub T}(jet) {>=} 10 GeV. The final M{sub {gamma}{gamma}} distribution is consistent with background and no resonance is observed. A 90(95)% C.L. upper limit cross section vs M{sub {gamma}{gamma}} is calculated, which ranges from 0.6(0.7) pb{sup -1} for M{sub {gamma}{gamma}} = 60 GeV/c{sup 2} to 0.3(0.4) pb{sup -1} for M{sub {gamma}{gamma}} = 130 GeV/c{sup 2}. With standard model coupling strengths between the bosonic Higgs and vector bosons, a 90(95)% C.L. bosonic Higgs lower mass limit is set at 86(81) GeV/c{sup 2}.

  1. EPR experiment and 2-photon interferometry: Report of a 2-photon interference experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Y. H.; Rubin, M. H.; Sergienko, A. V.

    1992-01-01

    After a very brief review of the historical Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR) experiments, a new two-photon interference type EPR experiment is reported. A two-photon state was generated by optical parametric down conversion. Pairs of light quanta with degenerate frequency but divergent directions of propagation were sent to two independent Michelson interferometers. First and second order interference effectors were studied. Different than other reports, we observed that the second order interference visibility vanished when the optical path difference of the interferometers were much less than the coherence length of the pumping laser beam. However, we also observed that the second order interference behaved differently depending on whether the interferometers were set at equal or different optical path differences.

  2. Effect of polarization entanglement in photon-photon scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rätzel, Dennis; Wilkens, Martin; Menzel, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    It is found that the differential cross section of photon-photon scattering is a function of the degree of polarization entanglement of the two-photon state. A reduced general expression for the differential cross section of photon-photon scattering is derived by applying simple symmetry arguments. An explicit expression is obtained for the example of photon-photon scattering due to virtual electron-positron pairs in quantum electrodynamics. It is shown how the effect in this explicit example can be explained as an effect of quantum interference and that it fits with the idea of distance-dependent forces.

  3. On Approaching the Ultimate Limits of Communication Using a Photon-Counting Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erkmen, Baris I.; Moision, Bruce E.; Dolinar, Samuel J.; Birnbaum, Kevin M.; Divsalar, Dariush

    2012-01-01

    Coherent states achieve the Holevo capacity of a pure-loss channel when paired with an optimal measurement, but a physical realization of this measurement scheme is as of yet unknown, and it is also likely to be of high complexity. In this paper, we focus on the photon-counting measurement and study the photon and dimensional efficiencies attainable with modulations over classical- and nonclassical-state alphabets. We analyze two binary modulation architectures that improve upon the dimensional versus photon efficiency tradeoff achievable with the state-of-the-art coherent-state on-off keying modulation. We show that at high photon efficiency these architectures achieve an efficiency tradeoff that differs from the best possible tradeoff--determined by the Holevo capacity--by only a constant factor. The first architecture we analyze is a coherent-state transmitter that relies on feedback from the receiver to control the transmitted energy. The second architecture uses a single-photon number-state source.

  4. Land Surface Properties near Terra Nova Bay, East Antarctica, Analyzed by Time-series Height, Coherence and Amplitude Maps Derived from COSMO-SkyMed One-day Tandem Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Y.; Han, H.; Lee, H.

    2014-12-01

    Analysis of the surface properties of Antarctica is very important to study the change of environment and climate in the polar region. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has been widely used to study Antarctic surface properties because it is independent of sun altitude and atmospheric conditions. Interferometric SAR (InSAR) observes surface topography and deformation, by calculating the phase differences between two or more SAR images obtained over same area. InSAR technique can be used for height mapping in stable areas with a few meter accuracy. However, the InSAR-derived height map can have errors if the phase differences due to surface deformation or change of the scattering center by microwave penetration into snow are misinterpreted as the elevation. In this study, we generated the height maps around Terra Nova Bay in East Antarctica from 13 COSMO-SkyMed one-day tandem InSAR pairs obtained from December 2010 to January 2012. By analyzing the height maps averaged over the 13 interferograms and its standard deviation (STD) map, we could classify the surface types into glacier, mountains and basin areas covered with snow. The mountain areas showed very small STD because its surface property is unchanged with time, except for the small STD values caused by the errors from the unwrapping processing, satellite orbit or atmospheric phase distortion. Over the basin areas, however, the STD of the height was much larger than the mountain area due to the variation of scattering center either from the change in surface property such as snowfall and sublimation or by the surface displacement of snow mass that are too slow. A year-long constant motion of such slow-creeping snow body was positively identified by its linear relationship between the misinterpreted elevation and the baseline perpendicular component of InSAR pair. Analysis of time-series coherence maps and amplitude maps have also contributed to clarify the surface properties and its changes due to various

  5. Relative-phase and time-delay maps all over the emission cone of hyperentangled photon source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegazy, Salem F.; Badr, Yahia A.; Obayya, Salah S. A.

    2017-02-01

    Realizing high flux of hyperentangled photons requires collecting photon pairs simultaneously entangled in multiple degrees of freedom over relatively wide spectral and angular emission ranges. We consider the hyperentangled photons produced by superimposing noncollinear spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) emissions of two crossed and coherently pumped nonlinear crystals. We present an approach for determining the directional-spectral relative-phase and time-delay maps of hyperentangled photons all over the SPDC emission cone. A vectorial representation is adopted for all parameters of concern. This enables us to examine unconventional arrangements such as the autocompensation of relative-phase and time-delay via oblique pump incidence. While prior works often adopt first-order approximation, it is shown that the actual directional relative-phase map is very well approximated by a quadratic function of the polar angle of the two-photon emission while negligibly varying with the azimuthal angle.

  6. Coherent Transient Systems Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-17

    europium doped yttrium silicate in collaboration with IBM Almaden Research Center. Research into divalent ion doped crystals as photon gated materials...demonstration of the coherent transient continuous optical processor was performed in europium doped yttrium silicate. Though hyperfine split ground...materials. Research into divalent samarium doped into other hosts is incomplete and may produce better results. Preliminary measurements on Tm:KCl revealed

  7. Two-photon spectroscopy of excitons with entangled photons.

    PubMed

    Schlawin, Frank; Mukamel, Shaul

    2013-12-28

    The utility of quantum light as a spectroscopic tool is demonstrated for frequency-dispersed pump-probe, integrated pump-probe, and two-photon fluorescence signals which show Ramsey fringes. Simulations of the frequency-dispersed transmission of a broadband pulse of entangled photons interacting with a three-level model of matter reveal how the non-classical time-bandwidth properties of entangled photons can be used to disentangle congested spectra, and reveal otherwise unresolved features. Quantum light effects are most pronounced at weak intensities when entangled photon pairs are well separated, and are gradually diminished at higher intensities when different photon pairs overlap.

  8. Analysis of Quantum Information Test-Bed by Parametric Down-Converted Photons Interference Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    To, Wing H.

    2005-01-01

    Quantum optical experiments require all the components involved to be extremely stable relative to each other. The stability can be "measured" by using an interferometric experiment. A pair of coherent photons produced by parametric down-conversion could be chosen to be orthogonally polarized initially. By rotating the polarization of one of the wave packets, they can be recombined at a beam splitter such that interference will occur. Theoretically, the interference will create four terms in the wave function. Two terms with both photons going to the same detector, and two terms will have the photons each going to different detectors. However, the latter will cancel each other out, thus no photons will arrive at the two detectors simultaneously under ideal conditions. The stability Of the test-bed can then be inferred by the dependence of coincidence count on the rotation angle.

  9. Method and apparatus for producing laser radiation following two-photon excitation of a gaseous medium

    DOEpatents

    Bischel, William K. [Menlo Park, CA; Jacobs, Ralph R. [Livermore, CA; Prosnitz, Donald [Hamden, CT; Rhodes, Charles K. [Palo Alto, CA; Kelly, Patrick J. [Fort Lewis, WA

    1979-02-20

    Method and apparatus for producing laser radiation by two-photon optical pumping of an atomic or molecular gaseous medium and subsequent lasing action. A population inversion is created as a result of two-photon absorption of the gaseous species. Stark tuning is utilized, if necessary, in order to tune the two-photon transition into exact resonance. In particular, gaseous ammonia (NH.sub.3) or methyl fluoride (CH.sub.3 F) is optically pumped by a pair of CO.sub.2 lasers to create a population inversion resulting from simultaneous two-photon excitation of a high-lying vibrational state, and laser radiation is produced by stimulated emission of coherent radiation from the inverted level.

  10. Method and apparatus for producing laser radiation following two-photon excitation of a gaseous medium

    DOEpatents

    Bischel, W.K.; Jacobs, R.R.; Prosnitz, D.P.; Rhodes, C.K.; Kelly, P.J.

    1979-02-20

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for producing laser radiation by two-photon optical pumping of an atomic or molecular gaseous medium and subsequent lasing action. A population inversion is created as a result of two-photon absorption of the gaseous species. Stark tuning is utilized, if necessary, in order to tune the two-photon transition into exact resonance. In particular, gaseous ammonia (NH[sub 3]) or methyl fluoride (CH[sub 3]F) is optically pumped by a pair of CO[sub 2] lasers to create a population inversion resulting from simultaneous two-photon excitation of a high-lying vibrational state, and laser radiation is produced by stimulated emission of coherent radiation from the inverted level. 3 figs.

  11. Free-space coherent optical communication with orbital angular, momentum multiplexing/demultiplexing using a hybrid 3D photonic integrated circuit.

    PubMed

    Guan, Binbin; Scott, Ryan P; Qin, Chuan; Fontaine, Nicolas K; Su, Tiehui; Ferrari, Carlo; Cappuzzo, Mark; Klemens, Fred; Keller, Bob; Earnshaw, Mark; Yoo, S J B

    2014-01-13

    We demonstrate free-space space-division-multiplexing (SDM) with 15 orbital angular momentum (OAM) states using a three-dimensional (3D) photonic integrated circuit (PIC). The hybrid device consists of a silica planar lightwave circuit (PLC) coupled to a 3D waveguide circuit to multiplex/demultiplex OAM states. The low excess loss hybrid device is used in individual and two simultaneous OAM states multiplexing and demultiplexing link experiments with a 20 Gb/s, 1.67 b/s/Hz quadrature phase shift keyed (QPSK) signal, which shows error-free performance for 379,960 tested bits for all OAM states.

  12. The cavity-embedded-cooper pair transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fei

    Nearly eight decades after Erwin Schrodinger proposed his famous cat paradox, the boundary between classical and quantum physics is becoming accessible to experimental study in condensed matter systems, in which macroscopic and microscopic degrees of freedom interact with each other. The cavity-embedded-Cooper pair transistor (cCPT) is an ideal candidate for such a study in that it is not only strongly and intrinsically nonlinear but also fully quantum mechanical. A novel technique, based on the circuit quantum electrodynamics architecture, is first introduced for applying a dc bias to a high-Q superconducting microwave cavity. The development and investigation of the cCPT system, in which a Cooper pair transistor acting as a single artificial atom is directly coupled to an on-chip dc-biased high-Q resonator, is then presented. Self-oscillations in the cCPT, internally driven by the ac Josephson effect, demonstrate the strong and phase coherent coupling between matter and light in the cCPT. Meanwhile, photons continually produced by the system are collected and characterized by quantum state tomography, which indicates the non-classical nature of the emitted light and the nonlinear quantum dynamics of the cCPT system.

  13. Energy-efficient 0.26-Tb/s coherent-optical OFDM transmission using photonic-integrated all-optical discrete Fourier transform.

    PubMed

    Kang, I; Liu, X; Chandrasekhar, S; Rasras, M; Jung, H; Cappuzzo, M; Gomez, L T; Chen, Y F; Buhl, L; Cabot, S; Jaques, J

    2012-01-16

    We propose a novel energy-efficient coherent-optical OFDM transmission scheme based on hybrid optical-electronic signal processing. We demonstrate transmission of a 0.26-Tb/s OFDM superchannel, consisting of 13 x 20-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed QPSK subcarrier channels, over 400-km standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) with BER less than 6.3x10(-4) using all-optical Fourier transform processing and electronic 7-tap blind digital equalization per subchannel. We further explore long-haul transmission over up to 960 km SSMF and show that the electronic signal processing is capable of compensating chromatic dispersion up to 16,000 ps/nm using only 15 taps per subchannel, even in the presence of strong inter-carrier interference.

  14. Higher-order nonclassical effects generated by multiple-photon annihilation-then-creation and creation-then-annihilation coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong-Chun, Yuan; Xue-Xiang, Xu; Jin, Xiao; Chao, Xiong; Xi-Fang, Zhu

    2016-05-01

    We explore two observable nonclassical properties of quantum states generated by repeatedly operating annihilation-then-creation (AC) and creation-then-annihilation (CA) on the coherent state, respectively, such as higher-order sub-Poissonian statistics and higher-order squeezing-enhanced effect. The corresponding analytical expressions are derived in detail depending on m. By numerically comparing those quantum properties, it is found that these states above have very different nonclassical properties and nonclassicality is exhibited more strongly after AC operation than after CA operation. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11447002 and 11447202), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangxi Province of China (Grant No. 20151BAB202013), and the Research Foundation for Changzhou Institute of Modern Optoelectronic Technology of China (Grant No. CZGY15).

  15. Pair production in superstrong magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, J. K.; Harding, A. K.

    1983-01-01

    The production of electron-positron pairs by single photons in magnetic fields 10 to the twelth power G was investigated in detail for photon energies near threshold as well as for the asymptotic limit of high photon energy. The exact attenuation coefficient, which is derived and then evaluated numerically, is strongly influenced by the discrete energy states of the electron and positron. Near threshold, it exhibits a sawtooth pattern as a function of photon energy, and its value is significantly below that predicted by the asymptotic expression for the attenuation coefficient. The energy distributions of the created pair are computed numerically near threshold and analytic expressions are derived in the asymptotic limit. These results indicate that as field strength and photon energy increase, it becomes increasingly probable for the pair to divide the photon energy unequally. This effect, as well as the threshold behavior of the attenuation coefficient, could have important consequences for pulsar models.

  16. Theory of coherent control with quantum light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlawin, Frank; Buchleitner, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    We develop a coherent control theory for multimode quantum light. It allows us to examine a fundamental problem in quantum optics: what is the optimal pulse form to drive a two-photon-transition? In formulating the question as a coherent control problem, we show that—and quantify how much—the strong frequency quantum correlations of entangled photons enhance the transition compared to shaped classical pulses. In ensembles of collectively driven two-level systems, such enhancement requires nonvanishing interactions.

  17. Temporal pure single photons generated from time-frequency entangled biphotons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Qian; Gu, Zhejie; Chen, J. F.; Zhang, Weiping

    2016-11-01

    Narrow-band time-frequency entangled biphotons are generated from spontaneous four-wave mixing in cold atom clouds. The coherence time of the entangled biphotons can be extended to sub-microseconds by the slow light effect. The temporal wavefunction of the biphotons can be manipulated through modulating the spectral or spatial mode of the controlling laser beams. Concerning a pair of entangled biphoton and the resulting heralded single photon, it was commonly believed that, time-frequency entanglement damages the temporal purity of the single photon. However, the case is totally different for biphotons with long coherence time which is far beyond the time resolution of single-photondetectors. We demonstrate that, the single photon heralded from these time-frequency entangled biphotons is in a pure temporal state. Therefore, single photons are able to be shaped through the time-frequency entanglement with their partner photons, while the single photons could be found to be still in a pure state and thus useful for quantum information processing and communication technology.

  18. Optical control and coherence of electron or hole spins in coupled quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Samuel

    2013-03-01

    The spin of an electron or hole in an InAs quantum dot is an attractive qubit because it combines the advantages of a semiconductor platform with the power of ultrafast optical coherent control techniques. In the last few years, basic quantum operations such as initialization, rotation, and readout have become possible using single spins, but now improvements in spin coherence and demonstrations of multi-qubit systems are needed. In this work, we combine advances in the design and growth of coupled quantum dots with optical coherent control techniques to demonstrate ultrafast manipulation and coherence improvements for one or two interacting electron or hole spins in a coupled pair of InAs dots. For each of these spin systems, we use a sequence of picosecond and nanosecond pulses to initialize, manipulate, and measure the coherent spin dynamics. These dynamics include precession about a magnetic field and also entangling dynamics from the exchange interaction for coupled spins. For a single electron spin, precession dephases after only a few nanoseconds due to the hyperfine interaction with nuclear spins. For hole spins, we measure a dephasing time an order of magnitude longer due to a weaker hyperfine interaction. Coupled electron and hole spins are essential for multi-qubit systems, and they can also be used to decrease sensitivity to the environment. In these systems, we typically measure the coherent dynamics of the singlet-triplet states (ms = 0), which are much less sensitive to the nuclear environment. At present, dephasing is due to fluctuations in the electrical environment. With careful sample design, we can make these systems much less sensitive to electrical fluctuations, giving a powerful combination of long coherence times and ultrafast gates. Finally, we demonstrate that these spin qubits can be incorporated into a photonic crystal cavity and manipulated with optical pulses, a major step toward a quantum interface between photons and these spin

  19. Hong-Ou-Mandel Interference Between Triggered And Heralded Single Photons From Separate Atomic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cere, Alessandro; Leong, Victor; Kaur Gulati, Gurpreet; Srivathsan, Bharath; Kosen, Sandoko; Kurtsiefer, Christian

    2015-05-01

    The realization of quantum networks and long distance quantum communication rely on the capability of generating entanglement between separated nodes. We demonstrate the compatibility of two different sources of single photons: a single atom and four-wave mixing in a cold cloud of atoms. The four-wave mixing process in a cloud of cold 87Rb generates photon pairs. The cascade level scheme used ensures the generation of heralded single photons with exponentially decaying temporal envelope. The temporal shape of the heralding photons matches the shape of photons emitted by spontaneous decay but for the shorter coherence time A single 87Rb atom is trapped in an far-off-resonance optical dipole trap and can be excited with high probability using a short (~3 ns) intense pulse of resonant light, emitting a single photon by spontaneous decay. A large numerical aperture lens collects ~4% of the total fluorescence. The heralded and the triggered photons are launched into a Houng-Ou-Mandel interferometer: a symmetrical beam-splitter with outputs connected to single photon detectors. Scanning the relative delay between the two sources we observe the HOM dip with a maximum visibility of 70 +/-4%.

  20. Pick a Pair. Pancake Pairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Pat

    2005-01-01

    Cold February weather and pancakes are a traditional pairing. Pancake Day began as a way to eat up the foods that were abstained from in Lent--traditionally meat, fat, eggs and dairy products. The best-known pancake event is The Pancake Day Race in Buckinghamshire, England, which has been run since 1445. This column describes pairs of books that…

  1. Achieving nonreciprocal unidirectional single-photon quantum transport using the photonic Aharonov-Bohm effect.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Luqi; Xu, Shanshan; Fan, Shanhui

    2015-11-15

    We show that nonreciprocal unidirectional single-photon quantum transport can be achieved with the photonic Aharonov-Bohm effect. The system consists of a 1D waveguide coupling to two three-level atoms of the V-type. The two atoms, in addition, are each driven by an external coherent field. We show that the phase of the external coherent field provides a gauge potential for the photon states. With a proper choice of the phase difference between the two coherent fields, the transport of a single photon can exhibit unity contrast in its transmissions for the two propagation directions.

  2. Observation of top-quark pair production in association with a photon and measurement of the t t ¯ γ production cross section in p p collisions at √{s }=7 TeV using the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abouzeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Agustoni, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allison, L. J.; Allport, P. P.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Backus Mayes, J.; Badescu, E.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Balek, P.; Balli, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Bartsch, V.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernat, P.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao de Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, T. T.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borri, M.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boutouil, S.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brazzale, S. F.; Brelier, B.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, K.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bromberg, C.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Brown, J.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Bucci, F.; Buchholz, P.; Buckingham, R. M.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, L.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bundock, A. C.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burghgrave, B.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Busato, E.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butler, B.; Butler, J. M.; Butt, A. I.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Byszewski, M.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarda, S.; Cameron, D.; Caminada, L. M.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Cano Bret, M.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Casolino, M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castelli, A.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Catastini, P.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerio, B. C.; Cerny, K.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cerv, M.; Cervelli, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chalupkova, I.; Chang, P.; Chapleau, B.; Chapman, J. D.; Charfeddine, D.; Charlton, D. G.; Chau, C. C.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Cheatham, S.; Chegwidden, A.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chen, L.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. C.; Cheng, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Chiefari, G.; Childers, J. T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chislett, R. T.; Chitan, A.; Chizhov, M. V.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, B. K. B.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M. L.; Chudoba, J.; Chwastowski, J. J.; Chytka, L.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciocio, A.; Cirkovic, P.; Citron, Z. H.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J. C.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coffey, L.; Cogan, J. G.; Coggeshall, J.; Cole, B.; Cole, S.; Colijn, A. P.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Colon, G.; Compostella, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Conidi, M. C.; Connell, S. H.; Connelly, I. A.; Consonni, S. M.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cooper-Smith, N. J.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Côté, D.; Cottin, G.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Cree, G.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Cribbs, W. A.; Crispin Ortuzar, M.; Cristinziani, M.; Croft, V.; Crosetti, G.; Cuciuc, C.-M.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Cuthbert, C.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; Czyczula, Z.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; da Cunha Sargedas de Sousa, M. J.; da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dafinca, A.; Dai, T.; Dale, O.; Dallaire, F.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Daniells, A. C.; Dano Hoffmann, M.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darmora, S.; Dassoulas, J.; Dattagupta, A.; Davey, W.; David, C.; Davidek, T.; Davies, E.; Davies, M.; Davignon, O.; Davison, A. R.; Davison, P.; Davygora, Y.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R. K.; de, K.; de Asmundis, R.; de Castro, S.; de Cecco, S.; de Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; de la Torre, H.; de Lorenzi, F.; de Nooij, L.; de Pedis, D.; de Salvo, A.; de Sanctis, U.; de Santo, A.; de Vivie de Regie, J. B.; Dearnaley, W. J.; Debbe, R.; Debenedetti, C.; Dechenaux, B.; Dedovich, D. V.; Deigaard, I.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Deliot, F.; Delitzsch, C. M.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Dell'Orso, M.; Della Pietra, M.; Della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delsart, P. A.; Deluca, C.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demilly, A.; Denisov, S. P.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deterre, C.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dhaliwal, S.; di Ciaccio, A.; di Ciaccio, L.; di Domenico, A.; di Donato, C.; di Girolamo, A.; di Girolamo, B.; di Mattia, A.; di Micco, B.; di Nardo, R.; di Simone, A.; di Sipio, R.; di Valentino, D.; Dias, F. A.; Diaz, M. A.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Dietzsch, T. A.; Diglio, S.; Dimitrievska, A.; Dingfelder, J.; Dionisi, C.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Djuvsland, J. I.; Do Vale, M. A. B.; Do Valle Wemans, A.; Doan, T. K. O.; Dobos, D.; Doglioni, C.; Doherty, T.; Dohmae, T.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Donadelli, M.; Donati, S.; Dondero, P.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doyle, A. T.; Dris, M.; Dubbert, J.; Dube, S.; Dubreuil, E.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Ducu, O. A.; Duda, D.; Dudarev, A.; Dudziak, F.; Duflot, L.; Duguid, L.; Dührssen, M.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Düren, M.; Durglishvili, A.; Dwuznik, M.; Dyndal, M.; Ebke, J.; Edson, W.; Edwards, N. C.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Enari, Y.; Endner, O. C.; Endo, M.; Engelmann, R.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Eriksson, D.; Ernis, G.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Ernwein, J.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Esch, H.; Escobar, C.; Esposito, B.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Ezhilov, A.; Fabbri, L.; Facini, G.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Falla, R. J.; Faltova, J.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farooque, T.; Farrell, S.; Farrington, S. M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Favareto, A.; Fayard, L.; Federic, P.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, W.; Fehling-Kaschek, M.; Feigl, S.; Feligioni, L.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Feng, H.; Fenyuk, A. B.; Fernandez Perez, S.; Ferrag, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferreira de Lima, D. E.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Ferretto Parodi, A.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipčič, A.; Filipuzzi, M.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Finelli, K. D.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, A.; Fischer, J.; Fisher, W. C.; Fitzgerald, E. A.; Flechl, M.; Fleck, I.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleischmann, S.; Fletcher, G. T.; Fletcher, G.; Flick, T.; Floderus, A.; Flores Castillo, L. R.; Florez Bustos, A. C.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Fortin, D.; Fournier, D.; Fox, H.; Fracchia, S.; Francavilla, P.; Franchini, M.; Franchino, S.; Francis, D.; Franklin, M.; Franz, S.; Fraternali, M.; French, S. T.; Friedrich, C.; Friedrich, F.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J. A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fulsom, B. G.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gabrielli, A.; Gabrielli, A.; Gadatsch, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Galhardo, B.; Gallas, E. J.; Gallo, V.; Gallop, B. J.; Gallus, P.; Galster, G.; Gan, K. K.; Gandrajula, R. P.; Gao, J.; Gao, Y. S.; Garay Walls, F. M.; Garberson, F.; García, C.; García Navarro, J. E.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Gardner, R. W.; Garelli, N.; Garonne, V.; Gatti, C.; Gaudio, G.; Gaur, B.; Gauthier, L.; Gauzzi, P.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.; Gazis, E. N.; Ge, P.; Gecse, Z.; Gee, C. N. P.; Geerts, D. A. A.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch.; Gellerstedt, K.; Gemme, C.; Gemmell, A.; Genest, M. H.; Gentile, S.; George, M.; George, S.; Gerbaudo, D.; Gershon, A.; Ghazlane, H.; Ghodbane, N.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giangiobbe, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gianotti, F.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, S. M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gillam, T. P. S.; Gillberg, D.; Gilles, G.; Gingrich, D. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M. P.; Giordano, R.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giraud, P. F.; Giugni, D.; Giuliani, C.; Giulini, M.; Gjelsten, B. K.; Gkaitatzis, S.; Gkialas, I.; Gladilin, L. K.; Glasman, C.; Glatzer, J.; Glaysher, P. C. F.; Glazov, A.; Glonti, G. L.; Goblirsch-Kolb, M.; Goddard, J. R.; Godfrey, J.; Godlewski, J.; Goeringer, C.; Goldfarb, S.; Golling, T.; Golubkov, D.; Gomes, A.; Gomez Fajardo, L. S.; Gonçalo, R.; Goncalves Pinto Firmino da Costa, J.; Gonella, L.; González de La Hoz, S.; Gonzalez Parra, G.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goossens, L.; Gorbounov, P. A.; Gordon, H. A.; Gorelov, I.; Gorini, B.; Gorini, E.; Gorišek, A.; Gornicki, E.; Goshaw, A. T.; Gössling, C.; Gostkin, M. I.; Gouighri, M.; Goujdami, D.; Goulette, M. P.; Goussiou, A. G.; Goy, C.; Gozpinar, S.; Grabas, H. M. X.; Graber, L.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Grafström, P.; Grahn, K.-J.; Gramling, J.; Gramstad, E.; Grancagnolo, S.; Grassi, V.; Gratchev, V.; Gray, H. M.; Graziani, E.; Grebenyuk, O. G.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregersen, K.; Gregor, I. M.; Grenier, P.; Griffiths, J.; Grillo, A. A.; Grimm, K.; Grinstein, S.; Gris, Ph.; Grishkevich, Y. V.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grohs, J. P.; Grohsjean, A.; Gross, E.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Grossi, G. C.; Groth-Jensen, J.; Grout, Z. J.; Guan, L.; Guenther, J.; Guescini, F.; Guest, D.; Gueta, O.; Guicheney, C.; Guido, E.; Guillemin, T.; Guindon, S.; Gul, U.; Gumpert, C.; Guo, J.; Gupta, S.; Gutierrez, P.; Gutierrez Ortiz, N. G.; Gutschow, C.; Guttman, N.; Guyot, C.; Gwenlan, C.; Gwilliam, C. B.; Haas, A.; Haber, C.; Hadavand, H. K.; Haddad, N.; Haefner, P.; Hageböck, S.; Hajduk, Z.; Hakobyan, H.; Haleem, M.; Hall, D.; Halladjian, G.; Hamacher, K.; Hamal, P.; Hamano, K.; Hamer, M.; Hamilton, A.; Hamilton, S.; Hamity, G. N.; Hamnett, P. G.; Han, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Hanawa, K.; Hance, M.; Hanke, P.; Hanna, R.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, P. H.; Hara, K.; Hard, A. S.; Harenberg, T.; Hariri, F.; Harkusha, S.; Harper, D.; Harrington, R. D.; Harris, O. M.; Harrison, P. F.; Hartjes, F.; Hasegawa, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hasib, A.; Hassani, S.; Haug, S.; Hauschild, M.; Hauser, R.; Havranek, M.; Hawkes, C. M.; Hawkings, R. J.; Hawkins, A. D.; Hayashi, T.; Hayden, D.; Hays, C. P.; Hayward, H. S.; Haywood, S. J.; Head, S. J.; Heck, T.; Hedberg, V.; Heelan, L.; Heim, S.; Heim, T.; Heinemann, B.; Heinrich, L.; Hejbal, J.; Helary, L.; Heller, C.; Heller, M.; Hellman, S.; Hellmich, D.; Helsens, C.; Henderson, J.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Heng, Y.; Hengler, C.; Henrichs, A.; Henriques Correia, A. M.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hensel, C.; Herbert, G. H.; Hernández Jiménez, Y.; Herrberg-Schubert, R.; Herten, G.; Hertenberger, R.; Hervas, L.; Hesketh, G. G.; Hessey, N. P.; Hickling, R.; Higón-Rodriguez, E.; Hill, E.; Hill, J. C.; Hiller, K. H.; Hillert, S.; Hillier, S. J.; Hinchliffe, I.; Hines, E.; Hirose, M.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Hobbs, J.; Hod, N.; Hodgkinson, M. C.; Hodgson, P.; Hoecker, A.; Hoeferkamp, M. R.; Hoffman, J.; Hoffmann, D.; Hohlfeld, M.; Holmes, T. R.; Hong, T. M.; Hooft van Huysduynen, L.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Hou, S.; Hoummada, A.; Howard, J.; Howarth, J.; Hrabovsky, M.; Hristova, I.; Hrivnac, J.; Hryn'ova, T.; Hsu, C.; Hsu, P. J.; Hsu, S.-C.; Hu, D.; Hu, X.; Huang, Y.; Hubacek, Z.; Hubaut, F.; Huegging, F.; Huffman, T. B.; Hughes, E. W.; Hughes, G.; Huhtinen, M.; Hülsing, T. A.; Hurwitz, M.; Huseynov, N.; Huston, J.; Huth, J.; Iacobucci, G.; Iakovidis, G.; Ibragimov, I.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Ideal, E.; Iengo, P.; Igonkina, O.; Iizawa, T.; Ikegami, Y.; Ikematsu, K.; Ikeno, M.; Ilchenko, Y.; Iliadis, D.; Ilic, N.; Inamaru, Y.; Ince, T.; Ioannou, P.; Iodice, M.; Iordanidou, K.; Ippolito, V.; Irles Quiles, A.; Isaksson, C.; Ishino, M.; Ishitsuka, M.; Ishmukhametov, R.; Issever, C.; Istin, S.; Iturbe Ponce, J. M.; Iuppa, R.; Ivarsson, J.; Iwanski, W.; Iwasaki, H.; Izen, J. 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A.; Scarcella, M.; Scarfone, V.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schaefer, D.; Schaefer, R.; Schaepe, S.; Schaetzel, S.; Schäfer, U.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Scherzer, M. I.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schillo, C.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schmidt, E.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, B.; Schnellbach, Y. J.; Schnoor, U.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoening, A.; Schoenrock, B. D.; Schorlemmer, A. L. S.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schramm, S.; Schreyer, M.; Schroeder, C.; Schuh, N.; Schultens, M. J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schulz, H.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwegler, Ph.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwindling, J.; Schwindt, T.; Schwoerer, M.; Sciacca, F. G.; Scifo, E.; Sciolla, G.; Scott, W. G.; Scuri, F.; Scutti, F.; Searcy, J.; Sedov, G.; Sedykh, E.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Sekula, S. J.; Selbach, K. E.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Sellers, G.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Serkin, L.; Serre, T.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sfiligoj, T.; Sforza, F.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L. Y.; Shang, R.; Shank, J. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaw, K.; Shehu, C. Y.; Sherwood, P.; Shi, L.; Shimizu, S.; Shimmin, C. O.; Shimojima, M.; Shiyakova, M.; Shmeleva, A.; Shochet, M. J.; Short, D.; Shrestha, S.; Shulga, E.; Shupe, M. A.; Shushkevich, S.; Sicho, P.; Sidiropoulou, O.; Sidorov, D.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simioni, E.; Simmons, B.; Simoniello, R.; Simonyan, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sircar, A.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skovpen, K. Yu.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smestad, L.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, K. M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snidero, G.; Snyder, S.; Sobie, R.; Socher, F.; Soffer, A.; Soh, D. A.; Solans, C. A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Soldatov, E. Yu.; Soldevila, U.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Solodkov, A. A.; Soloshenko, A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Solovyev, V.; Sommer, P.; Song, H. Y.; Soni, N.; Sood, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sopko, B.; Sopko, V.; Sorin, V.; Sosebee, M.; Soualah, R.; Soueid, P.; Soukharev, A. M.; South, D.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanò, F.; Spearman, W. R.; Spettel, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spiller, L. A.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Spurlock, B.; St. Denis, R. D.; Staerz, S.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staszewski, R.; Stavina, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stern, S.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoicea, G.; Stolte, P.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Subramaniam, R.; Succurro, A.; Sugaya, Y.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, S.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, Y.; Svatos, M.; Swedish, S.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Taccini, C.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tam, J. Y. C.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tanasijczuk, A. J.; Tannenwald, B. B.; Tannoury, N.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, W.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Teoh, J. J.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Therhaag, J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, R. J.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thong, W. M.; Thun, R. P.; Tian, F.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tiouchichine, E.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Topilin, N. D.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Tran, H. L.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; True, P.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turra, R.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ughetto, M.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urbaniec, D.; Urquijo, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; van den Wollenberg, W.; van der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Leeuw, R.; van der Ster, D.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vannucci, F.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veloso, F.; Velz, T.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigne, R.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Virzi, J.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, A.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Waller, P.; Walsh, B.; Wang, C.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Warsinsky, M.; Washbrook, A.; Wasicki, C.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weigell, P.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wendland, D.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wijeratne, P. A.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M. A.; Wilkens, H. G.; Will, J. Z.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, A.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittig, T.; Wittkowski, J.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wright, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wulf, E.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xiao, M.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y.; Yanush, S.; Yao, L.; Yao, W.-M.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.; Atlas Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    A search is performed for top-quark pairs (t t ¯) produced together with a photon (γ ) with transverse energy greater than 20 GeV using a sample of t t ¯ candidate events in final states with jets, missing transverse momentum, and one isolated electron or muon. The data set used corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 4.59 fb-1 of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV recorded by the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. In total, 140 and 222 t t ¯γ candidate events are observed in the electron and muon channels, to be compared to the expectation of 79 ±26 and 120 ±39 non-t t ¯γ background events, respectively. The production of t t ¯γ events is observed with a significance of 5.3 standard deviations away from the null hypothesis. The t t ¯γ production cross section times the branching ratio (BR) of the single-lepton decay channel is measured in a fiducial kinematic region within the ATLAS acceptance. The measured value is σtt ¯ γ fid×BR =63 ±8 (stat)-13+17(syst)±1 (lumi) fb per lepton flavor, in good agreement with the leading-order theoretical calculation normalized to the next-to-leading-order theoretical prediction of 48 ±10 fb .

  3. Direct electron pair production in. pi. /sup -/p interactions at 16 GeV/c and a model for direct lepton and photon production at low P/sub T/

    SciTech Connect

    Blockus, D.; Dunwoodie, W.; Leith, D.W.G.S.

    1981-07-01

    The production of prompt electron-positron pairs in 16 GeV/c ..pi../sup -/p collisions has been measured using the LASS spectrometer at SLAC. An excess of events is observed above the estimated contributions of direct and Dalitz decay of known resonances in the kinematic range defined by 0.1 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 0.45, 0 less than or equal to P/sub T/ less than or equal to 0.8 GeV/c and 0.2 less than or equal to M(e/sup +/e/sup -/) less than or equal to 0.7 GeV/c/sup 2/. The excess signal decreases slowly with increasing M, but exhibits very steep x and P/sub T//sup 2/ dependence. The contribution of this signal to the e/sup +/e/sup -//..pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/ and ..gamma../..pi.. ratios is discussed. Detailed comparisons are made between e/sup +/e/sup -/ distributions and the corresponding low mass ..mu../sup +/..mu../sup -/ distributions, and a simple production mechanism is proposed which describes the 16 GeV/c data well. The implications for direct photon production are presented, and it is shown that the model provides simultaneously a good description of the experimental data on the (e/..pi..) and (..mu../..pi..) ratios for p/sub T/ < 1 GeV/c.

  4. High energy photon-photon collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.; Zerwas, P.M.

    1994-07-01

    The collisions of high energy photons produced at a electron-positron collider provide a comprehensive laboratory for testing QCD, electroweak interactions and extensions of the standard model. The luminosity and energy of the colliding photons produced by back-scattering laser beams is expected to be comparable to that of the primary e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collisions. In this overview, we shall focus on tests of electroweak theory in photon-photon annihilation, particularly {gamma}{gamma} {yields} W{sup +}W{sup {minus}}, {gamma}{gamma} {yields} Higgs bosons, and higher-order loop processes, such as {gamma}{gamma} {yields} {gamma}{gamma}, Z{gamma} and ZZ. Since each photon can be resolved into a W{sup +}W{sup minus} pair, high energy photon-photon collisions can also provide a remarkably background-free laboratory for studying WW collisions and annihilation. We also review high energy {gamma}{gamma} tests of quantum chromodynamics, such as the scaling of the photon structure function, t{bar t} production, mini-jet processes, and diffractive reactions.

  5. Photon-photon collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, D.L.

    1982-10-01

    Studies of photon-photon collisions are reviewed with particular emphasis on new results reported to this conference. These include results on light meson spectroscopy and deep inelastic e..gamma.. scattering. Considerable work has now been accumulated on resonance production by ..gamma gamma.. collisions. Preliminary high statistics studies of the photon structure function F/sub 2//sup ..gamma../(x,Q/sup 2/) are given and comments are made on the problems that remain to be solved.

  6. Imaging and tuning of coupled photonic crystal cavities (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurioli, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    Photonic microcavities (PMC) coupled through their evanescent field are used for a large variety of classical and quantum devices. In such systems, a molecular-like spatial delocalization of the coupled modes is achieved by an evanescent tunnelling. The tunnelling rate depends on the height and depth of the photonic barrier between two adjacent resonators and therefore it is sensitive to the fabrication-induced disorder present in the center of the molecule. In this contribution, we address the problem of developing a post fabrication control of the tunnelling rate in photonic crystal coupled PMCs. The value of the photonic coupling (proportional to the tunnelling rate) is directly measured by the molecular mode splitting at the anticrossing point. By exploiting a combination of tuning techniques such as local infiltration of water, micro-evaporation, and laser induced non thermal micro-oxidation, we are able to either increase or decrease the detuning and the photonic coupling, independently. Near field imaging is also used for mapping the modes and establish delocalization. By water micro-infiltration, we were able to increase the photon coupling by 28%. On the contrary, by laser induced non thermal oxidation, we got a reduction of g by 30%. The combination of the two methods would therefore give a complete control of g with excellent accuracy. This could make possible the realization of array of photonic cavities with on demand tunnelling rate between each pair of coupled resonators. We believe that this peculiar engineering of photonic crystal molecules would open the road to possible progress in the exploitation of coherent interference between coupled optical resonators both for quantum information processing and optical communication.

  7. All-electrical coherent control of the exciton states in a single quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer de La Giroday, A.; Bennett, A. J.; Pooley, M. A.; Stevenson, R. M.; Sköld, N.; Patel, R. B.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A.; Shields, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    We demonstrate high-fidelity reversible transfer of quantum information from the polarization of photons into the spin state of an electron-hole pair in a semiconductor quantum dot. Moreover, spins are electrically manipulated on a subnanosecond time scale, allowing us to coherently control their evolution. By varying the area of the electrical pulse, we demonstrate phase-shift and spin-flip gate operations with near-unity fidelities. Our system constitutes a controllable quantum interface between flying and stationary qubits, an enabling technology for quantum logic in the solid state.

  8. Coherence Phenomena in Coupled Optical Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. D.; Chang, H.

    2004-01-01

    We predict a variety of photonic coherence phenomena in passive and active coupled ring resonators. Specifically, the effective dispersive and absorptive steady-state response of coupled resonators is derived, and used to determine the conditions for coupled-resonator-induced transparency and absorption, lasing without gain, and cooperative cavity emission. These effects rely on coherent photon trapping, in direct analogy with coherent population trapping phenomena in atomic systems. We also demonstrate that the coupled-mode equations are formally identical to the two-level atom Schrodinger equation in the rotating-wave approximation, and use this result for the analysis of coupled-resonator photon dynamics. Notably, because these effects are predicted directly from coupled-mode theory, they are not unique to atoms, but rather are fundamental to systems of coherently coupled resonators.

  9. Photons, photon jets, and dark photons at 750 GeV and beyond.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Basudeb; Kopp, Joachim; Schwaller, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    In new physics searches involving photons at the LHC, one challenge is to distinguish scenarios with isolated photons from models leading to "photon jets". For instance, in the context of the 750 GeV diphoton excess, it was pointed out that a true diphoton resonance [Formula: see text] can be mimicked by a process of the form [Formula: see text], where S is a new scalar with a mass of 750 GeV and a is a light pseudoscalar decaying to two collinear photons. Photon jets can be distinguished from isolated photons by exploiting the fact that a large fraction of photons convert to an [Formula: see text] pair inside the inner detector. In this note, we quantify this discrimination power, and we study how the sensitivity of future searches differs for photon jets compared to isolated photons. We also investigate how our results depend on the lifetime of the particle(s) decaying to the photon jet. Finally, we discuss the extension to [Formula: see text], where there are no photons at all but the dark photon [Formula: see text] decays to [Formula: see text] pairs. Our results will be useful in future studies of the putative 750 GeV signal, but also more generally in any new physics search involving hard photons.

  10. Photons, photon jets, and dark photons at 750 GeV and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Basudeb; Kopp, Joachim; Schwaller, Pedro

    2016-05-01

    In new physics searches involving photons at the LHC, one challenge is to distinguish scenarios with isolated photons from models leading to "photon jets". For instance, in the context of the 750 GeV diphoton excess, it was pointed out that a true diphoton resonance S → γ γ can be mimicked by a process of the form p p → S → a a → 4γ , where S is a new scalar with a mass of 750 GeV and a is a light pseudoscalar decaying to two collinear photons. Photon jets can be distinguished from isolated photons by exploiting the fact that a large fraction of photons convert to an e^+e^- pair inside the inner detector. In this note, we quantify this discrimination power, and we study how the sensitivity of future searches differs for photon jets compared to isolated photons. We also investigate how our results depend on the lifetime of the particle(s) decaying to the photon jet. Finally, we discuss the extension to S→ A^' A^' → e^+e^-e^+e^-, where there are no photons at all but the dark photon A^' decays to e^+e^- pairs. Our results will be useful in future studies of the putative 750 GeV signal, but also more generally in any new physics search involving hard photons.

  11. Ultrafast pulse-pair control in multiphoton fluorescence laser-scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    De, Arijit Kumar; Goswami, Debabrata

    2009-01-01

    In multiphoton fluorescence laser-scanning microscopy, ultrafast laser pulses [i.e., light pulses having pulse width photon absorption spectra of fluorophores and the large spectral bandwidth of a short pulse, simultaneous excitation of many fluorophores is common, which justifies a persistent demand for selective excitation of individual fluorophores. We describe the use of pulse-pair excitation with possibilities of controlling molecular fluorescence in laser-scanning microscopy and compare it with coherent control using pulse sequence [De and Goswami, "Coherent control in multiphoton fluorescence imaging," Proc. SPIE 7183, 71832B (2009)].

  12. Happy centenary, photon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeilinger, Anton; Weihs, Gregor; Jennewein, Thomas; Aspelmeyer, Markus

    2005-01-01

    One hundred years ago Albert Einstein introduced the concept of the photon. Although in the early years after 1905 the evidence for the quantum nature of light was not compelling, modern experiments - especially those using photon pairs - have beautifully confirmed its corpuscular character. Research on the quantum properties of light (quantum optics) triggered the evolution of the whole field of quantum information processing, which now promises new technology, such as quantum cryptography and even quantum computers.

  13. Superconductivity: The persistence of pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Edelman, Alex; Littlewood, Peter

    2015-05-20

    Superconductivity stems from a weak attraction between electrons that causes them to form bound pairs and behave much like bosons. These so-called Cooper pairs are phase coherent, which leads to the astonishing properties of zero electrical resistance and magnetic flux expulsion typical of superconducting materials. This coherent state may be qualitatively understood within the Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) model, which predicts that a gas of interacting bosons will become unstable below a critical temperature and condense into a phase of matter with a macroscopic, coherent population in the lowest energy state, as happens in 4He or cold atomic gases. The successful theory proposed by Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer (BCS) predicts that at the superconducting transition temperature Tc, electrons simultaneously form pairs and condense, with no sign of pairing above Tc. Theorists have long surmised that the BCS and BEC models are opposite limits of a single theory and that strong interactions or low density can, in principle, drive the system to a paired state at a temperature Tpair higher than Tc, making the transition to the superconducting state BEC-like (Fig. 1). Yet most superconductors to date are reasonably well described by BCS theory or its extensions, and there has been scant evidence in electronic materials for the existence of pairing independent of the full superconducting state (though an active debate rages over the cuprate superconductors). Writing in Nature, Jeremy Levy and colleagues have now used ingenious nanostructured devices to provide evidence for electron pairing1. Perhaps surprisingly, the material they have studied is a venerable, yet enigmatic, low-temperature superconductor, SrTiO3.

  14. Photon-photon collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1988-07-01

    Highlights of the VIIIth International Workshop on Photon-Photon Collisions are reviewed. New experimental and theoretical results were reported in virtually every area of ..gamma gamma.. physics, particularly in exotic resonance production and tests of quantum chromodynamics where asymptotic freedom and factorization theorems provide predictions for both inclusive and exclusive ..gamma gamma.. reactions at high momentum transfer. 73 refs., 12 figs.

  15. Electromagnetic theory of optical coherence [Invited].

    PubMed

    Friberg, Ari T; Setälä, Tero

    2016-12-01

    The coherence theory of random, vector-valued optical fields has been of great research interest in recent years. In this work we formulate the foundations of electromagnetic coherence theory both in the space-time and space-frequency domains, with particular emphasis on various types of optical interferometry. Analyzing statistically stationary, two-component (paraxial) electric fields in the classical and quantum-optical contexts we show fundamental connections between the conventional (polarization) Stokes parameters and the associated two-point (coherence) Stokes parameters. Measurement of the coherence and polarization properties of random vector beams by nanoparticle scattering and two-photon absorption is also addressed.

  16. Robust Photon Locking

    SciTech Connect

    Bayer, T.; Wollenhaupt, M.; Sarpe-Tudoran, C.; Baumert, T.

    2009-01-16

    We experimentally demonstrate a strong-field coherent control mechanism that combines the advantages of photon locking (PL) and rapid adiabatic passage (RAP). Unlike earlier implementations of PL and RAP by pulse sequences or chirped pulses, we use shaped pulses generated by phase modulation of the spectrum of a femtosecond laser pulse with a generalized phase discontinuity. The novel control scenario is characterized by a high degree of robustness achieved via adiabatic preparation of a state of maximum coherence. Subsequent phase control allows for efficient switching among different target states. We investigate both properties by photoelectron spectroscopy on potassium atoms interacting with the intense shaped light field.

  17. Single-pulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy via fiber Bragg grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Seung Ryeol; Park, Joo Hyun; Kwon, Won Sik; Kim, Jin Hwan; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Jae Yong; Kim, Soohyun

    2016-03-01

    Fiber Bragg grating is used in a variety of applications. In this study, we suggest compact, cost-effective coherent anti- Stokes Raman spectroscopy which is based on the pulse shaping methods via commercialized fiber Bragg grating. The experiment is performed incorporating a commercialized femtosecond pulse laser system (MICRA, Coherent) with a 100 mm length of 780-HP fiber which is inscribed 50 mm of Bragg grating. The pump laser for coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy has a bandwidth of 90 nm and central wavelength of 815 nm with a notch shaped at 785 nm. The positive chirped pulse is compensated by chirped mirror set. We compensate almost 14000 fs2 of positive group delay dispersion for the transform-limited pulse at the sample position. The pulse duration was 15 fs with average power of 50 mW, and showed an adequate notch shape. Finally, coherent anti-Stokes Raman signals are observed using a spectrometer (Jobin Yvon Triax320 and TE-cooled Andor Newton EMCCD). We obtained coherent anti-Stokes Raman signal of acetone sample which have Raman peak at the spectral finger-print region. In conclusion, the proposed method is more simple and cost-effective than the methods of previous research which use grating pairs and resonant photonic crystal slab. Furthermore, the proposed method can be used as endoscope application.

  18. The photon PDF of the proton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A. D.; Ryskin, M. G.

    2014-09-01

    We show how the photon input parton distribution function (PDF) may be calculated with good accuracy and used in an extended DGLAP global parton analysis in which the photon is treated as an additional point-like parton. The uncertainty of the input photon PDF is relatively small, since the major part of the distribution (which is produced by the coherent emission of the photon from a proton that remains intact) is well known. We present the expected photon PDFs and compare the predictions with ZEUS data for isolated photon electroproduction at negative rapidities.

  19. The quantum coherent mechanism for singlet fission: experiment and theory.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wai-Lun; Berkelbach, Timothy C; Provorse, Makenzie R; Monahan, Nicholas R; Tritsch, John R; Hybertsen, Mark S; Reichman, David R; Gao, Jiali; Zhu, X-Y

    2013-06-18

    The absorption of one photon by a semiconductor material usually creates one electron-hole pair. However, this general rule breaks down in a few organic semiconductors, such as pentacene and tetracene, where one photon absorption may result in two electron-hole pairs. This process, where a singlet exciton transforms to two triplet excitons, can have quantum yields as high as 200%. Singlet fission may be useful to solar cell technologies to increase the power conversion efficiency beyond the so-called Shockley-Queisser limit. Through time-resolved two-photon photoemission (TR-2PPE) spectroscopy in crystalline pentacene and tetracene, our lab has recently provided the first spectroscopic signatures in singlet fission of a critical intermediate known as the multiexciton state (also called a correlated triplet pair). More importantly, we found that population of the multiexciton state rises at the same time as the singlet state on the ultrafast time scale upon photoexcitation. This observation does not fit with the traditional view of singlet fission involving the incoherent conversion of a singlet to a triplet pair. However, it provides an experimental foundation for a quantum coherent mechanism in which the electronic coupling creates a quantum superposition of the singlet and the multiexciton state immediately after optical excitation. In this Account, we review key experimental findings from TR-2PPE experiments and present a theoretical analysis of the quantum coherent mechanism based on electronic structural and density matrix calculations for crystalline tetracene lattices. Using multistate density functional theory, we find that the direct electronic coupling between singlet and multiexciton states is too weak to explain the experimental observation. Instead, indirect coupling via charge transfer intermediate states is two orders of magnitude stronger, and dominates the dynamics for ultrafast multiexciton formation. Density matrix calculation for the crystalline

  20. Improved photon counting efficiency calibration using superconducting single photon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Haiyong; Xu, Nan; Li, Jianwei; Sun, Ruoduan; Feng, Guojin; Wang, Yanfei; Ma, Chong; Lin, Yandong; Zhang, Labao; Kang, Lin; Chen, Jian; Wu, Peiheng

    2015-10-01

    The quantum efficiency of photon counters can be measured with standard uncertainty below 1% level using correlated photon pairs generated through spontaneous parametric down-conversion process. Normally a laser in UV, blue or green wavelength range with sufficient photon energy is applied to produce energy and momentum conserved photon pairs in two channels with desired wavelengths for calibration. One channel is used as the heralding trigger, and the other is used for the calibration of the detector under test. A superconducting nanowire single photon detector with advantages such as high photon counting speed (<20 MHz), low dark count rate (<50 counts per second), and wideband responsivity (UV to near infrared) is used as the trigger detector, enabling correlated photons calibration capabilities into shortwave visible range. For a 355nm single longitudinal mode pump laser, when a superconducting nanowire single photon detector is used as the trigger detector at 1064nm and 1560nm in the near infrared range, the photon counting efficiency calibration capabilities can be realized at 532nm and 460nm. The quantum efficiency measurement on photon counters such as photomultiplier tubes and avalanche photodiodes can be then further extended in a wide wavelength range (e.g. 400-1000nm) using a flat spectral photon flux source to meet the calibration demands in cutting edge low light applications such as time resolved fluorescence and nonlinear optical spectroscopy, super resolution microscopy, deep space observation, and so on.

  1. Microresonator and associated method for producing and controlling photonic signals with a photonic bandgap delay apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fork, Richard Lynn (Inventor); Jones, Darryl Keith (Inventor); Keys, Andrew Scott (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    By applying a photonic signal to a microresonator that includes a photonic bandgap delay apparatus having a photonic band edge transmission resonance at the frequency of the photonic signal, the microresonator imparts a predetermined delay to the photonic signal. The photonic bandgap delay apparatus also preferably has a photonic band edge transmission resonance bandwidth which is at least as wide as the bandwidth of the photonic signal such that a uniform delay is imparted over the entire bandwidth of the photonic signal. The microresonator also includes a microresonator cavity, typically defined by a pair of switchable mirrors, within which the photonic bandgap delay apparatus is disposed. By requiring the photonic signal to oscillate within the microresonator cavity so as to pass through the photonic bandgap delay apparatus several times, the microresonator can controllably impart an adjustable delay to the photonic signal.

  2. Coherent rho 0 photoproduction in bulk matter at high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Couderc, Elsa; Klein, Spencer

    2009-01-09

    The momentum transfer {Delta}k required for a photon to scatter from a target and emerge as a {rho}{sup 0} decreases as the photon energy k rises. For k > 3 x 10{sup 14} eV, {Delta}k is small enough that the interaction cannot be localized to a single nucleus. At still higher energies, photons may coherently scatter elastically from bulk matter and emerge as a {rho}{sup 0}, in a manner akin to kaon regeneration. Constructive interference from the different nuclei coherently raises the cross section and the interaction probability rises linearly with energy. At energies above 10{sup 23} eV, coherent conversion is the dominant process; photons interact predominantly as {rho}{sup 0}. We compute the coherent scattering probabilities in slabs of lead, water and rock, and discuss the implications of the increased hadronic interaction probabilities for photons on ultra-high energy shower development.

  3. Intermolecular electron transfer from intramolecular excitation and coherent acoustic phonon generation in a hydrogen-bonded charge-transfer solid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rury, Aaron S.; Sorenson, Shayne; Dawlaty, Jahan M.

    2016-03-01

    Organic materials that produce coherent lattice phonon excitations in response to external stimuli may provide next generation solutions in a wide range of applications. However, for these materials to lead to functional devices in technology, a full understanding of the possible driving forces of coherent lattice phonon generation must be attained. To facilitate the achievement of this goal, we have undertaken an optical spectroscopic study of an organic charge-transfer material formed from the ubiquitous reduction-oxidation pair hydroquinone and p-benzoquinone. Upon pumping this material, known as quinhydrone, on its intermolecular charge transfer resonance as well as an intramolecular resonance of p-benzoquinone, we find sub-cm-1 oscillations whose dispersion with probe energy resembles that of a coherent acoustic phonon that we argue is coherently excited following changes in the electron density of quinhydrone. Using the dynamical information from these ultrafast pump-probe measurements, we find that the fastest process we can resolve does not change whether we pump quinhydrone at either energy. Electron-phonon coupling from both ultrafast coherent vibrational and steady-state resonance Raman spectroscopies allows us to determine that intramolecular electronic excitation of p-benzoquinone also drives the electron transfer process in quinhydrone. These results demonstrate the wide range of electronic excitations of the parent of molecules found in many functional organic materials that can drive coherent lattice phonon excitations useful for applications in electronics, photonics, and information technology.

  4. XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 8 XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database (Web, free access)   A web database is provided which can be used to calculate photon cross sections for scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair production, as well as total attenuation coefficients, for any element, compound or mixture (Z <= 100) at energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV.

  5. Molecularly sensitive optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Bredfeldt, Jeremy S; Vinegoni, Claudio; Marks, Daniel L; Boppart, Stephen A

    2005-03-01

    Molecular contrast in optical coherence tomography (OCT) is demonstrated by use of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) for molecular sensitivity. Femtosecond laser pulses are focused into a sample by use of a low-numerical-aperture lens to generate CARS photons, and the backreflected CARS signal is interferometrically measured. With the chemical selectivity provided by CARS and the advanced imaging capabilities of OCT, this technique may be useful for molecular contrast imaging in biological tissues. CARS can be generated and interferometrically measured over at least 600 microm of the depth of field of a low-numerical-aperture objective.

  6. Coherent perfect absorption in one-sided reflectionless media

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jin-Hui; Artoni, M.; La Rocca, G. C.

    2016-01-01

    In optical experiments one-sided reflectionless (ORL) and coherent perfect absorption (CPA) are unusual scattering properties yet fascinating for their fundamental aspects and for their practical interest. Although these two concepts have so far remained separated from each other, we prove that the two phenomena are indeed strictly connected. We show that a CPA–ORL connection exists between pairs of points lying along lines close to each other in the 3D space-parameters of a realistic lossy atomic photonic crystal. The connection is expected to be a generic feature of wave scattering in non-Hermitian optical media encompassing, as a particular case, wave scattering in parity-time (PT) symmetric media. PMID:27759020

  7. Single-photon quadratic optomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Jie-Qiao; Nori, Franco

    2014-01-01

    We present exact analytical solutions to study the coherent interaction between a single photon and the mechanical motion of a membrane in quadratic optomechanics. We consider single-photon emission and scattering when the photon is initially inside the cavity and in the fields outside the cavity, respectively. Using our solutions, we calculate the single-photon emission and scattering spectra, and find relations between the spectral features and the system's inherent parameters, such as: the optomechanical coupling strength, the mechanical frequency, and the cavity-field decay rate. In particular, we clarify the conditions for the phonon sidebands to be visible. We also study the photon-phonon entanglement for the long-time emission and scattering states. The linear entropy is employed to characterize this entanglement by treating it as a bipartite one between a single mode of phonons and a single photon. PMID:25200128

  8. Interacting Photons in Waveguide-QED and Applications in Quantum Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Huaixiu

    photon blockade, photon-induced tunneling, and creation of single-photon states and photon pairs with a high degree of spectral entanglement, all in the absence of a cavity. However, to enable greater quantum networking potential using waveguide- QED, it is important to study systems having more than just one TLS/qubit. We develop a numerical Green function method to study cooperative effects in a system of two qubits coupled to a 1D waveguide. Quantum beats emerge in photon-photon correlations, and persist to much longer time scales because of non-Markovian processes. In addition, this system can be used to generate a high-degree of long-distance entanglement when one of the two qubits is driven by an on-resonance laser, further paving the way toward waveguide-QED-based quantum networks. Furthermore, based on our study of light-matter interactions in waveguide- QED, we investigate its implications in quantum information processing. First, we study quantum key distribution using the sub-Possonian single photon source obtained by scattering a coherent state off a two-level system. The rate for key generation is found to be twice as large as for other sources. Second, we propose a new scheme for scalable quantum computation using flying qubits---propagating photons in a one-dimensional waveguide---interacting with matter qubits. Photon-photon interactions are mediated by the coupling to a three- or four-level system, based on which photon-photon pi-phase gates (Controlled-NOT) can be implemented for universal quantum computation. We show that high gate fidelity is possible given recent dramatic experimental progress in superconducting circuits and photonic-crystal waveguides. The proposed system can be an important building block for future on-chip quantum networks.

  9. Phase-locked indistinguishable photons with synthesized waveforms from a solid-state source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthiesen, Clemens; Geller, Martin; Schulte, Carsten H. H.; Le Gall, Claire; Hansom, Jack; Li, Zhengyong; Hugues, Maxime; Clarke, Edmund; Atatüre, Mete

    2013-03-01

    Resonance fluorescence in the Heitler regime provides access to single photons with coherence well beyond the Fourier transform limit of the transition, and holds the promise to circumvent environment-induced dephasing common to all solid-state systems. Here we demonstrate that the coherently generated single photons from a single self-assembled InAs quantum dot display mutual coherence with the excitation laser on a timescale exceeding 3 s. Exploiting this degree of mutual coherence, we synthesize near-arbitrary coherent photon waveforms by shaping the excitation laser field. In contrast to post-emission filtering, our technique avoids both photon loss and degradation of the single-photon nature for all synthesized waveforms. By engineering pulsed waveforms of single photons, we further demonstrate that separate photons generated coherently by the same laser field are fundamentally indistinguishable, lending themselves to the creation of distant entanglement through quantum interference.

  10. Photon beam position monitor

    DOEpatents

    Kuzay, T.M.; Shu, D.

    1995-02-07

    A photon beam position monitor is disclosed for use in the front end of a beamline of a high heat flux and high energy photon source such as a synchrotron radiation storage ring detects and measures the position and, when a pair of such monitors are used in tandem, the slope of a photon beam emanating from an insertion device such as a wiggler or an undulator inserted in the straight sections of the ring. The photon beam position monitor includes a plurality of spaced blades for precisely locating the photon beam, with each blade comprised of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond with an outer metal coating of a photon sensitive metal such as tungsten, molybdenum, etc., which combination emits electrons when a high energy photon beam is incident upon the blade. Two such monitors are contemplated for use in the front end of the beamline, with the two monitors having vertically and horizontally offset detector blades to avoid blade ''shadowing''. Provision is made for aligning the detector blades with the photon beam and limiting detector blade temperature during operation. 18 figs.

  11. Photon beam position monitor

    DOEpatents

    Kuzay, Tuncer M.; Shu, Deming

    1995-01-01

    A photon beam position monitor for use in the front end of a beamline of a high heat flux and high energy photon source such as a synchrotron radiation storage ring detects and measures the position and, when a pair of such monitors are used in tandem, the slope of a photon beam emanating from an insertion device such as a wiggler or an undulator inserted in the straight sections of the ring. The photon beam position monitor includes a plurality of spaced blades for precisely locating the photon beam, with each blade comprised of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond with an outer metal coating of a photon sensitive metal such as tungsten, molybdenum, etc., which combination emits electrons when a high energy photon beam is incident upon the blade. Two such monitors are contemplated for use in the front end of the beamline, with the two monitors having vertically and horizontally offset detector blades to avoid blade "shadowing". Provision is made for aligning the detector blades with the photon beam and limiting detector blade temperature during operation.

  12. Photoproduction of lepton pairs in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and LHC energies

    SciTech Connect

    Moreira, B. D.; Goncalves, V. P.; De Santana Amaral, J. T.

    2013-03-25

    In this contribution we study coherent interactions as a probe of the nonlinear effects in the Quantum Electrodynamics (QED). In particular, we study the multiphoton effects in the production of leptons pairs for proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions for heavy nuclei. In the proton-nucleus we assume the ultrarelativistic proton as a source of photons and estimate the photoproduction of lepton pairs on nuclei at RHIC and LHC energies considering the multiphoton effects associated to multiple rescattering of the projectile photon on the proton of the nucleus. In nucleus - nucleus colllisions we consider the two nuclei as a source of photons. As each scattering contributes with a factor {alpha}Z to the cross section, this contribution must be taken into account for heavy nuclei. We consider the Coulomb corrections to calculate themultiple scatterings and estimate the total cross section for muon and tau pair production in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and LHC energies.

  13. New effects in Young's interference experiment with partially coherent light.

    PubMed

    Schouten, Hugo F; Visser, Taco D; Wolf, Emil

    2003-07-15

    We analyze the coherence properties of a partially coherent optical field emerging from two pinholes in a plane opaque screen. We show that at certain pairs of points in the region of superposition the light is fully coherent, regardless of the state of coherence of the light at the pinholes. In particular, this result also holds if each pinhole is illuminated by a different laser.

  14. Source of coherent short wavelength radiation

    DOEpatents

    Villa, Francesco

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus for producing coherent radiation ranging from X-rays to the far ultraviolet (i.e., 1 Kev to 10 eV) utilizing the Compton scattering effect. A photon beam from a laser is scattered on a high energy electron bunch from a pulse power linac. The short wavelength radiation produced by such scattering has sufficient intensity and spatial coherence for use in high resolution applications such as microscopy.

  15. Photonic Crystal Microchip Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gailevicius, Darius; Koliadenko, Volodymyr; Purlys, Vytautas; Peckus, Martynas; Taranenko, Victor; Staliunas, Kestutis

    2016-09-01

    The microchip lasers, being very compact and efficient sources of coherent light, suffer from one serious drawback: low spatial quality of the beam strongly reducing the brightness of emitted radiation. Attempts to improve the beam quality, such as pump-beam guiding, external feedback, either strongly reduce the emission power, or drastically increase the size and complexity of the lasers. Here it is proposed that specially designed photonic crystal in the cavity of a microchip laser, can significantly improve the beam quality. Experiments show that a microchip laser, due to spatial filtering functionality of intracavity photonic crystal, improves the beam quality factor M2 reducing it by a factor of 2, and increase the brightness of radiation by a factor of 3. This comprises a new kind of laser, the “photonic crystal microchip laser”, a very compact and efficient light source emitting high spatial quality high brightness radiation.

  16. Photonic Crystal Microchip Laser.

    PubMed

    Gailevicius, Darius; Koliadenko, Volodymyr; Purlys, Vytautas; Peckus, Martynas; Taranenko, Victor; Staliunas, Kestutis

    2016-09-29

    The microchip lasers, being very compact and efficient sources of coherent light, suffer from one serious drawback: low spatial quality of the beam strongly reducing the brightness of emitted radiation. Attempts to improve the beam quality, such as pump-beam guiding, external feedback, either strongly reduce the emission power, or drastically increase the size and complexity of the lasers. Here it is proposed that specially designed photonic crystal in the cavity of a microchip laser, can significantly improve the beam quality. Experiments show that a microchip laser, due to spatial filtering functionality of intracavity photonic crystal, improves the beam quality factor M(2) reducing it by a factor of 2, and increase the brightness of radiation by a factor of 3. This comprises a new kind of laser, the "photonic crystal microchip laser", a very compact and efficient light source emitting high spatial quality high brightness radiation.

  17. Photonic Crystal Microchip Laser

    PubMed Central

    Gailevicius, Darius; Koliadenko, Volodymyr; Purlys, Vytautas; Peckus, Martynas; Taranenko, Victor; Staliunas, Kestutis

    2016-01-01

    The microchip lasers, being very compact and efficient sources of coherent light, suffer from one serious drawback: low spatial quality of the beam strongly reducing the brightness of emitted radiation. Attempts to improve the beam quality, such as pump-beam guiding, external feedback, either strongly reduce the emission power, or drastically increase the size and complexity of the lasers. Here it is proposed that specially designed photonic crystal in the cavity of a microchip laser, can significantly improve the beam quality. Experiments show that a microchip laser, due to spatial filtering functionality of intracavity photonic crystal, improves the beam quality factor M2 reducing it by a factor of 2, and increase the brightness of radiation by a factor of 3. This comprises a new kind of laser, the “photonic crystal microchip laser”, a very compact and efficient light source emitting high spatial quality high brightness radiation. PMID:27683066

  18. Odd numbers of photons and teleportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enk, S. J.

    2003-02-01

    Several teleportation protocols, namely those using entangled coherent states, entangled squeezed states, and the single-photon Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen state, are all shown to be particular instances of a more general scheme that relies on the detection of an odd number of photons.

  19. Coherence, Pseudo-Coherence, and Non-Coherence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enkvist, Nils Erik

    Analysis of the factors that make a text coherent or non-coherent suggests that total coherence requires cohesion not only on the textual surface but on the semantic level as well. Syntactic evidence of non-coherence includes lack of formal agreement blocking a potential cross-reference, anaphoric and cataphoric references that do not follow their…

  20. Search for dark photons from supersymmetric hidden valleys.

    PubMed

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguilo, E; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Anzelc, M S; Aoki, M; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; Asman, B; Atramentov, O; Avila, C; BackusMayes, J; Badaud, F; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A-F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benitez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Bu, X B; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Calfayan, P; Calpas, B; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Carrasco-Lizarraga, M A; Carrera, E; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Cheu, E; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cuplov, V; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; DeVaughan, K; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dorland, T; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dutt, S; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Escalier, M; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Facini, G; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Geng, W; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hauptman, J M; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Heredia-De La Cruz, I; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hoang, T; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Huske, N; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jamin, D; Jarvis, C; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Johnston, D; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Kajfasz, E; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y N; Khatidze, D; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J-P; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kuhl, T; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kuzmin, V A; Kvita, J; Lacroix, F; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lellouch, J; Li, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lim, J K; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Luna-Garcia, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Mättig, P; Magerkurth, A; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; McGivern, C L; Meijer, M M; Melnitchouk, A; Mendoza, L; Menezes, D; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Mitrevski, J; Mommsen, R K; Mondal, N K; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Nogima, H; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Orduna, J; Oshima, N; Osman, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Otero y Garzón, G J; Owen, M; Padilla, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S-J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Pétroff, P; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M-E; Polozov, P; Popov, A V; Potter, C; Prado da Silva, W L; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rakitine, A; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Rich, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Rominsky, M; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Sanghi, B; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schlobohm, S; Schwanenberger, C; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Siccardi, V; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strang, M A; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Takahashi, M; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Tiller, B; Tissandier, F; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Torchiani, I; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; van den Berg, P J; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vilanova, D; Vint, P; Vokac, P; Voutilainen, M; Wagner, R; Wahl, H D; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, G; Weber, M; Welty-Rieger, L; Wenger, A; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Williams, M R J; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Xu, C; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yang, W-C; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Ye, Z; Yin, H; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Zeitnitz, C; Zelitch, S; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zivkovic, L; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G

    2009-08-21

    We search for a new light gauge boson, a dark photon, with the D0 experiment. In the model we consider, supersymmetric partners are pair produced and cascade to the lightest neutralinos that can decay into the hidden sector state plus either a photon or a dark photon. The dark photon decays through its mixing with a photon into fermion pairs. We therefore investigate a previously unexplored final state that contains a photon, two spatially close leptons, and large missing transverse energy. We do not observe any evidence for dark photons and set a limit on their production.

  1. Direct Photons at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Gabor,D.

    2008-07-29

    Direct photons are ideal tools to investigate kinematical and thermodynamical conditions of heavy ion collisions since they are emitted from all stages of the collision and once produced they leave the interaction region without further modification by the medium. The PHENIX experiment at RHIC has measured direct photon production in p+p and Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV over a wide transverse momentum (p{sub T}) range. The p+p measurements allow a fundamental test of QCD, and serve as a baseline when we try to disentangle more complex mechanisms producing high p{sub T} direct photons in Au+Au. As for thermal photons in Au+Au we overcome the difficulties due to the large background from hadronic decays by measuring 'almost real' virtual photons which appear as low invariant mass e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs: a significant excess of direct photons is measured above the above next-to-leading order perturbative quantum chromodynamics calculations. Additional insights on the origin of direct photons can be gained with the study of the azimuthal anisotropy which benefits from the increased statistics and reaction plane resolution achieved in RHIC Year-7 data.

  2. Linear-optic heralded photon source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira da Silva, Thiago; Amaral, Gustavo C.; Temporão, Guilherme P.; von der Weid, Jean Pierre

    2015-09-01

    We present a heralded photon source based only on linear optics and weak coherent states. By time-tuning a Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer fed with frequency-displaced coherent states, the output photons can be synchronously heralded following sub-Poisson statistics, which is indicated by the second-order correlation function [ g2(0 )=0.556 ]. The absence of phase-matching restrictions makes the source widely tunable, with 100-nm spectral tunability on the telecom bands. The technique presents yield comparable to state-of-the-art spontaneous parametric down-conversion-based sources, with high coherence and fiber-optic quantum communication compatibility.

  3. Robust quantum receivers for coherent state discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerra, Francisco Elohim

    2014-05-01

    Quantum state discrimination is a central task for quantum information and is a fundamental problem in quantum mechanics. Nonorthogonal states, such as coherent states which have intrinsic quantum noise, cannot be discriminated with total certainty because of their intrinsic overlap. This nonorthogonality is at the heart of quantum key distribution for ensuring absolute secure communications between a transmitter and a receiver, and can enable many quantum information protocols based on coherent states. At the same time, while coherent states are used for communications because of their robustness to loss and simplicity of generation and detection, their nonorthogonality inherently produces errors in the process of decoding the information. The minimum error probability in the discrimination of nonorthogonal coherent states measured by an ideal lossless and noiseless conventional receiver is given by the standard quantum limit (SQL). This limit sets strict bounds on the ultimate performance of coherent communications and many coherent-state-based quantum information protocols. However, measurement strategies based on the quantum properties of these states can allow for better measurements that surpass the SQL and approach the ultimate measurement limits allowed by quantum mechanics. These measurement strategies can allow for optimally extracting information encoded in these states for coherent and quantum communications. We present the demonstration of a receiver based on adaptive measurements and single-photon counting that unconditionally discriminates multiple nonorthogonal coherent states below the SQL. We also discuss the potential of photon-number-resolving detection to provide robustness and high sensitivity under realistic conditions for an adaptive coherent receiver with detectors with finite photon-number resolution.

  4. Slow light and broadband coherent phonon generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zheng; Rakich, Peter; Reinke, Charles; Camacho, Ryan; Davids, Paul

    2012-03-01

    Recent advance in controlling optical forces using nanostructures suggests that nanoscale optical waveguides are capable of generating coherent acoustic phonons efficiently through a combination of radiation pressure and electrostriction. We discuss the critical roles of group velocity in such processes. This photon-phonon coupling would allow an acoustic intermediary to perform on-chip optical delay with a capacity 105 greater than photonic delay lines of the same size.

  5. Faking ordinary photons by displaced dark photon decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Yuhsin; Wang, Lian-Tao; Zhao, Yue

    2017-01-01

    A light metastable dark photon decaying into a collimated electron/positron pair can fake a photon, either converted or unconverted, at the LHC. The detailed object identification relies on the specifics of the detector and strategies for the reconstruction. We study the fake rate based on the ATLAS (CMS) detector geometry and show that it can be O(1) with a generic choice of parameters. Especially, the probability of being registered as a photon is angular dependent. Such detector effects can induce bias to measurements on certain properties of new physics. In this paper, we consider the scenario where dark photons in final states are from a heavy resonance decay. Consequently, the detector effects can dramatically affect the results when determining the spin of a resonance. Further, if the decay products from the heavy resonance are one photon and one dark photon, which has a large probability to fake a diphoton event, the resonance is allowed to be a vector. Because of the difference in detectors, the cross sections measured in ATLAS and CMS do not necessarily match. Furthermore, if the diphoton signal is given by the dark photons, the standard model Z γ and Z Z final states do not necessarily come with the γ γ channel, which is a unique signature in our scenario. The issue studied here is relevant also for any future new physics searches with photon(s) in the final state. We discuss possible ways of distinguishing dark photon decay and a real photon in the future.

  6. Multi-Photon Quantum Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouwmeester, Dirk

    2007-06-01

    Based on the investigation of multi-photon entanglement, as produced by stimulated parametric down-conversion, a technique is presented to create heralded ``noon'' states. The relevance for interferometry will be discussed. Furthermore we explored the use of photon-number resolving detectors in Mach-Zehnder type of interferometers. Our current detectors can distinguish 0, 1, 2, to7, photon impacts. Although the overall collection and detection efficiency of photons is well below unity (about 0.3) the photon number resolving property is still very useful if combined with coherent input states since those state are eigenstates of the photon annihilation operator. First we analyze the coherent state interferometer with a single photon-number resolving detector, revealing the strong non-linear response of an interferometer in the case of Fock-state projection. Second, we use two such detectors together with a Baysian phase estimation strategy to demonstrate that it is possible to achieve the standard quantum limit independently from the true value of the phase shift. This protocol is unbiased and saturates the Cramer-Rao phase uncertainty bound and, therefore, is an optimal phase estimation strategy. As a final topic it will be shown how quantum interferometry combined with micromechanical structures can be used to investigate quantum superpositions and quantum decoherence of macroscopic objects.

  7. Phase-Sensitive Coherence and the Classical-Quantum Boundary in Ghost Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erkmen, Baris I.; Hardy, Nicholas D.; Venkatraman, Dheera; Wong, Franco N. C.; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    2011-01-01

    The theory of partial coherence has a long and storied history in classical statistical optics. the vast majority of this work addresses fields that are statistically stationary in time, hence their complex envelopes only have phase-insensitive correlations. The quantum optics of squeezed-state generation, however, depends on nonlinear interactions producing baseband field operators with phase-insensitive and phase-sensitive correlations. Utilizing quantum light to enhance imaging has been a topic of considerable current interest, much of it involving biphotons, i.e., streams of entangled-photon pairs. Biphotons have been employed for quantum versions of optical coherence tomography, ghost imaging, holography, and lithography. However, their seemingly quantum features have been mimicked with classical-sate light, questioning wherein lies the classical-quantum boundary. We have shown, for the case of Gaussian-state light, that this boundary is intimately connected to the theory of phase-sensitive partial coherence. Here we present that theory, contrasting it with the familiar case of phase-insensitive partial coherence, and use it to elucidate the classical-quantum boundary of ghost imaging. We show, both theoretically and experimentally, that classical phase-sensitive light produces ghost imaging most closely mimicking those obtained in biphotons, and we derived the spatial resolution, image contrast, and signal-to-noise ratio of a standoff-sensing ghost imager, taking into account target-induced speckle.

  8. Parity conservation in a Cooper-pair transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Woerkom, David; Geresdi, Attila; Rubbert, Sebastian; Akhmerov, Anton; Kouwenhoven, Leo

    2015-03-01

    In a small superconducting island, hosting an even number of electrons, all charge carriers form Cooper pairs, defining the ground state of the Cooper-pair transistor (CPT). An additional, unpaired electron can only occupy a higher energy level, determined by the superconducting order parameter. This even-odd (parity) energy difference makes the CPT a very sensitive charge detector as well as a prototype superconducting qubit, whose coherence relies on the conservation of the parity of the island. Here we report parity conservation in a niobium-based superconductor, NbTiN, for the first time. NbTiN is a popular superconductor since it can sustain high parallel and perpendicular magnetic fields which is often a requirement for hybrid devices. The parity conversation resulted in the first 2e-periodicity measurements in a non-Aluminium CPT. The highest reported parity lifetime ever, which was longer than one minute, was measured. The parity lifetime didn't saturate down to a base temperature of 12mK, showing state-of-the-art device shielding of thermal photons. We show that our CPT is magnetic field compatible, opening new possibilities for coupling spin degrees of freedom to superconducting circuits and qubits and for topological superconductivity, enabling qubits based on Majorana fermions.

  9. Photon-bunching measurement after two 25-km-long optical fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Halder, M.; Tanzilli, S.; Riedmatten, H. de; Beveratos, A.; Zbinden, H.; Gisin, N.

    2005-04-01

    To show the feasibility of a long-distance partial Bell-state measurement, a Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment with coherent photons is reported. Pairs of degenerate photons at telecommunication wavelength are created by parametric down-conversion in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide. The photon pairs are separated in a beam splitter and transmitted via two fibers of 25 km. The wave packets are relatively delayed and recombined on a second beam splitter, forming a large Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Coincidence counts between the photons at the two output modes are registered. The main challenge consists in the trade-off between low count rates due to narrow filtering and length fluctuations of the 25-km-long arms during the measurement. For balanced paths a Hong-Ou-Mandel dip with a net visibility of 47.3% is observed, which is close to the maximal theoretical value of 50% developed here. This proves the practicability of a long-distance Bell-state measurement with two independent sources, as, e.g., required in an entanglement swapping configuration in the scale of tens of kilometers.

  10. Photon Entanglement Through Brain Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Lingyan; Galvez, Enrique J.; Alfano, Robert R.

    2016-12-01

    Photon entanglement, the cornerstone of quantum correlations, provides a level of coherence that is not present in classical correlations. Harnessing it by study of its passage through organic matter may offer new possibilities for medical diagnosis technique. In this work, we study the preservation of photon entanglement in polarization, created by spontaneous parametric down-conversion, after one entangled photon propagates through multiphoton-scattering brain tissue slices with different thickness. The Tangle-Entropy (TS) plots show the strong preservation of entanglement of photons propagating in brain tissue. By spatially filtering the ballistic scattering of an entangled photon, we find that its polarization entanglement is preserved and non-locally correlated with its twin in the TS plots. The degree of entanglement correlates better with structure and water content than with sample thickness.

  11. Photon Entanglement Through Brain Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Lingyan; Galvez, Enrique J.; Alfano, Robert R.

    2016-01-01

    Photon entanglement, the cornerstone of quantum correlations, provides a level of coherence that is not present in classical correlations. Harnessing it by study of its passage through organic matter may offer new possibilities for medical diagnosis technique. In this work, we study the preservation of photon entanglement in polarization, created by spontaneous parametric down-conversion, after one entangled photon propagates through multiphoton-scattering brain tissue slices with different thickness. The Tangle-Entropy (TS) plots show the strong preservation of entanglement of photons propagating in brain tissue. By spatially filtering the ballistic scattering of an entangled photon, we find that its polarization entanglement is preserved and non-locally correlated with its twin in the TS plots. The degree of entanglement correlates better with structure and water content than with sample thickness. PMID:27995952

  12. Photon correlation in single-photon frequency upconversion.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiaorong; Huang, Kun; Pan, Haifeng; Wu, E; Zeng, Heping

    2012-01-30

    We experimentally investigated the intensity cross-correlation between the upconverted photons and the unconverted photons in the single-photon frequency upconversion process with multi-longitudinal mode pump and signal sources. In theoretical analysis, with this multi-longitudinal mode of both signal and pump sources system, the properties of the signal photons could also be maintained as in the single-mode frequency upconversion system. Experimentally, based on the conversion efficiency of 80.5%, the joint probability of simultaneously detecting at upconverted and unconverted photons showed an anti-correlation as a function of conversion efficiency which indicated the upconverted photons were one-to-one from the signal photons. While due to the coherent state of the signal photons, the intensity cross-correlation function g(2)(0) was shown to be equal to unity at any conversion efficiency, agreeing with the theoretical prediction. This study will benefit the high-speed wavelength-tunable quantum state translation or photonic quantum interface together with the mature frequency tuning or longitudinal mode selection techniques.

  13. Coherent control of photoelectron wavepacket angular interferograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hockett, P.; Wollenhaupt, M.; Baumert, T.

    2015-11-01

    Coherent control over photoelectron wavepackets, via the use of polarization-shaped laser pulses, can be understood as a time and polarization-multiplexed process, where the final (time-integrated) observable coherently samples all instantaneous states of the light-matter interaction. In this work, we investigate this multiplexing via computation of the observable photoelectron angular interferograms resulting from multi-photon atomic ionization with polarization-shaped laser pulses. We consider the polarization sensitivity of both the instantaneous and cumulative continuum wavefunction; the nature of the coherent control over the resultant photoelectron interferogram is thus explored in detail. Based on this understanding, the use of coherent control with polarization-shaped pulses as a methodology for a highly multiplexed coherent quantum metrology is also investigated, and defined in terms of the information content of the observable.

  14. Heralded single-photon source in a III-V photonic crystal.

    PubMed

    Clark, Alex S; Husko, Chad; Collins, Matthew J; Lehoucq, Gaelle; Xavier, Stéphane; De Rossi, Alfredo; Combrié, Sylvain; Xiong, Chunle; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2013-03-01

    In this Letter we demonstrate heralded single-photon generation in a III-V semiconductor photonic crystal platform through spontaneous four-wave mixing. We achieve a high brightness of 3.4×10(7) pairs·s(-1) nm(-1) W(-1) facilitated through dispersion engineering and the suppression of two-photon absorption in the gallium indium phosphide material. Photon pairs are generated with a coincidence-to-accidental ratio over 60 and a low g(2) (0) of 0.06 proving nonclassical operation in the single photon regime.

  15. Dephasing in coherently split quasicondensates

    SciTech Connect

    Stimming, H.-P.; Mauser, N. J.; Mazets, I. E.

    2011-02-15

    We numerically model the evolution of a pair of coherently split quasicondensates. A truly one-dimensional case is assumed, so that the loss of the (initially high) coherence between the two quasicondensates is due to dephasing only, but not due to the violation of integrability and subsequent thermalization (which are excluded from the present model). We confirm the subexponential time evolution of the coherence between two quasicondensates {proportional_to}exp[-(t/t{sub 0}){sup 2/3}], experimentally observed by Hofferberth et al. [Nature 449, 324 (2007)]. The characteristic time t{sub 0} is found to scale as the square of the ratio of the linear density of a quasicondensate to its temperature, and we analyze the full distribution function of the interference contrast and the decay of the phase correlation.

  16. Studies on Partially Coherent Fields and Coherence Measurement Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Seongkeun

    The concept of coherence in optics means how closely an optical field oscillates in unison at the same position in different time (temporal coherence) or at different positions at the same time (spatial coherence). Since all optical fields oscillate very rapidly with random fluctuations, coherence theory has been developed to describe the state of coherence of those optical fields through the usage of time-averaged correlation functions. This thesis reviews and applies coherence theory for an accurate and improved modeling in field-propagation and coherence measurement for partially coherent fields. The first half of this thesis discusses the study of phase-space distributions and phase-space tomography. Phase-space distributions such as the Wigner and the ambiguity functions can be used as simple mathematical tools for describing the propagation of an optical field for any state of coherence as those functions incorporate wave effects with the simplicity of ray optics. However, the Wigner and the ambiguity functions require a paraxial condition for the field description. To overcome this limitation, the nonparaxial extensions of the Wigner function have been studied and applied for nonparaxial fields. In this thesis, a simple series expression for calculating a nonparaxial generalization of theWigner function from the standard Wigner function is developed in both two- and three-dimensional free space. A nonparaxial generalization of the ambiguity function that retains properties analogous to the standard ambiguity function is also proposed in both two and three dimensions. This generalization extends phase-space tomography to the nonparaxial regime. The second half of this thesis proposes a new method of coherence measurement based on diffraction. By measuring the radiant intensity of a field with and without a binary transparent phase mask, one can estimate the coherence of a field at all pairs of the points centered at the mask's edge. This method is proposed in

  17. High-extinction ratio integrated photonic filters for silicon quantum photonics.

    PubMed

    Piekarek, Mateusz; Bonneau, Damien; Miki, Shigehito; Yamashita, Taro; Fujiwara, Mikio; Sasaki, Masahide; Terai, Hirotaka; Tanner, Michael G; Natarajan, Chandra M; Hadfield, Robert H; O'Brien, Jeremy L; Thompson, Mark G

    2017-02-15

    We present the generation of quantum-correlated photon pairs and subsequent pump rejection across two silicon-on-insulator photonic integrated circuits. Incoherently cascaded lattice filters are used to provide over 100 dB pass-band to stop-band contrast with no additional external filtering. Photon pairs generated in a microring resonator are successfully separated from the input pump, confirmed by temporal correlations measurements.

  18. Spatial Coherence of Synchrotron Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Marchesini, S; Coisson, R

    2003-10-30

    Synchrotron Radiation (SR) has been widely used since the 80's as a tool for many applications of UV, soft X rays and hard X rays in condensed matter physics, chemistry and biology. The evolution of SR sources towards higher brightness has led to the design of low-emittance electron storage rings (emittance is the product of beam size and divergence), and the development of special source magnetic structures, as undulators. This means that more and more photons are available on a narrow bandwidth and on a small collimated beam; in other words there is the possibility of getting a high power in a coherent beam. In most applications, a monochromator is used, and the temporal coherence of the light is given by the monochromator bandwidth. With smaller and smaller sources, even without the use of collimators, the spatial coherence of the light has become appreciable, first in the UV and soft X ray range, and then also with hard X rays. This has made possible new or improved experiments in interferometry, microscopy, holography, correlation spectroscopy, etc. In view of these recent possibilities and applications, it is useful to review some basic concepts about spatial coherence of SR, and its measurement and applications. In particular we show how the spatial coherence properties of the radiation in the far field can be calculated with simple operations from the single-electron amplitude and the electron beam angular and position spreads. The gaussian approximation will be studied in detail for a discussion of the properties of the far field mutual coherence and the estimate of the coherence widths, and the comparison with the VanCittert-Zernike limit.

  19. The high-order quantum coherence of thermal light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hui

    Thermal light, such as sunlight, is usually considered classical light. In a macroscopic picture, classical theory successfully explained the first-order coherence phenomena of thermal light. The macroscopic theory, based on the statistical behavior of light intensity fluctuations, however, can only phenomenologically explain the second- or higher-order coherence phenomena of thermal light. This thesis introduces a microscopic quantum picture, based on the interferences of a large number of randomly distributed and randomly radiated subfields, wavepackets or photons, to the study of high-order coherence of thermal light. This thesis concludes that the second-order intensity fluctuation correlation is caused by nonlocal interference: a pair of wavepackets, which are randomly paired together, interferes with the pair itself at two distant space-time coordinates. This study has the following practical motivations: (1) to simulate N-qbits. Practical quantum computing requires quantum bits(qubits) of N-digit to represent all possible integers from 0 to 2N-1 simultaneously. A large number of independent particles can be prepared to represent a large set of N orthogonal |0> and |1> bits. In fact, based on our recent experiments of simulating the high-order correlation of entangled photons, thermal radiation is suggested as a promising source for quantum information processing. (2) to achieve sunlight ghost imaging. Ghost imaging has three attractive non-classical features: (a) the ghost camera can "see" targets that can never be seen by a classic camera; (2) it is turbulence-free; and (3) its spatial resolution is mainly determined by the angular diameter of the light source. For example, a sunlight ghost image of an object on earth may achieve a spatial resolution of 200 micrometer because the angular diameter of sun is 0.53 degree with respect to Earth. Although ghost imaging has been experimental demonstrated by using entangled photon pairs and "pseudo-thermal light

  20. Pairing Learners in Pair Work Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Neomy; Aldosari, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Although pair work is advocated by major theories of second language (L2) learning and research findings suggest that pair work facilitates L2 learning, what is unclear is how to best pair students in L2 classes of mixed L2 proficiency. This study investigated the nature of pair work in an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) class in a college in…

  1. Designing exotic many-body states of atomic spin and motion in photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzoni, Marco T.; Mathey, Ludwig; Chang, Darrick E.

    2017-03-01

    Cold atoms coupled to photonic crystals constitute an exciting platform for exploring quantum many-body physics. For example, such systems offer the potential to realize strong photon-mediated forces between atoms, which depend on the atomic internal (spin) states, and where both the motional and spin degrees of freedom can exhibit long coherence times. An intriguing question then is whether exotic phases could arise, wherein crystalline or other spatial patterns and spin correlations are fundamentally tied together, an effect that is atypical in condensed matter systems. Here, we analyse one realistic model Hamiltonian in detail. We show that this previously unexplored system exhibits a rich phase diagram of emergent orders, including spatially dimerized spin-entangled pairs, a fluid of composite particles comprised of joint spin-phonon excitations, phonon-induced Néel ordering, and a fractional magnetization plateau associated with trimer formation.

  2. Designing exotic many-body states of atomic spin and motion in photonic crystals

    PubMed Central

    Manzoni, Marco T.; Mathey, Ludwig; Chang, Darrick E.

    2017-01-01

    Cold atoms coupled to photonic crystals constitute an exciting platform for exploring quantum many-body physics. For example, such systems offer the potential to realize strong photon-mediated forces between atoms, which depend on the atomic internal (spin) states, and where both the motional and spin degrees of freedom can exhibit long coherence times. An intriguing question then is whether exotic phases could arise, wherein crystalline or other spatial patterns and spin correlations are fundamentally tied together, an effect that is atypical in condensed matter systems. Here, we analyse one realistic model Hamiltonian in detail. We show that this previously unexplored system exhibits a rich phase diagram of emergent orders, including spatially dimerized spin-entangled pairs, a fluid of composite particles comprised of joint spin-phonon excitations, phonon-induced Néel ordering, and a fractional magnetization plateau associated with trimer formation. PMID:28272466

  3. Designing exotic many-body states of atomic spin and motion in photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Manzoni, Marco T; Mathey, Ludwig; Chang, Darrick E

    2017-03-08

    Cold atoms coupled to photonic crystals constitute an exciting platform for exploring quantum many-body physics. For example, such systems offer the potential to realize strong photon-mediated forces between atoms, which depend on the atomic internal (spin) states, and where both the motional and spin degrees of freedom can exhibit long coherence times. An intriguing question then is whether exotic phases could arise, wherein crystalline or other spatial patterns and spin correlations are fundamentally tied together, an effect that is atypical in condensed matter systems. Here, we analyse one realistic model Hamiltonian in detail. We show that this previously unexplored system exhibits a rich phase diagram of emergent orders, including spatially dimerized spin-entangled pairs, a fluid of composite particles comprised of joint spin-phonon excitations, phonon-induced Néel ordering, and a fractional magnetization plateau associated with trimer formation.

  4. Erasing nonlocal like two photon interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olindo, C.; Sagioro, M. A.; Pádua, S.; Monken, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    Over the years, since the 1980s, various two photon interference experiments have been reported with photon pairs generated by parametric down conversion. Some of them have shown local interference features and non-local ones. An experiment is shown here which joins the two features at the same time in a Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer. However, the non-local effects are lost if the photons' arrival time difference at the beam splitter is much larger than the pulse length of the pump beam that generates the photon pair.

  5. Cavity-enhanced coherent light scattering from a quantum dot.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Anthony J; Lee, James P; Ellis, David J P; Meany, Thomas; Murray, Eoin; Floether, Frederik F; Griffths, Jonathan P; Farrer, Ian; Ritchie, David A; Shields, Andrew J

    2016-04-01

    The generation of coherent and indistinguishable single photons is a critical step for photonic quantum technologies in information processing and metrology. A promising system is the resonant optical excitation of solid-state emitters embedded in wavelength-scale three-dimensional cavities. However, the challenge here is to reject the unwanted excitation to a level below the quantum signal. We demonstrate this using coherent photon scattering from a quantum dot in a micropillar. The cavity is shown to enhance the fraction of light that is resonantly scattered toward unity, generating antibunched indistinguishable photons that are 16 times narrower than the time-bandwidth limit, even when the transition is near saturation. Finally, deterministic excitation is used to create two-photon N00N states with which we make superresolving phase measurements in a photonic circuit.

  6. Measurement of a weak transition moment using Coherent Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antypas, Dionysios

    We have developed a two-pathway Coherent Control technique for measurements of weak optical transition moments. We demonstrate this technique through a measurement of the transition moment of the highly-forbidden magnetic dipole transition between the 6s2S 1/21/2 and 7s2S 1/21/2 states in atomic Cesium. The experimental principle is based on a two-pathway excitation, using two phase-coherent laser fields, a fundamental field at 1079 nm and its second harmonic at 539.5 nm. The IR field induces a strong two-photon transition, while the 539.5 nm field drives a pair of weak one-photon transitions: a Stark-induced transition of controllable strength as well as the magnetic dipole transition. Observations of the interference between these transitions for different Stark-induced transition amplitudes, allow a measurement of the ratio of the magnetic dipole to the Stark-induced moment. The interference between the transitions is controlled by modulation of the phase-delay between the two optical fields. Our determination of the magnetic dipole moment is at the 0.4% level and in good agreement with previous measuremen