Coherent tunneling by adiabatic process in a four-waveguide optical coupler
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Jian; Ma, Rui-Qiong; Duan, Zuo-Liang; Liang, Meng; Zhang, Wen-wen; Dong, Jun
2016-07-01
We numerically simulate Schrödinger-like paraxial wave equation of a four-waveguide system. The coherent tunneling by adiabatic passage in a four-waveguide optical coupler is analyzed by borrowing the dressed state theory of coherent atom system. We discuss the optical coupling mechanism and coupling efficiency of light energy in both intuitive and counterintuitive tunneling schemes and analyze the threshold condition from adiabatic to non-adiabatic regimes in intuitive scheme. The results show that this coupler can be used as power splitter under certain conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thyagarajan, K.; Gupta, Ruchi
2016-08-01
In this paper, we present the optical analogue of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) technique for three level atomic system in optical fibre geometry. Considering linearly polarized modes of an optical fibre, it is shown that using a pair of superimposed long-period gratings with peak refractive index perturbation varying spatially along the propagation axis, light can be transferred adiabatically from one core mode to another core mode via an intermediate cladding mode which itself does not get appreciably excited; thus acting like a dark mode. We compare the transmission spectrum of superimposed long-period gratings involved in adiabatic transfer with the transmission spectrum of conventional long-period grating. The analogue output is further analysed for its tolerance to the changes in the ambient refractive index, temperature and other fabrication parameters.
Coherent transfer by adiabatic passage in two-dimensional lattices
Longhi, Stefano
2014-09-15
Coherent tunneling by adiabatic passage (CTAP) is a well-established technique for robust spatial transport of quantum particles in linear chains. Here we introduce two exactly-solvable models where the CTAP protocol can be extended to two-dimensional lattice geometries. Such bi-dimensional lattice models are synthesized from time-dependent second-quantization Hamiltonians, in which the bosonic field operators evolve adiabatically like in an ordinary three-level CTAP scheme thus ensuring adiabatic passage in Fock space. - Highlights: • New ways of coherent transport by adiabatic passage (CTAP) in 2D lattices. • Synthesis of exactly-solvable 2D lattices from a simple three-well model. • CTAP in 2D lattices can be exploited for quantum state transfer.
Coherent adiabatic transport of atoms in radio-frequency traps
Morgan, T.; O'Sullivan, B.; Busch, Th.
2011-05-15
Coherent transport by adiabatic passage has recently been suggested as a high-fidelity technique to engineer the center-of-mass state of single atoms in inhomogeneous environments. While the basic theory behind this process is well understood, several conceptual challenges for its experimental observation have still to be addressed. One of these is the difficulty that currently available optical or magnetic micro-trap systems have in adjusting the tunneling rate time dependently while keeping resonance between the asymptotic trapping states at all times. Here we suggest that both requirements can be fulfilled to a very high degree in an experimentally realistic setup based on radio-frequency traps on atom chips. We show that operations with close to 100% fidelity can be achieved and that these systems also allow significant improvements for performing adiabatic passage with interacting atomic clouds.
Quantum Adiabatic Algorithms and Large Spin Tunnelling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boulatov, A.; Smelyanskiy, V. N.
2003-01-01
We provide a theoretical study of the quantum adiabatic evolution algorithm with different evolution paths proposed in this paper. The algorithm is applied to a random binary optimization problem (a version of the 3-Satisfiability problem) where the n-bit cost function is symmetric with respect to the permutation of individual bits. The evolution paths are produced, using the generic control Hamiltonians H (r) that preserve the bit symmetry of the underlying optimization problem. In the case where the ground state of H(0) coincides with the totally-symmetric state of an n-qubit system the algorithm dynamics is completely described in terms of the motion of a spin-n/2. We show that different control Hamiltonians can be parameterized by a set of independent parameters that are expansion coefficients of H (r) in a certain universal set of operators. Only one of these operators can be responsible for avoiding the tunnelling in the spin-n/2 system during the quantum adiabatic algorithm. We show that it is possible to select a coefficient for this operator that guarantees a polynomial complexity of the algorithm for all problem instances. We show that a successful evolution path of the algorithm always corresponds to the trajectory of a classical spin-n/2 and provide a complete characterization of such paths.
Broken Symmetry and Coherence of Molecular Vibrations in Tunnel Transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dykhne, A. M.; Rudavets, A. G.
We examine the Breit-Wigner resonances that ensue from field effects in molecular single electron transistors (SETs). The adiabatic dynamics of a quantum dot elastically attached to electrodes are treated in the Born-Oppenheimer approach. The relation between thermal and shot noise induced by the source-drain voltage Vbias is found when the SET operates in a regime tending to thermodynamic equilibrium far from resonance. The equilibration of electron-phonon subsystems produces broadening and doublet splitting of transparency resonances helping to explain a negative differential resistance (NDR)of current versus voltage (I - V) curves. Mismatch between the electron and phonon temperatures brings out the bouncing-ball mode in the crossover regime close to the internal vibrations mode. The shuttle mechanism occurs at a threshold Vbias of the order of the Coulomb energy Uc. An accumulation of charge is followed by the Coulomb blockade and broken symmetry of a single or double well potential. The Landau bifurcation cures the shuttling instability and the resonance levels of the quantum dot become split because of molecular tunneling. We calculate the tunnel gaps of conductivity and propose a tunneling optical trap (TOT) for quantum dot isolation permitting coherent molecular tunneling by virtue of Josephson oscillations in a charged Bose gas. We discuss experimental conditions when the above theory can be tested.
Quantum Adiabatic Pumping by Modulating Tunnel Phase in Quantum Dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taguchi, Masahiko; Nakajima, Satoshi; Kubo, Toshihiro; Tokura, Yasuhiro
2016-08-01
In a mesoscopic system, under zero bias voltage, a finite charge is transferred by quantum adiabatic pumping by adiabatically and periodically changing two or more control parameters. We obtained expressions for the pumped charge for a ring of three quantum dots (QDs) by choosing the magnetic flux penetrating the ring as one of the control parameters. We found that the pumped charge shows a steplike behavior with respect to the variance of the flux. The value of the step heights is not universal but depends on the trajectory of the control parameters. We discuss the physical origin of this behavior on the basis of the Fano resonant condition of the ring.
Benabbas, Abdelkrim; Salna, Bridget; Sage, J Timothy; Champion, Paul M
2015-03-21
Analytical models describing the temperature dependence of the deep tunneling rate, useful for proton, hydrogen, or hydride transfer in proteins, are developed and compared. Electronically adiabatic and non-adiabatic expressions are presented where the donor-acceptor (D-A) motion is treated either as a quantized vibration or as a classical "gating" distribution. We stress the importance of fitting experimental data on an absolute scale in the electronically adiabatic limit, which normally applies to these reactions, and find that vibrationally enhanced deep tunneling takes place on sub-ns timescales at room temperature for typical H-bonding distances. As noted previously, a small room temperature kinetic isotope effect (KIE) does not eliminate deep tunneling as a major transport channel. The quantum approach focuses on the vibrational sub-space composed of the D-A and hydrogen atom motions, where hydrogen bonding and protein restoring forces quantize the D-A vibration. A Duschinsky rotation is mandated between the normal modes of the reactant and product states and the rotation angle depends on the tunneling particle mass. This tunnel-mass dependent rotation contributes substantially to the KIE and its temperature dependence. The effect of the Duschinsky rotation is solved exactly to find the rate in the electronically non-adiabatic limit and compared to the Born-Oppenheimer (B-O) approximation approach. The B-O approximation is employed to find the rate in the electronically adiabatic limit, where we explore both harmonic and quartic double-well potentials for the hydrogen atom bound states. Both the electronically adiabatic and non-adiabatic rates are found to diverge at high temperature unless the proton coupling includes the often neglected quadratic term in the D-A displacement from equilibrium. A new expression is presented for the electronically adiabatic tunnel rate in the classical limit for D-A motion that should be useful to experimentalists working near
Benabbas, Abdelkrim; Salna, Bridget; Sage, J. Timothy; Champion, Paul M.
2015-03-21
Analytical models describing the temperature dependence of the deep tunneling rate, useful for proton, hydrogen, or hydride transfer in proteins, are developed and compared. Electronically adiabatic and non-adiabatic expressions are presented where the donor-acceptor (D-A) motion is treated either as a quantized vibration or as a classical “gating” distribution. We stress the importance of fitting experimental data on an absolute scale in the electronically adiabatic limit, which normally applies to these reactions, and find that vibrationally enhanced deep tunneling takes place on sub-ns timescales at room temperature for typical H-bonding distances. As noted previously, a small room temperature kinetic isotope effect (KIE) does not eliminate deep tunneling as a major transport channel. The quantum approach focuses on the vibrational sub-space composed of the D-A and hydrogen atom motions, where hydrogen bonding and protein restoring forces quantize the D-A vibration. A Duschinsky rotation is mandated between the normal modes of the reactant and product states and the rotation angle depends on the tunneling particle mass. This tunnel-mass dependent rotation contributes substantially to the KIE and its temperature dependence. The effect of the Duschinsky rotation is solved exactly to find the rate in the electronically non-adiabatic limit and compared to the Born-Oppenheimer (B-O) approximation approach. The B-O approximation is employed to find the rate in the electronically adiabatic limit, where we explore both harmonic and quartic double-well potentials for the hydrogen atom bound states. Both the electronically adiabatic and non-adiabatic rates are found to diverge at high temperature unless the proton coupling includes the often neglected quadratic term in the D-A displacement from equilibrium. A new expression is presented for the electronically adiabatic tunnel rate in the classical limit for D-A motion that should be useful to experimentalists working
Benabbas, Abdelkrim; Salna, Bridget; Sage, J Timothy; Champion, Paul M
2015-03-21
Analytical models describing the temperature dependence of the deep tunneling rate, useful for proton, hydrogen, or hydride transfer in proteins, are developed and compared. Electronically adiabatic and non-adiabatic expressions are presented where the donor-acceptor (D-A) motion is treated either as a quantized vibration or as a classical "gating" distribution. We stress the importance of fitting experimental data on an absolute scale in the electronically adiabatic limit, which normally applies to these reactions, and find that vibrationally enhanced deep tunneling takes place on sub-ns timescales at room temperature for typical H-bonding distances. As noted previously, a small room temperature kinetic isotope effect (KIE) does not eliminate deep tunneling as a major transport channel. The quantum approach focuses on the vibrational sub-space composed of the D-A and hydrogen atom motions, where hydrogen bonding and protein restoring forces quantize the D-A vibration. A Duschinsky rotation is mandated between the normal modes of the reactant and product states and the rotation angle depends on the tunneling particle mass. This tunnel-mass dependent rotation contributes substantially to the KIE and its temperature dependence. The effect of the Duschinsky rotation is solved exactly to find the rate in the electronically non-adiabatic limit and compared to the Born-Oppenheimer (B-O) approximation approach. The B-O approximation is employed to find the rate in the electronically adiabatic limit, where we explore both harmonic and quartic double-well potentials for the hydrogen atom bound states. Both the electronically adiabatic and non-adiabatic rates are found to diverge at high temperature unless the proton coupling includes the often neglected quadratic term in the D-A displacement from equilibrium. A new expression is presented for the electronically adiabatic tunnel rate in the classical limit for D-A motion that should be useful to experimentalists working near
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wójcik, P.; Zegrodnik, M.; Rzeszotarski, B.; Adamowski, J.
2016-09-01
The tunneling conductance through the half-metal/conical magnet/superconductor (HM/CM/SC) junctions is investigated with the use of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations in the framework of Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk formalism. Due to the spin band separation in the HM, the conductance in the subgap region is mainly determined by the anomalous Andreev reflection, the probability of which strongly depends on the spin transmission in the CM layer. We show that the spins of electrons injected from the HM can be transmitted through the CM to the SC either adiabatically or non-adiabatically depending on the period of the spatial modulation of the exchange field. We find that the conductance in the subgap region oscillates as a function of the CM layer thickness wherein the oscillations transform from the irregular pattern in the non-adiabatic regime to the regular one in the adiabatic regime. For both adiabatic and non-adiabatic transport regimes the conductance is studied over a broad range of parameters determining the spiral magnetization in the CM. We find that in the non-adiabatic regime, the decrease of the exchange field amplitude in the CM leads to the emergence of the conductance peak for the particular CM thickness in agreement with recent experiments.
Non-adiabatic dynamics around a conical intersection with surface-hopping coupled coherent states.
Humeniuk, Alexander; Mitrić, Roland
2016-06-21
A surface-hopping extension of the coupled coherent states-method [D. Shalashilin and M. Child, Chem. Phys. 304, 103-120 (2004)] for simulating non-adiabatic dynamics with quantum effects of the nuclei is put forward. The time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the motion of the nuclei is solved in a moving basis set. The basis set is guided by classical trajectories, which can hop stochastically between different electronic potential energy surfaces. The non-adiabatic transitions are modelled by a modified version of Tully's fewest switches algorithm. The trajectories consist of Gaussians in the phase space of the nuclei (coherent states) combined with amplitudes for an electronic wave function. The time-dependent matrix elements between different coherent states determine the amplitude of each trajectory in the total multistate wave function; the diagonal matrix elements determine the hopping probabilities and gradients. In this way, both interference effects and non-adiabatic transitions can be described in a very compact fashion, leading to the exact solution if convergence with respect to the number of trajectories is achieved and the potential energy surfaces are known globally. The method is tested on a 2D model for a conical intersection [A. Ferretti, J. Chem. Phys. 104, 5517 (1996)], where a nuclear wavepacket encircles the point of degeneracy between two potential energy surfaces and interferes with itself. These interference effects are absent in classical trajectory-based molecular dynamics but can be fully incorpo rated if trajectories are replaced by surface hopping coupled coherent states. PMID:27334155
Non-adiabatic dynamics around a conical intersection with surface-hopping coupled coherent states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Humeniuk, Alexander; Mitrić, Roland
2016-06-01
A surface-hopping extension of the coupled coherent states-method [D. Shalashilin and M. Child, Chem. Phys. 304, 103-120 (2004)] for simulating non-adiabatic dynamics with quantum effects of the nuclei is put forward. The time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the motion of the nuclei is solved in a moving basis set. The basis set is guided by classical trajectories, which can hop stochastically between different electronic potential energy surfaces. The non-adiabatic transitions are modelled by a modified version of Tully's fewest switches algorithm. The trajectories consist of Gaussians in the phase space of the nuclei (coherent states) combined with amplitudes for an electronic wave function. The time-dependent matrix elements between different coherent states determine the amplitude of each trajectory in the total multistate wave function; the diagonal matrix elements determine the hopping probabilities and gradients. In this way, both interference effects and non-adiabatic transitions can be described in a very compact fashion, leading to the exact solution if convergence with respect to the number of trajectories is achieved and the potential energy surfaces are known globally. The method is tested on a 2D model for a conical intersection [A. Ferretti, J. Chem. Phys. 104, 5517 (1996)], where a nuclear wavepacket encircles the point of degeneracy between two potential energy surfaces and interferes with itself. These interference effects are absent in classical trajectory-based molecular dynamics but can be fully incorpo rated if trajectories are replaced by surface hopping coupled coherent states.
Zero-point energy, tunnelling, and vibrational adiabaticity in the Mu + H2 reaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mielke, Steven L.; Garrett, Bruce C.; Fleming, Donald G.; Truhlar, Donald G.
2015-01-01
Isotopic substitution of muonium for hydrogen provides an unparalleled opportunity to deepen our understanding of quantum mass effects on chemical reactions. A recent topical review in this journal of the thermal and vibrationally state-selected reaction of Mu with H2 raises a number of issues that are addressed here. We show that some earlier quantum mechanical calculations of the Mu + H2 reaction, which are highlighted in this review, and which have been used to benchmark approximate methods, are in error by as much as 19% in the low-temperature limit. We demonstrate that an approximate treatment of the Born-Oppenheimer diagonal correction that was used in some recent studies is not valid for treating the vibrationally state-selected reaction. We also discuss why vibrationally adiabatic potentials that neglect bend zero-point energy are not a useful analytical tool for understanding reaction rates, and why vibrationally non-adiabatic transitions cannot be understood by considering tunnelling through vibrationally adiabatic potentials. Finally, we present calculations on a hierarchical family of potential energy surfaces to assess the sensitivity of rate constants to the quality of the potential surface.
Tunneling splittings in formic acid dimer: An adiabatic approximation to the Herring formula
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jain, Amber; Sibert, Edwin L.
2015-02-01
Small symmetric molecules and low-dimensional model Hamiltonians are excellent systems for benchmarking theories to compute tunneling splittings. In this work, we investigate a three dimensional model Hamiltonian coupled to a harmonic bath that describes concerted proton transfer in the formic acid dimer. The three modes include the symmetric proton stretch, the symmetric dimer rock, and the dimer stretch. These modes provide a paradigm for the symmetric and anti-symmetric coupled tunneling pathways, these being recognized in the literature as two of the more important classes of coupling. The effects of selective vibrational excitation and coupling to a bath on the tunneling splittings are presented. The splittings for highly excited states are computed using a novel method that makes an adiabatic approximation to the Herring estimate. Results, which are in excellent agreement with the exact splittings, are compared with those obtained using the Makri-Miller approach. This latter method has been shown to provide quality results for tunneling splittings including highly excited vibrational states.
Tunneling splittings in formic acid dimer: An adiabatic approximation to the Herring formula
Jain, Amber; Sibert, Edwin L.
2015-02-28
Small symmetric molecules and low-dimensional model Hamiltonians are excellent systems for benchmarking theories to compute tunneling splittings. In this work, we investigate a three dimensional model Hamiltonian coupled to a harmonic bath that describes concerted proton transfer in the formic acid dimer. The three modes include the symmetric proton stretch, the symmetric dimer rock, and the dimer stretch. These modes provide a paradigm for the symmetric and anti-symmetric coupled tunneling pathways, these being recognized in the literature as two of the more important classes of coupling. The effects of selective vibrational excitation and coupling to a bath on the tunneling splittings are presented. The splittings for highly excited states are computed using a novel method that makes an adiabatic approximation to the Herring estimate. Results, which are in excellent agreement with the exact splittings, are compared with those obtained using the Makri-Miller approach. This latter method has been shown to provide quality results for tunneling splittings including highly excited vibrational states.
Nuclear fluxes during coherent tunnelling in asymmetric double well potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, ChunMei; Manz, Jörn; Yang, Yonggang
2015-08-01
Previous results for nuclear fluxes during coherent tunnelling of molecules with symmetric double well potentials are extended to fluxes in asymmetric double well potentials. The theory is derived using the two-state approximation (TSA). The symmetric system serves as a reference. As an example, we consider the one-dimensional model of the tunnelling inversion of oriented ammonia, with semiclassical dipole coupling to an electric field. The tunnelling splitting increases with the dipole coupling by a factor f≥slant 1. The tunnelling time decreases by 1/f. The nuclear density appears as the sum of two parts: The tunnelling part decreases as {1/f}2 times the density of the symmetric reference, whereas the non-tunnelling part is the initial density times ≤ft({{1-1}/f}2\\right). Likewise, the nuclear flux decreases by 1/f, with essentially the same shape as for the symmetric reference, with maximum value at the potential barrier. Coherent nuclear tunnellings starting from the upper or lower wells of the asymmetric potential are equivalent. The results are universal, in the frame of the TSA, hence they allow straightforward extrapolations from one system to others. This is demonstrated by the prediction of isotope effects for five isotopomers of ammonia.
Coherent and incoherent tunneling in asymmetric double-well potentials
Ranfagni, A.; Cacciari, I.; Vitali, M. A.; Viliani, G.; Moretti, P.; Ruggeri, R.
2006-07-15
The determination of the time scale for coherent and incoherent tunneling in asymmetric double-well potentials is reconsidered according to the instanton-bounce method. In particular, by making use of Feynman's transition elements, a different, relatively simpler approach to this problem, with respect to conventional quantum-mechanical treatments, is obtained.
Vibrational coherences in charge-transfer dyes: A non-adiabatic picture
Sissa, Cristina; Delchiaro, Francesca; Di Maiolo, Francesco
2014-10-28
Essential-state models efficiently describe linear and nonlinear spectral properties of different families of charge-transfer chromophores. Here, the essential-state machinery is applied to the calculation of the early-stage dynamics after ultrafast (coherent) excitation of polar and quadrupolar chromophores. The fully non-adiabatic treatment of coupled electronic and vibrational motion allows for a reliable description of the dynamics of these intriguing systems. In particular, the proposed approach is reliable even when the adiabatic and harmonic approximations do not apply, such as for quadrupolar dyes that show a multistable, broken-symmetry excited state. Our approach quite naturally leads to a clear picture for a dynamical Jahn-Teller effect in these systems. The recovery of symmetry due to dynamical effects is however disrupted in polar solvents where a static symmetry lowering is observed. More generally, thermal disorder in polar solvents is responsible for dephasing phenomena, damping the coherent oscillations with particularly important effects in the case of polar dyes.
Zero-point energy, tunneling, and vibrational adiabaticity in the Mu + H2 reaction
Mielke, Steven L.; Garrett, Bruce C.; Fleming, Donald G.; Truhlar, Donald G.
2015-01-09
Abstract: Isotopic substitution of muonium for hydrogen provides an unparalleled opportunity to deepen our understanding of quantum mass effects on chemical reactions. A recent topical review [Aldegunde et al., Mol. Phys. 111, 3169 (2013)] of the thermal and vibrationally-stateselected reaction of Mu with H2 raises a number of issues that are addressed here. We show that some earlier quantum mechanical calculations of the Mu + H2 reaction, which are highlighted in this review and which have been used to benchmark approximate methods, are in error by as much as 19% in the low-temperature limit. We demonstrate that an approximate treatment of the Born–Oppenheimer diagonal correction that was used in some recent studies is not valid for treating the vibrationally-state-selected reaction. We also discuss why vibrationally adiabatic potentials that neglect bend zero-point energy are not a useful analytical tool for understanding reaction rates and why vibrationally nonadiabatic transitions cannot be understood by considering tunneling through vibrationally adiabatic potentials. Finally, we present calculations on a hierarchical family of potential energy surfaces to assess the sensitivity of rate constants to the quality of the potential surface.
Wang Lei; Babikov, Dmitri
2011-02-15
Anharmonicity of the quantized motional states of ions in a Paul trap can be utilized to address the state-to-state transitions selectively and control the motional modes of trapped ions coherently and adiabatically [Zhao and Babikov, Phys. Rev. A 77, 012338 (2008)]. In this paper we study two sources of the vibrational anharmonicity in the ion traps: the intrinsic Coulomb anharmonicity due to ion-ion interactions and the external anharmonicity of the trapping potential. An accurate numerical approach is used to compute energies and wave functions of vibrational eigenstates. The magnitude of the Coulomb anharmonicity is determined and shown to be insufficient for successful control. In contrast, anharmonicity of the trapping potential allows one to control the motion of ions very efficiently using the time-varying electric fields. Optimal control theory is used to derive the control pulses. One ion in a slightly anharmonic trap can be easily controlled. In the two- and three-ion systems the symmetric stretching mode is dark and cannot be controlled at all. The other two normal modes of the three-ion system can be controlled and used, for example, to encode a two-qubit system into the motional states of ions. A trap architecture that allows the necessary amount of vibrational anharmonicity to be achieved is proposed.
Magnetic coherent tunnel junctions with periodic grating barrier
Fang, Henan; Xiao, Mingwen; Rui, Wenbin; Du, Jun; Tao, Zhikuo
2016-01-01
A new spintronic theory has been developed for the magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) with single-crystal barrier. The barrier will be treated as a diffraction grating with intralayer periodicity, the diffracted waves of tunneling electrons thus contain strong coherence, both in charge and especially in spin. The theory can answer the two basic problems present in MgO-based MTJs: (1) Why does the tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) oscillate with the barrier thickness? (2) Why is the TMR still far away from infinity when the two electrodes are both half-metallic? Other principal features of TMR can also be explained and reproduced by the present work. It also provides possible ways to modulate the oscillation of TMR, and to enhance TMR so that it can tend to infinity. Within the theory, the barrier, as a periodic diffraction grating, can get rid of the confinement in width, it can vary from nanoscale to microscale. Based on those results, a future-generation MTJ is proposed where the three pieces can be fabricated separately and then assembled together, it is especially appropriate for the layered materials, e.g., MoS2 and graphite, and most feasible for industries. PMID:27063998
Magnetic coherent tunnel junctions with periodic grating barrier
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang, Henan; Xiao, Mingwen; Rui, Wenbin; Du, Jun; Tao, Zhikuo
2016-04-01
A new spintronic theory has been developed for the magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) with single-crystal barrier. The barrier will be treated as a diffraction grating with intralayer periodicity, the diffracted waves of tunneling electrons thus contain strong coherence, both in charge and especially in spin. The theory can answer the two basic problems present in MgO-based MTJs: (1) Why does the tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) oscillate with the barrier thickness? (2) Why is the TMR still far away from infinity when the two electrodes are both half-metallic? Other principal features of TMR can also be explained and reproduced by the present work. It also provides possible ways to modulate the oscillation of TMR, and to enhance TMR so that it can tend to infinity. Within the theory, the barrier, as a periodic diffraction grating, can get rid of the confinement in width, it can vary from nanoscale to microscale. Based on those results, a future-generation MTJ is proposed where the three pieces can be fabricated separately and then assembled together, it is especially appropriate for the layered materials, e.g., MoS2 and graphite, and most feasible for industries.
Coherent diffraction of thermal currents in long Josephson tunnel junctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guarcello, Claudio; Giazotto, Francesco; Solinas, Paolo
2016-08-01
We discuss heat transport in thermally-biased long Josephson tunnel junctions in the presence of an in-plane magnetic field. In full analogy with the Josephson critical current, the phase-dependent component of the heat current through the junction displays coherent diffraction. Thermal transport is analyzed as a function of both the length and the damping of the junction, highlighting deviations from the standard "Fraunhofer" pattern characteristic of short junctions. The heat current diffraction patterns show features strongly related to the formation and penetration of Josephson vortices, i.e., solitons. We show that a dynamical treatment of the system is crucial for the realistic description of the Josephson junction, and it leads to peculiar results. In fact, hysteretic behaviors in the diffraction patterns when the field is swept up and down are observed, corresponding to the trapping of vortices in the junction.
Pfaffian statistics through adiabatic transport in the 1D coherent state representation.
Seidel, Alexander
2008-11-01
Recent work has shown that the low energy sector of certain quantum Hall states is adiabatically connected to simple charge-density-wave patterns that appear, e.g., when the system is deformed into a thin torus. Here it is shown that the patterns emerging in this limit already determine the non-Abelian statistics of the nu=1 Moore-Read state. Aside from the knowledge of these patterns, the method only relies on the principle of adiabatic continuity, the effectively noncommutative geometry in a strong magnetic field, and topological as well as locality arguments.
Adiabatic pulse propagation in coherent atomic media with the tripod level configuration
Mazets, I.E.
2005-02-01
We investigate the problem of propagation of three-component resonant light pulses with adiabatically varying amplitudes through a medium consisting of atoms with the tripod level configuration. By means of both analytic and numerical methods we find the two modes of shape-preserving pulse propagation. The pulse propagation velocity of the fast mode is equal to the speed of light in vacuum, whereas the group velocity of the other (slow) mode is significantly slowed down. These two modes represent a general asymptotic solution of the problem of adiabatic pulse propagation, i.e., a pulse of any shape, which is consistent with the adiabaticity conditions, and a finite duration evolves at large propagation distances (and, correspondingly, at large times of interaction with the medium) to a well-separated pair of fast and slow pulses. The experimental requirements for adiabatic pulse propagation in a tripod medium are similar to that needed for observation of slow light propagation in a medium with the {lambda} configuration of levels. However, the tripod scheme offers a different possibility, which is absent in the {lambda}-medium case: collisions of fast and slow pulses. It is found numerically that after such a collision the shapes of the pulses change, so these pulses do not match the classical definition of a soliton.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hollenberg, Sebastian; Päs, Heinrich
2012-01-01
The standard wave function approach for the treatment of neutrino oscillations fails in situations where quantum ensembles at a finite temperature with or without an interacting background plasma are encountered. As a first step to treat such phenomena in a novel way, we propose a unified approach to both adiabatic and nonadiabatic two-flavor oscillations in neutrino ensembles with finite temperature and generic (e.g., matter) potentials. Neglecting effects of ensemble decoherence for now, we study the evolution of a neutrino ensemble governed by the associated quantum kinetic equations, which apply to systems with finite temperature. The quantum kinetic equations are solved formally using the Magnus expansion and it is shown that a convenient choice of the quantum mechanical picture (e.g., the interaction picture) reveals suitable parameters to characterize the physics of the underlying system (e.g., an effective oscillation length). It is understood that this method also provides a promising starting point for the treatment of the more general case in which decoherence is taken into account.
Coherent adiabatic theory of two-electron quantum dot molecules in external spin baths
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nepstad, R.; Sælen, L.; Hansen, J. P.
2008-03-01
We derive an accurate molecular orbital based expression for the coherent time evolution of a two-electron wave function in a quantum dot molecule where the electrons interact with each other, with external time-dependent electromagnetic fields and with a surrounding nuclear spin reservoir. The theory allows for direct numerical modeling of the decoherence in quantum dots due to hyperfine interactions. Calculations result in good agreement with recent singlet-triplet dephasing experiments by Laird [Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 056801 (2006)], as well as analytical model calculations. Furthermore, it is shown that using a much faster electric switch than applied in these experiments will transfer the initial state to excited states where the hyperfine singlet-triplet mixing is negligible.
Bredtmann, Timm; Manz, Jörn; Zhao, Jian-Ming
2016-05-19
The quantum theory of concerted electronic and nuclear fluxes (CENFs) during coherent periodic tunnelling from reactants (R) to products (P) and back to R in molecules with asymmetric double-well potentials is developed. The results are deduced from the solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation as a coherent superposition of two eigenstates; here, these are the two states of the lowest tunnelling doublet. This allows the periodic time evolutions of the resulting electronic and nuclear probability densities (EPDs and NPDs) as well as the CENFs to be expressed in terms of simple sinusodial functions. These analytical results reveal various phenomena during coherent tunnelling in asymmetric double-well potentials, e.g., all EPDs and NPDs as well as all CENFs are synchronous. Distortion of the symmetric reference to a system with an asymmetric double-well potential breaks the spatial symmetry of the EPDs and NPDs, but, surprisingly, the symmetry of the CENFs is conserved. Exemplary application to the Cope rearrangement of semibullvalene shows that tunnelling of the ideal symmetric system can be suppressed by asymmetries induced by rather small external electric fields. The amplitude for the half tunnelling, half nontunnelling border is as low as 0.218 × 10(-8) V/cm. At the same time, the delocalized eigenstates of the symmetric reference, which can be regarded as Schrödinger's cat-type states representing R and P with equal probabilities, get localized at one or the other minima of the asymmetric double-well potential, representing either R or P.
Miura, Yoshio; Uchida, Hirohisa; Oba, Yoshihiro; Nagao, Kazutaka; Shirai, Masafumi
2007-09-12
We have carried out electronic structure and transport calculations for magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ) composed of MgO and a half-metallic full Heusler alloy Co(2)MnSi on the basis of the density functional theory and the Landauer formula. We find that the density of states of Co atoms at the Co(2)MnSi/MgO(001) interface shifts toward the higher energy side due to the reduced symmetry, leading to a reduction of the spin polarization at the interface. Furthermore, we show that the majority-spin transmittance as a function of the in-plane wavevector [Formula: see text] has a broad peak centred at [Formula: see text] due to the tunnelling from the Δ(1) channel of Co(2)MnSi, while the transmittance from the Δ(5) channel is three orders of magnitude smaller than that of the Δ(1) channel. These results indicate that coherent tunnelling through the Δ(1) band is dominant also in an MTJ with Co(2)MnSi and an MgO barrier, like in Fe/MgO/Fe(001) MTJ and related systems.
Miao, Qiang; Zheng, Yujun
2016-01-01
In this paper, the nature of the multi-order resonance and coherent destruction of tunneling (CDT) for two-level system driven cross avoided crossing is investigated by employing the emitted photons 〈N〉 and the Mandel’s Q parameter based on the photon counting statistics. An asymmetric feature of CDT is shown in the spectrum of Mandel’s Q parameter. Also, the CDT can be employed to suppress the spontaneous decay and prolong waiting time noticeably. The photon emission pattern is of monotonicity in strong relaxation, and homogeneity in pure dephasing regime, respectively. PMID:27353375
Miao, Qiang; Zheng, Yujun
2016-01-01
In this paper, the nature of the multi-order resonance and coherent destruction of tunneling (CDT) for two-level system driven cross avoided crossing is investigated by employing the emitted photons 〈N〉 and the Mandel's Q parameter based on the photon counting statistics. An asymmetric feature of CDT is shown in the spectrum of Mandel's Q parameter. Also, the CDT can be employed to suppress the spontaneous decay and prolong waiting time noticeably. The photon emission pattern is of monotonicity in strong relaxation, and homogeneity in pure dephasing regime, respectively. PMID:27353375
Wireless adiabatic power transfer
Rangelov, A.A.; Suchowski, H.; Silberberg, Y.; Vitanov, N.V.
2011-03-15
Research Highlights: > Efficient and robust mid-range wireless energy transfer between two coils. > The adiabatic energy transfer is analogous to adiabatic passage in quantum optics. > Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to any resonant constraints. > Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to noise in the neighborhood of the coils. - Abstract: We propose a technique for efficient mid-range wireless power transfer between two coils, by adapting the process of adiabatic passage for a coherently driven two-state quantum system to the realm of wireless energy transfer. The proposed technique is shown to be robust to noise, resonant constraints, and other interferences that exist in the neighborhood of the coils.
Li, Guangqi; Govind, Niranjan; Ratner, Mark A; Cramer, Christopher J; Gagliardi, Laura
2015-12-17
The mechanism of charge transfer has been observed to change from tunneling to hopping with increasing numbers of DNA base pairs in polynucleotides and with the length of molecular wires. The aim of this paper is to investigate this transition by examining the population dynamics using a tight-binding Hamiltonian with model parameters to describe a linear donor-bridge-acceptor (D-B-A) system. The model includes a primary vibration and an electron-vibration coupling at each site. A further coupling of the primary vibration with a secondary phonon bath allows the system to dissipate energy to the environment and reach a steady state. We apply the quantum master equation (QME) approach, based on second-order perturbation theory in a quantum dissipative system, to examine the dynamical processes involved in charge-transfer and follow the population transfer rate at the acceptor, ka, to shed light on the transition from tunneling to hopping. With a small tunneling parameter, V, the on-site population tends to localize and form polarons, and the hopping mechanism dominates the transfer process. With increasing V, the population tends to be delocalized and the tunneling mechanism dominates. The competition between incoherent hopping and coherent tunneling governs the mechanism of charge transfer. By varying V and the total number of sites, we also examine the onset of the transition from tunneling to hopping with increasing length.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panda, C. D.; O'Leary, B. R.; West, A. D.; Baron, J.; Hess, P. W.; Hoffman, C.; Kirilov, E.; Overstreet, C. B.; West, E. P.; DeMille, D.; Doyle, J. M.; Gabrielse, G.
2016-05-01
Experimental searches for the electron electric-dipole moment (EDM) probe new physics beyond the standard model. The current best EDM limit was set by the ACME Collaboration [Science 343, 269 (2014), 10.1126/science.1248213], constraining time-reversal symmetry (T ) violating physics at the TeV energy scale. ACME used optical pumping to prepare a coherent superposition of ThO H3Δ1 states that have aligned electron spins. Spin precession due to the molecule's internal electric field was measured to extract the EDM. We report here on an improved method for preparing this spin-aligned state of the electron by using stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP). We demonstrate a transfer efficiency of 75 %±5 % , representing a significant gain in signal for a next-generation EDM experiment. We discuss the particularities of implementing STIRAP in systems such as ours, where molecular ensembles with large phase-space distributions are transferred via weak molecular transitions with limited laser power and limited optical access.
Theory of charge transport in molecular junctions: From Coulomb blockade to coherent tunneling
Chang, Yao-Wen; Jin, Bih-Yaw
2014-08-14
We study charge transport through molecular junctions in the presence of electron-electron interaction using the nonequilibrium Green's function techniques and the renormalized perturbation theory. In the perturbation treatment, the zeroth-order Hamiltonian of the molecular junction is composed of independent single-impurity Anderson's models, which act as the channels where charges come through or occupy, and the interactions between different channels are treated as the perturbation. Using this scheme, the effects of molecule-lead, electron-electron, and hopping interactions are included nonperturbatively, and the charge transport processes can thus be studied in the intermediate parameter range from the Coulomb blockade to the coherent tunneling regimes. The concept of quasi-particles is introduced to describe the kinetic process of charge transport, and then the electric current can be studied and calculated. As a test study, the Hubbard model is used as the molecular Hamiltonian to simulate dimeric and trimeric molecular junctions. Various nonlinear current-voltage characteristics, including Coulomb blockade, negative differential resistance, rectification, and current hysteresis, are shown in the calculations, and the mechanisms are elucidated.
Parallelizable adiabatic gate teleportation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakago, Kosuke; Hajdušek, Michal; Nakayama, Shojun; Murao, Mio
2015-12-01
To investigate how a temporally ordered gate sequence can be parallelized in adiabatic implementations of quantum computation, we modify adiabatic gate teleportation, a model of quantum computation proposed by Bacon and Flammia [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 120504 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.120504], to a form deterministically simulating parallelized gate teleportation, which is achievable only by postselection. We introduce a twisted Heisenberg-type interaction Hamiltonian, a Heisenberg-type spin interaction where the coordinates of the second qubit are twisted according to a unitary gate. We develop parallelizable adiabatic gate teleportation (PAGT) where a sequence of unitary gates is performed in a single step of the adiabatic process. In PAGT, numeric calculations suggest the necessary time for the adiabatic evolution implementing a sequence of L unitary gates increases at most as O (L5) . However, we show that it has the interesting property that it can map the temporal order of gates to the spatial order of interactions specified by the final Hamiltonian. Using this property, we present a controlled-PAGT scheme to manipulate the order of gates by a control qubit. In the controlled-PAGT scheme, two differently ordered sequential unitary gates F G and G F are coherently performed depending on the state of a control qubit by simultaneously applying the twisted Heisenberg-type interaction Hamiltonians implementing unitary gates F and G . We investigate why the twisted Heisenberg-type interaction Hamiltonian allows PAGT. We show that the twisted Heisenberg-type interaction Hamiltonian has an ability to perform a transposed unitary gate by just modifying the space ordering of the final Hamiltonian implementing a unitary gate in adiabatic gate teleportation. The dynamics generated by the time-reversed Hamiltonian represented by the transposed unitary gate enables deterministic simulation of a postselected event of parallelized gate teleportation in adiabatic
Tunneling and Speedup in Quantum Optimization for Permutation-Symmetric Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muthukrishnan, Siddharth; Albash, Tameem; Lidar, Daniel A.
2016-07-01
Tunneling is often claimed to be the key mechanism underlying possible speedups in quantum optimization via quantum annealing (QA), especially for problems featuring a cost function with tall and thin barriers. We present and analyze several counterexamples from the class of perturbed Hamming weight optimization problems with qubit permutation symmetry. We first show that, for these problems, the adiabatic dynamics that make tunneling possible should be understood not in terms of the cost function but rather the semiclassical potential arising from the spin-coherent path-integral formalism. We then provide an example where the shape of the barrier in the final cost function is short and wide, which might suggest no quantum advantage for QA, yet where tunneling renders QA superior to simulated annealing in the adiabatic regime. However, the adiabatic dynamics turn out not be optimal. Instead, an evolution involving a sequence of diabatic transitions through many avoided-level crossings, involving no tunneling, is optimal and outperforms adiabatic QA. We show that this phenomenon of speedup by diabatic transitions is not unique to this example, and we provide an example where it provides an exponential speedup over adiabatic QA. In yet another twist, we show that a classical algorithm, spin-vector dynamics, is at least as efficient as diabatic QA. Finally, in a different example with a convex cost function, the diabatic transitions result in a speedup relative to both adiabatic QA with tunneling and classical spin-vector dynamics.
Coherent electron transparent tunneling through a single barrier within a Fabry-Perot cavity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stolle, Jason; Baum, Chaz; Amann, Ryan; Haman, Ryan; Call, Tanner; Li, Wei
2016-07-01
Electromagnetic wave and quantum DeBroglie wave have many parallels between each other. We investigate the quantum mechanical counterpart of electromagnetic resonant tunneling through a non-absorbing metal layer. It is confirmed that an electron also has transparent transmission through a single barrier within a Fabry-Perot like cavity. This tunneling structure is actually a distortion of the Fabry-Perot echelon. We find that for a specific resonant electron energy, the cavity length is related to the electron's DeBroglie wavelength; and the single barrier can be located at a series positions with an interval equal to a half of the DeBroglie wavelength, not just at the center of the cavity. This tunneling phenomenon will have novel applications in quantum devices such as the resonant tunneling diode and scanning tunneling microscope. The results of this paper should also have impact on related electromagnetic research and application.
Medvedev, Igor G
2011-11-01
A theory of electrochemical behavior of small metal nanoparticles (NPs) which is governed both by the charging effect and the effect of the solvent reorganization on the dynamic of the electron transfer (ET) is considered under ambient conditions. The exact expression for the rate constant of ET from an electrode to NP which is valid for all values of the reorganization free energy E(r), bias voltage, and overpotential is obtained in the non-adiabatic limit. The tunnel current/overpotential relations are studied and calculated for different values of the bias voltage and E(r). The effect of E(r) on the full width at half maximum of the charging peaks is investigated at different values of the bias voltage. The differential conductance/bias voltage and the tunnel current/bias voltage dependencies are also studied and calculated. It is shown that, at room temperature, the pronounced Coulomb blockade oscillations in the differential conductance/bias voltage curves and the noticeable Coulomb staircase in the tunnel current/bias voltage relations are observed only at rather small values of E(r) in the case of the strongly asymmetric tunneling contacts.
Ottaviani, C.; Corbalan, R.; Mompart, J.; Ahufinger, V.
2010-04-15
We show that the adiabatic dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in a double-well potential can be described in terms of a dark variable resulting from the combination of the population imbalance and the spatial atomic coherence between the two wells. By means of this dark variable, we extend, to the nonlinear matter-wave case, the recent proposal by Vitanov and Shore [Phys. Rev. A 73, 053402 (2006)] on adiabatic passage techniques to coherently control the population of two internal levels of an atom or molecule. We investigate the conditions to adiabatically split or transport a BEC as well as to prepare an adiabatic self-trapping state by the optimal delayed temporal variation of the tunneling rate via either the energy bias between the two wells or the BEC nonlinearity. The emergence of nonlinear eigenstates and unstable stationary solutions of the system as well as their role in the breaking down of the adiabatic dynamics is investigated in detail.
Experimental demonstration of composite adiabatic passage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schraft, Daniel; Halfmann, Thomas; Genov, Genko T.; Vitanov, Nikolay V.
2013-12-01
We report an experimental demonstration of composite adiabatic passage (CAP) for robust and efficient manipulation of two-level systems. The technique represents a altered version of rapid adiabatic passage (RAP), driven by composite sequences of radiation pulses with appropriately chosen phases. We implement CAP with radio-frequency pulses to invert (i.e., to rephase) optically prepared spin coherences in a Pr3+:Y2SiO5 crystal. We perform systematic investigations of the efficiency of CAP and compare the results with conventional π pulses and RAP. The data clearly demonstrate the superior features of CAP with regard to robustness and efficiency, even under conditions of weakly fulfilled adiabaticity. The experimental demonstration of composite sequences to support adiabatic passage is of significant relevance whenever a high efficiency or robustness of coherent excitation processes need to be maintained, e.g., as required in quantum information technology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, Yosuke; Ebina, Kuniyoshi; Tanaka, Shigenori
2016-08-01
A computational scheme to describe the coherent dynamics of excitation energy transfer (EET) in molecular systems is proposed on the basis of generalized master equations with memory kernels. This formalism takes into account those physical effects in electron-bath coupling system such as the spin symmetry of excitons, the inelastic electron tunneling and the quantum features of nuclear motions, thus providing a theoretical framework to perform an ab initio description of EET through molecular simulations for evaluating the spectral density and the temporal correlation function of electronic coupling. Some test calculations have then been carried out to investigate the dependence of exciton population dynamics on coherence memory, inelastic tunneling correlation time, magnitude of electronic coupling, quantum correction to temporal correlation function, reorganization energy and energy gap.
Tao, Y. C. E-mail: taoyongchun@njnu.edu.cn; Li, Z. P.; Ji, T. T.; Liu, S. Y.; Di, Y. S.
2014-04-21
Coherent transport in a ferromagnetic semiconductor (FS)/d-wave superconductor (SC)/FS structure with (110) interfaces is studied by extending Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation into eight components, in which the interband coupling of heavy and light hole bands in the FS, the strengths of potential scattering at the interfaces, and the mismatches in the effective mass and Fermi vector between the FS and SC are taken into account. Twofold Andreev reflections exist due to the existence of two bands in the FS, in which the incident hole and the two Andreev-reflected electrons, belonging to the different spin subbands, form twofold spin-singlet pairing states near the FS/SC interface. It is shown that due to the interplay of the SC with unconventional d-wave pairing symmetry and FS, the differential conductance and tunneling magnetoresistance exhibit an abundant dependence on not only the interband coupling in the FS but also the strengths of potential scattering at the interfaces. More importantly, the properties are found to be quite different from those in the FS/s-wave SC/FS structure with conventional pairing symmetry for the SC.
Adiabatic preparation of Floquet condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heinisch, Christoph; Holthaus, Martin
2016-10-01
We argue that a Bose-Einstein condensate can be transformed into a Floquet condensate, that is, into a periodically time-dependent many-particle state possessing the coherence properties of a mesoscopically occupied single-particle Floquet state. Our reasoning is based on the observation that the denseness of the many-body system's quasienergy spectrum does not necessarily obstruct effectively adiabatic transport. Employing the idealized model of a driven bosonic Josephson junction, we demonstrate that only a small amount of Floquet entropy is generated when a driving force with judiciously chosen frequency and maximum amplitude is turned on smoothly.
Hermann, Gunter; Liu, ChunMei; Manz, Jörn; Paulus, Beate; Pérez-Torres, Jhon Fredy; Pohl, Vincent; Tremblay, Jean Christophe
2016-07-14
Recently, adiabatic attosecond charge migration (AACM) has been monitored and simulated for the first time, with application to the oriented iodoacetylene cation where AACM starts from the initial superposition of the ground state (φ0) and an electronic excited state (φ1). Here, we develop the theory for electronic fluxes during AACM in ring-shaped molecules, with application to oriented benzene prepared in the superposition of the ground and first excited singlet states. The initial state and its time evolution are analogous to coherent tunneling where φ0 and φ1 have different meanings; however, they denote the wave functions of the lowest tunneling doublet. This analogy suggests to transfer the theory of electronic fluxes during coherent tunneling to AACM, with suitable modifications which account for (i) the different time scales and (ii) the different electronic states, and which make use of (iii) the preparation of the initial state for AACM by a linearly polarized laser pulse. Application to benzene yields the multidirectional angular electronic flux with a pincer-motion type pattern during AACM: this unequivocal result confirms a previous working hypothesis. Moreover, the theory of AACM allows quantification of the electronic flux; that is, the maximum number of electrons (out of 42) which flow concertedly during AACM in benzene is 6 × 0.08 = 0.48.
Isothermal and Adiabatic Measurements.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McNairy, William W.
1996-01-01
Describes the working of the Adiabatic Gas Law Apparatus, a useful tool for measuring the pressure, temperature, and volume of a variety of gases undergoing compressions and expansions. Describes the adaptation of this apparatus to perform isothermal measurements and discusses the theory behind the adiabatic and isothermal processes. (JRH)
Adiabatic control of atomic dressed states for transport and sensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cooper, N. R.; Rey, A. M.
2015-08-01
We describe forms of adiabatic transport that arise for dressed-state atoms in optical lattices. Focusing on the limit of weak tunnel-coupling between nearest-neighbor lattice sites, we explain how adiabatic variation of optical dressing allows control of atomic motion between lattice sites: allowing adiabatic particle transport in a direction that depends on the internal state, and force measurements via spectroscopic preparation and readout. For uniformly filled bands these systems display topologically quantized particle transport. An implementation of the dressing scheme using optical transitions in alkaline-earth atoms is discussed as well as its favorable features for precise force sensing.
Liu, Liang; Niu, Jiasen; Xiang, Li; Wei, Jian; Li, D. -L.; Feng, J. -F.; Han, X. -F.; Zhang, X. -G.; Coey, J. M. D.
2014-11-18
We provide experimental evidence that zero bias anomaly in the differential resistance of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) is due to electron-electron interaction (EEI). Magnon effect is excluded by measuring at low temperatures down to 0.2 K and with reduced AC measurement voltages down to 0.06 mV. The normalized change of conductance is proportional to ln (eV /kB T ), consistent with the Altshuler-Aronov theory of tunneling with EEI but inconsistent with magnetic impurity scattering. The slope of the ln (eV /kBT ) dependence is symmetry dependent, i.e., MTJs with symmetry filtering show di erent slopes for P and AP states,more » while those without symmetry filtering (amorphous barriers) have nearly the same slopes for P and AP.« less
Liu, Liang; Niu, Jiasen; Xiang, Li; Wei, Jian; Li, D. -L.; Feng, J. -F.; Han, X. -F.; Zhang, X. -G.; Coey, J. M. D.
2014-11-18
We provide experimental evidence that zero bias anomaly in the differential resistance of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) is due to electron-electron interaction (EEI). Magnon effect is excluded by measuring at low temperatures down to 0.2 K and with reduced AC measurement voltages down to 0.06 mV. The normalized change of conductance is proportional to ln (eV /k_{B} T ), consistent with the Altshuler-Aronov theory of tunneling with EEI but inconsistent with magnetic impurity scattering. The slope of the ln (eV /k_{B}T ) dependence is symmetry dependent, i.e., MTJs with symmetry filtering show di erent slopes for P and AP states, while those without symmetry filtering (amorphous barriers) have nearly the same slopes for P and AP.
Direct Tunneling Delay Time Measurement in an Optical Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fortun, A.; Cabrera-Gutiérrez, C.; Condon, G.; Michon, E.; Billy, J.; Guéry-Odelin, D.
2016-07-01
We report on the measurement of the time required for a wave packet to tunnel through the potential barriers of an optical lattice. The experiment is carried out by loading adiabatically a Bose-Einstein condensate into a 1D optical lattice. A sudden displacement of the lattice by a few tens of nanometers excites the micromotion of the dipole mode. We then directly observe in momentum space the splitting of the wave packet at the turning points and measure the delay between the reflected and the tunneled packets for various initial displacements. Using this atomic beam splitter twice, we realize a chain of coherent micron-size Mach-Zehnder interferometers at the exit of which we get essentially a wave packet with a negative momentum, a result opposite to the prediction of classical physics.
Direct Tunneling Delay Time Measurement in an Optical Lattice.
Fortun, A; Cabrera-Gutiérrez, C; Condon, G; Michon, E; Billy, J; Guéry-Odelin, D
2016-07-01
We report on the measurement of the time required for a wave packet to tunnel through the potential barriers of an optical lattice. The experiment is carried out by loading adiabatically a Bose-Einstein condensate into a 1D optical lattice. A sudden displacement of the lattice by a few tens of nanometers excites the micromotion of the dipole mode. We then directly observe in momentum space the splitting of the wave packet at the turning points and measure the delay between the reflected and the tunneled packets for various initial displacements. Using this atomic beam splitter twice, we realize a chain of coherent micron-size Mach-Zehnder interferometers at the exit of which we get essentially a wave packet with a negative momentum, a result opposite to the prediction of classical physics. PMID:27419545
Adiabatic capture and debunching
Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab
2012-03-01
In the study of beam preparation for the g-2 experiment, adiabatic debunching and adiabatic capture are revisited. The voltage programs for these adiabbatic processes are derived and their properties discussed. Comparison is made with some other form of adiabatic capture program. The muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab calls for intense proton bunches for the creation of muons. A booster batch of 84 bunches is injected into the Recycler Ring, where it is debunched and captured into 4 intense bunches with the 2.5-MHz rf. The experiment requires short bunches with total width less than 100 ns. The transport line from the Recycler to the muon-production target has a low momentum aperture of {approx} {+-}22 MeV. Thus each of the 4 intense proton bunches required to have an emittance less than {approx} 3.46 eVs. The incoming booster bunches have total emittance {approx} 8.4 eVs, or each one with an emittance {approx} 0.1 eVs. However, there is always emittance increase when the 84 booster bunches are debunched. There will be even larger emittance increase during adiabatic capture into the buckets of the 2.5-MHz rf. In addition, the incoming booster bunches may have emittances larger than 0.1 eVs. In this article, we will concentrate on the analysis of the adiabatic capture process with the intention of preserving the beam emittance as much as possible. At this moment, beam preparation experiment is being performed at the Main Injector. Since the Main Injector and the Recycler Ring have roughly the same lattice properties, we are referring to adiabatic capture in the Main Injector instead in our discussions.
Bacon, Dave; Flammia, Steven T
2009-09-18
The difficulty in producing precisely timed and controlled quantum gates is a significant source of error in many physical implementations of quantum computers. Here we introduce a simple universal primitive, adiabatic gate teleportation, which is robust to timing errors and many control errors and maintains a constant energy gap throughout the computation above a degenerate ground state space. This construction allows for geometric robustness based upon the control of two independent qubit interactions. Further, our piecewise adiabatic evolution easily relates to the quantum circuit model, enabling the use of standard methods from fault-tolerance theory for establishing thresholds.
Adiabatically implementing quantum gates
Sun, Jie; Lu, Songfeng Liu, Fang
2014-06-14
We show that, through the approach of quantum adiabatic evolution, all of the usual quantum gates can be implemented efficiently, yielding running time of order O(1). This may be considered as a useful alternative to the standard quantum computing approach, which involves quantum gates transforming quantum states during the computing process.
Zhu, Wanjiao; Xiao, Dun; Liu, Yaowen; Gong, S. J.; Duan, Chun-Gang
2014-01-01
Combined methods of first-principles calculations and Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) macrospin simulations are performed to investigate the coherent magnetization switching in the MgO/FePt/Pt(001)-based magnetic tunnel junctions triggered by short pulses of electric field through the control of magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) electrically. First-principles calculations indicate that the MAE of MgO/FePt/Pt(001) film varies linearly with the change of the electric field, whereas the LLG simulations show that the change in MAE by electric field pulses could induce the in-plane magnetization reversal of the free layer by tuning the pulse parameters. We find that there exist a critical pulse width τmin to switch the in-plane magnetization, and this τmin deceases with the increasing pulse amplitude E0. Besides, the magnetization orientation cannot be switched when the pulse width exceeds a critical value τmax, and τmax increases asymptotically with E0. In addition, there exist some irregular switching areas at short pulse width due to the high precessional frequency under small initial angle. Finally, a successive magnetization switching can be achieved by a series of electric field pulses. PMID:24844293
Entanglement and adiabatic quantum computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahrensmeier, D.
2006-06-01
Adiabatic quantum computation provides an alternative approach to quantum computation using a time-dependent Hamiltonian. The time evolution of entanglement during the adiabatic quantum search algorithm is studied, and its relevance as a resource is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Bing; Li, Yong
2016-04-01
Quantum state transfer (QST) is an important task in quantum information processing. In this study, we describe two approaches for the high-fidelity transfer of a quantum state between two opposite quantum dots attached to a multi-channel quantum network. First, we demonstrate that a high-efficiency QST can be achieved with the coherent time evolution of a quantum system without any external control. Second, we present an approach that uses an alternative mechanism for a high-fidelity QST. By adiabatically varying tunnel couplings, it is possible to implement the complete transmission of a quantum state based on this quantum mechanical mechanism.
Cavity-state preparation using adiabatic transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larson, Jonas; Andersson, Erika
2005-05-01
We show how to prepare a variety of cavity field states for multiple cavities. The state preparation technique used is related to the method of stimulated adiabatic Raman passage. The cavity modes are coupled by atoms, making it possible to transfer an arbitrary cavity field state from one cavity to another and also to prepare nontrivial cavity field states. In particular, we show how to prepare entangled states of two or more cavities, such as an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen state and a W state, as well as various entangled superpositions of coherent states in different cavities, including Schrödinger cat states. The theoretical considerations are supported by numerical simulations.
Berry's phase for coherent states of Landau levels
Yang, Wen-Long; Chen, Jing-Ling
2007-02-15
The Berry phases for coherent states and squeezed coherent states of Landau levels are calculated. Coherent states of Landau levels are interpreted as a result of a magnetic flux moved adiabatically from infinity to a finite place on the plane. The Abelian Berry phase for coherent states of Landau levels is an analog of the Aharonov-Bohm effect. Moreover, the non-Abelian Berry phase is calculated for the adiabatic evolution of the magnetic field B.
Adiabatic topological quantum computing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cesare, Chris; Landahl, Andrew J.; Bacon, Dave; Flammia, Steven T.; Neels, Alice
2015-07-01
Topological quantum computing promises error-resistant quantum computation without active error correction. However, there is a worry that during the process of executing quantum gates by braiding anyons around each other, extra anyonic excitations will be created that will disorder the encoded quantum information. Here, we explore this question in detail by studying adiabatic code deformations on Hamiltonians based on topological codes, notably Kitaev's surface codes and the more recently discovered color codes. We develop protocols that enable universal quantum computing by adiabatic evolution in a way that keeps the energy gap of the system constant with respect to the computation size and introduces only simple local Hamiltonian interactions. This allows one to perform holonomic quantum computing with these topological quantum computing systems. The tools we develop allow one to go beyond numerical simulations and understand these processes analytically.
Bazzani, A.; Turchetti, G.; Benedetti, C.; Rambaldi, S.; Servizi, G.
2005-06-08
In a high intensity circular accelerator the synchrotron dynamics introduces a slow modulation in the betatronic tune due to the space-charge tune depression. When the transverse motion is non-linear due to the presence of multipolar effects, resonance islands move in the phase space and change their amplitude. This effect introduces the trapping and detrapping phenomenon and a slow diffusion in the phase space. We apply the neo-adiabatic theory to describe this diffusion mechanism that can contribute to halo formation.
Conde, Alvaro Peralta; Yatsenko, Leonid P.; Klein, Jens; Oberst, Martin; Halfmann, Thomas
2005-11-15
We present experimental data to demonstrate coherently driven population inversion by retroreflection-induced bichromatic adiabatic passage in metastable helium atoms. Complete and robust population transfer from an initial to a target state is induced by coherent interaction of the atoms in a supersonic beam with two counterpropagating and temporally delayed laser pulses of different intensities. The radiation fields intersect the atomic beam slightly tilted away from normal incidence, thereby inducing Doppler shifts of the atomic resonance between the initial and the target state. Thus the laser pulses produce a bichromatic field in the rest frame of each atom, which induces complete coherent population transfer by an adiabatic passage process.
Geometry of the Adiabatic Theorem
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lobo, Augusto Cesar; Ribeiro, Rafael Antunes; Ribeiro, Clyffe de Assis; Dieguez, Pedro Ruas
2012-01-01
We present a simple and pedagogical derivation of the quantum adiabatic theorem for two-level systems (a single qubit) based on geometrical structures of quantum mechanics developed by Anandan and Aharonov, among others. We have chosen to use only the minimum geometric structure needed for the understanding of the adiabatic theorem for this case.…
Bredtmann, Timm; Diestler, Dennis J; Li, Si-Dian; Manz, Jörn; Pérez-Torres, Jhon Fredy; Tian, Wen-Juan; Wu, Yan-Bo; Yang, Yonggang; Zhai, Hua-Jin
2015-11-28
An elementary molecular process can be characterized by the flow of particles (i.e., electrons and nuclei) that compose the system. The flow, in turn, is quantitatively described by the flux (i.e., the time-sequence of maps of the rate of flow of particles though specified surfaces of observation) or, in more detail, by the flux density. The quantum theory of concerted electronic and nuclear fluxes (CENFs) associated with electronically adiabatic intramolecular processes is presented. In particular, it is emphasized how the electronic continuity equation can be employed to circumvent the failure of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, which always predicts a vanishing electronic flux density (EFD). It is also shown that all CENFs accompanying coherent tunnelling between equivalent "reactant" and "product" configurations of isolated molecules are synchronous. The theory is applied to three systems of increasing complexity. The first application is to vibrating, aligned H2(+)((2)Σg(+)), or vibrating and dissociating H2(+)((2)Σg(+), J = 0, M = 0). The EFD maps manifest a rich and surprising structure in this simplest of systems; for example, they show that the EFD is not necessarily synchronous with the nuclear flux density and can alternate in direction several times over the length of the molecule. The second application is to coherent tunnelling isomerization in the model inorganic system B4, in which all CENFs are synchronous. The contributions of core and valence electrons to the EFD are separately computed and it is found that core electrons flow with the nuclei, whereas the valence electrons flow obliquely to the core electrons in distinctive patterns. The third application is to the Cope rearrangement of semibullvalene, which also involves coherent tunnelling. An especially interesting discovery is that the so-called "pericyclic" electrons do not behave in the manner typically portrayed by the traditional Lewis structures with appended arrows. Indeed, it is
Reimers, Jeffrey R; McKemmish, Laura K; McKenzie, Ross H; Hush, Noel S
2015-10-14
Using a simple model Hamiltonian, the three correction terms for Born-Oppenheimer (BO) breakdown, the adiabatic diagonal correction (DC), the first-derivative momentum non-adiabatic correction (FD), and the second-derivative kinetic-energy non-adiabatic correction (SD), are shown to all contribute to thermodynamic and spectroscopic properties as well as to thermal non-diabatic chemical reaction rates. While DC often accounts for >80% of thermodynamic and spectroscopic property changes, the commonly used practice of including only the FD correction in kinetics calculations is rarely found to be adequate. For electron-transfer reactions not in the inverted region, the common physical picture that diabatic processes occur because of surface hopping at the transition state is proven inadequate as the DC acts first to block access, increasing the transition state energy by (ℏω)(2)λ/16J(2) (where λ is the reorganization energy, J the electronic coupling and ω the vibration frequency). However, the rate constant in the weakly-coupled Golden-Rule limit is identified as being only inversely proportional to this change rather than exponentially damped, owing to the effects of tunneling and surface hopping. Such weakly-coupled long-range electron-transfer processes should therefore not be described as "non-adiabatic" processes as they are easily described by Born-Huang ground-state adiabatic surfaces made by adding the DC to the BO surfaces; instead, they should be called just "non-Born-Oppenheimer" processes. The model system studied consists of two diabatic harmonic potential-energy surfaces coupled linearly through a single vibration, the "two-site Holstein model". Analytical expressions are derived for the BO breakdown terms, and the model is solved over a large parameter space focusing on both the lowest-energy spectroscopic transitions and the quantum dynamics of coherent-state wavepackets. BO breakdown is investigated pertinent to: ammonia inversion, aromaticity
Reimers, Jeffrey R; McKemmish, Laura K; McKenzie, Ross H; Hush, Noel S
2015-10-14
Using a simple model Hamiltonian, the three correction terms for Born-Oppenheimer (BO) breakdown, the adiabatic diagonal correction (DC), the first-derivative momentum non-adiabatic correction (FD), and the second-derivative kinetic-energy non-adiabatic correction (SD), are shown to all contribute to thermodynamic and spectroscopic properties as well as to thermal non-diabatic chemical reaction rates. While DC often accounts for >80% of thermodynamic and spectroscopic property changes, the commonly used practice of including only the FD correction in kinetics calculations is rarely found to be adequate. For electron-transfer reactions not in the inverted region, the common physical picture that diabatic processes occur because of surface hopping at the transition state is proven inadequate as the DC acts first to block access, increasing the transition state energy by (ℏω)(2)λ/16J(2) (where λ is the reorganization energy, J the electronic coupling and ω the vibration frequency). However, the rate constant in the weakly-coupled Golden-Rule limit is identified as being only inversely proportional to this change rather than exponentially damped, owing to the effects of tunneling and surface hopping. Such weakly-coupled long-range electron-transfer processes should therefore not be described as "non-adiabatic" processes as they are easily described by Born-Huang ground-state adiabatic surfaces made by adding the DC to the BO surfaces; instead, they should be called just "non-Born-Oppenheimer" processes. The model system studied consists of two diabatic harmonic potential-energy surfaces coupled linearly through a single vibration, the "two-site Holstein model". Analytical expressions are derived for the BO breakdown terms, and the model is solved over a large parameter space focusing on both the lowest-energy spectroscopic transitions and the quantum dynamics of coherent-state wavepackets. BO breakdown is investigated pertinent to: ammonia inversion, aromaticity
Tunneling Dynamics and Gauge Potentials in Optical Lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dutta, S. K.; Teo, B. K.; Raithel, G.
1999-09-01
We study periodic well-to-well tunneling of 87Rb atoms on adiabatic potential surfaces of a 1D optical lattice. The observed dependence of the lowest-band tunneling period on the depth of the adiabatic potential can only be explained by an additional intensity-independent gauge potential predicted by Dum et al. The experimental data are in excellent agreement with our quantum Monte Carlo wave-function simulations and band structure calculations.
Adiabatic frequency conversion of ultrafast pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suchowski, H.; Bruner, B. D.; Ganany-Padowicz, A.; Juwiler, I.; Arie, A.; Silberberg, Y.
2011-12-01
A new method for efficient, broadband sum and difference frequency generation of ultrafast pulses is demonstrated. The principles of the method follow from an analogy between frequency conversion and coherent optical excitation of a two-level system. For conversion of ultrafast pulses, the concepts of adiabatic conversion are developed further in order to account for dispersion and group velocity mismatch. The scheme was implemented using aperiodically poled nonlinear crystals and a single step nonlinear mixing process, leading to conversion of near-IR (˜790 nm) ultrafast pulses into the blue (˜450 nm) and mid-IR (˜3.15 μm) spectral regions. Conversion bandwidths up to 15 THz FWHM and efficiencies up to 50% are reported.
Correlation and coherence in quantum-dot cellular automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toth, Geza
In this thesis we investigate the role of correlation and coherence in two possible realizations of Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA): realizations as a semiconductor multi-quantum-dot structure and as a metal-island single electron tunneling circuit. The two are different from the point of view of the underlying physics. The metal island circuits are very strongly connected to the heat bath and they can be modeled semi-classically, using classical quantities such as charging energy and capacitance. To model the semiconductor realization, a quantum mechanical treatment is necessary. The quantum mechanical state of the cells evolves coherently, at least for time scales smaller than the decoherence time. In the first part of the thesis the theory of metal island circuits is used to design a cell structure permitting adiabatic clocking. It is also used to analyze the conductance suppression of coupled double-dots and reproduce the corresponding experimental results from the theory by modeling coherent electron motion inside the QCA cell. In the second part the semiconductor QCA realization is studied. Using Hartree-Fock approximation the basic phenomena in the one dimensional QCA array (large and small amplitude polarization wave propagation and collision) is investigated. The approach is also used to define Quantum Cellular Neural Networks. In the last part of the thesis intermediate approximations are constructed between the Hartree-Fock and the exact model. An alternative of the density matrix description, the coherence vector formalism is reviewed and used to investigate possibility of quantum computing with QCA. Using the coherence vector formalism as a basis an approximation is presented that includes all two-point correlations while neglects the higher order correlations. Another approach is shown for improving the self-consistent Hartree-Fock model for a majority gate by including correlation effects. The method fixes the qualitatively wrong results obtained
Adiabatic computation: A toy model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ribeiro, Pedro; Mosseri, Rémy
2006-10-01
We discuss a toy model for adiabatic quantum computation which displays some phenomenological properties expected in more realistic implementations. This model has two free parameters: the adiabatic evolution parameter s and the α parameter, which emulates many-variable constraints in the classical computational problem. The proposed model presents, in the s-α plane, a line of first-order quantum phase transition that ends at a second-order point. The relation between computation complexity and the occurrence of quantum phase transitions is discussed. We analyze the behavior of the ground and first excited states near the quantum phase transition, the gap, and the entanglement content of the ground state.
Adiabatic computation: A toy model
Ribeiro, Pedro; Mosseri, Remy
2006-10-15
We discuss a toy model for adiabatic quantum computation which displays some phenomenological properties expected in more realistic implementations. This model has two free parameters: the adiabatic evolution parameter s and the {alpha} parameter, which emulates many-variable constraints in the classical computational problem. The proposed model presents, in the s-{alpha} plane, a line of first-order quantum phase transition that ends at a second-order point. The relation between computation complexity and the occurrence of quantum phase transitions is discussed. We analyze the behavior of the ground and first excited states near the quantum phase transition, the gap, and the entanglement content of the ground state.
Adiabatic evolution of plasma equilibrium
Grad, H.; Hu, P. N.; Stevens, D. C.
1975-01-01
A new theory of plasma equilibrium is introduced in which adiabatic constraints are specified. This leads to a mathematically nonstandard structure, as compared to the usual equilibrium theory, in which prescription of pressure and current profiles leads to an elliptic partial differential equation. Topologically complex configurations require further generalization of the concept of adiabaticity to allow irreversible mixing of plasma and magnetic flux among islands. Matching conditions across a boundary layer at the separatrix are obtained from appropriate conservation laws. Applications are made to configurations with planned islands (as in Doublet) and accidental islands (as in Tokamaks). Two-dimensional, axially symmetric, helically symmetric, and closed line equilibria are included. PMID:16578729
Elementary examples of adiabatic invariance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crawford, Frank S.
1990-04-01
Simple classical one-dimensional systems subject to adiabatic (gradual) perturbations are examined. The first examples are well known: the adiabatic invariance of the product Eτ of energy E and period τ for the simple pendulum and for the simple harmonic oscillator. Next, the adiabatic invariants of the vertical bouncer are found—a ball bouncing elastically from the floor of a rising elevator having slowly varying velocity and acceleration. These examples lead to consideration of adiabatic invariance for one-dimensional systems with potentials of the form V=axn, with a=a(t) slowly varying in time. Then, the horizontal bouncer is considered—a mass sliding on a smooth floor, bouncing back and forth between two impenetrable walls, one of which is slowly moving. This example is generalized to a particle in a bound state of a general potential with one slowly moving ``turning point.'' Finally, circular motion of a charged particle in a magnetic field slowly varying in time under three different configurations is considered: (a) a free particle in a uniform field; (b) a free particle in a nonuniform ``betatron'' field; and (c) a particle constrained to a circular orbit in a uniform field.
Pressure Oscillations in Adiabatic Compression
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stout, Roland
2011-01-01
After finding Moloney and McGarvey's modified adiabatic compression apparatus, I decided to insert this experiment into my physical chemistry laboratory at the last minute, replacing a problematic experiment. With insufficient time to build the apparatus, we placed a bottle between two thick textbooks and compressed it with a third textbook forced…
Transitionless driving on adiabatic search algorithm
Oh, Sangchul; Kais, Sabre
2014-12-14
We study quantum dynamics of the adiabatic search algorithm with the equivalent two-level system. Its adiabatic and non-adiabatic evolution is studied and visualized as trajectories of Bloch vectors on a Bloch sphere. We find the change in the non-adiabatic transition probability from exponential decay for the short running time to inverse-square decay in asymptotic running time. The scaling of the critical running time is expressed in terms of the Lambert W function. We derive the transitionless driving Hamiltonian for the adiabatic search algorithm, which makes a quantum state follow the adiabatic path. We demonstrate that a uniform transitionless driving Hamiltonian, approximate to the exact time-dependent driving Hamiltonian, can alter the non-adiabatic transition probability from the inverse square decay to the inverse fourth power decay with the running time. This may open up a new but simple way of speeding up adiabatic quantum dynamics.
Studies in Chaotic adiabatic dynamics
Jarzynski, C.
1994-01-01
Chaotic adiabatic dynamics refers to the study of systems exhibiting chaotic evolution under slowly time-dependent equations of motion. In this dissertation the author restricts his attention to Hamiltonian chaotic adiabatic systems. The results presented are organized around a central theme, namely, that the energies of such systems evolve diffusively. He begins with a general analysis, in which he motivates and derives a Fokker-Planck equation governing this process of energy diffusion. He applies this equation to study the {open_quotes}goodness{close_quotes} of an adiabatic invariant associated with chaotic motion. This formalism is then applied to two specific examples. The first is that of a gas of noninteracting point particles inside a hard container that deforms slowly with time. Both the two- and three-dimensional cases are considered. The results are discussed in the context of the Wall Formula for one-body dissipation in nuclear physics, and it is shown that such a gas approaches, asymptotically with time, an exponential velocity distribution. The second example involves the Fermi mechanism for the acceleration of cosmic rays. Explicit evolution equations are obtained for the distribution of cosmic ray energies within this model, and the steady-state energy distribution that arises when this equation is modified to account for the injection and removal of cosmic rays is discussed. Finally, the author re-examines the multiple-time-scale approach as applied to the study of phase space evolution under a chaotic adiabatic Hamiltonian. This leads to a more rigorous derivation of the above-mentioned Fokker-Planck equation, and also to a new term which has relevance to the problem of chaotic adiabatic reaction forces (the forces acting on slow, heavy degrees of freedom due to their coupling to light, fast chaotic degrees).
Coherence in electron transfer pathways
Skourtis, Spiros S.; Beratan, David N.; Waldeck, David H.
2013-01-01
Central to the view of electron-transfer reactions is the idea that nuclear motion generates a transition state geometry at which the electron/hole amplitude propagates coherently from the electron donor to the electron acceptor. In the weakly coupled or nonadiabatic regime, the electron amplitude tunnels through an electronic barrier between the donor and acceptor. The structure of the barrier is determined by the covalent and noncovalent interactions of the bridge. Because the tunneling barrier depends on the nuclear coordinates of the reactants (and on the surrounding medium), the tunneling barrier is highly anisotropic, and it is useful to identify particular routes, or pathways, along which the transmission amplitude propagates. Moreover, when more than one such pathway exists, and the paths give rise to comparable transmission amplitude magnitudes, one may expect to observe quantum interferences among pathways if the propagation remains coherent. Given that the effective tunneling barrier height and width are affected by the nuclear positions, the modulation of the nuclear coordinates will lead to a modulation of the tunneling barrier and hence of the electron flow. For long distance electron transfer in biological and biomimetic systems, nuclear fluctuations, arising from flexible protein moieties and mobile water bridges, can become quite significant. We discuss experimental and theoretical results that explore the quantum interferences among coupling pathways in electron-transfer kinetics; we emphasize recent data and theories associated with the signatures of chirality and inelastic processes, which are manifested in the tunneling pathway coherence (or absence of coherence). PMID:23833692
Coherence in electron transfer pathways.
Skourtis, Spiros S; Beratan, David N; Waldeck, David H
2011-01-01
Central to the view of electron-transfer reactions is the idea that nuclear motion generates a transition state geometry at which the electron/hole amplitude propagates coherently from the electron donor to the electron acceptor. In the weakly coupled or nonadiabatic regime, the electron amplitude tunnels through an electronic barrier between the donor and acceptor. The structure of the barrier is determined by the covalent and noncovalent interactions of the bridge. Because the tunneling barrier depends on the nuclear coordinates of the reactants (and on the surrounding medium), the tunneling barrier is highly anisotropic, and it is useful to identify particular routes, or pathways, along which the transmission amplitude propagates. Moreover, when more than one such pathway exists, and the paths give rise to comparable transmission amplitude magnitudes, one may expect to observe quantum interferences among pathways if the propagation remains coherent. Given that the effective tunneling barrier height and width are affected by the nuclear positions, the modulation of the nuclear coordinates will lead to a modulation of the tunneling barrier and hence of the electron flow. For long distance electron transfer in biological and biomimetic systems, nuclear fluctuations, arising from flexible protein moieties and mobile water bridges, can become quite significant. We discuss experimental and theoretical results that explore the quantum interferences among coupling pathways in electron-transfer kinetics; we emphasize recent data and theories associated with the signatures of chirality and inelastic processes, which are manifested in the tunneling pathway coherence (or absence of coherence).
Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in Tm{sup 3+}:YAG
Alexander, A. L.; Lauro, R.; Louchet, A.; Chaneliere, T.; Le Goueet, J. L.
2008-10-01
We report on the experimental demonstration of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in a Tm{sup 3+}:YAG crystal. Tm{sup 3+}:YAG is a promising material for use in quantum information processing applications, but as yet there are few experimental investigations of coherent Raman processes in this material. We investigate the effect of inhomogeneous broadening and Rabi frequency on the transfer efficiency and the width of the two-photon spectrum. Simulations of the complete Tm{sup 3+}:YAG system are presented along with the corresponding experimental results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Dafa
2016-05-01
The adiabatic theorem was proposed about 90 years ago and has played an important role in quantum physics. The quantitative adiabatic condition constructed from eigenstates and eigenvalues of a Hamiltonian is a traditional tool to estimate adiabaticity and has proven to be the necessary and sufficient condition for adiabaticity. However, recently the condition has become a controversial subject. In this paper, we list some expressions to estimate the validity of the adiabatic approximation. We show that the quantitative adiabatic condition is invalid for the adiabatic approximation via the Euclidean distance between the adiabatic state and the evolution state. Furthermore, we deduce general necessary and sufficient conditions for the validity of the adiabatic approximation by different definitions.
Adiabatic Wankel type rotary engine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kamo, R.; Badgley, P.; Doup, D.
1988-01-01
This SBIR Phase program accomplished the objective of advancing the technology of the Wankel type rotary engine for aircraft applications through the use of adiabatic engine technology. Based on the results of this program, technology is in place to provide a rotor and side and intermediate housings with thermal barrier coatings. A detailed cycle analysis of the NASA 1007R Direct Injection Stratified Charge (DISC) rotary engine was performed which concluded that applying thermal barrier coatings to the rotor should be successful and that it was unlikely that the rotor housing could be successfully run with thermal barrier coatings as the thermal stresses were extensive.
Adiabatic processes in monatomic gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carrera-Patiño, Martin E.
1988-08-01
A kinetic model is used to predict the temperature evolution of a monatomic ideal gas undergoing an adiabatic expansion or compression at a constant finite rate, and it is then generalized to treat real gases. The effects of interatomic forces are considered, using as examples the gas with the square-well potential and the van der Waals gas. The model is integrated into a Carnot cycle operating at a finite rate to compare the efficiency's rate-dependent behavior with the reversible result. Limitations of the model, rate penalties, and their importance are discussed.
Protecting and accelerating adiabatic passage with time-delayed pulse sequences.
Sampedro, Pablo; Chang, Bo Y; Sola, Ignacio R
2016-05-21
Using numerical simulations of two-photon electronic absorption with femtosecond pulses in Na2 we show that: (i) it is possible to avoid the characteristic saturation or dumped Rabi oscillations in the yield of absorption by time-delaying the laser pulses; (ii) it is possible to accelerate the onset of adiabatic passage by using the vibrational coherence starting in a wave packet; and (iii) it is possible to prepare the initial wave packet in order to achieve full state-selective transitions with broadband pulses. The findings can be used, for instance, to achieve ultrafast adiabatic passage by light-induced potentials and understand its intrinsic robustness. PMID:27125342
Adiabatic response and quantum thermoelectrics for ac-driven quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ludovico, María Florencia; Battista, Francesca; von Oppen, Felix; Arrachea, Liliana
2016-02-01
We generalize the theory of thermoelectrics to include coherent electron systems under adiabatic ac driving, accounting for quantum pumping of charge and heat, as well as for the work exchanged between the electron system and driving potentials. We derive the relevant response coefficients in the adiabatic regime and show that they obey generalized Onsager reciprocity relations. We analyze the consequences of our generalized thermoelectric framework for quantum motors, generators, heat engines, and heat pumps, characterizing them in terms of efficiencies and figures of merit. We illustrate these concepts in a model for a quantum pump.
Protecting and accelerating adiabatic passage with time-delayed pulse sequences.
Sampedro, Pablo; Chang, Bo Y; Sola, Ignacio R
2016-05-21
Using numerical simulations of two-photon electronic absorption with femtosecond pulses in Na2 we show that: (i) it is possible to avoid the characteristic saturation or dumped Rabi oscillations in the yield of absorption by time-delaying the laser pulses; (ii) it is possible to accelerate the onset of adiabatic passage by using the vibrational coherence starting in a wave packet; and (iii) it is possible to prepare the initial wave packet in order to achieve full state-selective transitions with broadband pulses. The findings can be used, for instance, to achieve ultrafast adiabatic passage by light-induced potentials and understand its intrinsic robustness.
On the question of adiabatic invariants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mitropol'Skii, Iu. A.
Some aspects of the construction of adiabadic invariants for dynamic systems with a single degree of freedom are discussed. Adiabatic invariants are derived using classical principles and the method proposed by Djukic (1981). The discussion covers an adiabatic invariant for a dynamic system with slowly varying parameters; derivation of an expression for an adiabatic invariant by the Djukic method for a second-order equation with a variable mass; and derivation of an expression for the adiabatic invariant for a nearly integrable differential equation.
Transport of ultracold atoms between concentric traps via spatial adiabatic passage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Polo, J.; Benseny, A.; Busch, Th; Ahufinger, V.; Mompart, J.
2016-01-01
Spatial adiabatic passage processes for ultracold atoms trapped in tunnel-coupled cylindrically symmetric concentric potentials are investigated. Specifically, we discuss the matter-wave analog of the rapid adiabatic passage (RAP) technique for a high fidelity and robust loading of a single atom into a harmonic ring potential from a harmonic trap, and for its transport between two concentric rings. We also consider a system of three concentric rings and investigate the transport of a single atom between the innermost and the outermost rings making use of the matter-wave analog of the stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) technique. We describe the RAP-like and STIRAP-like dynamics by means of a two- and a three-state model, respectively, obtaining good agreement with the numerical simulations of the corresponding two-dimensional Schrödinger equation.
Degenerate adiabatic perturbation theory: Foundations and applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rigolin, Gustavo; Ortiz, Gerardo
2014-08-01
We present details and expand on the framework leading to the recently introduced degenerate adiabatic perturbation theory [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 170406 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.170406], and on the formulation of the degenerate adiabatic theorem, along with its necessary and sufficient conditions [given in Phys. Rev. A 85, 062111 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevA.85.062111]. We start with the adiabatic approximation for degenerate Hamiltonians that paves the way to a clear and rigorous statement of the associated degenerate adiabatic theorem, where the non-Abelian geometric phase (Wilczek-Zee phase) plays a central role to its quantitative formulation. We then describe the degenerate adiabatic perturbation theory, whose zeroth-order term is the degenerate adiabatic approximation, in its full generality. The parameter in the perturbative power-series expansion of the time-dependent wave function is directly associated to the inverse of the time it takes to drive the system from its initial to its final state. With the aid of the degenerate adiabatic perturbation theory we obtain rigorous necessary and sufficient conditions for the validity of the adiabatic theorem of quantum mechanics. Finally, to illustrate the power and wide scope of the methodology, we apply the framework to a degenerate Hamiltonian, whose closed-form time-dependent wave function is derived exactly, and also to other nonexactly solvable Hamiltonians whose solutions are numerically computed.
Random-Defect Laser: Manipulating Lossy Two-Level Systems to Produce a Circuit with Coherent Gain.
Rosen, Yaniv J; Khalil, Moe S; Burin, Alexander L; Osborn, Kevin D
2016-04-22
We demonstrate a laser using material defects known for deleterious microwave absorption in quantum computing. These defects are two-level atomic tunneling systems (TSs), which are manipulated using a uniform swept dc electric field and two ac pump fields. The swept field changes the TS energies. TSs first pass through degeneracy with pump photons, which invert (excite) them with a high probability using rapid adiabatic passage. Population inversion is accomplished in spite of a broad distribution of TS parameters. Afterwards the TSs are brought to degeneracy with the resonator where they emit photons. The emission is found to be dependent on individual cavity-TS interactions, and the narrowing linewidth at increasing photon occupancy indicates stimulated emission. Characterization with a microwave probe shows a transition from ordinary defect loss to negligible microwave absorption, and ultimately to coherent amplification. Thus, instead of absorbing microwave energy, the TSs can be tuned to reduce loss and even amplify signals. PMID:27152801
Ultrafast adiabatic quantum algorithm for the NP-complete exact cover problem
Wang, Hefeng; Wu, Lian-Ao
2016-01-01
An adiabatic quantum algorithm may lose quantumness such as quantum coherence entirely in its long runtime, and consequently the expected quantum speedup of the algorithm does not show up. Here we present a general ultrafast adiabatic quantum algorithm. We show that by applying a sequence of fast random or regular signals during evolution, the runtime can be reduced substantially, whereas advantages of the adiabatic algorithm remain intact. We also propose a randomized Trotter formula and show that the driving Hamiltonian and the proposed sequence of fast signals can be implemented simultaneously. We illustrate the algorithm by solving the NP-complete 3-bit exact cover problem (EC3), where NP stands for nondeterministic polynomial time, and put forward an approach to implementing the problem with trapped ions. PMID:26923834
On a Nonlinear Model in Adiabatic Evolutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Jie; Lu, Song-Feng
2016-08-01
In this paper, we study a kind of nonlinear model of adiabatic evolution in quantum search problem. As will be seen here, for this problem, there always exists a possibility that this nonlinear model can successfully solve the problem, while the linear model can not. Also in the same setting, when the overlap between the initial state and the final stare is sufficiently large, a simple linear adiabatic evolution can achieve O(1) time efficiency, but infinite time complexity for the nonlinear model of adiabatic evolution is needed. This tells us, it is not always a wise choice to use nonlinear interpolations in adiabatic algorithms. Sometimes, simple linear adiabatic evolutions may be sufficient for using. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 61402188 and 61173050. The first author also gratefully acknowledges the support from the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation under Grant No. 2014M552041
Quantum and classical dynamics in adiabatic computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crowley, P. J. D.; Äńurić, T.; Vinci, W.; Warburton, P. A.; Green, A. G.
2014-10-01
Adiabatic transport provides a powerful way to manipulate quantum states. By preparing a system in a readily initialized state and then slowly changing its Hamiltonian, one may achieve quantum states that would otherwise be inaccessible. Moreover, a judicious choice of final Hamiltonian whose ground state encodes the solution to a problem allows adiabatic transport to be used for universal quantum computation. However, the dephasing effects of the environment limit the quantum correlations that an open system can support and degrade the power of such adiabatic computation. We quantify this effect by allowing the system to evolve over a restricted set of quantum states, providing a link between physically inspired classical optimization algorithms and quantum adiabatic optimization. This perspective allows us to develop benchmarks to bound the quantum correlations harnessed by an adiabatic computation. We apply these to the D-Wave Vesuvius machine with revealing—though inconclusive—results.
ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: Collision-Induced Coherence Effect on Coherent Population Transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Xi-Hua; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Hui-Fang; Yan, Xiao-Na
2009-07-01
We investigate the effect of collision-induced coherence on coherent population transfer with the stimulated Raman adiabatic passage technique in a double A-type four-level system with a widely separated excited doublet. It is shown that when the two pulsed lasers with Rabi frequencies nearly comparable to the energy separation of the doublet are tuned to the particular frequency where the condition for quantum interference is satisfied, the very low transfer efficiency due to the nonadiabatic coupling between the two degenerate adiabatic states could be enhanced significantly with the increase of the collisional decay rates in a moderate range. The enhanced transfer efficiency results from the weakening of the nonadiabatic coupling between the two degenerate adiabatic states realized through collision-induced destructive quantum interference.
A geometric criterion for adiabatic chaos
Kaper, T.J. ); Kovacic, G. )
1994-03-01
Chaos in adiabatic Hamiltonian systems is a recent discovery and a pervasive phenomenon in physics. In this work, a geometric criterion is discussed based on the theory of action from classical mechanics to detect the existence of Smale horseshoe chaos in adiabatic systems. It is used to show that generic adiabatic planar Hamiltonian systems exhibit stochastic dynamics in large regions of phase space. To illustrate the method, results are obtained for three problems concerning relativistic particle dynamics, fluid mechanics, and passage through resonance, results which either could not be obtained with existing methods, or which were difficult and analytically impractical to obtain with them.
Heating and cooling in adiabatic mixing process
Zhou Jing; Zou Xubo; Guo Guangcan; Cai Zi
2010-12-15
We study the effect of interaction on the temperature change in the process of adiabatic mixing of two components of Fermi gases using the real-space Bogoliubov-de Gennes method. We find that in the process of adiabatic mixing, the competition between the adiabatic expansion and the attractive interaction makes it possible to cool or heat the system depending on the strength of the interaction and the initial temperature of the system. The changes of the temperature in a bulk system and in a trapped system are investigated.
Logic operations in a doped solid driven by stimulated Raman adiabatic passage
Beil, F.; Halfmann, T.; Remacle, F.; Levine, R. D.
2011-03-15
We experimentally demonstrate classical-optical logic operations in a solid-state memory, coherently driven by variants of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP). Cyclic transfer of atomic populations permits the implementation of a flip-flop or xor gate, with up to eight optical input operations. Observation of stimulated emission as an additional output channel enables the setup of a STIRAP-driven full adder for three optical input bits (or two input bits and a memory bit).
Laser-nucleus interactions: The quasi-adiabatic regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pálffy, Adriana; Buss, Oliver; Hoefer, Axel; Weidenmüller, Hans A.
2015-10-01
The interaction between nuclei and a strong zeptosecond laser pulse with coherent MeV photons is investigated theoretically. We provide a first semiquantitative study of the quasi-adiabatic regime where the photon absorption rate is comparable to the nuclear equilibration rate. In that regime, multiple photon absorption leads to the formation of a compound nucleus in the so-far unexplored regime of excitation energies several hundred MeV above the yrast line. The temporal dynamics of the process is investigated by means of a set of master equations that account for dipole absorption, stimulated dipole emission, neutron decay, and induced fission in a chain of nuclei. That set is solved numerically by means of state-of-the-art matrix exponential methods also used in nuclear fuel burn-up and radioactivity transport calculations. Our quantitative estimates predict the excitation path and range of nuclei reached by neutron decay and provide relevant information for the layout of future experiments.
Simulation of periodically focused, adiabatic thermal beams
Chen, C.; Akylas, T. R.; Barton, T. J.; Field, D. M.; Lang, K. M.; Mok, R. V.
2012-12-21
Self-consistent particle-in-cell simulations are performed to verify earlier theoretical predictions of adiabatic thermal beams in a periodic solenoidal magnetic focusing field [K.R. Samokhvalova, J. Zhou and C. Chen, Phys. Plasma 14, 103102 (2007); J. Zhou, K.R. Samokhvalova and C. Chen, Phys. Plasma 15, 023102 (2008)]. In particular, results are obtained for adiabatic thermal beams that do not rotate in the Larmor frame. For such beams, the theoretical predictions of the rms beam envelope, the conservations of the rms thermal emittances, the adiabatic equation of state, and the Debye length are verified in the simulations. Furthermore, the adiabatic thermal beam is found be stable in the parameter regime where the simulations are performed.
Adiabatic Motion of Fault Tolerant Qubits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drummond, David Edward
This work proposes and analyzes the adiabatic motion of fault tolerant qubits in two systems as candidates for the building blocks of a quantum computer. The first proposal examines a pair of electron spins in double quantum dots, finding that the leading source of decoherence, hyperfine dephasing, can be suppressed by adiabatic rotation of the dots in real space. The additional spin-orbit effects introduced by this motion are analyzed, simulated, and found to result in an infidelity below the error-correction threshold. The second proposal examines topological qubits formed by Majorana zero modes theorized to exist at the ends of semiconductor nanowires coupled to conventional superconductors. A model is developed to design adiabatic movements of the Majorana bound states to produce entangled qubits. Analysis and simulations indicate that these adiabatic operations can also be used to demonstrate entanglement experimentally by testing Bell's theorem.
General conditions for quantum adiabatic evolution
Comparat, Daniel
2009-07-15
Adiabaticity occurs when, during its evolution, a physical system remains in the instantaneous eigenstate of the Hamiltonian. Unfortunately, existing results, such as the quantum adiabatic theorem based on a slow down evolution [H({epsilon}t),{epsilon}{yields}0], are insufficient to describe an evolution driven by the Hamiltonian H(t) itself. Here we derive general criteria and exact bounds, for the state and its phase, ensuring an adiabatic evolution for any Hamiltonian H(t). As a corollary, we demonstrate that the commonly used condition of a slow Hamiltonian variation rate, compared to the spectral gap, is indeed sufficient to ensure adiabaticity but only when the Hamiltonian is real and nonoscillating (for instance, containing exponential or polynomial but no sinusoidal functions)
Adiabatic Quantum Search in Open Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wild, Dominik S.; Gopalakrishnan, Sarang; Knap, Michael; Yao, Norman Y.; Lukin, Mikhail D.
2016-10-01
Adiabatic quantum algorithms represent a promising approach to universal quantum computation. In isolated systems, a key limitation to such algorithms is the presence of avoided level crossings, where gaps become extremely small. In open quantum systems, the fundamental robustness of adiabatic algorithms remains unresolved. Here, we study the dynamics near an avoided level crossing associated with the adiabatic quantum search algorithm, when the system is coupled to a generic environment. At zero temperature, we find that the algorithm remains scalable provided the noise spectral density of the environment decays sufficiently fast at low frequencies. By contrast, higher order scattering processes render the algorithm inefficient at any finite temperature regardless of the spectral density, implying that no quantum speedup can be achieved. Extensions and implications for other adiabatic quantum algorithms will be discussed.
Adiabatic limits on Riemannian Heisenberg manifolds
Yakovlev, A A
2008-02-28
An asymptotic formula is obtained for the distribution function of the spectrum of the Laplace operator, in the adiabatic limit for the foliation defined by the orbits of an invariant flow on a compact Riemannian Heisenberg manifold. Bibliography: 21 titles.
Adiabatic invariance of oscillons/I -balls
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawasaki, Masahiro; Takahashi, Fuminobu; Takeda, Naoyuki
2015-11-01
Real scalar fields are known to fragment into spatially localized and long-lived solitons called oscillons or I -balls. We prove the adiabatic invariance of the oscillons/I -balls for a potential that allows periodic motion even in the presence of non-negligible spatial gradient energy. We show that such a potential is uniquely determined to be the quadratic one with a logarithmic correction, for which the oscillons/I -balls are absolutely stable. For slightly different forms of the scalar potential dominated by the quadratic one, the oscillons/I -balls are only quasistable, because the adiabatic charge is only approximately conserved. We check the conservation of the adiabatic charge of the I -balls in numerical simulation by slowly varying the coefficient of logarithmic corrections. This unambiguously shows that the longevity of oscillons/I -balls is due to the adiabatic invariance.
Decoherence and adiabatic transport in semiconductor quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Switkes, Michael
2000-10-01
I present research on ballistic electron transport in lateral GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dots connected to the environment with leads supporting one or more fully transmitting quantum modes. The first part of this dissertation examines electron the phenomena which mediate the transition from quantum mechanical to classical behavior in these quantum dots. Measurements of electron phase coherence time based on the magnitude of weak localization correction are presented as a function both of temperature and of applied bias. The coherence time is found to depend on temperature approximately as a sum of two power laws, tauφ ≈ AT-1 + BT-2, in agreement with the prediction for diffusive two dimensional systems but not with predictions for closed quantum dots or ballistic 2D systems. The effects of a large applied bias can be described with an elevated effective electron temperature calculated from the balance of Joule heating and cooling by Wiedemann-Franz out diffusion of hot electrons. The limits this imposes for quantum dot based technologies are examined through the detailed analysis of a quantum dot magnetometer. The second part of the work presented here focuses on a novel form of electron transport, adiabatic quantum electron pumping, in which a current is driven by cyclic changes in the wave function of a mesoscopic system rather than by an externally imposed bias. After a brief review of other mechanisms which produce a dc current from an ac excitation, measurements of adiabatic pumping are presented. The pumped current (or voltage) is sinusoidal in the phase difference between the two ac voltages deforming the dot potential and fluctuates in both magnitude and direction with small changes in external parameters such as magnetic field. Dependencies of pumping on the strength of the deformations, temperature, and breaking of time-reversal symmetry are also investigated.
Adiabatic Demagnetization Cooler For Far Infrared Detector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sato, Akio; Yazawa, Takashi; Yamamoto, Junya
1988-11-01
An small adiabatic demagnetization cooler for an astronomical far infrared detector has been built. Single crystals of manganese ammonium sulphate and chromium potassium alum, were prepared as magnetic substances. The superconducting magnet was indirectly cooled and operated by small current up to 13.3 A, the maximum field being 3.5 T. As a preliminary step, adiabatic demagnetization to zero field was implemented. The lowest temperature obtained was 0.5 K, for 5.0 K initial temperature.
Symmetry of the Adiabatic Condition in the Piston Problem
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anacleto, Joaquim; Ferreira, J. M.
2011-01-01
This study addresses a controversial issue in the adiabatic piston problem, namely that of the piston being adiabatic when it is fixed but no longer so when it can move freely. It is shown that this apparent contradiction arises from the usual definition of adiabatic condition. The issue is addressed here by requiring the adiabatic condition to be…
Hierarchical theory of quantum adiabatic evolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Qi; Gong, Jiangbin; Wu, Biao
2014-12-01
Quantum adiabatic evolution is a dynamical evolution of a quantum system under slow external driving. According to the quantum adiabatic theorem, no transitions occur between nondegenerate instantaneous energy eigenstates in such a dynamical evolution. However, this is true only when the driving rate is infinitesimally small. For a small nonzero driving rate, there are generally small transition probabilities between the energy eigenstates. We develop a classical mechanics framework to address the small deviations from the quantum adiabatic theorem order by order. A hierarchy of Hamiltonians is constructed iteratively with the zeroth-order Hamiltonian being determined by the original system Hamiltonian. The kth-order deviations are governed by a kth-order Hamiltonian, which depends on the time derivatives of the adiabatic parameters up to the kth-order. Two simple examples, the Landau-Zener model and a spin-1/2 particle in a rotating magnetic field, are used to illustrate our hierarchical theory. Our analysis also exposes a deep, previously unknown connection between classical adiabatic theory and quantum adiabatic theory.
Laboratory Measurements of Adiabatic and Isothermal Processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McNairy, W. W.
1997-04-01
Adiabatic and isothermal measurements on various of gases are made possible by using the Adiabatic Gas Law apparatus made by PASCO Scientific(Much of this work was published by the author in "The Physics Teacher", vol. 34, March 1996, p. 178-80.). By using a computer interface, undergraduates are able to data for monatomic, diatomic and polyatomic gases for both compression and expansion processes. Designed principally to obtain adiabatic data, the apparatus may be easily modified for use in isothermal processes. The various sets of data are imported into a spreadsheet program where fits may be made to the ideal gas law and the adiabatic gas law. Excellent results are obtained for the natural logarithm of pressure versus the natural logarithm of volume for both the isothermal data (expected slope equal to -1 in all cases) and the adiabatic data (slope equal to -1 times the ratio of specific heats for the particular gas). An overview of the lab procedure used at VMI will be presented along with data obtained for several adiabatic and isothermal processes.
Influence of dimensionality on deep tunneling rates: A study based on the hydrogen-nickel system
Baer, R.; Zeiri, Y.; Kosloff, R.
1996-08-01
The tunneling of subsurface hydrogen into a surface site of a nickel crystal is used to investigate deep tunneling phenomena. A method to calculate tunneling lifetimes based on an energy and time filter is developed, enabling converged lifetimes differing by 14 orders of magnitude. It is found that the reduced dimensional approximation always overestimates the tunneling rate. The vibrational adiabatic correction improves dramatically the one-dimensional calculation but nevertheless overestimates the cases of deep tunneling. The isotope effect is studied, pointing to experimental implications. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Lindsay, Stuart; He, Jin; Sankey, Otto; Hapala, Prokop; Jelinek, Pavel; Zhang, Peiming; Chang, Shuai; Huang, Shuo
2010-01-01
Single molecules in a tunnel junction can now be interrogated reliably using chemically-functionalized electrodes. Monitoring stochastic bonding fluctuations between a ligand bound to one electrode and its target bound to a second electrode (“tethered molecule-pair” configuration) gives insight into the nature of the intermolecular bonding at a single molecule-pair level, and defines the requirements for reproducible tunneling data. Simulations show that there is an instability in the tunnel gap at large currents, and this results in a multiplicity of contacts with a corresponding spread in the measured currents. At small currents (i.e. large gaps) the gap is stable, and functionalizing a pair of electrodes with recognition reagents (the “free analyte” configuration) can generate a distinct tunneling signal when an analyte molecule is trapped in the gap. This opens up a new interface between chemistry and electronics with immediate implications for rapid sequencing of single DNA molecules. PMID:20522930
Assessment of total efficiency in adiabatic engines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mitianiec, W.
2016-09-01
The paper presents influence of ceramic coating in all surfaces of the combustion chamber of SI four-stroke engine on working parameters mainly on heat balance and total efficiency. Three cases of engine were considered: standard without ceramic coating, fully adiabatic combustion chamber and engine with different thickness of ceramic coating. Consideration of adiabatic or semi-adiabatic engine was connected with mathematical modelling of heat transfer from the cylinder gas to the cooling medium. This model takes into account changeable convection coefficient based on the experimental formulas of Woschni, heat conductivity of multi-layer walls and also small effect of radiation in SI engines. The simulation model was elaborated with full heat transfer to the cooling medium and unsteady gas flow in the engine intake and exhaust systems. The computer program taking into account 0D model of engine processes in the cylinder and 1D model of gas flow was elaborated for determination of many basic engine thermodynamic parameters for Suzuki DR-Z400S 400 cc SI engine. The paper presents calculation results of influence of the ceramic coating thickness on indicated pressure, specific fuel consumption, cooling and exhaust heat losses. Next it were presented comparisons of effective power, heat losses in the cooling and exhaust systems, total efficiency in function of engine rotational speed and also comparison of temperature inside the cylinder for standard, semi-adiabatic and full adiabatic engine. On the basis of the achieved results it was found higher total efficiency of adiabatic engines at 2500 rpm from 27% for standard engine to 37% for full adiabatic engine.
Graph isomorphism and adiabatic quantum computing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaitan, Frank; Clark, Lane
2014-02-01
In the graph isomorphism (GI) problem two N-vertex graphs G and G' are given and the task is to determine whether there exists a permutation of the vertices of G that preserves adjacency and transforms G →G'. If yes, then G and G' are said to be isomorphic; otherwise they are nonisomorphic. The GI problem is an important problem in computer science and is thought to be of comparable difficulty to integer factorization. In this paper we present a quantum algorithm that solves arbitrary instances of GI and which also provides an approach to determining all automorphisms of a given graph. We show how the GI problem can be converted to a combinatorial optimization problem that can be solved using adiabatic quantum evolution. We numerically simulate the algorithm's quantum dynamics and show that it correctly (i) distinguishes nonisomorphic graphs; (ii) recognizes isomorphic graphs and determines the permutation(s) that connect them; and (iii) finds the automorphism group of a given graph G. We then discuss the GI quantum algorithm's experimental implementation, and close by showing how it can be leveraged to give a quantum algorithm that solves arbitrary instances of the NP-complete subgraph isomorphism problem. The computational complexity of an adiabatic quantum algorithm is largely determined by the minimum energy gap Δ (N) separating the ground and first-excited states in the limit of large problem size N ≫1. Calculating Δ (N) in this limit is a fundamental open problem in adiabatic quantum computing, and so it is not possible to determine the computational complexity of adiabatic quantum algorithms in general, nor consequently, of the specific adiabatic quantum algorithms presented here. Adiabatic quantum computing has been shown to be equivalent to the circuit model of quantum computing, and so development of adiabatic quantum algorithms continues to be of great interest.
Tunneling in strongly correlated materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maltseva, Marianna
Tunneling studies of strongly correlated materials provide information about the nature of electronic correlations, which is vital for investigation of emergent materials at the microscopic level. In particular, scanning tunneling spectroscopy/microscopy (STS/STM) studies have made major contributions to understanding cuprate superconductors (66), yet there is a sense that huge STM data arrays contain much more precious information to be extracted and analyzed. One of the most pressing questions in the field is how to improve the data analysis, so as to extract more information from STM data. A dominant trend in STM data analysis has been to interpret the data within a particular microscopic model, while using only basic data analysis tools. To decrease the reliance of the STM data interpretation on particular microscopic models, further advances in data analysis methods are necessary. In Chapter 2 of this Thesis, we discuss how one can extract information about the phase of the order parameter from STM data. We show that symmetrized and anti-symmetrized correlators of local density of states give rise to observable coherence factor effects. In Chapter 3, we apply this framework to analyze the recent scanning tunneling experiments on an underdoped cuprate superconductor Ca2-xNaxCuO2Cl2 by T. Hanaguri et al. (60). In Chapter 4, we propose a model for nodal quasiparticle scattering in a disordered vortex lattice. Recently, scanning tunneling studies of a Kondo lattice material URu2Si2 became possible (117). If it proves possible to apply scanning tunneling spectroscopy to Kondo lattice materials, then remarkable new opportunities in the ongoing investigation may emerge. In Chapter 5, we examine the effect of co-tunneling to develop a theory of tunneling into a Kondo lattice. We find that the interference between the direct tunneling and the co-tunneling channels leads to a novel asymmetric lineshape, which has two peaks and a gap. The presence of the peaks suggests
Accurate adiabatic correction in the hydrogen molecule
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pachucki, Krzysztof; Komasa, Jacek
2014-12-01
A new formalism for the accurate treatment of adiabatic effects in the hydrogen molecule is presented, in which the electronic wave function is expanded in the James-Coolidge basis functions. Systematic increase in the size of the basis set permits estimation of the accuracy. Numerical results for the adiabatic correction to the Born-Oppenheimer interaction energy reveal a relative precision of 10-12 at an arbitrary internuclear distance. Such calculations have been performed for 88 internuclear distances in the range of 0 < R ⩽ 12 bohrs to construct the adiabatic correction potential and to solve the nuclear Schrödinger equation. Finally, the adiabatic correction to the dissociation energies of all rovibrational levels in H2, HD, HT, D2, DT, and T2 has been determined. For the ground state of H2 the estimated precision is 3 × 10-7 cm-1, which is almost three orders of magnitude higher than that of the best previous result. The achieved accuracy removes the adiabatic contribution from the overall error budget of the present day theoretical predictions for the rovibrational levels.
Accurate adiabatic correction in the hydrogen molecule
Pachucki, Krzysztof; Komasa, Jacek
2014-12-14
A new formalism for the accurate treatment of adiabatic effects in the hydrogen molecule is presented, in which the electronic wave function is expanded in the James-Coolidge basis functions. Systematic increase in the size of the basis set permits estimation of the accuracy. Numerical results for the adiabatic correction to the Born-Oppenheimer interaction energy reveal a relative precision of 10{sup −12} at an arbitrary internuclear distance. Such calculations have been performed for 88 internuclear distances in the range of 0 < R ⩽ 12 bohrs to construct the adiabatic correction potential and to solve the nuclear Schrödinger equation. Finally, the adiabatic correction to the dissociation energies of all rovibrational levels in H{sub 2}, HD, HT, D{sub 2}, DT, and T{sub 2} has been determined. For the ground state of H{sub 2} the estimated precision is 3 × 10{sup −7} cm{sup −1}, which is almost three orders of magnitude higher than that of the best previous result. The achieved accuracy removes the adiabatic contribution from the overall error budget of the present day theoretical predictions for the rovibrational levels.
Accurate adiabatic correction in the hydrogen molecule.
Pachucki, Krzysztof; Komasa, Jacek
2014-12-14
A new formalism for the accurate treatment of adiabatic effects in the hydrogen molecule is presented, in which the electronic wave function is expanded in the James-Coolidge basis functions. Systematic increase in the size of the basis set permits estimation of the accuracy. Numerical results for the adiabatic correction to the Born-Oppenheimer interaction energy reveal a relative precision of 10(-12) at an arbitrary internuclear distance. Such calculations have been performed for 88 internuclear distances in the range of 0 < R ⩽ 12 bohrs to construct the adiabatic correction potential and to solve the nuclear Schrödinger equation. Finally, the adiabatic correction to the dissociation energies of all rovibrational levels in H2, HD, HT, D2, DT, and T2 has been determined. For the ground state of H2 the estimated precision is 3 × 10(-7) cm(-1), which is almost three orders of magnitude higher than that of the best previous result. The achieved accuracy removes the adiabatic contribution from the overall error budget of the present day theoretical predictions for the rovibrational levels. PMID:25494728
Nonadiabatic Tunneling in Photodissociation of Phenol.
Xie, Changjian; Ma, Jianyi; Zhu, Xiaolei; Yarkony, David R; Xie, Daiqian; Guo, Hua
2016-06-29
Using recently developed full-dimensional coupled quasi-diabatic ab initio potential energy surfaces including four electronic ((1)ππ, (1)ππ*, 1(1)πσ*, and 2(1)πσ*) states, the tunneling dynamics of phenol photodissociation via its first excited singlet state (S1 ← S0) is investigated quantum mechanically using a three-dimensional model. The lifetimes of several low-lying vibrational states are examined and compared with experiment. The deuteration of the phenoxyl hydrogen is found to dramatically increase the lifetime, attesting to the tunneling nature of the nonadiabatic dissociation. Importantly, it is shown that owing to the conical intersection topography tunneling in this system cannot be described in the standard adiabatic approximation, which eschews the geometric phase effect since the nonadiabatically computed lifetimes, validated by comparison with experiment, differ significantly from those obtained in that limit.
Energy efficiency of adiabatic superconductor logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takeuchi, Naoki; Yamanashi, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki
2015-01-01
Adiabatic superconductor logic (ASL), including adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron (AQFP) logic, exhibits high energy efficiency because its bit energy can be decreased below the thermal energy through adiabatic switching operations. In the present paper, we present the general scaling laws of ASL and compare the energy efficiency of ASL with those of other energy-efficient logics. Also, we discuss the minimum energy-delay product (EDP) of ASL at finite temperature. Our study shows that there is a maximum temperature at which the EDP can reach the quantum limit given by ħ/2, which is dependent on the superconductor material and the Josephson junction quality, and that it is reasonable to operate ASL at cryogenic temperatures in order to achieve an EDP that approaches ħ/2.
Adiabatic approximation for the density matrix
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Band, Yehuda B.
1992-05-01
An adiabatic approximation for the Liouville density-matrix equation which includes decay terms is developed. The adiabatic approximation employs the eigenvectors of the non-normal Liouville operator. The approximation is valid when there exists a complete set of eigenvectors of the non-normal Liouville operator (i.e., the eigenvectors span the density-matrix space), the time rate of change of the Liouville operator is small, and an auxiliary matrix is nonsingular. Numerical examples are presented involving efficient population transfer in a molecule by stimulated Raman scattering, with the intermediate level of the molecule decaying on a time scale that is fast compared with the pulse durations of the pump and Stokes fields. The adiabatic density-matrix approximation can be simply used to determine the density matrix for atomic or molecular systems interacting with cw electromagnetic fields when spontaneous emission or other decay mechanisms prevail.
Adiabaticity and viscosity in deep mantle convection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Quareni, F.; Yuen, D. A.; Saari, M. R.
1986-01-01
A study has been conducted of steady convection with adiabatic and viscous heating for variable viscosity in the Boussinesq limit using the mean-field theory. A strong nonlinear coupling is found between the thermodynamic constants governing adiabatic heating and the rheological parameters. The range of rheological values for which adiabaticity would occur throughout the mantle has been established. Too large an activation volume, greater than 6 cu cm/mol for the cases examined, would produce unreasonably high temperature at the bottom of the mantle (greater than 6000 K) and superadiabatic gradients, especially in the lower mantle. Radiogenic heating plays a profound role in controlling dynamically mantle temperatures. Present values for the averaged mantle heat production would yield objectionably high temperatures in the lower mantle.
Nonadiabatic exchange dynamics during adiabatic frequency sweeps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barbara, Thomas M.
2016-04-01
A Bloch equation analysis that includes relaxation and exchange effects during an adiabatic frequency swept pulse is presented. For a large class of sweeps, relaxation can be incorporated using simple first order perturbation theory. For anisochronous exchange, new expressions are derived for exchange augmented rotating frame relaxation. For isochronous exchange between sites with distinct relaxation rate constants outside the extreme narrowing limit, simple criteria for adiabatic exchange are derived and demonstrate that frequency sweeps commonly in use may not be adiabatic with regard to exchange unless the exchange rates are much larger than the relaxation rates. Otherwise, accurate assessment of the sensitivity to exchange dynamics will require numerical integration of the rate equations. Examples of this situation are given for experimentally relevant parameters believed to hold for in-vivo tissue. These results are of significance in the study of exchange induced contrast in magnetic resonance imaging.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsuo, Norihiro; Doko, Naoki; Takada, Tetsuro; Saito, Hidekazu; Yuasa, Shinji
2016-09-01
We fabricate magnetic tunnel junctions with fully epitaxial Fe (001 )/GaOx(001 )/Fe (001 ) structure, where the GaOx is a wide band-gap semiconductor with a cubic spinel-type crystal structure. Tunneling magnetoresistance ratios up to 92% (125%) are observed at room temperature (20 K), which evidently indicates the existence of a spin-polarized coherent tunneling. The observed MR ratio is the highest among the reported magnetic tunnel junctions with a semiconducting tunnel barrier and ferromagnetic metal electrodes. Such a single-crystalline semiconductor tunnel barrier that shows a high MR ratio is an essential building block for a vertical-type spin field-effect transistor.
Dynamical quenching of tunneling in molecular magnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
José Santander, María; Nunez, Alvaro S.; Roldán-Molina, A.; Troncoso, Roberto E.
2015-12-01
It is shown that a single molecular magnet placed in a rapidly oscillating magnetic field displays the phenomenon of quenching of tunneling processes. The results open a way to manipulate the quantum states of molecular magnets by means of radiation in the terahertz range. Our analysis separates the time evolution into slow and fast components thereby obtaining an effective theory for the slow dynamics. This effective theory presents quenching of the tunnel effect, in particular, stands out its difference with the so-called coherent destruction of tunneling. We support our prediction with numerical evidence based on an exact solution of Schrödinger's equation.
On adiabatic invariant in generalized Galileon theories
Ema, Yohei; Jinno, Ryusuke; Nakayama, Kazunori; Mukaida, Kyohei E-mail: jinno@hep-th.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp E-mail: kazunori@hep-th.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp
2015-10-01
We consider background dynamics of generalized Galileon theories in the context of inflation, where gravity and inflaton are non-minimally coupled to each other. In the inflaton oscillation regime, the Hubble parameter and energy density oscillate violently in many cases, in contrast to the Einstein gravity with minimally coupled inflaton. However, we find that there is an adiabatic invariant in the inflaton oscillation regime in any generalized Galileon theory. This adiabatic invariant is useful in estimating the expansion law of the universe and also the particle production rate due to the oscillation of the Hubble parameter.
Spontaneous emission in stimulated Raman adiabatic passage
Ivanov, P. A.; Vitanov, N. V.; Bergmann, K.
2005-11-15
This work explores the effect of spontaneous emission on the population transfer efficiency in stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP). The approach uses adiabatic elimination of weakly coupled density matrix elements in the Liouville equation, from which a very accurate analytic approximation is derived. The loss of population transfer efficiency is found to decrease exponentially with the factor {omega}{sub 0}{sup 2}/{gamma}, where {gamma} is the spontaneous emission rate and {omega}{sub 0} is the peak Rabi frequency. The transfer efficiency increases with the pulse delay and reaches a steady value. For large pulse delay and large spontaneous emission rate STIRAP degenerates into optical pumping.
Adiabatic Hyperspherical Analysis of Realistic Nuclear Potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daily, K. M.; Kievsky, Alejandro; Greene, Chris H.
2015-12-01
Using the hyperspherical adiabatic method with the realistic nuclear potentials Argonne V14, Argonne V18, and Argonne V18 with the Urbana IX three-body potential, we calculate the adiabatic potentials and the triton bound state energies. We find that a discrete variable representation with the slow variable discretization method along the hyperradial degree of freedom results in energies consistent with the literature. However, using a Laguerre basis results in missing energy, even when extrapolated to an infinite number of basis functions and channels. We do not include the isospin T = 3/2 contribution in our analysis.
Complexity of the Quantum Adiabatic Algorithm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hen, Itay
2013-01-01
The Quantum Adiabatic Algorithm (QAA) has been proposed as a mechanism for efficiently solving optimization problems on a quantum computer. Since adiabatic computation is analog in nature and does not require the design and use of quantum gates, it can be thought of as a simpler and perhaps more profound method for performing quantum computations that might also be easier to implement experimentally. While these features have generated substantial research in QAA, to date there is still a lack of solid evidence that the algorithm can outperform classical optimization algorithms.
Josephson inplane and tunneling currents in bilayer quantum Hall system
Ezawa, Z. F.; Tsitsishvili, G.; Sawada, A.
2013-12-04
A Bose-Einstein condensation is formed by composite bosons in the quantum Hall state. A composite boson carries the fundamental charge (–e). We investigate Josephson tunneling of such charges in the bilayer quantum Hall system at the total filling ν = 1. We show the existence of the critical current for the tunneling current to be coherent and dissipationless in tunneling experiments with various geometries.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lawrence, C. R.; Church, S.; Gaier, T.; Lai, R.; Ruf, C.; Wollack, E.
2009-03-01
Coherent systems offer significant advantages in simplicity, testability, control of systematics, and cost. Although quantum noise sets the fundamental limit to their performance at high frequencies, recent breakthroughs suggest that near-quantum-limited noise up to 150 or even 200 GHz could be realized within a few years. If the demands of component separation can be met with frequencies below 200 GHz, coherent systems will be strong competitors for a space CMB polarization mission. The rapid development of digital correlator capability now makes space interferometers with many hundreds of elements possible. Given the advantages of coherent interferometers in suppressing systematic effects, such systems deserve serious study.
Multi-qubit non-adiabatic holonomic controlled quantum gates in decoherence-free subspaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Shi; Cui, Wen-Xue; Guo, Qi; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhu, Ai-Dong; Zhang, Shou
2016-09-01
Non-adiabatic holonomic quantum gate in decoherence-free subspaces is of greatly practical importance due to its built-in fault tolerance, coherence stabilization virtues, and short run-time. Here, we propose some compact schemes to implement two- and three-qubit controlled unitary quantum gates and Fredkin gate. For the controlled unitary quantum gates, the unitary operator acting on the target qubit is an arbitrary single-qubit gate operation. The controlled quantum gates can be directly implemented by utilizing non-adiabatic holonomy in decoherence-free subspaces and the required resource for the decoherence-free subspace encoding is minimal by using only two neighboring physical qubits undergoing collective dephasing to encode a logical qubit.
Semiclassical Monte-Carlo approach for modelling non-adiabatic dynamics in extended molecules
Gorshkov, Vyacheslav N.; Tretiak, Sergei; Mozyrsky, Dmitry
2013-01-01
Modelling of non-adiabatic dynamics in extended molecular systems and solids is a next frontier of atomistic electronic structure theory. The underlying numerical algorithms should operate only with a few quantities (that can be efficiently obtained from quantum chemistry), provide a controlled approximation (which can be systematically improved) and capture important phenomena such as branching (multiple products), detailed balance and evolution of electronic coherences. Here we propose a new algorithm based on Monte-Carlo sampling of classical trajectories, which satisfies the above requirements and provides a general framework for existing surface hopping methods for non-adiabatic dynamics simulations. In particular, our algorithm can be viewed as a post-processing technique for analysing numerical results obtained from the conventional surface hopping approaches. Presented numerical tests for several model problems demonstrate efficiency and accuracy of the new method. PMID:23864100
Semiclassical Monte-Carlo approach for modelling non-adiabatic dynamics in extended molecules.
Gorshkov, Vyacheslav N; Tretiak, Sergei; Mozyrsky, Dmitry
2013-01-01
Modelling of non-adiabatic dynamics in extended molecular systems and solids is a next frontier of atomistic electronic structure theory. The underlying numerical algorithms should operate only with a few quantities (that can be efficiently obtained from quantum chemistry), provide a controlled approximation (which can be systematically improved) and capture important phenomena such as branching (multiple products), detailed balance and evolution of electronic coherences. Here we propose a new algorithm based on Monte-Carlo sampling of classical trajectories, which satisfies the above requirements and provides a general framework for existing surface hopping methods for non-adiabatic dynamics simulations. In particular, our algorithm can be viewed as a post-processing technique for analysing numerical results obtained from the conventional surface hopping approaches. Presented numerical tests for several model problems demonstrate efficiency and accuracy of the new method. PMID:23864100
Multi-qubit non-adiabatic holonomic controlled quantum gates in decoherence-free subspaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Shi; Cui, Wen-Xue; Guo, Qi; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhu, Ai-Dong; Zhang, Shou
2016-06-01
Non-adiabatic holonomic quantum gate in decoherence-free subspaces is of greatly practical importance due to its built-in fault tolerance, coherence stabilization virtues, and short run-time. Here, we propose some compact schemes to implement two- and three-qubit controlled unitary quantum gates and Fredkin gate. For the controlled unitary quantum gates, the unitary operator acting on the target qubit is an arbitrary single-qubit gate operation. The controlled quantum gates can be directly implemented by utilizing non-adiabatic holonomy in decoherence-free subspaces and the required resource for the decoherence-free subspace encoding is minimal by using only two neighboring physical qubits undergoing collective dephasing to encode a logical qubit.
Towards fault tolerant adiabatic quantum computation.
Lidar, Daniel A
2008-04-25
I show how to protect adiabatic quantum computation (AQC) against decoherence and certain control errors, using a hybrid methodology involving dynamical decoupling, subsystem and stabilizer codes, and energy gaps. Corresponding error bounds are derived. As an example, I show how to perform decoherence-protected AQC against local noise using at most two-body interactions.
Dynamical aspects of an adiabatic piston.
Munakata, T; Ogawa, H
2001-09-01
Dynamical aspects of an adiabatic piston are investigated, based on the mass ratio expansion of the master equation for the piston velocity distribution function. Simple theory for piston motion and relaxation of an ideal gas in a cylinder turns out to reproduce our numerical experiments quantitatively.
Adiabatic reversible compression: a molecular view
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miranda, E. N.
2002-07-01
The adiabatic compression (or expansion) of an ideal gas has been analysed. Using the kinetic theory of gases the usual relation between temperature and volume is obtained, while textbooks follow a thermodynamic approach. In this way we show, once again, the agreement between a macroscopic view (thermodynamics) and a microscopic one (kinetic theory).
Dynamical aspects of an adiabatic piston
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Munakata, Toyonori; Ogawa, Hideki
2001-09-01
Dynamical aspects of an adiabatic piston are investigated, based on the mass ratio expansion of the master equation for the piston velocity distribution function. Simple theory for piston motion and relaxation of an ideal gas in a cylinder turns out to reproduce our numerical experiments quantitatively.
Adiabatic Compression in a Fire Syringe.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hayn, Carl H.; Baird, Scott C.
1985-01-01
Suggests using better materials in fire syringes to obtain more effective results during demonstrations which show the elevation in temperature upon a very rapid (adiabatic) compression of air. Also describes an experiment (using ignition temperatures) which introduces students to the use of thermocouples for high temperature measurements. (DH)
Time dependence of adiabatic particle number
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dabrowski, Robert; Dunne, Gerald V.
2016-09-01
We consider quantum field theoretic systems subject to a time-dependent perturbation, and discuss the question of defining a time-dependent particle number not just at asymptotic early and late times, but also during the perturbation. Naïvely, this is not a well-defined notion for such a nonequilibrium process, as the particle number at intermediate times depends on a basis choice of reference states with respect to which particles and antiparticles are defined, even though the final late-time particle number is independent of this basis choice. The basis choice is associated with a particular truncation of the adiabatic expansion. The adiabatic expansion is divergent, and we show that if this divergent expansion is truncated at its optimal order, a universal time dependence is obtained, confirming a general result of Dingle and Berry. This optimally truncated particle number provides a clear picture of quantum interference effects for perturbations with nontrivial temporal substructure. We illustrate these results using several equivalent definitions of adiabatic particle number: the Bogoliubov, Riccati, spectral function and Schrödinger picture approaches. In each approach, the particle number may be expressed in terms of the tiny deviations between the exact and adiabatic solutions of the Ermakov-Milne equation for the associated time-dependent oscillators.
Apparatus to Measure Adiabatic and Isothermal Processes.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lamb, D. W.; White, G. M.
1996-01-01
Describes a simple manual apparatus designed to serve as an effective demonstration of the differences between isothermal and adiabatic processes for the general or elementary physics student. Enables students to verify Boyle's law for slow processes and identify the departure from this law for rapid processes and can also be used to give a clear…
Adiabatic Mass Parameters for Spontaneous Fission
Baran, A.; Sheikh, J. A.; Nazarewicz, Witold
2009-01-01
The collective mass tensor derived from the adiabatic time-dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory, perturbative cranking approximation, and the Gaussian overlap approximation to the generator-coordinate method is discussed. Illustrative calculations are carried out for ^{252}Fm using the nuclear density functional theory with Skyrme interaction SkM* and seniority pairing.
Coherence current, coherence vortex, and the conservation law of coherence.
Wang, Wei; Takeda, Mitsuo
2006-06-01
Introducing scalar and vector densities for a mutual coherence function, we present a new conservation law for optical coherence of scalar wave fields in the form of a continuity equation. This coherence conservation law provides new insights into topological phenomena for the complex coherence function. Some properties related to the newly introduced coherence vector density, such as a circulating coherence current associated with a coherence vortex, are investigated both theoretically and experimentally for the first time.
Communication: Adiabatic and non-adiabatic electron-nuclear motion: Quantum and classical dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albert, Julian; Kaiser, Dustin; Engel, Volker
2016-05-01
Using a model for coupled electronic-nuclear motion we investigate the range from negligible to strong non-adiabatic coupling. In the adiabatic case, the quantum dynamics proceeds in a single electronic state, whereas for strong coupling a complete transition between two adiabatic electronic states takes place. It is shown that in all coupling regimes the short-time wave-packet dynamics can be described using ensembles of classical trajectories in the phase space spanned by electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom. We thus provide an example which documents that the quantum concept of non-adiabatic transitions is not necessarily needed if electronic and nuclear motion is treated on the same footing.
Communication: Adiabatic and non-adiabatic electron-nuclear motion: Quantum and classical dynamics.
Albert, Julian; Kaiser, Dustin; Engel, Volker
2016-05-01
Using a model for coupled electronic-nuclear motion we investigate the range from negligible to strong non-adiabatic coupling. In the adiabatic case, the quantum dynamics proceeds in a single electronic state, whereas for strong coupling a complete transition between two adiabatic electronic states takes place. It is shown that in all coupling regimes the short-time wave-packet dynamics can be described using ensembles of classical trajectories in the phase space spanned by electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom. We thus provide an example which documents that the quantum concept of non-adiabatic transitions is not necessarily needed if electronic and nuclear motion is treated on the same footing.
The dynamic instability of adiabatic blast waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ryu, Dongsu; Vishniac, Ethan T.
1991-01-01
Adiabatic blastwaves, which have a total energy injected from the center E varies as t(sup q) and propagate through a preshock medium with a density rho(sub E) varies as r(sup -omega) are described by a family of similarity solutions. Previous work has shown that adiabatic blastwaves with increasing or constant postshock entropy behind the shock front are susceptible to an oscillatory instability, caused by the difference between the nature of the forces on the two sides of the dense shell behind the shock front. This instability sets in if the dense postshock layer is sufficiently thin. The stability of adiabatic blastwaves with a decreasing postshock entropy is considered. Such blastwaves, if they are decelerating, always have a region behind the shock front which is subject to convection. Some accelerating blastwaves also have such region, depending on the values of q, omega, and gamma where gamma is the adiabatic index. However, since the shock interface stabilizes dynamically induced perturbations, blastwaves become convectively unstable only if the convective zone is localized around the origin or a contact discontinuity far from the shock front. On the other hand, the contact discontinuity of accelerating blastwaves is subject to a strong Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The frequency spectra of the nonradial, normal modes of adiabatic blastwaves have been calculated. The results have been applied to the shocks propagating through supernovae envelopes. It is shown that the metal/He and He/H interfaces are strongly unstable against the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. This instability will induce mixing in supernovae envelopes. In addition the implications of this work for the evolution of planetary nebulae is discussed.
Adiabatic burst evaporation from bicontinuous nanoporous membranes
Ichilmann, Sachar; Rücker, Kerstin; Haase, Markus; Enke, Dirk
2015-01-01
Evaporation of volatile liquids from nanoporous media with bicontinuous morphology and pore diameters of a few 10 nm is an ubiquitous process. For example, such drying processes occur during syntheses of nanoporous materials by sol–gel chemistry or by spinodal decomposition in the presence of solvents as well as during solution impregnation of nanoporous hosts with functional guests. It is commonly assumed that drying is endothermic and driven by non-equilibrium partial pressures of the evaporating species in the gas phase. We show that nearly half of the liquid evaporates in an adiabatic mode involving burst-like liquid-to-gas conversions. During single adiabatic burst evaporation events liquid volumes of up to 107 μm3 are converted to gas. The adiabatic liquid-to-gas conversions occur if air invasion fronts get unstable because of the built-up of high capillary pressures. Adiabatic evaporation bursts propagate avalanche-like through the nanopore systems until the air invasion fronts have reached new stable configurations. Adiabatic cavitation bursts thus compete with Haines jumps involving air invasion front relaxation by local liquid flow without enhanced mass transport out of the nanoporous medium and prevail if the mean pore diameter is in the range of a few 10 nm. The results reported here may help optimize membrane preparation via solvent-based approaches, solution-loading of nanopore systems with guest materials as well as routine use of nanoporous membranes with bicontinuous morphology and may contribute to better understanding of adsorption/desorption processes in nanoporous media. PMID:25926406
Filtering of matter-wave vibrational states via spatial adiabatic passage
Loiko, Yu.; Ahufinger, V.; Corbalan, R.; Mompart, J.; Birkl, G.
2011-03-15
We discuss the filtering of the vibrational states of a cold atom in an optical trap by chaining this trap with two empty ones and adiabatically controlling the tunneling. Matter-wave filtering is performed by selectively transferring the population of the highest populated vibrational state to the most distant trap while the population of the rest of the states remains in the initial trap. Analytical conditions for two-state filtering are derived and then applied to an arbitrary number of populated bound states. Realistic numerical simulations close to state-of-the-art experimental arrangements are performed by modeling the triple well with time-dependent Poeschl-Teller potentials. In addition to filtering of vibrational states, we discuss applications for quantum tomography of the initial population distribution and engineering of atomic Fock states that, eventually, could be used for tunneling-assisted evaporative cooling.
Adiabatic quantum pump in a zigzag graphene nanoribbon junction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Lin
2015-11-01
The adiabatic electron transport is theoretically studied in a zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) junction with two time-dependent pumping electric fields. By modeling a ZGNR p-n junction and applying the Keldysh Green’s function method, we find that a pumped charge current is flowing in the device at a zero external bias, which mainly comes from the photon-assisted tunneling process and the valley selection rule in an even-chain ZGNR junction. The pumped charge current and its ON and OFF states can be efficiently modulated by changing the system parameters such as the pumping frequency, the pumping phase difference, and the Fermi level. A ferromagnetic ZGNR device is also studied to generate a pure spin current and a fully polarized spin current due to the combined spin pump effect and the valley valve effect. Our finding might pave the way to manipulate the degree of freedom of electrons in a graphene-based electronic device. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 110704033), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. BK2010416), and the Natural Science Foundation for Colleges and Universities in Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. 13KJB140005).
Adiabatic nonlinear waves with trapped particles. III. Wave dynamics
Dodin, I. Y.; Fisch, N. J.
2012-01-15
The evolution of adiabatic waves with autoresonant trapped particles is described within the Lagrangian model developed in Paper I, under the assumption that the action distribution of these particles is conserved, and, in particular, that their number within each wavelength is a fixed independent parameter of the problem. One-dimensional nonlinear Langmuir waves with deeply trapped electrons are addressed as a paradigmatic example. For a stationary wave, tunneling into overcritical plasma is explained from the standpoint of the action conservation theorem. For a nonstationary wave, qualitatively different regimes are realized depending on the initial parameter S, which is the ratio of the energy flux carried by trapped particles to that carried by passing particles. At S < 1/2, a wave is stable and exhibits group velocity splitting. At S > 1/2, the trapped-particle modulational instability (TPMI) develops, in contrast with the existing theories of the TPMI yet in agreement with the general sideband instability theory. Remarkably, these effects are not captured by the nonlinear Schroedinger equation, which is traditionally considered as a universal model of wave self-action but misses the trapped-particle oscillation-center inertia.
Tsunegi, S.; Sakuraba, Y.; Oogane, M.; Telling, N. D.; Shelford, L. R.; Arenholz, E.; van der Laan, G.; Hicken, R. J.; Takanashi, K.; Ando, Y.
2009-07-01
Epitaxially grown magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) with a stacking structure of Co{sub 2}MnSi/MgO/CoFe were fabricated. Their tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) effects were investigated. The TMR ratio and tunnelling conductance characteristics of MTJs were considerably different between those with an MgO barrier prepared using sputtering (SP-MTJ) and those prepared using EB evaporation (EB-MTJ). The EB-MTJ exhibited a very large TMR ratio of 217% at room temperature and 753% at 2 K. The bias voltage dependence of the tunnelling conductance in the parallel magnetic configuration for the EB-MTJ suggests that the observed large TMR ratio at RT results from the coherent tunnelling process through the crystalline MgO barrier. The tunnelling conductance in the anti-parallel magnetic configuration suggests that the large temperature dependence of the TMR ratio results from the inelastic spin-flip tunnelling process.
Non-adiabatic perturbations in multi-component perfect fluids
Koshelev, N.A.
2011-04-01
The evolution of non-adiabatic perturbations in models with multiple coupled perfect fluids with non-adiabatic sound speed is considered. Instead of splitting the entropy perturbation into relative and intrinsic parts, we introduce a set of symmetric quantities, which also govern the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation in models with energy transfer. We write the gauge invariant equations for the variables that determine on a large scale the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation and the rate of changes of the comoving curvature perturbation. The analysis of evolution of the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation has been made for several particular models.
Adiabatic geometric phase for a Bose-Einstein condensate coupled to a cavity
Li Shengchang; Fu Libin; Liu Jie
2011-11-15
We investigate the geometric phase in a model of a Bose-Einstein condensate coupled to an optical cavity in which both the condensate and the cavity are described with coherent states. When the argument of the atom-cavity coupling term varies in time slowly from zero to 2{pi}, we calculate the geometric phase accumulated by the ground state and obtain its analytic expression in explicit form. We find that the adiabatic geometric phase jumps from zero to nontrivial {pi} at a critical value that corresponds to the normal-superradiant phase-transition point. The magneticlike flux interpretation of the geometric phase is also discussed.
Adiabatic quantum simulation of quantum chemistry.
Babbush, Ryan; Love, Peter J; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán
2014-10-13
We show how to apply the quantum adiabatic algorithm directly to the quantum computation of molecular properties. We describe a procedure to map electronic structure Hamiltonians to 2-body qubit Hamiltonians with a small set of physically realizable couplings. By combining the Bravyi-Kitaev construction to map fermions to qubits with perturbative gadgets to reduce the Hamiltonian to 2-body, we obtain precision requirements on the coupling strengths and a number of ancilla qubits that scale polynomially in the problem size. Hence our mapping is efficient. The required set of controllable interactions includes only two types of interaction beyond the Ising interactions required to apply the quantum adiabatic algorithm to combinatorial optimization problems. Our mapping may also be of interest to chemists directly as it defines a dictionary from electronic structure to spin Hamiltonians with physical interactions.
Quantum adiabatic evolution with energy degeneracy levels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Qi
2016-01-01
A classical-kind phase-space formalism is developed to address the tiny intrinsic dynamical deviation from what is predicted by Wilczek-Zee theorem during quantum adiabatic evolution on degeneracy levels. In this formalism, the Hilbert space and the aggregate of degenerate eigenstates become the classical-kind phase space and a high-dimensional subspace in the phase space, respectively. Compared with the previous analogous study by a different method, the current result is qualitatively different in that the first-order deviation derived here is always perpendicular to the degeneracy subspace. A tripod-scheme Hamiltonian with two degenerate dark states is employed to illustrate the adiabatic deviation with degeneracy levels.
Adiabatic quantum optimization for associative memory recall
Seddiqi, Hadayat; Humble, Travis S.
2014-12-22
Hopfield networks are a variant of associative memory that recall patterns stored in the couplings of an Ising model. Stored memories are conventionally accessed as fixed points in the network dynamics that correspond to energetic minima of the spin state. We show that memories stored in a Hopfield network may also be recalled by energy minimization using adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO). Numerical simulations of the underlying quantum dynamics allow us to quantify AQO recall accuracy with respect to the number of stored memories and noise in the input key. We investigate AQO performance with respect to how memories are stored in the Ising model according to different learning rules. Our results demonstrate that AQO recall accuracy varies strongly with learning rule, a behavior that is attributed to differences in energy landscapes. Consequently, learning rules offer a family of methods for programming adiabatic quantum optimization that we expect to be useful for characterizing AQO performance.
Adiabatic quantum optimization for associative memory recall
Seddiqi, Hadayat; Humble, Travis S.
2014-12-22
Hopfield networks are a variant of associative memory that recall patterns stored in the couplings of an Ising model. Stored memories are conventionally accessed as fixed points in the network dynamics that correspond to energetic minima of the spin state. We show that memories stored in a Hopfield network may also be recalled by energy minimization using adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO). Numerical simulations of the underlying quantum dynamics allow us to quantify AQO recall accuracy with respect to the number of stored memories and noise in the input key. We investigate AQO performance with respect to how memories are storedmore » in the Ising model according to different learning rules. Our results demonstrate that AQO recall accuracy varies strongly with learning rule, a behavior that is attributed to differences in energy landscapes. Consequently, learning rules offer a family of methods for programming adiabatic quantum optimization that we expect to be useful for characterizing AQO performance.« less
Trapped Ion Quantum Computation by Adiabatic Passage
Feng Xuni; Wu Chunfeng; Lai, C. H.; Oh, C. H.
2008-11-07
We propose a new universal quantum computation scheme for trapped ions in thermal motion via the technique of adiabatic passage, which incorporates the advantages of both the adiabatic passage and the model of trapped ions in thermal motion. Our scheme is immune from the decoherence due to spontaneous emission from excited states as the system in our scheme evolves along a dark state. In our scheme the vibrational degrees of freedom are not required to be cooled to their ground states because they are only virtually excited. It is shown that the fidelity of the resultant gate operation is still high even when the magnitude of the effective Rabi frequency moderately deviates from the desired value.
Ramsey numbers and adiabatic quantum computing.
Gaitan, Frank; Clark, Lane
2012-01-01
The graph-theoretic Ramsey numbers are notoriously difficult to calculate. In fact, for the two-color Ramsey numbers R(m,n) with m, n≥3, only nine are currently known. We present a quantum algorithm for the computation of the Ramsey numbers R(m,n). We show how the computation of R(m,n) can be mapped to a combinatorial optimization problem whose solution can be found using adiabatic quantum evolution. We numerically simulate this adiabatic quantum algorithm and show that it correctly determines the Ramsey numbers R(3,3) and R(2,s) for 5≤s≤7. We then discuss the algorithm's experimental implementation, and close by showing that Ramsey number computation belongs to the quantum complexity class quantum Merlin Arthur.
Adiabatic Heating of Contracting Turbulent Fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robertson, Brant; Goldreich, Peter
2012-05-01
Turbulence influences the behavior of many astrophysical systems, frequently by providing non-thermal pressure support through random bulk motions. Although turbulence is commonly studied in systems with constant volume and mean density, turbulent astrophysical gases often expand or contract under the influence of pressure or gravity. Here, we examine the behavior of turbulence in contracting volumes using idealized models of compressed gases. Employing numerical simulations and an analytical model, we identify a simple mechanism by which the turbulent motions of contracting gases "adiabatically heat," experiencing an increase in their random bulk velocities until the largest eddies in the gas circulate over a Hubble time of the contraction. Adiabatic heating provides a mechanism for sustaining turbulence in gases where no large-scale driving exists. We describe this mechanism in detail and discuss some potential applications to turbulence in astrophysical settings.
ADIABATIC HEATING OF CONTRACTING TURBULENT FLUIDS
Robertson, Brant; Goldreich, Peter
2012-05-10
Turbulence influences the behavior of many astrophysical systems, frequently by providing non-thermal pressure support through random bulk motions. Although turbulence is commonly studied in systems with constant volume and mean density, turbulent astrophysical gases often expand or contract under the influence of pressure or gravity. Here, we examine the behavior of turbulence in contracting volumes using idealized models of compressed gases. Employing numerical simulations and an analytical model, we identify a simple mechanism by which the turbulent motions of contracting gases 'adiabatically heat', experiencing an increase in their random bulk velocities until the largest eddies in the gas circulate over a Hubble time of the contraction. Adiabatic heating provides a mechanism for sustaining turbulence in gases where no large-scale driving exists. We describe this mechanism in detail and discuss some potential applications to turbulence in astrophysical settings.
Adiabatic Quantum Simulation of Quantum Chemistry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babbush, Ryan; Love, Peter J.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán
2014-10-01
We show how to apply the quantum adiabatic algorithm directly to the quantum computation of molecular properties. We describe a procedure to map electronic structure Hamiltonians to 2-body qubit Hamiltonians with a small set of physically realizable couplings. By combining the Bravyi-Kitaev construction to map fermions to qubits with perturbative gadgets to reduce the Hamiltonian to 2-body, we obtain precision requirements on the coupling strengths and a number of ancilla qubits that scale polynomially in the problem size. Hence our mapping is efficient. The required set of controllable interactions includes only two types of interaction beyond the Ising interactions required to apply the quantum adiabatic algorithm to combinatorial optimization problems. Our mapping may also be of interest to chemists directly as it defines a dictionary from electronic structure to spin Hamiltonians with physical interactions.
Shortcuts to adiabaticity from linear response theory
Acconcia, Thiago V.; Bonança, Marcus V. S.; Deffner, Sebastian
2015-10-23
A shortcut to adiabaticity is a finite-time process that produces the same final state as would result from infinitely slow driving. We show that such shortcuts can be found for weak perturbations from linear response theory. Moreover, with the help of phenomenological response functions, a simple expression for the excess work is found—quantifying the nonequilibrium excitations. For two specific examples, i.e., the quantum parametric oscillator and the spin 1/2 in a time-dependent magnetic field, we show that finite-time zeros of the excess work indicate the existence of shortcuts. We finally propose a degenerate family of protocols, which facilitates shortcuts to adiabaticity for specific and very short driving times.
Shortcuts to adiabaticity from linear response theory
Acconcia, Thiago V.; Bonança, Marcus V. S.; Deffner, Sebastian
2015-10-23
A shortcut to adiabaticity is a finite-time process that produces the same final state as would result from infinitely slow driving. We show that such shortcuts can be found for weak perturbations from linear response theory. Moreover, with the help of phenomenological response functions, a simple expression for the excess work is found—quantifying the nonequilibrium excitations. For two specific examples, i.e., the quantum parametric oscillator and the spin 1/2 in a time-dependent magnetic field, we show that finite-time zeros of the excess work indicate the existence of shortcuts. We finally propose a degenerate family of protocols, which facilitates shortcuts tomore » adiabaticity for specific and very short driving times.« less
Siphon flows in isolated magnetic flux tubes. II - Adiabatic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Montesinos, Benjamin; Thomas, John H.
1989-01-01
This paper extends the study of steady siphon flows in isolated magnetic flux tubes surrounded by field-free gas to the case of adiabatic flows. The basic equations governing steady adiabatic siphon flows in a thin, isolated magnetic flux tube are summarized, and qualitative features of adiabatic flows in elevated, arched flux tubes are discussed. The equations are then cast in nondimensional form and the results of numerical computations of adiabatic siphon flows in arched flux tubes are presented along with comparisons between isothermal and adiabatic flows. The effects of making the interior of the flux tube hotter or colder than the surrounding atmosphere at the upstream footpoint of the arch is considered. In this case, is it found that the adiabatic flows are qualitatively similar to the isothermal flows, with adiabatic cooling producing quantitative differences. Critical flows can produce a bulge point in the rising part of the arch and a concentration of magnetic flux above the bulge point.
Siphon flows in isolated magnetic flux tubes. II. Adiabatic flows
Montesinos, B.; Thomas, J.H.
1989-02-01
This paper extends the study of steady siphon flows in isolated magnetic flux tubes surrounded by field-free gas to the case of adiabatic flows. The basic equations governing steady adiabatic siphon flows in a thin, isolated magnetic flux tube are summarized, and qualitative features of adiabatic flows in elevated, arched flux tubes are discussed. The equations are then cast in nondimensional form and the results of numerical computations of adiabatic siphon flows in arched flux tubes are presented along with comparisons between isothermal and adiabatic flows. The effects of making the interior of the flux tube hotter or colder than the surrounding atmosphere at the upstream footpoint of the arch is considered. In this case, is it found that the adiabatic flows are qualitatively similar to the isothermal flows, with adiabatic cooling producing quantitative differences. Critical flows can produce a bulge point in the rising part of the arch and a concentration of magnetic flux above the bulge point. 15 references.
Computer Code For Turbocompounded Adiabatic Diesel Engine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Assanis, D. N.; Heywood, J. B.
1988-01-01
Computer simulation developed to study advantages of increased exhaust enthalpy in adiabatic turbocompounded diesel engine. Subsytems of conceptual engine include compressor, reciprocator, turbocharger turbine, compounded turbine, ducting, and heat exchangers. Focus of simulation of total system is to define transfers of mass and energy, including release and transfer of heat and transfer of work in each subsystem, and relationship among subsystems. Written in FORTRAN IV.
Adiabatic charging of nickel-hydrogen batteries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lurie, Chuck; Foroozan, S.; Brewer, Jeff; Jackson, Lorna
1995-02-01
Battery management during prelaunch activities has always required special attention and careful planning. The transition from nickel-cadium to nickel-hydrogen batteries, with their high self discharge rate and lower charge efficiency, as well as longer prelaunch scenarios, has made this aspect of spacecraft battery management even more challenging. The AXAF-I Program requires high battery state of charge at launch. The use of active cooling, to ensure efficient charging, was considered and proved to be difficult and expensive. Alternative approaches were evaluated. Optimized charging, in the absence of cooling, appeared promising and was investigated. Initial testing was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of the 'Adiabatic Charging' approach. Feasibility was demonstrated and additional testing performed to provide a quantitative, parametric data base. The assumption that the battery is in an adiabatic environment during prelaunch charging is a conservative approximation because the battery will transfer some heat to its surroundings by convective air cooling. The amount is small compared to the heat dissipated during battery overcharge. Because the battery has a large thermal mass, substantial overcharge can occur before the cells get too hot to charge efficiently. The testing presented here simulates a true adiabatic environment. Accordingly the data base may be slightly conservative. The adiabatic charge methodology used in this investigation begins with stabilizing the cell at a given starting temperature. The cell is then fully insulated on all sides. Battery temperature is carefully monitored and the charge terminated when the cell temperature reaches 85 F. Charging has been evaluated with starting temperatures from 55 to 75 F.
Advanced Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators for Continuous Cooling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chu, Paul C. W.
2004-01-01
The research at Houston was focused on optimizing the design of superconducting magnets for advanced adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators (ADRs), assessing the feasibility of using high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnets in ADRs in the future, and developing techniques to deposit HTS thin and thick films on high strength, low thermal conductivity substrates for HTS magnet leads. Several approaches have been tested for the suggested superconducting magnets.
Spence, W.L.
1987-11-01
The radiation coherently emitted by a high energy bunched beam suffering an arbitrarily large disruption in a collision with an idealized undisrupted beam is calculated. The near-luminal velocity of the beam - such that the emitted radiation moves very slowly with respect to the bunch - implies that only a small part of the bunch radiates coherently and necessitates a careful treatment of the disrupted beam phase space during emission. The angular distribution and spectral density are presented. It is found that most of the radiation is at wave lengths greater than or equal to the bunch length and that the total energy lost by the beam due to coherent effects should be negligible in high energy-high luminosity linear colliders. 4 refs.
Random matrix model of adiabatic quantum computing
Mitchell, David R.; Adami, Christoph; Lue, Waynn; Williams, Colin P.
2005-05-15
We present an analysis of the quantum adiabatic algorithm for solving hard instances of 3-SAT (an NP-complete problem) in terms of random matrix theory (RMT). We determine the global regularity of the spectral fluctuations of the instantaneous Hamiltonians encountered during the interpolation between the starting Hamiltonians and the ones whose ground states encode the solutions to the computational problems of interest. At each interpolation point, we quantify the degree of regularity of the average spectral distribution via its Brody parameter, a measure that distinguishes regular (i.e., Poissonian) from chaotic (i.e., Wigner-type) distributions of normalized nearest-neighbor spacings. We find that for hard problem instances - i.e., those having a critical ratio of clauses to variables - the spectral fluctuations typically become irregular across a contiguous region of the interpolation parameter, while the spectrum is regular for easy instances. Within the hard region, RMT may be applied to obtain a mathematical model of the probability of avoided level crossings and concomitant failure rate of the adiabatic algorithm due to nonadiabatic Landau-Zener-type transitions. Our model predicts that if the interpolation is performed at a uniform rate, the average failure rate of the quantum adiabatic algorithm, when averaged over hard problem instances, scales exponentially with increasing problem size.
Non-adiabatic dark fluid cosmology
Hipólito-Ricaldi, W.S.; Velten, H.E.S.; Zimdahl, W. E-mail: velten@cce.ufes.br
2009-06-01
We model the dark sector of the cosmic substratum by a viscous fluid with an equation of state p = −ζΘ, where Θ is the fluid-expansion scalar and ζ is the coefficient of bulk viscosity for which we assume a dependence ζ∝ρ{sup ν} on the energy density ρ. The homogeneous and isotropic background dynamics coincides with that of a generalized Chaplygin gas with equation of state p = −A/ρ{sup α}. The perturbation dynamics of the viscous model, however, is intrinsically non-adiabatic and qualitatively different from the Chaplygin-gas case. In particular, it avoids short-scale instabilities and/or oscillations which apparently have ruled out unified models of the Chaplygin-gas type. We calculate the matter power spectrum and demonstrate that the non-adiabatic model is compatible with the data from the 2dFGRS and the SDSS surveys. A χ{sup 2}-analysis shows, that for certain parameter combinations the viscous-dark-fluid (VDF) model is well competitive with the ΛCDM model. These results indicate that non-adiabatic unified models can be seen as potential contenders for a General-Relativity-based description of the cosmic substratum.
Coherence factor effects in the antisymmetrized LDOS correlators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maltseva, Marianna; Coleman, P.
2009-03-01
Recent scanning tunneling experiments on underdoped cuprates by Hanaguri et al [1] show the appearance of coherence factor effects. Unlike conventional observables, we show that the tunneling density of states in a superconductor does not have a well defined coherence factor. However, by extracting the component that is either even, or odd in the bias voltage, we show that these separate components have well-defined coherence factors. These results are used to understand the appearance of coherence factor effects in the antisymmetrized local density of states correlators in recent scanning tunneling experiments. [3pt] [1] T. Hanaguri, Y. Kohsaka, M. Ono, M. Maltseva, P. Coleman, I. Yamada, M. Azuma, M. Takano, K. Ohishi and H. Takagi, to be published (2009).
Controllable coherent population transfers in superconducting qubits for quantum computing.
Wei, L F; Johansson, J R; Cen, L X; Ashhab, S; Nori, Franco
2008-03-21
We propose an approach to coherently transfer populations between selected quantum states in one- and two-qubit systems by using controllable Stark-chirped rapid adiabatic passages. These evolution-time insensitive transfers, assisted by easily implementable single-qubit phase-shift operations, could serve as elementary logic gates for quantum computing. Specifically, this proposal could be conveniently demonstrated with existing Josephson phase qubits. Our proposal can find an immediate application in the readout of these qubits. Indeed, the broken parity symmetries of the bound states in these artificial atoms provide an efficient approach to design the required adiabatic pulses.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hinshaw, Craig
1999-01-01
Describes how to make tunnel books, which are viewed by looking into a "tunnel" created by accordion-folded expanding sides. Suggests possible themes. Describes how to create a walk-through tunnel book for first grade students. (CMK)
... arm. Just a passing cramp? It could be carpal tunnel syndrome. The carpal tunnel is a narrow passageway of ligament and ... difficult. Often, the cause is having a smaller carpal tunnel than other people do. Other causes include ...
Non-adiabatic effects in near-adiabatic mixed-field orientation and alignment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maan, Anjali; Ahlawat, Dharamvir Singh; Prasad, Vinod
2016-11-01
We present a theoretical study of the impact of a pair of moderate electric fields tilted an angle with respect to one another on a molecule. As a prototype, we consider a molecule with large rotational constant (with corresponding small rotational period) and moderate dipole moment. Within rigid-rotor approximation, the time-dependent Schrodinger equation is solved using fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. We have analysed that lower rotational states are significantly influenced by variation in pulse durations, the tilt angle between the fields and also on the electric field strengths. We also suggest a control scheme of how the rotational dynamics, orientation and alignment of a molecule can be enhanced by a combination of near-adiabatic pulses in comparision to non-adiabatic or adiabatic pulses.
Semiclassical Monte Carlo: a first principles approach to non-adiabatic molecular dynamics.
White, Alexander J; Gorshkov, Vyacheslav N; Wang, Ruixi; Tretiak, Sergei; Mozyrsky, Dmitry
2014-11-14
Modeling the dynamics of photophysical and (photo)chemical reactions in extended molecular systems is a new frontier for quantum chemistry. Many dynamical phenomena, such as intersystem crossing, non-radiative relaxation, and charge and energy transfer, require a non-adiabatic description which incorporate transitions between electronic states. Additionally, these dynamics are often highly sensitive to quantum coherences and interference effects. Several methods exist to simulate non-adiabatic dynamics; however, they are typically either too expensive to be applied to large molecular systems (10's-100's of atoms), or they are based on ad hoc schemes which may include severe approximations due to inconsistencies in classical and quantum mechanics. We present, in detail, an algorithm based on Monte Carlo sampling of the semiclassical time-dependent wavefunction that involves running simple surface hopping dynamics, followed by a post-processing step which adds little cost. The method requires only a few quantities from quantum chemistry calculations, can systematically be improved, and provides excellent agreement with exact quantum mechanical results. Here we show excellent agreement with exact solutions for scattering results of standard test problems. Additionally, we find that convergence of the wavefunction is controlled by complex valued phase factors, the size of the non-adiabatic coupling region, and the choice of sampling function. These results help in determining the range of applicability of the method, and provide a starting point for further improvement.
Semiclassical Monte Carlo: A first principles approach to non-adiabatic molecular dynamics
White, Alexander J.; Gorshkov, Vyacheslav N.; Wang, Ruixi; Tretiak, Sergei; Mozyrsky, Dmitry
2014-11-14
Modeling the dynamics of photophysical and (photo)chemical reactions in extended molecular systems is a new frontier for quantum chemistry. Many dynamical phenomena, such as intersystem crossing, non-radiative relaxation, and charge and energy transfer, require a non-adiabatic description which incorporate transitions between electronic states. Additionally, these dynamics are often highly sensitive to quantum coherences and interference effects. Several methods exist to simulate non-adiabatic dynamics; however, they are typically either too expensive to be applied to large molecular systems (10's-100's of atoms), or they are based on ad hoc schemes which may include severe approximations due to inconsistencies in classical and quantum mechanics. We present, in detail, an algorithm based on Monte Carlo sampling of the semiclassical time-dependent wavefunction that involves running simple surface hopping dynamics, followed by a post-processing step which adds little cost. The method requires only a few quantities from quantum chemistry calculations, can systematically be improved, and provides excellent agreement with exact quantum mechanical results. Here we show excellent agreement with exact solutions for scattering results of standard test problems. Additionally, we find that convergence of the wavefunction is controlled by complex valued phase factors, the size of the non-adiabatic coupling region, and the choice of sampling function. These results help in determining the range of applicability of the method, and provide a starting point for further improvement.
Semiclassical Monte Carlo: a first principles approach to non-adiabatic molecular dynamics.
White, Alexander J; Gorshkov, Vyacheslav N; Wang, Ruixi; Tretiak, Sergei; Mozyrsky, Dmitry
2014-11-14
Modeling the dynamics of photophysical and (photo)chemical reactions in extended molecular systems is a new frontier for quantum chemistry. Many dynamical phenomena, such as intersystem crossing, non-radiative relaxation, and charge and energy transfer, require a non-adiabatic description which incorporate transitions between electronic states. Additionally, these dynamics are often highly sensitive to quantum coherences and interference effects. Several methods exist to simulate non-adiabatic dynamics; however, they are typically either too expensive to be applied to large molecular systems (10's-100's of atoms), or they are based on ad hoc schemes which may include severe approximations due to inconsistencies in classical and quantum mechanics. We present, in detail, an algorithm based on Monte Carlo sampling of the semiclassical time-dependent wavefunction that involves running simple surface hopping dynamics, followed by a post-processing step which adds little cost. The method requires only a few quantities from quantum chemistry calculations, can systematically be improved, and provides excellent agreement with exact quantum mechanical results. Here we show excellent agreement with exact solutions for scattering results of standard test problems. Additionally, we find that convergence of the wavefunction is controlled by complex valued phase factors, the size of the non-adiabatic coupling region, and the choice of sampling function. These results help in determining the range of applicability of the method, and provide a starting point for further improvement. PMID:25399126
Semiclassical Monte Carlo: A first principles approach to non-adiabatic molecular dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
White, Alexander J.; Gorshkov, Vyacheslav N.; Wang, Ruixi; Tretiak, Sergei; Mozyrsky, Dmitry
2014-11-01
Modeling the dynamics of photophysical and (photo)chemical reactions in extended molecular systems is a new frontier for quantum chemistry. Many dynamical phenomena, such as intersystem crossing, non-radiative relaxation, and charge and energy transfer, require a non-adiabatic description which incorporate transitions between electronic states. Additionally, these dynamics are often highly sensitive to quantum coherences and interference effects. Several methods exist to simulate non-adiabatic dynamics; however, they are typically either too expensive to be applied to large molecular systems (10's-100's of atoms), or they are based on ad hoc schemes which may include severe approximations due to inconsistencies in classical and quantum mechanics. We present, in detail, an algorithm based on Monte Carlo sampling of the semiclassical time-dependent wavefunction that involves running simple surface hopping dynamics, followed by a post-processing step which adds little cost. The method requires only a few quantities from quantum chemistry calculations, can systematically be improved, and provides excellent agreement with exact quantum mechanical results. Here we show excellent agreement with exact solutions for scattering results of standard test problems. Additionally, we find that convergence of the wavefunction is controlled by complex valued phase factors, the size of the non-adiabatic coupling region, and the choice of sampling function. These results help in determining the range of applicability of the method, and provide a starting point for further improvement.
Vibrational State Dependent Large Amplitude Tunneling Dynamics in Malonaldehyde
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buckingham, Grant; Nesbitt, David J.
2011-06-01
The quantum dynamics of intramolecular proton transfer in malonaldehyde has represented a major challenge for first principles theoretical calculation, in large measure due to the highly concerted motion of all 9 nuclei throughout the tunneling event. This talk describes efforts to predict quantum state dependent tunneling rates from high level ab initio calculations, exploiting the large amplitude motion (LAM) Hamiltonian methods of Hougen, Bunker and Johns.A An effective adiabatic potential surface for the tunneling path is constructed from CCSD(T)/AVnZ-F12 calculations using explicitly correlated basis set methods and extrapolated to the complete basis set (CBS) limit. This potential is adiabatically corrected by zero point excitation in the remaining 3N-7 = 20 vibrational modes, with the multidimensional tunneling dependence of the effective mass explicitly taken into AccountB and numerically solved with Numerov methods. Of special importance, this method permits calculation of mode dependent tunneling splittings as a function of vibrational quantum state, which offers interesting prospects for comparison with recent FTIR slit jet cooled data of Suhm and coworkers.C A J. T. Hougen, P. R. Bunker and J. W. C. Johns, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 34, 136 (1970). B D. J. Rush and K. B. Wiberg, J. Phys. Chem. A 101, 3143 (1997). C N. O. B. Luttschwager, T. N. Wassermann, S. Coussan and M. A. Suhm, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., DOI: 10.1039/c002345k (2010)
Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage for improved performance of a cold-atom electron and ion source
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sparkes, B. M.; Murphy, D.; Taylor, R. J.; Speirs, R. W.; McCulloch, A. J.; Scholten, R. E.
2016-08-01
We implement high-efficiency coherent excitation to a Rydberg state using stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in a cold-atom electron and ion source. We achieve an efficiency of 60% averaged over the laser excitation volume with a peak efficiency of 82%, a 1.6 times improvement relative to incoherent pulsed-laser excitation. Using pulsed electric field ionization of the Rydberg atoms we create electron bunches with durations of 250 ps. High-efficiency excitation will increase source brightness, crucial for ultrafast electron diffraction experiments, and coherent excitation to high-lying Rydberg states could allow for the reduction of internal bunch heating and the creation of a high-speed single-ion source.
Coherent amplified optical coherence tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jun; Rao, Bin; Chen, Zhongping
2007-07-01
A technique to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a high speed 1300 nm swept source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) system was demonstrated. A semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) was employed in the sample arm to coherently amplify the weak light back-scattered from sample tissue without increasing laser power illuminated on the sample. The image quality improvement was visualized and quantified by imaging the anterior segment of a rabbit eye at imaging speed of 20,000 A-lines per second. The theory analysis of SNR gain is given followed by the discussion on the technologies that can further improve the SNR gain.
Tunneling at νT=1 in quantum Hall bilayers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nandi, D.; Khaire, T.; Finck, A. D. K.; Eisenstein, J. P.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.
2013-10-01
Interlayer tunneling measurements in the strongly correlated bilayer quantized Hall phase at νT=1 are reported. The maximum, or critical, current for tunneling at νT=1 is shown to be a well-defined global property of the coherent phase, insensitive to extrinsic circuit effects and the precise configuration used to measure it, but also exhibiting a surprising scaling behavior with temperature. Comparisons between the experimentally observed tunneling characteristics and a recent theory are favorable at high temperatures, but not at low temperatures where the tunneling closely resembles the dc Josephson effect. The zero-bias tunneling resistance becomes extremely small at low temperatures, vastly less than that observed at zero magnetic field, but nonetheless remains finite. The temperature dependence of this tunneling resistance is similar to that of the ordinary in-plane resistivity of the quantum Hall phase.
Bond selective chemistry beyond the adiabatic approximation
Butler, L.J.
1993-12-01
One of the most important challenges in chemistry is to develop predictive ability for the branching between energetically allowed chemical reaction pathways. Such predictive capability, coupled with a fundamental understanding of the important molecular interactions, is essential to the development and utilization of new fuels and the design of efficient combustion processes. Existing transition state and exact quantum theories successfully predict the branching between available product channels for systems in which each reaction coordinate can be adequately described by different paths along a single adiabatic potential energy surface. In particular, unimolecular dissociation following thermal, infrared multiphoton, or overtone excitation in the ground state yields a branching between energetically allowed product channels which can be successfully predicted by the application of statistical theories, i.e. the weakest bond breaks. (The predictions are particularly good for competing reactions in which when there is no saddle point along the reaction coordinates, as in simple bond fission reactions.) The predicted lack of bond selectivity results from the assumption of rapid internal vibrational energy redistribution and the implicit use of a single adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface for the reaction. However, the adiabatic approximation is not valid for the reaction of a wide variety of energetic materials and organic fuels; coupling between the electronic states of the reacting species play a a key role in determining the selectivity of the chemical reactions induced. The work described below investigated the central role played by coupling between electronic states in polyatomic molecules in determining the selective branching between energetically allowed fragmentation pathways in two key systems.
Shortcut to adiabaticity in spinor condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sala, Arnau; Núñez, David López; Martorell, Joan; De Sarlo, Luigi; Zibold, Tilman; Gerbier, Fabrice; Polls, Artur; Juliá-Díaz, Bruno
2016-10-01
We devise a method to shortcut the adiabatic evolution of a spin-1 Bose gas with an external magnetic field as the control parameter. An initial many-body state with almost all bosons populating the Zeeman sublevel m =0 is evolved to a final state very close to a macroscopic spin-singlet condensate, a fragmented state with three macroscopically occupied Zeeman states. The shortcut protocol, obtained by an approximate mapping to a harmonic oscillator Hamiltonian, is compared to linear and exponential variations of the control parameter. We find a dramatic speedup of the dynamics when using the shortcut protocol.
On adiabatic perturbations in the ekpyrotic scenario
Linde, A.; Mukhanov, V.; Vikman, A. E-mail: Viatcheslav.Mukhanov@physik.uni-muenchen.de
2010-02-01
In a recent paper, Khoury and Steinhardt proposed a way to generate adiabatic cosmological perturbations with a nearly flat spectrum in a contracting Universe. To produce these perturbations they used a regime in which the equation of state exponentially rapidly changed during a short time interval. Leaving aside the singularity problem and the difficult question about the possibility to transmit these perturbations from a contracting Universe to the expanding phase, we will show that the methods used in Khoury are inapplicable for the description of the cosmological evolution and of the process of generation of perturbations in this scenario.
Generalized Ramsey numbers through adiabatic quantum optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ranjbar, Mani; Macready, William G.; Clark, Lane; Gaitan, Frank
2016-09-01
Ramsey theory is an active research area in combinatorics whose central theme is the emergence of order in large disordered structures, with Ramsey numbers marking the threshold at which this order first appears. For generalized Ramsey numbers r( G, H), the emergent order is characterized by graphs G and H. In this paper we: (i) present a quantum algorithm for computing generalized Ramsey numbers by reformulating the computation as a combinatorial optimization problem which is solved using adiabatic quantum optimization; and (ii) determine the Ramsey numbers r({{T}}m,{{T}}n) for trees of order m,n = 6,7,8, most of which were previously unknown.
Phase avalanches in near-adiabatic evolutions
Vertesi, T.; Englman, R.
2006-02-15
In the course of slow, nearly adiabatic motion of a system, relative changes in the slowness can cause abrupt and high magnitude phase changes, ''phase avalanches,'' superimposed on the ordinary geometric phases. The generality of this effect is examined for arbitrary Hamiltonians and multicomponent (>2) wave packets and is found to be connected (through the Blaschke term in the theory of analytic signals) to amplitude zeros in the lower half of the complex time plane. Motion on a nonmaximal circle on the Poincare-sphere suppresses the effect. A spectroscopic transition experiment can independently verify the phase-avalanche magnitudes.
Local entanglement generation in the adiabatic regime
Cliche, M.; Veitia, Andrzej
2010-09-15
We study entanglement generation in a pair of qubits interacting with an initially correlated system. Using time-independent perturbation theory and the adiabatic theorem, we show conditions under which the qubits become entangled as the joint system evolves into the ground state of the interacting theory. We then apply these results to the case of qubits interacting with a scalar quantum field. We study three different variations of this setup; a quantum field subject to Dirichlet boundary conditions, a quantum field interacting with a classical potential, and a quantum field that starts in a thermal state.
An adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator for infrared bolometers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Britt, R. D.; Richards, P. L.
1981-01-01
Adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators have been built and installed in small portable liquid helium cryostats to test the feasibility of this method of cooling infrared bolometric detectors to temperatures below 0.3 K. Performance has been achieved which suggests that bolometer temperatures of 0.2 K can be maintained for periods of approximately 60 hours. Applications to sensitive infrared detection from ground-based telescopes and space satellites are discussed. Design data are given which permit the evaluation of refrigerator performance for a variety of design parameters.
Austefjord, Magnus Wiger; Gerdes, Hans-Hermann; Wang, Xiang
2014-01-01
Tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) are recently discovered thin membranous tubes that interconnect cells. During the last decade, research has shown TNTs to be diverse in morphology and composition, varying between and within cell systems. In addition, the discovery of TNT-like extracellular protrusions, as well as observations of TNTs in vivo, has further enriched our knowledge on the diversity of TNT-like structures. Considering the complex molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of TNTs, as well as their different functions in intercellular communication, it is important to decipher how heterogeneity of TNTs is established, and to address what roles the compositional elements have in the execution of various functions. Here, we review the current knowledge on the morphological and structural diversity of TNTs, and address the relation between the formation, the structure, and the function of TNTs. PMID:24778759
Adiabatic cooling of solar wind electrons
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sandbaek, Ornulf; Leer, Egil
1992-01-01
In thermally driven winds emanating from regions in the solar corona with base electron densities of n0 not less than 10 exp 8/cu cm, a substantial fraction of the heat conductive flux from the base is transfered into flow energy by the pressure gradient force. The adiabatic cooling of the electrons causes the electron temperature profile to fall off more rapidly than in heat conduction dominated flows. Alfven waves of solar origin, accelerating the basically thermally driven solar wind, lead to an increased mass flux and enhanced adiabatic cooling. The reduction in electron temperature may be significant also in the subsonic region of the flow and lead to a moderate increase of solar wind mass flux with increasing Alfven wave amplitude. In the solar wind model presented here the Alfven wave energy flux per unit mass is larger than that in models where the temperature in the subsonic flow is not reduced by the wave, and consequently the asymptotic flow speed is higher.
Effect of the Heat Pipe Adiabatic Region.
Brahim, Taoufik; Jemni, Abdelmajid
2014-04-01
The main motivation of conducting this work is to present a rigorous analysis and investigation of the potential effect of the heat pipe adiabatic region on the flow and heat transfer performance of a heat pipe under varying evaporator and condenser conditions. A two-dimensional steady-state model for a cylindrical heat pipe coupling, for both regions, is presented, where the flow of the fluid in the porous structure is described by Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer model which accounts for the boundary and inertial effects. The model is solved numerically by using the finite volumes method, and a fortran code was developed to solve the system of equations obtained. The results show that a phase change can occur in the adiabatic region due to temperature gradient created in the porous structure as the heat input increases and the heat pipe boundary conditions change. A recirculation zone may be created at the condenser end section. The effect of the heat transfer rate on the vapor radial velocities and the performance of the heat pipe are discussed. PMID:24895467
Rhodopsin photochemistry is vibrationally coherent
Mathies, R.A.; Wang, Q.; Peteanu, L.A.
1995-12-31
Visual excitation is initiated by the absorption of a photon by the 11-cis retinal chromophore bound within the pigment called rhodopsin. We have used a variety of vibrational spectroscopies to obtain information about the vibrational nuclear dynamics that lead to this efficient photochemical isomerization. The cis-trans isomerization in rhodopsin is complete in only 200 fs. The extreme speed of this process, which is consistent with the {approximately}50 fs lifetime indicated by the spontaneous emission yield, suggests that the photochemistry involves non-stationary states or vibrational coherence. Recent studies have in fact observed vibrationally coherent oscillations of the ground state photoproduct called bathorhodopsin following impulsive excitation of the rhodopsin reactant. This conclusively demonstrates that the isomerization process in rhodopsin is vibrationally coherent. These observations further suggest that the isomerization quantum yield is directly dependent on the excited-state torsional velocity and can be thought of as a Landau-Zener tunneling process. This work establishes a vibrationally coherent paradigm for the photochemistry of vision that may be relevant for many other photochemical and photobiological processes including photosynthesis and proton pumping in bacteriorhodopsin.
Coherent diffractive imaging and partial coherence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williams, Garth J.; Quiney, Harry M.; Peele, Andrew G.; Nugent, Keith A.
2007-03-01
We formulate coherent diffractive imaging in the framework of partially spatially coherent diffraction. We find that the reconstruction can be critically dependent on the degree of coherence in the illuminating field and that even a small departure from full coherence may invalidate the conventional assumption that a mapping exists between an exit surface wave of finite support and a far field diffraction pattern. We demonstrate that the introduction of sufficient phase curvature in the illumination can overcome the adverse effects of partial coherence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Viscor, D.; Rubio, J. L.; Birkl, G.; Mompart, J.; Ahufinger, V.
2012-12-01
We propose a single-site addressing implementation based on the subwavelength localization via adiabatic passage (SLAP) technique. We consider a sample of ultracold neutral atoms loaded into a two-dimensional optical lattice with one atom per site. Each atom is modeled by a three-level Λ system in interaction with a pump and a Stokes laser pulse. Using a pump field with a node in its spatial profile, the atoms at all sites are transferred from one ground state of the system to the other via stimulated Raman adiabatic passage, except the one at the position of the node that remains in the initial ground state. This technique allows for the preparation, manipulation, and detection of atoms with a spatial resolution better than the diffraction limit, which either relaxes the requirements on the optical setup used or extends the achievable spatial resolution to lattice spacings smaller than accessible to date. In comparison to techniques based on coherent population trapping, SLAP gives a higher addressing resolution and has additional advantages such as robustness against parameter variations, coherence of the transfer process, and the absence of photon induced recoil. Additionally, the advantages of our proposal with respect to adiabatic spin-flip techniques are highlighted. Analytic expressions for the achievable addressing resolution and efficiency are derived and compared to numerical simulations for 87Rb atoms in state-of-the-art optical lattices.
Adiabat Shaping of ICF Capsules Using Ramped Pressure Profiles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, K.; Betti, R.; Collins, T. J. B.; Marinak, M. M.; Haan, S. W.
2002-11-01
Target design of direct-drive ICF capsules has historically involved a compromise between high 1-D (clean) yield and capsule stability. Low-adiabat fuel is desirable to achieve high compression and, hence, high yield. A higher adiabat at the ablation front reduces the growth rate of the Raleigh--Taylor instability due to higher ablation velocity. An optimal target design will take advantage of both by shaping the adiabat of the capsule to allow for high adiabat in the material that is to be ablated and low adiabat in the remaining fuel. We present here a method of adiabat shaping using a low-intensity prepulse followed by laser shutoff before beginning the main drive pulse. This creates a decaying shock with a ramped pressure profile behind it. Since the prepulse is low intensity, the adiabat is not strongly affected by the prepulse. The main shock is then launched up this ramped pressure profile to set the adiabat. Because the main shock sees an increasing pressure profile, the effective strength of the shock decreases as it propagates through the shell, thus creating a smooth adiabat profile from high outer-shell adiabat to low inner-shell adiabat. Results of simulations using 1-D LILAC and 2-D DRACO (LLE), as well as 1-D and 2-D HYDRA (LLNL), are presented. This work was supported by the U.S. DOE Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC03-92SF19460 and by the University of California LLNL under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.
Subgap conductivity of a superconductor--normal-metal tunnel interface
Hekking, F.W.J.; Nazarov, Y.V.
1994-03-01
At low temperatures, the transport through a superconductor--normal-metal tunnel interface is due to tunneling of electrons in pairs. We show that the rate for this process is often determined by the interference of the electron waves on a space scale determined by the coherence length. Therefore, the subgap current strongly depends on the layout of the electrodes within this space scale. The approach developed allows us to evaluate the subgap current for different layouts of interest.
Robust Multiple-Range Coherent Quantum State Transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Bing; Peng, Yan-Dong; Li, Yong; Qian, Xiao-Feng
2016-07-01
We propose a multiple-range quantum communication channel to realize coherent two-way quantum state transport with high fidelity. In our scheme, an information carrier (a qubit) and its remote partner are both adiabatically coupled to the same data bus, i.e., an N-site tight-binding chain that has a single defect at the center. At the weak interaction regime, our system is effectively equivalent to a three level system of which a coherent superposition of the two carrier states constitutes a dark state. The adiabatic coupling allows a well controllable information exchange timing via the dark state between the two carriers. Numerical results show that our scheme is robust and efficient under practically inevitable perturbative defects of the data bus as well as environmental dephasing noise.
Coherent patterning of matter waves with subwavelength localization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mompart, J.; Ahufinger, V.; Birkl, G.
2009-05-01
We propose the subwavelength localization via adiabatic passage (SLAP) technique to coherently achieve state-selective patterning of matter waves well beyond the diffraction limit. The SLAP technique consists in coupling two partially overlapping and spatially structured laser fields to three internal levels of the matter wave yielding state-selective localization at those positions where the adiabatic passage process does not occur. We show that by means of this technique matter wave localization down to the single nanometer scale can be achieved. We analyze in detail the potential implementation of the SLAP technique for nanolithography with an atomic beam of metastable Ne∗ and for coherent patterning of a two-component R87b Bose-Einstein condensate.
Robust Multiple-Range Coherent Quantum State Transfer
Chen, Bing; Peng, Yan-Dong; Li, Yong; Qian, Xiao-Feng
2016-01-01
We propose a multiple-range quantum communication channel to realize coherent two-way quantum state transport with high fidelity. In our scheme, an information carrier (a qubit) and its remote partner are both adiabatically coupled to the same data bus, i.e., an N-site tight-binding chain that has a single defect at the center. At the weak interaction regime, our system is effectively equivalent to a three level system of which a coherent superposition of the two carrier states constitutes a dark state. The adiabatic coupling allows a well controllable information exchange timing via the dark state between the two carriers. Numerical results show that our scheme is robust and efficient under practically inevitable perturbative defects of the data bus as well as environmental dephasing noise. PMID:27364891
Photon-assisted tunneling through mesoscopic systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niu, Cheng
2000-11-01
In this thesis, we present a systematic study of the photon-assisted tunneling (PAT) through a mesoscopic structure, such as quantum well, quantum wire or quantum dot. The main objective is to fully understand the effect of the time-coherence electron-photon interaction on the spatial-coherence electronic tunneling. The concept of PAT is originated from Tien and Gordon, who invested the electron tunneling in superconductor junctions by absorbing a number of photons. Theoretically, Wingreen and co-workers present formalism for time-dependent coherent tunneling assuming single electronic level in the mesoscopic structures. We are the first group to investigate coherent transport with the intra-subband transition included. A complete numerical solution is presented for a Hamiltonian describing a two-level atom coherently coupling with both external time-dependant field and reservoirs. From such a solution, we clarified many aspects of electon-photon interaction that were unclear and have yielded new information about the effect of spatial coherence and confinement on the electron-photon interaction. We also derived the Coulomb blockade model including an external photon field. Based on this model, the PAT in quantum dot system with strong intra-dot electron-electron interaction is investigated. Under such situation, the external light field may modify the intra-dot electron distribution, and indirectly modify the tunneling property. Most works studying PAT model the photon field as a classical time-dependant function for its computational feasibility. However, the interaction of electrons with the vacuum fluctuation may change the electronic density of states if electron-photon interaction is not in the weak limit. We studied the PAT using a quantum electrodynamic (QED) description of photons. The QED result shows enhance effect of electron-photon interaction. The non-equilibrium Green function (GF) is originated from Schwinger's time-loop technique, and its
The Adiabatic Invariance of the Action Variable in Classical Dynamics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wells, Clive G.; Siklos, Stephen T. C.
2007-01-01
We consider one-dimensional classical time-dependent Hamiltonian systems with quasi-periodic orbits. It is well known that such systems possess an adiabatic invariant which coincides with the action variable of the Hamiltonian formalism. We present a new proof of the adiabatic invariance of this quantity and illustrate our arguments by means of…
Generation of atomic NOON states via shortcuts to adiabatic passage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Chong; Su, Shi-Lei; Bai, Cheng-Hua; Ji, Xin; Zhang, Shou
2016-10-01
Based on Lewis-Riesenfeld invariants and quantum Zeno dynamics, we propose an effective scheme for generating atomic NOON states via shortcuts to adiabatic passage. The photon losses are efficiently suppressed by engineering shortcuts to adiabatic passage in the scheme. The numerical simulation shows that the atomic NOON states can be generated with high fidelity.
Kinetic Theory Derivation of the Adiabatic Law for Ideal Gases.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sobel, Michael I.
1980-01-01
Discusses how the adiabatic law for ideal gases can be derived from the assumption of a Maxwell-Boltzmann (or any other) distribution of velocities--in contrast to the usual derivations from thermodynamics alone, and the higher-order effect that leads to one-body viscosity. An elementary derivation of the adiabatic law is given. (Author/DS)
Adiabat-shaping in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion
Baker, K. L.; Robey, H. F.; Milovich, J. L.; Jones, O. S.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Casey, D. T.; MacPhee, A. G.; Pak, A.; Celliers, P. M.; Clark, D. S.; Landen, O. L.; Peterson, J. L.; Berzak-Hopkins, L. F.; Weber, C. R.; Haan, S. W.; Döppner, T. D.; Dixit, S.; Hamza, A. V.; Jancaitis, K. S.; Kroll, J. J.; and others
2015-05-15
Adiabat-shaping techniques were investigated in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion experiments on the National Ignition Facility as a means to improve implosion stability, while still maintaining a low adiabat in the fuel. Adiabat-shaping was accomplished in these indirect drive experiments by altering the ratio of the picket and trough energies in the laser pulse shape, thus driving a decaying first shock in the ablator. This decaying first shock is designed to place the ablation front on a high adiabat while keeping the fuel on a low adiabat. These experiments were conducted using the keyhole experimental platform for both three and four shock laser pulses. This platform enabled direct measurement of the shock velocities driven in the glow-discharge polymer capsule and in the liquid deuterium, the surrogate fuel for a DT ignition target. The measured shock velocities and radiation drive histories are compared to previous three and four shock laser pulses. This comparison indicates that in the case of adiabat shaping the ablation front initially drives a high shock velocity, and therefore, a high shock pressure and adiabat. The shock then decays as it travels through the ablator to pressures similar to the original low-adiabat pulses when it reaches the fuel. This approach takes advantage of initial high ablation velocity, which favors stability, and high-compression, which favors high stagnation pressures.
Coherent Raman spectroscopy for supersonic flow measurments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
She, C. Y.
1986-01-01
In collaboration with NASA/Langley Research Center, a truly nonintrusive and nonseeding method for measuring supersonic molecular flow parameters was proposed and developed at Colorado State University. The feasibility of this Raman Doppler Velocimetry (RDV), currently operated in a scanning mode, was demonstrated not only in a laboratory environment at Colorado State University, but also in a major wind tunnel at NASA/Langley Research Center. The research progress of the RDV development is summarized. In addition, methods of coherent Rayleigh-Brillouin spectroscopy and single-pulse coherent Raman spectroscopy are investigated, respectively, for measurements of high-pressure and turbulent flows.
An adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator for SIRTF
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Timbie, P. T.; Bernstein, G. M.; Richards, P. L.
1989-01-01
An adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) has been proposed to cool bolometric infrared detectors on the multiband imaging photometer of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). One such refrigerator has been built which uses a ferric ammonium alum salt pill suspended by nylon threads in a 3-T solenoid. The resonant modes of this suspension are above 100 Hz. The heat leak to the salt pill is less than 0.5 microW. The system has a hold time at 0.1K of more than 12 h. The cold stage temperature is regulated with a feedback loop that controls the magnetic field. A second, similar refrigerator is being built at a SIRTF prototype to fly on a ballon-borne telescope. It will use a ferromagnetic shield. The possibility of using a high-Tc solenoid-actuated heat switch is also discussed.
An adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator for SIRTF
Timbie, P.T.; Bernstein, G.M.; Richards, P.L.
1989-02-01
An adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) has been proposed to cool bolometric infrared detectors on the Multiband Imaging Photometer of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). The authors have built one such refrigerator which employs a ferric ammonium alum salt pill suspended by nylon threads in a 3 Tesla solenoid. The resonant modes of this suspension are above 100 Hz. The heat leak to the salt pill is <0.5 ..mu..W. The system has a hold time at 0.1 /sup 0/K of >12 hours. The cold stage temperature is regulated with a feedback loop that controls the magnetic field. A second, similar refrigerator is being built as a SIRTF prototype to fly on a balloon-borne telescope. It will employ a ferromagnetic shield. The possibility of using high T/sub c/ leads to the superconducting magnet and a solenoid-actuated heat switch are also discussed.
The HAWC and SAFIRE Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tuttle, Jim; Shirron, Peter; DiPirro, Michael; Jackson, Michael; Behr, Jason; Kunes, Evan; Hait, Tom; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
The High-Resolution Airborne Wide-band Camera (HAWC) and Submillimeter and Far Infrared Experiment (SAFIRE) are far-infrared experiments which will fly on the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) aircraft. HAWC's detectors will operate at 0.2 Kelvin, while those of SAFIRE will be at 0.1 Kelvin. Each instrument will include an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) to cool its detector stage from the liquid helium bath temperature (HAWC's at 4.2 Kelvin and SAFIRE's pumped to about 1.3 Kelvin) to its operating temperature. Except for the magnets used to achieve the cooling and a slight difference in the heat switch design, the two ADRs are nearly identical. We describe the ADR design and present the results of performance testing.
Number Partitioning via Quantum Adiabatic Computation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.; Toussaint, Udo; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
We study both analytically and numerically the complexity of the adiabatic quantum evolution algorithm applied to random instances of combinatorial optimization problems. We use as an example the NP-complete set partition problem and obtain an asymptotic expression for the minimal gap separating the ground and exited states of a system during the execution of the algorithm. We show that for computationally hard problem instances the size of the minimal gap scales exponentially with the problem size. This result is in qualitative agreement with the direct numerical simulation of the algorithm for small instances of the set partition problem. We describe the statistical properties of the optimization problem that are responsible for the exponential behavior of the algorithm.
Differential topology of adiabatically controlled quantum processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jonckheere, Edmond A.; Rezakhani, Ali T.; Ahmad, Farooq
2013-03-01
It is shown that in a controlled adiabatic homotopy between two Hamiltonians, H 0 and H 1, the gap or "anti-crossing" phenomenon can be viewed as the development of cusps and swallow tails in the region of the complex plane where two critical value curves of the quadratic map associated with the numerical range of H 0 + i H 1 come close. The "near crossing" in the energy level plots happens to be a generic situation, in the sense that a crossing is a manifestation of the quadratic numerical range map being unstable in the sense of differential topology. The stable singularities that can develop are identified and it is shown that they could occur near the gap, making those singularities of paramount importance. Various applications, including the quantum random walk, are provided to illustrate this theory.
Quantum Adiabatic Optimization and Combinatorial Landscapes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smelyanskiy, V. N.; Knysh, S.; Morris, R. D.
2003-01-01
In this paper we analyze the performance of the Quantum Adiabatic Evolution (QAE) algorithm on a variant of Satisfiability problem for an ensemble of random graphs parametrized by the ratio of clauses to variables, gamma = M / N. We introduce a set of macroscopic parameters (landscapes) and put forward an ansatz of universality for random bit flips. We then formulate the problem of finding the smallest eigenvalue and the excitation gap as a statistical mechanics problem. We use the so-called annealing approximation with a refinement that a finite set of macroscopic variables (verses only energy) is used, and are able to show the existence of a dynamic threshold gamma = gammad, beyond which QAE should take an exponentially long time to find a solution. We compare the results for extended and simplified sets of landscapes and provide numerical evidence in support of our universality ansatz.
Geometric Adiabatic Transport in Quantum Hall States.
Klevtsov, S; Wiegmann, P
2015-08-21
We argue that in addition to the Hall conductance and the nondissipative component of the viscous tensor, there exists a third independent transport coefficient, which is precisely quantized. It takes constant values along quantum Hall plateaus. We show that the new coefficient is the Chern number of a vector bundle over moduli space of surfaces of genus 2 or higher and therefore cannot change continuously along the plateau. As such, it does not transpire on a sphere or a torus. In the linear response theory, this coefficient determines intensive forces exerted on electronic fluid by adiabatic deformations of geometry and represents the effect of the gravitational anomaly. We also present the method of computing the transport coefficients for quantum Hall states. PMID:26340197
Geometric Adiabatic Transport in Quantum Hall States.
Klevtsov, S; Wiegmann, P
2015-08-21
We argue that in addition to the Hall conductance and the nondissipative component of the viscous tensor, there exists a third independent transport coefficient, which is precisely quantized. It takes constant values along quantum Hall plateaus. We show that the new coefficient is the Chern number of a vector bundle over moduli space of surfaces of genus 2 or higher and therefore cannot change continuously along the plateau. As such, it does not transpire on a sphere or a torus. In the linear response theory, this coefficient determines intensive forces exerted on electronic fluid by adiabatic deformations of geometry and represents the effect of the gravitational anomaly. We also present the method of computing the transport coefficients for quantum Hall states.
Stirling engine with one adiabatic cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
West, C. D.
1982-03-01
It is shown that integration around the P-V loop of a Stirling-like cycle with an adiabatic expansion or compression space is possible through careful application of the ideal gas laws. The result is a set of closed-form solutions or the work output, work input, and efficiency for ideal gases. Previous analyses yielded closed-form solutions only for machines in which all spaces behave isothermally, or that have other limitations that simplify the arithmetic but omit important aspects of real machines. The results of this analysis, although still far removed from the exact behavior of real, practical engines, yield important insights into the effects observed in computer models and experimental machines. These results are especially illuminating for machines intended to operate with fairly small temperature differences. Heat pumps and low-technology solar-powered engines might be included in this category.
Adiabatic connection at negative coupling strengths
Seidl, Michael; Gori-Giorgi, Paola
2010-01-15
The adiabatic connection of density functional theory (DFT) for electronic systems is generalized here to negative values of the coupling strength alpha (with attractive electrons). In the extreme limit alpha->-infinity a simple physical solution is presented and its implications for DFT (as well as its limitations) are discussed. For two-electron systems (a case in which the present solution can be calculated exactly), we find that an interpolation between the limit alpha->-infinity and the opposite limit of infinitely strong repulsion (alpha->+infinity) yields a rather accurate estimate of the second-order correlation energy E{sub c}{sup GL2}[rho] for several different densities rho, without using virtual orbitals. The same procedure is also applied to the Be isoelectronic series, analyzing the effects of near degeneracy.
Sliding seal materials for adiabatic engines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lankford, J.
1985-01-01
The sliding friction coefficients and wear rates of promising carbide, oxide, and nitride materials were measured under temperature, environmental, velocity, loading conditions that are representative of the adiabatic engine environment. In order to provide guidance needed to improve materials for this application, the program stressed fundamental understanding of the mechanisms involved in friction and wear. Microhardness tests were performed on the candidate materials at elevated temperatures, and in atmospheres relevant to the piston seal application, and optical and electron microscopy were used to elucidate the micromechanisms of wear following wear testing. X-ray spectroscopy was used to evaluate interface/environment interactions which seemed to be important in the friction and wear process. Electrical effects in the friction and wear processes were explored in order to evaluate the potential usefulness of such effects in modifying the friction and wear rates in service. However, this factor was found to be of negligible significance in controlling friction and wear.
Adiabatic theory for anisotropic cold molecule collisions
Pawlak, Mariusz; Shagam, Yuval; Narevicius, Edvardas; Moiseyev, Nimrod
2015-08-21
We developed an adiabatic theory for cold anisotropic collisions between slow atoms and cold molecules. It enables us to investigate the importance of the couplings between the projection states of the rotational motion of the atom about the molecular axis of the diatom. We tested our theory using the recent results from the Penning ionization reaction experiment {sup 4}He(1s2s {sup 3}S) + HD(1s{sup 2}) → {sup 4}He(1s{sup 2}) + HD{sup +}(1s) + e{sup −} [Lavert-Ofir et al., Nat. Chem. 6, 332 (2014)] and demonstrated that the couplings have strong effect on positions of shape resonances. The theory we derived provides cross sections which are in a very good agreement with the experimental findings.
Lattice Boltzmann method for adiabatic acoustics.
Li, Yanbing; Shan, Xiaowen
2011-06-13
The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) has been proved to be a useful tool in many areas of computational fluid dynamics, including computational aero-acoustics (CAA). However, for historical reasons, its applications in CAA have been largely restricted to simulations of isothermal (Newtonian) sound waves. As the recent kinetic theory-based reformulation establishes a theoretical framework in which LBM can be extended to recover the full Navier-Stokes-Fourier (NS) equations and beyond, in this paper, we show that, at least at the low-frequency limit (sound frequency much less than molecular collision frequency), adiabatic sound waves can be accurately simulated by the LBM provided that the lattice and the distribution function ensure adequate recovery of the full NS equations.
Signatures of discrete breathers in coherent state quantum dynamics
Igumenshchev, Kirill; Ovchinnikov, Misha; Prezhdo, Oleg; Maniadis, Panagiotis
2013-02-07
In classical mechanics, discrete breathers (DBs) - a spatial time-periodic localization of energy - are predicted in a large variety of nonlinear systems. Motivated by a conceptual bridging of the DB phenomena in classical and quantum mechanical representations, we study their signatures in the dynamics of a quantum equivalent of a classical mechanical point in phase space - a coherent state. In contrast to the classical point that exhibits either delocalized or localized motion, the coherent state shows signatures of both localized and delocalized behavior. The transition from normal to local modes have different characteristics in quantum and classical perspectives. Here, we get an insight into the connection between classical and quantum perspectives by analyzing the decomposition of the coherent state into system's eigenstates, and analyzing the spacial distribution of the wave-function density within these eigenstates. We find that the delocalized and localized eigenvalue components of the coherent state are separated by a mixed region, where both kinds of behavior can be observed. Further analysis leads to the following observations. Considered as a function of coupling, energy eigenstates go through avoided crossings between tunneling and non-tunneling modes. The dominance of tunneling modes in the high nonlinearity region is compromised by the appearance of new types of modes - high order tunneling modes - that are similar to the tunneling modes but have attributes of non-tunneling modes. Certain types of excitations preferentially excite higher order tunneling modes, allowing one to study their properties. Since auto-correlation functions decrease quickly in highly nonlinear systems, short-time dynamics are sufficient for modeling quantum DBs. This work provides a foundation for implementing modern semi-classical methods to model quantum DBs, bridging classical and quantum mechanical signatures of DBs, and understanding spectroscopic experiments that
Signatures of discrete breathers in coherent state quantum dynamics.
Igumenshchev, Kirill; Ovchinnikov, Misha; Maniadis, Panagiotis; Prezhdo, Oleg
2013-02-01
In classical mechanics, discrete breathers (DBs) - a spatial time-periodic localization of energy - are predicted in a large variety of nonlinear systems. Motivated by a conceptual bridging of the DB phenomena in classical and quantum mechanical representations, we study their signatures in the dynamics of a quantum equivalent of a classical mechanical point in phase space - a coherent state. In contrast to the classical point that exhibits either delocalized or localized motion, the coherent state shows signatures of both localized and delocalized behavior. The transition from normal to local modes have different characteristics in quantum and classical perspectives. Here, we get an insight into the connection between classical and quantum perspectives by analyzing the decomposition of the coherent state into system's eigenstates, and analyzing the spacial distribution of the wave-function density within these eigenstates. We find that the delocalized and localized eigenvalue components of the coherent state are separated by a mixed region, where both kinds of behavior can be observed. Further analysis leads to the following observations. Considered as a function of coupling, energy eigenstates go through avoided crossings between tunneling and non-tunneling modes. The dominance of tunneling modes in the high nonlinearity region is compromised by the appearance of new types of modes - high order tunneling modes - that are similar to the tunneling modes but have attributes of non-tunneling modes. Certain types of excitations preferentially excite higher order tunneling modes, allowing one to study their properties. Since auto-correlation functions decrease quickly in highly nonlinear systems, short-time dynamics are sufficient for modeling quantum DBs. This work provides a foundation for implementing modern semi-classical methods to model quantum DBs, bridging classical and quantum mechanical signatures of DBs, and understanding spectroscopic experiments that
An integrated programming and development environment for adiabatic quantum optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Humble, T. S.; McCaskey, A. J.; Bennink, R. S.; Billings, J. J.; DʼAzevedo, E. F.; Sullivan, B. D.; Klymko, C. F.; Seddiqi, H.
2014-01-01
Adiabatic quantum computing is a promising route to the computational power afforded by quantum information processing. The recent availability of adiabatic hardware has raised challenging questions about how to evaluate adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO) programs. Processor behavior depends on multiple steps to synthesize an adiabatic quantum program, which are each highly tunable. We present an integrated programming and development environment for AQO called Jade Adiabatic Development Environment (JADE) that provides control over all the steps taken during program synthesis. JADE captures the workflow needed to rigorously specify the AQO algorithm while allowing a variety of problem types, programming techniques, and processor configurations. We have also integrated JADE with a quantum simulation engine that enables program profiling using numerical calculation. The computational engine supports plug-ins for simulation methodologies tailored to various metrics and computing resources. We present the design, integration, and deployment of JADE and discuss its potential use for benchmarking AQO programs by the quantum computer science community.
An Integrated Development Environment for Adiabatic Quantum Programming
Humble, Travis S; McCaskey, Alex; Bennink, Ryan S; Billings, Jay Jay; D'Azevedo, Eduardo; Sullivan, Blair D; Klymko, Christine F; Seddiqi, Hadayat
2014-01-01
Adiabatic quantum computing is a promising route to the computational power afforded by quantum information processing. The recent availability of adiabatic hardware raises the question of how well quantum programs perform. Benchmarking behavior is challenging since the multiple steps to synthesize an adiabatic quantum program are highly tunable. We present an adiabatic quantum programming environment called JADE that provides control over all the steps taken during program development. JADE captures the workflow needed to rigorously benchmark performance while also allowing a variety of problem types, programming techniques, and processor configurations. We have also integrated JADE with a quantum simulation engine that enables program profiling using numerical calculation. The computational engine supports plug-ins for simulation methodologies tailored to various metrics and computing resources. We present the design, integration, and deployment of JADE and discuss its use for benchmarking adiabatic quantum programs.
Non-adiabatic molecular dynamics with complex quantum trajectories. II. The adiabatic representation
Zamstein, Noa; Tannor, David J.
2012-12-14
We present a complex quantum trajectory method for treating non-adiabatic dynamics. Each trajectory evolves classically on a single electronic surface but with complex position and momentum. The equations of motion are derived directly from the time-dependent Schroedinger equation, and the population exchange arises naturally from amplitude-transfer terms. In this paper the equations of motion are derived in the adiabatic representation to complement our work in the diabatic representation [N. Zamstein and D. J. Tannor, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 22A517 (2012)]. We apply our method to two benchmark models introduced by John Tully [J. Chem. Phys. 93, 1061 (1990)], and get very good agreement with converged quantum-mechanical calculations. Specifically, we show that decoherence (spatial separation of wavepackets on different surfaces) is already contained in the equations of motion and does not require ad hoc augmentation.
Control of Population Flow in Coherently Driven Quantum Ladders
Garcia-Fernandez, Ruth; Bergmann, Klaas; Ekers, Aigars; Yatsenko, Leonid P.; Vitanov, Nikolay V.
2005-07-22
A technique for adiabatic control of the population flow through a preselected decaying excited level in a three-level quantum ladder is presented. The population flow through the intermediate or upper level is controlled efficiently and robustly by varying the pulse delay between a pair of partly overlapping coherent laser pulses. The technique is analyzed theoretically and demonstrated in an experiment with Na{sub 2} molecules.
Fast coherent manipulation of quantum states in open systems.
Song, Jie; Zhang, Zi-Jing; Xia, Yan; Sun, Xiu-Dong; Jiang, Yong-Yuan
2016-09-19
We present a method to manipulate quantum states in open systems. It is shown that a high-fidelity quantum state may be generated by designing an additional Hamiltonian without rotating wave approximation. Moreover, we find that a coherent transfer is possible using quantum feedback control even when feedback parameters and noise strength can not be exactly controlled. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of constructing the shortcuts to adiabatic passage beyond rotating wave approximation in open systems. PMID:27661905
A homonuclear spin-pair filter for solid-state NMR based on adiabatic-passage techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verel, René; Baldus, Marc; Ernst, Matthias; Meier, Beat H.
1998-05-01
A filtering scheme for the selection of spin pairs (and larger spin clusters) under fast magic-angle spinning is proposed. The scheme exploits the avoided level crossing in spin pairs during an adiabatic amplitude sweep through the so-called HORROR recoupling condition. The advantages over presently used double-quantum filters are twofold. (i) The maximum theoretical filter efficiency is, due to the adiabatic variation, 100% instead of 73% as for transient methods. (ii) Since the filter does not rely on the phase-cycling properties of the double-quantum coherence, there is no need to obtain the full double-quantum intensity for all spins in the sample at one single point in time. The only important requirement is that all coupled spins pass through a two-spin state during the amplitude sweep. This makes the pulse scheme robust with respect to rf-amplitude missetting, rf-field inhomogeneity and chemical-shift offset.
Laser Tunnel Ionization from Multiple Orbitals in HCl
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akagi, H.; Otobe, T.; Staudte, A.; Shiner, A.; Turner, F.; Dörner, R.; Villeneuve, D. M.; Corkum, P. B.
2009-09-01
Tunneling, one of the most striking manifestations of quantum mechanics, influences the electronic structure of many molecules and solids and is responsible for radioactive decay. Much of the interaction of intense light pulses with matter commences with electrons tunneling from atoms or molecules to the continuum. Until recently, this starting point was assumed to be the highest occupied orbital of a given system. We have now observed tunneling from a lower-lying state in hydrogen chloride (HCl). Analyzing two independent experimental observables allowed us to isolate (via fragment ions), identify (via molecular frame photoelectron angular distributions), and, with the help of ab initio simulations, quantify the contribution of lower-lying orbitals to the total and angle-dependent tunneling current of the molecule. Our results bolster the emerging tenet that the coherent interaction between different orbitals—which can amplify the impact of lower orbitals—must be considered in tunneling processes.
4. 'Ring Stones & Tunnel Sections, Tunnel #33,' Southern Pacific ...
4. 'Ring Stones & Tunnel Sections, Tunnel #33,' Southern Pacific Standard Double-Track Tunnel, ca. 1913. Compare to photos in documentation sets for Tunnel 18 (HAER No. CA-197), Tunnel 34 (HAER No. CA-206), and Tunnel 1 (HAER No. CA-207). - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Sacramento to Nevada state line, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA
Effects of EOS adiabat on hot spot dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Baolian; Kwan, Thomas; Wang, Yi-Ming; Batha, Steven
2013-10-01
Equation of state (EOS) and adiabat of the pusher play significant roles in the dynamics and formation of the hot spot of an ignition capsule. For given imploding energy, they uniquely determine the partition of internal energy, mass, and volume between the pusher and the hot spot. In this work, we apply the new scaling laws recently derived by Cheng et al. to the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) ignition capsules and study the impacts of EOS and adiabat of the pusher on the hot spot dynamics by using the EOS adiabat index as an adjustable model parameter. We compare our analysis with the NIC data, specifically, for shots N120321 and N120205, and with the numerical simulations of these shots. The predictions from our theoretical model are in good agreements with the NIC data when a hot adiabat was used for the pusher, and with code simulations when a cold adiabat was used for the pusher. Our analysis indicates that the actual adiabat of the pusher in NIC experiments may well be higher than the adiabat assumed in the simulations. This analysis provides a physical and systematic explanation to the ongoing disagreements between the NIC experimental results and the multi-dimensional numerical simulations. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the Los Alamos National Laboratory under contract number W-7405-ENG-36.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1921-01-01
Wind Tunnel #2, building interior. Reinforced concrete foundation for Variable-Density Tunnel (VDT) under construction. The tank and contents weighed about 100 tons. Negative on roll #1 of copy negatives returned by National Archives on 70mm film rolls.
Ionization Time and Exit Momentum in Strong-Field Tunnel Ionization.
Teeny, Nicolas; Yakaboylu, Enderalp; Bauke, Heiko; Keitel, Christoph H
2016-02-12
Tunnel ionization belongs to the fundamental processes of atomic physics. The so-called two-step model, which describes the ionization as instantaneous tunneling at the electric field maximum and classical motion afterwards with zero exit momentum, is commonly employed to describe tunnel ionization in adiabatic regimes. In this contribution, we show by solving numerically the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in one dimension and employing a virtual detector at the tunnel exit that there is a nonvanishing positive time delay between the electric field maximum and the instant of ionization. Moreover, we find a nonzero exit momentum in the direction of the electric field. To extract proper tunneling times from asymptotic momentum distributions of ionized electrons, it is essential to incorporate the electron's initial momentum in the direction of the external electric field.
Variable-Density Tunnel - Wind Tunnel #2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1923-01-01
Underside of the Variable-Density Tunnel (VDT). The compressors are to the left. Balance detail - entrance view of wind tunnel #2. The photographer was probably shooting film for Dr. Joseph Ames' Wilbur Wright Memorial Lecture given to the Royal Aeronautical Society on May 31, 1923.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Apostol, Tom M. (Editor)
1995-01-01
This 'Project Mathematics' series video from CalTech presents the tunnel of Samos, a famous underground aquaduct tunnel located near the capital of Pithagorion (named after the famed Greek mathematician, Pythagoras, who lived there), on one of the Greek islands. This tunnel was constructed around 600 BC by King Samos and was built under a nearby mountain. Through film footage and computer animation, the mathematical principles and concepts of why and how this aquaduct tunnel was built are explained.
Optimality of partial adiabatic search and its circuit model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mei, Ying; Sun, Jie; Lu, Songfeng; Gao, Chao
2014-08-01
In this paper, we first uncover a fact that a partial adiabatic quantum search with time complexity is in fact optimal, in which is the total number of elements in an unstructured database, and () of them are the marked ones(one) . We then discuss how to implement a partial adiabatic search algorithm on the quantum circuit model. From the implementing procedure on the circuit model, we can find out that the approximating steps needed are always in the same order of the time complexity of the adiabatic algorithm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asher, D. J.; Clube, S. V. M.; Napier, W. M.; Steel, D. I.
We review the theoretical and observational evidence that, on timescales relevant to mankind, the prime collision hazard is posed by temporally correlated impacts (coherent catastrophism, Δt ˜ 10 2-10 4 yr) rather than random ones (stochastic catastrophism, Δt ˜ 10 5-10 8 yr). The mechanism whereby coherent incursions into and through the terrestrial atmosphere occur is described as being the result of giant cometary bodies arriving in orbits with perihelia in the inner solar system. Hierarchical fragmentation of such large (100 km-plus) bodies — due to thermal stresses near perihelion, collisions in the asteroid belt, or passages through the Jovian Roche radius — results in numerous ˜kilometre-sized objects being left in short-period orbits, and appearing in telescopic searches as Apollo-type asteroids. Many more smaller objects, in the 10-100 metre size range and only recently observed, by the Spacewatch team, are expected to be in replenished clusters in particular orbits as a result of continuing disintegrations of large, differentiated, cometary objects. Gravitational perturbations by Jupiter bring these clusters around to have a node at 1 AU in a cyclic fashion, leading to impacts at certain times of year every few years during active periods lasting a few centuries, such periods being separated by intervals of a few millennia. Furthermore, fragmentations within the hierarchy result in significant bombardment commensurabilities ( Δt ˜ 10-10 2 yr) during active periods occurring at random intervals ( Δt ˜ 10 2-10 3 yr). It appears that the Earth has been subject to such impacts since the break-up of such a comet ˜2×10 4 years ago; currently we are not passing through a high-risk epoch, although some phenomena originating in the products of this break-up have been observed in the 20th century. This most recent hierarchical disintegration, associated with four well-known meteor showers and termed the Taurid Complex, is now recognized as resulting
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1931-01-01
Variable Density Tunnel in operation. Man at far right is probably Harold J. 'Cannonball' Tuner, longtime safety officer, who started with Curtiss in the teens. This view of the Variable Density Tunnel clearly shows the layout of the Tunnel's surroundings, as well as the plumbing and power needs of the this innovative research tool.
Cotton, Stephen J.; Miller, William H.
2013-12-21
A recently described symmetrical windowing methodology [S. J. Cotton and W. H. Miller, J. Phys. Chem. A 117, 7190 (2013)] for quasi-classical trajectory simulations is applied here to the Meyer-Miller [H.-D. Meyer and W. H. Miller, J. Chem. Phys. 70, 3214 (1979)] model for the electronic degrees of freedom in electronically non-adiabatic dynamics. Results generated using this classical approach are observed to be in very good agreement with accurate quantum mechanical results for a variety of test applications, including problems where coherence effects are significant such as the challenging asymmetric spin-boson system.
Topological States and Adiabatic Pumping in Quasicrystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kraus, Yaakov; Lahini, Yoav; Ringel, Zohar; Verbin, Mor; Zilberberg, Oded
2012-02-01
We find a connection between quasicrystals and topological matter, namely that quasicrystals exhibit non-trivial topological phases attributed to dimensions higher than their own [1]. Quasicrystals are materials which are neither ordered nor disordered, i.e. they exhibit only long-range order [2]. This long-range order is usually expressed as a projection from a higher dimensional ordered system. Recently, the unrelated discovery of Topological Insulators [3] defined a new type of materials classified by their topology. We show theoretically and experimentally using photonic lattices, that one-dimensional quasicrystals exhibit topologically-protected boundary states equivalent to the edge states of the two-dimensional Integer Quantum Hall Effect. We harness this property to adiabatically pump light across the quasicrystal, and generalize our results to higher dimensional systems. Hence, quasicrystals offer a new platform for the study of topological phases while their topology may better explain their surface properties.[4pt] [1] Y. E. Kraus, Y. Lahini, Z. Ringel, M. Verbin, and O. Zilberberg, arXiv:1109.5983 (2011).[0pt] [2] C. Janot, Quasicrystals (Clarendon, Oxford, 1994), 2nd ed.[0pt] [3] M. Z. Hasan and C. L. Kane, Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 3045 (2010).
On the persistence of adiabatic shear bands
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boakye-Yiadom, S.; Bassim, M. N.; Al-Ameeri, S.
2012-08-01
It is generally agreed that the initiation and development of adiabatic shear bands (ASBs) are manifestations of damage in metallic materials subjected to high strain rates and large strains as those due to impact in a Hopkinson Bar system. Models for evolution of these bands have been described in the literature. One question that has not received attention is how persistent these bands are and whether their presence and effect can be reversed or eliminated by using a process of thermal (heat treatment) or thermo-mechanical treatment that would relieve the material from the high strain associated with ASBs and their role as precursors to crack initiation and subsequent failure. Since ASBs are more prevalent and more defined in BCC metals including steels, a study was conducted to investigate the best conditions of generating ASBs in a heat treatable steel, followed by determining the best conditions for heat treatment of specimens already damaged by the presence of ASBs in order to relieve the strains due to ASBs and restore the material to an apparent microstructure without the "scars" due to the previous presence of ASBs. It was found that heat treatment achieves the curing from ASBs. This presentation documents the process undertaken to achieve this objective.
Adiabatic quantum algorithm for search engine ranking.
Garnerone, Silvano; Zanardi, Paolo; Lidar, Daniel A
2012-06-01
We propose an adiabatic quantum algorithm for generating a quantum pure state encoding of the PageRank vector, the most widely used tool in ranking the relative importance of internet pages. We present extensive numerical simulations which provide evidence that this algorithm can prepare the quantum PageRank state in a time which, on average, scales polylogarithmically in the number of web pages. We argue that the main topological feature of the underlying web graph allowing for such a scaling is the out-degree distribution. The top-ranked log(n) entries of the quantum PageRank state can then be estimated with a polynomial quantum speed-up. Moreover, the quantum PageRank state can be used in "q-sampling" protocols for testing properties of distributions, which require exponentially fewer measurements than all classical schemes designed for the same task. This can be used to decide whether to run a classical update of the PageRank. PMID:23003933
Graph isomorphism and adiabatic quantum computing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaitan, Frank; Clark, Lane
2014-03-01
In the Graph Isomorphism (GI) problem two N-vertex graphs G and G' are given and the task is to determine whether there exists a permutation of the vertices of G that preserves adjacency and maps G --> G'. If yes (no), then G and G' are said to be isomorphic (non-isomorphic). The GI problem is an important problem in computer science and is thought to be of comparable difficulty to integer factorization. We present a quantum algorithm that solves arbitrary instances of GI, and which provides a novel approach to determining all automorphisms of a graph. The algorithm converts a GI instance to a combinatorial optimization problem that can be solved using adiabatic quantum evolution. Numerical simulation of the algorithm's quantum dynamics shows that it correctly distinguishes non-isomorphic graphs; recognizes isomorphic graphs; and finds the automorphism group of a graph. We also discuss the algorithm's experimental implementation and show how it can be leveraged to solve arbitrary instances of the NP-Complete Sub-Graph Isomorphism problem.
Design of the PIXIE Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shirron, Peter J.; Kimball, Mark Oliver; Fixsen, Dale J.; Kogut, Alan J.; Li, Xiaoyi; DiPirro, Michael
2012-01-01
The Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE) is a proposed mission to densely map the polarization of the cosmic microwave background. It will operate in a scanning mode from a sun-synchronous orbit, using low temperature detectors (at 0.1 K) and located inside a teslescope that is cooled to approximately 2.73 K - to match the background temperature. A mechanical cryocooler operating at 4.5 K establishes a low base temperature from which two adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) assemblies will cool the telescope and detectors. To achieve continuous scanning capability, the ADRs must operate continuously. Complicating the design are two factors: 1) the need to systematically vary the temperature of various telescope components in order to separate the small polarization signal variations from those that may arise from temperature drifts and changing gradients within the telescope, and 2) the orbital and monthly variations in lunar irradiance into the telescope barrels. These factors require the telescope ADR to reject quasi-continuous heat loads of 2-3 millwatts, while maintaining a peak heat reject rate of less than 12 milliwatts. The detector heat load at 0.1 K is comparatively small at 1-2 microwatts. This paper will describe the 3-stage and 2-stage continuous ADRs that will be used to meet the cooling power and temperature stability requirements of the PIXIE detectors and telescope.
On the adiabatic walking of plasma waves in a pulsar magnetosphere
Melikidze, George I.; Gil, Janusz; Mitra, Dipanjan E-mail: jag@astro.ia.uz.zgora.pl
2014-10-20
The pulsar radio emission is generated in the near magnetosphere of the neutron star, and it must propagate through the rest of it to emerge into the interstellar medium. An important issue is whether this propagation affects the planes of polarization of the generated radiation. Observationally, there is sufficient evidence that the emerging radiation is polarized parallel or perpendicular to the magnetic field line planes that should be associated with the ordinary (O) and extraordinary (X) plasma modes, respectively, excited by some radiative process. This strongly suggests that the excited X and O modes are not affected by the so-called adiabatic walking that causes a slow rotation of polarization vectors. In this paper, we demonstrate that the conditions for adiabatic walking are not fulfilled within the soliton model of pulsar radio emission, in which the coherent curvature radiation occurs at frequencies much lower than the characteristic plasma frequency, The X mode propagates freely and observationally represents the primary polarization mode. The O mode has difficulty escaping from the pulsar plasma; however, it is sporadically observed as a weaker secondary polarization mode. We discuss a possible scenario under which the O mode can also escape from the plasma and reach an observer.
Control of Diabatic versus Adiabatic Field Dissociation in a Heavy Rydberg System
Shiell, R.C.; Reinhold, E.; Ubachs, W.; Magnus, F.
2005-11-18
A novel phenomenon is observed in the dynamics of laser-prepared coherent wave packets, bound by the Coulombic 1/r potential of an ion-pair system. After exciting weakly bound ({approx_equal}3 meV) H{sup +}F{sup -} wave packets in a Stark field, and permitting them to evolve in time, control of field dissociation via adiabatic and diabatic routes is demonstrated by applying delayed pulsed-electric fields, involving a zero-field crossing. Control manifests itself through the production of ions from each pathway at a different instant in time. This phenomenon is applied to map the oscillatory behavior of an angular momentum wave packet in a heavy Rydberg system. The characteristic frequencies of the observed Stark oscillations verify predicted mass-scaling laws for heavy Rydberg systems.
Adiabaticity and spectral splits in collective neutrino transformations
Raffelt, Georg G.; Smirnov, Alexei Yu.
2007-12-15
Neutrinos streaming off a supernova core transform collectively by neutrino-neutrino interactions, leading to 'spectral splits' where an energy E{sub split} divides the transformed spectrum sharply into parts of almost pure but different flavors. We present a detailed description of the spectral-split phenomenon which is conceptually and quantitatively understood in an adiabatic treatment of neutrino-neutrino effects. Central to this theory is a self-consistency condition in the form of two sum rules (integrals over the neutrino spectra that must equal certain conserved quantities). We provide explicit analytic and numerical solutions for various neutrino spectra. We introduce the concept of the adiabatic reference frame and elaborate on the relative adiabatic evolution. Violating adiabaticity leads to the spectral split being 'washed out'. The sharpness of the split appears to be represented by a surprisingly universal function.
Adiabatic rotation, quantum search, and preparation of superposition states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siu, M. Stewart
2007-06-01
We introduce the idea of using adiabatic rotation to generate superpositions of a large class of quantum states. For quantum computing this is an interesting alternative to the well-studied “straight line” adiabatic evolution. In ways that complement recent results, we show how to efficiently prepare three types of states: Kitaev’s toric code state, the cluster state of the measurement-based computation model, and the history state used in the adiabatic simulation of a quantum circuit. We also show that the method, when adapted for quantum search, provides quadratic speedup as other optimal methods do with the advantages that the problem Hamiltonian is time independent and that the energy gap above the ground state is strictly nondecreasing with time. Likewise the method can be used for optimization as an alternative to the standard adiabatic algorithm.
Adiabatic and isocurvature perturbation projections in multi-field inflation
Gordon, Chris; Saffin, Paul M. E-mail: Paul.Saffin@nottingham.ac.uk
2013-08-01
Current data are in good agreement with the predictions of single field inflation. However, the hemispherical asymmetry, seen in the cosmic microwave background data, may hint at a potential problem. Generalizing to multi-field models may provide one possible explanation. A useful way of modeling perturbations in multi-field inflation is to investigate the projection of the perturbation along and perpendicular to the background fields' trajectory. These correspond to the adiabatic and isocurvature perturbations. However, it is important to note that in general there are no corresponding adiabatic and isocurvature fields. The purpose of this article is to highlight the distinction between a field redefinition and a perturbation projection. We provide a detailed derivation of the evolution of the isocurvature perturbation to show that no assumption of an adiabatic or isocurvature field is needed. We also show how this evolution equation is consistent with the field covariant evolution equations for the adiabatic perturbation in the flat field space limit.
Ultrafast stimulated Raman parallel adiabatic passage by shaped pulses
Dridi, G.; Guerin, S.; Hakobyan, V.; Jauslin, H. R.; Eleuch, H.
2009-10-15
We present a general and versatile technique of population transfer based on parallel adiabatic passage by femtosecond shaped pulses. Their amplitude and phase are specifically designed to optimize the adiabatic passage corresponding to parallel eigenvalues at all times. We show that this technique allows the robust adiabatic population transfer in a Raman system with the total pulse area as low as 3{pi}, corresponding to a fluence of one order of magnitude below the conventional stimulated Raman adiabatic passage process. This process of short duration, typically picosecond and subpicosecond, is easily implementable with the modern pulse shaper technology and opens the possibility of ultrafast robust population transfer with interesting applications in quantum information processing.
Quantitative tunneling spectroscopy of nanocrystals
First, Phillip N; Whetten, Robert L; Schaaff, T Gregory
2007-05-25
The proposed goals of this collaborative work were to systematically characterize the electronic structure and dynamics of 3-dimensional metal and semiconducting nanocrystals using scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS) and ballistic electron emission spectroscopy (BEES). This report describes progress in the spectroscopic work and in the development of methods for creating and characterizing gold nanocrystals. During the grant period, substantial effort also was devoted to the development of epitaxial graphene (EG), a very promising materials system with outstanding potential for nanometer-scale ballistic and coherent devices ("graphene"Â refers to one atomic layer of graphitic, sp2 -bonded carbon atoms [or more loosely, few layers]). Funding from this DOE grant was critical for the initial development of epitaxial graphene for nanoelectronics
Adiabatic Swimming in an Ideal Quantum Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avron, J. E.; Gutkin, B.; Oaknin, D. H.
2006-04-01
Interference effects are important for swimming of mesoscopic systems that are small relative to the coherence length of the surrounding quantum medium. Swimming is geometric for slow swimmers and the distance covered in each stroke is determined, explicitly, in terms of the on-shell scattering matrix. Remarkably, for a one-dimensional Fermi gas at zero temperature we find that slow swimming is topological: the swimming distance covered in one stroke is quantized in half integer multiples of the Fermi wavelength. In addition, a careful choice of the swimming stroke can eliminate dissipation.
Adiabatic invariant value variation under shortwave band subcritical conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Svistunov, K. V.; Tinin, M. V.
1985-04-01
The possibility of significant variations of the adiabatic invariant is examined for the propagation of radio waves in an irregular Earth-ionosphere waveguide with a parabolic dependence of permittivity on height. Numerical and analytical results indicate that nonexponential deviations of the adiabatic invariant can occur not only when the characteristic size of horizontal irregularity decreases (e.g., during resonant beam excitation) but also in quasi-critical conditions and for smoothly irregular waveguides.
Shortcuts to adiabaticity for non-Hermitian systems
Ibanez, S.; Martinez-Garaot, S.; Torrontegui, E.; Muga, J. G.; Chen Xi
2011-08-15
Adiabatic processes driven by non-Hermitian, time-dependent Hamiltonians may be sped up by generalizing inverse engineering techniques based on counter-diabatic (transitionless driving) algorithms or on dynamical invariants. We work out the basic theory and examples described by two-level Hamiltonians: the acceleration of rapid adiabatic passage with a decaying excited level and of the dynamics of a classical particle on an expanding harmonic oscillator.
Strain-enhanced tunneling magnetoresistance in MgO magnetic tunnel junctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loong, Li Ming; Qiu, Xuepeng; Neo, Zhi Peng; Deorani, Praveen; Wu, Yang; Bhatia, Charanjit S.; Saeys, Mark; Yang, Hyunsoo
2014-09-01
While the effects of lattice mismatch-induced strain, mechanical strain, as well as the intrinsic strain of thin films are sometimes detrimental, resulting in mechanical deformation and failure, strain can also be usefully harnessed for applications such as data storage, transistors, solar cells, and strain gauges, among other things. Here, we demonstrate that quantum transport across magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) can be significantly affected by the introduction of controllable mechanical strain, achieving an enhancement factor of ~2 in the experimental tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio. We further correlate this strain-enhanced TMR with coherent spin tunneling through the MgO barrier. Moreover, the strain-enhanced TMR is analyzed using non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) quantum transport calculations. Our results help elucidate the TMR mechanism at the atomic level and can provide a new way to enhance, as well as tune, the quantum properties in nanoscale materials and devices.
A novel technique to achieve atomic macro-coherence as a tool to determine the nature of neutrinos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boyero García, R.; Carpentier, A. V.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; Peralta Conde, A.
2016-10-01
The photon spectrum in macro-coherent atomic deexcitation via radiative emission of neutrino pairs has been proposed as a sensitive probe of the neutrino mass spectrum, capable of competing with conventional neutrino experiments. In this paper, we revisit this intriguing possibility, presenting an alternative method for inducing large coherence in a target based on adiabatic techniques. More concretely, we propose the use of a modified version of coherent population return (CPR), namely two-photon CPR, that turns out to be extremely robust with respect to the experimental parameters and capable of inducing a coherence close to 100 % in the target.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kilgore, R. A.
1976-01-01
Based on theoretical studies and experience with a low speed cryogenic tunnel and with a 1/3-meter transonic cryogenic tunnel, the cryogenic wind tunnel concept was shown to offer many advantages with respect to the attainment of full scale Reynolds number at reasonable levels of dynamic pressure in a ground based facility. The unique modes of operation available in a pressurized cryogenic tunnel make possible for the first time the separation of Mach number, Reynolds number, and aeroelastic effects. By reducing the drive-power requirements to a level where a conventional fan drive system may be used, the cryogenic concept makes possible a tunnel with high productivity and run times sufficiently long to allow for all types of tests at reduced capital costs and, for equal amounts of testing, reduced total energy consumption in comparison with other tunnel concepts.
Measurement of recovery temperature on an airfoil in the Langley 0.3-m transonic cryogenic tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, C. B.; Adcock, J. B.
1981-01-01
Experimental measurements of recovery temperature were made on an airfoil in the Langley 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel at Mach numbers of 0.60 and 0.84 over a Reynolds number per meter range from about 15,000,000 to about 335,000,000. The measured recovery temperatures were considerably below those associated with ideal-gas ambient temperature wind tunnels. This difference was accentuated as the stagnation pressure increased and the total temperature decreased. A boundary-layer code modified for use with cryogenic nitrogen adequately predicted the measured adiabatic wall temperature at all conditions. A quantitative, on-line assessment of the nonadiabatic condition of a model can be made during the operation of a cryogenic wind tunnel by using a correlation for the adiabatic wall temperature which is only a function of total temperature, total pressure, and local Mach number on the model.
Charge Islands Through Tunneling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robinson, Daryl C.
2002-01-01
It has been recently reported that the electrical charge in a semiconductive carbon nanotube is not evenly distributed, but rather it is divided into charge "islands." This paper links the aforementioned phenomenon to tunneling and provides further insight into the higher rate of tunneling processes, which makes tunneling devices attractive. This paper also provides a basis for calculating the charge profile over the length of the tube so that nanoscale devices' conductive properties may be fully exploited.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, L. M. (Inventor)
1984-01-01
Power is extracted from plasmons, photons, or other guided electromagnetic waves at infrared to midultraviolet frequencies by inelastic tunneling in metal-insulator-semiconductor-metal diodes. Inelastic tunneling produces power by absorbing plasmons to pump electrons to higher potential. Specifically, an electron from a semiconductor layer absorbs a plasmon and simultaneously tunnels across an insulator into metal layer which is at higher potential. The diode voltage determines the fraction of energy extracted from the plasmons; any excess is lost to heat.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsumoto, S.; Yoshimura, M.
2000-12-01
Time evolution of tunneling in thermal medium is examined using the real-time semiclassical formalism previously developed. Effect of anharmonic terms in the potential well is shown to give a new mechanism of resonance enhanced tunneling. If the friction from environment is small enough, this mechanism may give a very large enhancement for the tunneling rate. The case of the asymmetric wine bottle potential is worked out in detail.
A universal explanation of tunneling conductance in exotic superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hong, Jongbae; Abergel, D. S. L.
2016-08-01
A longstanding mystery in understanding cuprate superconductors is the inconsistency between the experimental data measured by scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). In particular, the gap between prominent side peaks observed in STS is much bigger than the superconducting gap observed by ARPES measurements. Here, we reconcile the two experimental techniques by generalising a theory which was previously applied to zero-dimensional mesoscopic Kondo systems to strongly correlated two-dimensional (2D) exotic superconductors. We show that the side peaks observed in tunneling conductance measurements in all these materials have a universal origin: They are formed by coherence-mediated tunneling under bias and do not directly reflect the underlying density of states (DOS) of the sample. We obtain theoretical predictions of the tunneling conductance and the density of states of the sample simultaneously and show that for cuprate and pnictide superconductors, the extracted sample DOS is consistent with the superconducting gap measured by ARPES.
Moran, B.; Attia, A.
1995-07-01
When a deeply penetrating munition explodes above the roof of a tunnel, the amount of rubble that falls inside the tunnel is primarily a function of three parameters: first the cube-root scaled distance from the center of the explosive to the roof of the tunnel. Second the material properties of the rock around the tunnel, and in particular the shear strength of that rock, its RQD (Rock Quality Designator), and the extent and orientation of joints. And third the ratio of the tunnel diameter to the standoff distance (distance between the center of explosive and the tunnel roof). The authors have used CALE, a well-established 2-D hydrodynamic computer code, to calculate the amount of rubble that falls inside a tunnel as a function of standoff distance for two different tunnel diameters. In particular they calculated three of the tunnel collapse experiments conducted in an iron ore mine near Kirkeness, Norway in the summer of 1994. The failure model that they used in their calculations combines an equivalent plastic strain criterion with a maximum tensile strength criterion and can be calibrated for different rocks using cratering data as well as laboratory experiments. These calculations are intended to test and improve the understanding of both the Norway Experiments and the ACE (Array of conventional Explosive) phenomenology.
Meisner, Jan; Kästner, Johannes
2016-04-25
Quantum mechanical tunneling of atoms is increasingly found to play an important role in many chemical transformations. Experimentally, atom tunneling can be indirectly detected by temperature-independent rate constants at low temperature or by enhanced kinetic isotope effects. In contrast, the influence of tunneling on the reaction rates can be monitored directly through computational investigations. The tunnel effect, for example, changes reaction paths and branching ratios, enables chemical reactions in an astrochemical environment that would be impossible by thermal transition, and influences biochemical processes. PMID:26990917
Revealing the quantum regime in tunnelling plasmonics.
Savage, Kevin J; Hawkeye, Matthew M; Esteban, Rubén; Borisov, Andrei G; Aizpurua, Javier; Baumberg, Jeremy J
2012-11-22
When two metal nanostructures are placed nanometres apart, their optically driven free electrons couple electrically across the gap. The resulting plasmons have enhanced optical fields of a specific colour tightly confined inside the gap. Many emerging nanophotonic technologies depend on the careful control of this plasmonic coupling, including optical nanoantennas for high-sensitivity chemical and biological sensors, nanoscale control of active devices, and improved photovoltaic devices. But for subnanometre gaps, coherent quantum tunnelling becomes possible and the system enters a regime of extreme non-locality in which previous classical treatments fail. Electron correlations across the gap that are driven by quantum tunnelling require a new description of non-local transport, which is crucial in nanoscale optoelectronics and single-molecule electronics. Here, by simultaneously measuring both the electrical and optical properties of two gold nanostructures with controllable subnanometre separation, we reveal the quantum regime of tunnelling plasmonics in unprecedented detail. All observed phenomena are in good agreement with recent quantum-based models of plasmonic systems, which eliminate the singularities predicted by classical theories. These findings imply that tunnelling establishes a quantum limit for plasmonic field confinement of about 10(-8)λ(3) for visible light (of wavelength λ). Our work thus prompts new theoretical and experimental investigations into quantum-domain plasmonic systems, and will affect the future of nanoplasmonic device engineering and nanoscale photochemistry.
LETTERS AND COMMENTS: Adiabatic process reversibility: microscopic and macroscopic views
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anacleto, Joaquim; Pereira, Mário G.
2009-05-01
The reversibility of adiabatic processes was recently addressed by two publications. In the first (Miranda 2008 Eur. J. Phys. 29 937-43), an equation was derived relating the initial and final volumes and temperatures for adiabatic expansions of an ideal gas, using a microscopic approach. In that relation the parameter r accounts for the process reversibility, ranging between 0 and 1, which corresponds to the free and reversible expansion, respectively. In the second (Anacleto and Pereira 2009 Eur. J. Phys. 30 177-83), the authors have shown that thermodynamics can effectively and efficiently be used to obtain the general law for adiabatic processes carried out by an ideal gas, including compressions, for which r \\ge 1. The present work integrates and extends the aforementioned studies, providing thus further insights into the analysis of the adiabatic process. It is shown that Miranda's work is wholly valid for compressions. In addition, it is demonstrated that the adiabatic reversibility coefficient given in terms of the piston velocity and the root mean square velocity of the gas particles is equivalent to the macroscopic description, given just by the quotient between surroundings and system pressure values.
Adiabatic continuity, wave-function overlap, and topological phase transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, Jiahua; Sun, Kai
2016-09-01
In this paper, we study the relation between wave-function overlap and adiabatic continuity in gapped quantum systems. We show that for two band insulators, a scalar function can be defined in the momentum space, which characterizes the wave-function overlap between Bloch states in the two insulators. If this overlap is nonzero for all momentum points in the Brillouin zone, these two insulators are adiabatically connected, i.e., we can deform one insulator into the other smoothly without closing the band gap. In addition, we further prove that this adiabatic path preserves all the symmetries of the insulators. The existence of such an adiabatic path implies that two insulators with nonzero wave-function overlap belong to the same topological phase. This relation, between adiabatic continuity and wave-function overlap, can be further generalized to correlated systems. The generalized relation cannot be applied to study generic many-body systems in the thermodynamic limit, because of the orthogonality catastrophe. However, for certain interacting systems (e.g., quantum Hall systems), the quantum wave-function overlap can be utilized to distinguish different quantum states. Experimental implications are also discussed.
Adiabatic condition and the quantum hitting time of Markov chains
Krovi, Hari; Ozols, Maris; Roland, Jeremie
2010-08-15
We present an adiabatic quantum algorithm for the abstract problem of searching marked vertices in a graph, or spatial search. Given a random walk (or Markov chain) P on a graph with a set of unknown marked vertices, one can define a related absorbing walk P{sup '} where outgoing transitions from marked vertices are replaced by self-loops. We build a Hamiltonian H(s) from the interpolated Markov chain P(s)=(1-s)P+sP{sup '} and use it in an adiabatic quantum algorithm to drive an initial superposition over all vertices to a superposition over marked vertices. The adiabatic condition implies that, for any reversible Markov chain and any set of marked vertices, the running time of the adiabatic algorithm is given by the square root of the classical hitting time. This algorithm therefore demonstrates a novel connection between the adiabatic condition and the classical notion of hitting time of a random walk. It also significantly extends the scope of previous quantum algorithms for this problem, which could only obtain a full quadratic speedup for state-transitive reversible Markov chains with a unique marked vertex.
Charge and spin current oscillations in a tunnel junction induced by magnetic field pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dartora, C. A.; Nobrega, K. Z.; Cabrera, G. G.
2016-08-01
Usually, charge and spin transport properties in tunnel junctions are studied in the DC bias regime and/or in the adiabatic regime of time-varying magnetic fields. In this letter, the temporal dynamics of charge and spin currents in a tunnel junction induced by pulsed magnetic fields is considered. At low bias voltages, energy and momentum of the conduction electrons are nearly conserved in the tunneling process, leading to the description of the junction as a spin-1/2 fermionic system coupled to time-varying magnetic fields. Under the influence of pulsed magnetic fields, charge and spin current can flow across the tunnel junction, displaying oscillatory behavior, even in the absence of DC bias voltage. A type of spin capacitance function, in close analogy to electric capacitance, is predicted.
Nonadiabatic tunneling in circularly polarized laser fields: Physical picture and calculations
Barth, Ingo; Smirnova, Olga
2011-12-15
We consider selectivity of strong-field ionization in circularly polarized laser fields to the sense of electron rotation in the laser polarization plane in the initial state. We show that, in contrast to the textbook examples of one-photon ionization and bound-state excitations with increase in the electron angular momentum, and also in contrast to the well-studied ionization of Rydberg atoms in microwave fields, which all prefer corotating electrons, optical tunneling selectively depletes states where the electron initially rotates against the laser field. We also show that key assumptions regarding adiabaticity of optical tunneling may quickly become inaccurate in typical experimental conditions.
Scanning tunneling microscopy for ultracold atoms
Kollath, Corinna; Giamarchi, Thierry; Koehl, Michael
2007-12-15
We propose a versatile experimental probe for cold atomic gases analogous to the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) in condensed matter. This probe uses the coherent coupling of a single particle to the system. Depending on the measurement sequence, our probe allows us to obtain either the local density and spatial density correlations, with a resolution on the nanometer scale, or the single particle correlation function in real time. We discuss applications of this scheme to the various possible phases for a two dimensional Hubbard system of fermions in an optical lattice.
LCLS XTOD Tunnel Vacuum System (XVTS)
Beale, R; Duffy, P; Kishiyama, K; Mckernan, M; McMahon, D; Lewis, S; Trent, J; Tung, L; Shen, S
2005-11-04
The vacuum system of the XVTS (X-Ray Vacuum Transport System) for the LCLS (Linac Coherent Light Source) XTOD (X-ray Transport, Optics and Diagnostics) system has been analyzed and configured by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's NTED (New Technologies Engineering Division) as requested by the SLAC/LCLS program. The system layout, detailed analyses and selection of the vacuum components for the XTOD tunnel section are presented in this preliminary design report. The vacuum system was analyzed and optimized using a coupled gas load balance model of sub-volumes of the components to be evacuated. Also included are the plans for procurement, mechanical integration, and the cost estimates.
Shortcuts to adiabaticity in a time-dependent box
Campo, A. del; Boshier, M. G.
2012-01-01
A method is proposed to drive an ultrafast non-adiabatic dynamics of an ultracold gas trapped in a time-dependent box potential. The resulting state is free from spurious excitations associated with the breakdown of adiabaticity, and preserves the quantum correlations of the initial state up to a scaling factor. The process relies on the existence of an adiabatic invariant and the inversion of the dynamical self-similar scaling law dictated by it. Its physical implementation generally requires the use of an auxiliary expulsive potential. The method is extended to a broad family of interacting many-body systems. As illustrative examples we consider the ultrafast expansion of a Tonks-Girardeau gas and of Bose-Einstein condensates in different dimensions, where the method exhibits an excellent robustness against different regimes of interactions and the features of an experimentally realizable box potential. PMID:22970340
Shortcuts to adiabaticity in a time-dependent box.
del Campo, A; Boshier, M G
2012-01-01
A method is proposed to drive an ultrafast non-adiabatic dynamics of an ultracold gas trapped in a time-dependent box potential. The resulting state is free from spurious excitations associated with the breakdown of adiabaticity, and preserves the quantum correlations of the initial state up to a scaling factor. The process relies on the existence of an adiabatic invariant and the inversion of the dynamical self-similar scaling law dictated by it. Its physical implementation generally requires the use of an auxiliary expulsive potential. The method is extended to a broad family of interacting many-body systems. As illustrative examples we consider the ultrafast expansion of a Tonks-Girardeau gas and of Bose-Einstein condensates in different dimensions, where the method exhibits an excellent robustness against different regimes of interactions and the features of an experimentally realizable box potential.
Shortcuts to adiabaticity in a time-dependent box
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Del Campo, A.; Boshier, M. G.
2012-09-01
A method is proposed to drive an ultrafast non-adiabatic dynamics of an ultracold gas trapped in a time-dependent box potential. The resulting state is free from spurious excitations associated with the breakdown of adiabaticity, and preserves the quantum correlations of the initial state up to a scaling factor. The process relies on the existence of an adiabatic invariant and the inversion of the dynamical self-similar scaling law dictated by it. Its physical implementation generally requires the use of an auxiliary expulsive potential. The method is extended to a broad family of interacting many-body systems. As illustrative examples we consider the ultrafast expansion of a Tonks-Girardeau gas and of Bose-Einstein condensates in different dimensions, where the method exhibits an excellent robustness against different regimes of interactions and the features of an experimentally realizable box potential.
Effect of dephasing on stimulated Raman adiabatic passage
Ivanov, P.A.; Vitanov, N.V.; Bergmann, K.
2004-12-01
This work explores the effect of phase relaxation on the population transfer efficiency in stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP). The study is based on the Liouville equation, which is solved analytically in the adiabatic limit. The transfer efficiency of STIRAP is found to decrease exponentially with the dephasing rate; this effect is stronger for shorter pulse delays and weaker for larger delays, since the transition time is found to be inversely proportional to the pulse delay. Moreover, it is found that the transfer efficiency of STIRAP in the presence of dephasing does not depend on the peak Rabi frequencies at all, as long as they are sufficiently large to enforce adiabatic evolution; hence increasing the field intensity cannot reduce the dephasing losses. It is shown also that for any dephasing rate, the final populations of the initial state and the intermediate state are equal. For strong dephasing all three populations tend to (1/3)
Design of a photonic lattice using shortcuts to adiabaticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stefanatos, Dionisis
2014-08-01
In this article we use the method of shortcuts to adiabaticity to design a photonic lattice (array of waveguides) which can drive the input light to a controlled location at the output. The output position in the array is determined by functions of the propagation distance along the waveguides, which modulate the lattice characteristics (index of refraction, and first- and second-neighbor couplings). The proposed coupler is expected to possess the robustness properties of the design method, coming from its adiabatic nature, and also to have a smaller footprint than purely adiabatic couplers. The present work provides a very interesting example where methods from quantum control can be exploited to design lattices with desired input-output properties.
Adiabatic Quantum Programming: Minor Embedding With Hard Faults
Klymko, Christine F; Sullivan, Blair D; Humble, Travis S
2013-01-01
Adiabatic quantum programming defines the time-dependent mapping of a quantum algorithm into the hardware or logical fabric. An essential programming step is the embedding of problem-specific information into the logical fabric to define the quantum computational transformation. We present algorithms for embedding arbitrary instances of the adiabatic quantum optimization algorithm into a square lattice of specialized unit cells. Our methods are shown to be extensible in fabric growth, linear in time, and quadratic in logical footprint. In addition, we provide methods for accommodating hard faults in the logical fabric without invoking approximations to the original problem. These hard fault-tolerant embedding algorithms are expected to prove useful for benchmarking the adiabatic quantum optimization algorithm on existing quantum logical hardware. We illustrate this versatility through numerical studies of embeddabilty versus hard fault rates in square lattices of complete bipartite unit cells.
Adiabatic Quantum Computation and the Theory of Quantum Phase Transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaminsky, William; Lloyd, Seth
2007-03-01
We present a general approach to determining the asymptotic scaling of adiabatic quantum computational resources (space, time, energy, and precision) on random instances of NP-complete graph theory problems. By utilizing the isomorphisms between certain NP-complete graph theory problems and certain frustrated spin models, we demonstrate that the asymptotic scaling of the minimum spectral gap that determines the asymptotic running time of adiabatic algorithms is itself determined by the presence and character of quantum phase transitions in these frustrated models. Most notably, we draw the conclusion that adiabatic quantum computers based on quantum Ising models are much less likely to be efficient than those based on quantum rotor or Heisenberg models. We then exhibit practical rotor and Heisenberg model based architectures using Josephson junction and quantum dot circuits.
Golser, J.; Galler, R.; Schubert, P.; Rabensteiner, K.
1995-12-31
Shotcrete is an important structural element for tunnel support. Green shotcrete is exposed to compression strain rates and tunnel design requires a realistic material law for shotcrete. A modified rate of flow method simulates shotcrete behavior very well and can be incorporated in Finite Element calculations.
Micromachined Tunneling Accelerometer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kenny, Thomas W.; Waltman, Stephen B.; Kaiser, William J.; Reynolds, Joseph K.
1993-01-01
Separation of tunneling electrodes adjusted by varying electrostatic force. Major components of tunneling transducer formed on two silicon chips by microfabrication techniques. Use of electrostatic deflection reduces sensitivity of transducer to thermal drift and simplifies design. Sensitivity suitable for applications in which larger acceleration-sensing instruments required.
Ellis, Harold
2009-12-01
The carpal bones are deeply convex anteriorly. This bony gutter is converted by the flexor retinaculum into a tube - the carpal tunnel, which conveys the median nerve, together with the long flexor tendons of the fingers and thumb, into the hand. It is of special interest to the surgeon because it is the site of a common nerve entrapment, the carpal tunnel syndrome.
Global adiabaticity and non-Gaussianity consistency condition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romano, Antonio Enea; Mooij, Sander; Sasaki, Misao
2016-10-01
In the context of single-field inflation, the conservation of the curvature perturbation on comoving slices, Rc, on super-horizon scales is one of the assumptions necessary to derive the consistency condition between the squeezed limit of the bispectrum and the spectrum of the primordial curvature perturbation. However, the conservation of Rc holds only after the perturbation has reached the adiabatic limit where the constant mode of Rc dominates over the other (usually decaying) mode. In this case, the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation defined in the thermodynamic sense, δPnad ≡ δP - cw2 δρ where cw2 = P ˙ / ρ ˙ , usually becomes also negligible on superhorizon scales. Therefore one might think that the adiabatic limit is the same as thermodynamic adiabaticity. This is in fact not true. In other words, thermodynamic adiabaticity is not a sufficient condition for the conservation of Rc on super-horizon scales. In this paper, we consider models that satisfy δPnad = 0 on all scales, which we call global adiabaticity (GA), which is guaranteed if cw2 = cs2, where cs is the phase velocity of the propagation of the perturbation. A known example is the case of ultra-slow-roll (USR) inflation in which cw2 = cs2 = 1. In order to generalize USR we develop a method to find the Lagrangian of GA K-inflation models from the behavior of background quantities as functions of the scale factor. Applying this method we show that there indeed exists a wide class of GA models with cw2 = cs2, which allows Rc to grow on superhorizon scales, and hence violates the non-Gaussianity consistency condition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernández-Ramos, Antonio; Smedarchina, Zorka; Zgierski, Marek Z.; Siebrand, Willem
1998-07-01
, which use relatively inflexible trajectories, do not handle the isotope effect well and also are not developed to the point where they can deal satisfactorily with vibronic level splittings. In addition, there is a striking difference in efficiency between the two methods: the MORATE 6.5 code took 40 h on an R8000 workstation to perform the dynamics calculations, whereas the DOIT code took less than 1 min and produced superior results. The main reason for this superior performance is ascribed to the effective use made of the least-action principle by the instanton method and to the avoidance of the adiabatic approximation, which is not valid for modes with a frequency equal to or lower than the tunneling-mode frequency.
Gravitational Chern-Simons and the adiabatic limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McLellan, Brendan
2010-12-01
We compute the gravitational Chern-Simons term explicitly for an adiabatic family of metrics using standard methods in general relativity. We use the fact that our base three-manifold is a quasiregular K-contact manifold heavily in this computation. Our key observation is that this geometric assumption corresponds exactly to a Kaluza-Klein Ansatz for the metric tensor on our three-manifold, which allows us to translate our problem into the language of general relativity. Similar computations have been performed by Guralnik et al. [Ann. Phys. 308, 222 (2008)], although not in the adiabatic context.
Speeding up Adiabatic Quantum State Transfer by Using Dressed States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baksic, Alexandre; Ribeiro, Hugo; Clerk, Aashish A.
2016-06-01
We develop new pulse schemes to significantly speed up adiabatic state transfer protocols. Our general strategy involves adding corrections to an initial control Hamiltonian that harness nonadiabatic transitions. These corrections define a set of dressed states that the system follows exactly during the state transfer. We apply this approach to stimulated Raman adiabatic passage protocols and show that a suitable choice of dressed states allows one to design fast protocols that do not require additional couplings, while simultaneously minimizing the occupancy of the "intermediate" level.
Classical nuclear motion coupled to electronic non-adiabatic transitions
Agostini, Federica; Abedi, Ali; Gross, E. K. U.
2014-12-07
Based on the exact factorization of the electron-nuclear wave function, we have recently proposed a mixed quantum-classical scheme [A. Abedi, F. Agostini, and E. K. U. Gross, Europhys. Lett. 106, 33001 (2014)] to deal with non-adiabatic processes. Here we present a comprehensive description of the formalism, including the full derivation of the equations of motion. Numerical results are presented for a model system for non-adiabatic charge transfer in order to test the performance of the method and to validate the underlying approximations.
Gravitational Chern-Simons and the adiabatic limit
McLellan, Brendan
2010-12-15
We compute the gravitational Chern-Simons term explicitly for an adiabatic family of metrics using standard methods in general relativity. We use the fact that our base three-manifold is a quasiregular K-contact manifold heavily in this computation. Our key observation is that this geometric assumption corresponds exactly to a Kaluza-Klein Ansatz for the metric tensor on our three-manifold, which allows us to translate our problem into the language of general relativity. Similar computations have been performed by Guralnik et al.[Ann. Phys. 308, 222 (2008)], although not in the adiabatic context.
Adiabatic fluctuations from cosmic strings in a contracting universe
Brandenberger, Robert H.; Takahashi, Tomo; Yamaguchi, Masahide E-mail: tomot@cc.saga-u.ac.jp
2009-07-01
We show that adiabatic, super-Hubble, and almost scale invariant density fluctuations are produced by cosmic strings in a contracting universe. An essential point is that isocurvature perturbations produced by topological defects such as cosmic strings on super-Hubble scales lead to a source term which seeds the growth of curvature fluctuations on these scales. Once the symmetry has been restored at high temperatures, the isocurvature seeds disappear, and the fluctuations evolve as adiabatic ones in the expanding phase. Thus, cosmic strings may be resurrected as a mechanism for generating the primordial density fluctuations observed today.
Spatial adiabatic passage: a review of recent progress
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Menchon-Enrich, R.; Benseny, A.; Ahufinger, V.; Greentree, A. D.; Busch, Th; Mompart, J.
2016-07-01
Adiabatic techniques are known to allow for engineering quantum states with high fidelity. This requirement is currently of large interest, as applications in quantum information require the preparation and manipulation of quantum states with minimal errors. Here we review recent progress on developing techniques for the preparation of spatial states through adiabatic passage, particularly focusing on three state systems. These techniques can be applied to matter waves in external potentials, such as cold atoms or electrons, and to classical waves in waveguides, such as light or sound.
Adiabatic effects in the dynamics of Langmuir solitons
Astrelin, V.T.; Breizman, B.N.; Sedlacek, Z.; Jungwirth, K.
1988-06-01
The adiabatic slowness with which the plasma density profile is reconstructed from localized in large-amplitude Langmuir solitons is characteristic of such solitons. Several examples making use of this feature in the description of the soliton dynamics are given. Specifically, long-lived states in the form of composite solitons ar found. Additional limitations are found on the interaction of solitons with each other and with sound waves. The effect of the adiabatic nature on the formation of solitons from free plasmons is discussed.
Power-driven and adiabatic expansions into vacuum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farnsworth, A. V., Jr.
1980-08-01
Analytical solutions are obtained for the planar, cylindrical, and spherical expansions into vacuum of matter initially concentrated at a plane, a line, or a point. Both power-driven and adiabatic expansions are considered, where in the power-driven case, the specific power is deposited uniformly in space, but may vary in time according to a power law. These problems are found to be self-similar. The non-self-similar motion of matter during the adiabatic expansion that follows a power pulse of finite duration has also been addressed and a solution has been obtained.
Adiabatic regularisation of power spectra in k-inflation
Alinea, Allan L.; Kubota, Takahiro; Nakanishi, Yukari; Naylor, Wade E-mail: kubota@celas.osaka-u.ac.jp E-mail: naylor@phys.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp
2015-06-01
We look at the question posed by Parker et al. about the effect of UV regularisation on the power spectrum for inflation. Focusing on the slow-roll k-inflation, we show that up to second order in the Hubble and sound flow parameters, the adiabatic regularisation of such model leads to no difference in the power spectrum apart from certain cases that violate near scale-invariant power spectra. Furthermore, extending to non-minimal k-inflation, we establish the equivalence of the subtraction terms in the adiabatic regularisation of the power spectrum in Jordan and Einstein frames.
Local control of non-adiabatic dissociation dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bomble, L.; Chenel, A.; Meier, C.; Desouter-Lecomte, M.
2011-05-01
We present a theoretical approach which consists of applying the strategy of local control to projectors based on asymptotic scattering states. This allows to optimize final state distributions upon laser excitation in cases where strong non-adiabatic effects are present. The approach, despite being based on a time-local formulation, can take non-adiabatic transitions that appear at later times fully into account and adopt a corresponding control strategy. As an example, we show various dissociation channels of HeH+, a system where the ultrafast dissociation dynamics is determined by strong non-Born-Oppenheimer effects.
Spatial adiabatic passage: a review of recent progress.
Menchon-Enrich, R; Benseny, A; Ahufinger, V; Greentree, A D; Busch, Th; Mompart, J
2016-07-01
Adiabatic techniques are known to allow for engineering quantum states with high fidelity. This requirement is currently of large interest, as applications in quantum information require the preparation and manipulation of quantum states with minimal errors. Here we review recent progress on developing techniques for the preparation of spatial states through adiabatic passage, particularly focusing on three state systems. These techniques can be applied to matter waves in external potentials, such as cold atoms or electrons, and to classical waves in waveguides, such as light or sound. PMID:27245462
Coherent states, quantum gravity, and the Born- Oppenheimer approximation. II. Compact Lie groups
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stottmeister, Alexander; Thiemann, Thomas
2016-07-01
In this article, the second of three, we discuss and develop the basis of a Weyl quantisation for compact Lie groups aiming at loop quantum gravity-type models. This Weyl quantisation may serve as the main mathematical tool to implement the program of space adiabatic perturbation theory in such models. As we already argued in our first article, space adiabatic perturbation theory offers an ideal framework to overcome the obstacles that hinder the direct implementation of the conventional Born-Oppenheimer approach in the canonical formulation of loop quantum gravity. Additionally, we conjecture the existence of a new form of the Segal-Bargmann-Hall "coherent state" transform for compact Lie groups G, which we prove for G = U(1)n and support by numerical evidence for G = SU(2). The reason for conjoining this conjecture with the main topic of this article originates in the observation that the coherent state transform can be used as a basic building block of a coherent state quantisation (Berezin quantisation) for compact Lie groups G. But, as Weyl and Berezin quantisation for ℝ2d are intimately related by heat kernel evolution, it is natural to ask whether a similar connection exists for compact Lie groups as well. Moreover, since the formulation of space adiabatic perturbation theory requires a (deformation) quantisation as minimal input, we analyse the question to what extent the coherent state quantisation, defined by the Segal-Bargmann-Hall transform, can serve as basis of the former.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kimura, Jun-Ichi; Kawabata, Hiroshi
2014-06-01
numerical mass balance calculation model for the adiabatic melting of a dry to hydrous peridotite has been programmed in order to simulate the trace element compositions of basalts from mid-ocean ridges, back-arc basins, ocean islands, and large igneous provinces. The Excel spreadsheet-based calculator, Hydrous Adiabatic Mantle Melting Simulator version 1 (HAMMS1) uses (1) a thermodynamic model of fractional adiabatic melting of mantle peridotite, with (2) the parameterized experimental melting relationships of primitive to depleted mantle sources in terms of pressure, temperature, water content, and degree of partial melting. The trace element composition of the model basalt is calculated from the accumulated incremental melts within the adiabatic melting regime, with consideration for source depletion. The mineralogic mode in the primitive to depleted source mantle in adiabat is calculated using parameterized experimental results. Partition coefficients of the trace elements of mantle minerals are parameterized to melt temperature mostly from a lattice strain model and are tested using the latest compilations of experimental results. The parameters that control the composition of trace elements in the model are as follows: (1) mantle potential temperature, (2) water content in the source mantle, (3) depth of termination of adiabatic melting, and (4) source mantle depletion. HAMMS1 enables us to obtain the above controlling parameters using Monte Carlo fitting calculations and by comparing the calculated basalt compositions to primary basalt compositions. Additionally, HAMMS1 compares melting parameters with a major element model, which uses petrogenetic grids formulated from experimental results, thus providing better constraints on the source conditions.
Tunneling properties of nonplanar molecules in a gas medium
Bahrami, Mohammad; Bassi, Angelo
2011-12-15
We propose a simple, general, and accurate formula for analyzing the tunneling between classical configurations of a nonplanar molecule in a gas medium, as a function of the thermodynamic parameters of the gas. We apply it to two interesting cases: (i) the shift to zero frequency of the inversion line of ammonia, upon an increase in the pressure of the gas; and (ii) the destruction of the coherent tunneling of D{sub 2}S{sub 2} molecules in a He gas. In both cases, we compare our analysis with previous theoretical and experimental results.
Quantum coherent oscillations in the early universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pikovski, Igor; Loeb, Abraham
2016-05-01
Cosmic inflation is commonly assumed to be driven by quantum fields. Quantum mechanics predicts phenomena such as quantum fluctuations and tunneling of the field. Here, we show an example of a quantum interference effect which goes beyond the semiclassical treatment and which may be of relevance in the early Universe. We study the quantum coherent dynamics for a tilted, periodic potential, which results in genuine quantum oscillations of the inflaton field, analogous to Bloch oscillations in condensed matter and atomic systems. The underlying quantum superpositions are typically very fragile but may persist in the early Universe giving rise to quantum interference phenomena in cosmology.
Status of the Linac Coherent Light Source
Galayda, John N.; /SLAC
2011-11-04
The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is a free electron laser facility in construction at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. It is designed to operate in the wavelength range 0.15-1.5 nanometers. At the time of this conference, civil construction of new tunnels and buildings is complete, the necessary modifications to the SLAC linac are complete, and the undulator system and x-ray optics/diagnostics are being installed. The electron gun, 135 MeV injector linac and 250 MeV bunch compressor were commissioned in 2007. Accelerator commissioning activities are presently devoted to the achievement of performance goals for the completed 14 GeV linac.
Variable-Density Tunnel - Wind Tunnel #2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1923-01-01
Underside of the Variable-Density Tunnel (VDT). The compressors are to the left. Circular screened cone is shown. The photographer was probably shooting film for Dr. Joseph Ames' Wilbur Wright Memorial Lecture given to the Royal Aeronautical Society on May 31, 1923.
Variable-Density Tunnel - Wind Tunnel #2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1922-01-01
Equipment used for pressurizing the Variable-Density Tunnel (VDT): The VDT tunnel is on the right; the compressors are on the left. Figure 4 in the NACA Technical Report 227 (Part 2) identifies each piece of equipment visible in this diagram. Immediately visible in the lower left corner is the Booster Compressor. In the right rear (behind the tunnel) is Primary Compressor No. 1. (Primary Compressor No. 2 is not visible.) From NACA TR 227 (Part 2):'The air is compressed in two or three stages, according to the terminal pressure in the tank. A two-stage primary compressor is used up to a terminal pressure of about seven atmospheres. For pressures above this a booster compressor is used in conjunction with the primary compressor. The booster compressor may be used also as an exhauster when it is desired to operate the tunnel at pressures below that of the atmosphere. The primary compressors are driven by 250-horsepower synchronous motors and the booster compressor by a 150-horsepower squirrel-cage induction motor.' Jerome Hunsaker wrote in 'Forty Years of Aeronautical Research': 'In June 1921, the executive committee [of the NACA] decided to build a new kind of wind tunnel. Utilizing compressed air, it would allow for *scale effects in aerodynamic model experiments. This tunnel represented the first bold step by the NACA to provide its research personnel with the novel, often complicated, and usually expensive equipment necessary to press forward the frontiers of aeronautical science. It was designed by Dr. Max Munk, formerly of G*ttingen.' Eastman Jacobs wrote in an article in a 1927 article for Aviation that: 'The tunnel is inclosed (sic) within a steel shell, so that the density of the air inside may be increased by pumping air into the shell to a pressure of 300 lb. per sq. in. A 250 hp. motor, driving a propeller, circulates the air, drawing it through the five-foot test section at a velocity of about fifty miles per hour. The model is mounted in the throat of
Ultrafast scanning tunneling microscopy
Botkin, D.A. |
1995-09-01
I have developed an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope (USTM) based on uniting stroboscopic methods of ultrafast optics and scanned probe microscopy to obtain nanometer spatial resolution and sub-picosecond temporal resolution. USTM increases the achievable time resolution of a STM by more than 6 orders of magnitude; this should enable exploration of mesoscopic and nanometer size systems on time scales corresponding to the period or decay of fundamental excitations. USTM consists of a photoconductive switch with subpicosecond response time in series with the tip of a STM. An optical pulse from a modelocked laser activates the switch to create a gate for the tunneling current, while a second laser pulse on the sample initiates a dynamic process which affects the tunneling current. By sending a large sequence of identical pulse pairs and measuring the average tunnel current as a function of the relative time delay between the pulses in each pair, one can map the time evolution of the surface process. USTM was used to measure the broadband response of the STM`s atomic size tunnel barrier in frequencies from tens to hundreds of GHz. The USTM signal amplitude decays linearly with the tunnel junction conductance, so the spatial resolution of the time-resolved signal is comparable to that of a conventional STM. Geometrical capacitance of the junction does not appear to play an important role in the measurement, but a capacitive effect intimately related to tunneling contributes to the measured signals and may limit the ultimate resolution of the USTM.
Does temperature increase or decrease in adiabatic decompression of magma?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kilinc, A. I.; Ghiorso, M. S.; Khan, T.
2011-12-01
We have modeled adiabatic decompression of an andesitic and a basaltic magma as an isentropic process using the Melts algorithm. Our modeling shows that during adiabatic decompression temperature of andesitic magma increases but temperature of basaltic magma decreases. In an isentropic process entropy is constant so change of temperature with pressure can be written as dT/dP=T (dV/dT)/Cp where T (dV/dT)/Cp is generally positive. If delta P is negative so is delta T. In general, in the absence of phase change, we expect the temperature to decrease with adiabatic decompression. The effect of crystallization is to turn a more entropic phase (liquid) into a less entropic phase (solid), which must be compensated by raising the temperature. If during adiabatic decompression there is small amount or no crystallization, T (dV/dT)/Cp effect which lowers the temperature overwhelms the small amount of crystallization, which raises the temperature, and overall system temperature decreases.
On adiabatic stabilization and geometry of Bunsen flames
Sun, C.J.; Sung, C.J.; Law, C.K.
1994-12-31
Two aspects of stretched flame dynamics are investigated via the model problem of the stabilization and geometry of Bunsen flames. Specifically, the possibility of stabilizing a Bunsen flame without heat loss to the burner rim is experimentally investigated by examining the temperature of the rim, the temperature gradient between the rim and the flame base, and the standoff distance of the flame base in relation to the flame thickness. Results show that, while heat loss is still the dominant stabilization mechanism for flames in uniform flows and for strong flames in parabolic flow, adiabatic stabilization and, subsequently, blowoff are indeed possible for weak flames in parabolic flows. The adiabatically stabilized flame is then modeled by using the scalar field formulation and by allowing for the effects of curvature and aerodynamic straining on the local flame speed. The calculated flame configuration agrees well with the experiment for the adiabatically stabilized flame but not for the nonadiabatic flame. Results further show that active modification of the flame curvature is the dominant cause for the flame to maintain adiabatic stabilization. Implications of the present results on turbulent flame modeling are discussed.
Digitized adiabatic quantum computing with a superconducting circuit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barends, R.; Shabani, A.; Lamata, L.; Kelly, J.; Mezzacapo, A.; Heras, U. Las; Babbush, R.; Fowler, A. G.; Campbell, B.; Chen, Yu; Chen, Z.; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Jeffrey, E.; Lucero, E.; Megrant, A.; Mutus, J. Y.; Neeley, M.; Neill, C.; O'Malley, P. J. J.; Quintana, C.; Roushan, P.; Sank, D.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; White, T. C.; Solano, E.; Neven, H.; Martinis, John M.
2016-06-01
Quantum mechanics can help to solve complex problems in physics and chemistry, provided they can be programmed in a physical device. In adiabatic quantum computing, a system is slowly evolved from the ground state of a simple initial Hamiltonian to a final Hamiltonian that encodes a computational problem. The appeal of this approach lies in the combination of simplicity and generality; in principle, any problem can be encoded. In practice, applications are restricted by limited connectivity, available interactions and noise. A complementary approach is digital quantum computing, which enables the construction of arbitrary interactions and is compatible with error correction, but uses quantum circuit algorithms that are problem-specific. Here we combine the advantages of both approaches by implementing digitized adiabatic quantum computing in a superconducting system. We tomographically probe the system during the digitized evolution and explore the scaling of errors with system size. We then let the full system find the solution to random instances of the one-dimensional Ising problem as well as problem Hamiltonians that involve more complex interactions. This digital quantum simulation of the adiabatic algorithm consists of up to nine qubits and up to 1,000 quantum logic gates. The demonstration of digitized adiabatic quantum computing in the solid state opens a path to synthesizing long-range correlations and solving complex computational problems. When combined with fault-tolerance, our approach becomes a general-purpose algorithm that is scalable.
Digitized adiabatic quantum computing with a superconducting circuit.
Barends, R; Shabani, A; Lamata, L; Kelly, J; Mezzacapo, A; Las Heras, U; Babbush, R; Fowler, A G; Campbell, B; Chen, Yu; Chen, Z; Chiaro, B; Dunsworth, A; Jeffrey, E; Lucero, E; Megrant, A; Mutus, J Y; Neeley, M; Neill, C; O'Malley, P J J; Quintana, C; Roushan, P; Sank, D; Vainsencher, A; Wenner, J; White, T C; Solano, E; Neven, H; Martinis, John M
2016-06-01
Quantum mechanics can help to solve complex problems in physics and chemistry, provided they can be programmed in a physical device. In adiabatic quantum computing, a system is slowly evolved from the ground state of a simple initial Hamiltonian to a final Hamiltonian that encodes a computational problem. The appeal of this approach lies in the combination of simplicity and generality; in principle, any problem can be encoded. In practice, applications are restricted by limited connectivity, available interactions and noise. A complementary approach is digital quantum computing, which enables the construction of arbitrary interactions and is compatible with error correction, but uses quantum circuit algorithms that are problem-specific. Here we combine the advantages of both approaches by implementing digitized adiabatic quantum computing in a superconducting system. We tomographically probe the system during the digitized evolution and explore the scaling of errors with system size. We then let the full system find the solution to random instances of the one-dimensional Ising problem as well as problem Hamiltonians that involve more complex interactions. This digital quantum simulation of the adiabatic algorithm consists of up to nine qubits and up to 1,000 quantum logic gates. The demonstration of digitized adiabatic quantum computing in the solid state opens a path to synthesizing long-range correlations and solving complex computational problems. When combined with fault-tolerance, our approach becomes a general-purpose algorithm that is scalable. PMID:27279216
Digitized adiabatic quantum computing with a superconducting circuit.
Barends, R; Shabani, A; Lamata, L; Kelly, J; Mezzacapo, A; Las Heras, U; Babbush, R; Fowler, A G; Campbell, B; Chen, Yu; Chen, Z; Chiaro, B; Dunsworth, A; Jeffrey, E; Lucero, E; Megrant, A; Mutus, J Y; Neeley, M; Neill, C; O'Malley, P J J; Quintana, C; Roushan, P; Sank, D; Vainsencher, A; Wenner, J; White, T C; Solano, E; Neven, H; Martinis, John M
2016-06-08
Quantum mechanics can help to solve complex problems in physics and chemistry, provided they can be programmed in a physical device. In adiabatic quantum computing, a system is slowly evolved from the ground state of a simple initial Hamiltonian to a final Hamiltonian that encodes a computational problem. The appeal of this approach lies in the combination of simplicity and generality; in principle, any problem can be encoded. In practice, applications are restricted by limited connectivity, available interactions and noise. A complementary approach is digital quantum computing, which enables the construction of arbitrary interactions and is compatible with error correction, but uses quantum circuit algorithms that are problem-specific. Here we combine the advantages of both approaches by implementing digitized adiabatic quantum computing in a superconducting system. We tomographically probe the system during the digitized evolution and explore the scaling of errors with system size. We then let the full system find the solution to random instances of the one-dimensional Ising problem as well as problem Hamiltonians that involve more complex interactions. This digital quantum simulation of the adiabatic algorithm consists of up to nine qubits and up to 1,000 quantum logic gates. The demonstration of digitized adiabatic quantum computing in the solid state opens a path to synthesizing long-range correlations and solving complex computational problems. When combined with fault-tolerance, our approach becomes a general-purpose algorithm that is scalable.
Failure of geometric electromagnetism in the adiabatic vector Kepler problem
Anglin, J.R.; Schmiedmayer, J.
2004-02-01
The magnetic moment of a particle orbiting a straight current-carrying wire may precess rapidly enough in the wire's magnetic field to justify an adiabatic approximation, eliminating the rapid time dependence of the magnetic moment and leaving only the particle position as a slow degree of freedom. To zeroth order in the adiabatic expansion, the orbits of the particle in the plane perpendicular to the wire are Keplerian ellipses. Higher-order postadiabatic corrections make the orbits precess, but recent analysis of this 'vector Kepler problem' has shown that the effective Hamiltonian incorporating a postadiabatic scalar potential ('geometric electromagnetism') fails to predict the precession correctly, while a heuristic alternative succeeds. In this paper we resolve the apparent failure of the postadiabatic approximation, by pointing out that the correct second-order analysis produces a third Hamiltonian, in which geometric electromagnetism is supplemented by a tensor potential. The heuristic Hamiltonian of Schmiedmayer and Scrinzi is then shown to be a canonical transformation of the correct adiabatic Hamiltonian, to second order. The transformation has the important advantage of removing a 1/r{sup 3} singularity which is an artifact of the adiabatic approximation.
Fast Quasi-Adiabatic Gas Cooling: An Experiment Revisited
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oss, S.; Gratton, L. M.; Calza, G.; Lopez-Arias, T.
2012-01-01
The well-known experiment of the rapid expansion and cooling of the air contained in a bottle is performed with a rapidly responsive, yet very cheap thermometer. The adiabatic, low temperature limit is approached quite closely and measured with our apparatus. A straightforward theoretical model for this process is also presented and discussed.…
Quantum back-reaction from non-adiabatic changes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asplund, Curtis; Berenstein, David
2011-04-01
Motivated by the problem of thermalization in QFTs and the dual non-equilibrium BH dynamics, we examine a generic and non-trivial aspect of these phenomena, non-adiabatic changes, in a highly simplified setting. We consider a harmonic oscillator whose frequency depends on a second quantum variable x. Beginning with a classical analysis, we show how the system can be described by an improved adiabatic expansion with a velocity dependent force for x. We find an instability at a critical velocity beyond which the adiabatic (Born-Oppenheimer) approximation breaks down. We extend this calculation to the fully quantum system and to field theory and describe how to study fermions with similar techniques. Finally, we set up a model with an abrupt change in the oscillator whose quantum mechanics can be solved exactly so that one can study the effects of back-reaction of a fully non-adiabatic change in a controlled setting. We comment on applications of these general results to the physics of D-branes, inflation, and BHs in AdS/CFT.
Adiabatic quantum computing with phase modulated laser pulses
Goswami, Debabrata
2005-01-01
Implementation of quantum logical gates for multilevel systems is demonstrated through decoherence control under the quantum adiabatic method using simple phase modulated laser pulses. We make use of selective population inversion and Hamiltonian evolution with time to achieve such goals robustly instead of the standard unitary transformation language. PMID:17195865
Adiabatic frequency conversion with a sign flip in the coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hristova, H. S.; Rangelov, A. A.; Montemezzani, G.; Vitanov, N. V.
2016-09-01
Adiabatic frequency conversion is a method recently developed in nonlinear optics [H. Suchowski, D. Oron, A. Arie, and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rev. A 78, 063821 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevA.78.063821], using ideas from the technique of rapid adiabatic passage (RAP) via a level crossing in quantum physics. In this method, the coupling coefficients are constant and the phase mismatch is chirped adiabatically. In this work, we propose another method for adiabatic frequency conversion, in which the phase mismatch is constant and the coupling is a pulse-shaped function with a sign flip (i.e., a phase step of π ) at its maximum. Compared to the RAP method, our technique has comparable efficiency but it is simpler to implement for it only needs two bulk crystals with opposite χ(2 ) nonlinearity. Moreover, because our technique requires constant nonzero frequency mismatch and has zero conversion efficiency on exact frequency matching, it can be used as a frequency filter.
The flat Grothendieck-Riemann-Roch theorem without adiabatic techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ho, Man-Ho
2016-09-01
In this paper we give a simplified proof of the flat Grothendieck-Riemann-Roch theorem. The proof makes use of the local family index theorem and basic computations of the Chern-Simons form. In particular, it does not involve any adiabatic limit computation of the reduced eta-invariant.
When an Adiabatic Irreversible Expansion or Compression Becomes Reversible
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anacleto, Joaquim; Ferreira, J. M.; Soares, A. A.
2009-01-01
This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of the concepts of a "reversible process" and "entropy". For this purpose, an adiabatic irreversible expansion or compression is analysed, by considering that an ideal gas is expanded (compressed), from an initial pressure P[subscript i] to a final pressure P[subscript f], by being placed in…
A Kinetic Study of the Adiabatic Polymerization of Acrylamide.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thomson, R. A. M.
1986-01-01
Discusses theory, procedures, and results for an experiment which demonstrates the application of basic physics to chemical problems. The experiment involves the adiabatic process, in which polymerization carried out in a vacuum flask is compared to the theoretical prediction of the model with the temperature-time curve obtained in practice. (JN)
Tunnelling of spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensates in driven double-well potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niu, Zhen-Xia; Zhang, Ai-Xia; Xue, Ju-Kui
2016-08-01
The tunnelling dynamics of spin-orbit (SO) coupled Bose-Einstein condensates in a periodically driven double-well potential are investigated both theoretically and numerically. We find that, when the SO coupling is absent, the atomic interactions suppress the tunnelling (as in usual Bose-Einstein condensed system), and the Zeeman field does not influence the usual tunnelling. When the SO coupling is present, the coupling of the atomic interactions and the Zeeman-field intensity can either enhance or suppress the tunnelling. The system undergoes rich transformations from the coherent tunnelling (CT) to the coherent destruction of tunnelling (CDT) when the SO coupling or the atomic interactions or the Zeeman-field intensity changes. In high-frequency region, the triangular structure and the circle structure are revealed in quasi-energy bands of the system, the width of the triangular structure or the circle structure and the localization width are relevant. And the SO coupling modifies traditional degenerate modes of quasi-energy bands. The results provide a possible way to control the usual tunnelling and the spin-flipping tunnelling in double-well potential.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gabor, M. S.; Tiusan, C.; Petrisor, T.; Petrisor, T.; Hehn, M.; Lu, Y.; Snoeck, E.
2013-12-01
We report on spin polarization reduction by incoherent tunneling in single crystal Co2FeAl/MgO/Co50Fe50 magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). A large density of misfit dislocations in the Heusler based MTJs has been provided by a thick MgO barrier and its 3.8% lattice mismatch with the Co2FeAl electrode. Our analysis implicates a correlated structural-transport approach. The crystallographic coherence in the real space has been investigated by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy phase analysis. The electronic transport experiments in variable temperature, fitted with a theoretical extended-Glazman-Matveev model, address different levels of the tunneling mechanisms from direct to multi-center hopping. We demonstrate a double impact of dislocations, as extended defects, on the tunneling polarization. Firstly, the breaking of the crystal symmetry destroys the longitudinal and lateral coherence of the propagating Bloch functions. This affects the symmetry filtering efficiency of the Δ1 states across the (001) MgO barriers and reduces the associated effective tunneling polarization. Secondly, dislocations provide localized states within the MgO gap. This determines temperature activated spin-conserving inelastic tunneling through chains of defects which are responsible for the one order of magnitude drop of the tunnel magnetoresistance from low to room temperature.
Band structure of topological insulators from noise measurements in tunnel junctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cascales Sandoval, Juan Pedro; Martinez, Isidoro; Guerrero, Ruben; Chang, Cui-Zu; Katmis, Ferhat; Moodera, Jagadeesh; Aliev, Farkhad
The unique properties of spin-polarized surface or edge states in topological insulators (TIs) make these quantum coherent systems interesting from the point of view of both fundamental physics and their implementation in low power spintronic devices. Here we present such a study in TIs, through tunnelling and noise spectroscopy utilizing TI/Al2O3/Co tunnel junctions with bottom TI electrodes of either Bi2Te3 or Bi2Se3. We demonstrate that features related to the band structure of the TI materials show up in the tunnelling conductance and even more clearly through low frequency noise measurements. The bias dependence of 1/f noise reveals peaks at specific energies corresponding to band structure features of the TI. TI tunnel junctions could thus simplify the study of the properties of such quantum coherent systems that can further lead to the manipulation of their spin-polarized properties for technological purposes.
... through NIH's National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine are investigating the effects of acupuncture on pain, loss of median nerve function, and changes in the brain associated with carpal tunnel syndrome. In addition, a ...
TOPICAL REVIEW: Recognition tunneling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lindsay, Stuart; He, Jin; Sankey, Otto; Hapala, Prokop; Jelinek, Pavel; Zhang, Peiming; Chang, Shuai; Huang, Shuo
2010-07-01
Single molecules in a tunnel junction can now be interrogated reliably using chemically functionalized electrodes. Monitoring stochastic bonding fluctuations between a ligand bound to one electrode and its target bound to a second electrode ('tethered molecule-pair' configuration) gives insight into the nature of the intermolecular bonding at a single molecule-pair level, and defines the requirements for reproducible tunneling data. Simulations show that there is an instability in the tunnel gap at large currents, and this results in a multiplicity of contacts with a corresponding spread in the measured currents. At small currents (i.e. large gaps) the gap is stable, and functionalizing a pair of electrodes with recognition reagents (the 'free-analyte' configuration) can generate a distinct tunneling signal when an analyte molecule is trapped in the gap. This opens up a new interface between chemistry and electronics with immediate implications for rapid sequencing of single DNA molecules.
Koronakis, V; Andersen, C; Hughes, C
2001-08-01
TolC and its many homologues comprise an alpha-helical transperiplasmic tunnel embedded in the bacterial outer membrane by a contiguous beta-barrel channel, providing a large exit duct for diverse substrates. The 'channel-tunnel' is closed at its periplasmic entrance, but can be opened by an 'iris-like' mechanism when recruited by substrate-engaged proteins in the cytosolic membrane.
Coherent storage of photon states in atomic ensembles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lukin, Mikhail
2001-05-01
We describes a technique that allows to transfer quantum information from traveling-wave light fields to meta-stable atomic states and vice versa. This is achieved by adiabatically reducing the group velocity of light to zero, thereby ``trapping'' the photon states in the medium. The specific mechanism is based on dark-state polaritons associated with with light propagation in electromagnetically induced transparency. The properties of the polaritons such as the group velocity are determined by the mixing angle between light and matter components and can be controlled by an external coherent field as the pulse propagates. We discuss the basic properties of such a coherent quantum memory for light as well as the experimental progress towards implementation of these ideas. In particular, we report an experiment in which a coherent light pulse is effectively decelerated and trapped in a vapor of Rb atoms, stored for a controlled period of time, and then released on demand. We further report experimental results probing directly phase-coherence properties of the present technique. Finally we outline several approaches for coherent processing of quantum information stored in collective atomic excitations.
The Beginner's Guide to Wind Tunnels with TunnelSim and TunnelSys
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Benson, Thomas J.; Galica, Carol A.; Vila, Anthony J.
2010-01-01
The Beginner's Guide to Wind Tunnels is a Web-based, on-line textbook that explains and demonstrates the history, physics, and mathematics involved with wind tunnels and wind tunnel testing. The Web site contains several interactive computer programs to demonstrate scientific principles. TunnelSim is an interactive, educational computer program that demonstrates basic wind tunnel design and operation. TunnelSim is a Java (Sun Microsystems Inc.) applet that solves the continuity and Bernoulli equations to determine the velocity and pressure throughout a tunnel design. TunnelSys is a group of Java applications that mimic wind tunnel testing techniques. Using TunnelSys, a team of students designs, tests, and post-processes the data for a virtual, low speed, and aircraft wing.
Quantum Tunneling of Water in Beryl: A New State of the Water Molecule
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolesnikov, Alexander I.; Reiter, George F.; Choudhury, Narayani; Prisk, Timothy R.; Mamontov, Eugene; Podlesnyak, Andrey; Ehlers, George; Seel, Andrew G.; Wesolowski, David J.; Anovitz, Lawrence M.
2016-04-01
Using neutron scattering and ab initio simulations, we document the discovery of a new "quantum tunneling state" of the water molecule confined in 5 Å channels in the mineral beryl, characterized by extended proton and electron delocalization. We observed a number of peaks in the inelastic neutron scattering spectra that were uniquely assigned to water quantum tunneling. In addition, the water proton momentum distribution was measured with deep inelastic neutron scattering, which directly revealed coherent delocalization of the protons in the ground state.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albert, Julian; Falge, Mirjam; Gomez, Sandra; Sola, Ignacio R.; Hildenbrand, Heiko; Engel, Volker
2015-07-01
We theoretically investigate the photon-echo spectroscopy of coupled electron-nuclear quantum dynamics. Two situations are treated. In the first case, the Born-Oppenheimer (adiabatic) approximation holds. It is then possible to interpret the two-dimensional (2D) spectra in terms of vibrational motion taking place in different electronic states. In particular, pure vibrational coherences which are related to oscillations in the time-dependent third-order polarization can be identified. This concept fails in the second case, where strong non-adiabatic coupling leads to the breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer-approximation. Then, the 2D-spectra reveal a complicated vibronic structure and vibrational coherences cannot be disentangled from the electronic motion.
Albert, Julian; Falge, Mirjam; Gomez, Sandra; Sola, Ignacio R; Hildenbrand, Heiko; Engel, Volker
2015-07-28
We theoretically investigate the photon-echo spectroscopy of coupled electron-nuclear quantum dynamics. Two situations are treated. In the first case, the Born-Oppenheimer (adiabatic) approximation holds. It is then possible to interpret the two-dimensional (2D) spectra in terms of vibrational motion taking place in different electronic states. In particular, pure vibrational coherences which are related to oscillations in the time-dependent third-order polarization can be identified. This concept fails in the second case, where strong non-adiabatic coupling leads to the breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer-approximation. Then, the 2D-spectra reveal a complicated vibronic structure and vibrational coherences cannot be disentangled from the electronic motion.
Xu, H K; Song, C; Liu, W Y; Xue, G M; Su, F F; Deng, H; Tian, Ye; Zheng, D N; Han, Siyuan; Zhong, Y P; Wang, H; Liu, Yu-xi; Zhao, S P
2016-01-01
Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage offers significant advantages for coherent population transfer between uncoupled or weakly coupled states and has the potential of realizing efficient quantum gate, qubit entanglement and quantum information transfer. Here we report on the realization of the process in the superconducting Xmon and phase qutrits--two ladder-type three-level systems in which the ground state population is coherently transferred to the second excited state via the dark state subspace. We demonstrate that the population transfer efficiency is no less than 96% and 67% for the two devices, which agree well with the numerical simulation of the master equation. Population transfer via stimulated Raman adiabatic passage is significantly more robust against variations of the experimental parameters compared with that via the conventional resonant π pulse method. Our work opens up a new venue for exploring the process for quantum information processing using the superconducting artificial atoms. PMID:27009972
Coherence penalty functional: A simple method for adding decoherence in Ehrenfest dynamics
Akimov, Alexey V. E-mail: oleg.prezhdo@rochester.edu; Long, Run; Prezhdo, Oleg V. E-mail: oleg.prezhdo@rochester.edu
2014-05-21
We present a new semiclassical approach for description of decoherence in electronically non-adiabatic molecular dynamics. The method is formulated on the grounds of the Ehrenfest dynamics and the Meyer-Miller-Thoss-Stock mapping of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation onto a fully classical Hamiltonian representation. We introduce a coherence penalty functional (CPF) that accounts for decoherence effects by randomizing the wavefunction phase and penalizing development of coherences in regions of strong non-adiabatic coupling. The performance of the method is demonstrated with several model and realistic systems. Compared to other semiclassical methods tested, the CPF method eliminates artificial interference and improves agreement with the fully quantum calculations on the models. When applied to study electron transfer dynamics in the nanoscale systems, the method shows an improved accuracy of the predicted time scales. The simplicity and high computational efficiency of the CPF approach make it a perfect practical candidate for applications in realistic systems.
Xu, H. K.; Song, C.; Liu, W. Y.; Xue, G. M.; Su, F. F.; Deng, H.; Tian, Ye; Zheng, D. N.; Han, Siyuan; Zhong, Y. P.; Wang, H.; Liu, Yu-xi; Zhao, S. P.
2016-01-01
Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage offers significant advantages for coherent population transfer between uncoupled or weakly coupled states and has the potential of realizing efficient quantum gate, qubit entanglement and quantum information transfer. Here we report on the realization of the process in the superconducting Xmon and phase qutrits—two ladder-type three-level systems in which the ground state population is coherently transferred to the second excited state via the dark state subspace. We demonstrate that the population transfer efficiency is no less than 96% and 67% for the two devices, which agree well with the numerical simulation of the master equation. Population transfer via stimulated Raman adiabatic passage is significantly more robust against variations of the experimental parameters compared with that via the conventional resonant π pulse method. Our work opens up a new venue for exploring the process for quantum information processing using the superconducting artificial atoms. PMID:27009972
Albert, Julian; Falge, Mirjam; Hildenbrand, Heiko; Engel, Volker; Gomez, Sandra; Sola, Ignacio R.
2015-07-28
We theoretically investigate the photon-echo spectroscopy of coupled electron-nuclear quantum dynamics. Two situations are treated. In the first case, the Born-Oppenheimer (adiabatic) approximation holds. It is then possible to interpret the two-dimensional (2D) spectra in terms of vibrational motion taking place in different electronic states. In particular, pure vibrational coherences which are related to oscillations in the time-dependent third-order polarization can be identified. This concept fails in the second case, where strong non-adiabatic coupling leads to the breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer-approximation. Then, the 2D-spectra reveal a complicated vibronic structure and vibrational coherences cannot be disentangled from the electronic motion.
Non-Adiabatic, Multi-State Ring-Polymer Molecular Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bell, Franziska; Menzeleev, Artur; Miller, Thomas, III
2014-03-01
Ring-polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) has been shown to be a promising method for studying mechanisms and rates in large systems which require the inclusion of quantum effects, such as zero-point energies and tunneling. Examples involve electron and/or proton transfer reactions in enzymes and artificial catalysts. However, the traditional formulation of RPMD has several shortcomings: (i) it is restricted to migrations of only one distinguishable electron, (ii) it cannot describe photophysical processes, and (iii) it cannot be used in conjunction with potential energy surfaces obtained from electronic structure methods. Here I present a parameter-free extension of the RPMD method that addresses these issues and allows for the direct simulation of non-adiabatic processes involving many-electron wavefunctions without prior assumptions of the reaction mechanism. The new approach is demonstrated to provide a quantitative description of electron-transfer reaction rates and mechanisms throughout (i) the normal and inverted regimes and (ii) the weak- and strong-coupling regimes. I would like to thank the APS for financial support in form of a New Investigator Travel Award.
Ordering states with coherence measures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, C. L.; Yu, Xiao-Dong; Xu, G. F.; Tong, D. M.
2016-10-01
The quantification of quantum coherence has attracted a growing attention, and based on various physical contexts, several coherence measures have been put forward. An interesting question is whether these coherence measures give the same ordering when they are used to quantify the coherence of quantum states. In this paper, we consider the two well-known coherence measures, the l_1 norm of coherence and the relative entropy of coherence, to show that there are the states for which the two measures give a different ordering. Our analysis can be extended to other coherence measures, and as an illustration of the extension we further consider the formation of coherence to show that the l_1 norm of coherence and the formation of coherence, as well as the relative entropy of coherence and the coherence of formation, do not give the same ordering too.
Ordering states with coherence measures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, C. L.; Yu, Xiao-Dong; Xu, G. F.; Tong, D. M.
2016-07-01
The quantification of quantum coherence has attracted a growing attention, and based on various physical contexts, several coherence measures have been put forward. An interesting question is whether these coherence measures give the same ordering when they are used to quantify the coherence of quantum states. In this paper, we consider the two well-known coherence measures, the l_1 norm of coherence and the relative entropy of coherence, to show that there are the states for which the two measures give a different ordering. Our analysis can be extended to other coherence measures, and as an illustration of the extension we further consider the formation of coherence to show that the l_1 norm of coherence and the formation of coherence, as well as the relative entropy of coherence and the coherence of formation, do not give the same ordering too.
Sequential mechanism of electron transport in the resonant tunneling diode with thick barriers
Alkeev, N. V. Averin, S. V.; Dorofeev, A. A.; Velling, P.; Khorenko, E.; Prost, W.; Tegude, F. J.
2007-02-15
A frequency-dependent impedance analysis (0.1-50 GHz) of an InGaAs/InAlAs-based resonant tunneling diode with a 5-nm-wide well and 5-nm-thick barriers showed that the transport mechanism in such a diode is mostly sequential, rather than coherent, which is consistent with estimates. The possibility of determining the coherent and sequential mechanism fractions in the electron transport through the resonant tunneling diode by its frequency dependence on the impedance is discussed.
Boundary Layer Transition on Slender Cones in Conventional and Low Disturbance Mach 6 Wind Tunnels
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Horvath, Thomas J.; Berry, Scott A.; Hollis, Brian R.; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Singer, Bart A.
2002-01-01
An experimental investigation was conducted on a 5-degree half-angle cone and a 5-degree half-angle flared cone in a conventional Mach 6 wind tunnel to examine the effects of facility noise on boundary layer transition. The influence of tunnel noise was inferred by comparing transition onset locations determined from the present test to that previously obtained in a Mach 6 low disturbance quiet tunnel. Together, the two sets of experiments are believed to represent the first direct comparison of transition onset between a conventional and a low disturbance wind tunnel using a common test model and transition detection technique. In the present conventional hypersonic tunnel experiment, separate measurements of heat transfer and adiabatic wall temperatures were obtained on the conical models at small angles of attack over a range of Reynolds numbers, which resulted in laminar, transitional, and turbulent flow. Smooth model turbulent heating distributions are compared to that obtained with transition forced via discrete surface roughness. The model nosetip radius was varied to examine the effects of bluntness on transition onset. Despite wall to total temperature differences between the transient heating measurements and the adiabatic wall temperature measurement, the two methods for determining sharp cone transition onset generally yielded equivalent locations. In the 'noisy' mode of the hypersonic low disturbance tunnel, transition onset occurred earlier than that measured in the conventional hypersonic tunnel, suggesting higher levels of freestream acoustic radiation relative to the conventional tunnel. At comparable freestream conditions, the transition onset Reynolds number under low disturbance conditions was a factor of 1.3 greater than that measured on flared cone in the LaRC conventional hypersonic tunnel and a factor of 1.6 greater that the flared cone run in the low disturbance tunnel run 'noisy'. Navier-Stokes mean flow computations and linear stability
Theory of laser-induced adiabat shaping in inertial fusion implosions: The relaxation method
Betti, R.; Anderson, K.; Knauer, J.; Collins, T.J.B.; McCrory, R.L.; McKenty, P.W.; Skupsky, S.
2005-04-15
The theory of the adiabat shaping induced by a strong shock propagating through a relaxed density profile is carried out for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules. The relaxed profile is produced through a laser prepulse, while the adiabat-shaping shock is driven by the foot of the main laser pulse. The theoretical adiabat profiles accurately reproduce the simulation results. ICF capsules with a shaped adiabat are expected to benefit from improved hydrodynamic stability while maintaining the same one-dimensional performances as flat-adiabat shells.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bennett, Kochise; Kowalewski, Markus; Dorfman, Konstantin; Mukamel, Shaul
Conical intersections (CIs) dominate the pathways and outcomes of virtually all photochemical molecular processes. Despite extensive experimental and theoretical effort, CIs have not been directly observed yet and the experimental evidence is inferred from fast reaction rates and vibrational signatures. We show that short X-ray pulses can directly detect the passage through a CI with the adequate temporal and spectral sensitivity. The non-adiabatic coupling that exists in the region of a CI redistributes electronic population but also generates electronic coherence. This coherent oscillation can then be detected via a coherent Raman process that employs a composite femtosecond/attosecond X-ray pulse. This technique, dubbed Transient Redistribution of Ultrafast Electronic Coherences (TRUECARS) is reminiscent of Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) in that a coherent oscillation is set in motion and then monitored, but differs in that the dynamics is electronic (CARS generally observes nuclear dynamics) and the coherence is generated internally by passage through a region of non-adiabatic coupling rather than by an externally applied laser. Support provided by U.S. Department of Energy through Award No. DE-FG02-04ER15571, the National Science Foundation (Grant No CHE-1361516), and the Alexander von Humboldt foundation through the Feodor Lynen program.
Coherent optical transfer of Feshbach molecules to a lower vibrational state.
Winkler, K; Lang, F; Thalhammer, G; Straten, P v d; Grimm, R; Denschlag, J Hecker
2007-01-26
Using the technique of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) we have coherently transferred ultracold (87)Rb(2) Feshbach molecules into a more deeply bound vibrational quantum level. Our measurements indicate a high transfer efficiency of up to 87%. Because the molecules are held in an optical lattice with not more than a single molecule per lattice site, inelastic collisions between the molecules are suppressed and we observe long molecular lifetimes of about 1 s. Using STIRAP we have created quantum superpositions of the two molecular states and tested their coherence interferometrically. These results represent an important step towards Bose-Einstein condensation of molecules in the vibrational ground state. PMID:17358763
Electron and phonon drag in thermoelectric transport through coherent molecular conductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lü, Jing-Tao; Wang, Jian-Sheng; Hedegârd, Per; Brandbyge, Mads
2016-05-01
We study thermoelectric transport through a coherent molecular conductor connected to two electron and two phonon baths using the nonequilibrium Green's function method. We focus on the mutual drag between electron and phonon transport as a result of `momentum' transfer, which happens only when there are at least two phonon degrees of freedom. After deriving expressions for the linear drag coefficients, obeying the Onsager relation, we further investigate their effect on nonequilibrium transport. We show that the drag effect is closely related to two other phenomena: (1) adiabatic charge pumping through a coherent conductor; (2) the current-induced nonconservative and effective magnetic forces on phonons.
Robust quantum logic in neutral atoms via adiabatic Rydberg dressing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keating, Tyler; Cook, Robert L.; Hankin, Aaron M.; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Biedermann, Grant W.; Deutsch, Ivan H.
2015-01-01
We study a scheme for implementing a controlled-Z (cz) gate between two neutral-atom qubits based on the Rydberg blockade mechanism in a manner that is robust to errors caused by atomic motion. By employing adiabatic dressing of the ground electronic state, we can protect the gate from decoherence due to random phase errors that typically arise because of atomic thermal motion. In addition, the adiabatic protocol allows for a Doppler-free configuration that involves counterpropagating lasers in a σ+/σ- orthogonal polarization geometry that further reduces motional errors due to Doppler shifts. The residual motional error is dominated by dipole-dipole forces acting on doubly excited Rydberg atoms when the blockade is imperfect. For reasonable parameters, with qubits encoded into the clock states of 133Cs, we predict that our protocol could produce a cz gate in <10 μ s with error probability on the order of 10-3.
Adiabatic molecular-dynamics-simulation-method studies of kinetic friction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, J.; Sokoloff, J. B.
2005-06-01
An adiabatic molecular-dynamics method is developed and used to study the Muser-Robbins model for dry friction (i.e., nonzero kinetic friction in the slow sliding speed limit). In this model, dry friction between two crystalline surfaces rotated with respect to each other is due to mobile molecules (i.e., dirt particles) adsorbed at the interface. Our adiabatic method allows us to quickly locate interface potential-well minima, which become unstable during sliding of the surfaces. Since dissipation due to friction in the slow sliding speed limit results from mobile molecules dropping out of such unstable wells, our method provides a way to calculate dry friction, which agrees extremely well with results found by conventional molecular dynamics for the same system, but our method is more than a factor of 10 faster.
Adiabatic far-field sub-diffraction imaging
Cang, Hu; Salandrino, Alessandro; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang
2015-01-01
The limited resolution of a conventional optical imaging system stems from the fact that the fine feature information of an object is carried by evanescent waves, which exponentially decays in space and thus cannot reach the imaging plane. We introduce here an adiabatic lens, which utilizes a geometrically conformal surface to mediate the interference of slowly decompressed electromagnetic waves at far field to form images. The decompression is satisfying an adiabatic condition, and by bridging the gap between far field and near field, it allows far-field optical systems to project an image of the near-field features directly. Using these designs, we demonstrated the magnification can be up to 20 times and it is possible to achieve sub-50 nm imaging resolution in visible. Our approach provides a means to extend the domain of geometrical optics to a deep sub-wavelength scale. PMID:26258769
Adiabatic creation of atomic squeezing in dark states versus decoherences
Gong, Z. R.; Sun, C. P.; Wang Xiaoguang
2010-07-15
We study the multipartite correlations of the multiatom dark states, which are characterized by the atomic squeezing beyond the pairwise entanglement. It is shown that, in the photon storage process with atomic ensemble via the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) mechanism, the atomic squeezing and the pairwise entanglement can be created by adiabatically manipulating the Rabi frequency of the classical light field on the atomic ensemble. We also consider the sudden death for the atomic squeezing and the pairwise entanglement under various decoherence channels. An optimal time for generating the greatest atomic squeezing and pairwise entanglement is obtained by studying in detail the competition between the adiabatic creation of quantum correlation in the atomic ensemble and the decoherence that we describe with three typical decoherence channels.
Adiabatic theory of solitons fed by dispersive waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pickartz, Sabrina; Bandelow, Uwe; Amiranashvili, Shalva
2016-09-01
We consider scattering of low-amplitude dispersive waves at an intense optical soliton which constitutes a nonlinear perturbation of the refractive index. Specifically, we consider a single-mode optical fiber and a group velocity matched pair: an optical soliton and a nearly perfectly reflected dispersive wave, a fiber-optical analog of the event horizon. By combining (i) an adiabatic approach that is used in soliton perturbation theory and (ii) scattering theory from quantum mechanics, we give a quantitative account of the evolution of all soliton parameters. In particular, we quantify the increase in the soliton peak power that may result in the spontaneous appearance of an extremely large, so-called champion soliton. The presented adiabatic theory agrees well with the numerical solutions of the pulse propagation equation. Moreover, we predict the full frequency band of the scattered dispersive waves and explain an emerging caustic structure in the space-time domain.
On the Effect of Strain Gradient on Adiabatic Shear Banding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsagrakis, Ioannis; Aifantis, Elias C.
2015-10-01
Most of the work on adiabatic shear banding is based on the effect of temperature gradients on shear band nucleation and evolution. In contrast, the present work considers the coupling between temperature and strain gradients. The competition of thermal and strain gradient terms on the onset of instability and its dependence on specimen size is illustrated. It is shown that heat conduction promotes the instability initiation in the hardening part of the homogeneous stress-strain, while the strain gradient term favors the occurrence of this initiation in the softening regime. This behavior is size dependent, i.e., small specimens can support stable homogeneous deformations even in the softening regime. The spacing of adiabatic shear bands is also evaluated by considering the dominant instability mode during the primary stages of the localization process and it is found that it is an increasing function of the strain gradient coefficient.
Steam bottoming cycle for an adiabatic diesel engine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Poulin, E.; Demier, R.; Krepchin, I.; Walker, D.
1984-01-01
Steam bottoming cycles using adiabatic diesel engine exhaust heat which projected substantial performance and economic benefits for long haul trucks were studied. Steam cycle and system component variables, system cost, size and performance were analyzed. An 811 K/6.90 MPa state of the art reciprocating expander steam system with a monotube boiler and radiator core condenser was selected for preliminary design. The costs of the diesel with bottoming system (TC/B) and a NASA specified turbocompound adiabatic diesel with aftercooling with the same total output were compared, the annual fuel savings less the added maintenance cost was determined to cover the increase initial cost of the TC/B system in a payback period of 2.3 years. Steam bottoming system freeze protection strategies were developed, technological advances required for improved system reliability are considered and the cost and performance of advanced systes are evaluated.
Fluctuations of work in nearly adiabatically driven open quantum systems.
Suomela, S; Salmilehto, J; Savenko, I G; Ala-Nissila, T; Möttönen, M
2015-02-01
We extend the quantum jump method to nearly adiabatically driven open quantum systems in a way that allows for an accurate account of the external driving in the system-environment interaction. Using this framework, we construct the corresponding trajectory-dependent work performed on the system and derive the integral fluctuation theorem and the Jarzynski equality for nearly adiabatic driving. We show that such identities hold as long as the stochastic dynamics and work variable are consistently defined. We numerically study the emerging work statistics for a two-level quantum system and find that the conventional diabatic approximation is unable to capture some prominent features arising from driving, such as the continuity of the probability density of work. Our results reveal the necessity of using accurate expressions for the drive-dressed heat exchange in future experiments probing jump time distributions. PMID:25768477
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zheng, Yanping
2009-01-01
In the thesis a coherent text is defined as a continuity of senses of the outcome of combining concepts and relations into a network composed of knowledge space centered around main topics. And the author maintains that in order to obtain the coherence of a target language text from a source text during the process of translation, a translator can…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
García-Patrón, Raúl; Pirandola, Stefano; Lloyd, Seth; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.
2009-04-01
We define a family of entanglement distribution protocols assisted by classical feedback communication that gives an operational interpretation to reverse coherent information, i.e., the symmetric counterpart of the well-known coherent information. This protocol family leads to the definition of a new entanglement distribution capacity that exceeds the unassisted entanglement distribution capacity for some interesting channels.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
García-Patrón, Raúl; Pirandola, Stefano; Lloyd, Seth; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.
2009-05-01
In this Letter we define a family of entanglement distribution protocols assisted by feedback classical communication that gives an operational interpretation to reverse coherent information, i.e., the symmetric counterpart of the well-known coherent information. This leads to the definition of a new entanglement distribution capacity that exceeds the unassisted capacity for some interesting channels.
Catalytic coherence transformations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bu, Kaifeng; Singh, Uttam; Wu, Junde
2016-04-01
Catalytic coherence transformations allow the otherwise impossible state transformations using only incoherent operations with the aid of an auxiliary system with finite coherence that is not being consumed in any way. Here we find the necessary and sufficient conditions for the deterministic and stochastic catalytic coherence transformations between a pair of pure quantum states. In particular, we show that the simultaneous decrease of a family of Rényi entropies of the diagonal parts of the states under consideration is a necessary and sufficient condition for the deterministic catalytic coherence transformations. Similarly, for stochastic catalytic coherence transformations we find the necessary and sufficient conditions for achieving a higher optimal probability of conversion. We thus completely characterize the coherence transformations among pure quantum states under incoherent operations. We give numerous examples to elaborate our results. We also explore the possibility of the same system acting as a catalyst for itself and find that indeed self-catalysis is possible. Further, for the cases where no catalytic coherence transformation is possible we provide entanglement-assisted coherence transformations and find the necessary and sufficient conditions for such transformations.
García-Patrón, Raúl; Pirandola, Stefano; Lloyd, Seth; Shapiro, Jeffrey H
2009-05-29
In this Letter we define a family of entanglement distribution protocols assisted by feedback classical communication that gives an operational interpretation to reverse coherent information, i.e., the symmetric counterpart of the well-known coherent information. This leads to the definition of a new entanglement distribution capacity that exceeds the unassisted capacity for some interesting channels.
Two-mode multiplexer and demultiplexer based on adiabatic couplers.
Xing, Jiejiang; Li, Zhiyong; Xiao, Xi; Yu, Jinzhong; Yu, Yude
2013-09-01
A two-mode (de)multiplexer based on adiabatic couplers is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The experimental results are in good agreement with the simulations. An ultralow mode cross talk below -36 dB and a low insertion loss of about 0.3 dB over a broad bandwidth from 1500 to 1600 nm are measured. The design is also fabrication-tolerant, and the insertion loss can be further improved in the future. PMID:23988986
Excitation energies along a range-separated adiabatic connection
Rebolini, Elisa Toulouse, Julien Savin, Andreas; Teale, Andrew M.; Helgaker, Trygve
2014-07-28
We present a study of the variation of total energies and excitation energies along a range-separated adiabatic connection. This connection links the non-interacting Kohn–Sham electronic system to the physical interacting system by progressively switching on the electron–electron interactions whilst simultaneously adjusting a one-electron effective potential so as to keep the ground-state density constant. The interactions are introduced in a range-dependent manner, first introducing predominantly long-range, and then all-range, interactions as the physical system is approached, as opposed to the conventional adiabatic connection where the interactions are introduced by globally scaling the standard Coulomb interaction. Reference data are reported for the He and Be atoms and the H{sub 2} molecule, obtained by calculating the short-range effective potential at the full configuration-interaction level using Lieb's Legendre-transform approach. As the strength of the electron–electron interactions increases, the excitation energies, calculated for the partially interacting systems along the adiabatic connection, offer increasingly accurate approximations to the exact excitation energies. Importantly, the excitation energies calculated at an intermediate point of the adiabatic connection are much better approximations to the exact excitation energies than are the corresponding Kohn–Sham excitation energies. This is particularly evident in situations involving strong static correlation effects and states with multiple excitation character, such as the dissociating H{sub 2} molecule. These results highlight the utility of long-range interacting reference systems as a starting point for the calculation of excitation energies and are of interest for developing and analyzing practical approximate range-separated density-functional methodologies.
Adiabaticity and gravity theory independent conservation laws for cosmological perturbations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romano, Antonio Enea; Mooij, Sander; Sasaki, Misao
2016-04-01
We carefully study the implications of adiabaticity for the behavior of cosmological perturbations. There are essentially three similar but different definitions of non-adiabaticity: one is appropriate for a thermodynamic fluid δPnad, another is for a general matter field δPc,nad, and the last one is valid only on superhorizon scales. The first two definitions coincide if cs2 = cw2 where cs is the propagation speed of the perturbation, while cw2 = P ˙ / ρ ˙ . Assuming the adiabaticity in the general sense, δPc,nad = 0, we derive a relation between the lapse function in the comoving slicing Ac and δPnad valid for arbitrary matter field in any theory of gravity, by using only momentum conservation. The relation implies that as long as cs ≠cw, the uniform density, comoving and the proper-time slicings coincide approximately for any gravity theory and for any matter field if δPnad = 0 approximately. In the case of general relativity this gives the equivalence between the comoving curvature perturbation Rc and the uniform density curvature perturbation ζ on superhorizon scales, and their conservation. This is realized on superhorizon scales in standard slow-roll inflation. We then consider an example in which cw =cs, where δPnad = δPc,nad = 0 exactly, but the equivalence between Rc and ζ no longer holds. Namely we consider the so-called ultra slow-roll inflation. In this case both Rc and ζ are not conserved. In particular, as for ζ, we find that it is crucial to take into account the next-to-leading order term in ζ's spatial gradient expansion to show its non-conservation, even on superhorizon scales. This is an example of the fact that adiabaticity (in the thermodynamic sense) is not always enough to ensure the conservation of Rc or ζ.
Adiabatic pipelining: a key to ternary computing with quantum dots.
Pečar, P; Ramšak, A; Zimic, N; Mraz, M; Lebar Bajec, I
2008-12-10
The quantum-dot cellular automaton (QCA), a processing platform based on interacting quantum dots, was introduced by Lent in the mid-1990s. What followed was an exhilarating period with the development of the line, the functionally complete set of logic functions, as well as more complex processing structures, however all in the realm of binary logic. Regardless of these achievements, it has to be acknowledged that the use of binary logic is in computing systems mainly the end result of the technological limitations, which the designers had to cope with in the early days of their design. The first advancement of QCAs to multi-valued (ternary) processing was performed by Lebar Bajec et al, with the argument that processing platforms of the future should not disregard the clear advantages of multi-valued logic. Some of the elementary ternary QCAs, necessary for the construction of more complex processing entities, however, lead to a remarkable increase in size when compared to their binary counterparts. This somewhat negates the advantages gained by entering the ternary computing domain. As it turned out, even the binary QCA had its initial hiccups, which have been solved by the introduction of adiabatic switching and the application of adiabatic pipeline approaches. We present here a study that introduces adiabatic switching into the ternary QCA and employs the adiabatic pipeline approach to successfully solve the issues of elementary ternary QCAs. What is more, the ternary QCAs presented here are sizewise comparable to binary QCAs. This in our view might serve towards their faster adoption.
Fast quasi-adiabatic gas cooling: an experiment revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oss, S.; Gratton, L. M.; Calzà, G.; López-Arias, T.
2012-09-01
The well-known experiment of the rapid expansion and cooling of the air contained in a bottle is performed with a rapidly responsive, yet very cheap thermometer. The adiabatic, low temperature limit is approached quite closely and measured with our apparatus. A straightforward theoretical model for this process is also presented and discussed. Both the experimental setup and the associated theoretical interpretation of the cooling phenomenon are suited for a standard general physics course at undergraduate level.
Adiabatic expansion of a strongly correlated pure electron plasma
Dubin, D.H.E.; O'Neil, T.M.
1986-02-17
Adiabatic expansion is proposed as a method of increasing the degree of correlation of a magnetically confined pure electron plasma. Quantum mechanical effects and correlation effects make the physics of the expansion quite different from that for a classical ideal gas. The proposed expansion may be useful in a current experimental effort to cool a pure electron plasma to the liquid and solid (crystalline) states.
Adiabatic expansion of a strongly correlated pure electron plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubin, D. H. E.; Oneil, T. M.
1986-02-01
Adiabatic expansion is proposed as a method of increasing the degree of correlation of a magnetically confined pure electron plasma. Quantum mechanical effects and correlation effects make the physics of the expansion quite different from that for a classical ideal gas. The proposed expansion may be useful in a current experimental effort to cool a pure electron plasma to the liquid and solid (crystalline) states.
Geometric Phase for Adiabatic Evolutions of General Quantum States
Wu, Biao; Liu, Jie; Niu, Qian; Singh, David J
2005-01-01
The concept of a geometric phase (Berry's phase) is generalized to the case of noneigenstates, which is applicable to both linear and nonlinear quantum systems. This is particularly important to nonlinear quantum systems, where, due to the lack of the superposition principle, the adiabatic evolution of a general state cannot be described in terms of eigenstates. For linear quantum systems, our new geometric phase reduces to a statistical average of Berry's phases. Our results are demonstrated with a nonlinear two-level model.
Complete Cycle Experiments Using the Adiabatic Gas Law Apparatus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kutzner, Mickey D.; Plantak, Mateja
2014-10-01
The ability of our society to make informed energy-usage decisions in the future depends partly on current science and engineering students retaining a deep understanding of the thermodynamics of heat engines. Teacher imaginations and equipment budgets can both be taxed in the effort to engage students in hands-on heat engine activities. The experiments described in this paper, carried out using the Adiabatic Gas Law Apparatus1 (AGLA), quantitatively explore popular complete cycle heat engine processes.
Alnaes, K.; Kristiansen, E.H. ); Gustavson, D.B. ); James, D.V. )
1990-01-01
The Scalable Coherent Interface (IEEE P1596) is establishing an interface standard for very high performance multiprocessors, supporting a cache-coherent-memory model scalable to systems with up to 64K nodes. This Scalable Coherent Interface (SCI) will supply a peak bandwidth per node of 1 GigaByte/second. The SCI standard should facilitate assembly of processor, memory, I/O and bus bridge cards from multiple vendors into massively parallel systems with throughput far above what is possible today. The SCI standard encompasses two levels of interface, a physical level and a logical level. The physical level specifies electrical, mechanical and thermal characteristics of connectors and cards that meet the standard. The logical level describes the address space, data transfer protocols, cache coherence mechanisms, synchronization primitives and error recovery. In this paper we address logical level issues such as packet formats, packet transmission, transaction handshake, flow control, and cache coherence. 11 refs., 10 figs.
Partially coherent ultrafast spectrography
Bourassin-Bouchet, C.; Couprie, M.-E.
2015-01-01
Modern ultrafast metrology relies on the postulate that the pulse to be measured is fully coherent, that is, that it can be completely described by its spectrum and spectral phase. However, synthesizing fully coherent pulses is not always possible in practice, especially in the domain of emerging ultrashort X-ray sources where temporal metrology is strongly needed. Here we demonstrate how frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG), the first and one of the most widespread techniques for pulse characterization, can be adapted to measure partially coherent pulses even down to the attosecond timescale. No modification of experimental apparatuses is required; only the processing of the measurement changes. To do so, we take our inspiration from other branches of physics where partial coherence is routinely dealt with, such as quantum optics and coherent diffractive imaging. This will have important and immediate applications, such as enabling the measurement of X-ray free-electron laser pulses despite timing jitter. PMID:25744080
Rehder, B; Ross, B H
2001-09-01
Many studies have demonstrated the importance of the knowledge that interrelates features in people's mental representation of categories and that makes our conception of categories coherent. This article focuses on abstract coherent categories, coherent categories that are also abstract because they are defined by relations independently of any features. Four experiments demonstrate that abstract coherent categories are learned more easily than control categories with identical features and statistical structure, and also that participants induced an abstract representation of the category by granting category membership to exemplars with completely novel features. The authors argue that the human conceptual system is heavily populated with abstract coherent concepts, including conceptions of social groups, societal institutions, legal, political, and military scenarios, and many superordinate categories, such as classes of natural kinds. PMID:11550753
Partially coherent ultrafast spectrography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bourassin-Bouchet, C.; Couprie, M.-E.
2015-03-01
Modern ultrafast metrology relies on the postulate that the pulse to be measured is fully coherent, that is, that it can be completely described by its spectrum and spectral phase. However, synthesizing fully coherent pulses is not always possible in practice, especially in the domain of emerging ultrashort X-ray sources where temporal metrology is strongly needed. Here we demonstrate how frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG), the first and one of the most widespread techniques for pulse characterization, can be adapted to measure partially coherent pulses even down to the attosecond timescale. No modification of experimental apparatuses is required; only the processing of the measurement changes. To do so, we take our inspiration from other branches of physics where partial coherence is routinely dealt with, such as quantum optics and coherent diffractive imaging. This will have important and immediate applications, such as enabling the measurement of X-ray free-electron laser pulses despite timing jitter.
Optical coherence tomography-based micro-particle image velocimetry.
Mujat, Mircea; Ferguson, R Daniel; Iftimia, Nicusor; Hammer, Daniel X; Nedyalkov, Ivaylo; Wosnik, Martin; Legner, Hartmut
2013-11-15
We present a new application of optical coherence tomography (OCT), widely used in biomedical imaging, to flow analysis in near-wall hydrodynamics for marine research. This unique capability, called OCT micro-particle image velocimetry, provides a high-resolution view of microscopic flow phenomena and measurement of flow statistics within the first millimeter of a boundary layer. The technique is demonstrated in a small flow cuvette and in a water tunnel.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miller, William H.; Cotton, Stephen J.
2015-04-01
It is noted that the recently developed symmetrical quasi-classical (SQC) treatment of the Meyer-Miller (MM) model for the simulation of electronically non-adiabatic dynamics provides a good description of detailed balance, even though the dynamics which results from the classical MM Hamiltonian is "Ehrenfest dynamics" (i.e., the force on the nuclei is an instantaneous coherent average over all electronic states). This is seen to be a consequence of the SQC windowing methodology for "processing" the results of the trajectory calculation. For a particularly simple model discussed here, this is shown to be true regardless of the choice of windowing function employed in the SQC model, and for a more realistic full classical molecular dynamics simulation, it is seen to be maintained correctly for very long time.
Miller, William H. Cotton, Stephen J.
2015-04-07
It is noted that the recently developed symmetrical quasi-classical (SQC) treatment of the Meyer-Miller (MM) model for the simulation of electronically non-adiabatic dynamics provides a good description of detailed balance, even though the dynamics which results from the classical MM Hamiltonian is “Ehrenfest dynamics” (i.e., the force on the nuclei is an instantaneous coherent average over all electronic states). This is seen to be a consequence of the SQC windowing methodology for “processing” the results of the trajectory calculation. For a particularly simple model discussed here, this is shown to be true regardless of the choice of windowing function employed in the SQC model, and for a more realistic full classical molecular dynamics simulation, it is seen to be maintained correctly for very long time.
Tunneling into thin superconducting films: Interface-induced quasiparticle lifetime reduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Löptien, P.; Zhou, L.; Khajetoorians, A. A.; Wiebe, J.; Wiesendanger, R.
2016-01-01
Scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements of superconducting thin lanthanum films grown on a normal metal tungsten substrate reveal an extraordinarily large broadening of the coherence peaks. The observed broadening corresponds to very short electron-like quasiparticle lifetimes in the tunneling process. A thorough analysis considering the different relaxation processes reveals that the dominant mechanism is an efficient quasiparticle relaxation at the interface between the superconducting film and the underlying substrate. This process is of general relevance to scanning tunneling spectroscopy studies on thin superconducting films and enables measurements of film thicknesses via a spectroscopic method.
Giant intrinsic tunnel magnetoresistance in manganite thin films etched with antidot arrays
Li, Hui; Li, Lin; Li, Long; Liang, Haixing; Cheng, Long; Zhai, Xiaofang; Zeng, Changgan
2014-02-24
Huge intrinsic tunnel magnetoresistance effects at low field are demonstrated in macroscopic La{sub 0.33}Pr{sub 0.34}Ca{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} thin films etched with periodic antidot arrays, and a highest magnetoresistance ratio (about 1600%) is achieved at 58 K. Such giant tunnel magnetoresistance effect might originate from delicate phase separation and coherent transport under the applied periodic spatial confinement. Strong transport fluctuation is also revealed in such systems due to phase competition. Our findings pave a way to realize tunnel magnetoresistance devices based on electronically phase separated materials with spatial modulations.
Tkach, M.; Seti, Ju.; Voitsekhivska, O.; Fartushynsky, R.
2009-12-14
The quasi-stationary electron states are studied in the three-barrier resonance-tunnel structure which is the basic element of coherent quantum cascade lasers. In the models of rectangular and delta-barrier potentials there is established theory of evolution and collapse of double resonance complexes in a symmetric resonance-tunnel structure. The induced conductivity of nano-system is calculated within the both models. It is shown that the negative induced conductivity of three-barrier resonance-tunnel structure in delta-barrier model is dozens times smaller than more realistic magnitudes obtained within the rectangular potentials model.
Adiabatic corrections to density functional theory energies and wave functions.
Mohallem, José R; Coura, Thiago de O; Diniz, Leonardo G; de Castro, Gustavo; Assafrão, Denise; Heine, Thomas
2008-09-25
The adiabatic finite-nuclear-mass-correction (FNMC) to the electronic energies and wave functions of atoms and molecules is formulated for density-functional theory and implemented in the deMon code. The approach is tested for a series of local and gradient corrected density functionals, using MP2 results and diagonal-Born-Oppenheimer corrections from the literature for comparison. In the evaluation of absolute energy corrections of nonorganic molecules the LDA PZ81 functional works surprisingly better than the others. For organic molecules the GGA BLYP functional has the best performance. FNMC with GGA functionals, mainly BLYP, show a good performance in the evaluation of relative corrections, except for nonorganic molecules containing H atoms. The PW86 functional stands out with the best evaluation of the barrier of linearity of H2O and the isotopic dipole moment of HDO. In general, DFT functionals display an accuracy superior than the common belief and because the corrections are based on a change of the electronic kinetic energy they are here ranked in a new appropriate way. The approach is applied to obtain the adiabatic correction for full atomization of alcanes C(n)H(2n+2), n = 4-10. The barrier of 1 mHartree is approached for adiabatic corrections, justifying its insertion into DFT. PMID:18537228
Non-adiabatic molecular dynamics by accelerated semiclassical Monte Carlo
White, Alexander J.; Gorshkov, Vyacheslav N.; Tretiak, Sergei; Mozyrsky, Dmitry
2015-07-07
Non-adiabatic dynamics, where systems non-radiatively transition between electronic states, plays a crucial role in many photo-physical processes, such as fluorescence, phosphorescence, and photoisomerization. Methods for the simulation of non-adiabatic dynamics are typically either numerically impractical, highly complex, or based on approximations which can result in failure for even simple systems. Recently, the Semiclassical Monte Carlo (SCMC) approach was developed in an attempt to combine the accuracy of rigorous semiclassical methods with the efficiency and simplicity of widely used surface hopping methods. However, while SCMC was found to be more efficient than other semiclassical methods, it is not yet as efficient as is needed to be used for large molecular systems. Here, we have developed two new methods: the accelerated-SCMC and the accelerated-SCMC with re-Gaussianization, which reduce the cost of the SCMC algorithm up to two orders of magnitude for certain systems. In most cases shown here, the new procedures are nearly as efficient as the commonly used surface hopping schemes, with little to no loss of accuracy. This implies that these modified SCMC algorithms will be of practical numerical solutions for simulating non-adiabatic dynamics in realistic molecular systems.
Numerical study of polaron problem in the adiabatic limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marsiglio, Frank; Li, Zhou; Blois, Cindy; Baillie, Devin
2010-03-01
We study the polaron problem in a one dimensional chain and on a two dimensional square lattice. The models we have used are the Holstein model and the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model. By a variational procedure based on the Lanczos method, we are able to examine the polaron problem in the limit when the mass of the ion is very large, i.e. close to the adiabatic limit. It is known that for the Holstein model there is no phase transition [1] for any nonzero phonon energy. It is also known that for the one dimensional Holstein or SSH model there will be long range order [2] (e.g. dimerization) in the adiabatic limit at half-filling. It is then interesting to study the long range order on a two dimensional square lattice in and away from the adiabatic limit. Moreover, recent progress for the single polaron near an impurity (disorder) [3] make it an interesting problem for studying bond length disorder which can change the hopping energy in a specific direction in the Holstein model. Reference: [1] H. Lowen, Phys.Rev.B 37, 8661 (1988) [2] J.E.Hirsch and E. Frandkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 402 (1982) [3]A.S.Mishchenko et.al Phys.Rev.B 79(2009) 180301(R)
Non-adiabatic molecular dynamics by accelerated semiclassical Monte Carlo.
White, Alexander J; Gorshkov, Vyacheslav N; Tretiak, Sergei; Mozyrsky, Dmitry
2015-07-01
Non-adiabatic dynamics, where systems non-radiatively transition between electronic states, plays a crucial role in many photo-physical processes, such as fluorescence, phosphorescence, and photoisomerization. Methods for the simulation of non-adiabatic dynamics are typically either numerically impractical, highly complex, or based on approximations which can result in failure for even simple systems. Recently, the Semiclassical Monte Carlo (SCMC) approach was developed in an attempt to combine the accuracy of rigorous semiclassical methods with the efficiency and simplicity of widely used surface hopping methods. However, while SCMC was found to be more efficient than other semiclassical methods, it is not yet as efficient as is needed to be used for large molecular systems. Here, we have developed two new methods: the accelerated-SCMC and the accelerated-SCMC with re-Gaussianization, which reduce the cost of the SCMC algorithm up to two orders of magnitude for certain systems. In most cases shown here, the new procedures are nearly as efficient as the commonly used surface hopping schemes, with little to no loss of accuracy. This implies that these modified SCMC algorithms will be of practical numerical solutions for simulating non-adiabatic dynamics in realistic molecular systems. PMID:26156473
Dynamics of Quantum Adiabatic Evolution Algorithm for Number Partitioning
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smelyanskiy, Vadius; vonToussaint, Udo V.; Timucin, Dogan A.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
We have developed a general technique to study the dynamics of the quantum adiabatic evolution algorithm applied to random combinatorial optimization problems in the asymptotic limit of large problem size n. We use as an example the NP-complete Number Partitioning problem and map the algorithm dynamics to that of an auxiliary quantum spin glass system with the slowly varying Hamiltonian. We use a Green function method to obtain the adiabatic eigenstates and the minimum exitation gap, gmin = O(n2(sup -n/2)), corresponding to the exponential complexity of the algorithm for Number Partitioning. The key element of the analysis is the conditional energy distribution computed for the set of all spin configurations generated from a given (ancestor) configuration by simultaneous flipping of a fixed number of spins. For the problem in question this distribution is shown to depend on the ancestor spin configuration only via a certain parameter related to the energy of the configuration. As the result, the algorithm dynamics can be described in terms of one-dimensional quantum diffusion in the energy space. This effect provides a general limitation of a quantum adiabatic computation in random optimization problems. Analytical results are in agreement with the numerical simulation of the algorithm.
Dynamics of Quantum Adiabatic Evolution Algorithm for Number Partitioning
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smelyanskiy, V. N.; Toussaint, U. V.; Timucin, D. A.
2002-01-01
We have developed a general technique to study the dynamics of the quantum adiabatic evolution algorithm applied to random combinatorial optimization problems in the asymptotic limit of large problem size n. We use as an example the NP-complete Number Partitioning problem and map the algorithm dynamics to that of an auxiliary quantum spin glass system with the slowly varying Hamiltonian. We use a Green function method to obtain the adiabatic eigenstates and the minimum excitation gap. g min, = O(n 2(exp -n/2), corresponding to the exponential complexity of the algorithm for Number Partitioning. The key element of the analysis is the conditional energy distribution computed for the set of all spin configurations generated from a given (ancestor) configuration by simultaneous flipping of a fixed number of spins. For the problem in question this distribution is shown to depend on the ancestor spin configuration only via a certain parameter related to 'the energy of the configuration. As the result, the algorithm dynamics can be described in terms of one-dimensional quantum diffusion in the energy space. This effect provides a general limitation of a quantum adiabatic computation in random optimization problems. Analytical results are in agreement with the numerical simulation of the algorithm.
Conditions for super-adiabatic droplet growth after entrainment mixing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Fan; Shaw, Raymond; Xue, Huiwen
2016-07-01
Cloud droplet response to entrainment and mixing between a cloud and its environment is considered, accounting for subsequent droplet growth during adiabatic ascent following a mixing event. The vertical profile for liquid water mixing ratio after a mixing event is derived analytically, allowing the reduction to be predicted from the mixing fraction and from the temperature and humidity for both the cloud and environment. It is derived for the limit of homogeneous mixing. The expression leads to a critical height above the mixing level: at the critical height the cloud droplet radius is the same for both mixed and unmixed parcels, and the critical height is independent of the updraft velocity and mixing fraction. Cloud droplets in a mixed parcel are larger than in an unmixed parcel above the critical height, which we refer to as the "super-adiabatic" growth region. Analytical results are confirmed with a bin microphysics cloud model. Using the model, we explore the effects of updraft velocity, aerosol source in the environmental air, and polydisperse cloud droplets. Results show that the mixed parcel is more likely to reach the super-adiabatic growth region when the environmental air is humid and clean. It is also confirmed that the analytical predictions are matched by the volume-mean cloud droplet radius for polydisperse size distributions. The findings have implications for the origin of large cloud droplets that may contribute to onset of collision-coalescence in warm clouds.
Steam bottoming cycle for an adiabatic diesel engine
Poulin, E.; Demler, R.; Krepchin, I.; Walker, D.
1984-03-01
A study of steam bottoming cycles using adiabatic diesel engine exhaust heat projected substantial performance and economic benefits for long haul trucks. A parametric analysis of steam cycle and system component variables, system cost, size and performance was conducted. An 811 K/6.90 MPa state-of-the-art reciprocating expander steam system with a monotube boiler and radiator core condenser was selected for preliminary design. When applied to a NASA specified turbo-charged adiabatic diesel the bottoming system increased the diesel output by almost 18%. In a comparison of the costs of the diesel with bottoming system (TC/B) and a NASA specified turbocompound adiabatic diesel with after-cooling with the same total output, the annual fuel savings less the added maintenance cost was determined to cover the increased initial cost of the TC/B system in a payback period of 2.3 years. Also during this program steam bottoming system freeze protection strategies were developed, technological advances required for improved system reliability were considered and the cost and performance of advanced systems were evaluated.
NMR implementation of adiabatic SAT algorithm using strongly modulated pulses.
Mitra, Avik; Mahesh, T S; Kumar, Anil
2008-03-28
NMR implementation of adiabatic algorithms face severe problems in homonuclear spin systems since the qubit selective pulses are long and during this period, evolution under the Hamiltonian and decoherence cause errors. The decoherence destroys the answer as it causes the final state to evolve to mixed state and in homonuclear systems, evolution under the internal Hamiltonian causes phase errors preventing the initial state to converge to the solution state. The resolution of these issues is necessary before one can proceed to implement an adiabatic algorithm in a large system where homonuclear coupled spins will become a necessity. In the present work, we demonstrate that by using "strongly modulated pulses" (SMPs) for the creation of interpolating Hamiltonian, one can circumvent both the problems and successfully implement the adiabatic SAT algorithm in a homonuclear three qubit system. This work also demonstrates that the SMPs tremendously reduce the time taken for the implementation of the algorithm, can overcome problems associated with decoherence, and will be the modality in future implementation of quantum information processing by NMR. PMID:18376911
NMR implementation of adiabatic SAT algorithm using strongly modulated pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mitra, Avik; Mahesh, T. S.; Kumar, Anil
2008-03-01
NMR implementation of adiabatic algorithms face severe problems in homonuclear spin systems since the qubit selective pulses are long and during this period, evolution under the Hamiltonian and decoherence cause errors. The decoherence destroys the answer as it causes the final state to evolve to mixed state and in homonuclear systems, evolution under the internal Hamiltonian causes phase errors preventing the initial state to converge to the solution state. The resolution of these issues is necessary before one can proceed to implement an adiabatic algorithm in a large system where homonuclear coupled spins will become a necessity. In the present work, we demonstrate that by using "strongly modulated pulses" (SMPs) for the creation of interpolating Hamiltonian, one can circumvent both the problems and successfully implement the adiabatic SAT algorithm in a homonuclear three qubit system. This work also demonstrates that the SMPs tremendously reduce the time taken for the implementation of the algorithm, can overcome problems associated with decoherence, and will be the modality in future implementation of quantum information processing by NMR.
Non-adiabatic molecular dynamics by accelerated semiclassical Monte Carlo
White, Alexander J.; Gorshkov, Vyacheslav N.; Tretiak, Sergei; Mozyrsky, Dmitry
2015-07-07
Non-adiabatic dynamics, where systems non-radiatively transition between electronic states, plays a crucial role in many photo-physical processes, such as fluorescence, phosphorescence, and photoisomerization. Methods for the simulation of non-adiabatic dynamics are typically either numerically impractical, highly complex, or based on approximations which can result in failure for even simple systems. Recently, the Semiclassical Monte Carlo (SCMC) approach was developed in an attempt to combine the accuracy of rigorous semiclassical methods with the efficiency and simplicity of widely used surface hopping methods. However, while SCMC was found to be more efficient than other semiclassical methods, it is not yet as efficientmore » as is needed to be used for large molecular systems. Here, we have developed two new methods: the accelerated-SCMC and the accelerated-SCMC with re-Gaussianization, which reduce the cost of the SCMC algorithm up to two orders of magnitude for certain systems. In many cases shown here, the new procedures are nearly as efficient as the commonly used surface hopping schemes, with little to no loss of accuracy. This implies that these modified SCMC algorithms will be of practical numerical solutions for simulating non-adiabatic dynamics in realistic molecular systems.« less
Adiabatic shear mechanisms for the hard cutting process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yue, Caixu; Wang, Bo; Liu, Xianli; Feng, Huize; Cai, Chunbin
2015-05-01
The most important consequence of adiabatic shear phenomenon is formation of sawtooth chip. Lots of scholars focused on the formation mechanism of sawtooth, and the research often depended on experimental approach. For the present, the mechanism of sawtooth chip formation still remains some ambiguous aspects. This study develops a combined numerical and experimental approach to get deeper understanding of sawtooth chip formation mechanism for Polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride (PCBN) tools orthogonal cutting hard steel GCr15. By adopting the Johnson-Cook material constitutive equations, the FEM simulation model established in this research effectively overcomes serious element distortions and cell singularity in high strain domain caused by large material deformation, and the adiabatic shear phenomenon is simulated successfully. Both the formation mechanism and process of sawtooth are simulated. Also, the change features regarding the cutting force as well as its effects on temperature are studied. More specifically, the contact of sawtooth formation frequency with cutting force fluctuation frequency is established. The cutting force and effect of cutting temperature on mechanism of adiabatic shear are investigated. Furthermore, the effects of the cutting condition on sawtooth chip formation are researched. The researching results show that cutting feed has the most important effect on sawtooth chip formation compared with cutting depth and speed. This research contributes a better understanding of mechanism, feature of chip formation in hard turning process, and supplies theoretical basis for the optimization of hard cutting process parameters.
Non-adiabatic pulsations in %delta; Scuti stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moya, A.; Garrido, R.; Dupret, M. A.
2004-01-01
For δ Scuti stars, phase differences and amplitude ratios between the relative effective temperature variation and the relative radial displacement can be derived from multicolor photometric observations. The same quantities can be also calculated from theoretical non-adiabatic pulsation models. We present here these theoretical results, which indicate that non-adiabatic quantities depend on the mixing length parameter α used to treat the convection in the standard Mixing Length Theory (MLT). This dependence can be used to test and to constrain, through multicolor observations, the way MLT describes convection in the outermost layers of the star. We will use the equilibrium models provided by the CESAM evolutionary code. The pulsational observables are calculated by using a non-adiabatic pulsation code developed by R. Garridon and A. Moya. In the evolutionary and pulsation codes, a complete reconstruction of the non-grey atmosphere (Kurucz models) is included. The interaction between pulsation and atmosphere, as described by Dupret et al. (2002), is also included in the code.
Non-adiabatic molecular dynamics by accelerated semiclassical Monte Carlo
White, Alexander J.; Gorshkov, Vyacheslav N.; Tretiak, Sergei; Mozyrsky, Dmitry
2015-07-07
Non-adiabatic dynamics, where systems non-radiatively transition between electronic states, plays a crucial role in many photo-physical processes, such as fluorescence, phosphorescence, and photoisomerization. Methods for the simulation of non-adiabatic dynamics are typically either numerically impractical, highly complex, or based on approximations which can result in failure for even simple systems. Recently, the Semiclassical Monte Carlo (SCMC) approach was developed in an attempt to combine the accuracy of rigorous semiclassical methods with the efficiency and simplicity of widely used surface hopping methods. However, while SCMC was found to be more efficient than other semiclassical methods, it is not yet as efficient as is needed to be used for large molecular systems. Here, we have developed two new methods: the accelerated-SCMC and the accelerated-SCMC with re-Gaussianization, which reduce the cost of the SCMC algorithm up to two orders of magnitude for certain systems. In many cases shown here, the new procedures are nearly as efficient as the commonly used surface hopping schemes, with little to no loss of accuracy. This implies that these modified SCMC algorithms will be of practical numerical solutions for simulating non-adiabatic dynamics in realistic molecular systems.
Irreconcilable difference between quantum walks and adiabatic quantum computing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wong, Thomas G.; Meyer, David A.
2016-06-01
Continuous-time quantum walks and adiabatic quantum evolution are two general techniques for quantum computing, both of which are described by Hamiltonians that govern their evolutions by Schrödinger's equation. In the former, the Hamiltonian is fixed, while in the latter, the Hamiltonian varies with time. As a result, their formulations of Grover's algorithm evolve differently through Hilbert space. We show that this difference is fundamental; they cannot be made to evolve along each other's path without introducing structure more powerful than the standard oracle for unstructured search. For an adiabatic quantum evolution to evolve like the quantum walk search algorithm, it must interpolate between three fixed Hamiltonians, one of which is complex and introduces structure that is stronger than the oracle for unstructured search. Conversely, for a quantum walk to evolve along the path of the adiabatic search algorithm, it must be a chiral quantum walk on a weighted, directed star graph with structure that is also stronger than the oracle for unstructured search. Thus, the two techniques, although similar in being described by Hamiltonians that govern their evolution, compute by fundamentally irreconcilable means.
Jirauschek, Christian; Huber, Robert
2015-01-01
We analyze the physics behind the newest generation of rapidly wavelength tunable sources for optical coherence tomography (OCT), retaining a single longitudinal cavity mode during operation without repeated build up of lasing. In this context, we theoretically investigate the currently existing concepts of rapidly wavelength-swept lasers based on tuning of the cavity length or refractive index, leading to an altered optical path length inside the resonator. Specifically, we consider vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with microelectromechanical system (MEMS) mirrors as well as Fourier domain mode-locked (FDML) and Vernier-tuned distributed Bragg reflector (VT-DBR) lasers. Based on heuristic arguments and exact analytical solutions of Maxwell’s equations for a fundamental laser resonator model, we show that adiabatic wavelength tuning is achieved, i.e., hopping between cavity modes associated with a repeated build up of lasing is avoided, and the photon number is conserved. As a consequence, no fundamental limit exists for the wavelength tuning speed, in principle enabling wide-range wavelength sweeps at arbitrary tuning speeds with narrow instantaneous linewidth. PMID:26203373
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heaps, Charles W.; Mazziotti, David A.
2016-08-01
Quantum molecular dynamics requires an accurate representation of the molecular potential energy surface from a minimal number of electronic structure calculations, particularly for nonadiabatic dynamics where excited states are required. In this paper, we employ pseudospectral sampling of time-dependent Gaussian basis functions for the simulation of non-adiabatic dynamics. Unlike other methods, the pseudospectral Gaussian molecular dynamics tests the Schrödinger equation with N Dirac delta functions located at the centers of the Gaussian functions reducing the scaling of potential energy evaluations from O ( N 2 ) to O ( N ) . By projecting the Gaussian basis onto discrete points in space, the method is capable of efficiently and quantitatively describing the nonadiabatic population transfer and intra-surface quantum coherence. We investigate three model systems: the photodissociation of three coupled Morse oscillators, the bound state dynamics of two coupled Morse oscillators, and a two-dimensional model for collinear triatomic vibrational dynamics. In all cases, the pseudospectral Gaussian method is in quantitative agreement with numerically exact calculations. The results are promising for nonadiabatic molecular dynamics in molecular systems where strongly correlated ground or excited states require expensive electronic structure calculations.
Floquet Engineering of Correlated Tunneling in the Bose-Hubbard Model with Ultracold Atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meinert, F.; Mark, M. J.; Lauber, K.; Daley, A. J.; Nägerl, H.-C.
2016-05-01
We report on the experimental implementation of tunable occupation-dependent tunneling in a Bose-Hubbard system of ultracold atoms via time-periodic modulation of the on-site interaction energy. The tunneling rate is inferred from a time-resolved measurement of the lattice site occupation after a quantum quench. We demonstrate coherent control of the tunneling dynamics in the correlated many-body system, including full suppression of tunneling as predicted within the framework of Floquet theory. We find that the tunneling rate explicitly depends on the atom number difference in neighboring lattice sites. Our results may open up ways to realize artificial gauge fields that feature density dependence with ultracold atoms.
Topography-specific isotropic tunneling in nanoparticle monolayer with sub-nm scale crevices.
Wang, Guisheng; Jiao, Weihong; Yi, Lizhi; Zhang, Yuejiao; Wu, Ke; Zhang, Chao; Lv, Xianglong; Qian, Lihua; Li, Jianfeng; Yuan, Songliu; Chen, Liang
2016-10-01
Material used in flexible devices may experience anisotropic strain with identical magnitude, outputting coherent signals that tend to have a serious impact on device reliability. In this work, the surface topography of the nanoparticles (NPs) is proposed to be a parameter to control the performance of strain gauge based on tunneling behavior. In contrast to anisotropic tunneling in a monolayer of spherical NPs, electron tunneling in a monolayer of urchin-like NPs actually exhibits a nearly isotropic response to strain with different loading orientations. Isotropic tunneling of the urchin-like NPs is caused by the interlocked pikes of these urchin-like NPs in a random manner during external mechanical stimulus. Topography-dependent isotropic tunneling in two dimensions reported here opens a new opportunity to create highly reliable electronics with superior performance.
Floquet Engineering of Correlated Tunneling in the Bose-Hubbard Model with Ultracold Atoms.
Meinert, F; Mark, M J; Lauber, K; Daley, A J; Nägerl, H-C
2016-05-20
We report on the experimental implementation of tunable occupation-dependent tunneling in a Bose-Hubbard system of ultracold atoms via time-periodic modulation of the on-site interaction energy. The tunneling rate is inferred from a time-resolved measurement of the lattice site occupation after a quantum quench. We demonstrate coherent control of the tunneling dynamics in the correlated many-body system, including full suppression of tunneling as predicted within the framework of Floquet theory. We find that the tunneling rate explicitly depends on the atom number difference in neighboring lattice sites. Our results may open up ways to realize artificial gauge fields that feature density dependence with ultracold atoms. PMID:27258874
Topography-specific isotropic tunneling in nanoparticle monolayer with sub-nm scale crevices.
Wang, Guisheng; Jiao, Weihong; Yi, Lizhi; Zhang, Yuejiao; Wu, Ke; Zhang, Chao; Lv, Xianglong; Qian, Lihua; Li, Jianfeng; Yuan, Songliu; Chen, Liang
2016-10-01
Material used in flexible devices may experience anisotropic strain with identical magnitude, outputting coherent signals that tend to have a serious impact on device reliability. In this work, the surface topography of the nanoparticles (NPs) is proposed to be a parameter to control the performance of strain gauge based on tunneling behavior. In contrast to anisotropic tunneling in a monolayer of spherical NPs, electron tunneling in a monolayer of urchin-like NPs actually exhibits a nearly isotropic response to strain with different loading orientations. Isotropic tunneling of the urchin-like NPs is caused by the interlocked pikes of these urchin-like NPs in a random manner during external mechanical stimulus. Topography-dependent isotropic tunneling in two dimensions reported here opens a new opportunity to create highly reliable electronics with superior performance. PMID:27575748
Topography-specific isotropic tunneling in nanoparticle monolayer with sub-nm scale crevices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Guisheng; Jiao, Weihong; Yi, Lizhi; Zhang, Yuejiao; Wu, Ke; Zhang, Chao; Lv, Xianglong; Qian, Lihua; Li, Jianfeng; Yuan, Songliu; Chen, Liang
2016-10-01
Material used in flexible devices may experience anisotropic strain with identical magnitude, outputting coherent signals that tend to have a serious impact on device reliability. In this work, the surface topography of the nanoparticles (NPs) is proposed to be a parameter to control the performance of strain gauge based on tunneling behavior. In contrast to anisotropic tunneling in a monolayer of spherical NPs, electron tunneling in a monolayer of urchin-like NPs actually exhibits a nearly isotropic response to strain with different loading orientations. Isotropic tunneling of the urchin-like NPs is caused by the interlocked pikes of these urchin-like NPs in a random manner during external mechanical stimulus. Topography-dependent isotropic tunneling in two dimensions reported here opens a new opportunity to create highly reliable electronics with superior performance.
Tunneling at νT = 1 in a bilayer quantum Hall exciton condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nandi, D.; Khaire, T.; Finck, A. D. K.; Eisenstein, J. P.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.
2014-03-01
Closely-spaced bilayer quantum Hall systems at total filling factor νT = 1 exhibit spontaneous interlayer phase coherence. This phase coherence, which is tantamount to excitonic Bose condensation, is most dramatically revealed via interlayer tunneling measurements.In the condensed phase the tunneling current-voltage (IV) characteristic of this semiconductor system strongly resembles the dc Josephson effect observed in superconducting tunnel junctions. Here we report on a detailed study of this phenomenon. We find the maximum, or critical tunneling current Ic to be a well-defined global property of the macroscopic tunnel junction, insensitive to external circuit elements and the precise contact configuration used to observe it. Interestingly, the temperature dependence of Ic displays an unexpected scaling behavior. At the lowest temperatures the slope of the ``supercurrent'' branch of the tunneling IV curve, while extremely large, remains finite. Careful measurements in this regime suggest that dissipative processes arising from in-plane exciton transport limit the maximum tunneling conductance. Finally, comparisons of the experimentally observed IV with recent theoretical predictions will be discussed.
Uncooled tunneling infrared sensor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kenny, Thomas W. (Inventor); Kaiser, William J. (Inventor); Podosek, Judith A. (Inventor); Vote, Erika C. (Inventor); Muller, Richard E. (Inventor); Maker, Paul D. (Inventor)
1995-01-01
An uncooled infrared tunneling sensor in which the only moving part is a diaphragm which is deflected into contact with a micromachined silicon tip electrode prepared by a novel lithographic process. Similarly prepared deflection electrodes employ electrostatic force to control the deflection of a silicon nitride, flat diaphragm membrane. The diaphragm exhibits a high resonant frequency which reduces the sensor's sensitivity to vibration. A high bandwidth feedback circuit controls the tunneling current by adjusting the deflection voltage to maintain a constant deflection of the membrane. The resulting infrared sensor can be miniaturized to pixel dimensions smaller than 100 .mu.m. An alternative embodiment is implemented using a corrugated membrane to permit large deflection without complicated clamping and high deflection voltages. The alternative embodiment also employs a pinhole aperture in a membrane to accommodate environmental temperature variation and a sealed chamber to eliminate environmental contamination of the tunneling electrodes and undesireable accoustic coupling to the sensor.
Novel developments and applications of the classical adiabatic dynamics technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosso, Lula
The present work aims to apply and develop modern molecular dynamics techniques based on a novel analysis of the classical adiabatic dynamics approach. In the first part of this thesis, Car-Parrinello ab-initio molecular dynamics, a successful technique based on adiabatic dynamics, is used to study the charge transport mechanism in solid ammonium perchlorate (AP) crystal exposed to an ammonia-rich environment. AP is a solid-state proton conductor composed of NH+4 and ClO-4 units that can undergo a decomposition process at high temperature, leading to its use such as rocket fuel. After computing IR spectra and carefully analysing the dynamics at different temperatures, we found that the charge transport mechanism in the pure crystal is dominated by diffusion of the ammonium ions and that the translational diffusion is strongly coupled to rotational diffusion of the two types of ions present. When the pure ammonium-perchlorate crystal is doped with neutral ammonia, another mechanism comes into play, namely, the Grotthuss proton hopping mechanism via short-lived N2H+7 complexes. In the second part of this thesis, adiabatic dynamics will be used to develop an alternative approach to the calculation of free energy profiles along reaction paths. The new method (AFED) is based on the creation of an adiabatic separation between the reaction coordinate subspace and the remaining degrees of freedom within a molecular dynamics run. This is achieved by associating with the reaction coordinate(s) a high temperature and large mass. These conditions allow the activated process to occur while permitting the remaining degrees of freedom to respond adiabatically. In this limit, by applying a formal multiple time scale Liouville operator factorization, it can be rigorously shown that the free energy profile is obtained directly from the probability distribution of the reaction coordinate subspace and, therefore, no postprocessing of the output data is required. The new method is
203. Lickstone Ridge Tunnel. All but three of the tunnel ...
203. Lickstone Ridge Tunnel. All but three of the tunnel have minimum height of 13, which accommodates most large recreational vehicles. This tunnel has the lowest clearance at 11-3. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC
View down tank tunnel (tunnel no. 2) showing pipes and ...
View down tank tunnel (tunnel no. 2) showing pipes and walkway of metal grating, side tunnel to tank 3 is on the left - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Diesel Purification Plant, North Road near Pierce Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI
Modeling the effects of linear shallow-water internal waves on horizontal array coherence.
Rouseff, Daniel; Lunkov, Andrey A
2015-10-01
The coherence length of a horizontal array is the maximum separation between two points where coherent processing gives useful gain when a distant source is at broadside. In shallow water, the coherence length is limited by the environmental variability caused by several relevant oceanographic processes. In the present study, a statistical model is developed that quantifies how one oceanographic process, linear internal waves, affects the coherence length. A key input to the ocean sub-model is the vertically integrated energy density of the internal wave field. The acoustic sub-model is based on the adiabatic normal mode approximation and so should be reasonable for frequencies under 1 kHz. Numerical calculations using environmental data from the Shallow Water 2006 Experiment (SW06) show how the coherence length of individual modes varies with consequent effects on array coherence. The coherence length is shown to be a strong function of where the source and array are positioned in the water column. For a bottom-mounted array above a moderately lossy seabed, the model predicts a coherence length that depends only weakly on range, an effect observed in field experiments.
McKay, Roxane
2007-10-08
Aorto-ventricular tunnel is a congenital, extracardiac channel which connects the ascending aorta above the sinutubular junction to the cavity of the left, or (less commonly) right ventricle. The exact incidence is unknown, estimates ranging from 0.5% of fetal cardiac malformations to less than 0.1% of congenitally malformed hearts in clinico-pathological series. Approximately 130 cases have been reported in the literature, about twice as many cases in males as in females. Associated defects, usually involving the proximal coronary arteries, or the aortic or pulmonary valves, are present in nearly half the cases. Occasional patients present with an asymptomatic heart murmur and cardiac enlargement, but most suffer heart failure in the first year of life. The etiology of aorto-ventricular tunnel is uncertain. It appears to result from a combination of maldevelopment of the cushions which give rise to the pulmonary and aortic roots, and abnormal separation of these structures. Echocardiography is the diagnostic investigation of choice. Antenatal diagnosis by fetal echocardiography is reliable after 18 weeks gestation. Aorto-ventricular tunnel must be distinguished from other lesions which cause rapid run-off of blood from the aorta and produce cardiac failure. Optimal management of symptomatic aorto-ventricular tunnel consists of diagnosis by echocardiography, complimented with cardiac catheterization as needed to elucidate coronary arterial origins or associated defects, and prompt surgical repair. Observation of the exceedingly rare, asymptomatic patient with a small tunnel may be justified by occasional spontaneous closure. All patients require life-long follow-up for recurrence of the tunnel, aortic valve incompetence, left ventricular function, and aneurysmal enlargement of the ascending aorta.
Multiple quantum coherence spectroscopy.
Mathew, Nathan A; Yurs, Lena A; Block, Stephen B; Pakoulev, Andrei V; Kornau, Kathryn M; Wright, John C
2009-08-20
Multiple quantum coherences provide a powerful approach for studies of complex systems because increasing the number of quantum states in a quantum mechanical superposition state increases the selectivity of a spectroscopic measurement. We show that frequency domain multiple quantum coherence multidimensional spectroscopy can create these superposition states using different frequency excitation pulses. The superposition state is created using two excitation frequencies to excite the symmetric and asymmetric stretch modes in a rhodium dicarbonyl chelate and the dynamic Stark effect to climb the vibrational ladders involving different overtone and combination band states. A monochromator resolves the free induction decay of different coherences comprising the superposition state. The three spectral dimensions provide the selectivity required to observe 19 different spectral features associated with fully coherent nonlinear processes involving up to 11 interactions with the excitation fields. The different features act as spectroscopic probes of the diagonal and off-diagonal parts of the molecular potential energy hypersurface. This approach can be considered as a coherent pump-probe spectroscopy where the pump is a series of excitation pulses that prepares a multiple quantum coherence and the probe is another series of pulses that creates the output coherence. PMID:19507812
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reiss, Günter; Schmalhorst, Jan; Thomas, Andre; Hütten, Andreas; Yuasa, Shinji
In magnetoelectronic devices large opportunities are opened by the spin dependent tunneling resistance, where a strong dependence of the tunneling current on the relative orientation of the magnetization of the electrodes is found. Within a short time, the amplitude of the resistance change of the junctions increased dramatically. We will cover Al-O and MgO based junctions and present highly spin-polarized electrode materials such as Heusler alloys. Furthermore, we will give a short overview on applications such as read heads in hard disk drives, storage cells in MRAMs, field programmable logic circuits and biochips. Finally, we will discuss the currently growing field of current induced magnetization switching.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, Jon; Cottrell, William; Shiu, Gary; Soler, Pablo
2016-10-01
The Coleman formula for vacuum decay and bubble nucleation has been used to estimate the tunneling rate in models of axion monodromy in recent literature. However, several of Coleman's original assumptions do not hold for such models. Here we derive a new estimate with this in mind using a similar Euclidean procedure. We find that there are significant regions of parameter space for which the tunneling rate in axion monodromy is not well approximated by the Coleman formula. However, there is also a regime relevant to large field inflation in which both estimates parametrically agree. We also briefly comment on the applications of our results to the relaxion scenario.
Patel, Vishesha; Malinovsky, Vladimir S.; Malinovskaya, Svetlana
2010-06-15
Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy has been a major tool of investigation of biological structures as it contains the vibrational signature of molecules. A quantum control method based on chirped pulse adiabatic passage was recently proposed for selective excitation of a predetermined vibrational mode in CARS microscopy [Malinovskaya and Malinovsky, Opt. Lett. 32, 707 (2007)]. The method utilizes the chirp sign variation at the peak pulse amplitude and gives a robust adiabatic excitation of the desired vibrational mode. Using this method, we investigate the impact of coupling between vibrational modes in molecules on controllability of excitation of the CARS signal. We analyze two models of two coupled two-level systems (TLSs) having slightly different transitional frequencies. The first model, featuring degenerate ground states of the TLSs, gives robust adiabatic excitation and maximum coherence in the resonant TLS for positive value of the chirp. In the second model, implying nondegenerate ground states in the TLSs, a population distribution is observed in both TLSs, resulting in a lack of selectivity of excitation and low coherence. It is shown that the relative phase and coupling between the TLSs play an important role in optimizing coherence in the desired vibrational mode and suppressing unwanted transitions in CARS microscopy.
Eliminating Wind Tunnel Flow Breakdown
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hackett, J. E.
1983-01-01
Undesirable vortexes near floor in small wind tunnels suppressed by simple device that alters flow pattern there. Air is injected along floor and interacts with backflow from wind-tunnel model. Results in smoother, more correct air-flow and to more-reliable wind-tunnel data.
Scanning tunneling microscope nanoetching method
Li, Yun-Zhong; Reifenberger, Ronald G.; Andres, Ronald P.
1990-01-01
A method is described for forming uniform nanometer sized depressions on the surface of a conducting substrate. A tunneling tip is used to apply tunneling current density sufficient to vaporize a localized area of the substrate surface. The resulting depressions or craters in the substrate surface can be formed in information encoding patterns readable with a scanning tunneling microscope.
Vibrational predissociation quasiclassical tunnelling and classical diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karni, Y.; Nikitin, E. E.
A comparative study of vibrational predissociation dynamics is presented Two collinear models of the van der Waals complex are used with a realistic medium strength coupling parameter The predissociation rates are calculated by four different approaches an accurate quantum mechanical method by the complex scaling technique first order approximations in the diabatic FOD and adiabatic FOA basis and purely classically It is shown that FOA within the improved semiclassical Landau method provides an excellent description of the dynamical tunnelling of the system from all the quasibound states into continuum at the same time FOD yields noticeably higher rates though the transition probabilities are very low At low excitation energies of the van der Waals bond the classical description yields zero rates in accord with the KAM theorem At higher excitation energies the classical rates are higher than the quasiclassical rates since the classical system dissociates via the diffusion through the holes in the phase space which are still too narrow to let the quantum system escape A simple explanation of a parallelism between quantum and classical rates is suggested under a condition when the first order quantum treatment is applicable
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howard, P. W.; Schutzenhofer, L. A.
1978-01-01
Simple and inexpensive technique suppresses background noise generated by pores in wind tunnel wall lining and makes aerodynamic data more accurate and reliable. Porous walls are covered with wire-mesh screen. Screen offers smoother surface to airflow and damps vortexes and resonance caused by wall perforations; yet it provides enough open area for perforations to cancel shock waves generated by model.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1926-01-01
This picture shows a general view of the Propeller Research Tunnel engine room under construction. Workmen were installing the two submarine diesel engines that would power the PRT. The room was constructed of concrete with corrugated metal siding and roofing with the intention of making the engine room as fireproof as possible.
Gerdes, Hans-Hermann
2009-03-01
Prions are abnormal isoforms of host proteins that are the infectious agents in certain mammalian neurodegenerative diseases. How prions travel from their peripheral entry sites to the brain where they cause disease is poorly understood. A new study finds that tunnelling nanotubes are important for the intercellular transfer of prions during neuroinvasion.
Tunnelling with wormhole creation
Ansoldi, S.; Tanaka, T.
2015-03-15
The description of quantum tunnelling in the presence of gravity shows subtleties in some cases. We discuss wormhole production in the context of the spherically symmetric thin-shell approximation. By presenting a fully consistent treatment based on canonical quantization, we solve a controversy present in the literature.
Mahoney, James Leo; Dagum, Alexander B.
1992-01-01
Carpal tunnel syndrome is a very common hand problem usually presenting with nighttime pain, numbness, and loss of dexterity. Controversy arises over the diagnosis, treatment, and evaluation of results. Nighttime splinting will improve the symptoms in some patients. If this fails, excellent results can be achieved with surgical decompression of the median nerve in the carpal canal. PMID:21221355
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1929-01-01
Interior view of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) model. (Small human figures have been added for scale.) On June 26, 1929, Elton W. Miller wrote to George W. Lewis proposing the construction of a model of the full-scale tunnel . 'The excellent energy ratio obtained in the new wind tunnel of the California Institute of Technology suggests that before proceeding with our full scale tunnel design, we ought to investigate the effect on energy ratio of such factors as: 1. small included angle for the exit cone; 2. carefully designed return passages of circular section as far as possible, without sudden changes in cross sections; 3. tightness of walls. It is believed that much useful information can be obtained by building a model of about 1/16 scale, that is, having a closed throat of 2 ft. by 4 ft. The outside dimensions would be about 12 ft. by 25 ft. in plan and the height 4 ft. Two propellers will be required about 28 in. in diameter, each to be driven by direct current motor at a maximum speed of 4500 R.P.M. Provision can be made for altering the length of certain portions, particularly the exit cone, and possibly for the application of boundary layer control in order to effect satisfactory air flow.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Ping-Chih (Inventor)
2013-01-01
This invention is a ground flutter testing system without a wind tunnel, called Dry Wind Tunnel (DWT) System. The DWT system consists of a Ground Vibration Test (GVT) hardware system, a multiple input multiple output (MIMO) force controller software, and a real-time unsteady aerodynamic force generation software, that is developed from an aerodynamic reduced order model (ROM). The ground flutter test using the DWT System operates on a real structural model, therefore no scaled-down structural model, which is required by the conventional wind tunnel flutter test, is involved. Furthermore, the impact of the structural nonlinearities on the aeroelastic stability can be included automatically. Moreover, the aeroservoelastic characteristics of the aircraft can be easily measured by simply including the flight control system in-the-loop. In addition, the unsteady aerodynamics generated computationally is interference-free from the wind tunnel walls. Finally, the DWT System can be conveniently and inexpensively carried out as a post GVT test with the same hardware, only with some possible rearrangement of the shakers and the inclusion of additional sensors.
... Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and MRA) Computed Tomography (CT) Scan Diagnostic Tests and Procedures Echocardiography Electrocardiogram ... Ultrasound Nuclear Stress Test Nuclear Ventriculography Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Stress ... Optical Coherence Tomography | ...
Undergraduate Coherent Optics Laboratory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yu, F. T. S.; Wang, E. Y.
1973-01-01
Discusses the use of a set of experiments to provide undergraduate electrical engineering students with a knowledge of the state of the art in modern coherent optics from an engineering standpoint. (CC)
Fresnel Coherent Diffractive Imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williams, G. J.; Quiney, H. M.; Dhal, B. B.; Tran, C. Q.; Nugent, K. A.; Peele, A. G.; Paterson, D.; de Jonge, M. D.
2006-07-01
We present an x-ray coherent diffractive imaging experiment utilizing a nonplanar incident wave and demonstrate success by reconstructing a nonperiodic gold sample at 24 nm resolution. Favorable effects of the curved beam illumination are identified.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2006-01-01
The Channel Tunnel is a 50.5 km-long rail tunnel beneath the English Channel at the Straits of Dover. It connects Dover, Kent in England with Calais, northern France. The undersea section of the tunnel is unsurpassed in length in the world. A proposal for a Channel tunnel was first put forward by a French engineer in 1802. In 1881, a first attempt was made at boring a tunnel from the English side; the work was halted after 800 m. Again in 1922, English workers started boring a tunnel, and advanced 120 m before it too was halted for political reasons. The most recent attempt was begun in 1987, and the tunnel was officially opened in 1994. At completion it was estimated that the project cost around $18 billion. It has been operating at a significant loss since its opening, despite trips by over 7 million passengers per year on the Eurostar train, and over 3 million vehicles per year.
With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.
ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.
The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomson, D. J.; Maclennan, C. G.; Lanzerotti, L. J.
2006-12-01
The EPAM charged particle instrument on ACE is the backup for the HISCALE instrument on Ulysses making the two ideally suited for spatial coherence studies over large heliosphere distances. Fluxes of low-energy ( ~50 - 200 keV) electrons are detected in eight spatial sectors on both spacecraft. A spherical harmonic description of the particle flux as a function of time using only the l=0 and l=1 degree coefficients describes most of the observed flux. Here we concentrate on the three l=1 coefficients for the 60--100 kev electrons.Between the two spacecraft these result in nine coherence estimates that are all typically moderately coherent, but the fact that the different coefficients at each spacecraft are also coherent with each other makes interpretation difficult. To avoid this difficulty we estimated the canonical coherences between the two groups of three series. This, in effect, chooses an optimum coordinate system at each spacecraft and for each frequency and estimates the coherence in this frame. Using one--minute data, we find that the canonical coherences are generally larger at high frequencies (3 mHz and above) than they are at low frequencies. This appears to be generally true and does not depend particularly on time, range, etc. However, if the data segment is chosen too long, say > 30 days with 1--minute sampling, the coherence at high frequencies drops. This may be because the spatial and temporal features of the mode are confounded, or possibly because the solar modes p--modes are known to change frequency with solar activity, so do not appear coherent on long blocks.The coherences are not smooth functions of frequency, but have a bimodal distribution particularly in the 100 μHz to 5 mHz range. Classifying the data at frequencies where the canonical coherences are high in terms of apparent polarization and orientation, we note two major families of modes that appear to be organized by the Parker spiral. The magnetic field data on the two
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chapman, H. N.; Bajt, S.; Barty, A.; Benner, W. H.; Bogan, M. J.; Boutet, S.; Cavalleri, A.; Duesterer, S.; Frank, M.; Hajdu, J.; Hau-Riege, S. P.; Iwan, B.; Marchesini, S.; Sakdinawat, A.; Sokolowski-Tinten, K.; Seibert, M. M.; Timneanu, N.; Treusch, R.; Woods, B. W.
2009-09-01
We have carried out high-resolution single-pulse coherent diffractive imaging at the FLASH free-electron laser. The intense focused FEL pulse gives a high-resolution low-noise coherent diffraction pattern of an object before that object turns into a plasma and explodes. In particular we are developing imaging of biological specimens beyond conventional radiation damage resolution limits, developing imaging of ultrafast processes, and testing methods to characterize and perform single-particle imaging.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Wenhong; Sukegawa, Hiroaki; Inomata, Koichiro
2010-09-01
Spin-valve-type epitaxial magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) consisting of a full-Heusler alloy Co2FeAl (CFA) and a MgO tunnel barrier were fabricated on a single-crystal MgO(001) substrate using sputtering method for all the layers. Experimental temperature-dependent tunnel magnetoresistance in the MTJs was revealed to be fitted well using spin wave excitation model for tunneling spin polarization, P(T)=P0(1-αT3/2) up to room temperature, where P0 is the spin polarization at 0 K and α is a fitting parameter. The determined P and α are shown to be significantly different between bottom and top CFA electrodes facing a MgO barrier. It is demonstrated that the bottom CFA deposited on a Cr buffer has a low α and behaves as a half-metal with P˜1 in terms of the Δ1 symmetry due to the coherent tunneling through a MgO barrier.
Yang, G.; Li, D. L.; Wang, S. G. Ma, Q. L.; Liang, S. H.; Wei, H. X.; Han, X. F.; Hesjedal, T.; Ward, R. C. C.; Kohn, A.; Elkayam, A.; Tal, N.; Zhang, X.-G.
2015-02-28
Epitaxial FePt(001)/MgO/FePt magnetic tunnel junctions with L1{sub 0}-FePt electrodes showing perpendicular magnetic anisotropy were fabricated by molecular beam epitaxial growth. Tunnel magnetoresistance ratios of 21% and 53% were obtained at 300 K and 10 K, respectively. Our previous work, based on transmission electron microscopy, confirmed a semi-coherent interfacial structure with atomic steps (Kohn et al., APL 102, 062403 (2013)). Here, we show by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy and first-principles calculation that the bottom FePt/MgO interface is either Pt-terminated for regular growth or when an Fe layer is inserted at the interface, it is chemically bonded to O. Both these structures have a dominant role in spin dependent tunneling across the MgO barrier resulting in a decrease of the tunneling magnetoresistance ratio compared with previous predictions.
Resonance tunneling of cooper pairs in a superconductor-polymer-superconductor josephson junction
Ionov, A. I.
2013-05-15
It is shown that the superconducting current flowing though a polymer in a superconductor-polymer-superconductor Josephson structure is due to resonant tunneling of Cooper pairs. The critical current and the thickness of the polymer in which the superconducting current is observed depend on the coherence length of a Cooper pair in the superconductor contacting the polymer.
Influence of viscosity and the adiabatic index on planetary migration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bitsch, B.; Boley, A.; Kley, W.
2013-02-01
Context. The strength and direction of migration of low mass embedded planets depends on the disk's thermodynamic state. It has been shown that in active disks, where the internal dissipation is balanced by radiative transport, migration can be directed outwards, a process which extends the lifetime of growing embryos. Very important parameters determining the structure of disks, and hence the direction of migration, are the viscosity and the adiabatic index. Aims: In this paper we investigate the influence of different viscosity prescriptions (α-type and constant) and adiabatic indices on disk structures. We then determine how this affects the migration rate of planets embedded in such disks. Methods: We perform three-dimensional numerical simulations of accretion disks with embedded planets. We use the explicit/implicit hydrodynamical code NIRVANA that includes full tensor viscosity and radiation transport in the flux-limited diffusion approximation, as well as a proper equation of state for molecular hydrogen. The migration of embedded 20 MEarth planets is studied. Results: Low-viscosity disks have cooler temperatures and the migration rates of embedded planets tend toward the isothermal limit. Hence, in these disks, planets migrate inwards even in the fully radiative case. The effect of outward migration can only be sustained if the viscosity in the disk is large. Overall, the differences between the treatments for the equation of state seem to play a more important role in disks with higher viscosity. A change in the adiabatic index and in the viscosity changes the zero-torque radius that separates inward from outward migration. Conclusions: For larger viscosities, temperatures in the disk become higher and the zero-torque radius moves to larger radii, allowing outward migration of a 20-MEarth planet to persist over an extended radial range. In combination with large disk masses, this may allow for an extended period of the outward migration of growing
Adiabatic quantum computing with spin qubits hosted by molecules.
Yamamoto, Satoru; Nakazawa, Shigeaki; Sugisaki, Kenji; Sato, Kazunobu; Toyota, Kazuo; Shiomi, Daisuke; Takui, Takeji
2015-01-28
A molecular spin quantum computer (MSQC) requires electron spin qubits, which pulse-based electron spin/magnetic resonance (ESR/MR) techniques can afford to manipulate for implementing quantum gate operations in open shell molecular entities. Importantly, nuclear spins, which are topologically connected, particularly in organic molecular spin systems, are client qubits, while electron spins play a role of bus qubits. Here, we introduce the implementation for an adiabatic quantum algorithm, suggesting the possible utilization of molecular spins with optimized spin structures for MSQCs. We exemplify the utilization of an adiabatic factorization problem of 21, compared with the corresponding nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) case. Two molecular spins are selected: one is a molecular spin composed of three exchange-coupled electrons as electron-only qubits and the other an electron-bus qubit with two client nuclear spin qubits. Their electronic spin structures are well characterized in terms of the quantum mechanical behaviour in the spin Hamiltonian. The implementation of adiabatic quantum computing/computation (AQC) has, for the first time, been achieved by establishing ESR/MR pulse sequences for effective spin Hamiltonians in a fully controlled manner of spin manipulation. The conquered pulse sequences have been compared with the NMR experiments and shown much faster CPU times corresponding to the interaction strength between the spins. Significant differences are shown in rotational operations and pulse intervals for ESR/MR operations. As a result, we suggest the advantages and possible utilization of the time-evolution based AQC approach for molecular spin quantum computers and molecular spin quantum simulators underlain by sophisticated ESR/MR pulsed spin technology.
Shortcuts to adiabaticity by counterdiabatic driving for trapped-ion displacement in phase space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
An, Shuoming; Lv, Dingshun; Del Campo, Adolfo; Kim, Kihwan
2016-09-01
The application of adiabatic protocols in quantum technologies is severely limited by environmental sources of noise and decoherence. Shortcuts to adiabaticity by counterdiabatic driving constitute a powerful alternative that speed up time-evolution while mimicking adiabatic dynamics. Here we report the experimental implementation of counterdiabatic driving in a continuous variable system, a shortcut to the adiabatic transport of a trapped ion in phase space. The resulting dynamics is equivalent to a `fast-motion video' of the adiabatic trajectory. The robustness of this protocol is shown to surpass that of competing schemes based on classical local controls and Fourier optimization methods. Our results demonstrate that shortcuts to adiabaticity provide a robust speedup of quantum protocols of wide applicability in quantum technologies.
Kibble-Zurek mechanism beyond adiabaticity: Finite-time scaling with critical initial slip
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Yingyi; Yin, Shuai; Hu, Qijun; Zhong, Fan
2016-01-01
The Kibble-Zurek mechanism demands an initial adiabatic stage before an impulse stage to have a frozen correlation length that generates topological defects in a cooling phase transition. Here we study such a driven critical dynamics but with an initial condition that is near the critical point and that is far away from equilibrium. In this case, there is no initial adiabatic stage at all and thus adiabaticity is broken. However, we show that there again exists a finite length scale arising from the driving that divides the evolution into three stages. A relaxation-finite-time-scaling-adiabatic scenario is then proposed in place of the adiabatic-impulse-adiabatic scenario of the original Kibble-Zurek mechanism. A unified scaling theory, which combines finite-time scaling with critical initial slip, is developed to describe the universal behavior and is confirmed with numerical simulations of a two-dimensional classical Ising model.
Effect of Grain Boundary Character Distribution on the Adiabatic Shear Susceptibility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Yang; Jiang, Lihong; Luo, Shuhong; Hu, Haibo; Tang, Tiegang; Zhang, Qingming
2016-11-01
The adiabatic shear susceptibility of AISI321 stainless steels with different grain boundary character distributions (GBCDs) was investigated by means of split-Hopkinson pressure bar. The results indicate that the width of the adiabatic shear band of the specimen after thermomechanical processing (TMP) treatment is narrower. The comparison of the stress collapse time, the critical stress, and the adiabatic shear forming energy suggests that the TMP specimens have lower adiabatic shear susceptibility than that of the solution-treated samples under the same loading condition. GBCD and grain size affected the adiabatic shear susceptibility. The high-angle boundary network of the TMP specimens was interrupted or replaced by the special grain boundary, and smaller grain size hindered the adiabatic shearing.
Shortcuts to adiabaticity by counterdiabatic driving for trapped-ion displacement in phase space
An, Shuoming; Lv, Dingshun; del Campo, Adolfo; Kim, Kihwan
2016-01-01
The application of adiabatic protocols in quantum technologies is severely limited by environmental sources of noise and decoherence. Shortcuts to adiabaticity by counterdiabatic driving constitute a powerful alternative that speed up time-evolution while mimicking adiabatic dynamics. Here we report the experimental implementation of counterdiabatic driving in a continuous variable system, a shortcut to the adiabatic transport of a trapped ion in phase space. The resulting dynamics is equivalent to a ‘fast-motion video' of the adiabatic trajectory. The robustness of this protocol is shown to surpass that of competing schemes based on classical local controls and Fourier optimization methods. Our results demonstrate that shortcuts to adiabaticity provide a robust speedup of quantum protocols of wide applicability in quantum technologies. PMID:27669897
Terahertz imaging system with resonant tunneling diodes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Mukai, Toshikazu
2016-03-01
We report a feasibility study of a terahertz imaging system with resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) that oscillate at 0.30 THz. A pair of RTDs acted as an emitter and a detector in the system. Terahertz reflection images of opaque samples were acquired with our RTD imaging system. A spatial resolution of 1 mm, which is equal to the wavelength of the RTD emitter, was achieved. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the reflection image was improved by 6 dB by using polarization optics that reduced interference effects. Additionally, the coherence of the RTD enabled a depth resolution of less than 3 µm to be achieved by an interferometric technique. Thus, RTDs are an attractive candidate for use in small THz imaging systems.
From Classical Nonlinear Integrable Systems to Quantum Shortcuts to Adiabaticity.
Okuyama, Manaka; Takahashi, Kazutaka
2016-08-12
Using shortcuts to adiabaticity, we solve the time-dependent Schrödinger equation that is reduced to a classical nonlinear integrable equation. For a given time-dependent Hamiltonian, the counterdiabatic term is introduced to prevent nonadiabatic transitions. Using the fact that the equation for the dynamical invariant is equivalent to the Lax equation in nonlinear integrable systems, we obtain the counterdiabatic term exactly. The counterdiabatic term is available when the corresponding Lax pair exists and the solvable systems are classified in a unified and systematic way. Multisoliton potentials obtained from the Korteweg-de Vries equation and isotropic XY spin chains from the Toda equations are studied in detail.
From Classical Nonlinear Integrable Systems to Quantum Shortcuts to Adiabaticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okuyama, Manaka; Takahashi, Kazutaka
2016-08-01
Using shortcuts to adiabaticity, we solve the time-dependent Schrödinger equation that is reduced to a classical nonlinear integrable equation. For a given time-dependent Hamiltonian, the counterdiabatic term is introduced to prevent nonadiabatic transitions. Using the fact that the equation for the dynamical invariant is equivalent to the Lax equation in nonlinear integrable systems, we obtain the counterdiabatic term exactly. The counterdiabatic term is available when the corresponding Lax pair exists and the solvable systems are classified in a unified and systematic way. Multisoliton potentials obtained from the Korteweg-de Vries equation and isotropic X Y spin chains from the Toda equations are studied in detail.
Salt materials testing for a spacecraft adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savage, M. L.; Kittel, P.; Roellig, T.
As part of a technology development effort to qualify adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators for use in a NASA spacecraft, such as the Space Infrared Telescope Facility, a study of low temperature characteristics, heat capacity and resistance to dehydration was conducted for different salt materials. This report includes results of testing with cerrous metaphosphate, several synthetic rubies, and chromic potassium alum (CPA). Preliminary results show that CPA may be suitable for long-term spacecraft use, provided that the salt is property encapsulated. Methods of salt pill construction and testing for all materials are discussed, as well as reliability tests. Also, the temperature regulation scheme and the test cryostat design are briefly discussed.
Magnetic shielding for a spaceborne adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Warner, Brent A.; Shirron, Peter J.; Castles, Stephen H.; Serlemitsos, Aristides T.
1991-01-01
The Goddard Space Flight Center has studied magnetic shielding for an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator. Four types of shielding were studied: active coils, passive ferromagnetic shells, passive superconducting coils, and passive superconducting shells. The passive superconducting shells failed by allowing flux penetration. The other three methods were successful, singly or together. Experimental studies of passive ferromagnetic shielding are compared with calculations made using the Poisson Group of programs, distributed by the Los Alamos Accelerator Code Group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Agreement between calculation and experiment is good. The ferromagnetic material is a silicon iron alloy.
More bang for your buck: Super-adiabatic quantum engines
Campo, A. del; Goold, J.; Paternostro, M.
2014-01-01
The practical untenability of the quasi-static assumption makes any realistic engine intrinsically irreversible and its operating time finite, thus implying friction effects at short cycle times. An important technological goal is thus the design of maximally efficient engines working at the maximum possible power. We show that, by utilising shortcuts to adiabaticity in a quantum engine cycle, one can engineer a thermodynamic cycle working at finite power and zero friction. Our findings are illustrated using a harmonic oscillator undergoing a quantum Otto cycle. PMID:25163421
Non-Adiabatic Holonomic Quantum Gates in an atomic system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Azimi Mousolou, Vahid; Canali, Carlo M.; Sjoqvist, Erik
2012-02-01
Quantum computation is essentially the implementation of a universal set of quantum gate operations on a set of qubits, which is reliable in the presence of noise. We propose a scheme to perform robust gates in an atomic four-level system using the idea of non-adiabatic holonomic quantum computation proposed in [1]. The gates are realized by applying sequences of short laser pulses that drive transitions between the four energy levels in such a way that the dynamical phases vanish. [4pt] [1] E. Sjoqvist, D.M. Tong, B. Hessmo, M. Johansson, K. Singh, arXiv:1107.5127v2 [quant-ph
Gravitational radiation reaction and inspiral waveforms in the adiabatic limit.
Hughes, Scott A; Drasco, Steve; Flanagan, Eanna E; Franklin, Joel
2005-06-10
We describe progress evolving an important limit of binaries in general relativity: stellar mass compact objects spiraling into much larger black holes. Such systems are of great observational interest. We have developed tools to compute for the first time the radiation from generic orbits. Using global conservation laws, we find the orbital evolution and waveforms for special cases. For generic orbits, inspirals and waveforms can be found by augmenting our approach with an adiabatic self-force rule due to Mino. Such waveforms should be accurate enough for gravitational-wave searches. PMID:16090377
Relativistic blast waves in two dimensions. I - The adiabatic case
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shapiro, P. R.
1979-01-01
Approximate solutions are presented for the dynamical evolution of strong adiabatic relativistic blast waves which result from a point explosion in an ambient gas in which the density varies both with distance from the explosion center and with polar angle in axisymmetry. Solutions are analytical or quasi-analytical for the extreme relativistic case and numerical for the arbitrarily relativistic case. Some general properties of nonplanar relativistic shocks are also discussed, including the incoherence of spherical ultrarelativistic blast-wave fronts on angular scales greater than the reciprocal of the shock Lorentz factor, as well as the conditions for producing blast-wave acceleration.
Optimized sympathetic cooling of atomic mixtures via fast adiabatic strategies
Choi, Stephen; Sundaram, Bala; Onofrio, Roberto
2011-11-15
We discuss fast frictionless cooling techniques in the framework of sympathetic cooling of cold atomic mixtures. It is argued that optimal cooling of an atomic species--in which the deepest quantum degeneracy regime is achieved--may be obtained by means of sympathetic cooling with another species whose trapping frequency is dynamically changed to maintain constancy of the Lewis-Riesenfeld adiabatic invariant. Advantages and limitations of this cooling strategy are discussed, with particular regard to the possibility of cooling Fermi gases to a deeper degenerate regime.
Salt materials testing for a spacecraft adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Savage, M. L.; Kittel, P.; Roellig, T.
1990-01-01
As part of a technology development effort to qualify adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators for use in a NASA spacecraft, such as the Space Infrared Telescope Facility, a study of low temperature characteristics, heat capacity and resistance to dehydration was conducted for different salt materials. This report includes results of testing with cerrous metaphosphate, several synthetic rubies, and chromic potassium alum (CPA). Preliminary results show that CPA may be suitable for long-term spacecraft use, provided that the salt is property encapsulated. Methods of salt pill construction and testing for all materials are discussed, as well as reliability tests. Also, the temperature regulation scheme and the test cryostat design are briefly discussed.
Mysterious dipole synchrotron oscillations during and after adiabatic capture
Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab
2012-03-01
Strong synchrotron oscillations were observed during and after the 2.5-MHz rf adiabatic capture of a debunched booster batch in the Main Injector. Analysis shows two possible sources for the synchrotron oscillations. One is the frequency drift of the 2.5-MHz rf after the turning off of the 53-MHz rf voltage, thus resulting in an energy mismatch with the debunched beam. The second source is the energy mismatch of the injected booster beam with the frequency of the 53-MHz rf. We have been able to rule out the first possibility.
Adiabatic regularization of power spectra in nonminimally coupled chaotic inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alinea, Allan L.
2016-10-01
We investigate the effect of adiabatic regularization on both the tensor- and scalar-perturbation power spectra in nonminimally coupled chaotic inflation. Similar to that of the minimally coupled general single-field inflation, we find that the subtraction term is suppressed by an exponentially decaying factor involving the number of e -folds. By following the subtraction term long enough beyond horizon crossing, the regularized power spectrum tends to the ``bare'' power spectrum. This study justifies the use of the unregularized (``bare'') power spectrum in standard calculations.
Adiabatic invariants in stellar dynamics. 2: Gravitational shocking
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weinberg, Martin D.
1994-01-01
A new theory of gravitational shocking based on time-dependent perturbation theory shows that the changes in energy and angular momentum due to a slowly varying disturbance are not exponentially small for stellar dynamical systems in general. It predicts significant shock heating by slowly varying perturbations previously thought to be negligible according to the adiabatic criterion. The theory extends the scenarios traditionally computed only with the impulse approximation and is applicable to a wide class of disturbances. The approach is applied specifically to the problem of disk shocking of star clusters.
Fast CNOT gate via shortcuts to adiabatic passage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhe; Xia, Yan; Chen, Ye-Hong; Song, Jie
2016-10-01
Based on the shortcuts to adiabatic passage, we propose a scheme for directly implementing a controlled-not (CNOT) gate in a cavity quantum electrodynamics system. Moreover, we generalize the scheme to realize a CNOT gate in two separate cavities connected by an optical fiber. The strictly numerical simulation shows that the schemes are fast and insensitive to the decoherence caused by atomic spontaneous emission and photon leakage. In addition, the schemes can provide a theoretical basis for the manipulation of the multiqubit quantum gates in distant nodes of a quantum network.
Major Steps in the Discovery of Adiabatic Shear Bands
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dodd, Bradley; Walley, Stephen M.; Yang, Rong; Nesterenko, Vitali F.
2015-10-01
The standard story of the discovery of adiabatic shear bands is that it began with the American researchers Zener and Hollomon's famous 1944 paper where the phenomenon was first reported and named. However, a recent discovery by one of us (SMW) in the Cambridge University Library has shown that the phenomenon was discovered and described by a Russian researcher, V.P. Kravz-Tarnavskii, in 1928. A follow-up paper was published by two of his colleagues in 1935. Translations of the 1928 and 1935 papers may be found at http://arxiv.org/abs/1410.1353.
Non-adiabatic pumping in an oscillating-piston model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chuchem, Maya; Dittrich, Thomas; Cohen, Doron
2012-05-01
We consider the prototypical "piston pump" operating on a ring, where a circulating current is induced by means of an AC driving. This can be regarded as a generalized Fermi-Ulam model, incorporating a finite-height moving wall (piston) and non-trivial topology (ring). The amount of particles transported per cycle is determined by a layered structure of phase space. Each layer is characterized by a different drift velocity. We discuss the differences compared with the adiabatic and Boltzmann pictures, and highlight the significance of the "diabatic" contribution that might lead to a counter-stirring effect.
Introduction to cryogenic wind tunnels
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goodyer, M. J.
1985-01-01
The background to the evolution of the cryogenic wind tunnel is outlined, with particular reference to the late 60's/early 70's when efforts were begun to re-equip with larger wind tunnels. The problems of providing full scale Reynolds numbers in transonic testing were proving particularly intractible, when the notion of satisfying the needs with the cryogenic tunnel was proposed, and then adopted. The principles and advantages of the cryogenic tunnel are outlined, along with guidance on the coolant needs when this is liquid nitrogen, and with a note on energy recovery. Operational features of the tunnels are introduced with reference to a small low speed tunnel. Finally the outstanding contributions are highlighted of the 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (TCT) at NASA Langley Research Center, and its personnel, to the furtherance of knowledge and confidence in the concept.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Wei-Dong; Zhang, Yunbo; Liang, J.-Q.
2003-06-01
The energy-band structure and energy splitting due to quantum tunneling in two weakly linked Bose-Einstein condensates were calculated by using the instanton method. The intrinsic coherent properties of Bose-Josephson junction (BJJ) were investigated in terms of energy splitting. For EC/EJ≪1, the energy splitting is small and the system is globally phase coherent. In the opposite limit, EC/EJ≫1, the energy splitting is large and the system becomes phase dissipated. Our results suggest that one should investigate the coherence phenomena of BJJ in proper condition such as EC/EJ˜1.
Shortcut to Adiabatic Passage in Two- and Three-Level Atoms
Chen Xi; Lizuain, I.; Muga, J. G.; Ruschhaupt, A.; Guery-Odelin, D.
2010-09-17
We propose a method to speed up adiabatic passage techniques in two-level and three-level atoms extending to the short-time domain their robustness with respect to parameter variations. It supplements or substitutes the standard laser beam setups with auxiliary pulses that steer the system along the adiabatic path. Compared to other strategies, such as composite pulses or the original adiabatic techniques, it provides a fast and robust approach to population control.
Cryogenic wind tunnels: Problems of continuous operation at low temperatures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Faulmann, D.
1986-01-01
The design of a cryogenic wind tunnel which operates continuously, and is capable of attaining transonic speeds at generating pressures of about 3 bars is described. Its stainless steel construction with inside insulation allows for very rapid temperature variations promoted by rapid changes in the liquid nitrogen flow. A comparative study of temperature measuring probes shows a good reliability of thin sheet thermocouples. To measure fluctuations, only a cold wire makes it possible to record frequencies of about 300 Hz. The use of an integral computer method makes it possible to determine the impact of the wall temperature ratio to the adiabatic wall temperature for the various parameters characterizing the boundary layer. These cases are processed with positive and negative pressure gradients.
Experimental study of the validity of quantitative conditions in the quantum adiabatic theorem.
Du, Jiangfeng; Hu, Lingzhi; Wang, Ya; Wu, Jianda; Zhao, Meisheng; Suter, Dieter
2008-08-01
The quantum adiabatic theorem plays an important role in quantum mechanics. However, counter-examples were produced recently, indicating that their transition probabilities do not converge as predicted by the adiabatic theorem [K. P. Marzlin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 160408 (2004); D. M. Tong et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 110407 (2005)]. For a special class of Hamiltonians, we examine the standard criterion for adiabatic evolution experimentally and theoretically, as well as three newly suggested adiabatic conditions. We show that the standard criterion is neither sufficient nor necessary.
Singularity of the time-energy uncertainty in adiabatic perturbation and cycloids on a Bloch sphere
Oh, Sangchul; Hu, Xuedong; Nori, Franco; Kais, Sabre
2016-01-01
Adiabatic perturbation is shown to be singular from the exact solution of a spin-1/2 particle in a uniformly rotating magnetic field. Due to a non-adiabatic effect, its quantum trajectory on a Bloch sphere is a cycloid traced by a circle rolling along an adiabatic path. As the magnetic field rotates more and more slowly, the time-energy uncertainty, proportional to the length of the quantum trajectory, calculated by the exact solution is entirely different from the one obtained by the adiabatic path traced by the instantaneous eigenstate. However, the non-adiabatic Aharonov- Anandan geometric phase, measured by the area enclosed by the exact path, approaches smoothly the adiabatic Berry phase, proportional to the area enclosed by the adiabatic path. The singular limit of the time-energy uncertainty and the regular limit of the geometric phase are associated with the arc length and arc area of the cycloid on a Bloch sphere, respectively. Prolate and curtate cycloids are also traced by different initial states outside and inside of the rolling circle, respectively. The axis trajectory of the rolling circle, parallel to the adiabatic path, is shown to be an example of transitionless driving. The non-adiabatic resonance is visualized by the number of cycloid arcs. PMID:26916031
Singularity of the time-energy uncertainty in adiabatic perturbation and cycloids on a Bloch sphere.
Oh, Sangchul; Hu, Xuedong; Nori, Franco; Kais, Sabre
2016-01-01
Adiabatic perturbation is shown to be singular from the exact solution of a spin-1/2 particle in a uniformly rotating magnetic field. Due to a non-adiabatic effect, its quantum trajectory on a Bloch sphere is a cycloid traced by a circle rolling along an adiabatic path. As the magnetic field rotates more and more slowly, the time-energy uncertainty, proportional to the length of the quantum trajectory, calculated by the exact solution is entirely different from the one obtained by the adiabatic path traced by the instantaneous eigenstate. However, the non-adiabatic Aharonov-Anandan geometric phase, measured by the area enclosed by the exact path, approaches smoothly the adiabatic Berry phase, proportional to the area enclosed by the adiabatic path. The singular limit of the time-energy uncertainty and the regular limit of the geometric phase are associated with the arc length and arc area of the cycloid on a Bloch sphere, respectively. Prolate and curtate cycloids are also traced by different initial states outside and inside of the rolling circle, respectively. The axis trajectory of the rolling circle, parallel to the adiabatic path, is shown to be an example of transitionless driving. The non-adiabatic resonance is visualized by the number of cycloid arcs. PMID:26916031
Techniques For Mass Production Of Tunneling Electrodes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kenny, Thomas W.; Podosek, Judith A.; Reynolds, Joseph K.; Rockstad, Howard K.; Vote, Erika C.; Kaiser, William J.
1993-01-01
Techniques for mass production of tunneling electrodes developed from silicon-micromachining, lithographic patterning, and related microfabrication processes. Tunneling electrodes named because electrons travel between them by quantum-mechanical tunneling; tunneling electrodes integral parts of tunneling transducer/sensors, which act in conjunction with feedback circuitry to stabilize tunneling currents by maintaining electrode separations of order of 10 Angstrom. Essential parts of scanning tunneling microscopes and related instruments, and used as force and position transducers in novel microscopic accelerometers and infrared detectors.
Enhanced diffusion weighting generated by selective adiabatic pulse trains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Ziqi; Bartha, Robert
2007-09-01
A theoretical description and experimental validation of the enhanced diffusion weighting generated by selective adiabatic full passage (AFP) pulse trains is provided. Six phantoms (Ph-1-Ph-6) were studied on a 4 T Varian/Siemens whole body MRI system. Phantoms consisted of 2.8 cm diameter plastic tubes containing a mixture of 10 μm ORGASOL polymer beads and 2 mM Gd-DTPA dissolved in 5% agar (Ph-1) or nickel(II) ammonium sulphate hexahydrate doped (56.3-0.8 mM) water solutions (Ph-2-Ph-6). A customized localization by adiabatic selective refocusing (LASER) sequence containing slice selective AFP pulse trains and pulsed diffusion gradients applied in the phase encoding direction was used to measure 1H 2O diffusion. The b-value associated with the LASER sequence was derived using the Bloch-Torrey equation. The apparent diffusion coefficients measured by LASER were comparable to those measured by a conventional pulsed gradient spin-echo (PGSE) sequence for all phantoms. Image signal intensity increased in Ph-1 and decreased in Ph-2-Ph-6 as AFP pulse train length increased while maintaining a constant echo-time. These experimental results suggest that such AFP pulse trains can enhance contrast between regions containing microscopic magnetic susceptibility variations and homogeneous regions in which dynamic dephasing relaxation mechanisms are dominant.
Robust quantum logic in neutral atoms via adiabatic Rydberg dressing
Keating, Tyler; Cook, Robert L.; Hankin, Aaron M.; Jau, Yuan -Yu; Biedermann, Grant W.; Deutsch, Ivan H.
2015-01-28
We study a scheme for implementing a controlled-Z (CZ) gate between two neutral-atom qubits based on the Rydberg blockade mechanism in a manner that is robust to errors caused by atomic motion. By employing adiabatic dressing of the ground electronic state, we can protect the gate from decoherence due to random phase errors that typically arise because of atomic thermal motion. In addition, the adiabatic protocol allows for a Doppler-free configuration that involves counterpropagating lasers in a σ+/σ- orthogonal polarization geometry that further reduces motional errors due to Doppler shifts. The residual motional error is dominated by dipole-dipole forces actingmore » on doubly-excited Rydberg atoms when the blockade is imperfect. As a result, for reasonable parameters, with qubits encoded into the clock states of 133Cs, we predict that our protocol could produce a CZ gate in < 10 μs with error probability on the order of 10-3.« less
AB INITIO SIMULATIONS FOR MATERIAL PROPERTIES ALONG THE JUPITER ADIABAT
French, Martin; Becker, Andreas; Lorenzen, Winfried; Nettelmann, Nadine; Bethkenhagen, Mandy; Redmer, Ronald; Wicht, Johannes
2012-09-15
We determine basic thermodynamic and transport properties of hydrogen-helium-water mixtures for the extreme conditions along Jupiter's adiabat via ab initio simulations, which are compiled in an accurate and consistent data set. In particular, we calculate the electrical and thermal conductivity, the shear and longitudinal viscosity, and diffusion coefficients of the nuclei. We present results for associated quantities like the magnetic and thermal diffusivity and the kinematic shear viscosity along an adiabat that is taken from a state-of-the-art interior structure model. Furthermore, the heat capacities, the thermal expansion coefficient, the isothermal compressibility, the Grueneisen parameter, and the speed of sound are calculated. We find that the onset of dissociation and ionization of hydrogen at about 0.9 Jupiter radii marks a region where the material properties change drastically. In the deep interior, where the electrons are degenerate, many of the material properties remain relatively constant. Our ab initio data will serve as a robust foundation for applications that require accurate knowledge of the material properties in Jupiter's interior, e.g., models for the dynamo generation.
The 0.1K bolometers cooled by adiabatic demagnetization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roellig, T.; Lesyna, L.; Kittel, P.; Werner, M.
1983-01-01
The most straightforward way of reducing the noise equivalent power of bolometers is to lower their operating temperature. We have been exploring the possibility of using conventionally constructed bolometers at ultra-low temperatures to achieve NEP's suitable to the background environment of cooled space telescopes. We have chosen the technique of adiabatic demagnetization of a paramagnetic salt as a gravity independent, compact, and low power way to achieve temperatures below pumped He-3 (0.3 K). The demagnetization cryostat we used was capable of reaching temperatures below 0.08 K using Chromium Potassium Alum as a salt from a starting temperature of 1.5 K and a starting magnetic field of 30,000 gauss. Computer control of the magnetic field decay allowed a temperature of 0.2 K to be maintained to within 0.5 mK over a time period exceeding 14 hours. The refrigerator duty cycle was over 90 percent at this temperature. The success of these tests has motivated us to construct a more compact portable adiabatic demagnetization cryostat capable of bolometer optical tests and use at the 5m Hale telescope at 1mm wavelengths.
Sliding Seal Materials for Adiabatic Engines, Phase 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lankford, J.; Wei, W.
1986-01-01
An essential task in the development of the heavy-duty adiabatic diesel engine is identification and improvements of reliable, low-friction piston seal materials. In the present study, the sliding friction coefficients and wear rates of promising carbide, oxide, and nitride materials were measured under temperature, environmental, velocity, and loading conditions that are representative of the adiabatic engine environment. In addition, silicon nitride and partially stabilized zirconia disks were ion implanted with TiNi, Ni, Co, and Cr, and subsequently run against carbide pins, with the objective of producing reduced friction via solid lubrication at elevated temperature. In order to provide guidance needed to improve materials for this application, the program stressed fundamental understanding of the mechanisms involved in friction and wear. Electron microscopy was used to elucidate the micromechanisms of wear following wear testing, and Auger electron spectroscopy was used to evaluate interface/environment interactions which seemed to be important in the friction and wear process. Unmodified ceramic sliding couples were characterized at all temperatures by friction coefficients of 0.24 and above. The coefficient at 800 C in an oxidizing environment was reduced to below 0.1, for certain material combinations, by the ion implanation of TiNi or Co. This beneficial effect was found to derive from lubricious Ti, Ni, and Co oxides.
Turbulent Density Variations in Non-Adiabatic Interstellar Fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Higdon, J. C.; Conley, Alex
1998-05-01
Analyses of radio scintillation measurements have demonstrated (e.g., Rickett, ARAA, 28, 561, 1990) the existence of ubiquitous turbulent density fluctuations in the interstellar medium. Higdon (ApJ, 309, 342, 1986) and Goldreich and Sridhar (ApJ, 438, 763 1995) have modeled successfully these density variations as entropy structures distorted by convection in anisotropic magnetohydrodynamic turbulent flows. However, the interstellar medium is a heterogeneous non-adiabatic fluid whose thermal properties result ( Field, ApJ, 142, 531 1965) from a balance of heating and cooling rates. The effect of the non-adiabatic nature of interstellar fluids on the properties of turbulent cascades to small scales has not been considered previously. We find that in thermally stable fluids that the required balance of heating and cooling decreases the amplitudes of entropy structures independently of their spatial scale. Consequently, we show that if the time scale for turbulent flows to cascade to small scales is significantly greater than the cooling time of an interstellar fluid, the generation of turbulent denisty density variations at large wave numbers is greatly suppressed. Such results constrain possible values for the turbulent outer scale in models of interstellar turbulent flows.
Robust quantum logic in neutral atoms via adiabatic Rydberg dressing
Keating, Tyler; Cook, Robert L.; Hankin, Aaron M.; Jau, Yuan -Yu; Biedermann, Grant W.; Deutsch, Ivan H.
2015-01-28
We study a scheme for implementing a controlled-Z (CZ) gate between two neutral-atom qubits based on the Rydberg blockade mechanism in a manner that is robust to errors caused by atomic motion. By employing adiabatic dressing of the ground electronic state, we can protect the gate from decoherence due to random phase errors that typically arise because of atomic thermal motion. In addition, the adiabatic protocol allows for a Doppler-free configuration that involves counterpropagating lasers in a σ_{+}/σ_{-} orthogonal polarization geometry that further reduces motional errors due to Doppler shifts. The residual motional error is dominated by dipole-dipole forces acting on doubly-excited Rydberg atoms when the blockade is imperfect. As a result, for reasonable parameters, with qubits encoded into the clock states of ^{133}Cs, we predict that our protocol could produce a CZ gate in < 10 μs with error probability on the order of 10^{-3}.
Adiabatic cooling of the artificial Porcupine plasma jet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruizhin, Iu. Ia.; Treumann, R. A.; Bauer, O. H.; Moskalenko, A. M.
1987-01-01
Measurements of the plasma density obtained during the interaction of the artificial plasma jet, fired into the ionosphere with the body of the Porcupine main payload, have been analyzed for times when there was a well-developed wake effect. Using wake theory, the maximum temperature of the quasi-neutral xenon ion beam has been determined for an intermediate distance from the ion beam source when the beam has left the diamagnetic region but is still much denser than the ionospheric background plasma. The beam temperature is found to be about 4 times less than the temperature at injection. This observation is very well explained by adiabatic cooling of the beam during its initial diamagnetic and current-buildup phases at distances r smaller than 10 m. Outside this region, the beam conserves the temperature achieved. The observation proves that the artificial plasma jet passes through an initial gas-like diamagnetic phase restricted to the vicinity of the beam source, where it expands adiabatically. Partial cooling also takes place outside the diamagnetic region where the beam current still builds up. The observations also support a recently developed current-closure model of the quasi-neutral ion beam.
Temperature dependence of electronic eigenenergies in the adiabatic harmonic approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poncé, S.; Antonius, G.; Gillet, Y.; Boulanger, P.; Laflamme Janssen, J.; Marini, A.; Côté, M.; Gonze, X.
2014-12-01
The renormalization of electronic eigenenergies due to electron-phonon interactions (temperature dependence and zero-point motion effect) is important in many materials. We address it in the adiabatic harmonic approximation, based on first principles (e.g., density-functional theory), from different points of view: directly from atomic position fluctuations or, alternatively, from Janak's theorem generalized to the case where the Helmholtz free energy, including the vibrational entropy, is used. We prove their equivalence, based on the usual form of Janak's theorem and on the dynamical equation. We then also place the Allen-Heine-Cardona (AHC) theory of the renormalization in a first-principles context. The AHC theory relies on the rigid-ion approximation, and naturally leads to a self-energy (Fan) contribution and a Debye-Waller contribution. Such a splitting can also be done for the complete harmonic adiabatic expression, in which the rigid-ion approximation is not required. A numerical study within the density-functional perturbation theory framework allows us to compare the AHC theory with frozen-phonon calculations, with or without the rigid-ion approximation. For the two different numerical approaches without non-rigid-ion terms, the agreement is better than 7 μ eV in the case of diamond, which represent an agreement to five significant digits. The magnitude of the non-rigid-ion terms in this case is also presented, distinguishing specific phonon modes contributions to different electronic eigenenergies.
FRW-type cosmologies with adiabatic matter creation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lima, J. A. S.; Germano, A. S. M.; Abramo, L. R. W.
1996-04-01
Some properties of cosmological models with matter creation are investigated in the framework of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker line element. For adiabatic matter creation, as developed by Prigogine and co-workers, we derive a simple expression relating the particle number density n and energy density ρ which holds regardless of the matter creation rate. The conditions to generate inflation are discussed and by considering the natural phenomenological matter creation rate ψ=3βnH, where β is a pure number of the order of unity and H is the Hubble parameter, a minimally modified hot big-bang model is proposed. The dynamic properties of such models can be deduced from the standard ones simply by replacing the adiabatic index γ of the equation of state by an effective parameter γ*=γ(1-β). The thermodynamic behavior is determined and it is also shown that ages large enough to agree with observations are obtained even given the high values of H suggested by recent measurements.
Adiabatic Processes Realized with a Trapped Brownian Particle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martínez, Ignacio A.; Roldán, Édgar; Dinis, Luis; Petrov, Dmitri; Rica, Raúl A.
2015-03-01
The ability to implement adiabatic processes in the mesoscale is of key importance in the study of artificial or biological micro- and nanoengines. Microadiabatic processes have been elusive to experimental implementation due to the difficulty in isolating Brownian particles from their fluctuating environment. Here we report on the experimental realization of a microscopic quasistatic adiabatic process employing a trapped Brownian particle. We circumvent the complete isolation of the Brownian particle by designing a protocol where both characteristic volume and temperature of the system are changed in such a way that the entropy of the system is conserved along the process. We compare the protocols that follow from either the overdamped or underdamped descriptions, demonstrating that the latter is mandatory in order to obtain a vanishing average heat flux to the particle. We provide analytical expressions for the distributions of the fluctuating heat and entropy and verify them experimentally. Our protocols could serve to implement the first microscopic engine that is able to attain the fundamental limit for the efficiency set by Carnot.
Conditions for super-adiabatic droplet growth after entrainment mixing
Yang, Fan; Shaw, Raymond; Xue, Huiwen
2016-07-29
Cloud droplet response to entrainment and mixing between a cloud and its environment is considered, accounting for subsequent droplet growth during adiabatic ascent following a mixing event. The vertical profile for liquid water mixing ratio after a mixing event is derived analytically, allowing the reduction to be predicted from the mixing fraction and from the temperature and humidity for both the cloud and environment. It is derived for the limit of homogeneous mixing. The expression leads to a critical height above the mixing level: at the critical height the cloud droplet radius is the same for both mixed and unmixedmore » parcels, and the critical height is independent of the updraft velocity and mixing fraction. Cloud droplets in a mixed parcel are larger than in an unmixed parcel above the critical height, which we refer to as the “super-adiabatic” growth region. Analytical results are confirmed with a bin microphysics cloud model. Using the model, we explore the effects of updraft velocity, aerosol source in the environmental air, and polydisperse cloud droplets. Results show that the mixed parcel is more likely to reach the super-adiabatic growth region when the environmental air is humid and clean. It is also confirmed that the analytical predictions are matched by the volume-mean cloud droplet radius for polydisperse size distributions. The findings have implications for the origin of large cloud droplets that may contribute to onset of collision–coalescence in warm clouds.« less
High Energy Signatures of POST Adiabatic Supernova Remnants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Telezhinsky, Igor; Hnatyk, Bohdan
Between the well-known adiabatic and radiative stages of the Supernova remnant (SNR) evolution there is, in fact, a transition stage with a duration comparable to the duration of adiabatic one. Physical existence of the transition stage is motivated by cooling of some part of the downstream hot gas with formation of a thin cold shell that is joined to a shell of swept up interstellar medium (ISM). We give an approximate analytical method for full hydrodynamical description of the transition stage. On its base we investigate the evolution of X-ray and γ-ray radiation during this stage. It is shown that formation of a dense shell during the transition stage is accompanied by the decrease of X-ray luminosity because of hot gas cooling and increase of gamma-ray flux according to the increase of target proton density and CR energy in the newly born shell. The role of nonuniformity of ISM and its influence on the high energy fluxes from the SNRs is also discussed.
Breakdown of adiabatic electron behavior in expanding magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lichko, Emily; Egedal, Jan; Daughton, William
2015-11-01
During magnetic reconnection the incoming magnetic flux tubes expand in the inflow region. If this expansion is sufficiently slow the results are well described by a previously developed adiabatic model. Using kinetic simulations in a simple geometry and applying rapid magnetic perturbations, this study investigates the point at which the adiabatic assumption fails. To this end a 2D VPIC simulation was constructed, where the magnetic field in a uniform plasma is perturbed by externally driven currents. By varying the onset speed of the magnetic perturbation and the electron thermal speed, we found a sharp threshold at which this model breaks down. We believe that this point is determined by the time of the magnetic pumping compared to the electron transit time through the region, i.e. ω ~ Ḃ / B ~vthe / L . This threshold was also characterized by the launching of Whistler waves and with time domain structures, such as electron holes and double layers, which agree with those seen during magnetic reconnection and may relate to similar structures in the Van Allen Belts. NSF GEM award 1405166 and NASA grant NNX14AC68G.
Schedule path optimization for adiabatic quantum computing and optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeng, Lishan; Zhang, Jun; Sarovar, Mohan
2016-04-01
Adiabatic quantum computing and optimization have garnered much attention recently as possible models for achieving a quantum advantage over classical approaches to optimization and other special purpose computations. Both techniques are probabilistic in nature and the minimum gap between the ground state and first excited state of the system during evolution is a major factor in determining the success probability. In this work we investigate a strategy for increasing the minimum gap and success probability by introducing intermediate Hamiltonians that modify the evolution path between initial and final Hamiltonians. We focus on an optimization problem relevant to recent hardware implementations and present numerical evidence for the existence of a purely local intermediate Hamiltonian that achieve the optimum performance in terms of pushing the minimum gap to one of the end points of the evolution. As a part of this study we develop a convex optimization formulation of the search for optimal adiabatic schedules that makes this computation more tractable, and which may be of independent interest. We further study the effectiveness of random intermediate Hamiltonians on the minimum gap and success probability, and empirically find that random Hamiltonians have a significant probability of increasing the success probability, but only by a modest amount.
Possibility of hyperbolic tunneling
Lobo, Francisco S. N.; Mimoso, Jose P.
2010-08-15
Traversable wormholes are primarily useful as 'gedanken experiments' and as a theoretician's probe of the foundations of general relativity. In this work, we analyze the possibility of having tunnels in a hyperbolic spacetime. We obtain exact solutions of static and pseudo-spherically symmetric spacetime tunnels by adding exotic matter to a vacuum solution referred to as a degenerate solution of class A. The physical properties and characteristics of these intriguing solutions are explored, and through the mathematics of embedding it is shown that particular constraints are placed on the shape function, that differ significantly from the Morris-Thorne wormhole. In particular, it is shown that the energy density is always negative, and the radial pressure is positive, at the throat, contrary to the Morris-Thorne counterpart. Specific solutions are also presented by considering several equations of state, and by imposing restricted choices for the shape function or the redshift function.
Uncooled tunneling infrared sensor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kenny, Thomas W. (Inventor); Kaiser, William J. (Inventor); Podosek, Judith A. (Inventor); Vote, Erika C. (Inventor); Rockstad, Howard K. (Inventor); Reynolds, Joseph K. (Inventor)
1994-01-01
An uncooled infrared tunneling sensor in which the only moving part is a diaphragm which is deflected into contact with a micromachined silicon tip electrode prepared by a novel lithographic process. Similarly prepared deflection electrodes employ electrostatic force to control the deflection of a silicon nitride, flat diaphragm membrane. The diaphragm exhibits a high resonant frequency which reduces the sensor's sensitivity to vibration. A high bandwidth feedback circuit controls the tunneling current by adjusting the deflection voltage to maintain a constant deflection of the membrane which would otherwise change deflection depending upon incident infrared radiation. The resulting infrared sensor will meet or exceed the performance of all other broadband, uncooled, infrared sensors and can be miniaturized to pixel dimensions smaller than 100 .mu.m. The technology is readily implemented as a small-format linear array suitable for commercial and spacecraft applications.
Tunnel magnetoresistance of diamondoids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsuura, Yukihito
2016-10-01
Tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) of diamondoids has been predicted by first principles density functional theory. Diamantane was used as a basic molecular proxy for diamondoids because hydrogen atoms in the apical position are easily substituted for a thiol group. The pristine diamantane exhibited a low TMR ratio of 7%, and boron-substitution considerably decreased the TMR ratio. Conversely, nitrogen-substitution enhanced the TMR ratio by up to 20%. Heteroatom-substitution changes the tunneling probabilities by varying the molecular bond lengths. Furthermore, when the spins of the electrodes are parallel, the heteroatoms resulted in transmittance probabilities at an energy range near the Fermi level. Consequently, heteroatom-substitution can control the TMR ratios of diamondoids very well.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vanzo, L.
2011-07-01
The tunneling method for stationary black holes in the Hamilton-Jacobi variant is reconsidered in the light of some critiques that have been moved against. It is shown that once the tunneling trajectories have been correctly identified the method is free from internal inconsistencies, it is manifestly covariant, it allows for the extension to spinning particles and it can even be used without solving the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. These conclusions borrow support on a simple analytic continuation of the classical action of a pointlike particle, made possible by the unique assumption that it should be analytic in the complexified Schwarzschild or Kerr-Newman space-time. A more general version of the Parikh-Wilczek method will also be proposed along these lines.
Unitary Plan Supersonic Tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1953-01-01
Unitary Plan Supersonic Tunnel: In this aerial photograph of construction in the early 1950s, the return air passages are shown in the rear, center. This area was later covered with walls and a roof so that upon completion of the facility, it was not visible from the exterior. Three air storage spheres and the cooling tower are at the extreme right of the building. The spheres store dry air at 150 pounds per square inch. The cooling tower dissipates heat from coolers that control the test air temperature. One of many research facilities at NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel is used for experimental investigations at supersonic speeds.
Decoherence spectroscopy with individual two-level tunneling defects.
Lisenfeld, Jürgen; Bilmes, Alexander; Matityahu, Shlomi; Zanker, Sebastian; Marthaler, Michael; Schechter, Moshe; Schön, Gerd; Shnirman, Alexander; Weiss, Georg; Ustinov, Alexey V
2016-01-01
Recent progress with microfabricated quantum devices has revealed that an ubiquitous source of noise originates in tunneling material defects that give rise to a sparse bath of parasitic two-level systems (TLSs). For superconducting qubits, TLSs residing on electrode surfaces and in tunnel junctions account for a major part of decoherence and thus pose a serious roadblock to the realization of solid-state quantum processors. Here, we utilize a superconducting qubit to explore the quantum state evolution of coherently operated TLSs in order to shed new light on their individual properties and environmental interactions. We identify a frequency-dependence of TLS energy relaxation rates that can be explained by a coupling to phononic modes rather than by anticipated mutual TLS interactions. Most investigated TLSs are found to be free of pure dephasing at their energy degeneracy points, around which their Ramsey and spin-echo dephasing rates scale linearly and quadratically with asymmetry energy, respectively. We provide an explanation based on the standard tunneling model, and identify interaction with incoherent low-frequency (thermal) TLSs as the major mechanism of the pure dephasing in coherent high-frequency TLS. PMID:27030167
Decoherence spectroscopy with individual two-level tunneling defects
Lisenfeld, Jürgen; Bilmes, Alexander; Matityahu, Shlomi; Zanker, Sebastian; Marthaler, Michael; Schechter, Moshe; Schön, Gerd; Shnirman, Alexander; Weiss, Georg; Ustinov, Alexey V.
2016-01-01
Recent progress with microfabricated quantum devices has revealed that an ubiquitous source of noise originates in tunneling material defects that give rise to a sparse bath of parasitic two-level systems (TLSs). For superconducting qubits, TLSs residing on electrode surfaces and in tunnel junctions account for a major part of decoherence and thus pose a serious roadblock to the realization of solid-state quantum processors. Here, we utilize a superconducting qubit to explore the quantum state evolution of coherently operated TLSs in order to shed new light on their individual properties and environmental interactions. We identify a frequency-dependence of TLS energy relaxation rates that can be explained by a coupling to phononic modes rather than by anticipated mutual TLS interactions. Most investigated TLSs are found to be free of pure dephasing at their energy degeneracy points, around which their Ramsey and spin-echo dephasing rates scale linearly and quadratically with asymmetry energy, respectively. We provide an explanation based on the standard tunneling model, and identify interaction with incoherent low-frequency (thermal) TLSs as the major mechanism of the pure dephasing in coherent high-frequency TLS. PMID:27030167
SAR image effects on coherence and coherence estimation.
Bickel, Douglas Lloyd
2014-01-01
Radar coherence is an important concept for imaging radar systems such as synthetic aperture radar (SAR). This document quantifies some of the effects in SAR which modify the coherence. Although these effects can disrupt the coherence within a single SAR image, this report will focus on the coherence between separate images, such as for coherent change detection (CCD) processing. There have been other presentations on aspects of this material in the past. The intent of this report is to bring various issues that affect the coherence together in a single report to support radar engineers in making decisions about these matters.
Optical coherency matrix tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kagalwala, Kumel H.; Kondakci, H. Esat; Abouraddy, Ayman F.; Saleh, Bahaa E. A.
2015-10-01
The coherence of an optical beam having multiple degrees of freedom (DoFs) is described by a coherency matrix G spanning these DoFs. This optical coherency matrix has not been measured in its entirety to date—even in the simplest case of two binary DoFs where G is a 4 × 4 matrix. We establish a methodical yet versatile approach—optical coherency matrix tomography—for reconstructing G that exploits the analogy between this problem in classical optics and that of tomographically reconstructing the density matrix associated with multipartite quantum states in quantum information science. Here G is reconstructed from a minimal set of linearly independent measurements, each a cascade of projective measurements for each DoF. We report the first experimental measurements of the 4 × 4 coherency matrix G associated with an electromagnetic beam in which polarization and a spatial DoF are relevant, ranging from the traditional two-point Young’s double slit to spatial parity and orbital angular momentum modes.
Optical coherency matrix tomography
Kagalwala, Kumel H.; Kondakci, H. Esat; Abouraddy, Ayman F.; Saleh, Bahaa E. A.
2015-01-01
The coherence of an optical beam having multiple degrees of freedom (DoFs) is described by a coherency matrix G spanning these DoFs. This optical coherency matrix has not been measured in its entirety to date—even in the simplest case of two binary DoFs where G is a 4 × 4 matrix. We establish a methodical yet versatile approach—optical coherency matrix tomography—for reconstructing G that exploits the analogy between this problem in classical optics and that of tomographically reconstructing the density matrix associated with multipartite quantum states in quantum information science. Here G is reconstructed from a minimal set of linearly independent measurements, each a cascade of projective measurements for each DoF. We report the first experimental measurements of the 4 × 4 coherency matrix G associated with an electromagnetic beam in which polarization and a spatial DoF are relevant, ranging from the traditional two-point Young’s double slit to spatial parity and orbital angular momentum modes. PMID:26478452
Nussenzveig, H Moyses
2003-03-20
Solar radiation, traveling outside cloud water droplets, excites sharp resonances and surface waves by tunneling into the droplets. This effect contributes substantially to the total absorption (typically, of the order of 20%) and yields the major contribution to backscattering, producing the meteorological glory. Usual computational practices in atmospheric science misrepresent resonance contributions and cannot be relied on in the assessment of possible anomalies in cloud absorption.
Anterior cruciate ligament tunnel placement.
Wolf, Brian R; Ramme, Austin J; Britton, Carla L; Amendola, Annunziato
2014-08-01
The purpose of this cadaveric study was to analyze variation in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tunnel placement between surgeons and the influence of preferred surgical technique and surgeon experience level using three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT). In this study, 12 surgeons drilled ACL tunnels on six cadaveric knees each. Surgeons were divided by experience level and preferred surgical technique (two-incision [TI], medial portal [MP], and transtibial [TT]). ACL tunnel aperture locations were analyzed using 3D CT scans and compared with radiographic ACL footprint criteria. The femoral tunnel location from front to back within the notch demonstrated a range of means of 16% with the TI tunnels the furthest back. A range of means of only 5% was found for femoral tunnel low to high positions by technique. The anterior to posterior tibial tunnel measure demonstrated wider variation than the medial to lateral position. The mean tibial tunnel location drilled by TT surgeons was more posterior than surgeons using the other techniques. Overall, 82% of femoral tunnels and 78% of tibial tunnels met all radiographic measurement criteria. Slight (1-7%) differences in mean tunnel placement on the femur and tibia were found between experienced and new surgeons. The location of the femoral tunnel aperture in the front to back plane relative to the notch roof and the anterior to posterior position on the tibia were the most variable measures. Surgeon experience level did not appear to significantly affect tunnel location. This study provides background information that may be beneficial when evaluating multisurgeon and multicenter collaborative ACL studies.
Evaluating tunnel kiln performance
O`Connor, K.R.; Carty, W.M.; Ninos, N.J.
1997-08-01
Process improvements in the production of whitewares provide the potential for substantial savings for manufacturers. A typical whiteware manufacturer incurs an annual defective product loss of {approximately}$20 million when accounting for raw materials, energy, labor and waste disposal. Reduction in defective product loss of 1% could result in a savings in excess of $1 million annually. This study was designed to establish benchmarks for two conventional tunnel kilns used to bisque-fire dinnerware at Buffalo China Inc. (Buffalo, NY). The benchmark was established by assessing the current conditions and variability of the two tunnel kilns as a function of the fracture strength of sample bars that were made from production body. Sample bars were fired in multiple locations in both kilns to assess the conditions and variability of firing within each kiln. Comparison of strength results between the two kilns also was assessed. These comparisons were accomplished through applied statistical analysis, wherein significant statistical variations were identified and isolated for both tunnel kilns. The statistical methods and tools used in this analysis are readily accessible to manufacturers, thus allowing implementation of similar analysis, or benchmarking, in-house.
Ferroelectric tunnel memristor.
Kim, D J; Lu, H; Ryu, S; Bark, C-W; Eom, C-B; Tsymbal, E Y; Gruverman, A
2012-11-14
Strong interest in resistive switching phenomena is driven by a possibility to develop electronic devices with novel functional properties not available in conventional systems. Bistable resistive devices are characterized by two resistance states that can be switched by an external voltage. Recently, memristors-electric circuit elements with continuously tunable resistive behavior-have emerged as a new paradigm for nonvolatile memories and adaptive electronic circuit elements. Employment of memristors can radically enhance the computational power and energy efficiency of electronic systems. Most of the existing memristor prototypes involve transition metal oxide resistive layers where conductive filaments formation and/or the interface contact resistance control the memristive behavior. In this paper, we demonstrate a new type of memristor that is based on a ferroelectric tunnel junction, where the tunneling conductance can be tuned in an analogous manner by several orders of magnitude by both the amplitude and the duration of the applied voltage. The ferroelectric tunnel memristors exhibit a reversible hysteretic nonvolatile resistive switching with a resistance ratio of up to 10(5) % at room temperature. The observed memristive behavior is attributed to the field-induced charge redistribution at the ferroelectric/electrode interface, resulting in the modulation of the interface barrier height. PMID:23039785
Ferroelectric tunnel memristor.
Kim, D J; Lu, H; Ryu, S; Bark, C-W; Eom, C-B; Tsymbal, E Y; Gruverman, A
2012-11-14
Strong interest in resistive switching phenomena is driven by a possibility to develop electronic devices with novel functional properties not available in conventional systems. Bistable resistive devices are characterized by two resistance states that can be switched by an external voltage. Recently, memristors-electric circuit elements with continuously tunable resistive behavior-have emerged as a new paradigm for nonvolatile memories and adaptive electronic circuit elements. Employment of memristors can radically enhance the computational power and energy efficiency of electronic systems. Most of the existing memristor prototypes involve transition metal oxide resistive layers where conductive filaments formation and/or the interface contact resistance control the memristive behavior. In this paper, we demonstrate a new type of memristor that is based on a ferroelectric tunnel junction, where the tunneling conductance can be tuned in an analogous manner by several orders of magnitude by both the amplitude and the duration of the applied voltage. The ferroelectric tunnel memristors exhibit a reversible hysteretic nonvolatile resistive switching with a resistance ratio of up to 10(5) % at room temperature. The observed memristive behavior is attributed to the field-induced charge redistribution at the ferroelectric/electrode interface, resulting in the modulation of the interface barrier height.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, W. Q.; Yue, Z. Q.; Tham, L. G.; Zhu, H. H.; Lee, C. F.; Hashimoto, T.
2004-01-01
This paper proposes a two-dimensional finite element model for the analysis of shield tunnels by taking into account the construction process which is divided into four stages. The soil is assumed to behave as an elasto-plastic medium whereas the shield is simulated by beam-joint discontinuous model in which curved beam elements and joint elements are used to model the segments and joints, respectively. As grout is usually injected to fill the gap between the lining and the soil, the property parameters of the grout are chosen in such a way that they can reflect the state of the grout at each stage. Furthermore, the contact condition between the soil and lining will change with the construction stage, and therefore, different stress-releasing coefficients are used to account for the changes. To assess the accuracy that can be attained by the method in solving practical problems, the shield tunnelling in the No. 7 Subway Line Project in Osaka, Japan, is used as a case history for our study. The numerical results are compared with those measured in the field. The results presented in the paper show that the proposed numerical procedure can be used to effectively estimate the deformation, stresses and moments experienced by the surrounding soils and the concrete lining segments. The analysis and method presented in this paper can be considered to be useful for other subway construction projects involving shield tunnelling in soft soils. Copyright
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ting, David Z.
2007-01-01
The resonant tunneling spin pump is a proposed semiconductor device that would generate spin-polarized electron currents. The resonant tunneling spin pump would be a purely electrical device in the sense that it would not contain any magnetic material and would not rely on an applied magnetic field. Also, unlike prior sources of spin-polarized electron currents, the proposed device would not depend on a source of circularly polarized light. The proposed semiconductor electron-spin filters would exploit the Rashba effect, which can induce energy splitting in what would otherwise be degenerate quantum states, caused by a spin-orbit interaction in conjunction with a structural-inversion asymmetry in the presence of interfacial electric fields in a semiconductor heterostructure. The magnitude of the energy split is proportional to the electron wave number. Theoretical studies have suggested the possibility of devices in which electron energy states would be split by the Rashba effect and spin-polarized currents would be extracted by resonant quantum-mechanical tunneling.
Tunnelling from black holes and tunnelling into white holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chatterjee, Bhramar; Ghosh, A.; Mitra, P.
2008-03-01
Hawking radiation is nowadays being understood as tunnelling through black hole horizons. Here, the extension of the Hamilton-Jacobi approach to tunnelling for non-rotating and rotating black holes in different non-singular coordinate systems not only confirms this quantum emission from black holes but also reveals the new phenomenon of absorption into white holes by quantum mechanical tunnelling. The rôle of a boundary condition of total absorption or emission is also clarified.
Computing tunneling paths with the Hamilton-Jacobi equation and the fast marching method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dey, Bijoy K.; Ayers, Paul W.
We present a new method for computing the most probable tunneling paths based on the minimum imaginary action principle. Unlike many conventional methods, the paths are calculated without resorting to an optimization (minimization) scheme. Instead, a fast marching method coupled with a back-propagation scheme is used to efficiently compute the tunneling paths. The fast marching method solves a Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the imaginary action on a discrete grid where the action value at an initial point (usually the reactant state configuration) is known in the beginning. Subsequently, a back-propagation scheme uses a steepest descent method on the imaginary action surface to compute a path connecting an arbitrary point on the potential energy surface (usually a state in the product valley) to the initial state. The proposed method is demonstrated for the tunneling paths of two different systems: a model 2D potential surface and the collinear reaction. Unlike existing methods, where the tunneling path is based on a presumed reaction coordinate and a correction is made with respect to the reaction coordinate within an 'adiabatic' approximation, the proposed method is very general and makes no assumptions about the relationship between the reaction coordinate and tunneling path.
Dynamic coherent backscattering mirror
Xu, M.
2016-01-01
The phase of multiply scattered light has recently attracted considerable interest. Coherent backscattering is a striking phenomenon of multiple scattered light in which the coherence of light survives multiple scattering in a random medium and is observable in the direction space as an enhancement of the intensity of backscattered light within a cone around the retroreflection direction. Reciprocity also leads to enhancement of backscattering light in the spatial space. The random medium behaves as a reciprocity mirror which robustly converts a diverging incident beam into a converging backscattering one focusing at a conjugate spot in space. Here we first analyze theoretically this coherent backscattering mirror (CBM) phenomenon and then demonstrate the capability of CBM compensating and correcting both static and dynamic phase distortions occurring along the optical path. CBM may offer novel approaches for high speed dynamic phase corrections in optical systems and find applications in sensing and navigation. PMID:26937296
Submucosal tunneling techniques: current perspectives
Kobara, Hideki; Mori, Hirohito; Rafiq, Kazi; Fujihara, Shintaro; Nishiyama, Noriko; Ayaki, Maki; Yachida, Tatsuo; Matsunaga, Tae; Tani, Johji; Miyoshi, Hisaaki; Yoneyama, Hirohito; Morishita, Asahiro; Oryu, Makoto; Iwama, Hisakazu; Masaki, Tsutomu
2014-01-01
Advances in endoscopic submucosal dissection include a submucosal tunneling technique, involving the introduction of tunnels into the submucosa. These tunnels permit safer offset entry into the peritoneal cavity for natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery. Technical advantages include the visual identification of the layers of the gut, blood vessels, and subepithelial tumors. The creation of a mucosal flap that minimizes air and fluid leakage into the extraluminal cavity can enhance the safety and efficacy of surgery. This submucosal tunneling technique was adapted for esophageal myotomy, culminating in its application to patients with achalasia. This method, known as per oral endoscopic myotomy, has opened up the new discipline of submucosal endoscopic surgery. Other clinical applications of the submucosal tunneling technique include its use in the removal of gastrointestinal subepithelial tumors and endomicroscopy for the diagnosis of functional and motility disorders. This review suggests that the submucosal tunneling technique, involving a mucosal safety flap, can have potential values for future endoscopic developments. PMID:24741323
Coherent soliton communication lines
Yushko, O. V. Redyuk, A. A.; Fedoruk, M. P.; Turitsyn, S. K.
2014-11-15
The data transmission in coherent fiber-optical communication lines using solitons with a variable phase is studied. It is shown that nonlinear coherent structures (solitons) can be applied for effective signal transmission over a long distance using amplitude and optical-phase keying of information. The optimum ratio of the pulse width to the bit slot at which the spectral efficiency (transmitted bits per second and hertz) is maximal is determined. It is shown that soliton fiber-optical communication lines can ensure data transmission at a higher spectral efficiency as compared to traditional communication lines and at a high signal-to-noise ratio.
Coherent control of metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakrabarti, Sangeeta; Ramakrishna, S. Anantha; Wanare, Harshawardhan
2009-08-01
We theoretically demonstrate the possibility of dynamically controlling the response of metamaterials at optical frequencies using the well known phenomenon of coherent control. Our results predict a variety of effects ranging from dramatic reduction of losses associated with the resonant response of metamaterials to switchable ultraslow to superluminal propagation of pulses governed by the magnetic field of the incident wave. These effects, generic to all metamaterials having a resonant response, involve embedding the metamaterial in resonant dispersive coherent atomic/molecular media. These effects may be utilized for narrow band switching applications and detectors for radiation below predetermined cut-off frequencies.
Apparatus for generating partially coherent radiation
Naulleau, Patrick P.
2005-02-22
Techniques for generating partially coherent radiation and particularly for converting effectively coherent radiation from a synchrotron to partially coherent EUV radiation suitable for projection lithography.
Coherence Constraints and the Last Hidden Optical Coherence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qian, Xiao-Feng; Malhotra, Tanya; Vamivakas, A. Nick; Eberly, Joseph H.
2016-10-01
We have discovered a new domain of optical coherence, and show that it is the third and last member of a previously unreported fundamental triad of coherences. These are unified by our derivation of a parallel triad of coherence constraints that take the form of complementarity relations. We have been able to enter this new coherence domain experimentally and we describe the novel tomographic approach devised for that purpose.
Real-time measurement of quasiparticle tunneling in a single-junction transmon qubit using feedback
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ristè, Diego; Bultink, Niels; Tiggelman, Marijn; Schouten, Raymond; Lehnert, Konrad; Dicarlo, Leonardo
2013-03-01
With coherence times of superconducting qubits now exceeding 100 μs , the contribution of quasiparticle (QP) tunneling to qubit relaxation and dephasing becomes potentially relevant. We report the real-time measurement of QP tunneling across the single junction of a 3D transmon qubit. We integrate recent developments in projective qubit readout with 99 % fidelity and feedback-based reset to transform the qubit into a charge-parity detector with 6 μs resolution. We detect a symmetric random telegraph signal matching a QP tunneling time of 0 . 8 ms . By measuring the correlation function of charge parity conditioned on specific initial and final qubit states, we determine that most QP tunneling does not induce qubit transitions, in contradiction with recent theory. We extract a QP-induced qubit relaxation time T1qp ~ 3 ms , decidedly not limiting the measured T1 = 0 . 14 ms . Research supported by NWO, FOM, and EU Project SOLID.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1980-01-01
Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) engineer holding a replica of the proposed Liquid Booster Module, observes the testing of a small Space Shuttle orbiter model at 14 Wind Tunnel at MSFC. 14 Wind Tunnel is a trisonic wind tunnel, which is capable of running subsonic, transonic, and supersonic. It is used to test the integrity of rockets and launch vehicles in launch and reentry environments. The Wind Tunnel was used to test rockets and launch vehicles from the Jupiter C through the Saturn family up to the current Space Shuttle and will be used to test future advanced launch vehicles.
On the adiabatic stability of solitons and the matching of conservation laws
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lochak, Pierre
1984-08-01
We derive a series of identities which generalize and simplify the results obtained for adiabatically modulated solitons in the case of perturbed specific integrable equations. It stresses the importance of the variational properties of the solitons, which make an adiabatic theorem plausible. A precise conjecture is made and its validity discussed from different points of view.