Verhamme, Katia M C; Nicolosi, Alfredo; Murray, Macey L; Neubert, Antje; Caudri, Daan; Picelli, Gino; Sen, Elif Fatma; Giaquinto, Carlo; Cantarutti, Luigi; Baiardi, Paola; Felisi, Maria-Grazia; Ceci, Adriana; Wong, Ian C K
Objective To provide an overview of drug use in children in three European countries. Design Retrospective cohort study, 2000-5. Setting Primary care research databases in the Netherlands (IPCI), United Kingdom (IMS-DA), and Italy (Pedianet). Participants 675 868 children aged up to 14 (Italy) or 18 (UK and Netherlands). Main outcome measure Prevalence of use per year calculated by drug class (anatomical and therapeutic). Prevalence of “recurrent/chronic” use (three or more prescriptions a year) and “non-recurrent” or “acute” use (less than three prescriptions a year) within each therapeutic class. Descriptions of the top five most commonly used drugs evaluated for off label status within each anatomical class. Results Three levels of drug use could be distinguished in the study population: high (>10/100 children per year), moderate (1-10/100 children per year), and low (<1/100 children per year). For all age categories, anti-infective, dermatological, and respiratory drugs were in the high use group, whereas cardiovascular and antineoplastic drugs were always in the low use group. Emollients, topical steroids, and asthma drugs had the highest prevalence of recurrent use, but relative use of low prevalence drugs was more often recurrent than acute. In the top five highest prevalence drugs topical inhaled and systemic steroids, oral contraceptives, and topical or systemic antifungal drugs were most commonly used off label. Conclusion This overview of outpatient paediatric prescription patterns in a large European population could provide information to prioritise paediatric therapeutic research needs. PMID:19029175
Grijalva, Carlos G; Griffin, Marie R; Edwards, Kathryn M; Williams, John V; Gil, Ana I; Verastegui, Héctor; Hartinger, Stella M; Vidal, Jorge E; Klugman, Keith P; Lanata, Claudio F
We investigated respiratory pathogens in a prospective cohort study of young children living in the Peruvian Andes. In the study we assessed viral respiratory infections among young children, and explored interactions of viruses with common respiratory bacteria, especially Streptococcus pneumoniae. Through weekly household visits, data were collected on the signs and symptoms of acute respiratory illness (ARI), nasal samples were collected to test for viruses during episodes of ARI, and nasopharyngeal samples were collected on a monthly basis to monitor bacterial colonisation. We also collected data on vaccination coverage, patterns of social mixing, geographic information, and environmental and socio-demographic variables. Understanding the interaction of respiratory viruses with bacteria and its impact on the burden and severity of ARIs in rural areas of developing countries is critical to designing strategies for preventing such infections. Investigators interested in more details about this study or in accessing these resources should contact Dr. Carlos G. Grijalva at Vanderbilt University (firstname.lastname@example.org). PMID:23771719
Sidebotham, Peter; Heron, Jon
Aim: To analyze the multiple factors affecting the risk of maltreatment in young children within a comprehensive theoretical framework. Methods: The research is based on a large UK cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Out of 14,256 children participating in the study, 293 were investigated by social services for…
Solberg, Øivind; Holmstrøm, Henrik; Landolt, Markus A.; Eskedal, Leif T.; Vollrath, Margarete E.
Objective To assess the level of partner relationship satisfaction among mothers of children with different severity of congenital heart defects (CHD) compared with mothers in the cohort. Methods Mothers of children with mild, moderate, or severe CHD (n = 182) and a cohort of mothers of children without CHD (n = 46,782) from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study were assessed at 5 time points from pregnancy to 36 months postpartum. A 5-item version of the Relationship Satisfaction scale was used, and relevant covariates were explored. Results The trajectories of relationship satisfaction among mothers of children with varying CHD severity did not differ from the trajectories in the cohort. All women in the cohort experienced decreasing relationship satisfaction from 18 months after delivery up to 36 months after delivery. Conclusions Having a child with CHD, regardless of severity, does not appear to exacerbate the decline in relationship satisfaction. PMID:23792348
Berger, John T.; Carcillo, Joseph A.; Shanley, Thomas P.; Wessel, David L.; Clark, Amy; Holubkov, Richard; Meert, Kathleen L.; Newth, Christopher J.L.; Berg, Robert A.; Heidemann, Sabrina; Harrison, Rick; Pollack, Murray; Dalton, Heidi; Harvill, Eric; Karanikas, Alexia; Liu, Teresa; Burr, Jeri S.; Doctor, Allan; Dean, J. Michael; Jenkins, Tammara L.; Nicholson, Carol E.
Objective Pertussis persists in the United States despite high immunization rates. The present report characterizes the presentation and acute course of critical pertussis by quantifying demographic data, laboratory findings, clinical complications, and critical care therapies required among children requiring admission to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Eight PICUs comprising the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute for Child Health and Human Development Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network and 17 additional PICUs across the United States. Patients Eligible patients had laboratory confirmation of pertussis infection, were < 18 years of age, and died in the PICU or were admitted to the PICU for at least 24 hours between June 2008 and August 2011. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results 127 patients were identified. Median age was 49 days, and 105 (83%) patients were < 3 months of age. Fifty-five (43%) required mechanical ventilation. Twelve (9.4%) died during initial hospitalization. Pulmonary hypertension was found in 16 patients (12.5%), and was present in 75% of patients who died, compared with 6% of survivors (p< 0.001). Median white blood cell count (WBC) was significantly higher in those requiring mechanical ventilation (p<0.001), those with pulmonary hypertension (p<0.001) and non-survivors (p<0.001). Age, sex and immunization status did not differ between survivors and non-survivors. Fourteen patients received leukoreduction therapy (exchange transfusion (12), leukopheresis (1) or both (1)). Survival benefit was not apparent. Conclusions Pulmonary hypertension may be associated with mortality in pertussis critical illness. Elevated WBC is associated with the need for mechanical ventilation, pulmonary hypertension, and mortality risk. Research is indicated to elucidate how pulmonary hypertension, immune responsiveness, and elevated WBC contribute to morbidity and mortality
Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Waldfogel, Jane
In this study, the authors used data from a large longitudinal birth cohort study of primarily low-income children in urban areas, the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS), to investigate the effects of Head Start participation on children's school readiness. The fact that their sample was mainly made up of disadvantaged families…
Russell, Ginny; Golding, Jean; Norwich, Brahm; Emond, Alan; Ford, Tamsin; Steer, Colin
Objective: To compare social and behavioural outcomes between children formally diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with those of children who displayed autistic traits at preschool age, but remained undiagnosed as teenagers. Method: A secondary analysis of data from a birth cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and…
Marcon, Rebecca A.
This study examined the possibility of a "threshold" of parent involvement with their children's preschools, that can lead to positive child outcomes in a sample of hard-to-engage families. Three cohorts of preschool children were studied, most from low-income, single-parent families. Teachers were interviewed to determine extent of contact they…
Lin, Jiun-Nong; Lin, Cheng-Li; Yang, Chi-Hui; Lin, Ming-Chia; Lai, Chung-Hsu; Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Kao, Chia-Hung
Purpose Nephrotic syndrome is a common chronic illness encountered during childhood. Infections have been identified as a cause of nephrotic syndrome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between enteroviral infection and nephrotic syndrome. Methods A nationwide retrospective cohort study was conducted by analyzing data from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. Children aged <18 years with enteroviral infection were enrolled. Non-enterovirus-infected children were randomly selected as the comparison cohort. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of nephrotic syndrome. Methods This study included 280,087 enterovirus-infected children and 280,085 non-enterovirus-infected children. The mean age of the enterovirus-infected children was 2.38 years, and 53.7% of these children were boys. The overall incidence densities of nephrotic syndrome for enterovirus- and non-enterovirus-infected children were 2.65 and 2.21 per 10,000 person-years, respectively. The enterovirus-infected cohort had a higher cumulative incidence of nephrotic syndrome than did the non-enterovirus-infected cohort (log-rank test, p = 0.01). Multivariable analyses revealed that children with enteroviral infection were significantly associated with an increased risk of nephrotic syndrome compared with those without enteroviral infection (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.04–1.39; p = 0.01), particularly in children infected with coxsackievirus. Subgroup analyses revealed that enterovirus-infected girls, children of blue-collar workers, and children without allergies had a higher risk of nephrotic syndrome than did children in the non-enterovirus-infected cohort. Conclusion This study revealed a significant association between enteroviral infection and nephrotic syndrome. Additional studies elucidating the role and pathogenesis of enterovirus in nephrotic syndrome are warranted. PMID:27508414
As a precursor to the National Children's Study (NCS), the North Carolina Cohort Study (NC Cohort Study) will provide the opportunity to field test procedures to better inform the implementation of the NCS. In order to test some of the study hypotheses, it will be important to ob...
Kishi, Reiko; Kobayashi, Sachiko; Ikeno, Tamiko; Araki, Atsuko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Itoh, Sachiko; Sasaki, Seiko; Okada, Emiko; Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Kashino, Ikuko; Itoh, Kumiko; Nakajima, Sonomi
The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health is an ongoing cohort study that began in 2002. The study consists of two prospective birth cohorts, the Sapporo cohort (n = 514) and the Hokkaido large-scale cohort (n = 20,940). The primary goals of this study are to first examine the potential negative effects of perinatal environmental chemical exposures on birth outcomes, including congenital malformations and growth retardation; second, to evaluate the development of allergies, infectious diseases and neurodevelopmental disorders and perform longitudinal observations of the children's physical development to clarify the causal relationship between these outcomes and environmental chemicals; third, to identify individuals genetically susceptible to environmental chemicals; finally, to identify the additive effects of various environmental factors in our daily life, such as secondhand smoke exposure or low folate intake during early pregnancy. In this paper, we introduce our recent progress in the Hokkaido study with a cohort profile updated in 2013. For the last ten years, we followed pregnant women and their offspring, measuring various environmental chemicals, i.e., PCB, OH-PCB and dioxins, PFCs (Perfluorinated Compounds), Organochlorine pesticides, Phthalates, bisphenol A and mercury. We discovered that the concentration of toxic equivalents (TEQ) of dioxin and other specific congeners of PCDF or PCDD have effects on birth weight, infants' neurodevelopment and immune function. There were significant gender differences in these effects; our results suggest that male infants have more susceptibility to those chemical exposures than female infants. Interestingly, we found maternal genetic polymorphisms in AHR, CYP1A1 or GSTs that significantly modified the dioxin concentrations in maternal blood, suggesting different dioxin accumulations in the bodies of individuals with these genotypes, which would lead to different dioxin exposure levels. These genetic
Chen, Yi-Chun; Chien, Yi-Wen; Chang, Pei-Jen; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Chen, Pau-Chung
Objectives The objective of this study is to provide details on probiotic supplement use among young children in Taiwan. Participants and Methods This study is based on the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study database. We used questionnaires to collect information on probiotic supplement use among young children from birth to 18 months of age, while also considering their demographic characteristics and other covariates. Low-birth-weight infants, preterm infants, those with birth defects, and those with caregivers who returned incomplete questionnaires were excluded. The final valid sample comprised 16,991 cases. Results Approximately half the children received probiotic supplements before the age of 18 months. Only 6.3% of the children received probiotic supplements during the two periods of birth to 6 months and 7 to 18 months. Firstborn children, native mothers, mothers with higher educational levels, higher family income, and parents who lead healthy lifestyles were positively related to probiotic supplement use among children. Young children who were breastfed, with eczema, or with gastrointestinal tract problems were significantly positively associated with probiotic supplement use. Conclusion The findings show that probiotic supplement usage among young children is associated with a more socially advantaged circumstance and certain child health factors, such as eczema, diarrhea, and constipation. Parents might use probiotic supplements for prevention or treatment of child diseases. The findings of this research could serve as a baseline for future studies, and provide insight into probiotic supplement use behavior for health professionals caring for infants and young children. PMID:22984450
Zilanawala, Afshin; Sacker, Amanda; Nazroo, James; Kelly, Yvonne
This paper investigates ethnic differences in children's socioemotional difficulties and possible explanations for any observed inequalities. We used data collected from the fourth sweep of the Millennium Cohort Study when children were aged 7 years. We found that Pakistani, Bangladeshi, and Black Caribbean children had significantly more socioemotional difficulties than White children. These differences were partially explained by the relative socioeconomic disadvantage of their families. After accounting for maternal and family environment factors, the differences for Pakistani children remained unexplained. In contrast, Black African children were the only ethnic minority group to have significantly fewer socioemotional difficulties. We investigated the role of four indicators of socioeconomic position in explaining these differences and found equivalised household income had the strongest influence on socioemotional difficulties, and that socioeconomic position associations with socioemotional difficulties were less apparent among Pakistani and Bangladeshi children. The association between adverse economic conditions and socioemotional difficulties was partially mediated by maternal psychological distress. In conclusion, unexplained ethnic differences in socioemotional difficulties were seen, with a disadvantage among Pakistani children and an advantage among Black African children. Our results point to the need to address economic deprivation among ethnic minority groups to reduce children's socioemotional difficulties. PMID:25931288
Sakurai, Kenichi; Miyaso, Hidenobu; Eguchi, Akifumi; Matsuno, Yoshiharu; Yamamoto, Midori; Todaka, Emiko; Fukuoka, Hideoki; Hata, Akira; Mori, Chisato
Purpose Recent epidemiological studies have shown that environmental factors during the fetal period to early childhood might affect the risk of non-communicable diseases in adulthood. This is referred to as the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) concept. The Chiba study of Mother and Children's Health (C-MACH) is a birth cohort study based on the DOHaD hypothesis and involves multiomics analysis. This study aims to explore the effects of genetic and environmental factors—particularly the fetal environment and postbirth living environment—on children's health, and to identify potential biomarkers for these effects. Participants The C-MACH consists of three hospital-based cohorts. The study participants are pregnant women at <13 weeks gestation. Women who underwent an examination in one of the three hospitals received an explanation of the study. The participants consented to completing questionnaire surveys and the collection and storage of biological and house/environmental samples. Participants were provided unique study numbers. All of the data and biological specimens will be stored in the Chiba University Center for Preventive Medical Sciences and Chiba University Center for Preventive Medical Sciences BioBank, respectively. Findings to date Consent to participate was obtained from 433 women. Of these women, 376 women completed questionnaires in the early gestational period. The mean age was 32.5 (4.4) years. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 21.1 (3.0) kg/m2. Before pregnancy, 72.3% of the women had a BMI of 18.5–24.9 kg/m2. During early pregnancy, 5.0% of the participants smoked. Future plans Primary outcomes are allergy, obesity, endocrine and metabolic disorders, and developmental disorders. Genome-level, metabolome-level, umbilical cord DNA methylation (epigenome), gut microbiota and environmental chemical exposure variables will be evaluated. We will analyse the relationships between the outcomes and analytical variables. PMID
Masood, Mohd; Yusof, Norashikin; Hassan, Mohamed I A; Jaafar, Nasaruddin
The aim of this 5-year longitudinal cohort study was to assess the prevalence, severity, and trends in caries increment and impact of the School Dental Incremental Care Programme (SDICP). Data were gathered from school dental records as part of the SDICP. A sample of 1830 children were included and checked for caries experience annually using World Health Organization criteria. In total, 95.4% of the children were caries free in 2004, and caries experience declined to 70.5% in 2009 with an average of 4.9% annually. At baseline, the mean DMFT (confidence interval [CI]) was 0.06 (0.05-0.08) and increased to 0.58 (0.53-0.63) in 2009. Children with active caries were 4.4% in 2004, and figures rose to 9.6% in 2009. The FT component increased most rapidly during these 5 years from 0.2% to 25.1%. Overall caries prevalence and increment was low in this study. Proportions of FT component were higher as compared with DT component with low rate of extractions during the latter years of the study. PMID:22218936
Ireland, Penelope J.; Donaghey, Samantha; McGill, James; Zankl, Andreas; Ware, Robert S.; Pacey, Verity; Ault, Jenny; Savarirayan, Ravi; Sillence, David; Thompson, Elizabeth; Townshend, Sharron; Johnston, Leanne M.
Aim: Achondroplasia is characterized by delays in the development of communication and motor skills. While previously reported developmental profiles exist across gross motor, fine motor, feeding, and communication skills, there has been no prospective study of development across multiple areas simultaneously. Method: This Australasian…
Flouri, Eirini; Tzavidis, Nikos; Kallis, Constantinos
Background: To model and compare contextual (area and family) effects on the psychopathology of children nested in families nested in areas. Method: Data from the first two sweeps of the UK's Millennium Cohort Study were used. The final study sample was 9,630 children clustered in 6,052 families clustered in 1,681 Lower-layer Super Output Areas.…
The National Children's Study (NCS) is an ambitious undertaking: a 20-year prospective cohort
study that will investigate the relationships between a broad range of environmental factors and the health
and well-being of children. Approximately 10...
Felix, Lambert; Keating, Patrick; McCambridge, Jim
Abstract Introduction and Aims There is a growing interest in measuring alcohol's harms to people other than the drinker themselves. ‘Children of alcoholics’ and foetal alcohol spectrum disorder have received widespread attention. Less is known about how children are affected by post‐natal exposure to parental drinking other than alcohol abuse/dependence. In this scoping review, we aim to assemble and map existing evidence from cohort studies on the consequences of parental alcohol use for children, and to identify limitations and gaps in this literature. Design and Methods Systematic review methods were used. Electronic databases were searched (1980 to October 2013) and a total of 3215 abstracts were screened, 326 full text papers examined and 99 eligible for inclusion according to selection criteria including separation of exposure and outcome measurement in time and report of a quantitative effect size. Results The main finding is the large literature available. Adolescent drinking behaviour was the most common outcome measure and outcomes other than substance use were rarely analysed. In almost two of every three published associations, parental drinking was found to be statistically significantly associated with a child harm outcome measure. Several limitations in the literature are noted regarding its potential to address a possible causal role of parental drinking in children's adverse outcomes. Discussion and Conclusions This study identifies targets for further study and provides a platform for more targeted analytic investigations which ascertain risk of bias, and which are capable of considering the appropriateness of causal inferences for the observed associations. [Rossow I, Felix L, Keating P, McCambridge J. Parental drinking and adverse outcomes in children: A scoping review of cohort studies. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:397–405] PMID:26332090
Nacajauskaite, Olga; Endziniene, Milda; Jureniene, Kristina; Schrader, Harald
The aim of this controlled historical cohort study was to assess the validity of post-concussion syndrome in children. We identified 301 children aged 4-15 years who had sustained an isolated brain concussion, and another group of 301 children who sustained any other mild body injury excluding the head. Parents from both groups filled in standardized questionnaires containing questions about the health condition of the children: headache, neck pain, dizziness, malaise, fatigability, exercise or noise intolerance, irritability, weepiness, sadness, anxiety, nocturnal enuresis, tics, sleep disorders, memory or learning difficulties, hyperactivity, seizures, attention disorder, buzzing in the ears, subjective parental concerns about the child's health condition, and parental concerns about their child having a brain disorder. The severity of the complaints was rated on the Visual Analogue Scale. After the final exclusion, 102 pairs strictly matched by sex, age, and the date of trauma were analyzed. The differences of parental complaints about the health condition of their children between case and control groups were statistically insignificant for all symptoms, except parental concerns about their child having brain damage which were significantly higher in the case group. The likelihood of parental concerns about the possibility of their child having brain damage was 2.7 times higher in the case group. Headache, learning difficulties, and sleep disorders were significant variables predicting the concerns. These results question the validity of the post-concussion syndrome in children. PMID:16682158
Harnden, Anthony; Grant, Cameron; Harrison, Timothy; Perera, Rafael; Brueggemann, Angela B; Mayon-White, Richard; Mant, David
Objective To estimate the proportion of school age children with a persistent cough who have evidence of a recent Bordetella pertussis infection. Design Prospective cohort study (October 2001 to March 2005). Setting General practices in Oxfordshire, England. Participants 172 children aged 5-16 years who presented to their general practitioner with a cough lasting 14 days or more who consented to have a blood test. Main outcome measures Serological evidence of a recent Bordetella pertussis infection; symptoms at presentation; duration and severity of cough; sleep disturbance (parents and child). Results 64 (37.2%, 95% confidence interval 30.0% to 44.4%) children had serological evidence of a recent Bordetella pertussis infection; 55 (85.9%) of these children had been fully immunised. At presentation, children with whooping cough were more likely than others to have whooping (odds ratio 2.85, 95% confidence interval 1.39 to 5.82), vomiting (4.35, 2.04 to 9.25), and sputum production (2.39, 1.14 to 5.02). Children with whooping cough were also more likely to still be coughing two months after the start of their illness (85% v 48%; P = 0.001), continue to have more than five coughing episodes a day (P = 0.049), and cause sleep disturbance for their parents (P = 0.003). Conclusions For school age children presenting to primary care with a cough lasting two weeks or more, a diagnosis of whooping cough should be considered even if the child has been immunised. Making a secure diagnosis of whooping cough may prevent inappropriate investigations and treatment. PMID:16829538
Griffiths, Lucy J; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Sera, Francesco; Pouliou, Theodora; Geraci, Marco; Rich, Carly; Cole, Tim J; Law, Catherine; Joshi, Heather; Ness, Andrew R; Jebb, Susan A; Dezateux, Carol
Objective To describe levels of physical activity, sedentary time and adherence to Chief Medical Officers (CMO) physical activity guidelines among primary school-aged children across the UK using objective accelerometer-based measurements. Design Nationally representative prospective cohort study. Setting Children born across the UK, between 2000 and 2002. Participants 6497 7-year-old to 8-year-old singleton children for whom reliable accelerometer data were available for at least 10 h a day for at least 2 days. Main outcome measures Physical activity in counts per minute (cpm); time spent in sedentary and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA); proportion of children meeting CMO guidelines (≥60 min/day MVPA); average daily steps. Explanatory measures Gender, ethnicity, maternal current/most recent occupation, lone parenthood status, number of children in the household and country/region of residence. Results The median daily physical activity level was 595 cpm (IQR 507, 697). Children spent a median of 60 min (IQR 47–76) in MVPA/day and were sedentary for a median of 6.4 h/day (IQR 6–7). Only 51% met CMO guidelines, with girls (38%) less active than boys (63%). Children took an average of 10 229 (95% CI (8777 to 11 775)) steps each day. Children of Indian ethnicity were significantly less active overall than all other ethnic groups. Children of Bangladeshi origin and those living in Northern Ireland were least likely to meet CMO guidelines. Conclusions Only half of 7-year-old children in the UK achieve recommended levels of physical activity, with significant gender, ethnic and geographic variations. Longitudinal studies are needed to better understand the relevance of these (in)activity patterns for long-term health and well-being. In the meantime population-wide efforts to boost physical activity among young people are needed which are likely to require a broad range of policy interventions. PMID:23965931
Yu, Yongfu; Qin, Guoyou; Cnattingius, Sven; Gissler, Mika; Olsen, Jørn; Zhao, Naiqing; Li, Jiong
Background Mortality in children under five years has been widely studied, whereas mortality at 5–9 years has received little attention. Using unique data from national registers in three Nordic countries, we aimed to characterize mortality directionality in children aged 0 to 9 years. Methods and Findings The cohort study included all children born in Denmark from 1973 to 2008 (n = 2,433,758), Sweden from 1973 to 2006 (n = 3,400,212), and a random sample of 89.3% of children born in Finland from 1987 to 2007 (n = 1,272,083). Children were followed from 0 to 9 years, and cumulative mortality and mortality rates were compared by age, gender, cause of death, and calendar periods. Among the 7,105,962 children, there were 48,299 deaths during study period. From 1981–1985 to 2001–2005, all-cause mortality rates were reduced by between 34% and 62% at different ages. Overall mortality rate ratio between boys and girls decreased from 1.25 to 1.21 with the most prominent reduction in children aged 5–9 years (from 1.59 to 1.19). Neoplasms, diseases of the nervous system and transport accidents were the most frequent cause of death after the first year of life. These three leading causes of death declined by 42% (from 6.2 to 3.6 per 100,000 person years), 43% (from 3.7 to 2.1) and 62% (from 3.9 to 1.5) in boys, and 25% (from 4.1 to 3.1 per 100000 person years), 42% (from 3.4 to 1.9) and 63% (from 3.0 to 1.1) in girls, respectively. Mortality from neoplasms was the highest in each age except infants when comparing cause-specific mortality, and half of deaths from diseases of the nervous system occurred in infancy. Mortality rate due to transport accidents increased with age and was highest in boys aged 5–9 years. Conclusions Mortality rate in children aged 0–9 years has been decreasing with diminished difference between genders over the past decades. Our results suggest the importance of further research on mortality by causes of neoplasms, and causes of transport
Mathew, Joseph L.; Singhi, Sunit; Ray, Pallab; Hagel, Eva; Saghafian–Hedengren, Shanie; Bansal, Arun; Ygberg, Sofia; Sodhi, Kushaljit Singh; Kumar, B V Ravi; Nilsson, Anna
Background Childhood community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a significant problem in developing countries, and confirmation of microbial etiology is important for individual, as well as public health. However, there is paucity of data from a large cohort, examining multiple biological specimens for diverse pathogens (bacteria and viruses). The Community Acquired Pneumonia Etiology Study (CAPES) was designed to address this knowledge gap. Methods We enrolled children with CAP (based on WHO IMCI criteria of tachypnea with cough or breathing difficulty) over 24 consecutive months, and recorded presenting symptoms, risk factors, clinical signs, and chest radiography. We performed blood and nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) bacterial cultures, and serology (Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae). We also performed multiplex PCR for 25 bacterial/viral species in a subgroup representing 20% of the cohort. Children requiring endotracheal intubation underwent culture and PCR of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens. Findings We enrolled 2345 children. NPA and blood cultures yielded bacteria in only 322 (13.7%) and 49 (2.1%) children respectively. In NPA, Streptococcus pneumoniae (79.1%) predominated, followed by Haemophilus influenzae (9.6%) and Staphylococcus aureus (6.8%). In blood, S. aureus (30.6%) dominated, followed by S. pneumoniae (20.4%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (12.2%). M. pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae serology were positive in 4.3% and 1.1% respectively. Multiplex PCR in 428 NPA specimens identified organisms in 422 (98.6%); of these 352 (82.2%) had multiple organisms and only 70 (16.4%) had a single organism viz. S. pneumoniae: 35 (50%), Cytomegalovirus (CMV): 13 (18.6%), Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV): 9 (12.9%), other viruses: 6 (8.7%), S. aureus: 5 (7.1%), and H. influenzae: 2 (2.9%). BAL PCR (n = 30) identified single pathogens in 10 (S. pneumoniae–3, CMV–3, S. aureus–2, H. influenzae–2) and multiple pathogens in 18 children. There were
Connelly, Roxanne; Platt, Lucinda
The UK Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) is an observational, multidisciplinary cohort study that was set up to follow the lives of children born at the turn of the new century. The MCS is nationally representative and 18 552 families (18 827 children) were recruited to the cohort in the first sweep. There have currently been five main sweeps of data collection, at ages 9 months and 3, 5, 7 and 11 years. A further sweep of data collection is planned for age 14 years. A range of health-related data have been collected as well as measures concerning child development, cognitive ability and educational attainment. The data also include a wealth of information describing the social, economic and demographic characteristics of the cohort members and their families. In addition, the MCS data have been linked to administrative data resources including health records. The MCS provides a unique and valuable resource for the analysis of health outcomes and health inequalities. The MCS data are freely available to bona fide researchers under standard access conditions via the UK Data Service (http://ukdataservice.ac.uk) and the MCS website provides detailed information on the study (http://www.cls.ioe.ac.uk/mcs). PMID:24550246
Budge, Philip J.; Griffin, Marie R.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Williams, John V.; Verastegui, Hector; Hartinger, Stella M.; Johnson, Monika; Klemenc, Jennifer M.; Zhu, Yuwei; Gil, Ana I.; Lanata, Claudio F.; Grijalva, Carlos G.
Background Few community studies have measured the incidence, severity, and etiology of acute respiratory illness (ARI) among children living at high-altitude in remote rural settings. Methods We conducted active, household-based ARI surveillance among children aged <3 years in rural highland communities of San Marcos, Cajamarca, Peru from May 2009 through September 2011 (RESPIRA-PERU study). ARI (defined by fever or cough) were considered lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) if tachypnea, wheezing, grunting, stridor, or retractions were present. Nasal swabs collected during ARI episodes were tested for respiratory viruses by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. ARI incidence was calculated using Poisson regression. Results During 755.1 child-years of observation among 892 children in 58 communities, 4,475 ARI were observed, yielding an adjusted incidence of 6.2 ARI/child-year (95% CI 5.9 – 6.5). Families sought medical care for 24% of ARI, 4% were classified as LRTI, and 1% led to hospitalization. Two of five deaths among cohort children were attributed to ARI. One or more respiratory virus was detected in 67% of 3957 samples collected. Virus-specific incidence rates per 100 child-years were: rhinovirus, 236; adenovirus, 73; parainfluenza virus, 46; influenza, 37; respiratory syncytial virus, 30; and human metapneumovirus, 17. Respiratory syncytial virus, metapneumovirus, and parainfluenza virus 1-3 comprised a disproportionate share of LRTI compared to other etiologies. Conclusions In this high-altitude rural setting with low population density, ARI in young children were common, frequently severe, and associated with a number of different respiratory viruses. Effective strategies for prevention and control of these infections are needed. PMID:24378948
Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana M; Esplugues, Ana; Iñíguez, Carmen; Estarlich, Marisa; Ballester, Ferran
In July 2012, two simultaneous wildfires burnt a big area in Valencia (Spain), where a birth cohort study (INMA) is being developed. The heavy smoke covered the whole INMA study area for several days. We aimed at evaluating the 2012 Valencia wildfire effects on the health of children enrolled in the INMA-Valencia cohort. Two weeks after the extinction of the wildfires, a phone survey was conducted and finally 460 individuals were enrolled. We considered a wildfire period (12-day interval when they were active) and a control period (12-day interval just before wildfires). Parents were asked about respiratory symptoms experienced during both periods, and during wildfires only about the preventive measures adopted and the perception of exposure, along with individual data collected through the different follow-up surveys of the cohort. Conditional logistic regression models were applied, and we included interaction terms for asthma/rhinitis and level of perception of exposure; 82.4 % perceived smoke smell outdoors, 40 % indoors and more than 90 % of the families observed the presence of ash. An adjusted odds ratio of 3.11 [95 % confidence interval 1.62-5.97] for itchy/watery eyes and 3.02 [1.41-6.44] for sore throat was obtained. Significant interaction terms for rhinitis and asthma in itchy/watery eyes and sneezing, and only asthma for sore throat were obtained. Exposure to wildfire smoke was associated with increased respiratory symptoms in this child population, particularly affecting susceptible individuals with asthma or rhinitis. PMID:26215426
Khan, Faraz A.; Squires, Robert H.; Litman, Heather J.; Balint, Jane; Carter, Beth A.; Fisher, Jeremy G.; Horslen, Simon P.; Jaksic, Tom; Kocoshis, Samuel; Martinez, J. Andres; Mercer, David; Rhee, Susan; Rudolph, Jeffrey A.; Soden, Jason; Sudan, Debra; Superina, Riccardo A.; Teitelbaum, Daniel H.; Venick, Robert; Wales, Paul W.; Duggan, Christopher
Objectives In a large cohort of children with intestinal failure (IF), we sought to determine the cumulative incidence of achieving enteral autonomy and identify patient and institutional characteristics associated with enteral autonomy. Study design A multicenter retrospective cohort analysis from the Pediatric Intestinal Failure Consortium (PIFCon) was performed. IF was defined as severe congenital or acquired gastrointestinal diseases during infancy with PN dependence >60 days. Enteral autonomy was defined as PN discontinuation >3 months. Results 272 infants were followed for a median (IQR) of 33.5(16.2, 51.5) months. Enteral autonomy was achieved in 118(43%); 36(13%) remained PN dependent and 118 (43%) patients died or underwent transplantation. Multivariable analysis identified NEC [OR 95% CI: 2.42 (1.33, 4.47)], care at an IF site without an associated intestinal transplant (ITx) program [OR 2.73 (1.56, 4.78)] and an intact ileocecal valve (ICV) [OR 2.80 (1.63, 4.83)] as independent risk factors for enteral autonomy. A second model (n=144) including only patients with intra-operatively measured residual small bowel length (RSB) found NEC [OR 3.44 (1.36, 8.71)], care at a non-ITx center [OR 6.56 (2.53, 16.98)] and RSB (cm) [OR 1.04 (1.02, 1.06)] to be independently associated with enteral autonomy. Conclusions A substantial proportion of infants with IF can achieve enteral autonomy. Underlying NEC, preserved ICV and longer bowel length are associated with achieving enteral autonomy. It is likely that variations in institutional practices and referral patterns also affect outcomes in children with IF. PMID:25917765
van Ierland, Yvette; Elshout, Gijs; Berger, Marjolein Y; Vergouwe, Yvonne; de Wilde, Marcel; van der Lei, Johan; Mol, Henriëtte A; Oostenbrink, Rianne
Background Clinical prediction rules (CPRs) to identify children with serious infections lack validation in low-prevalence populations, which hampers their implementation in primary care practice. Aim To evaluate the diagnostic value of published CPRs for febrile children in primary care. Design and setting Observational cohort study among febrile children (<16 years) who consulted five GP cooperatives (GPCs) in the Netherlands. Method Alarm signs of serious infection and clinical management were extracted from routine clinical practice data and manually recoded with a structured electronic data-entry program. Eight CPRs were selected from literature. CPR-variables were matched with alarm signs and CPRs were applied to the GPC-population. ‘Referral to emergency department (ED)’ was used as a proxy outcome measure for ‘serious infection’. CPR performance was assessed by calibration analyses, sensitivity, specificity, and area under the ROC-curve (ROC-area). Results A total of 9794 GPC-contacts were eligible, 54% male, median age 2.3 years (interquartile range 1.0–4.6 years) and 8.1% referred to ED. Frequencies of CPR-variables varied from 0.5% (cyanosis, drowsy) to 25% (temperature ≥40°C). Alarm signs frequently included in CPRs were ‘ill appearance’, ‘inconsolable’, and ‘abnormal circulatory or respiratory signs’. The height of the CPR’s predicted risks generally corresponded with being (or not being) referred to the ED in practice. However, calibration-slopes indicated that three CPRs underestimated the risk of serious infection in the GPC-population. Sensitivities ranged from 42% to 54%, specificities from 68% to 89%. ROC-areas ranged from 0.52 to 0.81, with best performance of CPRs for children aged <3 months. Conclusion Published CPRs performed moderately well in the primary out-of-hours care population. Advice is given on how to improve translation of CPRs to primary care practice. PMID:25824182
Mashburn, Andrew J.; Myers, Sonya S.
Purpose: The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K; U.S. Department of Education, 2000) includes comprehensive assessments of home, classroom, and school contexts and developmental outcomes for a nationally representative sample of more than 20,000 children who began kindergarten in 1998-1999. The purposes of this article…
Edwards, Nicholas M.; Myer, Gregory D.; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Woo, Jessica G.; Khoury, Philip R.; Hewett, Timothy E.; Daniels, Stephen R.
Objective Evaluate effects of local weather conditions on physical activity in early childhood. Methods Longitudinal prospective cohort study of 372 children, 3 years old at enrollment, drawn from a major US metropolitan community. Accelerometer-measured (RT3) physical activity was collected every 4 months over 5 years and matched with daily weather measures: day length, heating/cooling degrees (degrees mean temperature < 65°F or ≥ 65°F, respectively), wind, and precipitation. Mixed regression analyses, adjusted for repeated measures, were used to test the relationship between weather and physical activity. Results Precipitation and wind speed were negatively associated with total physical activity and moderate-vigorous physical activity (P<0.0001). Heating and cooling degrees were negatively associated with total physical activity and moderate-vigorous physical activity and positively associated with inactivity (all P<0.0001), independent of age, sex, race, BMI, day length, wind, and precipitation. For every 10 additional heating degrees there was a five-minute daily reduction in moderate-vigorous physical activity. For every additional 10 cooling degrees there was a 17-minute reduction in moderate-vigorous physical activity. Conclusions Inclement weather (higher/lower temperature, greater wind speed, more rain/snow) is associated with less physical activity in young children. These deleterious effects should be considered when planning physical activity research, interventions, and policies. PMID:25423667
Lipshultz, Steven E; Easley, Kirk A; Orav, E John; Kaplan, Samuel; Starc, Thomas J; Bricker, J Timothy; Lai, Wyman W; Moodie, Douglas S; Sopko, George; Schluchter, Mark D; Colan, Steven D
Summary Background Data from cross-sectional and short-term longitudinal studies have suggested that children infected with HIV-1 might have cardiovascular abnormalities. We aimed to investigate this hypothesis in a long-term cohort study. Methods We measured cardiovascular function every 4–6 months for up to 5 years in a birth cohort of 600 infants born to women infected with HIV-1. We included 93 infants infected with HIV-1 and 463 uninfected infants (internal controls) from the same cohort. We also included a cross-sectionally measured comparison group of 195 healthy children born to mothers who were not infected with HIV-1 (external controls). Findings Children infected with HIV-1 had a significantly higher heart rate at all ages (mean difference 10 bpm, 95% CI 8–13) than internal controls. At birth, both cohort groups of children had similar low left ventricular (LV) fractional shortening. At 8 months, fractional shortening was similar in internal and external controls, whereas in children infected with HIV-1, fractional shortening remained significantly lower than in controls for the first 20 months of life (mean difference from internal controls at 8 months 3·7%, 2·3–5·1). LV mass was similar at birth in both cohort groups, but became significantly higher in children with HIV-1 from 4–30 months (mean difference 2·4 g at 8 months, 0·9–3·9). Conclusions Vertically-transmitted HIV-1 infection is associated with persistent cardiovascular abnormalities identifiable shortly after birth. Irrespective of their HIV-1 status, infants born to women infected with HIV-1 have significantly worse cardiac function than other infants, suggesting that the uterine environment has an important role in postnatal cardiovascular abnormalities. PMID:12241776
Griffiths, Lucy J; Dezateux, Carol; Hill, Andrew
Objectives. We examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between obesity and emotional and behavioural problems in a nationally representative sample of young children. Methods. Data were available from 11 202 children (50% boys) participating in the UK's Millennium Cohort Study. Height and weight were measured at 3 and 5 years and children defined as obese using IOTF cut-offs for body mass index (BMI). Emotional and behavioural problems were parentally assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Adjusted linear and multinomial regression analyses were conducted separately for boys and girls. Results. At age 3, obese boys had more conduct problems, and obese girls had more prosocial behaviours, than their normal weight counterparts. At age 5, obese boys had more conduct problems, hyperactivity and inattention problems, peer relationship problems and total difficulties. Obese girls only had more peer relationship problems. Obese 3-year-olds were not at increased risk of abnormal scores; in contrast, obese 5-year-old boys were significantly more likely to have abnormal scores for conduct problems, hyperactivity and inattention problems, peer relationship problems, prosocial behaviours and total difficulties. Obesity, at age 3, was also predictive of peer relationship problems at age 5 in boys (95% CI: 0.26 [0.01, 0.52]). Conclusions. Childhood obesity is associated with emotional and behavioural problems from a very young age. Obese boys are at particular risk. Further research is required to examine effect modifiers and mediating factors in these associations. Recognition and response to these mental health problems should be a goal of pediatric obesity interventions and policies. PMID:21114457
Background: There is limited evidence on which risk factors attenuate income inequalities in child overweight and obesity; whether and why these inequalities widen as children age. Method: Eleven thousand nine hundred and sixty five singletons had complete data at age 5 and 9384 at age 11 from the Millennium Cohort Study (UK). Overweight (age 5 : 15%; age 11 : 20%) and obesity (age 5 : 5%; age 11 : 6%) were defined using the International Obesity Taskforce body mass index cut-points. To measure socioeconomic inequalities, we used quintiles of family income and as risk factors, we considered markers of maternal health behaviours and of children’s physical activity, sedentary behaviours and diet. Binary and multinomial logistic regression models were used. Results: The unadjusted analyses revealed stark income inequalities in the risk of obesity at age 5 and 11. At age 5, children in the bottom income quintile had 2.0 (95% CI: 1.4–2.8) increased relative risk of being obese whilst at age 11 they had 3.0 (95% CI: 2.0–4.5) increased risk compared to children in the top income quintile. Similar income inequalities in the risk of overweight emerged by age 11. Physical activity and diet were particularly important in explaining inequalities. Income inequalities in obesity and overweight widened significantly between age 5 and 11 and a similar set of risk factors protected against upward and promoted downward movements across weight categories. Conclusions: To reduce income inequalities in overweight and obesity and their widening across childhood the results support the need of early interventions which take account of multiple risk factors. PMID:26659411
Maroof, Zabihullah; Chandramohan, Daniel; Bruce, Jane; Masher, Mohammad I.; Manaseki-Holland, Semira; Ensink, Jeroen H. J.
Introduction Childhood diarrheal illnesses are a major public health problem. In low-income settings data on disease burden and factors associated with diarrheal illnesses are poorly defined, precluding effective prevention programs. This study explores factors associated with recurrent diarrheal illnesses among children in Kabul, Afghanistan. Methods A cohort of 1–11 month old infants was followed for 18 months from 2007–2009. Data on diarrheal episodes were gathered through active and passive surveillance. Information on child health, socioeconomics, water and sanitation, and hygiene behaviors was collected. Factors associated with recurrent diarrheal illnesses were analyzed using random effects recurrent events regression models. Results 3,045 children were enrolled and 2,511 (82%) completed 18-month follow-up. There were 14,998 episodes of diarrheal disease over 4,200 child-years (3.51 episodes/child-year, 95%CI 3.40–3.62). Risk of diarrheal illness during the winter season was 63% lower than the summer season (HR = 0.37, 95%CI 0.35–0.39, P<0.001). Soap for hand washing was available in 72% of households and 11.9% had toilets with septic/canalization. Half of all mothers reported using soap for hand washing. In multivariate analysis diarrheal illness was lower among children born to mothers with post-primary education (aHR = 0.79, 95%CI 0.69–0.91, p = 0.001), from households where maternal hand washing with soap was reported (aHR = 0.83, 95%CI 0.74–0.92, p<0.001) and with improved sanitation facilities (aHR = 0.76, 95%CI 0.63–0.93, p = 0.006). Malnourished children from impoverished households had significantly increased risks for recurrent disease [(aHR = 1.15, 95%CI 1.03–1.29, p = 0.016) and (aHR = 1.20, 95%CI 1.05–1.37, p = 0.006) respectively]. Conclusions Maternal hand washing and improved sanitation facilities were protective, and represent important prevention points among public health endeavors. The discrepancy between soap
Background In México, the prevalence of unhealthy weight increased from 24% at 6 y to 33% at 12 y of age, opening a window of opportunity to better understand the pathogenesis of obesity. The objective of this study was to explore the association between time spent on medium, vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and concurrent gains in BMI, fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM), alternately, in a cohort of Mexican children followed from kindergarten (baseline) to 2nd grade elementary school (endline). Methods The MVPA (5-d accelerometry), BMI, FM and FFM (air displacement plethysmography) were measured at baseline and endline. Associations between gains in BMI, FM and FFM and changes in MVPA were examined using lagged and dynamic regression models, controlling for energy intake and demographic variables. Results A total of 205 children were analyzed. Gender affected the effect of MVPA on FM gain. In girls, a high baseline MVPA predicted a lower FM gain (-0.96 kg, p=0.025) compared to low/medium MVPA. Increasing, decreasing or having a persistently high MVPA predicted a lower FM gain (range -1.6 to -1.03 kg, p<0.05) compared to persistently low MVPA. In boys, increases in MVPA were associated with higher gains in BMI (+0.76 kg/m2, p=0.04) and FFM (+1.1 kg, p=0.01) compared to persistently low MVPA. Conclusion These results support a protective role of MVPA on FM gain in girls, suggesting that it may play a crucial role in the development of obesity. Further research on the gender effect of MVPA is warranted to better understand its role in the prevention and control of overweight and obesity. PMID:22839498
Han, Wen-Jui; Lee, RaeHyuck; Waldfogel, Jane
Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n ≈ 6,800), we examined the factors explaining variation in school readiness in a large and nationally representative sample of children in immigrant and non-immigrant families. In OLS regression models with rich controls to account for selection, we found that language background was a key factor in explaining children of immigrants’ expressive language and early reading at kindergarten, whereas both socioeconomic status and language background helped explain their performance in math. PMID:22711952
Gao, Fan; Bian, Lian-Lian; Mao, Qun-Ying; Chen, Pan; Yao, Xin; Li, Jing-Xin; Zhu, Feng-Cai; Liang, Zheng-Lun
To investigate the epidemiological data on coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) infection and its incidence in infants and children, a prospective cohort study was carried out from 2012 to 2014 in Jiangsu Province, China. According to the results of seropositive rates and NTAb titers of CVB3, an epidemic of CVB3 infection was found, and a dynamic change in CVB3 neutralizing antibody was also observed. One case was recorded with CVB3-associated hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), and the isolates belonged to the CVB3 D2 subtype. Our data help us to better understand the epidemic characteristics of CVB3 infection in infants and children. PMID:27020571
Zaoutis, Theoklis E.; Haynes, Kevin; Feng, Rui; Coffin, Susan E.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether childhood antianaerobic antibiotic exposure is associated with the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: This retrospective cohort study employed data from 464 UK ambulatory practices participating in The Health Improvement Network. All children with ≥2 years of follow-up from 1994 to 2009 were followed between practice enrollment and IBD development, practice deregistration, 19 years of age, or death; those with previous IBD were excluded. All antibiotic prescriptions were captured. Antianaerobic antibiotic agents were defined as penicillin, amoxicillin, ampicillin, penicillin/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations, tetracyclines, clindamycin, metronidazole, cefoxitin, carbapenems, and oral vancomycin. RESULTS: A total of 1 072 426 subjects contributed 6.6 million person-years of follow-up; 748 developed IBD. IBD incidence rates among antianaerobic antibiotic unexposed and exposed subjects were 0.83 and 1.52/10 000 person-years, respectively, for an 84% relative risk increase. Exposure throughout childhood was associated with developing IBD, but this relationship decreased with increasing age at exposure. Exposure before 1 year of age had an adjusted hazard ratio of 5.51 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.66–18.28) but decreased to 2.62 (95% CI: 1.61–4.25) and 1.57 (95% CI: 1.35–1.84) by 5 and 15 years, respectively. Each antibiotic course increased the IBD hazard by 6% (4%–8%). A dose-response effect existed, with receipt of >2 antibiotic courses more highly associated with IBD development than receipt of 1 to 2 courses, with adjusted hazard ratios of 4.77 (95% CI: 2.13–10.68) versus 3.33 (95% CI: 1.69–6.58). CONCLUSIONS: Childhood antianaerobic antibiotic exposure is associated with IBD development. PMID:23008454
The aim of this review was to assess the evidence from recent prospective studies that long-term traffic pollution could contribute to the development of asthma-like symptoms and allergic sensitization in children. We have reviewed cohort studies published since 2002 and found in PubMed in Oct 2008. In all, 13 papers based on data from 9 cohorts have evaluated the relationship between traffic exposure and respiratory health. All surveys reported associations with at least some of the studied respiratory symptoms. The outcome varied, however, according to the age of the child. Nevertheless, the consistency in the results indicates that traffic exhaust contributes to the development of respiratory symptoms in healthy children. Potential effects of traffic exhaust on the development of allergic sensitization were only assessed in the four European birth cohorts. Long-term exposure to outdoor air pollutants had no association with sensitization in ten-year-old schoolchildren in Norway. In contrast, German, Dutch and Swedish preschool children had an increased risk of sensitization related to traffic exhaust despite fairly similar levels of outdoor air pollution as in Norway. Traffic-related effects on sensitization could be restricted to individuals with a specific genetic polymorphism. Assessment of gene-environment interactions on sensitization has so far only been carried out in a subgroup of the Swedish birth cohort. Further genetic association studies are required and may identify individuals vulnerable to adverse effects from traffic-related pollutants. Future studies should also evaluate effects of traffic exhaust on the development and long term outcome of different phenotypes of asthma and wheezing symptoms. PMID:19371435
Casale, D; Desmond, C
In this study we analyse the implications for cognitive function of recovery from stunting in early childhood. More specifically, we test whether children who met the definition for stunted at age 2, but not at age 5, perform better in cognitive tests than children who remain stunted over this period. The sample is drawn from the Birth to Twenty Cohort Study, a prospective data set of children born in 1990 in urban South Africa. The measure of cognitive function that we use is based on the Revised Denver Prescreening Developmental Questionnaire implemented when the children were age 5. We employ multivariate regression in the analysis to control for child-specific characteristics, socio-economic status, the home environment and caregiver inputs. We find that recovery from stunting is not uncommon among young children in our sample. However, children who recover from stunting by age 5 still perform significantly worse on cognitive tests than children who do not experience early malnutrition, and almost as poorly as children who remain stunted. These findings suggest that the timing of nutritional inputs in the early years is key in a child's cognitive development, with implications for school readiness and achievement. PMID:26399543
Kerigan, A.T.; Goldsmith, C.H.; Pengelly, L.D.
The relative importance of the effect of outdoor environmental factors (suspended particulates, sulphur dioxide) and indoor environmental factors (parental smoking, gas cooking), on the respiratory health of children is still unclear. To answer these questions, a 3-yr cohort analytic study has been conducted in Hamilton, Ontario between 1978 and 1981. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms and indoor environmental factors was determined by an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Pulmonary function measures included both the forced expiratory maneuver and the single- and multiple-breath nitrogen washouts. Outdoor air quality was measured by a comprehensive network of suspended particulate and sulphur dioxide monitors. There were 3345 children 7 to 10 yr of age studied in the first year, a response rate of 95.4%, 3,727 in the second year, and 3168 in the third year; 75.6% of the initial cohort were studied in both Year 2 and Year 3. Comprehensive quality control in the study included measurement of the repeatability of both the questionnaire and pulmonary function data. Repeatability was acceptable except for variables derived from the single-breath nitrogen washout (correlation between initial and repeat closing volume vital capacity was 0.14). Cigarette smoking in Year 3 was reported in 4.8% of the children. The distribution of other covariables was not uniform, and the prevalence of parental smoking and gas cooking was greatest in the industrial area with the highest particulate pollution. Future analysis of these data will require the effect of these covariables to be distinguished from that caused by outdoor air pollution.
Zhang, Lin; Ye, Weiping; Yu, Wen; Cheng, Linan; Shen, Lixiao; Yang, Zujing
Levonorgestrel (LNG), a dedicated emergency contraception (EC) product, has been available over-the-counter in China for more than 14 yr. Although LNG-EC is considered to have no effects on the developing fetus if the contraceptive fails and pregnancy occurs, there have been a few studies specifically examining this issue. The purpose of this study was to compare the physical and mental development of children born after LNG-EC failure with that of a cohort of children born to mothers with no history of exposure to LNG or any teratogenic substances. A group of 195 children who were exposed to LNG-EC during their mothers' conception cycle (study group) were matched to a group of 214 children without exposure to LNG (control group). The physical and mental development of the children were evaluated and compared over a 2-yr period. There were four congenital malformations in the study group and three in the control group (2.1% vs. 1.4%, respectively, P > 0.05). Over the 2-yr follow-up period, there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups with respect to children's weight, height, head circumference, and intelligence scores, and the values of all parameters of both groups were similar to those of the national standards. In summary, LNG-EC has no effect on the physical growth, mental development, or occurrence of birth defects in children born from pregnancies in which EC failed. PMID:24899575
The goal of the National Children's Study (NCS) is to collect information on environmental and
social factors in the lives of children, starting before birth and continuing until age 21, to inform
researchers about their effects on the health and dev...
Thurber, Katherine A; Banks, Emily; Banwell, Cathy
Indigenous Australians experience profound levels of disadvantage in health, living standards, life expectancy, education and employment, particularly in comparison with non-Indigenous Australians. Very little information is available about the healthy development of Australian Indigenous children; the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children (LSIC) is designed to fill this knowledge gap.This dataset provides an opportunity to follow the development of up to 1759 Indigenous children. LSIC conducts annual face-to-face interviews with children (aged 0.5-2 and 3.5-5 years at baseline in 2008) and their caregivers. This represents between 5% and 10% of the total population of Indigenous children in these age groups, including families of varied socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds. Study topics include: the physical, social and emotional well-being of children and their caregivers; language; culture; parenting; and early childhood education.LSIC is a shared resource, formed in partnership with communities; its data are readily accessible through the Australian Government Department of Social Services (see http://dss.gov.au/lsic for data and access arrangements). As one of very few longitudinal studies of Indigenous children, and the only national one, LSIC will enable an understanding of Indigenous children from a wide range of environments and cultures. Findings from LSIC form part of a growing infrastructure from which to understand Indigenous child health. PMID:25011454
Emilsson, Louise; Magnus, Maria; Størdal, Ketil
Background & Aims There have been inconsistent reports of pre- and perinatal factors that affect risk for development of celiac disease. We assessed the association of fetal growth, birth weight, and mode of delivery with development of celiac disease within the Norwegian Mother and Child (MoBa) cohort study. Methods The MoBa cohort contains pregnancy information on 95,200 women and data on their 114,500 children, collected in Norway from 1999 through 2008; it is linked to the Medical Birth Registry. Women and children with celiac disease were identified from the National Patient Register and from women's responses to MoBa questionnaires. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) for celiac disease using a multivariable logistic regression model, adjusting for maternal celiac disease, sex of children, and children's age (model 1); in a second model, we adjusted for age of gluten introduction and duration of breastfeeding (model 2). Results We identified 650 children with celiac disease and 107,828 controls in the MoBa database. We found no association between birth weight or height with celiac disease (born small for gestational age was not associated). Celiac disease was not associated with mode of delivery (Cesarean section, model 1: OR=0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65–1.09 and model 2: OR=0.83; 95% CI, 0.63−1.09). Maternal celiac disease, adjusted for age and sex of the children (OR=12.45; 95% CI, 8.29−18.71) and type 1 diabetes (model I: OR=2.58; 95% CI, 1.19−5.53 and model 2: OR=2.61; 95% CI, 1.14−5.98) were associated with development of celiac disease in children, whereas maternal type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes were not. Conclusion Based on analysis of the Norwegian MoBa cohort, development of celiac disease in children is significantly associated with sex of the child, maternal celiac disease and type 1 diabetes, but not with intrauterine growth. PMID:25459557
Harrison, S; Petrovic, G; Chevassut, A; Brook, L; Higgins, N; Kenworthy, Y; Selwood, M; Snelgar, T; Arnold, L; Boardman, H; Heneghan, C; Leeson, P; Redman, C; Granne, I
Introduction Some specific pregnancy disorders are known to be associated with increased incidence of long-term maternal ill health (eg, gestational diabetes with late onset type 2 diabetes; pre-eclampsia with arterial disease). To what degree these later health conditions are a consequence of the woman's constitution prior to pregnancy rather than pregnancy itself triggering changes in a woman's health is unknown. Additionally, there is little prospective evidence for the impact of pre-pregnancy risk factors on the outcome of pregnancy. To understand the importance of pre-pregnancy health requires the recruitment of women into a long-term cohort study before their first successful pregnancy. The aim of this feasibility study is to test recruitment procedures and acceptability of participation to inform the planning of a future large-scale cohort study. Methods The prospective cohort feasibility study will recruit nulliparous women aged 18–40 years. Women will be asked to complete a questionnaire to assess the acceptability of our recruitment and data collection procedures. Baseline biophysical, genetic, socioeconomic, behavioural and psychological assessments will be conducted and samples of blood, urine, saliva and DNA will be collected. Recruitment feasibility and retention rates will be assessed. Women who become pregnant will be recalled for pregnancy and postpregnancy assessments. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol was approved by South Central Portsmouth REC (Ref: 12/SC/0492). The findings from the study will be disseminated through peer reviewed journals, national and international conference presentations and public events. Trial registration number http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT02419898. PMID:26553837
Background Dental caries remains the most prevalent chronic condition in children and a major contributor to poor general health. There is ample evidence of a skewed distribution of oral health, with a small proportion of children in the population bearing the majority of the burden of the disease. This minority group is comprised disproportionately of socioeconomically disadvantaged children. An in-depth longitudinal study is needed to better understand the determinants of child oral health, in order to support effective evidence-based policies and interventions in improving child oral health. The aim of the Study of Mothers’ and Infants’ Life Events Affecting Oral Health (SMILE) project is to identify and evaluate the relative importance and timing of critical factors that shape the oral health of young children and then to seek to evaluate those factors in their inter-relationship with socioeconomic influences. Methods/Design This investigation will apply an observational prospective study design to a cohort of socioeconomically-diverse South Australian newborns and their mothers, intensively following these dyads as the children grow to toddler age. Mothers of newborn children will be invited to participate in the study in the early post-partum period. At enrolment, data will be collected on parental socioeconomic status, mothers’ general and dental health conditions, details of the pregnancy, infant feeding practice and parental health behaviours and practices. Data on diet and feeding practices, oral health behaviours and practices, and dental visiting patterns will be collected at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months of age. When children turn 24-30 months, the children and their mothers/primary care givers will be invited to an oral examination to record oral health status. Anthropometric assessment will also be conducted. Discussion This prospective cohort study will examine a wide range of determinants influencing child oral health and related general conditions
Tsamoudaki, Stella; Ntomi, Vasileia; Yiannopoulos, Ioannis; Christianakis, Efstratios; Pikoulis, Emmanuel
Background Although circumcision for phimosis in children is a minor surgical procedure, it is followed by pain and carries the risk of increased postoperative anxiety. This study examined predictive factors of postoperative pain and anxiety in children undergoing circumcision. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of children scheduled for elective circumcision. Circumcision was performed applying one of the following surgical techniques: sutureless prepuceplasty (SP), preputial plasty technique (PP), and conventional circumcision (CC). Demographics and base-line clinical characteristics were collected, and assessment of the level of preoperative anxiety was performed. Subsequently, a statistical model was designed in order to examine predictive factors of postoperative pain and postoperative anxiety. Assessment of postoperative pain was performed using the Faces Pain Scale (FPS). The Post Hospitalization Behavior Questionnaire study was used to assess negative behavioral manifestations. Results A total of 301 children with a mean age of 7.56 ± 2.61 years were included in the study. Predictive factors of postoperative pain measured with the FPS included a) the type of surgical technique, b) the absence of siblings, and c) the presence of postoperative complications. Predictive factors of postoperative anxiety included a) the type of surgical technique, b) the level of education of mothers, c) the presence of preoperative anxiety, and d) a history of previous surgery. Conclusions Although our study was not without its limitations, it expands current knowledge by adding new predictive factors of postoperative pain and postoperative anxiety. Clearly, further randomized controlled studies are needed to confirm its results. PMID:26495079
McMichael, A.J.; Baghurst, P.A.; Wigg, N.R.; Vimpani, G.V.; Robertson, E.F.; Roberts, R.J.
We studied the effect of environmental exposure to lead on children's abilities at the age of four years in a cohort of 537 children born during 1979 to 1982 to women living in a community situated near a lead smelter. Samples for measuring blood lead levels were obtained from the mothers antenatally, at delivery from the mothers and umbilical cords, and at the ages of 6, 15, and 24 months and then annually from the children. Concurrently, the mothers were interviewed about personal, family, medical, and environmental factors. Maternal intelligence, the home environment, and the children's mental development (as evaluated with use of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities) were formally assessed. The mean blood lead concentration varied from 0.44 mumol per liter in midpregnancy to a peak of 1.03 mumol per liter at the age of two years. The blood lead concentration at each age, particularly at two and three years, and the integrated postnatal average concentration were inversely related to development at the age of four. Multivariate analysis incorporating many factors in the children's lives indicated that the subjects with an average postnatal blood lead concentration of 1.50 mumol per liter had a general cognitive score 7.2 points lower (95 percent confidence interval, 0.3 to 13.2; mean score, 107.1) than those with an average concentration of 0.50 mumol per liter. Similar deficits occurred in the perceptual-performance and memory scores. Within the range of exposure studied, no threshold dose for an effect of lead was evident. We conclude that postnatal blood lead concentration is inversely related to cognitive development in children, although one must be circumspect in making causal inferences from studies of this relation, because of the difficulties in defining and controlling confounding effects.
Background There is conflicting evidence about the association between low vitamin D levels in children and development of asthma in later life. The objective of this study was to systematically review the evidence for an epidemiological association between low serum levels of vitamin D and the diagnosis of asthma in children. Methods We used the Cochrane methodology for conducting systematic reviews. The search strategy included an electronic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE in February 2013. Two reviewers completed, in duplicate and independently, study selection, data abstraction, and assessment of risk of bias. Results Of 1081 identified citations, three cohort studies met eligibility criteria. Two studies found that low serum vitamin D level is associated with an increased risk of developing asthma late in childhood, while the third study found no association with either vitamin D2 or vitamin D3 levels. All three studies suffer from major methodological shortcomings that limit our confidence in their results. Conclusions Available epidemiological evidence suggests a potential association between low serum levels of vitamin D and the diagnosis of asthma in children. High quality studies are needed to reliably answer the question of interest. PMID:24955097
Ivers, Rebecca Q; Hunter, Kate; Clapham, Kathleen; Coombes, Julieann; Fraser, Sarah; Lo, Serigne; Gabbe, Belinda; Hendrie, Delia; Read, David; Kimble, Roy; Sparnon, Anthony; Stockton, Kellie; Simpson, Renee; Quinn, Linda; Towers, Kurt; Potokar, Tom; Mackean, Tamara; Grant, Julian; Lyons, Ronan A; Jones, Lindsey; Eades, Sandra; Daniels, John; Holland, Andrew J A
Introduction Although Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Australia have higher risk of burns compared with non-Aboriginal children, their access to burn care, particularly postdischarge care, is poorly understood, including the impact of care on functional outcomes. The objective of this study is to describe the burden of burns, access to care and functional outcomes in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Australia, and develop appropriate models of care. Methods and analysis All Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged under 16 years of age (and their families) presenting with a burn to a tertiary paediatric burn unit in 4 Australian States (New South Wales (NSW), Queensland, Northern Territory (NT), South Australia (SA)) will be invited to participate. Participants and carers will complete a baseline questionnaire; follow-ups will be completed at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Data collected will include sociodemographic information; out of pocket costs; functional outcome; and measures of pain, itch and scarring. Health-related quality of life will be measured using the PedsQL, and impact of injury using the family impact scale. Clinical data and treatment will also be recorded. Around 225 participants will be recruited allowing complete data on around 130 children. Qualitative data collected by in-depth interviews with families, healthcare providers and policymakers will explore the impact of burn injury and outcomes on family life, needs of patients and barriers to healthcare; interviews with families will be conducted by experienced Aboriginal research staff using Indigenous methodologies. Health systems mapping will describe the provision of care. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by ethics committees in NSW, SA, NT and Queensland. Study results will be distributed to community members by study newsletters, meetings and via the website; to policymakers and clinicians via policy fora, presentations and
Hu, Ran; Mu, Weiwei; Sun, Xin; Wu, Hao; Pang, Lin; Wang, Liming; Zhao, Qingxia; Wu, Yasong; Zhao, Decai; Chen, Meiling; Ma, Ye; Zhang, Fujie
Malnutrition and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related complications are commonly seen in HIV-infected children, and these have been shown in high-prevalent areas such as Africa. Antiviral therapy (ART) has notably controlled disease progression, whereas it effectively reverses underweight and growth retardation in HIV-infected children. This study was conducted to evaluate the growth status after initiation of ART in HIV-infected children in China. A retrospective cohort study was conducted based on the National Science and Technology Major Project. HIV-infected children who initiated antiretroviral treatment between January 1st, 2012 and December 31st, 2012 were followed up to December 31st, 2014. Z-scores of height and weight were calculated by WHO Anthro (plus). Linear mixed-effects models were used to model trajectories of weight- and height-for-age Z-scores. Seven hundred forty-four participants enrolled in the study, with 585 participants and 712 participants who had WAZ (weight-for-age Z-score) and HAZ (height-for-age Z-score), respectively, before initiation of ART. Among them, 125 (21.4%) were underweight and 301 (42.3%) were stunted. After treatment, among the 125 underweight children, WAZ improved in 69 patients, regained more than -2 on average. Among the 301 stunted children, HAZ improved in 123 patients, regained more than -2 on average. WAZ improved for the first 6 months by 0.052 units each month and then stabilized, whereas HAZ consistently improved by 0.014 units each month over time. Antiretroviral treatment reversed the adverse effects of HIV to some degree. Early diagnosis and treatment, with an effective nutrition program, is necessary to improve malnutrition further. PMID:27509236
Menacker, S J; Breton, M E; Breton, M L; Radcliffe, J; Gole, G A
The use of tinted lenses as a method to improve reading skills in children with dyslexia has been a controversial issue in recent years. The purpose of the present study was to determine if tinted lenses cause a measurable improvement in the reading performance of dyslexic children. Twenty-four children aged 8 to 12 years participated in the study. Dyslexia was diagnosed in all children by psychological evaluation, and these children underwent an ophthalmic evaluation for inclusion into the study. Participants were graded for speed and accuracy as they read through spectacle frames that contained red-, blue-, yellow-, and green-tinted lenses, a neutral-density lens, and empty frames. All lenses for each subject were of the same density level, with subjects alternately distributed to one of two densities tested (0.12 or 0.30 log units). Each child was asked to select the lens condition that subjectively improved reading ability at the conclusion of testing. One-way analysis of variance of reading performance showed neither improvement nor deterioration attributable to lens color or density when applied to error rates (F = 1.73, P = .14 for a density of 0.12; F = 0.28, P = .92 for a density of 0.30) or to reading rates (F = 0.98, P = .44 for a density of 0.12; F = 0.81, P = .55 for a density of 0.30). In addition, the lens condition that was subjectively preferred by each child did not correlate with actual reading performance (chi 2 = 3.83, not significant; 11.07 needed for significance at P = .05). PMID:8431158
Zwingmann, Jörn; Aghayev, Emin; Südkamp, Norbert P; Neumann, Mirjam; Bode, Gerrit; Stuby, Fabian; Schmal, Hagen
As pelvic fractures in children and adolescents are very rare, the surgical management is not well delineated nor are the postoperative complications. The aim of this study using the prospective data from German Pelvic Trauma Registry study was to evaluate the various treatment approaches compared to adults and delineated the differences in postoperative complications after pelvic injuries.Using the prospective pelvic trauma registry established by the German Society of Traumatology and the German Section of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen (AO), International in 1991, patients with pelvic fractures over a 12-year time frame submitted by any 1 of the 23 member level I trauma centers were reviewed.We identified a total of 13,525 patients including pelvic fractures in 13,317 adults and 208 children aged ≤14 years and compared these 2 groups. The 2 groups' Injury Severitiy Score (ISS) did not differ statistically. Lethality in the pediatric group was 6.3%, not statistically different from the adults' 4.6%. In all, 18.3% of the pediatric pelvic fractures were treated surgically as compared to 22.7% in the adult group. No child suffered any thrombosis/embolism, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), multiorgan failure (MOF), or neurologic deficit, nor was any septic MOF detected. The differences between adults and children were statistically significant in that the children suffered less frequently from thrombosis/embolism (P = 0.041) and ARDS and MOF (P = 0.006).This prospective multicenter study addressing patients with pelvic fractures reveals that the risk for a thrombosis/embolism, ARDS, and MOF is significant lower in pediatric patients than in adults. No statistical differences could be found in the ratios of operative therapy of the pelvic fractures in children compared to adults. PMID:26705223
Guyatt, Anna Louise; Heron, Jon; Knight, Bernice Le Cornu; Golding, Jean; Rai, Dheeraj
Objectives To investigate whether second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D), a measure commonly used as a proxy for fetal testosterone exposure, is associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), as predicted by the extreme male brain theory of autism. Design A birth cohort study. Setting The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Participants 6015 ALSPAC children with data on digit ratio, at least 1 outcome measure and information on potential confounding variables (parental occupational class, maternal education and age at digit ratio measurement). Digit ratio was measured by the photocopy and calliper method. Outcomes ASD diagnosis (cases were identified previously by record linkage or maternal report) and 4 measures that combine optimally within ALSPAC to predict ASD: the Children's Communication Checklist (coherence subscale), the Social and Communication Disorders Checklist, a repetitive behaviour measure, and the Emotionality, Activity and Sociability scale (sociability subscale). These measures were dichotomised, with approximately 10% defined as the ‘risk’ group. Results Using logistic regression, we examined the association of 2D:4D with ASDs and 4 dichotomised ASD traits. Covariates were occupational class, maternal education and age at 2D:4D measurement. 2D:4D was not associated with ASDs in males (adjusted OR per 1 SD increase in mean 2D:4D, 0.88 (95% CI 0.65 to 1.21), p=0.435) or females (adjusted OR=1.36 (95% CI 0.81 to 2.28), p=0.245). Similar results were observed after adjustment for IQ. There was 1 weak association between reduced coherence and increased left 2D:4D in males, in the opposite direction to that predicted by the extreme male brain theory (adjusted OR=1.15 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.29), p=0.023). Given multiple comparisons, this is consistent with chance. Conclusions In this population-based study, there was no strong evidence of an association between 2D:4D and ASD diagnosis or traits, although the CIs were wide. These
Christoffersen, Mogens Nygaard; Soothill, Keith
The aim of this study is to consider whether parents' abuse of alcohol has an impact on children during their formative years. The research is based on data from 84,765 children born in Denmark in 1966. These children and their parents were followed between 1979 and 1993. Information was analyzed from government registers covering health, education, family separation, suicidal behavior, criminality, and unemployment, using a discrete time Cox-regression model. Results showed that the parents' alcohol abuse may frame the childhood with parental violence, very high occurrence of family separations, and often foster care. The parental abuse of alcohol may influence several long-term consequences for their 15- to 27-year-old children such as increased mortality, self-destructive behaviors (e.g. attempted suicide or drug addiction). Hospitalization due to violence, an increased risk of teenage pregnancy and unemployment were also seen more frequently among cases where the parents were alcohol abusers. Mothers' alcohol abuse seemed to be associated with higher occurrences of all the mentioned disadvantages. PMID:14629993
Keating, Patrick; Felix, Lambert; McCambridge, Jim
Abstract Aims To evaluate evidence of the capacity for causal inference in studies of associations between parental and offspring alcohol consumption in the general population. Methods A systematic search for, and narrative analysis of, prospective cohort studies of the consequences of drinking, except where assessed prenatally only, or with clinically derived instruments. Primary outcome measures were alcohol use or related problems in offspring, which were collected at least 3 years after exposure measures of parental drinking. The systematic review included 21 studies comprising 26 354 families or parent–child dyads with quantitative effect measures available for each study. Criteria for capacity of causal inference included (1) theory‐driven approach and analysis; (2) analytical rigour; and (3) minimization of sources of bias. Results Four of the 21 included studies filled several, but not all, criteria and were assessed to have some capacity for causal inference. These four studies found some evidence that parental drinking predicted drinking behaviour in adolescent offspring. The remaining 17 studies had little or no such capacity. Conclusions There is a fairly large and consistent literature demonstrating that more parental drinking is associated with more drinking in offspring. Despite this, existing evidence is insufficient to warrant causal inferences at this stage. PMID:26283063
Hirve, S; Ganatra, B
Findings are presented from a prospective study conducted in 45 villages in Shirur Development Block in Pune District, Maharashtra, to gain insight into the role of birth weight, nutrition, immunization, and other medical and social factors in determining child survival. 4129 children were followed from birth until age 5 years, with child weight and length/height measured at birth and at 3 monthly home visits. Information was also obtained on common childhood morbidities, immunization status, and other biomedical factors, and the cause of death was ascertained through verbal autopsy. The neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality rates were estimated to be 37, 60, and 79 per 1000 live births, respectively. Diarrhea and acute respiratory infections (ARI) contributed to the major mortality burden. The Kaplan Meier Survival curve showed a sharp fall in the neonatal period, a less rapid decline during the post-neonatal period, followed by a marginal fall in the post-infancy period until age 5 years. Girls had a better survival during the early neonatal period, but the trend reversed during the late neonatal period. Normal birth weight children had better survival curves compared to low birth weight children. Survival improved with increasing birth order. Multivariate analysis found that birth weight, immunization status, and mother's and child's nutritional status influenced infant and under-five mortality. Since birth weight continues to influence survival and mortality even up to age 5 years, strategies to improve child survival should include immunization and breast-feeding. PMID:9567529
Christensen, Jakob; Pedersen, Henrik Søndergaard; Kjaersgaard, Maiken Ina Siegismund; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Vestergaard, Mogens; Sørensen, Merete Juul; Olsen, Jørn; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Pedersen, Lars Henning
Objectives It is unknown if prenatal exposure to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) increases the risk of low Apgar score in offspring. Setting Population-based study using health registers in Denmark. Participants We identified all 677 021 singletons born in Denmark from 1997 to 2008 and linked the Apgar score from the Medical Birth Register with information on the women's prescriptions for AEDs during pregnancy from the Danish Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. We used the Danish National Hospital Registry to identify mothers diagnosed with epilepsy before birth of the child. Results were adjusted for smoking and maternal age. Results Among 2906 children exposed to AEDs, 55 (1.9%) were born with an Apgar score ≤7 as compared with 8797 (1.3%) children among 674 115 pregnancies unexposed to AEDs (adjusted relative risk (aRR)=1.41 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.85). When analyses were restricted to the 2215 children born of mothers with epilepsy, the aRR of having a low Apgar score associated with AED exposure was 1.34 (95% CI 0.90 to 2.01) When assessing individual AEDs, we found increased, unadjusted RR for exposure to carbamazepine (RR=1.86 (95% CI 1.01 to 3.42)), valproic acid (RR=1.85 (95% CI 1.04 to 3.30)) and topiramate (RR=2.97 (95% CI 1.26 to 7.01)) when compared to unexposed children. Conclusions Prenatal exposure to AEDs was associated with increased risk of being born with a low Apgar score, but the absolute risk of a low Apgar score was <2%. Risk associated with individual AEDs indicate that the increased risk is not a class effect, but that there may be particularly high risks of a low Apgar score associated with certain AEDs. PMID:26359281
Ishida, Yasushi; Maeda, Miho; Urayama, Kevin Y; Kiyotani, Chikako; Aoki, Yuki; Kato, Yoko; Goto, Shoko; Sakaguchi, Sachi; Sugita, Kenichi; Tokuyama, Mika; Nakadate, Naoya; Ishii, Eizaburo; Tsuchida, Masahiro; Ohara, Akira
With improvement in survival, it is important to evaluate the impact of treatment on secondary cancers in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) survivors. A retrospective cohort study comprising 2918 children diagnosed with ALL and enrolled on Tokyo Children's Cancer Study Group (TCCSG) protocols between 1984 and 2005 was conducted to evaluate the incidence of secondary cancers and associated factors including treatment protocol, cranial irradiation and other characteristics of the primary ALL. Thirty-seven patients developed secondary cancers, including acute myeloid leukaemia (n = 11), myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 5), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 2), brain tumours (n = 13) and other solid carcinomas (n = 6) within a median follow-up duration of 9·5 years. The cumulative incidence of any secondary cancers was 1·0% (95% confidence interval (CI), 0·7-1·4%) at 10 years and 2·4% (95% CI, 1·5-3·7%) at 20 years, respectively. Standardized incidence rate ratio of secondary cancers was 9·3 (95% CI, 6·5-12·8). Multivariate analyses showed an increased risk of secondary cancers associated with the recent treatment protocol and cranial irradiation. There was no evidence of a reduction in secondary cancer incidence despite marked decreases in cranial irradiation use in the recent protocols. PMID:24116892
Tsai, Tung-Hu; Chou, Yiing-Jenq
Introduction. Previous studies have demonstrated the advantages of TCM use among asthmatic children. However, there is a paucity of epidemiologic reports on features of TCM users among asthmatic children. This cohort study aimed to investigate child's, parent's, and provider's characteristics associated with the use of asthma-related TCM services among newly diagnosed asthmatic children. Materials and Methods. A nationally representative cohort of one million National Health Insurance beneficiaries was used. The newly diagnosed asthma children who received asthma medication from western medicine providers from 2005 to 2010 were selected as our sample for analysis. Generalized estimating equation was applied to identify the child's, parents', and provider's characteristics associated with the use of asthma-related TCM among the newly diagnosed asthmatic children. Results. Of 20,080 children who were enrolled and followed up for one year, 4,034 children used TCM for asthma-related treatment. Children with prior experience of TCM, pre-school and school aged children, boys, those with more severe asthma or poorer health, with higher income parents were more likely to use asthma-related TCM. Herbal medicine was the most common modality among asthmatic children. Conclusions. There were only 20% newly diagnosed asthmatic children using TCM. The findings may shed light on possible integration of TCM with western medicine services. PMID:25972906
Selander, Jenny; Albin, Maria; Rosenhall, Ulf; Rylander, Lars; Lewné, Marie; Gustavsson, Per
Background: Many women of childbearing age are occupationally active, which leads to a large number of pregnancies potentially exposed to occupational exposures. Occupational noise has been identified as a risk factor for hearing impairment in adults. However, very few studies have assessed the effect of occupational noise on the fetus. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether occupational exposure to noise during pregnancy is associated with hearing dysfunction in children. Methods: This population based cohort study included 1,422,333 single births in Sweden 1986–2008. Data on mothers’ occupation, smoking habits, age, ethnicity, body mass index, leave of absence, and socioeconomic factors were obtained from interviews performed by prenatal care unit staff at approximately 10 weeks of gestation and from national registers. Occupational noise exposure was classified by a job–exposure-matrix as < 75, 75–84, or ≥ 85 dBLAeq,8h. Diagnosed cases of hearing dysfunction (ICD-10 codes H90.3-7, 91.0, 91.2-3, 91.8, 93.1-2) were identified from a register of specialized medical care. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate associations. Results: In the full sample, containing a mixture of part-time and full-time workers during pregnancy, the adjusted HR for hearing dysfunction associated with maternal occupational noise exposure ≥ 85 vs. < 75 dBLAeq,8h was 1.27 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.64; 60 exposed cases). When restricted to children whose mothers worked full-time and had < 20 days leave of absence during pregnancy, the corresponding HR was 1.82 (95% CI: 1.08, 3.08; 14 exposed cases). Conclusions: This study showed an association between occupational noise exposure during pregnancy and hearing dysfunction in children. In view of mechanistic evidence and earlier indicative epidemiological and experimental findings, the results support that pregnant women should not be exposed to high levels of noise at work. Citation: Selander J, Albin M
Viboud, G I; Jouve, M J; Binsztein, N; Vergara, M; Rivas, M; Quiroga, M; Svennerholm, A M
In a follow-up study, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infections in 145 children from two communities located in northeastern Argentina were monitored for 2 years. The occurrence of diarrhea was monitored by weekly household visits. Of 730 fecal specimens collected, 137 (19%) corresponded to diarrheal episodes. ETEC was isolated from a significantly higher proportion of symptomatic (18.3%) than asymptomatic (13.3%) children (P = 0.04541). Individuals of up to 24 months of age were found to have a higher risk of developing ETEC diarrhea than older children (odds ratio [OR], 3.872; P = 0.00021). When the toxin profiles were considered, only heat stable enterotoxin (ST)-producing ETEC was directly associated with diarrhea (P = 0.00035). Fifty-five percent of the ETEC isolated from symptomatic children and 19% of the ETEC isolated from asymptomatic children expressed one of the colonization factors (CFs) investigated, i.e., CF antigen I (CFA/I), CFA/II, CFA/III, and CFA/IV; coli surface antigens CS7 and CS17; and putative CFs PCFO159, PCFO166, and PCFO20, indicating a clear association between diarrhea and ETEC strains that carry these factors (P = 0.0000034). The most frequently identified CFs were CFA/IV (16%), CFA/I (10%), and CS17 (9%). CFs were mostly associated with ETEC strains that produce ST and both heat-labile enterotoxin and ST. Logistic regression analysis, applied to remove confounding effects, revealed that the expression of CFs was associated with illness independently of the toxin type (OR, 4.81; P = 0.0003). When each CF was considered separately, CS17 was the only factor independently associated with illness (OR, 16.6; P = 0.0151). Most CFs (the exception was CFA/IV) fell within a limited array of serotypes, while the CF-negative isolates belonged to many different O:H types. These results demonstrate that some CFs are risk factors for the development of ETEC diarrhea. PMID:10449460
Tong, S.; Baghurst, P.; McMichael, A.; Sawyer, M.; Mudge, J.
OBJECTIVE--To examine the association between environmental exposure to lead and children's intelligence at age 11-13 years, and to assess the implications of exposure in the first seven years of life for later childhood development. DESIGN--Prospective cohort study. SUBJECTS--375 children born in or around the lead smelting town of Port Pirie, Australia, between 1979 and 1982. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Children's intelligence quotient (IQ) measured at 11-13 years of age. RESULTS--IQ was inversely associated with both antenatal and postnatal blood lead concentrations. Verbal, performance, and full scale IQ were inversely related to blood lead concentration with no apparent threshold. Multivariate analyses indicated that after adjustment for a wide range of confounders, the postnatal blood lead concentrations (particularly within the age range 15 months to 7 years) exhibited inverse associations with IQ. Strong associations with IQ were observed for lifetime average blood lead concentrations at various ages. The expected mean full scale IQ declined by 3.0 points (95% confidence interval 0.07 to 5.93) for an increase in lifetime average blood lead concentration from 0.48 to 0.96 mumol/l (10 to 20 micrograms/dl). CONCLUSION--Exposure to environmental lead during the first seven years of life is associated with cognitive deficits that seem to persist into later childhood. PMID:8664666
Schmidt, Swantje C; Sleddens, Ester F C; de Vries, Sanne I; Gubbels, Jessica; Thijs, Carel
Changes in the neighborhood environment may explain part of the rapid increase in childhood overweight and obesity during the last decades. To date few theory-driven rather than data-driven studies have explored longitudinal associations between multiple neighborhood characteristics and child body weight development. We aimed to assess the relationship between physical, social and perceived safety related characteristics of the neighborhood and Body Mass Index (BMI) development in children during early school age, using a longitudinal design. We included an examination of moderating and confounding factors based on a conceptual model adapted from the EnRG framework (Environmental Research framework for weight Gain prevention) and empirical research. Analyses included 1887 children from the KOALA Birth Cohort Study followed from baseline age 4-5 years until 8-9 years. For children age 4-5 years, parents completed a questionnaire measuring characteristics of the neighborhood. Reliability and factor analyses were used to identify constructs for neighborhood characteristics. Linear regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between neighborhood constructs and BMI z-scores cross-sectionally at age 4-5 years and longitudinally using Generalized Estimating Equations with BMI z-scores over 5 repeated measurements until age 8-9 years. Fourteen constructs were identified and grouped in three domains including perceived physical, social, or safety related characteristics of the neighborhood. Cross-sectionally, a lower BMI z-score was associated with higher perceived physical attractiveness of the neighborhood environment (standardized regression coefficient (β) -0.078, 95% CI -0.123 to -0.034) and a higher level of social capital (β -0.142, -0.264 to -0.019). Longitudinally, similar associations were observed with potentially even stronger regression coefficients. This study suggests that BMI in children is mainly related to the modifiable physical
Kaplan, Gary J.; And Others
Histories of ear disease, otoscopic examinations, and audiologic, intelligence, and achievement tests were obtained from a cohort of 489 Alaskan Eskimo children, followed through the first 10 years of life, to determine whether otitis media (middle ear inflammation) deleteriously affected intellectual functioning and achievement in school.…
Background Inflammation is a key factor in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases. Early life exposure to microbial agents may have an effect on the development of the immune system and on respiratory health later in life. In the present work we aimed to evaluate the associations between early life microbial exposures, and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) at school age. Methods Endotoxin, extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) and β(1,3)-D-glucan were measured in living room dust collected at 2–3 months of age in homes of participants of three prospective European birth cohorts (LISA, n = 182; PIAMA, n = 244; and INMA, n = 355). Home dampness and pet ownership were periodically reported by the parents through questionnaires. FeNO was measured at age 8 for PIAMA and at age 10/11 for LISA and INMA. Cohort-specific associations between the indoor microbial exposures and FeNO were evaluated using multivariable regression analyses. Estimates were combined using random-effects meta-analyses. Results FeNO at school age was lower in children exposed to endotoxin at age 2–3 months (β -0.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.10;-0.01) and in children with reported dog ownership during the first two years of life (GM ratio 0.82, CI 0.70-0.96). FeNO was not significantly associated with early life exposure to EPS, β(1,3)-D-glucan, indoor dampness and cat ownership. Conclusion Early life exposure to bacterial endotoxin and early life dog ownership are associated with lower FeNO at school age. Further studies are needed to confirm our results and to unravel the underlying mechanisms and possible clinical relevance of this finding. PMID:24295277
Hjortebjerg, Dorrit; Andersen, Anne Marie Nybo; Christensen, Jeppe Schultz; Ketzel, Matthias; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Sunyer, Jordi; Julvez, Jordi; Forns, Joan; Sørensen, Mette
Background Exposure to traffic noise has been associated with adverse effects on neuropsychological outcomes in children, but findings with regard to behavioral problems are inconsistent. Objective We investigated whether residential road traffic noise exposure is associated with behavioral problems in 7-year-old children. Methods We identified 46,940 children from the Danish National Birth Cohort with complete information on behavioral problems at 7 years of age and complete address history from conception to 7 years of age. Road traffic noise (Lden) was modeled at all present and historical addresses. Behavioral problems were assessed by the parent-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Associations between pregnancy and childhood exposure to noise and behavioral problems were analyzed by multinomial or logistic regression and adjusted for potential confounders. Results A 10-dB increase in average time-weighted road traffic noise exposure from birth to 7 years of age was associated with a 7% increase (95% CI: 1.00, 1.14) in abnormal versus normal total difficulties scores; 5% (95% CI: 1.00, 1.10) and 9% (95% CI: 1.03, 1.18) increases in borderline and abnormal hyperactivity/inattention subscale scores, respectively; and 5% (95% CI: 0.98, 1.14) and 6% (95% CI: 0.99, 1.12) increases in abnormal conduct problem and peer relationship problem subscale scores, respectively. Exposure to road traffic noise during pregnancy was not associated with child behavioral problems at 7 years of age. Conclusions Residential road traffic noise in early childhood may be associated with behavioral problems, particularly hyperactivity/inattention symptoms. Citation Hjortebjerg D, Andersen AM, Christensen JS, Ketzel M, Raaschou-Nielsen O, Sunyer J, Julvez J, Forns J, Sørensen M. 2016. Exposure to road traffic noise and behavioral problems in 7-year-old children: a cohort study. Environ Health Perspect 124:228–234; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409430 PMID
Hancock, Kirsten J.; Cunningham, Nadia K.; Lawrence, David; Zarb, David; Zubrick, Stephen R.
Objective This study aimed to examine friendship networks and social support outcomes for mothers according to patterns of playgroup participation. Methods Data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children were used to examine the extent to which patterns of playgroup participation across the ages of 3–19 months (Wave 1) and 2–3 years (Wave 2) were associated with social support outcomes for mothers at Wave 3 (4–5 years) and four years later at Wave 5 (8–9 years). Analyses were adjusted for initial friendship attachments at Wave 1 and other socio-demographic characteristics. Results Log-binomial regression models estimating relative risks showed that mothers who never participated in a playgroup, or who participated at either Wave 1 or Wave 2 only, were 1.7 and 1.8 times as likely to report having no support from friends when the child was 4–5 years, and 2.0 times as likely to have no support at age 8–9 years, compared with mothers who persistently participated in playgroup at both Wave 1 and Wave 2. Conclusion These results provide evidence that persistent playgroup participation may acts as a protective factor against poor social support outcomes. Socially isolated parents may find playgroups a useful resource to build their social support networks. PMID:26181426
Ertel, Karen A.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Gillman, Matthew W.
Background Shorter stature is associated with greater all cause and heart disease mortality, but taller stature with increased risk of cancer mortality. Though childhood environment is important in determining height, limited data address how maternal depression affects linear growth in children. We examined the relationships between antenatal and postpartum depressive symptoms and child height and linear growth from birth to age 3 years in a U.S. sample. Methods Subjects were 872 mother-child pairs in Project Viva, a prospective pre-birth cohort study. The study population is relatively advantaged with high levels of income and education and low risk of food insecurity. We assessed maternal depression at mid-pregnancy (mean 28 weeks' gestation) and 6 months postpartum with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (score > = 13 on 0–30 scale indicating probable depression). Child outcomes at age 3 were height-for-age z-score (HAZ) and leg length. HAZ was also available at birth and ages 6 months, 1, 2, and 3 years. Findings Seventy (8.0%) women experienced antenatal depression and 64 (7.3%) experienced postpartum depression. The mean (SD) height for children age 3 was 97.2 cm (4.2), with leg length of 41.6 cm (2.6). In multivariable linear regression models, exposure to postpartum depression was associated with greater HAZ (0.37 [95% confidence interval: 0.16, 0.58]) and longer leg length (0.88 cm [0.35, 1.41]). The relationship between postpartum depression and greater HAZ was evident starting at 6 months and continued to age 3. We found minimal relationships between antenatal depression and child height outcomes. Conclusion Our findings do not support the hypothesis that maternal depression is associated with reduced height in children in this relatively advantaged sample in a high-income country. PMID:21048958
Hamre, Harald J; Witt, Claudia M; Kienle, Gunver S; Meinecke, Christoph; Glockmann, Anja; Willich, Stefan N; Kiene, Helmut
Background Many children with chronic disease use complementary therapies. Anthroposophic treatment for paediatric chronic disease is provided by physicians and differs from conventional treatment in the use of special therapies (art therapy, eurythmy movement exercises, rhythmical massage therapy) and special medications. We studied clinical outcomes in children with chronic diseases under anthroposophic treatment in routine outpatient settings. Methods In conjunction with a health benefit program, consecutive outpatients starting anthroposophic treatment for any chronic disease participated in a prospective cohort study. Main outcome was disease severity (Disease and Symptom Scores, physicians' and caregivers' assessment on numerical rating scales 0–10). Disease Score was documented after 0, 6, and 12 months, Symptom Score after 0, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Results A total of 435 patients were included. Mean age was 8.2 years (standard deviation 3.3, range 1.0–16.9 years). Most common indications were mental disorders (46.2% of patients; primarily hyperkinetic, emotional, and developmental disorders), respiratory disorders (14.0%), and neurological disorders (5.7%). Median disease duration at baseline was 3.0 years (interquartile range 1.0–5.0 years). The anthroposophic treatment modalities used were medications (69.2% of patients), eurythmy therapy (54.7%), art therapy (11.3%), and rhythmical massage therapy (6.7%). Median number of eurythmy/art/massage therapy sessions was 12 (interquartile range 10–20), median therapy duration was 118 days (interquartile range 78–189 days). From baseline to six-month follow-up, Disease Score improved by average 3.00 points (95% confidence interval 2.76–3.24 points, p < 0.001) and Symptom Score improved by 2.41 points (95% confidence interval 2.16–2.66 points, p < 0.001). These improvements were maintained until the last follow-up. Symptom Score improved similarly in patients not using adjunctive non
Ashman, A M; Collins, C E; Weatherall, L; Brown, L J; Rollo, M E; Clausen, D; Blackwell, C C; Pringle, K G; Attia, J; Smith, R; Lumbers, E R; Rae, K M
Indigenous Australians have high rates of chronic diseases, the causes of which are complex and include social and environmental determinants. Early experiences in utero may also predispose to later-life disease development. The Gomeroi gaaynggal study was established to explore intrauterine origins of renal disease, diabetes and growth in order to inform the development of health programmes for Indigenous Australian women and children. Pregnant women are recruited from antenatal clinics in Tamworth, Newcastle and Walgett, New South Wales, Australia, by Indigenous research assistants. Measures are collected at three time points in pregnancy and from women and their children at up to eight time points in the child's first 5 years. Measures of fetal renal development and function include ultrasound and biochemical biomarkers. Dietary intake, infant feeding and anthropometric measurements are collected. Standardized procedures and validated tools are used where available. Since 2010 the study has recruited over 230 women, and retained 66 postpartum. Recruitment is ongoing, and Gomeroi gaaynggal is currently the largest Indigenous pregnancy-through-early-childhood cohort internationally. Baseline median gestational age was 39.1 weeks (31.5-43.2, n=110), median birth weight was 3180 g (910-5430 g, n=110). Over one third (39.3%) of infants were admitted to special care or neonatal nursery. Nearly half of mothers (47.5%) reported tobacco smoking during pregnancy. Results of the study will contribute to knowledge about origins of chronic disease in Indigenous Australians and nutrition and growth of women and their offspring during pregnancy and postpartum. Study strengths include employment and capacity-building of Indigenous staff and the complementary ArtsHealth programme. PMID:27080434
Background The Taiwanese government has been promoting early intervention to children with intellectual disability for years, but data on its effectiveness are limited. Methods We recruited children who were treated for intellectual disability at a teaching hospital and had two IQ tests from 2001 to 2005 and used the difference between the two tests as the indicator of effectiveness. Results The participants included 23 boys and 13 girls 56.5 ± 5.9 months of age at the first test and 73.4 ± 4.9 months at the second. The IQ increased from 57.0 ± 8.0 to 65.1 ± 12.3 (p < 0.001). Multi-variate regressions showed that a low maternal educational level, male gender, and a younger age at the first test were significant independent predictors of the effectiveness. Conclusions Early intervention can improve the IQ of children with intellectual disability, and the earlier the intervention the better. The effectiveness is demonstrable in boys and more prominent in children whose mothers had a low educational level. PMID:24989708
Huang, R-C; Prescott, Susan L; Godfrey, Keith M; Davis, Elizabeth A
Pregnancy and birth cohorts have been utilised extensively to investigate the developmental origins of health and disease, particularly in relation to understanding the aetiology of obesity and related cardiometabolic disorders. Birth and pregnancy cohorts have been utilised extensively to investigate this area of research. The aim of the present review was twofold: first to outline the necessity of measuring cardiometabolic risk in children; and second to outline how it can be assessed. The major outcomes thought to have an important developmental component are CVD, insulin resistance and related metabolic outcomes. Conditions such as the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and CHD all tend to have peak prevalence in middle-aged and older individuals but assessments of cardiometabolic risk in childhood and adolescence are important to define early causal factors and characterise preventive measures. Typically, researchers investigating prospective cohort studies have relied on the thesis that cardiovascular risk factors, such as dyslipidaemia, hypertension and obesity, track from childhood into adult life. The present review summarises some of the evidence that these factors, when measured in childhood, may be of value in assessing the risk of adult cardiometabolic disease, and as such proceeds to describe some of the methods for assessing cardiometabolic risk in children. PMID:26090093
Zalwango, Sarah K; Kizza, Florence N; Nkwata, Allan K; Sekandi, Juliet N; Kakaire, Robert; Kiwanuka, Noah; Whalen, Christopher C; Ezeamama, Amara E
Objective To determine whether perinatal HIV infection and exposure adversely affected psychosocial adjustment (PA) between 6 and 18 years of life (i.e. during school-age and adolescence). Methods We enrolled 58 perinatally HIV-infected, 56 HIV-exposed uninfected and 54 unexposed controls from Kampala, Uganda. Perinatal HIV status was determined by 18 months of age using a DNA-polymerase chain-reaction test and was confirmed via HIV rapid diagnostic test at psychosocial testing when the children were 6 to 18 years old. Five indicators of PA (depressive symptoms, distress, hopelessness, positive future orientation and esteem) were measured using validated, culturally adapted and translated instruments. Multivariable linear regression analyses estimated HIV-status-related percent differences (β) in PA indicators and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results During school-age and adolescence, positive outlook (β=−3.8, 95% CI: −7.2, −0.1) and self-esteem (β=−4.3, 95% CI: −6.7, −1.8) scores were significantly lower, whereas depressive (β=11.4, 95% CI: 3.3, 19.5) and distress (β=12.3, 95% CI: 5.9, 18.7) symptoms were elevated for perinatally HIV-infected, compared to unexposed controls and exposed uninfected children. Similarly, positive outlook (β=−4.3, 95% CI: −7.3, −1.2) and self-esteem were lower for exposed controls versus HIV-unexposed children. Hopelessness was similar by perinatal HIV status. Likewise, the distress and depressive symptom levels were comparable for HIV-exposed uninfected and HIV-unexposed children. Conclusions Perinatal HIV infection predicted higher distress and depressive symptoms, while HIV-affected status (infection/exposure) predicted low self-esteem and diminished positive outlook in the long term. However, HIV-affected status had no impact on hopelessness, suggesting that psychosocial interventions as an integral component of HIV care for infected children or primary care exposed uninfected children may
Background The longitudinal birth cohort study is the preferred design for studies of childhood health, particularly atopic disease. Still, prospective data collection depends on recollection of the medical history since the previous visit representing a potential recall-bias. We aimed to ascertain the quality of information on atopic disease and other health symptoms reported by parental interview in a closely monitored birth cohort study. Possible bias from symptom severity and socioeconomics were sought. Methods Copenhagen study on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC) is a clinical birth cohort study of 411 children born of asthmatic mothers from 1999 to 2001. Child health is monitored at six-monthly visits with particular emphasis on atopic symptoms and infections. Data from the first three study years on 260 children was compared with records from their family practitioner as an external reference. Results A total of 6134 medical events were reported at the COPSAC interviews. Additional 586 medical events were recorded by family practitioners but not reported at the interview. There were no missed events related to asthma, eczema or allergy. Respiratory, infectious and skin related symptoms showed completeness above 90%, other diseases showed lower completeness around 77%. There was no meaningful influence from concurrent asthma or socioeconomics. Conclusions The COPSAC study exhibited full sensitivity to the main study objectives, atopic disease, and high sensitivity to respiratory, infectious and skin related illness. Our findings support the validity of parental interviews in longitudinal cohort studies investigating atopic disease and illness in childhood. PMID:23088330
Background Recent studies have raised controversy regarding the association between cesarean section and later obesity in the offspring. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of cesarean section with increased body mass index (BMI) and obesity in school children from two Brazilian cities with distinct socioeconomic backgrounds. Methods Two birth cohorts respectively born in 1994 in Ribeirao Preto, a wealthy city in Southeast, and in 1997/98 in Sao Luis, a less wealthy city in Northeast of Brasil, were evaluated. After birth, 2,846 pairs of mothers-newborns were evaluated in Ribeirao Preto and 2,542 in Sao Luis. In 2004/05, 790 children aged 10/11 years were randomly reassessed in Ribeirao Preto and 673 at 7/9 years in Sao Luis. Information on type of delivery, maternal and child characteristics, socioeconomic position and anthropometric measurements were collected after birth and at school age. Obesity was defined as BMI ≥ 95th percentile at school age. Results Obesity rate was 13.0% in Ribeirao Preto and 2.1% in Sao Luis. Cesarean section was associated with obesity and remained significant after adjustment only in Ribeirao Preto [OR = 1.74 (95% CI: 1.04; 2.92)]. The association between cesarean section and BMI remained significant after adjustment for maternal schooling, maternal smoking during pregnancy, duration of breastfeeding, gender, birth weight and gestational age, type of school and, only in Sao Luis, pre-pregnancy maternal weight. In Ribeirao Preto children born by cesarean section had BMI 0.31 kg/m2 (95%CI: 0.11; 0.51) higher than those born by vaginal delivery. In Sao Luis BMI of children born by cesarean section was 0.28 kg/m2 higher (95%CI: 0.08; 0.49) than those born by vaginal delivery. Conclusion A positive association between cesarean section and increased BMI z-score was demonstrated in areas with different socioeconomic status in a middle-income country. PMID:23886115
Carson, Claire; Redshaw, Maggie; Gray, Ron; Quigley, Maria A
Objective To assess whether the parents of babies born preterm (PT; <37 weeks completed gestation) are at excess risk of psychological distress (PD) at 9 months postpartum, and to explore the influence of the degree of prematurity. Design and participants Data were drawn from the UK Millennium Cohort Study, a nationally representative prospective cohort of babies born in 2000–2002. 12 100 families with complete data available for both parents at recruitment (9 months postpartum) are included. Exposure and outcome Mothers report of gestational age at birth (in weeks) was grouped into: very PT (<32 weeks), moderately PT (32–33 weeks), late PT (34–36 weeks), early term (37–38 weeks), full-term (39–41 weeks), post-term (42 weeks). PD was assessed using a modified Rutter Malaise Inventory, a validated instrument that has been used in both men and women to assess levels of anxiety and distress. Results Overall, 7% of families reported a PT birth; 12.1% of mothers and 8.9% of fathers showed signs of PD at 9 months postpartum. The mothers of very PT infants had an increased risk of PD, compared with the mothers of full-term babies (unadjusted OR 2.10 (1.30 to 3.39; adjusted OR 1.66 (1.02 to 2.69)). Mothers of moderate or late PT babies had no apparent increased risk of PD. However, mothers of early term babies also showed a small excess risk of PD (adjusted OR 1.16 (0.99 to 1.36)). Unadjusted analysis suggested a doubling in the risk of PD in fathers of very and moderately PT babies, compared with fathers of full-term babies, which remains statistically significant after adjustment in the moderately PT group (adjusted OR1.98 (1.20 to 3.29)). Conclusions The parents of very PT children are at an increased risk of PD at 9 months postpartum, and mothers of children born at early term also see an elevated risk compared with mothers of full-term babies. PMID:26685019
Parkes, Alison; Sweeting, Helen; Wight, Daniel; Henderson, Marion
Background Screen entertainment for young children has been associated with several aspects of psychosocial adjustment. Most research is from North America and focuses on television. Few longitudinal studies have compared the effects of TV and electronic games, or have investigated gender differences. Purpose To explore how time watching TV and playing electronic games at age 5 years each predicts change in psychosocial adjustment in a representative sample of 7 year-olds from the UK. Methods Typical daily hours viewing television and playing electronic games at age 5 years were reported by mothers of 11 014 children from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. Conduct problems, emotional symptoms, peer relationship problems, hyperactivity/inattention and prosocial behaviour were reported by mothers using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Change in adjustment from age 5 years to 7 years was regressed on screen exposures; adjusting for family characteristics and functioning, and child characteristics. Results Watching TV for 3 h or more at 5 years predicted a 0.13 point increase (95% CI 0.03 to 0.24) in conduct problems by 7 years, compared with watching for under an hour, but playing electronic games was not associated with conduct problems. No associations were found between either type of screen time and emotional symptoms, hyperactivity/inattention, peer relationship problems or prosocial behaviour. There was no evidence of gender differences in the effect of screen time. Conclusions TV but not electronic games predicted a small increase in conduct problems. Screen time did not predict other aspects of psychosocial adjustment. Further work is required to establish causal mechanisms. PMID:23529828
Ahmadu, Baba Usman; Rimamchika, Musa; Ibrahim, Ahmad; Nnanubumom, Andy Angela; Godiya, Andrew; Emmanuel, Pembi
Good personal hygiene in primary school children could be effective towards preventing infectious diseases. This work examined personal cleanliness of primary school children in Banki based on the following variables: bathing, state of uniforms, hair, nails and oral hygiene. One hundred and fifty primary school children in Banki community were selected using the cluster random sampling method. Analysis of variance was used to compare means and to test for significance of data, and coefficient of correlation to investigate the relationship between cleanliness and age of subjects. There were 87 (58 %) boys and 63 (42 %) girls in a ratio of 1.4:1. Ninety six (64 %) pupils belong to low socioeconomic class. Whereas, 53 (35.3 %) were found within 11–13 years age group, the overall mean age was 9 years (Standard deviation [SD] was 2.2), 95 CI (7.0 – 11.0) years. Comparing means for the different categories of personal hygiene, there was significant difference (F= 61.47, p < 0.0001). General personal cleanliness in our participants improved with age, and a positive significant correlation was observed between age and personal cleanliness in (r = 0.971, p = 0.026). In conclusion, significant number of primary school pupils in Banki community had good personal hygiene, which was observed to be directly proportional with age. Therefore, all efforts towards quality health education on personal hygiene as a means of primary prevention of illnesses in primary school pupils should be sustained. PMID:27493356
Richards, Marcus; Huppert, Felicia A
Background Little is known about the long-term consequences of positive wellbeing in childhood in the general population. We used the MRC National Survey of Health and Development (the British 1946 birth cohort) to test associations between adolescent positive wellbeing and social functioning in midlife. Method Temperament and behaviour at ages 13 and 15 years were rated by school teachers on a range of criteria. These mostly referred to absence or presence of conduct and emotional problems, but four items allowed positive ratings: ‘very popular with other children’, ‘unusually happy and contented’, ‘makes friends extremely easily’ and ‘extremely energetic, never tired’. In addition, at age 16 years survey members self-completed the Maudsley Personality Inventory, from which a summary measure of extraversion was derived, as this was previously found to be associated with midlife positive wellbeing in this cohort. Results Being a happy child, defined as receiving at least two of the above teacher ratings, was positively associated with midlife functioning and wellbeing, specifically a low probability of lifetime emotional problems, a high frequency of contact with friends or relatives, engagement in social activities, and to a lesser extent feeling satisfied with accomplishments in working life. These associations were independent of father’s social class, childhood cognition, educational attainment, and midlife occupational social class. There were no independent associations between being a happy child and educational or occupational attainment, being married, engagement in prosocial activities, taking leadership in community activities, and with life satisfaction in general or with family life. Extraversion was associated with a low probability of lifetime emotional problems, high engagement in social activities, being married, general midlife life satisfaction, and satisfaction with family life, but not with social contact, prosocial activity
Kanatani, Kumiko T; Adachi, Yuichi; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Noma, Hisashi; Onishi, Kazunari; Hamazaki, Kei; Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Ito, Isao; Egawa, Miho; Sato, Keiko; Go, Tohshin; Kurozawa, Youichi; Inadera, Hidekuni; Konishi, Ikuo; Nakayama, Takeo
Introduction Desert dust is estimated to constitute about 35% of aerosol in the troposphere. Desertification, climatic variability and global warming all can contribute to increased dust formation. This study aims to examine possible health effects of desert dust exposure on pregnant women and their children. The purpose of this report was to present the study protocol. Methods and analysis This 4-year birth cohort study began in 2011 as an adjunct study of the Japan Environment & Children’s Study (JECS) involving three regions: Kyoto, Toyama and Tottori. The JECS participants of the three regions above who also agreed to participate in this adjunct study were enrolled prior to delivery. Light Detecting and Ranging (LIDAR) with a polarisation analyser, which can distinguish mineral dust particles from other particles, is used for exposure measurements. Outcomes are allergic symptoms for mothers and development of asthma and other allergic or respiratory diseases for their children. Data are acquired in a timely manner by connecting local LIDAR equipment to an online questionnaire system. Participants answer the online questionnaire using mobile phones or personal computers. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol was approved by the ethics committees of Kyoto University, University of Toyama and Tottori University. All participants provided written informed consent. The results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals and disseminated to the scientific community and general public. Trial Registration number UMIN000010826. PMID:24958210
Geffner, Mitchell E.; Patel, Kunjal; Miller, Tracie L.; Hazra, Rohan; Silio, Margarita; Van Dyke, Russell B.; Borkowsky, William; Worrell, Carol; DiMeglio, Linda A.; Jacobson, Denise L.
Background/Aims: Because of prior inconsistent findings, we studied a large cohort of HIV-infected children to determine: (1) prevalence of insulin resistance (IR); (2) anthropometric and clinical correlates of IR, and (3) concomitant abnormalities of glucose tolerance. Methods The study population consisted of 451 children from the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study. The outcome of interest was HOMA-IR. Covariates included demographic, metabolic, growth, body composition, HIV laboratory tests, and treatment characteristics. Children meeting triggers for IR underwent oral glucose tolerance tests and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) measurements. Results Among 402 children with glucose and insulin measurements, 15.2% had IR of whom 79% were pubertal. IR was associated with higher alanine aminotransferase, body mass index, and nadir CD4%, Tanner stage 5, and ever having received amprenavir. Of those with IR, three had impaired fasting glucose (IFG), three impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), one IFG and IGT, none diabetic glucose tolerance, and three HbA1c between 6.1 and 6.5%. Conclusion In our cohort of HIV-infected adolescents, we observed a 15.2% prevalence of IR more closely linked to obesity than any other variable. This finding mirrors the high prevalence of obesity-mediated IR in American youth. However, associations with CD4 count and use of protease inhibitors may indicate some effect of HIV and/or its treatment. PMID:22042056
Solmi, Francesca; Morris, Stephen
Objectives Increasing rates of childhood obesity have been suggested as a possible cause for the increasing prevalence of chronic conditions among adults and children. Few studies have examined whether obese children are more likely to use medications than normal weight children. We investigate this association in the UK. Design A panel study with repeated observations at ages 5, 7 and 11. Setting A general population sample drawn from the Millennium Cohort Study, a UK-based birth cohort. Participants A sample of 9667 children. Primary and secondary outcome measures Our primary outcomes were crude and adjusted probabilities of taking any regular medications and the number of medications among overweight and obese children compared with normal weight children. Our secondary outcome was the distribution of medication use by therapeutic classification across body mass index (BMI) groups. Results Obese children were more likely to use any medication (marginal effect (ME)=0.02, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.03) and to use more medications (ME=0.08, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.12) than normal weight children. Obese children used more medications for respiratory conditions than those of other BMI groups. Conclusions Obese children are more likely to use regular medications and have comorbid conditions, even at young ages. This suggests that the cost of prescriptions should be considered when evaluating the economic burden of childhood obesity and that preventative strategies to reduce childhood obesity could be cost-effective in the short as well as in the long term. While more research is needed, both clinicians and policymakers should be aware of these findings when planning prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:26033945
This article describes a number of human cohort studies based on the concept of brain-science and education. These studies assess the potential effects of new technologies on babies, children and adolescents, and test hypotheses drawn from animal and genetic case studies to see if they apply to people. A flood of information, virtual media,…
de Jonge, Layla L; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Steegers, Eric A P; Gaillard, Romy
Objective To examine whether first trimester fetal growth restriction correlates with cardiovascular outcomes in childhood. Design Population based prospective cohort study. Setting City of Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Participants 1184 children with first trimester fetal crown to rump length measurements, whose mothers had a reliable first day of their last menstrual period and a regular menstrual cycle. Main outcomes measures Body mass index, total and abdominal fat distribution, blood pressure, and blood concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, and C peptide at the median age of 6.0 (90% range 5.7-6.8) years. Clustering of cardiovascular risk factors was defined as having three or more of: high android fat mass; high systolic or diastolic blood pressure; low high density lipoprotein cholesterol or high triglycerides concentrations; and high insulin concentrations. Results One standard deviation score greater first trimester fetal crown to rump length was associated with a lower total fat mass (−0.30%, 95% confidence interval −0.57% to −0.03%), android fat mass (−0.07%, −0.12% to −0.02%), android/gynoid fat mass ratio (−0.53, −0.89 to −0.17), diastolic blood pressure (−0.43, −0.84 to −0.01, mm Hg), total cholesterol (−0.05, −0.10 to 0, mmol/L), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (−0.04, −0.09 to 0, mmol/L), and risk of clustering of cardiovascular risk factors (relative risk 0.81, 0.66 to 1.00) in childhood. Additional adjustment for gestational age and weight at birth changed these effect estimates only slightly. Childhood body mass index fully explained the associations of first trimester fetal crown to rump length with childhood total fat mass. First trimester fetal growth was not associated with other cardiovascular outcomes. Longitudinal growth analyses showed that compared with school age children without clustering of cardiovascular risk factors, those with clustering had a smaller first trimester fetal crown
Tanaka, Shiro; Shinzawa, Maki; Tokumasu, Hironobu; Seto, Kahori; Tanaka, Sachiko
Study question Does maternal smoking during pregnancy and exposure of infants to tobacco smoke at age 4 months increase the risk of caries in deciduous teeth? Methods Population based retrospective cohort study of 76 920 children born between 2004 and 2010 in Kobe City, Japan who received municipal health check-ups at birth, 4, 9, and 18 months, and 3 years and had information on household smoking status at age 4 months and records of dental examinations at age 18 months and 3 years. Smoking during pregnancy and exposure of infants to secondhand smoke at age 4 months was assessed by standardised parent reported questionnaires. The main outcome measure was the incidence of caries in deciduous teeth, defined as at least one decayed, missing, or filled tooth assessed by qualified dentists without radiographs. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios of exposure to secondhand smoke compared with having no smoker in the family after propensity score adjustment for clinical and lifestyle characteristics. Study answer and limitations Prevalence of household smoking among the 76 920 children was 55.3% (n=42 525), and 6.8% (n=5268) had evidence of exposure to tobacco smoke. A total of 12 729 incidents of dental caries were observed and most were decayed teeth (3 year follow-up rate 91.9%). The risk of caries at age 3 years was 14.0% (no smoker in family), 20.0% (smoking in household but without evidence of exposure to tobacco smoke), and 27.6% (exposure to tobacco smoke). The propensity score adjusted hazard ratios of the two exposure groups compared with having no smoker in the family were 1.46 (95% confidence interval 1.40 to 1.52) and 2.14 (1.99 to 2.29), respectively. The propensity score adjusted hazard ratio between maternal smoking during pregnancy and having no smoker in the family was 1.10 (0.97 to 1.25). What this study adds Exposure to tobacco smoke at 4 months of age was associated with an approximately twofold increased risk of caries
Kim, Hyo Jin; Lee, Kyu-Jin; Jeon, Yeon Jin; Ahn, Moon Bae; Jung, In Ah; Kim, Shin Hee; Cho, Won-Kyoung; Cho, Kyoung Soon; Park, So Hyun; Jung, Min Ho
Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships of physical fitness and obesity with metabolic risk factors in children and adolescents. Methods This cohort study was conducted in Chungju city, South Korea. Total 843 subjects were enrolled, including 193 elementary school 4th grade male (E4M), 189 elementary school 4th grade female (E4F) and 461 male-middle school students (M1M). The subjects were also classified into 2 groups by body mass index; normal weight (NW) group and overweight included obesity (OW/OB) group. Physical fitness was measured by shuttle run (cardiorespiratory fitness, CRF), sit and reach (flexibility), handgrip strength (muscular strength) and stand long jump (agility). Results The prevalence of OW/OB was respectively 33.7% (65 of 193) among E4M, 28.6% (54 of 189) among E4F, and 28.0% (129 of 461) among M1M. Hematocrit, white blood cell, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were higher, while high-density lipoprotein were lower in the OW/OB group than in the NW group. The OW/OB group presented significantly lower CRF (P<0.01) and lower agility, but higher muscular strength compared with NW group. CRF was negatively correlated with obesity indices and metabolic risk factors. After adjustments for potential confounders, odds ratios for 4th–5th grade CRF of OW/OB compared NW in the E4M, E4F, M1M, were 7.38 (95 % CI, 3.24–16.83), 4.10 (95% CI, 1.83–9.18), 16.06 (95% CI, 8.23–31.00) (P<0.01). Conclusion Our study has shown that CRF has negative correlation with OW/OB in children and adolescents of Chungju city. We suggest that improvement of CRF through regular physical activity would be an important method for reducing the metabolic risks of childhood obesity. PMID:27104177
Lung, For-Wey; Chiang, Tung-Liang; Lin, Shio-Jean; Feng, Jui-Ying; Chen, Po-Fei; Shu, Bih-Ching
The parental report instrument is the most efficient developmental detection method and has shown high validity with professional assessment instruments. The reliability and validity of the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS) 6-, 18- and 36-month scales have already been established. In this study, the reliability and validity of the 60-month scale…
Nisar, Yasir Bin; Dibley, Michael J.; Aguayo, Victor M.
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of antenatal iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation on child stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. A retrospective cohort study design was used, in which a pooled cohort of 5235 most recent live births 2 years prior to interview from three Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (2001, 2006 and 2011) was analysed. The primary outcome was stunting in children age <2 years. The main exposure variable was antenatal IFA supplementation. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis was performed. In our sample, 31% and 10% of Nepalese children age <2 years were stunted and severely stunted, respectively. The adjusted relative risk of being stunted was 14% lower in children whose mothers used IFA supplements compared to those whose mothers did not use (aRR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.77–0.97). Additionally, the adjusted relative risk of being stunted was significantly reduced by 23% when antenatal IFA supplementation was started ≤6 months with ≥90 IFA supplements used during pregnancy (aRR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.64–0.92). Antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduced the risk of stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. The greatest impact on the risk reduction of child stunting was when IFA supplements were started ≤6 months with ≥90 supplements were used. PMID:26828515
McIntyre, Roger S.
Objective: To identify factors associated with incident metabolic and reproductive adverse events in children and adolescents. Method: A retrospective cohort design evaluating Medicaid medical and pharmacy claims made in South Carolina between January 1996 and December 2005 was employed for 3,657 children and adolescents (aged 17 years old and younger) prescribed 1 of 3 antimanic medications (ie, lithium, carbamazepine, or valproic acid derivatives) and a random sample of 4,500 children and adolescents not treated with psychotropic medications. Results: Compared to the control sample, the treated cohort was more likely to be diagnosed with obesity/weight gain (odds ratio [OR] = 1.89), type 2 diabetes mellitus (OR = 2.50), dyslipidemia (OR = 1.89), nausea (OR = 1.61), anorexia (OR = 3.85), and sexual/reproductive adverse events (OR = 2.04). Within the treated cohort, incident dyslipidemia was more likely for those prescribed carbamazepine (OR = 1.52) compared to valproate and coprescribed antipsychotics (OR = 1.47) or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) (OR = 1.49) compared to those not taking antipsychotics or taking serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor/heterocyclic (SNRI/other) antidepressants. The odds of developing nausea/vomiting were higher for those prescribed carbamazepine (OR = 1.70) or lithium (OR = 1.49) compared to valproate, and those coprescribed psychostimulants (OR = 1.25) compared to those not taking psychostimulants. The odds of developing obesity/weight gain and type 2 diabetes mellitus were higher for those coprescribed SSRIs (ORs = 1.72, 2.58) or antipsychotics (ORs = 1.69, 1.77) compared to those taking SNRI/other antidepressants or not taking antipsychotics. Incident sexual/reproductive adverse events were more likely for those coprescribed SSRIs (OR = 2.02) compared to those taking SNRI/other antidepressants. Conclusion: Commonly employed psychotropic agents are associated with clinically significant metabolic, digestive
Bozaykut, Abdulkadir; Aksoy, Halil Ural; Sezer, Rabia Gönül; Polat, Muzaffer
The outcome of children with self-limited infantile epilepsy was reported to be normal psychosocial and cognitive development as a characteristic criterion. We aimed to investigate the clinical course and neurocognitive outcome in children with self-limited infantile epilepsy in a Turkish cohort. The clinical course, electroencephalographic (EEG) characteristics, neuroimaging, treatment, and outcome of children with self-limited infantile epilepsy were retrospectively analyzed. All infants were reevaluated with the Denver Developmental Screening Test in addition to neurologic examination. Of 44 patients, self-limited familial infantile epilepsy was diagnosed in 8 infants (18.2%) and self-limited nonfamilial infantile epilepsy in 28 (63.6%). Interictal EEGs and neurologic examinations were normal in all cases. Fine motor and gross motor skills, language, adaptive personal/social skills were near-normal in all patients with self-limited familial infantile epilepsy. Delay in language parameters was observed in 2 infants with self-limited nonfamilial infantile epilepsy. Language skills should be thoroughly evaluated with detailed neurocognitive screening tests in patients with self-limited infantile epilepsy. PMID:24958006
van Dijk, Janneke H.; Moss, William J.; Hamangaba, Francis; Munsanje, Bornface; Sutcliffe, Catherine G.
Background Travel time and distance are barriers to care for HIV-infected children in rural sub-Saharan Africa. Decentralization of care is one strategy to scale-up access to antiretroviral therapy (ART), but few programs have been evaluated. We compared outcomes for children receiving care in mobile and hospital-affiliated HIV clinics in rural Zambia. Methods Outcomes were measured within an ongoing cohort study of HIV-infected children seeking care at Macha Hospital, Zambia from 2007 to 2012. Children in the outreach clinic group received care from the Macha HIV clinic and transferred to one of three outreach clinics. Children in the hospital-affiliated clinic group received care at Macha HIV clinic and reported Macha Hospital as the nearest healthcare facility. Results Seventy-seven children transferred to the outreach clinics and were included in the analysis. Travel time to the outreach clinics was significantly shorter and fewer caretakers used public transportation, resulting in lower transportation costs and fewer obstacles accessing the clinic. Some caretakers and health care providers reported inferior quality of service provision at the outreach clinics. Sixty-eight children received ART at the outreach clinics and were compared to 41 children in the hospital-affiliated clinic group. At ART initiation, median age, weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ) and CD4+ T-cell percentages were similar for children in the hospital-affiliated and outreach clinic groups. Children in both groups experienced similar increases in WAZ and CD4+ T-cell percentages. Conclusions HIV care and treatment can be effectively delivered to HIV-infected children at rural health centers through mobile ART teams, removing potential barriers to uptake and retention. Outreach teams should be supported to increase access to HIV care and treatment in rural areas. PMID:25122213
Bliddal, Mette; Olsen, Jørn; Støvring, Henrik; Eriksen, Hanne-Lise F.; Kesmodel, Ulrik S.; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Nøhr, Ellen A.
Background An association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and childhood intelligence quotient (IQ) has repeatedly been found but it is unknown if this association is causal or due to confounding caused by genetic or social factors. Methods We used a cohort of 1,783 mothers and their 5-year-old children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The children participated between 2003 and 2008 in a neuropsychological assessment of cognitive ability including IQ tests taken by both the mother and the child. Linear regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between parental BMI and child IQ adjusted for a comprehensive set of potential confounders. Child IQ was assessed with the Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scales of Intelligence – Revised (WPPSI-R). Results The crude association between maternal BMI and child IQ showed that BMI was adversely associated with child IQ with a reduction in IQ of −0.40 point for each one unit increase in BMI. This association was attenuated after adjustment for social factors and maternal IQ to a value of −0.27 (−0.50 to −0.03). After mutual adjustment for the father's BMI and all other factors except maternal IQ, the association between paternal BMI and child IQ yielded a regression coefficient of −0.26 (−0.59 to 0.07), which was comparable to that seen for maternal BMI (−0.20 (−0.44 to 0.04)). Conclusion Although maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was inversely associated with the IQ of her child, the similar association with paternal BMI suggests that it is not a specific pregnancy related adiposity effect. PMID:24727836
Fazeli Farsani, Soulmaz; Souverein, Patrick C.; van der Vorst, Marja M. J.; Knibbe, Catherijne A. J.; de Boer, Anthonius
A population-based cohort study was conducted in the Dutch PHARMO database to investigate prevalence and patterns of anti-infective medication use in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) before and after the onset of this disease. All patients <19 years with at least 2 insulin prescriptions (1999 to 2009) were identified (T1D cohort) and compared with an age- and sex-matched (ratio: 1 up to 4) diabetes-free reference group. The prevalence and average number of anti-infective use was studied from (up to) 8 years before until a maximum of 4 years after the onset of T1D. A total of 925 patients with T1D and 3,591 children and adolescents in the reference cohort (51% boys, mean age of 10.1 [standard deviation, 4.5] years) were included. The overall prevalence of anti-infective use (62.6 compared to 52.6%, P < 0.001) and average number of prescriptions (2.71 compared to 1.42 per child, P < 0.001) in the T1D cohort were significantly higher than those in the reference cohort after the onset of diabetes. This pattern was consistent across sex and age categories and already observed in the year before the onset of type 1 diabetes. Patients in the T1D cohort received more antibacterials (49.8 compared to 40%, P < 0.001), antimycotics (4.0 compared to 1.3%, P < 0.001), antivirals (2.5 compared to 0.4%, P < 0.001), and second-line antibiotics, such as aminoglycosides, quinolones, and third-generation cephalosporins and carbapenems. Our findings that elevated anti-infective use in the T1D cohort exists in the period before the onset of type 1 diabetes and the consumption of more second-line anti-infective compounds in this time period warrant further research. PMID:24890584
Rich, Carly; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Dezateux, Carol; Geraci, Marco; Sera, Francesco; Calderwood, Lisa; Joshi, Heather; Griffiths, Lucy J
Objectives To investigate the biological, social, behavioural and environmental factors associated with non-consent, and non-return of reliable accelerometer data (≥2 days lasting ≥10 h/day), in a UK-wide postal study of children's activity. Design Nationally representative prospective cohort study. Setting Children born across the UK, between 2000 and 2002. Participants 13 681 7 to 8-year-old singleton children who were invited to wear an accelerometer on their right hip for 7 consecutive days. Consenting families were posted an Actigraph GT1M accelerometer and asked to return it by post. Primary outcome measures Study consent and reliable accelerometer data acquisition. Results Consent was obtained for 12 872 (94.5%) interviewed singletons, of whom 6497 (50.5%) returned reliable accelerometer data. Consent was less likely for children with a limiting illness or disability, children who did not have people smoking near them, children who had access to a garden, and those who lived in Northern Ireland. From those who consented, reliable accelerometer data were less likely to be acquired from children who: were boys; overweight/obese; of white, mixed or ‘other’ ethnicity; had an illness or disability limiting daily activity; whose mothers did not have a degree; who lived in rented accommodation; who exercised once a week or less; who had been breastfed; were from disadvantaged wards; had younger mothers or lone mothers; or were from households with just one, or more than three children. Conclusions Studies need to encourage consent and reliable data return in the wide range of groups we have identified to improve response and reduce non-response bias. Additional efforts targeted at such children should increase study consent and data acquisition while also reducing non-response bias. Adjustment must be made for missing data that account for missing data as a non-random event. PMID:23457328
Simpkin, Andrew J.; Hemani, Gibran; Suderman, Matthew; Gaunt, Tom R.; Lyttleton, Oliver; Mcardle, Wendy L.; Ring, Susan M.; Sharp, Gemma C.; Tilling, Kate; Horvath, Steve; Kunze, Sonja; Peters, Annette; Waldenberger, Melanie; Ward-Caviness, Cavin; Nohr, Ellen A.; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Relton, Caroline L.; Smith, George Davey
DNA methylation-based biomarkers of aging are highly correlated with actual age. Departures of methylation-estimated age from actual age can be used to define epigenetic measures of child development or age acceleration (AA) in adults. Very little is known about genetic or environmental determinants of these epigenetic measures of aging. We obtained DNA methylation profiles using Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips across five time-points in 1018 mother–child pairs from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Using the Horvath age estimation method, we calculated epigenetic age for these samples. AA was defined as the residuals from regressing epigenetic age on actual age. AA was tested for associations with cross-sectional clinical variables in children. We identified associations between AA and sex, birth weight, birth by caesarean section and several maternal characteristics in pregnancy, namely smoking, weight, BMI, selenium and cholesterol level. Offspring of non-drinkers had higher AA on average but this difference appeared to resolve during childhood. The associations between sex, birth weight and AA found in ARIES were replicated in an independent cohort (GOYA). In children, epigenetic AA measures are associated with several clinically relevant variables, and early life exposures appear to be associated with changes in AA during adolescence. Further research into epigenetic aging, including the use of causal inference methods, is required to better our understanding of aging. PMID:26546615
Colantonio, Lisandro D.; Prado, Nilda; Segura, Elsa L.; Sosa-Estani, Sergio
Background Chronic infection by Trypanosoma cruzi could cause heart conduction disturbances. We sought to analyze electrocardiographic abnormalities among children with chronic T. cruzi infection with and without trypanocidal treatment with benznidazole. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied 111 children 6–16 years of age with asymptomatic chronic T. cruzi infection who were recruited in 1991–1992 in Salta, Argentina. Most children were randomly assigned to benznidazole 5 mg/Kg/day (n = 47) or matching placebo (n = 48) for 60 days. Remaining children (n = 16) received treatment with benznidazole 5 mg/Kg/day open-label. Electrocardiograms were obtained at baseline and in 1995–1996, 1998, 2000 and 2005, and were analyzed using the Buenos Aires method. Among the 94 children with an electrocardiogram at baseline, 8 (8.5%) had electrocardiographic abnormalities, including 4 (4.7%) children with right bundle branch block. Proportion of abnormal electrocardiograms in the full population (n = 111) remained constant over time (media follow-up 8.6 years). Multivariable adjusted prevalence ratios (95% confidence interval [95%CI]) for electrocardiographic abnormalities in 1995–1996, 1998, 2000 and 2005 comparing children treated with benznidazole versus those not treated were 2.76 (0.66, 11.60), 2.33 (0.44, 12.31), 3.06 (0.48, 19.56), and 1.94 (0.33, 11.25), respectively. Among the 86 children with a normal electrocardiogram at baseline, 16 (18.6%) developed electrocardiographic abnormalities during follow-up. The multivariable adjusted hazard ratio for incident electrocardiographic abnormalities comparing children treated with benznidazole versus those not treated was 0.68 (95%CI: 0.25, 1.88). Conclusions/Significance Electrocardiographic abnormalities are frequent among children with chronic T. cruzi infection. Treatment with benznidazole for 60 days may not be associated with less electrocardiographic abnormalities. PMID:27158908
Background Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is a severe condition that determines a profound brain hypoxia. Inhaled nitric oxide was approved for the treatment of PPHN since the end of the 1990s. The debate upon the long term outcome of these children is still open. Our aim was to investigate the incidence of minor long-term neurodevelopmental problems in a cohort of children affected by severe PPHN. Methods All neonates with severe PPHN treated with inhaled nitric oxide in our facility between 01.01.02 and 31.12.07 were seen in a follow up visit and evaluated with a neurodevelopmental scale, according to their age at the time of observation. Results in the study period 31 children were diagnosed with severe PPHN. 29 survived. 27 accepted to come for follow-up. Mean age: 41 months (range 12 - 70 months). 26% of the evaluated children had some behavioural problems, while 22% had some language disturbances. Conclusions This is the first neurodevelopmental follow-up of neonates with PPHN in which children older than 36 months have been evaluated. There is an unexpected high incidence of minor neurological deficits, mainly regarding the fields of language and behaviour. These deficits seem to be related to the severity of illness rather than to the treatment. Language and behaviour are considered "higher functions" in humans and their integrity can be better defined in older children. PMID:20540801
Ning, Y J; Wang, X; Ren, L; Guo, X
Selenium (Se) supplements have been used to control Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) for decades, but the effect of diet without Se supplements is unclear because the prevalence of KBD has decreased. This matched cohort study was undertaken to determine dietary factors affecting selenium nutrition status of children living in KBD areas and the effects of Se supplements in preventing KBD. A total of 593 children aged 5-12 years were randomly selected during the high prevalence period of KBD from 1992 to 1995. Children in one village received Se supplemented (Se+) salt and were matched with three children in 16 other villages who did not receive Se supplemented (Se-) salt. A questionnaire and determinations of occipital hair Se to reflect body Se status were obtained at baseline (April 1992), at 6 months (October 1992), and yearly each April through 1995. Hair Se content in the Se+ group was significantly higher than in the Se- group (P < 0.001) at all time-points and was significantly related to the incidence of suspected KBD symptoms (P = 0.018). Four dietary factors significantly affected hair Se contents. Se levels were increased by consumption of Se+ salt (P < 0.001) and eating meat/egg often (P = 0.019) or occasionally (P = 0.001). Se levels were decreased by consumption of grain mildewed at harvest or in storage (P < 0.001 for each) and drinking ditch, river, or cellar water (P < 0.001; P = 0.002; P < 0.001, respectively). These results show that Se+ salt had a significant effect in maintaining the Se nutrition status of children in this cohort study but that dietary factors in those without Se supplements contributed as well. PMID:23568712
Hodkinson, Peter; Argent, Andrew; Wallis, Lee; Reid, Steve; Perera, Rafael; Harrison, Sian; Thompson, Matthew; English, Mike; Maconochie, Ian; Ward, Alison
Purpose Critically ill or injured children require prompt identification, rapid referral and quality emergency management. We undertook a study to evaluate the care pathway of critically ill or injured children to identify preventable failures in the care provided. Methods A year-long cohort study of critically ill and injured children was performed in Cape Town, South Africa, from first presentation to healthcare services until paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission or emergency department death, using expert panel review of medical records and caregiver interview. Main outcomes were expert assessment of overall quality of care; avoidability of severity of illness and PICU admission or death and the identification of modifiable factors. Results The study enrolled 282 children, 252 emergency PICU admissions, and 30 deaths. Global quality of care was graded good in 10% of cases, with half having at least one major impact modifiable factor. Key modifiable factors related to access to care and identification of the critically ill, assessment of severity, inadequate resuscitation, and delays in decision making and referral. Children were transferred with median time from first presentation to PICU admission of 12.3 hours. There was potentially avoidable severity of illness in 185 (74%) of children, and death prior to PICU admission was avoidable in 17/30 (56.7%) of children. Conclusions The study presents a novel methodology, examining quality of care across an entire system, and highlighting the complexity of the pathway and the modifiable events amenable to interventions, that could reduce mortality and morbidity, and optimize utilization of scarce critical care resources; as well as demonstrating the importance of continuity and quality of care. PMID:26731245
Ramful, Duksha; Boumahni, Brahim; Bintner, Marc; Alessandri, Jean-Luc; Carbonnier, Magali; Tiran-Rajaoefera, Isabelle; Beullier, Gilles; Boya, Irénée; Noormahomed, Tahir; Okoï, Jocelyn; Rollot, Olivier; Cotte, Liliane; Jaffar-Bandjee, Marie-Christine; Michault, Alain; Favier, François; Kaminski, Monique; Fourmaintraux, Alain; Fritel, Xavier
Background Little is known about the neurocognitive outcome in children exposed to perinatal mother-to-child Chikungunya virus (p-CHIKV) infection. Methods The CHIMERE ambispective cohort study compared the neurocognitive function of 33 p-CHIKV-infected children (all but one enrolled retrospectively) at around two years of age with 135 uninfected peers (all enrolled prospectively). Psychomotor development was assessed using the revised Brunet-Lezine scale, examiners blinded to infectious status. Development quotients (DQ) with subscores covering movement/posture, coordination, language, sociability skills were calculated. Predictors of global neurodevelopmental delay (GND, DQ≤85), were investigated using multivariate Poisson regression modeling. Neuroradiologic follow-up using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans was proposed for most of the children with severe forms. Results The mean DQ score was 86.3 (95%CI: 81.0–91.5) in infected children compared to 100.2 (95%CI: 98.0–102.5) in uninfected peers (P<0.001). Fifty-one percent (n = 17) of infected children had a GND compared to 15% (n = 21) of uninfected children (P<0.001). Specific neurocognitive delays in p-CHIKV-infected children were as follows: coordination and language (57%), sociability (36%), movement/posture (27%). After adjustment for maternal social situation, small for gestational age, and head circumference, p-CHIKV infection was found associated with GND (incidence rate ratio: 2.79, 95%CI: 1.45–5.34). Further adjustments on gestational age or breastfeeding did not change the independent effect of CHIKV infection on neurocognitive outcome. The mean DQ of p-CHIKV-infected children was lower in severe encephalopathic children than in non-severe children (77.6 versus 91.2, P<0.001). Of the 12 cases of CHIKV neonatal encephalopathy, five developed a microcephaly (head circumference <−2 standard deviations) and four matched the definition of cerebral palsy. MRI scans showed severe
Pektaş, Ayhan; Kara, Ateş; Gurgey, Aytemiz
Objective: This study aims to document and analyze the central venous catheter (CVC)-related complications in children with hematological diseases who were treated within a single institution. Materials and Methods: A retrospective investigation was conducted in 106 pediatric patients in whom 203 CVCs were inserted. A total of 175 catheter-related complications occurred in 5 years. Results: The rates of clinical catheter infections, local catheter infections, venous thromboembolism, bleeding, and mechanical complications were 2.6, 1.1, 0.2, 0.2, and 0.2 per 1000 catheter days. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis was the predominant infectious organism in blood and catheter cultures. The children with leukemia had a significantly higher frequency of clinical catheter infections (p=0.046). The children who underwent bone marrow transplantation had a significantly lower frequency of clinical catheter infections (p=0.043) and higher frequency of local catheter infections (p=0.003). The children with implanted catheters had a significantly lower frequency of clinical catheter infections (p=0.048). The children with thrombocytopenia had significantly fewer local catheter infections and significantly more clinical catheter infections and catheter-related bleeding (respectively p=0.001, p=0.042, and p=0.024). Conclusion: Leukemia, bone marrow transplantation, and thrombocytopenia are risk factors for CVC-associated complications. The relatively higher number of interventions performed via permanent catheters may be responsible for the significantly increased incidence of systemic infections and mechanical injury. PMID:26316482
Miranda, J. Jaime; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio
Objectives. To assess obesity risk among mothers participating in Community Kitchens and children participating in Glass of Milk (Peru food assistance programs). Methods. We analyzed prospective data from the Young Lives study. The exposure consisted in varying degrees of benefit from any of the programs (no participation in any of the programs, program participation for some months, or program participation nearly every month) at baseline (2006–2007). The outcome was overweight and obesity in mothers and children at follow-up (2009–2010). Results. Prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity was 15.5% and 5.1%, respectively; the corresponding figures for mothers were 40.5% and 14.6%. Children exposed nearly every month to the Glass of Milk program had a 65% lower risk of becoming obese compared with children not participating in the program (relative risk [RR] = 0.35; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.18, 0.66). Mothers participating frequently in the Community Kitchens program had almost twice the risk of becoming obese compared with those who did not participate (RR = 1.93; 95% CI = 1.18, 3.15). Conclusions. Participating in food assistance programs in Peru was associated with a lower risk of obesity in children and greater risk of obesity in mothers. PMID:27196644
Likhtarov, Ilya; Kovgan, Lina; Masiuk, Sergii; Talerko, Mykola; Chepurny, Mykola; Ivanova, Olga; Gerasymenko, Valentina; Boyko, Zulfira; Voillequé, Paul; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Bouville, André
In collaboration with the Ukrainian Research Center for Radiation Medicine, the U.S. National Cancer Institute initiated a cohort study of children and adolescents exposed to Chornobyl fallout in Ukraine to better understand the long-term health effects of exposure to radioactive iodines. All 13,204 cohort members were subjected to at least one direct thyroid measurement between 30 April and 30 June 1986 and resided at the time of the accident in the northern part of Kyiv, Zhytomyr, or Chernihiv Oblasts, which were the most contaminated territories of Ukraine as a result of radioactive fallout from the Chornobyl accident. Thyroid doses for the cohort members, which had been estimated following the first round of interviews, were re-evaluated following the second round of interviews. The revised thyroid doses range from 0.35 mGy to 42 Gy, with 95 percent of the doses between 1 mGy and 4.2 Gy, an arithmetic mean of 0.65 Gy, and a geometric mean of 0.19 Gy. These means are 70% of the previous estimates, mainly because of the use of country-specific thyroid masses. Many of the individual thyroid dose estimates show substantial differences because of the use of an improved questionnaire for the second round of interviews. Limitations of the current set of thyroid dose estimates are discussed. For the epidemiologic study, the most notable improvement is a revised assessment of the uncertainties, as shared and unshared uncertainties in the parameter values were considered in the calculation of the 1,000 stochastic estimates of thyroid dose for each cohort member. This procedure makes it possible to perform a more realistic risk analysis. PMID:25208014
Jespersen, Eva; Holst, René; Franz, Claudia; Rexen, Christina T; Wedderkopp, Niels
Objectives The type and level of physical activity in children vary over seasons and might thus influence the injury patterns. However, very little information is available on the distribution of injuries over the calendar year. This study aims to describe and analyse the seasonal variation in extremity injuries in children. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting 10 public schools in the municipality of Svendborg, Denmark. Participants A total of 1259 school children aged 6–12 years participating in the Childhood Health, Activity, and Motor Performance School Study Denmark. Methods School children were surveyed each week during 2.5 school-years. Musculoskeletal injuries were reported by parents answering automated mobile phone text questions (SMS-Track) on a weekly basis and diagnosed by clinicians. Data were analysed for prevalence and incidence rates over time with adjustments for gender and age. Results Injuries in the lower extremities were reported most frequently (n=1049). There was a significant seasonal variation in incidence and prevalence for lower extremity injuries and for lower and upper extremity injuries combined (n=1229). For the upper extremities (n=180), seasonal variation had a significant effect on the risk of prevalence. Analysis showed a 46% increase in injury incidence and a 32% increase in injury prevalence during summer relative to winter for lower and upper extremity injuries combined. Conclusions There are clear seasonal differences in the occurrence of musculoskeletal extremity injuries among children with almost twice as high injury incidence and prevalence estimates during autumn, summer and spring compared with winter. This suggests further research into the underlying causes for seasonal variation and calls for preventive strategies to be implemented in order to actively prepare and supervise children before and during high-risk periods. PMID:24401728
Fry, Norman K; Campbell, Helen; Amirthalingam, Gayatri; Harrison, Timothy G; Mant, David; Harnden, Anthony
Objective To estimate the prevalence and clinical severity of whooping cough (pertussis) in school age children presenting with persistent cough in primary care since the introduction and implementation of the preschool pertussis booster vaccination. Design Prospective cohort study (November 2010 to December 2012). Setting General practices in Thames Valley, UK. Participants 279 children aged 5 to 15 years who presented in primary care with a persistent cough of two to eight weeks’ duration. Exclusion criteria were cough likely to be caused by a serious underlying medical condition, known immunodeficiency or immunocompromise, participation in another clinical research study, and preschool pertussis booster vaccination received less than one year previously. Main outcome measures Evidence of recent pertussis infection based on an oral fluid anti-pertussis toxin IgG titre of at least 70 arbitrary units. Cough frequency was measured in six children with laboratory confirmed pertussis. Results 56 (20%, 95% confidence interval 16% to 25%) children had evidence of recent pertussis infection, including 39 (18%, 13% to 24%) of 215 children who had been fully vaccinated. The risk of pertussis was more than three times higher (21/53; 40%, 26% to 54%) in children who had received the preschool pertussis booster vaccination seven years or more previously than in those who had received it less than seven years previously (20/171; 12%, 7% to 17%). The risk of pertussis was similar between children who received five and three component preschool pertussis booster vaccines (risk ratio for five component vaccine 1.14, 0.64 to 2.03). Four of six children in whom cough frequency was measured coughed more than 400 times in 24 hours. Conclusions Pertussis can still be found in a fifth of school age children who present in primary care with persistent cough and can cause clinically significant cough in fully vaccinated children. These findings will help to inform consideration of the
Geromanos, Kimberly; Sunkle, Susan N.; Mauer, Mary Beth; Carp, Diane; Ancker, Jessica; Zhang, Weihong; Easley, Kirk A.; Schluchter, Mark D.; Kozinetz, Claudia A.; Mellins, Robert B.
Retaining subjects from disadvantaged populations in long-term studies is necessary to obtain high-quality data. This article presents cumulative retention rates from a 5-year prospective cohort study, the Pediatric Pulmonary and Cardiovascular Complications of Vertically Transmitted HIV Infection study. It also presents results of a cross-sectional qualitative survey about factors that induced caregivers to stay in the study. Although the repeated study visits were long and uncomfortable, cumulative retention among the 298 HIV-infected children was 80%. Incentives considered important by the caregivers included phone contact with nurse coordinators, nurse coordinators accompanying the caregiver and child during visits, phone reminders for appointments, help with scheduling, meals and transportation, access to health care, and relationships with staff. Thus, the high follow-up rate was in part due to nurses’ efforts to reduce the study’s burden on the families, provide tangible and intangible incentives, and establish personal relationships with families. PMID:15296658
Sunyer, Jordi; Esnaola, Mikel; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Forns, Joan; Rivas, Ioar; López-Vicente, Mònica; Suades-González, Elisabet; Foraster, Maria; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Basagaña, Xavier; Viana, Mar; Cirach, Marta; Moreno, Teresa; Alastuey, Andrés; Sebastian-Galles, Núria; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Querol, Xavier
Background Air pollution is a suspected developmental neurotoxicant. Many schools are located in close proximity to busy roads, and traffic air pollution peaks when children are at school. We aimed to assess whether exposure of children in primary school to traffic-related air pollutants is associated with impaired cognitive development. Methods and Findings We conducted a prospective study of children (n = 2,715, aged 7 to 10 y) from 39 schools in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) exposed to high and low traffic-related air pollution, paired by school socioeconomic index; children were tested four times (i.e., to assess the 12-mo developmental trajectories) via computerized tests (n = 10,112). Chronic traffic air pollution (elemental carbon [EC], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], and ultrafine particle number [UFP; 10–700 nm]) was measured twice during 1-wk campaigns both in the courtyard (outdoor) and inside the classroom (indoor) simultaneously in each school pair. Cognitive development was assessed with the n-back and the attentional network tests, in particular, working memory (two-back detectability), superior working memory (three-back detectability), and inattentiveness (hit reaction time standard error). Linear mixed effects models were adjusted for age, sex, maternal education, socioeconomic status, and air pollution exposure at home. Children from highly polluted schools had a smaller growth in cognitive development than children from the paired lowly polluted schools, both in crude and adjusted models (e.g., 7.4% [95% CI 5.6%–8.8%] versus 11.5% [95% CI 8.9%–12.5%] improvement in working memory, p = 0.0024). Cogently, children attending schools with higher levels of EC, NO2, and UFP both indoors and outdoors experienced substantially smaller growth in all the cognitive measurements; for example, a change from the first to the fourth quartile in indoor EC reduced the gain in working memory by 13.0% (95% CI 4.2%–23.1%). Residual confounding for social class could
Feretti, D; Ceretti, E; De Donno, A; Moretti, M; Carducci, A; Bonetta, S; Marrese, M R; Bonetti, A; Covolo, L; Bagordo, F; Villarini, M; Verani, M; Schilirò, T; Limina, R M; Grassi, T; Monarca, S; Casini, B; Carraro, E; Zani, C; Mazzoleni, G; Levaggi, R; Gelatti, U
Introduction Genotoxic biomarkers have been studied largely in adult population, but few studies so far have investigated them in children exposed to air pollution. Children are a high-risk group as regards the health effects of air pollution and some studies suggest that early exposure during childhood can play an important role in the development of chronic diseases in adulthood. The objective of the project is to evaluate the associations between the concentration of urban air pollutants and biomarkers of early biological effect in children, and to propose a model for estimating the global risk of early biological effects due to air pollutants and other factors in children. Methods and analysis Two biomarkers of early biological effects, DNA damage by the comet assay and the micronuclei (MN) test, will be investigated in oral mucosa cells of 6–8-year-old children. Concurrently, some toxic airborne pollutants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and nitro-PAH) and in vitro air mutagenicity and toxicity in ultra-fine air particulates (PM0.5) will be evaluated. Furthermore, demographic and socioeconomic variables, other sources of exposures to air pollutants and lifestyle variables will be assessed by a structured questionnaire. The associations between sociodemographic, environmental and other exposure variables and biomarkers of early biological effect using univariate and multivariate models will be analysed. A tentative model for calculating the global absolute risk of having early biological effects caused by air pollution and other variables will be proposed. Ethics and dissemination The project has been approved by the Ethics Committees of the local Health Authorities. The results will be communicated to local Public Health Agencies, for supporting educational programmes and health policy strategies. LIFE+2012 Environment Policy and Governance. LIFE12 ENV/IT/000614. PMID:25227631
Uyoga, Sophie; Ndila, Carolyne M; Macharia, Alex W; Nyutu, Gideon; Shah, Shivang; Peshu, Norbert; Clarke, Geraldine M; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P; Rockett, Kirk A; Williams, Thomas N
Summary Background The global prevalence of X-linked glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is thought to be a result of selection by malaria, but epidemiological studies have yielded confusing results. We investigated the relationships between G6PD deficiency and both malaria and non-malarial illnesses among children in Kenya. Methods We did this study in Kilifi County, Kenya, where the G6PD c.202T allele is the only significant cause of G6PD deficiency. We tested the associations between G6PD deficiency and severe and complicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria through a case-control study of 2220 case and 3940 control children. Cases were children aged younger than 14 years, who visited the high dependency ward of Kilifi County Hospital with severe malaria between March 1, 1998, and Feb 28, 2010. Controls were children aged between 3–12 months who were born within the same study area between August 2006, and September 2010. We assessed the association between G6PD deficiency and both uncomplicated malaria and other common diseases of childhood in a cohort study of 752 children aged younger than 10 years. Participants of this study were recruited from a representative sample of households within the Ngerenya and Chonyi areas of Kilifi County between Aug 1, 1998, and July 31, 2001. The primary outcome measure for the case-control study was the odds ratio for hospital admission with severe malaria (computed by logistic regression) while for the cohort study it was the incidence rate ratio for uncomplicated malaria and non-malaria illnesses (computed by Poisson regression), by G6PD deficiency category. Findings 2863 (73%) children in the control group versus 1643 (74%) in the case group had the G6PD normal genotype, 639 (16%) versus 306 (14%) were girls heterozygous for G6PD c.202T, and 438 (11%) versus 271 (12%) children were either homozygous girls or hemizygous boys. Compared with boys and girls without G6PD deficiency, we found significant
Alam, Nur H.; Chisti, Mohammod J.; Salam, Mohammed A.; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Gyr, Niklaus
ABSTRACT Compliance, morbidity, mortality, and hospitalization during fortnightly follow-up were evaluated by an observational study on a cohort of children with severe and very severe pneumonia after day-care treatment at an urban clinic. The primary outcome measures were proportions of success (compliance) and failure (non-compliance) of follow-up visits at the day-care clinic. In total, 251 children were followed up, with median (IQR) age of 5.0 (3.0-9.0) months, and their compliance dropped from 92% at the first to 85% at the sixth visit. Cough (28%), fever (20%), and rapid breathing (13%) were common morbidities. Successful follow-up visits were possible in 180 (95.2%) and 56 (90.3%) of the children with severe and very severe pneumonia respectively. Eleven (4.4%) needed hospitalization, and four (1.6%) died. Majority (≈90%) of the children could be successfully followed up; some failed to attend their scheduled follow-up visits due to hospitalization and death. The common morbidities indicate the importance of follow-up for detecting medical problems and early treatment, thus reducing risk of death. PMID:25076656
Accurate exposure classification tools are required to link exposure with health effects in epidemiological studies. Exposure classification for occupational studies is relatively easy compared to predicting residential childhood exposures. Recent NHEXAS (Maryland) study articl...
Liu, Xiaofang; Jahuira, Helena; Gilman, Robert H; Alva, Alicia; Cabrera, Lilia; Okamoto, Michiko; Xu, Hang; Windle, Henry J; Kelleher, Dermot; Varela, Marco; Verastegui, Manuela; Calderon, Maritza; Sanchez, Gerardo; Sarabia, Vanessa; Ballard, Sarah B; Bern, Caryn; Mayta, Holger; Crabtree, Jean E; Cama, Vitaliano; Saito, Mayuko; Oshitani, Hitoshi
Human sapovirus has been shown to be one of the most important etiologies in pediatric patients with acute diarrhea. However, very limited data are available about the causative roles and epidemiology of sapovirus in community settings. A nested matched case-control study within a birth cohort study of acute diarrhea in a peri-urban community in Peru from 2007 to 2010 was conducted to investigate the attributable fraction (AF) and genetic diversity of sapovirus. By quantitative reverse transcription-real-time PCR (qPCR) sapovirus was detected in 12.4% (37/299) of diarrheal and 5.7% (17/300) of nondiarrheal stools (P = 0.004). The sapovirus AF (7.1%) was higher in the second year (13.2%) than in the first year (1.4%) of life of children. Ten known genotypes and one novel cluster (n = 5) within four genogroups (GI, GII, GIV, and GV) were identified by phylogenetic analysis of a partial VP1 gene. Further sequence analysis of the full VP1 gene revealed a possible novel genotype, tentatively named GII.8. Notably, symptomatic reinfections with different genotypes within the same (n = 3) or different (n = 5) genogroups were observed in eight children. Sapovirus exhibited a high attributable burden for acute gastroenteritis, especially in the second year of life, of children in a Peruvian community. Further large-scale studies are needed to understand better the global burden, genetic diversity, and repeated infections of sapovirus. PMID:27076657
Background Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are an important cause of harm in children. Current data are incomplete due to methodological differences between studies: only half of all studies provide drug data, incidence rates vary (0.6% to 16.8%) and very few studies provide data on causality, severity and risk factors of pediatric ADRs. We aimed to determine the incidence of ADRs in hospitalized children, to characterize these ADRs in terms of type, drug etiology, causality and severity and to identify risk factors. Methods We undertook a year-long, prospective observational cohort study of admissions to a single UK pediatric medical and surgical secondary and tertiary referral center (Alder Hey, Liverpool, UK). Children between 0 and 16 years 11 months old and admitted for more than 48 hours were included. Observed outcomes were occurrence of ADR and time to first ADR for the risk factor analysis. Results A total of 5,118 children (6,601 admissions) were included, 17.7% of whom experienced at least one ADR. Opiate analgesics and drugs used in general anesthesia (GA) accounted for more than 50% of all drugs implicated in ADRs. Of these ADRs, 0.9% caused permanent harm or required admission to a higher level of care. Children who underwent GA were at more than six times the risk of developing an ADR than children without a GA (hazard ratio (HR) 6.40; 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.30 to 7.70). Other factors increasing the risk of an ADR were increasing age (HR 1.06 for each year; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.07), increasing number of drugs (HR 1.25 for each additional drug; 95% CI 1.22 to 1.28) and oncological treatment (HR 1.90; 95% CI 1.40 to 2.60). Conclusions ADRs are common in hospitalized children and children who had undergone a GA had more than six times the risk of developing an ADR. GA agents and opiate analgesics are a significant cause of ADRs and have been underrepresented in previous studies. This is a concern in view of the increasing number of pediatric short
Buckle, Geoffrey; Maranda, Louise; Skiles, Jodi; Ong'echa, John Michael; Foley, Joslyn; Epstein, Mara; Vik, Terry A; Schroeder, Andrew; Lemberger, Jennifer; Rosmarin, Alan; Remick, Scot C; Bailey, Jeffrey A; Vulule, John; Otieno, Juliana A; Moormann, Ann M
Discovering how to improve survival and establishing clinical reference points for children diagnosed with endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) in resource-constrained settings has recaptured international attention. Using multivariate analyses, we evaluated 428 children with eBL in Kenya for age, gender, tumor stage, nutritional status, hemoglobin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Plasmodium falciparum prior to induction of chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, methotrexate and doxorubicin) to identify predictive and prognostic biomarkers of survival. During this 10 year prospective study period, 22% died in-hospital and 78% completed six-courses of chemotherapy. Of those, 16% relapsed or died later; 31% achieved event-free-survival; and 31% were lost to follow-up; the overall one-year survival was 45%. After adjusting for covariates, low hemoglobin (<8 g/dL) and high LDH (>400 mU/ml) were associated with increased risk of death (adjusted Hazard Ratio (aHR) = 1.57 [0.97-2.41]) and aHR = 1.84, [0.91-3.69], respectively). Anemic children with malaria were 3.55 times more likely to die [1.10-11.44] compared to patients without anemia or malarial infection. EBV load did not differ by tumor stage nor was it associated with survival. System-level factors can also contribute to poor outcomes. Children were more likely to die when inadvertently overdosed by more than 115% of the correct dose of cyclophosphamide (a HR = 1.43 [0.84-2.43]) or doxorubicin (a HR = 1.25, [0.66-2.35]), compared with those receiving accurate doses of the respective agent in this setting. This study codifies risk factors associated with poor outcomes for eBL patients in Africa and provides a benchmark by which to assess improvements in survival for new chemotherapeutic approaches. PMID:27136063
Matsumoto, Kaori; Takei, Nori; Narumiya, Makiko; Honda, Maiko; Thanseem, Ismail; Anitha, Ayyappan; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Matsuzaki, Hideo; Iwata, Yasuhide; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Mori, Norio
The present study aimed at investigating whether neuromotor development, from birth to 14 months of age, shows seasonal, cyclic patterns in association with months of birth. Study participants were 742 infants enrolled in the Hamamatsu Birth Cohort (HBC) Study and followed-up from birth to the 14th month of age. Gross motor skills were assessed at the ages of 6, 10, and 14 months, using Mullen Scales of Early Learning. The score at each assessment was regressed onto a trigonometric function of months of birth, with an adjustment for potential confounders. Gross motor scores at the 6th and 10th months showed significant 1-year-cycle variations, peaking among March- and April-born infants, and among February-born infants, respectively. Changes in gross motor scores between the 10th and 14th months also showed a cyclic variation, peaking among July- and August-born infants. Due to this complementary effect, gross motor scores at the 14th month did not show seasonality. Neuromotor development showed cyclic seasonality during the first year of life. The effects brought about by month of birth disappeared around 1 year of age, and warmer months seemed to accelerate the neuromotor development. PMID:23284868
Massion, Samuel; Wickham, Sophie; Pearce, Anna; Barr, Ben; Law, Catherine; Taylor-Robinson, David
Background Overweight and obesity in childhood are socially patterned, with higher prevalence in more disadvantaged populations, but it is unclear to what extent early life factors attenuate the social inequalities found in childhood overweight/obesity. Methods We estimated relative risks (RRs) for being overweight (combining with obesity) at age 11 in 11 764 children from the UK Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) according to socio-economic circumstances (SEC). Early life risk factors were explored to assess if they attenuated associations between SECs and overweight. Results 28.84% of children were overweight at 11 years. Children of mothers with no academic qualifications were more likely to be overweight (RR 1.72, 95% CI 1.48 to 2.01) compared to children of mothers with degrees and higher degrees. Controlling for prenatal, perinatal, and early life characteristics (particularly maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and maternal smoking during pregnancy) reduced the RR for overweight to 1.44, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.69 in the group with the lowest academic qualifications compared to the highest. Conclusions We observed a clear social gradient in overweight 11-year-old children using a representative UK sample. Moreover, we identified specific early life risk factors, including maternal smoking during pregnancy and maternal pre-pregnancy overweight, that partially account for the social inequalities found in childhood overweight. Policies to support mothers to maintain a healthy weight, breastfeed and abstain from smoking during pregnancy are important to improve maternal and child health outcomes, and our study provides some evidence that they may also help to address the continuing rise in inequalities in childhood overweight. PMID:27162002
Heller, Christine; Gutsche, Sven; Holzhauer, Susanne; Kenet, Gili; Kurnik, Karin; Iorio, Alfonso; Nowak-Göttl, Ulrike
Among the discussed risk factors for high-titre inhibitor (HRI) development in patients with hemophilia A (HA) are high dose FVIII replacement therapy and use of recombinant FVIII concentrates (rFVIII). The aim of this study was to evaluate the aforementioned risk factors for HRI development in children with hemophilia A ≤2%. About 288 ascertained PUPs (Israel and Germany) were followed after initial HA diagnosis over 200 exposure days. Inhibitor-free survival, hazard ratios (HR), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Adjustment was performed for factor VIII concentrates, median single dose over the first three months of treatment, first FVIII administration before the age of three months, presence of risk HA gene mutations, “intensive treatment moments” and “year of birth” (proxy for different treatment periods). HRI occurred in 71/288 children (24.7%). In multivariate analysis adjusted for “year of birth”, underlying risk gene mutations (HR/CI: 2.37/1.40–3.99), FVIII dose, measured per one IU increase per kgbw (HR/CI: 1.05/1.04–1.07), and first FVIII administration before the age of three months showed a significant impact on HR development. The risk of HRI development was similar for recombinant or plasmatic FVIII products. Children at risk should be treated with carefully calculated lower dose regimens, adapted to individual bleeding situations. PMID:24199202
Easter, Joshua S.; Bakes, Katherine; Dhaliwal, Jasmeet; Miller, Michael; Caruso, Emily; Haukoos, Jason S.
Objective To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of clinical decision rules and physician judgment for identifying clinically important traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) in children with minor head injuries presenting to the emergency department (ED). Methods We prospectively enrolled children <18 years of age with minor head injury (Glasgow Coma Scale 13 – 15) presenting within 24 hours of their injuries. We assessed the ability of 3 clinical decision rules (CATCH, CHALICE, PECARN) and 2 measures of physician judgment (estimated of <1% risk of TBI, actual CT ordering practice) to predict clinically important TBI, as defined by death from TBI, need for neurosurgery, intubation >24 hours for TBI, or hospital admission >2 nights for TBI. Results Among the 1,009 children, 21 (2%; 95% CI: 1% to 3%) had clinically important TBIs. Only physician practice and PECARN identified all clinically important TBIs, with ranked sensitivities as follows (95% CI): Physician practice and PECARN each 100% (84% to 100%), physician estimates 95% (76% to 100%), CATCH 91% (70% to 99%), and CHALICE 84% (60% to 97%). Ranked specificities were as follows: CHALICE 85% (82% to 87%), physician estimates 68% (65% to 71%), PECARN 62% (59% to 66%), physician practice 50% (47% to 53%), and CATCH 44% (41% to 47%). Conclusions Of the 5 modalities studied, only physician practice and PECARN identified all clinically important TBIs, with PECARN being slightly more specific. CHALICE was incompletely sensitive but the most specific of all rules. CATCH was incompletely sensitive and had the poorest specificity of all modalities. PMID:24635987
Czamara, Darina; Tiesler, Carla M. T.; Kohlböck, Gabriele; Berdel, Dietrich; Hoffmann, Barbara; Bauer, Carl-Peter; Koletzko, Sibylle; Schaaf, Beate; Lehmann, Irina; Herbarth, Olf; von Berg, Andrea; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Schulte-Körne, Gerd; Heinrich, Joachim
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and dyslexia belong to the most common neuro-behavioral childhood disorders with prevalences of around 5% in school-aged children. It is estimated that 20–60% of individuals affected with ADHD also present with learning disorders. We investigated the comorbidity between ADHD symptoms and reading/spelling and math difficulties in two on-going population-based birth cohort studies. Children with ADHD symptoms were at significantly higher risk of also showing reading/spelling difficulties or disorder (Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.80, p = 6.59×10−13) as compared to children without ADHD symptoms. For math difficulties the association was similar (OR = 2.55, p = 3.63×10−04). Our results strengthen the hypothesis that ADHD and learning disorders are comorbid and share, at least partially, the same underlying process. Up to date, it is not clear, on which exact functional processes this comorbidity is based. PMID:23724008
Janjua, Naveed Zafar; Mahmood, Bushra; Islam, M. Aminul; Goldenberg, Robert L.
Objective. To identify maternal and early childhood risk factors for obesity and overweight among children at age 5 in the state of Alabama. Methods. We recruited 740 mothers during early pregnancy from University of Alabama Prenatal Clinics in a prospective cohort study and followed them throughout pregnancy. We followed their children from birth until 5 years of age. The main outcome measure was obesity (BMI for age and sex ≥ 95th percentile) at 5 years of age. We used poisson regression with robust variance estimation to compute risk ratio (RR). Results. At the 5th year of followup, 71 (9.6%) of the children were obese and 85 (11.5%) were overweight (BMI ≥ 85th–<95th percentile). In multivariable analysis, maternal prepregnancy overweight (RR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.29–4.11) and obesity (RR: 2.53, 95% CI: 1.49–4.31), and child's birth weight >85th percentile (RR: 2.04, 95% CI: 1.13–3.68) were associated with childhood obesity. Maternal prepregnancy BMI, birth weight, and maternal smoking were associated with the child being overweight 1–12 cigarettes/day versus 0 cigarettes/day (RR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.02–1.91). Conclusion. Children of overweight and obese mothers, and children with higher birth weight, are more likely to be obese and overweight at age 5. Maternal smoking 1–12 cigarettes per day is associated with the child being overweight. PMID:23056928
Budge, Philip J.; Griffin, Marie R.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Williams, John V.; Verastegui, Hector; Hartinger, Stella M.; Mäusezahl, Daniel; Johnson, Monika; Klemenc, Jennifer M.; Zhu, Yuwei; Gil, Ana I.; Lanata, Claudio F.; Grigalva, Carlos G.
Background The Respiratory Infections in Andean Peruvian Children (RESPIRA-PERU) study enrolled children who participated in a community-cluster randomized trial of improved stoves, solar water disinfection, and kitchen sinks (IHIP trial) and children from additional Andean households. We quantified the burden of influenza-associated acute respiratory illness (ARI) in this household-based cohort. Methods From May 2009 to September 2011, we conducted active weekly ARI surveillance in 892 children age <3 years, of whom 272 (30.5%) had participated in the IHIP trial. We collected nasal swabs during ARI, tested for influenza and other respiratory viruses by RT-PCR, and determined influenza incidence and risk factors using mixed-effects regression models. Results The overall incidence of influenza-associated ARI was 36.6/100 child-years; incidence of influenza A, B, and C was 20.5, 8.7, and 5.2/100 child-years, respectively. Influenza C was associated with fewer days of subjective fever (median 1 vs. 2) and malaise (median 0 vs. 2) compared to influenza A. Non-influenza ARI also resulted in fewer days of fever and malaise, and fewer healthcare visits than influenza A-associated ARI. Influenza incidence varied by calendar year (80% occurred in the 2010 season) and IHIP trial participation. Among households that participated in the IHIP trial, influenza-associated ARI incidence was significantly lower in intervention than in control households (RR 0.40, 95% CI: 0.20–0.82). Conclusions Influenza burden is high among Andean children. ARI associated with influenza A and B had longer symptom duration and higher healthcare utilization than influenza C-associated ARI or non-influenza ARI. Environmental community interventions may reduce influenza morbidity. PMID:24622044
Ranft, Ulrich; Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Kasper-Sonnenberg, Monika; Fürst, Peter; Krämer, Ursula; Seitner, Gabriele; Wilhelm, Michael
Background: Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants that have been characterized as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Objectives: Within the Duisburg birth cohort study, we studied associations of prenatal exposure to PCDD/Fs and PCBs with parent-reported sexually dimorphic behavior in children. Methods: We measured lipid-based and WHO2005-TEQ (toxic equivalents established in 2005 by the World Health Organization)–standardized PCDD/Fs and PCBs in maternal blood samples and in early breast milk using gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. At the child’s age of 6–8 years, parents (mostly mothers) reported sex-typical characteristics, preferred toys, and play activities using the Pre-School Activities Inventory (PSAI), which was used to derive feminine, masculine, and difference (feminine – masculine) scores. We estimated exposure–outcome associations using multivariate linear regression. A total of 91–109 children were included in this follow-up. Results: Mean blood levels of summed WHO2005-TEQ–standardized dioxins (ΣPCDD/Fs) were 14.5 ± 6.4 pg/g blood lipids, and ΣPCBs were 6.9 ± 3.8 pg/g blood lipids, with similar values for milk lipids. Regression analyses revealed some highly significant interactions between sex and exposure—such as for ΣPCBs in milk, pronounced positive (boys: β = 3.24; CI = 1.35, 5.14) or negative (girls: β = –3.59; CI = –1.10, –6.08) associations with reported femininity. Less pronounced and mostly insignificant but consistent associations were found for the masculinity score, positive for boys and negative for girls. Conclusions: Given our results and the findings of previous studies, we conclude that there is sufficient evidence that these EDCs modify behavioral sexual dimorphism in children, presumably by interacting with the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis. Citation: Winneke G, Ranft U
Setia, Maninder Singh
Cohort design is a type of nonexperimental or observational study design. In a cohort study, the participants do not have the outcome of interest to begin with. They are selected based on the exposure status of the individual. They are then followed over time to evaluate for the occurrence of the outcome of interest. Some examples of cohort studies are (1) Framingham Cohort study, (2) Swiss HIV Cohort study, and (3) The Danish Cohort study of psoriasis and depression. These studies may be prospective, retrospective, or a combination of both of these types. Since at the time of entry into the cohort study, the individuals do not have outcome, the temporality between exposure and outcome is well defined in a cohort design. If the exposure is rare, then a cohort design is an efficient method to study the relation between exposure and outcomes. A retrospective cohort study can be completed fast and is relatively inexpensive compared with a prospective cohort study. Follow-up of the study participants is very important in a cohort study, and losses are an important source of bias in these types of studies. These studies are used to estimate the cumulative incidence and incidence rate. One of the main strengths of a cohort study is the longitudinal nature of the data. Some of the variables in the data will be time-varying and some may be time independent. Thus, advanced modeling techniques (such as fixed and random effects models) are useful in analysis of these studies. PMID:26955090
Collin, Simon M; Nuevo, Roberto; van de Putte, Elise M; Nijhof, Sanne L; Crawley, Esther
Objective To investigate differences between young children, adolescents and adults with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME). Study design Comparison of clinical cohorts from 8 paediatric and 27 adult CFS/ME services in the UK and a paediatric randomised controlled trial from the Netherlands. Outcome measures include: fatigue (the UK—Chalder Fatigue Scale); Disability (the UK—SF-36 physical function subscale; the Netherlands—CHQ-CF87); school attendance, pain, anxiety and depression (the UK—Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale, Spence Children's Anxiety Scale; the Netherlands—Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children, Children's Depression Inventory); symptoms; time-to-assessment; and body mass index. We used multinomial regression to compare younger (aged <12 years) and older (aged 12–18 years) children with adults, and logistic regression to compare UK and Dutch adolescents. Results Younger children had a more equal gender balance compared to adolescents and adults. Adults had more disability and fatigue, and had been ill for longer. Younger children were less likely to have cognitive symptoms (OR 0.18 (95% CI 0.13 to 0.25)) and more likely to present with a sore throat (OR 1.42 (1.07 to 1.90). Adolescents were more likely to have headaches (81.1%, OR 1.56 (1.36% to 1.80%)) and less likely to have tender lymph nodes, palpitations, dizziness, general malaise and pain, compared to adults. Adolescents were more likely to have comorbid depression (OR 1.51 (1.33 to 1.72)) and less likely to have anxiety (OR 0.46 (0.41 to 0.53)) compared to adults. Conclusions Paediatricians need to recognise that children with CFS/ME present differently from adults. Whether these differences reflect an underlying aetiopathology requires further investigation. Trial registration numbers FITNET trial registration numbers are ISRCTN59878666 and NCT00893438. This paper includes secondary (post-results) analysis of data from this trial
Tadic, Valerija; Hogan, Ailbhe; Bull, Catherine; Rahi, Jugnoo Sangeeta; Dezateux, Carol
Background Understanding children’s views about living with congenital heart defects (CHDs) is fundamental to supporting their successful participation in daily life, school and peer relationships. As an adjunct to a health and quality of life outcomes questionnaire, we asked school-age children who survived infant heart procedures to describe their experiences of living with CHDs. Methods In a UK-wide cohort study, children aged 10 to 14 years with CHDs self-completed postal questionnaires that included an open question about having a ‘heart problem’. We compared the characteristics of children with more and less severe cardiac diagnoses and, through collaborative inductive content analysis, investigated the subjective experiences and coping strategies described by children in both clinical severity groups. Results Text and/or drawings were returned by 436 children (246 boys [56%], mean age 12.1 years [SD 1.0; range 10–14]); 313 had less severe (LS) and 123 more severe (MS) cardiac diagnoses. At the most recent hospital visit, a higher proportion of the MS group were underweight (more than two standard deviations below the mean for age) or cyanosed (underweight: MS 20.0%, LS 9.9%; cyanosed: MS 26.2%, LS 3.5%). Children in the MS group described concerns about social isolation and feeling ‘different’, whereas children with less severe diagnoses often characterised their CHD as ‘not a big thing’. Some coping strategies were common to both severity groups, including managing health information to avoid social exclusion, however only children in the LS group considered their CHD ‘in the past’ or experienced a sense of survivorship. Conclusions Children’s reported experiences were not dependent on their cardiac diagnosis, although there were clear qualitative differences by clinical severity group. Children’s concerns emphasised social participation and our findings imply a need to shift the clinical focus from monitoring cardiac function to
Baker, Claire E.
Research Findings: This study utilized a large sample ("N" = 750) of 2-parent families from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort to examine the contributions of African American fathers' home literacy involvement, play activities, and caregiving at 24 months to children's reading and math achievement in…
Hargreave, Marie; Jensen, Allan; Nielsen, Thor Schütt Svane; Colov, Emilie Palmgren; Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Pinborg, Anja; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger
Large population-based studies are needed to examine the effect of maternal use of fertility drugs on the risk of cancer in children, while taking into account the effect of the underlying infertility. A cohort of 123,322 children born in Denmark between 1964 and 2006 to 68,255 women who had been evaluated for infertility was established. We used a case-cohort design and calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for cancer in childhood (0-19 years) and in young adulthood (20-29 years) associated with maternal use of six groups of fertility drugs (clomiphene, gonadotropins [i.e., human menopausal gonadotropins and follicle-stimulating hormone], gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs, human chorionic gonadotropins, progesterone and other fertility drugs). We found no statistically significant association between maternal use of fertility drugs and risk for overall cancer in childhood or young adulthood. However, with regard to specific cancers in childhood, our results showed that maternal use of progesterone before childbirth markedly increased the risks of their offspring for acute lymphocytic leukemia (any use: HR, 4.95; 95% CI, 1.69-14.54; ≥ three cycles of use: HR, 9.96; 95% CI, 2.63-37.77) and for sympathetic nervous system tumors (any use: HR, 5.79; 95% CI, 1.23-27.24; ≥ three cycles of use: HR, 8.51; 95% CI, 1.72-42.19). These findings show that maternal use of progesterone may increase the risk for specific cancers in the offspring. Additional large epidemiological studies are urgently needed to confirm our finding. PMID:25257918
Aun, Cindy S T; McBride, Catherine; Lee, Anna; Lau, Angel S C; Chung, Raymond C K; Yeung, Chung Kwong; Lai, Kelly Y C; Gin, Tony
Due to the neurotoxicity effects of general anesthesia (GA) and sedatives found in animal studies, there is a general recommendation to avoid nonurgent surgical procedures requiring anesthesia in children younger than 3 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of anesthesia-related postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) on the first day (Day 1) and at 6 weeks after elective noncardiac surgery in school-age children.This was a prospective cohort study of 118 children undergoing GA and 126 age-matched controls of school children aged 5 to 12 years. All children were given a panel of 4 neuropsychological assessments (Hong Kong List Learning for verbal memory, Visual Matching for processing speed, Visual Memory, and General Comprehension Skill from the Hong Kong Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children). The primary outcome was the incidence of POCD on Day 1 and at 6 weeks after surgery. POCD was defined as when at least 2 of the 4 cognitive function tests showed individual Z-scores ≤-1.96 or a combined Z-score ≤-1.96.Using the combined Z-score definition, the incidence of POCD in the GA group on Day 1 and at 6 weeks were 5.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.1-10.3) and 3.4% (95% CI: 1.1-8.0), respectively. No POCD was found using the other definition. The incidences of decline and improvement in neuropsychological tests were similar between groups over time except for a higher risk in visual matching impairment in the anesthesia group (11.9%) versus control group (1.6%) on Day 1 (P < 0.01). The adjusted relative risk ratio of postoperative cognitive decline to improvement between groups on Day 1 and at 6 weeks were 0.85 (95% CI: 0.10-7.05) and 0.45 (95% CI: 0.04-4.84), respectively. The observed risk of POCD is assumed to apply to current drugs and techniques used in GA.In conclusion, the incidence of POCD was low. GA was associated with a transient effect on visual matching. When using the widely accepted Z-score definitions and
Van Batenburg-Eddes, T.; Brion, M. J.; Henrichs, J.; Jaddoe, V. W. V.; Hofman, A.; Verhulst, F. C.; Lawlor, D. A.; Smith, G. Davey; Tiemeier, H.
Background: Maternal depression and anxiety during pregnancy have been associated with offspring-attention deficit problems. Aim: We explored possible intrauterine effects by comparing maternal and paternal symptoms during pregnancy, by investigating cross-cohort consistency, and by investigating whether parental symptoms in early childhood may…
Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Long; Ye, Fang; Wang, Hai-jun; Huntington, Dale; Huang, Yanjie; Wang, Anqi; Liu, Shuiqing; Wang, Yan
Objective To examine the effects of maternal death on the health of the index child, the health and educational attainment of the older children, and the mental health and quality of life of the surviving husband. Methods A cohort study including 183 households that experienced a maternal death matched to 346 households that experienced childbirth but not a maternal death was conducted prospectively between June 2009 and October 2011 in rural China. Data on household sociodemographic characteristics, physical and mental health were collected using a quantitative questionnaire and medical examination at baseline and follow-up surveys. Multivariate linear regression, logistic regression models and difference-in-difference (DID) were used to compare differences of outcomes between two groups. Findings The index children who experienced the loss of a mother had a significantly higher likelihood of dying, abandonment and malnutrition compared to children whose mothers survived at the follow-up survey. The risk of not attending school on time and dropping out of school among older children in the affected group was higher than those in the control group during the follow-up. Husbands whose wife died had significantly lower EQ-5D index and EQ-VAS both at baseline and at follow-up surveys compared to those without experiencing a wife’s death, suggesting an immediate and sustained poorer mental health quality of life among the surviving husbands. Also the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was 72.6% at baseline and 56.2% at follow-up among husbands whose wife died. Conclusions Maternal death has multifaceted and spillover effects on the physical and mental health of family members that are sustained over time. Programmes that reduce maternal mortality will mitigate repercussions on surviving family members are critical and needed. PMID:27280717
Edefonti, Alberto; Galán, Yajaira Silva; Sandoval Díaz, Mabel; Medina Manzanarez, Marta; Marra, Giuseppina; Robusto, Fabio; Tognoni, Gianni; Sereni, Fabio
Background The widely recognized clinical and epidemiological relevance of the socioeconomic determinants of health-disease conditions is expected to be specifically critical in terms of chronic diseases in fragile populations in low-income countries. However, in the literature, there is a substantial gap between the attention directed towards the medical components of these problems and the actual adoption of strategies aimed at providing solutions for the associated socioeconomic determinants, especially in pediatric populations. We report a prospective outcome study on the independent contribution and reciprocal interaction of the medical and socioeconomic factors to the hard end-point of mortality in a cohort of children with chronic kidney disease in Nicaragua. Methods and Findings Every child (n = 309) diagnosed with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and referred to the tertiary unit of Pediatric Nephrology in Managua (Nicaragua) from a network of nine hospitals serving 80% of the country’s pediatric population was registered between January 2005 and December 2013. The three main socioeconomic determinants evaluated were family income, living conditions and the family’s level of education. Further potential determinants of the outcomes included duration of exposure to disease, CKD stage at the first visit as suggested by the KDOQI guidelines in children, the time it took the patients to reach the reference centre and rural or urban context of life. Well-defined and systematically collected medical and socioeconomic data were available for 257 children over a mean follow-up period of 2.5±2.5 years. Mortality and lost to follow-up were considered as outcome end-points both independently and in combination, because of the inevitably progressive nature of the disease. A high proportion (55%) of children presented in the advanced stages of CKD (CKD stage IV and V) at the first visit. At the end of follow-up, 145 (57%) of the 257 cohort children were alive, 47 (18
Escamilla-Nuñez, Maria-Consuelo; Barraza-Villarreal, Albino; Hernandez-Cadena, Leticia; Moreno-Macias, Hortensia; Ramirez-Aguilar, Matiana; Sienra-Monge, Juan-Jose; Cortez-Lugo, Marlene; Texcalac, Jose-Luis; del Rio-Navarro, Blanca; Romieu, Isabelle
Background Taffic-related air pollution has been related to adverse respiratory outcomes; however, there is still uncertainty concerning the type of vehicle emission causing most deleterious effects. Methods A panel study was conducted among 147 asthmatic and 50 healthy children, who were followed up for an average of 22 weeks. Incidence density of coughing, wheezing and breathing difficulty was assessed by referring to daily records of symptoms and child's medication. The association between exposure to pollutants and occurrence of symptoms was evaluated using mixed-effect models with binary response and poisson regression. Results Wheezing was found to relate significantly to air pollutants: an increase of 17.4 μg/m3 (IQR) of PM2.5 (24-h average) was associated with an 8.8% increase (95% CI: 2.4% to 15.5%); an increase of 34 ppb (IQR) of NO2 (1-h maximum) was associated with an 9.1% increase (95% CI: 2.3% to16.4%) and an increase of 48 ppb (IQR) in O3 levels (1 hr maximum) to an increase of 10% (95% CI: 3.2% to 17.3%). Diesel-fueled motor vehicles were significantly associated with wheezing and bronchodilator use (IRR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.62, and IRR = 1.32; 95% CI: 0.99 to 1.77, respectively, for an increase of 130 vehicles hourly, above the 24-hour average). Conclusion Respiratory symptoms in asthmatic children were significantly associated with exposure to traffic exhaust, especially from natural gas and diesel-fueled vehicles. PMID:19014608
King, Carina; McCollum, Eric D.; Mankhambo, Limangeni; Colbourn, Tim; Beard, James; Hay Burgess, Debbie C.; Costello, Anthony; Izadnegahdar, Raza; Lufesi, Norman; Masache, Gibson; Mwansambo, Charles; Nambiar, Bejoy; Johnson, Eric; Platt, Robert; Mukanga, David
Background Pneumonia is the leading cause of infectious death amongst children globally, with the highest burden in Africa. Early identification of children at risk of treatment failure in the community and prompt referral could lower mortality. A number of clinical markers have been independently associated with oral antibiotic failure in childhood pneumonia. This study aimed to develop a prognostic model for fast-breathing pneumonia treatment failure in sub-Saharan Africa. Method We prospectively followed a cohort of children (2–59 months), diagnosed by community health workers with fast-breathing pneumonia using World Health Organisation (WHO) integrated community case management guidelines. Cases were followed at days 5 and 14 by study data collectors, who assessed a range of pre-determined clinical features for treatment outcome. We built the prognostic model using eight pre-defined parameters, using multivariable logistic regression, validated through bootstrapping. Results We assessed 1,542 cases of which 769 were included (32% ineligible; 19% defaulted). The treatment failure rate was 15% at day 5 and relapse was 4% at day 14. Concurrent malaria diagnosis (OR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.06, 2.47) and moderate malnutrition (OR: 1.88; 95% CI: 1.09, 3.26) were associated with treatment failure. The model demonstrated poor calibration and discrimination (c-statistic: 0.56). Conclusion This study suggests that it may be difficult to create a pragmatic community-level prognostic child pneumonia tool based solely on clinical markers and pulse oximetry in an HIV and malaria endemic setting. Further work is needed to identify more accurate and reliable referral algorithms that remain feasible for use by community health workers. PMID:26313752
Ghazal, Tariq S.; Levy, Steven M.; Childers, Noel K.; Broffitt, Barbara A.; Caplan, Daniel J; Warren, John J.; Cavanaugh, Joseph E.; Kolker, Justine
Objectives To assess the prevalence and incidence of dental caries in school-aged African-American children who received semi-annual fluoride varnish applications. Methods A cohort of six-year-old high caries-risk African-American children (n=98) was recruited in Uniontown, Alabama and followed for six years. Oral examinations were done annually by three trained/calibrated dentists. Tooth surfaces with cavitated caries, missing due to caries and with filled surfaces were recorded, using WHO criteria. Also, as part of the study, children received periodic oral health instruction, fluoride varnish applications and referral to dentists starting at baseline. Results The person-level prevalence of dmfs/DMFS was: 61.2 percent at mean age 5.9 (n=98, mean dmfs/DMFS=11.6); 63.8 percent at age 6.7 (n=80, mean dmfs/DMFS=13.2); 70.6 percent at age 7.8 (n=68, mean dmfs/DMFS=14.2); 65.7 percent at age 8.8 (n=68, mean dmfs/DMFS=11.8); 55.6 percent at age 9.7 (n=63, mean dmfs/DMFS=8.8); 40.3 percent at age 10.7 (n=62, mean dmfs/DMFS=3.4); and 37.1 percent at age 11.7 (n=62, mean dmfs/DMFS=2.3). The six-year person-level incidence of dmfs/DMFS was 32.3 percent (mean dmfs/DMFS=1.6) from age 5.9 to age 11.7 (n=62). Conclusion In spite of the oral health education and fluoride varnish applications, there was substantial new dental caries in this high-risk sample. Additional studies evaluating risk factors for caries development are ongoing. PMID:27306247
Lien, Yin-Ju; Ku, Hsiu-Ying; Su, Pen-Hua; Chen, Suh-Jen; Chen, Hsiao-Yen; Liao, Pao-Chi; Chen, Wei-J.
, Chen HY, Liao PC, Chen WJ, Wang SL. 2015. Prenatal exposure to phthalate esters and behavioral syndromes in children at 8 years of age: Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study. Environ Health Perspect 123:95–100; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307154 PMID:25280125
Bui, Quoc; Melzer, Elaine; Evans, Richard
Stimulant medication is known to cause transient weight loss and slowing down of growth, but whether it delays physical maturation is unclear. We studied growth and bone age over the first 3 years of treatment in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (patients) compared with healthy siblings (controls). Bone age was estimated blindly by two independent radiologists using Tanner and Whitehouse version 3. Dexamphetamine or methylphenidate was titrated and continued when clinically indicated. Forty out of 73 patients, together with 22 controls, completed the study. There were no significant growth differences between the two groups at baseline. Despite slower growth on treatment [5.1 cm/year, 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.7–5.5, vs. 6.3 cm/year, 95% CI: 5.7–6.8, P=0.002; and 2.7 kg/year, 95% CI: 2.1–3.3, vs. 4.4 kg/year, 95% CI: 3.5–5.3, P=0.005], the patients showed no significant maturational delay (RUS score: 49 U/year, 95% CI: 44–55, vs. 55 U/year, 95% CI: 47–63, P=0.27). A subgroup of patients underwent serial biochemistry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, recording a significant reduction in fat (5.61±3.56–4.22±3.09 kg, P<0.001) and leptin (3.88±2.87–2.57±1.94 ng/ml, P=0.017). The pattern of change in height z-score over time was modified by the dose of medication (P for interaction=0.024). We found no medication effect on the rate of maturation, which was instead predicted by baseline leptin (P=0.035 controlling for age and sex). PMID:26544899
Poulton, Alison S; Bui, Quoc; Melzer, Elaine; Evans, Richard
Stimulant medication is known to cause transient weight loss and slowing down of growth, but whether it delays physical maturation is unclear. We studied growth and bone age over the first 3 years of treatment in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (patients) compared with healthy siblings (controls). Bone age was estimated blindly by two independent radiologists using Tanner and Whitehouse version 3. Dexamphetamine or methylphenidate was titrated and continued when clinically indicated. Forty out of 73 patients, together with 22 controls, completed the study. There were no significant growth differences between the two groups at baseline. Despite slower growth on treatment [5.1 cm/year, 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.7-5.5, vs. 6.3 cm/year, 95% CI: 5.7-6.8, P=0.002; and 2.7 kg/year, 95% CI: 2.1-3.3, vs. 4.4 kg/year, 95% CI: 3.5-5.3, P=0.005], the patients showed no significant maturational delay (RUS score: 49 U/year, 95% CI: 44-55, vs. 55 U/year, 95% CI: 47-63, P=0.27). A subgroup of patients underwent serial biochemistry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, recording a significant reduction in fat (5.61±3.56-4.22±3.09 kg, P<0.001) and leptin (3.88±2.87-2.57±1.94 ng/ml, P=0.017). The pattern of change in height z-score over time was modified by the dose of medication (P for interaction=0.024). We found no medication effect on the rate of maturation, which was instead predicted by baseline leptin (P=0.035 controlling for age and sex). PMID:26544899
Whittingham, Koa; Fahey, Michael; Rawicki, Barry; Boyd, Roslyn
Aim: To investigate the relationship between motor ability and early social development in a cohort of preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP). Design: Population-based cohort study. Methods: Participants were 122 children with CP assessed at 18, 24 and 30 months, corrected age (ca). Motor ability was measured by the Gross Motor Function…
Barnett, Inka; Ariana, Proochista; Petrou, Stavros; Penny, Mary E; Duc, Le Thuc; Galab, S; Woldehanna, Tassew; Escobal, Javier A; Plugge, Emma; Boyden, Jo
Young Lives is an international longitudinal study investigating the changing nature of childhood poverty in four low-income countries [Ethiopia, India (Andhra Pradesh), Peru and Vietnam] over a 15-year period. In each country, the cohort is comprised of ≈ 2000 children aged between 6 and 18 months and up to 1000 children aged between 7 and 8 years, recruited in 2002 and sampled from 20 sentinel sites. The first survey data collection from primary caregivers and older children took place in 2002, the second in 2006-07 and the third in 2009-10. Data on the community contexts were collected to complement the household surveys. To elaborate and extend the quantitative data, longitudinal qualitative research with a subgroup of the children was carried out in 2007, 2008 and 2010-11. Topic areas covered included nutrition, health and well-being, cognitive and physical development, health behaviours and education, as well as the social, demographic and economic status of the household. Survey data from the study are archived in the International Section of the UK Public Data Archive. PMID:22617687
Grossi, Laura M; Lee, Austin F; Schuler, Ann; Ryan, Julie L; Prentky, Robert A
The current retrospective archival study investigated the patterns of normative sexualized behavior (NSB), problematic sexualized behavior (PSB), and sexual perpetration for three age cohorts of boys and girls in a high-risk child welfare sample. All children in the present sample had exhibited some form of PSB in the past. We hypothesized that the incidence rates (IR) of NSBs would increase linearly from the early childhood cohort (Ages 2/3-7) to the middle childhood cohort (Ages 8-11) to the preadolescence/adolescence cohort (Ages 12-17), for girls and boys. Although the base rate of sexual behaviors generally increases as children age, children tend to hide sexual behaviors starting at an early age. We therefore hypothesized that a concave quadratic trend would be evident for most PSBs. We further predicted that older children would have a greater incidence of PSB, as well as more victims, compared with younger children. We found the predicted upward linear trend for NSB for both girls and boys, with minimal IR differences between the early childhood and middle childhood cohorts. IRs were remarkably high and comparable across age groups for both boys and girls, with respect to the same three PSBs. For the two perpetration history variables, there was a concave effect, with girls and boys in the middle childhood cohort exhibiting the lowest IR. Results are explained in the context of previously established patterns of sexualized behavior, as well as the reporting of such behaviors. PMID:26774533
Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Gigante, Denise P; Gonçalves, Helen; dos Santos Motta, JanainaVieira; Loret de Mola, Christian; Oliveira, Isabel O; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G
In this manuscript, we update the profile of the 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study.In 1982, 5914 live births whose families lived in the urban are of Pelotas were enrolled in the cohort. In 2012–13, we tried to locate the whole original cohort; 3701 participants were interviewed who, added to the 325 known deaths, represented a follow-up rate of 68.1%. In contrast to the previous home interviews, in this wave all participants were invited to visit the research clinic to be interviewed and examined. The visit was carried out at a mean age of 30.2 years and mainly focused on four categories of outcomes: (i) mental health; (ii) body composition; (iii) precursors of complex chronic diseases; and (iv) human capital. Requests for collaboration by outside researchers are welcome. PMID:25733577
Woolhouse, Hannah; Gartland, Deirdre; Mensah, Fiona; Giallo, Rebecca; Brown, Stephanie
Considerable attention has been focused on women's mental health in the perinatal period and the subsequent impacts on children. Comparatively, we know much less about maternal depression at later time points and the potential implications for child mental health. The objective of this paper was to explore the association between maternal depression and child emotional/behavioural difficulties at 4 years postpartum, taking into account earlier episodes of perinatal depression. The Maternal Health Study is a prospective cohort study of 1,507 nulliparous women. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in early pregnancy and at 3, 6 and 12 months postpartum and again at 4 years postpartum. Maternal depressive symptoms at 4 years postpartum were associated with significantly increased odds of child emotional/behavioural difficulties (odds ratio (OR) = 3.46, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 2.21-5.43). This remained significant after adjusting for earlier episodes of perinatal depression and socio-demographic characteristics (OR = 2.07, 95 % CI = 1.18-3.63). We also observed a robust association between child difficulties at age 4 and measures of socio-economic disadvantage. Our findings suggest a pressing need to rethink current paradigms of maternal health surveillance and extend mental health surveillance and support to at least 4 years postpartum. PMID:26271281
West, Jane; Santorelli, Gillian; Lennon, Laura; O'Connell, Kathy; Corkett, John; Wright, John; Brierley, Shirley; Whincup, Peter; Cameron, Noel; Lawlor, Debbie A
Objective To describe the feasibility, reliability and additional information gained from collecting additional body fatness measures (beyond height and weight) from UK reception year children. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Bradford, UK. Participants 2458 reception year children participating in the Born in Bradford (BiB) cohort study. Main outcome measures The feasibility and reliability of subscapular and triceps skinfold measurements and differences in adiposity between ethnic groups. Results Of those children who were matched to their school, 91% had a subscapular skinfold measurement and 92% had a triceps skinfold measurement recorded. Reliability was generally over 90% for all measurers and both measurements. Pakistani children were slightly taller but weighed less and had lower triceps skinfold thickness (mean difference −1.8 mm, 95% CI −2.1 to −1.4 mm) but higher subscapular (mean difference 0.1 mm, 95% CI −0.1 to 0.4 mm) than white British children. Conclusions We have shown that it is feasible for school nurses to collect skinfold measurements in a similar way to the height and weight measurements collected from reception year children for the National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP), and that these measurements are reliable. It is important for healthcare practice to acknowledge ethnic-specific risk and these additional measurements can provide important information to examine population-level risk in populations with large proportions of South Asian children. PMID:26610758
Baghurst, P.A.; McMichael, A.J.; Wigg, N.R.; Vimpani, G.V.; Robertson, E.F.; Roberts, R.J.; Tong, S.L. )
Exposure to lead in early childhood is thought to result in delayed neuropsychological development. As yet there is little longitudinal evidence to establish whether these effects persist into later childhood. The authors measured IQ scores in 494 seven-year-old children from the lead-smelting community of Port Pirie, Australia, in whom developmental deficits associated with elevated blood lead concentrations had already been reported at the ages of two and four years. Exposure to lead was estimated from the lead concentrations in maternal blood samples drawn antenatally and at delivery and from blood samples drawn from the children at birth (umbilical-cord blood), at the ages of 6 and 15 months and 2 years, and annually thereafter. Data relating to known covariates of child development were collected systematically for each child throughout the first seven years of life. The authors found inverse relations between IQ at the age of seven years and both antenatal and postnatal blood lead concentrations. After adjustment by multiple regression for sex, parents' level of education, maternal age at delivery, parents' smoking status, socioeconomic status, quality of the home environment, maternal IQ, birth weight, birth order, feeding method (breast, bottle, or both), duration of breast-feeding, and whether the child's natural parents were living together, the relation with lead exposure was still evident for postnatal blood samples, particularly within the age range of 15 months to 4 years. For an increase in blood lead concentration from 10 micrograms per deciliter (0.48 mumol per liter) to 30 micrograms per deciliter (1.45 mumol per liter), expressed as the average of the concentrations at 15 months and 2, 3, and 4 years, the estimated reduction in the IQ of the children was in the range of 4.4 points (95 percent confidence interval, 2.2 to 6.6) to 5.3 points (95 percent confidence interval, 2.8 to 7.8).
Bellis, Jennifer R; Kirkham, Jamie J; Nunn, Anthony J; Pirmohamed, Munir
Aims To examine the impact of off-label and unlicensed (OLUL) prescribing on adverse drug reactions (ADRs) causing unplanned admissions to a paediatric hospital. Methods Prescription data from a 12 month prospective cohort study of ADRs detected in children admitted to a paediatric hospital were scrutinized. The relative risk for off-label and unlicensed medicines being implicated in an ADR was calculated. Logistic regression analyses were carried out with exposure to off-label and unlicensed medicines and number of off-label and unlicensed medicines administered as predictor variables. Results Off-label and unlicensed medicines were more likely to be implicated in an ADR than authorized medicines (relative risk 1.67, 95% CI 1.38, 2.02, P < 0.001). There was a 25% increase in ADR risk (95% CI 1.16, 1.35, P < 0.001) with each additional authorized medicine and 23% (95% CI 1.10, 1.36, P < 0.001) with each additional off-label or unlicensed medicine. Logistic regression analysis focusing on non-oncology patients demonstrated that the number of authorized medicines (odds ratio 1.33, 95% CI 1.23, 1.44, P < 0.001), but not the number of off-label and unlicensed medicine courses, was a predictor of ADR risk. Conclusions In a heterogeneous population of children admitted to a secondary/tertiary hospital, off-label and unlicensed medicines are more likely to be implicated in an ADR than authorized medicines. This was largely driven by ADRs related to drugs used in oncological practice, where the usage of off-label or unlicensed medicines was associated with a higher ADR risk than in non-oncological areas. PMID:23919928
Lehmann, Deborah; Weeks, Sharon; Jacoby, Peter; Elsbury, Dimity; Finucane, Janine; Stokes, Annette; Monck, Ruth; Coates, Harvey
Background Otitis media (OM) is the most common paediatric illness for which antibiotics are prescribed. In Australian Aboriginal children OM is frequently asymptomatic and starts at a younger age, is more common and more likely to result in hearing loss than in non-Aboriginal children. Absent transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) may predict subsequent risk of OM. Methods 100 Aboriginal and 180 non-Aboriginal children in a semi-arid zone of Western Australia were followed regularly from birth to age 2 years. Tympanometry was conducted at routine field follow-up from age 3 months. Routine clinical examination by an ENT specialist was to be done 3 times and hearing assessment by an audiologist twice. TEOAEs were measured at ages <1 and 1–2 months. Cox proportional hazards model was used to investigate the association between absent TEOAEs and subsequent risk of OM. Results At routine ENT specialist clinics, OM was detected in 55% of 184 examinations in Aboriginal children and 26% of 392 examinations in non-Aboriginal children; peak prevalence was 72% at age 5–9 months in Aboriginal children and 40% at 10–14 months in non-Aboriginal children. Moderate-severe hearing loss was present in 32% of 47 Aboriginal children and 7% of 120 non-Aboriginal children aged 12 months or more. TEOAE responses were present in 90% (46/51) of Aboriginal children and 99% (120/121) of non-Aboriginal children aged <1 month and in 62% (21/34) and 93% (108/116), respectively, in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children at age 1–2 months. Aboriginal children who failed TEOAE at age 1–2 months were 2.6 times more likely to develop OM subsequently than those who passed. Overall prevalence of type B tympanograms at field follow-up was 50% (n = 78) in Aboriginal children and 20% (n = 95) in non-Aboriginal children. Conclusion The burden of middle ear disease is high in all children, but particularly in Aboriginal children, one-third of whom suffer from moderate-severe hearing
Halimeh, Susan; Krümpel, Anne; Rott, Hannelore; Bogdanova, Nadja; Budde, Ulrich; Manner, Daniela; Faeser, Britta; Mesters, Rolf; Nowak-Göttl, Ulrike
In patients with von Willebrand disease (VWD) replacement therapy with factor VIII/von Willebrand (VWF) concentrates is increasingly applied as prophylactic regimen. Since 2000, 82 consecutively enrolled patients with clinically relevant bleeding episodes (spontaneous, peri- or postoperative) were diagnosed with VWD [type 1: 42/82; type 2: 24/82; type 3: 13/82; acquired: 3/82]. In all patients, decision for initiating prophylaxis was based on a bleeding score > 2 prior to diagnosis, concomitant with recurrent bleeds associated with anaemia in patients with on-demand VWD therapy. We report results on secondary prophylactic VWF replacement therapy applied in 32 patients [children n=13; adolescents n=7; adults n=12] with VWD [type 1: 4; type 2: 15; type 3: 13], 15 of which were females, and nine of these at the reproductive period. Eight patients were treated with Humate P® or Wilate® (n=24). Median [min-max] dose [vWF:RCo] was 40 [20-47] IU/kg, 23 patients were given substitution therapy twice weekly, seven patients three times a week, and two children four times per week. Within a 12-month-period haemoglobin concentrations returned to normal values. Median duration of prophylaxis was three years. Recurrent bleeding episodes stopped in 31 of 32 patients, whereas inhibitors developed in one. Following a 12-month observation period the monthly bleeding frequency and the bleeding score was significantly reduced [3 vs. 0.07; 3 vs. 0: p< 0.001], compared to the pre-prophylaxis/pre-diagnostic values. The use of secondary prophylactic VWF replacement therapy is an effective tolerated treatment modality, highly beneficial for patients with VWD, who present with recurrent bleeding events during on-demand therapy. PMID:21301780
Evaluation of the effect of methylphenidate by computed tomography, electroencephalography, neuropsychological tests, and clinical symptoms in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A prospective cohort study
Yildiz Oc, Ozlem; Agaoglu, Belma; Sen Berk, Fatma; Komsuoglu, Sezer; Karakaya, Isik; Coskun, Aysen
Background: Stimulant drugs are the most commonly used treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), although the mechanism of action of these drugs is still not entirely understood. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the psychostimulant drug methylphenidate (MPH) on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), electrical activity of the brain, and clinical symptoms in children with ADHD using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), electroencephalography (EEG), and neuropsychological tests. Methods: In this prospective cohort study, pediatric outpatients received MPH for 3 months at a mean dose of 1 mg/kg · d (range, 0.5–1.5 mg/kg · d). They were then administered the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test (BGT), EEG, and SPECT of the brain. The parents and/or teacher of each child were asked to complete the Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS), the Conners' Teacher Rating Scale (CTRS), and the Turgay Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition-based Child and Adolescent Behavior Disorders Screening and Rating Scale (T-DSM-IV-S). All of the evaluations were performed at baseline and after 3 months of MPH treatment. Each child underwent a Stroop test as an activation method 15 minutes before the SPECT procedure. Results: Sixty patients were assessed for inclusion. Twenty-one children (18 boys [85.7%], 3 girls [14.3%]; mean [SD] age, 9.7 [1.7] years; range, 8–13 years) with a diagnosis of ADHD were included in and completed the study. Mean (SD) BGT scores before MPH treatment compared with after MPH treatment were significantly decreased (9.8 [4.2] vs 6.3 [3.4]; Z = -3.27; P = 0.001). After treatment with MPH, the visual SPECT results suggested that low rCBF was normalized in the right frontotemporal areas in 10 children with ADHD. After treatment, 12 patients (57.1%) had no change in EEG activity, 5 (23.8%) had improvement, and 4 (19
Emond, A; Golding, J; Peckham, C
The prevalence of cerebral palsy in the 1958 British Perinatal Mortality Survey and the 1970 British Births Survey remained constant at 2.5/1000 births (40 and 41 cases, respectively). The prevalence at 10 years was higher in the 1970 cohort in which all children with cerebral palsy survived, whereas 22% of the cases in the 1958 cohort died during the first 10 years of life. A case-control study matched three controls for social class, maternal age, parity and marital state, and a further three controls for the infant's sex, gestation, and birth weight. Comparison of cases and controls showed no consistent differences in social and environmental factors, history of pregnancy, labour, or delivery. Important differences were found in the incidence of respiratory and neurological symptoms in the neonatal period. These prospective data derived form two whole populations of births support the hypothesis that most cases of cerebral palsy are not associated with adverse obstetric factors, and confirm that neonatal neurological symptoms are associated with subsequent cerebral palsy. PMID:2774617
Wiemers, Emily E.; Bianchi, Suzanne M.
In late middle age, individuals may face competing demands on their time and financial resources from elderly parents and young adult children. This study uses the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to examine changes over time in the probability of having children and living parents for women age 45 to 64. We compare two cohorts: those born in the 1920s and 1930s and those born in the 1940s and 1950s. We find that there has been a dramatic increase in the probability of having children and living parents and that this increase has been driven mainly by changes in life expectancy of the parent generation. We further examine transfers of money and co-residence for women in the later cohort. We find that while women may not give to parents and children concurrently, approximately thirty percent of them have provided support to both parents and children at some point in the past. PMID:26594071
Background The incidence of type 1 diabetes has increased worldwide, particularly in younger children and those with lower genetic susceptibility. These observations suggest factors in the modern environment promote pancreatic islet autoimmunity and destruction of insulin-producing beta cells. The Environmental Determinants of Islet Autoimmunity (ENDIA) Study is investigating candidate environmental exposures and gene-environment interactions that may contribute to the development of islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes. Methods/design ENDIA is the only prospective pregnancy/birth cohort study in the Southern Hemisphere investigating the determinants of type 1 diabetes in at-risk children. The study will recruit 1,400 unborn infants or infants less than six months of age with a first-degree relative (i.e. mother, father or sibling) with type 1 diabetes, across five Australian states. Pregnant mothers/infants will be followed prospectively from early pregnancy through childhood to investigate relationships between genotype, the development of islet autoimmunity (and subsequently type 1 diabetes), and prenatal and postnatal environmental factors. ENDIA will evaluate the microbiome, nutrition, bodyweight/composition, metabolome-lipidome, insulin resistance, innate and adaptive immune function and viral infections. A systems biology approach will be used to integrate these data. Investigation will be by 3-monthly assessments of the mother during pregnancy, then 3-monthly assessments of the child until 24 months of age and 6-monthly thereafter. The primary outcome measure is persistent islet autoimmunity, defined as the presence of autoantibodies to one or more islet autoantigens on consecutive tests. Discussion Defining gene-environment interactions that initiate and/or promote destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells in early life will inform approaches to primary prevention of type 1 diabetes. The strength of ENDIA is the prospective, comprehensive and
Bigozzi, Lucia; Tarchi, Christian; Pezzica, Sara; Pinto, Giuliana
The strong differences in manifestation, prevalence, and incidence in dyslexia across languages invite studies in specific writing systems. In particular, the question of the role played by emergent literacy in opaque and transparent writing systems remains a fraught one. This research project tested, through a 4-year prospective cohort study, an…
Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Miller, Laura L.; Mathews, Carol A.; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav
Objective: Recent epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that Tourette syndrome (TS) and chronic tic disorder (CT) are more common than previously recognized. However, few population-based studies have examined the prevalence of co-occurring neuropsychiatric conditions such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and…
Lawlor, Debbie A.; Clark, Heather; Ronalds, Georgina; Leon, David A.
Background: In this study, 2 main hypotheses have been put forward to explain the variation in childhood intelligence or school performance by season of birth. In the first hypothesis, it is suggested that it is due to school policy concerning school entry, whereas the second suggests that a seasonally patterned exposure such as temperature,…
Background Essential hypertension mostly originates from children. Salt Sensitivity (SS) is regarded as the intermediate phenotype of essential hypertension. The present study investigated the effects of salt-sensitivity on evolution of blood pressure (BP) and development to hypertension from adolescents to youth. Methods A baseline survey was carried out in 4,623 adolescents aged 6-15 years old in Hanzhong rural areas in 1987, 310 of whom(mean 9.2 years) were randomly recruited for determination of salt sensitivity using the tests of oral saline load and furosemide sodium-volume depletion. SS was diagnosed in 101 subjects while 209 were determined as non-salt-sensitive (NSS). We made a 18-year followed-up of the cohort in 2005. Results The response rate for surviving baseline adolescents was 71.9%. At follow up, BP in youth with baseline SS was higher than that in NSS (SBP:122.9 ± 13.1 VS 117.3 ± 12.4, P < 0.01; DBP: 78.2 ± 10.4 VS 74.7 ± 10.8, P < 0.05). Longitudinal analysis of 18-year BP evolution, subjects in SS had greater Systolic BP change than subjects in NSS(19.6 ± 12.714.7 ± 12.2, P < 0.01). The incidence of hypertension in salt sensitive group was higher than that in NSS group (15.5% VS 6.3%, RR = 2.34, P < 0.05). Conclusion Our findings indicate that adolescents with higher BP salt-sensitivity have a higher rate of incident hypertension in youth. Salt sensitivity could be at high risk predisposing to development of hypertension from adolescents to youth. PMID:22978814
Pitter, Gisella; Ludvigsson, Jonas Filip; Romor, Pierantonio; Zanier, Loris; Zanotti, Renzo; Simonato, Lorenzo; Canova, Cristina
Several epidemiological studies reported an association between antibiotic consumption in the first year of life and later asthma, but results are conflicting and affected by potential biases. We examined this controversial issue in a population-based birth cohort. Using administrative data, we identified 143,163 children born in 1995-2011 in Friuli-Venezia Giulia (Italy) (median follow-up 5.25 years, 927,350 person-years). Antibiotic prescriptions in the first year of life and subsequent treated asthma (defined as ≥2 anti-asthmatic drug prescriptions within a 12-month period) were retrieved from drug prescription records. We estimated incidence rate ratios (IRR) using Poisson regression models, adjusted for perinatal variables and for hospitalizations for infections in the first year of life. We identified 34,957 new-onset asthma cases. Antibiotic consumption in the first year of life increased the risk of new-onset asthma [IRR 1.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.48-1.54] with a dose-response relationship (p-trend <0.001). The risk was highest for asthma identified at 13-35 months of life (IRR 2.07, 95% CI 2.00-2.14), but remained statistically significant for asthma identified at 36-71 months (IRR 1.17, 95% CI 1.14-1.21) and at ≥72 months (IRR 1.15, 95% CI 1.08-1.22). Antibiotics increased the risk of current asthma at ≥6 years (IRR 1.35, 95% CI 1.30-1.41) and at ≥13 years of age (IRR 1.19, 95% CI 1.08-1.33). Antibiotic exposure in infancy is associated with an increased risk of asthma up to adolescence. The association detected at older ages is not explained by reverse causation; however, confounding by respiratory infections not leading to hospital admission cannot be excluded. PMID:25957084
Betancourt, Theresa S; Gilman, Stephen E
Objectives To compare the risks of admission to hospital for any type of psychiatric disorder and for four specific psychiatric disorders among adults who as children were evacuated to Swedish foster families during the second world war and their non-evacuated siblings, and to evaluate whether these risks differ between the sexes. Design Cohort study. Setting National child evacuation scheme in Finland during the second world war. Participants Children born in Finland between 1933 and 1944 who were later included in a 10% sample of the 1950 Finnish census ascertained in 1997 (n=45 463; women: n=22 021; men: n=23 442). Evacuees in the sample were identified from war time government records. Main outcome measure Adults admitted to hospital for psychiatric disorders recorded between 1971 and 2011 in the Finnish hospital discharge register. Methods We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the association between evacuation to temporary foster care in Sweden during the second world war and admission to hospital for a psychiatric disorder between ages 38 and 78 years. Fixed effects methods were employed to control for all unobserved social and genetic characteristics shared among siblings. Results Among men and women combined, the risk of admission to hospital for a psychiatric disorder did not differ between Finnish adults evacuated to Swedish foster families and their non-evacuated siblings (hazard ratio 0.89, 95% confidence interval 0.64 to 1.26). Evidence suggested a lower risk of admission for any mental disorder (0.67, 0.44 to 1.03) among evacuated men, whereas for women there was no association between evacuation and the overall risk of admission for a psychiatric disorder (1.21, 0.80 to 1.83). When admissions for individual psychiatric disorders were analyzed, evacuated girls were significantly more likely than their non-evacuated sisters to be admitted to hospital for a mood disorder as an adult (2.19, 1.10 to 4.33). Conclusions The Finnish
Poustchi, Hossein; Katoonizadeh, Aezam; Ostovaneh, Mohammad Reza; Moossavi, Shirin; Sharafkhah, Maryam; Esmaili, Saeed; Pourshams, Akram; Mohamadkhani, Ashraf; Besharat, Sima; Merat, Shahin; Mohamadnejad, Mehdi; George, Jacob; Malekzadeh, Reza
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the most common cause of end stage liver disease in Iran and in Golestan province. Large-scale population-based prospective cohort studies with long term follow-up are the method of choice to accurately understand the natural course of HBV infection. To date, several studies of HBV epidemiology, natural history, progression to cirrhosis and association with HCC have been reported from other countries. However, few of these are prospective and fewer still are population-based. Moreover, the underlying molecular mechanisms and immunogenetic determinants of the outcome of HBV infection especially in low and middle income countries remains largely unknown. Therefore, the hepatitis B cohort study (HBCS), nested as part of the Golestan Cohort Study (GCS), Golestan, Iran was established in 2008 with the objective to prospectively investigate the natural course of chronic hepatitis B with reference to its epidemiology, viral/host genetic interactions, clinical features and outcome in the Middle East where genotype D HBV accounts for >90% of infections. In 2008, a baseline measurement of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) was performed on stored serum samples of all GCS participants. A sub-cohort of 3,505 individuals were found to be HBsAg positive and were enrolled in the Golestan HBCS. In 2011, all first degree relatives of HBsAg positive subjects including their children and spouses were invited for HBV serology screening and those who were positive for HBsAg were also included in the Golestan HBCS. PMID:25349681
Cohort studies evaluate suspect health hazards from occupational or environmental exposures by recording tile facts and causes of deaths in the exposed group as they occur over an extended time period. his article reviews several methods for analyzing cohort: mortality data and s...
Esmaeil, Samia; Alzeidan, Rasmieh; Elawad, Mamoun; Tabassum, Rabeena; Hansoti, Shehnaz; Magzoup, Mohie Edein; Al-Kadri, Hanan; Elsherif, Elham; Al-Mandil, Hazim; Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer; Zakaria, Nasria
Objectives To assess the effects of non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension and obesity, on the mother and the infant. Methods A multicentre cohort study was conducted in three hospitals in the city of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia. All Saudi women and their babies who delivered in participating hospitals were eligible for recruitment. Data on socio-demographic characteristics in addition to the maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancy were collected. The cohort demographic profile was recorded and the prevalence of maternal conditions including gestational diabetes, pre-gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and obesity were estimated. Findings The total number of women who delivered in participating hospitals during the study period was 16,012 of which 14,568 women participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 29 ± 5.9 years and over 40% were university graduates. Most of the participants were housewives, 70% were high or middle income and 22% were exposed to secondhand smoke. Of the total cohort, 24% were married to a first cousin. More than 68% of the participants were either overweight or obese. The preterm delivery rate was 9%, while 1.5% of the deliveries were postdate. The stillbirth rate was 13/1000 live birth. The prevalence of gestational diabetes was 24% and that of pre-gestational diabetes was 4.3%. The preeclampsia prevalence was 1.1%. The labour induction rate was 15.5% and the cesarean section rate was 25%. Conclusion Pregnant women in Saudi Arabia have a unique demographic profile. The prevalence of obesity and diabetes in pregnancy are among the highest in the world. PMID:26937965
Bressan, Silvia; Takagi, Michael; Anderson, Vicki; Davis, Gavin A; Oakley, Ed; Dunne, Kevin; Clarke, Cathriona; Doyle, Melissa; Hearps, Stephen; Ignjatovic, Vera; Seal, Marc; Babl, Franz E
Introduction A substantial minority of children who sustain a concussion suffer prolonged postconcussive symptoms. These symptoms can persist for more than 1 month postinjury and include physical, cognitive, behavioural and emotional changes. Those affected can develop significant disability, diminishing their quality of life. The precise prevalence of postconcussive symptoms following child concussion is unclear, with heterogeneous and at times conflicting results published regarding factors that predict children at risk for developing long-lasting postconcussive symptoms. The aim of the Take C.A.Re (Concussion Assessment and Recovery Research) study is to provide an in-depth multidimensional description of the postconcussive recovery trajectories from a physical, neurocognitive and psychosocial perspective in the 3 months following concussion, with a focus on the early postconcussive period, and identification of factors associated with prolonged recovery. Methods and analysis Take C.A.Re is a prospective, longitudinal study at a tertiary children's hospital, recruiting and assessing patients aged 5–<18 years who present to the emergency department with a concussion and following them at 1–4 days, 2 weeks, 1 month and 3 months postinjury. Multiple domains are assessed: postconcussive symptoms, balance and coordination, neurocognition, behaviour, quality of life, fatigue, post-traumatic stress symptoms, parental distress and family burden. ‘Delayed recovery’ is operationalised as the presence of ≥3 symptoms on the Post Concussive Symptoms Inventory rated as worse compared with baseline. Main analyses comprise analysis of variance (recovery trajectories, delayed vs normal recovery groups) and regression analyses of predictors of recovery (preinjury, acute and family factors). Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained through the Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne Human Research Ethics Committee (33122). We aim to
Benchimol, Eric I.; Manuel, Douglas G.; To, Teresa; Mack, David R.; Nguyen, Geoffrey C.; Gommerman, Jennifer L.; Croitoru, Kenneth; Mojaverian, Nassim; Wang, Xuesong; Quach, Pauline; Guttmann, Astrid
BACKGROUND There is a high and rising rate of immune-mediated diseases in the Western world. Immigrants from South Asia have been reported to be at higher risk upon arrival to the West. We determined the risk of immune-mediated diseases in South Asian and other immigrants to Ontario, Canada, and their Ontario-born children. METHODS Population-based cohorts of patients with asthma, type 1 diabetes (T1DM), type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) were derived from health administrative data. We determined the standardized incidence, and the adjusted risk of these diseases in immigrants from South Asia, immigrants from other regions, compared with non-immigrant residents of Ontario. The risk of these diseases in the Ontario-born children of immigrants were compared to the children of non-immigrants. RESULTS Compared to non-immigrants, adults from South Asia had higher risk of asthma (IRR 1.56, 95%CI 1.51-1.61) and T2DM (IRR 2.59, 95%CI 2.53-2.65). Adults from South Asia had lower incidence of IBD than non-immigrants (IRR 0.32, 95%CI 0.22-0.49), as did immigrants from other regions (IRR 0.29, 95%CI 0.20-0.42). Compared to non-immigrant children, the incidence of asthma (IRR 0.66, 95%CI 0.62-0.71) and IBD (IRR 0.47, 95%CI 0.33-0.67) was low amongst immigrant children from South Asia. However, the risk in Ontario-born children of South Asian immigrants relative to the children of non-immigrants was higher for asthma (IRR 1.75, 95%CI 1.69-1.81) and less attenuated for IBD (IRR 0.90, 95%CI 0.65-1.22). CONCLUSION Early-life environmental exposures may trigger a genetic predisposition to the development of asthma and IBD in South Asian immigrants and their Canada-born children. PMID:25849480
Guevara, Marcela; Barricarte, Aurelio; Torroba, Luis; Herranz, Mercedes; Gil-Setas, Alberto; Gil, Francisco; Bernaola, Enrique; Ezpeleta, Carmen; Castilla, Jesús
We estimated the direct, indirect and total effects of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children. A population-based cohort study followed children aged between 2.5 and 59 months between 2001 and 2014 in Navarra, Spain. IPD incidence was compared by PCV status and period. All cases diagnosed from July 2010 to December 2014 and eight matched controls per case were analysed to estimate the adjusted direct effect of PCV13. A total of 120,980 children were followed and 206 IPD cases were detected. Compared with unvaccinated children in the baseline period (2001-2004), overall IPD incidence in 2011-2014 (76% average PCV coverage) declined equally in vaccinated (total effect: 76%; hazard ratio (HR): 0.24; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.14-0.40) and unvaccinated children (indirect effect: 78%; HR: 0.22; 95% CI: 0.09-0.55). IPD incidence from non-PCV13 serotypes increased among vaccinated children (HR: 2.84; 95% CI: 1.02-7.88). The direct effect of one or more doses of PCV13 against vaccine serotypes was 95% (odds ratio: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.01-0.55). PCV13 was highly effective in preventing vaccine-serotype IPD. The results suggest substantial and similar population-level vaccine benefits in vaccinated and unvaccinated children through strong total and indirect effects. PMID:27103428
Greenlee, Bobbie J.; Karanxha, Zorka
The purpose of this study was to examine group dynamics of educational leadership students in cohorts and make comparisons with the group dynamics characteristics of non-cohort students. Cohorts have emerged as dynamic and adaptive entities with attendant group dynamic processes that shape collective learning and action. Cohort (n=42) and…
Homaira, Nusrat; Mallitt, Kylie-Ann; Oei, Ju-Lee; Hilder, Lisa; Bajuk, Barbara; Lui, Kei; Rawlinson, William; Snelling, Tom; Jaffe, Adam
Background Data on risk factors for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-associated hospitalisation in Australian children may be informative for preventive measures. Methods A whole-of-population-based study was conducted to identify comparable risk factors for RSV hospitalisation in different subgroups of children aged <2 years in New South Wales. The cohort was divided into Indigenous children and high-risk and standard risk non-Indigenous children. Data on risk factors were obtained from the Perinatal Data Collection. RSV hospitalisations were ascertained from the Admitted Patient Data Collection. Adjusted HRs were calculated for each subgroup. Population-attributable risk associated with risk factors was estimated. Results Four factors were associated with increased risk of RSV hospitalisation: maternal smoking during pregnancy, male sex, multiparity and birth during the first half of the RSV season. Increase in relative socioeconomic advantage was associated with decreased risk of hospitalisation. Among high and standard risk non-Indigenous children, the hazard was approximately double for children born to multiparous women compared to those born to primiparous women and among Indigenous children the hazard was approximately double among those born during the first half of the RSV season. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with a 26–45% increased risk across subgroups and accounted for 17% (95% CI 9.3% to 24%) of RSV hospitalisations in Indigenous children, 5% (95% CI 2.5% to 8%) in high-risk and 6% (95% 5% to 7%) in standard risk non-Indigenous children. Discussion Promoting avoidance of smoking during pregnancy may help in lowering the disease burden, with Indigenous children likely to benefit most. PMID:27357197
Winsper, Catherine; Lereya, Tanya; Zanarini, Mary; Wolke, Dieter
Objective: To study the prospective link between involvement in bullying (bully, victim, bully/victim), and subsequent suicide ideation and suicidal/self-injurious behavior, in preadolescent children in the United Kingdom. Method: A total of 6,043 children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort were assessed to…
Zwi, Karen; Rungan, Santuri; Woolfenden, Susan; Williams, Katrina; Woodland, Lisa
Purpose Few studies explore the long-term health and well-being of refugee children. A longitudinal cohort of refugee children was created to determine health and well-being outcomes over time. This article describes the methodology used to conduct this study, including sample characteristics and effectiveness of recruitment and retention strategies. Participants Newly arrived refugee children settling in a regional part of Australia aged 6 months to 15 years were recruited between 2009 and 2013 and 85% were followed for an average of 31 months. Method and design General practitioners conducted health and pathology examinations shortly after arrival. Additional follow-up assessments were conducted by the research team at an average of 13 months after arrival for the first (year 2) and 31 months for the second (year 3) assessment. Children under 5 years had developmental and children aged 4–17 years had social–emotional screening. Families were assessed for risk and protective factors using a structured interview and the Social Readjustment Ratings Scale. Parent experience of the research was explored. Findings to date Eligibility criteria were met by 158 of 228 (69%) newly arrived children, 61 of whom (39%) were enrolled. Retention was 100% (n=61) at year 2 and 85% at year 3. The study sample was younger than and had an over-representation of African refugees as compared to the eligible population. Parents reported that the research was respectful. Future plans This study demonstrates that a longitudinal cohort study in refugee children is feasible and acceptable, and retention rates can be high. The establishment of this cohort provides the opportunity to analyse valuable data about the early settlement experience, risk and protective factors and long-term health and well-being outcomes in refugee children. These are necessary to identify refugee children in need of additional support and to guide future service delivery. PMID:27558902
CHILDS, Tristan; SHINGADIA, Delane; GOODALL, Ruth; DOERHOLT, Katja; LYALL, Hermione; DUONG, Trinh; JUDD, Ali; GIBB, Di M; COLLINS, Intira Jeannie
Background Approximately one-third of HIV-infected children experience virological failure within two years of initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART). We determined the probability of switch to second-line ART or viral load (VL) re-suppression without switch among children who experienced VL rebound on first-line ART in an observational cohort in the UK/Ireland. Methods Children with VL rebound (confirmed VL>400c/ml following suppression <400c/ml) on first-line ART were included. Competing risk analysis estimated the probability of: switch to second-line; confirmed re-suppression (two consecutive VL<400c/ml) without switch; and continued VL>400c/ml without switch. Predictors of time to switch were assessed. Findings Of 900 children starting first-line ART who had VL<400c/ml by one year, 170 (19%) experienced VL rebound by median [IQR] 20·6 months [9·7-40·5]. At rebound, median age was 10·6 years [5·6-13·4], VL 3·6 log10c/ml [3·1-4·2], and CD4% 24 [17-32]. Eighty-nine (52%) switched to second-line ART at median 4·9 months [1·7-13·4] after VL rebound, 53 (31%) re-suppressed without switch (61% of those on PI-based and 24% of those on NNRTI-based first-line regimens), while 28 (16%) neither re-suppressed nor switched. At 12 months after rebound, probabilities of switch or re-suppression without switch were 38% (95% CI 30-45) and 27% (95% CI 21-34), respectively. Faster time to switch was associated with higher VL (p<0·0001), later calendar year (p=0·02) at VL rebound, and NNRTI- or triple NRTI- versus PI-based first-line (p=0·001). Interpretation One-third of children with VL rebound re-suppressed without switch. The possibility of re-suppression with adherence support should be considered prior to switching. Funding NHS England PMID:26413561
Gurley, Emily S.; Homaira, Nusrat; Salje, Henrik; Ram, Pavani K.; Haque, Rashidul; Petri, William; Bresee, Joseph; Moss, William J.; Breysse, Patrick; Luby, Stephen P.; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo
Background Approximately half of all children under two years of age in Bangladesh suffer from an acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) each year. Exposure to indoor biomass smoke has been consistently associated with an increased risk of ALRI in young children. Our aim was to estimate the effect of indoor exposure to particulate matter (PM2.5) on the incidence of ALRI among children in a low-income, urban community in Bangladesh. Methods We followed 257 children through two years of age to determine their frequency of ALRI and measured the PM2.5 concentrations in their sleeping space. Poisson regression was used to estimate the association between ALRI and the number of hours per day that PM2.5 concentrations exceeded 100 µg/m3, adjusting for known confounders. Results Each hour that PM2.5 concentrations exceeded 100 µg/m3 was associated with a 7% increase in incidence of ALRI among children aged 0 – 11 months (adjusted IRR 1.07, 95% CI 1.01 – 1.14), but not in children 12 – 23 months old (adjusted IRR 1.00, 95% CI 0.92 – 1.09). Conclusions Results from this study suggest that reducing indoor PM2.5 exposure could decrease the frequency of ALRI among infants, the children at highest risk for death from these infections. PMID:23906055
Factors associated with improvement in disease activity following initiation of etanercept in children and young people with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: results from the British Society for Paediatric and Adolescent Rheumatology Etanercept Cohort Study
Kearsley-Fleet, Lianne; Davies, Rebecca; Lunt, Mark; Southwood, Taunton R.
Objectives. The objectives of this study were to investigate change in disease activity, and explore factors associated with response, in children with JIA over the initial year of etanercept treatment. Methods. This analysis included children with JIA starting etanercept in the British Society for Paediatric and Adolescent Rheumatology Etanercept Cohort Study. Response was assessed using change in juvenile arthritis disease activity score-71 (JADAS-71), an excellent response (ACR Pedi 90), and achieving minimal disease activity (MDA) at 1 year. Change in JADAS-71 was evaluated over time. Multivariable backward stepwise logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with ACR Pedi 90 and MDA. Results. A total of 496 children were included. Over the first year, 17 stopped due to inefficacy, 9 due to adverse events and 7 for other reasons. One child stopped for remission. At 1 year, 74, 69 and 38% reached ACR Pedi 30, 50 and 90, respectively, and 48% had achieved MDA. Independent predictors of achieving ACR Pedi 90 at 1 year included shorter disease duration [odds ratio (OR) 0.91; 95% CI: 0.85, 0.97)], no concurrent oral corticosteroid use (OR 0.48; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.80) and history of uveitis (OR 2.26; 95% CI: 1.08, 4.71). Independent predictors of achieving MDA at 1 year included younger patients (OR 0.60; 95% CI: 0.38, 0.95), and disease not treated with concurrent oral corticosteroids (OR 0.57; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.93). Conclusion. Among this real-world cohort of children with severe JIA, a significant proportion of children achieved an excellent ACR Pedi response and MDA within 1 year of starting etanercept, although few clinical factors could predict this outcome. PMID:26721878
Benfer, Katherine A; Weir, Kelly A; Bell, Kristie L; Ware, Robert S; Davies, Peter S W; Boyd, Roslyn N
Introduction The prevalence of oropharyngeal dysphagia (OPD) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) is estimated to be between 19% and 99%. OPD can impact on children's growth, nutrition and overall health. Despite the growing recognition of the extent and significance of health issues relating to OPD in children with CP, lack of knowledge of its profile in this subpopulation remains. This study aims to investigate the relationship between OPD, attainment of gross motor skills, growth and nutritional status in young children with CP at and between two crucial age points, 18–24 and 36 months, corrected age. Methods and analysis This prospective longitudinal population-based study aims to recruit a total of 200 children with CP born in Queensland, Australia between 1 September 2006 and 31 December 2009 (60 per birth-year). Outcomes include clinically assessed OPD (Schedule for Oral Motor Assessment, Dysphagia Disorders Survey, Pre-Speech Assessment Scale, signs suggestive of pharyngeal phase impairment, Thomas-Stonell and Greenberg Saliva Severity Scale), parent-reported OPD on a feeding questionnaire, gross motor skills (Gross Motor Function Measure, Gross Motor Function Classification System and motor type), growth and nutritional status (linear growth and body composition) and dietary intake (3 day food record). The strength of relationship between outcome and exposure variables will be analysed using regression modelling with ORs and relative risk ratios. Ethics and dissemination This protocol describes a study that provides the first large population-based study of OPD in a representative sample of preschool children with CP, using direct clinical assessment. Ethics has been obtained through the University of Queensland Medical Research Ethics Committee, the Children's Health Services District Ethics Committee, and at other regional and organisational ethics committees. Results are planned to be disseminated in six papers submitted to peer reviewed journals
A large longitudinal cohort study designed to evaluate the association between children's exposures to environmental agents and health outcomes presents many challenges for exposure monitoring. Exposure of the child must be measured for multiple chemicals through multiple path...
Background Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pnc), nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mcat) are the most important bacterial pathogens associated with otitis media (OM). Previous studies have suggested that early upper respiratory tract (URT) bacterial carriage may increase risk of subsequent OM. We investigated associations between early onset of URT bacterial carriage and subsequent diagnosis of OM in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children living in the Kalgoorlie-Boulder region located in a semi-arid zone of Western Australia. Methods Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children who had nasopharyngeal aspirates collected at age 1- < 3 months and at least one clinical examination for OM by an ear, nose and throat specialist before age 2 years were included in this analysis. Tympanometry to detect middle ear effusion was also performed at 2- to 6-monthly scheduled field visits from age 3 months. Multivariate regression models were used to investigate the relationship between early carriage and subsequent diagnosis of OM controlling for environmental factors. Results Carriage rates of Pnc, NTHi and Mcat at age 1- < 3 months were 45%, 29% and 48%, respectively, in 66 Aboriginal children and 14%, 5% and 18% in 146 non-Aboriginal children. OM was diagnosed at least once in 71% of Aboriginal children and 43% of non-Aboriginal children. After controlling for age, sex, presence of other bacteria and environmental factors, early nasopharyngeal carriage of NTHi increased the risk of subsequent OM (odds ratio = 3.70, 95% CI 1.22-11.23) in Aboriginal children, while Mcat increased the risk of OM in non-Aboriginal children (odds ratio = 2.63, 95% CI 1.32-5.23). Early carriage of Pnc was not associated with increased risk of OM. Conclusion Early NTHi carriage in Aboriginal children and Mcat in non-Aboriginal children is associated with increased risk of OM independent of environmental factors. In addition to addressing environmental risk
Taylor, Caroline M; Humphriss, Rachel; Hall, Amanda; Golding, Jean; Emond, Alan M
Objectives Most studies reporting evidence of adverse effects of lead and cadmium on the ability to balance have been conducted in high-exposure groups or have included adults. The effects of prenatal exposure have not been well studied, nor have the effects in children been directly studied. The aim of the study was to identify the associations of lead (in utero and in childhood) and cadmium (in utero) exposure with the ability to balance in children aged 7 and 10 years. Design Prospective birth cohort study. Participants Maternal blood lead (n=4285) and cadmium (n=4286) levels were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in women enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) during pregnancy. Child lead levels were measured in a subsample of 582 of ALSPAC children at age 30 months. Main outcome measures Children completed a heel-to-toe walking test at 7 years. At 10 years, the children underwent clinical tests of static and dynamic balance. Statistical analysis using SPSS V.19 included logistic regression modelling, comparing categories of ≥5 vs <5 µg/dL for lead, and ≥1 vs <1 µg/L for cadmium. Results Balance at age 7 years was not associated with elevated in utero lead or cadmium exposure (adjusted OR for balance dysfunction: Pb 1.01 (95% CI 0.95 to 1.01), n=1732; Cd 0.95 (0.77 to 1.20), n=1734), or with elevated child blood lead level at age 30 months (adjusted OR 0.98 (0.92 to 1.05), n=354). Similarly, neither measures of static nor dynamic balance at age 10 years were associated with in utero lead or cadmium exposure, or child lead level. Conclusions These findings do not provide any evidence of an association of prenatal exposure to lead or cadmium, or lead levels in childhood, on balance ability in children. Confirmation in other cohorts is needed. PMID:26719320
Jeon, Hong Jin; Baek, Ji Hyun; Ahn, Yong-Min; Kim, Se Joo; Ha, Tae Hyun; Cha, Boseok; Moon, Eunsoo; Kang, Hee-Ju; Ryu, Vin; Cho, Chul-Hyun; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Kiwon; Lee, Heon-Jeong
This paper aimed to review currently available cohort studies of subjects with mood disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Using the PubMed and KoreaMed databases, we reviewed eight major cohort studies. Most studies recruited participants with MDD and BD separately, so direct comparison of factors associated with diagnostic changes was difficult. Regular and frequent follow-up evaluations utilizing objective mood ratings and standardized evaluation methods in a naturalistic fashion are necessary to determine detailed clinical courses of mood disorders. Further, biological samples should also be collected to incorporate clinical findings in the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. An innovative cohort study that can serve as a platform for translational research for treatment and prevention of mood disorders is critical in determining clinical, psychosocial, neurobiological and genetic factors associated with long-term courses and consequences of mood disorders in Korean patients. PMID:27247592
Jeon, Hong Jin; Baek, Ji Hyun; Ahn, Yong-Min; Kim, Se Joo; Ha, Tae Hyun; Cha, Boseok; Moon, Eunsoo; Kang, Hee-Ju; Ryu, Vin; Cho, Chul-Hyun; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Kiwon
This paper aimed to review currently available cohort studies of subjects with mood disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Using the PubMed and KoreaMed databases, we reviewed eight major cohort studies. Most studies recruited participants with MDD and BD separately, so direct comparison of factors associated with diagnostic changes was difficult. Regular and frequent follow-up evaluations utilizing objective mood ratings and standardized evaluation methods in a naturalistic fashion are necessary to determine detailed clinical courses of mood disorders. Further, biological samples should also be collected to incorporate clinical findings in the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. An innovative cohort study that can serve as a platform for translational research for treatment and prevention of mood disorders is critical in determining clinical, psychosocial, neurobiological and genetic factors associated with long-term courses and consequences of mood disorders in Korean patients. PMID:27247592
Question: What are the key characteristics of the cohort study design and its varied applications, and how can this research design be utilized in health sciences librarianship? Data Sources: The health, social, behavioral, biological, library, earth, and management sciences literatures were used as sources. Study Selection: All fields except for health sciences librarianship were scanned topically for either well-known or diverse applications of the cohort design. The health sciences library literature available to the author principally for the years 1990 to 2000, supplemented by papers or posters presented at annual meetings of the Medical Library Association. Data Extraction: A narrative review for the health, social, behavioral, biological, earth, and management sciences literatures and a systematic review for health sciences librarianship literature for the years 1990 to 2000, with three exceptions, were conducted. The author conducted principally a manual search of the health sciences librarianship literature for the years 1990 to 2000 as part of this systematic review. Main Results: The cohort design has been applied to answer a wide array of theoretical or practical research questions in the health, social, behavioral, biological, and management sciences. Health sciences librarianship also offers several major applications of the cohort design. Conclusion: The cohort design has great potential for answering research questions in the field of health sciences librarianship, particularly evidence-based librarianship (EBL), although that potential has not been fully explored. PMID:12398244
Fertig, Angela R.; Allison, Paul D.
Objectives. We assessed the independent effect of homeless and doubled-up episodes on physical and mental health, cognitive development, and health care use among children. Methods. We used data from 4 waves of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, involving a sample of 2631 low-income children in 20 large US cities who have been followed since birth. Multivariate analyses involved logistic regression using the hybrid method to include both fixed and random effects. Results. Of the sample, 9.8% experienced homelessness and an additional 23.6% had a doubled-up episode. Housing status had little significant adverse effect on child physical or mental health, cognitive development, or health care use. Conclusions. Family and environmental stressors common to many children in poverty, rather than just homeless and doubled-up episodes, were associated with young children's poor health and cognitive development and high health care use. Practitioners need to identify and respond to parental and family needs for support services in addition to housing assistance to effectively improve the health and development of young children who experience residential instability, particularly those in homeless families. PMID:21551380
Pihlakoski, Leena; Aromaa, Minna; Sourander, Andre; Rautava, Paivi; Helenius, Hans; Sillanpaa, Matti
Objective: To determine the effect of child-, parent- and family-related factors on the use of and need for mental health services by 12 years of age. Method: A prospective population-based questionnaire study of 1,287 first-born children was launched in Finland in 1985. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) was completed by 1,086 parents when the…
McEvilly, Miranda; Wicks, Susanne; Dalman, Christina
This population-based register study explored the association between having a child with/without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and parental sick leave and work participation. Parents of children with ASD living in Stockholm, Sweden in 2006 were more likely to be on sick leave, not in the labor force, or earning low income when compared to…
Arrandale, Victoria H.; Brauer, Michael; Brook, Jeffrey R.; Brunekreef, Bert; Gold, Diane R.; London, Stephanie J.; Miller, J. David; Özkaynak, Halûk; Ries, Nola M.; Sears, Malcolm R.; Silverman, Frances S.; Takaro, Tim K.
Background The environment is suspected to play an important role in the development of childhood asthma. Cohort studies are a powerful observational design for studying exposure–response relationships, but their power depends in part upon the accuracy of the exposure assessment. Objective The purpose of this paper is to summarize and discuss issues that make accurate exposure assessment a challenge and to suggest strategies for improving exposure assessment in longitudinal cohort studies of childhood asthma and allergies. Data synthesis Exposures of interest need to be prioritized, because a single study cannot measure all potentially relevant exposures. Hypotheses need to be based on proposed mechanisms, critical time windows for effects, prior knowledge of physical, physiologic, and immunologic development, as well as genetic pathways potentially influenced by the exposures. Modifiable exposures are most important from the public health perspective. Given the interest in evaluating gene–environment interactions, large cohort sizes are required, and planning for data pooling across independent studies is critical. Collection of additional samples, possibly through subject participation, will permit secondary analyses. Models combining air quality, environmental, and dose data provide exposure estimates across large cohorts but can still be improved. Conclusions Exposure is best characterized through a combination of information sources. Improving exposure assessment is critical for reducing measurement error and increasing power, which increase confidence in characterization of children at risk, leading to improved health outcomes. PMID:21081299
Rajaram, Sankarasubramanian; Steffey, Amy; Blak, Betina; Hickman, Matthew; Christensen, Hannah; Caspard, Herve
Objectives To evaluate changes in influenza vaccination rates in healthy and at-risk children following the implementation of the UK's childhood influenza immunisation programme. Design Observational cohort study before and after initiation of the UK's childhood influenza immunisation programme over three influenza seasons (2012–2013, 2013–2014 and 2014–2015) using data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). Setting More than 500 primary care practices in the UK. Population All individuals aged 2–17 years on 1 September, with at least 12 months of medical history documented in CPRD were retained in the analysis. Intervention Starting in 2013–2014, all children aged 2 and 3 years were offered influenza vaccination through general practice, and primary school-aged children were offered influenza vaccination in selected counties in England (described as pilot regions). The vaccination programme was extended to all children aged 4 years in England in 2014–2015. Main outcome measure Cumulative vaccination rate from 1 September to 28 February of the next calendar year as assessed by a time-to-event statistical model (vaccination uptake). Age group, sex, region and type of high-risk medical condition were assessed as predictors. Results Vaccination uptake increased considerably from 2012–2013 to 2013–2014 in targeted children aged 2–3 years, both in children with a high-risk medical condition (from 40.7% to 61.1%) and those without (from 1.0% to 43.0%). Vaccination rates increased also, though less markedly, in older children. In 2014–2015, vaccination rates remained higher than 40% in healthy children aged 2–3 years, although they decreased slightly from 2013–2014 (from 43.0% to 41.8%). Vaccination rates in older healthy children continued to increase, driven primarily by an increase in children aged 4 years to 31.3% in 2014–2015. Conclusions The introduction of a universal childhood vaccination policy in the UK
At the completion of the 1986-87 school year, the Albuquerque (New Mexico) Public Schools (APS) conducted a cohort survival and withdrawal study to follow-up 5,976 students who had begun the ninth grade within the district in 1983-84. Current records were matched with those from the 1983-84 school year to determine whether members of the…
Chandler, Susie; Charman, Tony; Baird, Gillian; Simonoff, Emily; Loucas, Tom; Meldrum, David; Scott, Mimi; Pickles, Andrew
Objective: To examine the properties of the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) in a population cohort of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and in the general population. Method: SCQ data were collected from three samples: the Special Needs and Autism Project (SNAP) cohort of 9- to 10-year-old children with special educational…
Murray, Joseph; Irving, Barrie; Farrington, David P.; Colman, Ian; Bloxsom, Claire A. J.
Background: Longitudinal research has produced a wealth of knowledge about individual, family, and social predictors of crime. However, nearly all studies have started after children are age 5, and little is known about earlier risk factors. Methods: The 1970 British Cohort Study is a prospective population survey of more than 16,000 children born…
The Federal Government is currently planning a large, prospective birth cohort study known as the National Children's Study that will potentially involve 100,000 children and their families. The observation period will start as close to conception as possible and will continue...
Jedrychowski, Wieslaw A; Perera, Frederica P; Maugeri, Umberto; Majewska, Renata; Spengler, Jack; Mroz, Elzbieta; Flak, Elzbieta; Klimaszewska-Rembiasz, Maria; Camman, David
The main purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the depressed lung growth attributable to prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) may be modified by the intake of antihistamine medications. Individual prenatal PAH exposure was assessed by personal air monitoring in 176 children who were followed over nine years, in the course of which outdoor residential air monitoring, allergic skin tests for indoor allergens, lung function tests (FVC, FEV(1), FEV(05), and FEF(25-75)) were performed. The analysis with the General Estimated Equation (GEE) showed no association between prenatal PAH exposure and lung function in the group of children who were reported to be antihistamine users. However, in the group of antihistamine non-users all lung function tests except for FEF(25-75) were significantly and inversely associated with prenatal airborne PAH exposure. The results of the study suggest that the intake of antihistamine medications in early childhood may inhibit the negative effect of fetal PAH exposure on lung growth and provides additional indirect evidence for the hypothesis that lung alterations in young children resulting from PAH exposure may be caused by the allergic inflammation within lung. PMID:25154482
Golding, Jean; Northstone, Kate; Gregory, Steven; Miller, Laura L; Pembrey, Marcus
Objectives Previously, in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), we have shown different sex-specific birth anthropometric measurements contingent upon whether or not prenatal smoking was undertaken by paternal grandmother (PGM±), maternal grandmother (MGM±), and the study mother (M±). The findings raised the question as to whether there were long-term associations on the growth of the study children over time. Methods Measures of weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference, lean mass, and fat mass of children in the ALSPAC study from 7 to 17 years of age were used. We compared growth in four categories at each age: PGM+M− with PGM−M−; MGM+M− with MGM−M−; PGM+M+ with PGM−M+; MGM+M+ with MGM−M+; and adjusted for housing tenure, maternal education, parity, and paternal smoking at the start of the study pregnancy. Results We found that if the PGM had, but the study mother had not, smoked in pregnancy, the girls were taller and both genders had greater bone and lean mass. However, if the MGM had smoked prenatally but the mother had not (MGM+M−), the boys became heavier than expected with increasing age—an association that was particularly due to lean rather than fat mass, reflected in increased strength and fitness. When both the maternal grandmother and the mother had smoked (MGM+M+) girls had reduced height, weight, and fat/lean/bone mass when compared with girls born to smoking mothers whose own mothers had not smoked (MGM−M+). Conclusions This study indicates that smoking in humans can have sex-specific transgenerational effects. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 26:731–739, 2014. © 2014 The Authors American Journal of Human Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25130101
Background Recent genome-wide association studies have identified a single nucleotide polymorphism within the last intron of MAP2K5 associated with a higher body mass index (BMI) in adults. MAP2K5 is a component of the MAPK-family intracellular signaling pathways, responding to extracellular growth factors such as brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF). In this study, we examined the association of this variant in two cohorts of children from Sweden and Greece. Methods We examine the association of rs2241423 to BMI in a cohort of 474 Swedish children admitted for treatment of childhood obesity and 519 children matched for gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic background from the Stockholm area, as well as a cross-sectional cohort of 2308 Greek school children (Healthy Growth Study). Children were genotyped using a predesigned TaqMan polymorphism assay. Logistic regression was used to test for an association of rs2241423 to obesity in the cohort of Swedish children. Linear regression was used to test for an association of rs2241423 to BMI z-score and phenotypic measurements of body adiposity in the cohort of Greek children. Models were adjusted for age and gender. In the cohort of Greek children the model was also adjusted for stage of pubertal development. Results The minor allele of rs2241423, allele A, was associated with a protective effect against obesity in the cohort of Swedish children (p = 0.029, OR = 0.79 (95% CI: 0.64–0.98)), and with a lower BMI z-score in the cohort of Greek children (p = 0.028, β = −0.092). No association to phenotypic measurements of body fat distribution could be observed in our study. Conclusions rs2241423 was associated with BMI and obesity in two independent European cohorts suggesting a role for MAP2K5 in early weight regulation. PMID:22594783
Jedrychowski, Wieslaw A.; Perera, Frederica P.; Maugeri, Umberto; Majewska, Renata; Mroz, Elzbieta; Flak, Elzbieta; Camman, David; Sowa, Agata; Jacek, Ryszard
The main goal of the study was to test the hypothesis that prenatal and postnatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is associated with depressed lung function in non-asthmatic children. The study sample comprises 195 non-asthmatic children of non-smoking mothers, among whom the prenatal PAH exposure was assessed by personal air monitoring in pregnancy. At the age of 3, residential air monitoring was carried out to evaluate the residential PAH exposure indoors and outdoors. At the age of 5 to 8, children were given allergic skin tests for indoor allergens; and between 5–9 years lung function testing (FVC, FEV05, FEV1 and FEF25–75) was performed. The effects of prenatal PAH exposure on lung function tests repeated over the follow-up were adjusted in the General Estimated Equation (GEE) model for the relevant covariates. No association between FVC with prenatal PAH exposure was found; however for the FEV1 deficit associated with higher prenatal PAH exposure (above 37ng/m3) amounted to 53 mL (p = 0.050) and the deficit of FEF25–75 reached 164 mL (p=0.013). The corresponding deficits related to postnatal residential indoor PAH level (above 42 ng/m3) were 59 mL of FEV1 (p=0.028) and 140 mL of FEF25–75 (p=0.031). At the higher residential outdoor PAH level (above 90 ng/m3) slightly greater deficit of FEV1 (71mL, p = 0.009) was observed. The results of the study suggest that transplacental exposure to PAH compromises the normal developmental process of respiratory airways and that this effect is compounded by postnatal PAH exposure. PMID:25300014
Lee, RaeHyuck; Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane
Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n ˜ 6,950), a nationally representative sample of children born in 2001, we examined school readiness (academic skills and socioemotional well-being) at kindergarten entry for children who attended Head Start compared with those who experienced other types of child care…
Bigozzi, Lucia; Tarchi, Christian; Caudek, Corrado; Pinto, Giuliana
In this 4-year prospective cohort study, children with a reading and spelling disorder, children with a spelling impairment, and children without a reading and/or spelling disorder (control group) in a transparent orthography were identified in third grade, and their emergent literacy performances in kindergarten compared retrospectively. Six hundred and forty-two Italian children participated. This cohort was followed from the last year of kindergarten to third grade. In kindergarten, the children were assessed in phonological awareness, conceptual knowledge of writing systems and textual competence. In third grade, 18 children with a reading and spelling impairment and 13 children with a spelling impairment were identified. Overall, conceptual knowledge of the writing system was the only statistically significant predictor of the clinical samples. No differences were found between the two clinical samples. PMID:27014145
Regnault, N.; Gillman, M. W.; Kleinman, K.; Rifas-Shiman, S.; Botton, J.
Background/Aims The objective of our study was to compare the fit of four growth models for weight and height in contemporary US children between birth and 9 years. Methods In Project Viva, we collected weight and height growth data between birth and 9 years. We compared the Jenss model, the adapted Jenss model that adds a quadratic term, and the Reed 1st and 2nd order models. We used the log likelihood ratio test to compare nested models and the Akaike (AIC)/Bayesian information criterion (BIC) to compare nonnested models. Results For weight and height, the adapted Jenss model had a better fit than the Jenss model (for weight: p < 0.0001), and the Reed 2nd order model had a better fit than the Reed 1st order model (for weight: p < 0.0001). Compared with the Reed 2nd order model, the adapted Jenss model had a better fit for both weight (adapted Jenss vs. Reed 2nd order, AIC: 66,974 vs. 82,791, BIC: 67,066 vs. 82,883) and height (adapted Jenss vs. Reed 2nd order, AIC: 87,108 vs. 87,612, BIC: 87,196 vs. 87,700). Conclusions In this pre-birth study of children aged 0–9 years, for both weight and height the adapted Jenss model presented the best fit of all four tested models. PMID:25413655
Austin, S.G.; Schnatter, A.R.
A historical prospective cohort mortality study was conducted for a cohort of 6,588 white male employees of a Texas petrochemical plant because of a suspected increased incidence of malignant brain tumors. Mortality experience from 1941 to 1977 was determined and compared with that of the general U.S. white male population adjusting for age and time period. Overall and cause-specific standardized mortality ratios were calculated for various subgroups of the population defined by length of employment, latency and payroll status. Significant deficits in total cohort mortality were found for all causes of death, all circulatory diseases, all respiratory diseases and all digestive diseases. Although not statistically significant, fewer deaths were observed (O) than expected (E) for all malignant neoplasms. No statistically significant excess of malignant brain tumors was found in the overall plant population (O/E = 12/7.42 = 1.62). A borderline significant excess of brain cancer deaths was found among hourly employees with more than six months' employment based on 10 observed and five expected deaths. This excess was observed to occur among elderly employees (over 55 years) and in later follow-up years (post-1970). Risk did not appear to be related to length of employment. Because of the nature of the problem that prompted this study, the small number of cases involved and the lack of a suspect agent in the plant that could have produced this excess, insufficient evidence was found to conclude that these tumors were occupationally related.
Berbis, Julie; Michel, Gérard; Baruchel, André; Bertrand, Yves; Chastagner, Pascal; Demeocq, François; Kanold, Justyna; Leverger, Guy; Plantaz, Dominique; Poirée, Marilyne; Stephan, Jean-Louis; Auquier, Pascal; Contet, Audrey; Dalle, Jean-Hugues; Ducassou, Stéphane; Gandemer, Virginie; Lutz, Patrick; Sirvent, Nicolas; Tabone, Marie-Dominique; Thouvenin-Doulet, Sandrine
The main aim of the Leucémies de l’Enfant et l’Adolescent (LEA) project (Childhood and Adolescent Leukaemia) is to study the determinants (medical, socioeconomic, behavioural and environmental) of medium- and long-term outcomes of patients treated for childhood acute leukaemia (AL). The LEA study began in 2004 and is based on a French multicentric prospective cohort. Included are children treated for AL since January 1980 (incident and prevalent cases), surviving at month 24 for myeloblastic AL and lymphoblastic AL grafted in first complete remission or at month 48 for lymphoblastic AL not grafted in first complete remission. Information is collected during specific medical visits and notably includes the following data: socioeconomic data, AL history, physical late effects (such as fertility, cardiac function and metabolic syndrome) and quality of life. Data are collected every 2 years until the patient is 20 years old and has had a 10-year follow-up duration from diagnosis or last relapse. Thereafter, assessments are planned every 4 years. In active centres in 2013, eligible patients number more than 3000. The cohort has already included 2385 survivors, with rate of exhaustiveness of almost 80%. Data access can be requested from principal coordinators and must be approved by the steering committee. PMID:24639445
Ostberg, Viveca; Modin, Bitte
In the class room a hierarchical structure of social relations typically develops in which the child's position is a marker of the view of the others, i.e. the extent to which he or she is an accepted and valued member of the group. The status distribution in the school class is likely to correspond to differences in personal characteristics, including behaviours and competencies, and to generate a differential distribution of perceived expectations, treatment, resources and emotions. We argue that these phenomena constitute parts in a developmental process which, through mediators such as self-view and subsequent life choices, may affect adult health. The purpose of this paper is to study whether and how peer status is associated with self-reported health in mid-life. Data was derived from a cohort study of individuals born in Aberdeen, Scotland, between 1950 and 1956. We use information about childhood circumstances, including peer status nominations, collected in the early 1960s, and information about adult circumstances derived from a postal questionnaire carried out among more than 6,000 individuals in 2001-2003. Multivariate analyses yielded a graded association between peer status and adult health problems in the form of limiting longstanding illness and less than good self-rated health. These associations could not be explained by socioeconomic circumstances or differences in individual behaviour and cognitive score in childhood. It was rather subsequent socioeconomic career that seemed to explain the association found among men. For women, a significant association remained, suggesting alternative pathways or mechanisms. PMID:18158207
Incidence, risk factors, and treatment outcome of symptomatic osteonecrosis in Taiwanese children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a retrospective cohort study of 245 patients in a single institution.
Chen, Shih-Hsiang; Chang, Tsung-Yen; Jaing, Tang-Her; Lee, Mel S; Wang, Chao-Jan; Hung, Iou-Jih; Yang, Chao-Ping
Osteonecrosis (ON) is a potentially disabling complication encountered in children who receive chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Considering the possible effect of ethnic difference on the clinical features of symptomatic ON in pediatric ALL, we retrospectively evaluated 245 children with ALL who were treated at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, between 2002 and 2011. Six (2.4 %) patients developed symptomatic ON in a total of 17 sites during the follow-up period. Diagnosis of ON was confirmed by X-ray in seven, magnetic resonance imaging in two, and bone scan in three patients. The estimated cumulative incidence of symptomatic ON in newly diagnosed ALL was 3.4 % at 8 years. Four patients received ON-directed surgical interventions, including total hip replacement in three and arthroplasty in one. The incidence of ON was significantly higher among girls (P = 0.03), patients >10 years old (P = 2.2 × 10(-4)), and patients who had received more intensive chemotherapy regimen (P = 0.02). These results indicate that the incidence and risk factors in our institute were similar to those observed in Western countries. Future studies surveying the impact on the quality of life of childhood ALL survivors in Taiwan are warranted. PMID:25840770
Campbell, Alasdair; Rudan, Igor
Aim In sub-Saharan Africa, unacceptably high rates of mortality amongst women and children continue to persist. The emergence of research employing new genomic technologies is advancing knowledge on cause of disease. This review aims to identify birth cohort studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa and to consider their suitability as a platform to support genetic epidemiological studies. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted to identify birth cohort studies in sub-Saharan Africa across the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, AFRO and OpenSIGLE. A total of 8110 papers were retrieved. Application of inclusion/exclusion criteria retained only 189 papers, of which 71 met minimum quality criteria and were retained for full text analysis. Results The search revealed 28 birth cohorts: 14 of which collected biological data, 10 collected blood samples and only one study collected DNA for storage. These studies face many methodological challenges: notably, high rates of attrition and lack of funding for several rounds of study follow up. Population-based ‘biobanks’ have emerged as a major approach to harness genomic technologies in health research and yet the sub-Saharan African region still awaits large scale birth cohort biobanks collecting DNA and associated health and lifestyle data. Conclusion Investment in this field, together with related endeavours to foster and develop research capacity for these studies, may lead to an improved understanding of the determinants of intrauterine growth and development, birth outcomes such as prematurity and low birth weight, the links between maternal and infant health, survival of infectious diseases in the first years of life, and response to vaccines and antibiotic treatment. PMID:23198102
Hasselhorn, Hans Martin; Peter, Richard; Rauch, Angela; Schröder, Helmut; Swart, Enno; Bender, Stefan; du Prel, Jean-Baptist; Ebener, Melanie; March, Stefanie; Trappmann, Mark; Steinwede, Jacob; Müller, Bernd Hans
The lidA Cohort Study (German Cohort Study on Work, Age, Health and Work Participation) was set up to investigate and follow the effects of work and work context on the physical and psychological health of the ageing workforce in Germany and subsequently on work participation. Cohort participants are initially employed people subject to social security contributions and born in either 1959 (n = 2909) or 1965 (n = 3676). They were personally interviewed in their homes in 2011 and will be visited every 3 years. Data collection comprises socio-demographic data, work and private exposures, work ability, work and work participation attitudes, health, health-related behaviour, personality and attitudinal indicators. Employment biographies are assessed using register data. Subjective health reports and physical strength measures are complemented by health insurance claims data, where permission was given. A conceptual framework has been developed for the lidA Cohort Study within which three confirmatory sub-models assess the interdependencies of work and health considering age, gender and socioeconomic status. The first set of the data will be available to the scientific community by 2015. Access will be given by the Research Data Centre of the German Federal Employment Agency at the Institute for Employment Research (http://fdz.iab.de/en.aspx). PMID:24618186
Leon, D. A.; Lawlor, D. A.; Clark, H.; Batty, G. D.; Macintyre, S.
There is growing evidence that childhood IQ is inversely associated with mortality in later life. However, the specificity of this association in terms of causes of death, whether it is continuous over the whole range of IQ scores and whether it is the same according to age and sex is not clear. In a large cohort (N = 11,603) of a complete…
Background Middle ear infection is common in childhood. Despite its prevalence, there is little longitudinal evidence about the impact of ear infection, particularly its association to hearing loss. By using 6-year prospective data, we investigate the onset and impact over time of ear infection in Australian children. Methods We analyse 4 waves of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC) survey collected in 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2010. There are two age cohorts in this study (B cohort aged 0/1 to 6/7 years N=4242 and K cohort aged 4/5 to 10/11 years N=4169). Exposure was parent-reported ear infection and outcome was parent-reported hearing problems. We modelled ear infection onset and subsequent impact on hearing using multivariate logistic regressions, reporting Adjusted Odds Ratios (AOR) and Confidence Intervals (95% CI). Separate analyses were reported for indigenous and non-indigenous children. Results Associations of ear infections between waves were found to be very strong both among both indigenous and non-indigenous children in the two cohorts. Reported ear infections at earlier wave were also associated with hearing problems in subsequent wave. For example, reported ear infections at age 4/5 years among the K cohort were found to be predictors of hearing problems at age 8/9 years (AOR 4.0, 95% CI 2.2-7.3 among non-indigenous children and AOR 7.7 95% CI 1.0-59.4 among indigenous children). Number of repeated ear infections during the 6-year follow-up revealed strong dose–response relationships with subsequent hearing problems among non-indigenous children (AORs ranged from 4.4 to 31.7 in the B cohort and 4.4 to 51.0 in the K cohort) but not statistically significant among indigenous children partly due to small sample. Conclusions This study revealed the longitudinal impact of ear infections on hearing problems in both indigenous and non-indigenous children. These findings highlight the need for special attention and follow-up on children
Ramanuj, Parashar Pravin; Granerød, Julia; Davies, Nicholas W. S.; Conti, Stefano; Brown, David W. G.; Crowcroft, Natasha S.
Objective We sought to measure HRQoL in all-cause encephalitis survivors and assess the impact of various socio-clinical factors on outcome. Methods We used a prospective cohort study design, using the short-form 36 (SF-36) to measure the HRQoL in patients 15 years and older, and the short-form 10 (SF-10) for patients less than 15 years old. We posted questionnaires to individuals six months after discharge from hospital. All scores were normalised to the age- and sex-matched general population. We used multivariate statistical analysis to assess the relative association of clinical and socio-demographic variables on HRQoL in adults. Results Of 109 individuals followed-up, we received 61 SF-36 and twenty SF-10 questionnaires (response rate 74%). Patients scored consistently worse than the general population in all domains of the SF-36 and SF-10, although there was variation in individual scores. Infectious encephalitis was associated with the worst HRQoL in those aged 15 years and over, scoring on average 5.64 points less than immune-mediated encephalitis (95% CI −8.77– −2.89). In those aged less than 15 years the worst quality of life followed encephalitis of unknown cause. Immuno compromise, unemployment, and the 35–44 age group all had an independent negative association with HRQoL. A poor Glasgow Outcome Score was most strongly associated with a poor HRQoL. Less than half of those who had made a ‘good’ recovery on the score reported a HRQoL equivalent to the general population. Conclusions Encephalitis has adverse effects on the majority of survivors’ wellbeing and quality of life. Many of these adverse consequences could be minimised by prompt identification and treatment, and with better rehabilitation and support for survivors. PMID:25072738
Shulman, Rayzel; Stukel, Therese A; Miller, Fiona A; Newman, Alice; Daneman, Denis; Wasserman, Jonathan D; Guttmann, Astrid
Objective To describe adverse events in pediatric insulin pump users since universal funding in Ontario and to explore the role of socioeconomic status and 24-hour support. Research design and methods Population-based cohort study of youth (<19 years) with type 1 diabetes (n=3193) under a universal access program in Ontario, Canada, from 2006 to 2013. We linked 2012 survey data from 33 pediatric diabetes centers to health administrative databases. The relationship between patient and center-level characteristics and time to first diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) admission or death was tested using a Cox proportional hazards model and the rate of diabetes-related emergency department visits and hospitalizations with a Poisson model, both using generalized estimating equations. Results The rate of DKA was 5.28/100 person-years and mortality 0.033/100 person-years. Compared with the least deprived quintile, the risk of DKA or death for those in the most deprived quintile was significantly higher (HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.38) as was the rate of diabetes-related acute care use (RR 1.60, 95% CI 1.27 to 2.00). 24-hour support was not associated with these outcomes. Higher glycated hemoglobin, prior DKA, older age, and higher nursing patient load were associated with a higher risk of DKA or death. Conclusions The safety profile of pump therapy in the context of universal funding is similar to other jurisdictions and unrelated to 24-hour support. Several factors including higher deprivation were associated with an increased risk of adverse events and could be used to inform the design of interventions aimed at preventing poor outcomes in high-risk individuals. PMID:27547416
McKeown, Kieran; Haase, Trutz; Pratschke, Jonathan
The study analyses determinants of child outcomes in a cohort of children who participated in the Free Pre-School Year. Child outcomes are measured through a before-and-after assessment of children using the Early Development Instrument. The sample comprises 448 children in 70 early years centres. There are three main findings. First, children…
Jedrychowski, Wieslaw A.; Perera, Frederica P.; Maugeri, Umberto; Mroz, Elzbieta; Klimaszewska-Rembiasz, Maria; Flak, Elzbieta; Edwards, Susan; Spengler, John D.
SUMMARY Impaired fetal development is associated with a number of adult chronic diseases and it is believed that these associations arise as a result of the phenomenon of “epigenetic programming”, which involves persisting changes in structure and function of various body organs caused by ambient factors during critical and vulnerable periods of early development. The main goal of the study was to assess the association between lung function in early childhood and prenatal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ), which represents a wide range of chemical compounds potentially hazardous for fetal development. Among pregnant women recruited prenatally to the study personal measurements of PM2.5 was performed over 48 hours in the second trimester of pregnancy. After delivery, infants were followed over five years and the interviewers visited participants at their homes to record children’s respiratory symptoms every three months in the child’s first two years of life and every 6 months later. In the fifth year of the follow-up, children were invited for standard lung function testing and quantified by FVC, FEV1 and FEV05 levels. Material consisted of 176 children of nonsmoking mothers, who performed at least two acceptable spirometry measurements. Multivariable linear regression model showed a significant deficit of FVC at the highest quartile of PM2.5 exposure (beta coefficient = − 91.9 , P = 0.008), after adjustment for covariates (age, gender, birth weight, height and wheezing). Also FEV1 level in children was inversely correlated with prenatal exposure to PM2.5, and the average FEV1 deficit amounted to 87.7 ml (P = 0.008) at the higher level of exposure. Although the effect of PM2.5 exposure on FEV05 was proportionally weaker (−72.7, P = 0.026) it was significant as well. The lung function level was inversely and significantly associated with the wheezing recorded over the follow-up. The findings showed that significant lung function deficits in
Jedrychowski, Wiesław A; Perera, Frederica P; Majewska, Renata; Mrozek-Budzyn, Dorota; Mroz, Elżbieta; Roen, Emily L; Sowa, Agata; Jacek, Ryszard
Fetal exposure to environmental toxicants may program the development of children and have long-lasting health impacts. The study tested the hypothesis that depressed height gain in childhood is associated with prenatal exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and heavy metals (lead and mercury). The study sample comprised 379 children born to non-smoking mothers among whom a total of 2011 height measurements were carried out over the 9-year follow-up period. Prenatal airborne PAH exposure was assessed by personal air monitoring of the mother in the second trimester of pregnancy and heavy metals were measured in cord blood. At the age of 3 residential air monitoring was done to evaluate the level of airborne PAH, and at the age 5 the levels of heavy metals were measured in capillary blood. The effect estimates of prenatal PAH exposure on height growth over the follow-up were adjusted in the General Estimated Equation (GEE) models for a wide set of relevant covariates. Prenatal exposure to airborne PAH showed a significant negative association with height growth, which was significantly decreased by 1.1cm at PAH level above 34.7 ng/m(3) (coeff.=-1.07, p=0.040). While prenatal lead exposure was not significantly associated with height restriction, the effect of mercury was inversely related to cord blood mercury concentration above 1.2 μg/L (coeff.=-1.21, p=0.020), The observed negative impact of prenatal PAH exposure on height gain in childhood was mainly mediated by shorter birth length related to maternal PAH exposure during pregnancy. The height gain deficit associated with prenatal mercury exposure was not seen at birth, but the height growth was significantly slower at later age. PMID:25460630
Jedrychowski, Wiesław A.; Perera, Frederica P.; Majewska, Renata; Mrozek-Budzyn, Dorota; Mroz, Elżbieta; Roen, Emily L.; Sowa, Agata; Jacek, Ryszard
Fetal exposure to environmental toxicants may program the development of children and have long-lasting health impacts. The study tested the hypothesis that depressed height gain in childhood is associated with prenatal exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and heavy metals (lead and mercury). The study sample comprised 379 children born to non-smoking mothers among whom a total of 2011 height measurements were carried out over the 9-year follow-up period. Prenatal airborne PAH exposure was assessed by personal air monitoring of the mother in the second trimester of pregnancy and heavy metals were measured in cord blood. At the age of 3 residential air monitoring was done to evaluate the level of airborne PAH, and at the age 5 the levels of heavy metals were measured in capillary blood. The effect estimates of prenatal PAH exposure on height growth over the follow-up were adjusted in the General Estimated Equation (GEE) models for a wide set of relevant covariates. Prenatal exposure to airborne PAH showed a significant negative association with height growth, which was significantly decreased by 1.1 cm at PAH level above 34.7 ng/m3 (coeff. = − 1.07, p = 0.040). While prenatal lead exposure was not significantly associated with height restriction, the effect of mercury was inversely related to cord blood mercury concentration above 1.2 ug/dL (coeff. = −1.21, p = 0.020), The observed negative impact of prenatal PAH exposure on height gain in childhood was mainly mediated by shorter birth length related to maternal PAH exposure during pregnancy. The height gain deficit associated with prenatal mercury exposure was not seen at birth, but the height growth was significantly slower at later age. PMID:25460630
Wiens, Matthew O.; Gan, Heng; Barigye, Celestine; Zhou, Guohai; Kumbakumba, Elias; Kabakyenga, Jerome; Kissoon, Niranjan; Ansermino, J. Mark; Karlen, Walter; Larson, Charles P.; MacLeod, Stuart M.
Background Children discharged from hospitals in developing countries are at high risk of morbidity and mortality. However, few data describe these outcomes among children seen and discharged from rural outpatient centers. Objective The objective of this exploratory study was to identify predictors of immediate and follow-up morbidity and mortality among children visiting a rural health center in Uganda. Methods Subjects 0–12 years of age seeking care with a caregiver were consecutively enrolled from a single rural health center in Southwestern Uganda. Baseline variables were collected by research nurses and outcomes of referral, admission or death were recorded (immediate events). Death, hospital admission and health seeking occurring during the 30 days following the clinic visit were also determined (follow-up events). Univariate logistic regression was performed to identify baseline variables associated with immediate outcome and follow-up outcomes. Results Over the four-month recruitment period 717 subjects were enrolled. There were 85 (11.9%) immediate events (10.1% were admitted, 2.2% were referred, none died). Forty-seven (7.8%) events occurred within 30 days after the visit (7.3% sought care from a health provider, 1.5% were admitted and 0.5% died). Variables associated with immediate events included living more than 30 minutes from the health center, age older than 5 years, having received an antimalarial prior to the visit, having seen a community health worker prior to the visit, elevated respiratory rate or temperature, and depressed weight-for-age z score or decreased oxygen saturation. These variables were not associated with follow-up events. Conclusions Sick-child visits at a rural health center in South Western Uganda were associated with rates of mortality and subsequent admission of less than 2% in the period following the sick child visits. Other types of health seeking behavior occurred in approximately 7% of subjects during this same period
Becker, James T; Kingsley, Lawrence A; Molsberry, Samantha; Reynolds, Sandra; Aronow, Aaron; Levine, Andrew J; Martin, Eileen; Miller, Eric N; Munro, Cynthia A; Ragin, Ann; Sacktor, Ned; Selnes, Ola A
The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) is one of the largest and longest running studies of the natural and treated history of HIV disease. The Neuropsychological (NP) substudy was begun in 1988 following reports of significant adverse neurological consequences of HIV disease, including dementia. The goal was to characterize the neuropsychological deficits among individuals with HIV disease, and track the natural history of the neurological complications over time. There were three distinct MACS recruitment stages that focused on different groups of HIV-infected men, or men at risk for infection. Initially, a subcohort was evaluated semi-annually with NP tests but, beginning in 2005, the entire group of MACS participants have had NP examinations biannually, unless closer follow-up was warranted. The participants complete a battery of NP tests, and are classified as either normal, mildly or severely impaired using the Antinori criteria for HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder (HAND). Additional behavioural data, including mood state and psychoactive substance use, are recorded as part of the main MACS data collection. The MACS public data set (PDS) has been available since 1994 and includes baseline and 6-monthly follow-up data. Beginning in October 1995, the PDS has been released annually with new releases superseding previous versions. PMID:24771276
Myridakis, Antonis; Chalkiadaki, Georgia; Fotou, Marianna; Kogevinas, Manolis; Chatzi, Leda; Stephanou, Euripides G
Phthalate esters (PEs), bisphenol A (BPA), and parabens (PBs), which are used in numerous consumer products, are known for their endocrine disrupting properties. Organophosphate chemicals (OPs), which form the basis of the majority of pesticides, are known for their neurotoxic activity in humans. All of these chemicals are associated with health problems to which children are more susceptible. Once they enter the human body, PEs, BPA, PBs, and OPs are metabolized and/or conjugated and finally excreted via urine. Hence, human exposure to these substances is examined through a determination of the urinary concentrations of their metabolites. This study assessed the exposure of Greek preschool-age children to PEs, BPA, PBs, and OPs by investigating the urinary levels of seven PEs metabolites, six PBs, BPA, and six dialkyl phosphate metabolites in five-hundred samples collected from 4-year-old children, subjects of the "RHEA" mother-child cohort in Crete, Greece. Daily intake of endocrine disruptors, calculated for 4 year old children, was lower than the corresponding daily intake for 2.5 year old children, which were determined in an earlier study of the same cohort. In some cases the daily intake levels exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) values and the EFSA Reference Doses (RfD) (e.g., for di-2-ethyl-hexyl phthalate, 3.6% and 1% of the children exceeded RfD and TDi, respectively). Exposure was linked to three main sources: PEs-BPA to plastic, PBs-diethyl phthalate to personal hygiene products, and OPs to food. PMID:26654094
An alliance of several large-scale prospective cohort studies of children to pool data and biospecimens from individual cohorts to study various modifiable and genetic factors in relation to cancer risk
Yamagata, Zentaro; Maeda, Tadahiko; Anme, Tokie; Sadato, Norihiro
Background There are still a lot of unknown aspects about the childhood development of sociability which are based on neuroscientific basis. Purpose of the Japan Children’s Study (JCS) was to verify the normal process of child development of sociability; the trajectory and factors related development of sociability, and to collect findings and integrate the knowledge to make the plan of long-term and large scale cohort study. Methods A child cohort study underway in Japan since 2005. There are the cohort study including a infant cohort study at age of 4 months to 30 months and a preschool cohort study at age of 5 years old to 8 years old. Questionnaires, direct observation of children and cognitive testing were performed. Results In infant cohort study, 465 infants were recruited at 4 months and 367 children were followed up to 30 months, follow up rate was 78.9% and in the preschool cohort study, total 192 children (112 at 2005 and 80 at 2007) at age of 5 years old and 169 followed up to 6 years (follow up rate was 88.0%), and 79 children were followed up to 8 years old (follow up rate was 70.5%) old. Several new measurements to evaluate child sociability were developed. Some factors related to development of child sociability were found for example the ‘praise’ was related to child sociability in cohort study based on neuroscience findings. Conclusions Though the trajectory of child sociability development were not clarified, some significant factors related to development of sociability, and the basic findings to conduct a long-term and large scale cohort study were provided. PMID:20179361
Atypical pressure ulcers (APU) are distinguished from common pressure ulcers (PU) with both unusual location and different aetiology. The occurrence and attempts to characterise APU remain unrecognised. The purpose of this cohort study was to analyse the occurrence of atypical location and the circumstances of the causation, and draw attention to the prevention and treatment by a multidisciplinary team. The cohort study spanned three and a half years totalling 174 patients. The unit incorporates two weekly combined staff meetings. One concentrates on wound assessment with treatment decisions made by the physician and nurse, and the other, a multidisciplinary team reviewing all patients and coordinating treatment. The main finding of this study identified APU occurrence rate of 21% within acquired PU over a three and a half year period. Severe spasticity constituted the largest group in this study and the most difficult to cure wounds, located in medial aspects of knees, elbows and palms. Medical devices caused the second largest occurrence of atypical wounds, located in the nape of the neck, penis and nostrils. Bony deformities were the third recognisable atypical wound group located in shoulder blades and upper spine. These three categories are definable and time observable. APU are important to be recognisable, and can be healed as well as being prevented. The prominent role of the multidisciplinary team is primary in identification, prevention and treatment. PMID:23374746
Impact of Caregiver Type for 3-Year-Old Children on Subsequent Between-Meal Eating Habits and Being Overweight From Childhood to Adulthood: A 20-Year Follow-up of the Ibaraki Children’s Cohort (IBACHIL) Study
Sata, Mizuki; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Ikeda, Ai; Irie, Fujiko; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Iso, Hiroyasu; Ota, Hitoshi
Background Because of the increasing number of mothers who continue to work after childbirth, participation in childcare has diversified. However, the impact of the main caregiver on children’s habits has not been determined. We sought to examine the effect of caregiver differences on childhood habituation of between-meal eating and body mass index (BMI). Methods The Ibaraki Children’s Cohort Study involved 4592 Japanese children whose parents answered health questionnaires at age 3. Follow-up questionnaires were distributed to parents when children were 6 and 12 years old and to study subjects directly when they were 22 years old. We compared prevalence of between-meal eating and overweight as well as mean BMI at ages 6, 12, and 22 years, by their main daytime caregiver at age 3. Results Compared to children cared for by mothers, those cared for by grandparents had a higher prevalence of between-meal eating before dinner for boys and girls at ages 6 and 12 years. At age 22 years, boys cared for by grandparents had a higher prevalence of overweight than those cared for by mothers (18.5% versus 11.2%, P = 0.037), but no such difference was noted in girls. However, both boys and girls cared for by grandparents had higher mean BMI over time than those cared for by mothers (coefficient = 0.47 kg/m2 for boys and coefficient = 0.35 kg/m2 for girls). Conclusions Being cared for by grandparents at age 3 was associated with subsequent between-meal eating habits, being overweight, and increased mean BMI from childhood to adulthood. PMID:26310570
Viel, Jean-François; Warembourg, Charline; Le Maner-Idrissi, Gaïd; Lacroix, Agnès; Limon, Gwendolina; Rouget, Florence; Monfort, Christine; Durand, Gaël; Cordier, Sylvaine; Chevrier, Cécile
Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used in agriculture and in homes. Despite the neurotoxicity of these insecticides at high doses, few studies have examined whether lower-level exposures could adversely affect children's neurodevelopment. The PELAGIE cohort included 3421 pregnant women from Brittany, France between 2002 and 2006. When their children reached their sixth birthday, 428 mothers from the cohort were randomly selected, successfully contacted and found eligible. A total of 287 (67%) mothers agreed to participate with their children in the neuropsychological follow-up. Two cognitive domains were assessed by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children: verbal comprehension and working memory. Five pyrethroid and two organophosphate insecticide metabolites were measured in maternal and child first-void urine samples collected between 6 and 19 gestational weeks and at 6years of age, respectively. Linear regression models were used to estimate associations between cognitive scores and urinary pyrethroid metabolite concentrations, adjusting for organophosphate metabolite concentrations and potential confounders. Maternal prenatal pyrethroid metabolite concentrations were not consistently associated with any children's cognitive scores. By contrast, childhood 3-PBA and cis-DBCA concentrations were both negatively associated with verbal comprehension scores (P-trend=0.04 and P-trend<0.01, respectively) and with working memory scores (P-trend=0.05 and P-trend<0.01, respectively). No associations were observed for the three other childhood pyrethroid metabolite concentrations (4-F-3-PBA, cis-DCCA, and trans-DCCA). Low-level childhood exposures to deltamethrin (as cis-DBCA is its principal and selective metabolite), in particular, and to pyrethroid insecticides, in general (as reflected in levels of the 3-PBA metabolite) may negatively affect neurocognitive development by 6years of age. Whatever their etiology, these cognitive deficits may be of importance
Shooshtari, Shahin; Brownell, Marni; Dik, Natalia; Chateau, Dan; Yu, C. T.; Mills, Rosemary S. L.; Burchill, Charles A.; Wetzel, Monika
In this population-based study, prevalence of depression was estimated and compared between children with and without developmental disability (DD). Twelve years of administrative data were linked to identify a cohort of children with DD living in the Canadian province of Manitoba. Children in the study cohort were matched with children without DD…
Mountain, Jenny A; Nyaradi, Anett; Oddy, Wendy H; Glauert, Rebecca A; de Klerk, Nick H; Straker, Leon M; Stanley, Fiona J
The Western Australian Data Linkage System is one of a few comprehensive, population-based data linkage systems worldwide, creating links between information from different sources relating to the same individual, family, place or event, while maintaining privacy. The Raine Study is an established cohort study with more than 2000 currently active participants. Individual consent was obtained from participants for information in publicly held databases to be linked to their study data. A waiver of consent was granted where it was impracticable to obtain consent. Approvals to link the datasets were obtained from relevant ethics committees and data custodians. The Raine Study dataset was subsequently linked to academic testing data collected by the Western Australian Department of Education. Examination of diet and academic performance showed that children who were predominantly breastfed for at least 6 months scored higher academically at age 10 than children who were breastfed for less than 6 months. A further study found that better diet quality at ages 1, 2 and 3 years was associated with higher academic scores at ages 10 and 12 years. Examination of nutritional intake at 14 years of age found that a better dietary pattern was associated with higher academic performance. The detailed longitudinal data collected in the Raine Study allowed for adjustment for multiple covariates and confounders. Data linkage reduces the burden on cohort participants by providing additional information without the need to contact participants. It can give information on participants who have been lost to follow-up; provide or complement missing data; give the opportunity for validation studies comparing recall of participants with administrative records; increase the population sample of studies by adding control participants from the general population; and allow for the adjustment of multiple covariates and confounders. The Raine Study dataset is extensive and detailed, and can be
Kishimoto, Kenji; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Sano, Hirozumi; Suzuki, Daisuke; Yasuda, Kazue; Kobayashi, Kunihiko
Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte abnormality in hospitalized patients. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for hyponatremia during chemotherapy in children. A total of 111 consecutive pediatric patients (age, 0 to 18 y) with hematological malignancy (n=87) or solid tumor (n=24) who received chemotherapy in our hospital between 2010 and 2014 were enrolled. The number of chemotherapy cycles reviewed was 472, with a median of 3 (range, 1 to 8) per patient. Hyponatremia was defined as a serum sodium level of <135 mmol/L. Hyponatremia was observed in 80 of 111 (72%) patients, and 138 of 472 (29%) cycles. Neurological sequelae were seen in 2 of 111 (2%) patients, and 2 of 472 (0.4%) cycles. Multivariate logistic regression identified age 10 to 18 years (odds ratio [OR]=3.24, 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.07-5.07), total parenteral nutrition (OR=8.15, 95% CI, 2.17-30.5), first or second chemotherapy cycle (OR=1.74, 95% CI, 1.12-2.70) as independent risk factors for hyponatremia. Clinical conditions of patients and chemotherapeutic agents may have a profound impact on the development of hyponatremia. Patients with these factors should be managed carefully to prevent severe symptoms and sequelae caused by hyponatremia. PMID:26583616
Moschonis, George; Dedoussis, George; Manios, Yannis; Marcus, Claude; Fredriksson, Robert; Schiöth, Helgi B.
Five novel loci recently found to be associated with body mass in two GWAS of East Asian populations were evaluated in two cohorts of Swedish and Greek children and adolescents. These loci are located within, or in the proximity of: CDKAL1, PCSK1, GP2, PAX6 and KLF9. No association with body mass has previously been reported for these loci in GWAS performed on European populations. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with the strongest association at each loci in the East Asian GWAS were genotyped in two cohorts, one obesity case control cohort of Swedish children and adolescents consisting of 496 cases and 520 controls and one cross-sectional cohort of 2293 nine-to-thirteen year old Greek children and adolescents. SNPs were surveyed for association with body mass and other phenotypic traits commonly associated with obesity, including adipose tissue distribution, insulin resistance and daily caloric intake. No association with body mass was found in either cohort. However, among the Greek children, association with insulin resistance could be observed for the two CDKAL1-related SNPs: rs9356744 (β = 0.018, p = 0.014) and rs2206734 (β = 0.024, p = 0.001). CDKAL1-related variants have previously been associated with type 2 diabetes and insulin response. This study reports association of CDKAL1-related SNPs with insulin resistance, a clinical marker related to type 2 diabetes in a cross-sectional cohort of Greek children and adolescents of European descent. PMID:24695378
Downs, Johnny; Hotopf, Matthew; Ford, Tamsin; Simonoff, Emily; Jackson, Richard G; Shetty, Hitesh; Stewart, Robert; Hayes, Richard D
Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are more likely to receive antipsychotics than any other psychopharmacological medication, yet the psychiatric disorders and symptoms associated with treatment are unclear. We aimed to determine the predictors of antipsychotic use in children with ASD receiving psychiatric care. The sample consisted of 3482 children aged 3-17 with an ICD-10 diagnosis of ASD referred to mental health services between 2008 and 2013. Antipsychotic use outcome, comorbid diagnoses, and other clinical covariates, including challenging behaviours were extracted from anonymised patient records. Of the 3482 children (79 % male) with ASD, 348 (10 %) received antipsychotic medication. The fully adjusted model indicated that comorbid diagnoses including hyperkinetic (OR 1.44, 95 %CI 1.01-2.06), psychotic (5.71, 3.3-10.6), depressive (2.36, 1.37-4.09), obsessive-compulsive (2.31, 1.16-4.61) and tic disorders (2.76, 1.09-6.95) were associated with antipsychotic use. In addition, clinician-rated levels of aggression, self-injurious behaviours, reduced adaptive function, and overall parental concern for their child's presenting symptoms were significant risk factors for later antipsychotic use. In ASD, a number of comorbid psychiatric disorders are independent predictors for antipsychotic treatment, even after adjustment for familial, socio-demographic and individual factors. As current trial evidence excludes children with comorbidity, more pragmatic randomised controlled trials with long-term drug monitoring are needed. PMID:26472118
Khieu, Virak; Hattendorf, Jan; Schär, Fabian; Marti, Hanspeter; Char, Meng Chuor; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter
Information on Strongyloides stercoralis re-infection after ivermectin treatment is scarce in S. stercoralis endemic countries. In semi-rural Cambodia, we determined S. stercoralis infection and re-infection rates among schoolchildren, two years after ivermectin treatment (2×100 μg/kg PO, 24 h apart). The study was conducted among 484 children from four primary schools in semi-rural villages in Kandal province from 2009 to 2011, using Koga agar plate culture and the Baermann method on two stool samples per child. Complete data were available for 302 participants. We observed infections in 24.2% and 22.5% of the children at baseline and at follow-up, respectively. At baseline, 73 children were treated for S. stercoralis infection. At follow-up, one-third of those treated for S. stercoralis infection had been reinfected, while 19.6% of the 229 healthy children (at baseline) had been newly infected with S. stercoralis. Possession of shoes and defecation in toilet were negatively associated with S. stercoralis infection at follow-up. Infection and re-infection rates of S. stercoralis among schoolchildren are considerably high. However, 68.5% of infected children remained free of infection for at least two years. A large-scale cohort study is required to understand age-specific infection and re-infection dynamics in endemic countries. PMID:24970767
Shakoor, Sania; Jaffee, Sara R.; Andreou, Penelope; Bowes, Lucy; Ambler, Antony P.; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise
Stressful events early in life can affect children's mental health problems. Collecting valid and reliable information about children's bad experiences is important for research and clinical purposes. This study aimed to (1) investigate whether mothers and children provide valid reports of bullying victimization, (2) examine the inter-rater…
Riegel, Mariluce; Segal, Sandra L.; Félix, Têmis M.; Barros, Aluísio J. D.; Santos, Iná S.; Matijasevich, Alicia; Giugliani, Roberto; Black, Maureen
Intellectual disability affects approximately 1–3% of the population and can be caused by genetic and environmental factors. Although many studies have investigated the etiology of intellectual disability in different populations, few studies have been performed in middle‐income countries. The present study estimated the prevalence of genetic causes related to intellectual disability in a cohort of children from a city in south Brazil who were followed from birth. Children who showed poor performance in development and intelligence tests at the ages of 2 and 4 were included. Out of 4,231 liveborns enrolled in the cohort, 214 children fulfilled the inclusion criteria. A diagnosis was established in approximately 90% of the children evaluated. Genetic causes were determined in 31 of the children and 19 cases remained unexplained even after extensive investigation. The overall prevalence of intellectual disability in this cohort due to genetic causes was 0.82%. Because this study was nested in a cohort, there were a large number of variables related to early childhood and the likelihood of information bias was minimized by collecting information with a short recall time. This study was not influenced by selection bias, allowing identification of intellectual disability and estimation of the prevalence of genetic causes in this population, thereby increasing the possibility of providing appropriate management and/or genetic counseling. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25728503
Lee, Jung Hyun; Kim, Yu-Mi; Kwak, Min Jung; Kim, Su Yung; Kim, Hyun-Ji; Cheon, Chong Kun; Chung, Woo Yeong; Choi, Im-Jeong; Hong, Su Young; Chueh, Hee Won
Purpose This study investigated the incidence trends and associated factors of type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in children and adolescents under 15 years of age in Busan and Gyeongnam, Korea from 2001 to 2010. Methods Medical records of newly diagnosed diabetes patients (n=328; 160 males, 168 females) were collected in questionnaire form from 5 tertiary and 42 general hospitals in Busan and Gyeongnam. Results The average crude incidence rate of T1DM and T2DM was 2.01/100,000 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.76-2.28) and 0.75/100,000 (95% CI, 0.60-0.92), respectively. The incidence rate ratio (IRR) of T1DM was 1.31 (95% CI, 1.01-1.69), and that of T2DM was 1.97 (95% CI, 1.25-3.11) in the latter half-decade (2006 to 2010) compared to the early half-decade (2001 to 2005). There were gradually increasing incidence trends in both T1DM and T2DM over the 10-year period (P for trend: T1DM, 0.0009; T2DM, <0.0001). Age-specific IRR was highest in the 10- to 14-year-old group, regardless of diabetes type. In particular, a rapid increase in incidence of T2DM occurred in the 10- to 14-year-old group. IRR for females was 1.07 (95% CI, 0.83-1.38) for T1DM and 1.56 (95% CI, 1.01-2.41) for T2DM. IRR for Busan (urban) was 1.41 (95% CI, 1.09-1.83) for T1DM and 1.49 (95% CI, 0.96-2.30) for T2DM. Conclusion T1DM and T2DM incidence both increased over time in youth under age 15 living in Busan and Gyeongnam; in particular, the incidence of T2DM in adolescents increased more rapidly. PMID:26817007
López Gómez, María Andrée; Durán, Xavier; Zaballa, Elena; Sanchez-Niubo, Albert; Delclos, George L; Benavides, Fernando G
Purpose The global economy is changing the labour market and social protection systems in Europe. The effect of both changes on health needs to be monitored in view of an ageing population and the resulting increase in prevalence of chronic health conditions. The Spanish WORKing life Social Security (WORKss) cohort study provides unique longitudinal data to study the impact of labour trajectories and employment conditions on health, in terms of sickness absence, permanent disability and death. Participants The WORKss cohort originated from the Continuous Working Life Sample (CWLS) generated by the General Directorate for the Organization of the Social Security in Spain. The CWLS contains a 4% representative sample of all individuals in contact with the Social Security system. The WORKss cohort exclusively includes individuals with a labour trajectory from 1981 or later. In 2004, the cohort was initiated with 1 022 779 Social Security members: 840 770 (82.2%) contributors and 182 009 (17.8%) beneficiaries aged 16 and older. Findings to date The WORKss cohort includes demographic characteristics, chronological data about employment history, retirement, permanent disability and death. These data make possible the measurement of incidence of permanent disability, the number of potential years of working life lost, and the number of contracts and inactive periods with the Social Security system. The WORKss cohort was linked to temporary sickness absence registries to study medical diagnoses that lead to permanent disability and consequently to an earlier exit from the labour market in unhealthy conditions. Future plans Thanks to its administrative source, the WORKss cohort study will continue follow-up in the coming years, keeping the representativeness of the Spanish population affiliated to the Social Security system. The linkage between the WORKss cohort and temporary sickness absence registries is envisioned to continue. Future plans include the linkage of
Balmaseda, Angel; Gordon, Aubree; Gresh, Lionel; Ojeda, Sergio; Saborio, Saira; Tellez, Yolanda; Sanchez, Nery; Kuan, Guillermina; Harris, Eva
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was recently introduced into the Americas. In Nicaragua, the first endogenous transmission of CHIKV was recognized in September 2014. We used an ongoing dengue cohort study of children aged 2-14 years in Managua, Nicaragua, to document the attack rate of symptomatic chikungunya in a presumably naive population. From September 2014 through March 2015, the overall clinical attack rate of laboratory-confirmed CHIKV infection was 2.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.3%, 3.4%). The attack rate was greater in children ≥ 8 years of age (4.1%; 95% CI: 3.2%, 5.1%) than in those < 8 years of age (1.5%; 95% CI: 0.9%, 2.1%). The mean age of CHIKV cases presenting with typical chikungunya symptoms was 9.8 years, compared with 7.8 years for cases presenting with undifferentiated fever (P = 0.04). Our data suggest that the clinical attack rate in children may underestimate the true burden of disease as some children, especially young children, may experience more atypical symptoms (e.g., undifferentiated fever). PMID:26643531
Torre, Peter; Yao, Tzy-Jyun; Zeldow, Bret; Williams, Paige; Hoffman, Howard J; Siberry, George K
The effect of perinatal HIV infection and exposure on sub-clinical auditory function can be measured with distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). DPOAEs were obtained at 4 frequency bins (1, 2, 3 and 4 kHz) and categorized by a signal-to-noise ratio. HIV infection was not associated with poorer DPOAEs. Among HIV-infected children, HIV viral load≥400 copies/mL had significantly lower odds of better DPOAEs. PMID:25742077
Chen, Yan Yan; Wang, Jin Ping; Jiang, Ya Yun; Li, Hui; Hu, Ying Hua; Lee, Kok Onn; Li, Guang Wei
Background The association between hyperinsulinemia and obesity is well known. However, it is uncertain especially in childhood obesity, if initial fasting hyperinsulinemia predicts obesity, or obesity leads to hyperinsulinemia through insulin resistance. Objective To investigate the predictive effect of fasting plasma insulin on subsequent weight change after a 5-year interval in childhood. Methods 424 Children from Da Qing city, China, were recruited at 5 years of age and followed up for 5 years. Blood pressure, anthropometric measurements, fasting plasma insulin, glucose and triglycerides were measured at baseline and 5 years later. Results Fasting plasma insulin at 5 years of age was significantly correlated with change of weight from 5 to 10 years (ΔWeight). Children in the lowest insulin quartile had ΔWeight of 13.08±0.73 kg compare to 18.39±0.86 in the highest insulin quartile (P<0.0001) in boys, and similarly 12.03±0.71 vs 15.80±0.60 kg (P<0.0001) in girls. Multivariate analysis showed that the predictive effect of insulin at 5 years of age on subsequent weight gain over 5 years remained statistically significant even after the adjustment for age, sex, birth weight, TV-viewing time and weight (or body mass index) at baseline. By contrast, the initial weight at 5 years of age did not predict subsequent changes in insulin level 5 years later. Children who had both higher fasting insulin and weight at 5 years of age showed much higher levels of systolic blood pressures, fasting plasma glucose, the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and triglycerides at 10 years of age. Conclusions Fasting plasma insulin at 5 years of age predicts weight gain and cardiovascular risk factors 5 year later in Chinese children of early childhood, but the absolute weight at 5 years of age did not predict subsequent change in fasting insulin. PMID:26047327
Hernandez-Diaz, Sonia; Fischer, Michael A; Seely, Ellen W; Ecker, Jeffrey L; Franklin, Jessica M; Desai, Rishi J; Allen-Coleman, Cora; Mogun, Helen; Avorn, Jerry; Huybrechts, Krista F
Objective To examine the teratogenic potential of statins. Design Cohort study. Setting United States. Participants A cohort of 886 996 completed pregnancies linked to liveborn infants of women enrolled in Medicaid from 2000 to 2007. Methods We examined the risk of major congenital malformations and organ specific malformations in offspring associated with maternal use of a statin in the first trimester. Propensity score based methods were used to control for potential confounders, including maternal demographic characteristics, obstetric and medical conditions, and use of other drugs. Results 1152 (0.13%) women used a statin during the first trimester. In unadjusted analyses, the prevalence of malformations in the offspring of these women was 6.34% compared with 3.55% in those of women who did not use a statin in the first trimester (relative risk 1.79, 95% confidence interval 1.43 to 2.23). Controlling for confounders, particularly pre-existing diabetes, accounted for this increase in risk (1.07, 0.85 to 1.37). There were also no statistically significant increases in any of the organ specific malformations assessed after accounting for confounders. Results were similar across a range of sensitivity analyses. Conclusions Our analysis did not find a significant teratogenic effect from maternal use of statins in the first trimester. However, these findings need to be replicated in other large studies, and the long term effects of in utero exposure to statins needs to be assessed, before use of statins in pregnancy can be considered safe. PMID:25784688
Moore, Kristin; Manlove, Jennifer; Richter, Kerry; Halle, Tamara; Le Menestrel, Suzanne; Zaslow, Martha; Greene, Angela Dungee; Mariner, Carrie; Romano, Angela; Bridges, Lisa
The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort 2000 (ECLS-B) is a study that will assess children's health status and their growth and development in domains that are critical for later school readiness and academic achievement. This paper is one of several that have been prepared in support of ECLS-B design efforts. It is anticipated that…
Robinson, Monique; Oddy, Wendy H.; Li, Jianghong; Kendall, Garth E.; de Klerk, Nicholas H.; Silburn, Sven R.; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Newnham, John P.; Stanley, Fiona J.; Mattes, Eugen
Background: Methodological challenges such as confounding have made the study of the early determinants of mental health morbidity problematic. This study aims to address these challenges in investigating antenatal, perinatal and postnatal risk factors for the development of mental health problems in pre-school children in a cohort of Western…
Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G; Horta, Bernardo L; Gigante, Denise P
OBJECTIVE: To describe the methods employed in the longitudinal and follow-up studies of children born in Pelotas (Southern Brazil) in 1982. METHODS: The cohort began with a perinatal health survey that included all 6,011 children born in maternity wards in Pelotas in 1982. The 5,914 children born alive in the city were included in the follow-up studies. By 2004-5, we had conducted eight follow-ups, which consisted of the administration of questionnaires to mothers and/or cohort members, depending on age, in addition to anthropometric and clinical examination. Cohort subjects are described in terms of demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related variables collected during early follow-up studies, which are used as exposure variables. RESULTS: The majority of subjects in the cohort were followed for 23 years and on multiple occasions. The most successful follow-ups were those preceded by a city census. Using this method, we were able to locate 87.2% of subjects in 1984 (mean age 19 months), 84.1% in 1986 (mean age 43 months), and 77.4% in 2004-5, and 77.4% in 2004-5 (mean age 23 years). CONCLUSIONS: Birth cohort studies can be carried out successfully in developing countries, and the methods employed in this life-cycle study have allowed us to investigate the influence of early exposures in determining disease outcomes in adult life. PMID:19142340
Ban, Lu; Fleming, Kate M.; Doyle, Pat; Smeeth, Liam; Hubbard, Richard B.; Fiaschi, Linda; Tata, Laila J.
Background Antenatal antiepileptic drug (AED) use has been found to be associated with increased major congenital anomaly (CA) risks. However whether such AED-associated risks were different according to periconceptional high dose (5mg daily) folic acid supplementation is still unclear. Methods We included 258,591 singleton live-born children of mothers aged 15-44 years in 1990-2013 from The Health Improvement Network, a large UK primary care database. We identified all major CAs according to the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies classification. Absolute risks and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were calculated comparing children of mothers prescribed AEDs to those without such prescriptions, stratified by folic acid prescriptions around the time of conception (one month before conception to two months post-conception). Results CA risk was 476/10,000 in children of mothers with first trimester AEDs compared with 269/10,000 in those without AEDs equating to an aOR of 1.82, 95% confidence interval 1.30-2.56. The highest system-specific risks were for heart anomalies (198/10,000 and 79/10,000 respectively, aOR 2.49,1.47-4.21). Sodium valproate and lamotrigine were both associated with increased risks of any CA (aOR 2.63,1.46-4.74 and aOR 2.01,1.12-3.59 respectively) and system-specific risks. Stratification by folic acid supplementation did not show marked reductions in AED-associated risks (e.g. for CAs overall aOR 1.75, 1.01-3.03 in the high dose folic acid group and 1.94, 95%CI 1.21-3.13 in the low dose or no folic acid group); however, the majority of mothers taking AEDs only initiated high dose folic acid from the second month of pregnancy. Conclusions Children of mothers with AEDs in the first trimester of pregnancy have a 2-fold increased risk of major CA compared to those unexposed. We found no evidence that prescribed high dose folic acid supplementation reduced such AED-associated risks. Although statistical power was limited, prescribing of folic
Veena, Sargoor R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Wills, Andrew K; Kurpad, Anura V; Muthayya, Sumithra; Hill, Jacqueline C; Karat, Samuel C; Nagarajaiah, Kiran K; Fall, Caroline H D; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari
To examine whether birthweight and head circumference at birth are associated with childhood cognitive ability in South India, cognitive function was assessed using three core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery for children and additional tests measuring long-term retrieval/storage, attention and concentration, and visuospatial and verbal abilities among 505 full-term born children (mean age 9.7 y). In multiple linear regression adjusted for age, sex, gestation, socioeconomic status, parent's education, maternal age, parity, body mass index, height, rural/urban residence, and time of testing, Atlantis score (learning ability/long-term storage and retrieval) rose by 0.1 SD per SD increase in newborn weight and head circumference, respectively (p < 0.05 for all), and Kohs' block design score (visuospatial ability) increased by 0.1 SD per SD increase in birthweight (p < 0.05). The associations were reduced after further adjustment for current head circumference. There were no associations of birthweight and/or head circumference with measures of short-term memory, fluid reasoning, verbal abilities, and attention and concentration. In conclusion, higher birthweight and larger head circumference at birth are associated with better childhood cognitive ability. The effect may be specific to learning, long-term storage and retrieval, and visuospatial abilities, but this requires confirmation by further research. PMID:20032815
Veena, Sargoor R.; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V.; Wills, Andrew K.; Kurpad, Anura V.; Muthayya, Sumithra; Hill, Jacqueline C.; Karat, Samuel C.; Nagarajaiah, Kiran K.; Fall, Caroline H.D.; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari
To examine whether birthweight and head circumference at birth are associated with childhood cognitive ability in South-India, cognitive function was assessed using 3 core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery for children and additional tests measuring long-term retrieval/storage, attention and concentration, visuo-spatial and verbal abilities among 505 full-term born children (mean age 9.7-y). In multiple linear regression adjusted for age, sex, gestation, socio-economic status, parent’s education, maternal age, parity, BMI, height, rural/urban residence, and time of testing, Atlantis score (learning ability/long-term storage and retrieval) rose by 0.1 SD per SD increase in newborn weight and head circumference respectively (p<0.05 for all) and Kohs’ block design score (visuo-spatial ability) increased by 0.1 SD per SD increase in birthweight (p<0.05). The associations were reduced after further adjustment for current head circumference. There were no associations of birthweight and/or head circumference with measures of short-term memory, fluid reasoning, verbal abilities and attention and concentration. In conclusion higher birthweight and larger head circumference at birth are associated with better childhood cognitive ability. The effect may be specific to learning, long-term storage and retrieval, and visuo-spatial abilities, but this requires confirmation by further research. PMID:20032815
Decullier, Evelyne; Chapuis, François
The aim of this paper was to assess oral presentation bias at a national level. This was a retrospective cohort study with initial characteristics of the approved protocols extracted from the committee's archives, and follow-up characteristics obtained from a questionnaire mailed to the principal investigators. A representative sample of French research ethics committees (25/48), the only committees legally endorsed for ethical authorisation in biomedical research, were studied. All completed research protocols, which had been approved in 1994 by these committees, were included. Initial characteristics (design, study size, investigator) of completed studies and follow-up information (direction of results, rates of publication and rates of oral presentation) were collected. Complete information on results and their dissemination was available for 248 completed non-confidential protocols. Half of these (49%) were declared as orally presented. The observed ranking for strategies to disseminate results was the following: orally presented and published, published only, neither orally presented nor published and orally presented only. Confirmatory results were more often orally presented, with an adjusted OR of 6.4 (95% CI 2.69 to 15.22). Other associated variables are the following: national/international scope of the study, protocol writer's university status, adverse events and interim analysis. There is a trend to submit or accept confirmatory results for oral presentations: meetings are a biased representation of research, and oral presentation bias could even be higher than publication bias. PMID:17325393
Shekhawat, Nakul; Mkocha, Harran; Munoz, Beatriz; Gaydos, Charlotte; Dize, Laura; Quinn, Thomas C.; West, Sheila K.
Purpose. Mass drug administration (MDA) is part of the SAFE strategy for trachoma elimination. This study examined the effect of three annual MDAs on prevalence of trachoma among 13 longitudinal cohorts of Tanzanian children. Methods. Children younger than 10 years were assigned to cohorts based on age at baseline and followed annually for 3 years, with newborns assigned to new cohorts over time. Annual MDA consisted of topical tetracycline for children younger than 6 months and oral azithromycin for those 6 months and older. Follicular trachoma (TF) and Chlamydia trachomatis infection status were assessed annually before the next MDA. Prevalence and risk factors for TF and infection at each age were compared across cohorts. Results. At each survey, most age groups and cohorts had MDA coverage of more than 80% and showed decreased TF prevalence after every MDA. One cohort had consistently lower coverage, higher-than-expected TF and infection at ages 6 and 7, and elevated risk of TF at age 7 relative to the preceding cohort in spite of receiving one additional MDA (odds ratio 2.3, 95% confidence interval 1.0–5.2). Cohorts aged 1 or older at baseline generally showed reductions in TF and infection after each MDA, whereas younger cohorts showed decreased infection but increased TF over time. Successive cohorts of never-treated children younger than 1 year showed sequential TF and infection reductions with each MDA (P < 0.001). Conclusions. Multiple MDAs significantly reduce trachoma prevalence and appear to increasingly protect children born into these communities. The youngest children show declining/stable rates of infection but increasing rates of trachoma, which may reflect longer duration of clinical signs. PMID:24448262
Stewart-Brown, S L; Haslum, M N
The prevalence and causes of partial sight and blindness (best corrected distant visual acuity of 6/24 or less) have been studied in a nationally representative sample of 15,000 10-year-old children. The prevalence of blindness (acuity less than 6/60) was between 3.4 and 4.0/10,000. All these children had been registered as blind; less than half were in schools for the blind, the remainder were all in other special schools. The prevalence of partial sight (acuity less than or equal to 6/24 greater than or equal to 6/60) was between 5.4 and 8.7/10,000; less than half of these children were in schools for the visually handicapped or partially sighted; most were in ordinary schools; half were neither registered as partially sighted nor ascertained as in need of special education for visual handicap. The most common cause of partial sight or blindness in this cohort was congenital cataract; the second most common was congenital nystagmus. The study identified a number of children whose best acuity on examination was 6/24 or less who had either no ophthalmological diagnosis or who had been diagnosed as suffering from a refractive error. These children have been included in the study because at the time of the survey they had either not been prescribed spectacles or they had spectacles which they were not wearing; the functional visual level of these children was therefore equivalent to that of those defined as partially sighted. PMID:3418281
Paulus, Jessica K; Santoyo-Vistrain, Rocío; Havelick, David; Cohen, Amy; Kalyesubula, Robert; Ajayi, Ikeoluwapo O; Mattsson, Jens G; Adami, Hans-Olov; Dalal, Shona
A striking disparity exists across the globe, with essentially no large-scale longitudinal studies ongoing in regions that will be significantly affected by the oncoming non-communicable disease epidemic. The successful implementation of cohort studies in most low-resource research environments presents unique challenges that may be aided by coordinated training programs. Leaders of emerging cohort studies attending the First World Cohort Integration Workshop were surveyed about training priorities, unmet needs and potential cross-cohort solutions to these barriers through an electronic pre-workshop questionnaire and focus groups. Cohort studies representing India, Mexico, Nigeria, South Africa, Sweden, Tanzania and Uganda described similar training needs, including on-the-job training, data analysis software instruction, and database and bio-bank management. A lack of funding and protected time for training activities were commonly identified constraints. Proposed solutions include a collaborative cross-cohort teaching platform with web-based content and interactive teaching methods for a range of research personnel. An international network for research mentorship and idea exchange, and modifying the graduate thesis structure were also identified as key initiatives. Cross-cohort integrated educational initiatives will efficiently meet shared needs, catalyze the development of emerging cohorts, speed closure of the global disparity in cohort research, and may fortify scientific capacity development in low-resource settings. PMID:23856451
Kendrick, Denise; Watson, Michael; Mulvaney, Caroline; Burton, Paul
Little work has examined the utility of home safety behaviours in predicting childhood injury. This study examines the relationship between safety behaviours and child injury using a cohort of 1717 families, with 2357 children aged 0-7 years. Safety behaviours, and sociodemographic and family characteristics were measured using a validated…
Nelson, Mark R
Objective To examine survival of individuals exposed to the “mummy's curse” reputedly associated with the opening of the tomb of Tutankhamen in Luxor, Egypt, between February 1923 and November 1926. Design Retrospective cohort study. Participants 44 Westerners identified by Howard Carter as present in Egypt at the specified dates, 25 of whom were potentially exposed to the curse. Main outcome measures Length of survival after date of potential exposure. Results In the 25 people exposed to the curse the mean age at death was 70 years (SD 12) compared with 75 (13) in those not exposed (P=0.87 for difference). Survival after the date of exposure was 20.8 (15.2) v 28.9 (13.6) years respectively (P=0.95 for difference). Female sex was a predictor for survival (P=0.02). Conclusions There was no significant association between exposure to the mummy's curse and survival and thus no evidence to support the existence of a mummy's curse. What is already known on this topicThe methods of evidence based medicine have not been used to investigate the reality of the “mummy's curse”The arguments against the curse have been as anecdotal as the contemporary newspapers that reported itWhat this study addsThere was no association between potential exposure to the mummy's curse during the excavation of Tutankamen's tomb and death within 10 yearsNo evidence was found for the existence of a mummy's curse PMID:12493675
Hu, Danqing; Flick, Randall P.; Gleich, Stephen J.; Scanlon, Maura M.; Zaccariello, Michael J.; Colligan, Robert C.; Katusic, Slavica K.; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Hanson, Andrew C.; Buenvenida, Shonie L.; Wilder, Robert T.; Sprung, Juraj; Warner, David O.
Exposure to general anesthesia at an early age has been associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in both animal and human studies, but some of these studies employed anesthetic agents that are no longer in clinical use. In this manuscript, we describe the methods used to construct a new population-based study cohort to study the association between early anesthetic exposure and subsequent neurodevelopmental outcomes. A birth cohort of all children born in Olmsted County, MN from January 1, 1996 to December 31, 2000 was identified. For each, school enrollment status in the Independent School District (ISD) 535 at age 5 or 6 and all episodes of anesthetic exposure before age 3 were identified. A study cohort was created by matching children enrolled in ISD 535 based on the propensity of receiving general anesthesia. Three analyses were performed to characterize the study cohort by comparing the birth and parental information, comorbidities, and socioeconomic status. The first analysis compared the characteristics of birth cohort children who were and were not enrolled in ISD 535. The second analysis evaluated the success of the propensity matching schemes in creating groups of children that were similar in measured characteristics except for anesthesia exposure. The third analysis compared the characteristics of children with anesthesia exposures who were and were not included in the final cohort based on propensity matching. Results of these analyses demonstrate only slight differences among the comparison groups, and therefore these are unlikely to compromise our future analysis of anesthetic exposure and neurodevelopmental outcomes. PMID:27167371
Shakoor, Sania; Jaffee, Sara R; Andreou, Penelope; Bowes, Lucy; Ambler, Antony P; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Arseneault, Louise
Stressful events early in life can affect children's mental health problems. Collecting valid and reliable information about children's bad experiences is important for research and clinical purposes. This study aimed to (1) investigate whether mothers and children provide valid reports of bullying victimization, (2) examine the inter-rater reliability between the two informants, (3) test the predictive validity of their reports with children's emotional and behavioral problems and (4) compare the genetic and environmental etiology of bullying victimization as reported by mothers and children. We assessed bullying victimization in the Environmental-Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative sample of 1,116 families with twins. We collected reports from mothers and children during private interviews, including detailed narratives. Findings showed that we can rely on mothers and children as informants of bullying victimization: both informants provided information which adhered to the definition of bullying as involving repeated hurtful actions between peers in the presence of a power imbalance. Although mothers and children modestly agreed with each other about who was bullied during primary and secondary school, reports of bullying victimization from both informants were similarly associated with children's emotional and behavioral problems and provided similar estimates of genetic and environmental influences. Findings from this study suggest that collecting information from multiple informants is ideal to capture all instances of bullying victimization. However, in the absence of child self-reports, mothers can be considered as a viable alternative, and vice versa. PMID:20938734
Kumar, S; Hlady, W G; Malecki, J M
OBJECTIVE: A prospective cohort study was performed to identify risk factors for seabather's eruption. METHODS: Study participants were recruited at four beaches in Palm Beach County, Florida, during three weekends of May and June 1993. Participants were interviewed by telephone after 48 hours regarding medical history, beach activities, development of rashes, and use of possible preventive measures. RESULTS: Seabather's eruption, defined by the occurrence of a rash within two days of exposure to seawater, was reported by 114 (16%) of 735 respondents. The strongest predictor of seabather's eruption was a past history of the condition. Children less than 16 years of age were also at increased risk, as were surfers. Showering with one's bathing suit off was a useful protective measure. CONCLUSION: The study's findings suggest that when the seasonal risk of seabather's eruption is present, children, people with a history of seabather's eruption, and surfers are at greatest risk. During the sea lice season, seabathers can minimize their risk by showering with their bathing suits off after seabathing. Length of the time spent in water was not significantly associated with seabather's eruption. PMID:9018290
Blair, A.; Hines, C.J.; Thomas, K.W.; Alavanja, M.C.R.; Beane Freeman, L.E.; Hoppin, J.A.; Kamel, F.; Lynch, C.F.; Lubin, J.H.; Silverman, D.T.; Whelan, E.; Zahm, S. H.; Sandler, D. P.
Prospective cohorts have played a major role in understanding the contribution of diet, physical activity, medical conditions, and genes to the development of many diseases, but have not been widely used for occupational exposures. Studies in agriculture are an exception. We draw upon our experience using this design to study agricultural workers to identify conditions that might foster use of prospective cohorts to study other occupational settings. Prospective cohort studies are perceived by many as the strongest epidemiologic design. It allows updating of information on exposure and other factors, collection of biologic samples before disease diagnosis for biomarker studies, assessment of effect modification by genes, lifestyle, and other occupational exposures, and evaluation of a wide range of health outcomes. Increased use of prospective cohorts would be beneficial in identifying hazardous exposures in the workplace. Occupational epidemiologists should seek opportunities to initiate prospective cohorts to investigate high priority, occupational exposures. PMID:25603935
Blackburn, S C; Oliart, A D; García Rodríguez, L A; Pérez Gutthann, S
We conducted a cohort study to investigate the frequency of serious blood dyscrasias in patients age 10-74 years, taking antiepileptic drugs between January 1, 1990, and October 31, 1994. Main outcome measures were validated diagnoses of neutropenia, agranulocytosis, hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, bicytopenia, pancytopenia, or aplastic anemia. A total of 29,357 recipients of antiepileptic therapy received 684,706 prescriptions. Among them there were 21 cases of serious blood dyscrasia of which only 18 could be considered to have a temporal relationship to drug use. Seventeen cases occurred in current users of carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin or valproate, and 7 in patients taking two or more drugs. Twenty of the 21 patients recovered. The overall rate of blood dyscrasias was 3-4/100,000 prescriptions. The rate in those age less than 60 years was 2.0 (range 0.9-3.6)/100,000 prescriptions compared with 4.0 (range 1.6-8.2) for those age 60 or older. The overall rate of neutropenia was 1.2 (0.5-2.3)/100,000 prescriptions, compared with 0.9 (0.3-1.9) for thrombocytopenia and 0.4 (0.1-1.3) for hemolytic anemia. Rates did not differ among the four drugs. Serious blood dyscrasias are rare in patients taking antiepileptic agents. PMID:9855327
Guglielmi, Dina; Bruni, Ilaria; Simbula, Silvia; Fraccaroli, Franco; Depolo, Marco
Despite the growing body of research on work engagement, little is known about what drives work engagement among different age cohorts. This study aims to investigate whether engagement varies across age cohorts and examines the job resources that foster teacher engagement. A questionnaire was distributed to 537 teachers who were employed in…
Flanagan, Kristin Denton; McPhee, Cameron
Using data from the final two rounds of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), a longitudinal study begun in 2001, this First Look provides a snapshot of the demographic characteristics, reading and mathematics knowledge, fine motor skills, school characteristics, and before- and after-school care arrangements of the cohort…
Herd, Pamela; Carr, Deborah; Roan, Carol
The Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) is a longitudinal study of men and women who graduated from Wisconsin high schools in 1957 and one of their randomly selected siblings. Wisconsin is located in the upper midwest of the United States and had a population of approximately 14 000 000 in 1957, making it the 14th most populous state at that time. Data spanning almost 60 years allow researchers to link family background, adolescent characteristics, educational experiences, employment experiences, income, wealth, family formation and social and religious engagement to midlife and late-life physical health, mental health, psychological well-being, cognition, end of life planning and mortality. The WLS is one of the few longitudinal data sets that include an administrative measure of cognition from childhood. Further, recently collected saliva samples allow researchers to explore the inter-relationships among genes, behaviours and environment, including genetic determinants of behaviours (e.g. educational attainment); the interactions between genes and environment; and how these interactions predict behaviours. Most panel members were born in 1939, and the sample is broadly representative of White, non-Hispanic American men and women who have completed at least a high school education. Siblings cover several adjoining cohorts: they were born primarily between 1930 and 1948. At each interview, about two-thirds of the sample lived in Wisconsin, and about one-third lived elsewhere in the United States or abroad. The data, along with documentation, are publicly accessible and can be accessed at http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/wlsresearch/. Requests for protected data or assistance should be sent to email@example.com. PMID:24585852
Bobat, R; Coovadia, H; Moodley, D; Coutsoudis, A; Gouws, E
This study describes growth in a cohort of black South African children born to HIV-1-infected women in Durban. Children born to HIV-1-seropositive women were followed up from birth to early childhood. At birth and at each visit, growth parameters were measured. Mean Z-scores were calculated for weight-for-length, weight-for-age and length-for-age and, if they were low, the children were regarded as wasted, malnourished or stunted, respectively. At the end of the study, there were 48 infected and 93 uninfected children. There were no significant differences between the two groups at birth. Thereafter, the infected group was found to have early and sustained low mean Z-scores for length-for-age and weight-for-age but not for weight-for-length. The means reached significance at ages 3, 6 and 12 months for length and at 3, 6 and 9 months for weight. Infected children who died early had more severe stunting, wasting and malnutrition than infected children who survived. Infected children born to HIV-positive women have early and sustained stunting and are malnourished but not wasted. Children with rapidly progressive disease have both stunting and wasting and are more severely affected. Early nutritional intervention might help prevent early progression or death in HIV-infected children, particularly in developing countries without access to anti-retroviral therapy in state hospitals. PMID:11579858
Wu, Jennifer Chun-Li; Chiang, Tung-liang
Taiwan has over the past three decades been experiencing demographic changes that may pose important concerns for children's quality of life. This study examines the relationships and potential pathways between family structure transitions and early childhood development. Our analysis is based on 19,499 children from the 2005 birth cohort who…
Amer, Haitham M; Alshaman, Mohamed S; Farrag, Mohamed A; Hamad, Moawia E; Alsaadi, Muslim M; Almajhdi, Fahad N
Respiratory tract infections are a principal cause of illness and mortality in children worldwide and mostly caused by viruses. In this study, the epidemiology of 11 respiratory RNA viruses was investigated in a cohort of hospitalized children at a tertiary referral center in Riyadh from February 2008 to March 2009 using conventional and real-time monoplex RT-PCR assays. Among 174 nasopharyngeal aspirates, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was detected in 39 samples (22.41%), influenza A virus in 34 (19.54%), metapneumovirus (MPV) in 19 (10.92%), coronaviruses in 14 (8.05%), and parainfluenza viruses (PIVs) in 11 (6.32%). RSV, PIVs and coronaviruses were most prevalent in infants less than 6 months old, whereas MPV and influenza A virus were more prominent in children aged 7-24 and 25-60 months, respectively. The majority of the viruses were identified during winter with two peaks observed in March 2008 and January 2009. The presented data warrants further investigation to understand the epidemiology of respiratory viruses in Saudi Arabia on spatial and temporal basis. J. Med. Virol. 88:1086-1091, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26595650
Demanez, L; Boniver, V; Dony-Closon, B; Lhonneux-Ledoux, F; Demanez, J P
This paper presents an overview of the use of a French-speaking battery for the assessment of a central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) in a variety of clinical populations: prematurely born children; 8 years old children who had otitis media with effusion in early infancy; children with learning problems and dyslexia; French-speaking children attending Dutch and English schools; adults with King-Kopetzky syndrome and elderly hearing aids users. Population characteristics of each of these groups are presented and discussed. PMID:14714946
Keuning, Jos; Hemker, Bas
The data collection of a cohort study requires making many decisions. Each decision may introduce error in the statistical analyses conducted later on. In the present study, a procedure was developed for estimation of the error made due to the composition of the sample, the item selection procedure, and the test equating process. The math results…
Kim, M H; Im, Y J; Kil, H K; Han, S W; Joe, Y E; Lee, J H
This study aimed to assess the association between caudal block and postoperative complications after tubularised incised plate urethroplasty. The medical records of 388 paediatric patients who underwent urethroplasty at a tertiary medical centre were analysed retrospectively. Among the 342 patients included, 216 patients received a caudal block and 72 (21.1%) patients suffered surgical complications. The number of patients having surgical complications was significantly greater among patients who received a caudal block than among patients who did not receive a caudal block (53 (24.5%) versus 19 (15.1%), respectively, p = 0.04). Based on multivariate logistic regression analysis, duration of surgery, caudal block and hypospadias types were independent risk factors for the surgical complications. Patients with caudal block had an odds ratio of 2.1 (95% CI, 1.14-3.81, p = 0.018) for the development of postoperative complications compared with patients without caudal block. This analysis demonstrates that caudal block is associated with surgical complications after tubularised incised plate urethroplasty. PMID:27156500
Brousseau, N; Green, H K; Andrews, N; Pryse, R; Baguelin, M; Sunderland, A; Ellis, J; Pebody, R
Several private boarding schools in England have established universal influenza vaccination programmes for their pupils. We evaluated the impact of these programmes on the burden of respiratory illnesses in boarders. Between November 2013 and May 2014, age-specific respiratory disease incidence rates in boarders were compared between schools offering and not offering influenza vaccine to healthy boarders. We adjusted for age, sex, school size and week using negative binomial regression. Forty-three schools comprising 14 776 boarders participated. Almost all boarders (99%) were aged 11-17 years. Nineteen (44%) schools vaccinated healthy boarders against influenza, with a mean uptake of 48·5% (range 14·2-88·5%). Over the study period, 1468 respiratory illnesses were reported in boarders (5·66/1000 boarder-weeks); of these, 33 were influenza-like illnesses (ILIs, 0·26/1000 boarder-weeks) in vaccinating schools and 95 were ILIs (0·74/1000 boarder-weeks) in non-vaccinating schools. The impact of vaccinating healthy boarders was a 54% reduction in ILI in all boarders [rate ratio (RR) 0·46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·28-0·76]. Disease rates were also reduced for upper respiratory tract infections (RR 0·72, 95% CI 0·61-0·85) and chest infections (RR 0·18, 95% CI 0·09-0·36). These findings demonstrate a significant impact of influenza vaccination on ILI and other clinical endpoints in secondary-school boarders. Additional research is needed to investigate the impact of influenza vaccination in non-boarding secondary-school settings. PMID:25876454
Guillamet, Cristina Vazquez; Vazquez, Rodrigo; Noe, Jonas; Micek, Scott T.; Kollef, Marin H.
Abstract Bacteremic pneumonia is usually associated with greater mortality. However, risk factors associated with hospital mortality in bacteremic pneumonia are inadequately described. The study was a retrospective cohort study, conducted in Barnes-Jewish Hospital (2008–2015). For purposes of this investigation, antibiotic susceptibility was determined according to ceftriaxone susceptibility, as ceftriaxone represents the antimicrobial agent most frequently recommended for hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia as opposed to nosocomial pneumonia. Two multivariable analyses were planned: the first model included resistance to ceftriaxone as a variable, whereas the second model included the various antibiotic-resistant species (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacteriaceae). In all, 1031 consecutive patients with bacteremic pneumonia (mortality 37.1%) were included. The most common pathogens associated with infection were S aureus (34.1%; methicillin resistance 54.0%), Enterobacteriaceae (28.0%), P aeruginosa (10.6%), anaerobic bacteria (7.3%), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (5.6%). Compared with ceftriaxone-susceptible pathogens (46.8%), ceftriaxone-resistant pathogens (53.2%) were significantly more likely to receive inappropriate initial antibiotic treatment (IIAT) (27.9% vs 7.1%; P < 0.001) and to die during hospitalization (41.5% vs 32.0%; P = 0.001). The first logistic regression analysis identified IIAT with the greatest odds ratio (OR) for mortality (OR 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5–3.2, P < 0.001). Other independent predictors of mortality included age, mechanical ventilation, immune suppression, prior hospitalization, prior antibiotic administration, septic shock, comorbid conditions, and severity of illness. In the second multivariable analysis that included the antibiotic-resistant species, IIAT was still associated with excess mortality, and P aeruginosa infection was
Given the growing recognition of the importance of the life course approach for the determination of chronic diseases, birth cohort studies are becoming increasingly important. This paper describes the methods used in the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study, one of the largest and longest studies of this type in developing countries. All 5,914 hospital births occurring in Pelotas in 1982 (over 99% of all deliveries) were studied prospectively. The main stages of the study took place in 1983, 1984, 1986, 1995, 1997, 2000, and 2001. More than two thousand variables are available for each subject who participated in all stages of the study. Recent phases of the study included the examination of 2,250 males when presenting for the army recruitment exam in 2000, the study of a 27% sample of men and women in 2001 through household visits, and the study of over 400 children born to the cohort women. Follow-up rates in the recent stages of the cohort were 78.9% for the army examination and 69.0% for the household visits. Ethnographic and oral health studies were conducted in sub-samples. Some recent results on blood pressure, adolescent pregnancy, and asthma are presented as examples of utilization of the data. Suggestions on lessons learned for other cohort studies are proposed. PMID:14666206
Wallace, Susan E; Walker, Neil M; Elliott, Jane
Population-based, prospective longitudinal cohort studies are considering the issues surrounding returning findings to individuals as a result of genomic and other medical research studies. While guidance is being developed for clinical settings, the process is less clear for those conducting longitudinal research. This paper discusses work conducted on behalf of The UK Cohort and Longitudinal Study Enhancement Resource programme (CLOSER) to examine consent requirements, process considerations and specific examples of potential findings in the context of the 1958 British Birth cohort. Beyond deciding which findings to return, there are questions of whether re-consent is needed and the possible impact on the study, how the feedback process will be managed, and what resources are needed to support that process. Recommendations are made for actions a cohort study should consider taking when making vital decisions regarding returning findings. Any decisions need to be context-specific, arrived at transparently, communicated clearly, and in the best interests of both the participants and the study. PMID:25126104
What factors contribute to positive early childhood health and development in Australian Aboriginal children? Protocol for a population-based cohort study using linked administrative data (The Seeding Success Study)
Falster, Kathleen; Jorm, Louisa; Eades, Sandra; Lynch, John; Banks, Emily; Brownell, Marni; Craven, Rhonda; Einarsdóttir, Kristjana; Randall, Deborah
Introduction Australian Aboriginal children are more likely than non-Aboriginal children to have developmental vulnerability at school entry that tracks through to poorer literacy and numeracy outcomes and multiple social and health disadvantages in later life. Empirical evidence identifying the key drivers of positive early childhood development in Aboriginal children, and supportive features of local communities and early childhood service provision, are lacking. Methods and analysis The study population will be identified via linkage of Australian Early Development Census data to perinatal and birth registration data sets. It will include an almost complete population of children who started their first year of full-time school in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, in 2009 and 2012. Early childhood health and development trajectories for these children will be constructed via linkage to a range of administrative data sets relating to birth outcomes, congenital conditions, hospital admissions, emergency department presentations, receipt of ambulatory mental healthcare services, use of general practitioner services, contact with child protection and out-of-home care services, receipt of income assistance and fact of death. Using multilevel modelling techniques, we will quantify the contributions of individual-level and area-level factors to variation in early childhood development outcomes in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. Additionally, we will evaluate the impact of two government programmes that aim to address early childhood disadvantage, the NSW Aboriginal Maternal and Infant Health Service and the Brighter Futures Program. These evaluations will use propensity score matching methods and multilevel modelling. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained for this study. Dissemination mechanisms include engagement of stakeholders (including representatives from Aboriginal community controlled organisations, policy agencies, service
Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Bromet, Evelyn J.
Potential risk factors for conduct problems and depressive symptoms were tested in a cohort of 10- to 12-year-old Ukrainian children (N = 544, 47.6% male). Risk factors examined were child emotional lability, child attention problems, poor mother-child communication, coercive maternal discipline, maternal depression, and low marital satisfaction.…
Hall, I.; Strydom, A.; Richards, M.; Hardy, R.; Bernal, J.; Wadsworth, M.
Social policy for people with intellectual disabilities (ID) continues to evolve, but little is known about the lives to which such policies are applied. We aimed to use a prospective follow-up of a British birth cohort to identify children with mild and more severe intellectual impairment, and compare a range of social outcomes in adulthood with…
Starkbaum, Johannes; Gottweis, Herbert; Gottweis, Ursula; Kleiser, Christina; Linseisen, Jakob; Meisinger, Christa; Kamtsiuris, Panagiotis; Moebus, Susanne; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Börm, Sonja; Wichmann, H-Erich
Cohort studies and biobank projects have led to public discussions in several European countries in the past. In Germany, many medium-sized studies are currently running successfully in terms of respondent rates. However, EU-wide research on general public perceptions of biobanks and cohort studies have shown that Germany is among those countries where people express the highest reluctance for providing body material and other data for research purposes. Because of early efforts of the just-initiated German National Cohort Study, we are able to begin to investigate in greater detail how various groups of people across Germany reflect and discuss the ongoing implementation of cohort studies and biobanking in Germany. Our research is based on 15 focus group discussions in four German regions, as well as on Eurobarometer poll data on biobanking. PMID:24749879
Background Recent reviews conclude an association between traffic-related pollution and incidence of asthma in children, but not all studies agree. Studies have almost exclusively relied on parental-reported symptoms or parental-reported diagnoses of asthma and wheeze. Our aim was to investigate if traffic exposure is associated with higher incidence of early onset asthma, using registry-based outcome data. Methods We investigated a birth cohort in southern Sweden, consisting of N = 26 128 children with outcome and exposure data (born July 2005–2010). Of these children, N = 7898 had additional covariate information. The cohort was followed to the end of 2011. Traffic intensity, and dispersion-modeled concentrations of NOX (100×100 m grid), at residential addresses, were linked with registry data on dispensed asthma medication (the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register), and hospital and primary health care diagnoses of bronchiolitis, obstructive bronchitis and asthma (The Scania Health Care Register). Covariate information was obtained from questionnaires distributed to parents at Child Health Care-centre visits, eight months after birth. Cox proportional hazards regression was used for the statistical analyses. Results Living in close proximity to a road with ≥8640 cars/day (compared to 0–8640 cars/day), was not associated with higher incidence of first purchase of inhaled β2-agonist (adjusted hazard ratio (adj.HR) = 0.9, 95% CI: 0.8-1.0); third year purchase of inhaled β2-agonist (adj.HR = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.6-0.9); bronchiolitis (adj.HR = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.6-0.9), obstructive bronchitis (adj.HR = 1.0, 95% CI: 0.9-1.2), or asthma (adj.HR = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.6- 0.9). Similar results were found for inhaled corticosteroids, and in relation to NOX. Conclusions Traffic-related exposure was not associated with higher incidence of asthma medication, or diagnoses of asthma, bronchiolitis, or obstructive bronchitis, in children 0–6 years in
Chiasson, M A; Scheinmann, R; Hartel, D; McLeod, N; Sekhobo, J; Edmunds, L S; Findley, S
This longitudinal study of children enrolled as infants in the New York State (NYS) Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) examined predictors of obesity (body mass index ≥ 95th percentile) at 3 years of age. NYS WIC administrative data which included information from parent interviews and measured heights and weights for children were used. All 50,589 children enrolled as infants in WIC between July to December 2008 and July to December 2009 and retained in WIC through age three were included. At 3 years of age, 15.1% of children were obese. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that children of mothers who received the Full Breastfeeding Food Package when their infant was enrolled in WIC (adjusted OR = 0.52) and children with ≤2 h screen time daily at age 3 (adjusted OR = 0.88) were significantly less likely to be obese (p < 0.001) controlling for race/ethnicity, birth weight, and birthplace. In this cohort of NYS WIC participants, maternal receipt of the Full Breastfeeding Food Package (a surrogate measure of exclusive breastfeeding) is associated with lower levels of obesity in their children at age 3. The relationships between participation in WIC, exclusive breastfeeding, and obesity prevention merit further study. PMID:26280211
Kehoe, S H; Krishnaveni, G V; Veena, S R; Hill, J C; Osmond, C; Kiran; Coakley, P; Karat, S C; Fall, C H D
There is evidence of a reduction in children's physical activity in India in the last decade. Our objective was to assess whether size and body composition at birth are associated with physical activity in school-aged children. Children from a prospective observational cohort study born in Mysore, South India between 1997 and 1998 (n = 663) had neonatal anthropometric measurements made within 72 h of delivery [weight, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), chest, abdomen and head circumference, crown-heel, crown-buttock and leg length, triceps and subscapular skinfolds]. At 6-10 years, children (n = 449) were asked to wear AM7164 or GT1M Actigraph accelerometers for 7 days. Body composition was measured within 6 months of activity monitoring. Arm muscle area at birth and time of activity monitoring was calculated from MUAC and skinfold measurements. Activity outcome measures were: mean accelerometer counts per minute (cpm); counts per day and proportion of time spent in moderate and vigorous activity. The mean (S.D.) number of days with ≥500 min of recorded accelerometer data was 7.0 (1.1). Linear regression models showed no significant associations between any of the neonatal anthropometric measures and the activity variables. Body fat percentage at 7.5 years was negatively associated with all activity variables (B = -4.69, CI: -7.31, -2.07 for mean cpm). In conclusion, this study showed no associations between body size and skinfold thickness at birth and objectively measured physical activity in childhood. PMID:24098836
Pugh, C.A.; Bronsvoort, B.M.de C.; Handel, I.G.; Summers, K.M.; Clements, D.N.
Studies of animals that visit primary and secondary veterinary centres dominate companion animal epidemiology. Dogslife is a research initiative that collects data directly from owners about the health and lifestyle of Kennel Club (KC) registered Labrador Retrievers (LR) in the UK. The ultimate aim is to seek associations between canine lifestyle and health. A selection of data from Dogslife regarding the height, weight and lifestyle of 4307 LR up to four years of age is reported here. The majority of the dogs were household pets, living with at least one other pet, in families or households with more than one adult. The dogs typically ate diets of dried food and daily meal frequency decreased as the dogs aged. Working dogs spent more time exercising than pets, and dogs in Wales and Scotland were exercised more than their counterparts in England. Dogs in households with children spent less time exercising than dogs in other types of households. There was considerable variation in height and weight measurements indicative of a highly heterogeneous population. The average male height at the shoulders was 2–3 cm taller than the UK breed standard. Dog weights continued to increase between one and four years of age. Those with chocolate coloured coats were heavier than their yellow and black counterparts. Greater dog weight was also associated with dogs whose owners reported restricting their dog’s exercise due to where they lived. These findings highlight the utility of wide public engagement in the collation of phenotypic measures, providing a unique insight into the physical development and lifestyle of a cohort of LRs. In combination with concurrently collected data on the health of the cohort, phenotypic data from the Dogslife Project will contribute to understanding the relationship between dog lifestyle and health. PMID:26189582
Impact of early life exposures to geohelminth infections on the development of vaccine immunity, allergic sensitization, and allergic inflammatory diseases in children living in tropical Ecuador: the ECUAVIDA birth cohort study
Background Geohelminth infections are highly prevalent infectious diseases of childhood in many regions of the Tropics, and are associated with significant morbidity especially among pre-school and school-age children. There is growing concern that geohelminth infections, particularly exposures occurring during early life in utero through maternal infections or during infancy, may affect vaccine immunogenicity in populations among whom these infections are endemic. Further, the low prevalence of allergic disease in the rural Tropics has been attributed to the immune modulatory effects of these infections and there is concern that widespread use of anthelmintic treatment in high-risk groups may be associated with an increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases. Because the most widely used vaccines are administered during the first year of life and the antecedents of allergic disease are considered to occur in early childhood, the present study has been designed to investigate the impact of early exposures to geohelminths on the development of protective immunity to vaccines, allergic sensitization, and allergic disease. Methods/Design A cohort of 2,403 neonates followed up to 8 years of age. Primary exposures are infections with geohelminth parasites during the last trimester of pregnancy and the first 2 years of life. Primary study outcomes are the development of protective immunity to common childhood vaccines (i.e. rotavirus, Haemophilus influenzae type B, Hepatitis B, tetanus toxoid, and oral poliovirus type 3) during the first 5 years of life, the development of eczema by 3 years of age, the development of allergen skin test reactivity at 5 years of age, and the development of asthma at 5 and 8 years of age. Potential immunological mechanisms by which geohelminth infections may affect the study outcomes will be investigated also. Discussion The study will provide information on the potential effects of early exposures to geohelminths (during pregnancy and
Hammerton, Gemma; Harold, Gordon; Thapar, Anita; Thapar, Ajay
Objective To examine the relationship between blood pressure and depressive disorder in children and adolescents at high risk for depression. Design Multisample longitudinal design including a prospective longitudinal three-wave high-risk study of offspring of parents with recurrent depression and an on-going birth cohort for replication. Setting Community-based studies. Participants High-risk sample includes 281 families where children were aged 9–17 years at baseline and 10–19 years at the final data point. Replication cohort includes 4830 families where children were aged 11–14 years at baseline and 14–17 years at follow-up and a high-risk subsample of 612 offspring with mothers that had reported recurrent depression. Main outcome measures The new-onset of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, fourth edition defined depressive disorder in the offspring using established research diagnostic assessments—the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment in the high-risk sample and the Development and Wellbeing Assessment in the replication sample. Results Blood pressure was standardised for age and gender to create SD scores and child's weight was statistically controlled in all analyses. In the high-risk sample, lower systolic blood pressure at wave 1 significantly predicted new-onset depressive disorder in children (OR=0.65, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.96; p=0.029) but diastolic blood pressure did not. Depressive disorder at wave 1 did not predict systolic blood pressure at wave 3. A significant association between lower systolic blood pressure and future depression was also found in the replication cohort in the second subset of high-risk children whose mothers had experienced recurrent depression in the past. Conclusions Lower systolic blood pressure predicts new-onset depressive disorder in the offspring of parents with depression. Further studies are needed to investigate how this association arises. PMID:24071459
Background The Taiwan Birth Panel Study (TBPS) is a prospective follow-up study to investigate the development of child health and disease in relation to in-utero and/or early childhood environmental exposures. The rationale behind the establishment of such a cohort includes the magnitude of potential environmental exposures, the timing of exposure window, fatal and children's susceptibility to toxicants, early exposure delayed effects, and low-level or unknown neurodevelopmental toxicants. Methods A total of 486 mother-infant paired was enrolled from April 2004 to January 2005 in this study. Maternal blood before delivery, placenta and umbilical cord blood at birth, and mothers' urine after delivery were collected. The follow-up was scheduled at birth, 4, 6 months, and 1, 2, 3 and 5 years. The children's blood, urine, hair, and saliva were collected at 2 years of age and children's urine was collected at 5 years of age as well. The study has been approved by the ethical committee of National Taiwan University Hospital. All the subjects signed the inform consent on entering the study and each of the follow up. Results Through this prospective birth cohort, the main health outcomes were focused on child growth, neurodevelopment, behaviour problem and atopic diseases. We investigated the main prenatal and postnatal factors including smoking, heavy metals, perfluorinated chemicals, and non-persistent pesticides under the consideration of interaction of the environment and genes. Conclusions This cohort study bridges knowledge gaps and answers unsolved issues in the low-level, prenatal or postnatal, and multiple exposures, genetic effect modification, and the initiation and progression of "environmentally-related childhood diseases." PMID:21838884
The Detroit Children's Health Study will consist of health questionnaires for 15,000 children enrolled in the fourth- and fifth-grades of selected elementary schools, and measurements of lung function and exhaled breath in a subset of 3,500 of these children. Participation in bo...
Kerstjens, Jorien M.; de Winter, Andrea F.; Bocca-TJeertes, Inger F.; Bos, Arend F.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.
Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the influence of decreasing gestational age on the risk of developmental delay in various domains at age 4 years among children born at a wide range of gestational ages. Method: In a community-based cohort, the parents of 1439 preterm-born children (24 0/7 to 35 6/7wks) and 544 term-born children (38 0/7 to…
Jiménez-Castellanos, Oscar; Blanchard, Jay; Atwill, Kim; Jiménez-Silva, Margarita
This study examined beginning English literacy-skill development and achievement among Spanish-speaking children enrolled in state-mandated English-only classrooms. The children possessed Spanish skill at or above age-appropriate level, yet minimal English skill, and came from a Spanish-speaking community adjacent to the U.S.-Mexico border. Under…
Hebbelstrup Jensen, Betina; Stensvold, Christen R.; Struve, Carsten; Olsen, Katharina E. P.; Scheutz, Flemming; Boisen, Nadia; Röser, Dennis; Andreassen, Bente U.; Nielsen, Henrik V.; Schønning, Kristian; Petersen, Andreas M.; Krogfelt, Karen A.
Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) has been associated with persistent diarrhea, reduced growth acceleration, and failure to thrive in children living in developing countries and with childhood diarrhea in general in industrialized countries. The clinical implications of an EAEC carrier-status in children in industrialized countries warrants clarification. To investigate the pathological significance of an EAEC carrier-state in the industrialized countries, we designed a 1-year dynamic cohort study and performed follow-up every second month, where the study participants submitted a stool sample and answered a questionnaire regarding gastrointestinal symptoms and exposures. Exposures included foreign travel, consumption of antibiotics, and contact with a diseased animal. In the capital area of Denmark, a total of 179 children aged 0–6 years were followed in a cohort study, in the period between 2009 and 2013. This is the first investigation of the incidence and pathological significance of EAEC in Danish children attending daycare facilities. Conventional microbiological detection of enteric pathogens was performed at Statens Serum Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark, and at Hvidovre Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. Parents completed questionnaires regarding gastrointestinal symptoms. The EAEC strains were further characterized by serotyping, phylogenetic analysis, and susceptibility testing. EAEC was detected in 25 (14%) of the children during the observational period of 1 year. One or more gastrointestinal symptoms were reported from 56% of the EAEC-positive children. Diarrhea was reported in six (24%) of the EAEC positive children, but no cases of weight loss, and general failure to thrive were observed. The EAEC strains detected comprised a large number of different serotypes, confirming the genetic heterogeneity of this pathotype. EAEC was highly prevalent (n = 25, 14%) in Danish children in daycare centers and was accompanied by gastrointestinal symptoms in
Dayan, Gustavo; Arredondo, Jose L; Carrasquilla, Gabriel; Deseda, Carmen C; Dietze, Reynaldo; Luz, Kleber; Costa, Maria Selma N; Cunha, Rivaldo V; Rey, Luis C; Morales, Javier; Reynales, Humberto; Miranda, Maria; Zambrano, Betzana; Rivas, Enrique; Garbes, Pedro; Noriega, Fernando
To prepare for a Phase III dengue vaccine efficacy trial, 20 investigational sites were selected for this observational study to identify dengue infections in a closed cohort (N = 3,000 children 9-16 years of age). Of 255 acute febrile episodes experienced by 235 children, 50 (21.3%) were considered serologically probable dengue, and 18 (7.7%) were considered virologically confirmed (i.e., dengue NS1 antigen positive) dengue cases. Considering the disease-free and at-risk period from study start to onset of symptoms, the overall incidence density of acute febrile episodes was 17.7 per 100 person-years of follow-up, ranging from 15.3 in Colombia to 22.0 in Puerto Rico. This study showed that all sites were capable of capturing and following up acute febrile episodes within a specific timeframe among the established cohort and to detect dengue cases. PMID:26013373
Dayan, Gustavo; Arredondo, Jose L.; Carrasquilla, Gabriel; Deseda, Carmen C.; Dietze, Reynaldo; Luz, Kleber; Costa, Maria Selma N.; Cunha, Rivaldo V.; Rey, Luis C.; Morales, Javier; Reynales, Humberto; Miranda, Maria; Zambrano, Betzana; Rivas, Enrique; Garbes, Pedro; Noriega, Fernando
To prepare for a Phase III dengue vaccine efficacy trial, 20 investigational sites were selected for this observational study to identify dengue infections in a closed cohort (N = 3,000 children 9–16 years of age). Of 255 acute febrile episodes experienced by 235 children, 50 (21.3%) were considered serologically probable dengue, and 18 (7.7%) were considered virologically confirmed (i.e., dengue NS1 antigen positive) dengue cases. Considering the disease-free and at-risk period from study start to onset of symptoms, the overall incidence density of acute febrile episodes was 17.7 per 100 person-years of follow-up, ranging from 15.3 in Colombia to 22.0 in Puerto Rico. This study showed that all sites were capable of capturing and following up acute febrile episodes within a specific timeframe among the established cohort and to detect dengue cases. PMID:26013373
Habermann, Frank; Fritzsche, Juliane; Fuhlbrück, Frederike; Wacker, Evelin; Allignol, Arthur; Weber-Schoendorfer, Corinna; Meister, Reinhard; Schaefer, Christof
Women of childbearing age are often affected with psychotic disorders, requiring the use of antipsychotic medication during pregnancy. In the present study, we prospectively followed the pregnancies of 561 women exposed to second-generation antipsychotic agents (SGAs; study cohort) and compared these to 284 pregnant women exposed to first-generation antipsychotic agents (FGAs; comparison cohort I) and to 1122 pregnant women using drugs known as not harmful to the unborn (comparison cohort II). Subjects were enrolled through the Institute's consultation service. Major malformation rates of SGA exposed were higher compared to comparison cohort II (adjusted odds ratio, 2.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-3.91), possibly reflecting a detection bias concerning atrial and ventricular septal defects. Postnatal disorders occurred significantly more often in infants prenatally exposed to SGAs (15.6%) and FGAs (21.6%) compared to 4.2% of comparison cohort II. Cumulative incidences of elective terminations of pregnancy were significantly higher in both the study cohort (17%) and comparison cohort I (21%) compared to comparison cohort II (3%), whereas the rates of spontaneous abortions did not differ. The numbers of stillbirths and neonatal deaths were within the reference range. Preterm birth and low birth weight were more common in infants exposed to FGAs. To conclude, our findings did not reveal a major teratogenic risk for SGAs, making the better studied drugs of this group a treatment option during pregnancy. Because neonates exposed to SGAs or FGAs in the last gestational week are at higher risk of postnatal disorders, delivery should be planned in clinics with neonatal intensive care units. PMID:23764684
von Stumm, Sophie; Deary, Ian J; Hagger-Johnson, Gareth
Objectives Early life factors, like intelligence and socioeconomic status (SES), are associated with health outcomes in adulthood. Fitting comprehensive life-course models, we tested (1) the effect of childhood intelligence and SES, education and adulthood SES on psychological distress at midlife, and (2) compared alternative measurement specifications (reflective and formative) of SES. Design Prospective cohort study (the Aberdeen Children of the 1950s). Setting Aberdeen, Scotland. Participants 12 500 live-births (6282 boys) between 1950 and 1956, who were followed up in the years 2001–2003 at age 46–51 with a postal questionnaire achieving a response rate of 64% (7183). Outcome measures Psychological distress at age 46–51 (questionnaire). Results Childhood intelligence and SES and education had indirect effects on psychological distress at midlife, mediated by adult SES. Adult SES was the only variable to have a significant direct effect on psychological distress at midlife; the effect was stronger in men than in women. Alternative measurement specifications of SES (reflective and formative) resulted in greatly different model parameters and fits. Conclusions Even though formative operationalisations of SES are theoretically appropriate, SES is better specified as reflective than as a formative latent variable in the context of life-course modelling. PMID:23667162
Kehoe, S. H.; Krishnaveni, G. V.; Veena, S. R.; Hill, J. C.; Osmond, C.; Kiran; Coakley, P.; Karat, S. C.; Fall, C. H. D.
There is evidence of a reduction in children’s physical activity in India in the last decade. Our objective was to assess whether size and body composition at birth are associated with physical activity in school-aged children. Children from a prospective observational cohort study born in Mysore, South India between 1997 and 1998 (n = 663) had neonatal anthropometric measurements made within 72 h of delivery [weight, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), chest, abdomen and head circumference, crown–heel, crown–buttock and leg length, triceps and subscapular skinfolds]. At 6–10 years, children (n = 449) were asked to wear AM7164 or GT1M Actigraph accelerometers for 7 days. Body composition was measured within 6 months of activity monitoring. Arm muscle area at birth and time of activity monitoring was calculated from MUAC and skinfold measurements. Activity outcome measures were: mean accelerometer counts per minute (cpm); counts per day and proportion of time spent in moderate and vigorous activity. The mean (S.D.) number of days with ≥500 min of recorded accelerometer data was 7.0 (1.1). Linear regression models showed no significant associations between any of the neonatal anthropometric measures and the activity variables. Body fat percentage at 7.5 years was negatively associated with all activity variables (B = −4.69, CI: −7.31, −2.07 for mean cpm). In conclusion, this study showed no associations between body size and skinfold thickness at birth and objectively measured physical activity in childhood. PMID:24098836
Rask-Andersen, Mathias; Moschonis, George; Chrousos, George P.; Marcus, Claude; Dedoussis, George V.; Fredriksson, Robert; Schiöth, Helgi B.
Recent genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a locus on chromosome 11p15.5, closely associated with serine/threonine kinase 33 (STK33), to be associated with body mass. STK33, a relatively understudied protein, has been linked to KRAS mutation-driven cancers and explored as a potential antineoplastic drug target. The strongest association with body mass observed at this loci in GWAS was rs4929949, a single nucleotide polymorphism located within intron 1 of the gene encoding STK33. The functional implications of rs4929949 or related variants have not been explored as of yet. We have genotyped rs4929949 in two cohorts, an obesity case-control cohort of 991 Swedish children, and a cross-sectional cohort of 2308 Greek school children. We found that the minor allele of rs4929949 was associated with obesity in the cohort of Swedish children and adolescents (OR = 1.199 (95%CI: 1.002–1.434), p = 0.047), and with body mass in the cross-sectional cohort of Greek children (β = 0.08147 (95% CI: 0.1345–0.1618), p = 0.021). We observe the effects of rs4929949 on body mass to be detectable already at adolescence. Subsequent analysis did not detect any association of rs4929949 to phenotypic measurements describing body adiposity or to metabolic factors such as insulin levels, triglycerides and insulin resistance (HOMA). PMID:23967198
Signorello, Lisa B.; Hargreaves, Margaret K.; Steinwandel, Mark D.; Zheng, Wei; Cai, Qiuyin; Schlundt, David G.; Buchowski, Maciej S.; Arnold, Carolyne W.; McLaughlin, Joseph K.; Blot, William J.
OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate the methods of recruitment of a low-income, predominantly African-American study population for the Southern Community Cohort Study (SCCS), a prospective epidemiologic investigation of racial disparities in cancer risk. METHODS: Partnerships with community health centers (CHCs) were formed to reach underserved populations throughout the south. Recruitment of participants (aged 40-79) in CHCs began in March 2002. Participants complete a comprehensive baseline interview and provide a blood or buccal cell sample. Recruitment will expand to the general population of the south to achieve a broad cross-section of socioeconomic status, The final cohort size is expected to be approximately 100,000. RESULTS: A high level of cooperation and recruitment was achieved in the CHCs. From March 2002 to October 2004, 32,632 participants (80% black, 41% male, 62% with total household income < $15,000, 34% with < 12 years schooling) enrolled. Participants reported a high prevalence of medical conditions (21% diabetic, 44% obese) and adverse health behaviors (45% current smokers). CONCLUSIONS: Working in CHCs is successful for recruiting a population that has been difficult to reach in previous studies. The SCCS is a unique cohort that will provide a rich resource for evaluating disparities in cancer and other chronic disease risk as it is followed over time. PMID:16080667
Shakoor, Sania; Jaffee, Sara R.; Andreou, Penelope; Bowes, Lucy; Ambler, Antony P.; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.
Stressful events early in life can affect children’s mental health problems. Collecting valid and reliable information about children’s bad experiences is important for research and clinical purposes. This study aimed to (1) investigate whether mothers and children provide valid reports of bullying victimization, (2) examine the inter-rater reliability between the two informants, (3) test the predictive validity of their reports with children’s emotional and behavioral problems and (4) compare the genetic and environmental etiology of bullying victimization as reported by mothers and children. We assessed bullying victimization in the Environmental-Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative sample of 1,116 families with twins. We collected reports from mothers and children during private interviews, including detailed narratives. Findings showed that we can rely on mothers and children as informants of bullying victimization: both informants provided information which adhered to the definition of bullying as involving repeated hurtful actions between peers in the presence of a power imbalance. Although mothers and children modestly agreed with each other about who was bullied during primary and secondary school, reports of bullying victimization from both informants were similarly associated with children’s emotional and behavioral problems and provided similar estimates of genetic and environmental influences. Findings from this study suggest that collecting information from multiple informants is ideal to capture all instances of bullying victimization. However, in the absence of child self-reports, mothers can be considered as a viable alternative, and vice versa. PMID:20938734
Malan, Leoné; Hamer, Mark; Frasure-Smith, Nancy; Steyn, Hendrik S; Malan, Nicolaas T
Adapting to an over-demanding stressful urban environment may exhaust the psychophysiological resources to cope with these demands, and lead to sympathetic nervous system dysfunction. The evidence that an urban-dwelling lifestyle may be detrimental to the cardiometabolic health of Africans motivated the design of the Sympathetic activity and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in African Prospective cohort study. We aimed to determine neural mechanistic pathways involved in emotional distress and vascular remodelling. The baseline sample included 409 teachers representing a bi-ethnic sex cohort from South Africa. The study was conducted in 2008-09 and repeated after 3-year follow-up in 2011-12, with an 87.8% successful follow-up rate. Seasonal changes were avoided and extensive clinical assessments were performed in a well-controlled setting. Data collection included sociodemographics, lifestyle habits, psychosocial battery and genetic analysis, mental stress responses mimicking daily life stress (blood pressure and haemostatic, cardiometabolic, endothelial and stress hormones). Target organ damage was assessed in the brain, heart, kidney, blood vessels and retina. A unique highly phenotyped cohort is presented that can address the role of a hyperactive sympathetic nervous system and neural response pathways contributing to the burden of cardiometabolic diseases in Africans. PMID:25344943
McGonagle, Katherine A; Sastry, Narayan
The Child Development Supplement (CDS) was started in 1997 to collect information on children and caregivers in families in the USA that participated in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), an ongoing national longitudinal household survey that began in 1968. CDS was launched with the goal of creating a comprehensive, nationally representative, prospective database of young children and their families for studying the dynamic process of children’s health and development. The same children and their caregivers were interviewed in up to three waves approximately every 5 years (1997, 2002–03, and 2007–08), with a child-based response rate of 90% in the most recent wave. Upon reaching age 18 years and finishing or leaving high school, the children in the CDS cohort shifted to a six-wave follow-up study launched in 2005 called the PSID Transition into Adulthood (TA) study. The TA data have been collected biennially through 2013, with a final wave planned for 2015. Once these young adults form their own economically independent households, they join the PSID. The main categories of data emphasize the major developmental tasks of childhood and young adulthood, including influences on successful development in the domains of family, schools and neighbourhoods. The majority of data and documentation are freely and publicly available through the PSID Online Data Center. PMID:24706732
Toniolo, P G; Pasternack, B S; Shore, R E; Sonnenschein, E; Koenig, K L; Rosenberg, C; Strax, P; Strax, S
A cohort study is under way in New York City to evaluate how levels of endogenous reproductive hormones influence the risk of breast cancer. The study, in which approximately 15,000 women are being recruited, utilizes a prospective design in which volunteers are asked to provide repeated specimens of serum during the period 1985-1992. A case-control study nested within the cohort is planned by which specimens from all cases arising in the population and from a randomly selected sample of time-matched controls will be analyzed and compared. As of December 31, 1989, 13,609 volunteers had donated blood specimens, about 50% of whom had already donated more than once. Of the 187 incident breast cancer cases who are expected to arise in the cohort before the end of 1992, 77 have been detected thus far. PMID:1873553
Kossenko, M M.; Preston, D L.; Krestinina, L Y.; Degteva, M O.; Startsev, N V.; Thomas, T; Vyushkova, O V.; Anspaugh, L R.; Napier, Bruce A. ); Kozheurov, V P.; Ron, E; Akleyev, A V.
Initial population-based studies of riverside residents were begun in the late 1950s and in 1967 a systematic effort was undertaken to develop a well-defined fixed cohort of Techa river residents, to carry out ongoing mortality and (limited) clinical follow-up of this cohort, and to provide individualized dose estimates for cohort members. Over the past decade, extensive efforts have been made to refine the cohort definition and improve both the follow-up and dosimetry data. Analyses of the Techa river cohort can provide useful quantitative estimates of the effects of low dose rate, chronic external and internal exposures on cancer mortality and incidence and non-cancer mortality rates. These risk estimates complement quantitative risk estimates for acute exposures based on the atomic bomb survivors and chronic exposure risk estimates from worker studies, including Mayak workers and other groups with occupational radiation exposures. As the dosimetry and follow-up are refined it may also be possible to gain useful insights into risks associated with 90Sr exposures.
Syrad, H; Llewellyn, C H; van Jaarsveld, C H M; Johnson, L; Jebb, S A; Wardle, J
Data on the diets of young children in the UK are limited, despite growing evidence of the importance of early diet for long-term health. We used the largest contemporary dietary data set to describe the intake of 21-month-old children in the UK. Parents of 2336 children aged 21 months from the UK Gemini twin cohort completed 3-d diet diaries in 2008/2009. Family background information was obtained from questionnaires completed 8 months after birth. Mean total daily intakes of energy, macronutrients (g and %E) and micronutrients from food and beverages, including and excluding supplements, were derived. Comparisons with UK dietary reference values (DRV) were made using t tests and general linear regression models, respectively. Daily energy intake (kJ), protein (g) and most micronutrients exceeded DRV, except for vitamin D and Fe, where 96 or 84 % and 70 or 6 % of children did not achieve the reference nutrient intake or lower reference nutrient intake (LRNI), respectively, even with supplementation. These findings reflect similar observations in the smaller sample of children aged 18-36 months in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey. At a population level, young children in the UK are exceeding recommended daily intakes of energy and protein, potentially increasing their risk of obesity. The majority of children are not meeting the LRNI for vitamin D, largely reflecting inadequate use of the supplements recommended at this age. Parents may need more guidance on how to achieve healthy energy and nutrient intakes for young children. PMID:27093345
Tsao, Connie W; Vasan, Ramachandran S
The Framingham Heart Study (FHS) has conducted seminal research defining cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and fundamentally shaping public health guidelines for CVD prevention over the past five decades. The success of the Original Cohort, initiated in 1948, paved the way for further epidemiological research in preventive cardiology. Due to the keen observations suggesting the role of shared familial factors in the development of CVD, in 1971 the FHS began enroling the second generation cohort, comprising the children of the Original Cohort and the spouses of the children. In 2002, the third generation cohort, comprising the grandchildren of the Original Cohort, was initiated to additionally explore genetic contributions to CVD in greater depth. Additionally, because of the predominance of White individuals of European descent in the three generations of FHS participants noted above, the Heart Study enrolled the OMNI1 and OMNI2 cohorts in 1994 and 2003, respectively, aimed to reflect the current greater racial and ethnic diversity of the town of Framingham. All FHS cohorts have been examined approximately every 2-4 years since the initiation of the study. At these periodic Heart Study examinations, we obtain a medical history and perform a cardiovascular-focused physical examination, 12-lead electrocardiography, blood and urine samples testing and other cardiovascular imaging studies reflecting subclinical disease burden.The FHS has continually evolved along the cutting edge of cardiovascular science and epidemiological research since its inception. Participant studies now additionally include study of cardiovascular imaging, serum and urine biomarkers, genetics/genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and social networks. Numerous ancillary studies have been established, expanding the phenotypes to encompass multiple organ systems including the lungs, brain, bone and fat depots, among others. Whereas the FHS was originally conceived and designed to study the
DiPerna, James Clyde; Lei, Pui-Wa; Reid, Erin E.
This study examined longitudinal predictive relationships between young children's classroom behaviors and their growth in mathematics skills during the primary grades. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten cohort, the authors tested a longitudinal model featuring positive (interpersonal skills and approaches to learning) and…
Santos, Iná S.; Matijasevich, Alicia
OBJECTIVE: Coffee and other caffeinated beverages are commonly consumed in pregnancy. In adults, caffeine may interfere with sleep onset and have a dose-response effect similar to those seen during insomnia. In infancy, nighttime waking is a common event. With this study, we aimed to investigate if maternal caffeine consumption during pregnancy and lactation leads to frequent nocturnal awakening among infants at 3 months of age. METHODS: All children born in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, during 2004 were enrolled on a cohort study. Mothers were interviewed at delivery and after 3 months to obtain information on caffeine drinking consumption, sociodemographic, reproductive, and behavioral characteristics. Infant sleeping pattern in the previous 15 days was obtained from a subsample. Night waking was defined as an episode of infant arousal that woke the parents during nighttime. Multivariable analysis was performed by using Poisson regression. RESULTS: The subsample included 885 of the 4231 infants born in 2004. All but 1 mother consumed caffeine in pregnancy. Nearly 20% were heavy consumers (≥300 mg/day) during pregnancy and 14.3% at 3 months postpartum. Prevalence of frequent nighttime awakeners (>3 episodes per night) was 13.8% (95% confidence interval: 11.5%–16.0%). The highest prevalence ratio was observed among breastfed infants from mothers consuming ≥300 mg/day during the whole pregnancy and in the postpartum period (1.65; 95% confidence interval: 0.86–3.17) but at a nonsignificant level. CONCLUSIONS: Caffeine consumption during pregnancy and by nursing mothers seems not to have consequences on sleep of infants at the age of 3 months. PMID:22473365
Prospective cohorts have played a major role in understanding the role of diet, physical activity, medical conditions, and genes in the development of many diseases, but have not been widely used in the study of occupational exposures. Studies in agriculture are an exception. W...
Melchior, Maria; Caspi, Avshalom; Howard, Louise M.; Ambler, Antony P.; Bolton, Heather; Mountain, Nicky; Moffitt, Terrie E.
OBJECTIVE Children from food-insecure families (ie, families that lack access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food) are at risk for developmental problems. Food insecurity disproportionately occurs among low–socioeconomic status (SES) and low-income families; however, interventions that supplement families’ income or diet have not eradicated food insecurity. This may be because food insecurity is also related to nonfinancial factors such as the presence of maternal mental health problems. To clarify whether addressing mothers’ mental health problems may be a promising strategy for reducing the burden of food insecurity, we tested the hypothesis that low-SES families are especially vulnerable to food insecurity when the mother experiences depression, alcohol or drug abuse, psychosis spectrum disorder, or domestic violence. METHODS We used data from a nationally representative cohort of 1116 British families (the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Study). Food insecurity, family SES, maternal mental health and exposure to domestic violence, and children’s behavioral outcomes were measured by using validated methods. RESULTS Overall, 9.7% of study families were food-insecure. Among low-SES families, controlling for income variation, food insecurity cooccurred with maternal depression (odds ratio [OR]: 2.82 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.62–4.93]), psychosis spectrum disorder (OR: 4.01 [95% CI: 2.03–7.94]), and domestic violence (OR: 2.36 [95% CI: 1.18– 4.73]). In addition, food insecurity predicted elevated rates of children’s behavior problems. CONCLUSIONS Among families with young children, food insecurity is frequent, particularly when the mother experiences mental health problems. This suggests that interventions that improve women’s mental health may also contribute to decreasing the burden of food insecurity and its impact on the next generation. PMID:19786424
Simon, Steven L; Anspaugh, Lynn R; Hoffman, F Owen; Scholl, Alan E; Stone, Mary B; Thomas, Brian A; Lyon, Joseph L
In the 1980s, individual thyroid doses and uncertainties were estimated for members of a cohort of children identified in 1965 in Utah and Nevada who had potentially been exposed to fallout from the Nevada Test Site. That reconstruction represented the first comprehensive assessment of doses received by the cohort and was the first large effort to assess the uncertainty of dose on an individual person basis. The data on dose and thyroid disease prevalence during different periods were subsequently used in an analysis to determine risks of radiogenic thyroid disease. This cohort has received periodic medical follow-up to observe changes in disease frequency and to reassess the previously reported radiation-related risks, most recently after a Congressional mandate in 1998. In a recent effort to restore the databases and computer codes used to estimate doses in the 1980s, various deficiencies were found in the estimated doses due to improperly operating computer codes, corruption of secondary data files, and lack of quality control procedures. From 2001 through 2004, the dosimetry system was restored and corrected and all doses were recalculated. In addition, two parameter values were updated. While the mean of all doses has not changed significantly, many individual doses have changed by more than an order of magnitude. PMID:16435919
Grebely, Jason; Morris, Meghan D; Rice, Thomas M; Bruneau, Julie; Cox, Andrea L; Kim, Arthur Y; McGovern, Barbara H; Shoukry, Naglaa H; Lauer, Georg; Maher, Lisa; Lloyd, Andrew R; Hellard, Margaret; Prins, Maria; Dore, Gregory J; Page, Kimberly
The International Collaboration of Incident HIV and Hepatitis C in Injecting Cohorts (InC3) Study is an international multi-cohort project of pooled biological and behavioural data from nine prospective cohorts of people who inject drugs (PWID). InC3 brings together researchers from Australia, Canada, USA and the Netherlands with expertise in epidemiology, biostatistics, clinical and behavioural sciences, virology and immunology to investigate research questions relevant to hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV outcomes. InC3 was established to: (i) create a merged multi-cohort study of pooled data from well-characterized cohorts of PWID with prospective data on HIV and HCV infections, with a particular focus on HCV; (ii) facilitate new studies not possible within individual cohorts; and (iii) bring together researchers across disciplines to answer a broad range of research questions. Study cohorts identify acute HCV cases through follow-up of high-risk HCV antibody–negative PWID or through clinical referral networks. To date, data from 1986 to 2010 have been received from all contributing cohorts, with 821 HCV-infected and 1216 HCV-uninfected participants (overall, n = 2037). Data collected include demographics, host genetics, HCV ribonucleic acid testing, alanine aminotransferase testing, HIV/hepatitis B virus testing, HCV therapy, loss to follow-up and mortality. Potential collaborators should contact the InC3 PI Dr Kimberley Page (kPage@psg.ucsf.edu) for further information. PMID:23203695
Lung, For-Wey; Chiang, Tung-Liang; Lin, Shio-Jean; Shu, Bih-Ching
This study aimed to investigate the direct and indirect effects of environmental pollutants on child development and parental concerns. It focused on the pathway relationships among the following factors: living within three kilometers of an incinerator, breastfeeding, place of residence, parental concerns about development, and parent-perceived child development. The Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS) dataset includes randomized community data on 21,248 children at six, 18, and 36 months of age. The Parental Concern Checklist and the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study-Developmental Instrument were used to measure parental concern and parent-perceived child development. Living within three kilometers of an incinerator increased the risk of children showing delayed development in the gross motor domain at six and 36 months. Although breastfeeding is a protective factor against uneven/delayed developmental disability (U/DDD), children living near an incinerator who were breastfed had an increased risk of U/DDD compared with those who did not live near incinerators. The presence of a local incinerator affected parent-perceived child development directly and indirectly through the mediating factor of breastfeeding. Further follow-up of these children to investigate the long-term effects of specific toxins on their development and later diagnostic categorization is necessary. PMID:23727903
Kamath, Binita M.; Chen, Zhen; Romero, Rene; Fredericks, Emily M.; Alonso, Estella M.; Arnon, Ronen; Heubi, James; Hertel, Paula M.; Karpen, Saul J.; Loomes, Kathleen M.; Murray, Karen F.; Rosenthal, Philip; Schwarz, Kathleen B.; Subbarao, Girish; Teckman, Jeffrey H.; Turmelle, Yumirle P.; Wang, Kasper S.; Sherker, Averell H.; Sokol, Ronald J.; Magee, John C.
Objectives To assess health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in children with Alagille syndrome (ALGS) in comparison with healthy and other liver disease cohorts, and to identify determinants of HRQOL in patients with ALGS. Study design Within the Childhood Liver Disease Research Network prospective study of cholestasis, Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ (PedsQL) questionnaires were administered to 70 ALGS, 95 alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (A1ATD) and 49 children with other causes of chronic intrahepatic cholestasis (IHC) aged 5-18 years. Parent-proxy PedsQL scores were recorded for children aged 2-18 (98 ALGS, 123 A1ATD, 68 IHC). Results Mean ages and total bilirubin (mg/dL) were: ALGS 9.4y; 4.4, A1ATD 9.5y; 0.7, IHC 10.3y; 2.9. ALGS child PedsQL scores were lower than in healthy children and children with A1ATD (mean 73 vs. 83 p=0.001). Children with ALGS and IHC were similar, except in physical scores (73 vs. 79 p=0.05). ALGS parents perceived their children to have worse HRQOL than A1ATD (p<=0.001) and marginally lower compared with IHC. Univariate analysis revealed ALGS child-reported scores were positively associated with better growth and inversely with total bilirubin. Growth failure, elevated INR and an intra-cardiac defect were predictive of poor parental scores (p<=0.05). In multivariate analysis, only weight z-score remained significant for child and parent-reported scores. Conclusions HRQOL is impaired in ALGS compared with healthy and children with A1ATD, similar to IHC and is associated with growth failure, which is a potentially treatable cause of impaired HRQOL. PMID:26059338
Snyman, Katherine; Mwangwa, Florence; Bigira, Victor; Kapisi, James; Clark, Tamara D; Osterbauer, Beth; Greenhouse, Bryan; Sturrock, Hugh; Gosling, Roly; Liu, Jenny; Dorsey, Grant
Despite the use of accepted interventions to combat malaria, such as insecticide-treated bed nets and artemisinin-based combination therapy, malaria remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Uganda. We investigated associations between household factors and malaria incidence in a cohort of children living in a highly endemic region of Uganda. Living in a modern house, defined as the use of non-earth floors, non-thatched roofs, and non-mud walls, was associated with approximately half malaria incidence compared with living in a traditional home (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.54, P = 0.001). Other factors found to be associated with a lower incidence of malaria included living in town versus rural setting; sleeping in a room with openings to the outside (windows, eaves, and airbricks); and having an older and more educated primary caregiver. This study adds to the growing body of evidence that improved house construction may be associated with a lower risk of malaria. PMID:25870429
Snyman, Katherine; Mwangwa, Florence; Bigira, Victor; Kapisi, James; Clark, Tamara D.; Osterbauer, Beth; Greenhouse, Bryan; Sturrock, Hugh; Gosling, Roly; Liu, Jenny; Dorsey, Grant
Despite the use of accepted interventions to combat malaria, such as insecticide-treated bed nets and artemisinin-based combination therapy, malaria remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Uganda. We investigated associations between household factors and malaria incidence in a cohort of children living in a highly endemic region of Uganda. Living in a modern house, defined as the use of non-earth floors, non-thatched roofs, and non-mud walls, was associated with approximately half malaria incidence compared with living in a traditional home (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.54, P = 0.001). Other factors found to be associated with a lower incidence of malaria included living in town versus rural setting; sleeping in a room with openings to the outside (windows, eaves, and airbricks); and having an older and more educated primary caregiver. This study adds to the growing body of evidence that improved house construction may be associated with a lower risk of malaria. PMID:25870429
The association of drinking water arsenic and mortality outcome was investigated in a cohort of residents from Millard County, Utah. Median drinking water arsenic concentrations for selected study towns ranged from 14 to 166 ppb and were from public and private samples collected ...
Signorello, Lisa B.; Hargreaves, Margaret K.; Blot, William J.
Summary Over 73,700 adults age 40–79, nearly 70% African American, were recruited at community health centers across 12 southeastern states; individual characteristics were recorded and biologic specimens collected at baseline for later follow-up. The Southern Community Cohort Study is a unique national resource for assessing determinants of racial/ethnic differentials in diseases. PMID:20173283
Landrigan, Philip J; Trasande, Leonardo; Thorpe, Lorna E; Gwynn, Charon; Lioy, Paul J; D'Alton, Mary E; Lipkind, Heather S; Swanson, James; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Clark, Edward B; Rauh, Virginia A; Perera, Frederica P; Susser, Ezra
Prospective, multiyear epidemiologic studies have proven to be highly effective in discovering preventable risk factors for chronic disease. Investigations such as the Framingham Heart Study have produced blueprints for disease prevention and saved millions of lives and billions of dollars. To discover preventable environmental risk factors for disease in children, the US Congress directed the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, through the Children's Health Act of 2000, to conduct the National Children's Study. The National Children's Study is hypothesis-driven and will seek information on environmental risks and individual susceptibility factors for asthma, birth defects, dyslexia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, schizophrenia, and obesity, as well as for adverse birth outcomes. It will be conducted in a nationally representative, prospective cohort of 100,000 US-born children. Children will be followed from conception to 21 years of age. Environmental exposures (chemical, physical, biological, and psychosocial) will be assessed repeatedly during pregnancy and throughout childhood in children's homes, schools, and communities. Chemical assays will be performed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and banks of biological and environmental samples will be established for future analyses. Genetic material will be collected on each mother and child and banked to permit study of gene-environment interactions. Recruitment is scheduled to begin in 2007 at 7 Vanguard Sites and will extend to 105 sites across the United States. The National Children's Study will generate multiple satellite studies that explore methodologic issues, etiologic questions, and potential interventions. It will provide training for the next generation of researchers and practitioners in environmental pediatrics and will link to planned and ongoing prospective birth cohort studies in other nations. Data from the National Children's Study will
Hermont, Ana Paula; Martins, Carolina C.; Zina, Lívia G.; Auad, Sheyla M.; Paiva, Saul M.; Pordeus, Isabela A.
The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breast feeding for at least six months. However, there is no scientific evidence of the benefits of breast feeding for oral health in children under primary dentition. This study aimed to search for scientific evidence regarding the following question: is bottle feeding associated with malocclusion in the primary dentition compared to children that are breastfed? An electronic search was performed in seven databases. The systematic review included 10 cohort studies. It was not possible to conduct meta-analysis; therefore a qualitative analysis was assessed. The majority of studies evaluated feeding habits by means of questionnaires and conducted a single examination. Three studies observed that bottle feeding was significantly associated with overjet and posterior crossbite. Studies reported several cut-off times for breastfeeding (varying from 1 month up to 3 years of age) and several types of malocclusion. Controlling for non-nutritive sucking habits was reported for only half of the studies and this may have led to biased results. The scientific evidence could not confirm a specific type of malocclusion associated with the feeding habits or an adequate time of breastfeeding to benefit the children against malocclusion. Further cohort studies are needed to confirm this evidence. PMID:25785498
Winneke, Gerhard; Walkowiak, Jens; Kramer, Ursula
This paper comments on a critical review of cohort studies on PCB-related neurodevelopmental deficit in young children by D.V. Cicchetti, A.S. Kaufman, and S.S. Sparrow (CKS). Major points of criticism of CKS, namely alleged violation of statistical principles, presumed lack of clinical significance of findings, and alleged insufficient control of…
Fleisch, Brahm; Shindler, Jennifer
Using data collected by the Birth-to-Twenty child cohort study in urban South Africa, this paper describes the patterns of schooling of a population of children born in the Greater Johannesburg area in April to June 1990. This paper examines the patterns of initial enrolment in Grade 1, transitions through grades, and trends in primary school…
This paper examines the class distribution of young people, aged 16-17 years, in colleges of further education (FE) using data from the Youth Cohort Study. It finds that, contrary to popular perceptions of FE colleges as being for "other people's children", middle-class students as well as working-class students are well represented. However, this…
Russell, Ginny; Rodgers, Lauren R.; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Ford, Tamsin
The UK prevalence of parent-reported autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were estimated from the Millennium Cohort Study. Case definition was if a doctor or health care professional had ever told parents that their child had ASD and/or ADHD. Data were collected in 2008/2009 for 14,043 children. 1.7%…
BELSKY, DANIEL W.; CASPI, AVSHALOM; ARSENEAULT, LOUISE; BLEIDORN, WIEBKE; FONAGY, PETER; GOODMAN, MARIANNE; HOUTS, RENATE; MOFFITT, TERRIE E.
It has been reported that borderline personality related characteristics can be observed in children, and that these characteristics are associated with increased risk for the development of borderline personality disorder. It is not clear whether borderline personality related characteristics in children share etiological features with adult borderline personality disorder. We investigated the etiology of borderline personality related characteristics in a longitudinal cohort study of 1,116 pairs of same-sex twins followed from birth through age 12 years. Borderline personality related characteristics measured at age 12 years were highly heritable, were more common in children who had exhibited poor cognitive function, impulsivity, and more behavioral and emotional problems at age 5 years, and co-occurred with symptoms of conduct disorder, depression, anxiety, and psychosis. Exposure to harsh treatment in the family environment through age 10 years predicted borderline personality related characteristics at age 12 years. This association showed evidence of environmental mediation and was stronger among children with a family history of psychiatric illness, consistent with diathesis–stress models of borderline etiology. Results indicate that borderline personality related characteristics in children share etiological features with borderline personality disorder in adults and suggest that inherited and environmental risk factors make independent and interactive contributions to borderline etiology. PMID:22293008
Mansour, Adel; Shaheen, Hind I; Amine, Mohamed; Hassan, Khaled; Sanders, John W; Riddle, Mark S; Armstrong, Adam W; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari; Sebeny, Peter J; Klena, John D; Young, Sylvia Y N; Frenck, Robert W
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) has consistently been the predominant bacterial cause of diarrhea in many birth cohort- and hospital-based studies conducted in Egypt. We evaluated the pathogenicity of ETEC isolates in a birth cohort of children living in a rural community in Egypt. Between 2004 and 2007, we enrolled and followed 348 children starting at birth until their second year of life. A stool sample and two rectal swabs were collected from children during twice-weekly visits when they presented with diarrhea and were collected every 2 weeks if no diarrhea was reported. From routine stool cultures, five E. coli-like colonies were screened for ETEC enterotoxins using a GM1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The isolates were screened against a panel of 12 colonization factor antigens (CFAs) by a dot blot assay. A nested case-control study evaluated the association between initial or repeat excretion of ETEC and the occurrences of diarrhea. The pathogenicity of ETEC was estimated in symptomatic children compared to that in asymptomatic controls. ETEC was significantly associated with diarrhea (crude odds ratio, 1.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24 to 1.52). The distribution of ETEC enterotoxins varied between the symptomatic children (44.2% heat-labile toxin [LT], 38.5% heat-stable toxin [ST], and 17.3% LT/ST) and asymptomatic children (55.5% LT, 34.6% ST, and 9.9% LT/ST) (P < 0.001). The CFAs CFA/I (n = 61), CS3 (n = 8), CS1 plus CS3 (n = 24), CS2 plus CS3 (n = 18), CS6 (n = 45), CS5 plus CS6 (n = 11), CS7 (n = 25), and CS14 (n = 32) were frequently detected in symptomatic children, while CS6 (n = 66), CS12 (n = 51), CFA/I (n = 43), and CS14 (n = 20) were detected at higher frequencies among asymptomatic children. While all toxin phenotypes were associated with diarrheal disease after the initial exposure, only ST and LT/ST-expressing ETEC isolates (P < 0.0001) were associated with disease in repeat infections. The role of enterotoxins and
Angelelli, Paolo; Oeltze, Steffen; Haász, Judit; Turkay, Cagatay; Hodneland, Erlend; Lundervold, Arvid; Lundervold, Astri J; Preim, Bernhard; Hauser, Helwig
Medical cohort studies enable the study of medical hypotheses with many samples. Often, these studies acquire a large amount of heterogeneous data from many subjects. Usually, researchers study a specific data subset to confirm or reject specific hypotheses. A new approach enables the interactive visual exploration and analysis of such data, helping to generate and validate hypotheses. A data-cube-based model handles partially overlapping data subsets during the interactive visualization. This model enables seamless integration of the heterogeneous data and the linking of spatial and nonspatial views of the data. Researchers implemented this model in a prototype application and used it to analyze data acquired in a cohort study on cognitive aging. Case studies employed the prototype to study aspects of brain connectivity, demonstrating the model's potential and flexibility. PMID:25248201
Epidemiological studies of farm children are of international interest because farm children have been found to be less often atopic, to have less allergic disease, and to often have less asthma than non-farm children, findings consistent with the hygiene hypothesis. We studied ...
Children with Moderate Acute Malnutrition with No Access to Supplementary Feeding Programmes Experience High Rates of Deterioration and No Improvement: Results from a Prospective Cohort Study in Rural Ethiopia
James, Philip; Sadler, Kate; Wondafrash, Mekitie; Argaw, Alemayehu; Luo, Hanqi; Geleta, Benti; Kedir, Kiya; Getnet, Yilak; Belachew, Tefera; Bahwere, Paluku
Background Children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) have an increased risk of mortality, infections and impaired physical and cognitive development compared to well-nourished children. In parts of Ethiopia not considered chronically food insecure there are no supplementary feeding programmes (SFPs) for treating MAM. The short-term outcomes of children who have MAM in such areas are not currently described, and there remains an urgent need for evidence-based policy recommendations. Methods We defined MAM as mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) of ≥11.0cm and <12.5cm with no bilateral pitting oedema to include Ethiopian government and World Health Organisation cut-offs. We prospectively surveyed 884 children aged 6–59 months living with MAM in a rural area of Ethiopia not eligible for a supplementary feeding programme. Weekly home visits were made for seven months (28 weeks), covering the end of peak malnutrition through to the post-harvest period (the most food secure window), collecting anthropometric, socio-demographic and food security data. Results By the end of the study follow up, 32.5% (287/884) remained with MAM, 9.3% (82/884) experienced at least one episode of SAM (MUAC <11cm and/or bilateral pitting oedema), and 0.9% (8/884) died. Only 54.2% of the children recovered with no episode of SAM by the end of the study. Of those who developed SAM half still had MAM at the end of the follow up period. The median (interquartile range) time to recovery was 9 (4–15) weeks. Children with the lowest MUAC at enrolment had a significantly higher risk of remaining with MAM and a lower chance of recovering. Conclusions Children with MAM during the post-harvest season in an area not eligible for SFP experience an extremely high incidence of SAM and a low recovery rate. Not having a targeted nutrition-specific intervention to address MAM in this context places children with MAM at excessive risk of adverse outcomes. Further preventive and curative approaches
Gallo, Erika Alejandra Giraldo; Menezes, Ana Maria B; Murray, Joseph; Silva, Luciana Anselmi Duarte da; Wehrmeister, Fernando César; Gonçalves, Helen; Barros, Fernando
This article describes different types of officially recorded victimization among 5,249 children in the 1993 birth cohort in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Official data were obtained from the Secretariat for Public Security and the Special Court for Children and Youth. Victimization was registered for in 1,150 cohort members, with 1,396 incidents recorded as of December 31, 2012. The total incidence of victimization was 15.7 ocorrences per 1,000 person-years, with the majority involving violent victimization (12.7 per 1,000 person-years). Victimization increased gradually in childhood and rapidly throughout adolescence. The highest incidence rates were among females (p < 0.05), the poor (p < 0.05), children of adolescent mothers (p < 0.001), and children of single mothers (p < 0.05). The most common violent victimization types were physical injuries, robbery, and crimes against personal freedom; non-violent victimization mainly involved theft. Studies like this help identify lifetime risk and protective factors for victimization, highlighting the importance of surveillance and control measures against violence. PMID:27580232
The Federal Government is currently planning a large, prospective birth cohort study known as the National Children's Study that will potentially involve 100,000 children and their families. The observation period will start as close to conception as possible and will continue f...
Chernoff, Jodi Jacobson; Flanagan, Kristin Denton; McPhee, Cameron; Park, Jennifer
The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) is designed to provide detailed information on children's development, health, and early learning experiences in the years leading up to entry into school. The ECLS-B is the first nationally representative study within the United States to directly assess children's early mental and…
Lum, Su Han; Choong, Soo Sin; Krishnan, Shekhar; Mohamed, Zulqarnain; Ariffin, Hany
INTRODUCTION Children with Down syndrome (DS) are at increased risk of developing distinctive clonal myeloid disorders, including transient abnormal myelopoiesis (TAM) and myeloid leukaemia of DS (ML-DS). TAM connotes a spontaneously resolving congenital myeloproliferative state observed in 10%–20% of DS newborns. Following varying intervals of apparent remission, a proportion of children with TAM progress to develop ML-DS in early childhood. Therefore, TAM and ML-DS represent a biological continuum. Both disorders are characterised by recurring truncating somatic mutations of the GATA1 gene, which are considered key pathogenetic events. METHODS We herein report, to our knowledge, the first observation on the frequency and nature of GATA1 gene mutations in a cohort of Malaysian children with DS-associated TAM (n = 9) and ML-DS (n = 24) encountered successively over a period of five years at a national referral centre. RESULTS Of the 29 patients who underwent GATA1 analysis, GATA1 mutations were observed in 15 (51.7%) patients, including 6 (75.0%) out of 8 patients with TAM, and 9 (42.9%) of 21 patients with ML-DS. All identified mutations were located in exon 2 and the majority were sequence-terminating insertions or deletions (66.7%), including several hitherto unreported mutations (12 out of 15). CONCLUSION The low frequency of GATA1 mutations in ML-DS patients is unusual and potentially indicates distinctive genomic events in our patient cohort. PMID:27353457
Matthews, Timothy; Danese, Andrea; Wertz, Jasmin; Ambler, Antony; Kelly, Muireann; Diver, Ashleen; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise
Objective We tested whether children who are socially isolated early in their schooling develop mental health problems in early adolescence, taking into account their mental health and family risk at school entry. Method We used data from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a birth cohort of 2,232 children born in England and Wales in 1994 and 1995. We measured social isolation using mothers’ and teachers’ reports at ages 5 and 12 years. We assessed mental health symptoms via mothers’ and teachers’ ratings at age 5 and self-report measures at age 12. We collected mother-reported information about the family environment when children were 5 years old. We conducted regression analyses to test concurrent and longitudinal associations between early family factors, social isolation, and mental health difficulties. Results At both primary and secondary school, children who were socially isolated experienced greater mental health difficulties. Children with behavioral problems or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms at age 5 years had an elevated risk of becoming more socially isolated at age 12. However, children who were isolated at age 5 did not have greater mental health symptoms at age 12, over and above pre-existing difficulties. Conclusion Although social isolation and mental health problems co-occur in childhood, early isolation does not predict worse mental health problems later on. However, children who exhibit problematic behaviors may struggle to cope with the social challenges that accompany their progression through the early school years. PMID:25721188
Background The term “atopic march” has been used to imply a natural progression of a cascade of symptoms from eczema to asthma and rhinitis through childhood. We hypothesize that this expression does not adequately describe the natural history of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis during childhood. We propose that this paradigm arose from cross-sectional analyses of longitudinal studies, and may reflect a population pattern that may not predominate at the individual level. Methods and Findings Data from 9,801 children in two population-based birth cohorts were used to determine individual profiles of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis and whether the manifestations of these symptoms followed an atopic march pattern. Children were assessed at ages 1, 3, 5, 8, and 11 y. We used Bayesian machine learning methods to identify distinct latent classes based on individual profiles of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis. This approach allowed us to identify groups of children with similar patterns of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis over time. Using a latent disease profile model, the data were best described by eight latent classes: no disease (51.3%), atopic march (3.1%), persistent eczema and wheeze (2.7%), persistent eczema with later-onset rhinitis (4.7%), persistent wheeze with later-onset rhinitis (5.7%), transient wheeze (7.7%), eczema only (15.3%), and rhinitis only (9.6%). When latent variable modelling was carried out separately for the two cohorts, similar results were obtained. Highly concordant patterns of sensitisation were associated with different profiles of eczema, rhinitis, and wheeze. The main limitation of this study was the difference in wording of the questions used to ascertain the presence of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis in the two cohorts. Conclusions The developmental profiles of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis are heterogeneous; only a small proportion of children (∼7% of those with symptoms) follow trajectory profiles resembling the atopic march. Please see later
Spycher, Ben D; Feller, Martin; Röösli, Martin; Ammann, Roland A; Diezi, Manuel; Egger, Matthias; Kuehni, Claudia E
Children living near highways are exposed to higher concentrations of traffic-related carcinogenic pollutants. Several studies reported an increased risk of childhood cancer associated with traffic exposure, but the published evidence is inconclusive. We investigated whether cancer risk is associated with proximity of residence to highways in a nation-wide cohort study including all children aged <16 years from Swiss national censuses in 1990 and 2000. Cancer incidence was investigated in time to event analyses (1990-2008) using Cox proportional hazards models and incidence density analyses (1985-2008) using Poisson regression. Adjustments were made for socio-economic factors, ionising background radiation and electromagnetic fields. In time to event analysis based on 532 cases the adjusted hazard ratio for leukaemia comparing children living <100 m from a highway with unexposed children (≥500 m) was 1.43 (95 % CI 0.79, 2.61). Results were similar in incidence density analysis including 1367 leukaemia cases (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.57; 95 % CI 1.09, 2.25). Associations were similar for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (IRR 1.64; 95 % CI 1.10, 2.43) and stronger for leukaemia in children aged <5 years (IRR 1.92; 95 % CI 1.22, 3.04). Little evidence of association was found for other tumours. Our study suggests that young children living close to highways are at increased risk of developing leukaemia. PMID:26520639
Stessman, J; Hammerman-Rozenberg, R; Svanborg, A
The longitudinal study of age-homogeneous cohorts is a powerful tool to elucidate age-related changes and to attempt to distinguish normal aging from the effects of disease. Many influences, such as the effect of changing lifestyle, medical practices and environmental factors with time must be considered when designing and interpreting such studies. Cross-cultural differences manifest in comparing different studies must also be accounted for, but alternately provide a tool to distinguish between endogenous and exogenous factors influencing human aging. The first stage of the longitudinal study of 70 year olds in Gothenburg, Sweden, a cross-sectional survey performed in 1971, is compared to a similar cross-sectional survey performed in Jerusalem in 1991 as part of a projected longitudinal study. The similarities between the two cohorts with regard to living conditions, functional independence and disease prevalence are striking. There are also significant contrasts that reflect the 20 years that elapsed between the execution of the two studies, as well as the cultural and social differences. In particular, the ethnic diversity of the Jerusalem population, hailing from 40 separate countries, is emphasized. The comparison of these two studies highlights many of the principles critical to the role of longitudinal cohort studies in gerontology. PMID:8816868
Ahmadi, Mohammad Saeed; Amirhassani, Shahriar; Poorolajal, Jalal
Introduction: Sleep disorder caused by adenotonsillar hypertrophy has been implicated as a cause of primary and secondary nocturnal enuresis in children. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of adenotonsillectomy on enuresis in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy. Materials and Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted in Hamadan City in Western Iran, from April 2010 to December 2011. Ninety-seven children aged 3 to 12 years with adenotonsillar hypertrophy who were admitted to Besat Hospital for adenotonsillectomy were evaluated. The primary outcome was the number of incidents of bedwetting (nocturnal enuresis) post-operation compared with pre-operation. Patients were followed-up for 3 months. Data were collected using a questionnaire regarding number of bedwetting incidents, type of enuresis (primary or secondary), and family history of enuresis, as well as results of urine analysis. Results: Of 420 children admitted for adenotonsillectomy, 97 had a positive history of preoperative enuresis, including 42 girls and 55 boys, with mean age of 48 months. The parents of 84 (86.6%) children agreed to participate in the study. Three months after adenotonsillectomy, enuresis had resolved completely in 51 (60.7%) children and had shown relative improvement in 22 (26.2%) children. Enuresis had not improved in the remaining 11 (13.1%) children (P<0.001). Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that adenotonsillectomy can improve enuresis in the majority of children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy. However, further evidence based on large multi-center randomized clinical trials is required to confirm these results. PMID:24303417
Tang, Shengming; Dong, Xiaoping
This study employs a Chinese sample to explore children's privacy rights within the family. For the purpose of comparison, parental views of children's privacy rights and children's own perceptions are examined. Privacy rights are defined to include three spheres--spatial, physical, and mental. Results show that age differences in perceptions of…
Ferris, Maria; Gibson, Keisha; Plattner, Brett; Gipson, Debbie S.; Kotanko, Peter; Marcelli, Daniele; Marelli, Cristina; Etter, Michael; Carioni, Paola; von Gersdorff, Gero; Xu, Xiaoqi; Kooman, Jeroen P.; Xiao, Qingqing; van der Sande, Frank M.; Power, Albert; Picoits-Filho, Roberto; Sylvestre, Lucimary; Westreich, Katherine; Usvyat, Len
Background The aim of this study was to describe the experience of pediatric and young adult hemodialysis (HD) patients from a global cohort. Methods The Pediatric Investigation and Close Collaborative Consortium for Ongoing Life Outcomes for MONitoring Dialysis Outcomes (PICCOLO MONDO) study provided de-identified electronic information of 3244 patients, ages 0–30 years from 2000 to 2012 in four regions: Asia, Europe, North America and South America. The study sample was categorized into pediatric (≤18 years old) and young adult (19–30 years old) groups based on the age at dialysis initiation. Results For those with known end-stage renal disease etiology, glomerular disease was the most common diagnosis in children and young adults. Using Europe as a reference group, North America [odds ratio (OR) 2.69; CI 1.29, 5.63] and South America (OR 4.21; CI 2.32, 7.63) had the greatest mortality among young adults. North America also had higher rates of overweight, obesity, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, hospitalizations and secondary diabetes compared with all other regions. Initial catheter use was greater for North American (86.4% in pediatric patients and 75.2% in young adults) and South America (80.6% in pediatric patients and 75.9% in young adults). Catheter use at 1-year follow-up was most common in North American children (77.3%) and young adults (62.9%). Asia had the lowest rate of catheter use. For both age groups, dialysis adequacy (equilibrated Kt/V) ranged between 1.4 and 1.5. In Asia, patients in both age groups had significantly longer treatment times than in any other region. Conclusions The PICCOLO MONDO study has provided unique baseline and 1-year follow-up information on children and young adults receiving HD around the globe. This cohort has brought to light aspects of care in these age groups that warrant further investigation. PMID:26985383
Guttmann-Steinmetz, Sarit; Crowell, Judy; Doron, Guy; Mikulincer, Mario
This study explored the relation between mothers' and their children's secure base scripts in two samples of school-aged children: a community sample (N = 29; mean age 8.9) and a sample of children diagnosed with ADHD (N = 50; mean age 8.9). Using the Attachment Script Representation Task, mothers and children were asked to construct narratives using word prompt outlines. In addition, mothers and children completed questionnaires focusing on symptoms. The results revealed that while the link between mothers' and children's scriptedness was significant in the community, no significant association was found in the ADHD sample. In the ADHD group, maternal reports of children's symptoms were negatively linked to children's secure-base scriptedness. Implications of these findings for theory and intervention are discussed. PMID:22011102
Tate, Robert B; Cuddy, T Edward; Mathewson, Francis A L
The Manitoba Follow-up Study (MFUS) is Canada's longest running study of cardiovascular disease and ageing. The MFUS cohort consists of 3983 men recruited from the Royal Canadian Air Force at the end of World War II. At entry to the study, 1 July 1948, their mean age was 31 years, with 90% between ages 20 and 39 years. All study members were free of clinical evidence of ischaemic heart disease. The protocol of MFUS was to obtain routine medical examinations from these men at regular intervals over time. The research goal of the study was to examine the role that any abnormalities detected on routine electrocardiograms from apparently healthy men might play in the prediction of subsequent diagnoses of cardiovascular disease. Over the course of 65 years, about 35% of the cohort has documented evidence of ischaemic heart disease. The research focus was expanded in 1996 to explore the roles of physical, mental and social functioning in support of healthy and successful ageing. On 1 July 2013, 429 original cohort members were alive with a mean age of 92 years. Collaborative research with others outside the in-house team is welcomed. PMID:25064641
Lund, Ingunn Olea; Bukten, Anne; Storvoll, Elisabet E; Moan, Inger Synnøve; Skurtveit, Svetlana; Handal, Marte; Nordfjærn, Trond; Brunborg, Geir Scott; Rossow, Ingeborg
Although many studies have addressed adverse outcomes in children of parents with alcohol abuse/dependence, less is known about the possible long-term effects of more normative patterns of parental alcohol consumption, including drinking at lower risk levels and heavy episodic or binge drinking. The extent of harm from parental drinking may therefore be underestimated. With this research proposal, we describe a project that aims to assess possible long-term adverse effects of parental drinking by combining survey and nationwide registry data. Advantages of a longitudinal general population cohort design include that it allows for detailed information on parental drinking through survey data and identification of possible negative long-term health and social outcomes from exposure to parental drinking 1–19 years after exposure through continuously updated nationwide registers. The rich information available from combining survey and registry data allows us to take into account important confounders, mediators, and moderators. PMID:26688663
TWO STUDIES ARE REPORTED AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS DISCUSSED. IN THE FIRST STUDY AN ATTEMPT WAS MADE TO AVERT DELINQUENCY IN CHILDREN (AGED 12 AND 13) BY IDENTIFYING THE DELINQUENCY PRONE AND TREATING A PORTION OF THEM BY FAMILY CASEWORK METHODS. THROUGH USE OF THE DELINQUENCY PREDICTION INSTRUMENT AND THE BRISTOL SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT GUIDES, 33…
Murray-Kolb, Laura E.; Rasmussen, Zeba A.; Scharf, Rebecca J.; Rasheed, Muneera A.; Svensen, Erling; Seidman, Jessica C.; Tofail, Fahmida; Koshy, Beena; Shrestha, Rita; Maphula, Angelina; Vasquez, Angel Orbe; da Costa, Hilda P.; Yousafzai, Aisha K.; Oria, Reinaldo B.; Roshan, Reeba; Bayyo, Eliwasa B.; Kosek, Margaret; Shrestha, Sanjaya; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Bessong, Pascal; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Lang, Dennis
More epidemiological data are needed on risk and protective factors for child development. In The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study, we assessed child development in a harmonious manner across 8 sites in Bangladesh, Brazil, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Peru, South Africa, and Tanzania. From birth to 24 months, development and language acquisition were assessed via the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development and a modified MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory. Other measures were infant temperament, the child's environment, maternal psychological adjustment, and maternal reasoning abilities. We developed standard operating procedures and used multiple techniques to ensure appropriate adaptation and quality assurance across the sites. Test adaptation required significant time and human resources but is essential for data quality; funders should support this step in future studies. At the end of this study, we will have a portfolio of culturally adapted instruments for child development studies with examination of psychometric properties of each tool used. PMID:25305296
Effects of anthropogenic stressors on animal populations are often evaluated by assembling vital rate responses from isolated cohort studies into a single demographic model. However, models constructed from cohort studies are difficult to translate into ecological predictions be...
Lee, RaeHyuck; Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane
Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n ≈ 6,950), a nationally representative sample of children born in 2001, we examined school readiness (academic skills and socioemotional well-being) at kindergarten entry for children who attended Head Start compared with those who experienced other types of child care (prekindergarten, other center-based care, other nonparental care, or parental care). Using propensity score matching methods and ordinary least squares regressions with rich controls, we found that Head Start participants had higher early reading and math scores than children in other nonparental care or parental care but also higher levels of conduct problems than those in parental care. Head Start participants had lower early reading scores compared with children in prekindergarten and had no differences in any outcomes compared with children in other center-based care. Head Start benefits were more pronounced for children who had low initial cognitive ability or parents with low levels of education or who attended Head Start for more than 20 hr per week. PMID:23527496
Onoye, Jane MM; Hishinuma, Earl S; McArdle, John J; Zonderman, Alan B; Takeshita, Junji
Intergenerational longitudinal studies over the lifespan provide valuable information for understanding the contexts and dynamic relations among cognition, family and health in adults and the elderly. The Hawai‘i Family Study of Cognition (HFSC), initiated in the early 1970s, included a cohort of over 6500 individuals representing over 1800 families of parents and their offspring. The HFSC gathered data on cognitive, personality, biological and other psychosocial variables, and provided novel information on the nature of cognitive abilities, especially on family issues. Some families were reassessed with short-term retesting in the 1970s. A select sample of offspring and their siblings and spouses were re-measured in the 1980s. Decades later, a 40-year follow-up of the original HFSC cohort was facilitated by the availability of contemporary tracking and tracing methods and internet-based testing. A subgroup of the original HFSC participants was re-contacted and retested on contemporary cognitive as well as socio-demographic and health measures. In this paper, we describe the original HFSC cohort and the design and methodology of the re-contact and retest studies of the HFSC, plans for expanding the re-contact and retesting, as well as directions for future research and collaborations. The Principal Investigator may be contacted for more information regarding the application, review and approval process for data access requests from qualified individuals outside the project. PMID:24639439
Minhas, Veenu; Crabtree, Kay L.; Chao, Ann; Wojcicki, Janet M.; Sifuniso, Adrian M.; Nkonde, Catherine; Kankasa, Chipepo; Mitchell, Charles D.; Wood, Charles
The epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus in Zambia has led to a dramatic rise in the incidence of human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8)–associated Kaposi's sarcoma in both adults and children. However, there is a paucity of knowledge about the routes of HHV-8 transmission to young children. The Zambia Children's KS-HHV8 Study, a large, prospective cohort study in Lusaka, Zambia, was launched in 2004 to investigate the role of household members as a source of HHV-8 infection in young children and social behaviors that may modify the risk of HHV-8 acquisition. This cohort is distinct from other epidemiologic studies designed to investigate HHV-8 incidence and transmission because it recruited and followed complete households in the urban central African context. Between July 2004 and March 2007, 1,600 households were screened; 368 households comprising 464 children and 1,335 caregivers and household members were enrolled. Follow-up of this population continued for 48 months postrecruitment, affording a unique opportunity to study horizontal transmission of HHV-8 and understand the routes and sources of transmission to young children in Zambia. The authors describe the study rationale, design, execution, and characteristics of this cohort, which provides critical data on the epidemiology and transmission of HHV-8 to young children in Zambia. PMID:21447476
Hansen, E S
This study was set up to investigate the effect of exposure to combustion effluents on the chronic health of firefighters. A cohort of firefighters was followed up through 10 years with regard to cause specific mortality. Comparisons were made with another cohort of civil servants and salaried employees in physically demanding jobs. After a latency of five years, an excess mortality from cancer was seen for persons aged 30 to 74 (standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 173, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 104-270). A significant increase in lung cancer was seen in the group aged 60 to 74 (SMR 317, 95% CI 117-691), whereas non-pulmonary cancer was significantly increased in the group aged 30 to 49 (SMR 575, 95% CI 187-1341). It is concluded that inhalation of carcinogenic and toxic compounds during firefighting may constitute an occupational cancer risk. An extended use of respiratory protective equipment is advocated. PMID:2271386
Combs, Daniel; Goodwin, James L; Quan, Stuart F; Morgan, Wayne J; Shetty, Safal; Parthasarathy, Sairam
Insomnia is common in children, and is associated with decreased school performance and increased psychopathology. Although adult insomnia is linked to worsened health-related quality of life (HRQOL), there is insufficient data evaluating insomnia and HRQOL in children. We examined the HRQOL and health associations of insomnia in a longitudinal cohort of 194 children (96 girls, age at study start 8.7 ± 1.6 years, age at data analysis 15.0 ± 1.8 years) over 7 years. International Classification of Sleep Disorders, second edition (ICSD2) derived insomnia was seen intermittently in 27% of children, and was persistent in 4%. Children reporting ICSD2-derived insomnia had lower HRQOL. Additionally, the presence of insomnia was associated with an increased risk of reporting a new medical condition (intermittent insomnia odds ratio 5.9 [95% CI 1.3-26.7, p = 0.04], persistent insomnia odds ratio 8 [95% CI 2.3-27.7, p = 0.001]). Persistent ICSD2-derived insomnia was associated with an increased risk of reporting a new medication (odds ratio 4.9 (95% CI 1.0-23.6), p = 0.049), and reporting a new psychiatric medication (odds ratio 13.7, 95% CI: 2.6-73.5, p = 0.002). These associations were present even after adjusting for socioeconomic factors and the presence of obstructive sleep apnea. Insomnia in children is associated with worsened HRQOL and health outcomes. PMID:27295263
Combs, Daniel; Goodwin, James L.; Quan, Stuart F.; Morgan, Wayne J.; Shetty, Safal; Parthasarathy, Sairam
Insomnia is common in children, and is associated with decreased school performance and increased psychopathology. Although adult insomnia is linked to worsened health-related quality of life (HRQOL), there is insufficient data evaluating insomnia and HRQOL in children. We examined the HRQOL and health associations of insomnia in a longitudinal cohort of 194 children (96 girls, age at study start 8.7 ± 1.6 years, age at data analysis 15.0 ± 1.8 years) over 7 years. International Classification of Sleep Disorders, second edition (ICSD2) derived insomnia was seen intermittently in 27% of children, and was persistent in 4%. Children reporting ICSD2-derived insomnia had lower HRQOL. Additionally, the presence of insomnia was associated with an increased risk of reporting a new medical condition (intermittent insomnia odds ratio 5.9 [95% CI 1.3–26.7, p = 0.04], persistent insomnia odds ratio 8 [95% CI 2.3–27.7, p = 0.001]). Persistent ICSD2-derived insomnia was associated with an increased risk of reporting a new medication (odds ratio 4.9 (95% CI 1.0–23.6), p = 0.049), and reporting a new psychiatric medication (odds ratio 13.7, 95% CI: 2.6–73.5, p = 0.002). These associations were present even after adjusting for socioeconomic factors and the presence of obstructive sleep apnea. Insomnia in children is associated with worsened HRQOL and health outcomes. PMID:27295263
Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Brauer, Charlotte; Pedersen, Ellen Bøtker; Alkjær, Tine; Koblauch, Henrik; Simonsen, Erik Bruun; Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Thygesen, Lau Caspar
Meniscal lesions are common and may contribute to the development of knee arthrosis. A few case-control and cross-sectional studies have identified knee-straining work as risk factors for meniscal lesions, but exposure-response relations and the role of specific exposures are uncertain, and previous results may be sensitive to reporting and selection bias. We examined the relation between meniscal lesions and cumulative exposure to heavy lifting in a prospective register-based study with complete follow-up and independent information on exposure and outcome. We established a cohort of unskilled men employed at Copenhagen Airport or in other companies in the metropolitan Copenhagen area from 1990 to 2012 (the Copenhagen Airport Cohort). The cohort at risk included 3,307 airport baggage handlers with heavy lifting and kneeling or squatting work tasks and 63,934 referents with a similar socioeconomic background and less knee-straining work. Baggage handlers lifted suitcases with an average weight of approximately 15 kg, in total approximately five tonnes during a 9-hour workday. The cohort was followed in the National Patient Register and Civil Registration System. The outcome was a first time hospital diagnosis or surgery of a meniscal lesion. Baggage handlers had a higher incidence of meniscal lesions than the referents. Within baggage handlers spline regression showed that the incidence rate ratio was 1.91 (95% confidence interval: 1.29-2.84) after five years as a baggage handler and then decreased slowly to reach unity after approximately 30 years, adjusted for effects of potential confounders. This relation between baggage handling and meniscal lesions was present for work on the apron which involves lifting in a kneeling or squatting position, but not in the baggage hall, which only involves lifting in standing positions. The results support that long-term heavy lifting in a kneeling or squatting position is a risk factor for the development of symptomatic
van den Brandt, P A; Goldbohm, R A; van 't Veer, P
Although the results of cohort studies on the association between alcohol and breast cancer are rather consistent, the current evidence is based solely on North American cohorts. Therefore, this association was evaluated in the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer, conducted since 1986 among 62,573 women aged 55-69 years. After 3.3 years of follow-up (1986-1989), 422 incident breast cancer cases for which there were complete alcohol consumption data were available for analysis. In multivariate case-cohort analyses, the rate ratio for breast cancer in drinkers versus nondrinkers was 1.31 (95 percent confidence interval 1.00-1.71). When separate alcohol intake categories were compared with nondrinking, the rate ratios were 1.30, 1.29, 1.28, and 1.72 for women who consumed < 5, 5-14, 15-29, and > or = 30 g of alcohol per day, respectively (trend p = 0.047). Whereas beer consumption was not associated with breast cancer risk, increased risks were found at higher levels of both wine and liquor consumption. The alcohol-breast cancer association was found to be stronger among women with a history of benign breast disease, women with a history of breast cancer among sister(s), and women with an early menopause, and it varied considerably according to age at first birth. These results support a positive association between alcohol and breast cancer among postmenopausal women. The increased risk was particularly found among women who consumed 30 g or more of alcohol daily. PMID:7741120
Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Brauer, Charlotte; Pedersen, Ellen Bøtker; Alkjær, Tine; Koblauch, Henrik; Simonsen, Erik Bruun; Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Thygesen, Lau Caspar
Meniscal lesions are common and may contribute to the development of knee arthrosis. A few case-control and cross-sectional studies have identified knee-straining work as risk factors for meniscal lesions, but exposure-response relations and the role of specific exposures are uncertain, and previous results may be sensitive to reporting and selection bias. We examined the relation between meniscal lesions and cumulative exposure to heavy lifting in a prospective register-based study with complete follow-up and independent information on exposure and outcome. We established a cohort of unskilled men employed at Copenhagen Airport or in other companies in the metropolitan Copenhagen area from 1990 to 2012 (the Copenhagen Airport Cohort). The cohort at risk included 3,307 airport baggage handlers with heavy lifting and kneeling or squatting work tasks and 63,934 referents with a similar socioeconomic background and less knee-straining work. Baggage handlers lifted suitcases with an average weight of approximately 15 kg, in total approximately five tonnes during a 9-hour workday. The cohort was followed in the National Patient Register and Civil Registration System. The outcome was a first time hospital diagnosis or surgery of a meniscal lesion. Baggage handlers had a higher incidence of meniscal lesions than the referents. Within baggage handlers spline regression showed that the incidence rate ratio was 1.91 (95% confidence interval: 1.29–2.84) after five years as a baggage handler and then decreased slowly to reach unity after approximately 30 years, adjusted for effects of potential confounders. This relation between baggage handling and meniscal lesions was present for work on the apron which involves lifting in a kneeling or squatting position, but not in the baggage hall, which only involves lifting in standing positions. The results support that long-term heavy lifting in a kneeling or squatting position is a risk factor for the development of symptomatic
The National Children¿s Study (NCS) is a longitudinal cohort study which is designed to follow a nationally representative sample of American children from prior to conception or early pregnancy until age 21 years. The Children's Health Act of 2000 directs a consortium of United...
Jackson, Dan; White, Ian; Kostis, J B; Wilson, A C; Folsom, A R; Wu, K; Chambless, L; Benderly, M; Goldbourt, U; Willeit, J; Kiechl, S; Yarnell, J W G; Sweetnam, P M; Elwood, P C; Cushman, M; Psaty, B M; Tracy, R P; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A; Haverkate, F; de Maat, M P M; Thompson, S G; Fowkes, F G R; Lee, A J; Smith, F B; Salomaa, V; Harald, K; Rasi, V; Vahtera, E; Jousilahti, P; D'Agostino, R; Kannel, W B; Wilson, P W F; Tofler, G; Levy, D; Marchioli, R; Valagussa, F; Rosengren, A; Wilhelmsen, L; Lappas, G; Eriksson, H; Cremer, P; Nagel, D; Curb, J D; Rodriguez, B; Yano, K; Salonen, J T; Nyyssönen, K; Tuomainen, T-P; Hedblad, B; Engström, G; Berglund, G; Loewel, H; Koenig, W; Hense, H W; Meade, T W; Cooper, J A; De Stavola, B; Knottenbelt, C; Miller, G J; Cooper, J A; Bauer, K A; Rosenberg, R D; Sato, S; Kitamura, A; Naito, Y; Iso, H; Salomaa, V; Harald, K; Rasi, V; Vahtera, E; Jousilahti, P; Palosuo, T; Ducimetiere, P; Amouyel, P; Arveiler, D; Evans, A E; Ferrieres, J; Juhan-Vague, I; Bingham, A; Schulte, H; Assmann, G; Cantin, B; Lamarche, B; Despres, J-P; Dagenais, G R; Tunstall-Pedoe, H; Lowe, G D O; Woodward, M; Ben-Shlomo, Y; Davey Smith, G; Palmieri, V; Yeh, J L; Meade, T W; Rudnicka, A; Brennan, P; Knottenbelt, C; Cooper, J A; Ridker, P; Rodeghiero, F; Tosetto, A; Shepherd, J; Lowe, G D O; Ford, I; Robertson, M; Brunner, E; Shipley, M; Feskens, E J M; Di Angelantonio, E; Kaptoge, S; Lewington, S; Lowe, G D O; Sarwar, N; Thompson, S G; Walker, M; Watson, S; White, I R; Wood, A M; Danesh, J
One difficulty in performing meta-analyses of observational cohort studies is that the availability of confounders may vary between cohorts, so that some cohorts provide fully adjusted analyses while others only provide partially adjusted analyses. Commonly, analyses of the association between an exposure and disease either are restricted to cohorts with full confounder information, or use all cohorts but do not fully adjust for confounding. We propose using a bivariate random-effects meta-analysis model to use information from all available cohorts while still adjusting for all the potential confounders. Our method uses both the fully adjusted and the partially adjusted estimated effects in the cohorts with full confounder information, together with an estimate of their within-cohort correlation. The method is applied to estimate the association between fibrinogen level and coronary heart disease incidence using data from 154,012 participants in 31 cohorts PMID:19222087
Gupte, Akshay; Padmapriyadarsini, Chandrasekaran; Mave, Vidya; Kadam, Dileep; Suryavanshi, Nishi; Shivakumar, Shri Vijay Bala Yogendra; Kohli, Rewa; Gupte, Nikhil; Thiruvengadam, Kannan; Kagal, Anju; Meshram, Sushant; Bharadwaj, Renu; Khadse, Sandhya; Ramachandran, Geetha; Hanna, Luke Elizabeth; Pradhan, Neeta; Gomathy, N S; DeLuca, Andrea; Gupta, Amita; Swaminathan, Soumya
Introduction Tuberculosis disease (TB) remains an important global health threat. An evidence-based response, tailored to local disease epidemiology in high-burden countries, is key to controlling the global TB epidemic. Reliable surrogate biomarkers that predict key active disease and latent TB infection outcomes are vital to advancing clinical research necessary to ‘End TB’. Well executed longitudinal studies strengthening local research capacity for addressing TB research priorities and advancing biomarker discovery are urgently needed. Methods and analysis The Cohort for Tuberculosis Research by the Indo-US Medical Partnership (CTRIUMPH) study conducted in Byramjee Jeejeebhoy Government Medical College (BJGMC), Pune and National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis (NIRT), Chennai, India, will establish and maintain three prospective cohorts: (1) an Active TB Cohort comprising 800 adults with pulmonary TB, 200 adults with extrapulmonary TB and 200 children with TB; (2) a Household Contact Cohort of 3200 adults and children at risk of developing active disease; and (3) a Control Cohort consisting of 300 adults and 200 children with no known exposure to TB. Relevant clinical, sociodemographic and psychosocial data will be collected and a strategic specimen repository established at multiple time points over 24 months of follow-up to measure host and microbial factors associated with (1) TB treatment outcomes; (2) progression from infection to active TB disease; and (3) Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission among Indian adults and children. We anticipate CTRIUMPH to serve as a research platform necessary to characterise some relevant aspects of the TB epidemic in India, generate evidence to inform local and global TB control strategies and support novel TB biomarker discovery. Ethics and dissemination This study is approved by the Institutional Review Boards of NIRT, BJGMC and Johns Hopkins University, USA. Study results will be disseminated through peer
Lewis, D R; Southwick, J W; Ouellet-Hellstrom, R; Rench, J; Calderon, R L
The association of drinking water arsenic and mortality outcome was investigated in a cohort of residents from Millard County, Utah. Median drinking water arsenic concentrations for selected study towns ranged from 14 to 166 ppb and were from public and private samples collected and analyzed under the auspices of the State of Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Drinking Water. Cohort members were assembled using historical documents of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Standard mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated. Using residence history and median drinking water arsenic concentration, a matrix for cumulative arsenic exposure was created. Without regard to specific exposure levels, statistically significant findings include increased mortality from hypertensive heart disease [SMR = 2.20; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.36-3.36], nephritis and nephrosis (SMR = 1.72; CI, 1.13-2.50), and prostate cancer (SMR = 1.45; CI, 1.07-1. 91) among cohort males. Among cohort females, statistically significant increased mortality was found for hypertensive heart disease (SMR = 1.73; CI, 1.11-2.58) and for the category of all other heart disease, which includes pulmonary heart disease, pericarditis, and other diseases of the pericardium (SMR = 1.43; CI, 1.11-1.80). SMR analysis by low, medium, and high arsenic exposure groups hinted at a dose relationship for prostate cancer. Although the SMRs by exposure category were elevated for hypertensive heart disease for both males and females, the increases were not sequential from low to high groups. Because the relationship between health effects and exposure to drinking water arsenic is not well established in U.S. populations, further evaluation of effects in low-exposure populations is warranted. PMID:10210691
Lewis, D R; Southwick, J W; Ouellet-Hellstrom, R; Rench, J; Calderon, R L
The association of drinking water arsenic and mortality outcome was investigated in a cohort of residents from Millard County, Utah. Median drinking water arsenic concentrations for selected study towns ranged from 14 to 166 ppb and were from public and private samples collected and analyzed under the auspices of the State of Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Drinking Water. Cohort members were assembled using historical documents of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Standard mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated. Using residence history and median drinking water arsenic concentration, a matrix for cumulative arsenic exposure was created. Without regard to specific exposure levels, statistically significant findings include increased mortality from hypertensive heart disease [SMR = 2.20; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.36-3.36], nephritis and nephrosis (SMR = 1.72; CI, 1.13-2.50), and prostate cancer (SMR = 1.45; CI, 1.07-1. 91) among cohort males. Among cohort females, statistically significant increased mortality was found for hypertensive heart disease (SMR = 1.73; CI, 1.11-2.58) and for the category of all other heart disease, which includes pulmonary heart disease, pericarditis, and other diseases of the pericardium (SMR = 1.43; CI, 1.11-1.80). SMR analysis by low, medium, and high arsenic exposure groups hinted at a dose relationship for prostate cancer. Although the SMRs by exposure category were elevated for hypertensive heart disease for both males and females, the increases were not sequential from low to high groups. Because the relationship between health effects and exposure to drinking water arsenic is not well established in U.S. populations, further evaluation of effects in low-exposure populations is warranted. PMID:10210691
The National Child Development Study (NCDS) is one of Britain's birth cohort studies, surveying all the children born in U.K. in a week of March 1958 (a complete enumeration, not a sample). They have been re-interviewed several times over the past forty years: first, at the time ...
Crisinel, Pierre Alex; Posfay-Barbe, Klara Maria; Aebi, Christoph; Cheseaux, Jean-Jacques; Kahlert, Christian; Rudin, Christoph; Nadal, David
Vaccination in HIV-infected children is often less effective than in healthy children. The goal of this study was to assess vaccine responses to hepatitis A virus (HAV) in HIV-infected children. Children of the Swiss Mother and Child HIV Cohort Study (MoCHiV) were enrolled prospectively. Recommendations for initial, catch-up, and additional HAV immunizations were based upon baseline antibody concentrations and vaccine history. HAV IgG was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with a protective cutoff value defined as ≥10 mIU/ml. Eighty-seven patients were included (median age, 11 years; range, 3.4 to 21.2 years). Forty-two patients were seropositive (48.3%) for HAV. Among 45 (51.7%) seronegative patients, 36 had not received any HAV vaccine dose and were considered naïve. Vaccine responses were assessed after the first dose in 29/35 naïve patients and after the second dose in 33/39 children (25 initially naïve patients, 4 seronegative patients, and 4 seropositive patients that had already received 1 dose of vaccine). Seroconversion was 86% after 1 dose and 97% after 2 doses, with a geometric mean concentration of 962 mIU/ml after the second dose. A baseline CD4+ T cell count below 750 cells/μl significantly reduced the post-2nd-dose response (P = 0.005). Despite a high rate of seroconversion, patients with CD4+ T cell counts of <750/μl had lower anti-HAV antibody concentrations. This may translate into a shorter protection time. Hence, monitoring humoral immunity may be necessary to provide supplementary doses as needed. PMID:22933400
Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Minenko, Victor; Khrouch, Valeri; Leshcheva, Svetlana; Gavrilin, Yury; Khrutchinsky, Arkady; Kukhta, Tatiana; Kutsen, Semion; Luckyanov, Nickolas; Shinkarev, Sergey; Tretyakevich, Sergey; Trofimik, Sergey; Voillequé, Paul; Bouville, André
The U.S. National Cancer Institute, in collaboration with the Belarusian Ministry of Health, is conducting a study of thyroid cancer and other thyroid diseases in a cohort of about 12,000 persons who were exposed to fallout from the Chernobyl accident in April 1986. The study subjects were 18 years old or younger at the time of exposure and resided in Belarus in the most contaminated areas of the Gomel and Mogilev Oblasts, as well as in the city of Minsk. All cohort members had at least one direct thyroid measurement made in April–June 1986. Individual data on residential history, consumption of milk, milk products and leafy vegetables as well as administration of stable iodine were collected for all cohort members by means of personal interviews conducted between 1996 and 2007. Based on the estimated 131I activities in the thyroids, which were derived from the direct thyroid measurements, and on the responses to the questionnaires, individual thyroid doses from intakes of 131I were reconstructed for all cohort members. In addition, radiation doses to the thyroid were estimated for the following minor exposure pathways: (a) intake of short-lived 132I, 133I and 132Te by inhalation and ingestion; (b) external irradiation from radionuclides deposited on the ground; and (c) ingestion intake of 134Cs and 137Cs. Intake of 131I was the major pathway for thyroid exposure; its mean contribution to the thyroid dose was 92%. The thyroid doses from 131I intakes varied from 0.5 mGy to almost 33 Gy; the mean was estimated to be 0.58 Gy, while the median was 0.23 Gy. The reconstructed doses are being used to evaluate the risk of thyroid cancer and other thyroid diseases in the cohort. PMID:23560632
Dutra, Gisele Ferreira; Kaufmann, Cristina Correa; Pretto, Alessandra Doumid Borges; Albernaz, Elaine Pinto
Worldwide, about 22 million children under five years old are overweight. Environmental factors are the main trigger for this epidemic. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the eating and physical activity habits in a cohort of eight-year-old children in Pelotas, Brazil. Eating habits were assessed based on the Ten Steps to Healthy Eating proposed by the Ministry of Health. To assess the level of physical activity, the physical activity questionnaire for children and adolescents (PAQ-C) was used. Of the 616 interviewed children at 8 years, it was observed that 50.3% were male; 70.3% were white and just over half belonged to economic class C. None of the children were classified as very active and none acceded to a daily consumption of six servings of the cereals, tubers, and roots. The steps that had higher adhesion were 8 (do not add salt to ready foods); 4 (consumption of beans, at least 5 times per week) and 1 (have 3 meals and 2 snacks per day), respectively. The high prevalence of physical inactivity and low level of healthy eating habits confirm the importance of strategies to support and encourage the practice of physical activity and healthy eating among youth. PMID:27076004
Andersen, Ane Birgitte Telén; Erichsen, Rune; Kappelman, Michael David; Frøslev, Trine; Ehrenstein, Vera
Objective The incidences of celiac disease (CD) and asthma are increasing and the two conditions are associated in individuals. Risk of asthma may be passed on to the next generation through shared risk factors. We examined whether parental CD is associated with risk of asthma in offspring. Methods We conducted a population-based Danish nationwide cohort study, using medical databases, covering the period 1 January 1979 to 31 December 2009. For each child with a parental history of CD, we randomly sampled 100 children without this history from the children born in the same calendar year. We used Cox proportional-hazards regression to estimate incidence rate ratios for asthma, adjusting for measured covariates. Results We identified 1,107 children with a parental history of CD and 110,700 children without this parental history. During up to 32 years of follow-up, 6,125 children received a hospital diagnosis of asthma. The adjusted incidence rate ratio for asthma associated with a parental history of CD was 1.09 (95% confidence interval: 0.86–1.39) and was similar for maternal and paternal CD. Inclusion of asthma-medication in the definition of asthma did not substantially change the results. Conclusion There was no convincing evidence of an increased risk of asthma among offspring of parents with CD. PMID:25565892
El Mouzan, Mohammad I.; Al Mofarreh, Mohammad A.; Saadah, Omar I.; Al-Hussaini, Abdulrahman A.; Al-Saleem, Khalid A.; Al Mehaidib, Ali I.
Background/Aim: Linear growth impairment (LGI) is one of the most important features peculiar to children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this report is to define the impact of IBD on the linear growth of children in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Setting and Design: Multicenter retrospective study. Patients and Methods: Data from a cohort of newly- diagnosed children with IBD from 2003 to 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. The diagnosis of IBD was confirmed in accordance with the published criteria. Length/height for age was measured at diagnosis. The World Health Organization (WHO) reference was used and LGI was defined by length/height for age <-2 standard deviation. Results: There were 374 children from 0.33 to 16 years of age, including 119 ulcerative colitis (UC) (32%), and 255 Crohn's disease (CD) (68%) patients. The prevalence of LGI was 26%, 28%, and 21% in IBD, CD, and UC, respectively. In children below 10 years, LGI was significantly more common in CD (P = 0.010), while in UC children, it was more common in older children (P = 0.011). Conclusion: This study demonstrates a prevalence of LGI consistent with that reported in the literature, but higher in CD children with early onset (<10 years) and in older children with UC, underscoring the importance of monitoring growth in children with IBD in the Saudi population. Prospective studies are needed to define the impact of IBD on growth velocity, puberty, and final adult stature. PMID:26997215
Cooklin, Amanda R; Giallo, Rebecca; D'Esposito, Fabrizio; Crawford, Sharinne; Nicholson, Jan M
Postpartum maternal separation anxiety refers to a mothers' experience of worry and concern about leaving her child for short-term separations. The long-term effects of high maternal separation anxiety on maternal parenting behaviors and child outcomes have been not been established empirically. The aim of this study was to ascertain the prospective relationships between maternal separation anxiety during the child's first year of life, and overprotective parenting and children's social and emotional functioning at age 2-3 years. Structural equation modeling with a large representative cohort of Australian mother-child dyads (N = 3,103) indicated that high maternal separation anxiety was associated with more overprotective parenting behaviors and poorer child socioemotional functioning at age 2-3 years. Findings suggest women with high postpartum maternal separation anxiety may sustain this vigilance across the first years following birth, promoting overprotective behaviors, and resulting in increased behavior problems in their children. Support for women around negotiating separation from their children early in parenthood may prevent the establishment of a repertoire of parenting behaviors that includes unnecessarily high vigilance, monitoring, and anxiety about separation. PMID:23834364
O'Brien, Louise M.; Bullough, Alexandra S.; Owusu, Jocelynn T.; Tremblay, Kimberley A.; Brincat, Cynthia A.; Chames, Mark C.; Kalbfleisch, John D.; Chervin, Ronald D.
Study Objective: This cohort study examined the impact of maternal snoring on key delivery outcomes such as mode of delivery, infant birth centile, and small-for-gestational age. Design: Cohort study. Setting: A large tertiary medical center. Patients or Participants: Pregnant women in their third trimester were recruited between March 2007 and December 2010. Measurements and Results: Women were screened for habitual snoring, as a known marker for sleep disordered breathing. Outcome data were obtained from medical records following delivery and birth centiles were calculated. Of 1,673 women, a total of 35% reported habitual snoring (26% with pregnancy-onset snoring and 9% with chronic snoring). After adjusting for confounders, chronic snoring was associated with small-forgestational age (OR 1.65, 95%CI 1.02-2.66, P = 0.041) and elective cesarean delivery (OR 2.25, 95%CI 1.22-4.18, P = 0.008). Pregnancy-onset snoring was associated with emergency cesarean delivery (OR 1.68, 95%CI 1.22-2.30, P = 0.001). Conclusion: Maternal snoring during pregnancy is a risk factor for adverse delivery outcomes including cesarean delivery and small-for-gestational age. Screening pregnant women for symptoms of SDB may provide an early opportunity to identify women at risk of poor delivery outcomes. Clinical Trials Registration: Identifier: NCT01030003. Citation: O'Brien LM; Bullough AS; Owusu JT; Tremblay KA; Brincat CA; Chames MC; Kalbfleisch JD; Chervin RD. Snoring during pregnancy and delivery outcomes: a cohort study. SLEEP 2013;36(11):1625-1632. PMID:24179294
Brown, Chelsea R; McCaw, James M; Fairmaid, Emily J; Brown, Lorena E; Leder, Karin; Sinclair, Martha; McVernon, Jodie
Background Household studies of influenza-like illness (ILI) afford opportunities to study determinants of respiratory virus transmission. Objectives We examined predictors of ILI transmission within households containing at least two children. Methods A prospective cohort study recorded ILI symptoms daily for 2712 adult and child participants during the 1998 influenza season in Victoria, Australia. Logistic and Poisson regressions were used to explore predictors of household transmission of ILI and the secondary household attack proportion (SHAP). A date of illness onset during the influenza season was used as a proxy indicator of ILI associated with influenza infection (as opposed to other aetiological causes). Results A total of 1009 ILI episodes were reported by 781 of 2712 (29%) participants residing in 157 households. Transmission, defined as detection of ILI in one or more household members following identification of an index case, was observed in 206 of 705 (29%) household introductions. Transmission of ILI was significantly associated with the onset of ILI in the index case during the peak influenza season compared with the remainder of the observation period (37% versus 27%, odds ratio = 1·59, 95% CI 1·09, 2·31, P = 0·017). The SHAP was 0·12, higher if the index case was of secondary school age [incidence risk ratio (IRR) = 1·80, 95% CI 1·08, 2·98, P = 0·022]. Conclusions Risk of household transmission of ILI was increased during the peak influenza season, indicating an increased burden of disease during the period of influenza circulation. In this cohort, secondary-school-aged children and adults were important transmitters of ILI. PMID:26061755
Bakhireva, Ludmila N.; Lowe, Jean R.; Gutierrez, Hilda L.; Stephen, Julia M.
Background While intervention is the leading factor in reducing long-term disabilities in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), early identification of children affected by prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) remains challenging. Deficits in higher-order cognitive domains (e.g. executive function) might be more specific to FASD than global neurodevelopmental tests, yet these functions are not developed in very young children. Measures of early sensorimotor development may provide early indications of atypical brain development during the first two years of life. Methods This paper describes the novel methodology of the Ethanol, Neurodevelopment, Infant and Child Health (ENRICH) prospective cohort study of 120 maternal-infant pairs with a goal to identify early indices of functional brain impairment associated with PAE. The cohort is established by recruiting women early in pregnancy and classifying them into one of three study groups: patients on opioid-maintenance therapy who consume alcohol during pregnancy (Group 1), patients on opioid-maintenance therapy who abstain from alcohol during pregnancy (Group 2), and healthy controls (Group 3). After the initial prenatal assessment (Visit 1), patients are followed to Visit 2 occurring at delivery, and two comprehensive assessments of children at six (Visit 3) and 20 months (Visit 4) of age. ENRICH recruitment started in November 2013 and 87 women were recruited during the first year. During Year 1, the biospecimen (maternal whole blood, serum, urine, dry blood spots of a newborn) collection rate was 100% at Visit 1, and 97.6% for those who completed Visit 2. Discussion The tiered screening approach, evaluation of confounders, neurocognitive and magneto-/electro-encephalography (MEG/EEG) outcomes, and ethical considerations are discussed. PMID:26491726
Paganini-Hill, Annlia; Kawas, Claudia H; Corrada, María M
To assess the relationship between antioxidant vitamin intake and all-cause mortality in older adults, we examined these associations using data from the Leisure World Cohort Study, a prospective study of residents of the Leisure World retirement community in Laguna Hills, California. In the early 1980s, participants (who were aged 44-101 years) completed a postal survey, which included details on use of vitamin supplements and dietary intake of foods containing vitamins A and C. Age-adjusted and multivariate-adjusted (for factors related to mortality in this cohort—smoking, alcohol intake, caffeine consumption, exercise, body mass index, and histories of hypertension, angina, heart attack, stroke, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer) hazard ratios for death were calculated using Cox regression for 8,640 women and 4,983 men (median age at entry, 74 years). During follow-up (1981-2013), 13,104 participants died (median age at death, 88 years). Neither dietary nor supplemental intake of vitamin A or vitamin C nor supplemental intake of vitamin E was significantly associated with mortality after multivariate adjustment. A compendium that summarizes previous findings of cohort studies evaluating vitamin intake and mortality is provided. Attenuation in the observed associations between mortality and antioxidant vitamin use after adjustment for confounders in our study and in previous studies suggests that such consumption identifies persons with other mortality-associated lifestyle and health risk factors. PMID:25550360
Gradus, Jaimie L.; Farkas, Dóra Körmendiné; Svensson, Elisabeth; Ehrenstein, Vera; Lash, Timothy L.; Milstein, Arnold; Adler, Nancy; Sørensen, Henrik Toft
Background The association between stress and cancer incidence has been studied for more than seven decades. Despite plausible biological mechanisms and evidence from laboratory studies, findings from clinical research are conflicting. The objective of this study was to examine the association between PTSD and various cancer outcomes. Methods This nation-wide cohort study included all Danish-born residents of Denmark from 1995 – 2011. The exposure was PTSD diagnoses (n = 4,131). The main outcomes were cancer diagnoses including: 1) all malignant neoplasms; 2) hematologic malignancies; 3) immune-related cancers; 4) smoking- and alcohol-related cancers; 5) cancers at all other sites. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were calculated. Results Null associations were found between PTSD and nearly all cancer diagnoses examined, both overall (SIR for all cancers = 1.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.88, 1.2) and in analyses stratified by gender, age, substance abuse history and time since PTSD diagnosis. Conclusions This study is the most comprehensive examination to date of PTSD as a predictor of many cancer types. Our data show no evidence of an association between PTSD and cancer in this nationwide cohort. PMID:25957083
Gradus, Jaimie L; Farkas, Dóra Körmendiné; Svensson, Elisabeth; Ehrenstein, Vera; Lash, Timothy L; Milstein, Arnold; Adler, Nancy; Sørensen, Henrik Toft
The association between stress and cancer incidence has been studied for more than seven decades. Despite plausible biological mechanisms and evidence from laboratory studies, findings from clinical research are conflicting. The objective of this study was to examine the association between PTSD and various cancer outcomes. This nation-wide cohort study included all Danish-born residents of Denmark from 1995 to 2011. The exposure was PTSD diagnoses (n = 4131). The main outcomes were cancer diagnoses including: (1) all malignant neoplasms; (2) hematologic malignancies; (3) immune-related cancers; (4) smoking- and alcohol-related cancers; (5) cancers at all other sites. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were calculated. Null associations were found between PTSD and nearly all cancer diagnoses examined, both overall [SIR for all cancers = 1.0, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.88, 1.2] and in analyses stratified by gender, age, substance abuse history and time since PTSD diagnosis. This study is the most comprehensive examination to date of PTSD as a predictor of many cancer types. Our data show no evidence of an association between PTSD and cancer in this nationwide cohort. PMID:25957083
Barraza-Villarreal, Albino; Sunyer, Jordi; Hernandez-Cadena, Leticia; Escamilla-Nuñez, Maria Consuelo; Sienra-Monge, Juan Jose; Ramírez-Aguilar, Matiana; Cortez-Lugo, Marlene; Holguin, Fernando; Diaz-Sánchez, David; Olin, Anna Carin; Romieu, Isabelle
Background The biological mechanisms involved in inflammatory response to air pollution are not clearly understood. Objective In this study we assessed the association of short-term air pollutant exposure with inflammatory markers and lung function. Methods We studied a cohort of 158 asthmatic and 50 nonasthmatic school-age children, followed an average of 22 weeks. We conducted spirometric tests, measurements of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), interleukin-8 (IL-8) in nasal lavage, and pH of exhaled breath condensate every 15 days during follow-up. Data were analyzed using linear mixed-effects models. Results An increase of 17.5 μg/m3 in the 8-hr moving average of PM2.5 levels (interquartile range) was associated with a 1.08-ppb increase in FeNO [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01–1.16] and a 1.07-pg/mL increase in IL-8 (95% CI 0.98–1.19) in asthmatic children and a 1.16 pg/ml increase in IL-8 (95% CI, 1.00–1.36) in nonasthmatic children. The 5-day accumulated average of exposure to particulate matter < 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diamter (PM2.5) was significantly inversely associated with forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) (p = 0.048) and forced vital capacity (FVC) (p = 0.012) in asthmatic children and with FVC (p = 0.021) in nonasthmatic children. FeNO and FEV1 were inversely associated (p = 0.005) in asthmatic children. Conclusions Exposure to PM2.5 resulted in acute airway inflammation and decrease in lung function in both asthmatic and nonasthmatic children. PMID:18560490
Elahi, Shan; Homstad, Alison; Vaidya, Himani; Stout, Jennifer; Hall, Gentzon; Wu, Guanghong; Conlon, Peter; Routh, Jonathan C.; Wiener, John S.; Ross, Sherry S.; Nagaraj, Shashi; Wigfall, Delbert; Foreman, John; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Gupta, Indra R.; Brophy, Patrick D.; Rabinovich, C. Egla; Gbadegesin, Rasheed A.
Background Primary vesicoureteral reflux (PVUR) is the most common malformation of the kidney and urinary tract and reflux nephropathy is a major cause of chronic kidney disease in children. Recently, we reported mutations in tenascin XB (TNXB) as a cause of PVUR with joint hypermobility. Methods To define the role of rare variants in tenascin genes in the etiology of PVUR, we screened a cohort of patients with familial PVUR (FPVUR) and non-familial PVUR (NFPVUR) for rare missense variants in TNXB and tenascin C (TNC) genes after excluding mutations in ROBO2 and SOX17. Results We identified 134 individuals from 112 families with PVUR, we excluded two families with mutations in ROBO2. We found rare missense variants in TNXB in the remaining 110 families comprising of 5/55 (9%) of families with FPVUR and 2/55 (4%) of NFPVUR. There were no differences in high-grade reflux, or renal parenchymal scarring between patients with and without TNXB variants. All patients with TNXB rare variants that were tested exhibited joint hypermobility. Overall we were able to identify causes of FPVUR in 7/57 (12%) families (9% in TNXB and 3% in ROBO2). Conclusions In conclusion, a rare missense variant in TNXB in combination with a positive family history of VUR and joint hypermobility may represent a non-invasive method to diagnose PVUR and warrants further evaluation in other cohorts. PMID:26408188
Tolppanen, Anna-Maija; Taipale, Heidi; Koponen, Marjaana; Lavikainen, Piia; Tanskanen, Antti; Tiihonen, Jari; Hartikainen, Sirpa
Purpose The aim of the Medicine use and Alzheimer's disease (MEDALZ) study is to investigate the changes in medication and healthcare service use among persons with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of medications in this group. This is important, because the number of persons with AD is rapidly growing and even though they are a particularly vulnerable patient group, the number of representative, large-scale studies with adequate follow-up time is limited. Participants MEDALZ contains all residents of Finland who received a clinically verified diagnosis of AD between 2005 and 2011 and were community-dwelling at the time of diagnosis (N=70 719). The diagnosis is based on the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and the Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association (NINCS-ADRDA) and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria for Alzheimer's disease. The cohort contains socioeconomic data (education, occupational status and taxable income, 1972–2012) and causes of death (2005–2012), data from the prescription register (1995–2012), the special reimbursement register (1972–2012) and the hospital discharge register (1972–2012). Future updates are planned. The average age was 80.1 years (range 34.5–104.6 years). The majority of cohort (65.2%) was women. Currently, the average length of follow-up after AD diagnosis is 3.1 years and altogether 26 045 (36.8%) persons have died during the follow-up. Findings Altogether 53% of the cohort had used psychotropic drugs within 1 year after AD diagnoses. The initiation rate of for example, benzodiazepines and related drugs and antidepressants began to increase already before AD diagnosis. Future plans We are currently assessing if these, and other commonly used medications are related to adverse events such as death, hip fractures, head injuries and pneumonia. PMID:27412109
Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler
Objective To assess the mental health of children born after fertility treatment by comparing their risk of mental disorders with that of spontaneously conceived children. Design Prospective register based cohort study. Setting Nationwide register based information from Danish National Health Registers cross linked by a unique personal identification number assigned to all citizens in Denmark. Participants All children born in Denmark in 1995-2003 with follow-up in 2012 when the children were aged 8-17; 33 139 children were conceived after fertility treatment and 555 828 children were born after spontaneous conception. Main outcome measures Absolute risks and hazard ratios for overall and specific mental disorders estimated with adjustment for potential confounding variables. Estimated association between the risk of mental disorders and subtypes of procedures, hormone treatments, gamete types, and cause of infertility. Results The risk of mental disorders in children born after in vitro fertilisation or intracytoplasmic sperm injection was low, and was no higher than in spontaneously conceived children, except for a borderline significant increased risk of tic disorders (hazard ratio 1.40, 95% confidence interval 1.01 to 1.95; absolute risk 0.3%). In contrast, children born after ovulation induction with or without insemination had low but significantly increased risks of any mental disorder (1.20, 1.11 to 1.31; absolute risk 4.1%), autism spectrum disorders (1.20, 1.05 to 1.37; 1.5%), hyperkinetic disorders (1.23, 1.08 to 1.40; 1.7%), conduct, emotional, or social disorder (1.21, 1.02 to 1.45; 0.8%), and tic disorders (1.51, 1.16 to 1.96; 0.4%). There was no risk systematically related to any specific type of hormone drug treatment. Conclusions There was a small increase in the incidence of mental disorders in children born after ovulation induction/intrauterine insemination. Children born after in vitro fertilisation/intracytoplasmic sperm injection were
EPA GRANT NUMBER: R828678C017
Title: The Short and Long-Term Respiratory Effects of Exposure to PAHs from Traffic in a Cohort of Asthmatic Children
Investigator: S. Katharine Hammond
Institution: University of California - Berkeley
Background Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) is highly associated with increased risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD), end stage renal disease (ESRD) and cardiovascular morbidity. Epidemiological and genetic studies generate hypotheses for innovative strategies in DM2 management by unravelling novel mechanisms of diabetes complications, which is essential for future intervention trials. We have thus initiated the DIAbetes COhoRtE study (DIACORE). Methods DIACORE is a prospective cohort study aiming to recruit 6000 patients of self-reported Caucasian ethnicity with prevalent DM2 for at least 10 years of follow-up. Study visits are performed in University-based recruiting clinics in Germany using standard operating procedures. All prevalent DM2 patients in outpatient clinics surrounding the recruiting centers are invited to participate. At baseline and at each 2-year follow-up examination, patients are subjected to a core phenotyping protocol. This includes a standardized online questionnaire and physical examination to determine incident micro- and macrovascular DM2 complications, malignancy and hospitalization, with a primary focus on renal events. Confirmatory outcome information is requested from patient records. Blood samples are obtained for a centrally analyzed standard laboratory panel and for biobanking of aliquots of serum, plasma, urine, mRNA and DNA for future scientific use. A subset of the cohort is subjected to extended phenotyping, e.g. sleep apnea screening, skin autofluorescence measurement, non-mydriatic retinal photography and non-invasive determination of arterial stiffness. Discussion DIACORE will enable the prospective evaluation of factors involved in DM2 complication pathogenesis using high-throughput technologies in biosamples and genetic epidemiological studies. PMID:23409726
Stenbacka, M; Romelsjö, A; Jokinen, J
Objectives This study aimed to investigate whether violent and non-violent offending were related to elevated risk of suicide. We also investigated whether the risk was higher among those with repeated offences and how experiences of substance misuse and suicide attempt modified the relationship. Design A nationwide prospective cohort study. Setting A register study of 48 834 conscripted men in 1969/1970 in Sweden followed up during a 35-year period in official registers. Participants A birth cohort of 48 834 men who were mandatory conscripted for military service in 1969/70 at the age of 18–20 years. Possible confounders were retrieved from psychological assessments at conscription and the cohort was linked to mortality and hospitalisation and crime records from 1970 onwards. Estimates of suicide risks were calculated as HR with 95% CIs using Cox proportional regression analyses with adjustment for potential confounding by family, psychological and behavioural factors including substance use and psychiatric disorders. Results Of the total cohort, 2671 (5.5%) persons died during the follow-up period. Of these, 615 (23%) persons died due to suicide. Non-violent criminality was evident for 29% and violent criminality for 4.7% of all the participants. In the crude model, the violent offenders had nearly five times higher risk (HR=4.69, 3.56 to 6.19) to die from suicide and non-violent criminals had about two times higher risk (HR=2.08, 1.72 to 2.52). In the fully adjusted model, the HRs were still significant for suicide in the non-violent group. Conclusions Experiences of violent or non-violent criminality were associated with increased risk of suicide. Comorbidity with alcohol and substance use and psychiatric disorders modified the risk, but the suicide risk remained significantly elevated for non-violent criminals. It is crucial to identify offenders and especially repeated offenders who also suffer from alcohol or substance misuse and psychiatric illness in
Brown, W J; Dobson, A J; Bryson, L; Byles, J E
More than 41,000 women aged 18-23, 45-50, and 70-75 years in 1996 are participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (Women's Health Australia). Baseline surveys were conducted for all three cohorts in 1996, and the first follow-up survey of the mid-age group in 1998 has achieved a response rate exceeding 90%. The main findings so far reflect the large differences in the life experiences of the three cohorts. The young women report high levels of stress. The physical and mental health of those with young children is worse than for those without children, but confounding by sociodemographic characteristics may account for the differences. Two thirds of young women in the healthy weight or underweight range would like to weigh less, and early onset of dieting is associated with poorer physical and mental health. Most of the women in the mid-age group have multiple roles--in paid work, home duties, and caring for children and other dependents. The potential of the study to investigate the long-term impact of such busy lives on health outcomes is considerable. At this stage, the main health issues for these women relate to tiredness, weight gain, and menopause. The older cohort presents a picture of positive aging. These women are heavier users of health services than the mid-age and younger women, and they are also more satisfied with these services. Although their physical health is poorer, their mental health is better, and they report less stress than women in the other two cohorts. The follow-up survey of this group, planned for 1999, will focus on the coping strategies used by these women. An overall goal of the project is to understand the interactions among social roles, life events, and women's health in order to provide a basis for improved health policies and services. Analysis of these interactions, which relies on both quantitative and qualitative data, poses many challenges that will be addressed as the longitudinal data become
Perera, Frederica P; Edwards, Susan C
This chapter first discusses the urgent need for prevention of childhood diseases that impose a huge and growing burden on families and society. It provides a review of recent research in this area to illustrate both the strengths and limitations of molecular epidemiology in drawing needed links between environmental exposures and illness in children. For illustration, three of the major diseases in children are discussed: asthma, cancer and developmental disorders. All three impose significant difficulties, have increased in recent decades, and are thought to be caused in substantial part by environmental factors, such as toxic exposures due to lifestyle choices (i.e. smoking and diet), pollutants in the workplace, ambient air, water and the food supply. These exogenous exposures can interact with "host" factors, such as genetic susceptibility and nutritional deficits, to cause disease. Molecular epidemiology has provided valuable new insights into the magnitude and diversity of exposures beginning in utero, the unique susceptibility of the young, and the adverse preclinical and clinical effects resulting from the interactions between these factors. However, molecular epidemiology also faces certain constraints and challenges that are specific to studies of the very young, including ethical issues, technical issues due to the limited amount of biological specimens that can be obtained, and communication of results to parents and communities. These challenges are particularly apparent when incorporating the newer epigenetic and "omic" techniques and biomarkers into studies of children's diseases. PMID:22997878
NestedCohort is an R software package for fitting Kaplan-Meier and Cox Models to estimate standardized survival and attributable risks for studies where covariates of interest are observed on only a sample of the cohort.
Spycher, Ben D; Feller, Martin; Zwahlen, Marcel; Röösli, Martin; von der Weid, Nicolas X; Hengartner, Heinz; Egger, Matthias; Kuehni, Claudia E
Background Previous studies on childhood cancer and nuclear power plants (NPPs) produced conflicting results. We used a cohort approach to examine whether residence near NPPs was associated with leukaemia or any childhood cancer in Switzerland. Methods We computed person-years at risk for children aged 0–15 years born in Switzerland from 1985 to 2009, based on the Swiss censuses 1990 and 2000 and identified cancer cases from the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry. We geo-coded place of residence at birth and calculated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing the risk of cancer in children born <5 km, 5–10 km and 10–15 km from the nearest NPP with children born >15 km away, using Poisson regression models. Results We included 2925 children diagnosed with cancer during 21 117 524 person-years of follow-up; 953 (32.6%) had leukaemia. Eight and 12 children diagnosed with leukaemia at ages 0–4 and 0–15 years, and 18 and 31 children diagnosed with any cancer were born <5 km from a NPP. Compared with children born >15 km away, the IRRs (95% CI) for leukaemia in 0–4 and 0–15 year olds were 1.20 (0.60–2.41) and 1.05 (0.60–1.86), respectively. For any cancer, corresponding IRRs were 0.97 (0.61–1.54) and 0.89 (0.63–1.27). There was no evidence of a dose–response relationship with distance (P > 0.30). Results were similar for residence at diagnosis and at birth, and when adjusted for potential confounders. Results from sensitivity analyses were consistent with main results. Conclusions This nationwide cohort study found little evidence of an association between residence near NPPs and the risk of leukaemia or any childhood cancer. PMID:21750009
Arseneault, Louise; Cannon, Mary; Fisher, Helen L.; Polanczyk, Guilherme; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Caspi, Avshalom
Objective Using longitudinal and prospective measures of trauma during childhood, the authors assessed the risk of developing psychotic symptoms associated with maltreatment, bullying, and accidents in a nationally representative U.K. cohort of young twins. Method Data were from the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study, which follows 2,232 twin children and their families. Mothers were interviewed during home visits when children were ages 5, 7, 10, and 12 on whether the children had experienced maltreatment by an adult, bullying by peers, or involvement in an accident. At age 12, children were asked about bullying experiences and psychotic symptoms. Children’s reports of psychotic symptoms were verified by clinicians. Results Children who experienced maltreatment by an adult (relative risk=3.16, 95% CI=1.92–5.19) or bullying by peers (relative risk=2.47, 95% CI=1.74–3.52) were more likely to report psychotic symptoms at age 12 than were children who did not experience such traumatic events. The higher risk for psychotic symptoms was observed whether these events occurred early in life or later in childhood. The risk associated with childhood trauma remained significant in analyses controlling for children’s gender, socioeconomic deprivation, and IQ; for children’s early symptoms of internalizing or externalizing problems; and for children’s genetic liability to developing psychosis. In contrast, the risk associated with accidents was small (relative risk=1.47, 95% CI=1.02–2.13) and inconsistent across ages. Conclusions Trauma characterized by intention to harm is associated with children’s reports of psychotic symptoms. Clinicians working with children who report early symptoms of psychosis should inquire about traumatic events such as maltreatment and bullying. PMID:20952460
Aldinger, Kimberly A.; Lane, Christianne J.; Veenstra‐VanderWeele, Jeremy
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may present with multiple medical conditions in addition to ASD symptoms. This study investigated whether there are predictive patterns of medical conditions that co‐occur with ASD, which could inform medical evaluation and treatment in ASD, as well as potentially identify etiologically meaningful subgroups. Medical history data were queried in the multiplex family Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE). Fourteen medical conditions were analyzed. Replication in the Simons Simplex Collection (SSC) was attempted using available medical condition data on gastrointestinal disturbances (GID), sleep problems, allergy and epilepsy. In the AGRE cohort, no discrete clusters emerged among 14 medical conditions. GID and seizures were enriched in unaffected family members, and together with sleep problems, were represented in both AGRE and SSC. Further analysis of these medical conditions identified predictive co‐occurring patterns in both samples. For a child with ASD, the presence of GID predicts sleep problems and vice versa, with an approximately 2‐fold odds ratio in each direction. These risk patterns were replicated in the SSC sample, and in addition, there was increased risk for seizures and sleep problems to co‐occur with GID. In these cohorts, seizure alone was not predictive of the other conditions co‐occurring, but behavioral impairments were more severe as the number of co‐occurring medical symptoms increased. These findings indicate that interdisciplinary clinical care for children with ASD will benefit from evaluation for specific patterns of medical conditions in the affected child and their family members. Autism Res 2015, 8: 771–781. © 015 The Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research. PMID:26011086
Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke; Tawatsupa, Benjawan; McClure, Roderick; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian
Objectives To explore individual determinants of workplace injury among Thai workers. Design Cross-sectional analysis of a large national cohort. Setting Thailand. Participants Thai Cohort Study participants who responded to the 2009 follow-up survey were included if they reported doing paid work or being self-employed (n=51 751). Outcome measures Self-reported injury incidence over the past 12 months was calculated. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to test associations between individual determinants and self-reported workplace injury. Results Workplace injuries were reported by 1317 study participants (2.5%); the incidence was 34 (95% CI 32 to 36)/1000 worker-years for men, and 18 (17–20) for women. Among men working ≥41 h and earning <10 000 Baht, the injury rate was four times higher compared with men working <11 h and earning ≥20 001 Baht; differences in injury rates were less pronounced in women. Multivariate modelling showed that working ≥49 h/week (23%) and working for ≤10 000 Bath/month (37%) were associated with workplace injury. The increase in injury risk with increased working hours did not exceed the risk expected from increased exposure. Conclusions Reductions in occupational injury rates could be achieved by limiting working hours to 48/week. Particularly for Thai low wage earners and those with longer workdays, there is a need for effective injury preventive programmes. PMID:23869104
Woodward, Mark; Huxley, Rachel; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Fang, Xianghua; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Lam, Tai-Hing
The Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration (APCSC) was established in the late 1990s when there was a distinct shortfall in evidence of the importance of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Asia. With few exceptions, most notably from Japan, most of the published reports on cardiovascular disease in the last century were from Western countries, and there was uncertainty how far etiological associations found in the West could be assumed to prevail in the East. Against this background, APCSC was set up as a pooling project, combining individual participant data (about 600,000 subjects) from all available leading cohort studies (36 from Asia and 8 from Australasia) in the region, to fill the knowledge gaps. In the past 10 years, APCSC has published 50 peer-reviewed publications of original epidemiological research, primarily concerned with coronary heart disease, stroke, and cancer. This work has established that Western risk factors generally act similarly in Asia and in Australasia, just as they do in other parts of the world. Consequently, strategies to reduce the prevalence of elevated blood pressure, obesity, and smoking are at least as important in Asia as elsewhere- and possibly more important when the vast size of Asia is considered. This article reviews the achievements of APCSC in the past decade, with an emphasis on coronary heart disease. PMID:25689943
Morris, J G; Prado, V; Ferreccio, C; Robins-Browne, R M; Bordun, A M; Cayazzo, M; Kay, B A; Levine, M M
Yersinia enterocolitica was isolated from children in two cohorts in Santiago, Chile. In a cohort containing a cross section of children aged 0 to 4 years, Y. enterocolitica was isolated from stool samples of 1.1% of children with diarrhea and 0.2% of age-matched control children. In a subgroup of this cohort from which weekly stool samples were obtained from all children irrespective of clinical status, 6% of children had asymptomatic Yersinia infections. In a birth cohort (with a greater representation of children less than 1 year of age and a significantly higher rate of diarrhea), Y. enterocolitica was isolated from 1.9% of children with diarrhea and 0.6% of controls (P = 0.05). Biogroup 1A strains (which lacked traditional phenotypic and molecular markers for pathogenicity) were isolated from seven children with diarrhea but from no control children in the birth cohort (P = 0.02). All other isolates, including all isolates from asymptomatic children, were "pathogenic" strains in biogroup 4, serogroup O3; no association between these isolates and occurrence of disease was found. Y. enterocolitica is found among young children in Santiago, with asymptomatic infections not uncommon occurrences. However, questions about the association between previously described virulence factors and diarrheal illness remain. PMID:1757549
McCaw-Binns, A; Ashley, D; Samms-Vaughan, M
The Jamaica Perinatal Morbidity and Mortality Survey (JPMMS) was a national study designed to identify modifiable risk factors associated with poor maternal and perinatal outcome. Needing to better understand factors that promote or retard child development, behaviour and academic achievement, we conducted follow-up studies of the birth cohort. The paper describes the policy developments from the JPMMS and two follow-up rounds. The initial study (1986-87) documented 94% of all births and their outcomes on the island over 2 months (n = 10 508), and perinatal (n = 2175) and maternal deaths (n = 62) for a further 10 months. A subset of the birth cohort, identified by their date of birth through school records, was seen at ages 11-12 (n = 1715) and 15-16 years (n = 1563). Findings from the initial survey led to, inter alia, clinic-based screening for syphilis, referral high-risk clinics run by visiting obstetricians, and the redesign and construction of new labour wards at referral hospitals. The follow-up studies documented inadequate academic achievement among boys and children attending public schools, and associations between under- and over-nutrition, excessive television viewing (>20 h/week), inadequate parental supervision and behavioural problems. These contributed to the development of a television programming code for children, a National Parenting Policy, policies aimed at improving inter-sectoral services to children from birth to 5 years (Early Childhood Commission) and behavioural interventions of the Violence Prevention Alliance (an inter-sectoral NGO) and the Healthy Lifestyles project (Ministry of Health). Indigenous maternal and child health research provided a local evidence base that informed public policy. Collaboration, good communication, being vigilant to opportunities to influence policy, and patience has contributed to our success. PMID:20078824
The National Children's Study (NCS) will be the largest long-term study of children's health and development ever conducted in the United States. The NCS will examine a broad range of environmental influences on children's health and development. It will follow approximately 10...
Feudtner, Chris; Carroll, Karen W.; Hexem, Kari R.; Silberman, Jordan; Kang, Tammy I.; Kazak, Anne E.
Objective Test the hypothesis that hopeful patterns of thoughts and emotions of parents of pediatric patients receiving palliative care consultative services are related to subsequent decisions, specifically regarding limit of intervention (LOI) orders. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Children's hospital and surrounding region. Participants 33 pediatric patients receiving palliative care consult services who did not have LOI orders at time of cohort entry and their 43 parental adults. Main Exposures Parental levels at time of cohort entry of hopeful patterns of thinking and emotions, in conjunction with perceptions about patients' health trajectories Main Outcome Measures Enactment of an LOI order after entry into the cohort. Results During the 6 months of observation, 14 patients had (42.4%) an LOI order enacted. In adjusted analyses, higher levels of parental hopeful patterns of thinking were significantly associated with increased odds of enactment of an LOI order [AOR 2.73; 95% CI: 1.04, 7.22]. Increased odds of LOI enactment were associated to non-significant degrees with lower levels of parental positive affect [AOR 0.44; 95% CI: 0.17, 1.12], higher levels of parental negative affect [AOR 2.02; 95% CI: 0.98, 4.16], and parental perceptions of worsening health over time [AOR 1.72; 95% CI: 0.73, 4.07]. Conclusions For pediatric patients receiving palliative care consultative services, higher levels of parents' hopeful patterns of thinking are associated with subsequent enactment of LOI orders, suggesting that emotional and cognitive processes have a combined effect on medical decisionmaking. PMID:20819965
Lupatsch, Judith E.; Zwahlen, Marcel; Röösli, Martin; Niggli, Felix; Grotzer, Michael A.; Rischewski, Johannes; Egger, Matthias; Kuehni, Claudia E.
Background Exposure to medium or high doses of ionizing radiation is a known risk factor for cancer in children. The extent to which low-dose radiation from natural sources contributes to the risk of childhood cancer remains unclear. Objectives In a nationwide census-based cohort study, we investigated whether the incidence of childhood cancer was associated with background radiation from terrestrial gamma and cosmic rays. Methods Children < 16 years of age in the Swiss National Censuses in 1990 and 2000 were included. The follow-up period lasted until 2008, and incident cancer cases were identified from the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry. A radiation model was used to predict dose rates from terrestrial and cosmic radiation at locations of residence. Cox regression models were used to assess associations between cancer risk and dose rates and cumulative dose since birth. Results Among 2,093,660 children included at census, 1,782 incident cases of cancer were identified including 530 with leukemia, 328 with lymphoma, and 423 with a tumor of the central nervous system (CNS). Hazard ratios for each millisievert increase in cumulative dose of external radiation were 1.03 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.05) for any cancer, 1.04 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.08) for leukemia, 1.01 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.05) for lymphoma, and 1.04 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.08) for CNS tumors. Adjustment for a range of potential confounders had little effect on the results. Conclusions Our study suggests that background radiation may contribute to the risk of cancer in children, including leukemia and CNS tumors. Citation Spycher BD, Lupatsch JE, Zwahlen M, Röösli M, Niggli F, Grotzer MA, Rischewski J, Egger M, Kuehni CE, for the Swiss Pediatric Oncology Group and the Swiss National Cohort. 2015. Background ionizing radiation and the risk of childhood cancer: a census-based nationwide cohort study. Environ Health Perspect 123:622–628; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408548 PMID:25707026
Najman, Jake M; Alati, Rosa; Bor, William; Clavarino, Alexandra; Mamun, Abdullah; McGrath, John J; McIntyre, David; O'Callaghan, Michael; Scott, James; Shuttlewood, Greg; Williams, Gail M; Wray, Naomi
The Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (MUSP) and its outcomes began in 1981 with data collected on 7223 pregnant woman-child pairs (6753 mothers, of whom 520 had 2 study children, less 50 who had multiple births). These women, and their children, were initially followed for up to 21 years. Since then there have been additional follow-ups of the mothers (27 years) and their children (30 years). There has also been a substantial increase in the breadth of topics addressed, with the collection of biological samples, the administration of structured clinical assessments of mental health and cognitive capacity, and markers of physical health such as lung function and blood pressure. MUSP was originally developed as a birth cohort study. It has become a longitudinal study of growth, development and ageing with an emphasis on the generational transmission of a wide range of factors impacting on adult health outcomes. We welcome interest in our study; for study background and publications visit [www.socialscience.uq.edu.au/musp] or contact [firstname.lastname@example.org]. PMID:25519422
Ahrens, Wolfgang; Jöckel, K-H
The prospective nature of large-scale epidemiological multi-purpose cohort studies with long observation periods facilitates the search for complex causes of diseases, the analysis of the natural history of diseases and the identification of novel pre-clinical markers of disease. The German National Cohort (GNC) is a population-based, highly standardised and in-depth phenotyped cohort. It shall create the basis for new strategies for risk assessment and identification, early diagnosis and prevention of multifactorial diseases. The GNC is the largest population-based cohort study in Germany to date. In the year 2014 the examination of 200,000 women and men aged 20-69 years started in 18 study centers. The study facilitates the investigation of the etiology of chronic diseases in relation to lifestyle, genetic, socioeconomic, psychosocial and environmental factors. By this the GNC creates the basis for the development of methods for early diagnosis and prevention of these diseases. Cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative/-psychiatric diseases, musculoskeletal and infectious diseases are in focus of this study. Due to its mere size, the study could be characterized as a Big Data project. We deduce that this is not the case. PMID:26077870
Holtz, Lori R.; Bauer, Irma K.; Rajendran, Priya; Kang, Gagandeep; Wang, David
Astroviruses are a known cause of human diarrhea. Recently the highly divergent astrovirus MLB1 (MLB1) was identified in a stool sample from a patient with diarrhea. It has subsequently been detected in stool from individuals with and without diarrhea. To determine whether MLB1 is associated with diarrhea, we conducted a case control study of MLB1. In parallel, the prevalence of the classic human astroviruses (HAstVs) was also determined in the same case control cohort. 400 cases and 400 paired controls from a longitudinal birth cohort in Vellore, India were analyzed by RT-PCR. While HAstVs were associated with diarrhea (p = 0.029) in this cohort, MLB1 was not; 14 of the controls and 4 cases were positive for MLB1. Furthermore, MLB1 viral load did not differ significantly between the cases and controls. The role of MLB1 in human health still remains unknown and future studies are needed. PMID:22174853
Background There are limited data on the parenting stress (PS) levels in sub-Saharan African mothers and on the association between ante- and postnatal depression and anxiety on PS. Methods A longitudinal birth cohort of 577 women from Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire was followed from the 3rd trimester in pregnancy to 2 years postpartum between 2010 and 2013. Depression and anxiety were assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire depression module (PHQ-9) and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) at baseline, 3 month, 12 month and 24 month postpartum. PS was measured using the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF) at 3, 12 and 24 month. The mean total PS score and the subscale scores were compared among depressed vs. non-depressed and among anxious vs. non-anxious mothers at 3, 12 and 24 month postpartum. The proportions of clinical PS (PSI-SF raw score > 90) in depressed vs. non-depressed and anxious vs. non-anxious mothers were also compared. A generalized estimating equation (GEE) approach was used to estimate population-averaged associations between women’s depression/anxiety and PS adjusting for age, child sex, women’s anemia, education, occupation, spouse’s education, and number of sick child visits. Results A total of 577, 531 and 264 women completed the PS assessment at 3 month, 12 month and 24 month postpartum across the two sites and the prevalences of clinical PS at each time point was 33.1%, 24.4% and 14.9% in Ghana and 30.2%, 33.5% and 22.6% in Côte d’Ivoire, respectively. At all three time points, the PS scores were significantly higher among depressed mothers vs. non-depressed mothers. In the multivariate regression analyses, antepartum and postpartum depression were consistently associated with PS after adjusting for other variables. Conclusions Parenting stress is frequent and levels are high compared with previous studies from high-income countries. Antepartum and postpartum depression were both associated with PS, while
Background Aboriginal people living in Canada have a high prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). To better understand the pre and postnatal influences on the development of adiposity and related cardio-metabolic factors in adult Aboriginal people, we will recruit and follow prospectively Aboriginal pregnant mothers and their children – the Aboriginal Birth Cohort (ABC) study. Methods/design We aim to recruit 300 Aboriginal pregnant mothers and their newborns from the Six Nations Reserve, and follow them prospectively to age 3 years. Key details of environment and health including maternal nutrition, glucose tolerance, physical activity, and weight gain will be collected. At birth, cord blood and placenta samples will be collected, as well as newborn anthropometric measurements. Mothers and offspring will be followed annually with serial measurements of diet and physical activity, growth trajectory, and adiposity. Discussion There is an urgent need to understand maternal and child factors that underlie the early development of adiposity and type 2 diabetes in Aboriginal people. The information generated from this cohort will assist the Six Nations community in developing interventions to prevent early adiposity in Aboriginal children. PMID:23800270
Cohen, Sarah S.; Williams, David R.; Munro, Heather M.; Hargreaves, Margaret K.; Blot, William J.
Objectives. We evaluated the independent and joint effects of race, individual socioeconomic status (SES), and neighborhood SES on mortality risk. Methods. We conducted a prospective analysis involving 52 965 non-Hispanic Black and 23 592 non-Hispanic White adults taking part in the Southern Community Cohort Study. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to determine associations of race and SES with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Results. In our cohort, wherein Blacks and Whites had similar individual SES, Blacks were less likely than Whites to die during the follow-up period (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.73, 0.84). Low household income was a strong predictor of all-cause mortality among both Blacks and Whites (HR = 1.76; 95% CI = 1.45, 2.12). Being in the lowest (vs highest) category with respect to both individual and neighborhood SES was associated with a nearly 3-fold increase in all-cause mortality risk (HR = 2.76; 95% CI = 1.99, 3.84). There was no significant mortality-related interaction between individual SES and neighborhood SES among either Blacks or Whites. Conclusions. SES is a strong predictor of premature mortality, and the independent associations of individual SES and neighborhood SES with mortality risk are similar for Blacks and Whites. PMID:25322291
Kennedy, M M; Lucas, S B; Jones, R R; Howells, D D; Picton, S J; Hanks, E E; McGee, J O; O'Leary, J J
AIMS: The recent finding that human herpes virus 8 (HHV8) is found in the majority of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) cases supports the epidemiological observation that the tumour may be caused by an infectious agent. This study aimed to address when and how HHV8 evolved. METHODS: A cohort of African endemic KS (49 samples from 45 patients) and European KS (18 samples from 13 patients), spanning 27 years, was assessed for the presence of HHV8 by both standard solution phase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the newly described technique of TaqMan PCR. RESULTS: HHV8 was present in approximately 49% (24 of 49 tissue samples) of the African cases and in more than 90% (16 of 18 tissue samples) of the European cohort, in keeping with recent seroepidemiological data. CONCLUSIONS: HHV8 is strongly linked to the development of KS; however, in some patients, other factors may operate. The utility and flexibility of TaqMan PCR in detecting low copy viral target in human tissues was demonstrated. Images PMID:9231158
Ness, Kirsten K; Hudson, Melissa M; Ginsberg, Jill P; Nagarajan, Rajaram; Kaste, Sue C; Marina, Neyssa; Whitton, John; Robison, Leslie L; Gurney, James G
Physical performance limitations are one of the potential long-term consequences following diagnosis and treatment for childhood cancer. The purpose of this review is to describe the risk factors for and the participation restrictions that result from physical performance limitations among childhood cancer survivors who participated in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). Articles previously published from the CCSS cohort related to physical performance limitations were reviewed and the results summarized. Our review showed that physical performance limitations are prevalent among childhood cancer survivors and may increase as they age. Host-based risk factors for physical disability include an original diagnosis of bone tumor, brain tumor, or Hodgkin's disease; female sex; and an income less than $20,000 per year. Treatment-based risk factors include radiation and treatment with a combination of alkylating agents and anthracyclines. Musculoskeletal, neurologic, cardiac, pulmonary, sensory, and endocrine organ system dysfunction also increase the risk of developing a physical performance limitation. In summary, monitoring of physical performance limitations in an aging cohort of childhood cancer survivors is important and will help determine the impact of physical performance limitations on morbidity, mortality, and caregiver burden. In addition, in developing restorative and preventive interventions for childhood cancer survivors, we must take into account the special needs of survivors with physical disability to optimize their health and enhance participation in daily living activities. PMID:19332713
Barclay, Kieron; Kolk, Martin
This study uses Swedish population register data to investigate the relationship between birth order and mortality at ages 30 to 69 for Swedish cohorts born between 1938 and 1960, using a within-family comparison. The main analyses are conducted with discrete-time survival analysis using a within-family comparison, and the estimates are adjusted for age, mother's age at the time of birth, and cohort. Focusing on sibships ranging in size from two to six, we find that mortality risk in adulthood increases with later birth order. The results show that the relative effect of birth order is greater among women than among men. This pattern is consistent for all the major causes of death but is particularly pronounced for mortality attributable to cancers of the respiratory system and to external causes. Further analyses in which we adjust for adult socioeconomic status and adult educational attainment suggest that social pathways only mediate the relationship between birth order and mortality risk in adulthood to a limited degree. PMID:25777302
Anderson, Emma C; Ingle, Suzanne Marie; Muir, Peter; Beck, Charles; Finn, Adam; Leeming, John Peter; Cabral, Christie; Kesten, Joanna May; Hay, Alastair D
Introduction Paediatric respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are common reasons for primary care consultations and antibiotic prescribing. Locally relevant syndromic and microbiological surveillance information has the potential to improve the care of children with RTIs by normalising illness (parents) and reducing uncertainty (clinicians). Currently, most RTI studies are conducted at the point of healthcare service consultation, leaving the community burden, microbiology, symptom duration and proportion consulting largely unknown. This study seeks to establish the feasibility of (mainly online) participant recruitment and retention, and the acceptability/comparability of parent versus nurse-collected microbiological sampling, to inform the design of a future surveillance intervention study. Evidence regarding consultation rates and symptom duration is also sought. Methods and analysis A community-based, feasibility prospective inception cohort study, recruiting children aged ≥3 months and <16 years and their parents via general practitioner surgery invitation letter, aiming to collect data on 300 incident RTIs by July 2016. Following informed consent, parents provide baseline (demographic) data online, and respond to weekly emails to confirm the absence/presence of new RTI symptoms. Once symptomatic, parents provide daily data online (RTI symptoms, school/day-care attendance, time off work, health service use, medication), and a research nurse visits to collect clinical examination data and microbiological (nasal and saliva) swabs. Parents are invited to provide symptomatic (at nurse visit, but without nurse assistance) and asymptomatic (alone) swabs on recovery. A review of primary care medical notes will gather medical history, health service utilisation, referral and antibiotic prescribing rates. Feasibility will be assessed using recruitment and retention rates, data completeness; and acceptability by quantitative survey and qualitative interviews
Crawford, Judith A; Hargrave, Teresa M; Hunt, Andrew; Liu, Chien-Chih; Anbar, Ran D; Hall, Geralyn E; Naishadham, Deepa; Czerwinski, Maria H; Webster, Noah; Lane, Sandra D; Abraham, Jerrold L
The Syracuse AUDIT (Assessment of Urban Dwellings for Indoor Toxics) project is a birth cohort study of wheezing in the first year of life in a low-income urban setting. Such studies are important because of the documented serious risks to children's health and the lack of attention and published work on asthma development and intervention in communities of this size. We studied 103 infants of mothers with asthma, living predominantly in inner-city households. Our study combines measurements of a large panel of indoor environmental agents, in-home infant assessments, and review of all prenatal and postnatal medical records through the first year of life. We found multiple environmental pollution sources and potential health risks in study homes including high infant exposure to tobacco smoke. The prevalence of maternal smoking during pregnancy was 54%; postnatal environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure was nearly 90%. The majority (73%) of homes showed signs of dampness. Participants' lives were complicated by poverty, unemployment and single-parenthood. Thirty-three percent of fathers were not involved with their children, and 62% of subjects moved at least once during the study period. These socioeconomic issues had an impact on project implementation and led to modification of study eligibility criteria. Extensive outreach, follow up, and relationship-building were required in order to recruit and retain families and resulted in considerable work overload for study staff. Our experiences implementing the project will inform further studies on this and other similar populations. Future reports on this cohort will address the role of multiple environmental variables and their effects on wheezing outcome during the first year of life. PMID:16845500
Lung, For-Wey; Shu, Bih-Ching; Chiang, Tung-Liang; Lin, Shio-Jean
Early detection of developmental delay and childhood disorders are important for early intervention. This study aimed to describe the distribution of responses in a large population-based survey, identify cutoff points for the parent concern checklist (PCC) suitable for the Chinese language and culture, and explore how many children were identified as having evidence of problems at age 18 mo different from those at age 6 mo. Using a national randomly selected sample, the overall development of 21,248 children was investigated using the Taiwan Birth Cohort study instrument, and the PCC, a problem-oriented screening instrument. The Newton-Raphson iteration showed that the PCC should be separated into three groups, those scoring 1-2 in the first group, 3- 6 in the second group, and 7- 8 in the third group.Structural equation models showed that 6-mo development was predictive of 18-mo development; additionally, 18-mo development and the PCC showed good concurrent validity. This study identified three groups with distinct developmental trajectories and two cutoff points of 2/3 and 6/7. Thus, the PCC can be used as a first-stage screening instrument in a two-stage window screening procedure. Further studies are needed to investigate the factors, which contribute to the differences among these groups;follow-up on the typical and atypical development of these children is necessary. PMID:20091940
Korkeila, Jyrki; Lietzen, Raija; Sillanmäki, Lauri H; Rautava, Päivi; Korkeila, Katariina; Kivimäki, Mika; Koskenvuo, Markku; Vahtera, Jussi
Objectives Childhood adversities may be important determinants of later illnesses and poor health behaviour. However, large-scale prospective studies on the associations between childhood adversities and the onset of asthma in adulthood are lacking. Design Prospective cohort study with 7-year follow-up. Setting Nationally representative study. Data were collected from the Health and Social Support (HeSSup) survey and national registers. Participants The participants represent the Finnish population from the following age groups: 20–24, 30–34, 40–44, and 50–54 years at baseline in 1998 (24 057 survey participants formed the final cohort of this study). The occurrence of childhood adversities was assessed at baseline with a six-item survey scale. The analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, behavioural health risks and common mental disorders. Primary and secondary outcomes The survey data were linked to data from national health registers on incident asthma during a 7-year follow-up to define new-onset asthma cases with verified diagnoses. Results A total of 12 126 (59%) participants reported that they encountered a childhood adversity. Of them 3677 (18% of all) endured three to six adversities. During a follow-up of 7 years, 593 (2.9%) participants were diagnosed with incident asthma. Those who reported three or more childhood adversities had a 1.6-fold (95% CI 1.31 to 2.01) greater risk of asthma compared to those without childhood adversities. This hazard attenuated but remained statistically significant after adjustment for conventional risk factors (HR 1.33; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.67). Conclusions Adults who report having encountered adversities in childhood may have an increased risk of developing asthma. PMID:23069774
Background Revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has worse outcomes than primary reconstructions. Predictors for these worse outcomes are not known. The Multicenter ACL Revision Study (MARS) Group was developed to perform a multisurgeon, multicenter prospective longitudinal study to obtain sufficient subjects to allow multivariable analysis to determine predictors of clinical outcome. Purpose To describe the formation of MARS and provide descriptive analysis of patient demographics and clinical features for the initial 460 enrolled patients to date in this prospective cohort. Study Design Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods After training and institutional review board approval, surgeons began enrolling patients undergoing revision ACL reconstruction, recording patient demographics, previous ACL reconstruction methods, intra-articular injuries, and current revision techniques. Enrolled subjects completed a questionnaire consisting of validated patient-based outcome measures. Results As of April 1, 2009, 87 surgeons have enrolled a total of 460 patients (57% men; median age, 26 years). For 89%, the reconstruction was the first revision. Mode of failure as deemed by the revising surgeon was traumatic (32%), technical (24%), biologic (7%), combination (37%), infection (<1%), and no response (<1%). Previous graft present at the time of injury was 70% autograft, 27% allograft, 2% combination, and 1% unknown. Sixty-two percent were more than 2 years removed from their last reconstruction. Graft choice for revision ACL reconstruction was 45% autograft, 54% allograft, and more than 1% both allograft and autograft. Meniscus and/or chondral damage was found in 90% of patients. Conclusion The MARS Group has been able to quickly accumulate the largest revision ACL reconstruction cohort reported to date. Traumatic reinjury is deemed by surgeons to be the most common single mode of failure, but a combination of factors represents the most
Finkelstein, M; Verma, D
Aims: To study mortality in a cohort of members of the United Association of Journeymen and Apprentices of the Plumbing and Pipe Fitting Industry of the United States and Canada and to compare results with two previous proportional mortality studies. Methods: A cohort of 25 285 workers who entered the trade after 1949 was assembled from records of the international head office. Mortality was ascertained by linkage to the Canadian Mortality Registry at Statistics Canada. Standardised mortality ratios were computed using Ontario general population mortality rates as the reference. Results: There were significant increases in lung cancer mortality rates (SMR 1.27; 95% CI 1.13 to 1.42). Increased lung cancer risk was observed among plumbers, pipefitters, and sprinkler fitters. Increased risk was observed among workers joining the Union as late as the 1970s. A random effects meta-analysis of this study and the two PMR studies found significant increases in oesophageal (RR 1.24; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.53), lung (RR 1.31; 95% CI 1.19 to 1.44), and haematological/lymphatic (RR 1.21; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.35) malignancies. Conclusions: The mortality pattern is consistent with the effects of occupational exposure to asbestos. Increased risk due to other respiratory carcinogens such as welding fume cannot be excluded. There are substantial amounts of asbestos in place in industrial and commercial environments. The education and training of workers to protect themselves against inhalation hazards will be necessary well into the future. PMID:15317913
Vance, Leah D; Rodeghier, Mark; Cohen, Robyn T; Rosen, Carol L; Kirkham, Fenella J; Strunk, Robert C; DeBaun, Michael R
Previous studies have shown that the highest incidence of acute chest syndrome (ACS) in sickle cell disease occurs in children <4 years old, and a history of ACS at this age is a risk factor for future ACS episodes. However, the interval associated with the highest risk of subsequent ACS or severe pain is not known. Through this mixed retrospective-prospective observational study, the Sleep and Asthma Cohort, we sought to determine the interval after an initial ACS episode during which the majority of children <4 years old are rehospitalized for ACS or severe pain. The cumulative prevalence of rehospitalization for ACS or severe pain within 6 months, 1 years, and 2 years was calculated for children with an initial ACS episode <4 years old and compared to children with an initial ACS episode ≥4 years old. A total of 44.8% and 55.2% of participants had an initial ACS episode <4 years and ≥4 years old (Range: 4-17.7 years), respectively. At 1 year following the initial ACS episode, children <4 years old had a significantly higher cumulative prevalence of rehospitalizations for ACS or pain as compared to children ≥4 years of age, 62.5 and 39.1%, respectively (P = 0.009). After initial ACS episodes, the majority of children <4 years old will be rehospitalized for ACS or severe pain within one year, suggesting the need for a therapeutic intervention for this high-risk group. PMID:25619382
The National Children's Study is a population-based cohort study that will examine the effects of environmental influences on the health and development of more than 100,000 children across the United States, following them from birth until age 21. The goal of the study is to im...
Purpose The National Children's Study (NCS), a large longitudinal cohort study of environmental exposures among children, is currently in the planning stage. Prior to enrollment of 100,000 pregnant women across the United Sates for this study, a better understanding of the partic...
Platts-Mills, James A.; McCormick, Benjamin J. J.; Kosek, Margaret; Pan, William K.; Checkley, William; Houpt, Eric R.
Studies of diarrheal etiology in low- and middle-income countries have typically focused on children presenting with severe symptoms to health centers and thus are best equipped to describe the pathogens capable of leading to severe diarrheal disease. The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study was designed to evaluate, via intensive community surveillance, the hypothesis that repeated exposure to enteropathogens has a detrimental effect on growth, vaccine response, and cognitive development, which are the primary outcome measures for this study. In the setting of multiple outcomes of interest, a longitudinal cohort design was chosen. Because many or even the majority of enteric infections are asymptomatic, the collection of asymptomatic surveillance stools was a critical element. However, capturing diarrheal stools additionally allowed for the determination of the principle causes of diarrhea at the community level as well as for a comparison between those enteropathogens associated with diarrhea and those that are associated with poor growth, diminished vaccine response, and impaired cognitive development. Here, we discuss the analytical methods proposed for the MAL-ED study to determine the principal causes of diarrhea at the community level and describe the complex interplay between recurrent exposure to enteropathogens and these critical long-term outcomes. PMID:25305292
Brandt, Stephanie; Moss, Anja; Weck, Melanie; Florath, Ines; Wabitsch, Martin; Hebebrand, Johannes; Schimmelmann, Benno G.; Christiansen, Hanna
Childhood obesity is one of the greatest public health challenges in Western countries. Abnormal eating behavior is thought to be a developmental trajectory to obesity. The Eating Pattern Inventory for Children (EPI-C) has not been used for children as young as eight years, and possible associations with body weight have not yet been established. Five hundred and twenty-one children of the Ulm Birth Cohort Study (UBCS; age eight) filled out the EPI-C and BMI was assessed. Adequacy of the scales was tested with confirmatory factor analysis and a MANOVA and cluster analysis established associations between eating patterns and BMI. The factor structure of the EPI-C was confirmed (GFI = .968) and abnormal eating behavior was associated with overweight (χ2(8) = 79.29, p<.001). The EPI-C is a valid assessment tool in this young age group. Overweight children consciously restrain their eating. PMID:25141134
Mulder, P G
This paper deals with making statistical inference about the relative risk (or risk ratio) in a cohort (or prospective) study with dichotomous exposure when the number of cases is a Poisson distributed variable. The exact procedure for testing the null hypothesis for the relative risk and the exact computation of its confidence interval for a single 2 X 2 table is presented. Maximum likelihood methods and the homogeneity test are presented for the common risk ratio when data is stratified in several 2 X 2 tables. These methods are based upon a sufficient statistic and therefore are considered proper statistical alternatives to the more descriptive epidemiological measures such as (in)directly standardized mortality (morbidity) ratios. All computations can be done on a programmable pocket calculator. With the HP-41 CV more than 70 strata can be distinguished. PMID:3180748
Maher, K.V.; Defonso, L.R.
This historical cohort study examined mortality among 1,510 white male researchers employed from 1950-1959 who handled chemicals. During 1950-1979, 95 deaths were observed, significantly less than the 173.2 predicted by general population rates (SMR = 55). This was due to deficits in overall cancer deaths (SMR = 66), particularly respiratory cancer (SMR = 28), and reduced mortality from circulatory diseases and accidents. Those who had worked directly with chemicals for more than 5 yr and those who had the most hazardous exposures experienced similar low mortality for all causes, all cancers, and respiratory cancer. Although deaths due to digestive cancer were elevated among those with 1-5 yr of work experience, there was no excess among those working more than 5 yr as would be expected from occupational exposure.
Cohort members: Assembly of the cohort is based on historic membership records of members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (LDS) in an area of Millard County, Utah which is located in the central western part of the state. Personal information including name, bi...
Winberg, Anna; West, Christina E; Strinnholm, Åsa; Nordström, Lisbeth; Hedman, Linnea; Rönmark, Eva
Objectives Knowledge about the prevalence of allergies to foods in childhood and adolescence is incomplete. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of allergies to milk, egg, cod, and wheat using reported data, clinical examinations, and double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges, and to describe the phenotypes of reported food hypersensitivity in a cohort of Swedish schoolchildren. Methods In a population-based cohort of 12-year-old children, the parents of 2612 (96% of invited) completed a questionnaire. Specific IgE antibodies to foods were analyzed in a random sample (n=695). Children reporting complete avoidance of milk, egg, cod, or wheat due to perceived hypersensitivity and without physician-diagnosed celiac disease were invited to undergo clinical examination that included specific IgE testing, a celiac screening test, and categorization into phenotypes of food hypersensitivity according to preset criteria. Children with possible food allergy were further evaluated with double-blind challenges. Results In this cohort, the prevalence of reported food allergy to milk, egg, cod, or wheat was 4.8%. Food allergy was diagnosed in 1.4% of the children after clinical evaluation and in 0.6% following double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge. After clinical examination, children who completely avoided one or more essential foods due to perceived food hypersensitivity were categorized with the following phenotypes: allergy (29%), outgrown allergy (19%), lactose intolerance (40%), and unclear (12%). Conclusions There was a high discrepancy in the prevalence of allergy to milk, egg, cod and wheat as assessed by reported data, clinical evaluation, and double-blind food challenges. Food hypersensitivity phenotyping according to preset criteria was helpful for identifying children with food allergy. PMID:26134827
le Roux, David M; Myer, Landon; Nicol, Mark P; Zar, Heather J
Background Pneumonia is the leading cause of childhood mortality and a major contributor to childhood morbidity, but accurate measurement of pneumonia incidence is challenging. We compared pneumonia incidence using a facility-based surveillance system to estimates from a cohort study conducted contemporaneously in the same community in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods A surveillance system was developed in six public sector primary care clinics and in a regional referral hospital, to detect childhood pneumonia cases. Nurses recorded all children presenting to facilities who met WHO case definitions of pneumonia, and hospital records were reviewed. Estimates of pneumonia incidence and severity were compared with incidence rates based on active surveillance in the Drakenstein Child Health Study. Results From June 2012 until September 2013, the surveillance system detected 306 pneumonia episodes in children under 1 year of age, an incidence of 0.20 episodes/child-year (e/cy) (95% CI 0.17 to 0.22 e/cy). The incidence in the cohort study from the same period was 0.27 e/cy (95% CI 0.23 to 0.32 e/cy). Pneumonia incidence in the surveillance system was almost 30% lower than in the birth cohort; incidence rate ratio 0.72 (95% CI 0.58 to 0.89). In the surveillance system, 18% were severe pneumonia cases, compared to 23% in the birth cohort, rate ratio 0.81 (95% CI 0.55 to 1.18). Conclusions In this setting, facility-based pneumonia surveillance detected fewer cases of pneumonia, and fewer severe cases, compared to the corresponding cohort study. Facility pneumonia surveillance using data collected by local healthcare workers provides a useful estimate of the epidemiology of childhood pneumonia but may underestimate incidence and severity. PMID:26685027
Peres, Marco A.; Barros, Aluísio Jardim; Peres, Karen Glazer; Araújo, Cora Luiza; Menezes, Ana M. B.; Hallal, Pedro C.; Victora, Cesar G.
The aim of this study was to describe oral health follow-up studies nested in a birth cohort. A population-based birth cohort was launched in 1993 in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Two oral health follow-up studies were conducted at six (n = 359) and 12 (n = 339) years of age. A high response rate was observed at 12 years of age; 94.4% of the children examined at six years of age were restudied in 2005. The mean DMF-T index at age 12 was 1.2 (SD = 1.6) for the entire sample, ranging from 0.6 (SD = 1.1) for children that were caries-free at age six, 1.3 (SD = 1.5) for those with 1-3 carious teeth at six years, and 1.8 (SD = 1.8) for those with 4-19 carious teeth at six years (p < 0.01). The number of individuals with severe malocclusions at 12 years was proportional to the number of malocclusions at six years. Oral health problems in early adolescence were more prevalent in individuals with dental problems at six years of age. PMID:20963297
Skovgaard, A. M.; Olsen, E. M.; Christiansen, E.; Houmann, T.; Landorph, S. L.; Jorgensen, T.
Background: Epidemiological studies of mental health problems in the first years of life are few. This study aims to investigate infancy predictors of psychopathology in the second year of life. Methods: A random general population sample of 210 children from the Copenhagen Child Birth Cohort CCC 2000 was investigated by data from National Danish…
Lambert, Stephen Bernard; Ware, Robert S; Cook, Anne L; Maguire, Frances A; Whiley, David M; Bialasiewicz, Seweryn; Mackay, Ian M; Wang, David; Sloots, Theo P; Nissen, Michael D; Grimwood, Keith
Introduction Even in developed economies infectious diseases remain the most common cause of illness in early childhood. Our current understanding of the epidemiology of these infections is limited by reliance on data from decades ago performed using low-sensitivity laboratory methods, and recent studies reporting severe, hospital-managed disease. Methods and analysis The Observational Research in Childhood Infectious Diseases (ORChID) study is an ongoing study enrolling a dynamic birth cohort to document the community-based epidemiology of viral respiratory and gastrointestinal infections in early childhood. Women are recruited antenatally, and their healthy newborn is followed for the first 2 years of life. Parents keep a daily symptom diary for the study child, collect a weekly anterior nose swab and dirty nappy swab and complete a burden diary when a child meets pre-defined illness criteria. Specimens will be tested for a wide range of viruses by real-time PCR assays. Primary analyses involves calculating incidence rates for acute respiratory illness (ARI) and acute gastroenteritis (AGE) for the cohort by age and seasonality. Control material from children when they are without symptoms will allow us to determine what proportion of ARIs and AGE can be attributed to specific pathogens. Secondary analyses will assess the incidence and shedding duration of specific respiratory and gastrointestinal pathogens. Ethics and dissemination This study is approved by The Human Research Ethics Committees of the Children's Health Queensland Hospital and Health Service, the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital and The University of Queensland. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT01304914. PMID:23117571
Ji, Xiaopeng; Liu, Jianghong
Little evidence is available regarding the relationship between zinc and sleep in school children. The present study aimed to examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between blood zinc concentrations and sleep quality throughout childhood. A total of 1295 children from the Jintan Child Cohort in China were included in this study. Venous blood sample of zinc and subjective sleep data were collected when the children were at preschool age (3–5 years old) and early adolescence (11–15 years old). Odds ratios (ORs) reflect the odds of the sleep quality/subdomain being at a greater impairment level associated with 1 unit increase in log zinc concentration. Cross-sectional analyses showed negative correlation of blood zinc concentrations with insufficient sleep duration (OR = 0.432, p = 0.002), sleep disturbances (OR = 0.454, p = 0.009) and poor sleep quality (OR = 0.559, p = 0.049) in adolescence, but no association at preschool age (p > 0.05). Longitudinal analyses indicated that blood zinc concentrations at preschool age predict poor sleep efficiency (OR = 0.186, p = 0.000) and poor sleep quality (OR = 0.358, p = 0.020) in adolescence. Our findings suggest that sufficient zinc concentration is associated with good sleep quality, dependent on the developmental stage in childhood. Future interventional research is warranted to examine the short and long-term effect of zinc status on sleep heath. PMID:26184300
Chen, Hsiu-Pin; Tsai, Yung-Fong; Lin, Jr-Rung; Liu, Fu-Chao; Yu, Huang-Ping
The aim of the present large population-based cohort study is to explore the risk factors of age-related mortality in liver transplant recipients in Taiwan. Basic information and data on medical comorbidities for 2938 patients who received liver transplants between July 1, 1998, and December 31, 2012, were extracted from the National Health Insurance Research Database on the basis of ICD-9-codes. Mortality risks were analyzed after adjusting for preoperative comorbidities and compared among age cohorts. All patients were followed up until the study endpoint or death. This study finally included 2588 adults and 350 children [2068 (70.4%) male and 870 (29.6%) female patients]. The median age at transplantation was 52 (interquartile range, 43–58) years. Recipients were categorized into the following age cohorts: <20 (n = 350, 11.9%), 20–39 (n = 254, 8.6%), 40–59 (n = 1860, 63.3%), and ≥60 (n = 474, 16.1%) years. In the total population, 428 deaths occurred after liver transplantation, and the median follow-up period was 2.85 years (interquartile range, 1.2–5.5 years). Dialysis patients showed the highest risk of mortality irrespective of age. Further, the risk of death increased with an increase in the age at transplantation. Older liver transplant recipients (≥60 years), especially dialysis patients, have a higher mortality rate, possibly because they have more medical comorbidities. Our findings should make clinicians aware of the need for better risk stratification among elderly liver transplantation candidates. PMID:27019189
Moffitt, Terrie E; Houts, Renate M; Belsky, Daniel W; Arseneault, Louise; Caspi, Avshalom
Objectives To test whether frequent bullying victimisation in childhood increases the likelihood of self harming in early adolescence, and to identify which bullied children are at highest risk of self harm. Design The Environmental Risk (E-Risk) longitudinal study of a nationally representative UK cohort of 1116 twin pairs born in 1994-95 (2232 children). Setting England and Wales, United Kingdom. Participants Children assessed at 5, 7, 10, and 12 years of age. Main outcome measures Relative risks of children’s self harming behaviour in the six months before their 12th birthday. Results Self harm data were available for 2141 children. Among children aged 12 who had self harmed (2.9%; n=62), more than half were victims of frequent bullying (56%; n=35). Exposure to frequent bullying predicted higher rates of self harm even after children’s pre-morbid emotional and behavioural problems, low IQ, and family environmental risks were taken into account (bullying victimisation reported by mother: adjusted relative risk 1.92, 95% confidence interval 1.18 to 3.12; bullying victimisation reported by child: 2.44, 1.36 to 4.40). Victimised twins were more likely to self harm than were their non-victimised twin sibling (bullying victimisation reported by mother: 13/162 v 3/162, ratio=4.3, 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 14.0; bullying victimisation reported by child: 12/144 v 7/144, ratio=1.7, 0.71 to 4.1). Compared with bullied children who did not self harm, bullied children who self harmed were distinguished by a family history of attempted/completed suicide, concurrent mental health problems, and a history of physical maltreatment by an adult. Conclusions Prevention of non-suicidal self injury in young adolescents should focus on helping bullied children to cope more appropriately with their distress. Programmes should target children who have additional mental health problems, have a family history of attempted/completed suicide, or have been maltreated by an adult
The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot research study to assess methodologies and research instruments needed for including asthma as a health outcome in the National Children's Study (NCS). This was one of a series of pilot studies focusing on (a) simple, cos...
Associations between abnormal body fat distribution and clinical variables are poorly understood in pediatric HIV disease. Our objective was to compare total body fat and its distribution in perinatally HIV-infected and HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) children and to evaluate associations with clin...
Aarhus, Lisa; Tambs, Kristian; Hoffman, Howard J; Engdahl, Bo
The objective of the study was to examine the association between otitis media in childhood and dizziness in adulthood. Longitudinal, population-based cohort study of 21,962 adults (aged 20-59 years, mean 40) who completed a health questionnaire in the Nord-Trøndelag Hearing Loss Study was conducted. At 7, 10 and 13 years of age, the same individuals underwent screening audiometry in a longitudinal school hearing investigation. Children found with hearing loss underwent an ear, nose and throat specialist examination. Adults diagnosed with childhood chronic suppurative otitis media (n = 102) and childhood hearing loss after recurrent acute otitis media (n = 590) were significantly more likely to have increased risk of reported dizziness when compared to adults with normal hearing as children at the school investigation and also a negative history of recurrent otitis media (n = 21,270), p < 0.05. After adjusting for adult age, sex and socio-economic status, the odds ratios were 2.1 [95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.4-3.3] and 1.3 (95 % CI: 1.0-1.5), respectively. This longitudinal cohort study suggests that childhood chronic suppurative otitis media and childhood hearing loss after recurrent acute otitis media are associated with increased risk of dizziness in adulthood. This might reflect a permanent effect of inflammatory mediators or toxins on the vestibular system. The new finding stresses the importance of treatment and prevention of these otitis media conditions. PMID:26335289
Masemola, Matshane L.; van der Merwe, Lize; Lombard, Zané; Viljoen, Denis; Ramsay, Michèle
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a devastating developmental disorder resulting from alcohol exposure during fetal development. It is a considerable public health problem worldwide and is characterized by central nervous system abnormalities, dysmorphic facial features, and growth retardation. Imprinted genes are known to play an important role in growth and development and therefore four imprinting control regions (ICRs), H19 ICR, IG-DMR, KvDMR1 and PEG3 DMR were examined. It is proposed that DNA methylation changes may contribute to developmental abnormalities seen in FAS and which persist into adulthood. The participants included FAS children and controls from the Western and Northern Cape Provinces. DNA samples extracted from blood and buccal cells were bisulfite modified, the ICRs were amplified by PCR and pyrosequencing was used to derive a quantitative estimate of methylation at selected CpG dinucleotides: H19 ICR (six CpG sites; 50 controls and 73 cases); KvDMR1 (7, 55, and 86); IG-DMR (10, 56, and 84); and PEG3 DMR (7, 50, and 79). The most profound effects of alcohol exposure are on neuronal development. In this study we report on epigenetic effects observed in blood which may not directly reflect tissue-specific alterations in the developing brain. After adjusting for age and sex (known confounders for DNA methylation), there was a significant difference at KvDMR1 and PEG3 DMR, but not the H19 ICR, with only a small effect (0.84% lower in cases; p = 0.035) at IG-DMR. The two maternally imprinted loci, KvDMR1 and PEG3 DMR, showed lower average locus-wide methylation in the FAS cases (1.49%; p < 0.001 and 7.09%; p < 0.001, respectively). The largest effect was at the PEG3 DMR though the functional impact is uncertain. This study supports the role of epigenetic modulation as a mechanism for the teratogenic effects of alcohol by altering the methylation profiles of imprinted loci in a locus-specific manner. PMID:25806045
Masemola, Matshane L; van der Merwe, Lize; Lombard, Zané; Viljoen, Denis; Ramsay, Michèle
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a devastating developmental disorder resulting from alcohol exposure during fetal development. It is a considerable public health problem worldwide and is characterized by central nervous system abnormalities, dysmorphic facial features, and growth retardation. Imprinted genes are known to play an important role in growth and development and therefore four imprinting control regions (ICRs), H19 ICR, IG-DMR, KvDMR1 and PEG3 DMR were examined. It is proposed that DNA methylation changes may contribute to developmental abnormalities seen in FAS and which persist into adulthood. The participants included FAS children and controls from the Western and Northern Cape Provinces. DNA samples extracted from blood and buccal cells were bisulfite modified, the ICRs were amplified by PCR and pyrosequencing was used to derive a quantitative estimate of methylation at selected CpG dinucleotides: H19 ICR (six CpG sites; 50 controls and 73 cases); KvDMR1 (7, 55, and 86); IG-DMR (10, 56, and 84); and PEG3 DMR (7, 50, and 79). The most profound effects of alcohol exposure are on neuronal development. In this study we report on epigenetic effects observed in blood which may not directly reflect tissue-specific alterations in the developing brain. After adjusting for age and sex (known confounders for DNA methylation), there was a significant difference at KvDMR1 and PEG3 DMR, but not the H19 ICR, with only a small effect (0.84% lower in cases; p = 0.035) at IG-DMR. The two maternally imprinted loci, KvDMR1 and PEG3 DMR, showed lower average locus-wide methylation in the FAS cases (1.49%; p < 0.001 and 7.09%; p < 0.001, respectively). The largest effect was at the PEG3 DMR though the functional impact is uncertain. This study supports the role of epigenetic modulation as a mechanism for the teratogenic effects of alcohol by altering the methylation profiles of imprinted loci in a locus-specific manner. PMID:25806045
Background Spain, a Mediterranean country with relatively low rates of coronary heart disease, has a high prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and is experiencing a severe epidemic of overweight/obesity. We designed the Aragon Workers’ Health Study (AWHS) to characterize the factors associated with metabolic abnormalities and subclinical atherosclerosis in a middle aged population in Spain free of clinical cardiovascular disease. The objective of this paper is to describe the study design, aims and baseline characteristics of participants in the AWHS. Methods/Design Longitudinal cohort study based on the annual health exams of 5,400 workers of a car assembly plant in Figueruelas (Zaragoza, Spain). Study participants were recruited during a standardized clinical exam in 2009–2010 (participation rate 95.6%). Study participants will undergo annual clinical exams and laboratory assays, and baseline and triennial collection of biological materials for biobanking and cardiovascular imaging exams (carotid, femoral and abdominal ultrasonography, coronary calcium score, and ankle-arm blood pressure index). Participants will be followed-up for 10 years. Results The average (SD) age, body mass index, and waist circumference were 49.3 (8.7) years, 27.7 (3.6) kg/m2 and 97.2 (9.9) cm, respectively, among males (N = 5,048), and 40.8 (11.6) years, 24.4 (3.8) kg/m2, and 81.9 (9.9) cm, among females (N = 351). The prevalence of overweight, obesity, current smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes were 55.0, 23.1, 37.1, 40.3, 75.0, and 7.4%, respectively, among males, and 23.7, 8.3, 45.0, 12.1, 59.5, and 0.6%, respectively, among females. In the initial 587 study participants who completed all imaging exams (94.5% male), the prevalence of carotid plaque, femoral plaque, coronary calcium score >1 to 100, and coronary calcium score >100 was 30.3, 56.9, 27.0, and 8.8%, respectively. 67.7% of study participants had at least one plaque in
Introduction: The National Children's Study (NCS) is a longitudinal cohort study that will follow a sample of approximately 100,000 children born in the United States from before birth until 21 years of age. The NCS will investigate the separate and combined effects of environmen...
Anders, Katherine L.; Thompson, Corinne N.; Thuy, Nguyen Thi Van; Nguyet, Nguyen Minh; Tu, Le Thi Phuong; Dung, Tran Thi Ngoc; Phat, Voong Vinh; Van, Nguyen Thi Hong; Hieu, Nguyen Trong; Tham, Nguyen Thi Hong; Ha, Phan Thi Thanh; Lien, Le Bich; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Baker, Stephen; Simmons, Cameron P.
Summary Objectives Previous studies indicate a high burden of diarrhoeal disease in Vietnamese children, however longitudinal community-based data on burden and aetiology are limited. The findings from a large, prospective cohort study of diarrhoeal disease in infants in southern Vietnam are presented herein. Methods Infants were enrolled at birth in urban Ho Chi Minh City and a semi-rural district in southern Vietnam, and followed for 12 months (n = 6706). Diarrhoeal illness episodes were identified through clinic-based passive surveillance, hospital admissions, and self-reports. Results The minimum incidence of diarrhoeal illness in the first year of life was 271/1000 infant-years of observation for the whole cohort. Rotavirus was the most commonly detected pathogen (50% of positive samples), followed by norovirus (24%), Campylobacter (20%), Salmonella (18%), and Shigella (16%). Repeat infections were identified in 9% of infants infected with rotavirus, norovirus, Shigella, or Campylobacter, and 13% of those with Salmonella infections. Conclusions The minimum incidence of diarrhoeal disease in infants in both urban and semi-rural settings in southern Vietnam was quantified prospectively. A large proportion of laboratory-diagnosed disease was caused by rotavirus and norovirus. These data highlight the unmet need for a rotavirus vaccine in Vietnam and provide evidence of the previously unrecognized burden of norovirus in infants. PMID:25813553
Khademi, Hooman; Pourshams, Akram; Jafari, Elham; Salahi, Rasool; Semnani, Shahryar; Abaie, Behrooz; Islami, Farhad; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Etemadi, Arash; Byrnes, Graham; Abnet, Christian C; Dawsey, Sanford M; Day, Nicholas E; Pharoah, Paul D; Boffetta, Paolo; Kamangar, Farin
Objectives To investigate the association between opium use and subsequent risk of death. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting The Golestan Cohort Study in north-eastern Iran collected detailed validated data on opium use and other exposures at baseline. Participants were enrolled between January 2004 and June 2008 and were followed to May 2011, with a follow-up success rate of over 99%. Participants 50 045 participants aged 40-75 at baseline. Main outcomes Mortality, all cause and major subcategories. Results 17% (n=8487) of the participants reported opium use, with a mean duration of 12.7 years. During the follow-up period 2145 deaths were reported. The adjusted hazard ratio for all cause mortality associated with ever use of opium was 1.86 (95% confidence interval 1.68 to 2.06). Opium consumption was significantly associated with increased risks of deaths from several causes including circulatory diseases (hazard ratio 1.81) and cancer (1.61). The strongest associations were seen with deaths from asthma, tuberculosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (11.0, 6.22, and 5.44, respectively). After exclusion of people who self prescribed opium after the onset of major chronic illnesses, the associations remained strong with a dose-response relation. Conclusion Opium users have an increased risk of death from multiple causes compared with non-users. Increased risks were also seen in people who used low amounts of opium for a long period and those who had no major illness before use. PMID:22511302
Cheng, Xin; Lu, Wenbin; Liu, Mengling
Pooled analyses integrate data from multiple studies and achieve a larger sample size for enhanced statistical power. When heterogeneity exists in variables' effects on the outcome across studies, the simple pooling strategy fails to present a fair and complete picture of the effects of heterogeneous variables. Thus, it is important to investigate the homogeneous and heterogeneous structure of variables in pooled studies. In this article, we consider the pooled cohort studies with time-to-event outcomes and propose a penalized Cox partial likelihood approach with adaptively weighted composite penalties on variables' homogeneous and heterogeneous effects. We show that our method can characterize the variables as having heterogeneous, homogeneous, or null effects, and estimate non-zero effects. The results are readily extended to high-dimensional applications where the number of parameters is larger than the sample size. The proposed selection and estimation procedure can be implemented using the iterative shooting algorithm. We conduct extensive numerical studies to evaluate the performance of our proposed method and demonstrate it using a pooled analysis of gene expression in patients with ovarian cancer. PMID:25732747
Background Vegetarian diets have been associated with lower risk of chronic disease, but little is known about the health effects of low meat diets and the reliability of self-reported vegetarian status. We aimed to establish an analytical cohort over-represented with vegetarians, pescetarians and 1 day/week meat consumers, and to describe their lifestyle and dietary characteristics. In addition, we were able to compare self-reported vegetarians with vegetarians whose status has been confirmed by their response on the extensive food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Study methods Embedded within the Netherlands Cohort Study (n = 120,852; including 1150 self-reported vegetarians), the NLCS-Meat Investigation Cohort (NLCS-MIC) was defined by combining all FFQ-confirmed-vegetarians (n = 702), pescetarians (n = 394), and 1 day/week meat consumers (n = 1,396) from the total cohort with a random sample of 2–5 days/week- and 6–7 days/week meat consumers (n = 2,965 and 5,648, respectively). Results Vegetarians, pescetarians, and 1 day/week meat consumers had more favorable dietary intakes (e.g. higher fiber/vegetables) and lifestyle characteristics (e.g. lower smoking rates) compared to regular meat consumers in both sexes. Vegetarians adhered to their diet longer than pescetarians and 1 day/week meat consumers. 75% of vegetarians with a prevalent cancer at baseline had changed to this diet after diagnosis. 50% of self-reported vegetarians reported meat or fish consumption on the FFQ. Although the misclassification that occurred in terms of diet and lifestyle when merely relying on self-reporting was relatively small, the impact on associations with disease risk remains to be studied. Conclusion We established an analytical cohort over-represented with persons at the lower end of the meat consumption spectrum which should facilitate prospective studies of major cancers and causes of death using ≥20.3 years of follow-up. PMID:24289207
Sayers, Susan M; Mackerras, Dorothy; Singh, Gurmeet; Bucens, Ingrid; Flynn, Kathryn; Reid, Alison
Background The global rise of Type 2 diabetes and its complications has drawn attention to the burden of non-communicable diseases on populations undergoing epidemiological transition. The life course approach of a birth cohort has the potential to increase our understanding of the development of these chronic diseases. In 1987 we sought to establish an Australian Indigenous birth cohort to be used as a resource for descriptive and analytical studies with particular attention on non-communicable diseases. The focus of this report is the methodology of recruiting and following-up an Aboriginal birth cohort of mobile subjects belonging to diverse cultural and language groups living in a large sparsely populated area in the Top End of the Northern Territory of Australia. Methods A prospective longitudinal study of Aboriginal singletons born at the Royal Darwin Hospital 1987–1990, with second wave cross-sectional follow-up examination of subjects 1998–2001 in over 70 different locations. A multiphase protocol was used to locate and collect data on 686 subjects with different approaches for urban and rural children. Manual chart audits, faxes to remote communities, death registries and a full time subject locator with past experience of Aboriginal communities were all used. Discussion The successful recruitment of 686 Indigenous subjects followed up 14 years later with vital status determined for 95% of subjects and examination of 86% shows an Indigenous birth cohort can be established in an environment with geographic, cultural and climatic challenges. The high rates of recruitment and follow up indicate there were effective strategies of follow-up in a supportive population. PMID:12659639
Perrin, Eliana M.; Von Holle, Ann; Zerwas, Stephanie; Skinner, Asheley Cockrell; Reba-Harrelson, Lauren; Hamer, Robert M.; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Torgersen, Leila; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Bulik, Cynthia M.
Objective To describe weight-for-length (WFL) trajectories in the children (birth-12 months) of mothers with and without eating disorders. Methods This study is based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. We categorized women (N=57,185) based on diagnosis prior to and during pregnancy: anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), eating disorder not otherwise specified-purging subtype (EDNOS-P), binge eating disorder (BED), or no eating disorder (no-ED). The primary analysis included a shape invariant model fitted with non-linear mixed effects to compare growth rates across eating disorder subtypes. Results The children of mothers reporting any eating disorder had a lower WFL growth rate from birth--12 months than the children of mothers without eating disorders, even after adjusting for relative birth weight and some confounders known to affect growth. Discussion In this cohort, child WFL was related to maternal eating disorder status before and/or during pregnancy. These differences in growth trajectories warrant further study of long-term health outcomes and, if replicated, tailoring counseling to mothers with eating disorders during pregnancy. PMID:24782279
Liang, Hong; Olsen, Jørn; Yuan, Wei; Cnattingus, Sven; Vestergaard, Mogens; Obel, Carsten; Gissler, Mika; Li, Jiong
We aimed to examine whether early life bereavement, as indicator of severe stress, was associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia later in life.Based on population registers, we established a cohort of all children born in Denmark (N = 1 686 416) and Sweden (N = 2 563 659) from 1973 to 1997. Children were categorized as exposed if they lost a first-degree relative during the first 18 years of life. Outcome is the first diagnosis of schizophrenia as either inpatient or outpatient. Log-linear Poisson regression models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs).A total of 188,850 children (4.6%) experienced death of a first-degree relative from birth to 18 years of age. Compared with unexposed children, those exposed had overall a 39% higher risk of schizophrenia (= 1.39, 95% CI [confidence interval]: 1.32-1.47). The IRR was particularly high if the family member committed suicide (aIRR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.90-2.34) or died due to an injury or accident (aIRR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.27-1.63). The IRR of schizophrenia decreased with increasing child's age at bereavement (P < 0.0001). Children who experienced >1 death during the first 18 years of life (aIRR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.46-2.19) had a higher risk than those with a single death (aIRR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.30-1.45).The study suggested that exposure to death of a first-degree relative before 18 years was associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia in later life. The complex mechanisms behind these associations remain to be elucidated. PMID:26817875
Avershina, E; Storrø, O; Øien, T; Johnsen, R; Wilson, R; Egeland, T; Rudi, K
Bifidobacteria are a major microbial component of infant gut microbiota, which is believed to promote health benefits for the host and stimulate maturation of the immune system. Despite their perceived importance, very little is known about the natural development of and possible correlations between bifidobacteria in human populations. To address this knowledge gap, we analyzed stool samples from a randomly selected healthy cohort of 87 infants and their mothers with >90% of vaginal delivery and nearly 100% breast-feeding at 4 months. Fecal material was sampled during pregnancy, at 3 and 10 days, at 4 months, and at 1 and 2 years after birth. Stool samples were predicted to be rich in the species Bifidobacterium adolescentis, B. bifidum, B. dentium, B. breve, and B. longum. Due to high variation, we did not identify a clear age-related structure at the individual level. Within the population as a whole, however, there were clear age-related successions. Negative correlations between the B. longum group and B. adolescentis were detected in adults and in 1- and 2-year-old children, whereas negative correlations between B. longum and B. breve were characteristic for newborns and 4-month-old infants. The highly structured age-related development of and correlation networks between bifidobacterial species during the first 2 years of life mirrors their different or competing nutritional requirements, which in turn may be associated with specific biological functions in the development of healthy gut. PMID:23124244
Objectives To identify food intake profiles of children during their first four years of life and assess its variations according to sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics. Methods The Pelotas Birth Cohort Study (Brazil) recruited 4,231 liveborns, who were followed-up at ages 3, 12, 24 and 48 months. Food consumption data of children aged 12, 24 and 48 months was collected using a list of foods consumed during a 24-hour period prior to the interview. The food profiles were identified with the use of principal component analysis (PCA) for each age studied. Results Five components were identified at each age, four of them similar in all time points, namely: beverages, milks, staple, and snacks. A meat & vegetables component was identified at 12 and 24 months and a treats component at 48 months. The greatest nutritional differences were found among children from different socioeconomic levels. With regard to the milks component, higher breast milk intake compared to cow's milk was seen among poorer children (12- and 24-month old) and higher milk and chocolate powdered milk drink consumption was seen among more affluent children aged 48 months. Poorer children of less educated mothers showed higher adherence to the treats component (48 months). Regarding to the snack component, poorer children consumed more coffee, bread/cookies while more affluent children consumed proportionately more fruits, yogurt and soft drinks. Child care outside of the home was also a factor influencing food profiles more aligned with a healthier diet. Conclusions The study results showed that very early in life children show food profiles that are strongly associated with social (maternal schooling, socioeconomic position and child care) and behavioral characteristics (breast-feeding duration, bottle-feeding and pacifier use). PMID:22510615
Liu, Jianghong; Liu, Xianchen; Wang, Wei; McCauley, Linda; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer; Wang, Yingjie; Li, Linda; Yan, Chonghuai; Rogan, Walter J.
Importance The association between lead exposure and children’s IQ has been well studied, but few studies have examined the effects of blood lead on children’s behavior. Objective This study examined the association between blood lead concentrations and behavioral problems in a community sample of Chinese preschool children with a mean blood lead level <10 µg/dL. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Four elementary schools in Jintan City, Jiangsu Province of China. Participants Participants were 1341 children at ages 3–5 years. Main Outcome Measures Blood lead concentration was measured at ages 3–5 years. Behavioral problems were assessed using Chinese versions of the Child Behavior Checklist and Teacher Report Form when children at age 6 years. Results Mean blood lead concentration was 6.4 µg/dL (SD=2.6), with 75th and 90th percentiles being 7.7 and 9.4 µg/dL respectively. General linear modeling showed significant associations between blood lead concentrations and increased scores for teacher reported behavioral problems. One µg/dL increase of blood lead concentration resulted in a 0.32, 0.25 and 0.30 increase of behavior scores on emotional reactivity, anxiety/depressed and pervasive developmental problems, respectively (p <0.05), while adjusting for parental and child variables,. Spline modeling showed that teacher-reported behavior scores increased with blood lead concentration, particular for older girls. Conclusions and Relevance Blood lead concentrations, even at mean levels of 6.4 µg/dL, were associated with increased risk of behavioral problems in Chinese preschool children, including internalizing and pervasive developmental problems. This association showed different patterns depending on age and gender. PMID:25090293
Kummeling, Ischa; Thijs, Carel; Penders, John; Snijders, Bianca E P; Stelma, Foekje; Reimerink, Johan; Koopmans, Marion; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Huber, Machteld; Jansen, Margje C J F; de Bie, Rob; van den Brandt, Piet A
The aim of the KOALA Birth Cohort Study in the Netherlands is to identify factors that influence the clinical expression of atopic disease with a main focus on lifestyle (e.g., anthroposophy, vaccinations, antibiotics, dietary habits, breastfeeding and breast milk composition, intestinal microflora composition, infections during the first year of life, and gene-environment interaction). The recruitment of pregnant women started in October 2000. First, participants with 'conventional lifestyles' (n = 2343) were retrieved from an ongoing prospective cohort study (n = 7020) on pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain. In addition, pregnant women (n = 491) with 'alternative lifestyles' with regard to child rearing practices, dietary habits (organic, vegetarian), vaccination schemes and/or use of antibiotics, were recruited through organic food shops, anthroposophic doctors and midwives, Steiner schools, and dedicated magazines. All participants were enrolled between 14 and 18 wk of gestation and completed an intake questionnaire on family history of atopy and infant care intentions. Documentation of other relevant variables started in the pregnant mother and covered the first and third trimester as well as early childhood by repeated questionnaires at 14-18, 30, and 34 wk of gestation and 3, 7, 12, and 24 months post-partum. A subgroup of participants, including both conventional and alternative lifestyles, was asked to consent to maternal blood sampling, breast milk and a faecal sample of the infant at 1 month post-partum, capillary blood at age 1 yr, venous blood and observation of manifestation of atopic dermatitis during home visits at the age of 2 yr (using the UK working party criteria and the severity scoring of atopic dermatitis index), and buccal swabs for DNA isolation from child-parent trios. From the start, ethical approval and informed consent procedures included gene-environment interaction studies. Follow-up at 3 and 7 months post-partum was completed with
Wijnstok, Nienke J; Hoekstra, Trynke; van Mechelen, Willem; Kemper, Han C G; Twisk, Jos W R
The Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study (AGHLS) is a unique, multidisciplinary cohort study that was initially set up to examine growth and health among teenagers. Throughout the years, the AGHLS has aimed to answer research questions dealing with the relationships between the (natural) development of anthropometry, lifestyle and health from adolescence into adulthood. The AGHLS specifically focuses on anthropometrics, physical activity and fitness, cardiovascular disease risk, lifestyle, musculoskeletal health, psychological health and well-being. Besides this, many methodological issues related to the analysis of longitudinal data were also explored within the framework of the AGHLS. In 1976, students from two secondary schools from the greater Amsterdam area were included in the study. Between 1976 and 2006, 10 rounds of measurement were performed covering an age range between 13 and 43 years. The huge database collected so far has been primarily used to answer relevant research questions regarding the longitudinal relationship between lifestyle and health. Further information about the study can be obtained from the principal investigator Jos Twisk (email@example.com), and up-to-date information on AGHLS can be found by visiting the website www.aggo.nl. PMID:22434862
Miura, Kyoko; Green, Adèle C
Melanoma is the most serious form of skin cancer affecting mostly people of Caucasian origin and is associated with high exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Antioxidants in the diet are thought to prevent UV-induced DNA damage and oxidative stress and laboratory-based studies have shown that high antioxidant intakes inhibit melanoma development. Corresponding epidemiological evidence is inconsistent, however. We therefore reviewed results from prospective observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to clarify whether consumption of antioxidant vitamin C, E (tocopherol), and A (retinol), carotenoids and selenium, as food, supplements, or both, or high fruit and vegetable intake, reduce the incidence of cutaneous melanoma. A total of 9 studies (2 cohort, 1 nested case-control, 6 RCTs) were included. Neither antioxidant nutrients, individually or combined, nor fruit and vegetable intake showed any strong and significant associations with melanoma, though the number of relevant studies was limited and several had methodological shortcomings. In particular, melanoma was not a primary disease outcome in any of the RCTs and therefore, none adequately accounted for potential confounding by sun exposure. In conclusion, available evidence is currently inadequate to assess possible beneficial effects of antioxidant intake on melanoma risk. PMID:26147450
Rudan, Igor; Chopra, Mickey; Aulchenko, Yurii; Baqui, Abdullah H.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Edmond, Karen; Horta, Bernardo L.; Klugman, Keith P.; Lanata, Claudio F.; Madhi, Shabir A.; Nair, Harish; Qureshi, Zeshan; Rubens, Craig; Theodoratou, Evropi; Victora, Cesar G.; Wang, Wei; Weber, Martin W.; Wilson, James F.; Zgaga, Lina; Campbell, Harry
The global health agenda beyond 2015 will inevitably need to broaden its focus from mortality reduction to the social determinants of deaths, growing inequities among children and mothers, and ensuring the sustainability of the progress made against the infectious diseases. New research tools, including technologies that enable high-throughput genetic and ‘-omics’ research, could be deployed for better understanding of the aetiology of maternal and child health problems. The research needed to address those challenges will require conceptually different studies than those used in the past. It should be guided by stringent ethical frameworks related to the emerging collections of biological specimens and other health related information. We will aim to establish an international birth cohort which should assist low- and middle-income countries to use emerging genomic research technologies to address the main problems in maternal and child health, which are still major contributors to the burden of disease globally. PMID:23198101
Gigante, Denise P; Horta, Bernardo L; Matijasevich, Alicia; Loret de Mola, Christian; Barros, Aluisio J D; Santos, Ina S; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G
Background We examined the associations between socioeconomic trajectories from birth to adulthood and gestational age and birth size in the next generation, using linked data from two population-based birth cohorts carried out in a Brazilian city. By comparing socioeconomic trajectories of mothers and fathers, we attempted to identify-specific effects of maternal and paternal socioeconomic trajectory on offspring birth weight, birth length, head circumference and gestational age at birth. Methods 2 population-based birth cohort studies were carried out in 1982 and 2004 in Pelotas (Brazil); 156 mothers and 110 fathers from the earlier cohort had children in 2004. Gestational age and birth length, weight and head circumference were measured. Analyses were carried out separately for mothers and fathers. Mediation analyses assessed the role of birth weight and adult body mass index (BMI). Results Among mothers, but not for fathers, childhood poverty was strongly associated with smaller size in the next generation (about 400 g in weight and 1.5 cm in height) and shorter gestations (about 2 weeks). Adult poverty did not play a role. For mothers, the associations with gestational age, birth length and weight—but not with head circumference—persisted after adjusting for maternal birth weight and for the height and weight of the grandmother. Maternal birth weight did not mediate the observed associations, but high maternal BMI in adulthood was partly responsible for the association with gestational age. Conclusions Strong effects of early poverty on gestational age and birth size in the next generation were observed among mothers, but not among fathers. These findings suggest a specific maternal effect of socioeconomic trajectory, and in particular of early poverty on offspring size and duration of pregnancy. PMID:26109560
Lai, Ting-Chun; Chiang, Chen-Yuan; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Lin, Hsien-Ho
Background Diabetes is a well-known risk factor for tuberculosis (TB) and is increasingly prevalent in low- and middle-income countries, where the burden of TB is high. Glycemic control has the potential to modify the risk of TB. However, there are few studies on the association between glycemic control and TB risk, and the results are inconsistent. Methods and Findings We assembled a cohort using 123,546 individuals who participated in a community-based health screening service in northern Taiwan from 5 March 2005 to 27 July 2008. Glycemic control was measured using fasting plasma glucose (FPG) at the time of screening. The cohort was followed up to 31 December 2012 for the occurrence of TB by cross-matching the screening database to the national health insurance database. Multiple imputation was used to handle missing information. During a median follow-up of 4.6 y, 327 cases of TB occurred. In the multivariable Cox regression model, diabetic patients with poor glycemic control (FPG > 130 mg/dl) had a significantly higher hazard of TB (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.21, 95% CI 1.63–2.99, p < 0.001) compared to those without diabetes. The hazard of TB in diabetic patients with good glycemic control (FPG ≤ 130 mg/dl) did not differ significantly from that in nondiabetic individuals (aHR 0.69, 95% CI 0.35–1.36, p = 0.281). In the linear dose-response analysis, the hazard of TB increased with FPG (aHR 1.06 per 10-mg/dl increase in FPG, 95% CI 1.03–1.08, p < 0.001). Assuming the observed association between glycemic control and TB was causal, an estimated 7.5% (95% CI 4.1%–11.5%) of incident TB in the study population could be attributed to poor glycemic control. Limitations of the study include one-time measurement of fasting glucose at baseline and voluntary participation in the health screening service. Conclusions Good glycemic control could potentially modify the risk of TB among diabetic patients and may contribute to the control of TB in settings where
Beslow, Lauren A; Licht, Daniel J; Smith, Sabrina E; Storm, Phillip B; Heuer, Gregory G; Zimmerman, Robert A; Feiler, Alana M; Kasner, Scott E; Ichord, Rebecca N; Jordan, Lori C
Background and Purpose To describe features of children with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and to determine predictors of short-term outcome in a single-center prospective cohort study. Methods Single-center prospective consecutive cohort study of spontaneous ICH in children age 1-18 years from January 2006 to June 2008. Exclusion criteria were inciting trauma; intracranial tumor; isolated epidural, subdural, intraventricular, or subarachnoid hemorrhage; hemorrhagic transformation of ischemic stroke; and cerebral sinovenous thrombosis. Hospitalization records were abstracted. Follow-up assessments included outcome scores using the Pediatric Stroke Outcome Measure (PSOM) and King's Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury (KOSCHI). ICH volumes and total brain volumes (TBV) were measured by manual tracing. Results Twenty-two patients, median age of 10.3 years (range 4.2-16.6 years), had presenting symptoms of headache in 77%, focal deficits 50%, altered mental status 50%, and seizures 41%. Vascular malformations caused hemorrhage in 91%. Surgical treatment (hematoma evacuation, lesion embolization or excision) was performed during acute hospitalization in 50%. One patient died acutely. At median follow-up of 3.5 months (range 0.3-7.5 months), 71% of survivors had neurological deficits; 55% had clinically significant disability. Outcome based on PSOM and KOSCHI scores was worse in patients with ICH volume >2% of TBV (p=0.023) and altered mental status at presentation (p = 0.005). Conclusions Spontaneous childhood ICH was due mostly to vascular malformations. Acute surgical intervention was commonly performed. Although death was rare, 71% of survivors had persisting neurological deficits. Larger ICH volume and altered mental status predicted clinically significant disability. PMID:20019325
Gaspar, Paul D; Willis, F Buck
Background Adhesive Capsulitis (AC) affects patient of all ages, and stretching protocols are commonly prescribed for this condition. Dynamic splinting has been shown effective in contracture reduction from pathologies including Trismus to plantar fasciitis. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of dynamic splinting on patients with AC. Methods This controlled, cohort study, was conducted at four physical therapy, sports medicine clinics in Texas and California. Sixty-two patients diagnosed with Stage II Adhesive Capsulitis were grouped by intervention. The intervention categories were as follows: Group I (Control); Group II (Physical Therapy exclusively with standardized protocols); Group III; (Shoulder Dynasplint system exclusively); Group IV (Combined treatment with Shoulder Dynasplint and standardized Physical Therapy). The duration of this study was 90 days for all groups, and the main outcome measures were change in active, external rotation. Results Significant difference was found for all treatment groups (p < 0.001) following a one-way ANOVA. The greatest change with the smallest standard deviation was for the combined treatment group IV, (mean change of 29°). Conclusion The difference for the combined treatment group was attributed to patients' receiving the best PT combined with structured "home therapy" that contributed an additional 90 hours of end-range stretching. This adjunct should be included in the standard of care for adhesive Capsulitis. Trial Registration Trial Number: NCT00873158 PMID:19735563