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Sample records for coii tetra penta

  1. Bis[bis-(penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)cobalt(III)] tetra-chlorido-cobaltate(II) di-chloro-methane disolvate.

    PubMed

    Merola, Joseph S; Ngo, Mai; Karpin, George W

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, [Co(C10H15)2]2[CoCl4]·2CH2Cl2, was isolated as a dichloromethane solvate and was formed in the reaction between lithium penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dienide and anyhydrous cobalt(II) chloride in tetra-hydro-furan. There are two deca-methyl-cobaltocenium cations, one tetrachloridocobaltate(II) anion and two di-chloro-methane solvent mol-ecules in the formula unit. There is a slight disorder of the di-chloro-methane solvent which was treated with a two-site model [occupancy rates = 0.765 (4) and 0.235 (4)]. The di-chloro-methane mol-ecules display significant C-H⋯Cl inter-actions with the tetrachloridocobaltate(II) dianion. The cobalt atom of the deca-methyl-cobaltocenium cation sits on a twofold rotation axis, with only one penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-diene ligand being unique and the second generated by symmetry. The cobalt atom of the [CoCl4](-2) ion sits on a special site with -4 symmetry, with one unique chloride ligand and the others generated by the fourfold inversion axis.

  2. (η6-Benzophenone)(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)ruthenium(II) tetra­phenyl­borate

    PubMed Central

    Loughrey, Bradley T.; Nadin, Kevin; Williams, Michael L.; Healy, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    The structure of the title compound, [Ru(C10H15)(C13H10O)](C24H20B), consists of discrete [Cp*Ru(II)benzophenone] cations and tetra­phenyl­borate anions (Cp* = penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl). Tethering the Cp*Ru group to one aryl ring of benzophenone results in average values of 1.42 (1) and 1.38 (1) Å for the C—C bond lengths in the Ru-tethered and untethered phenyl rings, respectively. The dihedral angle between the benzene and phenyl rings of the benzophenone group is 50.5 (1)°. PMID:21578208

  3. Tris(bis(trimethylsilyl)amido)uranium: Compounds with tri-, tetra-, and penta-valent uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.L.

    1988-04-01

    This trivalent uranium compound, serves as a precursor to new tri-, tetra-, and penta-valent uranium species. The geometry about the U atom is pyramidal. Lewis-base coordination compounds of U(N(SiMe/sub 3/)/sub 2/)/sub 3/ with a one-to-one- ratio of Lewis base to uranium were isolated with pyridine, 4-dimethylamino-pyridine, 2,6-Me/sub 2/-C/sub 6/H/sub 3/NC, and TPO. Two-to-one coordination compounds were obtained with t-butylnitrile and t-butylisocyanide. Compounds with more sterically demanding bases could not be isolated. The expected decrease in U-N(SiMe/sub 3/)/sub 2/ bond length with increase in oxidation state is not observed. Reaction of ClU(N(SiMe/sub 3/)/sub 2/)/sub 3/and Li(NH(p-tolyl)) yields the uranium (IV) dimer, U/sub 2/(N(SiMe/sub 3/)/sub 2/)/sub 4/(..mu..-N(p-tolyl))/sub 2/. Reaction with 2,4,6-triemethylaniline produces a dimer. Analogous substitution products could not be obtained with aniline or p-toluidine. t-Bu/sub 3/CO/sup /minus//, t-Bu/sub 2/CHO/sup /minus//, and t-Bu/sub 3/SiO/sup /minus// are used to synthesize new tetravalent, mononuclear uranium compounds. Reaction of ClU(tritox)/sub 3/ with alkyllithium reagents leads to isolation of RU(tritox)/sub 3/. The reaction of U(ditox)/sub 4/ with MeLi affords the addition product U(ditox)/sub 4/(Me)Li, whose crystal structure is described. Preparation of uranium silox compounds is reported. 97 refs., 26 figs., 39 tabs.

  4. Bis[bis­(penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)cobalt(III)] tetra­chlorido­cobaltate(II) di­chloro­methane disolvate

    PubMed Central

    Merola, Joseph S.; Ngo, Mai; Karpin, George W.

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, [Co(C10H15)2]2[CoCl4]·2CH2Cl2, was isolated as a dichloromethane solvate and was formed in the reaction between lithium penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienide and anyhydrous cobalt(II) chloride in tetra­hydro­furan. There are two deca­methyl­cobaltocenium cations, one tetrachloridocobaltate(II) anion and two di­chloro­methane solvent mol­ecules in the formula unit. There is a slight disorder of the di­chloro­methane solvent which was treated with a two-site model [occupancy rates = 0.765 (4) and 0.235 (4)]. The di­chloro­methane mol­ecules display significant C—H⋯Cl inter­actions with the tetrachloridocobaltate(II) dianion. The cobalt atom of the deca­methyl­cobaltocenium cation sits on a twofold rotation axis, with only one penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­diene ligand being unique and the second generated by symmetry. The cobalt atom of the [CoCl4]−2 ion sits on a special site with -4 symmetry, with one unique chloride ligand and the others generated by the fourfold inversion axis. PMID:24426998

  5. Acetonitrile­dicarbon­yl(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)iron(II) tetra­fluorido­borate

    PubMed Central

    M’thiruaine, Cyprian M.; Friedrich, Holger B.; Changamu, Evans O.; Bala, Muhammad D.

    2011-01-01

    In the structure of the title compound, [Fe{η5-C5(CH3)5}(NCCH3)(CO)2]BF4, the arrangement of ligands around the Fe atom is in a pseudo-octa­hedral three-legged piano-stool fashion in which the penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl (Cp*) ligand occupies three apical coordination sites, while the two carbonyl and one acetonitrile ligands form the basal axes of the coordination. The Fe—N bond length is 1.924 (3) Å and the Fe—Cp* centroid distance is 1.722 Å. PMID:21836908

  6. Dicarbon­yl(hexa­methyl­ene-1,3,5,7-tetra­mine-κN 1)(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)iron(II) tetra­fluoridoborate

    PubMed Central

    M’thiruaine, Cyprian M.; Friedrich, Holger B.; Changamu, Evans O.; Fernandes, Manuel A.

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, [Fe(C10H15)(C6H12N4)(CO)2]BF4, the arrangement around the FeII atom corresponds to a three-legged piano stool. The penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl (Cp*) ligand occupies three coordination sites, while two CO ligands and one N atom of the hexa­methyl­ene­tetra­mine ligand occupy the remaining coordination sites, completing a pseudo-octahedral geometry. Both the complex cation and the BF4 − anion reside on crystallographic mirror planes. The Fe—N bond length is 2.069 (2) and the Fe—Cp*(centroid) distance is 1.7452 (3) Å. PMID:22807762

  7. GC-MS analysis of penta- and tetra-cyclic triterpenes from resins of Pistacia species. Part I. Pistacia lentiscus var. Chia.

    PubMed

    Assimopoulou, A N; Papageorgiou, V P

    2005-05-01

    Pistacia species contain oleoresins with bioactive triterpenes. In this study triterpenes, including minor components, were identified and quantified in both neutral and acidic fraction of Pistacia lentiscus var. Chia resin, grown exclusively in Chios island (Greece), collected traditionally, as well as by the use of stimulating agents (liquid collection). It was proved that these two resin samples were composed of several different minor triterpenes. In the traditional collection of the resin, 36 triterpenes were identified, 23 of which are new minor compounds (five in the acidic and eighteen in the neutral fraction). In the liquid collection resin eight compounds were identified in the acidic and 11 in the neutral fraction, while seven compounds were not contained in resin traditionally collected. The main triterpenes in both resin samples collected traditionally and by use of stimulating agents were in the following order: isomasticadienonic acid (24 and 22.5% w/w of triterpenic fraction respectively), masticadienonic acid (9.3 and 14.7% w/w of triterpenic fraction) and 28-norolean-17-en-3-one (19 and 36% w/w of triterpenic fraction respectively). The aim of this study was to compare the qualitative and quantitative composition of triterpenes in the resin samples collected using the traditional and new liquid techniques, and examine whether the collection technique influences the contained triterpenes in P. lentiscus var. Chia resin samples. Finally, since there is confusion on interpreting mass spectra of triterpenes we present an analytical review on the base peaks, main fragments and fragmentation mechanism/pattern of several skeleton penta- and tetra- cyclic triterpenes reported in P. lentiscus resin. Also, a biosynthetic route for triterpene skeletons contained in P. lentiscus resin was approached.

  8. Trichlorido-1κCl,2κCl-(2,6-dimethyl-phenolato-2κO)-μ-oxido-bis{1,2(η)-2,3,4,5-tetra-methyl-1-[4-(trimethyl-silyl)phen-yl]cyclo-penta-dien-yl}dititanium(IV).

    PubMed

    Luo, Xuyang; Wu, Qiaolin; Mu, Ying

    2011-10-01

    The title dinuclear titanocene, [Ti(2)(C(8)H(9)O)(C(18)H(25)Si)(2)Cl(3)O], contains one Ti atom tetra-hedrally coordinated by two Cl atoms, a bridging O atom and the substituted cyclo-penta-dienyl ligand, and another Ti atom tetra-hedrally coordinated by a Cl atom, a bridging O atom, the 2,6-dimethyl-phenolate ligand and the substituted cyclo-penta-dienyl ligand. The bridging O atom lies on a twofold rotation axis.

  9. Trichlorido-1κ2 Cl,2κCl-(2,6-dimethyl­phenolato-2κO)-μ-oxido-bis{1,2(η5)-2,3,4,5-tetra­methyl-1-[4-(trimethyl­silyl)phen­yl]cyclo­penta­dien­yl}dititanium(IV)

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xuyang; Wu, Qiaolin; Mu, Ying

    2011-01-01

    The title dinuclear titanocene, [Ti2(C8H9O)(C18H25Si)2Cl3O], contains one Ti atom tetra­hedrally coordinated by two Cl atoms, a bridging O atom and the substituted cyclo­penta­dienyl ligand, and another Ti atom tetra­hedrally coordinated by a Cl atom, a bridging O atom, the 2,6-dimethyl­phenolate ligand and the substituted cyclo­penta­dienyl ligand. The bridging O atom lies on a twofold rotation axis. PMID:22064795

  10. (η5-Penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)(η6-4-phenyl­butan-2-one)ruthenium(II) tetra­phenyl­borate

    PubMed Central

    Loughrey, Bradley T.; Williams, Michael L.; Healy, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, [Ru(C10H15)(C10H12O)][B(C6H5)4], crystallizes as discrete (η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)Ru(η6-4-phenyl­butan-2-one)]+ cations and [BPh4]− anions. In the cation, the non-H atoms of the butan-2-one group are approximately planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.056 Å) and lie nearly perpendicular to the plane of the phenyl ring with a dihedral angle between the two planes of 69.3 (1)°. No significant C—H⋯O inter­actions are observed between the methyl and phenyl H atoms and the carbonyl O atom. PMID:21589253

  11. (η5-Penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)(η6-p-toluene­sulfonamide)ruthenium(II) tetra­phenyl­borate

    PubMed Central

    Loughrey, Bradley T.; Williams, Michael L.; Poulsen, Sally-Ann; Healy, Peter C.

    2008-01-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound, [Ru(C10H15)(C7H9NO2S)]C24H20B, has been determined as part of our investigation into the structural and biological properties of organometallic RuII–arene–Cp* complex salts of the type [R-PhRuCp*]+·X − (where Cp* is penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­diene). Tethering the RuCp* group to the benzene ring of p-toluene­sulfonamide results in only minor changes to the mol­ecular geometry of the sulfonamide, but, together with crystallization as the [BPh4]− salt, effectively blocks involvement of the sulfonamide group in N—H⋯O hydrogen-bonding networks. PMID:21581173

  12. Trichlorido{2-[2-(η-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)-2-methyl-prop-yl]-1-trimethyl-silyl-1H-imidazole-κN}titanium(IV) tetra-hydro-furan hemisolvate.

    PubMed

    Ge, Fang; Nie, Wanli; Borzov, Maxim V; Churakov, Andrei V

    2010-04-21

    The title compound, [Ti(C(15)H(23)N(2)Si)Cl(3)]·0.5C(4)H(8)O, has been prepared from {2-[2-(η(5)-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)-2-methyl-prop-yl]-1H-imidazolyl-κN(1)}bis-(N,N-diethyl-amido-κN)titanium(IV), (C(12)H(14)N(2))Ti(NEt(2))(2), by reaction with excess of Me(3)SiCl in tetra-hydro-furan (THF) at 353 K. The crystal structure contains THF as adduct solvent, disordered around a center of inversion. The presence of THF and the adduct ratio has been independently supported by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The coordination polyhedron of the Ti atom is distorted square-pyramidal, assuming the cyclo-penta-dienyl (Cp) ring occupies one coordination site. The Ti, Si and CH(2) group C atoms only deviate slightly from the imidazole ring plane [by 0.021 (4), 0.133 (4) and 0.094 (4) Å, respectively]. Comparison of the principal geometric parameters with those of the few known structurally characterized analogues reveal small differences in bond lengths and angles at the Ti atom. The title complex is only stable in THF-d(8) in the presence of excess Me(3)SiCl, otherwise it exists in an equilibrium with equimolar amounts of dichlorido{2-[2-(η(5)-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)-2-methyl-prop-yl]-1H-imidazolyl-κN(3)}titanium(IV) and chloro-trimethyl-silane.

  13. (η6-Isopropyl N-phenyl­carbamate)(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)ruthenium(II) tetra­phenyl­borate acetone monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Loughrey, Bradley T.; Williams, Michael L.; Healy, Peter C.

    2011-01-01

    The title complex, [Ru(C10H15)(C10H13NO2)](C24H20B)·C3H6O, is related to the analogous O-methyl complex. The average Ru—C distance to the penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl (Cp*) group is 2.19 (3) Å, and 2.21 (1) Å to the ortho, meta and para C atoms of the arene ring. The Ru—Cipso bond length of 2.272 (3) Å is significantly longer, reflecting movement of the Ru atom away from the C atoms with electronegative substituents attached. The amide H atom in the cation forms an inter­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bond with the carbonyl O atom of the acetone solvent mol­ecule. A C—H⋯O inter­action also occurs. PMID:22058857

  14. In situ tetrazole templated chair-like decanuclear azido-cobalt(II) SMM containing both tetra- and octa-hedral Co(II) ions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan-Zhu; Gao, Song; Sato, Osamu

    2015-01-14

    An azido-bridged chair-like decanuclear cluster: [Co(II)10(bzp)8(Metz)2(N3)18]·4MeOH·3H2O (1, bzp = 2-benzoylpyridine and HMetz = 5-methyl-1H-tetrazole) was prepared with in situ tetrazolate anions as templates in a sealed system. 1 containing both octahedral and tetrahedral Co(II) ions exhibited slow relaxation of magnetization with an effective barrier of 26 K under an applied dc field of 1 kOe.

  15. Synthesis, DNA-binding, DNA-photonuclease profiling and antimicrobial activity of novel tetra-aza macrocyclic Ni(II), Co(II) and Cu(II) complexes constrained by thiadiazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinay Kumar, B.; Bhojya Naik, H. S.; Girija, D.; Sharath, N.; Pradeepa, S. M.; Joy Hoskeri, H.; Prabhakara, M. C.

    A new tetra-aza macrocyclic ligand, L (C24H16N12O2S4) and its complexes of type, [MLCl2] and [CuL]Cl2 (where M = Ni(II), Co(II); L = N,N'-(benzene-1,3-diyldi-1,3,4-thiadiazole-5,2-diyl)bis{2-[(5-benzene-1,3-diyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)amino]acetamide}) were synthesized and characterized by the spectral and analytical techniques. An octahedral geometry has been proposed for Ni(II) and Co(II) complexes while Cu(II) complex exhibit a square planar geometry. All the synthesized metal complexes were screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against selected species of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The binding property of the complexes with CT-DNA was studied by absorption spectral analysis, followed by viscosity measurement and thermal denaturation studies. The photo induced cleavage studies revealed that the complexes possess photonuclease property against pUC19 DNA under UV-visible irradiation.

  16. Synthesis, DNA-binding, DNA-photonuclease profiling and antimicrobial activity of novel tetra-aza macrocyclic Ni(II), Co(II) and Cu(II) complexes constrained by thiadiazole.

    PubMed

    Vinay Kumar, B; Bhojya Naik, H S; Girija, D; Sharath, N; Pradeepa, S M; Joy Hoskeri, H; Prabhakara, M C

    2012-08-01

    A new tetra-aza macrocyclic ligand, L (C(24)H(16)N(12)O(2)S(4)) and its complexes of type, [MLCl(2)] and [CuL]Cl(2) (where M=Ni(II), Co(II); L=N,N'-(benzene-1,3-diyldi-1,3,4-thiadiazole-5,2-diyl)bis{2-[(5-benzene-1,3-diyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)amino]acetamide}) were synthesized and characterized by the spectral and analytical techniques. An octahedral geometry has been proposed for Ni(II) and Co(II) complexes while Cu(II) complex exhibit a square planar geometry. All the synthesized metal complexes were screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against selected species of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The binding property of the complexes with CT-DNA was studied by absorption spectral analysis, followed by viscosity measurement and thermal denaturation studies. The photo induced cleavage studies revealed that the complexes possess photonuclease property against pUC19 DNA under UV-visible irradiation.

  17. Crystal structure of 5,7,12,14-tetra­hydro-5,14:7,12-bis­([1,2]benzeno)­penta­cene-6,13-dione1

    PubMed Central

    Nozari, Mohammad; Jasinski, Jerry P.; Kaur, Manpreet; Addison, Anthony W.; Arabi Shamsabadi, Ahmad; Soroush, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    The lattice of 5,7,12,14-tetra­hydro-5,14:7,12-bis­([1,2]benzeno)­penta­cene-6,13-dione, C34H20O2, at 173 K has triclinic (P-1) symmetry and crystallizes with four independent half-mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit. Each mol­ecule is generated from a C17H10O substructure through an inversion center at the centroid of the central quinone ring, generating a wide H-shaped mol­ecule, with a dihedral angle between the mean planes of the terminal benzene rings in each of the two symmetry-related pairs over the four mol­ecules of 68.6 (1) (A), 65.5 (4) (B), 62.3 (9) (C), and 65.8 (8)° (D), an average of 65.6 (1)°. This compound has applications in gas-separation membranes constructed from polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIM). The title compound is a product of a double Diels–Alder reaction between anthracene and p-benzo­quinone followed by de­hydrogenation. It has also been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and rotating disc electrode polarography, FT–IR, high resolution mass spectrometry, elemental analysis, and 1H NMR. PMID:27980819

  18. Bis(dimethyl-ammonium) 3,3'-dicarb-oxy-5,5'-(5,7,12,14-tetra-oxo-6,13-diaza-tetra-cyclo-[6.6.2.0(4,16).0(11,15)]hexa-deca-1,3,8,10,15-penta-ene-6,13-di-yl)dibenzoate dihydrate.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lan-Ping; Qin, Lan; Han, Lei

    2012-07-01

    The title compound, 2C(2)H(8)N(+)·C(30)H(12)N(2)O(12) (2-)·2H(2)O, comprises dimethyl-ammonium cations, 3,3'-dicarb-oxy-5,5'-(5,7,12,14-tetra-oxo-6,13-diaza-tetra-cyclo-[6.6.2.0(4,16).0(11,15)]hexa-deca-1,3,8,10,15-penta-ene-6,13-di-yl)dibenzoate dianions and water mol-ecules. The dianion is situated on a crystallographic inversion centre. Two very strong symmetry-restricted O⋯H⋯O hydrogen bonds are present which are situated about the crystallographic inversion centres. In one of these hydrogen bonds, the H atom is situated at its centre, while in the other one the H atom is disordered about its centre. Both H atoms are involved in the chain-like C(2) (2)(16) motif, and not in a more common motif R(2) (2)(8) that is composed of a pair of hydrogen carboxyl-ates with the H atoms situated about the centre between the pair of O atoms. In the crystal, inter-action of these hydrogen bonds results in formation of anionic layers of dianions parallel to (-111). The water mol-ecules donate their H atoms to one of two of the carboxyl-ate O atoms, forming strong hydrogen bonds. The dimethyl-ammonium donates a bifurcated hydrogen bond to an oxo group of the dianion, forming weak hydrogen bonds. All the hydrogen bonds form a three-dimensional hydrogen-bonded network.

  19. Bis[1,2-bis-(meth-oxy-carbon-yl)ethene-1,2-dithiol-ato-κ(2) S,S']bis-(η(5)-penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)tetra-μ3-sulfido-tetra-iron(4 Fe-Fe) hexa-fluoridophosphate.

    PubMed

    Inomata, Shinji; Ito, Shohei; Takase, Tsugiko

    2013-04-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Fe4(C6H6O4S2)2(C10H15)2S4]PF6, contains two different complex cations and two PF6 (-) anions. The two complex cations have similar conformations with the butterfly-like Fe4S4 core surrounded by two penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dienyl ligands and the S atoms of two dithiol-ate ligands. In each Fe4S4 core, there are four short Fe-Fe and two long Fe⋯Fe contacts, suggesting bonding and non-bonding inter-actions, respectively. The Fe-S distances range from 2.1287 (13) to 2.2706 (16) Å for one and from 2.1233 (13) to 2.2650 (16) Å for the other Fe4S4 core. The Fe-S distances involving the dithiol-ate ligands are in a more narrow range [2.1764 (16)-2.1874 (13) Å for one and 2.1743 (14)-2.1779 (16) Å for the other cation]. There are no significant inter-actions between cations and anions.

  20. Bis[1,2-bis­(meth­oxy­carbon­yl)ethene-1,2-dithiol­ato-κ2 S,S′]bis­(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)tetra-μ3-sulfido-tetra­iron(4 Fe–Fe) hexa­fluoridophosphate

    PubMed Central

    Inomata, Shinji; Ito, Shohei; Takase, Tsugiko

    2013-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Fe4(C6H6O4S2)2(C10H15)2S4]PF6, contains two different complex cations and two PF6 − anions. The two complex cations have similar conformations with the butterfly-like Fe4S4 core surrounded by two penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl ligands and the S atoms of two dithiol­ate ligands. In each Fe4S4 core, there are four short Fe—Fe and two long Fe⋯Fe contacts, suggesting bonding and non-bonding inter­actions, respectively. The Fe—S distances range from 2.1287 (13) to 2.2706 (16) Å for one and from 2.1233 (13) to 2.2650 (16) Å for the other Fe4S4 core. The Fe—S distances involving the dithiol­ate ligands are in a more narrow range [2.1764 (16)–2.1874 (13) Å for one and 2.1743 (14)–2.1779 (16) Å for the other cation]. There are no significant inter­actions between cations and anions. PMID:23634019

  1. Crystal structure of di-n-but-yl-bis-(η (5)-penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)hafnium(IV).

    PubMed

    Arndt, Perdita; Schubert, Kathleen; Burlakov, Vladimir V; Spannenberg, Anke; Rosenthal, Uwe

    2015-02-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound, [Hf(C10H15)2(C4H9)2], reveals two independent mol-ecules in the asymmetric unit. The diffraction experiment was performed with a racemically twinned crystal showing a 0.529 (5):0.471 (5) component ratio. Each Hf(IV) atom is coordinated by two penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dienyl and two n-butyl ligands in a distorted tetra-hedral geometry, with the cyclo-penta-dienyl rings inclined to one another by 45.11 (15) and 45.37 (16)°. In contrast to the isostructural di(n-butyl)bis(η (5)-penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)zirconium(IV) complex with a noticeable difference in the Zr-butyl bonding, the Hf-Cbut-yl bond lengths differ from each other by no more than 0.039 (3) Å.

  2. μ-Oxido-bis­[bis­(penta­fluoro­phenolato)(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)titanium(IV)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Junseong; Kim, Youngjo

    2011-01-01

    The dinuclear title complex, [Ti2(C10H15)2(C6F5O)4O], features two TiIV atoms bridged by an O atom, which lies on an inversion centre. The TiIV atom is bonded to a η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl ring, two penta­fluoro­phenolate anions and to the bridging O atom. The environment around the TiIV atom can be considered as a distorted tetra­hedron. The cyclo­penta­dienyl ring is disordered over two sets of sites [site occupancy = 0.824 (8) for the major component]. PMID:22090906

  3. Bis[1,2-bis­(eth­oxy­carbon­yl)ethene-1,2-dithiol­ato-κ2 S,S′]bis­(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)tetra-μ3-sulfido-diiron(IV)diiron(III)(3 Fe—Fe)

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Shohei; Hisamichi, Nozomu; Takase, Tsugiko; Inomata, Shinji

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, [Fe4(C10H15)2(C8H10O4S2)2S4], contains a twisted Fe4S4 cubane-like core. A twofold rotation axis passes through the Fe4S4 core, completing the coordination of the four Fe atoms with two penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl ligands and two chelating dithiol­ate ligands. There are three short Fe—Fe and three long Fe⋯Fe contacts in the Fe4S4 core, suggesting bonding and non-bonding inter­actions, respectively. The Fe—S bonds in the Fe4S4 core range from 2.1523 (5) to 2.2667 (6) Å and are somewhat longer than the Fe—S bonds involving the dithiol­ate ligand. PMID:23633986

  4. Bis[1,2-bis-(eth-oxy-carbon-yl)ethene-1,2-dithiol-ato-κ(2) S,S']bis-(η(5)-penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)tetra-μ3-sulfido-diiron(IV)diiron(III)(3 Fe-Fe).

    PubMed

    Ito, Shohei; Hisamichi, Nozomu; Takase, Tsugiko; Inomata, Shinji

    2013-04-01

    The title compound, [Fe4(C10H15)2(C8H10O4S2)2S4], contains a twisted Fe4S4 cubane-like core. A twofold rotation axis passes through the Fe4S4 core, completing the coordination of the four Fe atoms with two penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dienyl ligands and two chelating dithiol-ate ligands. There are three short Fe-Fe and three long Fe⋯Fe contacts in the Fe4S4 core, suggesting bonding and non-bonding inter-actions, respectively. The Fe-S bonds in the Fe4S4 core range from 2.1523 (5) to 2.2667 (6) Å and are somewhat longer than the Fe-S bonds involving the dithiol-ate ligand.

  5. μ-Oxido-bis­{bis­[(penta­fluoro­phen­yl)methano­lato](η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)titanium(IV)}

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Junseong; Kim, Youngjo

    2011-01-01

    The dinuclear title complex, [Ti2(C10H15)2(C7H2F5O)4O], features two TiIV atoms bridged by an O atom. Each Ti atom is bonded to a η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl ring, two (penta­fluoro­phen­yl)methano­late anions and to the bridging O atom. The environment around each Ti atom can be considered as a distorted tetra­hedron. PMID:22090876

  6. N,N,N′,N′,N′′-Penta­methyl-N′′-[3-(tri­methyl­aza­nium­yl)prop­yl]guanidinium bis­(tetra­phenyl­borate)

    PubMed Central

    Tiritiris, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title salt, C12H30N4 2+·2C24H20B−, the C—N bond lengths in the central CN3 unit of the guanidinium ion are 1.3388 (17), 1.3390 (16) and 1.3540 (17) Å, indicating partial double-bond character in each. The central C atom is bonded to the three N atoms in a nearly ideal trigonal-planar geometry and the positive charge is delocalized in the CN3 plane. The bonds between the N atoms and the terminal C-methyl groups of the guanidinium moiety, all have values close to a typical single bond [1.4630 (16)–1.4697 (17) Å]. C—H⋯π inter­actions are present between the guanidinium H atoms and the phenyl C atoms of one tetra­phenyl­borate ion. The phenyl rings form a kind of aromatic pocket, in which the guanidinium ion is embedded. PMID:23424561

  7. Crystal structure of μ-oxido-1,1′κ2 O:O-bis{tetra-μ-oxido-1:2κ2 O:O;1:3κ2 O:O;2:3κ4 O:O-tris[1,2,3(η5)-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl]-trianglo-trititanium(IV)}

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Redondo, Adrián; Martín, Avelino

    2015-01-01

    The title polynuclear organometallic titanium(IV) oxide, [{Ti3(η5-C5Me5)3(μ-O)4}2(μ-O)], exhibits two Ti3O4 cores bridged by an O atom located on a twofold axis. All metal centres present the typical three-legged piano-stool coordination environment, where one site is occupied by a penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl ligand linked in an η5-coordination fashion, while three bridging O atoms fill the other three sites. PMID:26029420

  8. LHCb Results on Penta(tetra)-Quark Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucharczyk, Marcin

    The LHCb experiment is designed to study the properties and decays of heavy flavored hadrons produced in pp collisions at the LHC. The data collected in the LHC Run I enables precision spectroscopy studies of beauty and charm hadrons. The latest results on spectroscopy of conventional and exotic hadrons are reviewed, such as the discovery of the first charmonium pentaquark states in the J/ψp system or the confirmation of resonant nature of the Z(4430)- mesonic state. LHCb has also made significant contributions to determination of the quantum numbers for the X(3872) state and to exclude the existence of the X(5568) tetraquark candidate. The LHCb results described in the present document have dramatically increased the interest on spectroscopy of heavy hadrons.

  9. Bis(η(5)-penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)aluminium tetra-bromido-aluminate.

    PubMed

    Purdy, Andrew P; Dugger, Cherrelle; Butcher, Ray J

    2014-03-01

    The title compound, [Al(C10H15)2][AlBr4], was formed during the reduction of a mixture of Cp*AlBr2 and AlBr3. The Al(III) atoms of the two crystallographically independent cations each lie on an inversion center, and the [AlBr4](-) anions are on general positions. At 123 K, the structure exhibits disorder in two of the Br atoms of the [AlBr4](-) ion, with a ratio occupancy of 0.733 (6): 0.267 (3). In the crystal, there is possible weak hydrogen bonding between some methyl groups and Br atoms. The interactions link the moieties in a three-dimensional array.

  10. Crystal structure of di-n-but­yl­bis­(η 5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)hafnium(IV)

    PubMed Central

    Arndt, Perdita; Schubert, Kathleen; Burlakov, Vladimir V.; Spannenberg, Anke; Rosenthal, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound, [Hf(C10H15)2(C4H9)2], reveals two independent mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit. The diffraction experiment was performed with a racemically twinned crystal showing a 0.529 (5):0.471 (5) component ratio. Each HfIV atom is coordinated by two penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl and two n-butyl ligands in a distorted tetra­hedral geometry, with the cyclo­penta­dienyl rings inclined to one another by 45.11 (15) and 45.37 (16)°. In contrast to the isostructural di(n-butyl)bis(η 5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)zirconium(IV) complex with a noticeable difference in the Zr–butyl bonding, the Hf—Cbut­yl bond lengths differ from each other by no more than 0.039 (3) Å. PMID:25878834

  11. Penta­fluoro­phenyl (3R,4R,5S)-5-{[(3R,4R,5S)-5-azido­methyl-3,4-dimeth­oxy-2,3,4,5-tetra­hydro­furan-3-carboxamido]­meth­yl}-3,4-dimeth­oxy-2,3,4,5-tetra­hydro­furan-3-carboxyl­ate

    PubMed Central

    Simone, Michela I.; Edwards, Alison A.; Parker, Samuel G.; Tranter, George E.; Fleet, George W. J.; Watkin, David J.

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, C22H25F5N4O9, is a stable penta­fluoro­phenyl ester inter­mediate in the synthesis of novel homo-oligomeric structures containing branched carbon chains. The structure is epimeric to the previously characterized dimeric penta­fluoro­phenyl ester with stereochemistry (3R,4R,5R), which was synthesized using d-ribose as starting material. The crystal structure of the title mol­ecule removes any ambiguities arising from the relative stereochemistries of the six chiral centres. Two hydrogen bonds, bifurcating from the NH group, stabilize the crystal: one intra­molecular and one inter­molecular, both involving O atoms of the meth­oxy groups. The asymmetric unit contains two independent mol­ecules not related by any pseudo-symmetry operators. The major conformational differences are localized, leading to one mol­ecule being extended compared to the other. The collected crystal was twinned (twin ratio is 0.939:0.061), and the azide group is positionally disordered over two positions in one mol­ecule [occupancy ratio 0.511 (18):0.489 (18)]. PMID:21588915

  12. (μ3-Hydrido)[μ3-2-(tri­methyl­sil­yl)ethyl­idyne-κ3 C 1:C 1:C 1]tetra­kis­[(η5-cyclo­penta­dien­yl)cobalt(II)

    PubMed Central

    Haehnel, Martin; Spannenberg, Anke; Rosenthal, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    In the title compound, [Co4(C5H5)4(μ3-CCH2SiMe3)(μ3-H)], the Co atoms form a distorted tetra­hedron with the ethyl­idyne moiety bridging three of the Co atoms as well as the hydrido ligand also bridging three of the Co atoms. The Co—Co bond lengths in the Co4 tetrahedron vary from 2.3844 (4) to 2.4608 (4) Å. Each Co atom is additionally η5-bonded to a cyclopentadienyl (Cp) anion. PMID:24454164

  13. Orally administered DTPA penta-ethyl ester for the decorporation of inhaled (241)Am.

    PubMed

    Sueda, Katsuhiko; Sadgrove, Matthew P; Huckle, James E; Leed, Marina G D; Weber, Waylon M; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Guilmette, Raymond A; Jay, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is an effective decorporation agent to facilitate the elimination of radionuclides from the body, but its permeability-limited oral bioavailability limits its utility in mass-casualty emergencies. To overcome this limitation, a prodrug strategy using the penta-ethyl ester form of DTPA is under investigation. Pharmacokinetic and biodistribution studies were conducted in rats by orally administering [(14) C]DTPA penta-ethyl ester, and this prodrug and its hydrolysis products were analyzed as a single entity. Compared with a previous reporting of intravenously administered DTPA, the oral administration of this prodrug resulted in a sustained plasma concentration profile with higher plasma exposure and lower clearance. An assessment of the urine composition revealed that the bioactivation was extensive but incomplete, with no detectable levels of the penta- or tetra-ester forms. Tissue distribution at 12 h was limited, with approximately 73% of the administered dose being associated with the gastrointestinal tract. In the efficacy study, rats were exposed to aerosols of (241) Am nitrate before receiving a single oral treatment of the prodrug. The urinary excretion of (241) Am was found to be 19% higher than with the control. Consistent with prior reports of DTPA, the prodrug was most effective when the treatment delays were minimized. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  14. Orally administered DTPA penta-ethyl ester for the decorporation of inhaled 241Am

    PubMed Central

    Sueda, Katsuhiko; Sadgrove, Matthew P.; Huckle, James E.; Leed, Marina G. D.; Weber, Waylon M.; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Guilmette, Raymond A.; Jay, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is an effective decorporation agent to facilitate the elimination of radionuclides from the body, but its permeability-limited oral bioavailability limits its utility in mass-casualty emergencies. To overcome this limitation, a prodrug strategy using the penta-ethyl ester form of DTPA is under investigation. Pharmacokinetic and biodistribution studies were conducted in rats by orally administering [14C]DTPA penta-ethyl ester, and this prodrug and its hydrolysis products were analyzed as a single entity. Compared to a previous reporting of intravenously administered DTPA, the oral administration of this prodrug resulted in a sustained plasma concentration profile with higher plasma exposure and lower clearance. An assessment of the urine composition revealed that the bioactivation was extensive but incomplete, with no detectable levels of the penta- or tetra-ester forms. Tissue distribution at 12 h was limited, with approximately 73% of the administered dose being associated with the gastrointestinal tract. In the efficacy study, rats were exposed to aerosols of 241Am nitrate before receiving a single oral treatment of the prodrug. The urinary excretion of 241Am was found to be 19% higher than with the control. Consistent with prior reports of DTPA, the prodrug was most effective when the treatment delays were minimized. PMID:24619514

  15. Penta-graphene: A new carbon allotrope

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shunhong; Zhou, Jian; Wang, Qian; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki; Jena, Puru

    2015-01-01

    A 2D metastable carbon allotrope, penta-graphene, composed entirely of carbon pentagons and resembling the Cairo pentagonal tiling, is proposed. State-of-the-art theoretical calculations confirm that the new carbon polymorph is not only dynamically and mechanically stable, but also can withstand temperatures as high as 1000 K. Due to its unique atomic configuration, penta-graphene has an unusual negative Poisson’s ratio and ultrahigh ideal strength that can even outperform graphene. Furthermore, unlike graphene that needs to be functionalized for opening a band gap, penta-graphene possesses an intrinsic quasi-direct band gap as large as 3.25 eV, close to that of ZnO and GaN. Equally important, penta-graphene can be exfoliated from T12-carbon. When rolled up, it can form pentagon-based nanotubes which are semiconducting, regardless of their chirality. When stacked in different patterns, stable 3D twin structures of T12-carbon are generated with band gaps even larger than that of T12-carbon. The versatility of penta-graphene and its derivatives are expected to have broad applications in nanoelectronics and nanomechanics. PMID:25646451

  16. Penta-graphene: A new carbon allotrope

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Shunhong; Zhou, Jian; Wang, Qian; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki; Jena, Puru

    2015-02-02

    A 2D metastable carbon allotrope, penta-graphene, composed entirely of carbon pentagons and resembling the Cairo pentagonal tiling, is proposed in this paper. State-of-the-art theoretical calculations confirm that the new carbon polymorph is not only dynamically and mechanically stable, but also can withstand temperatures as high as 1000 K. Due to its unique atomic configuration, penta-graphene has an unusual negative Poisson’s ratio and ultrahigh ideal strength that can even outperform graphene. Furthermore, unlike graphene that needs to be functionalized for opening a band gap, penta-graphene possesses an intrinsic quasi-direct band gap as large as 3.25 eV, close to that of ZnO and GaN. Equally important, penta-graphene can be exfoliated from T12-carbon. When rolled up, it can form pentagon-based nanotubes which are semiconducting, regardless of their chirality. When stacked in different patterns, stable 3D twin structures of T12-carbon are generated with band gaps even larger than that of T12-carbon. Finally, the versatility of penta-graphene and its derivatives are expected to have broad applications in nanoelectronics and nanomechanics.

  17. Penta-graphene: A new carbon allotrope

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Shunhong; Zhou, Jian; Wang, Qian; ...

    2015-02-02

    A 2D metastable carbon allotrope, penta-graphene, composed entirely of carbon pentagons and resembling the Cairo pentagonal tiling, is proposed in this paper. State-of-the-art theoretical calculations confirm that the new carbon polymorph is not only dynamically and mechanically stable, but also can withstand temperatures as high as 1000 K. Due to its unique atomic configuration, penta-graphene has an unusual negative Poisson’s ratio and ultrahigh ideal strength that can even outperform graphene. Furthermore, unlike graphene that needs to be functionalized for opening a band gap, penta-graphene possesses an intrinsic quasi-direct band gap as large as 3.25 eV, close to that of ZnOmore » and GaN. Equally important, penta-graphene can be exfoliated from T12-carbon. When rolled up, it can form pentagon-based nanotubes which are semiconducting, regardless of their chirality. When stacked in different patterns, stable 3D twin structures of T12-carbon are generated with band gaps even larger than that of T12-carbon. Finally, the versatility of penta-graphene and its derivatives are expected to have broad applications in nanoelectronics and nanomechanics.« less

  18. Crystal structure of bis-{μ2-[(2-imino-cyclo-pentyl-idene)methyl-idene]aza-nido-κ(2) N:N'}bis-[(η(5)-penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)zirconium(IV)] hexane monosolvate.

    PubMed

    Becker, Lisanne; Spannenberg, Anke; Arndt, Perdita; Rosenthal, Uwe

    2015-12-01

    The title compound, [Zr2(C10H15)4(C6H6N2)2]·C6H14, was obtained by the stoichiometric reaction of adipo-nitrile with [Zr(C10H15)2(η(2)-Me3SiC2SiMe3)]. Intra-molecular nitrile-nitrile couplings and deprotonation of the substrate produced the (1-imino-2-enimino)-cyclo-pentane ligand, which functions as a five-membered bridge between the two metal atoms. The Zr(IV) atom exhibits a distorted tetra-hedral coordination sphere defined by two penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dienyl ligands, by the imino unit of one (1-imino-2-enimino)-cyclo-pentane and by the enimino unit of the second (1-imino-2-enimino)-cyclo-pentane. The cyclo-pentane ring of the ligand shows an envelope conformation. The asymmetric unit contains one half of the complex and one half of the hexane solvent mol-ecule, both being completed by the application of inversion symmetry. One of the penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dienyl ligands is disordered over two sets of sites with a refined occupancy ratio of 0.8111 (3):0.189 (3). In the crystal, the complex mol-ecules are packed into rods extending along [100], with the solvent mol-ecules located in between. The rods are arranged in a distorted hexa-gonal packing.

  19. Crystal structures and supra­molecular features of 9,9-dimethyl-3,7-di­aza­bicyclo­[3.3.1]nonane-2,4,6,8-tetra­one, 3,7-di­aza­spiro­[bi­cyclo­[3.3.1]nonane-9,1′-cyclo­penta­ne]-2,4,6,8-tetra­one and 9-methyl-9-phenyl-3,7-di­aza­bicyclo­[3.3.1]nonane-2,4,6,8-tetra­one di­methyl­formamide monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Manaenkova, Marina A.; Vasilev, Evgeny V.; Venskovsky, Nikolai U.

    2017-01-01

    Compounds (I), C9H10N2O4, (II), C11H12N2O4, and (III), C14H12N2O4·C3H7NO represent 9,9-disubstituted-3,7-di­aza­bicyclo­[3.3.1]nonane-2,4,6,8-tetra­one deriv­atives with very similar mol­ecular geometries for the bicyclic framework: the dihedral angle between the planes of the imide groups is 74.87 (6), 73.86 (3) and 74.83 (6)° in (I)–(III), respectively. The dimethyl derivative (I) is positioned on a crystallographic twofold axis and its overall geometry deviates only slightly from idealized C 2v symmetry. The spiro-cyclo­pentane derivative (II) and the phen­yl/methyl analog (III) retain only inter­nal C s symmetry, which in the case of (II) coincides with crystallographic mirror symmetry. The cyclo­pentane moiety in (II) adopts an envelope conformation, with the spiro C atom deviating from the mean plane of the rest of the ring by 0.548 (2) Å. In compound (III), an N—H⋯O hydrogen bond is formed with the di­methyl­formamide solvent mol­ecule. In the crystal, both (I) and (II) form similar zigzag hydrogen-bonded ribbons through double inter­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. However, whereas in (I) the ribbons are formed by two trans-arranged O=C—N—H amide fragments, the amide fragments are cis-positioned in (II). The formation of ribbons in (III) is apparently disrupted by participation of one of its N—H groups in hydrogen bonding with the solvent mol­ecule. As a result, the mol­ecules of (III) form zigzag chains rather than the ribbons through inter­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The crystal of (I) was a pseudo-merohedral twin. PMID:28775891

  20. Calix receptor edifice; scrupulous turn off fluorescent sensor for Fe(III), Co(II) and Cu(II).

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Keyur D; Gupte, Hrishikesh S; Makwana, Bharat A; Vyas, Disha J; Maity, Debdeep; Jain, Vinod K

    2012-11-01

    Novel Supramolecular fluorescence receptor derived from calix-system i.e. calix[4]resorcinarene bearing dansylchloride as fluorophore was designed and synthesized. The compound was purified by column chromatography and characterized by elemental analysis, NMR and Mass spectroscopy. Tetradansylated calix[4] resorcinarene (TDCR) shows a boat conformation with C(2)v symmetry. The complexation behaviour of metal cations [Ag(I), Cd(II), Co(II), Fe(III), Hg(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), Zn(II), U(VI) (1 × 10(-4) M)] with tetra dansylated calix[4]resorcinarene (1 × 10(-6) M) was studied by spectophotometry and spectrofluorometry. Red shift in the absorption spectra led us to conclude that there is strong complexation Fe(III), Co(II) and Cu(II) with TDCR. These metal cations also produce quenching with red shifts in the emission spectra. The maximum quenching in emission intensity was observed in the case of Fe(III) and its binding constant was also found to be significantly higher than that of Co(II) and Cu(II). Quantum yield of metal complexes of Fe(III) was found to be lower in comparison with Co(II) and Cu(II) complexes. Stern Volmer analysis indicates that the mechanism of fluorescence quenching is either purely dynamic, or purely static.

  1. Tetra-2,3-pyrazinoporphyrazines with externally appended pyridine rings. 4. UV-visible spectral and electrochemical evidence of the remarkable electron-deficient properties of the new tetrakis-2,3-[5,6-di{2-(N-methyl)pyridiniumyl}pyrazino]porphyrazinatometal octacations, [(2-Mepy)8TPyzPzM]8+ (M = MgII(H2O), CoII, CuII, ZnII).

    PubMed

    Bergami, Costanza; Donzello, Maria Pia; Monacelli, Fabrizio; Ercolani, Claudio; Kadish, Karl M

    2005-12-26

    Metal derivatives of the octacationic tetrakis-2,3-[5,6-di{2-(N-methyl)pyridiniumyl}pyrazino]porphyrazine macrocycle [(2-Mepy)(8)TPyzPzH(2)](8+) (2-Mepy = 2-(N-methyl)pyridiniumyl ring) isolated as water-soluble hydrated iodide salts of the general formula [(2-Mepy)(8)TPyzPzM](I(8)).xH(2)O, (M = Mg(II)(H(2)O), Co(II), Cu(II), Zn(II); x = 2-5) were prepared from the corresponding neutral complexes [Py(8)TPyzPzM].xH(2)O previously reported. Reaction of these complexes with CH(3)I in N,N-dimethylformamide under mild conditions led to full quaternization of all eight pyridine N atoms and formation of the octacations [(2-Mepy)(8)TPyzPzM](8+). Clathrated water molecules could be eliminated from the species [(2-Mepy)(8)TPyzPzM](I(8)).xH(2)O by mild heating (Co(II) complexes in the solid state are both paramagnetic with one unpaired electron, thus giving a low-spin state Co(II) for the latter compound. Studies of the charged species [(2-Mepy)(8)TPyzPzM](8+) in aqueous media at ca. 10(-)(5) M concentration provide evidence for the occurrence of molecular aggregation, similar to what is seen for the related free-base species [(2-Mepy)(8)TPyzPzH(2)](8+) (see part 3 of this series, preceding paper in this issue), but the formation of monomeric species is generally favored upon dilution of the solutions. The same octacations are essentially monomeric in solutions of pyridine or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), but traces of aggregation, if occasionally present, vanish with the time. Changes in the UV-visible spectra are observed in the Q- and B-band regions as a result of the quaternization at the pyridine N atoms. Cyclic voltammetry and thin-layer spectroelectrochemical data in DMSO show well-resolved reversible multistep one-electron reductions for both the unmethylated and methylated

  2. Mitochondrial COII sequences and modern human origins.

    PubMed

    Ruvolo, M; Zehr, S; von Dornum, M; Pan, D; Chang, B; Lin, J

    1993-11-01

    The aim of this study is to measure human mitochondrial sequence variability in the relatively slowly evolving mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) and to estimate when the human common ancestral mitochondrial type existed. New COII gene sequences were determined for five humans (Homo sapiens), including some of the most mitochondrially divergent humans known; for two pygmy chimpanzees (Pan paniscus); and for a common chimpanzee (P. troglodytes). COII sequences were analyzed with those from another relatively slowly evolving mitochondrial region (ND4-5). From class 1 (third codon position) sequence data, a relative divergence date for the human mitochondrial ancestor is estimated as 1/27 th of the human-chimpanzee divergence time. If it is assumed that humans and chimpanzees diverged 6 Mya, this places a human mitochondrial ancestor at 222,000 years, significantly different from 1 Myr (the presumed time of an H. erectus emergence from Africa). The mean coalescent time estimated from all 1,580 sites of combined mitochondrial data, when a 6-Mya human-chimpanzee divergence is assumed, is 298,000 years, with 95% confidence interval of 129,000-536,000 years. Neither estimate is compatible with a 1-Myr-old human mitochondrial ancestor. The mitochondrial DNA sequence data from COII and ND4-5 regions therefore do not support this multiregional hypothesis for the emergence of modern humans.

  3. Tetra- and Penta-Cyclic Triterpenes Interaction with Lipid Bilayer Membrane: A Structural Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Abboud, Rola; Charcosset, Catherine; Greige-Gerges, Hélène

    2016-06-01

    The effect of tetracyclic (cortisol, prednisolone, and 9-fluorocortisol acetate) and pentacyclic (uvaol and erythrodiol) triterpenes (TTPs) on the fluidity of dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline (DPPC) liposome membrane was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, Raman spectroscopy, and fluorescence polarization of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH). Liposomes were prepared in the absence and presence of TTPs at molar ratios DPPC:TTP 100:1, 100:2.5, and 100:10. All the studied TTPs abolished the pre-transition and modified the intensity of the Raman peak at 715 cm(-1) proving the interaction of TTP molecules with the choline head group of phospholipids. An increase in the Raman height intensity ratios of the peaks I 2935/2880, I 2844/2880, and I 1090/1130, giving information about the ratio disorder/order of the alkyl chains, and a decrease of the main transition temperature demonstrated the interaction of TTPs with the alkyl chains. The tetracyclic TTPs produced broadening of the phase transition profile. Besides, a scarcely splitting of the main transition peak was obtained with prednisolone and 9-fluorocortisol acetate. The results of fluorescence depolarization of DPH showed that the studied molecules fluidized the liposomal membrane at 25, 41, and 50 °C. Pentacyclic TTPs, being more hydrophobic than tetracyclic ones, demonstrated higher fluidizing effect than tetracyclic TTPs in the liquid crystalline phase suggesting a deeper incorporation in the lipid bilayer. The presence of a free polar head group at the ring D seems to control the TTP incorporation in the bilayer and consequently its effect on the membrane fluidity.

  4. Community Support Gives Rise to New Penta Career Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulloch, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    For more than 40 years, Penta Career Center in Perrysburg, Ohio, has successfully served thousands of high school students and adults from Northwest Ohio. Calling a converted 1949 United States Army Depot building home, Penta serves students from 16 surrounding school districts, and offers programs in six core areas: arts and communications;…

  5. Community Support Gives Rise to New Penta Career Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulloch, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    For more than 40 years, Penta Career Center in Perrysburg, Ohio, has successfully served thousands of high school students and adults from Northwest Ohio. Calling a converted 1949 United States Army Depot building home, Penta serves students from 16 surrounding school districts, and offers programs in six core areas: arts and communications;…

  6. Studying the electronic and phononic structure of penta-graphane

    PubMed Central

    Einollahzadeh, Hamideh; Fazeli, Seyed Mahdi; Dariani, Reza Sabet

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, we theoretically consider a two dimensional nanomaterial which is a form of hydrogenated penta-graphene; we call it penta-graphane. This structure is obtained by adding hydrogen atoms to the sp2 bonded carbon atoms of penta-graphene. We investigate the thermodynamic and mechanical stability of penta-graphane. We also study the electronic and phononic structure of penta-graphane. Firstly, we use density functional theory with the revised Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof approximation to compute the band structure. Then one–shot GW (G0W0) approach for estimating accurate band gap is applied. The indirect band gap of penta-graphane is 5.78 eV, which is close to the band gap of diamond. Therefore, this new structure is a good electrical insulator. We also investigate the structural stability of penta-graphane by computing the phonon structure. Finally, we calculate its specific heat capacity from the phonon density of states. Penta-graphane has a high specific heat capacity, and can potentially be used for storing and transferring energy. PMID:27877907

  7. Studying the electronic and phononic structure of penta-graphane.

    PubMed

    Einollahzadeh, Hamideh; Fazeli, Seyed Mahdi; Dariani, Reza Sabet

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we theoretically consider a two dimensional nanomaterial which is a form of hydrogenated penta-graphene; we call it penta-graphane. This structure is obtained by adding hydrogen atoms to the sp(2) bonded carbon atoms of penta-graphene. We investigate the thermodynamic and mechanical stability of penta-graphane. We also study the electronic and phononic structure of penta-graphane. Firstly, we use density functional theory with the revised Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof approximation to compute the band structure. Then one-shot GW (G0W0) approach for estimating accurate band gap is applied. The indirect band gap of penta-graphane is 5.78 eV, which is close to the band gap of diamond. Therefore, this new structure is a good electrical insulator. We also investigate the structural stability of penta-graphane by computing the phonon structure. Finally, we calculate its specific heat capacity from the phonon density of states. Penta-graphane has a high specific heat capacity, and can potentially be used for storing and transferring energy.

  8. Neoclassical Calculations with Momentum Conservation Using the PENTA Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lore, Jeremy; Spong, D. A.; Briesemeister, A.

    2010-11-01

    The PENTA code calculates neoclassical radial and parallel flows of heat and particles, including the effects of collisional momentum conservation, for arbitrary toroidal geometries. As an input, PENTA uses transport coefficients calculated using a pitch angle scattering (PAS) collision operator, for example from the DKES code. In this sense PENTA acts as a momentum correction technique to transport quantities calculated from the PAS transport coefficients, which are often used in stellarator transport analyses. PENTA has recently been upgraded to account for arbitrary ion impurity species, and to include multiple methods of momentum correction for comparison and benchmarking. For non-(quasi)symmetric configurations, the radial electric field is calculated from the nonambipolar particle fluxes. For (quasi)symmetric devices PENTA recaptures intrinsic ambipolarity, demonstrating its applicability to both 2D and 3D geometries. Momentum correction has been shown to have a significant effect on the calculated parallel flows in the HSX stellarator.

  9. Quininium tetra-chloridozinc(II).

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Zhuang

    2009-09-05

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound {systematic name: 2-[hydr-oxy(6-meth-oxy-quinolin-1-ium-4-yl)meth-yl]-8-vinyl-quinuclidin-1-ium tetra-chlorido-zinc(II)}, (C(20)H(26)N(2)O(2))[ZnCl(4)], consists of a double proton-ated quininium cation and a tetra-chloridozinc(II) anion. The Zn(II) ion is in a slightly distorted tetra-hedral coordination environment. The crystal structure is stabilized by inter-molecular N-H⋯Cl and O-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds.

  10. Transition metal complexes of a new 15-membered [N5] penta-azamacrocyclic ligand with their spectral and anticancer studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Boraey, Hanaa A.; Serag El-Din, Azza A.

    2014-11-01

    Novel penta-azamacrocyclic 15-membered [N5] ligand [L] i.e. 1,5,8,12-tetetraaza-3,4: 9,10-dibenzo-6-ethyl-7-methyl-1,12-(2,6-pyrido)cyclopentadecan-5,7 diene-2,11-dione and its transition metal complexes with Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Ru(III) and Pd(II) have been synthesized and structurally characterized by elemental analysis, spectral, thermal as well as magnetic and molar conductivity measurements. On basis of IR, MS, UV-Vis 1H NMR and EPR spectral studies an octahedral geometry has been proposed for all complexes except Co(II), Cu(II) nitrate complexes and Pd(II) chloride complex that adopt tetrahedral, square pyramidal and square planar geometries, respectively. The antitumor activity of the synthesized ligand and some complexes against human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7) and human hepatocarcinoma cell lines (HepG2) has been studied. The complexes (IC50 = 2.04-9.7, 2.5-3.7 μg/mL) showed potent antitumor activity comparable with their ligand (IC50 = 11.7, 3.45 μg/mL) against the above mentioned cell lines, respectively. The results evidently show that the activity of the ligand becomes more pronounced and significant when coordinated to the metal ion.

  11. Naphthalene Derivatives from the Roots of Pentas parvifolia and Pentas bussei.

    PubMed

    Abdissa, Negera; Pan, Fangfang; Gruhonjic, Amra; Gräfenstein, Jürgen; Fitzpatrick, Paul A; Landberg, Göran; Rissanen, Kari; Yenesew, Abiy; Erdélyi, Máté

    2016-09-23

    The phytochemical investigation of the CH2Cl2/MeOH (1:1) extract of the roots of Pentas parvifolia led to the isolation of three new naphthalenes, parvinaphthols A (1), B (2), and C (3), two known anthraquinones, and five known naphthalene derivatives. Similar investigation of the roots of Pentas bussei afforded a new polycyclic naphthalene, busseihydroquinone E (4), a new 2,2'-binaphthralenyl-1,1'-dione, busseihydroquinone F (5), and five known naphthalenes. All purified metabolites were characterized by NMR and MS data analyses, whereas the absolute configurations of 3 and 4 were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The E-geometry of compound 5 was supported by DFT-based chemical shift calculations. Compounds 2-4 showed marginal cytotoxicity against the MDA-MB-231 human triple-negative breast cancer cell line with IC50 values ranging from 62.3 to 129.6 μM.

  12. Iodidobis(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)titanium(III)

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Monty; Spannenberg, Anke; Rosenthal, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    In the title complex mol­ecule, [Ti(C10H15)2I], the paramagnetic Ti(III) atom is coordinated by two penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl (Cp*) ligands and one iodide ligand. The two Cp* ligands are in a staggered orientation. The coordination geometry at the titanium atom can be described as distorted trigonal-planar. PMID:21588833

  13. Metal-metal interactions in linear tri-, penta-, hepta-, and nona-nuclear ruthenium string complexes.

    PubMed

    Niskanen, Mika; Hirva, Pipsa; Haukka, Matti

    2012-05-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) methodology was used to examine the structural properties of linear metal string complexes: [Ru(3)(dpa)(4)X(2)] (X = Cl(-), CN(-), NCS(-), dpa = dipyridylamine(-)), [Ru(5)(tpda)(4)Cl(2)], and hypothetical, not yet synthesized complexes [Ru(7)(tpta)(4)Cl(2)] and [Ru(9)(ppta)(4)Cl(2)] (tpda = tri-α-pyridyldiamine(2-), tpta = tetra-α-pyridyltriamine(3-), ppta = penta-α-pyridyltetraamine(4-)). Our specific focus was on the two longest structures and on comparison of the string complexes and unsupported ruthenium backboned chain complexes, which have weaker ruthenium-ruthenium interactions. The electronic structures were studied with the aid of visualized frontier molecular orbitals, and Bader's quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) was used to study the interactions between ruthenium atoms. The electron density was found to be highest and distributed most evenly between the ruthenium atoms in the hypothetical [Ru(7)(tpta)(4)Cl(2)] and [Ru(9)(ppta)(4)Cl(2)] string complexes.

  14. Brønsted acid sites based on penta-coordinated aluminum species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zichun; Jiang, Yijiao; Lafon, Olivier; Trébosc, Julien; Duk Kim, Kyung; Stampfl, Catherine; Baiker, Alfons; Amoureux, Jean-Paul; Huang, Jun

    2016-12-01

    Zeolites and amorphous silica-alumina (ASA), which both provide Brønsted acid sites (BASs), are the most extensively used solid acid catalysts in the chemical industry. It is widely believed that BASs consist only of tetra-coordinated aluminum sites (AlIV) with bridging OH groups in zeolites or nearby silanols on ASA surfaces. Here we report the direct observation in ASA of a new type of BAS based on penta-coordinated aluminum species (AlV) by 27Al-{1H} dipolar-mediated correlation two-dimensional NMR experiments at high magnetic field under magic-angle spinning. Both BAS-AlIV and -AlV show a similar acidity to protonate probe molecular ammonia. The quantitative evaluation of 1H and 27Al sites demonstrates that BAS-AlV co-exists with BAS-AlIV rather than replaces it, which opens new avenues for strongly enhancing the acidity of these popular solid acids.

  15. Brønsted acid sites based on penta-coordinated aluminum species

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zichun; Jiang, Yijiao; Lafon, Olivier; Trébosc, Julien; Duk Kim, Kyung; Stampfl, Catherine; Baiker, Alfons; Amoureux, Jean-Paul; Huang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Zeolites and amorphous silica-alumina (ASA), which both provide Brønsted acid sites (BASs), are the most extensively used solid acid catalysts in the chemical industry. It is widely believed that BASs consist only of tetra-coordinated aluminum sites (AlIV) with bridging OH groups in zeolites or nearby silanols on ASA surfaces. Here we report the direct observation in ASA of a new type of BAS based on penta-coordinated aluminum species (AlV) by 27Al-{1H} dipolar-mediated correlation two-dimensional NMR experiments at high magnetic field under magic-angle spinning. Both BAS-AlIV and -AlV show a similar acidity to protonate probe molecular ammonia. The quantitative evaluation of 1H and 27Al sites demonstrates that BAS-AlV co-exists with BAS-AlIV rather than replaces it, which opens new avenues for strongly enhancing the acidity of these popular solid acids. PMID:27976673

  16. Bis(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)aluminium tetra­bromido­aluminate

    PubMed Central

    Purdy, Andrew P.; Dugger, Cherrelle; Butcher, Ray J.

    2014-01-01

    The title compound, [Al(C10H15)2][AlBr4], was formed during the reduction of a mixture of Cp*AlBr2 and AlBr3. The AlIII atoms of the two crystallographically independent cations each lie on an inversion center, and the [AlBr4]− anions are on general positions. At 123 K, the structure exhibits disorder in two of the Br atoms of the [AlBr4]− ion, with a ratio occupancy of 0.733 (6): 0.267 (3). In the crystal, there is possible weak hydrogen bonding between some methyl groups and Br atoms. The interactions link the moieties in a three-dimensional array. PMID:24764951

  17. Sodium penta-potassium penta-nickel tetra-(diphosphate), NaK(5)Ni(5)(P(2)O(7))(4).

    PubMed

    Moutataouia, Meryem; Lamire, Mohammed; Saadi, Mohamed; El Ammari, Lahcen

    2012-06-01

    The structure of the title compound, NaK(5)Ni(5)(P(2)O(7))(4), is characterized by the presence of two crystallographically independent P(2)O(7) groups with different conformations. The conformation of the first P(2)O(7) group is eclipsed, whereas that of the second is staggered. All atoms are in general positions except for two nickel and one potassium ions which lie on symmetry centers. Moreover, the structure exhibits disorder of the cationic sites with one general position fully occupied equally by Na(+) and Ni(2+) cations. This mixed site is surrounded by five O atoms forming a square-based pyramid. The crystal structure consists of edge-sharing [NiO(6)] octa-hedra forming infinite zigzag chains [Ni(3)O(14)] running parallel to [100]. Adjacent chains are connected through apices to P(2)O(7) groups and to another [NiO(6)] or to a [KO(6)] octa-hedron. The resulting three-dimensional framework presents inter-secting tunnels running along the [010] and [001] directions in which the seven- and nine-coordinated potassium cations are located. The crystal structure of this new phosphate represents a new structural type.

  18. Thermal conductivity of penta-graphene from molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen; Zhang, Gang; Li, Baowen

    2015-10-21

    Using classical equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations and applying the original Tersoff interatomic potential, we study the thermal transport property of the latest two dimensional carbon allotrope, penta-graphene. It is predicted that its room-temperature thermal conductivity is about 167 W/mK, which is much lower than that of graphene. With normal mode decomposition, the accumulated thermal conductivity with respect to phonon frequency and mean free path is analyzed. It is found that the acoustic phonons make a contribution of about 90% to the thermal conductivity, and phonons with mean free paths larger than 100 nm make a contribution over 50%. We demonstrate that the remarkably lower thermal conductivity of penta-graphene compared with graphene results from the lower phonon group velocities and fewer collective phonon excitations. Our study highlights the importance of structure-property relationship and provides better understanding of thermal transport property and valuable insight into thermal management of penta-graphene.

  19. Glycine zinc sulfate penta-hydrate: redetermination at 10 K from time-of-flight neutron Laue diffraction.

    PubMed

    Fortes, A Dominic; Howard, Christopher M; Wood, Ian G; Gutmann, Matthias J

    2016-10-01

    Single crystals of glycine zinc sulfate penta-hydrate [systematic name: hexa-aqua-zinc tetra-aquadiglycinezinc bis-(sulfate)], [Zn(H2O)6][Zn(C2H5NO2)2(H2O)4](SO4)2, have been grown by isothermal evaporation from aqueous solution at room temperature and characterized by single-crystal neutron diffraction. The unit cell contains two unique ZnO6 octa-hedra on sites of symmetry -1 and two SO4 tetra-hedra with site symmetry 1; the octa-hedra comprise one [tetra-aqua-diglycine zinc](2+) ion (centred on one Zn atom) and one [hexa-aqua-zinc](2+) ion (centred on the other Zn atom); the glycine zwitterion, NH3(+)CH2COO(-), adopts a monodentate coordination to the first Zn atom. All other atoms sit on general positions of site symmetry 1. Glycine forms centrosymmetric closed cyclic dimers due to N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the amine and carboxyl-ate groups of adjacent zwitterions and exhibits torsion angles varying from ideal planarity by no more than 1.2°, the smallest values for any known glycine zwitterion not otherwise constrained by a mirror plane. This work confirms the H-atom locations estimated in three earlier single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies with the addition of independently refined fractional coordinates and Uij parameters, which provide accurate inter-nuclear X-H (X = N, O) bond lengths and consequently a more accurate and precise depiction of the hydrogen-bond framework.

  20. Temporal trend studies on tetra- and pentabrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane in guillemot egg from the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Sellström, Ulla; Bignert, Anders; Kierkegaard, Amelie; Häggberg, Lisbeth; de Wit, Cynthia A; Olsson, Mats; Jansson, Bo

    2003-12-15

    Guillemot eggs from the Baltic Sea, sampled between 1969 and 2001, were analyzed for tetra- and pentabromodiphenyl ethers (2,2',4,4'-tetraBDE (BDE-47), 2,2',4,4',5-pentaBDE (BDE-99), and 2,2',4,4',6-pentaBDE (BDE-100)), and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). This temporal trend study indicates that the concentrations of the polybrominated diphenyl ether compounds increased from the 1970s to the 1980s, peaking around the mid- to the late-1980s. These peaks are then followed by a rapid decrease in concentrations during the rest of the study period, with the concentrations of the major BDE congener below 100 ng/g lipid weight at the end of the period. This corresponds to less than 10% of its peak values. The concentrations of HBCD show a different pattern over time. After a peak in the middle of the 1970s followed by a decrease, the concentrations increased during the latter part of the 1980s. During the recent 10-yr period no significant change has occurred, and the annual mean concentrations are more or less stable at a higher level as compared to the beginning of the study period.

  1. Crystal structure of bis­{μ2-[(2-imino­cyclo­pentyl­idene)methyl­idene]aza­nido-κ2 N:N′}bis­[(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)zirconium(IV)] hexane monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Lisanne; Spannenberg, Anke; Arndt, Perdita; Rosenthal, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, [Zr2(C10H15)4(C6H6N2)2]·C6H14, was obtained by the stoichiometric reaction of adipo­nitrile with [Zr(C10H15)2(η2-Me3SiC2SiMe3)]. Intra­molecular nitrile–nitrile couplings and deprotonation of the substrate produced the (1-imino-2-enimino)­cyclo­pentane ligand, which functions as a five-membered bridge between the two metal atoms. The ZrIV atom exhibits a distorted tetra­hedral coordination sphere defined by two penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl ligands, by the imino unit of one (1-imino-2-enimino)­cyclo­pentane and by the enimino unit of the second (1-imino-2-enimino)­cyclo­pentane. The cyclo­pentane ring of the ligand shows an envelope conformation. The asymmetric unit contains one half of the complex and one half of the hexane solvent mol­ecule, both being completed by the application of inversion symmetry. One of the penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl ligands is disordered over two sets of sites with a refined occupancy ratio of 0.8111 (3):0.189 (3). In the crystal, the complex mol­ecules are packed into rods extending along [100], with the solvent mol­ecules located in between. The rods are arranged in a distorted hexa­gonal packing. PMID:26870433

  2. Pyrolysis of the tetra pak

    SciTech Connect

    Korkmaz, Ahmet; Yanik, Jale Brebu, Mihai; Vasile, Cornelia

    2009-11-15

    This study deals with pyrolysis of tetra pak which is widely used as an aseptic beverage packaging material. Pyrolysis experiments were carried out under inert atmosphere in a batch reactor at different temperatures and by different pyrolysis modes (one- and two-step). The yields of char, liquid and gas were quantified. Pyrolysis liquids produced were collected as three separate phases; aqueous phase, tar and polyethylene wax. Characterization of wax and the determination of the total amount of phenols in aqueous phase were performed. Chemical compositions of gas and char products relevant to fuel applications were determined. Pure aluminum can be also recovered by pyrolysis.

  3. Pyrolysis of the tetra pak.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, Ahmet; Yanik, Jale; Brebu, Mihai; Vasile, Cornelia

    2009-11-01

    This study deals with pyrolysis of tetra pak which is widely used as an aseptic beverage packaging material. Pyrolysis experiments were carried out under inert atmosphere in a batch reactor at different temperatures and by different pyrolysis modes (one- and two-step). The yields of char, liquid and gas were quantified. Pyrolysis liquids produced were collected as three separate phases; aqueous phase, tar and polyethylene wax. Characterization of wax and the determination of the total amount of phenols in aqueous phase were performed. Chemical compositions of gas and char products relevant to fuel applications were determined. Pure aluminum can be also recovered by pyrolysis.

  4. Dipentaerythritol penta-acrylate phosphate - an alternative phosphate ester monomer for bonding of methacrylates to zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Tay, Franklin R.; Lu, Zhicen; Chen, Chen; Qian, Mengke; Zhang, Huaiqin; Tian, Fucong; Xie, Haifeng

    2016-01-01

    The present work examined the effects of dipentaerythritol penta-acrylate phosphate (PENTA) as an alternative phosphate ester monomer for bonding of methacrylate-based resins to yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZP) and further investigated the potential bonding mechanism involved. Shear bond strength testing was performed to evaluate the efficacy of experimental PENTA-containing primers (5, 10, 15, 20 or 30 wt% PENTA in acetone) in improving resin-Y-TZP bond strength. Bonding without the use of a PENTA-containing served as the negative control, and a Methacryloyloxidecyl dihydrogenphosphate(MDP)-containing primer was used as the positive control. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to investigate the potential existence of chemical affinity between PENTA and Y-TZP. Shear bond strengths were significant higher in the 15 and 20 wt% PENTA groups. The ICP-MS, XPS and FTIR data indicated that the P content on the Y-TZP surface increased as the concentration of PENTA increased in the experimental primers, via the formation of Zr–O–P bond. Taken together, the results attest that PENTA improves resin bonding of Y-TZP through chemical reaction with Y-TZP. Increasing the concentration of PENTA augments its binding affinity but not its bonding efficacy with zirconia. PMID:28000765

  5. Dipentaerythritol penta-acrylate phosphate - an alternative phosphate ester monomer for bonding of methacrylates to zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying; Tay, Franklin R.; Lu, Zhicen; Chen, Chen; Qian, Mengke; Zhang, Huaiqin; Tian, Fucong; Xie, Haifeng

    2016-12-01

    The present work examined the effects of dipentaerythritol penta-acrylate phosphate (PENTA) as an alternative phosphate ester monomer for bonding of methacrylate-based resins to yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZP) and further investigated the potential bonding mechanism involved. Shear bond strength testing was performed to evaluate the efficacy of experimental PENTA-containing primers (5, 10, 15, 20 or 30 wt% PENTA in acetone) in improving resin-Y-TZP bond strength. Bonding without the use of a PENTA-containing served as the negative control, and a Methacryloyloxidecyl dihydrogenphosphate(MDP)-containing primer was used as the positive control. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to investigate the potential existence of chemical affinity between PENTA and Y-TZP. Shear bond strengths were significant higher in the 15 and 20 wt% PENTA groups. The ICP-MS, XPS and FTIR data indicated that the P content on the Y-TZP surface increased as the concentration of PENTA increased in the experimental primers, via the formation of Zr–O–P bond. Taken together, the results attest that PENTA improves resin bonding of Y-TZP through chemical reaction with Y-TZP. Increasing the concentration of PENTA augments its binding affinity but not its bonding efficacy with zirconia.

  6. [Preparative isolation of tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexapyrimidine nucleotides from hydrolysates of depurinated herring sperm DNA (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Schott, H

    1979-04-21

    The pyrimidine nucleotides p(dC)3p, p(dT)3p and p(dT)4p and mixtures of the sequence isomers p(dC3, dT), (dC3, dT)p; p(dC3, dT)p; p(dC2, dT2)p; p(dC, dT3)p; p(dC3, dT2)p; p(dC2, dT3); p(dC2, dT3)p; p(dC, dT4)p; p(dC4, dT2); p(dC3, dT3); p(dC3, dT3)p and p(dC2, dT4)p have been isolated on a preparative scale from hydrolysates of depurinated herring sperm DNA. The DNA hydrolysate is first separated into a high- and a low-molecular weight pyrimidine nucleotide mixture by column chromatography at pH 7.5 on DEAE-cellulose. The high-molecular-weight pyrimidine nucleotide mixture is further separated into four peaks on QAE-Sephadex at pH 7.5. The second peak is re-chromatographed on QAE-Sephadex at pH 3.5. Pyrimidine nucleotides containing predominantly cytidylic acid units may thus be separated from these with predominantly thymidylic acid units. Subsequent separation according to number of phosphate groups at pH 7.5 on QAE-Sephadex yields products of 70--93% purity. In a final separation step, the pyrimidine nucleotides and mixtures of sequence isomers are once again chromatographed on QAE-Sephadex with 7 M urea at pH 7.5. The products thus obtained are generally chromatographically pure. Impurities which are not fully removed by column chromatography are separated by paper chromatography. The structure of the isolated DNA fragments and the composition of the mixtures of sequence isomers are determined from the chromatographic data, absorption characteristics and by enzymatic degradation.

  7. Crystal structure of bis-(η(2)-ethyl-ene)(η(5)-penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)cobalt.

    PubMed

    Ramful, Chandika D; Robertson, Katherine N; Ylijoki, Kai E O

    2016-09-01

    The title compound, [Co(C10H15)(C2H4)2], was prepared by Na/Hg reduction of [Co2(C10H15)2(μ-Cl)2] in THF under an ethyl-ene atmosphere and crystallized from pentane at 193 K. The Co-C(olefin) bonds have an average length of 2.022 (2) Å, while the Co-C(penta-dien-yl) bonds average 2.103 (19) Å. The olefin C=C bonds are 1.410 (1) Å. The dihedral angle between the planes defined by the cyclo-penta-dienyl ligand and the two olefin ligands is 0.25 (12)°. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked into chains by C-H⋯π inter-actions.

  8. Disparate Strain Dependent Thermal Conductivity of Two-dimensional Penta-Structures.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huake; Qin, Guangzhao; Lin, Yuan; Hu, Ming

    2016-06-08

    Two-dimensional (2D) carbon allotrope called penta-graphene was recently proposed from first-principles calculations and various similar penta-structures emerged. Despite significant effort having been dedicated to electronic structures and mechanical properties, little research has been focused on thermal transport in penta-structures. Motivated by this, we performed a comparative study of thermal transport properties of three representative pentagonal structures, namely penta-graphene, penta-SiC2, and penta-SiN2, by solving the phonon Boltzmann transport equation with interatomic force constants extracted from first-principles calculations. Unexpectedly, the thermal conductivity of the three penta-structures exhibits diverse strain dependence, despite their very similar geometry structures. While the thermal conductivity of penta-graphene exhibits standard monotonic reduction by stretching, penta-SiC2 possesses an unusual nonmonotonic up-and-down behavior. More interestingly, the thermal conductivity of penta-SiN2 has 1 order of magnitude enhancement due to the strain induced buckled to planar structure transition. The mechanism governing the diverse strain dependence is identified as the competition between the change of phonon group velocity and phonon lifetime of acoustic phonon modes with combined effect from the unique structure transition for penta-SiN2. The disparate thermal transport behavior is further correlated to the fundamentally different bonding nature in the atomic structures with solid evidence from the distribution of deformation charge density and more in-depth molecular orbital analysis. The reported giant and robust tunability of thermal conductivity may inspire intensive research on other derivatives of penta-structures as potential materials for emerging nanoelectronic devices. The fundamental physics understood from this study also solidifies the strategy to engineer thermal transport properties of broad 2D materials by simple mechanical

  9. Pollen morphological survey of Pentas (Rubiaceae-Rubioideae) and its closest allies.

    PubMed

    Dessein; Scheltens; Huysmans; Robbrecht; Smets

    2000-11-01

    Pollen descriptions, based on LM and SEM observations, are provided for the Pentas complex, an African alliance within the Hedyotideae-Spermacoceae alliance, which includes the genera Pentas, Otomeria, Batopedina, Parapentas, and Chamaepentas. The close relationship among these genera is confirmed by pollen morphological data. The observed variation in pollen character states agrees well with the existing genera and subgenera. The combination of small spheroidal pollen grains with narrow, acute endocolpi, and a small apocolpium index distinguishes Batopedina from Otomeria and Pentas. Parapentas differs from Batopedina in having broad endocolpi with vague ends.Two of the three subgenera of Otomeria, Neotomeria and Volubilis, are supported by pollen data. Pollen of the subgenus Otomeria, however, is less differentiated and is similar to pollen of Pentas subgenus Pentas. The exact relationship between the genera Otomeria and Pentas remains unclear, and molecular data are needed to interpret the observed morphological variation. Chamaepentas has pollen that is nearly identical to that of the Pentas subgenus Chamaepentadoides and of the subgenus Megapentas, i.e. large spheroidal pollen grains with three, medium-length colpi and endocolpi with acute ends. Pollen morphology provides additional support for a close affinity between Pentas subgenus Phyllopentas and Pentas subgenus Vignaldiopsis.

  10. Zirconium(IV) dilanthanum(III) penta­sulfide

    PubMed Central

    Raw, Adam D.; Ibers, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Zirconium(IV) dilanthanum(III) penta­sulfide, ZrLa2S5, crystallizes with four formula units in the space group Pnma in the U3S5 structure type. The asymmetric unit comprises one Zr, one La and four S atoms. The Zr and three S atoms are situated on mirror planes. The structure consists of LaS8 face-sharing bicapped distorted trigonal prisms and ZrS7 edge-sharing monocapped octa­hedra. PMID:22199468

  11. Bis(μ-2-tert-butyl­phenyl­imido-1:2κ2 N:N)chlorido-2κCl-(diethyl ether-1κO)(2η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)lithiumtantalum(V)

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Jacqueline M.; Chan, Michael C. W.; Gibson, Vernon C.; Howard, Judith A. K.

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound, [LiTa(C10H15)(C10H13N)2Cl(C4H10O)], the TaV atom is coordinated by a η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl (Cp*) ligand, a chloride ion and two N-bonded 2-tert-butyl­phenyl­imide dianions. With respect to the two N atoms, the chloride ion and the centroid of the Cp* ring, the tantalum coordination geometry is approximately tetra­hedral. The lithium cation is bonded to both the 2-tert-butyl­phenyl­imide dianions and also a diethyl ether mol­ecule, in an approximate trigonal planar arrangement. The Ta⋯Li separation is 2.681 (15) Å. In the crystal, a weak C—H⋯Cl inter­action links the mol­ecules. When compared to the 2,6-diisopropyl­phenyl­imide analogue (‘the Wigley derivative’) of the title compound, the two structures are conformationally matched with an overall r.m.s. difference of 0.461Å. PMID:21754594

  12. Glycine zinc sulfate penta­hydrate: redetermination at 10 K from time-of-flight neutron Laue diffraction

    PubMed Central

    Fortes, A. Dominic; Howard, Christopher M.; Wood, Ian G.; Gutmann, Matthias J.

    2016-01-01

    Single crystals of glycine zinc sulfate penta­hydrate [systematic name: hexa­aqua­zinc tetra­aquadiglycinezinc bis­(sulfate)], [Zn(H2O)6][Zn(C2H5NO2)2(H2O)4](SO4)2, have been grown by isothermal evaporation from aqueous solution at room temperature and characterized by single-crystal neutron diffraction. The unit cell contains two unique ZnO6 octa­hedra on sites of symmetry -1 and two SO4 tetra­hedra with site symmetry 1; the octa­hedra comprise one [tetra­aqua-diglycine zinc]2+ ion (centred on one Zn atom) and one [hexa­aqua­zinc]2+ ion (centred on the other Zn atom); the glycine zwitterion, NH3 +CH2COO−, adopts a monodentate coordination to the first Zn atom. All other atoms sit on general positions of site symmetry 1. Glycine forms centrosymmetric closed cyclic dimers due to N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the amine and carboxyl­ate groups of adjacent zwitterions and exhibits torsion angles varying from ideal planarity by no more than 1.2°, the smallest values for any known glycine zwitterion not otherwise constrained by a mirror plane. This work confirms the H-atom locations estimated in three earlier single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies with the addition of independently refined fractional coordinates and Uij parameters, which provide accurate inter­nuclear X—H (X = N, O) bond lengths and consequently a more accurate and precise depiction of the hydrogen-bond framework. PMID:27746937

  13. 21 CFR 182.6789 - Tetra sodium pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tetra sodium pyrophosphate. 182.6789 Section 182...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6789 Tetra sodium pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Tetra sodium pyrophosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe...

  14. 21 CFR 582.6789 - Tetra sodium pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tetra sodium pyrophosphate. 582.6789 Section 582.6789 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6789 Tetra sodium pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Tetra sodium pyrophosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  15. Penta-BxNy sheet: a density functional theory study of two-dimensional material

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiao; Fan, Xinyu; Wei, Yanpei; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    By using density functional theory with generalized gradient approximation, we have carried out detailed investigations of two-dimensional BxNy nanomaterials in the Cairo pentagonal tiling geometry fully composed of pentagons (penta-BxNy). Only penta-BN and BN2 planar structures are dynamically stable without imaginary modes in their phonon spectra. Their stabilities have been further evaluated by formation energy analysis, first-principles molecular dynamics simulation, and mechanical stability analysis. Penta-BN2 is superior to penta-BN in structural stability. Its stability analysis against oxidization and functional group adsorption as well as its synthesizing reaction path analysis show possibilities in fabricating penta-BN2 on experiment. Furthermore, the penta-BN2 could be transferred from metallic to semiconducting by ionizing or covalently binding an electron per dinitrogen. Also, it has been found to have superior mechanical properties, such as the negative Poisson’s ratio and the comparable stiffness as that of hexagonal h-BN sheet. These studies on the stabilities, electronic properties, and mechanical properties suggest penta-BN2 as an attractive material to call for further studies on both theory and experiment. PMID:27539445

  16. Penta-BxNy sheet: a density functional theory study of two-dimensional material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiao; Fan, Xinyu; Wei, Yanpei; Chen, Gang

    2016-08-01

    By using density functional theory with generalized gradient approximation, we have carried out detailed investigations of two-dimensional BxNy nanomaterials in the Cairo pentagonal tiling geometry fully composed of pentagons (penta-BxNy). Only penta-BN and BN2 planar structures are dynamically stable without imaginary modes in their phonon spectra. Their stabilities have been further evaluated by formation energy analysis, first-principles molecular dynamics simulation, and mechanical stability analysis. Penta-BN2 is superior to penta-BN in structural stability. Its stability analysis against oxidization and functional group adsorption as well as its synthesizing reaction path analysis show possibilities in fabricating penta-BN2 on experiment. Furthermore, the penta-BN2 could be transferred from metallic to semiconducting by ionizing or covalently binding an electron per dinitrogen. Also, it has been found to have superior mechanical properties, such as the negative Poisson’s ratio and the comparable stiffness as that of hexagonal h-BN sheet. These studies on the stabilities, electronic properties, and mechanical properties suggest penta-BN2 as an attractive material to call for further studies on both theory and experiment.

  17. Tight-binding approach to penta-graphene

    PubMed Central

    Stauber, T.; Beltrán, J. I.; Schliemann, J.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce an effective tight-binding model to discuss penta-graphene and present an analytical solution. This model only involves the π-orbitals of the sp2-hybridized carbon atoms and reproduces the two highest valence bands. By introducing energy-dependent hopping elements, originating from the elimination of the sp3-hybridized carbon atoms, also the two lowest conduction bands can be well approximated - but only after the inclusion of a Hubbard onsite interaction as well as of assisted hopping terms. The eigenfunctions can be approximated analytically for the effective model without energy-dependent hopping elements and the optical absorption is discussed. We find large isotropic absorption ranging from 7.5% up to 24% for transitions at the Γ-point. PMID:26940279

  18. Penta-Quark States with Strangeness, Hidden Charm and Beauty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jia-Jun; Zou, Bing-Song

    The classical quenched quark models with three constituent quarks provide a good description for the baryon spatial ground states, but fail to reproduce the spectrum of baryon excited states. More and more evidences suggest that unquenched effects with multi-quark dynamics are necessary ingredients to solve the problem. Several new hyperon resonances reported recently could fit in the picture of penta-quark states. Based on this picture, some new hyperon excited states were predicted to exist; meanwhile with extension from strangeness to charm and beauty, super-heavy narrow N* and Λ* resonances with hidden charm or beauty were predicted to be around 4.3 and 11 GeV, respectively. Recently, two of such N* with hidden charm might have been observed by the LHCb experiment. More of those states are expected to be observed in near future. This opens a new window in order to study hadronic dynamics for the multi-quark states.

  19. Doped penta-graphene and hydrogenation of its related structures: a structural and electronic DFT-D study.

    PubMed

    Quijano-Briones, J J; Fernández-Escamilla, H N; Tlahuice-Flores, A

    2016-06-21

    The structure of penta-graphene (penta-C), an irregular pentagonal two-dimensional (2D) structure, has been predicted recently. In this communication we carried out a dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT-D) study of the penta-C doped with Si, Ge and Sn atoms and its related hydrogenated penta-C structures (H-penta-C-X). We predict various new structures as thermally stable based on Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics (BOMD) calculations. Moreover, their dynamical stability is attested by phonon dispersions spectra. In general, we found that the bandgap value of doped structures reduces, while H-penta-C-X show large bandgap values. This feature can be exploited for potential uses of hydrogenated doped-penta-C structures as dielectric layers in electronic devices.

  20. Conformational analysis and dipole moments of tetra-O-methyl-(+)-catechin and tetra-O-methyl_(-)-epicatechin

    Treesearch

    W.L. Mattice; F.L. Tobiason; K. Houghlum; A. Shanafelt

    1982-01-01

    A conformational energy analysis has been performed for tetra-0-methyl-(+)-catechin and tetra-O-methyl-(-)-epicatechin. Rotation was permitted about five C-O bonds and about the single bond connecting two rings. Eighteen rotational isomers each were assigned for tetra-0-methyl-(-)-epicatechin. Relative...

  1. Crystal structures and conformations of two Diels-Alder adduct derivatives: 1,8-bis-(thio-phen-2-yl)-14-oxa-tetra-cyclo-[6.5.1.0(2,7).0(9,13)]tetra-deca-2(7),3,5-trien-10-one and 1,8-diphenyl-14-oxa-tetra-cyclo[6.5.1.0(2,7).0(9,13)] tetra-deca-2,4,6-trien-10-one.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, S; Narayanan, P; Sethusankar, K; Nandakumar, Meganathan; Mohanakrishnan, Arasambattu K

    2015-02-01

    The title compounds, C21H16O2S2 (I) and C25H20O2 (II), are products of a tandem 'pincer' Diels-Alder reaction consisting of [2 + 2] cyclo-additions between benzo[c]furan and cyclo-penta-none. Each comprises a fused tetra-cyclic ring system containing two five-membered rings (in envelope conformations with the O atom as the flap) and six-membered rings (in boat conformations). In addition, two thio-phene rings in (I) and two phenyl rings in (II) are attached to the tetra-cyclic ring system. The cyclo-penta-none ring adopts a twisted conformation in (I) and an envelope conformation in (II). In (I), the thio-phene rings are positionally disordered over two sets of sites, with occupancy ratios of 0.901 (2):0.099 (2) and 0.666 (2):0.334 (2). In (II), the oxygen atom of the cyclo-penta-none ring is rotationally disordered over two sites with an occupancy ratio of 0.579 (4):0.421 (4). The mol-ecular structure of (I) is stabilized by an intra-molecular C-H⋯O hydrogen bond, which generates an S(7) ring motif. In the crystal, the mol-ecules are linked via weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, which generate R (2) 2(16) ring motifs in (I) and C(8) chains in (II). In both structures, the crystal packing also features C-H⋯π inter-actions. The crystal studied of compound (I) was twinned by non-merohedry. The twin component is related by the twin law [-1 0 0 -0.101 1 -0.484 0 0 -1] operated by a twofold rotation axis parallel to the b axis. The structure of (I) was refined with a twin scale factor of 0.275 (2).

  2. Genetics Home Reference: tetra-amelia syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... the body, including the face and head, heart, nervous system, skeleton, and genitalia. The lungs are underdeveloped in ... Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central Ohdo S, Sonoda T, Ohba K. Natural history and postmortem anatomy of a patient with tetra-amelia, ectodermal dysplasia, ...

  3. Azido-(η(5)-penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)[2-(pyridin-2-yl)phen-yl]iridium(III).

    PubMed

    Ariyoshi, Keita; Suzuki, Takayoshi

    2013-01-01

    In the title compound, [Ir(C10H15)(C11H8N)(N3)], the Ir(III) ion is coordinated by three anionic ligands, namely, penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dienyl (Cp*(-)), 2-(pyridin-2-yl)phenyl (ppy(-)) and azide (N3 (-)), and adopts a three-legged piano-stool geometry The coordination mode of N3 (-) is typical for Cp*Ir(III)-N3 complexes, with an Ir-N(N3) bond length of 2.125 (2) Å and an Ir-N=N bond angle of 116.5 (2)°. The N3 (-) ligand is almost linear [N=N=N = 176.0 (3)°], and the N=N bond length between the central and coordinating N atom and that between the central and non-coordinating terminal N atom are 1.194 (3) and 1.157 (3) Å, respectively. For the ppy(-) ligand, the Ir-C and Ir-N bond lengths are 2.066 (3) and 2.079 (3) Å, respectively, which are rather close to each other, compared to the related Ir(III)- or Rh(III)-ppy complexes. The Ir-C(Cp*) bond lengths vary in the range 2.163 (2)-2.232 (2) Å, indicating a strong trans influence of the cyclo-metallated C-donor atom of the ppy(-) ligand.

  4. Terrestrial Gamma Flashes at Ground Level - TETRA II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherry, M. L.; Adams, C.; Bai, S.; Baum, Z.; Hoffman, J.; Khosravi, E.; Legault, M.; Pleshinger, D. J.; Rodriguez, R.; Smith, D.; Sunda-Meya, A.; Trepanier, J.; Ward, A.

    2016-12-01

    An upgraded version of the TGF and Energetic Thunderstorm Rooftop Array (TETRA-II) consists of an array of BGO scintillators located on the campus of the University of Puerto Rico at Utuado. TETRA-II began operation in May 2016. When it is fully operational, TETRA-II will have approximately 10 × the sensitivity of the original TETRA array of NaI scintillators at Louisiana State University that detected 37 millisecond bursts of gamma rays at energies 50 keV - 2 MeV associated with nearby (< 8 km) thunderstorms. The ability to observe ground-level Terrestrial Gamma Flashes from close to the source allows a unique analysis of the storm cells producing these events. A brief description of the TETRA observations, a description of TETRA-II, and preliminary TETRA-II results will be presented.

  5. Crystal structure of catena-poly[bis­(tetra­ethyl­ammonium) [tetra­aqua­tris(μ-dicyanamido-κ2 N 1:N 5)bis(dicyanamido-κN 1)di­cobaltate(II)] dicyanamide

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chen; Thuijs, Annaliese E.; Abboud, Khalil A.

    2016-01-01

    The structure of the title compound, [N(C2H5)4]2[Co2(C2N3)5(H2O)4](C2N3), is a new example of a metal–dicyanamide coordination polymer which exhibits a unique three-dimensional framework of covalently linked CoII chains. All bridging dicyanamide ligands in the title structure are in the μ 1,5-bridging mode. The anionic CoII-dicyanamide network is templated by tetra­ethyl­ammonium cations residing in a series of channels extending along the b axis where additional non-coordinating dicyanamidate anions are also located. The framework structure is further stabilized by O—H⋯N hydrogen bonding between aqua ligands and dicyanamido ligands or the dicyanamide anion. In addition, C—H⋯N inter­actions are present between the tetra­ethyl­ammonium cations and dicyanamide amide nitro­gen atoms. PMID:27840718

  6. [μ-6,9-Bis(carboxylatomethyl)-3,12-bis(car-boxymethyl)-3,6,9,12-tetraaza-tetradecanedioato]bis-[aqua-cobalt(II)] tetra-hydrate.

    PubMed

    Qian, Qi-Feng; Wu, Jin-Hui; Qian, Jin-Liang

    2013-02-01

    The binuclear title complex, [Co(2)(C(18)H(26)N(4)O(12))(H(2)O)(2)]·4H(2)O, lies about a centre of inversion, the Co(II) atom being coordinated in a distorted octa-hedral arrangement defined by one water mol-ecule and N(2)O(3) donors derived from one end of a 6,9-bis(carboxylatomethyl)-3,12-bis(car-boxy-methyl)-3,6,9,12-tetraaza-tetradecanedioate (H(2)TTHA(4-)) tetra-anion. In the crystal, numerous O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol-ecules into a three-dimensional network.

  7. Sub-Camera Calibration of a Penta-Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, K.; Gerke, M.

    2016-03-01

    Penta cameras consisting of a nadir and four inclined cameras are becoming more and more popular, having the advantage of imaging also facades in built up areas from four directions. Such system cameras require a boresight calibration of the geometric relation of the cameras to each other, but also a calibration of the sub-cameras. Based on data sets of the ISPRS/EuroSDR benchmark for multi platform photogrammetry the inner orientation of the used IGI Penta DigiCAM has been analyzed. The required image coordinates of the blocks Dortmund and Zeche Zollern have been determined by Pix4Dmapper and have been independently adjusted and analyzed by program system BLUH. With 4.1 million image points in 314 images respectively 3.9 million image points in 248 images a dense matching was provided by Pix4Dmapper. With up to 19 respectively 29 images per object point the images are well connected, nevertheless the high number of images per object point are concentrated to the block centres while the inclined images outside the block centre are satisfying but not very strongly connected. This leads to very high values for the Student test (T-test) of the finally used additional parameters or in other words, additional parameters are highly significant. The estimated radial symmetric distortion of the nadir sub-camera corresponds to the laboratory calibration of IGI, but there are still radial symmetric distortions also for the inclined cameras with a size exceeding 5μm even if mentioned as negligible based on the laboratory calibration. Radial and tangential effects of the image corners are limited but still available. Remarkable angular affine systematic image errors can be seen especially in the block Zeche Zollern. Such deformations are unusual for digital matrix cameras, but it can be caused by the correlation between inner and exterior orientation if only parallel flight lines are used. With exception of the angular affinity the systematic image errors for corresponding

  8. (Cyanido-κC)(2,2-di-phenyl-acetamido-κ(2) N,O)bis-(η(5)-penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)zirconium(IV).

    PubMed

    Becker, Lisanne; Spannenberg, Anke; Arndt, Perdita; Rosenthal, Uwe

    2014-02-01

    In the title compound, [Zr(C10H15)2(C14H12NO)(CN)], the Zr(IV) atom is coordinated by two penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dienyl ligands, the amidate ligand via the N and O atoms, and an additional C N ligand. The four-membered metallacycle is nearly planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.008 Å). In the crystal, the mol-ecules are connected into centrosymmetric dimers via pairs of N-H⋯N hydrogen bonds.

  9. Novel Penta-Unsaturated Alkenones From Lake Fryxell, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaraula, C. B.; Brassell, S. C.; Kenig, F.; Doran, P. T.

    2007-12-01

    Novel methyl octatriaconta-pentaen-one (C38:5m), methyl and ethyl nonatriaconta-pentaen-one (C39:5m and C39:5e, respectively) and methyl tetradec-pentaen-one (C40:5m) are identified from chromatographic and mass spectrometric properties of a bottom sediment sample from perennially ice-covered Lake Fryxell in Antarctica. The pentaunsaturated alkenones comprise 15%, 28% and 12% of the total C38, C39 and C40 homologous series. These alkenone biomarkers also consist of tetra , tri-, and diunsaturated methyl and ethyl ketones from C37 to C40. Low salinity and extremely cold conditions year round may have strongly influenced the number of unsaturations in the biomarkers and chain length of the alkenones. As also suggested by accompanying cholesterol and alkene biomarkers, these alkenones are key biomarkers of haptophycean algae of the Class Prymnesiophyceae, but the specific species that biosynthesizes these alkenones in the lake are still unknown.

  10. Triggering of Suicidal Erythrocyte Death by Penta-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose

    PubMed Central

    Alzoubi, Kousi; Honisch, Sabina; Abed, Majed; Lang, Florian

    2013-01-01

    The polyphenolic 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-d-glucose from several medicinal herbs triggers apoptosis and has, thus, been proposed for treatment of malignancy. The substance is at least partially effective through caspase activation. In analogy to apoptosis of nucleated cells, erythrocytes may enter suicidal death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and by phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Eryptosis is triggered by increase of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i). The sensitivity to [Ca2+]i is enhanced by ceramide. The present study explored whether penta-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose stimulates eryptosis. Cell volume was estimated from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine exposure from annexin V binding, hemolysis from hemoglobin-release, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence and ceramide abundance from fluorescent antibodies. A 48-h exposure of human erythrocytes to penta-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose significantly decreased forward scatter (50 µM) and significantly increased annexin V binding (10 µM). Up to 50 µM penta-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose did not significantly modify [Ca2+]i. However, the effect of penta-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose (25 µM) induced annexin V binding was slightly, but significantly, blunted by removal of extracellular Ca2+, pointing to sensitization of erythrocytes to the scrambling effect of Ca2+. Penta-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose (25 µM) further increased ceramide formation. In conclusion, penta-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose stimulates suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, an effect partially due to stimulation of ceramide formation with subsequent sensitization of erythrocytes to Ca2+. PMID:24368324

  11. Tetra-aceto-nitrile-lithium tetra-iso-thio-cyanato-borate.

    PubMed

    Breunig, Jens Michael; Wietelmann, Ulrich; Lerner, Hans-Wolfram; Bolte, Michael

    2013-05-01

    The crystal structure of the title salt, [Li(CH3CN)4][B(NCS)4], is composed of discrete cations and anions. Both the Li and B atoms show a tetra-hedral coordination by four equal ligands. The aceto-nitrile and iso-thio-cyanate ligands are linear. The bond angles at the B atom are close to the ideal tetra-hedral value [108.92 (18)-109.94 (16)°], but the bond angles at the Li atom show larger deviations [106.15 (17)-113.70 (17)°].

  12. Detection of Toxic Heavy Metal, Co(II) Trace via Voltammetry with Semiconductor Microelectrodes

    PubMed Central

    Ly, Suw Young; Lee, Chang Hyun; Koo, Jae Mo

    2017-01-01

    The cobalt (Co(II)) ion is a main component of alloys and considered to be carcinogenic, especially due to the carcinogenic and toxicological effects in the aquatic environment. The toxic trace of the Co(II) detection was conducted using the infrared photodiode electrode (IPDE) using a working electrode, via the cyclic and square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The results indicated a sensitive oxidation peak current of Co(II) on the IPDE. Under the optimal conditions, the common-type glassy carbon, the metal platinum, the carbon paste, and the carbon fiber microelectrode were compared with the IPDE in the electrolyte using the standard Co(II). The IPDE was found to be far superior to the others. PMID:28503262

  13. Recoverable plasticity in penta-twinned metallic nanowires governed by dislocation nucleation and retraction

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Qingquan; Yin, Sheng; Cheng, Guangming; Li, Xiaoyan; Chang, Tzu-Hsuan; Richter, Gunther; Zhu, Yong; Gao, Huajian

    2015-01-01

    There has been relatively little study on time-dependent mechanical properties of nanowires, in spite of their importance for the design, fabrication and operation of nanoscale devices. Here we report a dislocation-mediated, time-dependent and fully reversible plastic behaviour in penta-twinned silver nanowires. In situ tensile experiments inside scanning and transmission electron microscopes show that penta-twinned silver nanowires undergo stress relaxation on loading and complete plastic strain recovery on unloading, while the same experiments on single-crystalline silver nanowires do not exhibit such a behaviour. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal that the observed behaviour in penta-twinned nanowires originates from the surface nucleation, propagation and retraction of partial dislocations. More specifically, vacancies reduce dislocation nucleation barrier, facilitating stress relaxation, while the twin boundaries and their intrinsic stress field promote retraction of partial dislocations, resulting in full strain recovery. PMID:25585295

  14. Crystal structure of tetra-guanidinium [hexa-hydrogen hexa-arsenato(V)tetra-vanadate(V)] tetra-hydrate.

    PubMed

    Harrison, William T A

    2014-09-01

    The complete polyoxidometallate anion in the title compound, (CH6N3)4[H6V4As6O30]·4H2O, is generated by crystallographic inversion symmetry. The polyhedral building units are distorted VO6 octa-hedra and AsO3OH tetra-hedra. The VO6 units feature a short formal V=O double bond and are linked by a common edge. Two such V2O6 double octahedral units are linked by four isolated AsO3OH tetra-hedra to complete the anion, which features two inter-nal O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. In the crystal, O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the polyoxidometallate anions generate (01-1) sheets. The sheets are connected by cation-to-cluster N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, and cation-to-water N-H⋯O links also occur. The O atom of one of the water mol-ecules is disordered over two sites in a 0.703 (17):0.297 (17) ratio.

  15. 40 CFR 721.10430 - Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10430 Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... ammonium salt (PMN P-97-823) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10430 - Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10430 Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... ammonium salt (PMN P-97-823) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  17. Dietary protein source and level alters growth in neon tetras.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nutritional studies for aquarium fish like the neon tetra are sparse in comparison with those for food fish. To determine the optimum dietary protein level and source for growth of neon tetras, diets were formulated to contain 25, 35, 45 and 55% dietary protein from either marine animal protein or ...

  18. Esterified coir pith as an adsorbent for the removal of Co(II) from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Parab, Harshala; Joshi, Shreeram; Shenoy, Niyoti; Lali, Arvind; Sarma, U S; Sudersanan, M

    2008-04-01

    Coir pith was chemically modified for the adsorption of cobalt(II) ions from aqueous solution. Chemical modification was done by esterification using succinic anhydride followed by activation with NaHCO(3) in order to improve the adsorption of Co(II). Adsorptive removal of Co(II) from aqueous solution onto modified coir pith was evaluated in batch studies under varying conditions of agitation time and metal ion concentration to assess the kinetic and equilibrium parameters. A pseudo-second-order kinetic model fitted well for the sorption of Co(II) onto modified coir pith. Sorption kinetics showed that the loading of Co(II) by this material was quite fast under ambient conditions. The Langmuir and Freundlich equilibrium isotherm models provided excellent fits for the adsorption data, with R(2) of 0.99 and 0.98, respectively. After esterification, the maximum Co(II) sorption loading Q(0); was greatly improved. It is evident that chemically modified adsorbent exhibits better Co(II) removal capability than raw adsorbent suggesting that surface modification of the adsorbent generates more adsorption sites on its solid surface for metal adsorption. A complete recovery of the adsorbed metal ions from the spent adsorbent was achieved by using 1.0N HCl.

  19. Structure and isomerization of O, O-phenylene penta-coordinated phosphoryl serine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Kui; Tu, Guang-Zhong; Guo, Xiang-Feng; Sun, Xiao-Bin; Liu, Yan; Feng, Yu-Ping; Zhao, Yu-Fen

    2002-06-01

    A stable penta-coordinated serine-carboxylic-phosphoric anhydride may be synthesized at temperatures below -18 °C. Above that temperature, the product was shown to isomerize to another penta-coordinated phosphorus compound, which was proven by the change in the magnitude of observed P-C coupling constants. The mechanism for the anhydride to ester isomerization might provide a clue to the proposal of high-energy supply for biochemistry. Organic bases were shown to exert little influence on the rate of isomerization.

  20. Aqua-bis-(4-methyl-benzene-sulfonato-κO)(η(5)-penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)rhodium(III) monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Roy, Christopher P; Boyer, Pauline M; Merola, Joseph S

    2013-05-01

    The title half-sandwich rhodium(III) complex, [Rh(C10H15)(C7H7O3S)2(H2O)]·H2O, consists of a π-bonded penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dienyl group, two σ-bonded tosyl-ate groups and an aqua ligand. The structure displays both inter- and intra-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bonding. The inter-molecular hydrogen bonding results in an extended helical chain along a 21 screw axis parallel to c, due to hydrogen bonding from the coordinating water ligand to the lattice water mol-ecule and then to a sulfonate O atom of a different asymmetric unit.

  1. Crystal structure of bis­(η2-ethyl­ene)(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)cobalt

    PubMed Central

    Ramful, Chandika D.; Robertson, Katherine N.; Ylijoki, Kai E. O.

    2016-01-01

    The title compound, [Co(C10H15)(C2H4)2], was prepared by Na/Hg reduction of [Co2(C10H15)2(μ-Cl)2] in THF under an ethyl­ene atmosphere and crystallized from pentane at 193 K. The Co—C(olefin) bonds have an average length of 2.022 (2) Å, while the Co—C(penta­dien­yl) bonds average 2.103 (19) Å. The olefin C=C bonds are 1.410 (1) Å. The dihedral angle between the planes defined by the cyclo­penta­dienyl ligand and the two olefin ligands is 0.25 (12)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked into chains by C—H⋯π inter­actions. PMID:27920922

  2. Tetra­butyl­ammonium tetra­kis­(trimethyl­silanolato-κO)ferrate(III)

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Michael; Staples, Richard; Lee, Andre

    2012-01-01

    In the title salt, (C16H36N)[Fe(C3H9OSi)4], the cation contains a central N atom bonded to four n-butyl alkyl groups in a tetra­hedral arrangement, while the anion contains a central FeIII atom tetra­hedrally coordinated by four trimethyl­silanolate ligands. PMID:22969479

  3. [Studies on the liquid-liquid extraction behaviour of Co(II) and Ni(II) without organic solvents].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z; Deng, F; Shi, Y

    1998-06-01

    In PEG-Eriochrome cyanine R-(NH4)2SO4 system the liquid-liquid extraction behaviour of Co(II) and Ni(II) without organic solvents was investigated. We found that Ni(II) was almost extracted by PEG phase while Co(II) was not extracted in the water solutions of NaAc-HAc (pH=5) and (NH4)2SO4. Thus Co(II) was quantitatively separated from mixed solutions of Ni(II) and Co(II) ions.

  4. Half-metallicity and ferromagnetism in penta-AlN2 nanostructure

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiao; Fan, Xinyu; Wei, Yanpei; Liu, Haiying; Li, Shujuan; Zhao, Peng; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    We have performed a detailed first-principles study of the penta-AlN2 nanostructure in the Cairo pentagonal tiling geometry, which is dynamically stable due to the absence of imaginary mode in the calculated phonon spectrum. The formation energy and the fragment cohesive energy analyses, the molecular dynamics simulations, and the mechanical property studies also support the structural stability. It could withstand the temperature as high as 1400 K and sustain the strain up to 16.1% against structural collapse. The slightly buckled penta-AlN2 is found to be a ferromagnetic semiconductor. The strain of ~9% could drive the structural transition from the buckled to the planar. Interestingly, the strain of >7% would change the conducting properties to show half-metallic characters. Furthermore, it could be also used to continuously enhance the magnetic coupling strength, rendering penta-AlN2 as a robust ferromagnetic material. These studies shed light on the possibilities in synthesizing penta-AlN2 and present many unique properties, which are worth of further studying on both theory and experiment. PMID:27616459

  5. The effect of Mg(II) on the spectral properties of Co(II) alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R A; Kennedy, F S; Vallee, B L

    1976-08-24

    Alkaline phosphatase of Escherichia coli, isolated by procedures which do not alter its intrinsic metal content, contains 1.3 +/- 0.3 g-atom(s) of magnesium and 4.0 +/- 0.2 g-atoms of zinc per mol of molecular weight 89 000 (Bosron et al., 1975). Substitution of Co(II) for Zn(II) and/or Mg(II) results in spectral properties which can be correlated with enzymatic activity. Magnesium does not activate the apoenzyme but augments the activity of 2-Co(II) enzyme almost 3-fold and that of the 4-Co(II) enzyme 1.3-fold. The magnesium-induced increase in activity of the 2-Co(II) enzyme is accompanied by spectral changes which are consistent with an alteration from largely octahedral-like to pentacoordinate-like coordination geometry. Magnesium increases the intensity of the absorption and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) signals of the 4-Co(II) enzyme but without evidence of changes in coordination geometry. Cobalt when bound to the magnesium sites results in octahedral-like EPR spectra, unperturbed by phosphate which significantly affects cobalt at the pentacoordinate-like sites. In the absence of magnesium, 6 g-atoms of cobalt are required to maximize the spectral properties, but activity does not increase further after the addition of only 4 g-atoms of cobalt, while activity is optimal with only 2 g-atoms of cobalt. Hydrogen-tritium exchange measurements indicate that magnesium also stabilizes the dynamic structural properties of the apo- and 2-Co(II) enzymes but has little effect on the structure of 4-Co(II) phosphatase. The response to magnesium of both the spectral properties and enzymatic activities of cobalt alkaline phosphatase demonstrates that magnesium regulates cobalt (and zinc) binding and modulates the activity of the resultant products.

  6. Influence of electron beam irradiation on spectral, thermal, morphological and catalytic properties of Co(II) complex immobilized on chitosan's Schiff base.

    PubMed

    Antony, R; Theodore David, S; Karuppasamy, K; Sanjeev, Ganesh; Balakumar, S

    2014-04-24

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of electron beam irradiation on the spectral and catalytic properties of chitosan supported (ONClCl) tetra coordinated Co(II) complex, [Co(OIAC)Cl2]. The complex was subjected to electron beam irradiation of 100 Gy, 1 kGy and 10 kGy doses. Chain scission of chitosan was observed on irradiation at 100 Gy and 10 kGy and chain linking at 1 kGy as evidenced by viscosity and FT-IR spectroscopic studies. This observation was also confirmed by thermo gravimetric and differential thermogravimetric (TG-DTG) analysis. It revealed that the thermal stability of the complex was increased at 1 kGy irradiation and decreased at 100 Gy and 10 kGy. In addition, the effect of electron beam irradiation on the surface morphology of the complex was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Catalytic abilities of both non-irradiated complex and irradiated complexes were determined and compared in the cyclohexane oxidation using hydrogen peroxide oxidant. The catalytic activity was found to increase after irradiation at all doses. Though the complex irradiated at 10 kGy showed highest conversion efficiency, irradiation at 1 kGy is suggested as the best dose due to the extensive reusability and adequate catalytic ability of the complex.

  7. Tetra Detector Analysis of Membrane Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Rebecca A.; Stroud, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Well-characterized membrane protein detergent complexes (PDC) that are pure, homogenous and stable with minimized excess detergent micelles are essential for functional assays and crystallization studies. Procedural steps to measure the mass, size, shape, homogeneity and molecular composition of PDCs and their host detergent micelle using size exclusion chromatography (SEC) with a Viscotek tetra detector array (TDA; absorbance, refractive index, light scattering and viscosity detectors) are presented. The value of starting with a quality PDC sample, the precision and accuracy of the results, and the use of a digital bench top refractometer are emphasized. An alternate and simplified purification and characterization approach using SEC with dual absorbance and refractive index detectors to optimize detergent and lipid concentration while measuring the PDC homogeneity are also described. Applications relative to purification and characterization goals are illustrated as well. PMID:25081744

  8. Semisynthetic roxburghin tetra­methyl ether

    PubMed Central

    Saez, Alex; Ramirez de Arellano, Carmen; El Aouad, Noureddine; Rodriguez, Silvia; Otalvaro, Felipe; Cortes, Diego; Saez, Jairo

    2008-01-01

    The title mol­ecule, (E)-2,3′,4,5-tetra­methoxy­stilbene, C18H20O4, is virtually planar. The angle between the two benzene rings is 4.06 (6)°. The inter­molecular inter­actions present in the structure are weak. There are C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and C—H⋯π-electron ring inter­actions. The mol­ecules are ordered into planes that are parallel to (01). The distance between adjacent planes is about 3.3 Å and therefore π–π electron inter­actions between the aromatic planes are also plausible. PMID:21202934

  9. Stevioside methanol tetra­solvate

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yunshan; Rodenburg, Douglas L.; Ibrahim, Mohamed A.; McChesney, James D.; Avery, Mitchell A.

    2013-01-01

    Stevioside is a naturally occurring diterpenoid glycoside in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. The title compound, C38H60O18·4CH3OH, crystallized as its methanol tetrasolvate. Stevioside consists of an aglycone steviol (a tetra­cyclic diterpene in which the four-fused-ring system consists of three six-membered rings and one five-membered ring) and a sugar part (three glucose units). A weak intra­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bond occurs. In the crystal, the methanol mol­ecules participate in a two-dimensional hydrogen-bonded network parallel to b axis with the sugars and together they form a hydrophilic tunnel which encloses the lipophilic part of the molecule. PMID:23476589

  10. Binuclear biologically active Co(II) complexes with octazamacrocycle and aliphatic dicarboxylates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanasković, S. B.; Vučković, G.; Antonijević-Nikolić, M.; Stanojković, T.; Gojgić-Cvijović, G.

    2012-12-01

    Four new cationic Co(II) complexes with N,N',N'',N'''-tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl)-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane (tpmc) and dianion of one the aliphatic dicarboxylic acids: butanedioic acid (succinic) acid = succH2, pentanedioic (glutaric) acid = gluH2, hexanedioic acid (adipic) acid = adipH2 or decanedioic acid (sebacic) acid = sebH2 of general formula [Co2(L)(tpmc)](ClO4)2ṡxY, L2- = succ, x = 1, Y = H2O; L = glu, x = 1, Y = H2O; L = adip, x = 1.5, Y = H2O; L = seb, x = 1, Y = CH3CN were isolated. The composition and charge are proposed based on elemental analyses (C, H, N) and electrical conductivity measurements. UV-Vis and FTIR spectral data and magnetic moments were in accordance with high-spin Co(II) state. It is proposed that in all complexes Co(II) is hexa-coordinated out of cyclam ring and that both carboxylic groups from dicarboxylate bridge participate in coordination. Oxygens from one group are most likely bonded to the same Co(II) ion thus forming a four-membered ring. The in vitro antibacterial/antiproliferative activities of the complexes were in some cases enhanced compared with the simple Co(II) salt and free ligands, tested as controls.

  11. 2,3,5-Triphenyl-2H-tetra­zol-3-ium tetra­phenyl­borate

    PubMed Central

    Fun, Hoong-Kun; Chia, Tze Shyang; Mostafa, Gamal A. E.; Hefnawy, Mohamed M.; Abdel-Aziz, Hatem A.

    2012-01-01

    In the title salt, C19H15N4 +·C24H20B−, the tetra­phenyl­borate anion is in a tetra­hedral geometry around the B atom [C—B—C angles of 107.10 (9)–111.79 (9)°]. In the cation, the tetra­zole ring makes dihedral angles of 3.04 (7), 51.75 (7) and 51.13 (7)° with the attached phenyl rings. In the crystal, C—H⋯π inter­actions link the cations and anions into ion pairs. PMID:22904995

  12. Crystal structure of tetra-kis-(μ3-2-{[1,1-bis-(hy-droxy-meth-yl)-2-oxidoeth-yl]imino-meth-yl}phenolato)tetra-copper(II) ethanol monosolvate 2.5-hydrate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weilun; Ran, Jingwen

    2015-05-01

    The title compound, [Cu4(C11H13NO4)4]·CH3CH2OH·2.5H2O, is an electronically neutral tetra-nuclear copper(II) complex with a cubane-like Cu4O4 core. The complete molecule has point group symmetry 2. The phenol hy-droxy group and one of the three alcohol hy-droxy groups of each 2-{[tris-(hy-droxy-meth-yl)meth-yl]imino-meth-yl}phenol ligand are depro-ton-ated, while the secondary amine and the other two hy-droxy groups remain unchanged. The Cu(II) atoms in the Cu4O4 core are connected by four μ3-O atoms from the deprotonated alcohol hy-droxy groups. Each of the penta-coordinated Cu(II) ions has an NO4 distorted square-pyramidal environment through coordination to the tridentate Schiff base ligands. The Cu-N/O bond lengths span the range 1.902 (4)-1.955 (4) Å, similar to values reported for related structures. There are O-H⋯O hydrogen-bond inter-actions between the complex molecules and the ethanol and water solvent molecules, leading to the formation of a three-dimensional network. The ethanol solvent molecule is disordered about a twofold rotation axis. One of the two independent water molecules is also located on this twofold rotation axis and shows half-occupancy.

  13. Tetra-amelia and splenogonadal fusion in Roberts syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Ravel, T.J.L. de; Seftel, M.D.; Wright, C.A.

    1997-01-20

    Roberts-SC phocomelia syndrome comprises limb deficiencies of variable severity, facial clefts, and other anomalies. Tetra-amelia may also be associated with facial clefts and similar anomalies. We report on a female infant with severe tetra-amelia, micrognathia, cleft palate, splenogonadal fusion, and premature centromere separation. We propose that this represents the severe expression of the Roberts-SC phocomelia syndrome. 18 refs., 6 figs.

  14. TETRA mobile radios interfere with electroencephalography recording equipment.

    PubMed

    Fouquet, Nathalie C; Hawken, Malcolm B; Elliott, Paul; Burgess, Adrian P

    2013-11-01

    We observed an anomaly in the human electroencephalogram (EEG) associated with exposure to terrestrial trunked radio (TETRA) Radiofrequency Fields (RF). Here, we characterize the time and frequency components of the anomaly and demonstrate that it is an artefact caused by TETRA RF interfering with the EEG recording equipment and not by any direct or indirect effect on the brain. Copyright © 2013 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hepta-, hexa-, penta-, tetra-, and trisaccharide resin glycosides from three species of Ipomoea and their antiproliferative activity on two glioma cell lines.

    PubMed

    León-Rivera, Ismael; Del Río-Portilla, Federico; Enríquez, Raúl G; Rangel-López, Edgar; Villeda, Juana; Rios, María Yolanda; Navarrete-Vázquez, Gabriel; Hurtado-Días, Israel; Guzmán-Valdivieso, Ulises; Núñez-Urquiza, Verónica; Escobedo-Martínez, Carolina

    2017-03-01

    Six new partially acylated resin glycosides were isolated from convolvulin of Ipomoea purga, Ipomoea stans, and Ipomoea murucoides (Convolvulaceae). The structures of compounds 1-6 were elucidated by a combination of NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The structure of jalapinoside B (1) consists of a hexasaccharide core bonded to an 11-hydroxytetradecanoic (convolvulinic) acid forming a macrolactone acylated by a 2-methylbutanoyl, a 3-hydroxy-2-methylbutanoyl, and a quamoclinic acid B units. Purginoic acid A (2) contains a hexasaccharide core bonded to a convolvulinic acid acylated by a 3-hydroxy-2-methylbutanoyl unit. Stansin A (4) is an ester-type heterodimer, and consists of two stansoic acid A (3) units, acylated by 2-methylbutanoic and 3-hydroxy-2-methylbutanoic acids. The site of lactonization was located at C-3 of Rhamnose, and the position for the ester linkage of the monomeric unit B on the macrolactone unit A was established as C-4 of the terminal rhamnose. Compounds 5 and 6 are glycosidic acids. Murucinic acid II (5) is composed of a pentasaccharide core bonded to an 11-hydroxyhexadecanoic (jalapinolic) acid, acylated by an acetyl unit. Stansinic acid I (6) is a tetrasaccharide core bonded to a jalapinolic acid, acylated by 2-methylbutanoyl and 3-hydroxy-2-methylbutanoyl units. Preliminary testing showed the cytotoxicity of compounds 1-6 toward OVCAR and UISO-SQC-1 cancer cell lines. In addition, compound 1 showed an antiproliferative activity on glioma C6 and RG2 tumor cell lines. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. 3,3-Dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetra­hydro­cyclo­penta­[b]indole-1,2-dione (bruceolline E)

    PubMed Central

    Jordon, Jason A.; Badenock, Jeanese C.; Gribble, Gordon W.; Jasinski, Jerry P.; Golen, James A.

    2012-01-01

    The title compound, C13H11NO2, crystallizes with two mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit. The crystal packing is stabilized by N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, which link the mol­ecules into chains along [10], and weak C—H⋯O inter­actions. PMID:22346990

  17. GC-MS analysis of penta- and tetra-cyclic triterpenes from resins of Pistacia species. Part II. Pistacia terebinthus var. Chia.

    PubMed

    Assimopoulou, A N; Papageorgiou, V P

    2005-10-01

    Pistacia species contain oleoresins with bioactive triterpenes. In this study triterpenes, including minor components, were identified and quantified in both neutral and acidic fractions of Pistacia terebinthus var. Chia resin, grown exclusively in Chios island (Greece), collected traditionally, as well as using stimulating agents (liquid collection). It was proved that these two resin samples were composed of several different minor triterpenes, while major constituents were similar but in different proportions. Compounds that differentiated two resin samples of P. lentiscus and P. terebinthus var. Chia, both traditionally collected, were detected, in order to identify the nature of resins present in archaeological materials. In the traditionally collected resin, 37 triterpenes were identified, 12 in the acidic and 25 in the neutral fraction. In the liquid collection resin 10 compounds were identified in the acidic and 23 in the neutral fraction, while 16 compounds were not contained in the traditionally collected resin. The main triterpenes in both resin samples collected traditionally and using stimulating agents were: isomasticadienonic acid (23.6 and 26.3% w[sol ]w of the triterpenic fraction, respectively), 28-norolean-17-en-3-one (16.3 and 17.5% w[sol ]w of the triterpenic fraction, respectively) and masticadienonic acid (5.8 and 6.0% w[sol ]w of the triterpenic fraction). In this study the qualitative and quantitative composition of triterpenes was compared in the Pistacia lentiscus and P. terebinthus var. Chia resin samples collected with the traditional and new liquid techniques, and also triterpenes in resins of P. terebinthus obtained by the traditional technique and using stimulating agents. The aim of the study was also to examine whether the collection technique influenced the triterpenes contained in P. terebinthus var. Chia resin samples.

  18. Oral (gavage) two-generation (one litter per generation) reproduction study of pentachlorophenol (penta) in rats.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Bruce K; Hoberman, Alan M; Brown, W Ray; Ranpuria, Anish K; Christian, Mildred S

    2002-01-01

    The potential for pentachlorophenol (penta) to induce general and reproductive/developmental toxicity was evaluated in Crl Sprague-Dawley rats, employing a two-generation reproduction toxicity study. Penta was administered by gavage at doses of 0, 10, 30, and 60 mg/kg/day. In both generations, the parental animals (30/sex/group) were intubated daily for 10 weeks before cohabitation and continuing through cohabitation, gestation, and lactation periods. Intubation of the F1 generation was begun 28 days postpartum. Animals were evaluated daily for mortality and general toxicity (clinical observations, body weights and gains, feed consumption). Organ weights were recorded and histopathological evaluations were made. Specific indices of reproductive function evaluated included estrous cycles, mating and fertility, parturition, lactation, viability, and growth and development of offspring, including sexual maturation, sperm parameters, and numbers of ovarian primordial follicles. All deaths in the parental rats were unrelated to penta. Expected metabolic effects of penta, sporadic increased liver weights associated with hepatocellular centrilobular hypertrophy and vacuolation and lipofuscin pigmentation, were evident in the 10-, 30-, and 60-mg/kg/day dose group P1 and F1 animals. Toxicity, in the form of liver pathology (single cell necrosis), reduced body weights and associated reductions in organ weights, and reduced feed consumption were noted in both generations at the 30- and 60-mg/kg/day doses. Developmental toxicity associated with these doses included reduced pup weights and viability. The 60-mg/kg/day dose also resulted in delayed sexual maturation, decreased spermatid counts, small prostates and testes, decreased implantations, reduced fertility, and increased resorptions of embryos. Based on these results, it was concluded that 30 mg/kg/day is the lowest-observable-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) and 10 mg/kg/day is the no-observable-adverse-effect level (NOAEL

  19. Tripodal phenylamine-based ligands and their CoII complexes.

    PubMed

    Jones, Matthew B; MacBeth, Cora E

    2007-10-01

    The syntheses of two phenylamine-based ligand systems, N(o-PhNH(2))(3) and N(o-PhNHC(O)(i)Pr)(3), are reported. These ligands readily coordinate to Co(II) to form monomeric complexes. X-ray diffraction studies establish that the [N(o-PhNC(O)(i)Pr)(3)](3-) ligand stabilizes the Co(II) ion in a trigonal-monopyramidal coordination environment. The axial coordination site in this complex is accessible and, upon cyanide coordination, generates an electrochemically active species.

  20. Sorption Characteristics of Aqueous Co(II) on Preformed Iron Ferrite Impregnated into Phenolsulphonic Formaldehyde Resin

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K. J.; Kim, Y. K.

    2002-02-26

    A series of stepwise procedures to prepare a new organic-inorganic composite magnetic resin with phenolsulphonicformaldehyde and freshly formed iron ferrite was established, based upon wet-and-neutralization method for synthesizing iron ferrite and pearl-polymerization method for synthesizing rigid bead-type composite resin. The composite resin prepared by the above method shows stably high removal efficiency (maximally over 3.1 meq./gresin) to Co(II) species from wastewater in a wide range of solution pH. The wide range of applicable solution pH (i.e. pH 4.09 to 10.32) implies that the composite resin overcomes the limitations of the conventional ferrite process that is practically applicable only to alkaline conditions. It has been found that both ion exchange (by the organic resin constituent) and surface adsorption (by the inorganic adsorbent constituent) are major reaction mechanisms for removing Co(II) from wastewater, but surface precipitation results in the high sorption capacity to Co(II) beyond normal ion exchange capacity of the phenolsulphonic-formaldehyde resin. Standard enthalpy change derived from van't Hoff equation is 32.0 kJ{center_dot}mol-1 conforming to the typical range for chemisorption or ion exchange. In a wide range of equilibrium Co(II) concentration, the overall isotherm is qualitatively explained by the generalized adsorption isotherm concept proposed by McKinley. At the experimental conditions where the composite resin shows equivalent selectivity to Co(II) and other competing reagents (i.e. EDTA and Na), the ratios of Co(II) to other chemicals turn out to be 2:1 and 1:221, respectively. In addition, the selectivity of the PSF-F to Co(II) species is very high (about 72% of Co(II)-removal efficiency) even when the molar ratio of Co(II) to Ca(II) is 1:30. It is anticipated that the composite resin can also be used for column-operation with process-control by applying external magnetic field, since the rigid bead-type composite resin shows

  1. Ethyl-enedi-ammonium sodium tetra-kis-[bis-(ethyl-enedi-amine-κ(2) N,N')(oxalato-κ(2) O (1),O (2))cobalt(III)] [penta-hydrogen di(phosphato-octa-deca-tungstate)] tetra-deca-hydrate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuzhuo; Wang, Jing; Xu, Yun

    2013-10-16

    The title compound, Na(C2H10N2)[Co(C2O4)(C2H8N2)2]4[H5(P2W18O62)2]·14H2O, prepared under hydro-thermal conditions, consists of two Dawson-type [P2W18O62](6-) anions, four isolated [Co(en)2(ox)](+) cations (en = ethyl-enedi-amine and ox = oxalate), one Na(+) cation, one [H2en](2+) cation, and a number of ordered (14) and disordered solvent water mol-ecules. The [P2W18O62](6-) polyoxidometalate anion has site symmetry 1 and contains two structurally distinct types of W atoms: viz. six W atoms on vertical pseudo-mirror planes grouped in two sets of three, and 12 equatorial W atoms that do not lie in the pseudo-mirror planes grouped in two sets of six. In each [Co(en)2(ox)](+) cation, the Co(III) ion is coordinated by four N atoms from two en ligands and two O atoms from the ox ligands, completing a distorted octa-hedral structure. The sodium cation lies on an inversion centre and additionally links the complex cations and anions. In the crystal, the various units are linked by N-H⋯O and O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, which together with C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds form a three-dimensional structure. The contribution of a region of disordered electron density, possibly highly disordered solvent water mol-ecules, to the scattering was removed with the SQUEEZE option of PLATON [Spek (2009 ▶). Acta Cryst. D65, 148-155]. To equilibrate the charges five H(+) ions have been added to the polyoxidometalate. These H(+) ions and the disordered solvent contribution were not included in the reported mol-ecular weight and density.

  2. Tetra­carbonyl­bis(η5-cyclo­penta­dienyl)bis[(dec-9-en-1-yl)diphenyl­phosphine]dimolybdenum(0)(Mo—Mo) tetra­hydro­furan disolvate

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, Ginger; Zakharov, Lev N.; Tyler, David R

    2009-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Mo2(η5-C5H5)2(C22H29P)2(CO)4]·2C4H8O, contains two half-mol­ecules of the organometallic species and two solvent mol­ecules. Both organometallic mol­ecules are completed by crystallographic inversion symmetry, yielding dimeric units with Mo—Mo single-bond lengths of 3.2703 (6) and 3.2548 (6) Å. Each Mo atom is also coordinated by an η5-cyclo­pentdienyl ligand, two carbonyl ligands, and a (dec-9-en-1-yl)diphenyl­phosphine ligand. PMID:21578585

  3. Mechanical properties of monolayer penta-graphene and phagraphene: a first-principles study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hao; Mukherjee, Sankha; Singh, Chandra Veer

    2016-09-29

    Two new graphene allotropes, penta-graphene and phagraphene, have been proposed recently with unique electronic properties, e.g. quasi-direct band gap, direction-dependent Dirac cones and tunable Fermi velocities. However, their mechanical properties have not been fully studied yet. In this work, we have performed extensive density functional theory calculations to evaluate the mechanical properties of these two materials and compared with graphene, graphane, and pentaheptite. Our simulations show that the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and the strain corresponding to UTS in both penta-graphene and phagraphene are smaller than that of graphene. A complete set of nonlinear anisotropic elastic constants up to the fourth order have been determined for these two allotropes using the tenets of continuum mechanics by fitting the stress-strain responses under uniaxial and biaxial tension until the point of fracture. We propose a new physical explanation for penta-graphene's negative Poisson's ratio based on the atomic de-wrinkling mechanism, driven by the local Hellman-Feynman force on each atom. Additionally, we used charge density plot and virtual Scanning Tunneling Microscopy images to analyze the initiation of fracture under uniaxial and biaxial tensile loading in these two materials. The charge density plots reveal that the charge density in sp(3) bonds is lower than that in the sp(2) bonds. In phagraphene, all the broken bonds were found to belong to the largest carbon ring in the structure.

  4. Nanoparticles of Ni(II) and Co(II) metallo-organic molecular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heras Ojea, María José; Pons Balagué, Alba; Reta Mañeru, Daniel; Carolina Sañudo, E.

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticles of a neutral fluorescent Co(II) ferromagnet and a high nuclearity coordination Ni(II) complex have been prepared. The stability in solution of the complexes has been studied by paramagnetic proton NMR. The formation of nanoparticles from 5 to 500 nm in size, depending on the synthetic conditions, has been checked by TEM, UV-Vis and fluorescence.

  5. Adsorption of Co(II) by a carboxylate-functionalized polyacrylamide grafted lignocellulosics.

    PubMed

    Shibi, I G; Anirudhan, T S

    2005-02-01

    A new adsorbent (PGBS-COOH) having carboxylate functional group at the chain end was synthesized by graft copolymerization of acrylamide onto banana stalk, BS (Musa Paradisiaca) using ferrous ammonium sulphate/H2O2 redox initiator system. The efficiency of the adsorbent in the removal of cobalt [Co(II)] from water was investigated using batch adsorption technique. The adsorbent exhibits very high adsorption potential for Co(II) and under optimum conditions more than 99% removal was achieved. The maximum adsorption capacity was observed at the pH range 6.5-9.0. The equilibrium isotherm data were analysed using three isotherm models, Langmuir, Freundlich and Scatchard, to determine the best fit equation for the sorption of Co(II) on the PGBS-COOH. A comparative study with a commercial cation exchanger, Ceralite IRC-50, having carboxylate functional group showed that PGBS-COOH is 2.8 times more effective compared to Ceralite IRC-50 at 30 degrees C. Synthetic nuclear power plant coolant water samples were also treated by the adsorbent to demonstrate its efficiency in removing Co(II) from water in the presence of other metal ions. Acid regeneration was tried for several cycles to recover the adsorbed metal ions and also to restore the sorbent to its original state.

  6. Crystal structure and magnetic properties of a linear tetranuclear Co(II) cluster.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingying; Wen, Meixia; Gao, Zhongjun; Sheng, Ning

    2016-09-01

    Polynuclear complexes are an important class of inorganic functional materials and are of interest particularly for their applications in molecular magnets. Multidentate chelating ligands play an important role in the design and syntheses of polynuclear metal clusters. A novel linear tetranuclear Co(II) cluster, namely bis{μ3-(E)-2-[(2-oxidobenzylidene)amino]phenolato}bis{μ2-(E)-2-[(2-oxidobenzylidene)amino]phenolato}bis(1,10-phenanthroline)tetracobalt(II), [Co4(C14H11NO2)4(C12H8N2)2], was prepared under solvothermal conditions through a mixed-ligand synthetic strategy. The structure was determined by X-ray single-crystal diffraction and bulk purity was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction. The complex molecule has a centrosymmetric tetranuclear chain-like structure and the four Co(II) ions are located in two different coordination environments. The Co(II) ions at the ends of the chain are in a slightly distorted octahedral geometry, while the two inner Co(II) ions are in five-coordinate distorted trigonal bipyramidal environments. A magnetic study reveals ferromagnetic Co(II)...Co(II) exchange interactions for the complex.

  7. 40 CFR 721.10679 - Carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra alkyl ester (generic). 721.10679 Section 721... Carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra alkyl ester... identified generically as carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products...

  8. Impaired ergosterol biosynthesis mediated fungicidal activity of Co(II) complex with ligand derived from cinnamaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Shreaz, Sheikh; Shiekh, Rayees A; Raja, Vaseem; Wani, Waseem A; Behbehani, Jawad M

    2016-03-05

    In this study, we have used aldehyde function of cinnamaldehyde to synthesize N, N'-Bis (cinnamaldehyde) ethylenediimine [C20H20N2] and Co(II) complex of the type [Co(C40H40N4)Cl2]. The structures of the synthesized compounds were determined on the basis of physiochemical analysis and spectroscopic data ((1)H NMR, FTIR, UV-visible and mass spectra) along with molar conductivity measurements. Anticandidal activity of cinnamaldehyde its ligand [L] and Co(II) complex was investigated by determining MIC80, time-kill kinetics, disc diffusion assay and ergosterol extraction and estimation assay. Ligand [L] and Co(II) complex are found to be 4.55 and 21.0 folds more efficient than cinnamaldehyde in a liquid medium. MIC80 of Co(II) complex correlated well with ergosterol inhibition suggesting ergosterol biosynthesis to be the primary site of action. In comparison to fluconazole, the test compounds showed limited toxicity against H9c2 rat cardiac myoblasts. In confocal microscopy propidium iodide (PI) penetrates the yeast cells when treated with MIC of metal complex, indicating a disruption of cell membrane that results in imbibition of dye. TEM analysis of metal complex treated cells exhibited notable alterations or damage to the cell membrane and the cell wall. The structural disorganization within the cell cytoplasm was noted. It was concluded that fungicidal activity of Co(II) complex originated from loss of membrane integrity and a decrease in ergosterol content is only one consequence of this.

  9. (η5-Penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)(η6-toluene)­ruthenium(II) hexa­fluorido­phosphate

    PubMed Central

    O, Wylie W. N.; Lough, Alan J.; Morris, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    In the title complex, [Ru(C7H8)(C10H15)]PF6, the cation lies on a mirror plane and the anion lies on an inversion center. The distance between the Ru atom and the centroid of the benzene ring is 1.706 (5) Å and the distance between the Ru atom and the cyclo­penta­dienyl ring is 1.811 (5) Å. The crystal structure is stabilized by weak C—H⋯F hydrogen bonds. The H atoms of the methyl groups which lie on the mirror plane are disordered over two sites with equal occupancies. PMID:21587411

  10. Azido­(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)[2-(pyridin-2-yl)phen­yl]iridium(III)

    PubMed Central

    Ariyoshi, Keita; Suzuki, Takayoshi

    2013-01-01

    In the title compound, [Ir(C10H15)(C11H8N)(N3)], the IrIII ion is coordinated by three anionic ligands, namely, penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl (Cp*−), 2-(pyridin-2-yl)phenyl (ppy−) and azide (N3 −), and adopts a three-legged piano-stool geometry The coordination mode of N3 − is typical for Cp*IrIII–N3 complexes, with an Ir—N(N3) bond length of 2.125 (2) Å and an Ir—N=N bond angle of 116.5 (2)°. The N3 − ligand is almost linear [N=N=N = 176.0 (3)°], and the N=N bond length between the central and coordinating N atom and that between the central and non-coordinating terminal N atom are 1.194 (3) and 1.157 (3) Å, respectively. For the ppy− ligand, the Ir—C and Ir—N bond lengths are 2.066 (3) and 2.079 (3) Å, respectively, which are rather close to each other, compared to the related IrIII– or RhIII–ppy complexes. The Ir—C(Cp*) bond lengths vary in the range 2.163 (2)–2.232 (2) Å, indicating a strong trans influence of the cyclo­metallated C-donor atom of the ppy− ligand. PMID:24098189

  11. Crystal structure of the tetra-gonal polymorph of bis-(1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium) tetra-bromido-cadmate.

    PubMed

    Đorđević, Tamara; Gerger, Sabrina; Karanović, Ljiljana

    2016-07-01

    Both unique Cd atoms in the tetra-gonal polymorph of bis-(1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium) tetra-bromido-cadmate, (C6H11N2)2[CdBr4], occupy special positions (site symmetry -4). The crystal structure consists of isolated tetra-hedral [CdBr4](2-) anions which are surrounded by 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium cations. The methyl and ethyl side chains of the cations show positional disorder in a 0.590 (11):0.410 (11) ratio. In the crystal, (C6H11N2)(+) cations display three weak C-H⋯Br hydrogen-bond inter-actions through the imidazolium ring H atoms with the Br(-) ligands of the surrounding complex anions. The alkyl groups of the side chains are not involved in hydrogen bonding.

  12. Spectroscopic properties of a series of Co(II) coordination polymers and the influence of Co(II) coordination environment on photoelectric property.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jing; Gong, Yuanyuan; Li, Lei; Han, Xiao; Meng, Qin; Liu, Yonghua; Niu, Shuyun

    2015-02-25

    Four Co(II) coordination polymers, [Co(suc)]n 1, [Co(pdc)]n 2, {[Co7(suc)4(OH)6(H2O)3]·8H2O}n 3, {[Co(bdc)(phen)(H2O)]·H2O}n 4 (H2suc=succinic acid, H2pdc=pyridine-3,4-dicarboxylic acid, H2bdc=1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, phen=1,10-phenanthroline) were hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by X-ray single-crystal diffraction, surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS), electrical conductivity, thermogravimetric analysis (TG), ultraviolet visible and near-infrared absorption spectrum (UV-Vis-NIR), infrared spectrum (IR), and elemental analysis. The structural analyses indicate that the coordination numbers of the Co(II) ions are 4, 5, 6 and 6 for the polymers 1-4, respectively. And polymers 1 and 2 exhibit 3D structure formed by suc(2-) and pdc(2-) anions bridging Co(II) ions, respectively. Polymer 3 exhibits a 2D structure with suc(2-) anions bridging seven-nuclear [Co7(OH)6(H2O)3](3-) unit and polymer 4 is a 1D structure bridged by bdc(2-) anions. The surface photoelectric properties of the cobalt polymers were mainly studied by SPS. The results of SPS reveal that all polymers possess certain photoelectric conversion property in the range of 300-800 nm. The influences of the structure, coordination micro-environment of central metal ion and structural dimensionality on response bands of SPS were discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Spectroscopic properties of a series of Co(II) coordination polymers and the influence of Co(II) coordination environment on photoelectric property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jing; Gong, Yuanyuan; Li, Lei; Han, Xiao; Meng, Qin; Liu, Yonghua; Niu, Shuyun

    2015-02-01

    Four Co(II) coordination polymers, [Co(suc)]n1, [Co(pdc)]n2, {[Co7(suc)4(OH)6(H2O)3] · 8H2O}n3, {[Co(bdc)(phen)(H2O)] · H2O}n4 (H2suc = succinic acid, H2pdc = pyridine-3,4-dicarboxylic acid, H2bdc = 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) were hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by X-ray single-crystal diffraction, surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS), electrical conductivity, thermogravimetric analysis (TG), ultraviolet visible and near-infrared absorption spectrum (UV-Vis-NIR), infrared spectrum (IR), and elemental analysis. The structural analyses indicate that the coordination numbers of the Co(II) ions are 4, 5, 6 and 6 for the polymers 1-4, respectively. And polymers 1 and 2 exhibit 3D structure formed by suc2- and pdc2- anions bridging Co(II) ions, respectively. Polymer 3 exhibits a 2D structure with suc2- anions bridging seven-nuclear [Co7(OH)6(H2O)3]3- unit and polymer 4 is a 1D structure bridged by bdc2- anions. The surface photoelectric properties of the cobalt polymers were mainly studied by SPS. The results of SPS reveal that all polymers possess certain photoelectric conversion property in the range of 300-800 nm. The influences of the structure, coordination micro-environment of central metal ion and structural dimensionality on response bands of SPS were discussed.

  14. Tetra­aceto­nitrile­lithium tetra­iso­thio­cyanato­borate

    PubMed Central

    Breunig, Jens Michael; Wietelmann, Ulrich; Lerner, Hans-Wolfram; Bolte, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The crystal structure of the title salt, [Li(CH3CN)4][B(NCS)4], is composed of discrete cations and anions. Both the Li and B atoms show a tetra­hedral coordination by four equal ligands. The aceto­nitrile and iso­thio­cyanate ligands are linear. The bond angles at the B atom are close to the ideal tetra­hedral value [108.92 (18)–109.94 (16)°], but the bond angles at the Li atom show larger deviations [106.15 (17)–113.70 (17)°]. PMID:23723766

  15. [η5-1,3-Bis(trimethyl­sil­yl)cyclo­penta­dien­yl]dichlorido[η5-(trimethyl­sil­yl)cyclo­penta­dien­yl]titanium(IV)

    PubMed Central

    Perdih, Franc

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound, [Ti(C8H13Si)(C11H21Si2)Cl2], the TiIV atom is bonded to two Cl atoms, one 1,3-bis­(trimethyl­sil­yl)cyclo­penta­dienyl (Si2Cp) and one (trimethyl­sil­yl)cyclo­penta­dienyl ring (SiCp). The Si2Cp centroid–titanium distance is 2.0763 (10) Å and the SiCp centroid–titanium distance is 2.0793 (10) Å. The angle subtended at the Ti atom by the centroids of both cyclo­penta­dienyl rings is 131.22 (4)° and the Cl—Ti—Cl angle is 94.14 (2)°. PMID:22199510

  16. Synthesis, Structure, and Magnetic Electrochemical Properties of a Family of Tungstoarsenates Containing Just Co(II) Centers or Both Co(II) and Fe(III) Centers.

    PubMed

    Ayingone Mezui, Charyle S; de Oliveira, Pedro; Teillout, Anne-Lucie; Marrot, Jérôme; Berthet, Patrick; Lebrini, Mounim; Mbomekallé, Israël M

    2017-02-20

    The three polyoxotungstates [(NaOH2)2Co(II)2(As2W15O56)2](18-) (1), [(NaOH2)(Co(II)OH2)Co(II)2(As2W15O56)2](17-) (2), and [(Co(II)OH2)2Co(II)2(As2W15O56)2](16-) (3) have been prepared in aqueous solution upon mixing cobalt(II) salts with the ligand [As2W15O56](12-). The reaction of 1 or 2 with the Fe(3+) ion leads invariably to the same species [(Fe(III)OH2)(Co(II)OH2)Co(II)2(As2W15O56)2](15-) (4) possessing three cobalt atoms and a single iron atom. However, if the Fe-containing homologue of compound 1, that is, the polyoxotungstate [(NaOH2)2Fe(III)2(As2W15O56)2](16-) (5), is employed instead to react with the Co(2+) ion, the species [(Co(II)OH2)2Fe(III)2(As2W15O56)2](14-) (6) is obtained, having two cobalt atoms and two iron atoms. The compounds 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 are described for the first time and have been characterized by several physicochemical methods such as FTIR, UV-visible, ATG, and elemental analysis. Structural analysis by single-crystal X-ray diffraction has been carried out with compounds 2 (monoclinic space group P21/c, a = 17.0622(5) Å, b = 15.0828(4) Å, c = 32.0872(8) Å, β = 91.170(1)°, and Z = 2) and 3 (triclinic space group P1̅, a = 13.6137(7) Å, b = 13.8836(8) Å, c = 22.9276(6) Å, α = 89.906(3)°, β = 78.356(2)°, γ = 61.451(2)°, and Z = 1). Electrochemical studies undertaken with all the above-mentioned compounds and some of their homologues shed light on the influence of the chemical composition on their electrocatalytic properties toward substrates such as the nitrite ion and dioxygen. Magnetic measurements evidence anisotropic ferromagnetic interactions between Co(2+) ions and antiferromagnetic interactions between Fe(3+) ions. The nature and the strength of the Co(2+)-Fe(3+) interactions depend on the relative orientations of their 3d orbitals. The effective magnetic moment of the Co(2+) ions varies with the temperature and with the distortion of the octahedral sites in which they are located.

  17. One-Pot Synthesis of Penta-twinned Palladium Nanowires and Their Enhanced Electrocatalytic Properties.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hongwen; Ruditskiy, Aleksey; Choi, Sang-Il; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Jingyue; Ye, Zhizhen; Xia, Younan

    2017-09-13

    This article reports the design and successful implementation of a one-pot, polyol method for the synthesis of penta-twinned Pd nanowires with diameters below 8 nm and aspect ratios up to 100. The key to the success of this protocol is the controlled reduction of Na2PdCl4 by diethylene glycol and ascorbic acid through the introduction of NaI and HCl. The I(-) and H(+) ions can slow the reduction kinetics by forming PdI4(2-) and inhibiting the dissociation of ascorbic acid, respectively. When the initial reduction rate is tuned into the proper regime, Pd decahedral seeds with a penta-twinned structure appear during nucleation. In the presence of I(-) ions as a selective capping agent toward the Pd(100) surface, the decahedral seeds can be directed to grow axially into penta-twinned nanorods and then nanowires. The Pd nanowires are found to evolve into multiply twinned particles if the reaction time is extended beyond 1.5 h, owing to the involvement of oxidative etching. When supported on carbon, the Pd nanowires show greatly enhanced specific electrocatalytic activities, more than five times the value for commercial Pd/C toward formic acid oxidation and three times the value for Pt/C toward oxygen reduction under an alkaline condition. In addition, the carbon-supported Pd nanowires exhibit greatly enhanced electrocatalytic durability toward both reactions. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the Pd nanowires can serve as sacrificial templates for the conformal deposition of Pt atoms to generate Pd@Pt core-sheath nanowires and then Pd-Pt nanotubes with a well-defined surface structure.

  18. Theoretical study of penta- and heteropentadienyl beryllium complexes coordinated to hydrogen molecules.

    PubMed

    Morales-Meza, Sharity; Pérez-Peralta, Nancy; Sanchez-Castro, M Esther; Sanchez, Mario

    2016-10-01

    A series of penta- and heteropentadienyl [CH2CHCHCHXBe](+), (X = CH2, O, NH, S) complexes has been theoretically studied. All calculated complexes show beryllium atoms with two, three, and five coordination numbers. The density functional theory (DFT) was used to determine the electron and structural behavior of those beryllium complexes. The nature of the ligands plays an important role in the form of binding to the beryllium atom. Beryllium structures 1-4 are able to coordinate only one hydrogen molecule. A molecular orbital analysis for all complexes was performed in order to know more about the nature of their bonding scheme.

  19. 4-Amino-pyridinium 5-carb-oxy-penta-noate monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Raj, S Alfred Cecil; Sinthiya, A; Varghese, Babu

    2012-07-01

    In the title hydrated salt, C(5)H(7)N(2) (+)·C(6)H(9)O(4) (-)·H(2)O, the carb-oxy H atom is disordered over two positions with equal occupancy. In the crystal, O atoms of the 5-carb-oxy-penta-noate anion link the 4-amino-pyridinium cations and water mol-ecules into a three-dimensional network via N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The crystal structure is further consolidated by O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving the anion and the solvent water mol-ecule.

  20. Capture of Co(II) from its aqueous EDTA-chelate by DTPA-modified silica gel and chitosan.

    PubMed

    Repo, Eveliina; Malinen, Leena; Koivula, Risto; Harjula, Risto; Sillanpää, Mika

    2011-03-15

    The adsorption of Co(II) by diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-modified silica gel and chitosan in the presence of EDTA and other interfering species was studied. Co(II) removal ranged from 93% to 96% from the solutions where Co(II) was totally chelated by EDTA. The amount of oxalate or Fe(II) did not affect the adsorption of Co(II) in the case of DTPA-chitosan. However, increasing the amount of oxalate enhanced the adsorption performance of DTPA-silica gel, probably due to the formation of new active sites on the silica gel surface. DTPA-chitosan was also effective in simulated decontamination solutions. For DTPA-silica gel, the rate of adsorption of free Co(II) was controlled by pore diffusion, but the rate of adsorption of Co(II)EDTA was controlled by the surface chelation reaction, which was attributed to the inhibited diffusion of Co(II)EDTA inside the silica gel mesopores. However, the macroporous structure of DTPA-chitosan enabled pore diffusion of both Co(II) and Co(II)EDTA. The equilibrium isotherms of DTPA-silica gel were best described by a BiLangmuir model, in which there are two different adsorption sites on the silica gel surface assigned to different speciations of DTPA. For DTPA-chitosan, the data fit best with a Sips model, which indicates system heterogeneity. Finally, measurements with capillary electrophoresis showed an increase in dissolved EDTA during adsorption, demonstrating the ability of DTPA-modified adsorbents to release Co(II) from its EDTA chelate. This promising result can provide a basis for applying the studied materials to the treatment of water effluents containing Co(II) chelated by EDTA by a simple one-step adsorption process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. (Cyanido-κC)(2,2-di­phenyl­acetamido-κ2 N,O)bis­(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)zirconium(IV)

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Lisanne; Spannenberg, Anke; Arndt, Perdita; Rosenthal, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    In the title compound, [Zr(C10H15)2(C14H12NO)(CN)], the ZrIV atom is coordinated by two penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl ligands, the amidate ligand via the N and O atoms, and an additional C N ligand. The four-membered metallacycle is nearly planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.008 Å). In the crystal, the mol­ecules are connected into centrosymmetric dimers via pairs of N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds. PMID:24764823

  2. Crystal structures of two deca-vanadates(V) with penta-aqua-manganese(II) pendant groups: (NMe4)2[V10O28{Mn(H2O)5}2]·5H2O and [NH3C(CH2OH)3]2[V10O28{Mn(H2O)5}2]·2H2O.

    PubMed

    Franco, Maurício P; Rüdiger, André Luis; Soares, Jaísa F; Nunes, Giovana G; Hughes, David L

    2015-02-01

    Two heterometallic deca-vanadate(V) compounds, bis-(tetra-methyl-ammonium) deca-aquadi-μ4-oxido-tetra-μ3-oxido-hexa-deca-μ2-oxido-hexa-oxidodimang-anese(II)-deca-vanadate(V) penta-hydrate, (Me4N)2[V10O28{Mn(H2O)5}2]·5H2O, A, and bis-{[tris-(hy-droxy-meth-yl)meth-yl]ammonium} deca-aquadi-μ4-oxido-tetra-μ3-oxido-hexa-deca-μ2-oxido-hexa-oxidodimanganese(II)deca-vanadate(V) dihydrate, [NH3C(CH2OH)3]2[V10O28{Mn(H2O)5}2]·2H2O, B, have been synthesized under mild reaction conditions in an aqueous medium. Both polyanions present two [Mn(OH2)5](2+) complex units bound to the deca-vanadate cluster through oxide bridges. In A, the deca-vanadate unit has 2/m symmetry, whereas in B it has twofold symmetry. Apart from this, the main differences between A and B rest on the organic cations, tetra-methyl-ammonium and [tris-(hy-droxy-meth-yl)meth-yl]ammonium, respectively, and on the number and arrangement of the water mol-ecules of crystallization. In both compounds, the H atoms from the coordinating water mol-ecules participate in extensive three-dimensional hydrogen-bonding networks, which link the cluster units both directly and through solvent mol-ecules and, in B, through the 'tris-' cation hydroxyl groups. The cation in B also participates in N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. A number of C-H⋯O inter-actions are also observed in both structures.

  3. Tuning the Ising-type anisotropy in trigonal bipyramidal Co(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Shao, Feng; Cahier, Benjamin; Guihéry, Nathalie; Rivière, Eric; Guillot, Régis; Barra, Anne-Laure; Lan, Yanhua; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Campbell, Victoria E; Mallah, Talal

    2015-11-28

    This paper demonstrates the engineering and tuning of Ising-type magnetic anisotropy in trigonal bipyramidal Co(II) complexes. Here, we predict that employing a ligand that forces a trigonal bipyramidal arrangement and has weak equatorial σ-donating atoms, increases (in absolute value) the negative zero field splitting parameter D. With these considerations in mind, we used a sulfur containing ligand (NS3(iPr)), which imposes a trigonal bipyramidal geometry to the central Co(II) ion with long equatorial Co-S bonds. The resulting complex exhibits a larger anisotropy barrier and a longer relaxation time in comparison to the complex prepared with a nitrogen containing ligand (Me6tren).

  4. Synthesis, spectral studies and antibacterial activity of novel macrocyclic Co(II) compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, P. Muralidhar; Prasad, Adapa V. S. S.; Shanker, Kanne; Ravinder, Vadde

    2007-11-01

    Ten novel macrocyclic Co(II) compounds have been synthesized by treating four N 4 and six N 2O 2 donor macrocycles with cobalt chloride in methanol. These compounds were characterized by elemental, IR, 1H, 13C NMR, mass, electronic spectral analysis, molar conductance and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Thermal behavior of these compounds has been studied by the thermogravimetric analysis. An octahedral geometry has been proposed for all of these complexes. All the macrocycles and macrocyclic Co(II) compounds along with existing antibacterial drugs were screened for antibacterial activity against Gram +ve and Gram -ve bacteria. All these compounds were found to be more active when compared to streptomycin and ampicillin.

  5. Water Oxidation Catalysis by Co(II) Impurities in Co(III)4O4 Cubanes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The observed water oxidation activity of the compound class Co4O4(OAc)4(Py–X)4 emanates from a Co(II) impurity. This impurity is oxidized to produce the well-known Co-OEC heterogeneous cobaltate catalyst, which is an active water oxidation catalyst. We present results from electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance line broadening analysis, and electrochemical titrations to establish the existence of the Co(II) impurity as the major source of water oxidation activity that has been reported for Co4O4 molecular cubanes. Differential electrochemical mass spectrometry is used to characterize the fate of glassy carbon at water oxidizing potentials and demonstrate that such electrode materials should be used with caution for the study of water oxidation catalysis. PMID:25407218

  6. Tetra-μ3-iodido-tetra­kis­[(tri-n-butyl­phosphane-κP)copper(I)

    PubMed Central

    Klenk, Simon; Frey, Wolfgang; Bubrin, Martina; Laschat, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    The title complex, [Cu4I4(C12H27P)4], crystallizes with six mol­ecules in the unit cell and with three independent one-third mol­ecule fragments, completed by application of the relevant symmetry operators, in the asymmetric unit. The tetranuclear copper core shows a tetrahedral geometry (site symmetry 3..). The I atoms also form a tetra­hedron, with I⋯I distances of 4.471 (1) Å. Both tetra­hedra show an orientation similar to that of a pair of self-dual platonic bodies. The edges of the I-tetra­hedral structure are capped to the face centers of the Cu-tetra­hedron and vice versa. The Cuface⋯I distances are 2.18 Å (averaged) and the Iface⋯Cu distances are 0.78 Å (averaged). As a geometric consequence of these properties there are eight distorted trigonal–bipyramidal polyhedra evident, wherein each trigonal face builds up the equatorial site and the opposite Cu⋯I positions form the axial site. As expected, the n-butyl moieties are highly flexible, resulting in large elongations of their anisotropic displacement parameters. Some C atoms of the n-butyl groups were needed to fix alternative discrete disordered positions. PMID:24826086

  7. Adsorption behavior of Cu(II) and Co(II) using chemically modified marine algae.

    PubMed

    Foroutan, Rauf; Esmaeili, Hossein; Abbasi, Mohsen; Rezakazemi, Mashallah; Mesbah, Mohammad

    2017-08-28

    In this study, brown algae-modified biomass Padina sanctae crucis was used for copper (Cu(II)) and cobalt (Co(II)) heavy metal ions adsorption in synthetic wastewater. The effects of solution pH and adsorption efficiency for Cu(II) and Co(II) removal from aqueous solutions were studied. In order to study the kinetic behavior of adsorption, pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order kinetic models, liquid film penetration, and Ritchie second-order models were used. The results showed that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model was able to describe adsorbent behavior in comparison to the other models. Moreover, in order to study adsorbent equilibrium behavior, Langmuir and Freundlich isothermal models were used. Based on the Langmuir model, the adsorption capacity of Co(II) and Cu(II) was determined and their values were 13.73 and 13.996 mg/g, respectively. It was shown that both metal ions adsorption process is favorable and adsorption is physical. In this research, thermodynamic parameters were also studied in order to determine Gibbs free energy for both metal ions which were negative, indicating that metal ions adsorption process is spontaneous and the degree of self-adsorption increases as temperature increases.

  8. PentaPlot: A software tool for the illustration of genome mosaicism

    PubMed Central

    Hamel, Lutz; Zhaxybayeva, Olga; Gogarten, J Peter

    2005-01-01

    Background Dekapentagonal maps depict the phylogenetic relationships of five genomes in a visually appealing diagram and can be viewed as an alternative to a single evolutionary consensus tree. In particular, the generated maps focus attention on those gene families that significantly deviate from the consensus or plurality phylogeny. PentaPlot is a software tool that computes such dekapentagonal maps given an appropriate probability support matrix. Results The visualization with dekapentagonal maps critically depends on the optimal layout of unrooted tree topologies representing different evolutionary relationships among five organisms along the vertices of the dekapentagon. This is a difficult optimization problem given the large number of possible layouts. At its core our tool utilizes a genetic algorithm with demes and a local search strategy to search for the optimal layout. The hybrid genetic algorithm performs satisfactorily even in those cases where the chosen genomes are so divergent that little phylogenetic information has survived in the individual gene families. Conclusion PentaPlot is being made publicly available as an open source project at . PMID:15938752

  9. Microencapsulation of Traditional Chinese Herbs-PentaHerbs extracts and potential application in healthcare textiles.

    PubMed

    Hui, Patrick Chi-Leung; Wang, Wen-Yi; Kan, Chi-Wai; Ng, Frency Sau-Fun; Wat, Elaine; Zhang, Vanilla Xin; Chan, Chung-Lap; Lau, Clara Bik-San; Leung, Ping-Chung

    2013-11-01

    In this work, Traditional Chinese Herbs (TCH)-PentaHerbs--was successfully microencapsulated in chitosan-sodium alginate (CSA) blend matrix using emulsion-chemical cross-linking method and the final product was characterised with regard to structure, surface morphology, particle size, in vitro drug release and skin toxicity by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), laser diffraction particle size analysis, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assays respectively. Results showed that the microcapsules were in spherical form with diameter mostly in the range of 3-18 μm and that the release performance of the microcapsules was influenced by pH value of phosphate buffer solution (PBS). The microcapsules had no toxic effects on cells and were successfully grafted onto the surface of cotton fabrics. These results indicated that PentaHerbs loaded CSA microcapsule may possess potential application in clinical treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD).

  10. [1-Dimethyl­silyl-2-phenyl-3-(η5-tetra­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)­prop-1-en-1-yl-κC 1](η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)titanium(III)

    PubMed Central

    Lamač, Martin; Spannenberg, Anke; Arndt, Perdita; Rosenthal, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, [Ti(C10H15)(C20H26Si)], was obtained from the reaction of [Ti{η5:η1-C5Me4(CH2)}(η5-C5Me5)] with the alkynylsilane PhC2SiMe2H. The complex crystallizes with two independent mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit, which differ in the conformation of the propenyl unit, resulting in their having opposite helicity. No inter­molecular inter­actions or inter­actions involving the Si—H bond are present. The observed geometrical parameters are unexceptional compared to known structures of the same type. PMID:21578203

  11. (Glycol-κ2 O,O′)nitros­yl(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)ruthenium(II) bis­(tri­fluoro­methane­sulfonate)

    PubMed Central

    Munie, Semeret; Larsen, Anna; Gembicky, Milan

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, [Ru(C10H15)(NO)(HOCH2CH2OH)](CF3SO3)2, possesses a three-legged piano-stool geometry around the Ru atom, with an average Ru—O distance of 2.120 (6) Å and an Ru—N—O angle of 159.45 (14)°. The ethyl­eneglycol ligand forms a non-planar metallacyclic ring by chelating the Ru atom via the O atoms. The O⋯O distances of 2.554 (2) and 2.568 (2) Å are indicative of hydrogen bonding between coordinated ethyl­eneglycol and outer-sphere trifluoro­methane­sulfonate fragments. The crystal packing is stabilized by ionic forces and several CH3⋯·F (2.585 and 2.640 Å) and CH3⋯O inter­actions (2.391, 2.678, 2.694 and 2.699 Å) between the penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl ligand and trifluoro­methane­sulfonate anion. There is noticeable short inter­molecular contact [2.9039 (16) Å], between an O atom of the SO3 group and a C atom of the penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl ligand. PMID:21201270

  12. Crystal structures of bis-[(9S,13S,14S)-3-meth-oxy-17-methyl-morphinanium] tetra-chlorido-cobaltate and tetra-chlorido-cuprate.

    PubMed

    Gauchat, Eric; Nazarenko, Alexander Y

    2017-01-01

    (9S,13S,14S)-3-Meth-oxy-17-methyl-morphinan (dextromethorphan) forms two isostructural salts with (a) tetra-chlorido-cobaltate, namely bis-[(9S,13S,14S)-3-meth-oxy-17-methyl-morphinanium] tetra-chlorido-cobaltate, (C18H26NO)2[CoCl4], and (b) tetra-chlorido-cuprate, namely bis-[(9S,13S,14S)-3-meth-oxy-17-methyl-morphinanium] tetra-chlorido-cuprate, (C18H26NO)2[CuCl4]. The distorted tetra-hedral anions are located on twofold rotational axes. The dextromethorphan cation can be described as being composed of two ring systems, a tetra-hydro-naphthalene system A+B and a deca-hydro-isoquinolinium subunit C+D, that are nearly perpendicular to one another: the angle between mean planes of the A+B and C+D moieties is 78.8 (1)° for (a) and 79.0 (1)° for (b). Two symmetry-related cations of protonated dextromethorphan are connected to the tetra-chlorido-cobaltate (or tetra-chlorido-cuprate) anions via strong N-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds, forming neutral ion associates. These associates are packed in the (001) plane with no strong attractive bonding between them. Both compounds are attractive crystalline forms for unambiguous identification of the dextromethorphan and, presumably, of its optical isomer, levomethorphan.

  13. Antimicrobial, spectral, magnetic and thermal studies of Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), UO(2)(VI) and Fe(III) complexes of the Schiff base derived from oxalylhydrazide.

    PubMed

    Melha, Khlood Abou

    2008-04-01

    The Schiff base ligand, oxalyl [( 2 - hydroxybenzylidene) hydrazone] [corrected].H(2)L, and its Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), UO(2)(VI) and Fe(III) complexes were prepared and tested as antibacterial agents. The Schiff base acts as a dibasic tetra- or hexadentate ligand with metal cations in molar ratio 1:1 or 2:1 (M:L) to yield either mono- or binuclear complexes, respectively. The ligand and its metal complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, IR, (1)H NMR, Mass, and UV-Visible spectra and the magnetic moments and electrical conductance of the complexes were also determined. For binuclear complexes, the magnetic moments are quite low compared to the calculated value for two metal ions complexes and this shows antiferromagnetic interactions between the two adjacent metal ions. The ligand and its metal complexes were tested against a Gram + ve bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus), a Gram -ve bacteria (Escherichia coli), and a fungi (Candida albicans). The tested compounds exhibited high antibacterial activities.

  14. Pyrenophoric acid, a phytotoxic sesquiterpenoid penta-2,4-dienoic acid produced by a potential mycoherbicide, Pyrenophora semeniperda

    Treesearch

    Marco Masi; Susan Meyer; Alessio Cimmino; Anna Andolfi; Antonio Evidente

    2014-01-01

    A new phytotoxic sesquiterpenoid penta-2,4- dienoic acid, named pyrenophoric acid, was isolated from solid wheat seed culture of Pyrenophora semeniperda, a fungal pathogen proposed as a mycoherbicide for biocontrol of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) and other annual bromes. These bromes are serious weeds in winter cereals and also on temperate semiarid rangelands....

  15. Solid dispersions of the penta-ethyl ester prodrug of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA): formulation design and optimization studies.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu-Tsai; Di Pasqua, Anthony J; Zhang, Yong; Sueda, Katsuhiko; Jay, Michael

    2014-11-01

    The penta-ethyl ester prodrug of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), which exists as an oily liquid, was incorporated into a solid dispersion for oral administration by the solvent evaporation method using blends of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), Eudragit® RL PO and α-tocopherol. D-optimal mixture design was used to optimize the formulation. Formulations that had a high concentration of both Eudragit® RL PO and α-tocopherol exhibited low water absorption and enhanced stability of the DTPA prodrug. Physicochemical properties of the optimal formulation were evaluated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In vitro release of the prodrug was evaluated using the USP Type II apparatus dissolution method. DSC studies indicated that the matrix had an amorphous structure, while FTIR spectrometry showed that DTPA penta-ethyl ester and excipients did not react with each other during formation of the solid dispersion. Dissolution testing showed that the optimized solid dispersion exhibited a prolonged release profile, which could potentially result in a sustained delivery of DTPA penta-ethyl to enhance bioavailability. In conclusion, DTPA penta-ethyl ester was successfully incorporated into a solid matrix with high drug loading and improved stability compared to prodrug alone.

  16. Solid dispersions of the penta-ethyl ester prodrug of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA): Formulation design and optimization studies

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yu-Tsai; Di Pasqua, Anthony J.; Zhang, Yong; Sueda, Katsuhiko; Jay, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The penta-ethyl ester prodrug of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), which exists as an oily liquid, was incorporated into a solid dispersion for oral administration by the solvent evaporation method using blends of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), Eudragit® RL PO and α-tocopherol. D-optimal mixture design was used to optimize the formulation. Formulations that had a high concentration of both Eudragit® RL PO and α-tocopherol exhibited low water absorption and enhanced stability of the DTPA prodrug. Physicochemical properties of the optimal formulation were evaluated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In vitro release of the prodrug was evaluated using the USP Type II apparatus dissolution method. DSC studies indicated that the matrix had an amorphous structure, while FTIR spectrometry showed that DTPA penta-ethyl ester and excipients did not react with each other during formation of the solid dispersion.. Dissolution testing showed that the optimized solid dispersion exhibited a prolonged release profile, which could potentially result in a sustained delivery of DTPA penta-ethyl to enhance bioavailability. In conclusion, DTPA penta-ethyl ester was successfully incorporated into a solid matrix with high drug loading and improved stability compared to prodrug alone. PMID:24047113

  17. Measurement of cone beam CT coincidence with megavoltage isocentre and image sharpness using the QUASAR™ Penta-Guide phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykes, J. R.; Lindsay, R.; Dean, C. J.; Brettle, D. S.; Magee, D. R.; Thwaites, D. I.

    2008-10-01

    For image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) systems based on cone beam CT (CBCT) integrated into a linear accelerator, the reproducible alignment of imager to x-ray source is critical to the registration of both the x-ray-volumetric image with the megavoltage (MV) beam isocentre and image sharpness. An enhanced method of determining the CBCT to MV isocentre alignment using the QUASAR™ Penta-Guide phantom was developed which improved both precision and accuracy. This was benchmarked against our existing method which used software and a ball-bearing (BB) phantom provided by Elekta. Additionally, a method of measuring an image sharpness metric (MTF50) from the edge response function of a spherical air cavity within the Penta-Guide phantom was developed and its sensitivity was tested by simulating misalignments of the kV imager. Reproducibility testing of the enhanced Penta-Guide method demonstrated a systematic error of <0.2 mm when compared to the BB method with near equivalent random error (s = 0.15 mm). The mean MTF50 for five measurements was 0.278 ± 0.004 lp mm-1 with no applied misalignment. Simulated misalignments exhibited a clear peak in the MTF50 enabling misalignments greater than 0.4 mm to be detected. The Penta-Guide phantom can be used to precisely measure CBCT MV coincidence and image sharpness on CBCT-IGRT systems.

  18. Biosynthesis of gallotannins: formation of polygalloylglucoses by enzymatic acylation of 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloylglucose.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, A S; Gross, G G

    1990-12-01

    Enzyme preparations from leaves of Rhus typhina L. (sumach) catalyzed the galloylation of 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucopyranose in the presence of the acyl donor beta-glucogallin (1-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucopyranose), yielding a variety of oligomeric gallotannins (hexa- to nonagalloylglucoses) as reaction products.

  19. Measurement of cone beam CT coincidence with megavoltage isocentre and image sharpness using the QUASAR Penta-Guide phantom.

    PubMed

    Sykes, J R; Lindsay, R; Dean, C J; Brettle, D S; Magee, D R; Thwaites, D I

    2008-10-07

    For image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) systems based on cone beam CT (CBCT) integrated into a linear accelerator, the reproducible alignment of imager to x-ray source is critical to the registration of both the x-ray-volumetric image with the megavoltage (MV) beam isocentre and image sharpness. An enhanced method of determining the CBCT to MV isocentre alignment using the QUASAR Penta-Guide phantom was developed which improved both precision and accuracy. This was benchmarked against our existing method which used software and a ball-bearing (BB) phantom provided by Elekta. Additionally, a method of measuring an image sharpness metric (MTF(50)) from the edge response function of a spherical air cavity within the Penta-Guide phantom was developed and its sensitivity was tested by simulating misalignments of the kV imager. Reproducibility testing of the enhanced Penta-Guide method demonstrated a systematic error of <0.2 mm when compared to the BB method with near equivalent random error (s=0.15 mm). The mean MTF(50) for five measurements was 0.278+/-0.004 lp mm(-1) with no applied misalignment. Simulated misalignments exhibited a clear peak in the MTF(50) enabling misalignments greater than 0.4 mm to be detected. The Penta-Guide phantom can be used to precisely measure CBCT-MV coincidence and image sharpness on CBCT-IGRT systems.

  20. Novel and High Volume Use Flame Retardants in US Couches Reflective of the 2005 PentaBDE Phase Out

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    California’s furniture flammability standard Technical Bulletin 117 (TB 117) is believed to be a major driver of chemical flame retardant (FR) use in residential furniture in the United States. With the phase-out of the polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) FR mixture PentaBDE in 2005, alternative FRs are increasingly being used to meet TB 117; however, it was unclear which chemicals were being used and how frequently. To address this data gap, we collected and analyzed 102 samples of polyurethane foam from residential couches purchased in the United States from 1985 to 2010. Overall, we detected chemical flame retardants in 85% of the couches. In samples purchased prior to 2005 (n = 41) PBDEs associated with the PentaBDE mixture including BDEs 47, 99, and 100 (PentaBDE) were the most common FR detected (39%), followed by tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCPP; 24%), which is a suspected human carcinogen. In samples purchased in 2005 or later (n = 61) the most common FRs detected were TDCPP (52%) and components associated with the Firemaster550 (FM 550) mixture (18%). Since the 2005 phase-out of PentaBDE, the use of TDCPP increased significantly. In addition, a mixture of nonhalogenated organophosphate FRs that included triphenyl phosphate (TPP), tris(4-butylphenyl) phosphate (TBPP), and a mix of butylphenyl phosphate isomers were observed in 13% of the couch samples purchased in 2005 or later. Overall the prevalence of flame retardants (and PentaBDE) was higher in couches bought in California compared to elsewhere, although the difference was not quite significant (p = 0.054 for PentaBDE). The difference was greater before 2005 than after, suggesting that TB 117 is becoming a de facto standard across the U.S. We determined that the presence of a TB 117 label did predict the presence of a FR; however, lack of a label did not predict the absence of a flame retardant. Following the PentaBDE phase out, we also found an increased number of flame retardants on

  1. Novel and high volume use flame retardants in US couches reflective of the 2005 PentaBDE phase out.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Heather M; Sharma, Smriti; Getzinger, Gordon; Ferguson, P Lee; Gabriel, Michelle; Webster, Thomas F; Blum, Arlene

    2012-12-18

    California's furniture flammability standard Technical Bulletin 117 (TB 117) is believed to be a major driver of chemical flame retardant (FR) use in residential furniture in the United States. With the phase-out of the polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) FR mixture PentaBDE in 2005, alternative FRs are increasingly being used to meet TB 117; however, it was unclear which chemicals were being used and how frequently. To address this data gap, we collected and analyzed 102 samples of polyurethane foam from residential couches purchased in the United States from 1985 to 2010. Overall, we detected chemical flame retardants in 85% of the couches. In samples purchased prior to 2005 (n = 41) PBDEs associated with the PentaBDE mixture including BDEs 47, 99, and 100 (PentaBDE) were the most common FR detected (39%), followed by tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCPP; 24%), which is a suspected human carcinogen. In samples purchased in 2005 or later (n = 61) the most common FRs detected were TDCPP (52%) and components associated with the Firemaster550 (FM 550) mixture (18%). Since the 2005 phase-out of PentaBDE, the use of TDCPP increased significantly. In addition, a mixture of nonhalogenated organophosphate FRs that included triphenyl phosphate (TPP), tris(4-butylphenyl) phosphate (TBPP), and a mix of butylphenyl phosphate isomers were observed in 13% of the couch samples purchased in 2005 or later. Overall the prevalence of flame retardants (and PentaBDE) was higher in couches bought in California compared to elsewhere, although the difference was not quite significant (p = 0.054 for PentaBDE). The difference was greater before 2005 than after, suggesting that TB 117 is becoming a de facto standard across the U.S. We determined that the presence of a TB 117 label did predict the presence of a FR; however, lack of a label did not predict the absence of a flame retardant. Following the PentaBDE phase out, we also found an increased number of flame retardants on the

  2. Some O,O',O'',O'''-di/tetra aryldithioimidophonate transition metal complexes derived from catechol and bisphenol-A as antibacterial and antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vikrant; Ahamad, Tansir; Nishat, N

    2009-02-01

    Two new substituted-thioimidophonate derivatives H1L1 (O,O',O'',O'''-diaryldithioimidophonates) and H1L2 (O,O',O'',O'''-tetra aryldithioimidophonates) were synthesized. These thioimidophonates are potential ligands towards transition metal ions. The reaction of M(II) acetates (M(II)=Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II)) with H1L1 and H1L2 resulted in the formation of solid complexes with the composition (L1/L2)(2)M(II). These compounds were characterized through elemental analysis, electrical conductance, infrared, electronic spectra, nmr, magnetic susceptibilities etc. Vibrational mode assignments of nu(PN), nu(PS), nu(MS), phenyl and methyl group bands are made. Structural and bonding changes are correlated with these vibrational frequencies. All the compounds were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal properties and have exhibited potential activities with MIC (0.09-1.50 microg/ml).

  3. Mechanical properties of Tetra-PEG gels with supercoiled networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katashima, Takuya; Urayama, Kenji; Chung, Ung-Il; Sakai, Takamasa

    2014-03-01

    We investigated the effects of swelling and deswelling on the mechanical properties of polymer gels with variable polymer volume fractions of interest (φm) . We employed the Tetra-PEG gel as a model system. Tetra-PEG gels were prepared by the AB type crosslink-coupling between the two symmetrical tetra-arm prepolymers with precisely tuning the network strand length (Nc) and polymer fractions at preparation (φ0) . The drastic increase in the elastic modulus was observed in the high φm region due to the unusually contracted conformation of the network strands, called supercoiling. The Obukhov model can describe the φm-dependence of the elastic modulus in all φm regions. We analyzed the stress-elongation relationships for the swollen and deswollen networks. We estimated the fractal dimensions based on the Pincus blob concept, and for the first time observed the φm-, Nc-, φ0-dependence of the fractal dimension. We found that the gyration radius exhibits the affine deformation in the supercoiling region. These findings will help to understand the structure and formation mechanism of supercoiling.

  4. Penta­ammonium hepta­sodium bis­[penta­kis(μ2-oxido)deca­oxido­bis­(μ5-phosphato)penta­molybdenum(VI)] henicosa­hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Bih, Hssain; Bih, Lahcen; Manoun, Bouchaid; Azrour, Mohamed; Lazor, Peter; El Ammari, Lahcen

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, (NH4)5Na7[Mo5P2O23]2·21H2O, was prepared under atmospheric conditions in aqueous solution at room temperature. The structure contains the [Mo5P2O23]6− heteropolyoxometallate anion, which has been previously reported a number of times with a variety of differing counter-cations. Each anion is built up of five MoO6 octa­hedra sharing an edge and forming a ring which is closed by common corners of the terminal octa­hedra. The rings are closed on both sides by two asymmetric PO4 tetra­hedra, sharing three corners with three MoO6 octa­hedra. The anions are chiral and the two independent anions in the asymmetric unit were arbitarily chosen with the same chirality, but the centrosymmetric crystal contains both enanti­omers. The structure can alternatively be described as a succession of layers parallel to (101), formed by the [Mo5P2O23]6− anions and linked by sodium chains. Water mol­ecules and ammonium ions fill the remaining space and ensure the cohesion through extensive N—H⋯O and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonding. PMID:21580198

  5. Hydrogenation of Penta-Graphene Leads to Unexpected Large Improvement in Thermal Conductivity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xufei; Varshney, Vikas; Lee, Jonghoon; Zhang, Teng; Wohlwend, Jennifer L; Roy, Ajit K; Luo, Tengfei

    2016-06-08

    Penta-graphene (PG) has been identified as a novel two-dimensional (2D) material with an intrinsic bandgap, which makes it especially promising for electronics applications. In this work, we use first-principles lattice dynamics and iterative solution of the phonon Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) to determine the thermal conductivity of PG and its more stable derivative, hydrogenated penta-graphene (HPG). As a comparison, we also studied the effect of hydrogenation on graphene thermal conductivity. In contrast to hydrogenation of graphene, which leads to a dramatic decrease in thermal conductivity, HPG shows a notable increase in thermal conductivity, which is much higher than that of PG. Considering the necessity of using the same thickness when comparing thermal conductivity values of different 2D materials, hydrogenation leads to a 63% reduction in thermal conductivity for graphene, while it results in a 76% increase for PG. The high thermal conductivity of HPG makes it more thermally conductive than most other semiconducting 2D materials, such as the transition metal chalcogenides. Our detailed analyses show that the primary reason for the counterintuitive hydrogenation-induced thermal conductivity enhancement is the weaker bond anharmonicity in HPG than PG. This leads to weaker phonon scattering after hydrogenation, despite the increase in the phonon scattering phase space. The high thermal conductivity of HPG may inspire intensive research around HPG and other derivatives of PG as potential materials for future nanoelectronic devices. The fundamental physics understood from this study may open up a new strategy to engineer thermal transport properties of other 2D materials by controlling bond anharmonicity via functionalization.

  6. Mechanism of Co(II) adsorption by zero valent iron/graphene nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Xing, Min; Xu, Lejin; Wang, Jianlong

    2016-01-15

    Nanoscale zero valent iron (ZVI)/graphene (GF) composite was prepared and characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurement and zeta potential determination. The adsorption isotherm of Co(II) in aqueous solution, as well as the influence of pH values and ionic strengths was studied. The mechanism of Co(II) adsorption by GF was investigated through analyzing the sorption products at initial pH of 3.0, 6.0 and 9.0 using high-resolution transmission electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray detector (HRTEM-EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating-sample magnetometer (VSM), Raman spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurement. The results indicated that Langmuir isotherm model fitted well and the adsorption capacity was 131.58 mg g(-1) at 30°C. Adsorption capacity was not significantly influenced by ionic strength and kept high at pH 4.0∼9.0. The detail information of GF-Co interaction at different initial pH values was obtained using XAFS analysis combined with other characterization methods. Coordination numbers (CN) and interatomic distances (R) of both Fe and Co were given. At pH 3.0 and pH 6.0, the Co-substituted iron oxides transformed to CoFe2O4-like structure, while at pH 9.0 they changed to green rust-like phases. Co occupied preferentially in the octahedral sites in acid solution. The adsorption mechanism of Co(II) was attributed to inner-sphere complexation and dissolution/re-precipitation of the substituted metal oxides.

  7. Dihydroorotase from Escherichia coli. Substitution of Co(II) for the active site Zn(II).

    PubMed

    Brown, D C; Collins, K D

    1991-01-25

    Treatment of Escherichia coli dihydroorotase (a homodimer of subunit molecular weight 38,729) containing only the 1 active site Zn(II) ion per subunit with the sulfhydryl reagent N-(ethyl)-maleimide (NEM) blocks the two external Zn(II) sites per subunit and dramatically lessens the precipitation caused by high concentrations of Zn(II); stabilizes the enzyme partially against air oxidation and dilution inactivation; makes the active site Zn(II) easier to remove; and lowers Km and increases kcat. Treatment of NEM-blocked dihydroorotase ((NEM)dihydroorotase) with the chelator 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid at pH 5.0 in the absence of oxygen and trace metal ions removes the active site Zn(II) with a half-life of 15 min, allowing the production of milligram amounts of moderately stable apo-(NEM)dihydroorotase in about 80% yield. Treatment of apo-(NEM)dihydroorotase with Co(II) at pH 7.0 produces (NEM)dihydroorotase completely substituted at the active site with Co(II) in 100% yield: analysis gives 0.95-1.1 g atoms of Co(II) per active site and 0.03-0.05 g atoms of Zn(II) per active site. This Co(II)-(NEM)dihydroorotase is hyperactive at pH 8. The electronic absorption spectrum of Co(II)-(NEM)dihydroorotase at pH 6.5 implicates an active site thiol group as a ligand to the metal ion. The spectrum is inconsistent with tetrahedral coordination of the active site metal ion and is most consistent with a pentacoordinate structure.

  8. Spectroscopic studies of thiatri-, penta- and heptamethine cyanine dyes II. Infrared and resonance Raman spectra of thiatri-, penta- and heptamethine cyanine dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Yasuhiko; Katayama, Norihisa; Ozaki, Yukihiro; Yasui, Shigeo; Iriyama, Keiji

    1992-11-01

    Infrared (IR) and resonance Raman (RR) spectra of thiatri-, penta- and heptamethine cyanine dyes in the solid state and in solution have been measured. Most of the intense bands observed in the 1600-1100 cm -1 region of the RR spectra may be assigned to totally symmetric stretching modes of the central conjugated system of the cyanines, while most of the strong IR bands in the 1600-1300 cm -1 region are probably due to antisymmetric stretching modes. The intense RR bands do not have their counterparts in the IR spectra and vice versa. A pseudo-mutual exclusion rule seems to be operative for the cyanine vibrational spectra in the 1600-1300 cm -1 region, indicating that the central conjugated systems of the cyanines have nearly symmetrical structure, i.e. the extended all-trans forms of the methine chains and the bond orders of 1.5 of the CC and CN bonds in both the solution and solid states. The IR spectra of 3-ethyl-2-[3-(3-ethyl-2-benzothiazolinylidene)-1-propenyl]benzothiazolium iodide (NK-76) and 3-ethyl-2-[7-(3-ethyl-2-benzothiazolinylidene)-1,3,5-heptatrienyl]benzothiazolium iodide (NK-126) change little between the solid and solution states while those of 3-octadecyl-2-[3-(3-octadecyl-2-benzothiazolinylidene)-1-propenyl]benzothiazolium iodide (NK-2560) and 3-octadecyl-2-[7-(3-octadecyl-2-benzothiazolinylidene)-1,3,5-heptatrienyl]benzothiazolium perchlorate (NK-2861) alter significantly between the two states in the frequencies of bands due to the stretching modes of their central conjugated systems. The results suggest that the electronic states of the central conjugated systems of NK-2560 and NK-2861 undergo appreciable changes on going from the solid to the solution states.

  9. Supramolecular Co(II)-[2 x 2] grids: metamagnetic behavior in a single molecule.

    PubMed

    Waldmann, Oliver; Ruben, Mario; Ziener, Ulrich; Müller, Paul; Lehn, Jean M

    2006-08-07

    The magnetic anisotropy of the supramolecular [2 x 2] grid [Co(II)4L4]8+, with a bis(bipyridyl)-pyrimidine-based ligand L, was investigated by single-crystal magnetization measurements at low temperatures. The magnetization curves exhibit metamagnetic-like behavior and are explained by the weak-exchange limit of a minimal spin Hamiltonian including Heisenberg exchange, easy-axis ligand fields, and the Zeeman term. It is also shown that the magnetic coupling strength can be varied by the substituent R1 in the two-position on the central pyrimidine group of the ligand L.

  10. Separation and extraction of Co(II) using magnetic chitosan nanoparticles grafted with β-cyclodextrin and determination by FAAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghimi, Ali

    2014-12-01

    A novel and selective method for the fast determination of trace amounts of Co(II) ions in water samples has been developed. The procedure is based on the selective sorption of Co(II) ions using magnetic chitosan nanoparticles grafted with β-cyclodextrin at different pH followed by elution with organic eluents and determination by atomic absorption spectrometry The preconcentration factor was 100 (1 mL elution volume) for a 100 mL sample volume. The limit of detection of the proposed method is 1.0 ng mL-1. The maximum sorption capacity of sorbent under optimum conditions has been found to be 5 mg of Co per gram of sorbent. The relative standard deviation under optimum conditions was 3.0% ( n = 10). Accuracy and applicability of the method was estimated using test samples of natural and model water with different amounts of Co(II).

  11. Sequence analysis of a few species of termites (Order: Isoptera) on the basis of partial characterization of COII gene.

    PubMed

    Sobti, Ranbir Chander; Kumari, Mamtesh; Sharma, Vijay Lakshmi; Sodhi, Monika; Mukesh, Manishi; Shouche, Yogesh

    2009-11-01

    The present study was aimed to get the nucleotide sequences of a part of COII mitochondrial gene amplified from individuals of five species of Termites (Isoptera: Termitidae: Macrotermitinae). Four of them belonged to the genus Odontotermes (O. obesus, O. horni, O. bhagwatii and Odontotermes sp.) and one to Microtermes (M. obesi). Partial COII gene fragments were amplified by using specific primers. The sequences so obtained were characterized to calculate the frequencies of each nucleotide bases and a high A + T content was observed. The interspecific pairwise sequence divergence in Odontotermes species ranged from 6.5% to 17.1% across COII fragment. M. obesi sequence diversity ranged from 2.5 with Odontotermes sp. to 19.0% with O. bhagwatii. Phylogenetic trees drawn on the basis of distance neighbour-joining method revealed three main clades clustering all the individuals according to their genera and families.

  12. Unusual composition dependence of magnetic relaxation for Co(II)(1-x)Ni(II)(x) chain-based metal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Qin; Cheng, Ai-Ling; Liu, Pei-Pei; Gao, En-Qing

    2013-08-11

    A series of isomorphous 3D Co(II)(1-x)Ni(II)(x) MOFs based on ferromagnetic chains show SCM-type slow relaxation and the Co-rich system can exhibit a higher blocking temperature than both Co(II) and Ni(II) parent materials.

  13. [1,2-Bis(diphenyl­phosphino)ethane]­chlorido(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)iron(II) dichloro­methane solvate

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Ya-ping; Feng, Dan; Yuan, Jing-jing

    2010-01-01

    In the title compound, [Fe(C10H15)Cl(C26H24P2)]·CH2Cl2, the FeII atom is coordinated by two P atoms from a 1,2-bis­(diphenyl­phosphino)ethane ligand [Fe—P = 2.2130 (7) and 2.2231 (7) Å], a chloride anion [Fe—Cl = 2.3329 (7) Å] and a penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl (Cp*) ligand [Fe—centroid(Cp*) = 1.732 (3) Å] in a typical piano-stool geometry. In the crystal structure, the complex and solvent mol­ecules are paired via weak C—H⋯Cl inter­actions. PMID:21588156

  14. Aqua­bis­(4-methyl­benzene­sulfonato-κO)(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)rhodium(III) monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Christopher P.; Boyer, Pauline M.; Merola, Joseph S.

    2013-01-01

    The title half-sandwich rhodium(III) complex, [Rh(C10H15)(C7H7O3S)2(H2O)]·H2O, consists of a π-bonded penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl group, two σ-bonded tosyl­ate groups and an aqua ligand. The structure displays both inter- and intra­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonding. The inter­molecular hydrogen bonding results in an extended helical chain along a 21 screw axis parallel to c, due to hydrogen bonding from the coordinating water ligand to the lattice water mol­ecule and then to a sulfonate O atom of a different asymmetric unit. PMID:23723770

  15. Co(II)4, Co(II)7, and a Series of Co(II)2Ln(III) (Ln(III) = Nd(III), Sm(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III)) Coordination Clusters: Search for Single Molecule Magnets.

    PubMed

    Modak, Ritwik; Sikdar, Yeasin; Thuijs, Annaliese E; Christou, George; Goswami, Sanchita

    2016-10-03

    We report herein the syntheses and investigation of the magnetic properties of a Co(II)4 compound, a series of trinuclear Co(II)2Ln(III) (Ln(III) = Nd(III), Sm(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III)) complexes, and a Co(II)7 complex. The homometallic Co(II)4 core was obtained from the reaction of Ln(NO3)3·xH2O/Co(NO3)2·6H2O/H2vab/Et3N in a 0.5:0.5:1:2 ratio in methanol. Variation in synthetic conditions was necessary to get the desired Co(II)-Ln(III) complexes. The Co(II)-Ln(III) assembly was synthesized from Ln(NO3)3·xH2O/Co(OAc)2·4H2O/H2vab/NaOMe in a 0.4:0.5:1:1 ratio in methanol. The isostructural Co(II)2Ln(III) complexes have a core structure with the general formula [Co2Ln(Hvab)4(NO3)](NO3)2·MeOH·H2O, (where H2vab = 2-[(2-hydroxymethyl-phenylimino)-methyl]-6-methoxy-phenol) with simultaneous crystallization of Co(II)7 complex in each reaction. The magnetic investigation of these complexes reveals that both homometallic complexes and four Co(II)-Ln(III) complexes (except Co(II)-Nd(III)) display behavior characteristic of single molecule magnets.

  16. An all-carbon vdW heterojunction composed of penta-graphene and graphene: Tuning the Schottky barrier by electrostatic gating or nitrogen doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yaguang; Wang, Fancy Qian; Wang, Qian

    2017-08-01

    The non-zero band gap together with other unique properties endows penta-graphene with potential for device applications. Here, we study the performance of penta-graphene as the channel material contacting with graphene to form a van der Waals heterostructure. Based on first-principles calculations, we show that the intrinsic properties of penta-graphene are preserved in the heterojunction, which is different from the conventional contact with metal surfaces. The stacked system forms an n-type Schottky barrier (Φe) at the vertical interface, while a negative band bending occurs at the lateral interface in a current-in-plane model. From the device point of view, we further demonstrate that a low-Φe or an Ohmic contact can be realized by applying an external electric field or doping graphene with nitrogen atoms. This allows the control of the Schottky barrier height, which is essential in fabricating penta-graphene-based nanotransistors.

  17. Penta-graphene: A Promising Anode Material as the Li/Na-Ion Battery with Both Extremely High Theoretical Capacity and Fast Charge/Discharge Rate.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Bo; Li, Yan-Chun; Yu, Xue-Fang; Cheng, Jian-Bo

    2016-12-28

    Recently, a new two-dimensional (2D) carbon allotrope named penta-graphene was theoretically proposed ( Zhang , S. ; et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2015 , 112 , 2372 ) and has been predicted to be the promising candidate for broad applications due to its intriguing properties. In this work, by using first-principles simulation, we have further extended the potential application of penta-graphene as the anode material for a Li/Na-ion battery. Our results show that the theoretical capacity of Li/Na ions on penta-graphene reaches up to 1489 mAh·g(-1), which is much higher than that of most of the previously reported 2D anode materials. Meanwhile, the calculated low open-circuit voltages (from 0.24 to 0.60 V), in combination with the low diffusion barriers (≤0.33 eV) and the high electronic conductivity during the whole Li/Na ions intercalation processes, further show the advantages of penta-graphene as the anode material. Particularly, molecular dynamics simulation (300 K) reveals that Li ion could freely diffuse on the surface of penta-graphene, and thus the ultrafast Li ion diffusivity is expected. Superior performance of penta-graphene is further confirmed by comparing with the other 2D anode materials. The light weight and unique atomic arrangement (with isotropic furrow paths on the surface) of penta-graphene are found to be mainly responsible for the high Li/Na ions storage capacity and fast diffusivity. In this regard, except penta-graphene, many other recently proposed 2D metal-free materials with pentagonal Cairo-tiled structures may be the potential candidates as the Li/Na-ion battery anodes.

  18. Cutaneous Ossifying Fibroma in a Neon Tetra (Paracheirodon innesi).

    PubMed

    Murphy, B; Imai, D M

    2016-01-01

    A cutaneous proliferative mass was identified arising from the caudal peduncle of a captive neon tetra fish (Paracheirodon innesi). The lesion was histologically consistent with an ossifying fibroma (OF), a fibro-osseous proliferative lesion typically identified in the jaws or tooth-associated supportive tissues of mammals. Although it has been previously reported, there is no recent report of this lesion occurring in a fish. This is the first report of a cutaneous ossifying fibroma in a characin fish. The authors speculate on the pathogenesis of this lesion, which may have arisen from the scale-associated mesenchymal tissues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Blade loss transient dynamics analysis. Volume 3: User's manual for TETRA program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, G. R.; Gallardo, V. C.; Storace, A. S.; Sagendorph, F.

    1981-01-01

    The users manual for TETRA contains program logic, flow charts, error messages, input sheets, modeling instructions, option descriptions, input variable descriptions, and demonstration problems. The process of obtaining a NASTRAN 17.5 generated modal input file for TETRA is also described with a worked sample.

  20. 40 CFR 721.3560 - Derivative of tetra-chloro-ethy-lene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Derivative of tetra-chloro-ethy-lene... Substances § 721.3560 Derivative of tetra-chloro-ethy-lene. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section: Derivative of tetrachloroethylene, P-82-684. (2)...

  1. 40 CFR 721.3560 - Derivative of tetra-chloro-ethy-lene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Derivative of tetra-chloro-ethy-lene... Substances § 721.3560 Derivative of tetra-chloro-ethy-lene. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section: Derivative of tetrachloroethylene, P-82-684. (2)...

  2. 40 CFR 721.3560 - Derivative of tetra-chloro-ethy-lene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Derivative of tetra-chloro-ethy-lene... Substances § 721.3560 Derivative of tetra-chloro-ethy-lene. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section: Derivative of tetrachloroethylene, P-82-684. (2)...

  3. 40 CFR 721.3560 - Derivative of tetra-chloro-ethy-lene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Derivative of tetra-chloro-ethy-lene... Substances § 721.3560 Derivative of tetra-chloro-ethy-lene. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section: Derivative of tetrachloroethylene, P-82-684. (2)...

  4. Multi-Pivot Quicksort: an Experiment with Single, Dual, Triple, Quad, and Penta-Pivot Quicksort Algorithms in Python

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budiman, M. A.; Zamzami, E. M.; Rachmawati, D.

    2017-03-01

    Dual-pivot quicksort, which was proposed by Yaroslavsky, has been experimentally proven to be more efficient than the classical single-pivot quicksort under the Java Virtual Machine [6]. Moreover, Kushagara, López-Ortiz, and Munro [4] has shown that triple-pivot quicksort runs 7-8% faster than dual-pivot quicksort in C, mutatis mutandis. In this research, we implement and experiment with single, dual, triple, quad, and penta-pivot quicksort algorithms in Python. Our experimental results are as follows. Firstly, the quicksort with single pivot is the slowest among the five variants. Secondly, at least until five (penta) pivots are being used, it is proven that the more pivots are used in a quicksort algorithm, the faster its performance becomes. Thirdly, the increase of speed resulted by adding more pivots tends to decrease gradually.

  5. High-performance gel electrolytes with tetra-armed polymer network for Li ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazama, Taisuke; Fujii, Kenta; Sakai, Takamasa; Aoki, Masahiro; Mimura, Hideyuki; Eguchi, Hisao; Todorov, Yanko; Yoshimoto, Nobuko; Morita, Masayuki

    2015-07-01

    An organo gel with only 6 wt % tetra-armed poly(ethylene glycol), TetraPEG, was prepared and applied as a novel gel electrolyte for Li ion batteries (LIBs). The TetraPEG gel electrolyte containing 1.0 M LiPF6 in binary or ternary mixtures, i.e., EC + DEC and EC + DEC + TFEP (EC: ethylene carbonate, DEC: diethyl carbonate and TFEP: tris(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)phosphate showed high ionic conductivity required for the use in LIB systems. The TetraPEG gel based on ternary EC + DEC + TFEP system acts as a nonflammable gel electrolyte at the TFEP content higher than 20 vol%. In cyclic voltammetry and charge/discharge cycling tests, the TetraPEG gel electrolytes showed good reversibility for a graphite negative electrode.

  6. 3d-4f {Co(II)3Ln(OR)4} Cubanes as Bio-Inspired Water Oxidation Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Evangelisti, Fabio; Moré, René; Hodel, Florian; Luber, Sandra; Patzke, Greta Ricarda

    2015-09-02

    Although the {CaMn4O5} oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II is a major paradigm for water oxidation catalyst (WOC) development, the comprehensive translation of its key features into active molecular WOCs remains challenging. The [Co(II)3Ln(hmp)4(OAc)5H2O] ({Co(II)3Ln(OR)4}; Ln = Ho-Yb, hmp = 2-(hydroxymethyl)pyridine) cubane WOC series is introduced as a new springboard to address crucial design parameters, ranging from nuclearity and redox-inactive promoters to operational stability and ligand exchange properties. The {Co(II)3Ln(OR)4} cubanes promote bioinspired WOC design by newly combining Ln(3+) centers as redox-inactive Ca(2+) analogues with flexible aqua-/acetate ligands into active and stable WOCs (max. TON/TOF values of 211/9 s(-1)). Furthermore, they open up the important family of 3d-4f complexes for photocatalytic applications. The stability of the {Co(II)3Ln(OR)4} WOCs under photocatalytic conditions is demonstrated with a comprehensive analytical strategy including trace metal analyses and solution-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) investigations. The productive influence of the Ln(3+) centers is linked to favorable ligand mobility, and the experimental trends are substantiated with Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics studies.

  7. Modulation of the coordination environment: a convenient approach to tailor magnetic anisotropy in seven coordinate Co(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Dey, Mamon; Dutta, Snigdha; Sarma, Bipul; Deka, Ramesh Ch; Gogoi, Nayanmoni

    2016-01-14

    The possibility of controlling magnetic anisotropy by tuning contribution of second order perturbation to spin-orbit coupling through modulation of the coordination environment is investigated. Subtle variation of the coordination environment triggers a remarkable deviation in the axial zero field splitting parameter of seven coordinate Co(II) complexes.

  8. Crystal surface mediated structure transformation of a kinetic framework composed of multi-interactive ligand TPHAP and Co(II).

    PubMed

    Yakiyama, Yumi; Ueda, Akira; Morita, Yasushi; Kawano, Masaki

    2012-11-07

    A tripyridyl multi-interactive ligand TPHAP is prepared by a one-pot reaction on a gram scale. Network formation of Co(ii) with TPHAP(-) gave kinetic and thermally more stable products. The kinetic network showed an unprecedented dynamic network transformation on the crystal surface by a ligand exchange reaction.

  9. Toward a DFT-based molecular dynamics description of Co(II) binding in sulfur-rich peptides.

    PubMed

    Spezia, Riccardo; Tournois, Guewen; Tortajada, Jeanine; Cartailler, Thierry; Gaigeot, Marie-Pierre

    2006-05-07

    In this paper, we investigated the reliability of a Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CPMD) approach to characterize the binding of Co(II) metal cation to peptide molecules containing cysteine. To this end, we compared pseudo-potentials and DFT plane wave expansion, which are used as key ingredients in the CPMD method, with standard all-electron Gaussian basis set DFT calculations. The simulations presented here are the first attempts to characterize interactions and dynamics of Co(II) metal with the building blocks of phytochelatin peptide molecules. Benchmark calculations are performed on [Co(Cys-H)]+ and [Co(Glutathione-H)]+ complexes, since they are the main fragments of the Co(II)-Cys and Co(II)-glutathione systems found in gas phase electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) experiments done in our laboratory. We also present benchmark calculations on the [Co(H2O)6)]2+ cluster with direct comparisons to highly correlated ab initio calculations and experiments. In particular, we investigated the dissociation path of one water molecule from the first hydration shell of Co(II) with CPMD. Overall, our molecular dynamics simulations shed some light on the nature of the Co(II) interaction and reactivity in Co(II)-phytochelatin building block systems related to the biological and environmental activity of the metal, either in the gas or liquid phase.

  10. Volvo Penta 4.3 GL E15 Emissions and Durability Test

    SciTech Connect

    Zoubul, G.; Cahoon, M.; Kolb, R.

    2011-10-01

    A new Volvo Penta carbureted 4.3 GL engine underwent emissions and dynamometer durability testing from break-in to expected end of life using an accelerated ICOMIA marine emissions cycle and E15 fuel. Only ethanol content was controlled. All aging used splash-blended E15 fuel. Exhaust emissions, exhaust gas temperature, torque, power, barometric pressure, air temperature, and fuel flow were measured at five intervals using site-blended E15 aging fuel and certification fuel (E0). The durability test cycle showed no noticeable impact on mechanical durability or engine power. Emissions performance degraded beyond the certification limit for this engine family, mostly occurring by 28% of expected life. Such degradation is inconsistent with prior experience. Comparisons showed that E15 resulted in lower CO and HC, but increased NOX, as expected for non-feedback-controlled carbureted engines with increased oxygen in the fuel. Fuel consumption also increased with E15 compared with E0. Throughout testing, poor starting characteristics were exhibited on E15 fuel for hot re-start and cold-start. Cranking time to start and smooth idle was roughly doubled compared with typical E0 operation. The carburetor was factory-set for lean operation to ensure emissions compliance. Test protocols did not include carburetor adjustment to account for increased oxygen in the E15 fuel.

  11. Penta-prism long trace profiler (PPLTP) for measurement of grazing incidence space optics

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, S.; Li, H.; Takacs, P.Z.

    1996-05-01

    The Long Trace Profiler (LTP) is in use at a number of locations throughout the world for the measurement of the figure and mid- frequency roughness of x-ray mirrors. The standard configuration requires that the surface tested lie in a horizontal plane as the optical head is scanned along a horizontal line. For applications where gravity-induced sag of the surface cannot be tolerated, such as in x-ray telescope mirror metrology, it is desirable to measure the mirror as it is mounted in a vertical configuration. By making simple modifications to the standard LTP system, we have demonstrated that it is possible to use the LTP principle to measure the surface of x- ray mirrors and mandrels mounted in the vertical orientation. The major change in the LTP system is the use of a penta prism on a vertical translation stage to direct the probe beam onto the surface and the addition of a precision rotation stage to hold the test object. A 3-D map of the surface topography of the complete cylindrical asphere can be generated quite easily with this technique. Measurements with a prototype system indicate a slope error accuracy of better than 1 microradian is possible, with a figure error repeatability of better than 50 nm. 19 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Size and strain rate effects in tensile strength of penta-twinned Ag nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuan; Li, Xiaoyan; Gao, Huajian

    2017-08-01

    Penta-twinned Ag nanowires (pt-AgNWs) have recently attracted much attention due to their interesting mechanical and physical properties. Here we perform large-scale atomistic simulations to investigate the influence of sample size and strain rate on the tensile strength of pt-AgNWs. The simulation results show an apparent size effect in that the nanowire strength (defined as the critical stress for dislocation nucleation) increases with decreasing wire diameter. To account for such size effect, a theoretical model involving the interaction between an emerging dislocation and the twin boundary has been developed for the surface nucleation of dislocations. It is shown that the model predictions are in quantitative agreement with the results from atomistic simulations and previous experimental studies in the literatures. The simulations also reveal that nanowire strength is strain-rate dependent, which predicts an activation volume for dislocation nucleation in the range of 1-10b3, where b is the magnitude of the Burgers vector for a full dislocation.

  13. Design of Compact Penta-Band and Hexa-Band Microstrip Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Kunal; Kumar, Ashwani; Kanaujia, Binod K.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents the design of two multi-band microstrip antennas. The antenna-1 gives Penta-Band and antenna-2 gives Hexa-band in the WLAN band. The frequency bands of the antenna-1 are Bluetooth 2.47 GHz (2.43 GHz-2.54 GHz), WiMax band 3.73 GHz (3.71 GHz-3.77 GHz), WLAN 5.1 GHz (4.99 GHz-5.13 GHz), upper WLAN 6.36 GHz (6.29 GHz-6.43 GHz), C band band 7.42 GHz (7.32 GHz-7.50 GHz) and the antenna-2 are WLAN band 2.6 GHz (2.56 GHz-2.63 GHz), 3.0 GHz (2.94 GHz-3.05 GHz), WiMax band 3.4 GHz (3.34 GHz-3.55 GHz), 4.85 GHz (4.81 GHz-4.92 GHz), WLAN 5.3 GHz (5.27 GHz-5.34 GHz) and upper WLAN 6.88 GHz. Both the antennas are fabricated and their measured results are presented to validate the simulated results. Proposed antennas have compact sizes and good radiation performances.

  14. Highly branched penta-saccharide-bearing amphiphiles for membrane protein studies

    PubMed Central

    Ehsan, Muhammad; Du, Yang; Scull, Nicola J.; Tikhonova, Elena; Tarrasch, Jeffrey; Mortensen, Jonas S.; Loland, Claus J.; Skiniotis, Georgios; Guan, Lan; Byrne, Bernadette; Kobilka, Brian K.; Chae, Pil Seok

    2016-01-01

    Detergents are essential tools for membrane protein manipulation. Micelles formed by detergent molecules have the ability to encapsulate the hydrophobic domains of membrane proteins. The resulting protein-detergent complexes (PDCs) are compatible with the polar environments of aqueous media, making structural and functional analysis feasible. Although a number of novel agents have been developed to overcome the limitations of conventional detergents, most of them have traditional head groups such as glucoside or maltoside. In this study, we introduce a class of amphiphiles, the PSA’Es with a novel highly branched penta-saccharide hydrophilic group. The PSA’Es conferred markedly increased stability to a diverse range of membrane proteins compared to conventional detergents, indicating a positive role for the new hydrophilic group in maintaining the native protein integrity. In addition, PDCs formed by PSA’Es were smaller and more suitable for electron microscopic analysis than those formed by DDM, indicating that the new agents have significant potential for the structure-function studies of membrane proteins. PMID:26966956

  15. Nonaqueous gel for the transdermal delivery of a DTPA penta-ethyl ester prodrug.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Sadgrove, Matthew P; Sueda, Katsuhiko; Yang, Yu-Tsai; Pacyniak, Erik K; Kagel, John R; Braun, Brenda A; Zamboni, William C; Mumper, Russell J; Jay, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid penta-ethyl ester, designated as C2E5, was successfully incorporated into a nonaqueous gel for transdermal delivery. The thermal and rheological properties of a formulation containing 40% C2E5, 20% ethyl cellulose, and 40% Miglyol 840® prepared using the solvent evaporation method demonstrated that the gel had acceptable content uniformity and flow properties. In vitro studies showed that C2E5 was steadily released from the gel at a rate suitable for transdermal delivery. Topical application of the gel at a 200 mg C2E5/kg dose level in rats achieved significantly higher plasma exposures of several active metabolites compared with neat C2E5 oil at the same dose level. The results suggest that transdermal delivery of a chelator prodrug is an effective radionuclide decorporation strategy by delivering chelators to the circulation with a pharmacokinetic profile that is more consistent with the biokinetic profile of transuranic elements in contaminated individuals.

  16. A comparative density functional study on electrical properties of layered penta-graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Zhi Gen Zhang, Yong-Wei

    2015-10-28

    We present a comparative study of the influence of the number of layers, the biaxial strain in the range of −3% to 3%, and the stacking misalignments on the electronic properties of a new 2D carbon allotrope, penta-graphene (PG), based on hybrid-functional method within the density functional theory (DFT). In comparison with local exchange-correlation approximation in the DFT, the hybrid-functional provides an accurate description on the degree of p{sub z} orbitals localization and bandgap. Importantly, the predicted bandgap of few-layer PG has a weak layer dependence. The bandgap of monolayer PG is 3.27 eV, approximately equal to those of GaN and ZnO; and the bandgap of few-layer PG decreases slowly with the number of layers (N) and converge to 2.57 eV when N ≥ 4. Our calculations using HSE06 functional on few-layer PG reveal that bandgap engineering by stacking misalignment can further tune the bandgap down to 1.37 eV. Importantly, there is no direct-to-indirect bandgap transition in PG by varying strain, layer number, and stacking misalignment. Owing to its tunable, robustly direct, and wide bandgap characteristics, few-layer PG is promising for optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications.

  17. Fumigant effectiveness in creosote- and penta-treated southern pine poles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.J.K.; Terracina, F.C.; Zabel, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives were to evaluate the effectiveness of the fumigants, Vapam and chloropicrin, to arrest decay development in the groundline zone of southern pine poles, and to determine the types and prevalence of fungi reinvading the poles after fumigation. Fifty-one creosote- and penta-treated poles representing various service ages and decay conditions were fumigated with Vapam or chloropicrin. Cores were extracted from the groundline zone for fungus isolations and decay determinations, prior to fumigation and annually thereafter for 8 years. The reappearance of decay fungi was the major criterion used for judging fumigant effectiveness. Both Vapam and chloropicrin were effective disinfectants and killed all of the previously detected fungi in all poles. The protection periods of the fumigants from decay fungus reinvasions varied with pole age, prior decay condition, and preservative treatment. They ranged from less than 1 to 7 years and were least in older poles with prior decay. Soft-rot fungi were major decay agents which reinvaded the fumigated poles. The reinvading fungi were generally those tolerant to the preservatives or fumigants used in the study. Chloropicrin concentrations at 5, 6, and 7 years after fumigation were highly variable, and below toxic threshold levels in the outer core zones of most poles. 33 refs., 4 figs., 12 tabs.

  18. Band gap engineering in penta-graphene by substitutional doping: first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdiyorov, G. R.; Dixit, G.; Madjet, M. E.

    2016-11-01

    Using density functional theory, we study the structure, electronic properties and partial charges of a new carbon allotrope—penta-graphene (PG)—substitutionally doped by Si, B and N. We found that the electronic bandgap of PG can be tuned down to 0.2 eV due to carbon substitutions. However, the value of the band gap depends on the type and location of the dopants. For example, the strongest reduction of the band gap is obtained for Si substitutions on the top (bottom) plane of PG, whereas the substitution in the middle plane of PG has a smaller effect on the band gap of the material. Surface termination with fluorine and hydroxyl groups results in an increase of the band gap together with considerable changes in electronic and atomic partial charge distribution in the system. Our findings, which are robust against the use of different exchange-correlation functionals, indicate the possibility of tuning the bandgap of the material to make it suitable for optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications.

  19. Size and strain rate effects in tensile strength of penta-twinned Ag nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuan; Li, Xiaoyan; Gao, Huajian

    2017-06-01

    Penta-twinned Ag nanowires (pt-AgNWs) have recently attracted much attention due to their interesting mechanical and physical properties. Here we perform large-scale atomistic simulations to investigate the influence of sample size and strain rate on the tensile strength of pt-AgNWs. The simulation results show an apparent size effect in that the nanowire strength (defined as the critical stress for dislocation nucleation) increases with decreasing wire diameter. To account for such size effect, a theoretical model involving the interaction between an emerging dislocation and the twin boundary has been developed for the surface nucleation of dislocations. It is shown that the model predictions are in quantitative agreement with the results from atomistic simulations and previous experimental studies in the literatures. The simulations also reveal that nanowire strength is strain-rate dependent, which predicts an activation volume for dislocation nucleation in the range of 1-10b3 , where b is the magnitude of the Burgers vector for a full dislocation.

  20. Band gap engineering in penta-graphene by substitutional doping: first-principles calculations.

    PubMed

    Berdiyorov, G R; Dixit, G; Madjet, M E

    2016-11-30

    Using density functional theory, we study the structure, electronic properties and partial charges of a new carbon allotrope-penta-graphene (PG)-substitutionally doped by Si, B and N. We found that the electronic bandgap of PG can be tuned down to 0.2 eV due to carbon substitutions. However, the value of the band gap depends on the type and location of the dopants. For example, the strongest reduction of the band gap is obtained for Si substitutions on the top (bottom) plane of PG, whereas the substitution in the middle plane of PG has a smaller effect on the band gap of the material. Surface termination with fluorine and hydroxyl groups results in an increase of the band gap together with considerable changes in electronic and atomic partial charge distribution in the system. Our findings, which are robust against the use of different exchange-correlation functionals, indicate the possibility of tuning the bandgap of the material to make it suitable for optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications.

  1. Ambient stable tetragonal and orthorhombic phases in penta-twinned bipyramidal au microcrystals.

    PubMed

    Mettela, Gangaiah; Bhogra, Meha; Waghmare, Umesh V; Kulkarni, Giridhar U

    2015-03-04

    Face-centered cubic (fcc) lattice is the only known crystal structure of bulk gold. In the present work, we report the presence of body-centered tetragonal (bct) and body-centered orthorhombic (bco) phases in bipyramidal Au microcrystals with penta-twinned tips. These microcrystals have been obtained by thermolysis of (AuCl4)(-) stabilized with tetraoctylammonium bromide (ToABr) in air at about 220 °C for 30 min. Using a laboratory monochromatic X-ray source, the non-fcc phases could be readily detected. The remarkable occurrence of non-fcc phases of Au grown in the temperature window of 200-250 °C results from the geometrically induced strains in the bipyramids. Having derived first-principles theoretical support for the temperature-dependent stability of non-fcc Au structures under stress, we identify its origin in soft modes. Annealing at high temperatures relieves the stress, thus destabilizing the non-fcc phases.

  2. Tetra-ataxiometric Posturography in Patients with Migrainous Vertigo.

    PubMed

    Ongun, Nedim; Atalay, Nilgun S; Degirmenci, Eylem; Sahin, Fusun; Bir, Levent Sinan

    2016-01-01

    Migraine is a common disorder characterized by headache attacks frequently accompanied by vestibular symptoms like dizziness, vertigo, and balance disorders. Clinical studies support a strong link between migraine and vertigo rather than between other headache types and vertigo or nonvertiginous dizziness. There is a lack of consensus regarding the pathophysiology of migrainous vertigo. Activation of central vestibular processing during migraine attacks and vasospasm-induced ischemia of the labyrinth are reported as the probable responsible mechanisms. Because vestibular examination alone does not provide enough information for diagnosis of migrainous vertigo, posturography systems which provide objective assessment of somatosensory, vestibular, and visual information would be very helpful to show concomitant involvement of the vestibular and somato-sensorial systems. There are few posturographic studies on patients with migraine but it seems that how balance is affected in patients with migraine and/or migrainous vertigo is still not clear. We want to investigate balance function in migraineurs with and without vertigo with a tetra-ataxiometric posturography system and our study is the first study in which tetra-ataxiometric static posturography was used to evaluate postural abnormalities in a well-defined population of patients with migrainous vertigo. To investigate balance functions in migraineurs with and without vertigo with a tetra-ataxiometric posturography system. Prospective, nonrandomized, controlled study. Pamukkale University Hospital, Neurology and Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation outpatient clinics. Sixteen patients with migrainous vertigo, 16 patients with migraine without aura and no vestibular symptoms, and 16 controls were included in the study. Computerized static posturography system was performed and statistical analyses of fall, Fourier, Stability, and Weight distribution indexes were performed. The tetra-ataxiometric posturography device

  3. Reversible penta- and hexacoordination motifs in [Co(TMPP)] resulting in interchange of 1D and 2D supramolecular designs.

    PubMed

    Maji, Suman; Kumar, Anil; Pal, Kuntal; Sarkar, Sabyasachi

    2005-10-17

    meso-Tetrakis(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)cobalt(II) porphyrin [Co(TMPP)] (1) is synthesized by a new method. The X-ray structure of 1 grown in dichloromethane shows square-pyramidal coordination around the Co(II) ion, displaying a 1D polymeric network. When grown in chloroform, 1 displays an octahedral coordination around Co(II), resulting in a 2D coordination network. This solvent-dependent variation in ligation of the O-donor atom(s) of the 4-methoxy groups of the meso-phenyl rings in the axial position(s) of the central Co(II) is reversible, as shown by electronic spectroscopy. The magnetic and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) data of these two crystalline forms are dependent on the nature of the axial interaction. Increased axial coordination showed increased splitting between the e and a1 orbitals, resulting in further separation between 2A1 and 2E. The EPR data are consistent with this result. The difference in energy levels in these two forms is in agreement with the magnetic and spectroscopic data.

  4. Effect of Ascorbate on the Cyanide-Scavenging Capability of Cobalt(III) meso-Tetra(4-N-methylpyridyl)porphine Pentaiodide: Deactivation by Reduction?

    PubMed

    Benz, Oscar S; Yuan, Quan; Cronican, Andrea A; Peterson, Jim; Pearce, Linda L

    2016-03-21

    The Co(III)-containing water-soluble metalloporphyrin cobalt(III) meso-tetra(4-N-methylpyridyl)porphine pentaiodide (Co(III)TMPyP) is a potential cyanide-scavenging agent. The rate of reduction of Co(III)TMPyP by ascorbate is facile enough that conversion to the Co(II)-containing Co(II)TMPyP should occur within minutes at prevailing in vivo levels of the reductant. It follows that any cyanide-decorporating capability of the metalloporphyrin should depend more on the cyanide-binding characteristics of Co(II)TMPyP than those of the administered form, Co(III)TMPyP. Addition of cyanide to buffered aqueous solutions of Co(II)TMPyP (pH 7.4, 25-37 °C) results in quite rapid (k2 = ∼10(3) M(-1) s(-1)) binding/substitution of cyanide anion in the two available axial positions with high affinity (K'β = 10(10) to 10(11)). Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic measurements and cyclic voltammetry indicate that cyanide induces oxidation to the Co(III)-containing dicyano species. The constraints that these observations put on plausible mechanisms for the reaction of Co(II)TMPyP with cyanide are discussed. Experiments in which Co(III)TMPyP and cyanide were added to freshly drawn mouse blood showed the same sequence of reactions (metalloporphyrin reduction → cyanide binding/substitution → reoxidation) to occur. Therefore, in cyanide-scavenging applications with this metalloporphyrin, we should be taking advantage of both the improved rate of ligand substitution at Co(II) compared to that at Co(III) and the increased affinity of Co(III) for anionic ligands compared to that of Co(II). Finally, using an established sublethal mouse model for cyanide intoxication, Co(III)TMPyP, administered either 5 min before (prophylaxis) or 1 min after the toxicant, is shown to have very significant antidotal capability. Possible explanations for the results of a previous contradictory study, which failed to find any prophylactic effect of Co(III)TMPyP toward cyanide intoxication, are

  5. 2-Aminoisobutyric acid in Co(II) and Co(II)/Ln(III) chemistry: homometallic and heterometallic clusters.

    PubMed

    Sopasis, George J; Orfanoudaki, Maria; Zarmpas, Pavlos; Philippidis, Aggelos; Siczek, Milosz; Lis, Tadeusz; O'Brien, James R; Milios, Constantinos J

    2012-01-16

    The synthesis and magnetic properties of 13 new homo- and heterometallic Co(II) complexes containing the artificial amino acid 2-amino-isobutyric acid, aibH, are reported: [Co(II)(4)(aib)(3)(aibH)(3)(NO(3))](NO(3))(4)·2.8CH(3)OH·0.2H(2)O (1·2.8CH(3)OH·0.2H(2)O), {Na(2)[Co(II)(2)(aib)(2)(N(3))(4)(CH(3)OH)(4)]}(n) (2), [Co(II)(6)La(III)(aib)(6)(OH)(3)(NO(3))(2)(H(2)O)(4)(CH(3)CN)(2)]·0.5[La(NO(3))(6)]·0.75(ClO(4))·1.75(NO(3))·3.2CH(3)CN·5.9H(2)O (3·3.2CH(3)CN·5.9H(2)O), [Co(II)(6)Pr(III)(aib)(6)(OH)(3)(NO(3))(3)(CH(3)CN)(6)]·[Pr(NO(3))(5)]·0.41[Pr(NO(3))(3)(ClO(4))(0.5)(H(2)O)(1.5)]·0.59[Co(NO(3))(3)(H(2)O)]·0.2(ClO(4))·0.25H(2)O (4·0.25H(2)O), [Co(II)(6)Nd(III)(aib)(6)(OH)(3)(NO(3))(2.8)(CH(3)OH)(4.7)(H(2)O)(1.5)]·2.7(ClO(4))·0.5(NO(3))·2.26CH(3)OH·0.24H(2)O (5·2.26CH(3)OH·0.24H(2)O), [Co(II)(6)Sm(III)(aib)(6)(OH)(3)(NO(3))(3)(CH(3)CN)(6)]·[Sm(NO(3))(5)]·0.44[Sm(NO(3))(3)(ClO(4))(0.5)(H(2)O)(1.5)]·0.56[Co(NO(3))(3)(H(2)O)]·0.22(ClO(4))·0.3H(2)O (6·0.3H(2)O), [Co(II)(6)Eu(III)(aib)(6)(OH)(3)(NO(3))(3)(CH(3)OH)(4.87)(H(2)O)(1.13)](ClO(4))(2.5)(NO(3))(0.5)·2.43CH(3)OH·0.92H(2)O (7·2.43CH(3)OH·0.92H(2)O), [Co(II)(6)Gd(III)(aib)(6)(OH)(3)(NO(3))(2.9)(CH(3)OH)(4.9)(H(2)O)(1.2)]·2.6(ClO(4))·0.5(NO(3))·2.58CH(3)OH·0.47H(2)O (8·2.58CH(3)OH·0.47H(2)O), [Co(II)(6)Tb(III)(aib)(6)(OH)(3)(NO(3))(3)(CH(3)CN)(6)]·[Tb(NO(3))(5)]·0.034[Tb(NO(3))(3)(ClO(4))(0.5)(H(2)O)(0.5)]·0.656[Co(NO(3))(3)(H(2)O)]·0.343(ClO(4))·0.3H(2)O (9·0.3H(2)O), [Co(II)(6)Dy(III)(aib)(6)(OH)(3)(NO(3))(2.9)(CH(3)OH)(4.92)(H(2)O)(1.18)](ClO(4))(2.6)(NO(3))(0.5)·2.5CH(3)OH·0.5H(2)O (10·2.5CH(3)OH·0.5H(2)O), [Co(II)(6)Ho(III)(aib)(6)(OH)(3)(NO(3))(3)(CH(3)CN)(6)]·0.27[Ho(NO(3))(3)(ClO(4))(0.35)(H(2)O)(0.15)]·0.656[Co(NO(3))(3)(H(2)O)]·0.171(ClO(4)) (11), [Co(II)(6)Er(III)(aib)(6)(OH)(4)(NO(3))(2)(CH(3)CN)(2.5)(H(2)O)(3.5)](ClO(4))(3)·CH(3)CN·0.75H(2)O (12·CH(3)CN·0.75H(2)O), and [Co(II)(6)Tm(III)(aib)(6)(OH)(3)(NO(3))(3)(H(2)O)(6)]·1.48(ClO(4))·1.52(NO(3

  6. Two Isostructural Coordination Polymers Showing Diverse Magnetic Behaviors: Weak Coupling (Ni(II)) and an Ordered Array of Single-Chain Magnets (Co(II)).

    PubMed

    Chen, Min; Zhao, Hui; Sañudo, E Carolina; Liu, Chun-Sen; Du, Miao

    2016-04-18

    Two isomorphic 3-D complexes with the formulas [M3(TPTA) (OH)2(H2O)4]n (M = Ni for 1 and Co for 2; H4TPTA = [1,1':4',1″-terphenyl]-2',3,3″,5'-tetracarboxylic acid) have been synthesized and magnetically characterized. Complexes 1 (Ni(II)) and 2 (Co(II)) have the same 1-D rod-shaped inorganic SBUs but exhibit significantly different magnetic properties. Complex 2(Co(II)) is a 3-D arrangement of a 1-D Co(II) single-chain magnet (SCM), while complex 1(Ni(II)) exhibits weak coupling.

  7. (μ-3,4-Diacetyl­hexa-2,4-diene-2,5-diol­ato-κ4 O 2,O 3:O 4,O 5)bis­[aqua(1,10-phen­an­thro­line-κ2 N,N′)copper(II)] bis­(tetra­fluorid­oborate) monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Tovilla, Jorge A.; Hernández-Ortega, Simón; Valdés-Martínez, Jesús

    2009-01-01

    In the title compound, [Cu2(C10H12O4)(C12H8N2)2(H2O)2](BF4)2·H2O, the two Cu atoms are each chelated by the acetyl­acetonate unit of the 3,4-diacetyl­hexa-2,4-diene-2,5-diolate (tae) ligand. The Cu atoms are square-pyramidally penta­coordinated, with one bidentate 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) and the tae ligand basal and one water mol­ecule apical. The pyridyl rings of the phen ligands participate in π–π [centroid–centroid distance = 3.894 (3) Å] and C—H ⋯ π inter­actions, generating layers which are inter­connected through O—H⋯O and O—H⋯F hydrogen bonds between the water mol­ecules and the tetra­fluorido­borate anions. The F atoms of both tetra­fluorido­borate anions are each disordered over two positions of equal occupancy. PMID:21582322

  8. Mechanism of the tunable structural color of neon tetra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshioka, Shinya

    2010-03-01

    Many examples of the structural color can be found in butterfly wings, beetle's elytra and bird feathers. Since the color-producing microstructures of these examples mainly consist of stable materials, for example, dried cuticles in insects and keratin and melanin granules in bird feathers, it is impossible to actively change the microstructure. On the other hand, some fish have the tunability in their structural colors. For example, a small tropical fish, neon tetra, has a longitudinal stripe that looks blue-green in the day time, while it changes into deep violet at night. This fact clearly indicates the variability in the microstructure. It is known that the iridophore of the stripe part of neon tetra contains two stacks of thin light-reflecting platelets that are made of guanine crystal. Since the arrangement of the platelets is observed periodic, the stack is thought to cause the structural color through the multilayer thin-film interference. Consequently, the variability in the color is thought to originate from the variation in the distance between the platelets. Two explanations have been proposed so far for the distance variation. Lythoge and Shand considered that the distance is controlled by osmotic pressure that induces the inflow of the water into the iridophore[1]. On the other hand, Nagaishi et al. proposed a different model, called Venetian blind model, in which the inclination angle of the platelets is varied, resulting in the change in the distance[2]. Recently, we have performed detailed optical measurements on the iridophore of neon tetra. We have paid particular attention to the direction of the reflected light, since the Venetian blind model expects that the direction varies with the color change owing to the tilt of the platelets. We present the experimental results and quantitatively discuss the validity of the Venetian blind model. [4pt] [1] J. N. Lythgoe, and J. Shand, J Physiol. 325, 23-34 (1982). [0pt] [2] H. Nagaishi, N. Oshima, and R

  9. Alcohol challenge and sensitivity to change of The Essential Tremor Rating Assessment Scale (TETRAS)

    PubMed Central

    Voller, Bernhard; Lines, Emily; McCrossin, Gayle; Artiles, Aaron; Tinaz, Sule; Lungu, Codrin; Hallett, Mark; Haubenberger, Dietrich

    2014-01-01

    Background The Essential Tremor (ET) Rating Assessment Scale (TETRAS) has shown excellent inter- and intra-rater reliability. To assess the scale’s ability to detect changes in tremor severity, we compared TETRAS performance with standard postural tremor accelerometry during a standardized ethanol challenge. Methods Fifteen adult ET patients received a single oral ethanol dose calculated to reach 0.05 g/dl breath alcohol content (brAC) on two different study days. Two investigators independently assessed the effects with accelerometry on one day and with TETRAS on another day. Measurements were taken at 8 time-points (2 time-points baseline and 6 time-points up to 2 hours post ethanol). Further outcome measures included brAC readings at the same time points. Results Because correlation between TETRAS and accelerometry revealed a logarithmic relation, for all comparisons, accelerometry data were log-transformed and a cumulative score logACC(R+L) was calculated. Correlation between logACC(R+L) and TETRAS was significant (r= 0.57, p<0.01). Repeated measures ANOVA for both TETRAS and accelerometry before and after ethanol showed a significant effect of time-point (F=34.6, p<0.01; F=13.5, p<0.01). Corrected post-hoc tests showed a difference between baseline and each of the following 6 time-points. TETRAS and brAC were significantly correlated (r=−0.29, p<0.01). Intra-rater test-retest analysis between baseline measures showed high correlation (ICC=0.974, p<0.001). The ethanol challenge showed excellent reproducibility. Conclusion We demonstrated sensitivity of the TETRAS performance scale to change after a therapeutic intervention. Our study provides responsiveness validity for TETRAS, further establishing its potential as a valid instrument for ET evaluation in both clinical and research settings. PMID:24123358

  10. Redetermination of cyclo-tetra-kis-(μ-5,10,15,20-tetra-4-pyridyl-porphyrinato)tetra-zinc(II) dimethyl-formamide octa-solvate trihydrate at 100 K.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Rüdiger W; Graf, Jürgen; Goddard, Richard; Oppel, Iris M

    2011-01-22

    The structure of the title compound, [Zn(4)(C(40)H(24)N(8))(4)]·8C(3)H(7)NO·3H(2)O, has been redetermined at 100 K. The redetermination is of significantly higher precision and gives further insight into the disorder of pyridyl groups and solvent mol-ecules. The mol-ecules of (5,10,15,20-tetra-4-pyridyl-porphyrinato)zinc(II) (ZnTPyP) form homomolecular cyclic tetra-mers by coordination of a peripheral pyridyl group to the central Zn atom of an adjacent symmetry-related mol-ecule. The tetra-mer so formed exhibits mol-ecular S(4) symmetry and is located about a crystallographic fourfold rotoinversion axis. Severely disordered dimethyl-formamide and water mol-ecules are present in the crystal, the contributions of which were omitted from refinement. Inter-molecular C-H⋯N hydrogen bonding is observed.

  11. Ethyl-enediammonium tetra-aqua-disulfato-cadmate.

    PubMed

    Rekik, Walid; Naïli, Houcine; Mhiri, Tahar; Bataille, Thierry

    2011-09-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound, [NH(3)(CH(2))(2)NH(3)][Cd(SO(4))(2)(H(2)O)(4)], consists of [Cd(SO(4))(2)(H(2)O)(4)](2-) anions that are built from octa-hedral Cd(H(2)O)(4)O(2) and SO(4) tetra-hedral units linked by corner sharing. The ethyl-ene-diamminium cations are linked to the anions via N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The asymmetric unit contains one-half of the compound, the other half being related to the first by an inversion centre. The crystal structure presents alternate stacking of the inorganic and organic layers along the crystallographic b axis. The structure cohesion and stability is further assured by O(water)-H⋯O hydrogen bonds.

  12. Endogenous circadian retinomotor movements in the neon tetra (Paracheirodon innesi).

    PubMed

    Lythgoe, J N; Shand, J

    1983-09-01

    Retinomotor movements of retinal cones and pigment epithelium melanosomes were studied in the neon tetra, Paracheirodon innesi. The cone myoids clearly contracted during the daytime, but the migration of the total population of pigment granules was less easy to see. However, when rod-shaped melanosomes were measured separately from granular-shaped melanosomes it became evident that the rod-shaped melanosomes, but not the granular melanosomes, did migrate in response to circadian changes in light intensity. Retinomotor movements of both the cones and the rod-shaped melanosomes persisted for at least 2 days in continuous darkness. Microspectrophotometric measurements of spectral transmission of small groups of melanosomes showed that absorption was greatest at shorter wavelengths, but that there was also a distinct absorbance maximum at about 480 nm.

  13. Environmental effects on luminescence of meso-tetra-2-chlorophenylporphyrin.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Tandrima; Nayak, Sandip K; Chattopadhyay, Subrata; Banerjee, Manas

    2010-07-01

    Effects of solvent polarity on the photophysical behaviour of meso-tetra-2-chlorophenylporphyrin have been studied by means of steady-state absorption and fluorescence, as well as time-resolved fluorescence techniques. A non-mirror symmetric absorption and emission spectra due to vibronic borrowing were obtained. Time-resolved fluorescence study indicated the bi-exponential decay kinetics for both the emission bands, observed in steady-state emission spectra. Such findings implied that there exists two emitting species on the photoinduced conformational excursions of the excited-state equilibrium and also that their relative contributions to emission change with solvent polarity. Monte Carlo conformational search based on force-field molecular mechanics was performed to locate equilibrium conformers in the ground state which enable evaluation of the ground-state barrier energies. This was followed by CIS and ZINDO calculations to explore the excited-state barriers. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Penta-EF-Hand Protein Peflin Is a Negative Regulator of ER-To-Golgi Transport.

    PubMed

    Rayl, Mariah; Truitt, Mishana; Held, Aaron; Sargeant, John; Thorsen, Kevin; Hay, Jesse C

    2016-01-01

    Luminal calcium regulates vesicle transport early in the secretory pathway. In ER-to-Golgi transport, depletion of luminal calcium leads to significantly reduced transport and a buildup of budding and newly budded COPII vesicles and vesicle proteins. Effects of luminal calcium on transport may be mediated by cytoplasmic calcium sensors near ER exits sites (ERES). The penta-EF-hand (PEF) protein apoptosis-linked gene 2 (ALG-2) stabilizes sec31A at ER exit sites (ERES) and promotes the assembly of inner and outer shell COPII components. However, in vitro and intact cell approaches have not determined whether ALG-2 is a negative or positive regulator, or a regulator at all, under basal physiological conditions. ALG-2 interacts with another PEF protein, peflin, to form cytosolic heterodimers that dissociate in response to calcium. However, a biological function for peflin has not been demonstrated and whether peflin and the ALG-2/peflin interaction modulates transport has not been investigated. Using an intact, single cell, morphological assay for ER-to-Golgi transport in normal rat kidney (NRK) cells, we found that depletion of peflin using siRNA resulted in significantly faster transport of the membrane cargo VSV-G. Double depletion of peflin and ALG-2 blocked the increased transport resulting from peflin depletion, demonstrating a role for ALG-2 in the increased transport. Furthermore, peflin depletion caused increased targeting of ALG-2 to ERES and increased ALG-2/sec31A interactions, suggesting that peflin may normally inhibit transport by preventing ALG-2/sec31A interactions. This work identifies for the first time a clear steady state role for a PEF protein in ER-to-Golgi transport-peflin is a negative regulator of transport.

  15. Penta-EF-Hand Protein Peflin Is a Negative Regulator of ER-To-Golgi Transport

    PubMed Central

    Held, Aaron; Sargeant, John; Thorsen, Kevin; Hay, Jesse C.

    2016-01-01

    Luminal calcium regulates vesicle transport early in the secretory pathway. In ER-to-Golgi transport, depletion of luminal calcium leads to significantly reduced transport and a buildup of budding and newly budded COPII vesicles and vesicle proteins. Effects of luminal calcium on transport may be mediated by cytoplasmic calcium sensors near ER exits sites (ERES). The penta-EF-hand (PEF) protein apoptosis-linked gene 2 (ALG-2) stabilizes sec31A at ER exit sites (ERES) and promotes the assembly of inner and outer shell COPII components. However, in vitro and intact cell approaches have not determined whether ALG-2 is a negative or positive regulator, or a regulator at all, under basal physiological conditions. ALG-2 interacts with another PEF protein, peflin, to form cytosolic heterodimers that dissociate in response to calcium. However, a biological function for peflin has not been demonstrated and whether peflin and the ALG-2/peflin interaction modulates transport has not been investigated. Using an intact, single cell, morphological assay for ER-to-Golgi transport in normal rat kidney (NRK) cells, we found that depletion of peflin using siRNA resulted in significantly faster transport of the membrane cargo VSV-G. Double depletion of peflin and ALG-2 blocked the increased transport resulting from peflin depletion, demonstrating a role for ALG-2 in the increased transport. Furthermore, peflin depletion caused increased targeting of ALG-2 to ERES and increased ALG-2/sec31A interactions, suggesting that peflin may normally inhibit transport by preventing ALG-2/sec31A interactions. This work identifies for the first time a clear steady state role for a PEF protein in ER-to-Golgi transport—peflin is a negative regulator of transport. PMID:27276012

  16. Evaluation of consumer satisfaction using the tetra-class model.

    PubMed

    Clerfeuille, Fabrice; Poubanne, Yannick; Vakrilova, Milena; Petrova, Guenka

    2008-09-01

    A number of studies have shown the importance of consumers' satisfaction toward pharmacy services. The measurement of patient satisfaction through different elements of services provided is challenging within the context of a dynamic economic environment. Patient satisfaction is the result of long-term established habits and expectations to the pharmacy as an institution. Few studies to date have attempted to discern whether these changes have led to increased patient satisfaction and loyalty, particularly within developing nations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the elements of the services provided in Bulgarian pharmacies and their contribution to consumer satisfaction using a tetra-class model. Three main hypotheses were tested in pharmacies to validate the model in the case of complex services. Additionally, the contribution of the different service elements to the clients' satisfaction was studied. The analysis was based on a survey of customers in central and district pharmacies in Sofia, Bulgaria. The data were analyzed through a correspondence analysis which was applied to the results of the 752 distributed questionnaires. It was observed that different dimensions of the pharmacies contribute uniquely to customer satisfaction, with consumer gender contributing greatly toward satisfaction, with type/location of pharmacy, consumer age, and educational degree also playing a part. The duration of time over which the consumers have been clients at a given pharmacy influences the subsequent service categorization. This research demonstrated that the tetra-class model is suitable for application in the pharmaceutical sector. The model results could be beneficial for both researchers and pharmacy managers.

  17. trans-Dichlorido­tetra­kis­[(di­methyl­phosphor­yl)methanaminium-κO]cobalt(II) tetra­chloridocobaltate(II)

    PubMed Central

    Reiss, Guido J.

    2013-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title structure, [CoCl2(C3H11NOP)4][CoCl4]2, consists of one half of the trans-dichlorido­tetra­kis­[(di­methyl­phosphor­yl)methanaminium]cobalt(II) tetra­cation lying on an inversion center and one tetra­chloridocobaltate(II) dianion on a general position. Four O-coordinated cationic (di­methyl­phosphor­yl)methanaminium (dpmaH+) ligands occupy the equatorial coordination sites, whereas the chloride ligands occupy axial positions of the roughly o­cta­hedral coordination polyhedron of the cobalt metal center. Intra­molecular hydrogen bonds between the aminium groups and the O atom of the phosphoryl groups and additional hydrogen bonds between the aminium groups and the chloride ligands are present. Furthermore, four of the six H atoms not involved in intra­molecular bonding of each cobalt(II) tetra­cation form weak hydrogen bonds to four adjacent tetra­chloridocobaltate(II) counter-anions. By these inter­molecular hydrogen bonds, one-dimensional polymeric strands are formed along the b-axis direction. The hydrogen bonding is analyzed using the graph-set method and the structural similarity with dpmaHCl is discussed. PMID:23723763

  18. Anion complexes of Cu(II) and Co(II) bovine carbonic anhydrase as models for the copper site of blue copper proteins.

    PubMed

    Morpurgo, L; Finazzi Agrò, A; Rotilio, G; Mondovì, B

    1976-05-01

    1. The presence of two intense transitions in the optical absorption spectrum of the sulfide and 2-mercaptoethanol complexes of Cu(II) and Co(II)-substituted bovine carbonic anhydrase suggest that charge-transfer interactions between sulfur and an acceptor group of the protein play an important role in the stabilization of these complexes. 2. The spectra of Co(II) bovine carbonic anhydrase sulfides are very similar to the spectrum of Co(II) stellacyanin whilst the spectra of the corresponding Cu(II) enzymes are considerably different. A possible explanation is that Cu(II) is pentacoordinate in native stellacyanin unlike Cu(II) bovine carbonic anhydrase sulfides and Co(II) enzymes. Tetrahedral Co(II) stellacyanin is proposed as a model of the reduced copper site.

  19. Crystal structures of two deca­vanadates(V) with penta­aqua­manganese(II) pendant groups: (NMe4)2[V10O28{Mn(H2O)5}2]·5H2O and [NH3C(CH2OH)3]2[V10O28{Mn(H2O)5}2]·2H2O

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Maurício P.; Rüdiger, André Luis; Soares, Jaísa F.; Nunes, Giovana G.; Hughes, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Two heterometallic deca­vanadate(V) compounds, bis­(tetra­methyl­ammonium) deca­aquadi-μ4-oxido-tetra-μ3-oxido-hexa­deca-μ2-oxido-hexa­oxidodimang­anese(II)­deca­vanadate(V) penta­hydrate, (Me4N)2[V10O28{Mn(H2O)5}2]·5H2O, A, and bis­{[tris­(hy­droxy­meth­yl)meth­yl]ammonium} deca­aquadi-μ4-oxido-tetra-μ3-oxido-hexa­deca-μ2-oxido-hexa­oxidodimanganese(II)deca­vanadate(V) dihydrate, [NH3C(CH2OH)3]2[V10O28{Mn(H2O)5}2]·2H2O, B, have been synthesized under mild reaction conditions in an aqueous medium. Both polyanions present two [Mn(OH2)5]2+ complex units bound to the deca­vanadate cluster through oxide bridges. In A, the deca­vanadate unit has 2/m symmetry, whereas in B it has twofold symmetry. Apart from this, the main differences between A and B rest on the organic cations, tetra­methyl­ammonium and [tris­(hy­droxy­meth­yl)meth­yl]ammonium, respectively, and on the number and arrangement of the water mol­ecules of crystallization. In both compounds, the H atoms from the coordinating water mol­ecules participate in extensive three-dimensional hydrogen-bonding networks, which link the cluster units both directly and through solvent mol­ecules and, in B, through the ‘tris­’ cation hydroxyl groups. The cation in B also participates in N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. A number of C—H⋯O inter­actions are also observed in both structures. PMID:25878804

  20. Predicting heterocyclic ring coupling constants through a conformational search of tetra-O-methyl-(+)-catechin

    Treesearch

    Fred L. Tobiason; Richard W. Hemingway

    1994-01-01

    A GMMX conformational search routine gives a family of conformations that reflects the Boltzmann-averaged heterocyclic ring conformation as evidenced by accurate prediction of all three coupling constants observed for tetra-O-methyl-(+)-catechin.

  1. Predicting heterocyclic ring coupling constants through a conformational search of tetra-o-methyl-(+)-catechin

    Treesearch

    Fred L. Tobiason; Richard w. Hemingway

    1994-01-01

    A GMMXe conformational search routine gives a family a conformations that reflects the boltzmann-averaged heterocyclic ring conformation as evidence by accurate prediction of all three coupling constants observed for tetra-O-methyl-(+)-catechin.

  2. Transient receptor potential N (TRPN1) from Xenopus interacts with the penta-EF-hand protein peflin.

    PubMed

    Wiemuth, Dominik; van de Sandt, Lena; Herr, Rudolf; Gründer, Stefan

    2012-12-14

    TRPN1 is a candidate mechanotransduction channel in Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans, also present in hair cells of lower vertebrates. At its N-terminal cytoplasmic tail it contains 28 ankyrin repeats. We performed a yeast two-hybrid screen with the N-terminal ankyrin repeats of Xenopus TRPN1 as bait and identified the Penta-EF-hand protein peflin as a putative interaction partner. We confirmed this interaction by GST pulldown assays and by co-localization in an epithelial cell model. Collectively, our study identifies peflin as an interaction partner of TRPN1 in vitro.

  3. Cytosine Nucleobase Ligand: A Suitable Choice for Modulating Magnetic Anisotropy in Tetrahedrally Coordinated Mononuclear Co(II) Compounds.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Rosaria; Vallejo, Julia; Marino, Nadia; De Munno, Giovanni; Krzystek, J; Cano, Joan; Pardo, Emilio; Armentano, Donatella

    2017-02-20

    A family of tetrahedral mononuclear Co(II) complexes with the cytosine nucleobase ligand is used as the playground for an in-depth study of the effects that the nature of the ligand, as well as their noninnocent distortions on the Co(II) environment, may have on the slow magnetic relaxation effects. Hence, those compounds with greater distortion from the ideal tetrahedral geometry showed a larger-magnitude axial magnetic anisotropy (D) together with a high rhombicity factor (E/D), and thus, slow magnetic relaxation effects also appear. In turn, the more symmetric compound possesses a much smaller value of the D parameter and, consequently, lacks single-ion magnet behavior.

  4. Spectroscopic and mycological studies of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes with 4-aminoantipyrine derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Amit Kumar; Chandra, Sulekh

    2011-10-01

    Complexes of the type [M(L)X 2], where M = Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II), have been synthesized with novel NO-donor Schiff's base ligand, 1,4-diformylpiperazine bis(4-imino-2,3-dimethyl-1-phenyl-3-pyrazolin-5-one) which is obtained by the acid catalyzed condensation of 1,4-diformylpiperazine with 4-aminoantipyrine. The elemental analyses, molar conductance measurements, magnetic susceptibility measurements, IR, UV, NMR, mass and EPR studies of the compounds led to the conclusion that the ligand acts as tetradentate chelate. The Schiff's base ligand forms hexacoordinated complexes having octahedral geometry for Ni(II) and tetragonal geometry for Co(II) and Cu(II) complexes. The mycological studies of the compounds were examined against the several opportunistic pathogens, i.e., Alternaria brassicae, Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum. The Cu(II) complexes were found to have most fungicidal behavior.

  5. Crystal structure of the tetra­gonal polymorph of bis­(1-ethyl-3-methyl­imidazolium) tetra­bromido­cadmate

    PubMed Central

    Đorđević, Tamara; Gerger, Sabrina; Karanović, Ljiljana

    2016-01-01

    Both unique Cd atoms in the tetra­gonal polymorph of bis­(1-ethyl-3-methyl­imidazolium) tetra­bromido­cadmate, (C6H11N2)2[CdBr4], occupy special positions (site symmetry -4). The crystal structure consists of isolated tetra­hedral [CdBr4]2− anions which are surrounded by 1-ethyl-3-methyl­imidazolium cations. The methyl and ethyl side chains of the cations show positional disorder in a 0.590 (11):0.410 (11) ratio. In the crystal, (C6H11N2)+ cations display three weak C—H⋯Br hydrogen-bond inter­actions through the imidazolium ring H atoms with the Br− ligands of the surrounding complex anions. The alkyl groups of the side chains are not involved in hydrogen bonding. PMID:27555953

  6. Bis(tetra-methyl-amonium) bis-(2,4,5-carboxy-benzoate)-benzene-1,2,4,5-tetra-carboxylic acid (1/1).

    PubMed

    Cunha-Silva, Luís; Girginova, Penka I; Trindade, Tito; Rocha, João; Klinowski, Jacek; Almeida Paz, Filipe A

    2007-12-06

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, 2C(4)H(12)N(+)·2C(10)H(5)O(8) (-)·C(10)H(6)O(8), consists of a tetra-methyl-amonium cation, an anion derived from the singly deprotonated pyromellitic acid anion, 2,4,5-carboxy-benzoate (H(3)bta(-)), and one-half of a benzene-1,2,4,5-tetra-carboxylic acid (H(4)bta) mol-ecule, which has the centroid of the aromatic ring positioned at a crystallographic centre of inversion. The H(4)bta and H(3)bta(-) residues are involved in an extensive inter-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding network, which leads to a three-dimensional supra-molecular structure containing one-dimensional channels running parallel to the [001] crystallographic direction. These channels house the tetra-methyl-amonium cations.

  7. Crystal structure of the monoclinic phase (phase IV) of bis­(tetra­methyl­ammonium) tetra­chlorido­cuprate(II)

    PubMed Central

    Seck, Gorgui Awa; Diop, Libasse; Oliver, Allen G.

    2017-01-01

    The crystal structure of the low-temperature monoclinic phase of the title compound, [(CH3)4N]2[CuCl4], was determined at 120 K. The structure of the room-temperature phase has been determined in the ortho­rhom­bic space group Pmcm [Morosin & Lingafelter (1961 ▸). J. Phys. Chem. 50–51; Clay et al. (1975 ▸). Acta Cryst. B31 289–290]. The asymmetric unit consists of one discrete tetra­chlorido­cuprate anion with a distorted tetra­hedral geometry and two tetra­methyl­ammonium cations. In the crystal, the cations and the anions are linked via weak C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds. PMID:28316808

  8. Continuous Noninvasive Hemodynamic Monitoring in an Infant With Tetra-Amelia.

    PubMed

    Vadi, Marissa G; Ghazal, Elizabeth A; Malkin, Mathew R; Ayodeji, Abisola; Applegate, Richard L

    2016-09-15

    Tetra-amelia syndrome is a congenital disorder associated with near or complete absence of all 4 limbs. Noninvasive hemodynamic monitoring may be difficult or impossible in such patients. We describe the use of a finger cuff blood pressure system for continuous noninvasive blood pressure monitoring in an infant with near-complete tetra-amelia undergoing laparoscopic gastrostomy tube placement. This case suggests the potential use of such a blood pressure monitoring system for other patients with comparable deformities.

  9. Aluminium hydroxide tetra-3-phenylthiophthalocyanine as new photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy and fluorescent diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerovich, I. G.; Smirnova, Z. S.; Oborotova, N. A.; Lukyanets, E. A.; Meerovich, G. A.; Derkacheva, V. M.; Polozkova, A. P.; Kubasova, I. Y.; Baryshnikov, A. Y.

    2005-08-01

    This work is devoted to investigation of possibility to use the liposomal form of aluminium hydroxide tetra-3-phenylthiophthalocyanine as photosensitizer of near-infrared range. Aluminium hydroxide tetra-3-phenylthiophthalocyanine has shown high selectivity of accumulation in tumor comparing to normal tissue of mice as well as high photodynamic efficiency on mice bearing Erlich tumor (ELD) and lympholeucosis P-388. This compozition can be used to develop new effective photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy and fluorescent diagnostics.

  10. 2-(1H-Tetra­zol-5-yl)benzonitrile

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Zheng; Han, Guang-Fan; Zhu, Wei-Feng; Zhao, Yu-Yuan

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, C8H5N5, was synthesized from phthalonitrile. The benzonitrile and tetra­zole rings are inclined at a dihedral angle of 37.14 (11)°. In the crystal structure, inter­molecular N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds link the tetra­zole rings of adjacent mol­ecules, forming chains along the a axis. PMID:21202306

  11. Quantitative Estimation of Ising-Type Magnetic Anisotropy in a Family of C3 -Symmetric Co(II) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Amit Kumar; Jover, Jesús; Ruiz, Eliseo; Konar, Sanjit

    2017-09-12

    In this paper, the influence of the structural and chemical effects on the Ising-type magnetic anisotropy of pentacoordinate Co(II) complexes has been investigated by using a combined experimental and theoretical approach. For this, a deliberate design and synthesis of four pentacoordinate Co(II) complexes [Co(tpa)Cl]⋅ClO4 (1), [Co(tpa)Br]⋅ClO4 (2), [Co(tbta)Cl]⋅(ClO4 )⋅(MeCN)2 ⋅(H2 O) (3) and [Co(tbta)Br]⋅ClO4 (4) by using the tripodal ligands tris(2-methylpyridyl)amine (tpa) and tris[(1-benzyl-1 H-1,2,3-triazole-4-yl)methyl]amine) (tbta) have been carried out. Detailed dc and ac measurements show the existence of field-induced slow magnetic relaxation behavior of Co(II) centers with Ising-type magnetic anisotropy. A quantitative estimation of the zero-field splitting (ZFS) parameters has been effectively achieved by using detailed ab initio theory calculations. Computational studies reveal that the wavefunction of all the studied complexes has a very strong multiconfigurational character that stabilizes the largest ms =±3/2 components of the quartet state and hence produce a large negative contribution to the ZFS parameters. The difference in the magnitudes of the Ising-type anisotropy can be explained through ligand field theory considerations, that is, D is larger and negative in the case of weak equatorial σ-donating and strong apical π-donating ligands. To elucidate the role of intermolecular interactions in the magnetic relaxation behavior between adjacent Co(II) centers, a diamagnetic isostructural Zn(II) analog (5) was synthesized and the magnetic dilution experiment was performed. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. First-principles prediction of a novel cadmium disulfide monolayer (penta-CdS2): Indirect to direct band gap transition by strain engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naseri, Mosayeb

    2017-10-01

    Using first principles calculation a novel two dimensional structure of Cadmium Disulfide (penta-CdS2) is predicted. The calculated cohesive energy of -3.61 eV/atom indicates the thermodynamic stability of the predicted monolayer. Furthermore, the kinetic stability of the monolayer is examined by phonon dispersion calculation. According to our calculations, penta-CdS2 monolayer is a semiconductor with an indirect band gap of 2.97 eV, which can be effectively engineered by employing external biaxial compressive and tensile strain, The results emphasize that penta-CdS2 monolayer as a wide band gap semiconductor can become a promising material for application in new generation of nano-optoelectronic devices.

  13. Multiscale study of mononuclear CoII SMMs based on curcuminoid ligands

    DOE PAGES

    Díaz-Torres, Raúl; Menelaou, Melita; Roubeau, Olivier; ...

    2016-01-07

    This work introduces a novel family of CoII species having a curcuminoid (CCMoid) ligand, 9Accm, attached, namely [Co(9Accm) 2 (py) 2 ] (1) and [Co(9Accm)2(2,2'-bpy)] (2), achieved in high yields by the use of a microwave reactor, and exhibiting two different arrangements for the 9Accm ligands, described as "cis"(2) and "trans"(1). The study of the similarities/differences of the magnetic, luminescent and surface behaviors of the two new species, 1 and 2, is the main objective of the present work. The determined single-crystal structures of both compounds are the only CoII -CCMoid structures described in the literature so far. Both compoundsmore » exhibit large positive D values, that of 1 (D = +74 cm-1 ) being three times larger than that of 2 (D = +24 cm-1 ), and behave as mononuclear Single-Molecule Magnets (SMMs) in the presence of an external magnetic field. Their similar structures but different anisotropy and SMM characteristics provide, for the first time, deep insight on the spin-orbital effects thanks to the use of CASSCF/NEVPT2 calculations implementing such contributions. Further magnetic studies were performed in solution by means of paramagnetic 1H NMR, where both compounds (1 and 2) are stable in CDCl3 and display high symmetry. Paramagnetic NMR appears to be a useful diagnostic tool for the identification of such molecules in solution, where the resonance values found for the methine group (-CH-) of 9Accm vary significantly depending on the cis or trans disposition of the ligands. Fluorescence studies show that both systems display chelation enhancement of quenching (CHEQ) with regard to the free ligand, while 1 and 2 display similar quantum yields. Deposition of 1-2 on HOPG and Si(100) surfaces using spin-coating was studied using AFM; UV photoemission experiments under the same conditions display 2 as the most robust system. The measured occupied density of states of 2 with UV photoemission is in excellent agreement with theoretical DFT

  14. Implementation of tetra-poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel with high mechanical strength into microfluidic device technology

    PubMed Central

    Takehara, Hiroaki; Nagaoka, Akira; Noguchi, Jun; Akagi, Takanori; Sakai, Takamasa; Chung, Ung-il; Kasai, Haruo; Ichiki, Takanori

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogels have several excellent characteristics suitable for biomedical use such as softness, biological inertness and solute permeability. Hence, integrating hydrogels into microfluidic devices is a promising approach for providing additional functions such as biocompatibility and porosity, to microfluidic devices. However, the poor mechanical strength of hydrogels has severely limited device design and fabrication. A tetra-poly(ethylene glycol) (tetra-PEG) hydrogel synthesized recently has high mechanical strength and is expected to overcome such a limitation. In this research, we have comprehensively studied the implementation of tetra-PEG gel into microfluidic device technology. First, the fabrication of tetra-PEG gel/PDMS hybrid microchannels was established by developing a simple and robust bonding technique. Second, some fundamental features of tetra-PEG gel/PDMS hybrid microchannels, particularly fluid flow and mass transfer, were studied. Finally, to demonstrate the unique application of tetra-PEG-gel-integrated microfluidic devices, the generation of patterned chemical modulation with the maximum concentration gradient: 10% per 20 μm in a hydrogel was performed. The techniques developed in this study are expected to provide fundamental and beneficial methods of developing various microfluidic devices for life science and biomedical applications. PMID:24404072

  15. Design and Magnetic Properties of a Mononuclear Co(II) Single Molecule Magnet and Its Antiferromagnetically Coupled Binuclear Derivative.

    PubMed

    El-Khatib, Fatima; Cahier, Benjamin; Shao, Feng; López-Jordà, Maurici; Guillot, Régis; Rivière, Eric; Hafez, Hala; Saad, Zeinab; Girerd, Jean-Jacques; Guihéry, Nathalie; Mallah, Talal

    2017-04-17

    The preparations of related mononuclear and binuclear Co(II) complexes with a quasi-identical local C3v symmetry using a cryptand organic ligand are reported. The mononuclear complex behaves as a single molecule magnet (SMM). A relatively weak antiferromagnetic exchange coupling (J) of the same order of magnitude as the local magnetic anisotropy (D) is determined experimentally and theoretically for the binuclear complex. The weak magnitude of the antiferromagnetic exchange coupling, analyzed using a combination of broken-symmetry density functional theory and wave function based calculations, is ascribed to the weak overlap between the singly occupied orbitals because of the local C3v symmetry of the Co(II) ions; the organic ligand was found to contribute to the exchange coupling as the azido bridge that directly links the Co(II) ions. Calculation of the energy and wave functions of the spin states for the binuclear complex, in the general case, allows analysis of the effect of the |J/D| ratio on the magnetic behavior of the binuclear complex and prediction of the optimum range of values for the complex to behave as two weakly interacting SMMs.

  16. Synthesis, structures and photocatalytic properties of two new Co(II) coordination polymers based on 5-(benzyloxy)isophthalate ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xia; Li, Jing; Li, Ming-Kai; Fei, Zhou

    2014-02-01

    Two new Co(II) coordination polymer, namely [Co2(L)2(H2O)]n (1) and [Co(L)(phen)(H2O)]n·xH2O (2) (H2L = 5-(benzyloxy)isophthalic acid, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) have been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and single crystal X-ray analysis. The molecular structure of 1 contains two Co(II) ions, two L2- ligands and one coordinated water molecule, which further extends into a complicated 3D framework with the tails of L2- ligands filling in the hexagonal channels, and the molecular structure of 2 contains one Co(II) ions, one L2- ligands, one phen ligands, one coordinated water molecule and half of the water molecule of crystallization, which further extends into a 1D chain structure. In addition, photocatalytic investigation on compounds 1 and 2 reveals that they are active catalyst for degradation of methyl blue.

  17. Tetra-μ3-iodido-tetra­kis­{[ethyl 2-(1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)acetate-κN 3]copper(I)}

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lili; Zhang, Zhengyi

    2012-01-01

    The complex mol­ecule of the tetra­nuclear cubane-type title compound, [Cu4I4(C11H12N2O2)4], has crystallographically imposed fourfold inversion symmetry. The CuI ions are coordinated in a distorted tetra­hedral geometry by an N atom of a benzimidazole ring system and three μ3-iodide ions, forming a Cu4I4 core. In the crystal, complex mol­ecules are connected into a three-dimensional network by C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving H and O atoms of adjacent eth­oxy­carbonyl groups. PMID:22719345

  18. The R package 'icosa' for coarse resolution global triangular and penta-hexagonal gridding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocsis, Adam T.

    2017-04-01

    With the development of the internet and the computational power of personal computers, open source programming environments have become indispensable for science in the past decade. This includes the increase of the GIS capacity of the free R environment, which was originally developed for statistical analyses. The flexibility of R made it a preferred programming tool in a multitude of disciplines from the area of the biological and geological sciences. Many of these subdisciplines operate with incidence (occurrence) data that are in a large number of cases to be grained before further analyses can be conducted. This graining is executed mostly by gridding data to cells of a Gaussian grid of various resolutions to increase the density of data in a single unit of the analyses. This method has obvious shortcomings despite the ease of its application: well-known systematic biases are induced to cell sizes and shapes that can interfere with the results of statistical procedures, especially if the number of incidence points influences the metrics in question. The 'icosa' package employs a common method to overcome this obstacle by implementing grids with roughly equal cell sizes and shapes that are based on tessellated icosahedra. These grid objects are essentially polyhedra with xyz Cartesian vertex data that are linked to tables of faces and edges. At its current developmental stage, the package uses a single method of tessellation which balances grid cell size and shape distortions, but its structure allows the implementation of various other types of tessellation algorithms. The resolution of the grids can be set by the number of breakpoints inserted into a segment forming an edge of the original icosahedron. Both the triangular and their inverted penta-hexagonal grids are available for creation with the package. The package also incorporates functions to look up coordinates in the grid very effectively and data containers to link data to the grid structure. The

  19. Penta- and hexa-coordinate ferric hemoglobins display distinct pH titration profiles measured by Soret peak shifts.

    PubMed

    Uppal, Sheetal; Kumar, Amit; Shandilya, Manish; Mukhi, Nitika; Singh, Amit Kumar; Kateriya, Suneel; Kaur, Jagreet; Kundu, Suman

    2016-10-01

    Hemoglobins with diverse characteristics have been identified in all kingdoms of life. Their ubiquitous presence indicates that these proteins play important roles in physiology, though function for all hemoglobins are not yet established with certainty. Their physiological role may depend on their ability to bind ligands, which in turn is dictated by their heme chemistry. However, we have an incomplete understanding of the mechanism of ligand binding for these newly discovered hemoglobins and the measurement of their kinetic parameters depend on their coordination at the heme iron. To gain insights into their functional role, it is important to categorize the new hemoglobins into either penta- or hexa-coordinated varieties. We demonstrate that simple pH titration and absorbance measurements can determine the coordination state of heme iron atom in ferric hemoglobins, thus providing unambiguous information about the classification of new globins. This method is rapid, sensitive and requires low concentration of protein. Penta- and hexa-coordinate hemoglobins displayed distinct pH titration profiles as observed in a variety of hemoglobins. The pentacoordinate distal histidine mutant proteins of hexacoordinate hemoglobins and ligand-bound hexacoordinate forms of pentacoordinate hemoglobins reverse the pH titration profiles, thus validating the sensitivity of this spectroscopic technique.

  20. Functional spliceosomal A complexes can be assembled in vitro in the absence of a penta-snRNP

    PubMed Central

    Behzadnia, Nastaran; Hartmuth, Klaus; Will, Cindy L.; Lührmann, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    Two different models currently exist for the assembly pathway of the spliceosome, namely, the traditional model, in which spliceosomal snRNPs associate in a stepwise, ordered manner with the pre-mRNA, and the holospliceosome model, in which all spliceosomal snRNPs preassemble into a penta-snRNP complex. Here we have tested whether the spliceosomal A complex, which contains solely U1 and U2 snRNPs bound to pre-mRNA, is a functional, bona fide assembly intermediate. Significantly, A complexes affinity-purified from nuclear extract depleted of U4/U6 snRNPs (and thus unable to form a penta-snRNP) supported pre-mRNA splicing in nuclear extract depleted of U2 snRNPs, whereas naked pre-mRNA did not. Mixing experiments with purified A complexes and naked pre-mRNA additionally confirmed that under these conditions, A complexes do not form de novo. Thus, our studies demonstrate that holospliceosome formation is not a prerequisite for generating catalytically active spliceosomes and that, at least in vitro, the U1 and U2 snRNPs can functionally associate with the pre-mRNA, prior to and independent of the tri-snRNP. The ability to isolate functional spliceosomal A complexes paves the way to study in detail subsequent spliceosome assembly steps using purified components. PMID:16880538

  1. Penta-Twinned Copper Nanorods: Facile Synthesis via Seed-Mediated Growth and Their Tunable Plasmonic Properties

    DOE PAGES

    Luo, Ming; Ruditskiy, Aleksey; Peng, Hsin-Chieh; ...

    2016-01-07

    When seed-mediated growth is used as a versatile approach to the synthesis of penta-twinned Cu nanorods with uniform diameters and controllable aspect ratios is reported. The success of this approach relies on our recent synthesis of uniform Pd decahedra, with sizes in the range of 6–20 nm. The Pd decahedral seeds can direct the heterogeneous nucleation and growth of Cu along the fivefold axis to produce nanorods with uniform diameters defined by the lateral dimension of the original seeds. Due to a large mismatch in the lattice constants between Cu and Pd (7.1%), the deposited Cu is forced to growmore » along one side of the Pd decahedral seed, generating a nanorod with an asymmetric distribution of Cu, with the Pd seed situated at one of the two ends. According to extinction spectra, the as-obtained Cu nanorods can be stored in water under the ambient conditions for at least six months without noticeable degradation. The resulting stability allows us to systematically investigate the size-dependent surface plasmon resonance properties of the penta-twinned Cu nanorods. With the nanorod transverse modes positioned at 560 nm, the longitudinal modes can be readily tuned from the visible to the near-infrared region by controlling the aspect ratio.« less

  2. Penta-Twinned Copper Nanorods: Facile Synthesis via Seed-Mediated Growth and Their Tunable Plasmonic Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Ming; Ruditskiy, Aleksey; Peng, Hsin-Chieh; Tao, Jing; Figueroa-Cosme, Legna; He, Zhike; Xia, Younan

    2016-01-07

    When seed-mediated growth is used as a versatile approach to the synthesis of penta-twinned Cu nanorods with uniform diameters and controllable aspect ratios is reported. The success of this approach relies on our recent synthesis of uniform Pd decahedra, with sizes in the range of 6–20 nm. The Pd decahedral seeds can direct the heterogeneous nucleation and growth of Cu along the fivefold axis to produce nanorods with uniform diameters defined by the lateral dimension of the original seeds. Due to a large mismatch in the lattice constants between Cu and Pd (7.1%), the deposited Cu is forced to grow along one side of the Pd decahedral seed, generating a nanorod with an asymmetric distribution of Cu, with the Pd seed situated at one of the two ends. According to extinction spectra, the as-obtained Cu nanorods can be stored in water under the ambient conditions for at least six months without noticeable degradation. The resulting stability allows us to systematically investigate the size-dependent surface plasmon resonance properties of the penta-twinned Cu nanorods. With the nanorod transverse modes positioned at 560 nm, the longitudinal modes can be readily tuned from the visible to the near-infrared region by controlling the aspect ratio.

  3. Field-Induced Co(II) Single-Ion Magnets with mer-Directing Ligands but Ambiguous Coordination Geometry.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yan; Mereacre, Valeriu; Anson, Christopher E; Zhang, Yiquan; Bodenstein, Tilmann; Fink, Karin; Powell, Annie K

    2017-06-05

    Three air-stable Co(II) mononuclear complexes with different aromatic substituents have been prepared and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The mononuclear complexes [Co(H2L1)2]·2THF (1), [Co(HL2)2] (2), and [Co(H2L3)2]·CH2Cl2 (3) (where H3L1, H2L2, and H3L3 represent 3-hydroxy-naphthalene-2-carboxylic acid (6-hydroxymethyl-pyridin-2-ylmethylene) hydrazide, nicotinic acid (6-hydroxymethyl-pyridin-2-ylmethylene) hydrazide, and 2-hydroxy-benzoic acid (6-hydroxymethyl-pyridin-2-ylmethylene) hydrazide, respectively) feature a distorted mer octahedral coordination geometry. Detailed magnetic studies of 1-3 have been conducted using direct and alternating current magnetic susceptibility data. Field-induced slow magnetic relaxation was observed for these three complexes. There are few examples of such behavior in (distorted) octahedral coordination geometry (OC) Co(II) mononuclear complexes with uniaxial anisotropy. Analysis of the six-coordinate Co(II) mononuclear single-ion magnets (SIMs) in the literature using the SHAPE program revealed that they all show what is best described as distorted trigonal prismatic (TRP) coordination geometry, and in general, these show negative D zero-field splitting (ZFS) values. On the other hand, all the Co(II) mononuclear complexes displaying what is best approximated as distorted octahedral (OC) coordination geometry show positive D values. In the new Co(II) mononuclear complexes we describe here, there is an ambiguity, since the rigid tridentate ligands confer what is best described for an octahedral complex as a mer coordination geometry, but the actual shape of the first coordination sphere is between octahedral and trigonal prismatic. The negative D values observed experimentally and supported by high-level electronic structure calculations are thus in line with a trigonal prismatic geometry. However, a consideration of the rhombicity as indicated by the E value of the ZFS in conjunction with the

  4. Heptanuclear Co(II)5Co(III)2 Cluster as Efficient Water Oxidation Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jia-Heng; Guo, Ling-Yu; Su, Hai-Feng; Gao, Xiang; Wu, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Wen-Guang; Tung, Chen-Ho; Sun, Di

    2017-02-06

    Inspired by the transition-metal-oxo cubical Mn4CaO5 in photosystem II, we herein report a disc-like heptanuclear mixed-valent cobalt cluster, [Co(II)5Co(III)2(mdea)4(N3)2(CH3CN)6(OH)2(H2O)2·4ClO4] (1, H2mdea = N-methyldiethanolamine), for photocatalytic oxygen evolution. The topology of the Co7 core resembles a small piece of cobaltate protected by terminal H2O, N3(-), CH3CN, and multidentate N-methyldiethanolamine at the periphery. Under the optimal photocatalytic conditions, 1 exhibits water oxidation activity with a turnover number (TON) of 210 and a turnover frequency (TOFinitial) of 0.23 s(-1). Importantly, electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was used to not only identify the possible main active species in the water oxidation reaction but also monitor the evolutions of oxidation states of cobalt during the photocatalytic reactions. These results shed light on the design concept of new water oxidation catalysts and mechanism-related issues such as the key active intermediate and oxidation state evolution in the oxygen evolution process. The magnetic properties of 1 were also discussed in detail.

  5. Magnetic properties of weakly exchange-coupled high spin Co(II) ions in pseudooctahedral coordination evaluated by single crystal X-band EPR spectroscopy and magnetic measurements.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Nicolás I; Winkler, Elín; Peña, Octavio; Passeggi, Mario C G; Rizzi, Alberto C; Brondino, Carlos D

    2014-03-03

    We report single-crystal X-band EPR and magnetic measurements of the coordination polymer catena-(trans-(μ2-fumarato)tetraaquacobalt(II)), 1, and the Co(II)-doped Zn(II) analogue, 2, in different Zn:Co ratios. 1 presents two magnetically inequivalent high spin S = 3/2 Co(II) ions per unit cell, named A and B, in a distorted octahedral environment coordinated to four water oxygen atoms and trans coordinated to two carboxylic oxygen atoms from the fumarate anions, in which the Co(II) ions are linked by hydrogen bonds and fumarate molecules. Magnetic susceptibility and magnetization measurements of 1 indicate weak antiferromagnetic exchange interactions between the S = 3/2 spins of the Co(II) ions in the crystal lattice. Oriented single crystal EPR experiments of 1 and 2 were used to evaluate the molecular g-tensor and the different exchange coupling constants between the Co(II) ions, assuming an effective spin S′= 1/2. Unexpectedly, the eigenvectors of the molecular g-tensor were not lying along any preferential bond direction, indicating that, in high spin Co(II) ions in roughly octahedral geometry with approximately axial EPR signals, the presence of molecular pseudo axes in the metal site does not determine preferential directions for the molecular g-tensor. The EPR experiment and magnetic measurements, together with a theoretical analysis relating the coupling constants obtained from both techniques, allowed us to evaluate selectively the exchange coupling constant associated with hydrogen bonds that connect magnetically inequivalent Co(II) ions (|JAB(1/2)| = 0.055(2) cm(–1)) and the exchange coupling constant associated with a fumarate bridge connecting equivalent Co(II) ions (|JAA(1/2)| ≈ 0.25 (1) cm(–1)), in good agreement with the average J(3/2) value determined from magnetic measurements.

  6. An evaluation of the suitability of COI and COII gene variation for reconstructing the phylogeny of, and identifying cryptic species in, anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Gang; Li, Chunxiao; Zheng, Wei; Song, Fenglin; Guo, Xiaoxia; Wu, Zhonghua; Luo, Peng; Yang, Yongyao; He, Lei; Zhao, Tongyan

    2017-09-01

    We assessed the practicality and effectiveness of using variation in the mitochondrial COI and COII genes to discriminate species and reconstruct the phylogeny of anophelene mosquitoes. Phylogenetic relationships among the subfamily Anophelinae were inferred from portions of the mitochondrial COI (92 species) and COII genes (108 species). Phylogenetic trees were reconstructed on the basis of parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. The suitability of COI and COII gene variation for identifying cryptic species was compared by comparing the sequence divergence within species groups and complexes. The results show that the COI gene was more useful for identifying sibling and cryptic species, but that phylogenetic relationships reconstructed using the COII gene were more similar to those based on morphological data. We conclude that: (1) there is a significant molecular divergence among An. sinensis; (2) the COI and COII are valid genetic markers for resolving taxonomic relationships among anopheline mosquitoes and the resultant phylogeny raises some questions about the taxonomic status of anopheline species groups and complexes; (3) the genus Anopheles is not demonstrably monophyletic with regard to the genus Bironella; (4) the subgenera Kerteszia and Nyssorhynchus are monophyletic; (5) below the group-level, COI data support the existence of monophyletic taxa within the Anopheles funestus, Anopheles maculipennis and Anopheles strode and Anopheles barbirostris subgroups, and within the Anopheles nuneztovari complex, whereas COII data support the monophyletic taxa within the Anopheles minimus and Anopheles oswaldoi subgroups, and Anopheles hyrcanus group. The monophyletic taxa within the Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles albitarsis complexes are supported by both COI and COII data.

  7. Metal complexes of cyclic tetra-azatetra-acetic acids.

    PubMed

    Delgado, R; da Silva, J J

    1982-10-01

    The cyclic tetra-aza complexones cDOTA ([12]ane N(4).4ac), cTRITA ([13]ane N(4).4ac) and cTETA ([14]ane N(4).4ac) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, titration, melting-point determination and NMR (and infrared) spectroscopy. The ionization constants and the stability constants of the MH(2)L, MHL and ML complexes formed with alkali, alkaline-earth and some transition metals were determined at 25.0 +/- 0.1 degrees and ionic strength 0.10M [KNO(3) and (CH(3))(4)NNO(3)]. It was confirmed that cDOTA forms the most stable Ca(2+) and Sr(2+) complexes but the reported inversion of the order of stability of the complexes of these two ions with cTRITA was not confirmed. Also, the values of the stability constants determined in this work differ substantially from those previously reported for ML species. cDOTA is an interesting alternative to classical non-cyclic complex-ones for the complexometric determination of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) but neither this ligand nor the other two offer advantages over EDTA or DCTA for the complexometric titration of transition metals.

  8. Regressive evolution in the Mexican cave tetra, Astyanax mexicanus.

    PubMed

    Protas, Meredith; Conrad, Melissa; Gross, Joshua B; Tabin, Clifford; Borowsky, Richard

    2007-03-06

    The evolutionary forces driving the reduction of eyes and pigmentation in cave-adapted animals are unknown; Darwin famously questioned the role of natural selection in eye loss in cave fishes: "As it is difficult to imagine that eyes, although useless, could be in any way injurious to animals living in darkness, I attribute their loss wholly to disuse"[1]. We studied the genetics of eye and pigmentation regression in the Mexican cave tetra, Astyanax mexicanus, by mapping and quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis. We also mapped QTL for the putatively constructive traits of jaw size, tooth number, and numbers of taste buds. The data suggest that eyes and pigmentation regressed through different mechanisms. Cave alleles at every eye or lens QTL we detected caused size reductions, consistent with evolution by natural selection but not with drift. QTL polarities for melanophore number were mixed, however, consistent with genetic drift. Arguments against a role for selection in the regression of cave-fish eyes cited the insignificant cost of their development [2, 3], but we argue that the energetic cost of their maintenance is sufficiently high for eyes to be detrimental in the cave environment. Regression can be caused either by selection or drift.

  9. Numerical generation of hyperspherical harmonics for tetra-atomic systems.

    PubMed

    Lepetit, Bruno; Wang, Desheng; Kuppermann, Aron

    2006-10-07

    A numerical generation method of hyperspherical harmonics for tetra-atomic systems, in terms of row-orthonormal hyperspherical coordinates-a hyper-radius and eight angles-is presented. The nine-dimensional coordinate space is split into three three-dimensional spaces, the physical rotation, kinematic rotation, and kinematic invariant spaces. The eight-angle principal-axes-of-inertia hyperspherical harmonics are expanded in Wigner rotation matrices for the physical and kinematic rotation angles. The remaining two-angle harmonics defined in kinematic invariant space are expanded in a basis of trigonometric functions, and the diagonalization of the kinetic energy operator in this basis provides highly accurate harmonics. This trigonometric basis is chosen to provide a mathematically exact and finite expansion for the harmonics. Individually, each basis function does not satisfy appropriate boundary conditions at the poles of the kinetic energy operator; however, the numerically generated linear combination of these functions which constitutes the harmonic does. The size of this basis is minimized using the symmetries of the system, in particular, internal symmetries, involving different sets of coordinates in nine-dimensional space corresponding to the same physical configuration.

  10. Poly[diammonium [(μ4-butane-1,2,3,4-tetra­carboxyl­ato)zincate] tetra­hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Shouwen; Huang, Yanfei; Wei, Shuaishuai; Zhou, Yong; Zhou, Yingping

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, {(NH4)2[Zn(C8H6O8)]·4H2O}n, the asymmetric unit contains one ammonium cation, half of a butane-1,2,3,4-tetra­carboxyl­ate anion, one Zn2+ cation and two water mol­ecules. The butane-1,2,3,4-tetra­carboxyl­ate ligand is located about an inversion centre at the mid-point of the central C—C bond. The Zn2+ cation is situated on a twofold rotation axis and is surrounded by four O atoms from four symmetry-related butane-1,2,3,4-tetra­carboxyl­ate anions in a distorted tetra­hedral environment. In turn, each anion coordinates to four Zn2+ cations. The bridging mode of the anions leads to a three-dimensional framework structure with channels extending along [110] and [010] in which the ammonium cations and the water mol­ecules are located. N—H⋯O and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonding between the cations and water mol­ecules and the uncoordinating O atoms of the carboxyl­ate groups consolidates the crystal packing. PMID:23125594

  11. Bis(6-meth-oxy-1-methyl-2,3,4,9-tetra-hydro-1H-β-carbolin-2-ium) tetra-chloridozincate(II) dihydrate.

    PubMed

    Goh, Teik Beng; Mordi, Mohd Nizam; Mansor, Sharif Mahsufi; Rosli, Mohd Mustaqim; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2012-04-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, (C(13)H(17)N(2)O)(2)[ZnCl(4)]·2H(2)O, contains two tetra-hydro-harmine cations, one tetra-chloro-zincate(II) anion and two water mol-ecules. In the cations, the two 1H-indole ring systems are essentially planar, with maximum deviations of 0.016 (2) and 0.018 (2) Å, and both tetra-hydro-pyridinium rings show a half-chair conformation. The Zn(II) complex anion has a distorted tetra-hedral geometry. In the crystal, inter-molecular N-H⋯O, N-H⋯Cl, O-H⋯O, O-H⋯Cl and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the components into a three-dimensional network. A π-π inter-action with a centroid-centroid distance of 3.542 (14) Å is also observed.

  12. Synthesis, characterization and biomolecule-binding properties of novel tetra-platinum(II)-thiopyridylporphyrins.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Leandro M O; Iglesias, Bernardo A; Pereira, Patrícia M R; Girão, Henrique; Fernandes, Rosa; Neves, Maria G P M S; Cavaleiro, José A S; Tomé, João P C

    2015-01-14

    The new complexes tetra-platinum(II)-thiopyridylporphyrin 3 and tetra-platinum(II)-thiopyridylporphyrinato Zn(II) 4 were obtained by coordination of the peripheral thiopyridyl units of the free-base 5,10,15,20-tetrakis[2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-4-(4-pyridylsulfanyl)phenyl]porphyrin 1 or their corresponding zinc complex 2, respectively, with four chloro(2,2'-bipyridine)platinum(II) [Pt(bpy)Cl](+) units. Both compounds were characterized by several spectroscopic techniques demonstrating a particular behaviour in the emission spectra due to the absence or presence of zinc. The tetra-platinum(II)-thiopyridylporphyrins exhibited an increase in the emission quantum yield when compared with the starting thiopyridylporphyrins 1 and 2. Spectroscopic studies of both platinum derivatives reveal their ability to interact unequivocally with DNA from calf thymus and DNA of low molecular weight from salmon sperms, and also with the most abundant protein in human blood plasma, human serum albumin (HSA). Herein, both tetra-platinum(II)-thiopyridylporphyrins 3 and 4 exhibit electrostatic surface binding with the negative phosphate groups of DNA. Similar to cationic-anionic binding with DNA, tetra-platinum(II)-thiopyridylporphyrinato zinc(II) demonstrates a particular binding intercalation mode with DNA. Photophysical studies demonstrated that both porphyrins are photostable and able to generate singlet oxygen ((1)O2) after light irradiation. Exposure of pMT123 plasmid DNA to tetra-platinum(II)-thiopyridylporphyrins and irradiation with light lead to single-strand breakage as determined by the conversion of the supercoiled form of the plasmid (form I) into the nicked circular form (form II). The tetra-platinum(II)-thiopyridylporphyrinato Zn(II) demonstrates a particular intercalation binding mode with DNA and an ability to cleave DNA after photo-excitation.

  13. Crystal structure of di-aqua-(μ2-tri-ethyl-ene-tetra-minehexa-acetato)-dizinc tetra-hydrate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Lu, Li-Ping

    2015-03-01

    The reaction of ZnO and tri-ethyl-ene-tetra-minehexaacetic acid (H6TTHA) in aqueous solution after refluxing yields the binuclear title compound, [Zn2(C18H26N4O12)(H2O)2]·4H2O. There is a centre of symmetry in the [Zn2(H2TTHA)(H2O)2] mol-ecule in the crystalline state. Both Zn(II) ions are octahedrally surrounded and bound by an N2O3 donor set from the H2TTHA(4-) anion and a water mol-ecule; the N atoms are cis and the water mol-ecule is trans to an N atom. The Zn⋯Zn separation is 7.562 (1) Å. An intra-molecular C-H⋯O inter-action is observed and both carboxyl-ate H atoms are disordered over two adjacent sites. In the crystal, the components are linked by O-H⋯O and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds generating a three-dimensonal network.

  14. Crystal structure of 3-(3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-phen-yl)-1,2,3,4-tetra-hydro-cyclo-penta[b]indole-2-carb-oxy-lic acid.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Daniara; Simoni, Deborah de Alencar; Rodrigues, Manoel T; Santos, Marilia S; Coelho, Fernando

    2015-06-01

    In the title compound, C21H21NO5, obtained from a Morita-Baylis-Hillman adduct, the hydrogenated five-membered ring adopts a shallow envelope conformation, with the C atom bearing the carb-oxy-lic acid substituent deviating by 0.237 (1) Å from the mean plane of the other four atoms (r.m.s. deviation = 0.007 Å). The dihedral angle between the fused ring system (all atoms; r.m.s. deviation = 0.057 Å) and the pendant trimeth-oxy benzene ring is 66.65 (3)°. The C atoms of the meta-meth-oxy groups lie close to the plane of the benzene ring [deviations = 0.052 (1) and -0.083 (1) Å], whereas the C atom of the para-meth-oxy group is significantly displaced [deviation = -1.289 (1) Å]. In the crystal, carb-oxy-lic acid inversion dimers generate R 2 (2)(8) loops. The dimers are connected by N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming [011] chains. A C-H⋯O inter-action is also observed.

  15. 4-Phenyl-9,12,15-trioxa-1,5,6,18-tetra­azatetra­cyclo­[16.6.1.02,6.019,24]penta­conta-2,4,19,21,23-pentaen-25-one

    PubMed Central

    Ghomsi, Joseph Nathan; Ahabchane, Noureddine Hamou; Bouhfid, Rachid; Essassi, El Mokhtar; Ng, Seik Weng

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, C24H26N4O4, is a diaza-crown ether encompassing linked phenylpyrazolyl and benzimidazole units that contribute five atoms to the 16-atom ring. The two planar phenylpyrazolyl and benzimidazole units are aligned at an angle of 66.4 (1)°. The carbonyl O atom of the benzimidazole unit is directed away from the middle of the ring. PMID:21577943

  16. Socio-demographic determinants of timely adherence to BCG, Penta3, measles, and complete vaccination schedule in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Schoeps, A; Ouédraogo, N; Kagoné, M; Sié, A; Müller, O; Becher, H

    2013-12-17

    To identify the determinants of timely vaccination among young children in the North-West of Burkina Faso. This study included 1665 children between 12 and 23 months of age from the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System, born between September 2006 and December 2008. The effect of socio-demographic variables on timely adherence to the complete vaccination schedule was studied in multivariable ordinal logistic regression with 3 distinct endpoints: (i) complete timely adherence, (ii) failure, and (iii) missing vaccination. Three secondary endpoints were timely vaccination with BCG, Penta3, and measles, which were studied with standard multivariable logistic regression. Mothers' education, socio-economic status, season of birth, and area of residence were significantly associated with failure of timely adherence to the complete vaccination schedule. Year of birth, ethnicity, and the number of siblings was significantly related to timely vaccination with Penta3 but not with BCG or measles vaccination. Children living in rural areas were more likely to fail timely vaccination with BCG than urban children (OR=1.79, 95%CI=1.24-2.58 (proximity to health facility), OR=3.02, 95%CI=2.18-4.19 (long distance to health facility)). In contrast, when looking at Penta3 and measles vaccination, children living in rural areas were far less likely to have failed timely vaccinations than urban children. Mother's education positively influenced timely adherence to the vaccination schedule (OR=1.42, 95%CI 1.06-1.89). There was no effect of household size or the age of the mother. Additional health facilities and encouragement of women to give birth in these facilities could improve timely vaccination with BCG. Rural children had an advantage over the urban children in timely vaccination, which is probably attributable to outreach vaccination teams amongst other factors. As urban children rely on their mothers' own initiative to get vaccinated, urban mothers should be

  17. Acute Exposure to Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) has effects on the electroencephalogram and electrocardiogram, consistent with vagal nerve stimulation.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Adrian P; Fouquet, Nathalie C; Seri, Stefano; Hawken, Malcolm B; Heard, Andrew; Neasham, David; Little, Mark P; Elliott, Paul

    2016-10-01

    Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) is a telecommunications system widely used by police and emergency services around the world. The Stewart Report on mobile telephony and health raised questions about possible health effects associated with TETRA signals. This study investigates possible effects of TETRA signals on the electroencephalogram and electrocardiogram in human volunteers. Blinded randomized provocation study with a standardized TETRA signal or sham exposure. In the first of two experiments, police officers had a TETRA set placed first against the left temple and then the upper-left quadrant of the chest and the electroencephalogram was recorded during rest and active cognitive processing. In the second experiment, volunteers were subject to chest exposure of TETRA whilst their electroencephalogram and heart rate variability derived from the electrocardiogram were recorded. In the first experiment, we found that exposure to TETRA had consistent neurophysiological effects on the electroencephalogram, but only during chest exposure, in a pattern suggestive of vagal nerve stimulation. In the second experiment, we observed changes in heart rate variability during exposure to TETRA but the electroencephalogram effects were not replicated. Observed effects of exposure to TETRA signals on the electroencephalogram (first experiment) and electrocardiogram are consistent with vagal nerve stimulation in the chest by TETRA. However given the small effect on heart rate variability and the lack of consistency on the electroencephalogram, it seems unlikely that this will have a significant impact on health. Long-term monitoring of the health of the police force in relation to TETRA use is on-going. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The role of citrate and phthalate during Co(II) coprecipitation with calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young J.; Reeder, Richard J.

    2006-05-01

    The influence of citrate and phthalate on Co coprecipitation with calcite was investigated using a combination of batch experiments, Fourier-transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) over a wide range of precipitation rates. Steady-state growth conditions (at constant [Ca], [Co], DIC, and pH) were generally achieved within 3-5 h, after which Co(II) partitioning into calcite was evaluated. Only minor differences are observed in the partition coefficient ( Kd) trends with and without citrate and phthalate as a function of calcite precipitation rate except at very low rates. Slight inhibition of calcite growth is observed in the presence of citrate or phthalate, which can be attributed to adsorption at surface sites. TGA curves for samples coprecipitated with citrate show a significant mass loss between 375 and 550 °C, whereas the weight-loss curves for the Co-phthalate coprecipitates are indistinguishable from those of the organic-free Co coprecipitates. This indicates that citrate is incorporated into calcite during calcite crystallization, whereas phthalate is excluded. FT-IR spectra for the sample with citrate show a broad absorption in the range 3700-3100 cm -1, which is attributable to water molecules coordinated to citrate coprecipitated with calcite. The preferential incorporation of citrate over phthalate likely reflects differences in both aqueous speciation and conformation of the carboxylate groups. This new finding may provide new insight to the factors that control the behavior of macromolecules and their incorporation into the structure of calcium carbonate during biomineralization.

  19. The topical penta-peptide Gly-Pro-Ile-Gly-Ser increases the proportion of thick hair in Japanese men with androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Iwabuchi, Tokuro; Takeda, Shunsuke; Yamanishi, Haruyo; Ideta, Ritsuro; Ehama, Ritsuko; Tsuruda, Akinori; Shibata, Hideaki; Ito, Tomoko; Komatsu, Nobuyuki; Terai, Keiko; Oka, Syuichi

    2016-06-01

    A penta-peptide, Gly-Pro-Ile-Gly-Ser (GPIGS), promotes proliferation of mouse hair keratinocytes and accelerates hair growth in mice. This study focused on the ability of the peptide to promote human hair growth. We used a human hair keratinocyte proliferation assay and organ cultures of human hair follicle as in vitro systems. The lotions with and without the penta-peptide were administered to 22 Japanese men with androgenetic alopecia (AGA) for 4 months in a double-blind and randomized clinical study. The penta-peptide significantly stimulated the proliferation of human hair keratinocytes at a concentration of 2.3 μm (P < 0.01), and 5.0 μm of this peptide had a marked effect on hair shaft elongation in the organ culture (P < 0.05). The change in the proportion of thick hair (≥60 μm) compared to baseline in patients that received the peptide was significantly higher than in the placebo (P = 0.006). The change in the proportion of vellus hair (<40 μm) was also significantly lower in the peptide group than in the placebo (P = 0.029). The penta-peptide also significantly improved the appearance of baldness (P = 0.020) when blinded reviewers graded photographs of the participants according to a standardized baldness scale. No adverse dermatological effects due to treatment were noted during this clinical study. This penta-peptide promotes proliferation of human hair keratinocytes and hair shaft elongation of human hair follicles, in vitro. This peptide increases thick hair ratio in vivo, and this compound is useful for the improvement of AGA. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Tetra-triethyleneoxysulfonyl substituted zinc phthalocyanine for photodynamic cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Kuzyniak, Weronika; Ermilov, Eugeny A; Atilla, Devrim; Gürek, Ayşe Gül; Nitzsche, Bianca; Derkow, Katja; Hoffmann, Björn; Steinemann, Gustav; Ahsen, Vefa; Höpfner, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has emerged as an effective and minimally invasive treatment option for several diseases, including some forms of cancer. However, several drawbacks of the approved photosensitizers (PS), such as insufficient light absorption at therapeutically relevant wavelengths hampered the clinical effectiveness of PDT. Phthalocyanines (Pc) are interesting PS-candidates with a strong light absorption in the favourable red spectral region and a high quantum yield of cancer cell destroying singlet oxygen generation. Here, we evaluated the suitability of tetra-triethyleneoxysulfonyl substituted zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) as novel PS for PDT. ZnPc-induced phototoxicity, induction of apoptosis as well as cell cycle arresting effects was studied in the human gastrointestinal cancer cell lines of different origin. Photoactivation of ZnPc-pretreated (1-10 μM) cancer cells was achieved by illumination with a broad band white light source (400-700 nm) at a power density of 10 J/cm(2). Photoactivation of ZnPc-loaded cells revealed strong phototoxic effects, leading to a dose-dependent decrease of cancer cell proliferation of up to almost 100%, the induction of apoptosis and a G1-phase arrest of the cell cycle, which was associated with decrease in cyclin D1 expression. By contrast, ZnPc-treatment without illumination did not induce any cytotoxicity, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest or decreased cell growth. Antiangiogenic effects of ZnPc-PDT were investigated in vivo by performing CAM assays, which revealed a marked degradation of blood vessels and the capillary plexus of the chorioallantoic membrane of fertilized chicken eggs. Based on our data we think that ZnPc may be a promising novel photosensitizer for innovative PDT.

  1. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy reveals highly efficient cytosolic delivery of certain penta-arg proteins and stapled peptides.

    PubMed

    LaRochelle, Jonathan R; Cobb, Garrett B; Steinauer, Angela; Rhoades, Elizabeth; Schepartz, Alanna

    2015-02-25

    We used fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) to accurately and precisely determine the relative efficiencies with which three families of "cell-penetrating peptides" traffic to the cytosol of mammalian cells. We find that certain molecules containing a "penta-arg" motif reach the cytosol, intact, with efficiencies greater than 50%. This value is at least 10-fold higher than that observed for the widely studied cationic sequence derived from HIV Tat or polyarginine Arg8, and equals that of hydrocarbon-stapled peptides that are active in cells and animals. Moreover, we show that the efficiency with which stapled peptides reach the cytosol, as determined by FCS, correlates directly with their efficacy in cell-based assays. We expect that these findings and the associated technology will aid the design of peptides, proteins, and peptide mimetics that predictably and efficiently reach the interior of mammalian cells.

  2. Public health assessment for Penta Wood Products Incorporated, Siren, Burnett County, Wisconsin, Region 5. Cerclis No. WID006176945. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-02

    Penta Wood Products Superfund National Priorities List (NPL) site is a part of the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Public Health Assesment Enhancement Initiative. This document indicates what actions the DOH and ATSDR have taken to address the elements required by Section 104(I)(6)(A) of the comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) as amended (42 U.S.C. 9604(I)(6)(A)). Those elements are: (1) Nature and extent of contamination; (2) Potential pathways of human exposure; (3) Demographics (size and susceptibility of nearby populations); (4) Health hazards of the site; and (5) Comparison of morbidity and mortality data. In addition, this document indicates how the DOH and ATSDR provided earlier, specifically targeted evaluations. DOH`s future plans at this site are also presented in this document.

  3. Crystal structure of penta­sodium hydrogen dicitrate from synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data and DFT comparison

    PubMed Central

    Kaduk, James A.

    2017-01-01

    The crystal structure of penta­sodium hydrogen dicitrate, Na5H(C6H5O7)2, has been solved and refined using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data, and optimized using density functional techniques. Each of the two independent citrate anions is joined into a dimer by very strong centrosymmetric O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, with O⋯O distances of 2.419 and 2.409 Å. Four octa­hedrally coordinated Na+ ions share edges to form open layers parallel to the ab plane. A fifth Na+ ion in trigonal–bipyramidal coordination shares faces with NaO6 octahedra on both sides of these layers. PMID:28217360

  4. Redetermination of cyclo-tetra­kis­(μ-5,10,15,20-tetra-4-pyridyl­porphyrinato)tetra­zinc(II) dimethyl­formamide octa­solvate trihydrate at 100 K

    PubMed Central

    Seidel, Rüdiger W.; Graf, Jürgen; Goddard, Richard; Oppel, Iris M.

    2011-01-01

    The structure of the title compound, [Zn4(C40H24N8)4]·8C3H7NO·3H2O, has been redetermined at 100 K. The redetermination is of significantly higher precision and gives further insight into the disorder of pyridyl groups and solvent mol­ecules. The mol­ecules of (5,10,15,20-tetra-4-pyridyl­porphyrinato)zinc(II) (ZnTPyP) form homomolecular cyclic tetra­mers by coordination of a peripheral pyridyl group to the central Zn atom of an adjacent symmetry-related mol­ecule. The tetra­mer so formed exhibits mol­ecular S 4 symmetry and is located about a crystallographic fourfold rotoinversion axis. Severely disordered dimethyl­formamide and water mol­ecules are present in the crystal, the contributions of which were omitted from refinement. Inter­molecular C—H⋯N hydrogen bonding is observed. PMID:21522892

  5. Cytotoxicity of anthraquinones from the roots of Pentas schimperi towards multi-factorial drug-resistant cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kuete, Victor; Donfack, Arno R Nanfack; Mbaveng, Armelle T; Zeino, Maen; Tane, Pierre; Efferth, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    Multidrug resistance in cancer represents a major problem in chemotherapy. The present study was designed to assess the cytotoxicity of anthraquinones from Pentas schimperi, namely damnacanthal (1), damnacanthol (2), 3-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethyl anthraquinone (3) and schimperiquinone B (4) against nine drug-sensitive and multidrug resistant (MDR) cancer cell lines. The resazurin reduction assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the above compounds, whilst caspase-Glo assay was used to detect the activation of caspases enzymes by compounds 1 and 2. Cell cycle, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and levels of reactive oxygen species were all analyzed via flow cytometry. Anthraquinones 1 and 2 displayed cytotoxic effects with IC50 values below 81 μM on all the nine tested cancer cell lines whilst 3 and 4 displayed selective activities. The recorded IC50 values for compounds 1 and 2 ranged from 3.12 μM and 12.18 μM (towards leukemia CCRF-CEM cells) and from 30.32 μM and 80.11 μM (towards gliobastoma U87MG.ΔEGFR cells) respectively, and from 0.20 μM (against CCRF-CEM cells) to 195.12 μM (against CEM/ADR5000 cells) for doxorubicin. Compounds 1 and 2 induced apoptosis in CCRF-CEM leukemia cells, mediated by the disruption of the MMP and increase in ROS production. Anthraquinones from Pentas schimperi and mostly 1 and 2 are potential cytotoxic natural products that deserve more investigations to develop novel antineoplastic drugs against multifactorial drug resistant cancers.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes involving hydroxy antipyrine azodyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaber, M.; Hassanein, A. M.; Lotfalla, A. A.

    2008-03-01

    The complexes formed between some hydroxy antipyrine azodyes and Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions were studied spectrophotometrically in solution. The stoichiometry and stability constants of the metal chelates were determined. The spectrophotometric determination of the titled metal ions and titration using EDTA were reported. The chelating behaviour of the azodyes was confirmed by preparing the solid chelates in which their structures are elucidated using molar conductance, elemental, thermogravimetric (TGA) analyses, IR, ESR and electronic spectra as well as the magnetic measurements. Kinetic parameters are computed from the thermal decomposition data. The electrical properties for the metal complexes are measured from which the activation energies are calculated.

  7. Structural, DFT and biological studies on Co(II) complexes of semi and thiosemicarbazide ligands derived from diketo hydrazide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousef, T. A.; El-Gammal, O. A.; Ahmed, Sara F.; Abu El-Reash, G. M.

    2014-11-01

    Three ligands have been prepared by addition ethanolic suspension of 2-hydrazino-2-oxo-N-phenyl-acetamide to phenyl isocyanate (H2PAPS), phenyl isothiocyanate (H2PAPT) and benzoyl isothiocyanate (H2PABT). The Co(II) chloride complexes were prepared and characterized by conventional techniques. The isolated complexes were assigned the formulaes, [Co(HPAPS)Cl(H2O)2]H2O, [Co(HPAPT)Cl]H2O and [Co(H2PABT)Cl2], respectively. The IR spectra of complexes shows that H2PAPS behaves as a mononegative tridentate via CO of hydrazide moiety and enolized CO of hydrazide moiety and CN (azomethine) group due to enolization of CO isocyanate moiety. H2PAPT behaves as mononegative tridentate via one CO of hydrazide moiety and thiol CS and NH groups and finally H2PABT behaves as neutral tetradentate via one CO of hydrazide moiety, CO of benzoyl moiety, Cdbnd S due to enolization of the second CO of hydrazide moiety and new CN (azomethine) groups. The vibrational frequencies of the IR spectra of ligands which were determined experimentally are compared with those obtained theoretically from DFT calculations. Also, the bond lengths, bond angles, HOMO, LUMO and dipole moments have been calculated. The calculated HOMO-LUMO energy gap reveals that charge transfer occurs within the ligand molecules. The calculated values of binding energies indicates the stability of metal complexes is higher that of ligand. Also, the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for the different thermal degradation steps of the complexes were determined by Coats-Redfern and Horowitz-Metzger methods. The antibacterial activities were also tested against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli bacteria. The free ligands showed a higher antibacterial effect than their Co(II) complexes except [Co(HPAPS)Cl(H2O)2]H2O which shows higher activity than corresponding ligand. The antitumor activities of the Ligands and their Co(II) complexes have been evaluated against liver (HePG2) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cells. All ligands

  8. Blade loss transient dynamics analysis, volume 2. Task 2: TETRA 2 user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, Gerald; Gallardo, Vincente C.

    1986-01-01

    This is the user's manual for the TETRA 2 Computer Code, a program developed in the NASA-Lewis Blade Loss Program. TETRA 2 calculates a turbine engine's dynamic structural response from applied stimuli. The calculation options are: (1) transient response; and (2) steady state forced response. Based on the method of modal syntheses, the program allows the use of linear, as well as nonlinear connecting elements. Both transient and steady state options can include: flexible Bladed Disk Module, and Nonlinear Connecting Elements (including deadband, hardening/softening spring). The transient option has the additional capability to calculate response with a squeeze film bearing module. TETRA 2 output is summarized in a plotfile which permits post processing such as FFT or graphical animation with the proper software and computer equipment.

  9. Electromagnetic interference from GSM and TETRA phones with life-support medical devices.

    PubMed

    Hietanen, Maila; Sibakov, Viktor

    2007-01-01

    Disturbances in hospital devices caused by cellular telephone signals were investigated. The interference sources were GSM900, GSM1800, and TETRA380 phones. The number of medical appliances tested was 23. Most measurements were taken in a semi-anechoic laboratory. To simulate the worst situation, the phones were adjusted to emit at their maximum power levels. No interference was observed if the distance from GSM1800 phone was over 5 cm. Corresponding safety distance for GSM900 phone was 70 cm, and for TETRA phones over 3 m. Hence, the use of GSM1800 type mobile phones can be considered safe, whereas GSM 900 and TETRA phones may cause considerable interference in hospital devices, which can result in life-endangering situations.

  10. 4-[5-(3-Pyrid­yl)-2H-tetra­zol-2-ylmeth­yl]benzonitrile

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Bin

    2008-01-01

    In the title compound, C14H10N6, the pyridine and tetra­zole rings are nearly coplanar and are twisted from each other by a dihedral angle of only 0.86 (9)°. The benzene ring makes a dihedral angle of 70.55 (6)° with the tetra­zole ring. PMID:21202702

  11. Crystal structure of chlorido­(2-{[2-(4-chloro­phen­yl)hydrazin-1-yl­idene-κN 1](phen­yl)meth­yl}pyridine-κN)(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)iridium(III) tetra­phenyl­borate

    PubMed Central

    Devika, Neelakandan; Raja, Nandhagopal; Ananthalakshmi, Subbiah; Therrien, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, [Ir(η5-C5Me5)Cl(C18H14ClN3)]B(C6H5)4, is chiral at the metal center and crystallizes as a racemate. In the cation, the hydrazinyl­idene­pyridine ligand is N,N-coordinated through the N-pyridyl and N-hydrazinyl­idene groups forming a five-membered metallacycle. An intra­molecular C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bond is observed. In the crystal, centrosymmetrically-related cations are connected by C—Cl⋯π inter­actions, forming a dimeric structure. The crystal packing is further stabilized by weak inter­ionic C—H⋯π inter­actions. PMID:25844211

  12. Bis(di­methyl­formamide)­penta­kis­(μ-N,2-dioxido­benzene-1-carb­ox­imidato)tetra­kis­(1-methyl­imidazole)di-μ-propionato-penta­manganese(III)manganese(II)–di­methyl­formamide–methanol (1/0.24/1.36)

    PubMed Central

    Lutter, Jacob C.; Kampf, Jeff W.; Zeller, Matthias; Zaleski, Curtis M.

    2013-01-01

    The title compound [Mn6(C7H4NO3)5(C3H5O2)2(C4H6N2)4.17(C3H7NO)1.83]·0.24C3H7NO·1.36CH3OH or Mn(II)(C3H5O2)2[15-MCMn(III)N(shi)-5](Me—Im)4.17(DMF)1.83·0.24DMF·1.36MeOH (where MC is metallacrown, shi3− is salicyl­hydroximate, Me—Im is 1-methyl­imidazole, DMF is N,N-di­methyl­formamide, and MeOH is methanol), contains an MnII ion in the central cavity and five MnIII ions in the MC ring. The central MnII ion is seven coordinate and has a geometry best described as distorted face-capped trigonal prismatic with Φ angles of 6.13, 10.36, and 11.73° and an estimated average s/h ratio of 1.03±0.11. Four of the ring MnIII ions are six coordinate with distorted octa­hedral geometries. Two of the MnIII ions have Λ absolute stereoconfiguration, while the other two MnIII ions have a planar configuration. The fifth MnIII ion is five coordinate and has a distorted square pyramidal geometry with τ = 0.20. Three of the MnIII ions bind one 1-methyl­imidazole ligand. Two of the ring MnIII ions have a 1-methyl­imidazole and a DMF disordered over a coordination site. For one of the ring MnIII ions, the occupancy ratio of the ligands refines to 0.51 (1):0.49 (1) in favor of the DMF. For the other ring MnIII ion, the occupancy ratio of the ligands refines to 0.68 (1):0.32 (1) in favor of the 1-methyl­imidazole. Two propionate anions serve to bridge the central MnII ion between two different MnIII ions. The methyl groups of the bridging propionate anions are disordered over two positions. The methyl group disorder also induces disorder in the H atoms of the adjacent methyl­ene C atom to the same degree. For one of the propionate anions, the occupancy ratio refines to 0.752 (8):0.248 (8) and for the second, the occupancy ratio refines to 0.604 (6):0.396 (6). In addition, the disorder of the methyl group of the latter propionate anion is correlated with a partially occupied [0.604 (6)] methanol mol­ecule. Furthermore, a methanol mol­ecule and a DMF mol­ecule are positionally disordered in the lattice. The occupancy refines to 0.757 (7):0.243 (7) in favor of the methanol mol­ecule. Correlated to the occupancy of the methanol and DMF mol­ecules is a disordered benzene ring of one salicyl­hydroximate ligand. The benzene ring is disordered over two positions with an occupancy ratio of 0.757 (7):0.243 (7). Lastly, the two lattice methanol mol­ecules are hydrogen bonded to the 15-MC-5 mol­ecule. For the partially occupied methanol mol­ecule associated with the disordered propionate anion, the hydroxyl group of the methanol is hydrogen bonded to a carboxyl­ate O atom of the propionate anion. For the partially occupied methanol mol­ecule associated with the partially occupied lattice DMF mol­ecule, the hydroxyl group of the methanol is hydrogen bonded to the phenolate O atom of a salicyl­hydroximate ligand and to the carbonyl O atom of a coordinated DMF mol­ecule. PMID:24426984

  13. (2R*,4R*,7S*,10R*,12R*)-3,11,13,15-Tetra-oxa-penta-cyclo-[5.5.3.0(1,7).0(2,4).0(10,12)]penta-deca-5,8-dien-14-one.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Goverdhan; Sen, Saikat; Kumar, C S Ananda

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, C11H8O5, features a 'skipped' diene, an anti-bis-(epoxide) and a cyclic carbonate, all embedded in a densely functionalized [4.4.3]propellane scaffold. The crystal packing of this diepoxide is effected primarily by C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, which link the mol-ecules into tapes along the b axis. Inter-tape connectivity is brought about by centrosymmetrically disposed pairs of C⋯O contacts [3.183 (4) Å] between the C(δ+)=O(δ-) dipoles of neighbouring carbonate moieties.

  14. Di-μ-acetato-bis-(dimethyl-formamide)-penta-kis-(μ-N,2-dioxidobenzene-1-car-boximidato)tetra-kis-(1-ethyl-imidazole)-penta-manganese(III)-manganese(II)-diethyl ether-dimethyl-foramide-methanol-water (1/1/1/1/0.12).

    PubMed

    Tigyer, Benjamin R; Zeller, Matthias; Zaleski, Curtis M

    2011-08-01

    The title compound [Mn(6)(C(7)H(4)NO(3))(5)(CH(3)CO(2))(2)(C(5)H(8)N(2))(4)(C(3)H(7)NO)(2)]·(C(2)H(5))(2)O·C(3)H(7)NO·CH(3)OH·0.12H(2)O, abbreviated as Mn(II)(OAc)(2)[15-MC(MnIII(N)shi)-5](EtIm)4(DMF)2·diethyl ether·DMF·MeOH·0.12H(2)O (where (-)OAc is acetate, MC is metallacrown, shi(3-) is salicylhydroximate, EtIM is n-ethylimidazole, DMF is N,N-dimethylformamide, and MeOH is methanol) contains five Mn(III) ions as members of the metallacrown ring and an Mn(II) ion bound in the central cavity. The central Mn(II) ion is seven-coordinate with a distorted face-capped trigonal-prismatic geometry. The five Mn(III) ions of the metallacrown ring are six-coordinate with distorted octa-hedral geometries. The configuration of the Mn(III) ions about the metallacrown ring follow a ΔΛΔPP pattern, with P representing planar. The four 1-ethyl-imidazole ligands are bound to four different Mn(III) ions. A diethyl ether solvent mol-ecule was found to be disordered over two mutually exclusive sites with an occupancy ratio of 0.568 (7):0.432 (7). A methanol solvent mol-ecule was found to be disordered over two mutually exclusive sites by being hydrogen bonded either to a dimethyl-formamide solvent mol-ecule (major occupancy component) or to an O atom of the main mol-ecule (minor occupancy component). The occupancy ratio refined to 0.678 (11):0.322 (11). Associated with the minor component is a partially occupied water mol-ecule [total occupancy 0.124 (15)].

  15. Synthesis and spectroscopic studies of novel Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) mixed ligand complexes with saccharin and nicotinamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çakır, S.; Bulut, İ.; Naumov, P.; Biçer, E.; Çakır, O.

    2001-01-01

    Four novel mixed ligand complexes of Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) with saccharin and nicotinamide were synthesised and characterised on the basis of elemental analysis, FT-IR spectroscopic study, UV-Vis spectrometric and magnetic susceptibility data. The structure of the Cu (II) complex is completely different from those of the Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes. From the frequencies of the saccharinato CO and SO2 modes, it has been proven that the saccharinato ligands in the structure of the Cu complex are coordinated to the metal ion ([Cu(NA)2(Sac)2(H2O)], where NA - nicotinamide, Sac - saccharinato ligand or ion), whilst in the Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes are uncoordinated and exist as ions ([M(NA)2(H2O)4](Sac)2).

  16. Crystal structure of tetra­wickmanite, Mn2+Sn4+(OH)6

    PubMed Central

    Lafuente, Barbara; Yang, Hexiong; Downs, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    The crystal structure of tetra­wickmanite, ideally Mn2+Sn4+(OH)6 [mangan­ese(II) tin(IV) hexa­hydroxide], has been determined based on single-crystal X-ray diffraction data collected from a natural sample from Långban, Sweden. Tetra­wickmanite belongs to the octa­hedral-framework group of hydroxide-perovskite minerals, described by the general formula BB’(OH)6 with a perovskite derivative structure. The structure differs from that of an ABO3 perovskite in that the A site is empty while each O atom is bonded to an H atom. The perovskite B-type cations split into ordered B and B′ sites, which are occupied by Mn2+ and Sn4+, respectively. Tetra­wickmanite exhibits tetra­gonal symmetry and is topologically similar to its cubic polymorph, wickmanite. The tetra­wickmanite structure is characterized by a framework of alternating corner-linked [Mn2+(OH)6] and [Sn4+(OH)6] octa­hedra, both with point-group symmetry -1. Four of the five distinct H atoms in the structure are statistically disordered. The vacant A site is in a cavity in the centre of a distorted cube formed by eight octa­hedra at the corners. However, the hydrogen-atom positions and their hydrogen bonds are not equivalent in every cavity, resulting in two distinct environments. One of the cavities contains a ring of four hydrogen bonds, similar to that found in wickmanite, while the other cavity is more distorted and forms crankshaft-type chains of hydrogen bonds, as previously proposed for tetra­gonal stottite, Fe2+Ge4+(OH)6. PMID:25878828

  17. Crystal structure of tetra-wickmanite, Mn(2+)Sn(4+)(OH)6.

    PubMed

    Lafuente, Barbara; Yang, Hexiong; Downs, Robert T

    2015-02-01

    The crystal structure of tetra-wickmanite, ideally Mn(2+)Sn(4+)(OH)6 [mangan-ese(II) tin(IV) hexa-hydroxide], has been determined based on single-crystal X-ray diffraction data collected from a natural sample from Långban, Sweden. Tetra-wickmanite belongs to the octa-hedral-framework group of hydroxide-perovskite minerals, described by the general formula BB'(OH)6 with a perovskite derivative structure. The structure differs from that of an ABO3 perovskite in that the A site is empty while each O atom is bonded to an H atom. The perovskite B-type cations split into ordered B and B' sites, which are occupied by Mn(2+) and Sn(4+), respectively. Tetra-wickmanite exhibits tetra-gonal symmetry and is topologically similar to its cubic polymorph, wickmanite. The tetra-wickmanite structure is characterized by a framework of alternating corner-linked [Mn(2+)(OH)6] and [Sn(4+)(OH)6] octa-hedra, both with point-group symmetry -1. Four of the five distinct H atoms in the structure are statistically disordered. The vacant A site is in a cavity in the centre of a distorted cube formed by eight octa-hedra at the corners. However, the hydrogen-atom positions and their hydrogen bonds are not equivalent in every cavity, resulting in two distinct environments. One of the cavities contains a ring of four hydrogen bonds, similar to that found in wickmanite, while the other cavity is more distorted and forms crankshaft-type chains of hydrogen bonds, as previously proposed for tetra-gonal stottite, Fe(2+)Ge(4+)(OH)6.

  18. {μ-[2-(Dimethyl-amino)phen-yl](2-fluoro-phen-yl)methano-lato}penta-methyl-dialuminum(III).

    PubMed

    Gao, Aihong; Su, Qing; Mu, Ying

    2009-04-25

    Each of the Al atoms in the title compound, [Al(2)(CH(3))(5)(C(15)H(15)FNO)], is four-coordinated in a distorted tetra-hedral geometry. The dimethyl-aluminium centre is bound by the N and the O atoms of the (2-dimethyl-amino-phen-yl)(2-fluoro-phen-yl)methano-late ligand. The second Al atom is bound by the methano-late O atom and by three methyl C atoms. The crystal studied was a racemic twin with a 0.4 (2):0.6 (2) domain ratio.

  19. Kinetic and thermodynamic studies of the Co(II) and Ni(II) ions removal from aqueous solutions by Ca-Mg phosphates.

    PubMed

    Ivanets, A I; Srivastava, V; Kitikova, N V; Shashkova, I L; Sillanpää, M

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work was to study the sorption kinetics and thermodynamics of Co(II) and Ni(II) from aqueous solutions by sorbents on the basis of hydrogen (PD-1) and tertiary (PD-2) Ca-Mg phosphates depending on the solution temperature and sorbents chemical composition. Kinetic studies of adsorption of Co(II) and Ni(II) ions onto samples of phosphate sorbents were performed in batch experiment at the temperatures 288, 303, 318 and 333 K. The sorbent dose was fixed at 10 g L(-1), initial pH value 2.6, and contact time varied from 5 to 600 min. The kinetics of Co(II) and Ni(II) adsorption were analyzed by using pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion models. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS°) for the sorption of Co(II) and Ni(II) were determined using the Gibbs-Helmholtz equation. The calculated kinetic parameters and corresponding correlation coefficients revealed that Co(II) and Ni(II) uptake process followed the pseudo-second order rate expression. Thermodynamic studies confirmed the spontaneous and endothermic nature of removal process which indicate that sorption of Co(II) and Ni(II) ions onto both phosphate sorbents is favoured at higher temperatures and has the chemisorptive mechanism. The data thus obtained would be useful for practical application of the low cost and highly effective Ca-Mg phosphate sorbents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Blade loss transient dynamics analysis, volume 1. Task 2: TETRA 2 theoretical development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallardo, Vincente C.; Black, Gerald

    1986-01-01

    The theoretical development of the forced steady state analysis of the structural dynamic response of a turbine engine having nonlinear connecting elements is discussed. Based on modal synthesis, and the principle of harmonic balance, the governing relations are the compatibility of displacements at the nonlinear connecting elements. There are four displacement compatibility equations at each nonlinear connection, which are solved by iteration for the principle harmonic of the excitation frequency. The resulting computer program, TETRA 2, combines the original TETRA transient analysis (with flexible bladed disk) with the steady state capability. A more versatile nonlinear rub or bearing element which contains a hardening (or softening) spring, with or without deadband, is also incorporated.

  1. Electron irradiation effects on optical properties of semiorganic antimony thiourea tetra chloride single crystals.

    PubMed

    Mahesha Upadhya, K; Udayashankar, N K; Ganesh, S

    2012-11-01

    Antimony thiourea tetra chloride single crystals were grown by solution growth technique at room temperature. The UV-visible, fourier transform infrared and fluorescence spectra were recorded and electron irradiation effects on these properties were studied. The optical absorption edge of the UV-visible spectrum slightly shifts towards longer wavelength with the increase of irradiation dose. The fluorescence quantum yield is decreased for electron irradiated antimony thiourea tetra chloride crystals. The presence of functional group of the as-grown and electron irradiated complex was confirmed by fourier transform infrared spectral study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Electron irradiation effects on optical properties of semiorganic antimony thiourea tetra chloride single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahesha Upadhya, K.; Udayashankar, N. K.; Ganesh, S.

    2012-11-01

    Antimony thiourea tetra chloride single crystals were grown by solution growth technique at room temperature. The UV-visible, fourier transform infrared and fluorescence spectra were recorded and electron irradiation effects on these properties were studied. The optical absorption edge of the UV-visible spectrum slightly shifts towards longer wavelength with the increase of irradiation dose. The fluorescence quantum yield is decreased for electron irradiated antimony thiourea tetra chloride crystals. The presence of functional group of the as-grown and electron irradiated complex was confirmed by fourier transform infrared spectral study.

  3. Kinetics and mechanisms of Co(II) EDTA oxidation by pyrolusite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardine, P. M.; Taylor, D. L.

    1995-10-01

    Monitoring and restoration activities at low-level radioactive waste disposal sites have identified complicated mixtures of inorganic and organic contaminants in soil and groundwater. Metallic contaminants are generally complexed with various chelating agents and organic acids which alter the geochemical behavior of the contaminants in subsurface media. The objective of this study was to provide an improved understanding of the geochemical processes controlling the subsurface transport of radioactive 60Co complexed with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Specifically, we investigated the kinetics and mechanisms of Co(II) EDTA 2- oxidation to Co(III)EDTA - by the soil mineral pyrolusite (β-MnO 2). A column displacement technique was utilized to investigate Co(II)EDTA 2- reactivity and oxidation rates through packed beds of pyrolusite-coated SiO 2. The interaction of Co(II)EDTA 2- with the porous media was characterized by a MnO 2-induced oxidation of the Co (II)EDTA 2- to Co(III)EDTA -. The oxidation of Co(II)EDTA 2- appeared to involve the reduction of Mn (IV) to both an aqueous Mn 2+ species and a theorized Mn(III)-oxide solid phase. The redox reaction was catalytic since the reduction products were gradually reoxidized in the presence of dissolved O 2 to form a Mn(IV)-oxide phase. Oxidation of surface-bound Mn 2+ and the theorized Mn(III)-oxide was slow relative to Co(II)EDTA 2- oxidation, and a reversible loss in the oxidative ability of the β-MnO 2 occurred when exposed to CO(II)EDTA 2-. The reduction in catalytic activity of the MnO 2 was not the result of direct surface poisoning by Mn 2+ but rather was believed to result from the formation of an intermediate Mn(III)-oxide solid phase whose oxidative potential was significantly less than MnO 2. Thus, the kinetics of Co(II)EDTA 2- oxidation to Co(III)EDTA - by MnO 2 was dependent on the rate of MnO 2 surface regeneration. The environmental implications of this redox reaction are pronounced, since any Co

  4. Differential Binding of Co(II) and Zn(II) to Metallo-beta-Lactamase Bla2 from Bacillus anthracis

    SciTech Connect

    Hawk, M.; Breece, R; Hajdin, C; Bender, K; Hu, Z; Costello, A; Bennett, B; Tierney, D; Crowder, M

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to probe the structure, mechanism, and biochemical properties of metallo-{beta}-lactamase Bla2 from Bacillus anthracis, the enzyme was overexpressed, purified, and characterized. Metal analyses demonstrated that recombinant Bla2 tightly binds 1 equiv of Zn(II). Steady-state kinetic studies showed that mono-Zn(II) Bla2 (1Zn-Bla2) is active, while di-Zn(II) Bla2 (ZnZn-Bla2) was unstable. Catalytically, 1Zn-Bla2 behaves like the related enzymes CcrA and L1. In contrast, di-Co(II) Bla2 (CoCo-Bla2) is substantially more active than the mono-Co(II) analogue. Rapid kinetics and UV-vis, 1H NMR, EPR, and EXAFS spectroscopic studies show that Co(II) binding to Bla2 is distributed, while EXAFS shows that Zn(II) binding is sequential. To our knowledge, this is the first documented example of a Zn enzyme that binds Co(II) and Zn(II) via distinct mechanisms, underscoring the need to demonstrate transferability when extrapolating results on Co(II)-substituted proteins to the native Zn(II)-containing forms.

  5. Trigonal antiprismatic Co(ii) single molecule magnets with large uniaxial anisotropies: importance of Raman and tunneling mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan-Zhu; Gómez-Coca, Silvia; Brown, Andrew J; Saber, Mohamed R; Zhang, Xuan; Dunbar, Kim R

    2016-10-19

    The air-stable mononuclear Co(ii) compounds [Co(II)(Tpm)2][ClO4]2 (1, Tpm = tris(pyrazol-1-yl)methane), [Co(II)(Tpm)2][BPh4]2·2MeCN (2) with trigonal antiprismatic geometry (trigonally elongated octahedral geometry) are reported. Magnetic and theoretical studies reveal that the complexes exhibit single-molecule magnet behavior with uniaxial anisotropy and a huge energy difference between ground and first excited Karmers' doublets (∼200 cm(-1)). Under applied DC fields, compounds 1 and 2 exhibit frequency and temperature dependence of the imaginary susceptibility. The fit of the data to an Orbach relaxation process yields effective energy barriers of 30.6(1) and 44.7(6) cm(-1) for 1 and 2, respectively, but there is no real state at that energy. The inclusion of tunneling, direct and Raman relaxation processes leads to the conclusion that the inclusion of an Orbach process is not required to provide a good fit to the data. More interestingly, a detailed study of the dependence of the relaxation time with field shows that for these Kramers' ions, tunneling is the predominant process at low temperature and that differences in the counteranion allow for a tuning of the Raman process at higher temperatures. These findings underscore the fact that large uniaxial anisotropy can be achieved in hexacoordinate Co(ii) trigonal antiprismatic complexes which is an unexplored geometry in mononuclear single molecule magnets.

  6. Iron Oxide Impregnated Morus alba L. Fruit Peel for Biosorption of Co(II): Biosorption Properties and Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Koduru, Janardhan Reddy; Chang, Yoon-Young; Yang, Jae-Kyu; Kim, Im-Soon

    2013-01-01

    Biosorption is an ecofriendly wastewater treatment technique with high efficiency and low operating cost involving simple process for the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution. In the present investigation, Morus alba L. fruit peel powder (MAFP) and iron oxide impregnated Morus alba L. fruit peel powder (IO-MAFP) were prepared and used for treating Co(II) contaminated aqueous solutions. Further the materials were characterized by using FTIR and SEM-EDX analysis. From FT-IR analysis it was found that hydroxyl, methoxy, and carbonyl groups are responsible for Co(II) biosorption. The kinetic data obtained for both biosorbents was well fitted with pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The equilibrium data was in tune with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The thermodynamic studies were also carried and it was observed that sorption process was endothermic at 298–328 K. These studies demonstrated that both biosorbents were promising, efficient, economic, and biodegradable sorbents. PMID:24324384

  7. Cleavage of recombinant proteins at poly-His sequences by Co(II) and Cu(II)

    PubMed Central

    Andberg, Martina; Jäntti, Jussi; Heilimo, Sara; Pihkala, Päivi; Paananen, Arja; Koskinen, Ari M.P.; Söderlund, Hans; Linder, Markus B.

    2007-01-01

    Improved ways to cleave peptide chains at engineered sites easily and specifically would form useful tools for biochemical research. Uses of such methods include the activation or inactivation of enzymes or the removal of tags for enhancement of recombinant protein expression or tags used for purification of recombinant proteins. In this work we show by gel electrophoresis and mass spectroscopy that salts of Co(II) and Cu(II) can be used to cleave fusion proteins specifically at sites where sequences of His residues have been introduced by protein engineering. The His residues could be either consecutive or spaced with other amino acids in between. The cleavage reaction required the presence of low concentrations of ascorbate and in the case of Cu(II) also hydrogen peroxide. The amount of metal ions required for cleavage was very low; in the case of Cu(II) only one to two molar equivalents of Cu(II) to protein was required. In the case of Co(II), 10 molar equivalents gave optimal cleavage. The reaction occurred within minutes, at a wide pH range, and efficiently at temperatures ranging from 0°C to 70°C. The work described here can also have implications for understanding protein stability in vitro and in vivo. PMID:17600148

  8. Ethane-1,2-diaminium bis­{5-[4-(1H-tetra­zol-5-yl)phen­yl]tetra­zolide} dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun-Rong; Xia, Zheng-Qiang

    2011-01-01

    In the two anions of the title salt, C2H10N2 2+·2C8H5N8 −·2H2O, the central aromatic rings make dihedral angles of 13.53 (6) and 6.53 (7)° with the deprotonated tetra­zole rings, and 11.39 (6) and 10.41 (9)° with the other tetra­zole groups. In the crystal, the cations, anions and water mol­ecules are linked by an extensive O—H⋯N, N—H⋯O and N—H⋯N hydrogen-bond network into two-dimensional wave-like duplex sheets extending parallel to the bc plane. π–π stacking inter­actions between benzene rings [inter­centroid distances are 3.8482 (4) and 3.9621 (5) Å] and between tetra­zole rings [inter­centroid distances are 3.4350 (4) and 3.7169 (4) Å] further consolidate the crystal structure. PMID:22059036

  9. Removal of Co(II) from waste water using dry cow dung powder : a green ambrosia to soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagla, Hemlata; Khilnani, Roshan

    2015-04-01

    Co(II) is one of the hazardous products found in the waste streams. The anthropogenic activities are major sources of Co(II) in our environment. Some of the well-established processes such as chemical precipitation, membrane process, liquid extraction and ion exchange have been applied as a tool for the removal of this metal ion [1]. All the above methods are not considered to be greener due to some of their shortcomings such as incomplete metal ion removal, high requirement of energy and reagents, generation of toxic sludge or other waste materials which in turn require further treatments for their cautious disposal. The present investigation entails the application of dry cow dung powder (DCP) as an indigenous, inexpensive and eco-friendly material for the removal of Co(II) from aqueous medium. DCP, is naturally available bio-organic, complex, polymorphic humified fecal matter of cow and is enriched with minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, bile pigments, aliphatic-aromatic species such as 'Humic acid' (HA), Fulvic acid, Ulmic acid [2,3]. Batch biosorption experiments were conducted employing 60Co(II) as a tracer and effect of various process parameters such as pH (1-8), temperature (283-363K), amount of biosorbent (5-40 g/L), time of equilibration (0-30 min), agitation speed (0-4000 rpm), concentration of initial metal ions (0.5-20 mg/mL) and interfering effect of different organic as well as inorganic salts were studied. The Kinetic studies were carried out employing various models but the best fitting was given by Lagergren Pseudo-second order model [4] with high correlation coefficient R2 value of 0.999 and adsorption capacity of 2.31 mg/g. The thermodynamic parameters for biosorption were also evaluated which indicated spontaneous and exothermic process with high affinity of DCP for Co(II). Many naturally available materials are used for biosorption of hazardous metal pollutants, where most of them are physically or chemically modified. In this research

  10. Tetrahymena functional genomics database (TetraFGD): an integrated resource for Tetrahymena functional genomics.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jie; Lu, Yuming; Feng, Jinmei; Yuan, Dongxia; Tian, Miao; Chang, Yue; Fu, Chengjie; Wang, Guangying; Zeng, Honghui; Miao, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila is a useful unicellular model organism for studies of eukaryotic cellular and molecular biology. Researches on T. thermophila have contributed to a series of remarkable basic biological principles. After the macronuclear genome was sequenced, substantial progress has been made in functional genomics research on T. thermophila, including genome-wide microarray analysis of the T. thermophila life cycle, a T. thermophila gene network analysis based on the microarray data and transcriptome analysis by deep RNA sequencing. To meet the growing demands for the Tetrahymena research community, we integrated these data to provide a public access database: Tetrahymena functional genomics database (TetraFGD). TetraFGD contains three major resources, including the RNA-Seq transcriptome, microarray and gene networks. The RNA-Seq data define gene structures and transcriptome, with special emphasis on exon-intron boundaries; the microarray data describe gene expression of 20 time points during three major stages of the T. thermophila life cycle; the gene network data identify potential gene-gene interactions of 15 049 genes. The TetraFGD provides user-friendly search functions that assist researchers in accessing gene models, transcripts, gene expression data and gene-gene relationships. In conclusion, the TetraFGD is an important functional genomic resource for researchers who focus on the Tetrahymena or other ciliates. Database URL: http://tfgd.ihb.ac.cn/

  11. Butyl­triethyl­ammonium tetra­chlorido­ferrate(III)

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Lei; Li, Yong-Jun

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, (C10H24N)[FeCl4], no classical hydrogen bonds are observed. The butyl­triethyl­ammonium cations inter­act with the tetra­hedral [FeCl4]− anion through weak C—H⋯Cl inter­actions, forming a three-dimensional network. PMID:22590142

  12. Versatile RNA tetra-U helix linking motif as a toolkit for nucleic acid nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Bui, My N; Brittany Johnson, M; Viard, Mathias; Satterwhite, Emily; Martins, Angelica N; Li, Zhihai; Marriott, Ian; Afonin, Kirill A; Khisamutdinov, Emil F

    2017-04-01

    RNA nanotechnology employs synthetically modified ribonucleic acid (RNA) to engineer highly stable nanostructures in one, two, and three dimensions for medical applications. Despite the tremendous advantages in RNA nanotechnology, unmodified RNA itself is fragile and prone to enzymatic degradation. In contrast to use traditionally modified RNA strands e.g. 2'-fluorine, 2'-amine, 2'-methyl, we studied the effect of RNA/DNA hybrid approach utilizing a computer-assisted RNA tetra-uracil (tetra-U) motif as a toolkit to address questions related to assembly efficiency, versatility, stability, and the production costs of hybrid RNA/DNA nanoparticles. The tetra-U RNA motif was implemented to construct four functional triangles using RNA, DNA and RNA/DNA mixtures, resulting in fine-tunable enzymatic and thermodynamic stabilities, immunostimulatory activity and RNAi capability. Moreover, the tetra-U toolkit has great potential in the fabrication of rectangular, pentagonal, and hexagonal NPs, representing the power of simplicity of RNA/DNA approach for RNA nanotechnology and nanomedicine community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Light-sensitive motile iridophores and visual pigments in the neon tetra, Paracheirodon innesi.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Akiko; Oshima, Noriko

    2006-09-01

    Although motile iridophores in the longitudinal stripes of neon tetra skin are under control of the sympathetic nervous system, they also respond to light directly and show circadian color changes. Using neon tetra skin, we found that the photoresponse of iridophores depends on light intensity, and that light near 500 nm is most effective. RT-PCR demonstrated the expression of mRNAs encoding rhodopsin and two kinds of cone opsins (Pi-green1 and Pi-green2) in neon tetra skin where the light-sensitive iridophores exist. These mRNAs are also expressed in the lateral eyes. The cone opsin genes, Pi-green1 and Pi-green2, show high similarity with the g101 and g103 genes of unique green cone opsins (belonging to the MWS/LWS group) of the blind Mexican cavefish. These results show that Pi-green1, Pi-green2, and/or rhodopsin may play important roles in the photoresponse of neon tetra iridophores, which are most sensitive to light near 500 nm.

  14. Modified tetra-primer ARMS PCR as a single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping tool.

    PubMed

    Mesrian Tanha, Hamzeh; Mojtabavi Naeini, Marjan; Rahgozar, Soheila; Rasa, Seyed Mohammad Mahdi; Vallian, Sadeq

    2015-03-01

    Genotyping of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) has been applied in various genetic contexts. Tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is reported as a prominent assay for SNP genotyping. However, there were published data that may question the reliability of this method on some occasions, in addition to a laborious and time-consuming procedure of the optimization step. In the current study, a new SNP genotyping method named modified tetra-primer ARMS (MTPA) PCR was developed based on tetra-primer ARMS PCR. The modified method has two improvements in its instruction, including equalization of outer primer and inner primer strength by additional mismatch in outer primers, and consideration of equal annealing temperature of specific fragments more than melting temperature of primers. Advantageously, a new computer software was provided for designing primers based on novel concepts. The usual tetra-primer ARMS PCR has a laborious process for optimization. In nonoptimal PCR programs, identification of the accurate genotype was found to be very difficult. However, in MTPA PCR, equalization of the amplicons and primer strength leads to increasing specificity and convenience of genotyping, which was validated by sequencing. In the MTPA PCR technique, a new mismatch at -2 positions of outer primers and equal annealing temperature improve the genotyping procedure. Together, the introduced method could be suggested as a powerful tool for genotyping single-nucleotide mutations and polymorphisms.

  15. Crystal structure of (1,3-di-tert-butyl-η(5)-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)tri-methyl-hafnium(IV).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Redondo, Adrián; Varela-Izquierdo, Víctor; Yélamos, Carlos

    2015-05-01

    The mol-ecule of the title organometallic hafnium(IV) com-pound, [Hf(CH3)3(C13H21)] or [HfMe3(η(5)-C5H3-1,3- (t) Bu2)], adopts the classical three-legged piano-stool geometry for mono-cyclo-penta-dienylhafnium(IV) derivatives with the three methyl groups bonded to the Hf(IV) atom at the legs. The C atoms of the two tert-butyl group bonded to the cyclo-penta-dienyl (Cp) ring are 0.132 (5) and 0.154 (6) Å above the Cp least-squares plane. There are no significant inter-molecular inter-actions present between the mol-ecules in the crystal structure.

  16. The two-dimensional IR nonlinear spectroscopy of a cyclic penta-peptide in relation to its three-dimensional structure

    PubMed Central

    Hamm, Peter; Lim, Manho; DeGrado, William F.; Hochstrasser, Robin M.

    1999-01-01

    A form of two-dimensional (2D) vibrational spectroscopy, which uses two ultrafast IR laser pulses, is used to examine the structure of a cyclic penta-peptide in solution. Spectrally resolved cross peaks occur in the off-diagonal region of the 2D IR spectrum of the amide I region, analogous to those in 2D NMR spectroscopy. These cross peaks measure the coupling between the different amide groups in the structure. Their intensities and polarizations relate directly to the three-dimensional structure of the peptide. With the help of a model coupling Hamiltonian, supplemented by density functional calculations, the spectra of this penta-peptide can be regenerated from the known solution phase structure. This 2D-IR measurement, with an intrinsic time resolution of less than 1 ps, could be used in all time regimes of interest in biology. PMID:10051590

  17. Crystal structure of (1,3-di-tert-butyl-η5-cyclo­penta­dien­yl)tri­methyl­hafnium(IV)

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Redondo, Adrián; Varela-Izquierdo, Víctor; Yélamos, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The mol­ecule of the title organometallic hafnium(IV) com­pound, [Hf(CH3)3(C13H21)] or [HfMe3(η5-C5H3-1,3-tBu2)], adopts the classical three-legged piano-stool geometry for mono­cyclo­penta­dienylhafnium(IV) derivatives with the three methyl groups bonded to the Hf(IV) atom at the legs. The C atoms of the two tert-butyl group bonded to the cyclo­penta­dienyl (Cp) ring are 0.132 (5) and 0.154 (6) Å above the Cp least-squares plane. There are no significant inter­molecular inter­actions present between the mol­ecules in the crystal structure. PMID:25995884

  18. Hydrothermal self-assembly and supercapacitive behaviors of Co(II) ion-modified graphene aerogels in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Qi; Hui, K.N.; Hui, K.S.; Wang, Yi; Hong, Xiaoting

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • 3D Co(II) ions modified graphene aerogels were prepared by one-step hydrothermal process. • The aerogel electrodes showed hybrid supercapacitor behaviors. • The aerogel electrodes exhibited high rate capability and long-term cycling stability. - Abstract: Reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) aerogels decorated with divalent cobalt ions were synthesized via a one-pot hydrothermal self-assembly route. The interaction of Co(II) ions with 3D r-GO aerogels was investigated by spectroscopic techniques, including Raman, attenuated total reflectance infrared, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. The excellent electrochemical properties of the aerogels were confirmed by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge tests, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in an acid electrolyte (1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}). The Co(II) ion-modified r-GO aerogels can be used as high-performance hybrid supercapacitor materials with a specific capacitance of 387.2 F g{sup –1} at 1 A g{sup –1} current density and a good cycling stability without capacity decay over 1000 cycles. The mechanical integrity enhancement of the hybrid r-GO aerogel framework and the improvement in its unique capacitive performance are attributed to the efficient interconnection produced by electro-active Co(II) ions.

  19. Highly stable water dispersible calix[4]pyrrole octa-hydrazide protected gold nanoparticles as colorimetric and fluorometric chemosensors for selective signaling of Co(II) ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, Keyur D.; Vyas, Disha J.; Makwana, Bharat A.; Darjee, Savan M.; Jain, Vinod K.

    2014-03-01

    Water dispersible stable gold nanoparticles (AuNps) have been synthesized by using calix[4]pyrrole octa-hydrazide (CPOH) as a reducing as well as stabilizing agent. CPOH-AuNps have been characterized by surface plasmon resonance, particle size analyzer and transmission electron microscopy. CPOH-AuNps are water dispersible, highly stable for more than 150 days at neutral pH with a size of less than 10 nm and zeta potential of 15 ± 2 MeV. Ion sensing property of CPOH-AuNps has been investigated for various metal ions Pb(II), Cd(II), Mn(II), Fe(III), Ni(II), Zn(II), Hg(II), Co(II) and Cu(II) by colorimetry and spectrofluorimetry. Among all the metal ions investigated, only Co(II) ions gives sharp colour change from ruby red to blue and is easily detectable by naked-eye. CPOH-AuNps being fluorescent in nature also shows great sensitivity and selectivity for Co(II) ions. Co(II) ions can be selectively detected at very low concentration level of 1 nM in a facile way of fluorescence quenching.

  20. DNA binding, photoactivated DNA cleavage and cytotoxic activity of Cu(II) and Co(II) based Schiff-base azo photosensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradeepa, S. M.; Bhojya Naik, H. S.; Vinay Kumar, B.; Indira Priyadarsini, K.; Barik, Atanu; Prabhakara, M. C.

    2015-04-01

    A new class of Cu(II) and Co(II) complexes of azo-containing Schiff base of the type [Cu(L1)2] and [Co(L1)2], where L1 = 4-[(E)-{2-hydroxy-3-[(E)-(4-bromophenyl)diazenyl]benzylidene}amino]benzoic acid have been synthesized and characterized. Extension of conjugation and the presence of free carboxylic acid group of the ligand L1 increased the wavelength of the complexes from visible region to the near IR region (620-850 nm). The Cu(II) and Co(II) complexes interacted with CT-DNA via intercalative mode with the respective Kb value of 3.2 × 104 M-1 and 2.9 × 104 M-1 and acted as proficient photocleavers of SC pUC19 DNA in UV-A light, forming 1O2 as the reactive oxygen species with the quantum yield of 0.38 and 0.36, respectively. Furthermore, the Cu(II) and Co(II) complexes showed photocytotoxicity toward two selected tumor cell lines MCF-7 and A549 by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT) method, and the Cu(II) complex exhibits higher photocytotoxicity than Co(II) complex against each of the selected cell lines, this result is identical with their DNA binding ability order.

  1. DNA binding, photoactivated DNA cleavage and cytotoxic activity of Cu(II) and Co(II) based Schiff-base azo photosensitizers.

    PubMed

    Pradeepa, S M; Bhojya Naik, H S; Vinay Kumar, B; Indira Priyadarsini, K; Barik, Atanu; Prabhakara, M C

    2015-04-15

    A new class of Cu(II) and Co(II) complexes of azo-containing Schiff base of the type [Cu(L1)2] and [Co(L1)2], where L1=4-[(E)-{2-hydroxy-3-[(E)-(4-bromophenyl)diazenyl]benzylidene}amino]benzoic acid have been synthesized and characterized. Extension of conjugation and the presence of free carboxylic acid group of the ligand L1 increased the wavelength of the complexes from visible region to the near IR region (620-850 nm). The Cu(II) and Co(II) complexes interacted with CT-DNA via intercalative mode with the respective Kb value of 3.2×10(4) M(-1) and 2.9×10(4) M(-1) and acted as proficient photocleavers of SC pUC19 DNA in UV-A light, forming (1)O2 as the reactive oxygen species with the quantum yield of 0.38 and 0.36, respectively. Furthermore, the Cu(II) and Co(II) complexes showed photocytotoxicity toward two selected tumor cell lines MCF-7 and A549 by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT) method, and the Cu(II) complex exhibits higher photocytotoxicity than Co(II) complex against each of the selected cell lines, this result is identical with their DNA binding ability order.

  2. Synthesis, spectral characterization and biological activities of Mn(II) and Co(II) complexes with benzyloxybenzaldehyde-4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone.

    PubMed

    Prathima, B; Rao, Y Subba; Ramesh, G N; Jagadeesh, M; Reddy, Y P; Chalapathi, P V; Reddy, A Varada

    2011-06-01

    Mn(II) and Co(II) complexes of benzyloxybenzaldehyde-4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone have been synthesized and characterized by the investigations of electronic and EPR spectra and X-ray diffraction. Based on the spectral studies, an octahedral geometry is assigned for the Mn(II) and Co(II) complexes. X-ray powder diffraction studies reveal that Mn(II) and Co(II) complexes have triclinic crystal lattices. The unit cell parameters of the Mn(II) complex are a=11.0469 Å, b=6.2096 Å, c=7.4145 Å, α=90.646°, β=95.127°, γ=104.776°, V=489.7 Å(3) and those of Co(II) complex are a=9.3236 Å, b=10.2410 Å, c=7.8326 Å, α=90.694°, β=99.694°, γ=100.476°, V=724.2 Å(3). When the free ligand and its metal complexes are subjected to antibacterial activity, the metal complexes are proved to be more active than the ligand. However with regard to in vitro antioxidant activity, the ligand exhibits greater antioxidant activity than its metal(II) complexes.

  3. Mechanism of HERG potassium channel inhibition by tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Yan; Lin, Zuoxian; Xia, Menghang; Zheng, Wei; Li, Zhiyuan

    2013-03-01

    Tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride are synthetic quaternary ammonium salts that are widely used in hospitals and industries for the disinfection and surface treatment and as the preservative agent. Recently, the activities of HERG channel inhibition by these compounds have been found to have potential risks to induce the long QT syndrome and cardiac arrhythmia, although the mechanism of action is still elusive. This study was conducted to investigate the mechanism of HERG channel inhibition by these compounds by using whole-cell patch clamp experiments in a CHO cell line stably expressing HERG channels. Tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride exhibited concentration-dependent inhibitions of HERG channel currents with IC{sub 50} values of 4 nM and 17 nM, respectively, which were also voltage-dependent and use-dependent. Both compounds shifted the channel activation I–V curves in a hyperpolarized direction for 10–15 mV and accelerated channel activation and inactivation processes by 2-fold. In addition, tetra-n-octylammonium bromide shifted the inactivation I–V curve in a hyperpolarized direction for 24.4 mV and slowed the rate of channel deactivation by 2-fold, whereas benzethonium chloride did not. The results indicate that tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride are open-channel blockers that inhibit HERG channels in the voltage-dependent, use-dependent and state-dependent manners. - Highlights: ► Tetra-n-octylammonium and benzethonium are potent HERG channel inhibitors. ► Channel activation and inactivation processes are accelerated by the two compounds. ► Both compounds are the open-channel blockers to HERG channels. ► HERG channel inhibition by both compounds is use-, voltage- and state dependent. ► The in vivo risk of QT prolongation needs to be studied for the two compounds.

  4. Crystal structures of the three closely related compounds: bis-[(1H-tetra-zol-5-yl)meth-yl]nitramide, tri-amino-guanidinium 5-({[(1H-tetra-zol-5-yl)meth-yl](nitro)-amino}-meth-yl)tetra-zol-1-ide, and di-ammonium bis-[(tetra-zol-1-id-5-yl)meth-yl]nitramide monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Lauren A; Imler, Gregory H; Parrish, Damon A; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Leonard, Philip W; Chavez, David E

    2017-07-01

    In the mol-ecule of neutral bis-[(1H-tetra-zol-5-yl)meth-yl]nitramide, (I), C4H6N10O2, there are two intra-molecular N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. In the crystal, N-H⋯N hydrogen bonds link mol-ecules, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to (-201) and weak C-H⋯O, C-H⋯N hydrogen bonds, and inter-molecular π-π stacking completes the three-dimensional network. The anion in the molecular salt, tri-amino-guanidinium 5-({[(1H-tetra-zol-5-yl)meth-yl](nitro)-amino}-meth-yl)tetra-zol-1-ide, (II), CH9N6(+)·C4H5N10O2(-), displays intra-molecular π-π stacking and in the crystal, N-H⋯N and N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the components of the structure, forming a three-dimensional network. In the crystal of di-ammonium bis-[(tetra-zol-1-id-5-yl)meth-yl]nitramide monohydrate, (III), 2NH4(+)·C4H4N10O2(2-)·H2O, O-H⋯N, N-H⋯N, and N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the components of the structure into a three-dimensional network. In addition, there is inter-molecular π-π stacking. In all three structures, the central N atom of the nitramide is mainly sp(2)-hybridized. Bond lengths indicate delocalization of charges on the tetra-zole rings for all three compounds. Compound (II) was found to be a non-merohedral twin and was solved and refined in the major component.

  5. Possible risks due to exposure of workers and patients with implants by TETRA transmitters.

    PubMed

    Cecil, Stefan; Neubauer, Georg; Rauscha, Friedrich; Stix, Günter; Müller, Wolfgang; Breithuber, Christian; Glanzer, Markus

    2014-04-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that mobile telephones that use different technologies, such as Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) or Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS), have the potential to influence the functionality of active electronic implants, including cardiac pacemakers. According to these studies, a few safety measures, such as maintaining minimum distances of 25 cm between implants and transmitters, are sufficient to avoid such effects. Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) has become a well-established communication standard in many countries, including Germany and Austria. TETRA transmitters are typically used by police forces and emergency services. Employees and volunteers working for such institutions are often in close contact with patients, causing TETRA transmitters to potentially have an impact on the functionality of the implants of patients. Therefore, the main focus of our study was to investigate the functionality of several types of implants when exposed to TETRA transmitters. Moreover, we investigated the difference in the degree of exposure of users of TETRA transmitters when they carry the devices in different locations near the body, and when they use them in different positions near the head. Our results show that a compliance distance of 30 cm between implant and transmitter is sufficient to exclude any influence on the examined implants. All examined exposure conditions demonstrated that the levels were well below recommended limits. If a user wants to minimize their exposure, use of transmitters in front of the mouth leads to somewhat lower exposure when compared to typical mobile phone like use. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Preference for occupany of axial positions by substituents bonded to the heterocyclic ring in penta-O-acetyl-(+)-catechin in the crystalline state

    Treesearch

    Frank R. Fronczek; Garret Gannuch; Wayne L. Mattice; Richard W. Hemingway; Giacomo Chiari; Fred L. Tobiason; Karl Houglum; Armen Shanafelt

    1985-01-01

    The structure of penta-O-acetyl-(+)-catechin has been determined in the crystalline state. Crystals are monoclinic, space group C2, a=2320.0(7), b=980.1 (2), c=1108.0(3) pm, β=100.64(2)., Z=4, Dc=1.342 g cm-3, R=0.058 for 1121 observations. One of the acetyl groups is disordered. Axial positions...

  7. Chlorido[1-diphenyl­phosphanyl-3-(phenyl­sulfan­yl)propane-κ2 P,S](η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)iridium(III) chloride monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Gerd; Korb, Marcus; Rüffer, Tobias; Lang, Heinrich; Steinborn, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound, [Ir(C10H15)Cl(C21H21PS)]Cl·H2O, consists of discrete [Ir(η5-C5Me5)Cl{Ph2P(CH2)3SPh-κP,κS}]+ cations, chloride anions and water mol­ecules. The IrIII atom is coordinated by an η5-C5Me5 ligand, a chloride and a Ph2P(CH2)3SPh-κP,κS ligand, leading to a three-legged piano-stool geometry. In the crystal, two water molecules and two chloride anions are linked by weak O—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonding into tetra­mers that are located on centers of inversion. The H atoms of one of the methyl groups are disordered and were refined using a split model. PMID:22719391

  8. Crystal structure of trans-diammine(1,4,8,11-tetra­aza­cyclo­tetra­decane-κ4 N)chromium(III) tetra­chlorido­zincate chloride monohydrate from synchrotron data

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Dohyun; Choi, Jong-Ha

    2016-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title complex salt, [Cr(C10H24N4)(NH3)2][ZnCl4]Cl·H2O, is comprised of four halves of the CrIII complex cations (the counterparts being generated by application of inversion symmetry), two tetra­chlorido­zincate anions, two chloride anions and two water mol­ecules. Each CrIII ion is coordinated by the four N atoms of the cyclam (1,4,8,11-tetra­aza­cyclo­tetra­deca­ne) ligand in the equatorial plane and by two N atoms of ammine ligands in axial positions, displaying an overall distorted octa­hedral coordination environment. The Cr—N(cyclam) bond lengths range from 2.0501 (15) to 2.0615 (15) Å, while the Cr—(NH3) bond lengths range from 2.0976 (13) to 2.1062 (13) Å. The macrocyclic cyclam moieties adopt the trans-III conformation with six- and five-membered chelate rings in chair and gauche conformations. The [ZnCl4]2− anions have a slightly distorted tetra­hedral shape. In the crystal, the Cl− anions link the complex cations, as well as the solvent water mol­ecules, through N—H⋯Cl and O—H⋯Cl hydrogen-bonding inter­actions. The supra­molecular set-up also includes N—H⋯Cl, C—H⋯Cl, N—H⋯O and O—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonding between N—H or C—H groups of cyclam, ammine N—H and water O—H donor groups, and O atoms of the water mol­ecules, Cl− anions or Cl atoms of the [ZnCl4]2− anions as acceptors, leading to a three-dimensional network structure. PMID:27375863

  9. Synthesis, Structure, and Reactivity of Co(II) and Ni(II) PCP Pincer Borohydride Complexes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The 15e square-planar complexes [Co(PCPMe-iPr)Cl] (2a) and [Co(PCP-tBu)Cl] (2b), respectively, react readily with NaBH4 to afford complexes [Co(PCPMe-iPr)(η2-BH4)] (4a) and [Co(PCP-tBu)(η2-BH4)] (4b) in high yields, as confirmed by IR spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, and elemental analysis. The borohydride ligand is symmetrically bound to the cobalt center in η2-fashion. These compounds are paramagnetic with effective magnetic moments of 2.0(1) and 2.1(1) μB consistent with a d7 low-spin system corresponding to one unpaired electron. None of these complexes reacted with CO2 to give formate complexes. For structural and reactivity comparisons, we prepared the analogous Ni(II) borohydride complex [Ni(PCPMe-iPr)(η2-BH4)] (5) via two different synthetic routes. One utilizes [Ni(PCPMe-iPr)Cl] (3) and NaBH4, the second one makes use of the hydride complex [Ni(PCPMe-iPr)H] (6) and BH3·THF. In both cases, 5 is obtained in high yields. In contrast to 4a and 4b, the borohydride ligand is asymmetrically bound to the nickel center but still in an η2-mode. [Ni(PCPMe-iPr)(η2-BH4)] (5) loses readily BH3 at elevated temperatures in the presence of NEt3 to form 6. Complexes 5 and 6 are both diamagnetic and were characterized by a combination of 1H, 13C{1H}, and 31P{1H} NMR, IR spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. Additionally, the structure of these compounds was established by X-ray crystallography. Complexes 5 and 6 react with CO2 to give the formate complex [Ni(PCPMe-iPr)(OC(C=O)H] (7). The extrusion of BH3 from [Co(PCPMe-iPr)(η2-BH4)] (4a) and [Ni(PCPMe-iPr)(η2-BH4)] (5) with the aid of NH3 to yield the respective hydride complexes [Co(PCPMe-iPr)H] and [Ni(PCPMe-iPr)H] (6) and BH3NH3 was investigated by DFT calculations showing that formation of the Ni hydride is thermodynamically favorable, whereas the formation of the Co(II) hydride, in agreement with the experiment, is unfavorable. The electronic structures and the bonding of the borohydride ligand in [Co

  10. Synthesis, Structure, and Reactivity of Co(II) and Ni(II) PCP Pincer Borohydride Complexes.

    PubMed

    Murugesan, Sathiyamoorthy; Stöger, Berthold; Weil, Matthias; Veiros, Luis F; Kirchner, Karl

    2015-04-13

    The 15e square-planar complexes [Co(PCP(Me)-iPr)Cl] (2a) and [Co(PCP-tBu)Cl] (2b), respectively, react readily with NaBH4 to afford complexes [Co(PCP(Me)-iPr)(η(2)-BH4)] (4a) and [Co(PCP-tBu)(η(2)-BH4)] (4b) in high yields, as confirmed by IR spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, and elemental analysis. The borohydride ligand is symmetrically bound to the cobalt center in η(2)-fashion. These compounds are paramagnetic with effective magnetic moments of 2.0(1) and 2.1(1) μB consistent with a d(7) low-spin system corresponding to one unpaired electron. None of these complexes reacted with CO2 to give formate complexes. For structural and reactivity comparisons, we prepared the analogous Ni(II) borohydride complex [Ni(PCP(Me)-iPr)(η(2)-BH4)] (5) via two different synthetic routes. One utilizes [Ni(PCP(Me)-iPr)Cl] (3) and NaBH4, the second one makes use of the hydride complex [Ni(PCP(Me)-iPr)H] (6) and BH3·THF. In both cases, 5 is obtained in high yields. In contrast to 4a and 4b, the borohydride ligand is asymmetrically bound to the nickel center but still in an η(2)-mode. [Ni(PCP(Me)-iPr)(η(2)-BH4)] (5) loses readily BH3 at elevated temperatures in the presence of NEt3 to form 6. Complexes 5 and 6 are both diamagnetic and were characterized by a combination of (1)H, (13)C{(1)H}, and (31)P{(1)H} NMR, IR spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. Additionally, the structure of these compounds was established by X-ray crystallography. Complexes 5 and 6 react with CO2 to give the formate complex [Ni(PCP(Me)-iPr)(OC(C=O)H] (7). The extrusion of BH3 from [Co(PCP(Me)-iPr)(η(2)-BH4)] (4a) and [Ni(PCP(Me)-iPr)(η(2)-BH4)] (5) with the aid of NH3 to yield the respective hydride complexes [Co(PCP(Me)-iPr)H] and [Ni(PCP(Me)-iPr)H] (6) and BH3NH3 was investigated by DFT calculations showing that formation of the Ni hydride is thermodynamically favorable, whereas the formation of the Co(II) hydride, in agreement with the experiment, is unfavorable. The electronic structures and

  11. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) accumulation by earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed to biosolids-, polyurethane foam microparticle-, and Penta-BDE-amended soils.

    PubMed

    Gaylor, Michael O; Harvey, Ellen; Hale, Robert C

    2013-12-03

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants have been used in consumer polymers at up to percent levels. While long viewed as biologically inaccessible therein, PBDEs may become bioaccessible following volatilization or polymer deterioration. PBDEs may then enter soils via polymer fragmentation or following land application of sewage sludge-derived biosolids. Studies of direct PBDE uptake from these materials by soil organisms are scarce. We thus exposed earthworms ( Eisenia fetida ) to artificial soil amended with a Class B anaerobically digested biosolid (ADB), an exceptional quality composted biosolid (CB), PBDE-containing polyurethane foam (PUF) microparticles, and Penta-BDE-spiked artificial soil (SAS). Worms accumulated mg/kg (lipid) ∑Penta-PBDE burdens from all substrates. Biota-soil accumulation factors (BSAFs) for worms exposed to ADB- and CB-amended soils were comparable after 28 d. BSAFs generally decreased with increasing congener KOW and substrate dosage. Biosolids-associated PBDE bioavailability was lower than spiked PBDEs. BSAFs for worms exposed to PUF microparticles ranged from 3.9 to 33.4, with ∑Penta-PBDE tissue burdens reaching 3740 mg/kg lipid. Congener accumulation patterns were similar in worms and polyethylene passive sampling devices immersed in ADB-amended soil coincident with exposed worms. However, passive sampler accumulation factors were lower than BSAFs. Our results demonstrate that PBDEs may accumulate in organisms ingesting soils containing biosolids or waste plastics. Such organisms may then transfer their burdens to predators or translocate them from the site of application/disposal.

  12. Secondary ligand-directed assembly of Co(II) coordination polymers based on a pyridine carboxylate ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Ke-Li; Zhang, Yi-Ping; Cai, Yi-Ni; Xu, Xiao-Wei; Feng, Yun-Long

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the influence of hydrogen bonds and secondary ligands on the structures and properties of the resulting frameworks, five new Co(II) compounds have been synthesized by the reactions of Co(II) salts and 3,5-bis(pyridin-4-ylmethoxy)benzoic acid (HL) with four rationally selected dicarboxylic acid ligands. Without secondary ligand, we got one compound [CoL{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n}·2nH{sub 2}O (1), which possesses a 1D chain structure. In the presence of ancillary ligands, namely, 1,3-adamantanedicarboxylic acid (H{sub 2}adbc), terephthalic acid (H{sub 2}tpa), thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (H{sub 2}tdc) and 1,4-benzenedithioacetic acid (H{sub 2}bdtc), four 3D structures [Co{sub 2}L{sub 2}(adbc)]{sub n}·nH{sub 2}O (2), [Co{sub 2}L{sub 2}(tpa)]{sub n} (3), [Co{sub 2}L{sub 2}(tdc)]{sub n} (4), [Co{sub 2}L{sub 2}(bdtc)(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (5) were obtained, respectively. It can be observed from the architectures of 1–5 that hydrogen bonds and secondary ligands both have great effects on the spatial connective fashions, resulting in the formation of various dimensional compounds. The XRPD, TGA data of title polymers and the magnetic properties for 2 and 5 have also been investigated. - Graphical abstract: The structural differences show that the ancillary ligands have great effects on the spatial connective fashions, resulting in the formation of various dimensional compounds. - Highlights: • Five new Co(II) coordination polymers have been synthesized by solvothermal reactions based on 3,5-bis(pyridin-4-ylmethoxy)benzoic acid (HL). • The long-flexible ligand (HL) is a good candidate to produce interpenetrating architectures. • The secondary dicarboxylic acid ligands play important roles in the spatial connective fashions and the formation of various dimensional compounds. • The magnetism studies show that both 2 and 5 exhibit antiferromagnetic interactions.

  13. Tetranuclear {Co(II)2Co(III)2}, Octanuclear {Co(II)4Co(III)4}, and Hexanuclear {Co(III)3Dy(III)3} Pivalate Clusters: Synthesis, Magnetic Characterization, and Theoretical Modeling.

    PubMed

    Radu, Ioana; Kravtsov, Victor Ch; Ostrovsky, Serghei M; Reu, Oleg S; Krämer, Karl; Decurtins, Silvio; Liu, Shi-Xia; Klokishner, Sophia I; Baca, Svetlana G

    2017-03-06

    New tetranuclear and octanuclear mixed-valent cobalt(II/III) pivalate clusters, namely, [NaCo4(O2CCMe3)6(HO2CCMe3)2(teaH)2(N3)]·2H2O (in two polymorphic modifications, 1 and 1a) and [Co8(O2CCMe3)10(teaH)4(N3)](Me3CCO2)·MeCN·H2O (2) have been synthesized by ultrasonic treatment of a dinuclear cobalt(II) pivalate precursor with sodium azide and triethanolamine (teaH3) ligand in acetonitrile. The use of Dy(NO3)3·6H2O in a similar reaction led to the precipitation of a tetranuclear [NaCo4(O2CCMe3)4(teaH)2(N3)(NO3)2(H2O)2]·H2O (3) cluster and a heterometallic hexanuclear [Co3Dy3(OH)4(O2CCMe3)6(teaH)3(H2O)3](NO3)2·H2O (4) cluster. Single-crystal X-ray analysis showed that 1 (1a) and 3 consist of a tetranuclear pivalate/teaH3 mixed-ligand cluster [Co(II)2Co(III)2(O2CCMe3)4(teaH)2(N3)](+) decorated with sodium pivalates [Na(O2CCMe3)2(HO2CCMe3)2](-) (1 or 1a) or sodium nitrates [Na(NO3)2](-) (3) to form a square-pyramidal assembly. In 2, the cationic [Co8(O2CCMe3)10(teaH)4(N3)](+) cluster comprises a mixed-valent {Co(II)4Co(III)4} core encapsulated by an azide, 4 teaH(2-) alcoholamine ligands, and 10 bridging pivalates. Remarkably, in this core, the μ4-N3(-) ligand joins all four Co(II) atoms. The heterometallic hexanuclear compound 4 consists of a cationic [Co(III)3Dy(III)3(OH)4(O2CCMe3)6(teaH)3(H2O)3](2+) cluster, two NO3(-) anions, and a crystallization water molecule. The arrangement of metal atoms in 4 can be approximated as the assembly of a smaller equilateral triangle defined by three Dy sites with a Dy···Dy distance of 3.9 Å and a larger triangle formed by Co sites [Co···Co, 6.1-6.2 Å]. The interpretation of the magnetic properties of clusters 2-4 was performed in the framework of theoretical models, taking into account the structural peculiarities of clusters and their energy spectra. The behavior of clusters 2 and 3 containing Co(II) ions with orbitally nondegenerate ground states is determined by the zero-field splitting of these states and

  14. Determination of Co(II) in plant tissue by microwave digestion and ion chromatography coupled with luminol/perborate or luminol/percarbonate chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Murillo Pulgarín, José A; García Bermejo, Luisa F; Carrasquero Durán, Armando

    2011-01-01

    The cobalt is an essential element for leguminous plants but may be harmful for other species; for that reason determination of Co(II) is very important for the management of polluted areas and for discover plants with capacity for the hyperaccumulation of heavy metals, which has produced a growing necessity of fast, sensitive and selective analytical techniques. To develop an analytical procedure for the determination of cobalt in plant tissue by coupling the ionic chromatography to the luminol-based chemiluminescence detection. The sample was digested in a mixture of concentrated nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide, using an microwave oven to dissolve the Co(II). The solution containing Co(II) ions was injected to an ionic chromatograph using oxalic acid as the eluent. The detection was based on the catalytic effect of Co(II) on the luminol chemiluminescence using perborate or percarbonate as oxidants. Experimental variables, such as concentrations, pH, flow rates and acid digestion conditions were optimised. Well-resolved chromatographic peaks were obtained. The height and area showed linear dependences with the Co(II) concentration, which were used to quantify the heavy metal, with recoveries up to 95%. The microwave irradiation (60  s) was sufficient for the complete mineralisation of 200  mg of sample, employing 2  mL of the acid mixture. The method was free from the interferences, requiring less than 12 minutes to complete the analysis. The method was simple and rapid for the determination of cobalt in plant tissue with detection limits comparable to those obtained with more sophisticated and expensive analytical equipment. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Enhanced Delivery of Plasmid Encoding Interleukin-12 Gene by Diethylene Triamine Penta-Acetic Acid (DTPA)-Conjugated PEI Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dehshahri, Ali; Sadeghpour, Hossein; Keykhaee, Maryam; Khalvati, Bahman; Sheikhsaran, Fatemeh

    2016-05-01

    Recombinant therapeutic proteins have been considered as an efficient category of medications used for the treatment of various diseases. Despite their effectiveness, there are some reports on the systemic adverse effects of recombinant therapeutic proteins limiting their wide clinical applications. Among different cytokines used for cancer immunotherapy, interleukin-12 (IL-12) has shown great ability as a powerful antitumor and antiangiogenic agent. However, significant toxic reactions following the systemic administration of IL-12 have led researchers to seek for alternative approaches such as the delivery and local expression of the IL-12 gene inside the tumor tissues. In order to transfer the plasmid encoding IL-12 gene, the most extensively investigated polycationic polymer, polyethylenimine (PEI), was modified by diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) to modulate the hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance of the polymer as well as its toxicity. DTPA-conjugated PEI derivatives were able to form complexes in the size range around 100-180 nm with great condensation ability and protection of the plasmid against enzymatic degradation. The highest gene transfer ability was achieved by the DTPA-conjugated PEI at the conjugation degree of 0.1 % where the level of IL-12 production increased up to twofold compared with that of the unmodified PEI. Results of the present study demonstrated that modulation of the surface positive charge of PEI along with the improvement of the polymer hydrophobic balance could be considered as a successful strategy to develop safe and powerful nanocarriers.

  16. Anti-cancer, anti-diabetic and other pharmacologic and biological activities of penta-galloyl-glucose

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinhui; Li, Li; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Hagerman, Ann E.; Lü, Junxuan

    2010-01-01

    1, 2, 3, 4, 6-penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose (PGG) is a polyphenolic compound highly enriched in a number of medicinal herbals. Several in vitro and a handful of in vivo studies have shown that PGG exhibits multiple biological activities which implicate a great potential for PGG in the therapy and prevention of several major diseases including cancer and diabetes. Chemically and functionally, PGG appears to be distinct from its constituent gallic acid or tea polyphenols. For anti-cancer activity, three published in vivo preclinical cancer model studies with PGG support promising efficacy to selectively inhibit malignancy without host toxicity. Potential mechanisms include anti-angiogenesis, anti-proliferative actions through inhibition of DNA replicative synthesis and S-phase arrest and also G1 arrest, induction of apoptosis, anti-inflammation and anti-oxidation. Putative molecular targets include p53, Stat3, Cox-2, VEGFR1, AP-1, SP-1, Nrf-2 and MMP-9. For anti-diabetic activity, PGG and analogues appear to improve glucose uptake. However, very little is known about the absorption, pharmacokinetics and metabolism of PGG, nor its toxicity profile. The lack of large quantity of highly pure PGG has been a bottleneck limiting in vivo validation of cancer preventive and therapeutic efficacies in clinically relevant models. PMID:19575286

  17. Pyrenophoric acid, a phytotoxic sesquiterpenoid penta-2,4-dienoic acid produced by a potential mycoherbicide, Pyrenophora semeniperda.

    PubMed

    Masi, Marco; Meyer, Susan; Cimmino, Alessio; Andolfi, Anna; Evidente, Antonio

    2014-04-25

    A new phytotoxic sesquiterpenoid penta-2,4-dienoic acid, named pyrenophoric acid, was isolated from solid wheat seed culture of Pyrenophora semeniperda, a fungal pathogen proposed as a mycoherbicide for biocontrol of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) and other annual bromes. These bromes are serious weeds in winter cereals and also on temperate semiarid rangelands. Pyrenophoric acid was characterized as (2Z,4E)-5-[(7S,9S,10R,12R)-3,4-dihydroxy-2,2,6-trimethylcyclohexyl)]-3-methylpenta-2,4-dienoic acid by spectroscopic and chemical methods. The relative stereochemistry of pyrenophoric acid was assigned using 1H,1H couplings and NOESY experiments, while its absolute configuration was determined by applying the advanced Mosher's method. Pyrenophoric acid is structurally quite closely related to the plant growth regulator abscisic acid. When bioassayed in a cheatgrass coleoptile elongation test at 10(-3) M, pyrenophoric acid showed strong phytotoxicity, reducing coleoptile elongation by 51% relative to the control. In a mixture at 10(-4) M, its negative effect on coleoptile elongation was additive with that of cytochalasin B, another phytotoxic compound found in the wheat seed culture extract of this fungus, demonstrating that the extract toxicity observed in earlier studies was due to the combined action of multiple phytotoxic compounds.

  18. Spectroscopic evaluation of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes derived from thiosemicarbazone and semicarbazone.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Sulekh; Kumar, Anil

    2007-12-31

    Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes were synthesized with thiosemicarbazone (L(1)) and semicarbazone (L(2)) derived from 2-acetyl furan. These complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic moment, mass, IR, electronic and EPR spectral studies. The molar conductance measurement of the complexes in DMSO corresponds to non-electrolytic nature. All the complexes are of high-spin type. On the basis of different spectral studies six coordinated geometry may be assigned for all the complexes except Co(L)(2)(SO(4)) and Cu(L)(2)(SO(4)) [where L=L(1) and L(2)] which are of five coordinated square pyramidal geometry.

  19. Charge Control in Two Isostructural Anionic/Cationic Co(II) Coordination Frameworks for Enhanced Acetylene Capture.

    PubMed

    Chen, Di-Ming; Tian, Jia-Yue; Liu, Chun-Sen; Chen, Min; Du, Miao

    2016-10-10

    Two isostructural Co(II) -based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with the opposite framework charges have been constructed, which can be simply controlled by changing the tetrazolyl or triazolyl terminal in two bifunctional ligands. Notably, the cationic MOF 2 can adsorb much more C2 H2 than the anionic MOF 1 with an increase of 88 % for C2 H2 uptake at 298 K in spite of more active nitrogen sites in 1. Theoretical calculations indicate that both nitrate and triazolyl play vital roles in C2 H2 binding and the C2 H2 adsorption isotherm confirms that the enhanced C2 H2 uptake for 2 (225 and 163 cm(3) g(-1) at 273 and 298 K) is exceptionally high for MOF materials without open metal sites or uncoordinated polar atom groups on the frameworks. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Crystal structures of bis­[(9S,13S,14S)-3-meth­oxy-17-methyl­morphinanium] tetra­chlorido­cobaltate and tetra­chlorido­cuprate

    PubMed Central

    Gauchat, Eric; Nazarenko, Alexander Y.

    2017-01-01

    (9S,13S,14S)-3-Meth­oxy-17-methyl­morphinan (dextromethorphan) forms two isostructural salts with (a) tetra­chlorido­cobaltate, namely bis­[(9S,13S,14S)-3-meth­oxy-17-methyl­morphinanium] tetra­chlorido­cobaltate, (C18H26NO)2[CoCl4], and (b) tetra­chlorido­cuprate, namely bis­[(9S,13S,14S)-3-meth­oxy-17-methyl­morphinanium] tetra­chlorido­cuprate, (C18H26NO)2[CuCl4]. The distorted tetra­hedral anions are located on twofold rotational axes. The dextromethorphan cation can be described as being composed of two ring systems, a tetra­hydro­naphthalene system A+B and a deca­hydro­isoquinolinium subunit C+D, that are nearly perpendicular to one another: the angle between mean planes of the A+B and C+D moieties is 78.8 (1)° for (a) and 79.0 (1)° for (b). Two symmetry-related cations of protonated dextromethorphan are connected to the tetra­chlorido­cobaltate (or tetra­chlorido­cuprate) anions via strong N—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds, forming neutral ion associates. These associates are packed in the (001) plane with no strong attractive bonding between them. Both compounds are attractive crystalline forms for unambiguous identification of the dextromethorphan and, presumably, of its optical isomer, levomethorphan. PMID:28083138

  1. Magnetic anisotropy of a Co(II) single ion magnet with distorted trigonal prismatic coordination: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yan; Bodenstein, Tilmann; Fink, Karin; Mereacre, Valeriu; Anson, Christopher E; Powell, Annie K

    2016-11-02

    The single ion magnetic properties of Co(ii) are affected by the details of the coordination geometry of the ion. Here we show that a geometry close to trigonal prismatic which arises when the ligand 6,6'-((1Z)-((piperazine-1,4-diylbis(propane-3,1-diyl))bis(azanylylidene))bis(methanylylidene))bis(2-methoxyphenol) coordinates to Co(ii) does indeed lead to enhanced single-ion behaviour as has previously been predicted. Synthesis of the compound, structural information, and static as well as dynamic magnetic data are presented along with an analysis using quantum chemical ab initio calculations. Though the complex shows a slight deviation from an ideal trigonal prismatic coordination, the zero-field splitting as well as the g-tensor are strongly axial with D = -41 cm(-1) and E < 0.01 cm(-1). For the lowest Kramers doublet (S = 1/2) g∥ = 7.86 and g⊥ < 0.05 were found. In contrast, the second Kramers doublet possesses a rhombic g-tensor with g∥ = 2.75 and g⊥ = 4.35. Due to large spin-orbit coupling resulting in very different g tensors, it is not possible to simulate the temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility with a spin Hamiltonian of the form H = D(Sz(2) - S(S + 1)/3) + E(Sx(2) - Sy(2)) + μBgS·B using an effective spin S = 3/2. Calculations on model complexes show the influence of the coordinating atoms and the deviation from the ideal trigonal prismatic coordination. As the distortion is reduced towards idealised D3h, the zero field splitting increases and the g-tensor of the second Kramers doublet also becomes axial.

  2. Detection of mitochondrial COII DNA sequences in ant guts as a method for assessing termite predation by ants.

    PubMed

    Fayle, Tom M; Scholtz, Olivia; Dumbrell, Alex J; Russell, Stephen; Segar, Simon T; Eggleton, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Termites and ants contribute more to animal biomass in tropical rain forests than any other single group and perform vital ecosystem functions. Although ants prey on termites, at the community level the linkage between these groups is poorly understood. Thus, assessing the distribution and specificity of ant termitophagy is of considerable interest. We describe an approach for quantifying ant-termite food webs by sequencing termite DNA (cytochrome c oxidase subunit II, COII) from ant guts and apply this to a soil-dwelling ant community from tropical rain forest in Gabon. We extracted DNA from 215 ants from 15 species. Of these, 17.2 % of individuals had termite DNA in their guts, with BLAST analysis confirming the identity of 34.1 % of these termites to family level or better. Although ant species varied in detection of termite DNA, ranging from 63 % (5/7; Camponotus sp. 1) to 0 % (0/7; Ponera sp. 1), there was no evidence (with small sample sizes) for heterogeneity in termite consumption across ant taxa, and no evidence for species-specific ant-termite predation. In all three ant species with identifiable termite DNA in multiple individuals, multiple termite species were represented. Furthermore, the two termite species that were detected on multiple occasions in ant guts were in both cases found in multiple ant species, suggesting that ant-termite food webs are not strongly compartmentalised. However, two ant species were found to consume only Anoplotermes-group termites, indicating possible predatory specialisation at a higher taxonomic level. Using a laboratory feeding test, we were able to detect termite COII sequences in ant guts up to 2 h after feeding, indicating that our method only detects recent feeding events. Our data provide tentative support for the hypothesis that unspecialised termite predation by ants is widespread and highlight the use of molecular approaches for future studies of ant-termite food webs.

  3. Detection of Mitochondrial COII DNA Sequences in Ant Guts as a Method for Assessing Termite Predation by Ants

    PubMed Central

    Fayle, Tom M.; Scholtz, Olivia; Dumbrell, Alex J.; Russell, Stephen; Segar, Simon T.; Eggleton, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Termites and ants contribute more to animal biomass in tropical rain forests than any other single group and perform vital ecosystem functions. Although ants prey on termites, at the community level the linkage between these groups is poorly understood. Thus, assessing the distribution and specificity of ant termitophagy is of considerable interest. We describe an approach for quantifying ant-termite food webs by sequencing termite DNA (cytochrome c oxidase subunit II, COII) from ant guts and apply this to a soil-dwelling ant community from tropical rain forest in Gabon. We extracted DNA from 215 ants from 15 species. Of these, 17.2 % of individuals had termite DNA in their guts, with BLAST analysis confirming the identity of 34.1 % of these termites to family level or better. Although ant species varied in detection of termite DNA, ranging from 63 % (5/7; Camponotus sp. 1) to 0 % (0/7; Ponera sp. 1), there was no evidence (with small sample sizes) for heterogeneity in termite consumption across ant taxa, and no evidence for species-specific ant-termite predation. In all three ant species with identifiable termite DNA in multiple individuals, multiple termite species were represented. Furthermore, the two termite species that were detected on multiple occasions in ant guts were in both cases found in multiple ant species, suggesting that ant-termite food webs are not strongly compartmentalised. However, two ant species were found to consume only Anoplotermes-group termites, indicating possible predatory specialisation at a higher taxonomic level. Using a laboratory feeding test, we were able to detect termite COII sequences in ant guts up to 2 h after feeding, indicating that our method only detects recent feeding events. Our data provide tentative support for the hypothesis that unspecialised termite predation by ants is widespread and highlight the use of molecular approaches for future studies of ant-termite food webs. PMID:25853549

  4. 40 CFR 721.5225 - Naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetra- hy-dro(1-phenylethyl) (specific name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetra- hy-dro(1... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5225 Naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetra- hy-dro(1-phenylethyl... substance naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetrahydro(1-phenylethyl) (PMN P-85-1331) is subject to reporting under this...

  5. 40 CFR 721.5225 - Naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetra- hy-dro(1-phenylethyl) (specific name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetra- hy-dro(1... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5225 Naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetra- hy-dro(1-phenylethyl... substance naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetrahydro(1-phenylethyl) (PMN P-85-1331) is subject to reporting under this...

  6. 40 CFR 721.5225 - Naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetra- hy-dro(1-phenylethyl) (specific name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetra- hy-dro(1... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5225 Naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetra- hy-dro(1-phenylethyl... substance naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetrahydro(1-phenylethyl) (PMN P-85-1331) is subject to reporting under this...

  7. 40 CFR 721.5225 - Naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetra- hy-dro(1-phenylethyl) (specific name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetra- hy-dro(1... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5225 Naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetra- hy-dro(1-phenylethyl... substance naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetrahydro(1-phenylethyl) (PMN P-85-1331) is subject to reporting under this...

  8. 40 CFR 721.5225 - Naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetra- hy-dro(1-phenylethyl) (specific name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetra- hy-dro(1... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5225 Naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetra- hy-dro(1-phenylethyl... substance naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetrahydro(1-phenylethyl) (PMN P-85-1331) is subject to reporting under this...

  9. Bis(2-amino­benzonitrile)tetra­aqua­cobalt(II) dichloride

    PubMed Central

    Ru, Zong-Ling; Wang, Guo-Xi

    2009-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, [Co(C7H6N2)2(H2O)4]Cl2, the CoII cation lies on an inversion center and is coordinated by two 2-amino­benzonitrile ligands and four water mol­ecules in a distorted octa­hedral geometry. The Cl− counter-anion links with the complex cations via O—H⋯Cl and N—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonding. Inter­molecular O—H⋯N hydrogen bonding links the complex cations, forming supra­molecular chains running along the b axis. PMID:21578693

  10. Tetra­hydro­berberine, a pharmacologically active naturally occurring alkaloid

    PubMed Central

    Pingali, Subramanya; Donahue, James P.; Payton-Stewart, Florastina

    2015-01-01

    Tetra­hydro­berberine (systematic name: 9,10-dimeth­oxy-5,8,13,13a-tetra­hydro-6H-benzo[g][1,3]benzodioxolo[5,6-a]quinolizine), C20H21NO4, a widely distributed naturally occurring alkaloid, has been crystallized as a racemic mixture about an inversion center. A bent conformation of the mol­ecule is observed, with an angle of 24.72 (5)° between the arene rings at the two ends of the reduced quinolizinium core. The inter­molecular hydrogen bonds that play an apparent role in crystal packing are 1,3-benzodioxole –CH2⋯OCH3 and –OCH3⋯OCH3 inter­actions between neighboring mol­ecules. PMID:25836282

  11. G4-Tetra DNA Duplex Induce Lung Cancer Cell Apoptosis in A549 Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaobo; Zhao, YiZhuo; Lu, Hu; Fu, Cuiping; Li, Xiao; Jiang, Liyan; Li, Shanqun

    2016-10-01

    The specific DNA is typically impermeable to the plasma membrane due to its natural characters, but DNA tetra structures (DTNs) can be readily uptake by cells in the absence of transfection agents, providing a new strategy to deliver DNA drugs. In this research, the delivery efficiency of tetrahedral DNA nanostructures was measured on adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial (A549) cells via delivering AS1411 (G4). The DNA tetra-AS1411 complex was rapidly and abundantly uptake by A549 cells, and the induced apoptosis was enhanced. Furthermore, biodistribution in mouse proved the rapid clearance from non-targeted organs in vivo. This study improved the understanding of potential function in DNA-based drug delivery and proved that DTNs-AS1411 could be potentially useful for the treatment of lung cancer.

  12. Spectral, photophysical and photochemical properties of tetra- and octaglycosylated zinc phthalocyanines.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Zafar; Masilela, Nkosiphile; Nyokong, Tebello; Lyubimtsev, Alexey; Hanack, Michael; Ziegler, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    Photophysical and photochemical properties of a series of tetra- and octaglycosylated zinc phthalocyanines (ZnPcs) substituted with glucose and galactose moieties have been reported. Spectral properties of these phthalocyanines are compared in DMSO. Absorption spectra of the non-peripherally tetra-substituted ZnPcs 2 showed a significant red shift in their Q-band maxima as compared to the peripherally substituted analog 1. All the complexes gave high triplet quantum yields ranging from 0.68 to 0.88, whereas triplet lifetimes were in the range of 100-430 μs in argon-saturated solutions. The octagalactosylated ZnPc 3b showed the highest triplet quantum yield and singlet oxygen quantum yield of 0.88 and 0.69, respectively. The fluorescence quantum yields and lifetimes of all the compounds under investigation were within the range of zinc phthalocyanine complexes.

  13. Di-methyl-ammonium tetra-aqua-(hydrogen-sulfato)-sulfato-cuprate(II).

    PubMed

    Held, Peter

    2014-04-01

    In the title salt, [(CH3)2NH2][Cu(HSO4)(SO4)(H2O)4], one type of cation and anion is present in the asymmetric unit. The Cu(II) atom in the complex anion, [Cu(HSO4)(SO4)(H2O)4](-), has a tetra-gonal bipyramidal [4 + 2] coordination caused by a Jahn-Teller distortion, with the aqua ligands in equatorial and two O atoms of tetra-hedral HSO4 and SO4 units in apical positions. Both types of ions form sheets parallel to (010). The inter-connection within and between the sheets is reinforced by O-H⋯O and N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, respectively, involving the water mol-ecules, the two types of sulfate anions and the ammonium groups.

  14. Crystal structure and dynamic NMR studies of octaacetyl-tetra(propyl)calix[4]resorcinarene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velásquez-Silva, Astrid; Cortés, Brian; Rivera-Monroy, Zuly J.; Pérez-Redondo, Adrián; Maldonado, Mauricio

    2017-06-01

    The reaction between C-tetra(propyl)calix[4]resorcinarene (1) and acetic anhydride in pyridine results in the formation of octaacetyl-tetra(propyl)calix[4]resorcinarene (2). The structure was determined using FT-IR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. The dynamic 1H-NMR of acetylated resorcinarene was studied by means of variable temperature in a CDCl3 solution and revealed that two conformers are formed in the solution. Boat conformations for acetylated resorcinarene exhibited a rapid interconversion at low temperatures, and the activation barrier for the pseudorotation was determined (54.72 kJmol-1). The acetylated resorcinarene 2 was also characterized by an X-ray crystal structure determination. This analysis indicated a boat configuration for the macrocycle skeleton in the solid state. Csbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonding interactions were observed in the packing of compound.

  15. 1-Butyl­quinine tetra­fluoro­borate

    PubMed Central

    Eltaief, Sana; Retailleau, Pascal; Straver, Leo; Ben Hassine, Béchir

    2010-01-01

    In the title salt (2S,4S,8R)-1-butyl-2-[(R)-(hydr­oxy)(6-methoxy­quinolin-4-yl)meth­yl]-8-vinyl­quinuclidin-1-ium tetra­fluoro­borate, C24H33N2O2 +·BF4 −, the butyl substituent at the 1-position is in an equatorial conformation with respect to the unsubstituted six-membered ring and the four butyl C atoms are almost coplanar with the ring N and vinyl C atoms (r.m.s. deviation = 0.046 Å). In the crystal, the cations are linked by O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds. The F atoms of the tetra­fluoro­borate group are disordered over two sets of site with an occupancy raitio of 0.552 (8):0.448 (8). PMID:21579717

  16. Disodium zinc bis­(sulfate) tetra­hydrate (zinc astrakanite) revisited

    PubMed Central

    Díaz de Vivar, M. Enriqueta; Baggio, Sergio; Ibáñez, Andrés; Baggio, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    We present a new low-temperature refinement of disodium zinc bis­(sulfate) tetra­hydrate {systematic name: poly[tetra-μ-aqua-di-μ-sulfato-zinc(II)disodium(I)]}, [Na2Zn(SO4)2(H2O)4]n or Zn astrakanite, which is an upgrade of previously reported data [Bukin & Nozik (1974 ▶). Zh. Strukt. Khim. 15, 712–716]. The compound is part of an isostructural family containing the Mg (the original astrakanite mineral), Co and Ni species. The very regular ZnO(aqua)4O(sulfate)2 octa­hedra lie on centres of symmetry, while the rather distorted NaO(aqua)2O(sulfate)4 octa­hedra appear at general positions, linked into a three-dimensional network by the bridging water mol­ecules and the fully coordinated sulfate groups. PMID:21202433

  17. A chelate complex-enhanced luminol system for selective determination of Co(II), Fe(II) and Cr(III).

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Min; Kim, Young Ho; Oh, Sang-Hyub; Lee, Sang Hak

    2013-01-01

    A determination method for Co(II), Fe(II) and Cr(III) ions by luminol-H2 O2 system using chelating reagents is presented. A metal ion-chelating ligand complex with a Co(II) ion and a chelating reagent like ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) produced highly enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) intensity as well as longer lifetime in the luminol-H2 O2 system compared to metals that exist as free ions. Whereas free Cu(II) and Pb(II) ions had a strong catalytic effect on the luminol-H2 O2 system, significantly, the complexes of Cu(II) and Pb(II) with chelating reagents lost their catalytic activity due to the chelating reagents acting as masking agents. Based on the observed phenomenon, it was possible to determine Co(II), Fe(II) and Cr(III) ions with enhanced sensitivity and selectivity using the chelating reagents of the luminol-H2 O2 system. The effects of ligand, H2 O2 concentration, pH, buffer solution and concentrations of chelating reagents on CL intensity of the luminol-H2 O2 system were investigated and optimized for the determination of Co(II), Fe(II) and Cr(III) ions. Under optimized conditions, the calibration curve of metal ions was linear over the range of 2.0 × 10(-8) to 2.0 × 10(-5) M for Co(II), 1.0 × 10(-7) to 2.0 × 10(-5) M for Fe (II) and 2.0 × 10(-7) to 1.0 × 10(-4) M for Cr(III). Limits of detection (3σ/s) were 1.2 × 10(-8) , 4.0 × 10(-8) and 1.2 × 10(-7) M for Co(II), Fe(II) and Cr(III), respectively. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. The complete mitochondrial genome of the silvertip tetra, Hasemania nana (Characiformes: Characidae).

    PubMed

    Xu, Ru; Zhao, Zi-Xia; Xu, Peng; Sun, Xiao-Wen

    2015-01-01

    We first sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of silvertip tetra (Hasemania nana). The mitogenome was determined to be 16,581 bp long circular molecule with a typical gene arrangement of vertebrate mitochondrial DNA. All genes were encoded on the heavy strand with the exception of ND6 and eight tRNA genes. Mitochondrial DNA information provided the basis for the studies in species identification and conservation of the species' natural resources.

  19. 2-[(2H-Tetra­zol-2-yl)meth­yl]benzonitrile

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Bin; Li, Yong-Xiu

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, C9H7N5, is non-planar with a dihedral angle between the substituted benzene and tetra­zole rings of 71.13 (9)°. Molecules are connected in centrosymmetric dimers by weak C—H⋯N inter­actions [C⋯N is 3.548 (5) Å]; these are the only interactions of significance in the crystal structure. PMID:21200788

  20. 4-[(2H-Tetra­zol-2-yl)meth­yl]benzonitrile

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Zheng; Qu, Zhi-Rong

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, C9H7N5, was synthesized by reaction of 4-(bromomethyl)benzonitrile and 2H-tetrazole in the presence of KOH. The relative orientation of the planar tetra­zole ring and the methyl­benzonitrile moiety is (−)-anti­clinal. The crystal packing is dominated by van der Waals inter­actions. PMID:21201472

  1. Sulfate selective anion recognition by a novel tetra-imidazolium zinc metalloporphyrin receptor.

    PubMed

    Cormode, David P; Murray, Sean S; Cowley, Andrew R; Beer, Paul D

    2006-11-21

    Imidazolium groups have been successfully incorporated into the structure of a "picket fence" porphyrin molecule to produce a novel tetra-imidazolium zinc metalloporphyrin anion receptor. UV/visible spectroscopic studies reveal that this receptor is selective for sulfate anions, capable of strongly complexing sulfate in competitive water-DMSO (5 : 95) solvent mixtures. Cyclic and square wave voltammetric studies demonstrate the receptor's ability to sense a variety of anions electrochemically.

  2. Intramolecular hydrogen bond, molecular structure and vibrational assignment of tetra-acetylethane. A density functional study.

    PubMed

    Raissi, Heidar; Nowroozi, Alireza; Mohammdi, Reza; Hakimi, Mohammad

    2006-11-01

    The intramolecular hydrogen bond, molecular structure and vibrational frequencies of tetra-acetylethane have been investigated by means of high-level density functional theory (DFT) methods with most popular basis sets. Fourier transform infrared and Fourier transform Raman spectra of this compound and its deuterated analogue were recorded in the regions 400-4000 cm(-1) and 40-4000 cm(-1), respectively. The calculated geometrical parameters of tetra-acetylethane were compared to the experimental results of this compound and its parent molecule (acetylacetone), obtained from X-ray diffraction. The O...O distance in tetra-acetylethane, about 2.424A, suggests that the hydrogen bond in this compound is stronger than acetylacetone. This conclusion is well supported by the NMR proton chemical shifts and O-H stretching mode at 2626 cm(-1). Furthermore, the calculated hydrogen bond energy in the title compound is 17.22 kcal/mol, which is greater than the acetylacetone value. On the other hand, the results of theoretical calculations show that the bulky substitution in alpha-position of acetylacetone results in an increase of the conjugation of pi electrons in the chelate ring. Finally, we applied the atoms in molecules (AIM) theory and natural bond orbital method (NBO) for detail analyzing the hydrogen bond in tetra-acetylethane and acetylacetone. These results are in agreement with the vibrational spectra interpretation and quantum chemical calculation results. Also, the conformations of methyl groups with respect to the plane of the molecule and with respect to each other were investigated.

  3. Crystal structure, conformational analysis, and molecular dynamics of tetra-0-methyl-(+)-catechin

    Treesearch

    Frank R. Fronczek; Richard W. Hemingway; G. Wayne McGraw; Jan P. Steynberg; Carin A. Helfer; Wayne L. Mattice

    1993-01-01

    The structure of tetra-O-methyl-(+)-catechin has been determined in the crystalline state. Two independent molecules, denoted structure A and structure B, exist in the unit cell. Crystals are triclinic, space group P1, a=4.8125(2) Ǻ, b=12.9148(8) Ǻ, c=13.8862(11) Ǻ, α=86.962(6)°, β=89.120(5)°, γ=...

  4. cyclo-Tetra-μ-oxido-tetra­kis­[(acetyl­acetonato-κ2 O,O′)bis­(ethano­lato-κO)niobium(V)

    PubMed Central

    Herbst, Leandra; Visser, Hendrik G.; Roodt, Andreas; Muller, Theunis J.

    2011-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title tetra­nuclear niobium(V) compound, [Nb4(C2H5O)8(C5H7O2)4O4], contains two NbV atoms, two bridging O atoms, two acetyl­acetonate and four ethano­late ligands. Each NbV atom is six-coordinated by the bridging O atoms, two ethano­late and one chelating acetyl­acetonate ligands. The Nb—O distances vary between 1.817 (2) and 2.201 (2) Å and the O—Nb—O angles vary between 78.88 (8) and 102.78 (9)°, illustrating the significant distortion from ideal ocahedral geometry. The rest of the tetra­nuclear unit is generated through an inversion centre. The C atoms of two of the ethano­late mol­ecules are disordered over two sites [occupancy ratio 0.601 (12):0.399 (12)]. PMID:22199493

  5. Crystal structures of two cross-bridged chromium(III) tetra­aza­macrocycles

    PubMed Central

    Prior, Timothy J.; Maples, Danny L.; Maples, Randall D.; Hoffert, Wesley A.; Parsell, Trenton H.; Silversides, Jon D.; Archibald, Stephen J.; Hubin, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    The crystal structure of di­chlorido­(4,10-dimethyl-1,4,7,10-tetra­aza­bicyclo­[5.5.2]tetra­deca­ne)chromium(III) hexa­fluorido­phosphate, [CrCl2(C12H26N4)]PF6, (I), has monoclinic symmetry (space group P21/n) at 150 K. The structure of the related di­chlorido­(4,11-dimethyl-1,4,8,11-tetra­aza­bicyclo­[6.6.2]hexa­deca­ne)chromium(III) hexa­fluorido­phosphate, [CrCl2(C14H30N4)]PF6, (II), also displays monoclinic symmetry (space group P21/c) at 150 K. In each case, the CrIII ion is hexa­coordinate with two cis chloride ions and two non-adjacent N atoms bound cis equatorially and the other two non-adjacent N atoms bound trans axially in a cis-V conformation of the macrocycle. The extent of the distortion from the preferred octa­hedral coordination geometry of the CrIII ion is determined by the parent macrocycle ring size, with the larger cross-bridged cyclam ring in (II) better able to accommodate this preference and the smaller cross-bridged cyclen ring in (I) requiring more distortion away from octa­hedral geometry. PMID:25309165

  6. Epalrestat tetra-hydro-furan monosolvate: crystal structure and phase transition.

    PubMed

    Umeda, Daiki; Putra, Okky Dwichandra; Gunji, Mihoko; Fukuzawa, Kaori; Yonemochi, Etsuo

    2017-07-01

    The title compound, epalrestat {systematic name: (5Z)-5-[(2E)-2-methyl-3-phenyl-prop-2-en-1-yl-idene]-4-oxo-2-sulfanyl-idene-1,3-thia-zolidine-3-acetic acid}, crystallized as a tetra-hydro-furan monosolvate, C15H13NO3S2·C4H8O. Epalrestat, an important drug for diabetic neuropathy, has been reported to exist in polymphic, solvated and co-crystal forms. In the mol-ecule reported here, the phenyl ring is inclined to the rhodamine ring by 22.31 (9)°, and the acetic acid group is almost normal to the rhodamine ring, making a dihedral angle of 88.66 (11)°. In the crystal, pairs of O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds are observed between the carb-oxy-lic acid groups of epalerstat mol-ecules, forming inversion dimers with an R2(2)(8) loop. The dimers are linked by pairs of C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming chains along [101]. The solvate mol-ecules are linked to the chain by a C-H⋯O(tetra-hydro-furan) hydrogen bond. A combination of thermal analysis and powder X-ray diffraction revealed that title compound desolvated into epalerstat Form II. One C atom of the tetra-hydro-furan solvate mol-ecule is positionally disordered and has a refined occupancy ratio of 0.527 (18):0.473 (18).

  7. TetraMag: A compact magnetizing device based on eight rotating permanent magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, M.; Mertins, H.-Ch.; Tesch, M.; Berges, O.; Feilbach, Herbert; Schneider, C. M.

    2012-02-01

    In this paper we describe a novel magnetizing device based on eight rotatable permanent magnets arranged in a quadrupolar configuration, which is termed the TetraMag. TetraMag creates stable and homogeneous magnetic fields at the sample position with a resolution of 0.02 mT tunable between -570 mT and +570 mT. The field direction is continuously rotatable between 0° and 360° within the sample plane, while the field strength is maintained. A simplified mathematical description of TetraMag is developed leading to magnetic field calculations which are in good agreement with the experimental results. This versatile device avoids electrical energy dissipation, cooling mechanisms, and hysteresis effects known from classical electromagnets. It is ultrahigh vacuum compatible and it offers a completely free optical path over 180° for magneto-optical experiments. It is suitable for scattering experiments with synchrotron radiation and neutrons and may be employed in a large class of magnetization experiments.

  8. Translation of mitochondrial swinger RNAs according to tri-, tetra- and pentacodons.

    PubMed

    Seligmann, Hervé

    2016-02-01

    Transcriptomes and proteomes include RNA and protein fragments not matching regular transcription/translation. Some 'non-canonical' mitochondrial transcripts match mitogenomes after assuming one among 23 systematic exchanges between nucleotides, producing swinger RNAs (nine symmetric, X↔Y, example C↔T; 14 asymmetric, X→Y→Z→X, example A→T→G→A) in GenBank's EST database. Here, reanalyzes of (a) public human mitochondrial transcriptome data (Illumina: RNA-seq) allowed to detect mitochondrial swinger RNAs for all 23 exchanges and (b) independent public human mitochondrial trypsinized proteomic mass spectrometry data allowed to detect peptides predicted from translation of parts of swinger-transformed mitogenomes covered by detected swinger reads. RNA-seq and previous EST swinger transcript data converge. Swinger RNA translation frequently inserts various amino acids at stop codons. Swinger RNA-peptide associations exist also for peptides matching systematically frameshifting translation, peptides entirely coded by tetra- and pentacodons (regular codons expanded by silent mononucleotides at 4th, and silent dinucleotides at 4th and 5th position(s), respectively). Swinger peptides differ from regular mitochondrial proteins: not membrane embedded, reflect warmer, anaerobic, low resource conditions, reminding a free-living ancestor. Tetra- and pentacoded peptides associate with low, high GC contents, respectively, suggesting expanded codon translations associate with thermic stresses. Results confirm experimentally predicted swinger, tetra- and pentacoded mitochondrial peptides, increasing mitogenomic coding density.

  9. Codon expansion and systematic transcriptional deletions produce tetra-, pentacoded mitochondrial peptides.

    PubMed

    Seligmann, Hervé

    2015-12-21

    Genes include occasionally isolated codons with a fourth (and fifth) silent nucleotide(s). Assuming tetracodons, translated hypothetical peptides align with regular GenBank proteins; predicted tetracodons coevolve with predicted tRNAs with expanded anticodons in each mammal, Drosophila and Lepidosauria mitogenomes, GC contents and with lepidosaurian body temperatures, suggesting that expanded codons are an adaptation of translation to high temperature. Hypothetically, continuous stretches of tetra- and pentacodons code for peptides. Both systematic nucleotide deletions during transcription, and translation by tRNAs with expanded anticodons could produce these peptides. Reanalyses of human nanoLc mass spectrometry peptidome data detect numerous tetra- and pentapeptides translated from the human mitogenome. These map preferentially on (BLAST-detected) human RNAs matching the human mitogenome, assuming systematic mono- and dinucleotide deletions after each third nucleotide (delRNAs). Translation by expanded anticodons is incompatible with silent nucleotides in the midst rather than at codon 3' extremity. More than 1/3 of detected tetra- and pentapeptides assume silent positions at codon extremity, suggesting that both mechanisms, regular translation of delRNAs and translation of regular RNAs by expanded anticodons, produce this peptide subgroup. Results show that systematically deleting polymerization occurs, and confirm serial translation of expanded codons. Non-canonical transcriptions and translations considerably expand the coding potential of DNA and RNA sequences.

  10. Enhanced NH3-Sensitivity of Reduced Graphene Oxide Modified by Tetra-α-Iso-Pentyloxymetallophthalocyanine Derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaocheng; Wang, Bin; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Xiaoqing; Chen, Zhimin; He, Chunying; Yu, Zheying; Wu, Yiqun

    2015-09-01

    Three kinds of novel hybrid materials were prepared by noncovalent functionalized reduced graphene oxide (rGO) with tetra-α-iso-pentyloxyphthalocyanine copper (CuPc), tetra-α-iso-pentyloxyphthalocyanine nickel (NiPc) and tetra-α-iso-pentyloxyphthalocyanine lead (PbPc) and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), Raman spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and atomic force microscope (AFM). The as-synthesized MPc/rGO hybrids show excellent NH3 gas-sensing performance with high response value and fast recovery time compared with bare rGO. The enhancement of the sensing response is mainly attributed to the synergism of gas adsorption of MPc to NH3 gas and conducting network of rGO with greater electron transfer efficiency. Strategies for combining the good properties of rGO and MPc derivatives will open new opportunities for preparing and designing highly efficient rGO chemiresistive gas-sensing hybrid materials for potential applications in gas sensor field.

  11. Guidelines for the tetra-primer ARMS-PCR technique development.

    PubMed

    Medrano, Ruan Felipe Vieira; de Oliveira, Camila Andréa

    2014-07-01

    The tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain (ARMS-PCR) reaction is a simple and economical method to genotype single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). It uses four primers in a single PCR and is followed just by gel electrophoresis. However, the optimization step can be very hardworking and time-consuming. Hence, we propose to demonstrate and discuss critical steps for its development, in a way to provide useful information. Two SNPs that provided different amplification conditions were selected. DNA extraction methods, annealing temperatures, PCR cycles protocols, reagents, and primers concentration were also analyzed. The use of tetra-primer ARMS-PCR could be impaired for SNPs in DNA regions rich in cytosine and guanine and for samples with DNA not purified. The melting temperature was considered the factor of greater interference. However, small changes in the reagents concentration significantly affect the PCR, especially MgCl2. Balancing the inner primers band is also a key step. So, in order to balance the inner primers band, intensity is important to observe which one has the weakest band and promote its band by increasing its concentration. The use of tetra-primer ARMS-PCR attends the expectations of modern genomic research and allows the study of SNPs in a fast, reliable, and low-cost way.

  12. Crystal structure of the thermochromic bis-(di-ethyl-ammonium) tetra-chlorido-cuprate(II) complex.

    PubMed

    Aldrich, Emily P; Bussey, Katherine A; Connell, Jennifer R; Reinhart, Erin F; Oshin, Kayode D; Mercado, Brandon Q; Oliver, Allen G

    2016-01-01

    In the structure of the title complex salt, (Et2NH2)2[CuCl4], the asymmetric unit consists of four unique di-ethyl-ammonium cations and three unique tetra-chlorido-cuprate anions. Two of the three anions are located with their copper atoms on independent crystallographic twofold axes, while the remaining tetra-chlorido-cuprate is located at a general position of the ortho-rhom-bic space group P21212. Two of the three Cu atoms adopt a distorted square-planar/disphenoidal geometry and the third Cu atom has a regular square-planar coordination environment. The di-ethyl-ammonium cations form an extensive hydrogen-bonded network through N-H⋯Cl inter-actions with the tetra-chlorido-cuprate anions, resulting in a two-dimensional sheet-like hydrogen-bonded network parallel to the ab direction. The complex was observed to undergo a color shift from deep green at room temperature to pale yellow at temperatures above 328 K.

  13. TetraMag: a compact magnetizing device based on eight rotating permanent magnets.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, M; Mertins, H-Ch; Tesch, M; Berges, O; Feilbach, Herbert; Schneider, C M

    2012-02-01

    In this paper we describe a novel magnetizing device based on eight rotatable permanent magnets arranged in a quadrupolar configuration, which is termed the TetraMag. TetraMag creates stable and homogeneous magnetic fields at the sample position with a resolution of 0.02 mT tunable between -570 mT and +570 mT. The field direction is continuously rotatable between 0° and 360° within the sample plane, while the field strength is maintained. A simplified mathematical description of TetraMag is developed leading to magnetic field calculations which are in good agreement with the experimental results. This versatile device avoids electrical energy dissipation, cooling mechanisms, and hysteresis effects known from classical electromagnets. It is ultrahigh vacuum compatible and it offers a completely free optical path over 180° for magneto-optical experiments. It is suitable for scattering experiments with synchrotron radiation and neutrons and may be employed in a large class of magnetization experiments.

  14. Pectin penta-oligogalacturonide reduces cholesterol accumulation by promoting bile acid biosynthesis and excretion in high-cholesterol-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ru-Gang; Sun, Yan-Di; Hou, Yu-Ting; Fan, Jun-Gang; Chen, Gang; Li, Tuo-Ping

    2017-06-25

    Haw pectin penta-oligogalacturonide (HPPS) has important role in improving cholesterol metabolism and promoting the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids (BA) in mice fed high-cholesterol diet (HCD). However, the mechanism is not clear. This study aims to investigate the effects of HPPS on cholesterol accumulation and the regulation of hepatic BA synthesis and transport in HCD-fed mice. Results showed that HPPS significantly decreased plasma and hepatic TC levels but increased plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) levels, compared to HCD. BA analysis showed that HPPS markedly decreased hepatic and small intestine BA levels but increased the gallbladder BA levels, and finally decreased the total BA pool size, compared to HCD. Studies of molecular mechanism revealed that HPPS promoted hepatic ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1), and scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) expression but did not affect ATB binding cassette transporter G5/G8 (ABCG5/8) expression. HPPS inactivated hepatic farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and target genes expression, which resulted in significant increase of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase 1 (CYP7A1) and sterol 12α-hydroxylase (CYP8B1) expression, with up-regulations of 204.2% and 33.5% for mRNA levels, respectively, compared with HCD. In addition, HPPS markedly enhanced bile salt export pump (BSEP) expression but didn't affect the sodium/taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP) expression. In conclusion, the study revealed that HPPS reduced cholesterol accumulation by promoting BA synthesis in the liver and excretion in the feces, and might promote macrophage-to-liver reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) but did not liver-to-fecal RCT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Anti-cancer gallotannin penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose is a nanomolar inhibitor of select mammalian DNA polymerases.

    PubMed

    Mizushina, Yoshiyuki; Zhang, Jinhui; Pugliese, Angelo; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Lü, Junxuan

    2010-10-15

    Penta-1,2,3,4,6-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (PGG) has been shown by us and others to inhibit the in vivo growth of human prostate cancer (PCa) xenografts in athymic nude mice and mouse lung cancer allograft in syngenic mice without evident adverse effect on their body weight. We observed a rapid inhibition of DNA synthesis in S-phase cells in PGG-exposed cancer cells and in PGG-treated isolated nuclei. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that PGG inhibits DNA replicative synthesis through a direct inhibition of one or more DNA polymerases (pols). Using purified pols, we show that PGG exhibited a selective inhibition against the activities of B-family replicative pols (alpha, delta and epsilon) and Y-family (eta, iota and kappa) of bypass synthesis pols, and the inhibitory effect of PGG on pol alpha was the strongest with IC(50) value of 13 nM. PGG also inhibited pol beta, but the potency was an order of magnitude less than against pol alpha. PGG inhibition of pol alpha and kappa activity was non-competitive with respect to the DNA template-primer and the dNTP substrate; whereas it inhibited pol beta competitively. Docking simulation on pol beta, which is the only mammalian pol with solved crystal structure, suggests several favorable interactions with the catalytic pocket/binding site for the incoming dNTP. These results support PGG as a novel inhibitor of select families of mammalian pols by distinct mechanisms, and suggest that the potent pol inhibition may contribute to its anti-cancer efficacy.

  16. Crystal structure of calcium-free human sorcin: a member of the penta-EF-hand protein family.

    PubMed

    Xie, X; Dwyer, M D; Swenson, L; Parker, M H; Botfield, M C

    2001-12-01

    Sorcin is a 22 kD calcium-binding protein that is found in a wide variety of cell types, such as heart, muscle, brain and adrenal medulla. It belongs to the penta-EF-hand (PEF) protein family, which contains five EF-hand motifs that associate with membranes in a calcium-dependent manner. Prototypic members of this family are the calcium-binding domains of calpain, such as calpain dVI. Full-length human sorcin has been crystallized in the absence of calcium and the structure determined at 2.2 A resolution. Apart from an extended N-terminal portion, the sorcin molecule has a globular shape. The C-terminal domain is predominantly alpha-helical, containing eight alpha-helices and connecting loops incorporating five EF hands. Sorcin forms dimers through the association of the unpaired EF5, confirming this as the mode of association in the dimerization of PEF proteins. Comparison with calpain dVI reveals that the general folds of the individual EF-hand motifs are conserved, especially that of EF1, the novel EF-hand motif characteristic of the family. Detailed structural comparisons of sorcin with other members of PEF indicate that the EF-hand pair EF1-EF2 is likely to correspond to the two physiologically relevant calcium-binding sites and that the calcium-induced conformational change may be modest and localized within this pair of EF-hands. Overall, the results derived from the structural observations support the view that, in sorcin, calcium signaling takes place through the first pair of EF-hands.

  17. Sequential assessment of pulmonary epithelial diethylene triamine penta-acetate clearance and intrapulmonary transferrin accumulation during Escherichia coli peritonitis

    SciTech Connect

    Ishizaka, A.; Stephens, K.E.; Segall, G.M.; Hatherill, J.R.; McDougall, I.R.; Wu, Z.; Raffin, T.A. )

    1990-03-01

    The individual roles of pulmonary capillary endothelial and alveolar epithelial permeability in the pathogenesis of the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are unclear. We developed a method for the sequential assessment of pulmonary macromolecule accumulation and small solute clearance in vivo using a gamma camera. We measured the exponential clearance coefficient of 111In-labeled diethylene triamine penta-acetate (111In-DTPA) to assess airway clearance of small solutes. We also calculated the exponential equilibration coefficient of 111In-labeled transferrin (111In-TF) to assess intrapulmonary accumulation of transferrin. We determined these parameters in guinea pigs with Escherichia coli peritonitis and compared them with a saline-treated control group, oleic-acid-treated groups, and a group treated with low molecular weight dextran Ringer solution. The pulmonary DTPA clearance and the intrapulmonary transferrin accumulation were significantly increased in the peritonitis group (29.4 +/- 8.2 x 10(-3) min-1, p less than 0.02, and 15.1 +/- 3.1 x 10(-3) min-1, p less than 0.02) when compared with the control group (3.1 +/- 0.8 x 10(-3) min-1 and 4.5 +/- 0.5 x 10(-3) min-1). These changes developed within 5.5 h of the initial insult. Neither increased extravascular lung water nor elevated pulmonary artery and left atrial pressures were detected in the peritonitis group. The low molecular weight dextran Ringer group did not show a significant increase in the pulmonary DTPA clearance and the intrapulmonary transferrin accumulation.

  18. Poly[penta­kis­(μ-cyanido-κ2 N:C)tris­(5-phenyl-2,2′-bipyridine-κ2 N,N′)penta­copper(I)

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Shuxin; Zuo, Minghui; Zhang, Jingping; Zhao, Yulong; Tan, Rongxin; Liu, Shujuan; Su, Shuangyue

    2011-01-01

    The hydro­thermal reaction of Cu(acetate)2 and K3[Fe(CN)6] with 5-phenyl-2,2′-bipyridine (5-ph-2,2′-bpy) in water yields the polymeric title complex, [Cu5(CN)5(C16H12N2)3]n, which consists of ribbons along the a axis, constructed from 26-membered {Cu10(CN)8} rings. In these rings, the metal atoms are bridged by cyanide groups, except for one close Cu⋯Cu contact [2.7535 (12) Å], which can be considered as ligand-unsupported. Within the rings, one Cu atom has a distorted tetra­hedral geometry through the coordination to two N atoms from 5-ph-2,2′-bpy and two N/C atoms from two cyanide groups. Two Cu atoms have a trigonal planar environment being coordinated by three cyanide groups and two other Cu atoms have a distorted square planar geometry through coordination to two N atoms from 5-ph-2,2′-bpy and two N/C atoms from two cyanide groups. PMID:22199520

  19. Poly[tetra-aqua-μ(4)-bromido-di-μ(2)-bromido-μ(2)-hydroxido-di-μ(3)-iso-nicotinato-tetra-μ(2)-isonicotinato-tetra-copper(I)dithulium(III)].

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Ming; Li, Zeng-Xin; Zheng, Qing-Hua; Liu, Hui-Luan

    2008-09-13

    A new thulium(III)-copper(I) heterometallic coordination polymer, [Cu(4)Tm(2)Br(3)(C(6)H(4)NO(2))(6)(OH)(H(2)O)(4)](n), has been prepared by a hydro-thermal method. The Tm and both Cu atoms lie on mirror planes. The Tm atom is seven-coordinate with a capped distorted trigonal-prismatic coordination geometry, while the Cu atoms adopt trigonal CuBrN(2) and tetra-hedral CuBr(3)N coordination modes, respectively. The Cu atom in the trigonal coordination environment is disordered over two sites of equal occupancy. The crystal structure is constructed from two distinct units of dimeric [Tm(2)(μ(2)-OH(IN)(6)(H(2)O)(4)] cores (IN = isonicotinate) and one-dimensional inorganic [Cu(4)Br(3)](n) chains, which are linked together, forming heterometallic Cu-halide-lanthanide-organic layers.

  20. Triimidosulfonates as Acute Bite-Angle Chelates: Slow Relaxation of the Magnetization in Zero Field and Hysteresis Loop of a Co(II) Complex.

    PubMed

    Carl, Elena; Demeshko, Serhiy; Meyer, Franc; Stalke, Dietmar

    2015-07-06

    Starting from a polyimido sulfonate the four-coordinate, N,N'-chelated Co(II) complex [Co{(NtBu)3 SMe}2 ] (1) was synthesized, and its molecular structure was elucidated by single-crystal X-ray structural analysis. The acute N-Co-N bite angle imposed by the N,N'-chelating ligand (NtBu)3 SMe(-) leads to pronounced C2v distortion of the tetrahedral coordination environment and thus to high anisotropy of the Co(II) ion (D≈-58 cm(-1) ), favorable for single-molecule-magnet (SMM) properties. Magnetic measurements revealed a high barrier to spin reversal (Ueff =75 cm(-1) ) that gives rise to the observation of slow relaxation of the magnetization in zero field and a hysteresis loop at 2 K for this unique complex.

  1. Complex Formation in a Liquid-Liquid Extraction System Containing Co(II), 4-(2-Thiazolylazo)resorcinol and Monotetrazolium Salt.

    PubMed

    Divarova, Vidka; Stojnova, Kirila; Racheva, Petya; Lekova, Vanya

    2016-01-01

    The ion-associated complex formed between anionic chelate of Co(II)-4-(2-Thiazolylazo)resorcinol (TAR) with the monotetrazolium cation of 2-(4-Iodophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyl-2H-tetrazolium chloride (INT) in the liquid-liquid extraction system Co(II)-TAR-INT-H(2)O-CHCl(3) was studied by the spectrophotometric method. The optimum extraction conditions of Co(II) were found. The extraction equilibria were studied. The equilibrium constants, the recovery factor and some analytical characteristics were calculated. The validity of Beer's law was checked. The molar ratio of the components in the ternary ion-associated complex Co(II)-TAR-INT was determined. The general formula of the complex was suggested. The effect of various foreign ions and reagents on the process of complex formation in the liquid-liquid extraction system was studied.

  2. Male biased gene flow in banana pseudostem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis Oliver) as revealed by analysis of the COI-tRNA(Leu) COII region.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Pallavi; Kulkarni, Vishvas M; Kumar, Lalitha Sunil

    2015-02-01

    The genetic diversity amongst thirty weevils representing six Indian populations of banana pseudostem weevil, i.e., Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver) was estimated by sequence analysis of the partial COI-tRNA(Leu)-COII region. The sequences exhibited AT bias typical of insect mitochondrial DNA which was highest in the first codon position of COI and in the third codon position of COII. There was no phylogeographic distribution of the populations. The Fu and Li's D and F tests were non-significant for this mitochondrial region. No Wolbachia infection was detected in any of the populations. The genetic differentiation amongst the populations was highly significant (p < 0.001; χ2 = 123.333; df = 75), suggesting restricted gene flow between the populations. This result did not correlate with that obtained with nuclear rDNA markers, i.e., ITS1 and ITS2, suggesting a male biased gene flow between the populations.

  3. Spectral studies on Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes with thiosemicarbazone (L1) and semicarbazone (L2) derived from 2-acetyl furan.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Sulekh; Kumar, Anil

    2007-04-01

    Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes are synthesized with thiosemicarbazone (L1) and semicarbazone (L2) derived from 2-acetyl furan. These complexes are characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility measurements, mass, IR, electronic and EPR spectral studies. The molar conductance measurements of the complexes in DMSO correspond to non-electrolytic nature except Ni(L)2(NO3)2, which is 1:2 electrolyte. All the complexes are of high-spin type. On the basis of spectral studies an octahedral geometry may be assigned for Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes except nitrato complexes of Ni(II) which is of tetrahedral geometry, whereas tetragonal geometry for Cu(II) complexes.

  4. Spectral, IR and magnetic studies of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes with pyrrole-2-carboxyaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (L).

    PubMed

    Chandra, Sulekh; Kumar, Anil

    2007-11-01

    Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes are synthesized with thiosemicarbazone (L) derived from pyrrole-2-carboxyaldehyde. These complexes are characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility measurement, mass, IR, electronic and EPR spectral studies. The molar conductance measurement of the complexes in DMSO indicates that the complexes are non-electrolyte except Co(L)2(NO3)2 and Ni(L)2(NO3)2 complexes which are 1:2 electrolyte. All the complexes are of high-spin type. On the basis of spectral studies an octahedral geometry may be assigned for Mn(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes except Co(L)2(NO3)2 and Ni(L)2(NO3)2 which are of tetrahedral geometry. A tetragonal geometry may be suggested for Cu(II) complexes.

  5. Magnetic Tuning of an Anionic Co(II) -MOF through Deionization of the Framework: Spin-Canting, Spin-Flop, and Easy-Plane Magnetic Anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Tian, Chong-Bin; Han, Yun-Hu; He, Zhang-Zhen; Du, Shao-Wu

    2017-01-18

    An anionic Co(II) -MOF, (Me2 NH2 )[Co3 (Me2 NH)3 (OH)(SDBA)3 ] (1) (H2 SDBA=4,4'-sulfonyldibenzoic acid) consisting of highly symmetric Co(II)3 (μ3 -OH) triangles exhibits spin-canting, spin-flop, and easy-plane magnetic anisotropy. Measurement on a single crystal shows that the ab plane of 1 is the easy magnetization plane. After structural modification through simultaneous removal of the coordinated dimethylamine (DMA) molecule at the Co center and the ionic groups DMA(+) and OH(-) , the resulting neutral amorphous framework 2 displays an enhanced spin frustration effect. The deionization of 1 does not result in the collapse of the framework, showing the high stability of the backbone structure.

  6. Goblet cell types in intestine of tiger barb and black tetra (Cyprinidae, Characidae: Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Leknes, I L

    2014-10-01

    Histochemical properties of goblet cells in intestine of a stomach-less teleost, tiger barb (Puntius tetrazona), and a stomach-containing teleost, black tetra (Gymnocorymbus ternetzi), are described and compared. The intestine goblet cells were mostly wide in both species, but in tiger barb, some of them were markedly thinner. In black tetra, all the intestine goblet cells displayed magenta colour after PAS, whereas in the tiger barb, only the thinner goblet cells displayed such affinity. The latter cell type was coloured strongly magenta when the tissue was treated with alcian blue (pH 2.5) followed by PAS, whereas the wide goblet cells in tiger barb and all goblet cells in black tetra displayed mainly a blue colour after such treatment. Further, the goblet cells in both species were coloured cleanly blue after high iron diamine followed by alcian blue (pH 2.5). The intestine goblet cells in both species displayed a moderate affinity to WGA and concanavalin A lectins and no affinity to DBA. Most of the goblet cells displayed no affinity to PNA, but some of them in the tiger barb displayed a moderate or strong affinity to this lectin. The affinity to WGA was somewhat strengthened after pre-treatment with neuraminidase. These results suggest that tiger barb contains two types or variants of intestinal goblet cells: high numbers of wide cells filled by acidic, non-sulphated mucin and some thinner cells filled by neutral mucin. The intestine goblet cells in black tetra were filled by variable amounts of neutral and acidic mucin, but the total number of such cells is much less than in tiger barb. The present lectin and neuraminidase results suggest that the intestinal mucins in both species contain significant amounts of N-acetylglucosamine, sialic acid and glucose/mannose, but seem to lack N-acetylgalactosamine. However, some of these cells in tiger barb contain moderate to large amounts of galactose. Together, these results suggest significant species

  7. Updated Brazilian STR allele frequency data using over 100,000 individuals: an analysis of CSF1PO, D3S1358, D5S818, D7S820, D8S1179, D13S317, D16S539, D18S51, D21S11, FGA, Penta D, Penta E, TH01, TPOX and vWA loci.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Vitor Rezende da Costa; Wolfgramm, Eldamária de Vargas; Malta, Frederico Scott Varella; Bosque, Adriana Gonçalves; Mafia, Amanda de Castro; Almeida, Vanessa Cristina de Oliveira; Caxito, Fabiola de Andrade; Pardini, Victor Cavalcanti; Ferreira, Alessandro Clayton Souza; Louro, Iúri Drumond

    2012-07-01

    The Brazilian population is one of the most heterogeneous populations of the world, formed mainly by an admixture of European, African and Native American populations. Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world (8,511,960 km(2)), being divided into five geographical regions. This study provides population genetic data of up to 137,161 unrelated individuals representing the entire Brazilian territory. Allelic frequencies and other population data analysis are reported for the 15 autosomal STR loci included in the PowerPlex®16 kit (Promega Corporation, Madison, WI, USA). In order to guarantee that individuals were not related, we have considered only F1 data from couples undergoing paternity testing. The number of individuals genotyped for each locus was: CSF1PO (113,526); D3S1358 (135,133); D5S818 (135,181); D7S820 (137,136); D8S1179 (134,211); D13S317 (137,161); D16S539 (136,942); D18S51 (136,739); D21S11 (130,014); FGA (135,839); Penta D (110,333); Penta E (128,055); TH01 (112,695); TPOX (123,102); vWA (127,415). Allele sizes ranged from 1 to 48.2. Statistic parameters (PD, PIC and Ho; considering values ≥0.75) suggest that markers D13S317, D16S539, D18S51, D21S11, D7S820, D8S1179, Penta D, Penta E, TH01, FGA and vWA were more informative for genetic identification purposes in the Brazilian population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Removal of Co(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) ions by polymer based 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate: thermodynamics and desorption studies.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Omid; Mirza, Behrooz; Norouzi, Mehdi; Fakhri, Ali

    2012-12-22

    Removal thermodynamics and desorption studies of some heavy metal ions such as Co(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) by polymeric surfaces such as poly 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (PHEMA) and copolymer 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate with monomer methyl methacrylate P(MMA-HEMA) as adsorbent surfaces from aqueous single solution were investigated with respect to the changes in pH of solution, adsorbent composition, contact time and temperature in the individual aqueous solution. The linear correlation coefficients of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were obtained and the results revealed that the Langmuir isotherm fitted the experiment results better than Freundlich isotherm. Using the Langmuir model equation, the monolayer removal capacity of PHEMA surface was found to be 0.7388, 0.8396 and 3.0367 mg/g for Co(II), Cu(ΙΙ) and Pb(II) ions and removal capacity of P(MMA-HEMA) was found to be 28.8442, 31.1526 and 31.4465 mg/g for Co(II), Cu(ΙΙ) and Pb(II) ions, respectively. Changes in the standard Gibbs free energy (ΔG0), standard enthalpy (ΔH0) and standard entropy (ΔS0) showed that the removals of mentioned ions onto PHEMA and P(MMA-HEMA) are spontaneous and exothermic at 293-323 K. The maximum desorption efficiency was 75.26% for Pb(II) using 0.100 M HNO3, 70.10% for Cu(II) using 0.100 M HCl, 59.20% for 0.100 M HCl 63.67% Co(II).

  9. Rational design of two bpy-bridged 3D and 2D Co(II) open frameworks with similar amino-acid-based Schiff bases.

    PubMed

    Li, Zong-Ze; Du, Lin; Zhou, Jie; Zhu, Ming-Rong; Qian, Fen-Hua; Liu, Jing; Chen, Peng; Zhao, Qi-Hua

    2012-12-21

    Two novel bpy-bridged Co(II) Schiff base complexes have been synthesized by the hydro(solvo)thermal reactions of corresponding amino-acid-based Schiff bases, bpy and Co(NO(3))(2)·6H(2)O. The following formulae identify the two complexes: {[Co(napala)(bpy)(0.5)]·H(2)O}(n) (1) and [Co(napgly)(bpy)(0.5)](n) (2) [H(2)napala = N-(2-hydroxy-1-naphthylmethylidene)-D/L-alanine, H(2)napgly = N-(2-hydroxy-1-naphthylmethylidene)-glycine and bpy = 4,4'-bipyridine]. These two compounds have been characterized using single-crystal X-ray diffraction, infrared, powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, optical spectra analysis, and magnetic measurement. Complex 1 features an unprecedented threefold interpenetrated diamond network based on the fan-shaped Co(II)(4)(μ(2)-napala)(4) molecular square node and bpy linker, which represents the first example of 3D framework among the amino-acid-based Schiff base complexes with salicylaldehyde or its derivatives. In 2, adjacent Co(II) ions are bridged by μ(2)-napgly(2-) to form left- and right-handed [Co(II)(μ(2)-napgly)](n) helical chains. These two types of helical chains are sustained alternately by a symmetrical bpy co-ligand into a 2D grid-based layer. The solid-state fluorescence of complexes 1 and 2 are quenched almost completely compared with free mixed-ligands at room temperature. Moreover, magnetic studies show the dominant antiferromagnetic coupling between the Co(II) centers mediated by the syn-anti-COO(-)-bridges in both complexes.

  10. Diversity in magnetic properties of 3D isomorphous networks of Co(II) and Mn(II) constructed by napthalene-1,4-dicarboxylate.

    PubMed

    Maji, Tapas Kumar; Kaneko, Wakako; Ohba, Masaaki; Kitagawa, Susumu

    2005-09-28

    Two novel 3D isomorphous organic-inorganic hybrid frameworks, [M(1,4-napdc)]n ( M = Co(II), and Mn(II), ; 1,4-napdcH2 = napthalene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid) have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized, and the magnetic results exhibit metamagnetic behaviour (TC = 5.5 K), and a weak antiferromagnetic interaction, which are structurally correlated.

  11. Evaluation of the mtDNA-COII Region Based Species Specific Assay for Identifying Members of the Anopheles culicifacies Species Complex

    PubMed Central

    Manonmani, Arulsamy Mary; Mathivanan, Ashok Kumar; Sadanandane, Candassamy; Jambulingam, Purushothaman

    2013-01-01

    Background: Anopheles culicifacies, a major malarial vector has been recognized as a complex of five sibling species, A, B, C, D and E. These sibling species exhibit varied vectorial capacity, host specificity and susceptibility to malarial parasites/ insecticides. In this study, a PCR assay developed earlier for distinguishing the five individual species was validated on samples of An. culicifacies collected from various parts of India. Methods: The samples were initially screened using the rDNA-ITS2 region based primers which categorised the samples into either A/D group or B/C/E group. A proportion of samples belonging to each group were subjected to the mtDNA-COII PCR assay for identifying individual species. Results: Among the 615 samples analysed by rDNA-ITS2 PCR assay, 303 were found to belong to A/D group and 299 to B/C/E group while 13 turned negative. Among 163 samples belonging to A/D group, only one sample displayed the profile characteristic of species A and among the 176 samples falling in the B/C/E group, 51 were identified as species B, 14 as species C and 41 as species E respectively by the mtDNA-COII PCR assay. Samples exhibiting products diagnostic of B/C/E, when subjected to PCR-RFLP assay identified 15 samples as species E. Conclusion: Validation of the mtDNA-COII PCR assay on large number of samples showed that this technique cannot be used universally to distinguish the 5 members of this species complex, as it has been designed based on minor/single base differences observed in the COII region. PMID:24409441

  12. Modelling the magnetic behaviour of square-pyramidal Co(II)5 aggregates: tuning SMM behaviour through variations in the ligand shell.

    PubMed

    Klöwer, Frederik; Lan, Yanhua; Nehrkorn, Joscha; Waldmann, Oliver; Anson, Christopher E; Powell, Annie K

    2009-07-27

    Three new mu4-bridged Co(II)5 clusters with similar core motifs have been synthesised with the use of N-tert-butyldiethanolamine (tbdeaH2) and pivalic acid (piv): [Co(II)5(mu4-N3)(tbdea)2(mu-piv)4(piv)(CH3CN)2].CH3CN (1), [Co(II)5(mu4-Cl)(Cl)(tbdea)2(mu-piv)4(pivH)2] (2) and [Co(II)5(mu4-N3)(Cl)(tbdea)2(mu-piv)4(pivH)2] (3). Magnetic measurements were performed for all three compounds. It was found that while the chloride-bridged cluster 2 does not show an out-of-phase signal, which excludes single-molecule magnet (SMM) behaviour, the azide-bridged compounds 1 and 3 show out-of-phase signals as well as frequency dependence of the ac susceptibility, as expected for SMMs. We confirmed that 1 is a SMM with zero-field quantum tunnelling of the magnetisation at 1.8 K. Compound 3 is likely a SMM with a blocking temperature well below 1.8 K. We established a physical model to fit the chiT versus T and M versus B curves of the three compounds to reproduce the observed SMM trend. The analysis showed that small changes in the ligand shell modify not only the magnitude of exchange constants, but also affect the J and g matrices in a non-trivial way.

  13. Enhancing the ferromagnetic coupling in extended phloroglucinol complexes by increasing the metal SOMO-ligand overlap: synthesis and characterization of a trinuclear Co(II)(3) triplesalophen complex.

    PubMed

    Oldengott, Jan; Stammler, Anja; Bögge, Hartmut; Glaser, Thorsten

    2015-06-07

    The triplesalophen complex [(baron(Me))Co(II)(3)] has been synthesized and characterized. The low-spin Co(II) ions possess an (2)A2 ground state with the magnetic orbitals of dyz type. These are well oriented for a strong π overlap with the bridging phloroglucinol, which results in the strongest ferromagnetic interactions by the spin-polarization mechanism for a 3d phloroglucinol complex.

  14. Removal of Co(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) ions by polymer based 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate: thermodynamics and desorption studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Removal thermodynamics and desorption studies of some heavy metal ions such as Co(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) by polymeric surfaces such as poly 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (PHEMA) and copolymer 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate with monomer methyl methacrylate P(MMA-HEMA) as adsorbent surfaces from aqueous single solution were investigated with respect to the changes in pH of solution, adsorbent composition, contact time and temperature in the individual aqueous solution. The linear correlation coefficients of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were obtained and the results revealed that the Langmuir isotherm fitted the experiment results better than Freundlich isotherm. Using the Langmuir model equation, the monolayer removal capacity of PHEMA surface was found to be 0.7388, 0.8396 and 3.0367 mg/g for Co(II), Cu(ΙΙ) and Pb(II) ions and removal capacity of P(MMA-HEMA) was found to be 28.8442, 31.1526 and 31.4465 mg/g for Co(II), Cu(ΙΙ) and Pb(II) ions, respectively. Changes in the standard Gibbs free energy (ΔG0), standard enthalpy (ΔH0) and standard entropy (ΔS0) showed that the removals of mentioned ions onto PHEMA and P(MMA-HEMA) are spontaneous and exothermic at 293–323 K. The maximum desorption efficiency was 75.26% for Pb(II) using 0.100 M HNO3, 70.10% for Cu(II) using 0.100 M HCl, 59.20% for 0.100 M HCl 63.67% Co(II). PMID:23369255

  15. A quantitative method for determination of Co(II) based on the inner filter effect of reagents on the Raman scattering signals of water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui Ying; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2007-03-21

    It is known that Raman scattering signals are one of main interference sources leading up to determination errors in spectrofluorometry, and thus the signals can be easily detected with a common spectrofluorometer. In this contribution, we propose a quantitative method based on the inner filter effect (IFE) of reagents on the Raman scattering signals of solvent by taking the complexation of divalent cobalt ion with 4-[(5-chloro-2-pyridyl)azo]-1,3-diaminobenzene (5-Cl-PADAB) as a model system. By adjusting the excitation wavelength of the spectrofluorometer, we could easily detect the Raman scattering signals of water at 424 nm where the maximum absorption of 5-Cl-PADAB reagent is located. In a solution of 5-Cl-PADAB, the Raman scattering signals of water are decreased owing to the IFE of 5-Cl-PADAB. If Co(II), which could form the binary complex of Co(II)/5-Cl-PADAB and consumes the 5-Cl-PADAB reagent, is present in such a case for a given amount of 5-Cl-PADAB solution, recovered Raman scattering signals could be observed and measured with a spectrofluorometer. It was found that the intensity of the enhanced Raman scattering signals is proportional to the Co(II) concentration over the range from 2.0 x 10(-7) mol L(-1) to 1.0 x 10(-5) mol L(-1), and the detection limit could reach 1.2 x 10(-7) mol L(-1). With that, Co(II) in samples could be detected with R.S.D. values lower than 2.6% and recoveries over the range of 97.2-104.7%.

  16. Preconcentration of Cu(II), Co(II), and Ni(II) using an Optimized Enrichment Procedure: Useful and Alternative Methodology for Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tokay, Feyzullah; Bağdat, Sema

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a new solid phase extraction procedure is described for Cu(II), Co(II), and Ni(II). Silica gel which was coated with N,N'-bis(4-methoxysalicylidene) ethylenediamine (MSE) is used as a sorbent. Three independent variables were optimized using central composite design (CCD) for sorption and elution of metal ions. The optimum values of sorption and elution variables allowed simultaneous preconcentration of the ions in same conditions as follows, for sorption, pH 6.9, flow rate 5.4 mL min(-1), sample volume 50.0 mL, and for elution, flow rate 2.6 mL min(-1), eluent concentration 1.0 mol L(-1), eluent volume 5.0 mL. The detection limits (LOD) were found to be 1.1 µg L(-1) for Cu(II), 7.4 µg L(-1) for Co(II), and 7.5 µg L(-1) for Ni(II) and preconcentration factor was 200 for each of the ions. The accuracy of the method was tested with Lake Ontario water and multi-element standard solution. The proposed method was also applied to various water samples. The proposed method can be alternatively suggested as accurate, precise, easy, and a cheap method for Cu(II), Co(II), and Ni(II) determination. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Positional isomeric tunable two Co(II) 6-connected 3-D frameworks with pentanuclear to binuclear units: structures, ion-exchange and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Han, Min-Le; Duan, Ya-Ping; Li, Dong-Sheng; Wang, Hai-Bin; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Yao-Yu

    2014-11-07

    Two new Co(II) based metal-organic frameworks, namely {[Co5(μ3-OH)2(m-pda)3(bix)4]·2ClO4}n (1) and {[Co2(p-pda)2(bix)2(H2O)]·H2O}n (2), were prepared by hydrothermal reactions of Co(II) salt with two isomeric dicarboxyl tectons 1,3-phenylenediacetic acid (m-pda) and 1,4-phenylenediacetic acid (p-pda), along with 1,3-bis(imidazol-L-ylmethyl)benzene (bix). Both complexes 1 and 2 have been characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). 1 shows a 6-connected 3-D pcu cationic framework with pentanuclear [Co5(μ3-OH)2(COO)6(bix)2](2+) units, while 2 exhibits a 6-connected 3-D msw net based on [Co2(μ2-H2O)(COO)2](2+) clusters. The results indicate that the different dispositions of the carboxylic groups of dicarboxylates have an important effect on the overall coordination frameworks. Perchlorate anions in 1 can be partly exchanged by thiocyanate and azide anions, however they are unavailable to nitrate anions. Magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate that both 1 and 2 show weak antiferromagnetic interactions between the adjacent Co(II) ions.

  18. Characterization and biological studies on Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes of carbohydrazones ending by pyridyl ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu El-Reash, G. M.; El-Gammal, O. A.; Ghazy, S. E.; Radwan, A. H.

    2013-03-01

    The chelating behavior of ligands based on carbohydrazone core modified with pyridine end towards Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions have been examined. The ligands derived from the condensation of carbohydrazide with 2-acetylpyridine (H2APC) and 4-acetylpyridine (H2APEC). The 1H NMR, IR data and the binding energy calculations of H2APC revealed the presence of two stereoisomers syn and anti in the solid state and in the solution. The 1H NMR, IR data and the binding energy calculations confirmed the presence of H2APEC in one keto form only in the solid state and in the solution. The spectroscopic data confirmed that H2APC behaves as a monobasic pentadentate in Co(II) and Cu(II) complexes and as mononegative tetradentate in Ni(II) complex. On the other hand, H2APEC acts as a mononegative tridentate in Co(II) complex, neutral tridentate in Ni(II) complex and neutral bidentate in Cu(II) complex. The electronic spectra and the magnetic measurements of complexes as well as the ESR of the copper complexes suggested the octahedral geometry. The bond length and bond angles were evaluated by DFT method using material studio program. The thermal behavior and the kinetic parameters of degradation were determined using Coats-Redfern and Horowitz-Metzger methods. The antioxidant (DDPH and ABTS methods), anti-hemolytic and in vitro Ehrlich ascites of the compounds have been screened.

  19. Application of carrier element free coprecipitation (CEFC) method for determination of Co(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) ions in food and water samples.

    PubMed

    Serencam, Huseyin; Duran, Celal; Ozdes, Duygu; Bektas, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    A simple and highly sensitive separation and preconcentration procedure, which has minimal impact on the environment, has been developed. The procedure is based on the carrier element free coprecipitation (CEFC) of Co(II), Cu(II), and Ni(II) ions by using 2-{4-[2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]-3-(4-methylbenzyl)-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro- 1H-1,2,4-triazol-l-yl}-N'-(pyridin-2-yl methylidene)acetohydrazide (IMOTPA), as an organic coprecipitant. The levels of analyte ions were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The detection limits for Co(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) ions were found to be 0.40, 0.16 and 0.17 microg L(-1), respectively, and the relative standard deviations for the analyte ions were lower than 3.0%. Spike tests and certified reference material analyses were performed to validate the method. The method was successfully applied for the determination of Co(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) ions levels in sea and stream water as liquid samples and red pepper, black pepper, and peppermint as solid samples.

  20. Electrochemical studies of DNA interaction and antimicrobial activities of MnII, FeIII, CoII and NiII Schiff base tetraazamacrocyclic complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Anuj; Vashistha, Vinod Kumar; Tevatia, Prashant; Singh, Randhir

    2017-04-01

    Tetraazamacrocyclic complexes of MnII, FeIII, CoII and NiII have been synthesized by template method. These tetraazamacrocycles have been analyzed with various techniques like molar conductance, IR, UV-vis, mass spectral and cyclic voltammetric studies. On the basis of all these studies, octahedral geometry has been assigned to these tetraazamacrocyclic complexes. The DNA binding properties of these macrocyclic complexes have been investigated by electronic absorption spectra, fluorescence spectra, cyclic voltammetric and differential pulse voltammetric studies. The cyclic voltammetric data showed that ipc and ipa were effectively decreased in the presence of calf thymus DNA, which is a strong evidence for the interaction of these macrocyclic complexes with the calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA). The heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant found in the order: KCoII > KNiII > KMnII which indicates that CoII macrocyclic complex has formed a strong intercalated intermediate. The Stern-Volmer quenching constant (KSV) and voltammetric binding constant were found in the order KSV(CoII) > KSV(NiII) > KSV(MnII) and K+(CoII) > K+(NiII) > K+(MnII) which shows that CoII macrocyclic complex exhibits the high interaction affinity towards ct-DNA by the intercalation binding. Biological studies of the macrocyclic complexes compared with the standard drug like Gentamycin, have shown antibacterial activities against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, B. cereus, S. aureus and antifungal activity against C. albicans.

  1. Tetra­ethyl­ammonium tetra­kis­(1,1,1,5,5,5-hexa­fluoro­acetyl­acetonato)terbate(III)

    PubMed Central

    Van Deun, Rik; Van Der Voort, Pascal; Van Driessche, Isabel; Van Hecke, Kristof

    2012-01-01

    The title compound, (C8H20N)[Tb(C5HF6O2)4], is a tetrakis β-diketonate complex of hexa­fluoro­acetyl­acetone with terbium(III), and tetra­ethyl­ammonium as the counter-ion. This compound shows typical green terbium(III) luminescence upon excitation at about 335 nm. The coordination geometry around the TbIII atom is a slightly distorted square anti­prism. One hexa­fluoro­acetyl­acetone ligand has a disordered CF3 group [occupancies of 0.575 (4) and 0.425 (4)]. A three-dimensional network is built up by linkage of TbIII complexes via C—H⋯F inter­actions. PMID:22346802

  2. catena-Poly[[tetra-μ-formato-κ(8) O:O'-dicopper(II)]-μ-hexa-methyl-ene-tetra-mine-κ(2) N (1):N (5)].

    PubMed

    Cao, Jianfang; Huang, Ziping; Cao, Changnian; Cheng, Chunchun; Sun, Chunyan

    2013-11-30

    In the title polymeric compound, [Cu2(HCO2)4(C6H12N4)] n , the Cu(II) atom is five-coordinated in a square-pyramidal geometry that is defined by four O atoms from four formate ligands and one N atom from a hexa-methyl-ene-tetra-mine ligand. The two Cu(II) atoms are separated by 2.6850 (7) Å, and together with the four formate ligands they form a paddle-wheel unit. The hexa-mine ligand uses only two of its four N atoms to link Cu2 cluster units, affording a zigzag chain running along the b-axis direction. The hexa-mine ligand lies on a mirror plane.

  3. An investigation of the effects of TETRA RF fields on intracellular calcium in neurones and cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Green, A C; Scott, I R; Gwyther, R J; Peyman, A; Chadwick, P; Chen, X; Alfadhl, Y; Tattersall, J E H

    2005-12-01

    This study aimed to determine whether Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) fields can affect intracellular calcium signalling in excitable cells. Intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2 +) ](i)) was measured in cultured rat cerebellar granule cells and cardiac myocytes during exposure to TETRA fields (380.8875 MHz pulse modulated at 17.6 Hz, 25% duty cycle). [Ca(2 +) ](i) was measured as fura-PE3, fluo-3 or fluo-4 fluorescence by digital image analysis. Granule cells exposed at specific absorption rates (SARs) of 5, 10, 20, 50 or 400 mW x kg(-1) showed no significant changes in resting [Ca(2 +) ](i). Increases in [Ca(2 +) ](i) in response to potassium-induced depolarization were significantly different from sham controls in TETRA-exposed cells, but the majority of the difference was attributable to initial biological variation between cell cultures. No difference was found between fura-PE3 (UV excitation) and fluo-3 (visible light excitation) measurements in these cells. Exposure to TETRA (50 or 400 mW x kg(-1)) had no significant effect on either the rate or amplitude of spontaneous Ca(2 +) transients in cardiac myocytes. The cells showed normal responses to salbutamol (50 microM) and acetylcholine (10 microM). Overall, these results showed no evidence of any consistent or biologically relevant effect of TETRA fields on [Ca(2 + )](i) in granule cells and cardiac myocytes at any of the SAR tested.

  4. Structure, magnetism, and theoretical study of a mixed-valence Co(II)3Co(III)4 heptanuclear wheel: lack of SMM behavior despite negative magnetic anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Chibotaru, Liviu F; Ungur, Liviu; Aronica, Christophe; Elmoll, Hani; Pilet, Guillaume; Luneau, Dominique

    2008-09-17

    A mixed-valence Co(II)/Co(III) heptanuclear wheel [Co(II)3Co(III)4(L)6(MeO)6] (LH2 = 1,1,1-trifluoro-7-hydroxy-4-methyl-5-aza-hept-3-en-2-one) has been synthesized and its crystal structure determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The valence state of each cobalt ion was established by bond valence sum calculations. Studies of the temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility and the field dependence of the magnetization evidence ferromagnetic interactions within the compound. In order to understand the magnetic properties of this Co7 wheel, we performed ab initio calculations for each cobalt fragment at the CASSCF/CASPT2 level, including spin-orbit coupling effects within the SO-RASSI approach. The four Co(III) ions were found to be diamagnetic and to give a significant temperature-independent paramagnetic contribution to the susceptibility. The spin-orbit coupling on the three Co(II) sites leads to separations of approximately 200 cm(-1) between the ground and excited Kramers doublets, placing the Co7 wheel into a weak-exchange limit in which the lowest electronic states are adequately described by the anisotropic exchange interaction between the lowest Kramers doublets on Co(II) sites. Simulation of the exchange interaction was done within the Lines model, keeping the fully ab initio treatment of magnetic anisotropy effects on individual cobalt fragments using a recently developed methodology. A good description of the susceptibility and magnetization was obtained for nearest-neighbor (J1) and next-nearest-neighbor (J2) exchange parameters (1.5 and 5.5 cm(-1), respectively). The strong ferromagnetic interaction between distant cobalt ions arises as a result of low electron-promotion energies in the exchange bridges containing Co(III) ions. The calculations showed a large value of the magnetization along the main magnetic axis (10.1 mu(B)), which is a combined effect of the ferromagnetic exchange interaction and negative magnetic anisotropy on

  5. Identification of a nonanuclear {Co(II)9} polyoxometalate cluster as a homogeneous catalyst for water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Goberna-Ferrón, Sara; Vigara, Laura; Soriano-López, Joaquín; Galán-Mascarós, José Ramón

    2012-11-05

    The polyanion of formula {Co(9)(H(2)O)(6)(OH)(3)(HPO(4))(2)(PW(9)O(34))(3)}(16-) (Co(9)) contains a central nonacobalt core held together by hydroxo and hydrogen phosphate bridges and supported by three lacunary Keggin-type polyphosphotungstate ligands. Our data demonstrate that Co(9) is a homogeneous catalyst for water oxidation. Catalytic water electrolysis on fluorine-doped tin oxide coated glass electrodes occurs at reasonable low overpotentials and rates when Co(9) is present in a sodium phosphate buffer solution at neutral pH. We carried out our experiments with an excess of 2,2'-bipyridyl as the chelating agent for free aqueous Co(II) ions, in order to avoid the formation of a cobalt oxide film on the electrode, as observed for other polyoxometalate catalysts. In these conditions, no heterogeneous catalyst forms on the anode, and it does not show any deposited material or significant catalytic activity after a catalytic cycle. Co(9) is also an extremely robust catalyst for chemical water oxidation. It is able to continuously catalyze oxygen evolution during days from a buffered sodium hypochlorite solution, maintaining constant rates and efficiencies without any significant apparition of fatigue.

  6. Co(II) and Cd(II) complexes derived from heterocyclic Schiff-Bases: synthesis, structural characterisation, and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Riyadh M; Yousif, Enaam I; Al-Jeboori, Mohamad J

    2013-01-01

    New monomeric cobalt and cadmium complexes with Schiff-bases, namely, N'-[(E)-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)methylidene]furan-2-carbohydrazide (L¹) and N'-[(E)-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)methylidene]thiophene-2-carbohydrazide (L²) are reported. Schiff-base ligands L¹ and L² were derived from condensation of 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde (iso-vanillin) with furan-2-carboxylic acid hydrazide and thiophene-2-carboxylic acid hydrazide, respectively. Complexes of the general formula [M(L)₂]Cl₂ (where M = Co(II) or Cd(II), L = L¹ or L²) have been obtained from the reaction of the corresponding metal chloride with the ligands. The ligands and their metal complexes were characterised by spectroscopic methods (FTIR, UV-Vis, ¹H, and ¹³C NMR spectra), elemental analysis, metal content, magnetic measurement, and conductance. These studies revealed the formation of four-coordinate complexes in which the geometry about metal ion is tetrahedral. Biological activity of the ligands and their metal complexes against gram positive bacterial strain Bacillus (G+) and gram negative bacteria Pseudomonas (G-) revealed that the metal complexes become less resistive to the microbial activities as compared to the free ligands.

  7. Co(II) and Cd(II) Complexes Derived from Heterocyclic Schiff-Bases: Synthesis, Structural Characterisation, and Biological Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Riyadh M.; Yousif, Enaam I.; Al-Jeboori, Mohamad J.

    2013-01-01

    New monomeric cobalt and cadmium complexes with Schiff-bases, namely, N′-[(E)-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)methylidene]furan-2-carbohydrazide (L1) and N′-[(E)-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)methylidene]thiophene-2-carbohydrazide (L2) are reported. Schiff-base ligands L1 and L2 were derived from condensation of 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde (iso-vanillin) with furan-2-carboxylic acid hydrazide and thiophene-2-carboxylic acid hydrazide, respectively. Complexes of the general formula [M(L)2]Cl2 (where M = Co(II) or Cd(II), L = L1 or L2) have been obtained from the reaction of the corresponding metal chloride with the ligands. The ligands and their metal complexes were characterised by spectroscopic methods (FTIR, UV-Vis, 1H, and 13C NMR spectra), elemental analysis, metal content, magnetic measurement, and conductance. These studies revealed the formation of four-coordinate complexes in which the geometry about metal ion is tetrahedral. Biological activity of the ligands and their metal complexes against gram positive bacterial strain Bacillus (G+) and gram negative bacteria Pseudomonas (G−) revealed that the metal complexes become less resistive to the microbial activities as compared to the free ligands. PMID:24027449

  8. The precursor form of Hansenula polymorpha copper amine oxidase 1 in complex with CuI and CoII.

    PubMed

    Klema, Valerie J; Johnson, Bryan J; Klinman, Judith P; Wilmot, Carrie M

    2012-05-01

    Copper amine oxidases (CAOs) catalyze the oxidative deamination of primary amines to their corresponding aldehydes, with the concomitant reduction of O(2) to H(2)O(2). Catalysis requires two cofactors: a mononuclear copper center and the cofactor 2,4,5-trihydroxyphenylalanine quinone (TPQ). TPQ is synthesized through the post-translational modification of an endogenous tyrosine residue and requires only oxygen and copper to proceed. TPQ biogenesis in CAO can be supported by alternate metals, albeit at decreased rates. A variety of factors are thought to contribute to the degree to which a metal can support TPQ biogenesis, including Lewis acidity, redox potential and electrostatic stabilization capability. The crystal structure has been solved of one of two characterized CAOs from the yeast Hansenula polymorpha (HPAO-1) in its metal-free (apo) form, which contains an unmodified precursor tyrosine residue instead of fully processed TPQ (HPAO-1 was denoted HPAO in the literature prior to 2010). Structures of apoHPAO-1 in complex with Cu(I) and Co(II) have also been solved, providing structural insight into metal binding prior to biogenesis.

  9. Sensitive spectrophotometric determination of Co(II) using dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction method in soil samples.

    PubMed

    Hasanpour, Foroozan; Hadadzadeh, Hassan; Taei, Masoumeh; Nekouei, Mohsen; Mozafari, Elmira

    2016-05-01

    Analytical performance of conventional spectrophotometer was developed by coupling of effective dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction method with spectrophotometric determination for ultra-trace determination of cobalt. The method was based on the formation of Co(II)-alpha-benzoin oxime complex and its extraction using a dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction technique. During the present work, several important variables such as pH, ligand concentration, amount and type of dispersive, and extracting solvent were optimized. It was found that the crucial factor for the Co(II)-alpha benzoin oxime complex formation is the pH of the alkaline alcoholic medium. Under the optimized condition, the calibration graph was linear in the ranges of 1.0-110 μg L(-1) with the detection limit (S/N = 3) of 0.5 μg L(-1). The preconcentration operation of 25 mL of sample gave enhancement factor of 75. The proposed method was applied for determination of Co(II) in soil samples.

  10. Synthesis and studies on Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II) complexes of Knoevenagel β-diketone ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumathi, S.; Tharmaraj, P.; Sheela, C. D.; Anitha, C.

    2012-11-01

    Transition metal complexes of various acetylacetone based ligands of the type ML [where M = Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II); L = 3-(aryl)-pentane-2,4-dione] have been synthesized. The structural features have been derived from their elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility, molar conductance, IR, UV-Vis, 1H NMR, Mass and ESR spectral studies. Conductivity measurements reveal that all the complexes are non-electrolytic in nature. Spectroscopic and other analytical data of the complexes suggest octahedral geometry for other metal(II) complexes. The redox behavior of the copper(II) complexes have been studied by cyclic voltammetry. The free ligands and their metal complexes have been screened for their in vitro biological activities against the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus as well as the fungus Candida albicans by well diffusion method. The zone of inhibition value indicates that the most of the metal(II) complexes are found to possess increased activities compared to those of the free ligands. All synthesized compounds may serve as potential photoactive materials as indicated from their characteristic fluorescence properties. The second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of the ligands (L1-L3) was found to be considerable effect than that of urea and KDP (potassium dihydrogen phosphate).

  11. Synthesis and studies on Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II) complexes of Knoevenagel β-diketone ligands.

    PubMed

    Sumathi, S; Tharmaraj, P; Sheela, C D; Anitha, C

    2012-11-01

    Transition metal complexes of various acetylacetone based ligands of the type ML [where M=Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II); L=3-(aryl)-pentane-2,4-dione] have been synthesized. The structural features have been derived from their elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility, molar conductance, IR, UV-Vis, (1)H NMR, Mass and ESR spectral studies. Conductivity measurements reveal that all the complexes are non-electrolytic in nature. Spectroscopic and other analytical data of the complexes suggest octahedral geometry for other metal(II) complexes. The redox behavior of the copper(II) complexes have been studied by cyclic voltammetry. The free ligands and their metal complexes have been screened for their in vitro biological activities against the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus as well as the fungus Candida albicans by well diffusion method. The zone of inhibition value indicates that the most of the metal(II) complexes are found to possess increased activities compared to those of the free ligands. All synthesized compounds may serve as potential photoactive materials as indicated from their characteristic fluorescence properties. The second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of the ligands (L1-L3) was found to be considerable effect than that of urea and KDP (potassium dihydrogen phosphate). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Unusual magnetic behaviors and electronic configurations driven by diverse Co(II) or Mn(II) MOF architectures.

    PubMed

    Bernini, María Celeste; Romero de Paz, Julio; Snejko, Natalia; Sáez-Puche, Regino; Gutierrez-Puebla, Enrique; Monge, María Ángeles

    2014-12-15

    Five novel metal organic frameworks were obtained by hydro-solvothermal reactions using the hexafluorisopropylidenebis(benzoic) acid (H2hfipbb) as linker and Co(II) or Mn(II) ions as connectors. [Co2(Hhfipbb)(TEA)], compound 1 (TEA = triethanolamine trianion) with a three-dimensional (3D) framework, and a tpu net; [Co1.5(hfipbb)2]·HN(CH2CH3)3 and [Co3(hfipbb)2]·2{HN(CH2CH3)3}, compounds 2 and 2-a, respectively, both with two-dimensional structure, sql topologies, and different layer packings. Compounds 3 and 4, having the general formula [M2(hfipbb)2]·C7H8, where M = Co (3) or Mn (4), have 3D frameworks with an sqc topology. A deep analysis of the magnetic measurements reveals different striking magnetic behaviors resulting from diverse secondary building unit and framework architectures. Compound 1 presents canted antiferromagnetic chains, compound 2 contains ferromagnetic linear trimeric clusters, and compound 3 exhibits ferromagnetic chains. For the three compounds, a 3D canted antiferromagnetic structure takes place at ∼8 K by means of weak magnetic interactions between the mentioned magnetic units. Such long-range magnetic order is precluded with the application of a high enough magnetic field. Compound 4 evidenced intrachain antiferromagnetic interactions.

  13. Synthesis and reactivity of [penta(4-halogenophenyl)cyclopentadienyl][hydrotris(indazolyl)borato]ruthenium(II) complexes: rotation-induced Fosbury flop in an organometallic molecular turnstile.

    PubMed

    Carella, Alexandre; Launay, Jean-Pierre; Poteau, Romuald; Rapenne, Gwénaël

    2008-01-01

    The preparation of ruthenium(II) complexes coordinated to a penta(4-halogeno)phenylcyclopentadienyl ligand and to the hydrotris(indazolyl)borate ligand are detailed. Our strategy involves first the coordination of the penta(4-bromo)phenylcyclopentadienyl ligand by reaction with the ruthenium-carbonyl cluster followed by the coordination of the tripodal ligand. The pentabrominated precursor was successfully converted to the pentaiodinated derivative by using the Klapars-Buchwald methodology, applied for the first time on organometallic substrates. Cross-coupling reactions were performed on both pentabromo and pentaiodo complexes to introduce in a single step the five peripheric ferrocenyl fragments required to obtain a potential molecular motor. The two ligands present in the ruthenium complexes undergo a correlated rotation that was established both experimentally by NMR experiments and an X-ray diffraction study, and theoretically by DFT calculations. The potential-energy curve obtained by DFT revealed the energy barrier of the gearing mechanism to be only 4.5 kcal mol(-1). These sterically highly constrained complexes can be regarded as organometallic molecular turnstiles.

  14. Crystal structure of cis-aqua­chlorido­(rac-5,5,7,12,12,14-hexa­methyl-1,4,8,11-tetra­aza­cyclo­tetra­decane-κ4 N)chromium(III) tetra­chlorido­zincate trihydrate from synchrotron data

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Dohyun; Choi, Jong-Ha

    2015-01-01

    The structure of the title compound, cis-[CrCl(cycb)(H2O)][ZnCl4]·3H2O (cycb is rac-5,5,7,12,12,14-hexa­methyl-1,4,8,11-tetra­aza­cyclo­tetra­decane; C16H36N4), has been determined from synchrotron data. In the complex cation, the CrIII ion is bound by four N atoms from the tetra­dentate cycb ligand, a chloride ion and one water mol­ecule in a cis arrangement, displaying a distorted octa­hedral coordination geometry. The distorted tetra­hedral [ZnCl4]2− anion and three additional water mol­ecules remain outside the coordination sphere. The Cr—N(cycb) bond lengths are in the range of 2.0837 (14) to 2.1399 (12) Å while the Cr—Cl and Cr—(OH2) bond lengths are 2.2940 (8) and 2.0082 (13) Å, respectively. The crystal packing is stabilized by hydrogen-bonding inter­actions between the N—H groups of the macrocyclic ligand, the O—H groups of the water mol­ecules and the Cl atoms of the tetra­chlorido­zincate anion, leading to the formation of a three-dimensional network. PMID:26396846

  15. Epalrestat tetra­hydro­furan monosolvate: crystal structure and phase transition

    PubMed Central

    Umeda, Daiki; Putra, Okky Dwichandra; Fukuzawa, Kaori

    2017-01-01

    The title compound, epalrestat {systematic name: (5Z)-5-[(2E)-2-methyl-3-phenyl­prop-2-en-1-yl­idene]-4-oxo-2-sulfanyl­idene-1,3-thia­zolidine-3-acetic acid}, crystallized as a tetra­hydro­furan monosolvate, C15H13NO3S2·C4H8O. Epalrestat, an important drug for diabetic neuropathy, has been reported to exist in polymphic, solvated and co-crystal forms. In the mol­ecule reported here, the phenyl ring is inclined to the rhodamine ring by 22.31 (9)°, and the acetic acid group is almost normal to the rhodamine ring, making a dihedral angle of 88.66 (11)°. In the crystal, pairs of O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds are observed between the carb­oxy­lic acid groups of epalerstat mol­ecules, forming inversion dimers with an R 2 2(8) loop. The dimers are linked by pairs of C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming chains along [101]. The solvate mol­ecules are linked to the chain by a C—H⋯O(tetra­hydro­furan) hydrogen bond. A combination of thermal analysis and powder X-ray diffraction revealed that title compound desolvated into epalerstat Form II. One C atom of the tetra­hydro­furan solvate mol­ecule is positionally disordered and has a refined occupancy ratio of 0.527 (18):0.473 (18). PMID:28775856

  16. Development of novel tetra- and trinucleotide microsatellite markers for giant grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus using 454 pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Keun-Sik; Noh, Choong Hwan; Moon, Shin-Joo; Han, Seung-Hee; Bang, In-Chul

    2016-06-01

    Giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus) is a commercially important species, but its wild population has recently been classified as vulnerable. This species has significant potential for use in aquaculture, though a greater understanding of population genetics is necessary for selective breeding programs to minimize kinship for genetically healthy individuals. High-throughput pyrosequencing of genomic DNA was used to identify and characterize novel tetra- and trinucleotide microsatellite markers in giant grouper from Sabah, Malaysia. In total, of 62,763 sequences containing simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were obtained, and 78 SSR loci were selected to possibly contain tetra- and trinucleotide repeats. Of these loci, 16 had tetra- and 8 had trinucleotide repeats, all of which exhibited polymorphisms within easily genotyped regions. A total of 143 alleles were identified with an average of 5.94 alleles per locus, with mean observed and expected heterozygosities of 0.648 and 0.620, respectively. Among of them, 15 microsatellite markers were identified without null alleles and with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. These alleles showed a combined non-exclusion probability of 0.01138. The probability of individual identification (PID) value combined with in descending order 12 microsatellite markers was 0.00008, which strongly suggests that the use of the microsatellite markers developed in this study in various combinations would result in a high resolution method for parentage analysis and individual identification. These markers could be used to establish a broodstock management program for giant grouper and to provide a foundation for genetic studies such as population structure, parentage analysis, and kinship selection.

  17. Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) exposure and its impact on slow cortical potentials.

    PubMed

    Eggert, Torsten; Dorn, Hans; Sauter, Cornelia; Marasanov, Alexander; Hansen, Marie-Luise; Peter, Anita; Schmid, Gernot; Bolz, Thomas; Danker-Hopfe, Heidi

    2015-11-01

    Studies have shown that exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in the mobile communication frequency range may induce physiological modifications of both spontaneous as well as event-related human electroencephalogram. So far, there are very few peer-reviewed studies on effects of Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA), which is a digital radio communication standard used by security authorities and organizations in several European countries, on the central nervous system. To analyze the impact of simulated TETRA handset signals at 385 MHz on slow cortical potentials (SCPs). 30 young healthy males (25.2±2.7 years) were exposed in a double-blind, counterbalanced, cross-over design to one of three exposure levels (TETRA with 10 g averaged peak spatial SAR: 1.5 W/kg, 6.0 W/kg and sham). Exposure was conducted with a body worn antenna (especially designed for this study), positioned at the left side of the head. Subjects had 9 test sessions (three per exposure condition) in which three SCPs were assessed: SCP related to a clock monitoring task (CMT), Contingent negative variation (CNV) and Bereitschaftspotential (BP). Neither behavioral measures nor the electrophysiological activity was significantly affected by exposure in the three investigated SCP paradigms. Independent of exposure, significant amplitude differences between scalp regions could be observed for the CMT-related SCP and for the CNV. The present results reveal no evidence of RF-EMF exposure-dependent brain activity modifications investigated at the behavioral and the physiological level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pyrilocyanines. 24. Symmetrical tetra-tert-butyl substituted pyrilo-2-cyanines

    SciTech Connect

    Kurdyukov, V.V.; Ishchenko, A.A.; Kudinova, M.A.; Tolmachev, A.I.

    1987-12-01

    2,4-di-tert-butyl-6-methylpyrilium and -thiopyrilium salts were synthesized. From them were obtained symmetrical tetra-tert-butyl substituted ..cap alpha..-pyrilocarbo- and dicarbocyanines and their sulfur analogs. The ..cap alpha..-pyrilocyanines were converted to symmetrical ..cap alpha..-pyridocyanines. The effects of heteroresidue structure, length of polymethine chain, and solvent on the location and shape of the absorption bands of these dyes were studied. Their experimental spectral properties were compared with the results of quantum chemical calculations of average band location, second-power changes of bond order upon excitation, and theoretical electron donor capabilities.

  19. Structural and functional discussion of the tetra-trico-peptide repeat, a protein interaction module.

    PubMed

    Zeytuni, Natalie; Zarivach, Raz

    2012-03-07

    Tetra-trico-peptide repeat (TPR) domains are found in numerous proteins, where they serve as interaction modules and multiprotein complex mediators. TPRs can be found in all kingdoms of life and regulate diverse biological processes, such as organelle targeting and protein import, vesicle fusion, and biomineralization. This review considers the structural features of TPR domains that permit the great ligand-binding diversity of this motif, given that TPR-interacting partners display variations in both sequence and secondary structure. In addition, tools for predicting TPR-interacting partners are discussed, as are the abilities of TPR domains to serve as protein-protein interaction scaffolds in biotechnology and therapeutics.

  20. Tris(4-formyl-phen-yl)phosphane oxide tetra-hydro-furan hemisolvate.

    PubMed

    Kakoullis, James; Fronczek, Frank R; Maverick, Andrew W

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, C21H15O4P·0.5C4H8O, contains an ordered phosphane oxide in a general position and a tetra-hydro-furan solvent mol-ecule disordered about a twofold axis. All three aldehyde substituents are nearly coplanar with their attached benzene rings, with C-C-C-O torsion angles in the range 1.64 (17)-4.24 (19)°. All three have different conformations with respect to the P=O group, one syn, one anti, and one gauche. Two of the aldehyde substituents form inter-molecular C-H⋯O contacts.

  1. n-Propyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-d-glucopyran-oside.

    PubMed

    Mönch, Bettina; Emmerling, Franziska; Kraus, Werner; Becker, Roland; Nehls, Irene

    2013-02-01

    THE TITLE COMPOUND [SYSTEMATIC NAME: (2R,3R,4S,5R,6R)-2-(acet-oxy-meth-yl)-6-propoxytetra-hydro-2H-pyran-3,4,5-triyl triacetate], C(17)H(26)O(10), was formed by a Koenigs-Knorr reaction of 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-α-d-glucopyranosyl bromide and n-propanol. The central ring adopts a chair conformation. The crystal does not contain any significant inter-actions such as hydrogen bonds.

  2. Bis(2-amino-5-chloro­pyridinium) tetra­chloridozincate

    PubMed Central

    Kefi, Riadh; Jeanneau, Erwann; Lefebvre, Frederic; Ben Nasr, Cherif

    2011-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, (C5H6ClN2)2[ZnCl4], contains two 2-amino-5-chloro­pyridinium cations and one [ZnCl4]2− dianion which are held together by N—H⋯Cl and C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds. The [ZnCl4]2− anions have a distorted tetra­hedral geometry. Weak inter­molecular π–π stacking inter­actions exist between neighbouring aromatic rings of the cations with a centroid–centroid distance of 3.712 (7) Å. PMID:21522283

  3. Dark-induced cone outer segment damage in the neon tetra (Paracheirodon innesi).

    PubMed

    Lythgoe, J N; Shand, J

    1984-11-01

    The outer segment of the twin cones of the neon tetra show scrolling and vesiculation when exposed to 36 hr of continuous darkness. This disruption first begins as a rolling of the margins of the cone lamellae and proceeds to form a complex pattern of scrolls and vesicles. There is evidence that this damage can be repaired without having to return the animals to a normal light regime. Similar lamellar disruptions have been seen in the outer segments of both rods and cones of other species that have been exposed to various other light regimes including constant light.

  4. Synthesis and electrochemical studies of a new iron tetra-catecholamide complex.

    PubMed

    Cheraïti, N; Brik, M E; Bricard, L; Keita, B; Nadjo, L; Gaudemer, A

    1999-08-16

    A new tetra-catecholamide compound N5,N6-thiodipropanoyl-bis[N1,N10-bis(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl-spermidi ne)] (H8L) has been synthesised as an iron chelator of Fe (III). Cyclic voltammogram of the iron complex H2LFe run under an argon atmosphere shows a quasi-reversible redox process with E0 = -430 mV vs. SCE in CH3OH/H20 (60/40). This value approaches the range of biological reductants and consequently the complex may mimic the release of iron from enterobactin to the agents which are directly involved in cell metabolism.

  5. Metal binding and antioxidant properties of chimeric tri- and tetra-domained metallothioneins.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Jean-Luc; Baudrimont, Magalie; Carrier, Patrick; Peltier, Gilles; Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul

    2008-05-01

    An unusual tri-domained (alpha-beta-beta) natural oyster metallothionein (MT) is known, and non-oxidative MT dimers occur in vivo in mollusk species and in mammals. To assess the respective role of the MT domains, two chimeric MTs were constructed: a tetra-domained oyster MT corresponding to the alpha-beta-alpha-beta structure, in order to mimic the natural non-oxidative dimeric form, and a tri-domained alpha-beta-alpha oyster MT. Metal binding and putative antioxidant properties of these two chimeric MTs were investigated using expression of the related genes in the bacteria Escherichia coli. In a wild-type strain these MTs could efficiently bind Cd. In a superoxide dismutase (sodA sodB) null mutant, the tri-domained MT was found to exacerbate Cd toxicity whereas the tetra-domained MT efficiently protected bacteria from Cd. The paradoxical toxicity displayed by the tri-domained MT upon Cd contamination was linked to the generation of superoxide radicals generated by a mechanism which most probably involves a copper-redox cycling reaction, since a Cd-contaminated sodA sodB strain expressing this MT produced 4 times more O2(-) than the control bacteria, and MT toxicity disappeared in the presence of bathocuproine disulfonic acid, a copper chelator. In contrast, the tetra-domained form did not. Interestingly, in bacteria producing superoxide dismutase but hypersensitive to oxidative stress due to either mutations in thioredoxin and glutathione reductase pathways (WM104 mutant) or to a lack of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gshA mutant), both chimeric MTs were protecting against Cd toxicity. However, an unexpected lack of antioxidant function was observed for both chimeric MTs, which were found to enhance the toxicity of hydrogen peroxide in WM104, or that of menadione in QC1726. Altogether, our results suggest that superoxide dismutase activity counteracts the potential prooxidative effect of the tri-domained MT mediated by Cu ions and that the tetra

  6. Crystal structure of non-centrosymmetric bis-(4-meth-oxy-benzyl-ammonium) tetra-chlorido-zincate.

    PubMed

    Mahbouli Rhouma, Najla; Rayes, Ali; Mezzadri, Francesco; Calestani, Gianluca; Loukil, Mohamed

    2016-07-01

    The structure of the title non-centrosymmetric organic-inorganic hybrid salt, (C8H12NO)2[ZnCl4], consists of two 4-meth-oxy-benzyl-ammonium cations sandwiched between anionic layers, formed by isolated tetra-chlorido-zincate tetra-hedra. The double layers extend parallel to the ac plane. The crystal packing is assured by Coulombic inter-actions and by a complex N-H⋯Cl and C-H⋯Cl hydrogen-bonding system mostly involving the positively charged ammonium groups and the chloride ligands of the isolated tetra-hedral [ZnCl4](2-) units. One of the methyl-ene-ammonium groups is disordered over two sets of sites in a 0.48 (2):0.52 (2) ratio. The crystal investigated was twinned by non-merohedry with a twin component ratio of 0.738 (2):0.262 (2).

  7. HPC - Platforms Penta Chart

    SciTech Connect

    Trujillo, Angelina Michelle

    2015-10-08

    Strategy, Planning, Acquiring- very large scale computing platforms come and go and planning for immensely scalable machines often precedes actual procurement by 3 years. Procurement can be another year or more. Integration- After Acquisition, machines must be integrated into the computing environments at LANL. Connection to scalable storage via large scale storage networking, assuring correct and secure operations. Management and Utilization – Ongoing operations, maintenance, and trouble shooting of the hardware and systems software at massive scale is required.

  8. HPC - Facilities Penta

    SciTech Connect

    Trujillo, Angelina Michelle

    2015-10-08

    Strategy, Planning, Acquiring- very large scale computing require very large physical infrastructures, pipes, pumps, power, etc. Planning and acquiring $25M+ infrastructure projects and bringing in more power to the county takes a lot of long lead time / planning. Integration- New physical infrastructure must be integrated into our buildings, with the LANL site power and water systems, with existing infrastructure, and with the machines. Very large physical infrastructure projects are necessary. Management and Utilization – Ongoing operations, monitoring, maintenance, and trouble shooting of the physical infrastructure is required.

  9. Origin and evolution of the unique tetra-domain hemoglobin from the hydrothermal vent scale worm Branchipolynoe.

    PubMed

    Projecto-Garcia, J; Zorn, N; Jollivet, D; Schaeffer, S W; Lallier, F H; Hourdez, S

    2010-01-01

    Hemoglobin is the most common respiratory pigment in annelids. It can be intra or extracellular, and this latter type can form large multimeric complexes. The hydrothermal vent scale worms Branchipolynoe symmytilida and Branchipolynoe seepensis express an extracellular tetra-domain hemoglobin (Hb) that is unique in annelids. We sequenced the gene for the single-domain and tetra-domain globins in these two species. The single-domain gene codes for a mature protein of 137 amino acids, and the tetra-domain gene codes for a mature protein of 552 amino acids. The single-domain gene has a typical three exon/two intron structure, with introns located at their typical positions (B12.2 and G7.0). This structure is repeated four times in the tetra-domain gene, with no bridge introns or linker sequences between domains. The phylogenetic position of Branchipolynoe globins among known annelid globins revealed that, although extracellular, they cluster within the annelid intracellular globins clade, suggesting that the extracellular state of these Hbs is the result of convergent evolution. The tetra-domain structure likely resulted from two tandem duplications, domain 1 giving rise to domain 2 and after this the two-domain gene duplicated to produce domains 3 and 4. The high O(2) affinity of Branchipolynoe extracellular globins may be explained by the two key residues (B10Y and E7Q) in the heme pocket in each of the domains of the single and tetra-domain globins, which have been shown to be essential in the oxygen-avid Hb from the nematode Ascaris suum. This peculiar globin evolutionary path seems to be very different from other annelid extracellular globins and is most likely the product of evolutionary tinkering associated with the strong selective pressure to adapt to chronic hypoxia that characterizes hydrothermal vents.

  10. Assembling of G-strands into novel tetra-molecular parallel G4-DNA nanostructures using avidin–biotin recognition

    PubMed Central

    Borovok, Natalia; Iram, Natalie; Zikich, Dragoslav; Ghabboun, Jamal; Livshits, Gideon I.; Kotlyar, Alexander B.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a method for the preparation of novel long (hundreds of nanometers), uniform, inter-molecular G4-DNA molecules composed of four parallel G-strands. The only long continuous G4-DNA reported so far are intra-molecular structures made of a single G-strand. To enable a tetra-molecular assembly of the G-strands we developed a novel approach based on avidin–biotin biological recognition. The steps of the G4-DNA production include: (i) Enzymatic synthesis of long poly(dG)-poly(dC) molecules with biotinylated poly(dG)-strand; (ii) Formation of a complex between avidin-tetramer and four biotinylated poly(dG)-poly(dC) molecules; (iii) Separation of the poly(dC) strands from the poly(dG)-strands, which are connected to the avidin; (iv) Assembly of the four G-strands attached to the avidin into tetra-molecular G4-DNA. The average contour length of the formed structures, as measured by AFM, is equal to that of the initial poly(dG)-poly(dC) molecules, suggesting a tetra-molecular mechanism of the G-strands assembly. The height of tetra-molecular G4-nanostructures is larger than that of mono-molecular G4-DNA molecules having similar contour length. The CD spectra of the tetra- and mono-molecular G4-DNA are markedly different, suggesting different structural organization of these two types of molecules. The tetra-molecular G4-DNA nanostructures showed clear electrical polarizability. This suggests that they may be useful for molecular electronics. PMID:18663013

  11. 4,11-Diaza-1,8-diazo­niacyclo­tetra­decane dichloride hemihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam-Ho; Hwang, In-Chul; Ha, Kwang

    2009-01-01

    In the title compound, C10H26N4 2+·2Cl−·0.5H2O, the cyclam (1,4,8,11-tetra­azacyclo­tetra­decane) dication adopts an endodentate conformation which my be inflenced by intra­molecular N—H⋯N hydrogen bonding. In the crystal structure, the components are linked by N—H⋯Cl and O—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds into chains along [100]. The water molecule is disordered over two sites in a 50:50 ratio. PMID:21577540

  12. Crystal structure of an unknown tetra-hydro-furan solvate of tetra-kis-(μ 3-cyanato-κ(3) N:N:N)tetra-kis-[(triphenyl-phosphane-κP)-silver(I)].

    PubMed

    Frenzel, Peter; Schaarschmidt, Dieter; Jakob, Alexander; Lang, Heinrich

    2015-10-01

    In the title compound, [{[(C6H5)3P]Ag}4{NCO}4], a distorted Ag4N4-heterocubane core is set up by four Ag(I) ions being coordinated by the N atoms of the cyanato anions in a μ 3-bridging mode. In addition, a tri-phenyl-phosphine ligand is datively bonded to each of the Ag(I) ions. Intra-molecular Ag⋯Ag distances as short as 3.133 (9) Å suggest the presence of argentophilic (d (10)⋯d (10)) inter-actions. Five moderate-to-weak C-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter-actions are observed in the crystal structure, spanning a three-dimensional network. A region of electron density was treated with the SQUEEZE procedure in PLATON [Spek (2015). Acta Cryst. C71, 9-18] following unsuccessful attempts to model it as being part of disordered tetra-hydro-furan solvent mol-ecules. The given chemical formula and other crystal data do not take into account these solvent mol-ecules.

  13. Crystal structure of an unknown tetra­hydro­furan solvate of tetra­kis­(μ 3-cyanato-κ3 N:N:N)tetra­kis­[(triphenyl­phosphane-κP)­silver(I)

    PubMed Central

    Frenzel, Peter; Schaarschmidt, Dieter; Jakob, Alexander; Lang, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    In the title compound, [{[(C6H5)3P]Ag}4{NCO}4], a distorted Ag4N4-heterocubane core is set up by four AgI ions being coordinated by the N atoms of the cyanato anions in a μ 3-bridging mode. In addition, a tri­phenyl­phosphine ligand is datively bonded to each of the AgI ions. Intra­molecular Ag⋯Ag distances as short as 3.133 (9) Å suggest the presence of argentophilic (d 10⋯d 10) inter­actions. Five moderate-to-weak C—H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter­actions are observed in the crystal structure, spanning a three-dimensional network. A region of electron density was treated with the SQUEEZE procedure in PLATON [Spek (2015). Acta Cryst. C71, 9–18] following unsuccessful attempts to model it as being part of disordered tetra­hydro­furan solvent mol­ecules. The given chemical formula and other crystal data do not take into account these solvent mol­ecules. PMID:26594421

  14. Synthesis and characterisation of novel Co(II) complexes of pyrazole carboxylate derivated of sulfonamide as carbonic anhydrase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Büyükkidan, Nurgün; Büyükkidan, Bülent; Bülbül, Metin; Kasimoğullari, Rahmi; Serdar, Murat; Mert, Samet

    2013-03-01

    Two new metal complexes, diaquabis(4-benzoyl-1,5-diphenyl-N-(5-sulfamoyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide)cobalt(II) dihydrate (2) and diaquabis(ethyl-1-(3-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyl-3-(5-sulfamoyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-ylcarbamoyl)-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylate)cobalt(II) monohydrate (4), containing sulfonamide have been synthesized by the reaction of Co(II) with 4-benzoyl-1,5-diphenyl-N-(5-sulfamoyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (1) and ethyl-1-(3-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyl-3-(5-sulfamoyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-ylcarbamoyl)-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylate (3), respectively. The structures of Co(II) complexes 2 and 4 have been characterised by spectroscopic methods and elemental analyses. Human carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes (hCA-I and hCA-II) were purified from erythrocyte cells by affinity chromatography. The inhibitory effects of ligands 3 and 4, acetazolamide as a control compound and the newly synthesized complexes on the activity of hydratase and esterase of these isoenzymes have been studied in vitro. The concentration of compounds 2 and 4 producing a 50% inhibition of hydratase activity (IC(50) values) were 0.473 ± 0.025 and 0.065 ± 0.002 μm for hCA-I and 0.213 ± 0.015 and 0.833 ± 0.021 μm for hCA-II, respectively. The IC(50) values of synthesized compounds 2 and 4 for esterase activity were, 0.058 ± 0.006 and 0.297 ± 0.015 μm for hCA-I and 0.110 ± 0.010 and 0.052 ± 0.002 μm for hCA-II, respectively. In relation to esterase activity, the inhibition equilibrium constants (K(i) ) were determined as 0.039 ± 0.004 and 0.247 ± 0.035 μm on hCA-I and 0.078 ± 0.002 and 0.363 ± 0.015 μm on hCA-II for 2 and 4, respectively. The synthesized compounds 2 and 4 had effective inhibitory activity (P < 0.0001) on hCA-I and hCA-II than the corresponding free ligands, 1 and 3, and acetazolamide. Compounds 2 and 4 might be considered as potential inhibitors. © 2012 The Authors. JPP

  15. Magnetic Anisotropy in Pentacoordinate Ni(II) and Co(II) Complexes: Unraveling Electronic and Geometrical Contributions.

    PubMed

    Cahier, Benjamin; Perfetti, Mauro; Zakhia, Georges; Naoufal, Daoud; El-Khatib, Fatima; Guillot, Régis; Rivière, Eric; Sessoli, Roberta; Barra, Anne-Laure; Guihéry, Nathalie; Mallah, Talal

    2017-03-13

    The magnetic properties of the pentacoordinate [M(II) (Me4 cyclam)N3 ](+) (Me4 cyclam=tetramethylcyclam; N3 =azido; M=Ni, Co) complexes were investigated. Magnetization and EPR studies indicate that they have an easy plane of magnetization with axial anisotropy parameters D close to 22 and greater than 30 cm(-1) for the Ni and Co complexes, respectively. Ab initio calculations reproduced the experimental values of the zero-field splitting parameters and allowed the orientation of the anisotropy tensor axes with respect to the molecular frame to be determined. For M=Ni, the principal anisotropy axis lies along the Ni-Nazido direction perpendicular to the Ni(Me4 cyclam) mean plane, whereas for M=Co it lies in the Co(Me4 cyclam) mean plane and thus perpendicular to the Co-Nazido direction. These orientations match one of the possible solutions experimentally provided by single-crystal cantilever torque magnetometry. To rationalize the geometry and its impact on the orientation of the anisotropy tensor axis, calculations were carried out on model complexes [Ni(II) (NCH)5 ](2+) and [Co(II) (NCH)5 ](2+) by varying the geometry between square pyramidal and trigonal bipyramidal. The geometry of the complexes was found to be the result of a compromise between the electronic configuration of the metal ion and the structure-orienting effect of the Me4 cyclam macrocycle. Moreover, the orientation of the anisotropy axes is mainly dependent on the geometry of the complexes.

  16. Molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography of all the Saimiri taxa (Cebidae, Primates) inferred from mt COI and COII gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-García, Manuel; Luengas-Villamil, Kelly; Leguizamon, Norberto; de Thoisy, Benoit; Gálvez, Hugo

    2015-04-01

    Some previous genetic studies have been performed to resolve the molecular phylogenetics of the squirrel monkeys (Saimiri). However, these studies did not show consensus in how many taxa are within this genus and what the relationships among them are. For this reason, we sequenced 2,237 base pairs of the mt COI and COII genes in 218 Saimiri individuals. All, less 12 S. sciureus sciureus from French Guyana, were sampled in the wild. These samples represented all the living Saimiri taxa recognized. There were four main findings of this study. (1) Our analysis detected 17 different Saimiri groups: albigena, cassiquiarensis, five polyphyletic macrodon groups, three polyphyletic ustus groups, sciureus, collinsi, boliviensis, peruviensis, vanzolinii, oerstedii and citrinellus. Four different phylogenetic trees showed the Central American squirrel monkey (S. oerstedii) as the most differentiated taxon. In contrast, albigena was indicated to be the most recent taxon. (2) There was extensive hybridization and/or historical introgression among albigena, different macrodon groups, peruviensis, sciureus and collinsi. (3) Different tests showed that our maximum likelihood tree was consistent with two species of Saimiri: S. oerstedii and S. sciureus. If no cases of hybridization were detected implicating S. vanzolinii, this could be a third recognized species. (4) We also estimated that the first temporal splits within this genus occurred around 1.4-1.6 million years ago, which indicates that the temporal split events within Saimiri were correlated with Pleistocene climatic changes. If the biological species concept is applied because, in this case, it is operative due to observed hybridization in the wild, the number of species within this genus is probably more limited than recently proposed by other authors. The Pleistocene was the fundamental epoch when the mitochondrial Saimiri diversification process occurred.

  17. Eight at one stroke - a synthetic tetra-disulfide peptide epitope.

    PubMed

    Schrimpf, Andreas; Linne, Uwe; Geyer, Armin

    2017-02-13

    We have designed a cysteine-rich β-hairpin peptide which dimerises spontaneously to the antiparallel double β-hairpin motif C1-C12', C1'-C12, C5-C8, C5'-C8'-tricyclo-(CHWECCitGCRLVC)2. The highly regioselective oxidation of eight cysteines yields an intermolecular bi-disulfide 24mer hinge peptide from two individual 12mer β-hairpins, each rigidified by an additional intramolecular disulfide bond - all in all a tetra-disulfide. The reaction kinetics of air-oxidation were followed by HPLC and the constitutional isomer was identified by mass spectrometry. The hairpin conformation was characterised in detail by NMR spectroscopy and the opening angle of the antiparallel hinge was estimated from drift times obtained by ion-mobility spectrometry. Based on a set of investigated disulfide motifs, we are able to rationalise how the unbalanced number of bonded and non-bonded hydrogen pairs in a 12 mer hairpin causes their dimerisation. The unique dimeric bi-/tetra-disulfides provide systematic insights into β-hairpin formation. They can serve as a standalone structural element for the oligomerisation of peptide epitopes where structural diversity is generated from a minimal number of amino acids.

  18. Tetra-sodium (dihydrogenhepta-oxido-digermanato)bis-(dihydrogentetra-oxido-germanato)dicopper(II) monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya-Feng; Li, Dan-Ping; Shi, Cui-Li; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Jin, Li

    2009-03-11

    In the hydro/solvothermally synthesized title compound, Na(4)[Cu(2)(H(2)Ge(2)O(7))(H(2)GeO(4))(2)]·H(2)O, the framework building units include CuO(4), GeO(2)(OH)(2) and GeO(3)(OH) tetra-hedra, the latter being condensed into H(2)Ge(2)O(7) (4-) dimers. All the tetra-hedra are connected by corner-sharing into four-membered-ring (4MR) secondary building units containing two CuO(4), one GeO(2)(OH)(2) and one GeO(3)(OH) entity. The 4MRs form chains by corner-sharing the Cu unit and adjacent chains are linked by H(2)Ge(2)O(7) (4-) dimers, generating layers containing ten-membered rings. Three sodium cations (one with site symmetry and one with site symmetry 2) and a water mol-ecule (O-atom site symmetry 2) complete the structure. A network of O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds helps to consolidate the packing.

  19. Mechanism of variable structural colour in the neon tetra: quantitative evaluation of the Venetian blind model

    PubMed Central

    Yoshioka, S.; Matsuhana, B.; Tanaka, S.; Inouye, Y.; Oshima, N.; Kinoshita, S.

    2011-01-01

    The structural colour of the neon tetra is distinguishable from those of, e.g., butterfly wings and bird feathers, because it can change in response to the light intensity of the surrounding environment. This fact clearly indicates the variability of the colour-producing microstructures. It has been known that an iridophore of the neon tetra contains a few stacks of periodically arranged light-reflecting platelets, which can cause multilayer optical interference phenomena. As a mechanism of the colour variability, the Venetian blind model has been proposed, in which the light-reflecting platelets are assumed to be tilted during colour change, resulting in a variation in the spacing between the platelets. In order to quantitatively evaluate the validity of this model, we have performed a detailed optical study of a single stack of platelets inside an iridophore. In particular, we have prepared a new optical system that can simultaneously measure both the spectrum and direction of the reflected light, which are expected to be closely related to each other in the Venetian blind model. The experimental results and detailed analysis are found to quantitatively verify the model. PMID:20554565

  20. Mechanism of variable structural colour in the neon tetra: quantitative evaluation of the Venetian blind model.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, S; Matsuhana, B; Tanaka, S; Inouye, Y; Oshima, N; Kinoshita, S

    2011-01-06

    The structural colour of the neon tetra is distinguishable from those of, e.g., butterfly wings and bird feathers, because it can change in response to the light intensity of the surrounding environment. This fact clearly indicates the variability of the colour-producing microstructures. It has been known that an iridophore of the neon tetra contains a few stacks of periodically arranged light-reflecting platelets, which can cause multilayer optical interference phenomena. As a mechanism of the colour variability, the Venetian blind model has been proposed, in which the light-reflecting platelets are assumed to be tilted during colour change, resulting in a variation in the spacing between the platelets. In order to quantitatively evaluate the validity of this model, we have performed a detailed optical study of a single stack of platelets inside an iridophore. In particular, we have prepared a new optical system that can simultaneously measure both the spectrum and direction of the reflected light, which are expected to be closely related to each other in the Venetian blind model. The experimental results and detailed analysis are found to quantitatively verify the model.

  1. A sequence-specific threading tetra-intercalator with an extremely slow dissociation rate constant.

    PubMed

    Holman, Garen G; Zewail-Foote, Maha; Smith, Amy Rhoden; Johnson, Kenneth A; Iverson, Brent L

    2011-09-25

    A long-lived and sequence-specific ligand-DNA complex would make possible the modulation of biological processes for extended periods. For this purpose, we are investigating a polyintercalation approach to DNA recognition in which flexible chains of aromatic units thread back and forth repeatedly through the double helix. Here we describe the DNA-binding behaviour of a threading tetra-intercalator. Specific binding was observed on a relatively long DNA strand that strongly favoured a predicted 14 base-pair sequence. Kinetic studies revealed a multistep association process, with sequence specificity that primarily derives from large differences in dissociation rates. The rate-limiting dissociation rate constant of the tetra-intercalator complex dissociating from its preferred binding site was extremely slow, corresponding to a half-life of 16 days. This is one of the longest non-covalent complex half-lives yet reported and, to the best of our knowledge, the longest for a DNA-binding molecule.

  2. A sequence-specific threading tetra-intercalator with an extremely slow dissociation rate constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holman, Garen G.; Zewail-Foote, Maha; Smith, Amy Rhoden; Johnson, Kenneth A.; Iverson, Brent L.

    2011-11-01

    A long-lived and sequence-specific ligand-DNA complex would make possible the modulation of biological processes for extended periods. For this purpose, we are investigating a polyintercalation approach to DNA recognition in which flexible chains of aromatic units thread back and forth repeatedly through the double helix. Here we describe the DNA-binding behaviour of a threading tetra-intercalator. Specific binding was observed on a relatively long DNA strand that strongly favoured a predicted 14 base-pair sequence. Kinetic studies revealed a multistep association process, with sequence specificity that primarily derives from large differences in dissociation rates. The rate-limiting dissociation rate constant of the tetra-intercalator complex dissociating from its preferred binding site was extremely slow, corresponding to a half-life of 16 days. This is one of the longest non-covalent complex half-lives yet reported and, to the best of our knowledge, the longest for a DNA-binding molecule.

  3. Oxygen release of tetra acetyl ethylene diamine (TAED) and sodium perborate combination.

    PubMed

    Celik, E U; Türkün, M; Yapar, A G D

    2008-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of tetra acetyl ethylene diamine (TAED) on oxygen release from sodium perborate and to compare it with sodium perborate-hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and sodium perborate-distilled water mixtures. Six groups were evaluated: control groups (groups I-III), sodium perborate was mixed with distilled water or 3% or 30% H(2)O(2); experimental groups (groups IV-VI), sodium perborate was mixed with TAED in different ratios and then distilled water was added to these mixtures. The amount of oxygen released from the samples was measured with a digital oxygen meter at room temperature (25 degrees C) and body temperature (37 degrees C) after 1 min, 1-6 h and 12 h and on each day up to 1 week. The results were statistically evaluated by one-way analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey's tests. The TAED groups demonstrated significantly higher amounts of released oxygen after 1 min and 1 h at 25 degrees C and 1 min at 37 degrees C (P < 0.05). At all other measurement times, the amount of TAED in each mixture did not alter the amount or speed of oxygen release (P > 0.05). Tetra acetyl ethylene diamine groups achieved their maximum oxygen release 2 h earlier at 25 degrees C and 1 h earlier at 37 degrees C than the other groups. Thus, TAED accelerated oxygen release from sodium perborate-distilled water mixtures regardless of its proportions up to 24 h.

  4. Sandwich and half-sandwich metal complexes derived from cross-conjugated 3-methylene-penta-1,4-diynes.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Kevin B; Gluyas, Josef B G; Zeng, Qiang; Yufit, Dmitry S; Howard, Judith A K; Hartl, František; Low, Paul J

    2017-05-02

    The cross-conjugated ethynyl-vinylidene [Ph2C[double bond, length as m-dash]C(C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CH){C(H)[double bond, length as m-dash]CRu(PPh3)2Cp}]PF6 ([4a]PF6), and [FcC(H)[double bond, length as m-dash]C(C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CH){C(H)[double bond, length as m-dash]CRu(PPh3)2Cp}]PF6 ([4b]PF6), and ethynyl-alkynyl Ph2C[double bond, length as m-dash]C(C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CH){C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CRu(PPh3)2Cp} (5a), and FcC(H)[double bond, length as m-dash]C(C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CH){C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CRu(PPh3)2Cp} (5b) compounds (Cp = η(5)-cyclopentadienyl) have been prepared from reactions of the known 3-methylene-penta-1,4-diynes Ph2C[double bond, length as m-dash]C(C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CH)2 (3a) and [FcCH[double bond, length as m-dash]C(C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CH)2] (3b) with [RuCl(PPh3)2Cp]. The compounds derived from 3b incorporating the more electron-rich alkene proved to be unstable during work-up, and attempts to prepare bis(ruthenium) complexes from 3a and 3b or from transmetallation reactions of the bis(alkynylgold) complex FcCH[double bond, length as m-dash]C(C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CAuPPh3)2 (7) with RuCl(PPh3)2Cp were unsuccessful. The related bis- and tris(ferrocenyl) derivatives Ph2C[double bond, length as m-dash]C(C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CFc)2 (6a) and FcCH[double bond, length as m-dash]C(C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CFc)2 (6b) were more readily obtained from Pd(ii)/Cu(i) catalysed cross-coupling reactions of FcC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CH with the 1,1-dibromo vinyl complexes PhC[double bond, length as m-dash]CBr2 (1a) and FcC(H)[double bond, length as m-dash]CBr2 (1b). Cyclic voltammetry of 6a and 6b using n-Bu4N[PF6] as the supporting electrolyte shows broad, overlapping waves arising from the sequential oxidation of the ferrocenyl moieties in electronically and chemically similar environments. Electrostatic effects between the

  5. Crystal structure of cyclo-bis-(μ4-2,2-di-allyl-malonato-κ(6) O (1),O (3):O (3):O (1'),O (3'):O (1'))tetra-kis-(triphenyl-phosphane-κP)tetra-silver(I).

    PubMed

    Frenzel, Peter; Jakob, Alexander; Schaarschmidt, Dieter; Rüffer, Tobias; Lang, Heinrich

    2014-10-01

    In the tetra-nuclear mol-ecule of the title compound, [Ag4(C9H10O4)2(C18H15P)4], the Ag(I) ion is coordinated by one P and three O atoms in a considerably distorted tetra-hedral environment. The two 2,2-di-allyl-malonate anions bridge four Ag(I) ions in a μ4-(κ(6) O (1),O (3):O (3):O (1'),O (3'):O (1')) mode, setting up an Ag4O8P4 core (point group symmetry -4..) of corner-sharing tetra-hedra. The shortest intra-molecular Ag⋯Ag distance of 3.9510 (3) Å reveals that no direct d (10)⋯d (10) inter-actions are present. Four weak intra-molecular C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds are observed in the crystal structure of the title compound, which most likely stabilize the tetra-nuclear silver core.

  6. mer-Tri-chlorido-tris-(tetra-hydro-thio-phene-κS)iridium(III): preparation and comparison with other mer-tri-chlorido-tris-(tetra-hydro-thio-phene-κS)metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Brown, Loren C; DuChane, Christine M; Merola, Joseph S

    2016-09-01

    The title complex, [IrCl3(C4H8S)3], was prepared according to a literature method. A suitable crystal was obtained by diffusion of pentane into a di-chloro-methane solution and analyzed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction at 100 K. The title complex is isotypic with mer-tri-chlorido-tris-(tetra-hydro-thio-phene-κS)rhodium(III). However, the orientation of the tetra-hydro-thio-phene rings is different from an earlier report of mer-tri-chlorido-tris-(tetra-hydro-thio-phene-κS)iridium(III) deposited in the Cambridge Structural Database. The IrS3Cl3 core shows a nearly octa-hedral structure with various bond angles within 1-2° of the perfect 90 or 180° expected for an octa-hedron. The structure of the title compound is compared with the previous iridium complex as well as the rhodium and other octa-hedral metal tris-tetra-hydro-thio-phene compounds previously structurally characterized. DFT calculations were performed, which indicate the mer isomer is significantly lower in energy than the fac isomer by 50.1 kJ mol(-1), thereby accounting for all compounds in the CSD being of the mer geometry. Powder X-ray diffraction of the bulk material showed that the preparation method yielded only the isomorph reported in this communication.

  7. Crystal structure of cis-bis-[4-phenyl-2-(1,2,3,4-tetra-hydro-naphthalen-1-yl-idene)hydrazinecarbo-thio-amidato-κ(2) N (1),S]nickel(II) monohydrate tetra-hydro-furan disolvate.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Adriano Bof; Feitosa, Bárbara Regina Santos; Näther, Christian; Jess, Inke

    2014-08-01

    The reaction of Ni(II) acetate tetra-hydrate with the ligand 4-phenyl-2-(1,2,3,4-tetra-hydro-naphthalen-1-yl-idene)hydrazinecarbo-thio-amide in a 2:1 molar ratio yielded the title compound, [Ni(C16H16N3S)2]·2C4H8O·H2O. The deprotonated ligands act as N,S-donors, forming five-membered metallacycles with the metal ion exhibiting a cis coordination mode unusual for thio-semicarbazone complexes. The Ni(II) ion is four-coordinated in a tetra-hedrally distorted square-planar geometry. Trans-arranged anagostic C-H⋯Ni inter-actions are observed. In the crystal, the complex mol-ecules are linked by water mol-ecules through N-H⋯O and O-H⋯S hydrogen-bonding inter-actions into centrosymmetric dimers stacked along the c axis, forming rings of graph-set R 4 (4)(12). Classical O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving the water and tetra-hydro-furan solvent mol-ecules as well as weak C-H⋯π inter-actions are also present.

  8. Characterization and biological studies on Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes of carbohydrazones ending by pyridyl ring.

    PubMed

    Abu El-Reash, G M; El-Gammal, O A; Ghazy, S E; Radwan, A H

    2013-03-01

    The chelating behavior of ligands based on carbohydrazone core modified with pyridine end towards Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions have been examined. The ligands derived from the condensation of carbohydrazide with 2-acetylpyridine (H(2)APC) and 4-acetylpyridine (H(2)APEC). The (1)H NMR, IR data and the binding energy calculations of H(2)APC revealed the presence of two stereoisomers syn and anti in the solid state and in the solution. The (1)H NMR, IR data and the binding energy calculations confirmed the presence of H(2)APEC in one keto form only in the solid state and in the solution. The spectroscopic data confirmed that H(2)APC behaves as a monobasic pentadentate in Co(II) and Cu(II) complexes and as mononegative tetradentate in Ni(II) complex. On the other hand, H(2)APEC acts as a mononegative tridentate in Co(II) complex, neutral tridentate in Ni(II) complex and neutral bidentate in Cu(II) complex. The electronic spectra and the magnetic measurements of complexes as well as the ESR of the copper complexes suggested the octahedral geometry. The bond length and bond angles were evaluated by DFT method using material studio program. The thermal behavior and the kinetic parameters of degradation were determined using Coats-Redfern and Horowitz-Metzger methods. The antioxidant (DDPH and ABTS methods), anti-hemolytic and in vitro Ehrlich ascites of the compounds have been screened. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Crystal structure of μ-1κC:2(η2)-carbonyl-carbonyl-1κC-chlorido-2κCl-μ-chlorido­borylene-1:2κ2 B:B-[1(η5)-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl](tri­cyclo­hexyl­phosphane-2κP)iron(II)platinum(II) benzene monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Braunschweig, Holger; Kramer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In the mol­ecular structure of the dinuclear title compound [η5-(C5(CH3)5)(CO)Fe{(μ-BCl)(μ-CO)}PtCl(P(C6H11)3)]·C6H6, the two metal atoms, iron(II) and platinum(II), are bridged by one carbonyl (μ-CO) and one chlorido­borylene ligand (μ-BCl). The PtII atom is additionally bound to a chloride ligand situated trans to the bridging borylene, and a tri­cyclo­hexyl­phosphane ligand (PCy3) trans to the carbonyl ligand, forming a distorted square-planar structural motif at the PtII atom. The FeII atom is bound to a penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl ligand [η5-C5(CH3)5] and one carbonyl ligand (CO), forming a piano-stool structure. Additionally, one benzene solvent mol­ecule is incorporated into the crystal structure, positioned staggered relative to the penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl ligand at the FeII atom, with a centroid–centroid separation of 3.630 (2) Å. PMID:25484763

  10. Oenothera paradoxa defatted seeds extract and its bioactive component penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose decreased production of reactive oxygen species and inhibited release of leukotriene B4, interleukin-8, elastase, and myeloperoxidase in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Anna K; Filipek, Agnieszka; Czerwińska, Monika; Naruszewicz, Marek

    2010-09-22

    In this study, we analyzed ex vivo the effect of an aqueous extract of Oenothera paradoxa defatted seeds on the formation of neutrophil-derived oxidants. For defining active compounds, we also tested lypophilic extract constituents such as gallic acid, (+)-catechin, ellagic acid, and penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose and a hydrophilic fraction containing polymeric procyanidins. The anti-inflammatory potential of the extract and compounds was tested by determining the release from activated neutrophils of elastase, myeloperoxidase, interleukin-8 (IL-8), and leukotriene B4 (LTB4), which are considered relevant for the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. The extract of O. paradoxa defatted seeds displays potent antioxidant effects against both 4β-phorbol-12β-myristate-α13-acetate- and formyl-met-leu-phenylalanine-induced reactive oxygen species production in neutrophils with IC50 values around 0.2 μg/mL. All types of polyphenolics present in the extract contributed to the extract antioxidant activity. According to their IC50 values, penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose was the more potent constituent of the extract. In cell-free assays, we demonstrated that this effect is partially due to the scavenging of O2- and H2O2 oxygen species. The extract and especially penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose significantly inhibit elastase, myeloperoxidase IL-8, and LTB4 release with an IC50 for penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose of 17±1, 15±1, 6.5±2.5, and around 20 μM, respectively. The inhibition of penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose on reactive oxygen species and especially on O2- production, myeloperoxidase, and chemoattractant release may reduce the interaction of polymorphonuclear leukocyte with the vascular endothelium and by that potentially diminish the risk of progression of atherosclerosis development.

  11. Enantioselective Aldol Reactions in Water by a Proline-Derived Cryptand and Fixation of CO2 by Its Exocyclic Co(II) Complex.

    PubMed

    De, Dinesh; Bhattacharyya, Aditya; Bharadwaj, Parimal K

    2017-09-01

    The secondary amine donors present in the bridges of a laterally nonsymmetric oxa-aza cryptand have been derivatized with l-proline to obtain the chiral cryptand L. The cryptand L efficiently catalyzed aldol reactions in water with up to 75% ee. On reacting with Co(II) perchlorate in the presence of KSCN, L readily formed the trinuclear complex {[Co3(L)2(NCS)6]·(15CH3CN)(5acetone)(6H2O)} (1). The complex 1 in combination with the cocatalyst tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) formed an efficient catalytic system in the synthesis of cyclic carbonates from CO2 and epoxides at room temperature and atmospheric pressure.

  12. Click on silica: systematic immobilization of Co(II) Schiff bases to the mesoporous silica via click reaction and their catalytic activity for aerobic oxidation of alcohols.

    PubMed

    Rana, Bharat S; Jain, Suman L; Singh, Bhawan; Bhaumik, Asim; Sain, Bir; Sinha, Anil K

    2010-09-07

    The systematic immobilization of cobalt(II) Schiff base complexes on SBA-15 mesoporous silica via copper catalyzed [3 + 2] azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) "click reaction" involving either step-wise synthesis of silica-bound Schiff base ligand followed by its subsequent complexation with cobalt ions, or by the direct immobilization of preformed Co(II) Schiff base complex to the silica support is described. The catalytic activity of the prepared complexes was studied for the oxidation of alcohols to carbonyl compounds using molecular oxygen as oxidant. The immobilized complexes were recycled for several runs without loss in catalytic activity and no leaching was observed during this course.

  13. Novel FeII and CoII Complexes of Natural Product Tryptanthrin: Synthesis and Binding with G-Quadruplex DNA

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yi-ning; Zhang, Yan; Gu, Yun-qiong; Wu, Shi-yun; Shen, Wen-ying

    2016-01-01

    Tryptanthrin is one of the most important members of indoloquinoline alkaloids. We obtained this alkaloid from Isatis. Two novel FeII and CoII complexes of tryptanthrin were first synthesized. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses show that these complexes display distorted four-coordinated tetrahedron geometry via two heterocyclic nitrogen and oxygen atoms from tryptanthrin ligand. Binding with G-quadruplex DNA properties revealed that both complexes were found to exhibit significant interaction with G-quadruplex DNA. This study may potentially serve as the basis of future rational design of metal-based drugs from natural products that target the G-quadruplex DNA. PMID:27698647

  14. A novel method for evaluating enhancement using gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid in the hepatobiliary phase of magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Takatsu, Yasuo; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Miyati, Tosiaki; Shiozaki, Toshiki

    To investigate whether quantitative liver-portal vein contrast ratio (Q-LPC) can be used as a substitute for quantitative liver-spleen contrast ratio (Q-LSC) in the hepatobiliary phase (HBP) contrasting degree. Q-LSC and Q-LPC were calculated in HBP images that were obtained approximately 20 min after gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid injection, and relationship between them was evaluated. A very strong correlation was observed between Q-LSC and Q-LPC with respect to Child-Pugh class. Furthermore, Q-LPC values were not significantly different between patients with splenectomy or Gamna-Gandy bodies and those without. Therefore, Q-LPC can be useful instead of Q-LSC in patients with splenectomy or Gamna-Gandy bodies.

  15. New metastable hybrid phase, Zn 2(OH) 2(C 8H 4O 4), exhibiting unique oxo-penta-coordinated Zn(II) atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carton, Anne; Mesbah, Adel; Aranda, Lionel; Rabu, Pierre; François, Michel

    2009-04-01

    The metastable phase ( phase 1) Zn(OH) 2(tp) 2 (tp = C 8H 4O 42-) was found to be an intermediate forming during the hydrothermal synthesis of Zn 3(OH) 4tp ( phase 2). Its structure has been determined ab initio from synchrotron powder diffraction data and refined with the Rietveld method: space group P2 1/ c, a = 3.48856(2) Å, b = 5.84645(2) Å, c = 22.1331(1) Å, β = 103.46(1)°, Dx = 2.488 g/cm 3, Rp = 0.10, RB = 0.095 (402 independent reflections). The structures of the two analogues were compared. Whereas a mixed coordination of the zinc atoms was found in phase 2, phase 1 exhibits only penta-coordinated Zn(II). Moreover, different optical properties were observed, Zn 2(OH) 2(tp) showing photoluminescence at 378 nm under λex = 316 nm.

  16. [1,1'-Bis(dicyclo-hexyl-phosphino)cobalto-cenium-κP,P']chlorido(η-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)ruthenium(II) hexa-fluorido-phosphate.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jian-Guo

    2010-01-30

    In the title structure, [CoRu(C(5)H(5))(C(17)H(26)P)(2)Cl]PF(6), the Ru(II) atom is bonded to a cyclo-penta-dienyl ring, a Cl atom and two P atoms of the chelating 1,1'-bis-(dicyclo-hexyl-phosphino)cobaltocenium (di-cypc) ligand, leading to a three-legged piano-stool coordination. Part of the PF(6) (-) counter-anion is disordered over two positions, with a site-occupancy ratio of 0.898 (7):0.102 (7). The components are linked by C-H⋯F and C-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds.

  17. Bis(η5-cyclo­penta­dien­yl)bis­(2,4,6-tri­methyl­phenyl­tellurolato)zirconium(IV)

    PubMed Central

    Hector, Andrew L.; Levason, William; Reid, Gillian; Reid, Stuart D.; Webster, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The structure of the title compound, [Zr(C5H5)2(C9H11Te)2], consists of a zirconium(IV) centre bonded to two η5-coord­inated cyclo­penta­dienyl groups and two mesityltellurolate ligands; the discrete mol­ecule has crystallographic twofold rotation symmetry. The structural parameters compared with those in [(η5-Me5Cp)2Zr(TePh)2] [Howard, Trnka & Parkin (1995 ▶). Inorg. Chem. 34, 5900–5909] show that the greater steric demands of the bulky mesityl substituents are accommodated by widening Te—Zr—Te (∼8°) and by more acute Zr—Te—C (∼5°) angles, although the Zr—Te distances are essentially the same. The crystal studied exhibited some inversion twinning. PMID:21202209

  18. Crystal structures of 2-amino-4,4,7,7-tetra­methyl-4,5,6,7-tetra­hydro-1,3-benzo­thia­zol-3-ium benzoate and 2-amino-4,4,7,7-tetra­methyl-4,5,6,7-tetra­hydro-1,3-benzo­thia­zol-3-ium picrate

    PubMed Central

    Sagar, Belakavadi K.; Girisha, Marisiddaiah; Rathore, Ravindranath S.; Glidewell, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    In both 2-amino-4,4,7,7-tetra­methyl-4,5,6,7-tetra­hydro-1,3- benzo­thia­zol-3-ium benzoate, C11H19N2S+·C7H5O2 −, (I), and 2-amino-4,4,7,7-tetra­methyl-4,5,6,7-tetra­hydro-1,3-benzo­thia­zol-3-ium picrate (2,4,6-tri­nitro­phenolate), C11H19N2S+·C6H2N3O7 −, (II), the cations are conformationally chiral as the six-membered rings adopt half-chair conformations, which are disordered over two sets of atomic sites giving approximately enanti­omeric disorder. For both cations, the bond lengths indicate delocalization of the positive charge comparable to that in an amidinium cation. The bond lengths in the picrate anion in (II) are consistent with extensive delocalization of the negative charge into the ring and onto the nitro groups, in two of which the O atoms are disordered over two sets of sites. In (I), the ionic components are linked by N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds to form a chain of rings, and in (II), the N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the components into centrosymmetric four-ion aggregates containing seven hydrogen bonded rings of four different types. PMID:28932465

  19. Degradation Behavior and Accelerated Weathering of Composite Boards Produced from Waste Tetra Pak® Packaging Materials

    Treesearch

    Nural Yilgor; Coskun Kose; Evren Terzi; Aysel Kanturk Figen; Rebecca Ibach; S. Nami Kartal; Sabriye Piskin

    2014-01-01

    Manufacturing panels from Tetra Pak® (TP) packaging material might be an alternative to conventional wood-based panels. This study evaluated some chemical and physical properties as well as biological, weathering, and fire performance of panels with and without zinc borate (ZnB) by using shredded TP packaging cartons. Such packaging material, a worldwide well-known...

  20. Heteroatom-substituted tetra(3,4-pyrido)porphyrazines: a stride toward near-infrared-absorbing macrocycles.

    PubMed

    Vachova, Lenka; Machacek, Miloslav; Kučera, Radim; Demuth, Jiri; Cermak, Pavel; Kopecky, Kamil; Miletin, Miroslav; Jedlickova, Adela; Simunek, Tomas; Novakova, Veronika; Zimcik, Petr

    2015-05-28

    A synthesis procedure for heteroatom-substituted tetra(3,4-pyrido)porphyrazines that absorb light near 800 nm was developed. Based on the observed relationships between the structure and photophysical parameters, a novel highly photodynamically active (IC50 = 0.26 μM) compound was synthesized and biologically characterized.

  1. Cognitive and physiological responses in humans exposed to a TETRA base station signal in relation to perceived electromagnetic hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Denise; Eltiti, Stacy; Ridgewell, Anna; Garner, Kelly; Russo, Riccardo; Sepulveda, Francisco; Walker, Stuart; Quinlan, Terence; Dudley, Sandra; Maung, Sithu; Deeble, Roger; Fox, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) technology ("Airwave") has led to public concern because of its potential interference with electrical activity in the brain. The present study is the first to examine whether acute exposure to a TETRA base station signal has an impact on cognitive functioning and physiological responses. Participants were exposed to a 420 MHz TETRA signal at a power flux density of 10 mW/m(2) as well as sham (no signal) under double-blind conditions. Fifty-one people who reported a perceived sensitivity to electromagnetic fields as well as 132 controls participated in a double-blind provocation study. Forty-eight sensitive and 132 control participants completed all three sessions. Measures of short-term memory, working memory, and attention were administered while physiological responses (blood volume pulse, heart rate, skin conductance) were monitored. After applying exclusion criteria based on task performance for each aforementioned cognitive measure, data were analyzed for 36, 43, and 48 sensitive participants for these respective tasks and, likewise, 107,125, and 129 controls. We observed no differences in cognitive performance between sham and TETRA exposure in either group; physiological response also did not differ between the exposure conditions. These findings are similar to previous double-blind studies with other mobile phone signals (900-2100 MHz), which could not establish any clear evidence that mobile phone signals affect health or cognitive function.

  2. Bis{2-[2,5-bis­(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-imidazol-4-yl]pyridinium} tetra­cyanidoplatinate(II) tetra­hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Gámez-Heredia, Raquel; Navarro, Rosa E.; Höpfl, Herbert; Cruz-Enríquez, Adriana; Campos-Gaxiola, José J.

    2013-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title hydrated complex salt, (C18H14N5)2[Pt(CN)4]·4H2O, consists of one 2-[2,5-bis­(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-imidazol-4-yl]pyridinium cation, half a tetra­cyanidoplatinate(II) dianion, which is located about a crystallographic inversion center, and two water mol­ecules of crystallization. The PtII atom has a square-planar coordination environment, with Pt—CCN distances of 1.992 (4) and 2.000 (4) Å. In the cation, there is an N—H⋯N hydrogen bond linking adjacent pyridinium and pyridine rings in positions 4 and 5. Despite this, the organic component is non-planar, as shown by the dihedral angles of 10.3 (2), 6.60 (19) and 15.66 (18)° between the planes of the central imidazole ring and the pyridine/pyridinium substituents in the 2-, 4- and 5-positions. In the crystal, cations and anions are linked via O—H⋯O, O—H⋯N and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network. Additional π–π, C—H⋯O and C—H⋯N contacts provide stabilization to the crystal lattice. PMID:23794972

  3. Is the PentaBDE replacement, tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP), a developmental neurotoxicant? Studies in PC12 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dishaw, Laura V.; Powers, Christina M.; Ryde, Ian T.; Roberts, Simon C.; Seidler, Frederic J.; Slotkin, Theodore A.; Stapleton, Heather M.

    2011-11-15

    Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) are used as replacements for the commercial PentaBDE mixture that was phased out in 2004. OPFRs are ubiquitous in the environment and detected at high concentrations in residential dust, suggesting widespread human exposure. OPFRs are structurally similar to neurotoxic organophosphate pesticides, raising concerns about exposure and toxicity to humans. This study evaluated the neurotoxicity of tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) compared to the organophosphate pesticide, chlorpyrifos (CPF), a known developmental neurotoxicant. We also tested the neurotoxicity of three structurally similar OPFRs, tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris (1-chloropropyl) phosphate (TCPP), and tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (TDBPP), and 2,2 Prime ,4,4 Prime -tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), a major component of PentaBDE. Using undifferentiated and differentiating PC12 cells, changes in DNA synthesis, oxidative stress, differentiation into dopaminergic or cholinergic neurophenotypes, cell number, cell growth and neurite growth were assessed. TDCPP displayed concentration-dependent neurotoxicity, often with effects equivalent to or greater than equimolar concentrations of CPF. TDCPP inhibited DNA synthesis, and all OPFRs decreased cell number and altered neurodifferentiation. Although TDCPP elevated oxidative stress, there was no adverse effect on cell viability or growth. TDCPP and TDBPP promoted differentiation into both neuronal phenotypes, while TCEP and TCPP promoted only the cholinergic phenotype. BDE-47 had no effect on cell number, cell growth or neurite growth. Our results demonstrate that different OPFRs show divergent effects on neurodifferentiation, suggesting the participation of multiple mechanisms of toxicity. Additionally, these data suggest that OPFRs may affect neurodevelopment with similar or greater potency compared to known and suspected neurotoxicants.

  4. Gelation mechanism of tetra-armed poly(ethylene glycol) in aprotic ionic liquid containing nonvolatile proton source, protic ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Kei; Fujii, Kenta; Nishi, Kengo; Sakai, Takamasa; Yoshimoto, Nobuko; Morita, Masayuki; Shibayama, Mitsuhiro

    2015-04-02

    We report the gelation mechanism of tetra-armed prepolymer chains in typical aprotic ionic liquid (aIL), i.e., A-B type cross-end coupling reaction of tetra-armed poly(ethylene glycol)s with amine and activated ester terminals (TetraPEG-NH2 and TetraPEG-NHS, respectively) in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide ([C2mIm][TFSA]). In the ion gel system, we focused on the pH (or H(+) concentration) dependence of the gelation reaction. We thus applied the protic ionic liquid (pIL), 1-ethylimidazolium TFSA ([C2ImH][TFSA]), as a nonvolatile H(+) source, and added it into the solvent aIL. It was found that the gelation time of TetraPEG ion gel can be successfully controlled from 1 min to 3 h depending on the concentration of pIL (cpIL = 0-3 mM). This suggests that the acid-base properties of TetraPEG-NH2 showing acid-base equilibrium (-NH2 + H(+) ⇆ -NH3(+)) in the solutions play a key role in the gelation process. The acid dissociation constants, pKa's of TetraPEG-NH3(+) and C2ImH(+) (cation of pIL) in aIL were directly determined by potentiometric titration to be 16.4 and 13.7, respectively. This indicates that most of the H(+) ions bind to TetraPEG-NH2 and then C2ImH(+) exists as neutral C2Im. The reaction efficiency of amide bond (cross-linked point) systematically decreased with increasing cpIL, which was reflected to the mechanical strength of the ion gels. From these results, we discuss the gelation mechanism of TetraPEG in aIL to point out the relationship between polymer network structure and [H(+)] in the solutions.

  5. Crystal structure of bis­[trans-(1,4,8,11-tetra­aza­cyclo­tetra­decane-κ4 N)bis­(thio­cyanato-κN)chromium(III)] tetra­chlorido­zincate from synchrotron data

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Dohyun; Ryoo, Keon Sang; Choi, Jong-Ha

    2015-01-01

    The structure of the title compound, [Cr(NCS)2(cyclam)]2[ZnCl4] (cyclam = 1,4,8,11-tetra­aza­cyclo­tetra­decane, C10H24N4), has been determined from synchrotron data. The asymmetric unit contains two independent halves of the CrIII complex cations and half of a tetra­chlorido­zincate anion. In each complex cation, the CrIII atom is coordinated by the four N atoms of the cyclam ligand in the equatorial plane and by two N-bound NCS− anions in a trans axial arrangement, displaying a distorted octa­hedral geometry with crystallographic inversion symmetry. The mean Cr—N(cyclam) and Cr—N(NCS) bond lengths are 2.065 (4) and 1.995 (6) Å, respectively. The macrocyclic cyclam moieties adopt centrosymmetric trans-III configurations with six- and five-membered chelate rings in chair and gauche configurations, respectively. The [ZnCl4]2− anion, which lies about a twofold rotation axis, has a slightly distorted tetra­hedral geometry. The crystal packing is stabilized by hydrogen-bonding inter­actions between the N—H groups of the cyclam ligands, the S atoms of the NCS− groups and the Cl− ligands of the anion. PMID:25995875

  6. Crystal structure of the inclusion complex 25-benzo­ylmeth­oxy-5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl-26,27,28-trihy­droxy-2,8,14,20-tetra­thia­calix[4]arene–tetra­ethyl­ammonium chloride (1/1)

    PubMed Central

    Akkurt, Mehmet; Jasinski, Jerry P.; Mohamed, Shaaban K.; Omran, Omran A.; Albayati, Mustafa R.

    2015-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C48H54O5S4·N(C2H5)4 +·Cl−, contains two tetra-tert-butyl-[(benzo­yl)meth­oxy]-trihy­droxy-tetra­thia­calix[4]arene mol­ecules, two tetra­ethyl­ammonium cations and two chloride anions. The two calixarene molecules in the asymmetric unit each display a cone conformation. There are no significant differences between the two independent molecules. The guest species do not sit within the calixarene ‘buckets’. In the crystal, extensive O—H⋯O, O—H⋯S and O—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds and weak C—H⋯O, C—H⋯S and C—H⋯Cl inter­actions link the thia­calixarene mol­ecules, tetra­ethyl­ammonium cations and chloride anions, forming a three-dimensional network encompassing channels running parallel to the a-axis direction. The structure contains a solvent-accessible void of 76 (3) Å3, but no solvent mol­ecule could reasonably be located. The crystal studied was an inversion twin with a 0.57 (8):0.43 (8) domain ratio. PMID:26594550

  7. Synthesis, magnetic properties, and STM spectroscopy of cobalt(II) Cubanes [Co(II) (4)(Cl)(4)(HL)(4)].

    PubMed

    Scheurer, Andreas; Ako, Ayuk M; Saalfrank, Rolf W; Heinemann, Frank W; Hampel, Frank; Petukhov, Konstantin; Gieb, Klaus; Stocker, Michael; Müller, Paul

    2010-04-26

    Reaction of cobalt(II) chloride hexahydrate with N-substituted diethanolamines H(2)L(2-4) (3) in the presence of LiH in anhydrous THF leads under anaerobic conditions to the formation of three isostructural tetranuclear cobalt(II) complexes [Co(II) (4)(Cl)(4)(HL(2-4))(4)] (4) with a [Co(4)(mu(3)-O)(4)](4+) cubane core. According to X-ray structural analyses, the complexes 4 a,c crystallize in the tetragonal space group I4(1)/a, whereas for complex 4 b the tetragonal space group P$\\bar 4$ was found. In the solid state the orientation of the cubane cores and the formation of a 3D framework were controlled by the ligand substituents of the cobalt(II) cubanes 4. This also allowed detailed magnetic investigations on single crystals. The analysis of the SQUID magnetic susceptibility data for 4 a gave intramolecular ferromagnetic couplings of the cobalt(II) ions (J(1) approximately 20.4 K, J(2) approximately 7.6 K), resulting in an S=6 ground-state multiplet. The anisotropy was found to be of the easy-axis type (D=-1.55 K) with a resulting anisotropy barrier of Delta approximately 55.8 K. Two-dimensional electron-gas (2DEG) Hall magnetization measurements revealed that complex 4 a is a single-molecule magnet and shows hysteretic magnetization characteristics with typical temperature and sweep-rate dependencies below a blocking temperature of about 4.4 K. The hysteresis loops collapse at zero field owing to fast quantum tunneling of the magnetization (QTM). The structural and electronic properties of cobalt(II) cubane 4 a, deposited on a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface, were investigated by means of STM and current imaging tunneling spectroscopy (CITS) at RT and standard atmospheric pressure. In CITS measurements the rather large contrast found at the expected locations of the metal centers of the molecules indicated the presence of a strongly localized LUMO.

  8. Comparison of the allosteric properties of the Co(II)- and Zn(II)-substituted insulin hexamers.

    PubMed

    Bloom, C R; Wu, N; Dunn, A; Kaarsholm, N C; Dunn, M F

    1998-08-04

    The positive and negative cooperativity and apparent half-site reactivity of the Co(II)-substituted insulin hexamer are well-described by a three-state allosteric model involving ligand-mediated interconversions between the three states: T3T3' right harpoon over left harpoon T3o R3o right harpoon over left harpoon R3R3' [Bloom, C. R., Heymann, R., Kaarsholm, N. C., and Dunn, M. F. (1997) Biochemistry 36, 12746-12758]. Because of the low affinity of the T state for ligands, this model is defined by four parameters: LoA and LoB, the allosteric constants for the T3T3' to T3o R3o and the T3o R3o to R3R3' transitions, respectively, and the two dissociation constants for ligand binding to T3o R3o and to R3R3'. The d-d electronic transitions of the Co(II)-substituted hexamer give optical signatures of the T to R transition which can be quantified, but the "spectroscopically silent" character of Zn(II) has made previous attempts to describe the Zn(II) species difficult. This work shows that the T to R state conformational transitions of the Zn(II) hexamer can be easily quantified using the chromophore 4-hydroxy-3-nitrobenzoate (4H3N). When the chromophore is bound to the HisB10 sites of the R state, the absorption spectrum of 4H3N is red-shifted, exhibiting strong absorbance and CD signals, whereas 4H3N does not bind to the T state. Hence, 4H3N can be employed as a sensitive indicator of conformation under conditions that do not significantly disturb the T to R state equilibrium. Using 4H3N as an indicator, these studies show that both LoA and LoB are made less favorable by the substitution of Co(II) for Zn(II); LoA is increased by 10-fold while LoB by 35-fold, whereas the ligand affinities of the phenolic pockets are unchanged.

  9. DNA cleavage, antibacterial, antifungal and anthelmintic studies of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes of coumarin Schiff bases: Synthesis and spectral approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Sangamesh A.; Prabhakara, Chetan T.; Halasangi, Bhimashankar M.; Toragalmath, Shivakumar S.; Badami, Prema S.

    2015-02-01

    The metal complexes of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) have been synthesized from 6-formyl-7,8-dihydroxy-4-methylcoumarin with o-toluidine/3-aminobenzotrifluoride. The synthesized Schiff bases and their metal complexes were structurally characterized based on IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, UV-visible, ESR, magnetic, thermal, fluorescence, mass and ESI-MS studies. The molar conductance values indicate that complexes are non-electrolytic in nature. Elemental analysis reveals ML2·2H2O [M = Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II)] stoichiometry, where 'L' stands for a singly deprotonated ligand. The presence of co-ordinated water molecules were confirmed by thermal studies. The spectroscopic studies suggest the octahedral geometry. Redox behavior of the complexes were confirmed by cyclic voltammetry. All the synthesized compounds were screened for their antibacterial (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas auregenosa, klebsiella, Proteus, Staphylococcus aureus and salmonella) antifungal (Candida, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus), anthelmintic (Pheretima posthuma) and DNA cleavage (Calf Thymus DNA) activity.

  10. Synthesis, X-ray crystal structure and spectroscopy of a Werner-type host Co(II) complex, trans-bisisothiocyanatotetrakis( trans-4-styrylpyridine)cobalt(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunakaran, C.; Thomas, K. R. J.; Shunmugasundaram, A.; Murugesan, R.

    2000-05-01

    Single crystals of the title Co(II) complex, [Co(stpy)4(NCS)2] [stpy=trans-4-styrylpyridine] are prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, and UV-visible spectroscopy and X-ray crystal structure determination. The complex crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pna21 with unit-cell parameters, a=32.058(3), b=15.362(5), c=9.818(5) Å, and Z=4. The structure consists of discrete monomeric units of [Co(stpy)4(NCS)2]. The equatorial positions of the Co(II) polyhedron are occupied by nitrogen atoms of the four stpy ligands and the axial positions are occupied by the nitrogen atoms of the two thiocyanate ions. The unit cell packing reveals interpenetration of styryl groups owing to conformational flexibility of phenyl and pyridyl rings in stpy ligands. Thus, it leads to efficient packing of the crystal lattice leaving no space available for guest inclusion. IR spectra reveal nitrogen coordination from stpy and terminal -NCS coordination of the thiocyanate group. The optical reflectance bands 475, 540 (shoulder) and 1022 nm suggest octahedral geometry in accordance with the X-ray data. However, the optical spectrum of acetonitrile solution shows an intense band at 615 nm and a weak shoulder at 570 nm suggesting participation of the solvent molecules in the coordination sphere. These bands indicate the presence of both tetrahedral and octahedral species in solution.

  11. DNA cleavage, antibacterial, antifungal and anthelmintic studies of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes of coumarin Schiff bases: synthesis and spectral approach.

    PubMed

    Patil, Sangamesh A; Prabhakara, Chetan T; Halasangi, Bhimashankar M; Toragalmath, Shivakumar S; Badami, Prema S

    2015-02-25

    The metal complexes of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) have been synthesized from 6-formyl-7,8-dihydroxy-4-methylcoumarin with o-toluidine/3-aminobenzotrifluoride. The synthesized Schiff bases and their metal complexes were structurally characterized based on IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, UV-visible, ESR, magnetic, thermal, fluorescence, mass and ESI-MS studies. The molar conductance values indicate that complexes are non-electrolytic in nature. Elemental analysis reveals ML2·2H2O [M = Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II)] stoichiometry, where 'L' stands for a singly deprotonated ligand. The presence of co-ordinated water molecules were confirmed by thermal studies. The spectroscopic studies suggest the octahedral geometry. Redox behavior of the complexes were confirmed by cyclic voltammetry. All the synthesized compounds were screened for their antibacterial (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas auregenosa, klebsiella, Proteus, Staphylococcus aureus and salmonella) antifungal (Candida, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus), anthelmintic (Pheretima posthuma) and DNA cleavage (Calf Thymus DNA) activity.

  12. Structural Dependence of the Ising-type Magnetic Anisotropy and of the Relaxation Time in Mononuclear Trigonal Bipyramidal Co(II) Single Molecule Magnets.

    PubMed

    Shao, Feng; Cahier, Benjamin; Rivière, Eric; Guillot, Régis; Guihéry, Nathalie; Campbell, Victoria E; Mallah, Talal

    2017-02-06

    This paper describes the correlation between Ising-type magnetic anisotropy and structure in trigonal bipyramidal Co(II) complexes. Three sulfur-containing trigonal bipyramidal Co(II) complexes were synthesized and characterized. It was shown that we can engineer the magnitude of the Ising anisotropy using ligand field theory arguments in conjunction with structural parameters. To prepare this series of compounds, we used, on the one hand, a tetradentate ligand containing three sulfur atoms and one amine (NS3(tBu)) and on the other hand three different axial ligands, namely, Cl(-), Br(-), and NCS(-). The organic ligand imposes a trigonal bipyramidal arrangement with the three sulfur atoms lying in the trigonal plane with long Co-S bond distances. The magnetic properties of the compounds were measured, and ab initio calculations were used to analyze the anisotropy parameters and perform magneto-structural correlations. We demonstrate that a smaller axial zero-field splitting parameter leads to slower relaxation time when the symmetry is strictly axial, while the presence of very weak rhombicity decreases the energy barrier and speeds the relaxation of the magnetization.

  13. Synthesis, structural characterization, thermal and electrochemical studies of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes containing thiazolylazo ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavan, S. S.; Sawant, V. A.

    2010-02-01

    Some thiazolylazo derivatives and their metal complexes of the type [M(L)(H 2O)Cl]; M = Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and L = 6-(2'-thiazolylazo)-2-mercapto-quinazolin-4-one (HL 1), 6-(4'-phenyl-2'-thiazolylazo)-2-mercapto-quinazolin-4-one (HL 2), 6-(2'-thiazolylazo)-2-mercapto-3-( m-tolyl)-quinazolin-4-one (HL 3) and 6-(4'-phenyl-2'-thiazolylazo)-2-mercapto-3-( m-tolyl)-quinazolin-4-one (HL 4) have been prepared. All the complexes were characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic moment, IR, UV-vis, ESR, TG-DTA and powder X-ray diffraction studies. IR spectra of these complexes reveal that the complex formation occurred through thiazole nitrogen, azo nitrogen, imino nitrogen and sulfur atom of the ligands. On the basis of electronic spectral data and magnetic susceptibility measurement octahedral geometry has been proposed for the Mn(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes and distorted octahedral geometry for the Cu(II) complexes. Electrochemical behavior of Ni(II) complexes exhibit quasireversible oxidation corresponding to Ni(III)/Ni(II) couple along with ligand reduction. X-ray diffraction study is used to elucidate the crystal structure of the complexes.

  14. Neotropical Monogenoidea. 58. Three new species of Gyrodactylus (Gyrodactylidae) from Scleromystax spp. (Callichthyidae) and the proposal of COII gene as an additional fragment for barcoding gyrodactylids.

    PubMed

    Bueno-Silva, Marlus; Boeger, Walter A

    2014-06-01

    Based on molecular markers (COII and ITS1-ITS2) and morphological data, we describe three new Neotropical species of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832 from Scleromystax barbatus (Quoy et Gaimard) and Scleromystax macropterus (Regan) from southern Brazil. The three new species can be distinguished from each other by sequences of both molecular markers and morphology of hooks and anchors. Gyrodactylus bueni sp. n. is characterised by having hook with shaft curved, heel straight, shelf straight, toe pointed, anchor with superficial root slender, elongate and male copulatory organ armed with two rows of spinelets. Gyrodactylus major sp. n. presents hook with shaft, point curved, proximal shaft straight, heel convex, shelf convex, toe concave, anchor with superficial root robust and male copulatory organ armed with two rows of spinelets. Gyrodactylus scleromystaci sp. n. presents hook with shaft, point recurved, heel convex, shelf convex, toe pointed, anchor with superficial root curved and male copulatory organ armed with two rows of spinelets. These species appear to be closely related to other species of Gyrodactylus known from other species of Callichthyidae. These new species, however, differ by the comparative morphology of the haptoral hard structures and molecular data. Comparative analysis of sequences from these species of Gyrodactylus suggests that the COII gene may represent an important marker for the taxonomy of species of Gyrodactylidae and, perhaps, for species of other lineages of Monogenoidea.

  15. Synthesis, molecular docking and evaluation of antifungal activity of Ni(II), Co(II) and Cu(II) complexes of porphyrin core macromolecular ligand.

    PubMed

    Singh, Urvashi; Malla, Ali Mohammad; Bhat, Imtiyaz Ahmad; Ahmad, Ajaz; Bukhari, Mohd Nadeem; Bhat, Sneha; Anayutullah, Syed; Hashmi, Athar Adil

    2016-04-01

    Porphyrin core dendrimeric ligand (L) was synthesized by Rothemund synthetic route in which p-hydroxy benzaldehyde and pyrrole were fused together. The prepared ligand was complexed with Ni(II), Cu(II) and Co(II) ions, separately. Both the ligand and its complexes were characterized by elemental analysis and spectroscopic studies (FT-IR, UV-Vis, (1)HNMR). Square planar geometries were proposed for Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) ions in cobalt, Nickel and copper complexes, respectively on the basis of UV-Vis spectroscopic data. The ligand and its complex were screened on Candida albicans (ATCC 10231), Aspergillus fumigatus (ATCC 1022), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (ATCC 9533) and Pencillium marneffei by determining MICs and inhibition zones. The activity of the ligand and its complexes was found to be in the order: CuL ˃ CoL ≈ NiL ˃ L. Detection of DNA damage at the level of the individual eukaryotic cell was observed by commet assay. Molecular docking technique was used to understand the ligand-DNA interactions. From docking experiment, we conclude that copper complex interacts more strongly than rest two.

  16. N-donor co-ligands driven two new Co(II)- coordination polymers with bi- and trinuclear units: Crystal structures, and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhi-Hang; Han, Min-Le; Wu, Ya-Pan; Dong, Wen-Wen; Li, Dong-Sheng; Lu, Jack Y.

    2016-10-01

    Two new Co(II) coordination polymers(CPs), namely [Co2(bpe)2(Hbppc)]n (1) and [Co3(μ3-OH)(bppc)(bpm)(H2O)]·3H2O (2) (H5bppc=biphenyl-2,4,6,3‧,5‧-pentacarboxylic acid, bpe=1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethene, bpm=bis(4-pyridyl)amine), have been obtained and characterized by elemental analysis, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), IR spectra and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). 1 shows a binodal (4,6)-connected fsc net with a (44·610·8)(44·62) topology, while 2 shows a binodal (5,7)-connected 3D network based on trinuclear [Co3(μ3-OH)]5+ units with unusual (3.46.52.6)(32.46.57.65.7) topology. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements reveals that complex 1 shows ferromagnetic interactions between the adjacent Co(II) ions, whereas 2 is a antiferromagnetic system.

  17. Molecular structure, UV/vis spectra, and cyclic voltammograms of Mn(II), Co(II), and Zn(II) 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21-oxaporphyrins.

    PubMed

    Stute, Silvio; Götzke, Linda; Meyer, Dirk; Merroun, Mohamed L; Rapta, Peter; Kataeva, Olga; Seichter, Wilhelm; Gloe, Kerstin; Dunsch, Lothar; Gloe, Karsten

    2013-02-04

    The 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21-oxaporphyrin complexes of Mn(II), Co(II), and Zn(II) have been crystallized and studied by X-ray diffraction, NMR and UV/vis spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry as well as cyclic voltammetry. The X-ray structure of the earlier described Cu(II) complex is also reported. All complex structures possess a five-coordinate, approximately square-pyramidal geometry with a slight deviation of the heteroaromatic moieties from planarity. The packing structures are characterized by parallel strands of complex molecules interacting by weak hydrogen bonds. In the case of Zn(II) an octahedral complex has also been isolated using a side-chain hydroxy functionalized oxaporphyrin ligand; the structure was verified by NMR and EXAFS spectroscopy. Cyclic voltammetry studies reveal that the reduction of the complex bound Mn(II), Co(II), and Zn(II) ions is a ligand-centered process whereas the first oxidation step depends on the metal ion present.

  18. Spectroscopic and fluorescence studies on Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes with NO donor fluorescence dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refat, Moamen S.; El-Metwaly, Nashwa M.

    2011-10-01

    The reactions of the two common dyes [2TMPACT and 4PENI] with Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions were done. All the isolated complexes have been characterized by physicochemical and spectroscopic techniques. The IR data reflect the bidentate mode of 2TMPACT towards the mononuclear complex [Mn(II)] even its tetradentate in binuclear complexes [Co(II) and Cu(II)]. However, the bidentate mode is the only behavior of 4PENI ligand towards each metal ion in its mononuclear complexes. The UV-vis spectral analysis beside the magnetic moment measurements are proposed different geometries concerning each metal ions with the two ligands under investigation, as the Mn(II)-2TMPACT complex is an octahedral but Mn(II)-4PENI is a tetrahedral geometry. All the synthesized compounds are thermogravimetrically investigated. The proposed thermal decomposition was discussed for each compound with each step as well as, the kinetic parameters were calculated for all preferrible decomposition steps. The mass spectroscopy tool was used to emphasis on the suitable molecular formula proposed and the fragmentation patterns were displayed. The fluorescence properties of the synthesized ligands and their complexes were studied in DMSO at room temperature.

  19. Spectroscopic and fluorescence studies on Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes with NO donor fluorescence dyes.

    PubMed

    Refat, Moamen S; el-Metwaly, Nashwa M

    2011-10-15

    The reactions of the two common dyes [2TMPACT and 4PENI] with Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions were done. All the isolated complexes have been characterized by physicochemical and spectroscopic techniques. The IR data reflect the bidentate mode of 2TMPACT towards the mononuclear complex [Mn(II)] even its tetradentate in binuclear complexes [Co(II) and Cu(II)]. However, the bidentate mode is the only behavior of 4PENI ligand towards each metal ion in its mononuclear complexes. The UV-vis spectral analysis beside the magnetic moment measurements are proposed different geometries concerning each metal ions with the two ligands under investigation, as the Mn(II)-2TMPACT complex is an octahedral but Mn(II)-4PENI is a tetrahedral geometry. All the synthesized compounds are thermogravimetrically investigated. The proposed thermal decomposition was discussed for each compound with each step as well as, the kinetic parameters were calculated for all preferrible decomposition steps. The mass spectroscopy tool was used to emphasis on the suitable molecular formula proposed and the fragmentation patterns were displayed. The fluorescence properties of the synthesized ligands and their complexes were studied in DMSO at room temperature.

  20. Photophysical and electrochemical properties of a dysprosium-zinc tetra(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin complex.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Tong; Liu, Dong-Sheng; Xu, Ya-Ping; Luo, Qiu-Yan; Pei, Yun-Peng

    2016-02-01

    A dysprosium-zinc porphyrin, [DyZn(TPPS)H3O]n (1) (TPPS = tetra(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin), was prepared through solvothermal reactions and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Complex 1 features a three-dimensional (3-D) porous open framework that is thermally stable up to 400 °C. Complex 1 displays a void space of 215 Å(3), occupying 9.2% of the unit cell volume. The fluorescence spectra reveal that it shows an emission band in the red region. The fluorescence lifetime is 39 µsec and the quantum yield is 1.7%. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurement revealed one quasi-reversible wave with E1/2  = 0.30 V.

  1. Bis[(1-methyl-1H-tetra­zol-5-yl)sulfan­yl]ethane

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun-Rong; Chen, Tao; Xia, Zheng-Qiang

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, C6H10N8S2, was prepared by the nucleophilic substitution reaction of 5-mercapto-1-methyl­tetra­zole and dichloro­ethane. In the crystal, the mol­ecule possesses an approximate non-crystallographic twofold symmetry axis. The crystal packing is stabilized by weak inter­molecular C—H⋯N and π–π inter­actions [centroid–centroid distances = 3.448 (6), 3.5085 (5) and 3.4591 (2) Å]. The two five-membered rings form a dihedral angle of 1.9 (2)°. PMID:21837068

  2. Ethyl­enediammonium tetra­aqua­disulfato­cadmate

    PubMed Central

    Rekik, Walid; Naïli, Houcine; Mhiri, Tahar; Bataille, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound, [NH3(CH2)2NH3][Cd(SO4)2(H2O)4], consists of [Cd(SO4)2(H2O)4]2− anions that are built from octa­hedral Cd(H2O)4O2 and SO4 tetra­hedral units linked by corner sharing. The ethyl­ene­diamminium cations are linked to the anions via N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The asymmetric unit contains one-half of the compound, the other half being related to the first by an inversion centre. The crystal structure presents alternate stacking of the inorganic and organic layers along the crystallographic b axis. The structure cohesion and stability is further assured by O(water)—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. PMID:22065822

  3. Application of ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid degrading bacterium Burkholderia cepacia on biotreatment process.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Ting; Shen, Shu-Min; Shu, Chi-Min

    2015-10-01

    Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA), the effluent of secondary biotreatment units, can be properly biodegraded by Burkholderia cepacia. Through batch degradation of EDTA, the raw wastewater of EDTA was controlled at 50 mg/L, and then nutrients was added in diluted wastewater to cultivate activated sludge, which the ratio of composition is depicted as "COD:N:P:Fe = 100:5:1:0.5". After 27 days, the removal efficiency of Fe-EDTA and COD was 100% and 92.0%, correspondingly. At the continuous process, the raw wastewater of EDTA was dictated at 166 mg/L before adding nutrients to cultivate activated sludge, in which the ratio of composition did also follow with batch process. After 22 days, the removal efficiency of Fe-EDTA and COD for experimental group was 71.46% and 62.58%, correspondingly. The results showed that the batch process was more suited for EDTA biodegradation.

  4. Application of tetra-n-methylammonium hydroxide on cellulose dissolution and isolation from sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Chao; Wang, Chunming; Wang, Fengxue; Jia, Honghua; Wei, Ping; Zhao, Yin

    2016-01-20

    Cellulose isolation, a promising way for lignocellulosic biomass utilization, is always restricted by the poor solubility of cellulose. In this paper, tetra-n-methylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) was confirmed to be capable of readily dissolving/regenerating cellulose without chemical modification at room temperature. Meanwhile, cellulose isolation from lignocellulosic biomass by initially dissolving the biomass in TMAH followed by cellulose precipitation was proposed, and the isolated substance with average cellulose purity of 92.1 ± 0.3% could be obtained throughout this process under the optimum conditions: temperature 52 °C, time 60 min, and loading ratio of TMAH/biomass (w/w) 7.2:1. Besides, high efficiency cellulose isolation (i.e. >70% cellulose purity) could be continuously remained during 4-round cycles by using the recycled TMAH solvent without distinct activity loss.

  5. TETRA observation of gamma-rays at ground level associated with nearby thunderstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringuette, Rebecca; Case, Gary L.; Cherry, Michael L.; Granger, Douglas; Guzik, T. Gregory; Stewart, Michael; Wefel, John P.

    2013-12-01

    gamma-ray flashes (TGFs)—very short, intense bursts of electrons, positrons, and energetic photons originating from terrestrial thunderstorms—have been detected with satellite instruments. TGF and Energetic Thunderstorm Rooftop Array (TETRA), an array of NaI(Tl) scintillators at Louisiana State University, has now been used to detect similar bursts of 50 keV to over 2 MeV gamma-rays at ground level. After 2.6 years of observation, 24 events with durations 0.02-4.2 ms have been detected associated with nearby lightning, three of them coincident events observed by detectors separated by ~1000 m. Nine of the events occurred within 6 ms and 5 km of negative polarity cloud-to-ground lightning strokes with measured currents in excess of 20 kA. The events reported here constitute the first catalog of TGFs observed at ground level in close proximity to the acceleration site.

  6. Neural control of motile activity of light-sensitive iridophores in the neon tetra.

    PubMed

    Nagaishi, H; Oshima, N

    1989-01-01

    Experiments with skin pieces revealed that the sympathetic nervous system controls the activity of the light-sensitive iridophores in the stripes of the neon tetra. The spectral peak reflected from the cells was shifted toward longer wavelengths as a result of a direct interaction between norepinephrine and alpha-adrenoceptors present on the cell membrane. Adenosine accelerated the recovery from the effects of the amine. Such regulation seems to operate when fish are in an excited state or under stress. Since alpha-melanophore-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and melatonin caused the responses only at high concentrations, it is possible that these peptides and amine do not affect the properties of the light-reflecting cells in vivo.

  7. Light-induced colour changes by the iridophores of the Neon tetra, Paracheirodon innesi.

    PubMed

    Clothier, J; Lythgoe, J N

    1987-12-01

    The iridophores of the Neon tetra Paracheirodon innesi consist of alternating layers of guanine and cytoplasm. In the dark-adapted state the reflected light from constructive interference is in the ultraviolet or blue. When exposed to light the cytoplasm layers increase in thickness and as a result the reflections shift to longer wavelengths and the iridophores appear green. The iridophores are thought to contain a rhodopsin-like molecule and we suggest that the colour-change mechanism involves the light-induced opening of sodium channels in the plasma membrane, leading osmotically to an increase in thickness of the cytoplasm layers. Experimental support for this suggestion was obtained by the substitution of choline chloride for sodium chloride in the perfusing medium, which can be done without altering the osmotic strength of the perfusing medium. This procedure almost abolished the light response and makes it seem likely that sodium ions are necessary for the light response to take place.

  8. Solvent-dependent absorption and electronic relaxation dynamics of iron (III) tetra-4-N-methylpyridylporphine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Lenzi J.; Knappenberger, Kenneth L.

    2017-03-01

    Solvent-dependent excited-state relaxation dynamics of iron (III) tetra-4-N-methylpyridylporphine (FeTMPyP) were investigated using steady-state and femtosecond spectroscopies. Soret absorption for water-dispersed FeTMPyP consisted of two spectrally broad components centered at 3.12 eV and 2.92 eV, corresponding to π → π∗ and charge-transfer (C-T) transitions. The C-T transition exhibited inverse-dielectric-dependent energy shifts. Following 400-nm excitation, dynamics proceeded by femtosecond internal conversion from the initially prepared π∗ state to the C-T state, followed by solvent-dependent C-T relaxation. The C-T energy shifts and relaxation rates exhibited correlated dielectric dependences. C-T absorption energy and relaxation dynamics of FeTMPyP are sensitive indicators of surrounding dielectric environments.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of a new family of bi-, tri-, tetra-, and pentanuclear ferric complexes.

    PubMed

    Boskovic, Colette; Sieber, Andreas; Chaboussant, Grégory; Güdel, Hans U; Ensling, Jürgen; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Neels, Antonia; Labat, Gael; Stoeckli-Evans, Helen; Janssen, Stefan

    2004-08-09

    Nine members of a new family of polynuclear ferric complexes have been synthesized and characterized. The reaction of Fe(O(2)CMe)(2) with polydentate Schiff base proligands (H(2)L) derived from salicylidene-2-ethanolamine, followed in some cases by reaction with carboxylic acids, has afforded new complexes of general formulas [Fe(2)(pic)(2)(L)(2)] (where pic(-) is the anion of 2-picolinic acid), [Fe(3)(O(2)CMe)(3)(L)(3)], [Fe(4)(OR)(2)(O(2)CMe)(2)(L)(4)], and [Fe(5)O(OH)(O(2)CR)(4)(L)(4)]. The tri-, tetra-, and pentanuclear complexes all possess unusual structures and novel core topologies. Mössbauer spectroscopy confirms the presence of high-spin ferric centers in the tri- and pentanuclear complexes. Variable-temperature magnetic measurements suggest spin ground states of S = 0, 1/2, 0, and 5/2 for the bi-, tri-, tetra-, and pentanuclear complexes, respectively. Fits of the magnetic susceptibility data have provided the magnitude of the exclusively antiferromagnetic exchange interactions. In addition, an easy-axis-type magnetic anisotropy has been observed for the pentanuclear complexes, with D values of approximately -0.4 cm(-)(1) determined from modeling the low-temperature magnetization data. A low-temperature micro-SQUID study of one of the pentanuclear complexes reveals magnetization hysteresis at nonzero field. This is attributed to an anisotropy-induced energy barrier to magnetization reversal that is of molecular origin. Finally, an inelastic neutron scattering study of one of the trinuclear complexes has revealed that the magnetic behavior arises from two distinct species.

  10. Early Detection of Lung Cancer with Meso Tetra (4-Carboxyphenyl) Porphyrin-Labeled Sputum

    PubMed Central

    Patriquin, Lara; Merrick, Daniel T.; Hill, David; Holcomb, Richard G.; Lemieux, Madeleine E.; Bennett, Gordon; Karia, Bijal; Rebel, Vivienne I.; Bauer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Early detection of lung cancer in high-risk individuals reduces mortality. Low-dose spiral computed tomography (LDCT) is the current standard but suffers from an exceedingly high false-positive rate (>96%) leading to unnecessary and potentially dangerous procedures. We, therefore, set out to develop a simple, noninvasive, and quantitative assay to detect lung cancer. Methods This proof-of-concept study evaluated the sensitivity/specificity of the CyPath Early Lung Cancer Detection Assay to correctly classify LDCT-confirmed cohorts of high-risk control (n = 102) and cancer (n = 26) subjects. Fluorescence intensity parameters of red fluorescent cells (RFCs) from tetra (4-carboxyphe-nyl) porphyrin (TCPP)-labeled lung sputum samples and subjects’ baseline characteristics were assessed for their predictive power by multivariable logistic regression. A receiver operating characteristic curve was constructed to evaluate the sensitivity/specificity of the CyPath assay. Results RFCs were detectable in cancer subjects more often than in high-risk ones (p = 0.015), and their characteristics differed between cohorts. Two independent predictors of cancer were the mean of RFC average fluorescence intensity/area per subject (p < 0.001) and years smoked (p = 0.003). The CyPath-based classifier had an overall accuracy of 81% in the test population; false-positive rate of 40% and negative predictive value of 83%. Conclusions The tetra (4-carboxyphenyl) porphyrin-based CyPath assay correctly classified study participants into cancer or high-risk cohorts with considerable accuracy. Optimizing sputum collection, sample reading, and refining the classifier should improve sensitivity and specificity. The CyPath assay thus has the potential to complement LDCT screening or serve as a stand-alone approach for early lung cancer detection. PMID:26200451

  11. Spectroscopic characterization of Co(II)-, Ni(II)-, and Cd(II)-substituted wild-type and non-native retroviral-type zinc finger peptides.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Chu, M; Giedroc, D P

    2000-02-01

    The nucleocapsid protein (NCP) from Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (MPMV) contains two evolutionary invariant Cys-X2-Cys-X4-His-X4-Cys retroviral-type zinc finger structures, where the Cys and His residues provide ligands to a tetrahedrally coordinated Zn(II) ion. The N-terminal zinc finger (F1) of NCP from MPMV contains an immediately contiguous Cys in the -1 position relative to the start of this conserved motif: Cys-Cys-X2-Cys-X4-His-X4-Cys. Metal complexes of 18-amino acid peptides which model the native zinc finger sequence, SER-Cys-X2-Cys-X4-His-X4-Cys (F1-SC), and non-native Cys-SER-X2-Cys-X4-His-X4-Cys (F1-CS) and SER-SER-X2-Cys-X4-His-X4-Cys (F1-SS) sequences have been spectroscopically characterized and compared to the native two-zinc-finger protein fragment, MPMV NCP 21-80. All Co(II)-substituted peptide complexes adopt tetrahedral ligand geometries and have S- -->Co(II) ligand-to-metal charge-transfer (LMCT) transition intensities consistent with three Co(II)-S bonds for F1-SC and F1-CS. The non-native F1-CS peptide binds Co(II) with KCo= 1.5 x 10(6) M(-1), comparable to that of the native complex, and approximately 100-fold tighter than F1-SS. Like the Co(II) derivative, the absorption spectrum of Ni(II)-substituted NCP 21-80 is most consistent with tetrahedral Ni(II) complexes with multiple thiolate donors. In contrast, Ni(II) complexes of F1-SC and F1-CS exhibit a single absorption band in the 400-550 nm region (epsilon approximately 200-300 M(-1) cm (-1), distinct in the two complexes, assignable to a degenerate d-d transition envelope characteristic of non-native square-planar coordination geometry, and an intense LMCT transition in the UV (epsilon255 approximately 14,000 M(-1) cm(-1)). Cd(II) complexes have intense absorption in the UV (lambda(max)=233nm), with absolute intensities consistent with approximately 5000 M(-1) cm(-1) per Cd(II)-S bond. 113Cd NMR spectroscopy of 113Cd MPMV NCP gives delta=649 ppm, consistent with S3N coordination. Co(II) and

  12. Di-μ-hydroxido-κ4 O:O-μ-trifluoro­methane­sulfonato-κ2 O:O′-bis­[(5,5′-dimethyl-2,2-bipyridine-κ2 N,N′)(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)ytterbium(III)] tetra­phenyl­borate 5,5′-dimethyl-2,2-bipyridine

    PubMed Central

    Kazhdan, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, [Yb2(CF3O3S)(C10H15)2(OH)2(C12H12N2)2](C24H20B)·C12H12N2, crystallizes as a half-sandwich complex with a bridging trifluoro­methane­sulfonate as well as two bridging hydroxide groups. The bound bipyridine ligands have N—C—C—N torsion angles of 13.1 (9) and −12.1 (8)°. The structure also contains an uncoordinated 5,5′-dimethyl-2,2′-bipyridine molecule with an N—C—C—N torsion angle of 169.5 (7)°. The triply bridged Yb centers are 3.5990 (4) Å apart. The Yb—N bond lengths are in the range 2.389 (6)–2.424 (5) Å. PMID:21201376

  13. Tetra-aqua-bis(nicotinamide-κN)cobalt(II) bis-(2-fluoro-benzoate).

    PubMed

    Ozbek, F Elif; Tercan, Barış; Sahin, Ertan; Necefoğlu, Hacali; Hökelek, Tuncer

    2009-02-28

    The title complex, [Co(C(6)H(6)N(2)O)(2)(H(2)O)(4)](C(7)H(4)FO(2))(2), contains one Co(II) atom (site symmetry ), two monodentate nicotin-amide (NA) ligands, four coordinated water mol-ecules and two 2-fluoro-benzoate (FB) anions. The four O atoms in the equatorial plane around the Co atom form a slightly distorted square-planar arrangement, while the slightly distorted octa-hedral coordination is completed by the two N atoms of the NA ligands in the axial positions. The dihedral angle between the carboxyl group and the adjacent benzene ring is 29.8 (3)°, while the pyridine and benzene rings are oriented at a dihedral angle of 7.97 (12)°. In the crystal structure, mol-ecules are linked by O-H⋯O, N-H⋯O and N-H⋯F hydrogen bonds, forming an infinite three-dimensional network. π-π Contacts between the pyridine and benzene rings [centroid-centroid distance = 3.673 (3) Å] may further stabilize the crystal structure.

  14. ``Cs-tetra-ferri-annite:`` High-pressure and high-temperature behavior of a potential nuclear waste disposal phase

    SciTech Connect

    Comodi, P.; Zanazzi, P.F.; Weiss, Z.; Rieder, M.; Drabek, M.

    1999-03-01

    Structure deformations induced by pressure and temperature in synthetic Cs-tetra-ferri-annite 1M [Cs{sub 1.78}(Fe{sup 2+}{sub 5.93}Fe{sup 3+}{sub 0.07})(Si{sub 6.15}Fe{sup 3+}{sub 1.80}Al{sub 0.05})O{sub 20}(OH){sub 4}], space group C2/m, were analyzed to investigate the capability of the mica structure to store the radiogenic isotopes {sup 135}Cs and {sup 137}Cs. Cs-tetra-ferri-annite is not a mineral name, but for the sake of brevity is used here to designate a synthetic analog of the mineral tetra-ferri-annite. The bulk modulus and its pressure derivative determined by fitting the unit-cell volumes between 0 a/nd 47 kbar to a third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state are K{sub 0} = 257(8) kbar and K{prime}{sub 0} = 21(1), respectively. Between 23 C and 582 C, the a and b lattice parameters remain essentially unchanged, but the thermal expansion coefficient of the c axis is {alpha}{sub c} = 3.12(9) {times} 10{sup {minus}5} {degree}C{sup {minus}1}. High pressure (P) and high temperature (T) produce limited internal strain in the structure. The tetrahedral rotation angle, {alpha}, is very small and does not change significantly throughout the P and T range investigated. Above 450 C in air, Cs-tetra-ferri-annite underwent an oxidation of octahedral iron in the M2cis site, balanced by the loss of H and shown by a decrease of the unit-cell volume. Independent isobaric data on thermal expansion and isothermal compressibility data define the geometric equation of state for Cs-tetra-ferri-annite. On the whole, the data confirm that the structure of Cs-tetra-ferri-annite may be a suitable candidate for the storage of large ions, such as Cs in the interlayer and should be considered as a potential Synroc component.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes of tridentate Schiff base derived from vanillin and DL-α-aminobutyric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, M. Sivasankaran; Joseyphus, R. Selwin

    2008-09-01

    Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes of the Schiff base derived from vanillin and DL-α-aminobutyric acid were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, electronic spectra, conductance measurements, magnetic measurements, powder XRD and biological activity. The analytical data show the composition of the metal complex to be [ML(H 2O)], where L is the Schiff base ligand. The conductance data indicate that all the complexes are non-electrolytes. IR results demonstrate the tridentate binding of the Schiff base ligand involving azomethine nitrogen, phenolic oxygen and carboxylato oxygen atoms. The IR data also indicate the coordination of a water molecule with the metal ion in the complex. The electronic spectral measurements show that Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes have tetrahedral geometry, while Cu(II) complex has square planar geometry. The powder XRD studies indicate that Co(II) and Cu(II) complexes are amorphous, whereas Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes are crystalline in nature. Magnetic measurements show that Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes have paramagnetic behaviour. Antibacterial results indicated that the metal complexes are more active than the ligand.

  16. Highly regio- and diastereo-selective synthesis of novel tri- and tetra-cyclic perhydroquinoline architectures via an intramolecular [3 + 2] cycloaddition reaction.

    PubMed

    Bakthadoss, M; Kannan, D; Srinivasan, J; Vinayagam, V

    2015-03-14

    A facile and efficient synthetic protocol was established for the construction of novel tri- and tetra-cyclic pyrrolo/pyrrolizinoquinoline architectures via the in situ formation of azomethine ylide followed by an intramolecular [3 + 2] cycloaddition reaction strategy. This protocol leads to the creation of two/three new rings and three/four contiguous stereocentres, in which one of them is a tetra-substituted carbon center, in a highly diastereoselective fashion with excellent yields.

  17. 40 CFR 721.1800 - 3,3′,5,5′-Tetra-methyl-bi-phenyl-4,4′-diol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 3,3â²,5,5â²-Tetra-methyl-bi-phenyl-4,4â²-diol. 721.1800 Section 721.1800 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1800 3,3′,5,5′-Tetra-methyl-bi-phenyl-4,4′-diol. (a) Chemical...

  18. 40 CFR 721.1800 - 3,3′,5,5′-Tetra-methyl-bi-phenyl-4,4′-diol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 3,3â²,5,5â²-Tetra-methyl-bi-phenyl-4,4â²-diol. 721.1800 Section 721.1800 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1800 3,3′,5,5′-Tetra-methyl-bi-phenyl-4,4′-diol. (a) Chemical...

  19. 40 CFR 721.1800 - 3,3′,5,5′-Tetra-methyl-bi-phenyl-4,4′-diol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 3,3â²,5,5â²-Tetra-methyl-bi-phenyl-4,4â²-diol. 721.1800 Section 721.1800 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1800 3,3′,5,5′-Tetra-methyl-bi-phenyl-4,4′-diol. (a) Chemical...

  20. 40 CFR 721.1800 - 3,3′,5,5′-Tetra-methyl-bi-phenyl-4,4′-diol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 3,3â²,5,5â²-Tetra-methyl-bi-phenyl-4,4â²-diol. 721.1800 Section 721.1800 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1800 3,3′,5,5′-Tetra-methyl-bi-phenyl-4,4′-diol. (a) Chemical...

  1. 40 CFR 721.4040 - Glycols, polyethylene-, 3-sulfo-2-hydroxypropyl-p-(1,1,3,3-tetra-methylbutyl)phenyl ether, sodium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-hydroxypropyl-p-(1,1,3,3-tetra-methylbutyl)phenyl ether, sodium salt. 721.4040 Section 721.4040 Protection of...-, 3-sulfo-2-hydroxypropyl-p-(1,1,3,3-tetra-methylbutyl)phenyl ether, sodium salt. (a) Chemical..., polyethylene-, 3-sulfo-2-hydroxypropyl-p-(1,1,3,3-tetramethyl butyl)phenyl ether, sodium salt (P-90-1565) is...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9530 - Bis(2,2,6,6-tetra-methyl-piper-idinyl) ester of cycloalkyl spir-o-ke-tal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bis(2,2,6,6-tetra-methyl-piper-idinyl) ester of cycloalkyl spir-o-ke-tal. 721.9530 Section 721.9530 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9530 Bis(2,2,6,6-tetra-methyl-piper-idinyl) ester...

  3. Novel bispidine ligands and their first-row transition metal complexes: trigonal bipyramidal and trigonal prismatic geometries.

    PubMed

    Comba, Peter; Haaf, Christina; Wadepohl, Hubert

    2009-07-20

    Four very rigid second generation bispidine-based ligands (bispidine = 3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane; tetra-, penta- and hexadentate; exclusively tertiary amine donors except for one of the pentadentate ligands, where one of the donors is a pyridyl group) and their Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) complexes are reported. The experimentally determined X-ray crystal structures and computational data, based on empirical force field (MM) and approximate density functional theory (DFT) calculations, indicate that these new ligands, which are based on a modular system and therefore allow for a wide range of donor sets and coordination geometries, have rather large cavities (i.e., lead to a preference for +II over +III oxidation states and induce relatively low ligand fields), enforce trigonal geometries (pentacoordinate systems: preference for trigonal bipyramidal, hexacoordinate complexes: preference for trigonal prismatic), and lead, especially for Cu(II), to very high complex stabilities.

  4. Syntheses and structures of two new coordination polymers generated from a 4-aminotriazole-bridged organic ligand and Co(II) salts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue Ru; Ma, Jian Ping; Dong, Yu Bin

    2017-03-01

    Organic ligands and counter-anions influence the coordination spheres of metal cations and hence the construction of coordination polymers (CPs). The specific bent geometries of five-membered heterocyclic triazole bridging organic ligands are capable of generating CPs with novel patterns not easily obtained using rigid linear ligands. A multidentate 4-aminotriazole-bridged organic ligand, namely 4-amino-3,5-bis(4,3'-bipyridyl-5'-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole (L) has been prepared and used to synthesize two Co(II) coordination polymers, namely poly[[[μ2-4-amino-3,5-bis(4,3'-bipyridyl-5'-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-κ(2)N:N']bis(methanol-κO)cobalt(II)] bis(perchlorate)], {[Co(C22H16N8)2(CH3OH)2](ClO4)2}n, (I), and poly[[μ3-4-amino-3,5-bis(4,3'-bipyridyl-5'-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-κ(3)N:N':N'']dichloridocobalt(II)], [CoCl2(C22H16N8)]n, (II), using CoX2 salts [X = ClO4 for (I) and Cl for (II)] under solvothermal conditions. Single-crystal X-ray structure analysis revealed that they both feature two-dimensional networks. Cobalt is located on an inversion centre in (I) and in a general position in (II). In (I), L functions as a bidentate cis-conformation ligand linking Co(II) ions, while it functions as a tridentate trans-conformation linker binding Co(II) ions in (II). In addition, O-H...N and N-H...O hydrogen bonds and C-H...π interactions exist in (I), while N-H...Cl and π-π interactions exist in (II), and these weak interactions play an important role in aligning the two-dimensional nets of (I) and (II) in the solid state. As the compounds were synthesized under the same conditions, the significant structural variations between (I) and (II) are believed to be determined by the different sizes and coordination abilities of the counter-anions. IR spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance UV-Vis spectra were also used to investigate the title compounds.

  5. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro antimicrobial studies of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes derived from macrocyclic compartmental ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Gammal, O. A.; Bekheit, M. M.; El-Brashy, S. A.

    2015-02-01

    New Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes derived from tetradentate macrocyclic nitrogen ligand, (1E,4E,8E,12E)-5,8,13,16-tetramethyl-1,4,9,12-tetrazacyclohexadeca-4,8,12,16-tetraene (EDHDH) have been synthesized. The complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, spectral (IR, UV-Vis, 1H NMR and ESR (for Cu(II) complex)) mass, and magnetic as well as thermal analysis measurements. The complexes afforded the formulae: [Cu(EDHDH)Cl2]·2EtOH and [M(EDHDH)X2]·nH2O where M = Co(II) and Ni(II), X = Cl- or OH-, n = 1,0, respectively. The data revealed an octahedral arrangement with N4 tetradentate donor sites in addition to two Cl atoms occupying the other two sites. ESR spectrum of Cu2+ complex confirmed the suggested geometry with values of a α2and β2 indicating that the in-plane σ-bonding and in-plane π-bonding are appreciably covalent, and are consistent with very strong σ-in-plane bonding in the complexes. The molecular modeling is drawn and showed the bond length, bond angle, chemical reactivity, energy components (kcal/mol) and binding energy (kcal/mol) for all the title compounds using DFT method. Also, the thermal behavior and the kinetic parameters of degradation were determined using Coats-Redfern and Horowitz-Metzger methods. Moreover, the in vitro antibacterial studies of all compounds screened against pathogenic bacteria (two Gram +ve and two Gram -ve) to assess their inhibiting potential. The assay indicated that the inhibition potential is metal ion dependent. The ligand, EDHDH, Co(II) and Cu(II) complexes exhibited a remarkable antibacterial activity against Streptococcus Pyogenes as Gram +ve and Proteus vulgaris as Gram -ve bacterial strains. On the other hand, Ni(II) complex revealed a moderate antibacterial activity against both Gram +ve organisms and no activity against Gram -ve bacterial strain.

  6. Bis(tetra­methyl­amonium) bis­(2,4,5-carboxy­benzoate)–benzene-1,2,4,5-tetra­carboxylic acid (1/1)

    PubMed Central

    Cunha-Silva, Luís; Girginova, Penka I.; Trindade, Tito; Rocha, João; Klinowski, Jacek; Almeida Paz, Filipe A.

    2008-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, 2C4H12N+·2C10H5O8 −·C10H6O8, consists of a tetra­methyl­amonium cation, an anion derived from the singly deprotonated pyromellitic acid anion, 2,4,5-carboxy­benzoate (H3bta−), and one-half of a benzene-1,2,4,5-tetra­carboxylic acid (H4bta) mol­ecule, which has the centroid of the aromatic ring positioned at a crystallographic centre of inversion. The H4bta and H3bta− residues are involved in an extensive inter­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen-bonding network, which leads to a three-dimensional supra­molecular structure containing one-dimensional channels running parallel to the [001] crystallographic direction. These channels house the tetra­methyl­amonium cations. PMID:21200946

  7. Crystal structure of the charge-transfer complex 2-(1,2,3,4-tetra-hydro-naph-thal-en-1-yl-idene)hydrazinecarbo-thio-amide-pyrazine-2,3,5,6-tetra-carbo-nitrile (2/1).

    PubMed

    Beck, Johannes; Daniels, Jörg; Krieger-Beck, Petra; Dittmann, Gertrud; de Oliveira, Adriano Bof

    2014-10-01

    The reaction of 2-(1,2,3,4-tetra-hydro-napthalen-1-yl-idene)hydrazinecarbo-thio-amide (TTSC) with pyrazine-2,3,5,6-tetra-carbo-nitrile (tetra-cyano-pyrazine, TCNP) yields the title 2:1 charge-transfer adduct, 2C11H12N3S·C6N8. The complete TCNP mol-ecule is generated by a crystallographic inversion centre and the non-aromatic ring in the TTSC mol-ecule adopts an envelope conformation with a methyl-ene C atom as the flap. In the crystal, the thio-semicarbazone mol-ecules are connected through inversion-related pairs of N-H⋯S inter-actions, building a polymeric chain along the b-axis direction. The TCNP mol-ecules are embedded in the structure, forming TTSC-TCNP-TTSC stacks with the aromatic rings of TTSC and the mol-ecular plane of TCNP in a parallel arrangement [centroid-centroid distance = 3.5558 (14) Å]. Charge-transfer (CT) via π-stacking is indicated by a CT band around 550 cm(-1) in the single-crystal absorption spectrum.

  8. Crystal structure of bis-(μ2-tetra-bromo-phthalato-κ(2) O (1):O (2))bis[aqua(N,N,N',N'-tetra-methyl-ethane-1,2-di-amine-κ(2) N,N')copper(II)].

    PubMed

    Tobón-Trujillo, Luis Manuel; Villanueva-Sánchez, Luis Felipe; Martínez-Otero, Diego; Dorazco-González, Alejandro

    2015-09-01

    In the title complex, [Cu2(C8Br4O4)2(C6H16N2)2(H2O)2], the Cu(II) cation is chelated by a tetra-methyl-ethane-1,2-di-amine ligand and coordinated by a water mol-ecule as well as bridged by two tetra-bromo-phthalate anions in a distorted O3N2 trigonal-bipyramidal geometry. The two symmetry-related tetra-bromo-phthalate anions bridge the two Cu(II) cations, forming a centrosymmetric dinuclear complex in which the Cu⋯Cu separation is 5.054 (2) Å. Intra-molecular classic O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds occur in the dinuclear mol-ecule. In the crystal, the mol-ecules are linked by weak C-H⋯Br and C-H⋯O inter-actions into supra-molecular chains propagating along the b-axis direction.

  9. Conformational Change in Molecular Assembly of Nickel(II) Tetra(n-propyl)porphycene Triggered by Potential Manipulation.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Soichiro; Kawamoto, Teppei; Okawara, Toru; Hisaeda, Yoshio; Abe, Masaaki

    2016-12-27

    Metal-coordinated porphyrin and related compounds are important for developing molecular architectures that mimic enzymes. Porphycene, a structural isomer of porphyrin, has shown unique properties in semiartificial myoglobin. To explore its potential as a molecular building block, we studied the molecular assembly of nickel(II) tetra(n-propyl)porphycene (NiTPrPc), a metalloporphycene with introduced tetra n-propyl moieties, on the Au(111) electrode surface using in situ scanning tunneling microscopy. Because of the low molecular symmetry of NiTPrPc, the molecular assembly undergoes unique phase transitions due to conformational change of the n-propyl moieties. The phase transitions can be precisely controlled by the electrode potential, demonstrating that the latter can play an important role in the porphycene molecular assembly on Au surface. This new discovery indicates possible uses of this porphycene framework in molecular engineering.

  10. Isolation and structural characterization of tetra-n-propyl zirconate in hydrocarbon solution and the solid state.

    PubMed

    Day, V W; Klemperer, W G; Pafford, M M

    2001-11-05

    Tetra-n-propyl zirconate has been purified by vacuum distillation and isolated as an extremely moisture sensitive, crystalline solid. According to a single-crystal X-ray diffraction study, crystalline tetra-n-propyl zirconate is composed of tetrameric Zr(4)(OPr(n))(16) (1) molecules whose Zr(4)O(16) metal-oxygen core structure has virtual C(2)(h) symmetry, the same structure observed previously for n-alkyl orthotitanates. Carbon-13 NMR spectroscopic data indicate that this core structure is retained in hydrocarbon solution. Molecule 1 has the same M(4)O(16) metal-oxygen core structure as [CH(3)C(CH(2)O)(3)](2)M(4)(OPr(i))(10), M = Ti, where the metal centers have octahedral coordination geometry, but a metal-oxygen core structure different from that of the M = Zr case, where trigonal metaprismatic coordination geometry is observed.

  11. Bis(2-amino-1,3-benzothia­zol-3-ium) tetra­chloridozincate(II)

    PubMed Central

    Kefi, Riadh; Jeanneau, Erwann; Lefebvre, Frédéric; Ben Nasr, Cherif

    2011-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, (C7H7N2S)2[ZnCl4], contains a network of 2-amino­benzothia­zolium cations and tetra­hedral [ZnCl4]2− anions. The crystal packing is influenced by cation-to-anion N—H⋯Cl and C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds. The [ZnCl4]2− anions have a distorded tetra­hedral geometry. Inter­molecular π–π stacking inter­actions are present between neighboring benzene rings, thia­zole and benzene rings and neighboring thia­zole rings [centroid–centroid distances = 3.711 (2), 3.554 (1), 3.536 (2) and 3.572 (1) Å]. PMID:21754568

  12. Crystal structure of hexa­kis­(dimethyl sulfoxide-κO)manganese(II) tetra­iodide

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Md Azimul; Davaasuren, Bambar; Rothenberger, Alexander; Wu, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The title salt, [Mn(C2H6OS)6]I4, is made up from discrete [Mn(DMSO)6]2+ (DMSO is dimethyl sulfoxide) units connected through non-classical hydrogen bonds to linear I4 2− tetra­iodide anions. The MnII ion in the cation, situated on a position with site symmetry -3., is octa­hedrally coordinated by O atoms of the DMSO mol­ecule with an Mn—O distance of 2.1808 (12) Å. The I4 2− anion contains a neutral I2 mol­ecule weakly coordinated by two iodide ions, forming a linear centrosymmetric tetra­iodide anion. The title compound is isotypic with the Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn analogues. PMID:27980832

  13. Circadian motile activity of erythrophores in the red abdominal skin of tetra fishes and its possible significance in chromatic adaptation.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, H; Sugimoto, M; Oshima, N; Fujii, R

    1993-02-01

    The red abdominal skin of the neon tetra Paracheirodon innesi and the cardinal tetra P. axelrodi was found to blanch at night or in the dark. Melatonin added to the bathing medium caused blanching of the red skin. Microscopic observations of the erythrophores indicated that the erythrosomes aggregated in response to norepinephrine, melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), and melatonin. Of these compounds, melatonin was the most effective. By contrast, many erythrophores were refractory to MCH. Alpha-melanophore-stimulating hormone, isoproterenol, adenosine, and ATP each caused dispersal of the pigment to some extent. Isoproterenol dispersed the pigment only when an alpha-adrenergic blocker, tolazoline, was present. It appears that the change in color of the abdominal skin is primarily due to increased secretion during the night of the pineal hormone melatonin, while other hormonal and nervous factors may modify the distribution of the pigment in the erythrophores.

  14. Synthesis and liquid-crystalline behaviour of thia-bridged tetra- and octa-substituted phthalocyanine derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerek, A. G.; Durmus, M.; Ahsen, V.

    2002-06-01

    Thia-bridged tetra- and octa-poly(oxyethylene)-substituted metal free- and Ni(II) phthalocyanines have been synthesized from the corresponding phthalonitrile derivatives in the presence of the anhydrous metal salt (NiCl2) or a strong organic base. The new compounds have been characterized by elemental analyses, UV/vis, IR, NMR and mass spectra. The mesogenic properties of these new materials were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), optical microscopy and X-ray investigations. Although octa-substituted phthalocyanine derivatives are liquid all tetra-substituted compounds show a discotic mesophase in an extremely large temperature interval including room temperature. The relationship between the structure of the mesogenic units and the mesogenic behavior is discussed and the influence of the presence of the different heteroatoms in the side chains on mesomorphic properties has been determined.

  15. A zeta potential value determines the aggregate's size of penta-substituted [60]fullerene derivatives in aqueous suspension whereas positive charge is required for toxicity against bacterial cells.

    PubMed

    Deryabin, Dmitry G; Efremova, Ludmila V; Vasilchenko, Alexey S; Saidakova, Evgeniya V; Sizova, Elena A; Troshin, Pavel A; Zhilenkov, Alexander V; Khakina, Ekaterina A; Khakina, Ekaterina E

    2015-08-08

    The cause-effect relationships between physicochemical properties of amphiphilic [60]fullerene derivatives and their toxicity against bacterial cells have not yet been clarified. In this study, we report how the differences in the chemical structure of organic addends in 10 originally synthesized penta-substituted [60]fullerene derivatives modulate their zeta potential and aggregate's size in salt-free and salt-added aqueous suspensions as well as how these physicochemical characteristics affect the bioenergetics of freshwater Escherichia coli and marine Photobacterium phosphoreum bacteria. Dynamic light scattering, laser Doppler micro-electrophoresis, agarose gel electrophoresis, atomic force microscopy, and bioluminescence inhibition assay were used to characterize the fullerene aggregation behavior in aqueous solution and their interaction with the bacterial cell surface, following zeta potential changes and toxic effects. Dynamic light scattering results indicated the formation of self-assembled [60]fullerene aggregates in aqueous suspensions. The measurement of the zeta potential of the particles revealed that they have different surface charges. The relationship between these physicochemical characteristics was presented as an exponential regression that correctly described the dependence of the aggregate's size of penta-substituted [60]fullerene derivatives in salt-free aqueous suspension from zeta potential value. The prevalence of DLVO-related effects was shown in salt-added aqueous suspension that decreased zeta potential values and affected the aggregation of [60]fullerene derivatives expressed differently for individual compounds. A bioluminescence inhibition assay demonstrated that the toxic effect of [60]fullerene derivatives against E. coli cells was strictly determined by their positive zeta potential charge value being weakened against P. phosphoreum cells in an aquatic system of high salinity. Atomic force microscopy data suggested that the

  16. Analysis of Magnetic Anisotropy and the Role of Magnetic Dilution in Triggering Single-Molecule Magnet (SMM) Behavior in a Family of Co(II) Y(III) Dinuclear Complexes with Easy-Plane Anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Palacios, María A; Nehrkorn, Joscha; Suturina, Elizaveta A; Ruiz, Eliseo; Gómez-Coca, Silvia; Holldack, Karsten; Schnegg, Alexander; Krzystek, Jurek; Moreno, José M; Colacio, Enrique

    2017-08-25

    Three new closely related Co(II) Y(III) complexes of general formula [Co(μ-L)(μ-X)Y(NO3 )2 ] (X(-) =NO3(-) 1, benzoate 2, or 9-anthracenecarboxylato 3) have been prepared with the compartmental ligand N,N',N''-trimethyl-N,N''-bis(2-hydroxy-3-methoxy-5-methylbenzyl)diethylenetriamine (H2 L). In these complexes, Co(II) and Y(III) are triply bridged by two phenoxide groups belonging to the di-deprotonated ligand (L(2-) ) and one ancillary anion X(-) . The change of the ancillary bridging group connecting Co(II) and Y(III) ions induces small differences in the trigonally distorted CoN3 O3 coordination sphere with a concomitant tuning of the magnetic anisotropy and intermolecular interactions. Direct current magnetic, high-frequency and -field EPR (HFEPR), frequency domain Fourier transform THz electron paramagnetic resonance (FD-FT THz-EPR) measurements, and ab initio theoretical calculations demonstrate that Co(II) ions in compounds 1-3 have large and positive D values (≈50 cm(-1) ), which decrease with increasing the distortion of the pseudo-octahedral Co(II) coordination sphere. Dynamic ac magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate that compound 1 exhibits field-induced single-molecule magnet (SMM) behavior, whereas compounds 2 and 3 only display this behavior when they are magnetically diluted with diamagnetic Zn(II) (Zn/Co=10:1). In view of this, it is always advisable to use magnetically diluted complexes, in which intermolecular interactions and quantum tunneling of magnetism (QTM) would be at least partly suppressed, so that "hidden single-ion magnet (SIM)" behavior could emerge. Field- and temperature-dependence of the relaxation times indicate the prevalence of the Raman process in all these complexes above approximately 3 K. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. [μ(2)-Bis(diphenyl-phosphanyl)methane][μ(3)-bis-(diphenyl-phosphanyl)meth-yl]trichlorido-tetra-gold(I) tetra-hydro-furan disolvate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan-Huan; Gao, Qian; Cui, Yue; Wang, Lin; Xie, Ya-Bo

    2011-01-08

    The title tetra-nuclear complex, [Au(4)(C(25)H(21)P(2))Cl(3)(C(25)H(22)P(2))]·2C(4)H(8)O, features two non-equivalent Ph(2)PCPPh(2) fragments, one of which represents the 'complete' mol-ecule (with two H atoms at the central C atom); each of the two P atoms of this mol-ecule is coordinated by an Au atom [Au-P = 2.2256 (13) and 2.2710 (13) Å], and these two Au atoms form an Au-Au bond [3.2945 (3) Å], thus closing the five-membered Au(2)P(2)C ring. The first of these Au atoms has a terminal chlorido ligand [Au-Cl = 2.2806 (12) Å], whereas the second Au atom forms a covalent bond with the central C atom of the bis-(diphenyl-phosphino)methyl group [Au-C = 2.114 (5) Å]; the latter group in turn coordinates with its P atoms the gold atoms of the Cl-Au-Au-Cl group [Au-P = 2.2356 (13) and 2.2338 (13), Au-Au = 3.3177 (3), Au-Cl = 2.3091 (12) and 2.2950 (13) Å], thus closing the second Au(2)P(2)C ring. The two such rings have different chemical functions, but both exhibit envelope conformations. However, the first (with different substituents at the Au atoms) is non-symmetrical with one of the P atoms in the flap position of the envelope; the other one has a conformation with mirror symmetry, and the gold-substituted C atom is displaced by 0.740 (5) Å from the almost exactly planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0038 Å) Au(2)P(2) group.

  18. Digital recovery, modification, and analysis of Tetra Tech seismic horizon mapping, National Petroleum Reserve Alaska (NPRA), northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saltus, R.W.; Kulander, Christopher S.; Potter, Christopher J.

    2002-01-01

    We have digitized, modified, and analyzed seismic interpretation maps of 12 subsurface stratigraphic horizons spanning portions of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA). These original maps were prepared by Tetra Tech, Inc., based on about 15,000 miles of seismic data collected from 1974 to 1981. We have also digitized interpreted faults and seismic velocities from Tetra Tech maps. The seismic surfaces were digitized as two-way travel time horizons and converted to depth using Tetra Tech seismic velocities. The depth surfaces were then modified by long-wavelength corrections based on recent USGS seismic re-interpretation along regional seismic lines. We have developed and executed an algorithm to identify and calculate statistics on the area, volume, height, and depth of closed structures based on these seismic horizons. These closure statistics are tabulated and have been used as input to oil and gas assessment calculations for the region. Directories accompanying this report contain basic digitized data, processed data, maps, tabulations of closure statistics, and software relating to this project.

  19. Preparation and use of tetra-alkyl cobalt dicarbollide for extraction of cesium and strontium into hydrocarbon solvents

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Rebecca L.; Pinkerton, Anthony B.; Abney, Kent D.; Kinkead, Scott A.

    1997-01-01

    Preparation and use of tetra-C-alkyl cobalt dicarbollide for extraction of cesium and strontium into hydrocarbon solvents. Tetra-C-alkyl derivatives of cobalt dicarbollide, Co(C.sub.2 R.sub.2 B.sub.9 H.sub.9).sub.2.sup.- (CoB.sub.2 R.sub.4.sup.- ; R=CH.sub.3 and C.sub.6 H.sub.13) are demonstrated to be significant cesium and strontium extractants from acidic and alkaline solutions into non-toxic organic solvent systems. Extractions using mesitylene and diethylbenzene are compared to those with nitrobenzene as the organic phase. CoB.sub.2 -hexyl.sub.4.sup.- in diethylbenzene shows improved selectivity (10.sup.4) for Cs over Na in acidic solution. In dilute alkaline solution, CoB.sub.2 -hexyl.sub.4.sup.- extracts Cs less efficiently, but more effectively removes Sr from higher base concentrations. A general synthesis of tetra-C-alkyl cobalt dicarbollides is described.

  20. Preparation and use of tetra-alkyl cobalt dicarbollide for extraction of cesium and strontium into hydrocarbon solvents

    DOEpatents

    Miller, R.L.; Pinkerton, A.B.; Abney, K.D.; Kinkead, S.A.

    1997-02-11

    Preparation and use of tetra-C-alkyl cobalt dicarbollide for extraction of cesium and strontium into hydrocarbon solvents. Tetra-C-alkyl derivatives of cobalt dicarbollide, Co(C{sub 2}R{sub 2}B{sub 9}H{sub 9}){sub 2}{sup {minus}}(CoB{sub 2}R{sub 4}{sup {minus}}; R=CH{sub 3} and C{sub 6}H{sub 13}) are demonstrated to be significant cesium and strontium extractants from acidic and alkaline solutions into non-toxic organic solvent systems. Extractions using mesitylene and diethylbenzene are compared to those with nitrobenzene as the organic phase. CoB{sub 2}-hexyl{sub 4}{sup {minus}} in diethylbenzene shows improved selectivity (10{sup 4}) for Cs over Na in acidic solution. In dilute alkaline solution, CoB{sub 2}-hexyl{sub 4}{sup {minus}} extracts Cs less efficiently, but more effectively removes Sr from higher base concentrations. A general synthesis of tetra-C-alkyl cobalt dicarbollides is described. 6 figs.