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Sample records for coii tetra penta

  1. Bis[bis-(penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)cobalt(III)] tetra-chlorido-cobaltate(II) di-chloro-methane disolvate.

    PubMed

    Merola, Joseph S; Ngo, Mai; Karpin, George W

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, [Co(C10H15)2]2[CoCl4]·2CH2Cl2, was isolated as a dichloromethane solvate and was formed in the reaction between lithium penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dienide and anyhydrous cobalt(II) chloride in tetra-hydro-furan. There are two deca-methyl-cobaltocenium cations, one tetrachloridocobaltate(II) anion and two di-chloro-methane solvent mol-ecules in the formula unit. There is a slight disorder of the di-chloro-methane solvent which was treated with a two-site model [occupancy rates = 0.765 (4) and 0.235 (4)]. The di-chloro-methane mol-ecules display significant C-H⋯Cl inter-actions with the tetrachloridocobaltate(II) dianion. The cobalt atom of the deca-methyl-cobaltocenium cation sits on a twofold rotation axis, with only one penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-diene ligand being unique and the second generated by symmetry. The cobalt atom of the [CoCl4](-2) ion sits on a special site with -4 symmetry, with one unique chloride ligand and the others generated by the fourfold inversion axis.

  2. (η6-Benzophenone)(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)ruthenium(II) tetra­phenyl­borate

    PubMed Central

    Loughrey, Bradley T.; Nadin, Kevin; Williams, Michael L.; Healy, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    The structure of the title compound, [Ru(C10H15)(C13H10O)](C24H20B), consists of discrete [Cp*Ru(II)benzophenone] cations and tetra­phenyl­borate anions (Cp* = penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl). Tethering the Cp*Ru group to one aryl ring of benzophenone results in average values of 1.42 (1) and 1.38 (1) Å for the C—C bond lengths in the Ru-tethered and untethered phenyl rings, respectively. The dihedral angle between the benzene and phenyl rings of the benzophenone group is 50.5 (1)°. PMID:21578208

  3. Tris(bis(trimethylsilyl)amido)uranium: Compounds with tri-, tetra-, and penta-valent uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.L.

    1988-04-01

    This trivalent uranium compound, serves as a precursor to new tri-, tetra-, and penta-valent uranium species. The geometry about the U atom is pyramidal. Lewis-base coordination compounds of U(N(SiMe/sub 3/)/sub 2/)/sub 3/ with a one-to-one- ratio of Lewis base to uranium were isolated with pyridine, 4-dimethylamino-pyridine, 2,6-Me/sub 2/-C/sub 6/H/sub 3/NC, and TPO. Two-to-one coordination compounds were obtained with t-butylnitrile and t-butylisocyanide. Compounds with more sterically demanding bases could not be isolated. The expected decrease in U-N(SiMe/sub 3/)/sub 2/ bond length with increase in oxidation state is not observed. Reaction of ClU(N(SiMe/sub 3/)/sub 2/)/sub 3/and Li(NH(p-tolyl)) yields the uranium (IV) dimer, U/sub 2/(N(SiMe/sub 3/)/sub 2/)/sub 4/(..mu..-N(p-tolyl))/sub 2/. Reaction with 2,4,6-triemethylaniline produces a dimer. Analogous substitution products could not be obtained with aniline or p-toluidine. t-Bu/sub 3/CO/sup /minus//, t-Bu/sub 2/CHO/sup /minus//, and t-Bu/sub 3/SiO/sup /minus// are used to synthesize new tetravalent, mononuclear uranium compounds. Reaction of ClU(tritox)/sub 3/ with alkyllithium reagents leads to isolation of RU(tritox)/sub 3/. The reaction of U(ditox)/sub 4/ with MeLi affords the addition product U(ditox)/sub 4/(Me)Li, whose crystal structure is described. Preparation of uranium silox compounds is reported. 97 refs., 26 figs., 39 tabs.

  4. Bis[bis­(penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)cobalt(III)] tetra­chlorido­cobaltate(II) di­chloro­methane disolvate

    PubMed Central

    Merola, Joseph S.; Ngo, Mai; Karpin, George W.

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, [Co(C10H15)2]2[CoCl4]·2CH2Cl2, was isolated as a dichloromethane solvate and was formed in the reaction between lithium penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienide and anyhydrous cobalt(II) chloride in tetra­hydro­furan. There are two deca­methyl­cobaltocenium cations, one tetrachloridocobaltate(II) anion and two di­chloro­methane solvent mol­ecules in the formula unit. There is a slight disorder of the di­chloro­methane solvent which was treated with a two-site model [occupancy rates = 0.765 (4) and 0.235 (4)]. The di­chloro­methane mol­ecules display significant C—H⋯Cl inter­actions with the tetrachloridocobaltate(II) dianion. The cobalt atom of the deca­methyl­cobaltocenium cation sits on a twofold rotation axis, with only one penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­diene ligand being unique and the second generated by symmetry. The cobalt atom of the [CoCl4]−2 ion sits on a special site with -4 symmetry, with one unique chloride ligand and the others generated by the fourfold inversion axis. PMID:24426998

  5. Acetonitrile­dicarbon­yl(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)iron(II) tetra­fluorido­borate

    PubMed Central

    M’thiruaine, Cyprian M.; Friedrich, Holger B.; Changamu, Evans O.; Bala, Muhammad D.

    2011-01-01

    In the structure of the title compound, [Fe{η5-C5(CH3)5}(NCCH3)(CO)2]BF4, the arrangement of ligands around the Fe atom is in a pseudo-octa­hedral three-legged piano-stool fashion in which the penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl (Cp*) ligand occupies three apical coordination sites, while the two carbonyl and one acetonitrile ligands form the basal axes of the coordination. The Fe—N bond length is 1.924 (3) Å and the Fe—Cp* centroid distance is 1.722 Å. PMID:21836908

  6. Dicarbon­yl(hexa­methyl­ene-1,3,5,7-tetra­mine-κN 1)(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)iron(II) tetra­fluoridoborate

    PubMed Central

    M’thiruaine, Cyprian M.; Friedrich, Holger B.; Changamu, Evans O.; Fernandes, Manuel A.

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, [Fe(C10H15)(C6H12N4)(CO)2]BF4, the arrangement around the FeII atom corresponds to a three-legged piano stool. The penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl (Cp*) ligand occupies three coordination sites, while two CO ligands and one N atom of the hexa­methyl­ene­tetra­mine ligand occupy the remaining coordination sites, completing a pseudo-octahedral geometry. Both the complex cation and the BF4 − anion reside on crystallographic mirror planes. The Fe—N bond length is 2.069 (2) and the Fe—Cp*(centroid) distance is 1.7452 (3) Å. PMID:22807762

  7. GC-MS analysis of penta- and tetra-cyclic triterpenes from resins of Pistacia species. Part I. Pistacia lentiscus var. Chia.

    PubMed

    Assimopoulou, A N; Papageorgiou, V P

    2005-05-01

    Pistacia species contain oleoresins with bioactive triterpenes. In this study triterpenes, including minor components, were identified and quantified in both neutral and acidic fraction of Pistacia lentiscus var. Chia resin, grown exclusively in Chios island (Greece), collected traditionally, as well as by the use of stimulating agents (liquid collection). It was proved that these two resin samples were composed of several different minor triterpenes. In the traditional collection of the resin, 36 triterpenes were identified, 23 of which are new minor compounds (five in the acidic and eighteen in the neutral fraction). In the liquid collection resin eight compounds were identified in the acidic and 11 in the neutral fraction, while seven compounds were not contained in resin traditionally collected. The main triterpenes in both resin samples collected traditionally and by use of stimulating agents were in the following order: isomasticadienonic acid (24 and 22.5% w/w of triterpenic fraction respectively), masticadienonic acid (9.3 and 14.7% w/w of triterpenic fraction) and 28-norolean-17-en-3-one (19 and 36% w/w of triterpenic fraction respectively). The aim of this study was to compare the qualitative and quantitative composition of triterpenes in the resin samples collected using the traditional and new liquid techniques, and examine whether the collection technique influences the contained triterpenes in P. lentiscus var. Chia resin samples. Finally, since there is confusion on interpreting mass spectra of triterpenes we present an analytical review on the base peaks, main fragments and fragmentation mechanism/pattern of several skeleton penta- and tetra- cyclic triterpenes reported in P. lentiscus resin. Also, a biosynthetic route for triterpene skeletons contained in P. lentiscus resin was approached.

  8. Trichlorido-1κ2 Cl,2κCl-(2,6-dimethyl­phenolato-2κO)-μ-oxido-bis{1,2(η5)-2,3,4,5-tetra­methyl-1-[4-(trimethyl­silyl)phen­yl]cyclo­penta­dien­yl}dititanium(IV)

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xuyang; Wu, Qiaolin; Mu, Ying

    2011-01-01

    The title dinuclear titanocene, [Ti2(C8H9O)(C18H25Si)2Cl3O], contains one Ti atom tetra­hedrally coordinated by two Cl atoms, a bridging O atom and the substituted cyclo­penta­dienyl ligand, and another Ti atom tetra­hedrally coordinated by a Cl atom, a bridging O atom, the 2,6-dimethyl­phenolate ligand and the substituted cyclo­penta­dienyl ligand. The bridging O atom lies on a twofold rotation axis. PMID:22064795

  9. Trichlorido-1κCl,2κCl-(2,6-dimethyl-phenolato-2κO)-μ-oxido-bis{1,2(η)-2,3,4,5-tetra-methyl-1-[4-(trimethyl-silyl)phen-yl]cyclo-penta-dien-yl}dititanium(IV).

    PubMed

    Luo, Xuyang; Wu, Qiaolin; Mu, Ying

    2011-10-01

    The title dinuclear titanocene, [Ti(2)(C(8)H(9)O)(C(18)H(25)Si)(2)Cl(3)O], contains one Ti atom tetra-hedrally coordinated by two Cl atoms, a bridging O atom and the substituted cyclo-penta-dienyl ligand, and another Ti atom tetra-hedrally coordinated by a Cl atom, a bridging O atom, the 2,6-dimethyl-phenolate ligand and the substituted cyclo-penta-dienyl ligand. The bridging O atom lies on a twofold rotation axis.

  10. (η5-Penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)(η6-p-toluene­sulfonamide)ruthenium(II) tetra­phenyl­borate

    PubMed Central

    Loughrey, Bradley T.; Williams, Michael L.; Poulsen, Sally-Ann; Healy, Peter C.

    2008-01-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound, [Ru(C10H15)(C7H9NO2S)]C24H20B, has been determined as part of our investigation into the structural and biological properties of organometallic RuII–arene–Cp* complex salts of the type [R-PhRuCp*]+·X − (where Cp* is penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­diene). Tethering the RuCp* group to the benzene ring of p-toluene­sulfonamide results in only minor changes to the mol­ecular geometry of the sulfonamide, but, together with crystallization as the [BPh4]− salt, effectively blocks involvement of the sulfonamide group in N—H⋯O hydrogen-bonding networks. PMID:21581173

  11. (η5-Penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)(η6-4-phenyl­butan-2-one)ruthenium(II) tetra­phenyl­borate

    PubMed Central

    Loughrey, Bradley T.; Williams, Michael L.; Healy, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, [Ru(C10H15)(C10H12O)][B(C6H5)4], crystallizes as discrete (η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)Ru(η6-4-phenyl­butan-2-one)]+ cations and [BPh4]− anions. In the cation, the non-H atoms of the butan-2-one group are approximately planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.056 Å) and lie nearly perpendicular to the plane of the phenyl ring with a dihedral angle between the two planes of 69.3 (1)°. No significant C—H⋯O inter­actions are observed between the methyl and phenyl H atoms and the carbonyl O atom. PMID:21589253

  12. (η6-Isopropyl N-phenyl­carbamate)(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)ruthenium(II) tetra­phenyl­borate acetone monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Loughrey, Bradley T.; Williams, Michael L.; Healy, Peter C.

    2011-01-01

    The title complex, [Ru(C10H15)(C10H13NO2)](C24H20B)·C3H6O, is related to the analogous O-methyl complex. The average Ru—C distance to the penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl (Cp*) group is 2.19 (3) Å, and 2.21 (1) Å to the ortho, meta and para C atoms of the arene ring. The Ru—Cipso bond length of 2.272 (3) Å is significantly longer, reflecting movement of the Ru atom away from the C atoms with electronegative substituents attached. The amide H atom in the cation forms an inter­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bond with the carbonyl O atom of the acetone solvent mol­ecule. A C—H⋯O inter­action also occurs. PMID:22058857

  13. In situ tetrazole templated chair-like decanuclear azido-cobalt(II) SMM containing both tetra- and octa-hedral Co(II) ions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan-Zhu; Gao, Song; Sato, Osamu

    2015-01-14

    An azido-bridged chair-like decanuclear cluster: [Co(II)10(bzp)8(Metz)2(N3)18]·4MeOH·3H2O (1, bzp = 2-benzoylpyridine and HMetz = 5-methyl-1H-tetrazole) was prepared with in situ tetrazolate anions as templates in a sealed system. 1 containing both octahedral and tetrahedral Co(II) ions exhibited slow relaxation of magnetization with an effective barrier of 26 K under an applied dc field of 1 kOe.

  14. Synthesis, DNA-binding, DNA-photonuclease profiling and antimicrobial activity of novel tetra-aza macrocyclic Ni(II), Co(II) and Cu(II) complexes constrained by thiadiazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinay Kumar, B.; Bhojya Naik, H. S.; Girija, D.; Sharath, N.; Pradeepa, S. M.; Joy Hoskeri, H.; Prabhakara, M. C.

    A new tetra-aza macrocyclic ligand, L (C24H16N12O2S4) and its complexes of type, [MLCl2] and [CuL]Cl2 (where M = Ni(II), Co(II); L = N,N'-(benzene-1,3-diyldi-1,3,4-thiadiazole-5,2-diyl)bis{2-[(5-benzene-1,3-diyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)amino]acetamide}) were synthesized and characterized by the spectral and analytical techniques. An octahedral geometry has been proposed for Ni(II) and Co(II) complexes while Cu(II) complex exhibit a square planar geometry. All the synthesized metal complexes were screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against selected species of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The binding property of the complexes with CT-DNA was studied by absorption spectral analysis, followed by viscosity measurement and thermal denaturation studies. The photo induced cleavage studies revealed that the complexes possess photonuclease property against pUC19 DNA under UV-visible irradiation.

  15. Synthesis, DNA-binding, DNA-photonuclease profiling and antimicrobial activity of novel tetra-aza macrocyclic Ni(II), Co(II) and Cu(II) complexes constrained by thiadiazole.

    PubMed

    Vinay Kumar, B; Bhojya Naik, H S; Girija, D; Sharath, N; Pradeepa, S M; Joy Hoskeri, H; Prabhakara, M C

    2012-08-01

    A new tetra-aza macrocyclic ligand, L (C(24)H(16)N(12)O(2)S(4)) and its complexes of type, [MLCl(2)] and [CuL]Cl(2) (where M=Ni(II), Co(II); L=N,N'-(benzene-1,3-diyldi-1,3,4-thiadiazole-5,2-diyl)bis{2-[(5-benzene-1,3-diyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)amino]acetamide}) were synthesized and characterized by the spectral and analytical techniques. An octahedral geometry has been proposed for Ni(II) and Co(II) complexes while Cu(II) complex exhibit a square planar geometry. All the synthesized metal complexes were screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against selected species of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The binding property of the complexes with CT-DNA was studied by absorption spectral analysis, followed by viscosity measurement and thermal denaturation studies. The photo induced cleavage studies revealed that the complexes possess photonuclease property against pUC19 DNA under UV-visible irradiation.

  16. Crystal structure of 5,7,12,14-tetra­hydro-5,14:7,12-bis­([1,2]benzeno)­penta­cene-6,13-dione1

    PubMed Central

    Nozari, Mohammad; Jasinski, Jerry P.; Kaur, Manpreet; Addison, Anthony W.; Arabi Shamsabadi, Ahmad; Soroush, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    The lattice of 5,7,12,14-tetra­hydro-5,14:7,12-bis­([1,2]benzeno)­penta­cene-6,13-dione, C34H20O2, at 173 K has triclinic (P-1) symmetry and crystallizes with four independent half-mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit. Each mol­ecule is generated from a C17H10O substructure through an inversion center at the centroid of the central quinone ring, generating a wide H-shaped mol­ecule, with a dihedral angle between the mean planes of the terminal benzene rings in each of the two symmetry-related pairs over the four mol­ecules of 68.6 (1) (A), 65.5 (4) (B), 62.3 (9) (C), and 65.8 (8)° (D), an average of 65.6 (1)°. This compound has applications in gas-separation membranes constructed from polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIM). The title compound is a product of a double Diels–Alder reaction between anthracene and p-benzo­quinone followed by de­hydrogenation. It has also been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and rotating disc electrode polarography, FT–IR, high resolution mass spectrometry, elemental analysis, and 1H NMR. PMID:27980819

  17. Bis(dimethyl-ammonium) 3,3'-dicarb-oxy-5,5'-(5,7,12,14-tetra-oxo-6,13-diaza-tetra-cyclo-[6.6.2.0(4,16).0(11,15)]hexa-deca-1,3,8,10,15-penta-ene-6,13-di-yl)dibenzoate dihydrate.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lan-Ping; Qin, Lan; Han, Lei

    2012-07-01

    The title compound, 2C(2)H(8)N(+)·C(30)H(12)N(2)O(12) (2-)·2H(2)O, comprises dimethyl-ammonium cations, 3,3'-dicarb-oxy-5,5'-(5,7,12,14-tetra-oxo-6,13-diaza-tetra-cyclo-[6.6.2.0(4,16).0(11,15)]hexa-deca-1,3,8,10,15-penta-ene-6,13-di-yl)dibenzoate dianions and water mol-ecules. The dianion is situated on a crystallographic inversion centre. Two very strong symmetry-restricted O⋯H⋯O hydrogen bonds are present which are situated about the crystallographic inversion centres. In one of these hydrogen bonds, the H atom is situated at its centre, while in the other one the H atom is disordered about its centre. Both H atoms are involved in the chain-like C(2) (2)(16) motif, and not in a more common motif R(2) (2)(8) that is composed of a pair of hydrogen carboxyl-ates with the H atoms situated about the centre between the pair of O atoms. In the crystal, inter-action of these hydrogen bonds results in formation of anionic layers of dianions parallel to (-111). The water mol-ecules donate their H atoms to one of two of the carboxyl-ate O atoms, forming strong hydrogen bonds. The dimethyl-ammonium donates a bifurcated hydrogen bond to an oxo group of the dianion, forming weak hydrogen bonds. All the hydrogen bonds form a three-dimensional hydrogen-bonded network.

  18. Bis[1,2-bis-(meth-oxy-carbon-yl)ethene-1,2-dithiol-ato-κ(2) S,S']bis-(η(5)-penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)tetra-μ3-sulfido-tetra-iron(4 Fe-Fe) hexa-fluoridophosphate.

    PubMed

    Inomata, Shinji; Ito, Shohei; Takase, Tsugiko

    2013-04-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Fe4(C6H6O4S2)2(C10H15)2S4]PF6, contains two different complex cations and two PF6 (-) anions. The two complex cations have similar conformations with the butterfly-like Fe4S4 core surrounded by two penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dienyl ligands and the S atoms of two dithiol-ate ligands. In each Fe4S4 core, there are four short Fe-Fe and two long Fe⋯Fe contacts, suggesting bonding and non-bonding inter-actions, respectively. The Fe-S distances range from 2.1287 (13) to 2.2706 (16) Å for one and from 2.1233 (13) to 2.2650 (16) Å for the other Fe4S4 core. The Fe-S distances involving the dithiol-ate ligands are in a more narrow range [2.1764 (16)-2.1874 (13) Å for one and 2.1743 (14)-2.1779 (16) Å for the other cation]. There are no significant inter-actions between cations and anions.

  19. Bis[1,2-bis­(meth­oxy­carbon­yl)ethene-1,2-dithiol­ato-κ2 S,S′]bis­(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)tetra-μ3-sulfido-tetra­iron(4 Fe–Fe) hexa­fluoridophosphate

    PubMed Central

    Inomata, Shinji; Ito, Shohei; Takase, Tsugiko

    2013-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Fe4(C6H6O4S2)2(C10H15)2S4]PF6, contains two different complex cations and two PF6 − anions. The two complex cations have similar conformations with the butterfly-like Fe4S4 core surrounded by two penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl ligands and the S atoms of two dithiol­ate ligands. In each Fe4S4 core, there are four short Fe—Fe and two long Fe⋯Fe contacts, suggesting bonding and non-bonding inter­actions, respectively. The Fe—S distances range from 2.1287 (13) to 2.2706 (16) Å for one and from 2.1233 (13) to 2.2650 (16) Å for the other Fe4S4 core. The Fe—S distances involving the dithiol­ate ligands are in a more narrow range [2.1764 (16)–2.1874 (13) Å for one and 2.1743 (14)–2.1779 (16) Å for the other cation]. There are no significant inter­actions between cations and anions. PMID:23634019

  20. Crystal structure of di-n-but-yl-bis-(η (5)-penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)hafnium(IV).

    PubMed

    Arndt, Perdita; Schubert, Kathleen; Burlakov, Vladimir V; Spannenberg, Anke; Rosenthal, Uwe

    2015-02-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound, [Hf(C10H15)2(C4H9)2], reveals two independent mol-ecules in the asymmetric unit. The diffraction experiment was performed with a racemically twinned crystal showing a 0.529 (5):0.471 (5) component ratio. Each Hf(IV) atom is coordinated by two penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dienyl and two n-butyl ligands in a distorted tetra-hedral geometry, with the cyclo-penta-dienyl rings inclined to one another by 45.11 (15) and 45.37 (16)°. In contrast to the isostructural di(n-butyl)bis(η (5)-penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)zirconium(IV) complex with a noticeable difference in the Zr-butyl bonding, the Hf-Cbut-yl bond lengths differ from each other by no more than 0.039 (3) Å.

  1. μ-Oxido-bis­[bis­(penta­fluoro­phenolato)(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)titanium(IV)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Junseong; Kim, Youngjo

    2011-01-01

    The dinuclear title complex, [Ti2(C10H15)2(C6F5O)4O], features two TiIV atoms bridged by an O atom, which lies on an inversion centre. The TiIV atom is bonded to a η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl ring, two penta­fluoro­phenolate anions and to the bridging O atom. The environment around the TiIV atom can be considered as a distorted tetra­hedron. The cyclo­penta­dienyl ring is disordered over two sets of sites [site occupancy = 0.824 (8) for the major component]. PMID:22090906

  2. Bis[1,2-bis­(eth­oxy­carbon­yl)ethene-1,2-dithiol­ato-κ2 S,S′]bis­(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)tetra-μ3-sulfido-diiron(IV)diiron(III)(3 Fe—Fe)

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Shohei; Hisamichi, Nozomu; Takase, Tsugiko; Inomata, Shinji

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, [Fe4(C10H15)2(C8H10O4S2)2S4], contains a twisted Fe4S4 cubane-like core. A twofold rotation axis passes through the Fe4S4 core, completing the coordination of the four Fe atoms with two penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl ligands and two chelating dithiol­ate ligands. There are three short Fe—Fe and three long Fe⋯Fe contacts in the Fe4S4 core, suggesting bonding and non-bonding inter­actions, respectively. The Fe—S bonds in the Fe4S4 core range from 2.1523 (5) to 2.2667 (6) Å and are somewhat longer than the Fe—S bonds involving the dithiol­ate ligand. PMID:23633986

  3. Bis[1,2-bis-(eth-oxy-carbon-yl)ethene-1,2-dithiol-ato-κ(2) S,S']bis-(η(5)-penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)tetra-μ3-sulfido-diiron(IV)diiron(III)(3 Fe-Fe).

    PubMed

    Ito, Shohei; Hisamichi, Nozomu; Takase, Tsugiko; Inomata, Shinji

    2013-04-01

    The title compound, [Fe4(C10H15)2(C8H10O4S2)2S4], contains a twisted Fe4S4 cubane-like core. A twofold rotation axis passes through the Fe4S4 core, completing the coordination of the four Fe atoms with two penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dienyl ligands and two chelating dithiol-ate ligands. There are three short Fe-Fe and three long Fe⋯Fe contacts in the Fe4S4 core, suggesting bonding and non-bonding inter-actions, respectively. The Fe-S bonds in the Fe4S4 core range from 2.1523 (5) to 2.2667 (6) Å and are somewhat longer than the Fe-S bonds involving the dithiol-ate ligand.

  4. μ-Oxido-bis­{bis­[(penta­fluoro­phen­yl)methano­lato](η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)titanium(IV)}

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Junseong; Kim, Youngjo

    2011-01-01

    The dinuclear title complex, [Ti2(C10H15)2(C7H2F5O)4O], features two TiIV atoms bridged by an O atom. Each Ti atom is bonded to a η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl ring, two (penta­fluoro­phen­yl)methano­late anions and to the bridging O atom. The environment around each Ti atom can be considered as a distorted tetra­hedron. PMID:22090876

  5. Crystal structure of μ-oxido-1,1′κ2 O:O-bis{tetra-μ-oxido-1:2κ2 O:O;1:3κ2 O:O;2:3κ4 O:O-tris[1,2,3(η5)-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl]-trianglo-trititanium(IV)}

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Redondo, Adrián; Martín, Avelino

    2015-01-01

    The title polynuclear organometallic titanium(IV) oxide, [{Ti3(η5-C5Me5)3(μ-O)4}2(μ-O)], exhibits two Ti3O4 cores bridged by an O atom located on a twofold axis. All metal centres present the typical three-legged piano-stool coordination environment, where one site is occupied by a penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl ligand linked in an η5-coordination fashion, while three bridging O atoms fill the other three sites. PMID:26029420

  6. Bis(η(5)-penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)aluminium tetra-bromido-aluminate.

    PubMed

    Purdy, Andrew P; Dugger, Cherrelle; Butcher, Ray J

    2014-03-01

    The title compound, [Al(C10H15)2][AlBr4], was formed during the reduction of a mixture of Cp*AlBr2 and AlBr3. The Al(III) atoms of the two crystallographically independent cations each lie on an inversion center, and the [AlBr4](-) anions are on general positions. At 123 K, the structure exhibits disorder in two of the Br atoms of the [AlBr4](-) ion, with a ratio occupancy of 0.733 (6): 0.267 (3). In the crystal, there is possible weak hydrogen bonding between some methyl groups and Br atoms. The interactions link the moieties in a three-dimensional array.

  7. Crystal structure of di-n-but­yl­bis­(η 5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)hafnium(IV)

    PubMed Central

    Arndt, Perdita; Schubert, Kathleen; Burlakov, Vladimir V.; Spannenberg, Anke; Rosenthal, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound, [Hf(C10H15)2(C4H9)2], reveals two independent mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit. The diffraction experiment was performed with a racemically twinned crystal showing a 0.529 (5):0.471 (5) component ratio. Each HfIV atom is coordinated by two penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl and two n-butyl ligands in a distorted tetra­hedral geometry, with the cyclo­penta­dienyl rings inclined to one another by 45.11 (15) and 45.37 (16)°. In contrast to the isostructural di(n-butyl)bis(η 5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)zirconium(IV) complex with a noticeable difference in the Zr–butyl bonding, the Hf—Cbut­yl bond lengths differ from each other by no more than 0.039 (3) Å. PMID:25878834

  8. Orally administered DTPA penta-ethyl ester for the decorporation of inhaled 241Am

    PubMed Central

    Sueda, Katsuhiko; Sadgrove, Matthew P.; Huckle, James E.; Leed, Marina G. D.; Weber, Waylon M.; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Guilmette, Raymond A.; Jay, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is an effective decorporation agent to facilitate the elimination of radionuclides from the body, but its permeability-limited oral bioavailability limits its utility in mass-casualty emergencies. To overcome this limitation, a prodrug strategy using the penta-ethyl ester form of DTPA is under investigation. Pharmacokinetic and biodistribution studies were conducted in rats by orally administering [14C]DTPA penta-ethyl ester, and this prodrug and its hydrolysis products were analyzed as a single entity. Compared to a previous reporting of intravenously administered DTPA, the oral administration of this prodrug resulted in a sustained plasma concentration profile with higher plasma exposure and lower clearance. An assessment of the urine composition revealed that the bioactivation was extensive but incomplete, with no detectable levels of the penta- or tetra-ester forms. Tissue distribution at 12 h was limited, with approximately 73% of the administered dose being associated with the gastrointestinal tract. In the efficacy study, rats were exposed to aerosols of 241Am nitrate before receiving a single oral treatment of the prodrug. The urinary excretion of 241Am was found to be 19% higher than with the control. Consistent with prior reports of DTPA, the prodrug was most effective when the treatment delays were minimized. PMID:24619514

  9. Penta-graphene: A new carbon allotrope

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Shunhong; Zhou, Jian; Wang, Qian; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki; Jena, Puru

    2015-02-02

    A 2D metastable carbon allotrope, penta-graphene, composed entirely of carbon pentagons and resembling the Cairo pentagonal tiling, is proposed in this paper. State-of-the-art theoretical calculations confirm that the new carbon polymorph is not only dynamically and mechanically stable, but also can withstand temperatures as high as 1000 K. Due to its unique atomic configuration, penta-graphene has an unusual negative Poisson’s ratio and ultrahigh ideal strength that can even outperform graphene. Furthermore, unlike graphene that needs to be functionalized for opening a band gap, penta-graphene possesses an intrinsic quasi-direct band gap as large as 3.25 eV, close to that of ZnO and GaN. Equally important, penta-graphene can be exfoliated from T12-carbon. When rolled up, it can form pentagon-based nanotubes which are semiconducting, regardless of their chirality. When stacked in different patterns, stable 3D twin structures of T12-carbon are generated with band gaps even larger than that of T12-carbon. Finally, the versatility of penta-graphene and its derivatives are expected to have broad applications in nanoelectronics and nanomechanics.

  10. Penta-graphene: A new carbon allotrope

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Shunhong; Zhou, Jian; Wang, Qian; ...

    2015-02-02

    A 2D metastable carbon allotrope, penta-graphene, composed entirely of carbon pentagons and resembling the Cairo pentagonal tiling, is proposed in this paper. State-of-the-art theoretical calculations confirm that the new carbon polymorph is not only dynamically and mechanically stable, but also can withstand temperatures as high as 1000 K. Due to its unique atomic configuration, penta-graphene has an unusual negative Poisson’s ratio and ultrahigh ideal strength that can even outperform graphene. Furthermore, unlike graphene that needs to be functionalized for opening a band gap, penta-graphene possesses an intrinsic quasi-direct band gap as large as 3.25 eV, close to that of ZnOmore » and GaN. Equally important, penta-graphene can be exfoliated from T12-carbon. When rolled up, it can form pentagon-based nanotubes which are semiconducting, regardless of their chirality. When stacked in different patterns, stable 3D twin structures of T12-carbon are generated with band gaps even larger than that of T12-carbon. Finally, the versatility of penta-graphene and its derivatives are expected to have broad applications in nanoelectronics and nanomechanics.« less

  11. Penta-graphene: A new carbon allotrope

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shunhong; Zhou, Jian; Wang, Qian; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki; Jena, Puru

    2015-01-01

    A 2D metastable carbon allotrope, penta-graphene, composed entirely of carbon pentagons and resembling the Cairo pentagonal tiling, is proposed. State-of-the-art theoretical calculations confirm that the new carbon polymorph is not only dynamically and mechanically stable, but also can withstand temperatures as high as 1000 K. Due to its unique atomic configuration, penta-graphene has an unusual negative Poisson’s ratio and ultrahigh ideal strength that can even outperform graphene. Furthermore, unlike graphene that needs to be functionalized for opening a band gap, penta-graphene possesses an intrinsic quasi-direct band gap as large as 3.25 eV, close to that of ZnO and GaN. Equally important, penta-graphene can be exfoliated from T12-carbon. When rolled up, it can form pentagon-based nanotubes which are semiconducting, regardless of their chirality. When stacked in different patterns, stable 3D twin structures of T12-carbon are generated with band gaps even larger than that of T12-carbon. The versatility of penta-graphene and its derivatives are expected to have broad applications in nanoelectronics and nanomechanics. PMID:25646451

  12. Crystal structure of bis-{μ2-[(2-imino-cyclo-pentyl-idene)methyl-idene]aza-nido-κ(2) N:N'}bis-[(η(5)-penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)zirconium(IV)] hexane monosolvate.

    PubMed

    Becker, Lisanne; Spannenberg, Anke; Arndt, Perdita; Rosenthal, Uwe

    2015-12-01

    The title compound, [Zr2(C10H15)4(C6H6N2)2]·C6H14, was obtained by the stoichiometric reaction of adipo-nitrile with [Zr(C10H15)2(η(2)-Me3SiC2SiMe3)]. Intra-molecular nitrile-nitrile couplings and deprotonation of the substrate produced the (1-imino-2-enimino)-cyclo-pentane ligand, which functions as a five-membered bridge between the two metal atoms. The Zr(IV) atom exhibits a distorted tetra-hedral coordination sphere defined by two penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dienyl ligands, by the imino unit of one (1-imino-2-enimino)-cyclo-pentane and by the enimino unit of the second (1-imino-2-enimino)-cyclo-pentane. The cyclo-pentane ring of the ligand shows an envelope conformation. The asymmetric unit contains one half of the complex and one half of the hexane solvent mol-ecule, both being completed by the application of inversion symmetry. One of the penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dienyl ligands is disordered over two sets of sites with a refined occupancy ratio of 0.8111 (3):0.189 (3). In the crystal, the complex mol-ecules are packed into rods extending along [100], with the solvent mol-ecules located in between. The rods are arranged in a distorted hexa-gonal packing.

  13. Tetra-2,3-pyrazinoporphyrazines with externally appended pyridine rings. 4. UV-visible spectral and electrochemical evidence of the remarkable electron-deficient properties of the new tetrakis-2,3-[5,6-di{2-(N-methyl)pyridiniumyl}pyrazino]porphyrazinatometal octacations, [(2-Mepy)8TPyzPzM]8+ (M = MgII(H2O), CoII, CuII, ZnII).

    PubMed

    Bergami, Costanza; Donzello, Maria Pia; Monacelli, Fabrizio; Ercolani, Claudio; Kadish, Karl M

    2005-12-26

    Metal derivatives of the octacationic tetrakis-2,3-[5,6-di{2-(N-methyl)pyridiniumyl}pyrazino]porphyrazine macrocycle [(2-Mepy)(8)TPyzPzH(2)](8+) (2-Mepy = 2-(N-methyl)pyridiniumyl ring) isolated as water-soluble hydrated iodide salts of the general formula [(2-Mepy)(8)TPyzPzM](I(8)).xH(2)O, (M = Mg(II)(H(2)O), Co(II), Cu(II), Zn(II); x = 2-5) were prepared from the corresponding neutral complexes [Py(8)TPyzPzM].xH(2)O previously reported. Reaction of these complexes with CH(3)I in N,N-dimethylformamide under mild conditions led to full quaternization of all eight pyridine N atoms and formation of the octacations [(2-Mepy)(8)TPyzPzM](8+). Clathrated water molecules could be eliminated from the species [(2-Mepy)(8)TPyzPzM](I(8)).xH(2)O by mild heating (Co(II) complexes in the solid state are both paramagnetic with one unpaired electron, thus giving a low-spin state Co(II) for the latter compound. Studies of the charged species [(2-Mepy)(8)TPyzPzM](8+) in aqueous media at ca. 10(-)(5) M concentration provide evidence for the occurrence of molecular aggregation, similar to what is seen for the related free-base species [(2-Mepy)(8)TPyzPzH(2)](8+) (see part 3 of this series, preceding paper in this issue), but the formation of monomeric species is generally favored upon dilution of the solutions. The same octacations are essentially monomeric in solutions of pyridine or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), but traces of aggregation, if occasionally present, vanish with the time. Changes in the UV-visible spectra are observed in the Q- and B-band regions as a result of the quaternization at the pyridine N atoms. Cyclic voltammetry and thin-layer spectroelectrochemical data in DMSO show well-resolved reversible multistep one-electron reductions for both the unmethylated and methylated

  14. Calix receptor edifice; scrupulous turn off fluorescent sensor for Fe(III), Co(II) and Cu(II).

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Keyur D; Gupte, Hrishikesh S; Makwana, Bharat A; Vyas, Disha J; Maity, Debdeep; Jain, Vinod K

    2012-11-01

    Novel Supramolecular fluorescence receptor derived from calix-system i.e. calix[4]resorcinarene bearing dansylchloride as fluorophore was designed and synthesized. The compound was purified by column chromatography and characterized by elemental analysis, NMR and Mass spectroscopy. Tetradansylated calix[4] resorcinarene (TDCR) shows a boat conformation with C(2)v symmetry. The complexation behaviour of metal cations [Ag(I), Cd(II), Co(II), Fe(III), Hg(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), Zn(II), U(VI) (1 × 10(-4) M)] with tetra dansylated calix[4]resorcinarene (1 × 10(-6) M) was studied by spectophotometry and spectrofluorometry. Red shift in the absorption spectra led us to conclude that there is strong complexation Fe(III), Co(II) and Cu(II) with TDCR. These metal cations also produce quenching with red shifts in the emission spectra. The maximum quenching in emission intensity was observed in the case of Fe(III) and its binding constant was also found to be significantly higher than that of Co(II) and Cu(II). Quantum yield of metal complexes of Fe(III) was found to be lower in comparison with Co(II) and Cu(II) complexes. Stern Volmer analysis indicates that the mechanism of fluorescence quenching is either purely dynamic, or purely static.

  15. Mitochondrial COII sequences and modern human origins.

    PubMed

    Ruvolo, M; Zehr, S; von Dornum, M; Pan, D; Chang, B; Lin, J

    1993-11-01

    The aim of this study is to measure human mitochondrial sequence variability in the relatively slowly evolving mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) and to estimate when the human common ancestral mitochondrial type existed. New COII gene sequences were determined for five humans (Homo sapiens), including some of the most mitochondrially divergent humans known; for two pygmy chimpanzees (Pan paniscus); and for a common chimpanzee (P. troglodytes). COII sequences were analyzed with those from another relatively slowly evolving mitochondrial region (ND4-5). From class 1 (third codon position) sequence data, a relative divergence date for the human mitochondrial ancestor is estimated as 1/27 th of the human-chimpanzee divergence time. If it is assumed that humans and chimpanzees diverged 6 Mya, this places a human mitochondrial ancestor at 222,000 years, significantly different from 1 Myr (the presumed time of an H. erectus emergence from Africa). The mean coalescent time estimated from all 1,580 sites of combined mitochondrial data, when a 6-Mya human-chimpanzee divergence is assumed, is 298,000 years, with 95% confidence interval of 129,000-536,000 years. Neither estimate is compatible with a 1-Myr-old human mitochondrial ancestor. The mitochondrial DNA sequence data from COII and ND4-5 regions therefore do not support this multiregional hypothesis for the emergence of modern humans.

  16. Studying the electronic and phononic structure of penta-graphane

    PubMed Central

    Einollahzadeh, Hamideh; Fazeli, Seyed Mahdi; Dariani, Reza Sabet

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, we theoretically consider a two dimensional nanomaterial which is a form of hydrogenated penta-graphene; we call it penta-graphane. This structure is obtained by adding hydrogen atoms to the sp2 bonded carbon atoms of penta-graphene. We investigate the thermodynamic and mechanical stability of penta-graphane. We also study the electronic and phononic structure of penta-graphane. Firstly, we use density functional theory with the revised Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof approximation to compute the band structure. Then one–shot GW (G0W0) approach for estimating accurate band gap is applied. The indirect band gap of penta-graphane is 5.78 eV, which is close to the band gap of diamond. Therefore, this new structure is a good electrical insulator. We also investigate the structural stability of penta-graphane by computing the phonon structure. Finally, we calculate its specific heat capacity from the phonon density of states. Penta-graphane has a high specific heat capacity, and can potentially be used for storing and transferring energy. PMID:27877907

  17. Community Support Gives Rise to New Penta Career Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulloch, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    For more than 40 years, Penta Career Center in Perrysburg, Ohio, has successfully served thousands of high school students and adults from Northwest Ohio. Calling a converted 1949 United States Army Depot building home, Penta serves students from 16 surrounding school districts, and offers programs in six core areas: arts and communications;…

  18. Neoclassical Calculations with Momentum Conservation Using the PENTA Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lore, Jeremy; Spong, D. A.; Briesemeister, A.

    2010-11-01

    The PENTA code calculates neoclassical radial and parallel flows of heat and particles, including the effects of collisional momentum conservation, for arbitrary toroidal geometries. As an input, PENTA uses transport coefficients calculated using a pitch angle scattering (PAS) collision operator, for example from the DKES code. In this sense PENTA acts as a momentum correction technique to transport quantities calculated from the PAS transport coefficients, which are often used in stellarator transport analyses. PENTA has recently been upgraded to account for arbitrary ion impurity species, and to include multiple methods of momentum correction for comparison and benchmarking. For non-(quasi)symmetric configurations, the radial electric field is calculated from the nonambipolar particle fluxes. For (quasi)symmetric devices PENTA recaptures intrinsic ambipolarity, demonstrating its applicability to both 2D and 3D geometries. Momentum correction has been shown to have a significant effect on the calculated parallel flows in the HSX stellarator.

  19. Quininium tetra-chloridozinc(II).

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Zhuang

    2009-09-05

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound {systematic name: 2-[hydr-oxy(6-meth-oxy-quinolin-1-ium-4-yl)meth-yl]-8-vinyl-quinuclidin-1-ium tetra-chlorido-zinc(II)}, (C(20)H(26)N(2)O(2))[ZnCl(4)], consists of a double proton-ated quininium cation and a tetra-chloridozinc(II) anion. The Zn(II) ion is in a slightly distorted tetra-hedral coordination environment. The crystal structure is stabilized by inter-molecular N-H⋯Cl and O-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds.

  20. Transition metal complexes of a new 15-membered [N5] penta-azamacrocyclic ligand with their spectral and anticancer studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Boraey, Hanaa A.; Serag El-Din, Azza A.

    2014-11-01

    Novel penta-azamacrocyclic 15-membered [N5] ligand [L] i.e. 1,5,8,12-tetetraaza-3,4: 9,10-dibenzo-6-ethyl-7-methyl-1,12-(2,6-pyrido)cyclopentadecan-5,7 diene-2,11-dione and its transition metal complexes with Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Ru(III) and Pd(II) have been synthesized and structurally characterized by elemental analysis, spectral, thermal as well as magnetic and molar conductivity measurements. On basis of IR, MS, UV-Vis 1H NMR and EPR spectral studies an octahedral geometry has been proposed for all complexes except Co(II), Cu(II) nitrate complexes and Pd(II) chloride complex that adopt tetrahedral, square pyramidal and square planar geometries, respectively. The antitumor activity of the synthesized ligand and some complexes against human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7) and human hepatocarcinoma cell lines (HepG2) has been studied. The complexes (IC50 = 2.04-9.7, 2.5-3.7 μg/mL) showed potent antitumor activity comparable with their ligand (IC50 = 11.7, 3.45 μg/mL) against the above mentioned cell lines, respectively. The results evidently show that the activity of the ligand becomes more pronounced and significant when coordinated to the metal ion.

  1. Iodidobis(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)titanium(III)

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Monty; Spannenberg, Anke; Rosenthal, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    In the title complex mol­ecule, [Ti(C10H15)2I], the paramagnetic Ti(III) atom is coordinated by two penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl (Cp*) ligands and one iodide ligand. The two Cp* ligands are in a staggered orientation. The coordination geometry at the titanium atom can be described as distorted trigonal-planar. PMID:21588833

  2. Brønsted acid sites based on penta-coordinated aluminum species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zichun; Jiang, Yijiao; Lafon, Olivier; Trébosc, Julien; Duk Kim, Kyung; Stampfl, Catherine; Baiker, Alfons; Amoureux, Jean-Paul; Huang, Jun

    2016-12-01

    Zeolites and amorphous silica-alumina (ASA), which both provide Brønsted acid sites (BASs), are the most extensively used solid acid catalysts in the chemical industry. It is widely believed that BASs consist only of tetra-coordinated aluminum sites (AlIV) with bridging OH groups in zeolites or nearby silanols on ASA surfaces. Here we report the direct observation in ASA of a new type of BAS based on penta-coordinated aluminum species (AlV) by 27Al-{1H} dipolar-mediated correlation two-dimensional NMR experiments at high magnetic field under magic-angle spinning. Both BAS-AlIV and -AlV show a similar acidity to protonate probe molecular ammonia. The quantitative evaluation of 1H and 27Al sites demonstrates that BAS-AlV co-exists with BAS-AlIV rather than replaces it, which opens new avenues for strongly enhancing the acidity of these popular solid acids.

  3. Brønsted acid sites based on penta-coordinated aluminum species

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zichun; Jiang, Yijiao; Lafon, Olivier; Trébosc, Julien; Duk Kim, Kyung; Stampfl, Catherine; Baiker, Alfons; Amoureux, Jean-Paul; Huang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Zeolites and amorphous silica-alumina (ASA), which both provide Brønsted acid sites (BASs), are the most extensively used solid acid catalysts in the chemical industry. It is widely believed that BASs consist only of tetra-coordinated aluminum sites (AlIV) with bridging OH groups in zeolites or nearby silanols on ASA surfaces. Here we report the direct observation in ASA of a new type of BAS based on penta-coordinated aluminum species (AlV) by 27Al-{1H} dipolar-mediated correlation two-dimensional NMR experiments at high magnetic field under magic-angle spinning. Both BAS-AlIV and -AlV show a similar acidity to protonate probe molecular ammonia. The quantitative evaluation of 1H and 27Al sites demonstrates that BAS-AlV co-exists with BAS-AlIV rather than replaces it, which opens new avenues for strongly enhancing the acidity of these popular solid acids. PMID:27976673

  4. Metal-metal interactions in linear tri-, penta-, hepta-, and nona-nuclear ruthenium string complexes.

    PubMed

    Niskanen, Mika; Hirva, Pipsa; Haukka, Matti

    2012-05-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) methodology was used to examine the structural properties of linear metal string complexes: [Ru(3)(dpa)(4)X(2)] (X = Cl(-), CN(-), NCS(-), dpa = dipyridylamine(-)), [Ru(5)(tpda)(4)Cl(2)], and hypothetical, not yet synthesized complexes [Ru(7)(tpta)(4)Cl(2)] and [Ru(9)(ppta)(4)Cl(2)] (tpda = tri-α-pyridyldiamine(2-), tpta = tetra-α-pyridyltriamine(3-), ppta = penta-α-pyridyltetraamine(4-)). Our specific focus was on the two longest structures and on comparison of the string complexes and unsupported ruthenium backboned chain complexes, which have weaker ruthenium-ruthenium interactions. The electronic structures were studied with the aid of visualized frontier molecular orbitals, and Bader's quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) was used to study the interactions between ruthenium atoms. The electron density was found to be highest and distributed most evenly between the ruthenium atoms in the hypothetical [Ru(7)(tpta)(4)Cl(2)] and [Ru(9)(ppta)(4)Cl(2)] string complexes.

  5. Bis(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)aluminium tetra­bromido­aluminate

    PubMed Central

    Purdy, Andrew P.; Dugger, Cherrelle; Butcher, Ray J.

    2014-01-01

    The title compound, [Al(C10H15)2][AlBr4], was formed during the reduction of a mixture of Cp*AlBr2 and AlBr3. The AlIII atoms of the two crystallographically independent cations each lie on an inversion center, and the [AlBr4]− anions are on general positions. At 123 K, the structure exhibits disorder in two of the Br atoms of the [AlBr4]− ion, with a ratio occupancy of 0.733 (6): 0.267 (3). In the crystal, there is possible weak hydrogen bonding between some methyl groups and Br atoms. The interactions link the moieties in a three-dimensional array. PMID:24764951

  6. Thermal conductivity of penta-graphene from molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen; Zhang, Gang; Li, Baowen

    2015-10-21

    Using classical equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations and applying the original Tersoff interatomic potential, we study the thermal transport property of the latest two dimensional carbon allotrope, penta-graphene. It is predicted that its room-temperature thermal conductivity is about 167 W/mK, which is much lower than that of graphene. With normal mode decomposition, the accumulated thermal conductivity with respect to phonon frequency and mean free path is analyzed. It is found that the acoustic phonons make a contribution of about 90% to the thermal conductivity, and phonons with mean free paths larger than 100 nm make a contribution over 50%. We demonstrate that the remarkably lower thermal conductivity of penta-graphene compared with graphene results from the lower phonon group velocities and fewer collective phonon excitations. Our study highlights the importance of structure-property relationship and provides better understanding of thermal transport property and valuable insight into thermal management of penta-graphene.

  7. Glycine zinc sulfate penta-hydrate: redetermination at 10 K from time-of-flight neutron Laue diffraction.

    PubMed

    Fortes, A Dominic; Howard, Christopher M; Wood, Ian G; Gutmann, Matthias J

    2016-10-01

    Single crystals of glycine zinc sulfate penta-hydrate [systematic name: hexa-aqua-zinc tetra-aquadiglycinezinc bis-(sulfate)], [Zn(H2O)6][Zn(C2H5NO2)2(H2O)4](SO4)2, have been grown by isothermal evaporation from aqueous solution at room temperature and characterized by single-crystal neutron diffraction. The unit cell contains two unique ZnO6 octa-hedra on sites of symmetry -1 and two SO4 tetra-hedra with site symmetry 1; the octa-hedra comprise one [tetra-aqua-diglycine zinc](2+) ion (centred on one Zn atom) and one [hexa-aqua-zinc](2+) ion (centred on the other Zn atom); the glycine zwitterion, NH3(+)CH2COO(-), adopts a monodentate coordination to the first Zn atom. All other atoms sit on general positions of site symmetry 1. Glycine forms centrosymmetric closed cyclic dimers due to N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the amine and carboxyl-ate groups of adjacent zwitterions and exhibits torsion angles varying from ideal planarity by no more than 1.2°, the smallest values for any known glycine zwitterion not otherwise constrained by a mirror plane. This work confirms the H-atom locations estimated in three earlier single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies with the addition of independently refined fractional coordinates and Uij parameters, which provide accurate inter-nuclear X-H (X = N, O) bond lengths and consequently a more accurate and precise depiction of the hydrogen-bond framework.

  8. Temporal trend studies on tetra- and pentabrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane in guillemot egg from the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Sellström, Ulla; Bignert, Anders; Kierkegaard, Amelie; Häggberg, Lisbeth; de Wit, Cynthia A; Olsson, Mats; Jansson, Bo

    2003-12-15

    Guillemot eggs from the Baltic Sea, sampled between 1969 and 2001, were analyzed for tetra- and pentabromodiphenyl ethers (2,2',4,4'-tetraBDE (BDE-47), 2,2',4,4',5-pentaBDE (BDE-99), and 2,2',4,4',6-pentaBDE (BDE-100)), and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). This temporal trend study indicates that the concentrations of the polybrominated diphenyl ether compounds increased from the 1970s to the 1980s, peaking around the mid- to the late-1980s. These peaks are then followed by a rapid decrease in concentrations during the rest of the study period, with the concentrations of the major BDE congener below 100 ng/g lipid weight at the end of the period. This corresponds to less than 10% of its peak values. The concentrations of HBCD show a different pattern over time. After a peak in the middle of the 1970s followed by a decrease, the concentrations increased during the latter part of the 1980s. During the recent 10-yr period no significant change has occurred, and the annual mean concentrations are more or less stable at a higher level as compared to the beginning of the study period.

  9. Crystal structure of bis­{μ2-[(2-imino­cyclo­pentyl­idene)methyl­idene]aza­nido-κ2 N:N′}bis­[(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)zirconium(IV)] hexane monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Lisanne; Spannenberg, Anke; Arndt, Perdita; Rosenthal, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, [Zr2(C10H15)4(C6H6N2)2]·C6H14, was obtained by the stoichiometric reaction of adipo­nitrile with [Zr(C10H15)2(η2-Me3SiC2SiMe3)]. Intra­molecular nitrile–nitrile couplings and deprotonation of the substrate produced the (1-imino-2-enimino)­cyclo­pentane ligand, which functions as a five-membered bridge between the two metal atoms. The ZrIV atom exhibits a distorted tetra­hedral coordination sphere defined by two penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl ligands, by the imino unit of one (1-imino-2-enimino)­cyclo­pentane and by the enimino unit of the second (1-imino-2-enimino)­cyclo­pentane. The cyclo­pentane ring of the ligand shows an envelope conformation. The asymmetric unit contains one half of the complex and one half of the hexane solvent mol­ecule, both being completed by the application of inversion symmetry. One of the penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl ligands is disordered over two sets of sites with a refined occupancy ratio of 0.8111 (3):0.189 (3). In the crystal, the complex mol­ecules are packed into rods extending along [100], with the solvent mol­ecules located in between. The rods are arranged in a distorted hexa­gonal packing. PMID:26870433

  10. Pyrolysis of the tetra pak

    SciTech Connect

    Korkmaz, Ahmet; Yanik, Jale Brebu, Mihai; Vasile, Cornelia

    2009-11-15

    This study deals with pyrolysis of tetra pak which is widely used as an aseptic beverage packaging material. Pyrolysis experiments were carried out under inert atmosphere in a batch reactor at different temperatures and by different pyrolysis modes (one- and two-step). The yields of char, liquid and gas were quantified. Pyrolysis liquids produced were collected as three separate phases; aqueous phase, tar and polyethylene wax. Characterization of wax and the determination of the total amount of phenols in aqueous phase were performed. Chemical compositions of gas and char products relevant to fuel applications were determined. Pure aluminum can be also recovered by pyrolysis.

  11. Dipentaerythritol penta-acrylate phosphate - an alternative phosphate ester monomer for bonding of methacrylates to zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying; Tay, Franklin R.; Lu, Zhicen; Chen, Chen; Qian, Mengke; Zhang, Huaiqin; Tian, Fucong; Xie, Haifeng

    2016-12-01

    The present work examined the effects of dipentaerythritol penta-acrylate phosphate (PENTA) as an alternative phosphate ester monomer for bonding of methacrylate-based resins to yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZP) and further investigated the potential bonding mechanism involved. Shear bond strength testing was performed to evaluate the efficacy of experimental PENTA-containing primers (5, 10, 15, 20 or 30 wt% PENTA in acetone) in improving resin-Y-TZP bond strength. Bonding without the use of a PENTA-containing served as the negative control, and a Methacryloyloxidecyl dihydrogenphosphate(MDP)-containing primer was used as the positive control. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to investigate the potential existence of chemical affinity between PENTA and Y-TZP. Shear bond strengths were significant higher in the 15 and 20 wt% PENTA groups. The ICP-MS, XPS and FTIR data indicated that the P content on the Y-TZP surface increased as the concentration of PENTA increased in the experimental primers, via the formation of Zr–O–P bond. Taken together, the results attest that PENTA improves resin bonding of Y-TZP through chemical reaction with Y-TZP. Increasing the concentration of PENTA augments its binding affinity but not its bonding efficacy with zirconia.

  12. Dipentaerythritol penta-acrylate phosphate - an alternative phosphate ester monomer for bonding of methacrylates to zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Tay, Franklin R.; Lu, Zhicen; Chen, Chen; Qian, Mengke; Zhang, Huaiqin; Tian, Fucong; Xie, Haifeng

    2016-01-01

    The present work examined the effects of dipentaerythritol penta-acrylate phosphate (PENTA) as an alternative phosphate ester monomer for bonding of methacrylate-based resins to yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZP) and further investigated the potential bonding mechanism involved. Shear bond strength testing was performed to evaluate the efficacy of experimental PENTA-containing primers (5, 10, 15, 20 or 30 wt% PENTA in acetone) in improving resin-Y-TZP bond strength. Bonding without the use of a PENTA-containing served as the negative control, and a Methacryloyloxidecyl dihydrogenphosphate(MDP)-containing primer was used as the positive control. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to investigate the potential existence of chemical affinity between PENTA and Y-TZP. Shear bond strengths were significant higher in the 15 and 20 wt% PENTA groups. The ICP-MS, XPS and FTIR data indicated that the P content on the Y-TZP surface increased as the concentration of PENTA increased in the experimental primers, via the formation of Zr–O–P bond. Taken together, the results attest that PENTA improves resin bonding of Y-TZP through chemical reaction with Y-TZP. Increasing the concentration of PENTA augments its binding affinity but not its bonding efficacy with zirconia. PMID:28000765

  13. Crystal structure of bis-(η(2)-ethyl-ene)(η(5)-penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)cobalt.

    PubMed

    Ramful, Chandika D; Robertson, Katherine N; Ylijoki, Kai E O

    2016-09-01

    The title compound, [Co(C10H15)(C2H4)2], was prepared by Na/Hg reduction of [Co2(C10H15)2(μ-Cl)2] in THF under an ethyl-ene atmosphere and crystallized from pentane at 193 K. The Co-C(olefin) bonds have an average length of 2.022 (2) Å, while the Co-C(penta-dien-yl) bonds average 2.103 (19) Å. The olefin C=C bonds are 1.410 (1) Å. The dihedral angle between the planes defined by the cyclo-penta-dienyl ligand and the two olefin ligands is 0.25 (12)°. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked into chains by C-H⋯π inter-actions.

  14. [Preparative isolation of tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexapyrimidine nucleotides from hydrolysates of depurinated herring sperm DNA (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Schott, H

    1979-04-21

    The pyrimidine nucleotides p(dC)3p, p(dT)3p and p(dT)4p and mixtures of the sequence isomers p(dC3, dT), (dC3, dT)p; p(dC3, dT)p; p(dC2, dT2)p; p(dC, dT3)p; p(dC3, dT2)p; p(dC2, dT3); p(dC2, dT3)p; p(dC, dT4)p; p(dC4, dT2); p(dC3, dT3); p(dC3, dT3)p and p(dC2, dT4)p have been isolated on a preparative scale from hydrolysates of depurinated herring sperm DNA. The DNA hydrolysate is first separated into a high- and a low-molecular weight pyrimidine nucleotide mixture by column chromatography at pH 7.5 on DEAE-cellulose. The high-molecular-weight pyrimidine nucleotide mixture is further separated into four peaks on QAE-Sephadex at pH 7.5. The second peak is re-chromatographed on QAE-Sephadex at pH 3.5. Pyrimidine nucleotides containing predominantly cytidylic acid units may thus be separated from these with predominantly thymidylic acid units. Subsequent separation according to number of phosphate groups at pH 7.5 on QAE-Sephadex yields products of 70--93% purity. In a final separation step, the pyrimidine nucleotides and mixtures of sequence isomers are once again chromatographed on QAE-Sephadex with 7 M urea at pH 7.5. The products thus obtained are generally chromatographically pure. Impurities which are not fully removed by column chromatography are separated by paper chromatography. The structure of the isolated DNA fragments and the composition of the mixtures of sequence isomers are determined from the chromatographic data, absorption characteristics and by enzymatic degradation.

  15. Disparate Strain Dependent Thermal Conductivity of Two-dimensional Penta-Structures.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huake; Qin, Guangzhao; Lin, Yuan; Hu, Ming

    2016-06-08

    Two-dimensional (2D) carbon allotrope called penta-graphene was recently proposed from first-principles calculations and various similar penta-structures emerged. Despite significant effort having been dedicated to electronic structures and mechanical properties, little research has been focused on thermal transport in penta-structures. Motivated by this, we performed a comparative study of thermal transport properties of three representative pentagonal structures, namely penta-graphene, penta-SiC2, and penta-SiN2, by solving the phonon Boltzmann transport equation with interatomic force constants extracted from first-principles calculations. Unexpectedly, the thermal conductivity of the three penta-structures exhibits diverse strain dependence, despite their very similar geometry structures. While the thermal conductivity of penta-graphene exhibits standard monotonic reduction by stretching, penta-SiC2 possesses an unusual nonmonotonic up-and-down behavior. More interestingly, the thermal conductivity of penta-SiN2 has 1 order of magnitude enhancement due to the strain induced buckled to planar structure transition. The mechanism governing the diverse strain dependence is identified as the competition between the change of phonon group velocity and phonon lifetime of acoustic phonon modes with combined effect from the unique structure transition for penta-SiN2. The disparate thermal transport behavior is further correlated to the fundamentally different bonding nature in the atomic structures with solid evidence from the distribution of deformation charge density and more in-depth molecular orbital analysis. The reported giant and robust tunability of thermal conductivity may inspire intensive research on other derivatives of penta-structures as potential materials for emerging nanoelectronic devices. The fundamental physics understood from this study also solidifies the strategy to engineer thermal transport properties of broad 2D materials by simple mechanical

  16. Zirconium(IV) dilanthanum(III) penta­sulfide

    PubMed Central

    Raw, Adam D.; Ibers, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Zirconium(IV) dilanthanum(III) penta­sulfide, ZrLa2S5, crystallizes with four formula units in the space group Pnma in the U3S5 structure type. The asymmetric unit comprises one Zr, one La and four S atoms. The Zr and three S atoms are situated on mirror planes. The structure consists of LaS8 face-sharing bicapped distorted trigonal prisms and ZrS7 edge-sharing monocapped octa­hedra. PMID:22199468

  17. Bis(μ-2-tert-butyl­phenyl­imido-1:2κ2 N:N)chlorido-2κCl-(diethyl ether-1κO)(2η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)lithiumtantalum(V)

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Jacqueline M.; Chan, Michael C. W.; Gibson, Vernon C.; Howard, Judith A. K.

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound, [LiTa(C10H15)(C10H13N)2Cl(C4H10O)], the TaV atom is coordinated by a η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl (Cp*) ligand, a chloride ion and two N-bonded 2-tert-butyl­phenyl­imide dianions. With respect to the two N atoms, the chloride ion and the centroid of the Cp* ring, the tantalum coordination geometry is approximately tetra­hedral. The lithium cation is bonded to both the 2-tert-butyl­phenyl­imide dianions and also a diethyl ether mol­ecule, in an approximate trigonal planar arrangement. The Ta⋯Li separation is 2.681 (15) Å. In the crystal, a weak C—H⋯Cl inter­action links the mol­ecules. When compared to the 2,6-diisopropyl­phenyl­imide analogue (‘the Wigley derivative’) of the title compound, the two structures are conformationally matched with an overall r.m.s. difference of 0.461Å. PMID:21754594

  18. Glycine zinc sulfate penta­hydrate: redetermination at 10 K from time-of-flight neutron Laue diffraction

    PubMed Central

    Fortes, A. Dominic; Howard, Christopher M.; Wood, Ian G.; Gutmann, Matthias J.

    2016-01-01

    Single crystals of glycine zinc sulfate penta­hydrate [systematic name: hexa­aqua­zinc tetra­aquadiglycinezinc bis­(sulfate)], [Zn(H2O)6][Zn(C2H5NO2)2(H2O)4](SO4)2, have been grown by isothermal evaporation from aqueous solution at room temperature and characterized by single-crystal neutron diffraction. The unit cell contains two unique ZnO6 octa­hedra on sites of symmetry -1 and two SO4 tetra­hedra with site symmetry 1; the octa­hedra comprise one [tetra­aqua-diglycine zinc]2+ ion (centred on one Zn atom) and one [hexa­aqua­zinc]2+ ion (centred on the other Zn atom); the glycine zwitterion, NH3 +CH2COO−, adopts a monodentate coordination to the first Zn atom. All other atoms sit on general positions of site symmetry 1. Glycine forms centrosymmetric closed cyclic dimers due to N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the amine and carboxyl­ate groups of adjacent zwitterions and exhibits torsion angles varying from ideal planarity by no more than 1.2°, the smallest values for any known glycine zwitterion not otherwise constrained by a mirror plane. This work confirms the H-atom locations estimated in three earlier single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies with the addition of independently refined fractional coordinates and Uij parameters, which provide accurate inter­nuclear X—H (X = N, O) bond lengths and consequently a more accurate and precise depiction of the hydrogen-bond framework. PMID:27746937

  19. 21 CFR 182.6789 - Tetra sodium pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tetra sodium pyrophosphate. 182.6789 Section 182...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6789 Tetra sodium pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Tetra sodium pyrophosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe...

  20. 21 CFR 582.6789 - Tetra sodium pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tetra sodium pyrophosphate. 582.6789 Section 582.6789 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6789 Tetra sodium pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Tetra sodium pyrophosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  1. Penta-BxNy sheet: a density functional theory study of two-dimensional material

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiao; Fan, Xinyu; Wei, Yanpei; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    By using density functional theory with generalized gradient approximation, we have carried out detailed investigations of two-dimensional BxNy nanomaterials in the Cairo pentagonal tiling geometry fully composed of pentagons (penta-BxNy). Only penta-BN and BN2 planar structures are dynamically stable without imaginary modes in their phonon spectra. Their stabilities have been further evaluated by formation energy analysis, first-principles molecular dynamics simulation, and mechanical stability analysis. Penta-BN2 is superior to penta-BN in structural stability. Its stability analysis against oxidization and functional group adsorption as well as its synthesizing reaction path analysis show possibilities in fabricating penta-BN2 on experiment. Furthermore, the penta-BN2 could be transferred from metallic to semiconducting by ionizing or covalently binding an electron per dinitrogen. Also, it has been found to have superior mechanical properties, such as the negative Poisson’s ratio and the comparable stiffness as that of hexagonal h-BN sheet. These studies on the stabilities, electronic properties, and mechanical properties suggest penta-BN2 as an attractive material to call for further studies on both theory and experiment. PMID:27539445

  2. Doped penta-graphene and hydrogenation of its related structures: a structural and electronic DFT-D study.

    PubMed

    Quijano-Briones, J J; Fernández-Escamilla, H N; Tlahuice-Flores, A

    2016-06-21

    The structure of penta-graphene (penta-C), an irregular pentagonal two-dimensional (2D) structure, has been predicted recently. In this communication we carried out a dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT-D) study of the penta-C doped with Si, Ge and Sn atoms and its related hydrogenated penta-C structures (H-penta-C-X). We predict various new structures as thermally stable based on Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics (BOMD) calculations. Moreover, their dynamical stability is attested by phonon dispersions spectra. In general, we found that the bandgap value of doped structures reduces, while H-penta-C-X show large bandgap values. This feature can be exploited for potential uses of hydrogenated doped-penta-C structures as dielectric layers in electronic devices.

  3. Tight-binding approach to penta-graphene

    PubMed Central

    Stauber, T.; Beltrán, J. I.; Schliemann, J.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce an effective tight-binding model to discuss penta-graphene and present an analytical solution. This model only involves the π-orbitals of the sp2-hybridized carbon atoms and reproduces the two highest valence bands. By introducing energy-dependent hopping elements, originating from the elimination of the sp3-hybridized carbon atoms, also the two lowest conduction bands can be well approximated - but only after the inclusion of a Hubbard onsite interaction as well as of assisted hopping terms. The eigenfunctions can be approximated analytically for the effective model without energy-dependent hopping elements and the optical absorption is discussed. We find large isotropic absorption ranging from 7.5% up to 24% for transitions at the Γ-point. PMID:26940279

  4. Penta-Quark States with Strangeness, Hidden Charm and Beauty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jia-Jun; Zou, Bing-Song

    The classical quenched quark models with three constituent quarks provide a good description for the baryon spatial ground states, but fail to reproduce the spectrum of baryon excited states. More and more evidences suggest that unquenched effects with multi-quark dynamics are necessary ingredients to solve the problem. Several new hyperon resonances reported recently could fit in the picture of penta-quark states. Based on this picture, some new hyperon excited states were predicted to exist; meanwhile with extension from strangeness to charm and beauty, super-heavy narrow N* and Λ* resonances with hidden charm or beauty were predicted to be around 4.3 and 11 GeV, respectively. Recently, two of such N* with hidden charm might have been observed by the LHCb experiment. More of those states are expected to be observed in near future. This opens a new window in order to study hadronic dynamics for the multi-quark states.

  5. Crystal structures and conformations of two Diels-Alder adduct derivatives: 1,8-bis-(thio-phen-2-yl)-14-oxa-tetra-cyclo-[6.5.1.0(2,7).0(9,13)]tetra-deca-2(7),3,5-trien-10-one and 1,8-diphenyl-14-oxa-tetra-cyclo[6.5.1.0(2,7).0(9,13)] tetra-deca-2,4,6-trien-10-one.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, S; Narayanan, P; Sethusankar, K; Nandakumar, Meganathan; Mohanakrishnan, Arasambattu K

    2015-02-01

    The title compounds, C21H16O2S2 (I) and C25H20O2 (II), are products of a tandem 'pincer' Diels-Alder reaction consisting of [2 + 2] cyclo-additions between benzo[c]furan and cyclo-penta-none. Each comprises a fused tetra-cyclic ring system containing two five-membered rings (in envelope conformations with the O atom as the flap) and six-membered rings (in boat conformations). In addition, two thio-phene rings in (I) and two phenyl rings in (II) are attached to the tetra-cyclic ring system. The cyclo-penta-none ring adopts a twisted conformation in (I) and an envelope conformation in (II). In (I), the thio-phene rings are positionally disordered over two sets of sites, with occupancy ratios of 0.901 (2):0.099 (2) and 0.666 (2):0.334 (2). In (II), the oxygen atom of the cyclo-penta-none ring is rotationally disordered over two sites with an occupancy ratio of 0.579 (4):0.421 (4). The mol-ecular structure of (I) is stabilized by an intra-molecular C-H⋯O hydrogen bond, which generates an S(7) ring motif. In the crystal, the mol-ecules are linked via weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, which generate R (2) 2(16) ring motifs in (I) and C(8) chains in (II). In both structures, the crystal packing also features C-H⋯π inter-actions. The crystal studied of compound (I) was twinned by non-merohedry. The twin component is related by the twin law [-1 0 0 -0.101 1 -0.484 0 0 -1] operated by a twofold rotation axis parallel to the b axis. The structure of (I) was refined with a twin scale factor of 0.275 (2).

  6. Genetics Home Reference: tetra-amelia syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... the body, including the face and head, heart, nervous system, skeleton, and genitalia. The lungs are underdeveloped in ... Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central Ohdo S, Sonoda T, Ohba K. Natural history and postmortem anatomy of a patient with tetra-amelia, ectodermal dysplasia, ...

  7. Azido-(η(5)-penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)[2-(pyridin-2-yl)phen-yl]iridium(III).

    PubMed

    Ariyoshi, Keita; Suzuki, Takayoshi

    2013-01-01

    In the title compound, [Ir(C10H15)(C11H8N)(N3)], the Ir(III) ion is coordinated by three anionic ligands, namely, penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dienyl (Cp*(-)), 2-(pyridin-2-yl)phenyl (ppy(-)) and azide (N3 (-)), and adopts a three-legged piano-stool geometry The coordination mode of N3 (-) is typical for Cp*Ir(III)-N3 complexes, with an Ir-N(N3) bond length of 2.125 (2) Å and an Ir-N=N bond angle of 116.5 (2)°. The N3 (-) ligand is almost linear [N=N=N = 176.0 (3)°], and the N=N bond length between the central and coordinating N atom and that between the central and non-coordinating terminal N atom are 1.194 (3) and 1.157 (3) Å, respectively. For the ppy(-) ligand, the Ir-C and Ir-N bond lengths are 2.066 (3) and 2.079 (3) Å, respectively, which are rather close to each other, compared to the related Ir(III)- or Rh(III)-ppy complexes. The Ir-C(Cp*) bond lengths vary in the range 2.163 (2)-2.232 (2) Å, indicating a strong trans influence of the cyclo-metallated C-donor atom of the ppy(-) ligand.

  8. Crystal structure of catena-poly[bis­(tetra­ethyl­ammonium) [tetra­aqua­tris(μ-dicyanamido-κ2 N 1:N 5)bis(dicyanamido-κN 1)di­cobaltate(II)] dicyanamide

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chen; Thuijs, Annaliese E.; Abboud, Khalil A.

    2016-01-01

    The structure of the title compound, [N(C2H5)4]2[Co2(C2N3)5(H2O)4](C2N3), is a new example of a metal–dicyanamide coordination polymer which exhibits a unique three-dimensional framework of covalently linked CoII chains. All bridging dicyanamide ligands in the title structure are in the μ 1,5-bridging mode. The anionic CoII-dicyanamide network is templated by tetra­ethyl­ammonium cations residing in a series of channels extending along the b axis where additional non-coordinating dicyanamidate anions are also located. The framework structure is further stabilized by O—H⋯N hydrogen bonding between aqua ligands and dicyanamido ligands or the dicyanamide anion. In addition, C—H⋯N inter­actions are present between the tetra­ethyl­ammonium cations and dicyanamide amide nitro­gen atoms. PMID:27840718

  9. Ethyl 23-benzyl-8,11,14-trioxa-23,28,29-triaza­penta­cyclo­[19.7.1.02,7.015,20.022,27]nona­cosa-2,4,6,15(20),16,18,21,26-octa­ene-26-carboxyl­ate

    PubMed Central

    Hieu, Truong Hong; Anh, Le Tuan; Soldatenkov, Anatoly T.; Vasil’ev, Vasily G.; Khrustalev, Victor N.

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, C33H35N3O5, is the product of the multicomponent condensation of 1-benzyl-4-eth­oxy­carbonyl­piperidin-3-one with 1,5-bis­(2-formyl­phen­oxy)-3-oxapentane and ammonium acetate. The mol­ecule comprises a penta­cyclic system containing the aza-14-crown-4-ether macrocycle, tetra­hydro­pyrimidine, tetra­hydro­pyridine and two benzene rings. The aza-14-crown-4-ether ring adopts a bowl conformation with a dihedral angle of 62.37 (5)° between the benzene rings. The tetra­hydro­pyrimidine ring has an envelope conformation with the chiral C atom as the flap, whereas the tetra­hydro­pyridine ring adopts a distorted chair conformation. Two amino groups are involved in intra­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. In the crystal, weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules into layers parallel to the ab plane. PMID:23634102

  10. (Cyanido-κC)(2,2-di-phenyl-acetamido-κ(2) N,O)bis-(η(5)-penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)zirconium(IV).

    PubMed

    Becker, Lisanne; Spannenberg, Anke; Arndt, Perdita; Rosenthal, Uwe

    2014-02-01

    In the title compound, [Zr(C10H15)2(C14H12NO)(CN)], the Zr(IV) atom is coordinated by two penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dienyl ligands, the amidate ligand via the N and O atoms, and an additional C N ligand. The four-membered metallacycle is nearly planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.008 Å). In the crystal, the mol-ecules are connected into centrosymmetric dimers via pairs of N-H⋯N hydrogen bonds.

  11. Sub-Camera Calibration of a Penta-Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, K.; Gerke, M.

    2016-03-01

    Penta cameras consisting of a nadir and four inclined cameras are becoming more and more popular, having the advantage of imaging also facades in built up areas from four directions. Such system cameras require a boresight calibration of the geometric relation of the cameras to each other, but also a calibration of the sub-cameras. Based on data sets of the ISPRS/EuroSDR benchmark for multi platform photogrammetry the inner orientation of the used IGI Penta DigiCAM has been analyzed. The required image coordinates of the blocks Dortmund and Zeche Zollern have been determined by Pix4Dmapper and have been independently adjusted and analyzed by program system BLUH. With 4.1 million image points in 314 images respectively 3.9 million image points in 248 images a dense matching was provided by Pix4Dmapper. With up to 19 respectively 29 images per object point the images are well connected, nevertheless the high number of images per object point are concentrated to the block centres while the inclined images outside the block centre are satisfying but not very strongly connected. This leads to very high values for the Student test (T-test) of the finally used additional parameters or in other words, additional parameters are highly significant. The estimated radial symmetric distortion of the nadir sub-camera corresponds to the laboratory calibration of IGI, but there are still radial symmetric distortions also for the inclined cameras with a size exceeding 5μm even if mentioned as negligible based on the laboratory calibration. Radial and tangential effects of the image corners are limited but still available. Remarkable angular affine systematic image errors can be seen especially in the block Zeche Zollern. Such deformations are unusual for digital matrix cameras, but it can be caused by the correlation between inner and exterior orientation if only parallel flight lines are used. With exception of the angular affinity the systematic image errors for corresponding

  12. Novel Penta-Unsaturated Alkenones From Lake Fryxell, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaraula, C. B.; Brassell, S. C.; Kenig, F.; Doran, P. T.

    2007-12-01

    Novel methyl octatriaconta-pentaen-one (C38:5m), methyl and ethyl nonatriaconta-pentaen-one (C39:5m and C39:5e, respectively) and methyl tetradec-pentaen-one (C40:5m) are identified from chromatographic and mass spectrometric properties of a bottom sediment sample from perennially ice-covered Lake Fryxell in Antarctica. The pentaunsaturated alkenones comprise 15%, 28% and 12% of the total C38, C39 and C40 homologous series. These alkenone biomarkers also consist of tetra , tri-, and diunsaturated methyl and ethyl ketones from C37 to C40. Low salinity and extremely cold conditions year round may have strongly influenced the number of unsaturations in the biomarkers and chain length of the alkenones. As also suggested by accompanying cholesterol and alkene biomarkers, these alkenones are key biomarkers of haptophycean algae of the Class Prymnesiophyceae, but the specific species that biosynthesizes these alkenones in the lake are still unknown.

  13. Triggering of Suicidal Erythrocyte Death by Penta-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose

    PubMed Central

    Alzoubi, Kousi; Honisch, Sabina; Abed, Majed; Lang, Florian

    2013-01-01

    The polyphenolic 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-d-glucose from several medicinal herbs triggers apoptosis and has, thus, been proposed for treatment of malignancy. The substance is at least partially effective through caspase activation. In analogy to apoptosis of nucleated cells, erythrocytes may enter suicidal death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and by phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Eryptosis is triggered by increase of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i). The sensitivity to [Ca2+]i is enhanced by ceramide. The present study explored whether penta-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose stimulates eryptosis. Cell volume was estimated from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine exposure from annexin V binding, hemolysis from hemoglobin-release, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence and ceramide abundance from fluorescent antibodies. A 48-h exposure of human erythrocytes to penta-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose significantly decreased forward scatter (50 µM) and significantly increased annexin V binding (10 µM). Up to 50 µM penta-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose did not significantly modify [Ca2+]i. However, the effect of penta-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose (25 µM) induced annexin V binding was slightly, but significantly, blunted by removal of extracellular Ca2+, pointing to sensitization of erythrocytes to the scrambling effect of Ca2+. Penta-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose (25 µM) further increased ceramide formation. In conclusion, penta-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose stimulates suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, an effect partially due to stimulation of ceramide formation with subsequent sensitization of erythrocytes to Ca2+. PMID:24368324

  14. Tetra-aceto-nitrile-lithium tetra-iso-thio-cyanato-borate.

    PubMed

    Breunig, Jens Michael; Wietelmann, Ulrich; Lerner, Hans-Wolfram; Bolte, Michael

    2013-05-01

    The crystal structure of the title salt, [Li(CH3CN)4][B(NCS)4], is composed of discrete cations and anions. Both the Li and B atoms show a tetra-hedral coordination by four equal ligands. The aceto-nitrile and iso-thio-cyanate ligands are linear. The bond angles at the B atom are close to the ideal tetra-hedral value [108.92 (18)-109.94 (16)°], but the bond angles at the Li atom show larger deviations [106.15 (17)-113.70 (17)°].

  15. Recoverable plasticity in penta-twinned metallic nanowires governed by dislocation nucleation and retraction

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Qingquan; Yin, Sheng; Cheng, Guangming; Li, Xiaoyan; Chang, Tzu-Hsuan; Richter, Gunther; Zhu, Yong; Gao, Huajian

    2015-01-01

    There has been relatively little study on time-dependent mechanical properties of nanowires, in spite of their importance for the design, fabrication and operation of nanoscale devices. Here we report a dislocation-mediated, time-dependent and fully reversible plastic behaviour in penta-twinned silver nanowires. In situ tensile experiments inside scanning and transmission electron microscopes show that penta-twinned silver nanowires undergo stress relaxation on loading and complete plastic strain recovery on unloading, while the same experiments on single-crystalline silver nanowires do not exhibit such a behaviour. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal that the observed behaviour in penta-twinned nanowires originates from the surface nucleation, propagation and retraction of partial dislocations. More specifically, vacancies reduce dislocation nucleation barrier, facilitating stress relaxation, while the twin boundaries and their intrinsic stress field promote retraction of partial dislocations, resulting in full strain recovery. PMID:25585295

  16. Crystal structure of tetra-guanidinium [hexa-hydrogen hexa-arsenato(V)tetra-vanadate(V)] tetra-hydrate.

    PubMed

    Harrison, William T A

    2014-09-01

    The complete polyoxidometallate anion in the title compound, (CH6N3)4[H6V4As6O30]·4H2O, is generated by crystallographic inversion symmetry. The polyhedral building units are distorted VO6 octa-hedra and AsO3OH tetra-hedra. The VO6 units feature a short formal V=O double bond and are linked by a common edge. Two such V2O6 double octahedral units are linked by four isolated AsO3OH tetra-hedra to complete the anion, which features two inter-nal O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. In the crystal, O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the polyoxidometallate anions generate (01-1) sheets. The sheets are connected by cation-to-cluster N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, and cation-to-water N-H⋯O links also occur. The O atom of one of the water mol-ecules is disordered over two sites in a 0.703 (17):0.297 (17) ratio.

  17. Dietary protein source and level alters growth in neon tetras.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutritional studies for aquarium fish like the neon tetra are sparse in comparison with those for food fish. To determine the optimum dietary protein level and source for growth of neon tetras, diets were formulated to contain 25, 35, 45 and 55% dietary protein from either marine animal protein or ...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10430 - Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10430 Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... ammonium salt (PMN P-97-823) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10430 - Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10430 Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... ammonium salt (PMN P-97-823) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  20. TETRA mobile radios interfere with electroencephalography recording equipment.

    PubMed

    Fouquet, Nathalie C; Hawken, Malcolm B; Elliott, Paul; Burgess, Adrian P

    2013-11-01

    We observed an anomaly in the human electroencephalogram (EEG) associated with exposure to terrestrial trunked radio (TETRA) Radiofrequency Fields (RF). Here, we characterize the time and frequency components of the anomaly and demonstrate that it is an artefact caused by TETRA RF interfering with the EEG recording equipment and not by any direct or indirect effect on the brain.

  1. Aqua-bis-(4-methyl-benzene-sulfonato-κO)(η(5)-penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)rhodium(III) monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Roy, Christopher P; Boyer, Pauline M; Merola, Joseph S

    2013-05-01

    The title half-sandwich rhodium(III) complex, [Rh(C10H15)(C7H7O3S)2(H2O)]·H2O, consists of a π-bonded penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dienyl group, two σ-bonded tosyl-ate groups and an aqua ligand. The structure displays both inter- and intra-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bonding. The inter-molecular hydrogen bonding results in an extended helical chain along a 21 screw axis parallel to c, due to hydrogen bonding from the coordinating water ligand to the lattice water mol-ecule and then to a sulfonate O atom of a different asymmetric unit.

  2. Crystal structure of bis­(η2-ethyl­ene)(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)cobalt

    PubMed Central

    Ramful, Chandika D.; Robertson, Katherine N.; Ylijoki, Kai E. O.

    2016-01-01

    The title compound, [Co(C10H15)(C2H4)2], was prepared by Na/Hg reduction of [Co2(C10H15)2(μ-Cl)2] in THF under an ethyl­ene atmosphere and crystallized from pentane at 193 K. The Co—C(olefin) bonds have an average length of 2.022 (2) Å, while the Co—C(penta­dien­yl) bonds average 2.103 (19) Å. The olefin C=C bonds are 1.410 (1) Å. The dihedral angle between the planes defined by the cyclo­penta­dienyl ligand and the two olefin ligands is 0.25 (12)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked into chains by C—H⋯π inter­actions. PMID:27920922

  3. Tetra­butyl­ammonium tetra­kis­(trimethyl­silanolato-κO)ferrate(III)

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Michael; Staples, Richard; Lee, Andre

    2012-01-01

    In the title salt, (C16H36N)[Fe(C3H9OSi)4], the cation contains a central N atom bonded to four n-butyl alkyl groups in a tetra­hedral arrangement, while the anion contains a central FeIII atom tetra­hedrally coordinated by four trimethyl­silanolate ligands. PMID:22969479

  4. Esterified coir pith as an adsorbent for the removal of Co(II) from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Parab, Harshala; Joshi, Shreeram; Shenoy, Niyoti; Lali, Arvind; Sarma, U S; Sudersanan, M

    2008-04-01

    Coir pith was chemically modified for the adsorption of cobalt(II) ions from aqueous solution. Chemical modification was done by esterification using succinic anhydride followed by activation with NaHCO(3) in order to improve the adsorption of Co(II). Adsorptive removal of Co(II) from aqueous solution onto modified coir pith was evaluated in batch studies under varying conditions of agitation time and metal ion concentration to assess the kinetic and equilibrium parameters. A pseudo-second-order kinetic model fitted well for the sorption of Co(II) onto modified coir pith. Sorption kinetics showed that the loading of Co(II) by this material was quite fast under ambient conditions. The Langmuir and Freundlich equilibrium isotherm models provided excellent fits for the adsorption data, with R(2) of 0.99 and 0.98, respectively. After esterification, the maximum Co(II) sorption loading Q(0); was greatly improved. It is evident that chemically modified adsorbent exhibits better Co(II) removal capability than raw adsorbent suggesting that surface modification of the adsorbent generates more adsorption sites on its solid surface for metal adsorption. A complete recovery of the adsorbed metal ions from the spent adsorbent was achieved by using 1.0N HCl.

  5. Half-metallicity and ferromagnetism in penta-AlN2 nanostructure

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiao; Fan, Xinyu; Wei, Yanpei; Liu, Haiying; Li, Shujuan; Zhao, Peng; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    We have performed a detailed first-principles study of the penta-AlN2 nanostructure in the Cairo pentagonal tiling geometry, which is dynamically stable due to the absence of imaginary mode in the calculated phonon spectrum. The formation energy and the fragment cohesive energy analyses, the molecular dynamics simulations, and the mechanical property studies also support the structural stability. It could withstand the temperature as high as 1400 K and sustain the strain up to 16.1% against structural collapse. The slightly buckled penta-AlN2 is found to be a ferromagnetic semiconductor. The strain of ~9% could drive the structural transition from the buckled to the planar. Interestingly, the strain of >7% would change the conducting properties to show half-metallic characters. Furthermore, it could be also used to continuously enhance the magnetic coupling strength, rendering penta-AlN2 as a robust ferromagnetic material. These studies shed light on the possibilities in synthesizing penta-AlN2 and present many unique properties, which are worth of further studying on both theory and experiment. PMID:27616459

  6. Stevioside methanol tetra­solvate

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yunshan; Rodenburg, Douglas L.; Ibrahim, Mohamed A.; McChesney, James D.; Avery, Mitchell A.

    2013-01-01

    Stevioside is a naturally occurring diterpenoid glycoside in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. The title compound, C38H60O18·4CH3OH, crystallized as its methanol tetrasolvate. Stevioside consists of an aglycone steviol (a tetra­cyclic diterpene in which the four-fused-ring system consists of three six-membered rings and one five-membered ring) and a sugar part (three glucose units). A weak intra­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bond occurs. In the crystal, the methanol mol­ecules participate in a two-dimensional hydrogen-bonded network parallel to b axis with the sugars and together they form a hydrophilic tunnel which encloses the lipophilic part of the molecule. PMID:23476589

  7. Influence of electron beam irradiation on spectral, thermal, morphological and catalytic properties of Co(II) complex immobilized on chitosan's Schiff base.

    PubMed

    Antony, R; Theodore David, S; Karuppasamy, K; Sanjeev, Ganesh; Balakumar, S

    2014-04-24

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of electron beam irradiation on the spectral and catalytic properties of chitosan supported (ONClCl) tetra coordinated Co(II) complex, [Co(OIAC)Cl2]. The complex was subjected to electron beam irradiation of 100 Gy, 1 kGy and 10 kGy doses. Chain scission of chitosan was observed on irradiation at 100 Gy and 10 kGy and chain linking at 1 kGy as evidenced by viscosity and FT-IR spectroscopic studies. This observation was also confirmed by thermo gravimetric and differential thermogravimetric (TG-DTG) analysis. It revealed that the thermal stability of the complex was increased at 1 kGy irradiation and decreased at 100 Gy and 10 kGy. In addition, the effect of electron beam irradiation on the surface morphology of the complex was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Catalytic abilities of both non-irradiated complex and irradiated complexes were determined and compared in the cyclohexane oxidation using hydrogen peroxide oxidant. The catalytic activity was found to increase after irradiation at all doses. Though the complex irradiated at 10 kGy showed highest conversion efficiency, irradiation at 1 kGy is suggested as the best dose due to the extensive reusability and adequate catalytic ability of the complex.

  8. Crystal structure of tetra-kis-(μ3-2-{[1,1-bis-(hy-droxy-meth-yl)-2-oxidoeth-yl]imino-meth-yl}phenolato)tetra-copper(II) ethanol monosolvate 2.5-hydrate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weilun; Ran, Jingwen

    2015-05-01

    The title compound, [Cu4(C11H13NO4)4]·CH3CH2OH·2.5H2O, is an electronically neutral tetra-nuclear copper(II) complex with a cubane-like Cu4O4 core. The complete molecule has point group symmetry 2. The phenol hy-droxy group and one of the three alcohol hy-droxy groups of each 2-{[tris-(hy-droxy-meth-yl)meth-yl]imino-meth-yl}phenol ligand are depro-ton-ated, while the secondary amine and the other two hy-droxy groups remain unchanged. The Cu(II) atoms in the Cu4O4 core are connected by four μ3-O atoms from the deprotonated alcohol hy-droxy groups. Each of the penta-coordinated Cu(II) ions has an NO4 distorted square-pyramidal environment through coordination to the tridentate Schiff base ligands. The Cu-N/O bond lengths span the range 1.902 (4)-1.955 (4) Å, similar to values reported for related structures. There are O-H⋯O hydrogen-bond inter-actions between the complex molecules and the ethanol and water solvent molecules, leading to the formation of a three-dimensional network. The ethanol solvent molecule is disordered about a twofold rotation axis. One of the two independent water molecules is also located on this twofold rotation axis and shows half-occupancy.

  9. 2,3,5-Triphenyl-2H-tetra­zol-3-ium tetra­phenyl­borate

    PubMed Central

    Fun, Hoong-Kun; Chia, Tze Shyang; Mostafa, Gamal A. E.; Hefnawy, Mohamed M.; Abdel-Aziz, Hatem A.

    2012-01-01

    In the title salt, C19H15N4 +·C24H20B−, the tetra­phenyl­borate anion is in a tetra­hedral geometry around the B atom [C—B—C angles of 107.10 (9)–111.79 (9)°]. In the cation, the tetra­zole ring makes dihedral angles of 3.04 (7), 51.75 (7) and 51.13 (7)° with the attached phenyl rings. In the crystal, C—H⋯π inter­actions link the cations and anions into ion pairs. PMID:22904995

  10. Tetra-amelia and splenogonadal fusion in Roberts syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Ravel, T.J.L. de; Seftel, M.D.; Wright, C.A.

    1997-01-20

    Roberts-SC phocomelia syndrome comprises limb deficiencies of variable severity, facial clefts, and other anomalies. Tetra-amelia may also be associated with facial clefts and similar anomalies. We report on a female infant with severe tetra-amelia, micrognathia, cleft palate, splenogonadal fusion, and premature centromere separation. We propose that this represents the severe expression of the Roberts-SC phocomelia syndrome. 18 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Binuclear biologically active Co(II) complexes with octazamacrocycle and aliphatic dicarboxylates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanasković, S. B.; Vučković, G.; Antonijević-Nikolić, M.; Stanojković, T.; Gojgić-Cvijović, G.

    2012-12-01

    Four new cationic Co(II) complexes with N,N',N'',N'''-tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl)-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane (tpmc) and dianion of one the aliphatic dicarboxylic acids: butanedioic acid (succinic) acid = succH2, pentanedioic (glutaric) acid = gluH2, hexanedioic acid (adipic) acid = adipH2 or decanedioic acid (sebacic) acid = sebH2 of general formula [Co2(L)(tpmc)](ClO4)2ṡxY, L2- = succ, x = 1, Y = H2O; L = glu, x = 1, Y = H2O; L = adip, x = 1.5, Y = H2O; L = seb, x = 1, Y = CH3CN were isolated. The composition and charge are proposed based on elemental analyses (C, H, N) and electrical conductivity measurements. UV-Vis and FTIR spectral data and magnetic moments were in accordance with high-spin Co(II) state. It is proposed that in all complexes Co(II) is hexa-coordinated out of cyclam ring and that both carboxylic groups from dicarboxylate bridge participate in coordination. Oxygens from one group are most likely bonded to the same Co(II) ion thus forming a four-membered ring. The in vitro antibacterial/antiproliferative activities of the complexes were in some cases enhanced compared with the simple Co(II) salt and free ligands, tested as controls.

  12. GC-MS analysis of penta- and tetra-cyclic triterpenes from resins of Pistacia species. Part II. Pistacia terebinthus var. Chia.

    PubMed

    Assimopoulou, A N; Papageorgiou, V P

    2005-10-01

    Pistacia species contain oleoresins with bioactive triterpenes. In this study triterpenes, including minor components, were identified and quantified in both neutral and acidic fractions of Pistacia terebinthus var. Chia resin, grown exclusively in Chios island (Greece), collected traditionally, as well as using stimulating agents (liquid collection). It was proved that these two resin samples were composed of several different minor triterpenes, while major constituents were similar but in different proportions. Compounds that differentiated two resin samples of P. lentiscus and P. terebinthus var. Chia, both traditionally collected, were detected, in order to identify the nature of resins present in archaeological materials. In the traditionally collected resin, 37 triterpenes were identified, 12 in the acidic and 25 in the neutral fraction. In the liquid collection resin 10 compounds were identified in the acidic and 23 in the neutral fraction, while 16 compounds were not contained in the traditionally collected resin. The main triterpenes in both resin samples collected traditionally and using stimulating agents were: isomasticadienonic acid (23.6 and 26.3% w[sol ]w of the triterpenic fraction, respectively), 28-norolean-17-en-3-one (16.3 and 17.5% w[sol ]w of the triterpenic fraction, respectively) and masticadienonic acid (5.8 and 6.0% w[sol ]w of the triterpenic fraction). In this study the qualitative and quantitative composition of triterpenes was compared in the Pistacia lentiscus and P. terebinthus var. Chia resin samples collected with the traditional and new liquid techniques, and also triterpenes in resins of P. terebinthus obtained by the traditional technique and using stimulating agents. The aim of the study was also to examine whether the collection technique influenced the triterpenes contained in P. terebinthus var. Chia resin samples.

  13. 3,3-Dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetra­hydro­cyclo­penta­[b]indole-1,2-dione (bruceolline E)

    PubMed Central

    Jordon, Jason A.; Badenock, Jeanese C.; Gribble, Gordon W.; Jasinski, Jerry P.; Golen, James A.

    2012-01-01

    The title compound, C13H11NO2, crystallizes with two mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit. The crystal packing is stabilized by N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, which link the mol­ecules into chains along [10], and weak C—H⋯O inter­actions. PMID:22346990

  14. Hepta-, hexa-, penta-, tetra-, and trisaccharide resin glycosides from three species of Ipomoea and their antiproliferative activity on two glioma cell lines.

    PubMed

    León-Rivera, Ismael; Del Río-Portilla, Federico; Enríquez, Raúl G; Rangel-López, Edgar; Villeda, Juana; Rios, María Yolanda; Navarrete-Vázquez, Gabriel; Hurtado-Días, Israel; Guzmán-Valdivieso, Ulises; Núñez-Urquiza, Verónica; Escobedo-Martínez, Carolina

    2017-03-01

    Six new partially acylated resin glycosides were isolated from convolvulin of Ipomoea purga, Ipomoea stans, and Ipomoea murucoides (Convolvulaceae). The structures of compounds 1-6 were elucidated by a combination of NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The structure of jalapinoside B (1) consists of a hexasaccharide core bonded to an 11-hydroxytetradecanoic (convolvulinic) acid forming a macrolactone acylated by a 2-methylbutanoyl, a 3-hydroxy-2-methylbutanoyl, and a quamoclinic acid B units. Purginoic acid A (2) contains a hexasaccharide core bonded to a convolvulinic acid acylated by a 3-hydroxy-2-methylbutanoyl unit. Stansin A (4) is an ester-type heterodimer, and consists of two stansoic acid A (3) units, acylated by 2-methylbutanoic and 3-hydroxy-2-methylbutanoic acids. The site of lactonization was located at C-3 of Rhamnose, and the position for the ester linkage of the monomeric unit B on the macrolactone unit A was established as C-4 of the terminal rhamnose. Compounds 5 and 6 are glycosidic acids. Murucinic acid II (5) is composed of a pentasaccharide core bonded to an 11-hydroxyhexadecanoic (jalapinolic) acid, acylated by an acetyl unit. Stansinic acid I (6) is a tetrasaccharide core bonded to a jalapinolic acid, acylated by 2-methylbutanoyl and 3-hydroxy-2-methylbutanoyl units. Preliminary testing showed the cytotoxicity of compounds 1-6 toward OVCAR and UISO-SQC-1 cancer cell lines. In addition, compound 1 showed an antiproliferative activity on glioma C6 and RG2 tumor cell lines. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Oral (gavage) two-generation (one litter per generation) reproduction study of pentachlorophenol (penta) in rats.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Bruce K; Hoberman, Alan M; Brown, W Ray; Ranpuria, Anish K; Christian, Mildred S

    2002-01-01

    The potential for pentachlorophenol (penta) to induce general and reproductive/developmental toxicity was evaluated in Crl Sprague-Dawley rats, employing a two-generation reproduction toxicity study. Penta was administered by gavage at doses of 0, 10, 30, and 60 mg/kg/day. In both generations, the parental animals (30/sex/group) were intubated daily for 10 weeks before cohabitation and continuing through cohabitation, gestation, and lactation periods. Intubation of the F1 generation was begun 28 days postpartum. Animals were evaluated daily for mortality and general toxicity (clinical observations, body weights and gains, feed consumption). Organ weights were recorded and histopathological evaluations were made. Specific indices of reproductive function evaluated included estrous cycles, mating and fertility, parturition, lactation, viability, and growth and development of offspring, including sexual maturation, sperm parameters, and numbers of ovarian primordial follicles. All deaths in the parental rats were unrelated to penta. Expected metabolic effects of penta, sporadic increased liver weights associated with hepatocellular centrilobular hypertrophy and vacuolation and lipofuscin pigmentation, were evident in the 10-, 30-, and 60-mg/kg/day dose group P1 and F1 animals. Toxicity, in the form of liver pathology (single cell necrosis), reduced body weights and associated reductions in organ weights, and reduced feed consumption were noted in both generations at the 30- and 60-mg/kg/day doses. Developmental toxicity associated with these doses included reduced pup weights and viability. The 60-mg/kg/day dose also resulted in delayed sexual maturation, decreased spermatid counts, small prostates and testes, decreased implantations, reduced fertility, and increased resorptions of embryos. Based on these results, it was concluded that 30 mg/kg/day is the lowest-observable-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) and 10 mg/kg/day is the no-observable-adverse-effect level (NOAEL

  16. Tripodal phenylamine-based ligands and their CoII complexes.

    PubMed

    Jones, Matthew B; MacBeth, Cora E

    2007-10-01

    The syntheses of two phenylamine-based ligand systems, N(o-PhNH(2))(3) and N(o-PhNHC(O)(i)Pr)(3), are reported. These ligands readily coordinate to Co(II) to form monomeric complexes. X-ray diffraction studies establish that the [N(o-PhNC(O)(i)Pr)(3)](3-) ligand stabilizes the Co(II) ion in a trigonal-monopyramidal coordination environment. The axial coordination site in this complex is accessible and, upon cyanide coordination, generates an electrochemically active species.

  17. Sorption Characteristics of Aqueous Co(II) on Preformed Iron Ferrite Impregnated into Phenolsulphonic Formaldehyde Resin

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K. J.; Kim, Y. K.

    2002-02-26

    A series of stepwise procedures to prepare a new organic-inorganic composite magnetic resin with phenolsulphonicformaldehyde and freshly formed iron ferrite was established, based upon wet-and-neutralization method for synthesizing iron ferrite and pearl-polymerization method for synthesizing rigid bead-type composite resin. The composite resin prepared by the above method shows stably high removal efficiency (maximally over 3.1 meq./gresin) to Co(II) species from wastewater in a wide range of solution pH. The wide range of applicable solution pH (i.e. pH 4.09 to 10.32) implies that the composite resin overcomes the limitations of the conventional ferrite process that is practically applicable only to alkaline conditions. It has been found that both ion exchange (by the organic resin constituent) and surface adsorption (by the inorganic adsorbent constituent) are major reaction mechanisms for removing Co(II) from wastewater, but surface precipitation results in the high sorption capacity to Co(II) beyond normal ion exchange capacity of the phenolsulphonic-formaldehyde resin. Standard enthalpy change derived from van't Hoff equation is 32.0 kJ{center_dot}mol-1 conforming to the typical range for chemisorption or ion exchange. In a wide range of equilibrium Co(II) concentration, the overall isotherm is qualitatively explained by the generalized adsorption isotherm concept proposed by McKinley. At the experimental conditions where the composite resin shows equivalent selectivity to Co(II) and other competing reagents (i.e. EDTA and Na), the ratios of Co(II) to other chemicals turn out to be 2:1 and 1:221, respectively. In addition, the selectivity of the PSF-F to Co(II) species is very high (about 72% of Co(II)-removal efficiency) even when the molar ratio of Co(II) to Ca(II) is 1:30. It is anticipated that the composite resin can also be used for column-operation with process-control by applying external magnetic field, since the rigid bead-type composite resin shows

  18. Ethyl-enedi-ammonium sodium tetra-kis-[bis-(ethyl-enedi-amine-κ(2) N,N')(oxalato-κ(2) O (1),O (2))cobalt(III)] [penta-hydrogen di(phosphato-octa-deca-tungstate)] tetra-deca-hydrate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuzhuo; Wang, Jing; Xu, Yun

    2013-10-16

    The title compound, Na(C2H10N2)[Co(C2O4)(C2H8N2)2]4[H5(P2W18O62)2]·14H2O, prepared under hydro-thermal conditions, consists of two Dawson-type [P2W18O62](6-) anions, four isolated [Co(en)2(ox)](+) cations (en = ethyl-enedi-amine and ox = oxalate), one Na(+) cation, one [H2en](2+) cation, and a number of ordered (14) and disordered solvent water mol-ecules. The [P2W18O62](6-) polyoxidometalate anion has site symmetry 1 and contains two structurally distinct types of W atoms: viz. six W atoms on vertical pseudo-mirror planes grouped in two sets of three, and 12 equatorial W atoms that do not lie in the pseudo-mirror planes grouped in two sets of six. In each [Co(en)2(ox)](+) cation, the Co(III) ion is coordinated by four N atoms from two en ligands and two O atoms from the ox ligands, completing a distorted octa-hedral structure. The sodium cation lies on an inversion centre and additionally links the complex cations and anions. In the crystal, the various units are linked by N-H⋯O and O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, which together with C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds form a three-dimensional structure. The contribution of a region of disordered electron density, possibly highly disordered solvent water mol-ecules, to the scattering was removed with the SQUEEZE option of PLATON [Spek (2009 ▶). Acta Cryst. D65, 148-155]. To equilibrate the charges five H(+) ions have been added to the polyoxidometalate. These H(+) ions and the disordered solvent contribution were not included in the reported mol-ecular weight and density.

  19. 40 CFR 721.10679 - Carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra alkyl ester (generic). 721.10679 Section 721... Carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra alkyl ester... identified generically as carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products...

  20. Adsorption of Co(II) by a carboxylate-functionalized polyacrylamide grafted lignocellulosics.

    PubMed

    Shibi, I G; Anirudhan, T S

    2005-02-01

    A new adsorbent (PGBS-COOH) having carboxylate functional group at the chain end was synthesized by graft copolymerization of acrylamide onto banana stalk, BS (Musa Paradisiaca) using ferrous ammonium sulphate/H2O2 redox initiator system. The efficiency of the adsorbent in the removal of cobalt [Co(II)] from water was investigated using batch adsorption technique. The adsorbent exhibits very high adsorption potential for Co(II) and under optimum conditions more than 99% removal was achieved. The maximum adsorption capacity was observed at the pH range 6.5-9.0. The equilibrium isotherm data were analysed using three isotherm models, Langmuir, Freundlich and Scatchard, to determine the best fit equation for the sorption of Co(II) on the PGBS-COOH. A comparative study with a commercial cation exchanger, Ceralite IRC-50, having carboxylate functional group showed that PGBS-COOH is 2.8 times more effective compared to Ceralite IRC-50 at 30 degrees C. Synthetic nuclear power plant coolant water samples were also treated by the adsorbent to demonstrate its efficiency in removing Co(II) from water in the presence of other metal ions. Acid regeneration was tried for several cycles to recover the adsorbed metal ions and also to restore the sorbent to its original state.

  1. Crystal structure and magnetic properties of a linear tetranuclear Co(II) cluster.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingying; Wen, Meixia; Gao, Zhongjun; Sheng, Ning

    2016-09-01

    Polynuclear complexes are an important class of inorganic functional materials and are of interest particularly for their applications in molecular magnets. Multidentate chelating ligands play an important role in the design and syntheses of polynuclear metal clusters. A novel linear tetranuclear Co(II) cluster, namely bis{μ3-(E)-2-[(2-oxidobenzylidene)amino]phenolato}bis{μ2-(E)-2-[(2-oxidobenzylidene)amino]phenolato}bis(1,10-phenanthroline)tetracobalt(II), [Co4(C14H11NO2)4(C12H8N2)2], was prepared under solvothermal conditions through a mixed-ligand synthetic strategy. The structure was determined by X-ray single-crystal diffraction and bulk purity was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction. The complex molecule has a centrosymmetric tetranuclear chain-like structure and the four Co(II) ions are located in two different coordination environments. The Co(II) ions at the ends of the chain are in a slightly distorted octahedral geometry, while the two inner Co(II) ions are in five-coordinate distorted trigonal bipyramidal environments. A magnetic study reveals ferromagnetic Co(II)...Co(II) exchange interactions for the complex.

  2. Impaired ergosterol biosynthesis mediated fungicidal activity of Co(II) complex with ligand derived from cinnamaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Shreaz, Sheikh; Shiekh, Rayees A; Raja, Vaseem; Wani, Waseem A; Behbehani, Jawad M

    2016-03-05

    In this study, we have used aldehyde function of cinnamaldehyde to synthesize N, N'-Bis (cinnamaldehyde) ethylenediimine [C20H20N2] and Co(II) complex of the type [Co(C40H40N4)Cl2]. The structures of the synthesized compounds were determined on the basis of physiochemical analysis and spectroscopic data ((1)H NMR, FTIR, UV-visible and mass spectra) along with molar conductivity measurements. Anticandidal activity of cinnamaldehyde its ligand [L] and Co(II) complex was investigated by determining MIC80, time-kill kinetics, disc diffusion assay and ergosterol extraction and estimation assay. Ligand [L] and Co(II) complex are found to be 4.55 and 21.0 folds more efficient than cinnamaldehyde in a liquid medium. MIC80 of Co(II) complex correlated well with ergosterol inhibition suggesting ergosterol biosynthesis to be the primary site of action. In comparison to fluconazole, the test compounds showed limited toxicity against H9c2 rat cardiac myoblasts. In confocal microscopy propidium iodide (PI) penetrates the yeast cells when treated with MIC of metal complex, indicating a disruption of cell membrane that results in imbibition of dye. TEM analysis of metal complex treated cells exhibited notable alterations or damage to the cell membrane and the cell wall. The structural disorganization within the cell cytoplasm was noted. It was concluded that fungicidal activity of Co(II) complex originated from loss of membrane integrity and a decrease in ergosterol content is only one consequence of this.

  3. (η5-Penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)(η6-toluene)­ruthenium(II) hexa­fluorido­phosphate

    PubMed Central

    O, Wylie W. N.; Lough, Alan J.; Morris, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    In the title complex, [Ru(C7H8)(C10H15)]PF6, the cation lies on a mirror plane and the anion lies on an inversion center. The distance between the Ru atom and the centroid of the benzene ring is 1.706 (5) Å and the distance between the Ru atom and the cyclo­penta­dienyl ring is 1.811 (5) Å. The crystal structure is stabilized by weak C—H⋯F hydrogen bonds. The H atoms of the methyl groups which lie on the mirror plane are disordered over two sites with equal occupancies. PMID:21587411

  4. Azido­(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)[2-(pyridin-2-yl)phen­yl]iridium(III)

    PubMed Central

    Ariyoshi, Keita; Suzuki, Takayoshi

    2013-01-01

    In the title compound, [Ir(C10H15)(C11H8N)(N3)], the IrIII ion is coordinated by three anionic ligands, namely, penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl (Cp*−), 2-(pyridin-2-yl)phenyl (ppy−) and azide (N3 −), and adopts a three-legged piano-stool geometry The coordination mode of N3 − is typical for Cp*IrIII–N3 complexes, with an Ir—N(N3) bond length of 2.125 (2) Å and an Ir—N=N bond angle of 116.5 (2)°. The N3 − ligand is almost linear [N=N=N = 176.0 (3)°], and the N=N bond length between the central and coordinating N atom and that between the central and non-coordinating terminal N atom are 1.194 (3) and 1.157 (3) Å, respectively. For the ppy− ligand, the Ir—C and Ir—N bond lengths are 2.066 (3) and 2.079 (3) Å, respectively, which are rather close to each other, compared to the related IrIII– or RhIII–ppy complexes. The Ir—C(Cp*) bond lengths vary in the range 2.163 (2)–2.232 (2) Å, indicating a strong trans influence of the cyclo­metallated C-donor atom of the ppy− ligand. PMID:24098189

  5. Crystal structure of the tetra-gonal polymorph of bis-(1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium) tetra-bromido-cadmate.

    PubMed

    Đorđević, Tamara; Gerger, Sabrina; Karanović, Ljiljana

    2016-07-01

    Both unique Cd atoms in the tetra-gonal polymorph of bis-(1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium) tetra-bromido-cadmate, (C6H11N2)2[CdBr4], occupy special positions (site symmetry -4). The crystal structure consists of isolated tetra-hedral [CdBr4](2-) anions which are surrounded by 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium cations. The methyl and ethyl side chains of the cations show positional disorder in a 0.590 (11):0.410 (11) ratio. In the crystal, (C6H11N2)(+) cations display three weak C-H⋯Br hydrogen-bond inter-actions through the imidazolium ring H atoms with the Br(-) ligands of the surrounding complex anions. The alkyl groups of the side chains are not involved in hydrogen bonding.

  6. Tetra­aceto­nitrile­lithium tetra­iso­thio­cyanato­borate

    PubMed Central

    Breunig, Jens Michael; Wietelmann, Ulrich; Lerner, Hans-Wolfram; Bolte, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The crystal structure of the title salt, [Li(CH3CN)4][B(NCS)4], is composed of discrete cations and anions. Both the Li and B atoms show a tetra­hedral coordination by four equal ligands. The aceto­nitrile and iso­thio­cyanate ligands are linear. The bond angles at the B atom are close to the ideal tetra­hedral value [108.92 (18)–109.94 (16)°], but the bond angles at the Li atom show larger deviations [106.15 (17)–113.70 (17)°]. PMID:23723766

  7. [η5-1,3-Bis(trimethyl­sil­yl)cyclo­penta­dien­yl]dichlorido[η5-(trimethyl­sil­yl)cyclo­penta­dien­yl]titanium(IV)

    PubMed Central

    Perdih, Franc

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound, [Ti(C8H13Si)(C11H21Si2)Cl2], the TiIV atom is bonded to two Cl atoms, one 1,3-bis­(trimethyl­sil­yl)cyclo­penta­dienyl (Si2Cp) and one (trimethyl­sil­yl)cyclo­penta­dienyl ring (SiCp). The Si2Cp centroid–titanium distance is 2.0763 (10) Å and the SiCp centroid–titanium distance is 2.0793 (10) Å. The angle subtended at the Ti atom by the centroids of both cyclo­penta­dienyl rings is 131.22 (4)° and the Cl—Ti—Cl angle is 94.14 (2)°. PMID:22199510

  8. Theoretical study of penta- and heteropentadienyl beryllium complexes coordinated to hydrogen molecules.

    PubMed

    Morales-Meza, Sharity; Pérez-Peralta, Nancy; Sanchez-Castro, M Esther; Sanchez, Mario

    2016-10-01

    A series of penta- and heteropentadienyl [CH2CHCHCHXBe](+), (X = CH2, O, NH, S) complexes has been theoretically studied. All calculated complexes show beryllium atoms with two, three, and five coordination numbers. The density functional theory (DFT) was used to determine the electron and structural behavior of those beryllium complexes. The nature of the ligands plays an important role in the form of binding to the beryllium atom. Beryllium structures 1-4 are able to coordinate only one hydrogen molecule. A molecular orbital analysis for all complexes was performed in order to know more about the nature of their bonding scheme.

  9. Spectroscopic properties of a series of Co(II) coordination polymers and the influence of Co(II) coordination environment on photoelectric property.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jing; Gong, Yuanyuan; Li, Lei; Han, Xiao; Meng, Qin; Liu, Yonghua; Niu, Shuyun

    2015-02-25

    Four Co(II) coordination polymers, [Co(suc)]n 1, [Co(pdc)]n 2, {[Co7(suc)4(OH)6(H2O)3]·8H2O}n 3, {[Co(bdc)(phen)(H2O)]·H2O}n 4 (H2suc=succinic acid, H2pdc=pyridine-3,4-dicarboxylic acid, H2bdc=1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, phen=1,10-phenanthroline) were hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by X-ray single-crystal diffraction, surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS), electrical conductivity, thermogravimetric analysis (TG), ultraviolet visible and near-infrared absorption spectrum (UV-Vis-NIR), infrared spectrum (IR), and elemental analysis. The structural analyses indicate that the coordination numbers of the Co(II) ions are 4, 5, 6 and 6 for the polymers 1-4, respectively. And polymers 1 and 2 exhibit 3D structure formed by suc(2-) and pdc(2-) anions bridging Co(II) ions, respectively. Polymer 3 exhibits a 2D structure with suc(2-) anions bridging seven-nuclear [Co7(OH)6(H2O)3](3-) unit and polymer 4 is a 1D structure bridged by bdc(2-) anions. The surface photoelectric properties of the cobalt polymers were mainly studied by SPS. The results of SPS reveal that all polymers possess certain photoelectric conversion property in the range of 300-800 nm. The influences of the structure, coordination micro-environment of central metal ion and structural dimensionality on response bands of SPS were discussed.

  10. (Cyanido-κC)(2,2-di­phenyl­acetamido-κ2 N,O)bis­(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)zirconium(IV)

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Lisanne; Spannenberg, Anke; Arndt, Perdita; Rosenthal, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    In the title compound, [Zr(C10H15)2(C14H12NO)(CN)], the ZrIV atom is coordinated by two penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl ligands, the amidate ligand via the N and O atoms, and an additional C N ligand. The four-membered metallacycle is nearly planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.008 Å). In the crystal, the mol­ecules are connected into centrosymmetric dimers via pairs of N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds. PMID:24764823

  11. Synthesis, Structure, and Magnetic Electrochemical Properties of a Family of Tungstoarsenates Containing Just Co(II) Centers or Both Co(II) and Fe(III) Centers.

    PubMed

    Ayingone Mezui, Charyle S; de Oliveira, Pedro; Teillout, Anne-Lucie; Marrot, Jérôme; Berthet, Patrick; Lebrini, Mounim; Mbomekallé, Israël M

    2017-02-20

    The three polyoxotungstates [(NaOH2)2Co(II)2(As2W15O56)2](18-) (1), [(NaOH2)(Co(II)OH2)Co(II)2(As2W15O56)2](17-) (2), and [(Co(II)OH2)2Co(II)2(As2W15O56)2](16-) (3) have been prepared in aqueous solution upon mixing cobalt(II) salts with the ligand [As2W15O56](12-). The reaction of 1 or 2 with the Fe(3+) ion leads invariably to the same species [(Fe(III)OH2)(Co(II)OH2)Co(II)2(As2W15O56)2](15-) (4) possessing three cobalt atoms and a single iron atom. However, if the Fe-containing homologue of compound 1, that is, the polyoxotungstate [(NaOH2)2Fe(III)2(As2W15O56)2](16-) (5), is employed instead to react with the Co(2+) ion, the species [(Co(II)OH2)2Fe(III)2(As2W15O56)2](14-) (6) is obtained, having two cobalt atoms and two iron atoms. The compounds 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 are described for the first time and have been characterized by several physicochemical methods such as FTIR, UV-visible, ATG, and elemental analysis. Structural analysis by single-crystal X-ray diffraction has been carried out with compounds 2 (monoclinic space group P21/c, a = 17.0622(5) Å, b = 15.0828(4) Å, c = 32.0872(8) Å, β = 91.170(1)°, and Z = 2) and 3 (triclinic space group P1̅, a = 13.6137(7) Å, b = 13.8836(8) Å, c = 22.9276(6) Å, α = 89.906(3)°, β = 78.356(2)°, γ = 61.451(2)°, and Z = 1). Electrochemical studies undertaken with all the above-mentioned compounds and some of their homologues shed light on the influence of the chemical composition on their electrocatalytic properties toward substrates such as the nitrite ion and dioxygen. Magnetic measurements evidence anisotropic ferromagnetic interactions between Co(2+) ions and antiferromagnetic interactions between Fe(3+) ions. The nature and the strength of the Co(2+)-Fe(3+) interactions depend on the relative orientations of their 3d orbitals. The effective magnetic moment of the Co(2+) ions varies with the temperature and with the distortion of the octahedral sites in which they are located.

  12. Crystal structures of two deca-vanadates(V) with penta-aqua-manganese(II) pendant groups: (NMe4)2[V10O28{Mn(H2O)5}2]·5H2O and [NH3C(CH2OH)3]2[V10O28{Mn(H2O)5}2]·2H2O.

    PubMed

    Franco, Maurício P; Rüdiger, André Luis; Soares, Jaísa F; Nunes, Giovana G; Hughes, David L

    2015-02-01

    Two heterometallic deca-vanadate(V) compounds, bis-(tetra-methyl-ammonium) deca-aquadi-μ4-oxido-tetra-μ3-oxido-hexa-deca-μ2-oxido-hexa-oxidodimang-anese(II)-deca-vanadate(V) penta-hydrate, (Me4N)2[V10O28{Mn(H2O)5}2]·5H2O, A, and bis-{[tris-(hy-droxy-meth-yl)meth-yl]ammonium} deca-aquadi-μ4-oxido-tetra-μ3-oxido-hexa-deca-μ2-oxido-hexa-oxidodimanganese(II)deca-vanadate(V) dihydrate, [NH3C(CH2OH)3]2[V10O28{Mn(H2O)5}2]·2H2O, B, have been synthesized under mild reaction conditions in an aqueous medium. Both polyanions present two [Mn(OH2)5](2+) complex units bound to the deca-vanadate cluster through oxide bridges. In A, the deca-vanadate unit has 2/m symmetry, whereas in B it has twofold symmetry. Apart from this, the main differences between A and B rest on the organic cations, tetra-methyl-ammonium and [tris-(hy-droxy-meth-yl)meth-yl]ammonium, respectively, and on the number and arrangement of the water mol-ecules of crystallization. In both compounds, the H atoms from the coordinating water mol-ecules participate in extensive three-dimensional hydrogen-bonding networks, which link the cluster units both directly and through solvent mol-ecules and, in B, through the 'tris-' cation hydroxyl groups. The cation in B also participates in N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. A number of C-H⋯O inter-actions are also observed in both structures.

  13. Tetra-μ3-iodido-tetra­kis­[(tri-n-butyl­phosphane-κP)copper(I)

    PubMed Central

    Klenk, Simon; Frey, Wolfgang; Bubrin, Martina; Laschat, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    The title complex, [Cu4I4(C12H27P)4], crystallizes with six mol­ecules in the unit cell and with three independent one-third mol­ecule fragments, completed by application of the relevant symmetry operators, in the asymmetric unit. The tetranuclear copper core shows a tetrahedral geometry (site symmetry 3..). The I atoms also form a tetra­hedron, with I⋯I distances of 4.471 (1) Å. Both tetra­hedra show an orientation similar to that of a pair of self-dual platonic bodies. The edges of the I-tetra­hedral structure are capped to the face centers of the Cu-tetra­hedron and vice versa. The Cuface⋯I distances are 2.18 Å (averaged) and the Iface⋯Cu distances are 0.78 Å (averaged). As a geometric consequence of these properties there are eight distorted trigonal–bipyramidal polyhedra evident, wherein each trigonal face builds up the equatorial site and the opposite Cu⋯I positions form the axial site. As expected, the n-butyl moieties are highly flexible, resulting in large elongations of their anisotropic displacement parameters. Some C atoms of the n-butyl groups were needed to fix alternative discrete disordered positions. PMID:24826086

  14. Water Oxidation Catalysis by Co(II) Impurities in Co(III)4O4 Cubanes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The observed water oxidation activity of the compound class Co4O4(OAc)4(Py–X)4 emanates from a Co(II) impurity. This impurity is oxidized to produce the well-known Co-OEC heterogeneous cobaltate catalyst, which is an active water oxidation catalyst. We present results from electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance line broadening analysis, and electrochemical titrations to establish the existence of the Co(II) impurity as the major source of water oxidation activity that has been reported for Co4O4 molecular cubanes. Differential electrochemical mass spectrometry is used to characterize the fate of glassy carbon at water oxidizing potentials and demonstrate that such electrode materials should be used with caution for the study of water oxidation catalysis. PMID:25407218

  15. Microencapsulation of Traditional Chinese Herbs-PentaHerbs extracts and potential application in healthcare textiles.

    PubMed

    Hui, Patrick Chi-Leung; Wang, Wen-Yi; Kan, Chi-Wai; Ng, Frency Sau-Fun; Wat, Elaine; Zhang, Vanilla Xin; Chan, Chung-Lap; Lau, Clara Bik-San; Leung, Ping-Chung

    2013-11-01

    In this work, Traditional Chinese Herbs (TCH)-PentaHerbs--was successfully microencapsulated in chitosan-sodium alginate (CSA) blend matrix using emulsion-chemical cross-linking method and the final product was characterised with regard to structure, surface morphology, particle size, in vitro drug release and skin toxicity by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), laser diffraction particle size analysis, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assays respectively. Results showed that the microcapsules were in spherical form with diameter mostly in the range of 3-18 μm and that the release performance of the microcapsules was influenced by pH value of phosphate buffer solution (PBS). The microcapsules had no toxic effects on cells and were successfully grafted onto the surface of cotton fabrics. These results indicated that PentaHerbs loaded CSA microcapsule may possess potential application in clinical treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD).

  16. PentaPlot: A software tool for the illustration of genome mosaicism

    PubMed Central

    Hamel, Lutz; Zhaxybayeva, Olga; Gogarten, J Peter

    2005-01-01

    Background Dekapentagonal maps depict the phylogenetic relationships of five genomes in a visually appealing diagram and can be viewed as an alternative to a single evolutionary consensus tree. In particular, the generated maps focus attention on those gene families that significantly deviate from the consensus or plurality phylogeny. PentaPlot is a software tool that computes such dekapentagonal maps given an appropriate probability support matrix. Results The visualization with dekapentagonal maps critically depends on the optimal layout of unrooted tree topologies representing different evolutionary relationships among five organisms along the vertices of the dekapentagon. This is a difficult optimization problem given the large number of possible layouts. At its core our tool utilizes a genetic algorithm with demes and a local search strategy to search for the optimal layout. The hybrid genetic algorithm performs satisfactorily even in those cases where the chosen genomes are so divergent that little phylogenetic information has survived in the individual gene families. Conclusion PentaPlot is being made publicly available as an open source project at . PMID:15938752

  17. [1-Dimethyl­silyl-2-phenyl-3-(η5-tetra­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)­prop-1-en-1-yl-κC 1](η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)titanium(III)

    PubMed Central

    Lamač, Martin; Spannenberg, Anke; Arndt, Perdita; Rosenthal, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, [Ti(C10H15)(C20H26Si)], was obtained from the reaction of [Ti{η5:η1-C5Me4(CH2)}(η5-C5Me5)] with the alkynylsilane PhC2SiMe2H. The complex crystallizes with two independent mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit, which differ in the conformation of the propenyl unit, resulting in their having opposite helicity. No inter­molecular inter­actions or inter­actions involving the Si—H bond are present. The observed geometrical parameters are unexceptional compared to known structures of the same type. PMID:21578203

  18. Tetra­phenyl­phospho­nium iodide–1,3,5-tri­fluoro-2,4,6-tri­iodo­benzene–methanol (3/4/1)

    PubMed Central

    Cavallo, Gabriella; Metrangolo, Pierangelo; Pilati, Tullio; Resnati, Giuseppe; Terraneo, Giancarlo

    2013-01-01

    The crystallization of a 1:1 molar solution of 1,3,5-tri­fluoro-2,4,6-di­iodo­benzene (TFTIB) and tetra­phenyl­phosponium iodide (TPPI) from methanol produced tetra­gonal needles of pure TPPI and tabular pseudo-hexa­gonal truncated bipyramids of the title compound, 3C24H20P+·3I−·4C6F3I3·CH4O or (TPPI)3(TFTIB)4·MeOH. The asymmetric unit is composed of six TPPI mol­ecules, eight TFTIB mol­ecules and two methanol mol­ecules, overall 16 constituents. The formation of the architecture is essentially guided by a number of C—I⋯I− halogen bonds (XB), whose lengths are in the range 3.276 (1)–3.625 (1) Å. Layers of supra­molecular polyanions are formed parallel to (10-1) wherein iodide anions function as penta-, tetra- or bidentate XB acceptors. The structure is not far from being P21/n, but the centrosymmetry is lost due to a different conformation of a single couple of cations and the small asymmetry in the formed supra­molecular anion. One methanol mol­ecule is hydrogen bonded to an iodide anion, while the second is linked to the first one via an O—H⋯O contact. This second methanol mol­ecule is more loosely pinned in its position than the first and presents very high anisotropic displacement parameters and a seeming shortening of the C—O bond length. The crystal studied was refined as a perfect inversion twin. PMID:23795046

  19. (Glycol-κ2 O,O′)nitros­yl(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)ruthenium(II) bis­(tri­fluoro­methane­sulfonate)

    PubMed Central

    Munie, Semeret; Larsen, Anna; Gembicky, Milan

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, [Ru(C10H15)(NO)(HOCH2CH2OH)](CF3SO3)2, possesses a three-legged piano-stool geometry around the Ru atom, with an average Ru—O distance of 2.120 (6) Å and an Ru—N—O angle of 159.45 (14)°. The ethyl­eneglycol ligand forms a non-planar metallacyclic ring by chelating the Ru atom via the O atoms. The O⋯O distances of 2.554 (2) and 2.568 (2) Å are indicative of hydrogen bonding between coordinated ethyl­eneglycol and outer-sphere trifluoro­methane­sulfonate fragments. The crystal packing is stabilized by ionic forces and several CH3⋯·F (2.585 and 2.640 Å) and CH3⋯O inter­actions (2.391, 2.678, 2.694 and 2.699 Å) between the penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl ligand and trifluoro­methane­sulfonate anion. There is noticeable short inter­molecular contact [2.9039 (16) Å], between an O atom of the SO3 group and a C atom of the penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl ligand. PMID:21201270

  20. Crystal structures of bis-[(9S,13S,14S)-3-meth-oxy-17-methyl-morphinanium] tetra-chlorido-cobaltate and tetra-chlorido-cuprate.

    PubMed

    Gauchat, Eric; Nazarenko, Alexander Y

    2017-01-01

    (9S,13S,14S)-3-Meth-oxy-17-methyl-morphinan (dextromethorphan) forms two isostructural salts with (a) tetra-chlorido-cobaltate, namely bis-[(9S,13S,14S)-3-meth-oxy-17-methyl-morphinanium] tetra-chlorido-cobaltate, (C18H26NO)2[CoCl4], and (b) tetra-chlorido-cuprate, namely bis-[(9S,13S,14S)-3-meth-oxy-17-methyl-morphinanium] tetra-chlorido-cuprate, (C18H26NO)2[CuCl4]. The distorted tetra-hedral anions are located on twofold rotational axes. The dextromethorphan cation can be described as being composed of two ring systems, a tetra-hydro-naphthalene system A+B and a deca-hydro-isoquinolinium subunit C+D, that are nearly perpendicular to one another: the angle between mean planes of the A+B and C+D moieties is 78.8 (1)° for (a) and 79.0 (1)° for (b). Two symmetry-related cations of protonated dextromethorphan are connected to the tetra-chlorido-cobaltate (or tetra-chlorido-cuprate) anions via strong N-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds, forming neutral ion associates. These associates are packed in the (001) plane with no strong attractive bonding between them. Both compounds are attractive crystalline forms for unambiguous identification of the dextromethorphan and, presumably, of its optical isomer, levomethorphan.

  1. Solid dispersions of the penta-ethyl ester prodrug of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA): Formulation design and optimization studies

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yu-Tsai; Di Pasqua, Anthony J.; Zhang, Yong; Sueda, Katsuhiko; Jay, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The penta-ethyl ester prodrug of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), which exists as an oily liquid, was incorporated into a solid dispersion for oral administration by the solvent evaporation method using blends of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), Eudragit® RL PO and α-tocopherol. D-optimal mixture design was used to optimize the formulation. Formulations that had a high concentration of both Eudragit® RL PO and α-tocopherol exhibited low water absorption and enhanced stability of the DTPA prodrug. Physicochemical properties of the optimal formulation were evaluated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In vitro release of the prodrug was evaluated using the USP Type II apparatus dissolution method. DSC studies indicated that the matrix had an amorphous structure, while FTIR spectrometry showed that DTPA penta-ethyl ester and excipients did not react with each other during formation of the solid dispersion.. Dissolution testing showed that the optimized solid dispersion exhibited a prolonged release profile, which could potentially result in a sustained delivery of DTPA penta-ethyl to enhance bioavailability. In conclusion, DTPA penta-ethyl ester was successfully incorporated into a solid matrix with high drug loading and improved stability compared to prodrug alone. PMID:24047113

  2. Measurement of cone beam CT coincidence with megavoltage isocentre and image sharpness using the QUASAR Penta-Guide phantom.

    PubMed

    Sykes, J R; Lindsay, R; Dean, C J; Brettle, D S; Magee, D R; Thwaites, D I

    2008-10-07

    For image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) systems based on cone beam CT (CBCT) integrated into a linear accelerator, the reproducible alignment of imager to x-ray source is critical to the registration of both the x-ray-volumetric image with the megavoltage (MV) beam isocentre and image sharpness. An enhanced method of determining the CBCT to MV isocentre alignment using the QUASAR Penta-Guide phantom was developed which improved both precision and accuracy. This was benchmarked against our existing method which used software and a ball-bearing (BB) phantom provided by Elekta. Additionally, a method of measuring an image sharpness metric (MTF(50)) from the edge response function of a spherical air cavity within the Penta-Guide phantom was developed and its sensitivity was tested by simulating misalignments of the kV imager. Reproducibility testing of the enhanced Penta-Guide method demonstrated a systematic error of <0.2 mm when compared to the BB method with near equivalent random error (s=0.15 mm). The mean MTF(50) for five measurements was 0.278+/-0.004 lp mm(-1) with no applied misalignment. Simulated misalignments exhibited a clear peak in the MTF(50) enabling misalignments greater than 0.4 mm to be detected. The Penta-Guide phantom can be used to precisely measure CBCT-MV coincidence and image sharpness on CBCT-IGRT systems.

  3. Biosynthesis of gallotannins: formation of polygalloylglucoses by enzymatic acylation of 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloylglucose.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, A S; Gross, G G

    1990-12-01

    Enzyme preparations from leaves of Rhus typhina L. (sumach) catalyzed the galloylation of 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucopyranose in the presence of the acyl donor beta-glucogallin (1-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucopyranose), yielding a variety of oligomeric gallotannins (hexa- to nonagalloylglucoses) as reaction products.

  4. Measurement of cone beam CT coincidence with megavoltage isocentre and image sharpness using the QUASAR™ Penta-Guide phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykes, J. R.; Lindsay, R.; Dean, C. J.; Brettle, D. S.; Magee, D. R.; Thwaites, D. I.

    2008-10-01

    For image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) systems based on cone beam CT (CBCT) integrated into a linear accelerator, the reproducible alignment of imager to x-ray source is critical to the registration of both the x-ray-volumetric image with the megavoltage (MV) beam isocentre and image sharpness. An enhanced method of determining the CBCT to MV isocentre alignment using the QUASAR™ Penta-Guide phantom was developed which improved both precision and accuracy. This was benchmarked against our existing method which used software and a ball-bearing (BB) phantom provided by Elekta. Additionally, a method of measuring an image sharpness metric (MTF50) from the edge response function of a spherical air cavity within the Penta-Guide phantom was developed and its sensitivity was tested by simulating misalignments of the kV imager. Reproducibility testing of the enhanced Penta-Guide method demonstrated a systematic error of <0.2 mm when compared to the BB method with near equivalent random error (s = 0.15 mm). The mean MTF50 for five measurements was 0.278 ± 0.004 lp mm-1 with no applied misalignment. Simulated misalignments exhibited a clear peak in the MTF50 enabling misalignments greater than 0.4 mm to be detected. The Penta-Guide phantom can be used to precisely measure CBCT MV coincidence and image sharpness on CBCT-IGRT systems.

  5. Novel and High Volume Use Flame Retardants in US Couches Reflective of the 2005 PentaBDE Phase Out

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    California’s furniture flammability standard Technical Bulletin 117 (TB 117) is believed to be a major driver of chemical flame retardant (FR) use in residential furniture in the United States. With the phase-out of the polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) FR mixture PentaBDE in 2005, alternative FRs are increasingly being used to meet TB 117; however, it was unclear which chemicals were being used and how frequently. To address this data gap, we collected and analyzed 102 samples of polyurethane foam from residential couches purchased in the United States from 1985 to 2010. Overall, we detected chemical flame retardants in 85% of the couches. In samples purchased prior to 2005 (n = 41) PBDEs associated with the PentaBDE mixture including BDEs 47, 99, and 100 (PentaBDE) were the most common FR detected (39%), followed by tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCPP; 24%), which is a suspected human carcinogen. In samples purchased in 2005 or later (n = 61) the most common FRs detected were TDCPP (52%) and components associated with the Firemaster550 (FM 550) mixture (18%). Since the 2005 phase-out of PentaBDE, the use of TDCPP increased significantly. In addition, a mixture of nonhalogenated organophosphate FRs that included triphenyl phosphate (TPP), tris(4-butylphenyl) phosphate (TBPP), and a mix of butylphenyl phosphate isomers were observed in 13% of the couch samples purchased in 2005 or later. Overall the prevalence of flame retardants (and PentaBDE) was higher in couches bought in California compared to elsewhere, although the difference was not quite significant (p = 0.054 for PentaBDE). The difference was greater before 2005 than after, suggesting that TB 117 is becoming a de facto standard across the U.S. We determined that the presence of a TB 117 label did predict the presence of a FR; however, lack of a label did not predict the absence of a flame retardant. Following the PentaBDE phase out, we also found an increased number of flame retardants on

  6. Antimicrobial, spectral, magnetic and thermal studies of Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), UO(2)(VI) and Fe(III) complexes of the Schiff base derived from oxalylhydrazide.

    PubMed

    Melha, Khlood Abou

    2008-04-01

    The Schiff base ligand, oxalyl [( 2 - hydroxybenzylidene) hydrazone] [corrected].H(2)L, and its Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), UO(2)(VI) and Fe(III) complexes were prepared and tested as antibacterial agents. The Schiff base acts as a dibasic tetra- or hexadentate ligand with metal cations in molar ratio 1:1 or 2:1 (M:L) to yield either mono- or binuclear complexes, respectively. The ligand and its metal complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, IR, (1)H NMR, Mass, and UV-Visible spectra and the magnetic moments and electrical conductance of the complexes were also determined. For binuclear complexes, the magnetic moments are quite low compared to the calculated value for two metal ions complexes and this shows antiferromagnetic interactions between the two adjacent metal ions. The ligand and its metal complexes were tested against a Gram + ve bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus), a Gram -ve bacteria (Escherichia coli), and a fungi (Candida albicans). The tested compounds exhibited high antibacterial activities.

  7. Mechanical properties of Tetra-PEG gels with supercoiled networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katashima, Takuya; Urayama, Kenji; Chung, Ung-Il; Sakai, Takamasa

    2014-03-01

    We investigated the effects of swelling and deswelling on the mechanical properties of polymer gels with variable polymer volume fractions of interest (φm) . We employed the Tetra-PEG gel as a model system. Tetra-PEG gels were prepared by the AB type crosslink-coupling between the two symmetrical tetra-arm prepolymers with precisely tuning the network strand length (Nc) and polymer fractions at preparation (φ0) . The drastic increase in the elastic modulus was observed in the high φm region due to the unusually contracted conformation of the network strands, called supercoiling. The Obukhov model can describe the φm-dependence of the elastic modulus in all φm regions. We analyzed the stress-elongation relationships for the swollen and deswollen networks. We estimated the fractal dimensions based on the Pincus blob concept, and for the first time observed the φm-, Nc-, φ0-dependence of the fractal dimension. We found that the gyration radius exhibits the affine deformation in the supercoiling region. These findings will help to understand the structure and formation mechanism of supercoiling.

  8. Some O,O',O'',O'''-di/tetra aryldithioimidophonate transition metal complexes derived from catechol and bisphenol-A as antibacterial and antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vikrant; Ahamad, Tansir; Nishat, N

    2009-02-01

    Two new substituted-thioimidophonate derivatives H1L1 (O,O',O'',O'''-diaryldithioimidophonates) and H1L2 (O,O',O'',O'''-tetra aryldithioimidophonates) were synthesized. These thioimidophonates are potential ligands towards transition metal ions. The reaction of M(II) acetates (M(II)=Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II)) with H1L1 and H1L2 resulted in the formation of solid complexes with the composition (L1/L2)(2)M(II). These compounds were characterized through elemental analysis, electrical conductance, infrared, electronic spectra, nmr, magnetic susceptibilities etc. Vibrational mode assignments of nu(PN), nu(PS), nu(MS), phenyl and methyl group bands are made. Structural and bonding changes are correlated with these vibrational frequencies. All the compounds were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal properties and have exhibited potential activities with MIC (0.09-1.50 microg/ml).

  9. Penta­ammonium hepta­sodium bis­[penta­kis(μ2-oxido)deca­oxido­bis­(μ5-phosphato)penta­molybdenum(VI)] henicosa­hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Bih, Hssain; Bih, Lahcen; Manoun, Bouchaid; Azrour, Mohamed; Lazor, Peter; El Ammari, Lahcen

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, (NH4)5Na7[Mo5P2O23]2·21H2O, was prepared under atmospheric conditions in aqueous solution at room temperature. The structure contains the [Mo5P2O23]6− heteropolyoxometallate anion, which has been previously reported a number of times with a variety of differing counter-cations. Each anion is built up of five MoO6 octa­hedra sharing an edge and forming a ring which is closed by common corners of the terminal octa­hedra. The rings are closed on both sides by two asymmetric PO4 tetra­hedra, sharing three corners with three MoO6 octa­hedra. The anions are chiral and the two independent anions in the asymmetric unit were arbitarily chosen with the same chirality, but the centrosymmetric crystal contains both enanti­omers. The structure can alternatively be described as a succession of layers parallel to (101), formed by the [Mo5P2O23]6− anions and linked by sodium chains. Water mol­ecules and ammonium ions fill the remaining space and ensure the cohesion through extensive N—H⋯O and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonding. PMID:21580198

  10. Hydrogenation of Penta-Graphene Leads to Unexpected Large Improvement in Thermal Conductivity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xufei; Varshney, Vikas; Lee, Jonghoon; Zhang, Teng; Wohlwend, Jennifer L; Roy, Ajit K; Luo, Tengfei

    2016-06-08

    Penta-graphene (PG) has been identified as a novel two-dimensional (2D) material with an intrinsic bandgap, which makes it especially promising for electronics applications. In this work, we use first-principles lattice dynamics and iterative solution of the phonon Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) to determine the thermal conductivity of PG and its more stable derivative, hydrogenated penta-graphene (HPG). As a comparison, we also studied the effect of hydrogenation on graphene thermal conductivity. In contrast to hydrogenation of graphene, which leads to a dramatic decrease in thermal conductivity, HPG shows a notable increase in thermal conductivity, which is much higher than that of PG. Considering the necessity of using the same thickness when comparing thermal conductivity values of different 2D materials, hydrogenation leads to a 63% reduction in thermal conductivity for graphene, while it results in a 76% increase for PG. The high thermal conductivity of HPG makes it more thermally conductive than most other semiconducting 2D materials, such as the transition metal chalcogenides. Our detailed analyses show that the primary reason for the counterintuitive hydrogenation-induced thermal conductivity enhancement is the weaker bond anharmonicity in HPG than PG. This leads to weaker phonon scattering after hydrogenation, despite the increase in the phonon scattering phase space. The high thermal conductivity of HPG may inspire intensive research around HPG and other derivatives of PG as potential materials for future nanoelectronic devices. The fundamental physics understood from this study may open up a new strategy to engineer thermal transport properties of other 2D materials by controlling bond anharmonicity via functionalization.

  11. Spectroscopic studies of thiatri-, penta- and heptamethine cyanine dyes II. Infrared and resonance Raman spectra of thiatri-, penta- and heptamethine cyanine dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Yasuhiko; Katayama, Norihisa; Ozaki, Yukihiro; Yasui, Shigeo; Iriyama, Keiji

    1992-11-01

    Infrared (IR) and resonance Raman (RR) spectra of thiatri-, penta- and heptamethine cyanine dyes in the solid state and in solution have been measured. Most of the intense bands observed in the 1600-1100 cm -1 region of the RR spectra may be assigned to totally symmetric stretching modes of the central conjugated system of the cyanines, while most of the strong IR bands in the 1600-1300 cm -1 region are probably due to antisymmetric stretching modes. The intense RR bands do not have their counterparts in the IR spectra and vice versa. A pseudo-mutual exclusion rule seems to be operative for the cyanine vibrational spectra in the 1600-1300 cm -1 region, indicating that the central conjugated systems of the cyanines have nearly symmetrical structure, i.e. the extended all-trans forms of the methine chains and the bond orders of 1.5 of the CC and CN bonds in both the solution and solid states. The IR spectra of 3-ethyl-2-[3-(3-ethyl-2-benzothiazolinylidene)-1-propenyl]benzothiazolium iodide (NK-76) and 3-ethyl-2-[7-(3-ethyl-2-benzothiazolinylidene)-1,3,5-heptatrienyl]benzothiazolium iodide (NK-126) change little between the solid and solution states while those of 3-octadecyl-2-[3-(3-octadecyl-2-benzothiazolinylidene)-1-propenyl]benzothiazolium iodide (NK-2560) and 3-octadecyl-2-[7-(3-octadecyl-2-benzothiazolinylidene)-1,3,5-heptatrienyl]benzothiazolium perchlorate (NK-2861) alter significantly between the two states in the frequencies of bands due to the stretching modes of their central conjugated systems. The results suggest that the electronic states of the central conjugated systems of NK-2560 and NK-2861 undergo appreciable changes on going from the solid to the solution states.

  12. Mechanism of Co(II) adsorption by zero valent iron/graphene nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Xing, Min; Xu, Lejin; Wang, Jianlong

    2016-01-15

    Nanoscale zero valent iron (ZVI)/graphene (GF) composite was prepared and characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurement and zeta potential determination. The adsorption isotherm of Co(II) in aqueous solution, as well as the influence of pH values and ionic strengths was studied. The mechanism of Co(II) adsorption by GF was investigated through analyzing the sorption products at initial pH of 3.0, 6.0 and 9.0 using high-resolution transmission electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray detector (HRTEM-EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating-sample magnetometer (VSM), Raman spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurement. The results indicated that Langmuir isotherm model fitted well and the adsorption capacity was 131.58 mg g(-1) at 30°C. Adsorption capacity was not significantly influenced by ionic strength and kept high at pH 4.0∼9.0. The detail information of GF-Co interaction at different initial pH values was obtained using XAFS analysis combined with other characterization methods. Coordination numbers (CN) and interatomic distances (R) of both Fe and Co were given. At pH 3.0 and pH 6.0, the Co-substituted iron oxides transformed to CoFe2O4-like structure, while at pH 9.0 they changed to green rust-like phases. Co occupied preferentially in the octahedral sites in acid solution. The adsorption mechanism of Co(II) was attributed to inner-sphere complexation and dissolution/re-precipitation of the substituted metal oxides.

  13. Supramolecular Co(II)-[2 x 2] grids: metamagnetic behavior in a single molecule.

    PubMed

    Waldmann, Oliver; Ruben, Mario; Ziener, Ulrich; Müller, Paul; Lehn, Jean M

    2006-08-07

    The magnetic anisotropy of the supramolecular [2 x 2] grid [Co(II)4L4]8+, with a bis(bipyridyl)-pyrimidine-based ligand L, was investigated by single-crystal magnetization measurements at low temperatures. The magnetization curves exhibit metamagnetic-like behavior and are explained by the weak-exchange limit of a minimal spin Hamiltonian including Heisenberg exchange, easy-axis ligand fields, and the Zeeman term. It is also shown that the magnetic coupling strength can be varied by the substituent R1 in the two-position on the central pyrimidine group of the ligand L.

  14. Sequence analysis of a few species of termites (Order: Isoptera) on the basis of partial characterization of COII gene.

    PubMed

    Sobti, Ranbir Chander; Kumari, Mamtesh; Sharma, Vijay Lakshmi; Sodhi, Monika; Mukesh, Manishi; Shouche, Yogesh

    2009-11-01

    The present study was aimed to get the nucleotide sequences of a part of COII mitochondrial gene amplified from individuals of five species of Termites (Isoptera: Termitidae: Macrotermitinae). Four of them belonged to the genus Odontotermes (O. obesus, O. horni, O. bhagwatii and Odontotermes sp.) and one to Microtermes (M. obesi). Partial COII gene fragments were amplified by using specific primers. The sequences so obtained were characterized to calculate the frequencies of each nucleotide bases and a high A + T content was observed. The interspecific pairwise sequence divergence in Odontotermes species ranged from 6.5% to 17.1% across COII fragment. M. obesi sequence diversity ranged from 2.5 with Odontotermes sp. to 19.0% with O. bhagwatii. Phylogenetic trees drawn on the basis of distance neighbour-joining method revealed three main clades clustering all the individuals according to their genera and families.

  15. Separation and extraction of Co(II) using magnetic chitosan nanoparticles grafted with β-cyclodextrin and determination by FAAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghimi, Ali

    2014-12-01

    A novel and selective method for the fast determination of trace amounts of Co(II) ions in water samples has been developed. The procedure is based on the selective sorption of Co(II) ions using magnetic chitosan nanoparticles grafted with β-cyclodextrin at different pH followed by elution with organic eluents and determination by atomic absorption spectrometry The preconcentration factor was 100 (1 mL elution volume) for a 100 mL sample volume. The limit of detection of the proposed method is 1.0 ng mL-1. The maximum sorption capacity of sorbent under optimum conditions has been found to be 5 mg of Co per gram of sorbent. The relative standard deviation under optimum conditions was 3.0% ( n = 10). Accuracy and applicability of the method was estimated using test samples of natural and model water with different amounts of Co(II).

  16. Unusual composition dependence of magnetic relaxation for Co(II)(1-x)Ni(II)(x) chain-based metal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Qin; Cheng, Ai-Ling; Liu, Pei-Pei; Gao, En-Qing

    2013-08-11

    A series of isomorphous 3D Co(II)(1-x)Ni(II)(x) MOFs based on ferromagnetic chains show SCM-type slow relaxation and the Co-rich system can exhibit a higher blocking temperature than both Co(II) and Ni(II) parent materials.

  17. [1,2-Bis(diphenyl­phosphino)ethane]­chlorido(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)iron(II) dichloro­methane solvate

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Ya-ping; Feng, Dan; Yuan, Jing-jing

    2010-01-01

    In the title compound, [Fe(C10H15)Cl(C26H24P2)]·CH2Cl2, the FeII atom is coordinated by two P atoms from a 1,2-bis­(diphenyl­phosphino)ethane ligand [Fe—P = 2.2130 (7) and 2.2231 (7) Å], a chloride anion [Fe—Cl = 2.3329 (7) Å] and a penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl (Cp*) ligand [Fe—centroid(Cp*) = 1.732 (3) Å] in a typical piano-stool geometry. In the crystal structure, the complex and solvent mol­ecules are paired via weak C—H⋯Cl inter­actions. PMID:21588156

  18. Aqua­bis­(4-methyl­benzene­sulfonato-κO)(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)rhodium(III) monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Christopher P.; Boyer, Pauline M.; Merola, Joseph S.

    2013-01-01

    The title half-sandwich rhodium(III) complex, [Rh(C10H15)(C7H7O3S)2(H2O)]·H2O, consists of a π-bonded penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl group, two σ-bonded tosyl­ate groups and an aqua ligand. The structure displays both inter- and intra­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonding. The inter­molecular hydrogen bonding results in an extended helical chain along a 21 screw axis parallel to c, due to hydrogen bonding from the coordinating water ligand to the lattice water mol­ecule and then to a sulfonate O atom of a different asymmetric unit. PMID:23723770

  19. Penta-graphene: A Promising Anode Material as the Li/Na-Ion Battery with Both Extremely High Theoretical Capacity and Fast Charge/Discharge Rate.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Bo; Li, Yan-Chun; Yu, Xue-Fang; Cheng, Jian-Bo

    2016-12-28

    Recently, a new two-dimensional (2D) carbon allotrope named penta-graphene was theoretically proposed ( Zhang , S. ; et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2015 , 112 , 2372 ) and has been predicted to be the promising candidate for broad applications due to its intriguing properties. In this work, by using first-principles simulation, we have further extended the potential application of penta-graphene as the anode material for a Li/Na-ion battery. Our results show that the theoretical capacity of Li/Na ions on penta-graphene reaches up to 1489 mAh·g(-1), which is much higher than that of most of the previously reported 2D anode materials. Meanwhile, the calculated low open-circuit voltages (from 0.24 to 0.60 V), in combination with the low diffusion barriers (≤0.33 eV) and the high electronic conductivity during the whole Li/Na ions intercalation processes, further show the advantages of penta-graphene as the anode material. Particularly, molecular dynamics simulation (300 K) reveals that Li ion could freely diffuse on the surface of penta-graphene, and thus the ultrafast Li ion diffusivity is expected. Superior performance of penta-graphene is further confirmed by comparing with the other 2D anode materials. The light weight and unique atomic arrangement (with isotropic furrow paths on the surface) of penta-graphene are found to be mainly responsible for the high Li/Na ions storage capacity and fast diffusivity. In this regard, except penta-graphene, many other recently proposed 2D metal-free materials with pentagonal Cairo-tiled structures may be the potential candidates as the Li/Na-ion battery anodes.

  20. Cutaneous Ossifying Fibroma in a Neon Tetra (Paracheirodon innesi).

    PubMed

    Murphy, B; Imai, D M

    2016-01-01

    A cutaneous proliferative mass was identified arising from the caudal peduncle of a captive neon tetra fish (Paracheirodon innesi). The lesion was histologically consistent with an ossifying fibroma (OF), a fibro-osseous proliferative lesion typically identified in the jaws or tooth-associated supportive tissues of mammals. Although it has been previously reported, there is no recent report of this lesion occurring in a fish. This is the first report of a cutaneous ossifying fibroma in a characin fish. The authors speculate on the pathogenesis of this lesion, which may have arisen from the scale-associated mesenchymal tissues.

  1. Multi-Pivot Quicksort: an Experiment with Single, Dual, Triple, Quad, and Penta-Pivot Quicksort Algorithms in Python

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budiman, M. A.; Zamzami, E. M.; Rachmawati, D.

    2017-03-01

    Dual-pivot quicksort, which was proposed by Yaroslavsky, has been experimentally proven to be more efficient than the classical single-pivot quicksort under the Java Virtual Machine [6]. Moreover, Kushagara, López-Ortiz, and Munro [4] has shown that triple-pivot quicksort runs 7-8% faster than dual-pivot quicksort in C, mutatis mutandis. In this research, we implement and experiment with single, dual, triple, quad, and penta-pivot quicksort algorithms in Python. Our experimental results are as follows. Firstly, the quicksort with single pivot is the slowest among the five variants. Secondly, at least until five (penta) pivots are being used, it is proven that the more pivots are used in a quicksort algorithm, the faster its performance becomes. Thirdly, the increase of speed resulted by adding more pivots tends to decrease gradually.

  2. Co(II)4, Co(II)7, and a Series of Co(II)2Ln(III) (Ln(III) = Nd(III), Sm(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III)) Coordination Clusters: Search for Single Molecule Magnets.

    PubMed

    Modak, Ritwik; Sikdar, Yeasin; Thuijs, Annaliese E; Christou, George; Goswami, Sanchita

    2016-10-03

    We report herein the syntheses and investigation of the magnetic properties of a Co(II)4 compound, a series of trinuclear Co(II)2Ln(III) (Ln(III) = Nd(III), Sm(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III)) complexes, and a Co(II)7 complex. The homometallic Co(II)4 core was obtained from the reaction of Ln(NO3)3·xH2O/Co(NO3)2·6H2O/H2vab/Et3N in a 0.5:0.5:1:2 ratio in methanol. Variation in synthetic conditions was necessary to get the desired Co(II)-Ln(III) complexes. The Co(II)-Ln(III) assembly was synthesized from Ln(NO3)3·xH2O/Co(OAc)2·4H2O/H2vab/NaOMe in a 0.4:0.5:1:1 ratio in methanol. The isostructural Co(II)2Ln(III) complexes have a core structure with the general formula [Co2Ln(Hvab)4(NO3)](NO3)2·MeOH·H2O, (where H2vab = 2-[(2-hydroxymethyl-phenylimino)-methyl]-6-methoxy-phenol) with simultaneous crystallization of Co(II)7 complex in each reaction. The magnetic investigation of these complexes reveals that both homometallic complexes and four Co(II)-Ln(III) complexes (except Co(II)-Nd(III)) display behavior characteristic of single molecule magnets.

  3. Blade loss transient dynamics analysis. Volume 3: User's manual for TETRA program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, G. R.; Gallardo, V. C.; Storace, A. S.; Sagendorph, F.

    1981-01-01

    The users manual for TETRA contains program logic, flow charts, error messages, input sheets, modeling instructions, option descriptions, input variable descriptions, and demonstration problems. The process of obtaining a NASTRAN 17.5 generated modal input file for TETRA is also described with a worked sample.

  4. 40 CFR 721.3560 - Derivative of tetra-chloro-ethy-lene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Derivative of tetra-chloro-ethy-lene... Substances § 721.3560 Derivative of tetra-chloro-ethy-lene. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section: Derivative of tetrachloroethylene, P-82-684. (2)...

  5. 40 CFR 721.3560 - Derivative of tetra-chloro-ethy-lene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Derivative of tetra-chloro-ethy-lene... Substances § 721.3560 Derivative of tetra-chloro-ethy-lene. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section: Derivative of tetrachloroethylene, P-82-684. (2)...

  6. 40 CFR 721.3560 - Derivative of tetra-chloro-ethy-lene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Derivative of tetra-chloro-ethy-lene... Substances § 721.3560 Derivative of tetra-chloro-ethy-lene. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section: Derivative of tetrachloroethylene, P-82-684. (2)...

  7. 40 CFR 721.3560 - Derivative of tetra-chloro-ethy-lene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Derivative of tetra-chloro-ethy-lene... Substances § 721.3560 Derivative of tetra-chloro-ethy-lene. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section: Derivative of tetrachloroethylene, P-82-684. (2)...

  8. 40 CFR 721.3560 - Derivative of tetra-chloro-ethy-lene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Derivative of tetra-chloro-ethy-lene... Substances § 721.3560 Derivative of tetra-chloro-ethy-lene. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section: Derivative of tetrachloroethylene, P-82-684. (2)...

  9. High-performance gel electrolytes with tetra-armed polymer network for Li ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazama, Taisuke; Fujii, Kenta; Sakai, Takamasa; Aoki, Masahiro; Mimura, Hideyuki; Eguchi, Hisao; Todorov, Yanko; Yoshimoto, Nobuko; Morita, Masayuki

    2015-07-01

    An organo gel with only 6 wt % tetra-armed poly(ethylene glycol), TetraPEG, was prepared and applied as a novel gel electrolyte for Li ion batteries (LIBs). The TetraPEG gel electrolyte containing 1.0 M LiPF6 in binary or ternary mixtures, i.e., EC + DEC and EC + DEC + TFEP (EC: ethylene carbonate, DEC: diethyl carbonate and TFEP: tris(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)phosphate showed high ionic conductivity required for the use in LIB systems. The TetraPEG gel based on ternary EC + DEC + TFEP system acts as a nonflammable gel electrolyte at the TFEP content higher than 20 vol%. In cyclic voltammetry and charge/discharge cycling tests, the TetraPEG gel electrolytes showed good reversibility for a graphite negative electrode.

  10. Volvo Penta 4.3 GL E15 Emissions and Durability Test

    SciTech Connect

    Zoubul, G.; Cahoon, M.; Kolb, R.

    2011-10-01

    A new Volvo Penta carbureted 4.3 GL engine underwent emissions and dynamometer durability testing from break-in to expected end of life using an accelerated ICOMIA marine emissions cycle and E15 fuel. Only ethanol content was controlled. All aging used splash-blended E15 fuel. Exhaust emissions, exhaust gas temperature, torque, power, barometric pressure, air temperature, and fuel flow were measured at five intervals using site-blended E15 aging fuel and certification fuel (E0). The durability test cycle showed no noticeable impact on mechanical durability or engine power. Emissions performance degraded beyond the certification limit for this engine family, mostly occurring by 28% of expected life. Such degradation is inconsistent with prior experience. Comparisons showed that E15 resulted in lower CO and HC, but increased NOX, as expected for non-feedback-controlled carbureted engines with increased oxygen in the fuel. Fuel consumption also increased with E15 compared with E0. Throughout testing, poor starting characteristics were exhibited on E15 fuel for hot re-start and cold-start. Cranking time to start and smooth idle was roughly doubled compared with typical E0 operation. The carburetor was factory-set for lean operation to ensure emissions compliance. Test protocols did not include carburetor adjustment to account for increased oxygen in the E15 fuel.

  11. A comparative density functional study on electrical properties of layered penta-graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Zhi Gen Zhang, Yong-Wei

    2015-10-28

    We present a comparative study of the influence of the number of layers, the biaxial strain in the range of −3% to 3%, and the stacking misalignments on the electronic properties of a new 2D carbon allotrope, penta-graphene (PG), based on hybrid-functional method within the density functional theory (DFT). In comparison with local exchange-correlation approximation in the DFT, the hybrid-functional provides an accurate description on the degree of p{sub z} orbitals localization and bandgap. Importantly, the predicted bandgap of few-layer PG has a weak layer dependence. The bandgap of monolayer PG is 3.27 eV, approximately equal to those of GaN and ZnO; and the bandgap of few-layer PG decreases slowly with the number of layers (N) and converge to 2.57 eV when N ≥ 4. Our calculations using HSE06 functional on few-layer PG reveal that bandgap engineering by stacking misalignment can further tune the bandgap down to 1.37 eV. Importantly, there is no direct-to-indirect bandgap transition in PG by varying strain, layer number, and stacking misalignment. Owing to its tunable, robustly direct, and wide bandgap characteristics, few-layer PG is promising for optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications.

  12. Design of Compact Penta-Band and Hexa-Band Microstrip Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Kunal; Kumar, Ashwani; Kanaujia, Binod K.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents the design of two multi-band microstrip antennas. The antenna-1 gives Penta-Band and antenna-2 gives Hexa-band in the WLAN band. The frequency bands of the antenna-1 are Bluetooth 2.47 GHz (2.43 GHz-2.54 GHz), WiMax band 3.73 GHz (3.71 GHz-3.77 GHz), WLAN 5.1 GHz (4.99 GHz-5.13 GHz), upper WLAN 6.36 GHz (6.29 GHz-6.43 GHz), C band band 7.42 GHz (7.32 GHz-7.50 GHz) and the antenna-2 are WLAN band 2.6 GHz (2.56 GHz-2.63 GHz), 3.0 GHz (2.94 GHz-3.05 GHz), WiMax band 3.4 GHz (3.34 GHz-3.55 GHz), 4.85 GHz (4.81 GHz-4.92 GHz), WLAN 5.3 GHz (5.27 GHz-5.34 GHz) and upper WLAN 6.88 GHz. Both the antennas are fabricated and their measured results are presented to validate the simulated results. Proposed antennas have compact sizes and good radiation performances.

  13. Ambient stable tetragonal and orthorhombic phases in penta-twinned bipyramidal au microcrystals.

    PubMed

    Mettela, Gangaiah; Bhogra, Meha; Waghmare, Umesh V; Kulkarni, Giridhar U

    2015-03-04

    Face-centered cubic (fcc) lattice is the only known crystal structure of bulk gold. In the present work, we report the presence of body-centered tetragonal (bct) and body-centered orthorhombic (bco) phases in bipyramidal Au microcrystals with penta-twinned tips. These microcrystals have been obtained by thermolysis of (AuCl4)(-) stabilized with tetraoctylammonium bromide (ToABr) in air at about 220 °C for 30 min. Using a laboratory monochromatic X-ray source, the non-fcc phases could be readily detected. The remarkable occurrence of non-fcc phases of Au grown in the temperature window of 200-250 °C results from the geometrically induced strains in the bipyramids. Having derived first-principles theoretical support for the temperature-dependent stability of non-fcc Au structures under stress, we identify its origin in soft modes. Annealing at high temperatures relieves the stress, thus destabilizing the non-fcc phases.

  14. Band gap engineering in penta-graphene by substitutional doping: first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdiyorov, G. R.; Dixit, G.; Madjet, M. E.

    2016-11-01

    Using density functional theory, we study the structure, electronic properties and partial charges of a new carbon allotrope—penta-graphene (PG)—substitutionally doped by Si, B and N. We found that the electronic bandgap of PG can be tuned down to 0.2 eV due to carbon substitutions. However, the value of the band gap depends on the type and location of the dopants. For example, the strongest reduction of the band gap is obtained for Si substitutions on the top (bottom) plane of PG, whereas the substitution in the middle plane of PG has a smaller effect on the band gap of the material. Surface termination with fluorine and hydroxyl groups results in an increase of the band gap together with considerable changes in electronic and atomic partial charge distribution in the system. Our findings, which are robust against the use of different exchange-correlation functionals, indicate the possibility of tuning the bandgap of the material to make it suitable for optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications.

  15. Fumigant effectiveness in creosote- and penta-treated southern pine poles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.J.K.; Terracina, F.C.; Zabel, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives were to evaluate the effectiveness of the fumigants, Vapam and chloropicrin, to arrest decay development in the groundline zone of southern pine poles, and to determine the types and prevalence of fungi reinvading the poles after fumigation. Fifty-one creosote- and penta-treated poles representing various service ages and decay conditions were fumigated with Vapam or chloropicrin. Cores were extracted from the groundline zone for fungus isolations and decay determinations, prior to fumigation and annually thereafter for 8 years. The reappearance of decay fungi was the major criterion used for judging fumigant effectiveness. Both Vapam and chloropicrin were effective disinfectants and killed all of the previously detected fungi in all poles. The protection periods of the fumigants from decay fungus reinvasions varied with pole age, prior decay condition, and preservative treatment. They ranged from less than 1 to 7 years and were least in older poles with prior decay. Soft-rot fungi were major decay agents which reinvaded the fumigated poles. The reinvading fungi were generally those tolerant to the preservatives or fumigants used in the study. Chloropicrin concentrations at 5, 6, and 7 years after fumigation were highly variable, and below toxic threshold levels in the outer core zones of most poles. 33 refs., 4 figs., 12 tabs.

  16. Highly branched penta-saccharide-bearing amphiphiles for membrane protein studies

    PubMed Central

    Ehsan, Muhammad; Du, Yang; Scull, Nicola J.; Tikhonova, Elena; Tarrasch, Jeffrey; Mortensen, Jonas S.; Loland, Claus J.; Skiniotis, Georgios; Guan, Lan; Byrne, Bernadette; Kobilka, Brian K.; Chae, Pil Seok

    2016-01-01

    Detergents are essential tools for membrane protein manipulation. Micelles formed by detergent molecules have the ability to encapsulate the hydrophobic domains of membrane proteins. The resulting protein-detergent complexes (PDCs) are compatible with the polar environments of aqueous media, making structural and functional analysis feasible. Although a number of novel agents have been developed to overcome the limitations of conventional detergents, most of them have traditional head groups such as glucoside or maltoside. In this study, we introduce a class of amphiphiles, the PSA’Es with a novel highly branched penta-saccharide hydrophilic group. The PSA’Es conferred markedly increased stability to a diverse range of membrane proteins compared to conventional detergents, indicating a positive role for the new hydrophilic group in maintaining the native protein integrity. In addition, PDCs formed by PSA’Es were smaller and more suitable for electron microscopic analysis than those formed by DDM, indicating that the new agents have significant potential for the structure-function studies of membrane proteins. PMID:26966956

  17. Penta-prism long trace profiler (PPLTP) for measurement of grazing incidence space optics

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, S.; Li, H.; Takacs, P.Z.

    1996-05-01

    The Long Trace Profiler (LTP) is in use at a number of locations throughout the world for the measurement of the figure and mid- frequency roughness of x-ray mirrors. The standard configuration requires that the surface tested lie in a horizontal plane as the optical head is scanned along a horizontal line. For applications where gravity-induced sag of the surface cannot be tolerated, such as in x-ray telescope mirror metrology, it is desirable to measure the mirror as it is mounted in a vertical configuration. By making simple modifications to the standard LTP system, we have demonstrated that it is possible to use the LTP principle to measure the surface of x- ray mirrors and mandrels mounted in the vertical orientation. The major change in the LTP system is the use of a penta prism on a vertical translation stage to direct the probe beam onto the surface and the addition of a precision rotation stage to hold the test object. A 3-D map of the surface topography of the complete cylindrical asphere can be generated quite easily with this technique. Measurements with a prototype system indicate a slope error accuracy of better than 1 microradian is possible, with a figure error repeatability of better than 50 nm. 19 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Band gap engineering in penta-graphene by substitutional doping: first-principles calculations.

    PubMed

    Berdiyorov, G R; Dixit, G; Madjet, M E

    2016-11-30

    Using density functional theory, we study the structure, electronic properties and partial charges of a new carbon allotrope-penta-graphene (PG)-substitutionally doped by Si, B and N. We found that the electronic bandgap of PG can be tuned down to 0.2 eV due to carbon substitutions. However, the value of the band gap depends on the type and location of the dopants. For example, the strongest reduction of the band gap is obtained for Si substitutions on the top (bottom) plane of PG, whereas the substitution in the middle plane of PG has a smaller effect on the band gap of the material. Surface termination with fluorine and hydroxyl groups results in an increase of the band gap together with considerable changes in electronic and atomic partial charge distribution in the system. Our findings, which are robust against the use of different exchange-correlation functionals, indicate the possibility of tuning the bandgap of the material to make it suitable for optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications.

  19. Toward a DFT-based molecular dynamics description of Co(II) binding in sulfur-rich peptides.

    PubMed

    Spezia, Riccardo; Tournois, Guewen; Tortajada, Jeanine; Cartailler, Thierry; Gaigeot, Marie-Pierre

    2006-05-07

    In this paper, we investigated the reliability of a Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CPMD) approach to characterize the binding of Co(II) metal cation to peptide molecules containing cysteine. To this end, we compared pseudo-potentials and DFT plane wave expansion, which are used as key ingredients in the CPMD method, with standard all-electron Gaussian basis set DFT calculations. The simulations presented here are the first attempts to characterize interactions and dynamics of Co(II) metal with the building blocks of phytochelatin peptide molecules. Benchmark calculations are performed on [Co(Cys-H)]+ and [Co(Glutathione-H)]+ complexes, since they are the main fragments of the Co(II)-Cys and Co(II)-glutathione systems found in gas phase electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) experiments done in our laboratory. We also present benchmark calculations on the [Co(H2O)6)]2+ cluster with direct comparisons to highly correlated ab initio calculations and experiments. In particular, we investigated the dissociation path of one water molecule from the first hydration shell of Co(II) with CPMD. Overall, our molecular dynamics simulations shed some light on the nature of the Co(II) interaction and reactivity in Co(II)-phytochelatin building block systems related to the biological and environmental activity of the metal, either in the gas or liquid phase.

  20. Modulation of the coordination environment: a convenient approach to tailor magnetic anisotropy in seven coordinate Co(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Dey, Mamon; Dutta, Snigdha; Sarma, Bipul; Deka, Ramesh Ch; Gogoi, Nayanmoni

    2016-01-14

    The possibility of controlling magnetic anisotropy by tuning contribution of second order perturbation to spin-orbit coupling through modulation of the coordination environment is investigated. Subtle variation of the coordination environment triggers a remarkable deviation in the axial zero field splitting parameter of seven coordinate Co(II) complexes.

  1. Reversible penta- and hexacoordination motifs in [Co(TMPP)] resulting in interchange of 1D and 2D supramolecular designs.

    PubMed

    Maji, Suman; Kumar, Anil; Pal, Kuntal; Sarkar, Sabyasachi

    2005-10-17

    meso-Tetrakis(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)cobalt(II) porphyrin [Co(TMPP)] (1) is synthesized by a new method. The X-ray structure of 1 grown in dichloromethane shows square-pyramidal coordination around the Co(II) ion, displaying a 1D polymeric network. When grown in chloroform, 1 displays an octahedral coordination around Co(II), resulting in a 2D coordination network. This solvent-dependent variation in ligation of the O-donor atom(s) of the 4-methoxy groups of the meso-phenyl rings in the axial position(s) of the central Co(II) is reversible, as shown by electronic spectroscopy. The magnetic and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) data of these two crystalline forms are dependent on the nature of the axial interaction. Increased axial coordination showed increased splitting between the e and a1 orbitals, resulting in further separation between 2A1 and 2E. The EPR data are consistent with this result. The difference in energy levels in these two forms is in agreement with the magnetic and spectroscopic data.

  2. Effect of Ascorbate on the Cyanide-Scavenging Capability of Cobalt(III) meso-Tetra(4-N-methylpyridyl)porphine Pentaiodide: Deactivation by Reduction?

    PubMed

    Benz, Oscar S; Yuan, Quan; Cronican, Andrea A; Peterson, Jim; Pearce, Linda L

    2016-03-21

    The Co(III)-containing water-soluble metalloporphyrin cobalt(III) meso-tetra(4-N-methylpyridyl)porphine pentaiodide (Co(III)TMPyP) is a potential cyanide-scavenging agent. The rate of reduction of Co(III)TMPyP by ascorbate is facile enough that conversion to the Co(II)-containing Co(II)TMPyP should occur within minutes at prevailing in vivo levels of the reductant. It follows that any cyanide-decorporating capability of the metalloporphyrin should depend more on the cyanide-binding characteristics of Co(II)TMPyP than those of the administered form, Co(III)TMPyP. Addition of cyanide to buffered aqueous solutions of Co(II)TMPyP (pH 7.4, 25-37 °C) results in quite rapid (k2 = ∼10(3) M(-1) s(-1)) binding/substitution of cyanide anion in the two available axial positions with high affinity (K'β = 10(10) to 10(11)). Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic measurements and cyclic voltammetry indicate that cyanide induces oxidation to the Co(III)-containing dicyano species. The constraints that these observations put on plausible mechanisms for the reaction of Co(II)TMPyP with cyanide are discussed. Experiments in which Co(III)TMPyP and cyanide were added to freshly drawn mouse blood showed the same sequence of reactions (metalloporphyrin reduction → cyanide binding/substitution → reoxidation) to occur. Therefore, in cyanide-scavenging applications with this metalloporphyrin, we should be taking advantage of both the improved rate of ligand substitution at Co(II) compared to that at Co(III) and the increased affinity of Co(III) for anionic ligands compared to that of Co(II). Finally, using an established sublethal mouse model for cyanide intoxication, Co(III)TMPyP, administered either 5 min before (prophylaxis) or 1 min after the toxicant, is shown to have very significant antidotal capability. Possible explanations for the results of a previous contradictory study, which failed to find any prophylactic effect of Co(III)TMPyP toward cyanide intoxication, are

  3. (μ-3,4-Diacetyl­hexa-2,4-diene-2,5-diol­ato-κ4 O 2,O 3:O 4,O 5)bis­[aqua(1,10-phen­an­thro­line-κ2 N,N′)copper(II)] bis­(tetra­fluorid­oborate) monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Tovilla, Jorge A.; Hernández-Ortega, Simón; Valdés-Martínez, Jesús

    2009-01-01

    In the title compound, [Cu2(C10H12O4)(C12H8N2)2(H2O)2](BF4)2·H2O, the two Cu atoms are each chelated by the acetyl­acetonate unit of the 3,4-diacetyl­hexa-2,4-diene-2,5-diolate (tae) ligand. The Cu atoms are square-pyramidally penta­coordinated, with one bidentate 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) and the tae ligand basal and one water mol­ecule apical. The pyridyl rings of the phen ligands participate in π–π [centroid–centroid distance = 3.894 (3) Å] and C—H ⋯ π inter­actions, generating layers which are inter­connected through O—H⋯O and O—H⋯F hydrogen bonds between the water mol­ecules and the tetra­fluorido­borate anions. The F atoms of both tetra­fluorido­borate anions are each disordered over two positions of equal occupancy. PMID:21582322

  4. Alcohol challenge and sensitivity to change of The Essential Tremor Rating Assessment Scale (TETRAS)

    PubMed Central

    Voller, Bernhard; Lines, Emily; McCrossin, Gayle; Artiles, Aaron; Tinaz, Sule; Lungu, Codrin; Hallett, Mark; Haubenberger, Dietrich

    2014-01-01

    Background The Essential Tremor (ET) Rating Assessment Scale (TETRAS) has shown excellent inter- and intra-rater reliability. To assess the scale’s ability to detect changes in tremor severity, we compared TETRAS performance with standard postural tremor accelerometry during a standardized ethanol challenge. Methods Fifteen adult ET patients received a single oral ethanol dose calculated to reach 0.05 g/dl breath alcohol content (brAC) on two different study days. Two investigators independently assessed the effects with accelerometry on one day and with TETRAS on another day. Measurements were taken at 8 time-points (2 time-points baseline and 6 time-points up to 2 hours post ethanol). Further outcome measures included brAC readings at the same time points. Results Because correlation between TETRAS and accelerometry revealed a logarithmic relation, for all comparisons, accelerometry data were log-transformed and a cumulative score logACC(R+L) was calculated. Correlation between logACC(R+L) and TETRAS was significant (r= 0.57, p<0.01). Repeated measures ANOVA for both TETRAS and accelerometry before and after ethanol showed a significant effect of time-point (F=34.6, p<0.01; F=13.5, p<0.01). Corrected post-hoc tests showed a difference between baseline and each of the following 6 time-points. TETRAS and brAC were significantly correlated (r=−0.29, p<0.01). Intra-rater test-retest analysis between baseline measures showed high correlation (ICC=0.974, p<0.001). The ethanol challenge showed excellent reproducibility. Conclusion We demonstrated sensitivity of the TETRAS performance scale to change after a therapeutic intervention. Our study provides responsiveness validity for TETRAS, further establishing its potential as a valid instrument for ET evaluation in both clinical and research settings. PMID:24123358

  5. Redetermination of cyclo-tetra-kis-(μ-5,10,15,20-tetra-4-pyridyl-porphyrinato)tetra-zinc(II) dimethyl-formamide octa-solvate trihydrate at 100 K.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Rüdiger W; Graf, Jürgen; Goddard, Richard; Oppel, Iris M

    2011-01-22

    The structure of the title compound, [Zn(4)(C(40)H(24)N(8))(4)]·8C(3)H(7)NO·3H(2)O, has been redetermined at 100 K. The redetermination is of significantly higher precision and gives further insight into the disorder of pyridyl groups and solvent mol-ecules. The mol-ecules of (5,10,15,20-tetra-4-pyridyl-porphyrinato)zinc(II) (ZnTPyP) form homomolecular cyclic tetra-mers by coordination of a peripheral pyridyl group to the central Zn atom of an adjacent symmetry-related mol-ecule. The tetra-mer so formed exhibits mol-ecular S(4) symmetry and is located about a crystallographic fourfold rotoinversion axis. Severely disordered dimethyl-formamide and water mol-ecules are present in the crystal, the contributions of which were omitted from refinement. Inter-molecular C-H⋯N hydrogen bonding is observed.

  6. Penta-EF-Hand Protein Peflin Is a Negative Regulator of ER-To-Golgi Transport

    PubMed Central

    Held, Aaron; Sargeant, John; Thorsen, Kevin; Hay, Jesse C.

    2016-01-01

    Luminal calcium regulates vesicle transport early in the secretory pathway. In ER-to-Golgi transport, depletion of luminal calcium leads to significantly reduced transport and a buildup of budding and newly budded COPII vesicles and vesicle proteins. Effects of luminal calcium on transport may be mediated by cytoplasmic calcium sensors near ER exits sites (ERES). The penta-EF-hand (PEF) protein apoptosis-linked gene 2 (ALG-2) stabilizes sec31A at ER exit sites (ERES) and promotes the assembly of inner and outer shell COPII components. However, in vitro and intact cell approaches have not determined whether ALG-2 is a negative or positive regulator, or a regulator at all, under basal physiological conditions. ALG-2 interacts with another PEF protein, peflin, to form cytosolic heterodimers that dissociate in response to calcium. However, a biological function for peflin has not been demonstrated and whether peflin and the ALG-2/peflin interaction modulates transport has not been investigated. Using an intact, single cell, morphological assay for ER-to-Golgi transport in normal rat kidney (NRK) cells, we found that depletion of peflin using siRNA resulted in significantly faster transport of the membrane cargo VSV-G. Double depletion of peflin and ALG-2 blocked the increased transport resulting from peflin depletion, demonstrating a role for ALG-2 in the increased transport. Furthermore, peflin depletion caused increased targeting of ALG-2 to ERES and increased ALG-2/sec31A interactions, suggesting that peflin may normally inhibit transport by preventing ALG-2/sec31A interactions. This work identifies for the first time a clear steady state role for a PEF protein in ER-to-Golgi transport—peflin is a negative regulator of transport. PMID:27276012

  7. trans-Dichlorido­tetra­kis­[(di­methyl­phosphor­yl)methanaminium-κO]cobalt(II) tetra­chloridocobaltate(II)

    PubMed Central

    Reiss, Guido J.

    2013-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title structure, [CoCl2(C3H11NOP)4][CoCl4]2, consists of one half of the trans-dichlorido­tetra­kis­[(di­methyl­phosphor­yl)methanaminium]cobalt(II) tetra­cation lying on an inversion center and one tetra­chloridocobaltate(II) dianion on a general position. Four O-coordinated cationic (di­methyl­phosphor­yl)methanaminium (dpmaH+) ligands occupy the equatorial coordination sites, whereas the chloride ligands occupy axial positions of the roughly o­cta­hedral coordination polyhedron of the cobalt metal center. Intra­molecular hydrogen bonds between the aminium groups and the O atom of the phosphoryl groups and additional hydrogen bonds between the aminium groups and the chloride ligands are present. Furthermore, four of the six H atoms not involved in intra­molecular bonding of each cobalt(II) tetra­cation form weak hydrogen bonds to four adjacent tetra­chloridocobaltate(II) counter-anions. By these inter­molecular hydrogen bonds, one-dimensional polymeric strands are formed along the b-axis direction. The hydrogen bonding is analyzed using the graph-set method and the structural similarity with dpmaHCl is discussed. PMID:23723763

  8. Crystal structures of two deca­vanadates(V) with penta­aqua­manganese(II) pendant groups: (NMe4)2[V10O28{Mn(H2O)5}2]·5H2O and [NH3C(CH2OH)3]2[V10O28{Mn(H2O)5}2]·2H2O

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Maurício P.; Rüdiger, André Luis; Soares, Jaísa F.; Nunes, Giovana G.; Hughes, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Two heterometallic deca­vanadate(V) compounds, bis­(tetra­methyl­ammonium) deca­aquadi-μ4-oxido-tetra-μ3-oxido-hexa­deca-μ2-oxido-hexa­oxidodimang­anese(II)­deca­vanadate(V) penta­hydrate, (Me4N)2[V10O28{Mn(H2O)5}2]·5H2O, A, and bis­{[tris­(hy­droxy­meth­yl)meth­yl]ammonium} deca­aquadi-μ4-oxido-tetra-μ3-oxido-hexa­deca-μ2-oxido-hexa­oxidodimanganese(II)deca­vanadate(V) dihydrate, [NH3C(CH2OH)3]2[V10O28{Mn(H2O)5}2]·2H2O, B, have been synthesized under mild reaction conditions in an aqueous medium. Both polyanions present two [Mn(OH2)5]2+ complex units bound to the deca­vanadate cluster through oxide bridges. In A, the deca­vanadate unit has 2/m symmetry, whereas in B it has twofold symmetry. Apart from this, the main differences between A and B rest on the organic cations, tetra­methyl­ammonium and [tris­(hy­droxy­meth­yl)meth­yl]ammonium, respectively, and on the number and arrangement of the water mol­ecules of crystallization. In both compounds, the H atoms from the coordinating water mol­ecules participate in extensive three-dimensional hydrogen-bonding networks, which link the cluster units both directly and through solvent mol­ecules and, in B, through the ‘tris­’ cation hydroxyl groups. The cation in B also participates in N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. A number of C—H⋯O inter­actions are also observed in both structures. PMID:25878804

  9. Transient receptor potential N (TRPN1) from Xenopus interacts with the penta-EF-hand protein peflin.

    PubMed

    Wiemuth, Dominik; van de Sandt, Lena; Herr, Rudolf; Gründer, Stefan

    2012-12-14

    TRPN1 is a candidate mechanotransduction channel in Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans, also present in hair cells of lower vertebrates. At its N-terminal cytoplasmic tail it contains 28 ankyrin repeats. We performed a yeast two-hybrid screen with the N-terminal ankyrin repeats of Xenopus TRPN1 as bait and identified the Penta-EF-hand protein peflin as a putative interaction partner. We confirmed this interaction by GST pulldown assays and by co-localization in an epithelial cell model. Collectively, our study identifies peflin as an interaction partner of TRPN1 in vitro.

  10. Crystal structure of the tetra­gonal polymorph of bis­(1-ethyl-3-methyl­imidazolium) tetra­bromido­cadmate

    PubMed Central

    Đorđević, Tamara; Gerger, Sabrina; Karanović, Ljiljana

    2016-01-01

    Both unique Cd atoms in the tetra­gonal polymorph of bis­(1-ethyl-3-methyl­imidazolium) tetra­bromido­cadmate, (C6H11N2)2[CdBr4], occupy special positions (site symmetry -4). The crystal structure consists of isolated tetra­hedral [CdBr4]2− anions which are surrounded by 1-ethyl-3-methyl­imidazolium cations. The methyl and ethyl side chains of the cations show positional disorder in a 0.590 (11):0.410 (11) ratio. In the crystal, (C6H11N2)+ cations display three weak C—H⋯Br hydrogen-bond inter­actions through the imidazolium ring H atoms with the Br− ligands of the surrounding complex anions. The alkyl groups of the side chains are not involved in hydrogen bonding. PMID:27555953

  11. Bis(tetra-methyl-amonium) bis-(2,4,5-carboxy-benzoate)-benzene-1,2,4,5-tetra-carboxylic acid (1/1).

    PubMed

    Cunha-Silva, Luís; Girginova, Penka I; Trindade, Tito; Rocha, João; Klinowski, Jacek; Almeida Paz, Filipe A

    2007-12-06

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, 2C(4)H(12)N(+)·2C(10)H(5)O(8) (-)·C(10)H(6)O(8), consists of a tetra-methyl-amonium cation, an anion derived from the singly deprotonated pyromellitic acid anion, 2,4,5-carboxy-benzoate (H(3)bta(-)), and one-half of a benzene-1,2,4,5-tetra-carboxylic acid (H(4)bta) mol-ecule, which has the centroid of the aromatic ring positioned at a crystallographic centre of inversion. The H(4)bta and H(3)bta(-) residues are involved in an extensive inter-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding network, which leads to a three-dimensional supra-molecular structure containing one-dimensional channels running parallel to the [001] crystallographic direction. These channels house the tetra-methyl-amonium cations.

  12. Crystal structure of the monoclinic phase (phase IV) of bis­(tetra­methyl­ammonium) tetra­chlorido­cuprate(II)

    PubMed Central

    Seck, Gorgui Awa; Diop, Libasse; Oliver, Allen G.

    2017-01-01

    The crystal structure of the low-temperature monoclinic phase of the title compound, [(CH3)4N]2[CuCl4], was determined at 120 K. The structure of the room-temperature phase has been determined in the ortho­rhom­bic space group Pmcm [Morosin & Lingafelter (1961 ▸). J. Phys. Chem. 50–51; Clay et al. (1975 ▸). Acta Cryst. B31 289–290]. The asymmetric unit consists of one discrete tetra­chlorido­cuprate anion with a distorted tetra­hedral geometry and two tetra­methyl­ammonium cations. In the crystal, the cations and the anions are linked via weak C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds. PMID:28316808

  13. Continuous Noninvasive Hemodynamic Monitoring in an Infant With Tetra-Amelia.

    PubMed

    Vadi, Marissa G; Ghazal, Elizabeth A; Malkin, Mathew R; Ayodeji, Abisola; Applegate, Richard L

    2016-09-15

    Tetra-amelia syndrome is a congenital disorder associated with near or complete absence of all 4 limbs. Noninvasive hemodynamic monitoring may be difficult or impossible in such patients. We describe the use of a finger cuff blood pressure system for continuous noninvasive blood pressure monitoring in an infant with near-complete tetra-amelia undergoing laparoscopic gastrostomy tube placement. This case suggests the potential use of such a blood pressure monitoring system for other patients with comparable deformities.

  14. Aluminium hydroxide tetra-3-phenylthiophthalocyanine as new photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy and fluorescent diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerovich, I. G.; Smirnova, Z. S.; Oborotova, N. A.; Lukyanets, E. A.; Meerovich, G. A.; Derkacheva, V. M.; Polozkova, A. P.; Kubasova, I. Y.; Baryshnikov, A. Y.

    2005-08-01

    This work is devoted to investigation of possibility to use the liposomal form of aluminium hydroxide tetra-3-phenylthiophthalocyanine as photosensitizer of near-infrared range. Aluminium hydroxide tetra-3-phenylthiophthalocyanine has shown high selectivity of accumulation in tumor comparing to normal tissue of mice as well as high photodynamic efficiency on mice bearing Erlich tumor (ELD) and lympholeucosis P-388. This compozition can be used to develop new effective photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy and fluorescent diagnostics.

  15. Implementation of tetra-poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel with high mechanical strength into microfluidic device technology

    PubMed Central

    Takehara, Hiroaki; Nagaoka, Akira; Noguchi, Jun; Akagi, Takanori; Sakai, Takamasa; Chung, Ung-il; Kasai, Haruo; Ichiki, Takanori

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogels have several excellent characteristics suitable for biomedical use such as softness, biological inertness and solute permeability. Hence, integrating hydrogels into microfluidic devices is a promising approach for providing additional functions such as biocompatibility and porosity, to microfluidic devices. However, the poor mechanical strength of hydrogels has severely limited device design and fabrication. A tetra-poly(ethylene glycol) (tetra-PEG) hydrogel synthesized recently has high mechanical strength and is expected to overcome such a limitation. In this research, we have comprehensively studied the implementation of tetra-PEG gel into microfluidic device technology. First, the fabrication of tetra-PEG gel/PDMS hybrid microchannels was established by developing a simple and robust bonding technique. Second, some fundamental features of tetra-PEG gel/PDMS hybrid microchannels, particularly fluid flow and mass transfer, were studied. Finally, to demonstrate the unique application of tetra-PEG-gel-integrated microfluidic devices, the generation of patterned chemical modulation with the maximum concentration gradient: 10% per 20 μm in a hydrogel was performed. The techniques developed in this study are expected to provide fundamental and beneficial methods of developing various microfluidic devices for life science and biomedical applications. PMID:24404072

  16. Cytosine Nucleobase Ligand: A Suitable Choice for Modulating Magnetic Anisotropy in Tetrahedrally Coordinated Mononuclear Co(II) Compounds.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Rosaria; Vallejo, Julia; Marino, Nadia; De Munno, Giovanni; Krzystek, J; Cano, Joan; Pardo, Emilio; Armentano, Donatella

    2017-02-20

    A family of tetrahedral mononuclear Co(II) complexes with the cytosine nucleobase ligand is used as the playground for an in-depth study of the effects that the nature of the ligand, as well as their noninnocent distortions on the Co(II) environment, may have on the slow magnetic relaxation effects. Hence, those compounds with greater distortion from the ideal tetrahedral geometry showed a larger-magnitude axial magnetic anisotropy (D) together with a high rhombicity factor (E/D), and thus, slow magnetic relaxation effects also appear. In turn, the more symmetric compound possesses a much smaller value of the D parameter and, consequently, lacks single-ion magnet behavior.

  17. Spectroscopic and mycological studies of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes with 4-aminoantipyrine derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Amit Kumar; Chandra, Sulekh

    2011-10-01

    Complexes of the type [M(L)X 2], where M = Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II), have been synthesized with novel NO-donor Schiff's base ligand, 1,4-diformylpiperazine bis(4-imino-2,3-dimethyl-1-phenyl-3-pyrazolin-5-one) which is obtained by the acid catalyzed condensation of 1,4-diformylpiperazine with 4-aminoantipyrine. The elemental analyses, molar conductance measurements, magnetic susceptibility measurements, IR, UV, NMR, mass and EPR studies of the compounds led to the conclusion that the ligand acts as tetradentate chelate. The Schiff's base ligand forms hexacoordinated complexes having octahedral geometry for Ni(II) and tetragonal geometry for Co(II) and Cu(II) complexes. The mycological studies of the compounds were examined against the several opportunistic pathogens, i.e., Alternaria brassicae, Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum. The Cu(II) complexes were found to have most fungicidal behavior.

  18. Synthesis, structures and photocatalytic properties of two new Co(II) coordination polymers based on 5-(benzyloxy)isophthalate ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xia; Li, Jing; Li, Ming-Kai; Fei, Zhou

    2014-02-01

    Two new Co(II) coordination polymer, namely [Co2(L)2(H2O)]n (1) and [Co(L)(phen)(H2O)]n·xH2O (2) (H2L = 5-(benzyloxy)isophthalic acid, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) have been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and single crystal X-ray analysis. The molecular structure of 1 contains two Co(II) ions, two L2- ligands and one coordinated water molecule, which further extends into a complicated 3D framework with the tails of L2- ligands filling in the hexagonal channels, and the molecular structure of 2 contains one Co(II) ions, one L2- ligands, one phen ligands, one coordinated water molecule and half of the water molecule of crystallization, which further extends into a 1D chain structure. In addition, photocatalytic investigation on compounds 1 and 2 reveals that they are active catalyst for degradation of methyl blue.

  19. Penta-Twinned Copper Nanorods: Facile Synthesis via Seed-Mediated Growth and Their Tunable Plasmonic Properties

    DOE PAGES

    Luo, Ming; Ruditskiy, Aleksey; Peng, Hsin-Chieh; ...

    2016-01-07

    When seed-mediated growth is used as a versatile approach to the synthesis of penta-twinned Cu nanorods with uniform diameters and controllable aspect ratios is reported. The success of this approach relies on our recent synthesis of uniform Pd decahedra, with sizes in the range of 6–20 nm. The Pd decahedral seeds can direct the heterogeneous nucleation and growth of Cu along the fivefold axis to produce nanorods with uniform diameters defined by the lateral dimension of the original seeds. Due to a large mismatch in the lattice constants between Cu and Pd (7.1%), the deposited Cu is forced to growmore » along one side of the Pd decahedral seed, generating a nanorod with an asymmetric distribution of Cu, with the Pd seed situated at one of the two ends. According to extinction spectra, the as-obtained Cu nanorods can be stored in water under the ambient conditions for at least six months without noticeable degradation. The resulting stability allows us to systematically investigate the size-dependent surface plasmon resonance properties of the penta-twinned Cu nanorods. With the nanorod transverse modes positioned at 560 nm, the longitudinal modes can be readily tuned from the visible to the near-infrared region by controlling the aspect ratio.« less

  20. Penta-Twinned Copper Nanorods: Facile Synthesis via Seed-Mediated Growth and Their Tunable Plasmonic Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Ming; Ruditskiy, Aleksey; Peng, Hsin-Chieh; Tao, Jing; Figueroa-Cosme, Legna; He, Zhike; Xia, Younan

    2016-01-07

    When seed-mediated growth is used as a versatile approach to the synthesis of penta-twinned Cu nanorods with uniform diameters and controllable aspect ratios is reported. The success of this approach relies on our recent synthesis of uniform Pd decahedra, with sizes in the range of 6–20 nm. The Pd decahedral seeds can direct the heterogeneous nucleation and growth of Cu along the fivefold axis to produce nanorods with uniform diameters defined by the lateral dimension of the original seeds. Due to a large mismatch in the lattice constants between Cu and Pd (7.1%), the deposited Cu is forced to grow along one side of the Pd decahedral seed, generating a nanorod with an asymmetric distribution of Cu, with the Pd seed situated at one of the two ends. According to extinction spectra, the as-obtained Cu nanorods can be stored in water under the ambient conditions for at least six months without noticeable degradation. The resulting stability allows us to systematically investigate the size-dependent surface plasmon resonance properties of the penta-twinned Cu nanorods. With the nanorod transverse modes positioned at 560 nm, the longitudinal modes can be readily tuned from the visible to the near-infrared region by controlling the aspect ratio.

  1. Penta- and hexa-coordinate ferric hemoglobins display distinct pH titration profiles measured by Soret peak shifts.

    PubMed

    Uppal, Sheetal; Kumar, Amit; Shandilya, Manish; Mukhi, Nitika; Singh, Amit Kumar; Kateriya, Suneel; Kaur, Jagreet; Kundu, Suman

    2016-10-01

    Hemoglobins with diverse characteristics have been identified in all kingdoms of life. Their ubiquitous presence indicates that these proteins play important roles in physiology, though function for all hemoglobins are not yet established with certainty. Their physiological role may depend on their ability to bind ligands, which in turn is dictated by their heme chemistry. However, we have an incomplete understanding of the mechanism of ligand binding for these newly discovered hemoglobins and the measurement of their kinetic parameters depend on their coordination at the heme iron. To gain insights into their functional role, it is important to categorize the new hemoglobins into either penta- or hexa-coordinated varieties. We demonstrate that simple pH titration and absorbance measurements can determine the coordination state of heme iron atom in ferric hemoglobins, thus providing unambiguous information about the classification of new globins. This method is rapid, sensitive and requires low concentration of protein. Penta- and hexa-coordinate hemoglobins displayed distinct pH titration profiles as observed in a variety of hemoglobins. The pentacoordinate distal histidine mutant proteins of hexacoordinate hemoglobins and ligand-bound hexacoordinate forms of pentacoordinate hemoglobins reverse the pH titration profiles, thus validating the sensitivity of this spectroscopic technique.

  2. Numerical generation of hyperspherical harmonics for tetra-atomic systems.

    PubMed

    Lepetit, Bruno; Wang, Desheng; Kuppermann, Aron

    2006-10-07

    A numerical generation method of hyperspherical harmonics for tetra-atomic systems, in terms of row-orthonormal hyperspherical coordinates-a hyper-radius and eight angles-is presented. The nine-dimensional coordinate space is split into three three-dimensional spaces, the physical rotation, kinematic rotation, and kinematic invariant spaces. The eight-angle principal-axes-of-inertia hyperspherical harmonics are expanded in Wigner rotation matrices for the physical and kinematic rotation angles. The remaining two-angle harmonics defined in kinematic invariant space are expanded in a basis of trigonometric functions, and the diagonalization of the kinetic energy operator in this basis provides highly accurate harmonics. This trigonometric basis is chosen to provide a mathematically exact and finite expansion for the harmonics. Individually, each basis function does not satisfy appropriate boundary conditions at the poles of the kinetic energy operator; however, the numerically generated linear combination of these functions which constitutes the harmonic does. The size of this basis is minimized using the symmetries of the system, in particular, internal symmetries, involving different sets of coordinates in nine-dimensional space corresponding to the same physical configuration.

  3. Metal complexes of cyclic tetra-azatetra-acetic acids.

    PubMed

    Delgado, R; da Silva, J J

    1982-10-01

    The cyclic tetra-aza complexones cDOTA ([12]ane N(4).4ac), cTRITA ([13]ane N(4).4ac) and cTETA ([14]ane N(4).4ac) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, titration, melting-point determination and NMR (and infrared) spectroscopy. The ionization constants and the stability constants of the MH(2)L, MHL and ML complexes formed with alkali, alkaline-earth and some transition metals were determined at 25.0 +/- 0.1 degrees and ionic strength 0.10M [KNO(3) and (CH(3))(4)NNO(3)]. It was confirmed that cDOTA forms the most stable Ca(2+) and Sr(2+) complexes but the reported inversion of the order of stability of the complexes of these two ions with cTRITA was not confirmed. Also, the values of the stability constants determined in this work differ substantially from those previously reported for ML species. cDOTA is an interesting alternative to classical non-cyclic complex-ones for the complexometric determination of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) but neither this ligand nor the other two offer advantages over EDTA or DCTA for the complexometric titration of transition metals.

  4. Regressive evolution in the Mexican cave tetra, Astyanax mexicanus.

    PubMed

    Protas, Meredith; Conrad, Melissa; Gross, Joshua B; Tabin, Clifford; Borowsky, Richard

    2007-03-06

    The evolutionary forces driving the reduction of eyes and pigmentation in cave-adapted animals are unknown; Darwin famously questioned the role of natural selection in eye loss in cave fishes: "As it is difficult to imagine that eyes, although useless, could be in any way injurious to animals living in darkness, I attribute their loss wholly to disuse"[1]. We studied the genetics of eye and pigmentation regression in the Mexican cave tetra, Astyanax mexicanus, by mapping and quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis. We also mapped QTL for the putatively constructive traits of jaw size, tooth number, and numbers of taste buds. The data suggest that eyes and pigmentation regressed through different mechanisms. Cave alleles at every eye or lens QTL we detected caused size reductions, consistent with evolution by natural selection but not with drift. QTL polarities for melanophore number were mixed, however, consistent with genetic drift. Arguments against a role for selection in the regression of cave-fish eyes cited the insignificant cost of their development [2, 3], but we argue that the energetic cost of their maintenance is sufficiently high for eyes to be detrimental in the cave environment. Regression can be caused either by selection or drift.

  5. Heptanuclear Co(II)5Co(III)2 Cluster as Efficient Water Oxidation Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jia-Heng; Guo, Ling-Yu; Su, Hai-Feng; Gao, Xiang; Wu, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Wen-Guang; Tung, Chen-Ho; Sun, Di

    2017-02-06

    Inspired by the transition-metal-oxo cubical Mn4CaO5 in photosystem II, we herein report a disc-like heptanuclear mixed-valent cobalt cluster, [Co(II)5Co(III)2(mdea)4(N3)2(CH3CN)6(OH)2(H2O)2·4ClO4] (1, H2mdea = N-methyldiethanolamine), for photocatalytic oxygen evolution. The topology of the Co7 core resembles a small piece of cobaltate protected by terminal H2O, N3(-), CH3CN, and multidentate N-methyldiethanolamine at the periphery. Under the optimal photocatalytic conditions, 1 exhibits water oxidation activity with a turnover number (TON) of 210 and a turnover frequency (TOFinitial) of 0.23 s(-1). Importantly, electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was used to not only identify the possible main active species in the water oxidation reaction but also monitor the evolutions of oxidation states of cobalt during the photocatalytic reactions. These results shed light on the design concept of new water oxidation catalysts and mechanism-related issues such as the key active intermediate and oxidation state evolution in the oxygen evolution process. The magnetic properties of 1 were also discussed in detail.

  6. Poly[diammonium [(μ4-butane-1,2,3,4-tetra­carboxyl­ato)zincate] tetra­hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Shouwen; Huang, Yanfei; Wei, Shuaishuai; Zhou, Yong; Zhou, Yingping

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, {(NH4)2[Zn(C8H6O8)]·4H2O}n, the asymmetric unit contains one ammonium cation, half of a butane-1,2,3,4-tetra­carboxyl­ate anion, one Zn2+ cation and two water mol­ecules. The butane-1,2,3,4-tetra­carboxyl­ate ligand is located about an inversion centre at the mid-point of the central C—C bond. The Zn2+ cation is situated on a twofold rotation axis and is surrounded by four O atoms from four symmetry-related butane-1,2,3,4-tetra­carboxyl­ate anions in a distorted tetra­hedral environment. In turn, each anion coordinates to four Zn2+ cations. The bridging mode of the anions leads to a three-dimensional framework structure with channels extending along [110] and [010] in which the ammonium cations and the water mol­ecules are located. N—H⋯O and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonding between the cations and water mol­ecules and the uncoordinating O atoms of the carboxyl­ate groups consolidates the crystal packing. PMID:23125594

  7. Synthesis, characterization and biomolecule-binding properties of novel tetra-platinum(II)-thiopyridylporphyrins.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Leandro M O; Iglesias, Bernardo A; Pereira, Patrícia M R; Girão, Henrique; Fernandes, Rosa; Neves, Maria G P M S; Cavaleiro, José A S; Tomé, João P C

    2015-01-14

    The new complexes tetra-platinum(II)-thiopyridylporphyrin 3 and tetra-platinum(II)-thiopyridylporphyrinato Zn(II) 4 were obtained by coordination of the peripheral thiopyridyl units of the free-base 5,10,15,20-tetrakis[2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-4-(4-pyridylsulfanyl)phenyl]porphyrin 1 or their corresponding zinc complex 2, respectively, with four chloro(2,2'-bipyridine)platinum(II) [Pt(bpy)Cl](+) units. Both compounds were characterized by several spectroscopic techniques demonstrating a particular behaviour in the emission spectra due to the absence or presence of zinc. The tetra-platinum(II)-thiopyridylporphyrins exhibited an increase in the emission quantum yield when compared with the starting thiopyridylporphyrins 1 and 2. Spectroscopic studies of both platinum derivatives reveal their ability to interact unequivocally with DNA from calf thymus and DNA of low molecular weight from salmon sperms, and also with the most abundant protein in human blood plasma, human serum albumin (HSA). Herein, both tetra-platinum(II)-thiopyridylporphyrins 3 and 4 exhibit electrostatic surface binding with the negative phosphate groups of DNA. Similar to cationic-anionic binding with DNA, tetra-platinum(II)-thiopyridylporphyrinato zinc(II) demonstrates a particular binding intercalation mode with DNA. Photophysical studies demonstrated that both porphyrins are photostable and able to generate singlet oxygen ((1)O2) after light irradiation. Exposure of pMT123 plasmid DNA to tetra-platinum(II)-thiopyridylporphyrins and irradiation with light lead to single-strand breakage as determined by the conversion of the supercoiled form of the plasmid (form I) into the nicked circular form (form II). The tetra-platinum(II)-thiopyridylporphyrinato Zn(II) demonstrates a particular intercalation binding mode with DNA and an ability to cleave DNA after photo-excitation.

  8. Magnetic properties of weakly exchange-coupled high spin Co(II) ions in pseudooctahedral coordination evaluated by single crystal X-band EPR spectroscopy and magnetic measurements.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Nicolás I; Winkler, Elín; Peña, Octavio; Passeggi, Mario C G; Rizzi, Alberto C; Brondino, Carlos D

    2014-03-03

    We report single-crystal X-band EPR and magnetic measurements of the coordination polymer catena-(trans-(μ2-fumarato)tetraaquacobalt(II)), 1, and the Co(II)-doped Zn(II) analogue, 2, in different Zn:Co ratios. 1 presents two magnetically inequivalent high spin S = 3/2 Co(II) ions per unit cell, named A and B, in a distorted octahedral environment coordinated to four water oxygen atoms and trans coordinated to two carboxylic oxygen atoms from the fumarate anions, in which the Co(II) ions are linked by hydrogen bonds and fumarate molecules. Magnetic susceptibility and magnetization measurements of 1 indicate weak antiferromagnetic exchange interactions between the S = 3/2 spins of the Co(II) ions in the crystal lattice. Oriented single crystal EPR experiments of 1 and 2 were used to evaluate the molecular g-tensor and the different exchange coupling constants between the Co(II) ions, assuming an effective spin S′= 1/2. Unexpectedly, the eigenvectors of the molecular g-tensor were not lying along any preferential bond direction, indicating that, in high spin Co(II) ions in roughly octahedral geometry with approximately axial EPR signals, the presence of molecular pseudo axes in the metal site does not determine preferential directions for the molecular g-tensor. The EPR experiment and magnetic measurements, together with a theoretical analysis relating the coupling constants obtained from both techniques, allowed us to evaluate selectively the exchange coupling constant associated with hydrogen bonds that connect magnetically inequivalent Co(II) ions (|JAB(1/2)| = 0.055(2) cm(–1)) and the exchange coupling constant associated with a fumarate bridge connecting equivalent Co(II) ions (|JAA(1/2)| ≈ 0.25 (1) cm(–1)), in good agreement with the average J(3/2) value determined from magnetic measurements.

  9. Crystal structure of di-aqua-(μ2-tri-ethyl-ene-tetra-minehexa-acetato)-dizinc tetra-hydrate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Lu, Li-Ping

    2015-03-01

    The reaction of ZnO and tri-ethyl-ene-tetra-minehexaacetic acid (H6TTHA) in aqueous solution after refluxing yields the binuclear title compound, [Zn2(C18H26N4O12)(H2O)2]·4H2O. There is a centre of symmetry in the [Zn2(H2TTHA)(H2O)2] mol-ecule in the crystalline state. Both Zn(II) ions are octahedrally surrounded and bound by an N2O3 donor set from the H2TTHA(4-) anion and a water mol-ecule; the N atoms are cis and the water mol-ecule is trans to an N atom. The Zn⋯Zn separation is 7.562 (1) Å. An intra-molecular C-H⋯O inter-action is observed and both carboxyl-ate H atoms are disordered over two adjacent sites. In the crystal, the components are linked by O-H⋯O and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds generating a three-dimensonal network.

  10. 4-Phenyl-9,12,15-trioxa-1,5,6,18-tetra­azatetra­cyclo­[16.6.1.02,6.019,24]penta­conta-2,4,19,21,23-pentaen-25-one

    PubMed Central

    Ghomsi, Joseph Nathan; Ahabchane, Noureddine Hamou; Bouhfid, Rachid; Essassi, El Mokhtar; Ng, Seik Weng

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, C24H26N4O4, is a diaza-crown ether encompassing linked phenylpyrazolyl and benzimidazole units that contribute five atoms to the 16-atom ring. The two planar phenylpyrazolyl and benzimidazole units are aligned at an angle of 66.4 (1)°. The carbonyl O atom of the benzimidazole unit is directed away from the middle of the ring. PMID:21577943

  11. Possible risks due to exposure of workers and patients with implants by TETRA transmitters.

    PubMed

    Cecil, Stefan; Neubauer, Georg; Rauscha, Friedrich; Stix, Günter; Müller, Wolfgang; Breithuber, Christian; Glanzer, Markus

    2014-04-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that mobile telephones that use different technologies, such as Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) or Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS), have the potential to influence the functionality of active electronic implants, including cardiac pacemakers. According to these studies, a few safety measures, such as maintaining minimum distances of 25 cm between implants and transmitters, are sufficient to avoid such effects. Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) has become a well-established communication standard in many countries, including Germany and Austria. TETRA transmitters are typically used by police forces and emergency services. Employees and volunteers working for such institutions are often in close contact with patients, causing TETRA transmitters to potentially have an impact on the functionality of the implants of patients. Therefore, the main focus of our study was to investigate the functionality of several types of implants when exposed to TETRA transmitters. Moreover, we investigated the difference in the degree of exposure of users of TETRA transmitters when they carry the devices in different locations near the body, and when they use them in different positions near the head. Our results show that a compliance distance of 30 cm between implant and transmitter is sufficient to exclude any influence on the examined implants. All examined exposure conditions demonstrated that the levels were well below recommended limits. If a user wants to minimize their exposure, use of transmitters in front of the mouth leads to somewhat lower exposure when compared to typical mobile phone like use.

  12. Tetra-triethyleneoxysulfonyl substituted zinc phthalocyanine for photodynamic cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Kuzyniak, Weronika; Ermilov, Eugeny A; Atilla, Devrim; Gürek, Ayşe Gül; Nitzsche, Bianca; Derkow, Katja; Hoffmann, Björn; Steinemann, Gustav; Ahsen, Vefa; Höpfner, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has emerged as an effective and minimally invasive treatment option for several diseases, including some forms of cancer. However, several drawbacks of the approved photosensitizers (PS), such as insufficient light absorption at therapeutically relevant wavelengths hampered the clinical effectiveness of PDT. Phthalocyanines (Pc) are interesting PS-candidates with a strong light absorption in the favourable red spectral region and a high quantum yield of cancer cell destroying singlet oxygen generation. Here, we evaluated the suitability of tetra-triethyleneoxysulfonyl substituted zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) as novel PS for PDT. ZnPc-induced phototoxicity, induction of apoptosis as well as cell cycle arresting effects was studied in the human gastrointestinal cancer cell lines of different origin. Photoactivation of ZnPc-pretreated (1-10 μM) cancer cells was achieved by illumination with a broad band white light source (400-700 nm) at a power density of 10 J/cm(2). Photoactivation of ZnPc-loaded cells revealed strong phototoxic effects, leading to a dose-dependent decrease of cancer cell proliferation of up to almost 100%, the induction of apoptosis and a G1-phase arrest of the cell cycle, which was associated with decrease in cyclin D1 expression. By contrast, ZnPc-treatment without illumination did not induce any cytotoxicity, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest or decreased cell growth. Antiangiogenic effects of ZnPc-PDT were investigated in vivo by performing CAM assays, which revealed a marked degradation of blood vessels and the capillary plexus of the chorioallantoic membrane of fertilized chicken eggs. Based on our data we think that ZnPc may be a promising novel photosensitizer for innovative PDT.

  13. Crystal structure of penta­sodium hydrogen dicitrate from synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data and DFT comparison

    PubMed Central

    Kaduk, James A.

    2017-01-01

    The crystal structure of penta­sodium hydrogen dicitrate, Na5H(C6H5O7)2, has been solved and refined using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data, and optimized using density functional techniques. Each of the two independent citrate anions is joined into a dimer by very strong centrosymmetric O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, with O⋯O distances of 2.419 and 2.409 Å. Four octa­hedrally coordinated Na+ ions share edges to form open layers parallel to the ab plane. A fifth Na+ ion in trigonal–bipyramidal coordination shares faces with NaO6 octahedra on both sides of these layers. PMID:28217360

  14. Public health assessment for Penta Wood Products Incorporated, Siren, Burnett County, Wisconsin, Region 5. Cerclis No. WID006176945. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-02

    Penta Wood Products Superfund National Priorities List (NPL) site is a part of the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Public Health Assesment Enhancement Initiative. This document indicates what actions the DOH and ATSDR have taken to address the elements required by Section 104(I)(6)(A) of the comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) as amended (42 U.S.C. 9604(I)(6)(A)). Those elements are: (1) Nature and extent of contamination; (2) Potential pathways of human exposure; (3) Demographics (size and susceptibility of nearby populations); (4) Health hazards of the site; and (5) Comparison of morbidity and mortality data. In addition, this document indicates how the DOH and ATSDR provided earlier, specifically targeted evaluations. DOH`s future plans at this site are also presented in this document.

  15. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy reveals highly efficient cytosolic delivery of certain penta-arg proteins and stapled peptides.

    PubMed

    LaRochelle, Jonathan R; Cobb, Garrett B; Steinauer, Angela; Rhoades, Elizabeth; Schepartz, Alanna

    2015-02-25

    We used fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) to accurately and precisely determine the relative efficiencies with which three families of "cell-penetrating peptides" traffic to the cytosol of mammalian cells. We find that certain molecules containing a "penta-arg" motif reach the cytosol, intact, with efficiencies greater than 50%. This value is at least 10-fold higher than that observed for the widely studied cationic sequence derived from HIV Tat or polyarginine Arg8, and equals that of hydrocarbon-stapled peptides that are active in cells and animals. Moreover, we show that the efficiency with which stapled peptides reach the cytosol, as determined by FCS, correlates directly with their efficacy in cell-based assays. We expect that these findings and the associated technology will aid the design of peptides, proteins, and peptide mimetics that predictably and efficiently reach the interior of mammalian cells.

  16. The role of citrate and phthalate during Co(II) coprecipitation with calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young J.; Reeder, Richard J.

    2006-05-01

    The influence of citrate and phthalate on Co coprecipitation with calcite was investigated using a combination of batch experiments, Fourier-transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) over a wide range of precipitation rates. Steady-state growth conditions (at constant [Ca], [Co], DIC, and pH) were generally achieved within 3-5 h, after which Co(II) partitioning into calcite was evaluated. Only minor differences are observed in the partition coefficient ( Kd) trends with and without citrate and phthalate as a function of calcite precipitation rate except at very low rates. Slight inhibition of calcite growth is observed in the presence of citrate or phthalate, which can be attributed to adsorption at surface sites. TGA curves for samples coprecipitated with citrate show a significant mass loss between 375 and 550 °C, whereas the weight-loss curves for the Co-phthalate coprecipitates are indistinguishable from those of the organic-free Co coprecipitates. This indicates that citrate is incorporated into calcite during calcite crystallization, whereas phthalate is excluded. FT-IR spectra for the sample with citrate show a broad absorption in the range 3700-3100 cm -1, which is attributable to water molecules coordinated to citrate coprecipitated with calcite. The preferential incorporation of citrate over phthalate likely reflects differences in both aqueous speciation and conformation of the carboxylate groups. This new finding may provide new insight to the factors that control the behavior of macromolecules and their incorporation into the structure of calcium carbonate during biomineralization.

  17. Redetermination of cyclo-tetra­kis­(μ-5,10,15,20-tetra-4-pyridyl­porphyrinato)tetra­zinc(II) dimethyl­formamide octa­solvate trihydrate at 100 K

    PubMed Central

    Seidel, Rüdiger W.; Graf, Jürgen; Goddard, Richard; Oppel, Iris M.

    2011-01-01

    The structure of the title compound, [Zn4(C40H24N8)4]·8C3H7NO·3H2O, has been redetermined at 100 K. The redetermination is of significantly higher precision and gives further insight into the disorder of pyridyl groups and solvent mol­ecules. The mol­ecules of (5,10,15,20-tetra-4-pyridyl­porphyrinato)zinc(II) (ZnTPyP) form homomolecular cyclic tetra­mers by coordination of a peripheral pyridyl group to the central Zn atom of an adjacent symmetry-related mol­ecule. The tetra­mer so formed exhibits mol­ecular S 4 symmetry and is located about a crystallographic fourfold rotoinversion axis. Severely disordered dimethyl­formamide and water mol­ecules are present in the crystal, the contributions of which were omitted from refinement. Inter­molecular C—H⋯N hydrogen bonding is observed. PMID:21522892

  18. Blade loss transient dynamics analysis, volume 2. Task 2: TETRA 2 user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, Gerald; Gallardo, Vincente C.

    1986-01-01

    This is the user's manual for the TETRA 2 Computer Code, a program developed in the NASA-Lewis Blade Loss Program. TETRA 2 calculates a turbine engine's dynamic structural response from applied stimuli. The calculation options are: (1) transient response; and (2) steady state forced response. Based on the method of modal syntheses, the program allows the use of linear, as well as nonlinear connecting elements. Both transient and steady state options can include: flexible Bladed Disk Module, and Nonlinear Connecting Elements (including deadband, hardening/softening spring). The transient option has the additional capability to calculate response with a squeeze film bearing module. TETRA 2 output is summarized in a plotfile which permits post processing such as FFT or graphical animation with the proper software and computer equipment.

  19. (2R*,4R*,7S*,10R*,12R*)-3,11,13,15-Tetra-oxa-penta-cyclo-[5.5.3.0(1,7).0(2,4).0(10,12)]penta-deca-5,8-dien-14-one.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Goverdhan; Sen, Saikat; Kumar, C S Ananda

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, C11H8O5, features a 'skipped' diene, an anti-bis-(epoxide) and a cyclic carbonate, all embedded in a densely functionalized [4.4.3]propellane scaffold. The crystal packing of this diepoxide is effected primarily by C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, which link the mol-ecules into tapes along the b axis. Inter-tape connectivity is brought about by centrosymmetrically disposed pairs of C⋯O contacts [3.183 (4) Å] between the C(δ+)=O(δ-) dipoles of neighbouring carbonate moieties.

  20. Di-μ-acetato-bis-(dimethyl-formamide)-penta-kis-(μ-N,2-dioxidobenzene-1-car-boximidato)tetra-kis-(1-ethyl-imidazole)-penta-manganese(III)-manganese(II)-diethyl ether-dimethyl-foramide-methanol-water (1/1/1/1/0.12).

    PubMed

    Tigyer, Benjamin R; Zeller, Matthias; Zaleski, Curtis M

    2011-08-01

    The title compound [Mn(6)(C(7)H(4)NO(3))(5)(CH(3)CO(2))(2)(C(5)H(8)N(2))(4)(C(3)H(7)NO)(2)]·(C(2)H(5))(2)O·C(3)H(7)NO·CH(3)OH·0.12H(2)O, abbreviated as Mn(II)(OAc)(2)[15-MC(MnIII(N)shi)-5](EtIm)4(DMF)2·diethyl ether·DMF·MeOH·0.12H(2)O (where (-)OAc is acetate, MC is metallacrown, shi(3-) is salicylhydroximate, EtIM is n-ethylimidazole, DMF is N,N-dimethylformamide, and MeOH is methanol) contains five Mn(III) ions as members of the metallacrown ring and an Mn(II) ion bound in the central cavity. The central Mn(II) ion is seven-coordinate with a distorted face-capped trigonal-prismatic geometry. The five Mn(III) ions of the metallacrown ring are six-coordinate with distorted octa-hedral geometries. The configuration of the Mn(III) ions about the metallacrown ring follow a ΔΛΔPP pattern, with P representing planar. The four 1-ethyl-imidazole ligands are bound to four different Mn(III) ions. A diethyl ether solvent mol-ecule was found to be disordered over two mutually exclusive sites with an occupancy ratio of 0.568 (7):0.432 (7). A methanol solvent mol-ecule was found to be disordered over two mutually exclusive sites by being hydrogen bonded either to a dimethyl-formamide solvent mol-ecule (major occupancy component) or to an O atom of the main mol-ecule (minor occupancy component). The occupancy ratio refined to 0.678 (11):0.322 (11). Associated with the minor component is a partially occupied water mol-ecule [total occupancy 0.124 (15)].

  1. Crystal structure of chlorido­(2-{[2-(4-chloro­phen­yl)hydrazin-1-yl­idene-κN 1](phen­yl)meth­yl}pyridine-κN)(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)iridium(III) tetra­phenyl­borate

    PubMed Central

    Devika, Neelakandan; Raja, Nandhagopal; Ananthalakshmi, Subbiah; Therrien, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, [Ir(η5-C5Me5)Cl(C18H14ClN3)]B(C6H5)4, is chiral at the metal center and crystallizes as a racemate. In the cation, the hydrazinyl­idene­pyridine ligand is N,N-coordinated through the N-pyridyl and N-hydrazinyl­idene groups forming a five-membered metallacycle. An intra­molecular C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bond is observed. In the crystal, centrosymmetrically-related cations are connected by C—Cl⋯π inter­actions, forming a dimeric structure. The crystal packing is further stabilized by weak inter­ionic C—H⋯π inter­actions. PMID:25844211

  2. Crystal structure of tetra-wickmanite, Mn(2+)Sn(4+)(OH)6.

    PubMed

    Lafuente, Barbara; Yang, Hexiong; Downs, Robert T

    2015-02-01

    The crystal structure of tetra-wickmanite, ideally Mn(2+)Sn(4+)(OH)6 [mangan-ese(II) tin(IV) hexa-hydroxide], has been determined based on single-crystal X-ray diffraction data collected from a natural sample from Långban, Sweden. Tetra-wickmanite belongs to the octa-hedral-framework group of hydroxide-perovskite minerals, described by the general formula BB'(OH)6 with a perovskite derivative structure. The structure differs from that of an ABO3 perovskite in that the A site is empty while each O atom is bonded to an H atom. The perovskite B-type cations split into ordered B and B' sites, which are occupied by Mn(2+) and Sn(4+), respectively. Tetra-wickmanite exhibits tetra-gonal symmetry and is topologically similar to its cubic polymorph, wickmanite. The tetra-wickmanite structure is characterized by a framework of alternating corner-linked [Mn(2+)(OH)6] and [Sn(4+)(OH)6] octa-hedra, both with point-group symmetry -1. Four of the five distinct H atoms in the structure are statistically disordered. The vacant A site is in a cavity in the centre of a distorted cube formed by eight octa-hedra at the corners. However, the hydrogen-atom positions and their hydrogen bonds are not equivalent in every cavity, resulting in two distinct environments. One of the cavities contains a ring of four hydrogen bonds, similar to that found in wickmanite, while the other cavity is more distorted and forms crankshaft-type chains of hydrogen bonds, as previously proposed for tetra-gonal stottite, Fe(2+)Ge(4+)(OH)6.

  3. Crystal structure of tetra­wickmanite, Mn2+Sn4+(OH)6

    PubMed Central

    Lafuente, Barbara; Yang, Hexiong; Downs, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    The crystal structure of tetra­wickmanite, ideally Mn2+Sn4+(OH)6 [mangan­ese(II) tin(IV) hexa­hydroxide], has been determined based on single-crystal X-ray diffraction data collected from a natural sample from Långban, Sweden. Tetra­wickmanite belongs to the octa­hedral-framework group of hydroxide-perovskite minerals, described by the general formula BB’(OH)6 with a perovskite derivative structure. The structure differs from that of an ABO3 perovskite in that the A site is empty while each O atom is bonded to an H atom. The perovskite B-type cations split into ordered B and B′ sites, which are occupied by Mn2+ and Sn4+, respectively. Tetra­wickmanite exhibits tetra­gonal symmetry and is topologically similar to its cubic polymorph, wickmanite. The tetra­wickmanite structure is characterized by a framework of alternating corner-linked [Mn2+(OH)6] and [Sn4+(OH)6] octa­hedra, both with point-group symmetry -1. Four of the five distinct H atoms in the structure are statistically disordered. The vacant A site is in a cavity in the centre of a distorted cube formed by eight octa­hedra at the corners. However, the hydrogen-atom positions and their hydrogen bonds are not equivalent in every cavity, resulting in two distinct environments. One of the cavities contains a ring of four hydrogen bonds, similar to that found in wickmanite, while the other cavity is more distorted and forms crankshaft-type chains of hydrogen bonds, as previously proposed for tetra­gonal stottite, Fe2+Ge4+(OH)6. PMID:25878828

  4. {μ-[2-(Dimethyl-amino)phen-yl](2-fluoro-phen-yl)methano-lato}penta-methyl-dialuminum(III).

    PubMed

    Gao, Aihong; Su, Qing; Mu, Ying

    2009-04-25

    Each of the Al atoms in the title compound, [Al(2)(CH(3))(5)(C(15)H(15)FNO)], is four-coordinated in a distorted tetra-hedral geometry. The dimethyl-aluminium centre is bound by the N and the O atoms of the (2-dimethyl-amino-phen-yl)(2-fluoro-phen-yl)methano-late ligand. The second Al atom is bound by the methano-late O atom and by three methyl C atoms. The crystal studied was a racemic twin with a 0.4 (2):0.6 (2) domain ratio.

  5. Blade loss transient dynamics analysis, volume 1. Task 2: TETRA 2 theoretical development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallardo, Vincente C.; Black, Gerald

    1986-01-01

    The theoretical development of the forced steady state analysis of the structural dynamic response of a turbine engine having nonlinear connecting elements is discussed. Based on modal synthesis, and the principle of harmonic balance, the governing relations are the compatibility of displacements at the nonlinear connecting elements. There are four displacement compatibility equations at each nonlinear connection, which are solved by iteration for the principle harmonic of the excitation frequency. The resulting computer program, TETRA 2, combines the original TETRA transient analysis (with flexible bladed disk) with the steady state capability. A more versatile nonlinear rub or bearing element which contains a hardening (or softening) spring, with or without deadband, is also incorporated.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes involving hydroxy antipyrine azodyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaber, M.; Hassanein, A. M.; Lotfalla, A. A.

    2008-03-01

    The complexes formed between some hydroxy antipyrine azodyes and Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions were studied spectrophotometrically in solution. The stoichiometry and stability constants of the metal chelates were determined. The spectrophotometric determination of the titled metal ions and titration using EDTA were reported. The chelating behaviour of the azodyes was confirmed by preparing the solid chelates in which their structures are elucidated using molar conductance, elemental, thermogravimetric (TGA) analyses, IR, ESR and electronic spectra as well as the magnetic measurements. Kinetic parameters are computed from the thermal decomposition data. The electrical properties for the metal complexes are measured from which the activation energies are calculated.

  7. Structural, DFT and biological studies on Co(II) complexes of semi and thiosemicarbazide ligands derived from diketo hydrazide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousef, T. A.; El-Gammal, O. A.; Ahmed, Sara F.; Abu El-Reash, G. M.

    2014-11-01

    Three ligands have been prepared by addition ethanolic suspension of 2-hydrazino-2-oxo-N-phenyl-acetamide to phenyl isocyanate (H2PAPS), phenyl isothiocyanate (H2PAPT) and benzoyl isothiocyanate (H2PABT). The Co(II) chloride complexes were prepared and characterized by conventional techniques. The isolated complexes were assigned the formulaes, [Co(HPAPS)Cl(H2O)2]H2O, [Co(HPAPT)Cl]H2O and [Co(H2PABT)Cl2], respectively. The IR spectra of complexes shows that H2PAPS behaves as a mononegative tridentate via CO of hydrazide moiety and enolized CO of hydrazide moiety and CN (azomethine) group due to enolization of CO isocyanate moiety. H2PAPT behaves as mononegative tridentate via one CO of hydrazide moiety and thiol CS and NH groups and finally H2PABT behaves as neutral tetradentate via one CO of hydrazide moiety, CO of benzoyl moiety, Cdbnd S due to enolization of the second CO of hydrazide moiety and new CN (azomethine) groups. The vibrational frequencies of the IR spectra of ligands which were determined experimentally are compared with those obtained theoretically from DFT calculations. Also, the bond lengths, bond angles, HOMO, LUMO and dipole moments have been calculated. The calculated HOMO-LUMO energy gap reveals that charge transfer occurs within the ligand molecules. The calculated values of binding energies indicates the stability of metal complexes is higher that of ligand. Also, the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for the different thermal degradation steps of the complexes were determined by Coats-Redfern and Horowitz-Metzger methods. The antibacterial activities were also tested against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli bacteria. The free ligands showed a higher antibacterial effect than their Co(II) complexes except [Co(HPAPS)Cl(H2O)2]H2O which shows higher activity than corresponding ligand. The antitumor activities of the Ligands and their Co(II) complexes have been evaluated against liver (HePG2) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cells. All ligands

  8. Kinetic and thermodynamic studies of the Co(II) and Ni(II) ions removal from aqueous solutions by Ca-Mg phosphates.

    PubMed

    Ivanets, A I; Srivastava, V; Kitikova, N V; Shashkova, I L; Sillanpää, M

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work was to study the sorption kinetics and thermodynamics of Co(II) and Ni(II) from aqueous solutions by sorbents on the basis of hydrogen (PD-1) and tertiary (PD-2) Ca-Mg phosphates depending on the solution temperature and sorbents chemical composition. Kinetic studies of adsorption of Co(II) and Ni(II) ions onto samples of phosphate sorbents were performed in batch experiment at the temperatures 288, 303, 318 and 333 K. The sorbent dose was fixed at 10 g L(-1), initial pH value 2.6, and contact time varied from 5 to 600 min. The kinetics of Co(II) and Ni(II) adsorption were analyzed by using pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion models. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS°) for the sorption of Co(II) and Ni(II) were determined using the Gibbs-Helmholtz equation. The calculated kinetic parameters and corresponding correlation coefficients revealed that Co(II) and Ni(II) uptake process followed the pseudo-second order rate expression. Thermodynamic studies confirmed the spontaneous and endothermic nature of removal process which indicate that sorption of Co(II) and Ni(II) ions onto both phosphate sorbents is favoured at higher temperatures and has the chemisorptive mechanism. The data thus obtained would be useful for practical application of the low cost and highly effective Ca-Mg phosphate sorbents.

  9. Ethane-1,2-diaminium bis­{5-[4-(1H-tetra­zol-5-yl)phen­yl]tetra­zolide} dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun-Rong; Xia, Zheng-Qiang

    2011-01-01

    In the two anions of the title salt, C2H10N2 2+·2C8H5N8 −·2H2O, the central aromatic rings make dihedral angles of 13.53 (6) and 6.53 (7)° with the deprotonated tetra­zole rings, and 11.39 (6) and 10.41 (9)° with the other tetra­zole groups. In the crystal, the cations, anions and water mol­ecules are linked by an extensive O—H⋯N, N—H⋯O and N—H⋯N hydrogen-bond network into two-dimensional wave-like duplex sheets extending parallel to the bc plane. π–π stacking inter­actions between benzene rings [inter­centroid distances are 3.8482 (4) and 3.9621 (5) Å] and between tetra­zole rings [inter­centroid distances are 3.4350 (4) and 3.7169 (4) Å] further consolidate the crystal structure. PMID:22059036

  10. Iron Oxide Impregnated Morus alba L. Fruit Peel for Biosorption of Co(II): Biosorption Properties and Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Koduru, Janardhan Reddy; Chang, Yoon-Young; Yang, Jae-Kyu; Kim, Im-Soon

    2013-01-01

    Biosorption is an ecofriendly wastewater treatment technique with high efficiency and low operating cost involving simple process for the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution. In the present investigation, Morus alba L. fruit peel powder (MAFP) and iron oxide impregnated Morus alba L. fruit peel powder (IO-MAFP) were prepared and used for treating Co(II) contaminated aqueous solutions. Further the materials were characterized by using FTIR and SEM-EDX analysis. From FT-IR analysis it was found that hydroxyl, methoxy, and carbonyl groups are responsible for Co(II) biosorption. The kinetic data obtained for both biosorbents was well fitted with pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The equilibrium data was in tune with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The thermodynamic studies were also carried and it was observed that sorption process was endothermic at 298–328 K. These studies demonstrated that both biosorbents were promising, efficient, economic, and biodegradable sorbents. PMID:24324384

  11. Differential Binding of Co(II) and Zn(II) to Metallo-beta-Lactamase Bla2 from Bacillus anthracis

    SciTech Connect

    Hawk, M.; Breece, R; Hajdin, C; Bender, K; Hu, Z; Costello, A; Bennett, B; Tierney, D; Crowder, M

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to probe the structure, mechanism, and biochemical properties of metallo-{beta}-lactamase Bla2 from Bacillus anthracis, the enzyme was overexpressed, purified, and characterized. Metal analyses demonstrated that recombinant Bla2 tightly binds 1 equiv of Zn(II). Steady-state kinetic studies showed that mono-Zn(II) Bla2 (1Zn-Bla2) is active, while di-Zn(II) Bla2 (ZnZn-Bla2) was unstable. Catalytically, 1Zn-Bla2 behaves like the related enzymes CcrA and L1. In contrast, di-Co(II) Bla2 (CoCo-Bla2) is substantially more active than the mono-Co(II) analogue. Rapid kinetics and UV-vis, 1H NMR, EPR, and EXAFS spectroscopic studies show that Co(II) binding to Bla2 is distributed, while EXAFS shows that Zn(II) binding is sequential. To our knowledge, this is the first documented example of a Zn enzyme that binds Co(II) and Zn(II) via distinct mechanisms, underscoring the need to demonstrate transferability when extrapolating results on Co(II)-substituted proteins to the native Zn(II)-containing forms.

  12. Butyl­triethyl­ammonium tetra­chlorido­ferrate(III)

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Lei; Li, Yong-Jun

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, (C10H24N)[FeCl4], no classical hydrogen bonds are observed. The butyl­triethyl­ammonium cations inter­act with the tetra­hedral [FeCl4]− anion through weak C—H⋯Cl inter­actions, forming a three-dimensional network. PMID:22590142

  13. Removal of Co(II) from waste water using dry cow dung powder : a green ambrosia to soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagla, Hemlata; Khilnani, Roshan

    2015-04-01

    Co(II) is one of the hazardous products found in the waste streams. The anthropogenic activities are major sources of Co(II) in our environment. Some of the well-established processes such as chemical precipitation, membrane process, liquid extraction and ion exchange have been applied as a tool for the removal of this metal ion [1]. All the above methods are not considered to be greener due to some of their shortcomings such as incomplete metal ion removal, high requirement of energy and reagents, generation of toxic sludge or other waste materials which in turn require further treatments for their cautious disposal. The present investigation entails the application of dry cow dung powder (DCP) as an indigenous, inexpensive and eco-friendly material for the removal of Co(II) from aqueous medium. DCP, is naturally available bio-organic, complex, polymorphic humified fecal matter of cow and is enriched with minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, bile pigments, aliphatic-aromatic species such as 'Humic acid' (HA), Fulvic acid, Ulmic acid [2,3]. Batch biosorption experiments were conducted employing 60Co(II) as a tracer and effect of various process parameters such as pH (1-8), temperature (283-363K), amount of biosorbent (5-40 g/L), time of equilibration (0-30 min), agitation speed (0-4000 rpm), concentration of initial metal ions (0.5-20 mg/mL) and interfering effect of different organic as well as inorganic salts were studied. The Kinetic studies were carried out employing various models but the best fitting was given by Lagergren Pseudo-second order model [4] with high correlation coefficient R2 value of 0.999 and adsorption capacity of 2.31 mg/g. The thermodynamic parameters for biosorption were also evaluated which indicated spontaneous and exothermic process with high affinity of DCP for Co(II). Many naturally available materials are used for biosorption of hazardous metal pollutants, where most of them are physically or chemically modified. In this research

  14. The two-dimensional IR nonlinear spectroscopy of a cyclic penta-peptide in relation to its three-dimensional structure

    PubMed Central

    Hamm, Peter; Lim, Manho; DeGrado, William F.; Hochstrasser, Robin M.

    1999-01-01

    A form of two-dimensional (2D) vibrational spectroscopy, which uses two ultrafast IR laser pulses, is used to examine the structure of a cyclic penta-peptide in solution. Spectrally resolved cross peaks occur in the off-diagonal region of the 2D IR spectrum of the amide I region, analogous to those in 2D NMR spectroscopy. These cross peaks measure the coupling between the different amide groups in the structure. Their intensities and polarizations relate directly to the three-dimensional structure of the peptide. With the help of a model coupling Hamiltonian, supplemented by density functional calculations, the spectra of this penta-peptide can be regenerated from the known solution phase structure. This 2D-IR measurement, with an intrinsic time resolution of less than 1 ps, could be used in all time regimes of interest in biology. PMID:10051590

  15. Crystal structure of (1,3-di-tert-butyl-η5-cyclo­penta­dien­yl)tri­methyl­hafnium(IV)

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Redondo, Adrián; Varela-Izquierdo, Víctor; Yélamos, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The mol­ecule of the title organometallic hafnium(IV) com­pound, [Hf(CH3)3(C13H21)] or [HfMe3(η5-C5H3-1,3-tBu2)], adopts the classical three-legged piano-stool geometry for mono­cyclo­penta­dienylhafnium(IV) derivatives with the three methyl groups bonded to the Hf(IV) atom at the legs. The C atoms of the two tert-butyl group bonded to the cyclo­penta­dienyl (Cp) ring are 0.132 (5) and 0.154 (6) Å above the Cp least-squares plane. There are no significant inter­molecular inter­actions present between the mol­ecules in the crystal structure. PMID:25995884

  16. Mechanism of HERG potassium channel inhibition by tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Yan; Lin, Zuoxian; Xia, Menghang; Zheng, Wei; Li, Zhiyuan

    2013-03-01

    Tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride are synthetic quaternary ammonium salts that are widely used in hospitals and industries for the disinfection and surface treatment and as the preservative agent. Recently, the activities of HERG channel inhibition by these compounds have been found to have potential risks to induce the long QT syndrome and cardiac arrhythmia, although the mechanism of action is still elusive. This study was conducted to investigate the mechanism of HERG channel inhibition by these compounds by using whole-cell patch clamp experiments in a CHO cell line stably expressing HERG channels. Tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride exhibited concentration-dependent inhibitions of HERG channel currents with IC{sub 50} values of 4 nM and 17 nM, respectively, which were also voltage-dependent and use-dependent. Both compounds shifted the channel activation I–V curves in a hyperpolarized direction for 10–15 mV and accelerated channel activation and inactivation processes by 2-fold. In addition, tetra-n-octylammonium bromide shifted the inactivation I–V curve in a hyperpolarized direction for 24.4 mV and slowed the rate of channel deactivation by 2-fold, whereas benzethonium chloride did not. The results indicate that tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride are open-channel blockers that inhibit HERG channels in the voltage-dependent, use-dependent and state-dependent manners. - Highlights: ► Tetra-n-octylammonium and benzethonium are potent HERG channel inhibitors. ► Channel activation and inactivation processes are accelerated by the two compounds. ► Both compounds are the open-channel blockers to HERG channels. ► HERG channel inhibition by both compounds is use-, voltage- and state dependent. ► The in vivo risk of QT prolongation needs to be studied for the two compounds.

  17. Crystal structure of trans-diammine(1,4,8,11-tetra­aza­cyclo­tetra­decane-κ4 N)chromium(III) tetra­chlorido­zincate chloride monohydrate from synchrotron data

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Dohyun; Choi, Jong-Ha

    2016-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title complex salt, [Cr(C10H24N4)(NH3)2][ZnCl4]Cl·H2O, is comprised of four halves of the CrIII complex cations (the counterparts being generated by application of inversion symmetry), two tetra­chlorido­zincate anions, two chloride anions and two water mol­ecules. Each CrIII ion is coordinated by the four N atoms of the cyclam (1,4,8,11-tetra­aza­cyclo­tetra­deca­ne) ligand in the equatorial plane and by two N atoms of ammine ligands in axial positions, displaying an overall distorted octa­hedral coordination environment. The Cr—N(cyclam) bond lengths range from 2.0501 (15) to 2.0615 (15) Å, while the Cr—(NH3) bond lengths range from 2.0976 (13) to 2.1062 (13) Å. The macrocyclic cyclam moieties adopt the trans-III conformation with six- and five-membered chelate rings in chair and gauche conformations. The [ZnCl4]2− anions have a slightly distorted tetra­hedral shape. In the crystal, the Cl− anions link the complex cations, as well as the solvent water mol­ecules, through N—H⋯Cl and O—H⋯Cl hydrogen-bonding inter­actions. The supra­molecular set-up also includes N—H⋯Cl, C—H⋯Cl, N—H⋯O and O—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonding between N—H or C—H groups of cyclam, ammine N—H and water O—H donor groups, and O atoms of the water mol­ecules, Cl− anions or Cl atoms of the [ZnCl4]2− anions as acceptors, leading to a three-dimensional network structure. PMID:27375863

  18. Chlorido[1-diphenyl­phosphanyl-3-(phenyl­sulfan­yl)propane-κ2 P,S](η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)iridium(III) chloride monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Gerd; Korb, Marcus; Rüffer, Tobias; Lang, Heinrich; Steinborn, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound, [Ir(C10H15)Cl(C21H21PS)]Cl·H2O, consists of discrete [Ir(η5-C5Me5)Cl{Ph2P(CH2)3SPh-κP,κS}]+ cations, chloride anions and water mol­ecules. The IrIII atom is coordinated by an η5-C5Me5 ligand, a chloride and a Ph2P(CH2)3SPh-κP,κS ligand, leading to a three-legged piano-stool geometry. In the crystal, two water molecules and two chloride anions are linked by weak O—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonding into tetra­mers that are located on centers of inversion. The H atoms of one of the methyl groups are disordered and were refined using a split model. PMID:22719391

  19. DNA binding, photoactivated DNA cleavage and cytotoxic activity of Cu(II) and Co(II) based Schiff-base azo photosensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradeepa, S. M.; Bhojya Naik, H. S.; Vinay Kumar, B.; Indira Priyadarsini, K.; Barik, Atanu; Prabhakara, M. C.

    2015-04-01

    A new class of Cu(II) and Co(II) complexes of azo-containing Schiff base of the type [Cu(L1)2] and [Co(L1)2], where L1 = 4-[(E)-{2-hydroxy-3-[(E)-(4-bromophenyl)diazenyl]benzylidene}amino]benzoic acid have been synthesized and characterized. Extension of conjugation and the presence of free carboxylic acid group of the ligand L1 increased the wavelength of the complexes from visible region to the near IR region (620-850 nm). The Cu(II) and Co(II) complexes interacted with CT-DNA via intercalative mode with the respective Kb value of 3.2 × 104 M-1 and 2.9 × 104 M-1 and acted as proficient photocleavers of SC pUC19 DNA in UV-A light, forming 1O2 as the reactive oxygen species with the quantum yield of 0.38 and 0.36, respectively. Furthermore, the Cu(II) and Co(II) complexes showed photocytotoxicity toward two selected tumor cell lines MCF-7 and A549 by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT) method, and the Cu(II) complex exhibits higher photocytotoxicity than Co(II) complex against each of the selected cell lines, this result is identical with their DNA binding ability order.

  20. DNA binding, photoactivated DNA cleavage and cytotoxic activity of Cu(II) and Co(II) based Schiff-base azo photosensitizers.

    PubMed

    Pradeepa, S M; Bhojya Naik, H S; Vinay Kumar, B; Indira Priyadarsini, K; Barik, Atanu; Prabhakara, M C

    2015-04-15

    A new class of Cu(II) and Co(II) complexes of azo-containing Schiff base of the type [Cu(L1)2] and [Co(L1)2], where L1=4-[(E)-{2-hydroxy-3-[(E)-(4-bromophenyl)diazenyl]benzylidene}amino]benzoic acid have been synthesized and characterized. Extension of conjugation and the presence of free carboxylic acid group of the ligand L1 increased the wavelength of the complexes from visible region to the near IR region (620-850 nm). The Cu(II) and Co(II) complexes interacted with CT-DNA via intercalative mode with the respective Kb value of 3.2×10(4) M(-1) and 2.9×10(4) M(-1) and acted as proficient photocleavers of SC pUC19 DNA in UV-A light, forming (1)O2 as the reactive oxygen species with the quantum yield of 0.38 and 0.36, respectively. Furthermore, the Cu(II) and Co(II) complexes showed photocytotoxicity toward two selected tumor cell lines MCF-7 and A549 by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT) method, and the Cu(II) complex exhibits higher photocytotoxicity than Co(II) complex against each of the selected cell lines, this result is identical with their DNA binding ability order.

  1. Highly stable water dispersible calix[4]pyrrole octa-hydrazide protected gold nanoparticles as colorimetric and fluorometric chemosensors for selective signaling of Co(II) ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, Keyur D.; Vyas, Disha J.; Makwana, Bharat A.; Darjee, Savan M.; Jain, Vinod K.

    2014-03-01

    Water dispersible stable gold nanoparticles (AuNps) have been synthesized by using calix[4]pyrrole octa-hydrazide (CPOH) as a reducing as well as stabilizing agent. CPOH-AuNps have been characterized by surface plasmon resonance, particle size analyzer and transmission electron microscopy. CPOH-AuNps are water dispersible, highly stable for more than 150 days at neutral pH with a size of less than 10 nm and zeta potential of 15 ± 2 MeV. Ion sensing property of CPOH-AuNps has been investigated for various metal ions Pb(II), Cd(II), Mn(II), Fe(III), Ni(II), Zn(II), Hg(II), Co(II) and Cu(II) by colorimetry and spectrofluorimetry. Among all the metal ions investigated, only Co(II) ions gives sharp colour change from ruby red to blue and is easily detectable by naked-eye. CPOH-AuNps being fluorescent in nature also shows great sensitivity and selectivity for Co(II) ions. Co(II) ions can be selectively detected at very low concentration level of 1 nM in a facile way of fluorescence quenching.

  2. Synthesis, spectral characterization and biological activities of Mn(II) and Co(II) complexes with benzyloxybenzaldehyde-4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone.

    PubMed

    Prathima, B; Rao, Y Subba; Ramesh, G N; Jagadeesh, M; Reddy, Y P; Chalapathi, P V; Reddy, A Varada

    2011-06-01

    Mn(II) and Co(II) complexes of benzyloxybenzaldehyde-4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone have been synthesized and characterized by the investigations of electronic and EPR spectra and X-ray diffraction. Based on the spectral studies, an octahedral geometry is assigned for the Mn(II) and Co(II) complexes. X-ray powder diffraction studies reveal that Mn(II) and Co(II) complexes have triclinic crystal lattices. The unit cell parameters of the Mn(II) complex are a=11.0469 Å, b=6.2096 Å, c=7.4145 Å, α=90.646°, β=95.127°, γ=104.776°, V=489.7 Å(3) and those of Co(II) complex are a=9.3236 Å, b=10.2410 Å, c=7.8326 Å, α=90.694°, β=99.694°, γ=100.476°, V=724.2 Å(3). When the free ligand and its metal complexes are subjected to antibacterial activity, the metal complexes are proved to be more active than the ligand. However with regard to in vitro antioxidant activity, the ligand exhibits greater antioxidant activity than its metal(II) complexes.

  3. Synthesis, Structure, and Reactivity of Co(II) and Ni(II) PCP Pincer Borohydride Complexes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The 15e square-planar complexes [Co(PCPMe-iPr)Cl] (2a) and [Co(PCP-tBu)Cl] (2b), respectively, react readily with NaBH4 to afford complexes [Co(PCPMe-iPr)(η2-BH4)] (4a) and [Co(PCP-tBu)(η2-BH4)] (4b) in high yields, as confirmed by IR spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, and elemental analysis. The borohydride ligand is symmetrically bound to the cobalt center in η2-fashion. These compounds are paramagnetic with effective magnetic moments of 2.0(1) and 2.1(1) μB consistent with a d7 low-spin system corresponding to one unpaired electron. None of these complexes reacted with CO2 to give formate complexes. For structural and reactivity comparisons, we prepared the analogous Ni(II) borohydride complex [Ni(PCPMe-iPr)(η2-BH4)] (5) via two different synthetic routes. One utilizes [Ni(PCPMe-iPr)Cl] (3) and NaBH4, the second one makes use of the hydride complex [Ni(PCPMe-iPr)H] (6) and BH3·THF. In both cases, 5 is obtained in high yields. In contrast to 4a and 4b, the borohydride ligand is asymmetrically bound to the nickel center but still in an η2-mode. [Ni(PCPMe-iPr)(η2-BH4)] (5) loses readily BH3 at elevated temperatures in the presence of NEt3 to form 6. Complexes 5 and 6 are both diamagnetic and were characterized by a combination of 1H, 13C{1H}, and 31P{1H} NMR, IR spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. Additionally, the structure of these compounds was established by X-ray crystallography. Complexes 5 and 6 react with CO2 to give the formate complex [Ni(PCPMe-iPr)(OC(C=O)H] (7). The extrusion of BH3 from [Co(PCPMe-iPr)(η2-BH4)] (4a) and [Ni(PCPMe-iPr)(η2-BH4)] (5) with the aid of NH3 to yield the respective hydride complexes [Co(PCPMe-iPr)H] and [Ni(PCPMe-iPr)H] (6) and BH3NH3 was investigated by DFT calculations showing that formation of the Ni hydride is thermodynamically favorable, whereas the formation of the Co(II) hydride, in agreement with the experiment, is unfavorable. The electronic structures and the bonding of the borohydride ligand in [Co

  4. Secondary ligand-directed assembly of Co(II) coordination polymers based on a pyridine carboxylate ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Ke-Li; Zhang, Yi-Ping; Cai, Yi-Ni; Xu, Xiao-Wei; Feng, Yun-Long

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the influence of hydrogen bonds and secondary ligands on the structures and properties of the resulting frameworks, five new Co(II) compounds have been synthesized by the reactions of Co(II) salts and 3,5-bis(pyridin-4-ylmethoxy)benzoic acid (HL) with four rationally selected dicarboxylic acid ligands. Without secondary ligand, we got one compound [CoL{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n}·2nH{sub 2}O (1), which possesses a 1D chain structure. In the presence of ancillary ligands, namely, 1,3-adamantanedicarboxylic acid (H{sub 2}adbc), terephthalic acid (H{sub 2}tpa), thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (H{sub 2}tdc) and 1,4-benzenedithioacetic acid (H{sub 2}bdtc), four 3D structures [Co{sub 2}L{sub 2}(adbc)]{sub n}·nH{sub 2}O (2), [Co{sub 2}L{sub 2}(tpa)]{sub n} (3), [Co{sub 2}L{sub 2}(tdc)]{sub n} (4), [Co{sub 2}L{sub 2}(bdtc)(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (5) were obtained, respectively. It can be observed from the architectures of 1–5 that hydrogen bonds and secondary ligands both have great effects on the spatial connective fashions, resulting in the formation of various dimensional compounds. The XRPD, TGA data of title polymers and the magnetic properties for 2 and 5 have also been investigated. - Graphical abstract: The structural differences show that the ancillary ligands have great effects on the spatial connective fashions, resulting in the formation of various dimensional compounds. - Highlights: • Five new Co(II) coordination polymers have been synthesized by solvothermal reactions based on 3,5-bis(pyridin-4-ylmethoxy)benzoic acid (HL). • The long-flexible ligand (HL) is a good candidate to produce interpenetrating architectures. • The secondary dicarboxylic acid ligands play important roles in the spatial connective fashions and the formation of various dimensional compounds. • The magnetism studies show that both 2 and 5 exhibit antiferromagnetic interactions.

  5. Anti-cancer, anti-diabetic and other pharmacologic and biological activities of penta-galloyl-glucose

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinhui; Li, Li; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Hagerman, Ann E.; Lü, Junxuan

    2010-01-01

    1, 2, 3, 4, 6-penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose (PGG) is a polyphenolic compound highly enriched in a number of medicinal herbals. Several in vitro and a handful of in vivo studies have shown that PGG exhibits multiple biological activities which implicate a great potential for PGG in the therapy and prevention of several major diseases including cancer and diabetes. Chemically and functionally, PGG appears to be distinct from its constituent gallic acid or tea polyphenols. For anti-cancer activity, three published in vivo preclinical cancer model studies with PGG support promising efficacy to selectively inhibit malignancy without host toxicity. Potential mechanisms include anti-angiogenesis, anti-proliferative actions through inhibition of DNA replicative synthesis and S-phase arrest and also G1 arrest, induction of apoptosis, anti-inflammation and anti-oxidation. Putative molecular targets include p53, Stat3, Cox-2, VEGFR1, AP-1, SP-1, Nrf-2 and MMP-9. For anti-diabetic activity, PGG and analogues appear to improve glucose uptake. However, very little is known about the absorption, pharmacokinetics and metabolism of PGG, nor its toxicity profile. The lack of large quantity of highly pure PGG has been a bottleneck limiting in vivo validation of cancer preventive and therapeutic efficacies in clinically relevant models. PMID:19575286

  6. Pyrenophoric acid, a phytotoxic sesquiterpenoid penta-2,4-dienoic acid produced by a potential mycoherbicide, Pyrenophora semeniperda.

    PubMed

    Masi, Marco; Meyer, Susan; Cimmino, Alessio; Andolfi, Anna; Evidente, Antonio

    2014-04-25

    A new phytotoxic sesquiterpenoid penta-2,4-dienoic acid, named pyrenophoric acid, was isolated from solid wheat seed culture of Pyrenophora semeniperda, a fungal pathogen proposed as a mycoherbicide for biocontrol of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) and other annual bromes. These bromes are serious weeds in winter cereals and also on temperate semiarid rangelands. Pyrenophoric acid was characterized as (2Z,4E)-5-[(7S,9S,10R,12R)-3,4-dihydroxy-2,2,6-trimethylcyclohexyl)]-3-methylpenta-2,4-dienoic acid by spectroscopic and chemical methods. The relative stereochemistry of pyrenophoric acid was assigned using 1H,1H couplings and NOESY experiments, while its absolute configuration was determined by applying the advanced Mosher's method. Pyrenophoric acid is structurally quite closely related to the plant growth regulator abscisic acid. When bioassayed in a cheatgrass coleoptile elongation test at 10(-3) M, pyrenophoric acid showed strong phytotoxicity, reducing coleoptile elongation by 51% relative to the control. In a mixture at 10(-4) M, its negative effect on coleoptile elongation was additive with that of cytochalasin B, another phytotoxic compound found in the wheat seed culture extract of this fungus, demonstrating that the extract toxicity observed in earlier studies was due to the combined action of multiple phytotoxic compounds.

  7. Crystal structures of bis­[(9S,13S,14S)-3-meth­oxy-17-methyl­morphinanium] tetra­chlorido­cobaltate and tetra­chlorido­cuprate

    PubMed Central

    Gauchat, Eric; Nazarenko, Alexander Y.

    2017-01-01

    (9S,13S,14S)-3-Meth­oxy-17-methyl­morphinan (dextromethorphan) forms two isostructural salts with (a) tetra­chlorido­cobaltate, namely bis­[(9S,13S,14S)-3-meth­oxy-17-methyl­morphinanium] tetra­chlorido­cobaltate, (C18H26NO)2[CoCl4], and (b) tetra­chlorido­cuprate, namely bis­[(9S,13S,14S)-3-meth­oxy-17-methyl­morphinanium] tetra­chlorido­cuprate, (C18H26NO)2[CuCl4]. The distorted tetra­hedral anions are located on twofold rotational axes. The dextromethorphan cation can be described as being composed of two ring systems, a tetra­hydro­naphthalene system A+B and a deca­hydro­isoquinolinium subunit C+D, that are nearly perpendicular to one another: the angle between mean planes of the A+B and C+D moieties is 78.8 (1)° for (a) and 79.0 (1)° for (b). Two symmetry-related cations of protonated dextromethorphan are connected to the tetra­chlorido­cobaltate (or tetra­chlorido­cuprate) anions via strong N—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds, forming neutral ion associates. These associates are packed in the (001) plane with no strong attractive bonding between them. Both compounds are attractive crystalline forms for unambiguous identification of the dextromethorphan and, presumably, of its optical isomer, levomethorphan. PMID:28083138

  8. Spectroscopic evaluation of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes derived from thiosemicarbazone and semicarbazone.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Sulekh; Kumar, Anil

    2007-12-31

    Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes were synthesized with thiosemicarbazone (L(1)) and semicarbazone (L(2)) derived from 2-acetyl furan. These complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic moment, mass, IR, electronic and EPR spectral studies. The molar conductance measurement of the complexes in DMSO corresponds to non-electrolytic nature. All the complexes are of high-spin type. On the basis of different spectral studies six coordinated geometry may be assigned for all the complexes except Co(L)(2)(SO(4)) and Cu(L)(2)(SO(4)) [where L=L(1) and L(2)] which are of five coordinated square pyramidal geometry.

  9. Detection of Mitochondrial COII DNA Sequences in Ant Guts as a Method for Assessing Termite Predation by Ants

    PubMed Central

    Fayle, Tom M.; Scholtz, Olivia; Dumbrell, Alex J.; Russell, Stephen; Segar, Simon T.; Eggleton, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Termites and ants contribute more to animal biomass in tropical rain forests than any other single group and perform vital ecosystem functions. Although ants prey on termites, at the community level the linkage between these groups is poorly understood. Thus, assessing the distribution and specificity of ant termitophagy is of considerable interest. We describe an approach for quantifying ant-termite food webs by sequencing termite DNA (cytochrome c oxidase subunit II, COII) from ant guts and apply this to a soil-dwelling ant community from tropical rain forest in Gabon. We extracted DNA from 215 ants from 15 species. Of these, 17.2 % of individuals had termite DNA in their guts, with BLAST analysis confirming the identity of 34.1 % of these termites to family level or better. Although ant species varied in detection of termite DNA, ranging from 63 % (5/7; Camponotus sp. 1) to 0 % (0/7; Ponera sp. 1), there was no evidence (with small sample sizes) for heterogeneity in termite consumption across ant taxa, and no evidence for species-specific ant-termite predation. In all three ant species with identifiable termite DNA in multiple individuals, multiple termite species were represented. Furthermore, the two termite species that were detected on multiple occasions in ant guts were in both cases found in multiple ant species, suggesting that ant-termite food webs are not strongly compartmentalised. However, two ant species were found to consume only Anoplotermes-group termites, indicating possible predatory specialisation at a higher taxonomic level. Using a laboratory feeding test, we were able to detect termite COII sequences in ant guts up to 2 h after feeding, indicating that our method only detects recent feeding events. Our data provide tentative support for the hypothesis that unspecialised termite predation by ants is widespread and highlight the use of molecular approaches for future studies of ant-termite food webs. PMID:25853549

  10. Detection of mitochondrial COII DNA sequences in ant guts as a method for assessing termite predation by ants.

    PubMed

    Fayle, Tom M; Scholtz, Olivia; Dumbrell, Alex J; Russell, Stephen; Segar, Simon T; Eggleton, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Termites and ants contribute more to animal biomass in tropical rain forests than any other single group and perform vital ecosystem functions. Although ants prey on termites, at the community level the linkage between these groups is poorly understood. Thus, assessing the distribution and specificity of ant termitophagy is of considerable interest. We describe an approach for quantifying ant-termite food webs by sequencing termite DNA (cytochrome c oxidase subunit II, COII) from ant guts and apply this to a soil-dwelling ant community from tropical rain forest in Gabon. We extracted DNA from 215 ants from 15 species. Of these, 17.2 % of individuals had termite DNA in their guts, with BLAST analysis confirming the identity of 34.1 % of these termites to family level or better. Although ant species varied in detection of termite DNA, ranging from 63 % (5/7; Camponotus sp. 1) to 0 % (0/7; Ponera sp. 1), there was no evidence (with small sample sizes) for heterogeneity in termite consumption across ant taxa, and no evidence for species-specific ant-termite predation. In all three ant species with identifiable termite DNA in multiple individuals, multiple termite species were represented. Furthermore, the two termite species that were detected on multiple occasions in ant guts were in both cases found in multiple ant species, suggesting that ant-termite food webs are not strongly compartmentalised. However, two ant species were found to consume only Anoplotermes-group termites, indicating possible predatory specialisation at a higher taxonomic level. Using a laboratory feeding test, we were able to detect termite COII sequences in ant guts up to 2 h after feeding, indicating that our method only detects recent feeding events. Our data provide tentative support for the hypothesis that unspecialised termite predation by ants is widespread and highlight the use of molecular approaches for future studies of ant-termite food webs.

  11. 1-Butyl­quinine tetra­fluoro­borate

    PubMed Central

    Eltaief, Sana; Retailleau, Pascal; Straver, Leo; Ben Hassine, Béchir

    2010-01-01

    In the title salt (2S,4S,8R)-1-butyl-2-[(R)-(hydr­oxy)(6-methoxy­quinolin-4-yl)meth­yl]-8-vinyl­quinuclidin-1-ium tetra­fluoro­borate, C24H33N2O2 +·BF4 −, the butyl substituent at the 1-position is in an equatorial conformation with respect to the unsubstituted six-membered ring and the four butyl C atoms are almost coplanar with the ring N and vinyl C atoms (r.m.s. deviation = 0.046 Å). In the crystal, the cations are linked by O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds. The F atoms of the tetra­fluoro­borate group are disordered over two sets of site with an occupancy raitio of 0.552 (8):0.448 (8). PMID:21579717

  12. G4-Tetra DNA Duplex Induce Lung Cancer Cell Apoptosis in A549 Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaobo; Zhao, YiZhuo; Lu, Hu; Fu, Cuiping; Li, Xiao; Jiang, Liyan; Li, Shanqun

    2016-10-01

    The specific DNA is typically impermeable to the plasma membrane due to its natural characters, but DNA tetra structures (DTNs) can be readily uptake by cells in the absence of transfection agents, providing a new strategy to deliver DNA drugs. In this research, the delivery efficiency of tetrahedral DNA nanostructures was measured on adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial (A549) cells via delivering AS1411 (G4). The DNA tetra-AS1411 complex was rapidly and abundantly uptake by A549 cells, and the induced apoptosis was enhanced. Furthermore, biodistribution in mouse proved the rapid clearance from non-targeted organs in vivo. This study improved the understanding of potential function in DNA-based drug delivery and proved that DTNs-AS1411 could be potentially useful for the treatment of lung cancer.

  13. Di-methyl-ammonium tetra-aqua-(hydrogen-sulfato)-sulfato-cuprate(II).

    PubMed

    Held, Peter

    2014-04-01

    In the title salt, [(CH3)2NH2][Cu(HSO4)(SO4)(H2O)4], one type of cation and anion is present in the asymmetric unit. The Cu(II) atom in the complex anion, [Cu(HSO4)(SO4)(H2O)4](-), has a tetra-gonal bipyramidal [4 + 2] coordination caused by a Jahn-Teller distortion, with the aqua ligands in equatorial and two O atoms of tetra-hedral HSO4 and SO4 units in apical positions. Both types of ions form sheets parallel to (010). The inter-connection within and between the sheets is reinforced by O-H⋯O and N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, respectively, involving the water mol-ecules, the two types of sulfate anions and the ammonium groups.

  14. Spectral, photophysical and photochemical properties of tetra- and octaglycosylated zinc phthalocyanines.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Zafar; Masilela, Nkosiphile; Nyokong, Tebello; Lyubimtsev, Alexey; Hanack, Michael; Ziegler, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    Photophysical and photochemical properties of a series of tetra- and octaglycosylated zinc phthalocyanines (ZnPcs) substituted with glucose and galactose moieties have been reported. Spectral properties of these phthalocyanines are compared in DMSO. Absorption spectra of the non-peripherally tetra-substituted ZnPcs 2 showed a significant red shift in their Q-band maxima as compared to the peripherally substituted analog 1. All the complexes gave high triplet quantum yields ranging from 0.68 to 0.88, whereas triplet lifetimes were in the range of 100-430 μs in argon-saturated solutions. The octagalactosylated ZnPc 3b showed the highest triplet quantum yield and singlet oxygen quantum yield of 0.88 and 0.69, respectively. The fluorescence quantum yields and lifetimes of all the compounds under investigation were within the range of zinc phthalocyanine complexes.

  15. Disodium zinc bis­(sulfate) tetra­hydrate (zinc astrakanite) revisited

    PubMed Central

    Díaz de Vivar, M. Enriqueta; Baggio, Sergio; Ibáñez, Andrés; Baggio, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    We present a new low-temperature refinement of disodium zinc bis­(sulfate) tetra­hydrate {systematic name: poly[tetra-μ-aqua-di-μ-sulfato-zinc(II)disodium(I)]}, [Na2Zn(SO4)2(H2O)4]n or Zn astrakanite, which is an upgrade of previously reported data [Bukin & Nozik (1974 ▶). Zh. Strukt. Khim. 15, 712–716]. The compound is part of an isostructural family containing the Mg (the original astrakanite mineral), Co and Ni species. The very regular ZnO(aqua)4O(sulfate)2 octa­hedra lie on centres of symmetry, while the rather distorted NaO(aqua)2O(sulfate)4 octa­hedra appear at general positions, linked into a three-dimensional network by the bridging water mol­ecules and the fully coordinated sulfate groups. PMID:21202433

  16. Crystal structures of two cross-bridged chromium(III) tetra­aza­macrocycles

    PubMed Central

    Prior, Timothy J.; Maples, Danny L.; Maples, Randall D.; Hoffert, Wesley A.; Parsell, Trenton H.; Silversides, Jon D.; Archibald, Stephen J.; Hubin, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    The crystal structure of di­chlorido­(4,10-dimethyl-1,4,7,10-tetra­aza­bicyclo­[5.5.2]tetra­deca­ne)chromium(III) hexa­fluorido­phosphate, [CrCl2(C12H26N4)]PF6, (I), has monoclinic symmetry (space group P21/n) at 150 K. The structure of the related di­chlorido­(4,11-dimethyl-1,4,8,11-tetra­aza­bicyclo­[6.6.2]hexa­deca­ne)chromium(III) hexa­fluorido­phosphate, [CrCl2(C14H30N4)]PF6, (II), also displays monoclinic symmetry (space group P21/c) at 150 K. In each case, the CrIII ion is hexa­coordinate with two cis chloride ions and two non-adjacent N atoms bound cis equatorially and the other two non-adjacent N atoms bound trans axially in a cis-V conformation of the macrocycle. The extent of the distortion from the preferred octa­hedral coordination geometry of the CrIII ion is determined by the parent macrocycle ring size, with the larger cross-bridged cyclam ring in (II) better able to accommodate this preference and the smaller cross-bridged cyclen ring in (I) requiring more distortion away from octa­hedral geometry. PMID:25309165

  17. TetraMag: a compact magnetizing device based on eight rotating permanent magnets.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, M; Mertins, H-Ch; Tesch, M; Berges, O; Feilbach, Herbert; Schneider, C M

    2012-02-01

    In this paper we describe a novel magnetizing device based on eight rotatable permanent magnets arranged in a quadrupolar configuration, which is termed the TetraMag. TetraMag creates stable and homogeneous magnetic fields at the sample position with a resolution of 0.02 mT tunable between -570 mT and +570 mT. The field direction is continuously rotatable between 0° and 360° within the sample plane, while the field strength is maintained. A simplified mathematical description of TetraMag is developed leading to magnetic field calculations which are in good agreement with the experimental results. This versatile device avoids electrical energy dissipation, cooling mechanisms, and hysteresis effects known from classical electromagnets. It is ultrahigh vacuum compatible and it offers a completely free optical path over 180° for magneto-optical experiments. It is suitable for scattering experiments with synchrotron radiation and neutrons and may be employed in a large class of magnetization experiments.

  18. Crystal structure of the thermochromic bis-(di-ethyl-ammonium) tetra-chlorido-cuprate(II) complex.

    PubMed

    Aldrich, Emily P; Bussey, Katherine A; Connell, Jennifer R; Reinhart, Erin F; Oshin, Kayode D; Mercado, Brandon Q; Oliver, Allen G

    2016-01-01

    In the structure of the title complex salt, (Et2NH2)2[CuCl4], the asymmetric unit consists of four unique di-ethyl-ammonium cations and three unique tetra-chlorido-cuprate anions. Two of the three anions are located with their copper atoms on independent crystallographic twofold axes, while the remaining tetra-chlorido-cuprate is located at a general position of the ortho-rhom-bic space group P21212. Two of the three Cu atoms adopt a distorted square-planar/disphenoidal geometry and the third Cu atom has a regular square-planar coordination environment. The di-ethyl-ammonium cations form an extensive hydrogen-bonded network through N-H⋯Cl inter-actions with the tetra-chlorido-cuprate anions, resulting in a two-dimensional sheet-like hydrogen-bonded network parallel to the ab direction. The complex was observed to undergo a color shift from deep green at room temperature to pale yellow at temperatures above 328 K.

  19. Guidelines for the tetra-primer ARMS-PCR technique development.

    PubMed

    Medrano, Ruan Felipe Vieira; de Oliveira, Camila Andréa

    2014-07-01

    The tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain (ARMS-PCR) reaction is a simple and economical method to genotype single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). It uses four primers in a single PCR and is followed just by gel electrophoresis. However, the optimization step can be very hardworking and time-consuming. Hence, we propose to demonstrate and discuss critical steps for its development, in a way to provide useful information. Two SNPs that provided different amplification conditions were selected. DNA extraction methods, annealing temperatures, PCR cycles protocols, reagents, and primers concentration were also analyzed. The use of tetra-primer ARMS-PCR could be impaired for SNPs in DNA regions rich in cytosine and guanine and for samples with DNA not purified. The melting temperature was considered the factor of greater interference. However, small changes in the reagents concentration significantly affect the PCR, especially MgCl2. Balancing the inner primers band is also a key step. So, in order to balance the inner primers band, intensity is important to observe which one has the weakest band and promote its band by increasing its concentration. The use of tetra-primer ARMS-PCR attends the expectations of modern genomic research and allows the study of SNPs in a fast, reliable, and low-cost way.

  20. Codon expansion and systematic transcriptional deletions produce tetra-, pentacoded mitochondrial peptides.

    PubMed

    Seligmann, Hervé

    2015-12-21

    Genes include occasionally isolated codons with a fourth (and fifth) silent nucleotide(s). Assuming tetracodons, translated hypothetical peptides align with regular GenBank proteins; predicted tetracodons coevolve with predicted tRNAs with expanded anticodons in each mammal, Drosophila and Lepidosauria mitogenomes, GC contents and with lepidosaurian body temperatures, suggesting that expanded codons are an adaptation of translation to high temperature. Hypothetically, continuous stretches of tetra- and pentacodons code for peptides. Both systematic nucleotide deletions during transcription, and translation by tRNAs with expanded anticodons could produce these peptides. Reanalyses of human nanoLc mass spectrometry peptidome data detect numerous tetra- and pentapeptides translated from the human mitogenome. These map preferentially on (BLAST-detected) human RNAs matching the human mitogenome, assuming systematic mono- and dinucleotide deletions after each third nucleotide (delRNAs). Translation by expanded anticodons is incompatible with silent nucleotides in the midst rather than at codon 3' extremity. More than 1/3 of detected tetra- and pentapeptides assume silent positions at codon extremity, suggesting that both mechanisms, regular translation of delRNAs and translation of regular RNAs by expanded anticodons, produce this peptide subgroup. Results show that systematically deleting polymerization occurs, and confirm serial translation of expanded codons. Non-canonical transcriptions and translations considerably expand the coding potential of DNA and RNA sequences.

  1. Translation of mitochondrial swinger RNAs according to tri-, tetra- and pentacodons.

    PubMed

    Seligmann, Hervé

    2016-02-01

    Transcriptomes and proteomes include RNA and protein fragments not matching regular transcription/translation. Some 'non-canonical' mitochondrial transcripts match mitogenomes after assuming one among 23 systematic exchanges between nucleotides, producing swinger RNAs (nine symmetric, X↔Y, example C↔T; 14 asymmetric, X→Y→Z→X, example A→T→G→A) in GenBank's EST database. Here, reanalyzes of (a) public human mitochondrial transcriptome data (Illumina: RNA-seq) allowed to detect mitochondrial swinger RNAs for all 23 exchanges and (b) independent public human mitochondrial trypsinized proteomic mass spectrometry data allowed to detect peptides predicted from translation of parts of swinger-transformed mitogenomes covered by detected swinger reads. RNA-seq and previous EST swinger transcript data converge. Swinger RNA translation frequently inserts various amino acids at stop codons. Swinger RNA-peptide associations exist also for peptides matching systematically frameshifting translation, peptides entirely coded by tetra- and pentacodons (regular codons expanded by silent mononucleotides at 4th, and silent dinucleotides at 4th and 5th position(s), respectively). Swinger peptides differ from regular mitochondrial proteins: not membrane embedded, reflect warmer, anaerobic, low resource conditions, reminding a free-living ancestor. Tetra- and pentacoded peptides associate with low, high GC contents, respectively, suggesting expanded codon translations associate with thermic stresses. Results confirm experimentally predicted swinger, tetra- and pentacoded mitochondrial peptides, increasing mitogenomic coding density.

  2. Crystal structure of calcium-free human sorcin: a member of the penta-EF-hand protein family.

    PubMed

    Xie, X; Dwyer, M D; Swenson, L; Parker, M H; Botfield, M C

    2001-12-01

    Sorcin is a 22 kD calcium-binding protein that is found in a wide variety of cell types, such as heart, muscle, brain and adrenal medulla. It belongs to the penta-EF-hand (PEF) protein family, which contains five EF-hand motifs that associate with membranes in a calcium-dependent manner. Prototypic members of this family are the calcium-binding domains of calpain, such as calpain dVI. Full-length human sorcin has been crystallized in the absence of calcium and the structure determined at 2.2 A resolution. Apart from an extended N-terminal portion, the sorcin molecule has a globular shape. The C-terminal domain is predominantly alpha-helical, containing eight alpha-helices and connecting loops incorporating five EF hands. Sorcin forms dimers through the association of the unpaired EF5, confirming this as the mode of association in the dimerization of PEF proteins. Comparison with calpain dVI reveals that the general folds of the individual EF-hand motifs are conserved, especially that of EF1, the novel EF-hand motif characteristic of the family. Detailed structural comparisons of sorcin with other members of PEF indicate that the EF-hand pair EF1-EF2 is likely to correspond to the two physiologically relevant calcium-binding sites and that the calcium-induced conformational change may be modest and localized within this pair of EF-hands. Overall, the results derived from the structural observations support the view that, in sorcin, calcium signaling takes place through the first pair of EF-hands.

  3. Sequential assessment of pulmonary epithelial diethylene triamine penta-acetate clearance and intrapulmonary transferrin accumulation during Escherichia coli peritonitis

    SciTech Connect

    Ishizaka, A.; Stephens, K.E.; Segall, G.M.; Hatherill, J.R.; McDougall, I.R.; Wu, Z.; Raffin, T.A. )

    1990-03-01

    The individual roles of pulmonary capillary endothelial and alveolar epithelial permeability in the pathogenesis of the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are unclear. We developed a method for the sequential assessment of pulmonary macromolecule accumulation and small solute clearance in vivo using a gamma camera. We measured the exponential clearance coefficient of 111In-labeled diethylene triamine penta-acetate (111In-DTPA) to assess airway clearance of small solutes. We also calculated the exponential equilibration coefficient of 111In-labeled transferrin (111In-TF) to assess intrapulmonary accumulation of transferrin. We determined these parameters in guinea pigs with Escherichia coli peritonitis and compared them with a saline-treated control group, oleic-acid-treated groups, and a group treated with low molecular weight dextran Ringer solution. The pulmonary DTPA clearance and the intrapulmonary transferrin accumulation were significantly increased in the peritonitis group (29.4 +/- 8.2 x 10(-3) min-1, p less than 0.02, and 15.1 +/- 3.1 x 10(-3) min-1, p less than 0.02) when compared with the control group (3.1 +/- 0.8 x 10(-3) min-1 and 4.5 +/- 0.5 x 10(-3) min-1). These changes developed within 5.5 h of the initial insult. Neither increased extravascular lung water nor elevated pulmonary artery and left atrial pressures were detected in the peritonitis group. The low molecular weight dextran Ringer group did not show a significant increase in the pulmonary DTPA clearance and the intrapulmonary transferrin accumulation.

  4. Anti-cancer gallotannin penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose is a nanomolar inhibitor of select mammalian DNA polymerases.

    PubMed

    Mizushina, Yoshiyuki; Zhang, Jinhui; Pugliese, Angelo; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Lü, Junxuan

    2010-10-15

    Penta-1,2,3,4,6-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (PGG) has been shown by us and others to inhibit the in vivo growth of human prostate cancer (PCa) xenografts in athymic nude mice and mouse lung cancer allograft in syngenic mice without evident adverse effect on their body weight. We observed a rapid inhibition of DNA synthesis in S-phase cells in PGG-exposed cancer cells and in PGG-treated isolated nuclei. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that PGG inhibits DNA replicative synthesis through a direct inhibition of one or more DNA polymerases (pols). Using purified pols, we show that PGG exhibited a selective inhibition against the activities of B-family replicative pols (alpha, delta and epsilon) and Y-family (eta, iota and kappa) of bypass synthesis pols, and the inhibitory effect of PGG on pol alpha was the strongest with IC(50) value of 13 nM. PGG also inhibited pol beta, but the potency was an order of magnitude less than against pol alpha. PGG inhibition of pol alpha and kappa activity was non-competitive with respect to the DNA template-primer and the dNTP substrate; whereas it inhibited pol beta competitively. Docking simulation on pol beta, which is the only mammalian pol with solved crystal structure, suggests several favorable interactions with the catalytic pocket/binding site for the incoming dNTP. These results support PGG as a novel inhibitor of select families of mammalian pols by distinct mechanisms, and suggest that the potent pol inhibition may contribute to its anti-cancer efficacy.

  5. A chelate complex-enhanced luminol system for selective determination of Co(II), Fe(II) and Cr(III).

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Min; Kim, Young Ho; Oh, Sang-Hyub; Lee, Sang Hak

    2013-01-01

    A determination method for Co(II), Fe(II) and Cr(III) ions by luminol-H2 O2 system using chelating reagents is presented. A metal ion-chelating ligand complex with a Co(II) ion and a chelating reagent like ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) produced highly enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) intensity as well as longer lifetime in the luminol-H2 O2 system compared to metals that exist as free ions. Whereas free Cu(II) and Pb(II) ions had a strong catalytic effect on the luminol-H2 O2 system, significantly, the complexes of Cu(II) and Pb(II) with chelating reagents lost their catalytic activity due to the chelating reagents acting as masking agents. Based on the observed phenomenon, it was possible to determine Co(II), Fe(II) and Cr(III) ions with enhanced sensitivity and selectivity using the chelating reagents of the luminol-H2 O2 system. The effects of ligand, H2 O2 concentration, pH, buffer solution and concentrations of chelating reagents on CL intensity of the luminol-H2 O2 system were investigated and optimized for the determination of Co(II), Fe(II) and Cr(III) ions. Under optimized conditions, the calibration curve of metal ions was linear over the range of 2.0 × 10(-8) to 2.0 × 10(-5) M for Co(II), 1.0 × 10(-7) to 2.0 × 10(-5) M for Fe (II) and 2.0 × 10(-7) to 1.0 × 10(-4) M for Cr(III). Limits of detection (3σ/s) were 1.2 × 10(-8) , 4.0 × 10(-8) and 1.2 × 10(-7) M for Co(II), Fe(II) and Cr(III), respectively.

  6. Poly[penta­kis­(μ-cyanido-κ2 N:C)tris­(5-phenyl-2,2′-bipyridine-κ2 N,N′)penta­copper(I)

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Shuxin; Zuo, Minghui; Zhang, Jingping; Zhao, Yulong; Tan, Rongxin; Liu, Shujuan; Su, Shuangyue

    2011-01-01

    The hydro­thermal reaction of Cu(acetate)2 and K3[Fe(CN)6] with 5-phenyl-2,2′-bipyridine (5-ph-2,2′-bpy) in water yields the polymeric title complex, [Cu5(CN)5(C16H12N2)3]n, which consists of ribbons along the a axis, constructed from 26-membered {Cu10(CN)8} rings. In these rings, the metal atoms are bridged by cyanide groups, except for one close Cu⋯Cu contact [2.7535 (12) Å], which can be considered as ligand-unsupported. Within the rings, one Cu atom has a distorted tetra­hedral geometry through the coordination to two N atoms from 5-ph-2,2′-bpy and two N/C atoms from two cyanide groups. Two Cu atoms have a trigonal planar environment being coordinated by three cyanide groups and two other Cu atoms have a distorted square planar geometry through coordination to two N atoms from 5-ph-2,2′-bpy and two N/C atoms from two cyanide groups. PMID:22199520

  7. Goblet cell types in intestine of tiger barb and black tetra (Cyprinidae, Characidae: Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Leknes, I L

    2014-10-01

    Histochemical properties of goblet cells in intestine of a stomach-less teleost, tiger barb (Puntius tetrazona), and a stomach-containing teleost, black tetra (Gymnocorymbus ternetzi), are described and compared. The intestine goblet cells were mostly wide in both species, but in tiger barb, some of them were markedly thinner. In black tetra, all the intestine goblet cells displayed magenta colour after PAS, whereas in the tiger barb, only the thinner goblet cells displayed such affinity. The latter cell type was coloured strongly magenta when the tissue was treated with alcian blue (pH 2.5) followed by PAS, whereas the wide goblet cells in tiger barb and all goblet cells in black tetra displayed mainly a blue colour after such treatment. Further, the goblet cells in both species were coloured cleanly blue after high iron diamine followed by alcian blue (pH 2.5). The intestine goblet cells in both species displayed a moderate affinity to WGA and concanavalin A lectins and no affinity to DBA. Most of the goblet cells displayed no affinity to PNA, but some of them in the tiger barb displayed a moderate or strong affinity to this lectin. The affinity to WGA was somewhat strengthened after pre-treatment with neuraminidase. These results suggest that tiger barb contains two types or variants of intestinal goblet cells: high numbers of wide cells filled by acidic, non-sulphated mucin and some thinner cells filled by neutral mucin. The intestine goblet cells in black tetra were filled by variable amounts of neutral and acidic mucin, but the total number of such cells is much less than in tiger barb. The present lectin and neuraminidase results suggest that the intestinal mucins in both species contain significant amounts of N-acetylglucosamine, sialic acid and glucose/mannose, but seem to lack N-acetylgalactosamine. However, some of these cells in tiger barb contain moderate to large amounts of galactose. Together, these results suggest significant species

  8. Spectral studies on Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes with thiosemicarbazone (L1) and semicarbazone (L2) derived from 2-acetyl furan.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Sulekh; Kumar, Anil

    2007-04-01

    Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes are synthesized with thiosemicarbazone (L1) and semicarbazone (L2) derived from 2-acetyl furan. These complexes are characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility measurements, mass, IR, electronic and EPR spectral studies. The molar conductance measurements of the complexes in DMSO correspond to non-electrolytic nature except Ni(L)2(NO3)2, which is 1:2 electrolyte. All the complexes are of high-spin type. On the basis of spectral studies an octahedral geometry may be assigned for Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes except nitrato complexes of Ni(II) which is of tetrahedral geometry, whereas tetragonal geometry for Cu(II) complexes.

  9. Spectral, IR and magnetic studies of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes with pyrrole-2-carboxyaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (L).

    PubMed

    Chandra, Sulekh; Kumar, Anil

    2007-11-01

    Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes are synthesized with thiosemicarbazone (L) derived from pyrrole-2-carboxyaldehyde. These complexes are characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility measurement, mass, IR, electronic and EPR spectral studies. The molar conductance measurement of the complexes in DMSO indicates that the complexes are non-electrolyte except Co(L)2(NO3)2 and Ni(L)2(NO3)2 complexes which are 1:2 electrolyte. All the complexes are of high-spin type. On the basis of spectral studies an octahedral geometry may be assigned for Mn(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes except Co(L)2(NO3)2 and Ni(L)2(NO3)2 which are of tetrahedral geometry. A tetragonal geometry may be suggested for Cu(II) complexes.

  10. Magnetic Tuning of an Anionic Co(II) -MOF through Deionization of the Framework: Spin-Canting, Spin-Flop, and Easy-Plane Magnetic Anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Tian, Chong-Bin; Han, Yun-Hu; He, Zhang-Zhen; Du, Shao-Wu

    2017-01-18

    An anionic Co(II) -MOF, (Me2 NH2 )[Co3 (Me2 NH)3 (OH)(SDBA)3 ] (1) (H2 SDBA=4,4'-sulfonyldibenzoic acid) consisting of highly symmetric Co(II)3 (μ3 -OH) triangles exhibits spin-canting, spin-flop, and easy-plane magnetic anisotropy. Measurement on a single crystal shows that the ab plane of 1 is the easy magnetization plane. After structural modification through simultaneous removal of the coordinated dimethylamine (DMA) molecule at the Co center and the ionic groups DMA(+) and OH(-) , the resulting neutral amorphous framework 2 displays an enhanced spin frustration effect. The deionization of 1 does not result in the collapse of the framework, showing the high stability of the backbone structure.

  11. Male biased gene flow in banana pseudostem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis Oliver) as revealed by analysis of the COI-tRNA(Leu) COII region.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Pallavi; Kulkarni, Vishvas M; Kumar, Lalitha Sunil

    2015-02-01

    The genetic diversity amongst thirty weevils representing six Indian populations of banana pseudostem weevil, i.e., Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver) was estimated by sequence analysis of the partial COI-tRNA(Leu)-COII region. The sequences exhibited AT bias typical of insect mitochondrial DNA which was highest in the first codon position of COI and in the third codon position of COII. There was no phylogeographic distribution of the populations. The Fu and Li's D and F tests were non-significant for this mitochondrial region. No Wolbachia infection was detected in any of the populations. The genetic differentiation amongst the populations was highly significant (p < 0.001; χ2 = 123.333; df = 75), suggesting restricted gene flow between the populations. This result did not correlate with that obtained with nuclear rDNA markers, i.e., ITS1 and ITS2, suggesting a male biased gene flow between the populations.

  12. Triimidosulfonates as Acute Bite-Angle Chelates: Slow Relaxation of the Magnetization in Zero Field and Hysteresis Loop of a Co(II) Complex.

    PubMed

    Carl, Elena; Demeshko, Serhiy; Meyer, Franc; Stalke, Dietmar

    2015-07-06

    Starting from a polyimido sulfonate the four-coordinate, N,N'-chelated Co(II) complex [Co{(NtBu)3 SMe}2 ] (1) was synthesized, and its molecular structure was elucidated by single-crystal X-ray structural analysis. The acute N-Co-N bite angle imposed by the N,N'-chelating ligand (NtBu)3 SMe(-) leads to pronounced C2v distortion of the tetrahedral coordination environment and thus to high anisotropy of the Co(II) ion (D≈-58 cm(-1) ), favorable for single-molecule-magnet (SMM) properties. Magnetic measurements revealed a high barrier to spin reversal (Ueff =75 cm(-1) ) that gives rise to the observation of slow relaxation of the magnetization in zero field and a hysteresis loop at 2 K for this unique complex.

  13. Removal of Co(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) ions by polymer based 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate: thermodynamics and desorption studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Removal thermodynamics and desorption studies of some heavy metal ions such as Co(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) by polymeric surfaces such as poly 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (PHEMA) and copolymer 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate with monomer methyl methacrylate P(MMA-HEMA) as adsorbent surfaces from aqueous single solution were investigated with respect to the changes in pH of solution, adsorbent composition, contact time and temperature in the individual aqueous solution. The linear correlation coefficients of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were obtained and the results revealed that the Langmuir isotherm fitted the experiment results better than Freundlich isotherm. Using the Langmuir model equation, the monolayer removal capacity of PHEMA surface was found to be 0.7388, 0.8396 and 3.0367 mg/g for Co(II), Cu(ΙΙ) and Pb(II) ions and removal capacity of P(MMA-HEMA) was found to be 28.8442, 31.1526 and 31.4465 mg/g for Co(II), Cu(ΙΙ) and Pb(II) ions, respectively. Changes in the standard Gibbs free energy (ΔG0), standard enthalpy (ΔH0) and standard entropy (ΔS0) showed that the removals of mentioned ions onto PHEMA and P(MMA-HEMA) are spontaneous and exothermic at 293–323 K. The maximum desorption efficiency was 75.26% for Pb(II) using 0.100 M HNO3, 70.10% for Cu(II) using 0.100 M HCl, 59.20% for 0.100 M HCl 63.67% Co(II). PMID:23369255

  14. Removal of Co(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) ions by polymer based 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate: thermodynamics and desorption studies.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Omid; Mirza, Behrooz; Norouzi, Mehdi; Fakhri, Ali

    2012-12-22

    Removal thermodynamics and desorption studies of some heavy metal ions such as Co(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) by polymeric surfaces such as poly 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (PHEMA) and copolymer 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate with monomer methyl methacrylate P(MMA-HEMA) as adsorbent surfaces from aqueous single solution were investigated with respect to the changes in pH of solution, adsorbent composition, contact time and temperature in the individual aqueous solution. The linear correlation coefficients of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were obtained and the results revealed that the Langmuir isotherm fitted the experiment results better than Freundlich isotherm. Using the Langmuir model equation, the monolayer removal capacity of PHEMA surface was found to be 0.7388, 0.8396 and 3.0367 mg/g for Co(II), Cu(ΙΙ) and Pb(II) ions and removal capacity of P(MMA-HEMA) was found to be 28.8442, 31.1526 and 31.4465 mg/g for Co(II), Cu(ΙΙ) and Pb(II) ions, respectively. Changes in the standard Gibbs free energy (ΔG0), standard enthalpy (ΔH0) and standard entropy (ΔS0) showed that the removals of mentioned ions onto PHEMA and P(MMA-HEMA) are spontaneous and exothermic at 293-323 K. The maximum desorption efficiency was 75.26% for Pb(II) using 0.100 M HNO3, 70.10% for Cu(II) using 0.100 M HCl, 59.20% for 0.100 M HCl 63.67% Co(II).

  15. Rational design of two bpy-bridged 3D and 2D Co(II) open frameworks with similar amino-acid-based Schiff bases.

    PubMed

    Li, Zong-Ze; Du, Lin; Zhou, Jie; Zhu, Ming-Rong; Qian, Fen-Hua; Liu, Jing; Chen, Peng; Zhao, Qi-Hua

    2012-12-21

    Two novel bpy-bridged Co(II) Schiff base complexes have been synthesized by the hydro(solvo)thermal reactions of corresponding amino-acid-based Schiff bases, bpy and Co(NO(3))(2)·6H(2)O. The following formulae identify the two complexes: {[Co(napala)(bpy)(0.5)]·H(2)O}(n) (1) and [Co(napgly)(bpy)(0.5)](n) (2) [H(2)napala = N-(2-hydroxy-1-naphthylmethylidene)-D/L-alanine, H(2)napgly = N-(2-hydroxy-1-naphthylmethylidene)-glycine and bpy = 4,4'-bipyridine]. These two compounds have been characterized using single-crystal X-ray diffraction, infrared, powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, optical spectra analysis, and magnetic measurement. Complex 1 features an unprecedented threefold interpenetrated diamond network based on the fan-shaped Co(II)(4)(μ(2)-napala)(4) molecular square node and bpy linker, which represents the first example of 3D framework among the amino-acid-based Schiff base complexes with salicylaldehyde or its derivatives. In 2, adjacent Co(II) ions are bridged by μ(2)-napgly(2-) to form left- and right-handed [Co(II)(μ(2)-napgly)](n) helical chains. These two types of helical chains are sustained alternately by a symmetrical bpy co-ligand into a 2D grid-based layer. The solid-state fluorescence of complexes 1 and 2 are quenched almost completely compared with free mixed-ligands at room temperature. Moreover, magnetic studies show the dominant antiferromagnetic coupling between the Co(II) centers mediated by the syn-anti-COO(-)-bridges in both complexes.

  16. Enhancing the ferromagnetic coupling in extended phloroglucinol complexes by increasing the metal SOMO-ligand overlap: synthesis and characterization of a trinuclear Co(II)(3) triplesalophen complex.

    PubMed

    Oldengott, Jan; Stammler, Anja; Bögge, Hartmut; Glaser, Thorsten

    2015-06-07

    The triplesalophen complex [(baron(Me))Co(II)(3)] has been synthesized and characterized. The low-spin Co(II) ions possess an (2)A2 ground state with the magnetic orbitals of dyz type. These are well oriented for a strong π overlap with the bridging phloroglucinol, which results in the strongest ferromagnetic interactions by the spin-polarization mechanism for a 3d phloroglucinol complex.

  17. Modelling the magnetic behaviour of square-pyramidal Co(II)5 aggregates: tuning SMM behaviour through variations in the ligand shell.

    PubMed

    Klöwer, Frederik; Lan, Yanhua; Nehrkorn, Joscha; Waldmann, Oliver; Anson, Christopher E; Powell, Annie K

    2009-07-27

    Three new mu4-bridged Co(II)5 clusters with similar core motifs have been synthesised with the use of N-tert-butyldiethanolamine (tbdeaH2) and pivalic acid (piv): [Co(II)5(mu4-N3)(tbdea)2(mu-piv)4(piv)(CH3CN)2].CH3CN (1), [Co(II)5(mu4-Cl)(Cl)(tbdea)2(mu-piv)4(pivH)2] (2) and [Co(II)5(mu4-N3)(Cl)(tbdea)2(mu-piv)4(pivH)2] (3). Magnetic measurements were performed for all three compounds. It was found that while the chloride-bridged cluster 2 does not show an out-of-phase signal, which excludes single-molecule magnet (SMM) behaviour, the azide-bridged compounds 1 and 3 show out-of-phase signals as well as frequency dependence of the ac susceptibility, as expected for SMMs. We confirmed that 1 is a SMM with zero-field quantum tunnelling of the magnetisation at 1.8 K. Compound 3 is likely a SMM with a blocking temperature well below 1.8 K. We established a physical model to fit the chiT versus T and M versus B curves of the three compounds to reproduce the observed SMM trend. The analysis showed that small changes in the ligand shell modify not only the magnitude of exchange constants, but also affect the J and g matrices in a non-trivial way.

  18. Positional isomeric tunable two Co(II) 6-connected 3-D frameworks with pentanuclear to binuclear units: structures, ion-exchange and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Han, Min-Le; Duan, Ya-Ping; Li, Dong-Sheng; Wang, Hai-Bin; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Yao-Yu

    2014-11-07

    Two new Co(II) based metal-organic frameworks, namely {[Co5(μ3-OH)2(m-pda)3(bix)4]·2ClO4}n (1) and {[Co2(p-pda)2(bix)2(H2O)]·H2O}n (2), were prepared by hydrothermal reactions of Co(II) salt with two isomeric dicarboxyl tectons 1,3-phenylenediacetic acid (m-pda) and 1,4-phenylenediacetic acid (p-pda), along with 1,3-bis(imidazol-L-ylmethyl)benzene (bix). Both complexes 1 and 2 have been characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). 1 shows a 6-connected 3-D pcu cationic framework with pentanuclear [Co5(μ3-OH)2(COO)6(bix)2](2+) units, while 2 exhibits a 6-connected 3-D msw net based on [Co2(μ2-H2O)(COO)2](2+) clusters. The results indicate that the different dispositions of the carboxylic groups of dicarboxylates have an important effect on the overall coordination frameworks. Perchlorate anions in 1 can be partly exchanged by thiocyanate and azide anions, however they are unavailable to nitrate anions. Magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate that both 1 and 2 show weak antiferromagnetic interactions between the adjacent Co(II) ions.

  19. Electrochemical studies of DNA interaction and antimicrobial activities of MnII, FeIII, CoII and NiII Schiff base tetraazamacrocyclic complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Anuj; Vashistha, Vinod Kumar; Tevatia, Prashant; Singh, Randhir

    2017-04-01

    Tetraazamacrocyclic complexes of MnII, FeIII, CoII and NiII have been synthesized by template method. These tetraazamacrocycles have been analyzed with various techniques like molar conductance, IR, UV-vis, mass spectral and cyclic voltammetric studies. On the basis of all these studies, octahedral geometry has been assigned to these tetraazamacrocyclic complexes. The DNA binding properties of these macrocyclic complexes have been investigated by electronic absorption spectra, fluorescence spectra, cyclic voltammetric and differential pulse voltammetric studies. The cyclic voltammetric data showed that ipc and ipa were effectively decreased in the presence of calf thymus DNA, which is a strong evidence for the interaction of these macrocyclic complexes with the calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA). The heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant found in the order: KCoII > KNiII > KMnII which indicates that CoII macrocyclic complex has formed a strong intercalated intermediate. The Stern-Volmer quenching constant (KSV) and voltammetric binding constant were found in the order KSV(CoII) > KSV(NiII) > KSV(MnII) and K+(CoII) > K+(NiII) > K+(MnII) which shows that CoII macrocyclic complex exhibits the high interaction affinity towards ct-DNA by the intercalation binding. Biological studies of the macrocyclic complexes compared with the standard drug like Gentamycin, have shown antibacterial activities against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, B. cereus, S. aureus and antifungal activity against C. albicans.

  20. catena-Poly[[tetra-μ-formato-κ(8) O:O'-dicopper(II)]-μ-hexa-methyl-ene-tetra-mine-κ(2) N (1):N (5)].

    PubMed

    Cao, Jianfang; Huang, Ziping; Cao, Changnian; Cheng, Chunchun; Sun, Chunyan

    2013-11-30

    In the title polymeric compound, [Cu2(HCO2)4(C6H12N4)] n , the Cu(II) atom is five-coordinated in a square-pyramidal geometry that is defined by four O atoms from four formate ligands and one N atom from a hexa-methyl-ene-tetra-mine ligand. The two Cu(II) atoms are separated by 2.6850 (7) Å, and together with the four formate ligands they form a paddle-wheel unit. The hexa-mine ligand uses only two of its four N atoms to link Cu2 cluster units, affording a zigzag chain running along the b-axis direction. The hexa-mine ligand lies on a mirror plane.

  1. Tetra­ethyl­ammonium tetra­kis­(1,1,1,5,5,5-hexa­fluoro­acetyl­acetonato)terbate(III)

    PubMed Central

    Van Deun, Rik; Van Der Voort, Pascal; Van Driessche, Isabel; Van Hecke, Kristof

    2012-01-01

    The title compound, (C8H20N)[Tb(C5HF6O2)4], is a tetrakis β-diketonate complex of hexa­fluoro­acetyl­acetone with terbium(III), and tetra­ethyl­ammonium as the counter-ion. This compound shows typical green terbium(III) luminescence upon excitation at about 335 nm. The coordination geometry around the TbIII atom is a slightly distorted square anti­prism. One hexa­fluoro­acetyl­acetone ligand has a disordered CF3 group [occupancies of 0.575 (4) and 0.425 (4)]. A three-dimensional network is built up by linkage of TbIII complexes via C—H⋯F inter­actions. PMID:22346802

  2. Synthesis and reactivity of [penta(4-halogenophenyl)cyclopentadienyl][hydrotris(indazolyl)borato]ruthenium(II) complexes: rotation-induced Fosbury flop in an organometallic molecular turnstile.

    PubMed

    Carella, Alexandre; Launay, Jean-Pierre; Poteau, Romuald; Rapenne, Gwénaël

    2008-01-01

    The preparation of ruthenium(II) complexes coordinated to a penta(4-halogeno)phenylcyclopentadienyl ligand and to the hydrotris(indazolyl)borate ligand are detailed. Our strategy involves first the coordination of the penta(4-bromo)phenylcyclopentadienyl ligand by reaction with the ruthenium-carbonyl cluster followed by the coordination of the tripodal ligand. The pentabrominated precursor was successfully converted to the pentaiodinated derivative by using the Klapars-Buchwald methodology, applied for the first time on organometallic substrates. Cross-coupling reactions were performed on both pentabromo and pentaiodo complexes to introduce in a single step the five peripheric ferrocenyl fragments required to obtain a potential molecular motor. The two ligands present in the ruthenium complexes undergo a correlated rotation that was established both experimentally by NMR experiments and an X-ray diffraction study, and theoretically by DFT calculations. The potential-energy curve obtained by DFT revealed the energy barrier of the gearing mechanism to be only 4.5 kcal mol(-1). These sterically highly constrained complexes can be regarded as organometallic molecular turnstiles.

  3. The precursor form of Hansenula polymorpha copper amine oxidase 1 in complex with CuI and CoII.

    PubMed

    Klema, Valerie J; Johnson, Bryan J; Klinman, Judith P; Wilmot, Carrie M

    2012-05-01

    Copper amine oxidases (CAOs) catalyze the oxidative deamination of primary amines to their corresponding aldehydes, with the concomitant reduction of O(2) to H(2)O(2). Catalysis requires two cofactors: a mononuclear copper center and the cofactor 2,4,5-trihydroxyphenylalanine quinone (TPQ). TPQ is synthesized through the post-translational modification of an endogenous tyrosine residue and requires only oxygen and copper to proceed. TPQ biogenesis in CAO can be supported by alternate metals, albeit at decreased rates. A variety of factors are thought to contribute to the degree to which a metal can support TPQ biogenesis, including Lewis acidity, redox potential and electrostatic stabilization capability. The crystal structure has been solved of one of two characterized CAOs from the yeast Hansenula polymorpha (HPAO-1) in its metal-free (apo) form, which contains an unmodified precursor tyrosine residue instead of fully processed TPQ (HPAO-1 was denoted HPAO in the literature prior to 2010). Structures of apoHPAO-1 in complex with Cu(I) and Co(II) have also been solved, providing structural insight into metal binding prior to biogenesis.

  4. Co(II) and Cd(II) Complexes Derived from Heterocyclic Schiff-Bases: Synthesis, Structural Characterisation, and Biological Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Riyadh M.; Yousif, Enaam I.; Al-Jeboori, Mohamad J.

    2013-01-01

    New monomeric cobalt and cadmium complexes with Schiff-bases, namely, N′-[(E)-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)methylidene]furan-2-carbohydrazide (L1) and N′-[(E)-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)methylidene]thiophene-2-carbohydrazide (L2) are reported. Schiff-base ligands L1 and L2 were derived from condensation of 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde (iso-vanillin) with furan-2-carboxylic acid hydrazide and thiophene-2-carboxylic acid hydrazide, respectively. Complexes of the general formula [M(L)2]Cl2 (where M = Co(II) or Cd(II), L = L1 or L2) have been obtained from the reaction of the corresponding metal chloride with the ligands. The ligands and their metal complexes were characterised by spectroscopic methods (FTIR, UV-Vis, 1H, and 13C NMR spectra), elemental analysis, metal content, magnetic measurement, and conductance. These studies revealed the formation of four-coordinate complexes in which the geometry about metal ion is tetrahedral. Biological activity of the ligands and their metal complexes against gram positive bacterial strain Bacillus (G+) and gram negative bacteria Pseudomonas (G−) revealed that the metal complexes become less resistive to the microbial activities as compared to the free ligands. PMID:24027449

  5. Synthesis and studies on Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II) complexes of Knoevenagel β-diketone ligands.

    PubMed

    Sumathi, S; Tharmaraj, P; Sheela, C D; Anitha, C

    2012-11-01

    Transition metal complexes of various acetylacetone based ligands of the type ML [where M=Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II); L=3-(aryl)-pentane-2,4-dione] have been synthesized. The structural features have been derived from their elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility, molar conductance, IR, UV-Vis, (1)H NMR, Mass and ESR spectral studies. Conductivity measurements reveal that all the complexes are non-electrolytic in nature. Spectroscopic and other analytical data of the complexes suggest octahedral geometry for other metal(II) complexes. The redox behavior of the copper(II) complexes have been studied by cyclic voltammetry. The free ligands and their metal complexes have been screened for their in vitro biological activities against the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus as well as the fungus Candida albicans by well diffusion method. The zone of inhibition value indicates that the most of the metal(II) complexes are found to possess increased activities compared to those of the free ligands. All synthesized compounds may serve as potential photoactive materials as indicated from their characteristic fluorescence properties. The second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of the ligands (L1-L3) was found to be considerable effect than that of urea and KDP (potassium dihydrogen phosphate).

  6. Co(II) and Cd(II) complexes derived from heterocyclic Schiff-Bases: synthesis, structural characterisation, and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Riyadh M; Yousif, Enaam I; Al-Jeboori, Mohamad J

    2013-01-01

    New monomeric cobalt and cadmium complexes with Schiff-bases, namely, N'-[(E)-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)methylidene]furan-2-carbohydrazide (L¹) and N'-[(E)-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)methylidene]thiophene-2-carbohydrazide (L²) are reported. Schiff-base ligands L¹ and L² were derived from condensation of 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde (iso-vanillin) with furan-2-carboxylic acid hydrazide and thiophene-2-carboxylic acid hydrazide, respectively. Complexes of the general formula [M(L)₂]Cl₂ (where M = Co(II) or Cd(II), L = L¹ or L²) have been obtained from the reaction of the corresponding metal chloride with the ligands. The ligands and their metal complexes were characterised by spectroscopic methods (FTIR, UV-Vis, ¹H, and ¹³C NMR spectra), elemental analysis, metal content, magnetic measurement, and conductance. These studies revealed the formation of four-coordinate complexes in which the geometry about metal ion is tetrahedral. Biological activity of the ligands and their metal complexes against gram positive bacterial strain Bacillus (G+) and gram negative bacteria Pseudomonas (G-) revealed that the metal complexes become less resistive to the microbial activities as compared to the free ligands.

  7. Sensitive spectrophotometric determination of Co(II) using dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction method in soil samples.

    PubMed

    Hasanpour, Foroozan; Hadadzadeh, Hassan; Taei, Masoumeh; Nekouei, Mohsen; Mozafari, Elmira

    2016-05-01

    Analytical performance of conventional spectrophotometer was developed by coupling of effective dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction method with spectrophotometric determination for ultra-trace determination of cobalt. The method was based on the formation of Co(II)-alpha-benzoin oxime complex and its extraction using a dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction technique. During the present work, several important variables such as pH, ligand concentration, amount and type of dispersive, and extracting solvent were optimized. It was found that the crucial factor for the Co(II)-alpha benzoin oxime complex formation is the pH of the alkaline alcoholic medium. Under the optimized condition, the calibration graph was linear in the ranges of 1.0-110 μg L(-1) with the detection limit (S/N = 3) of 0.5 μg L(-1). The preconcentration operation of 25 mL of sample gave enhancement factor of 75. The proposed method was applied for determination of Co(II) in soil samples.

  8. Synthesis and studies on Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II) complexes of Knoevenagel β-diketone ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumathi, S.; Tharmaraj, P.; Sheela, C. D.; Anitha, C.

    2012-11-01

    Transition metal complexes of various acetylacetone based ligands of the type ML [where M = Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II); L = 3-(aryl)-pentane-2,4-dione] have been synthesized. The structural features have been derived from their elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility, molar conductance, IR, UV-Vis, 1H NMR, Mass and ESR spectral studies. Conductivity measurements reveal that all the complexes are non-electrolytic in nature. Spectroscopic and other analytical data of the complexes suggest octahedral geometry for other metal(II) complexes. The redox behavior of the copper(II) complexes have been studied by cyclic voltammetry. The free ligands and their metal complexes have been screened for their in vitro biological activities against the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus as well as the fungus Candida albicans by well diffusion method. The zone of inhibition value indicates that the most of the metal(II) complexes are found to possess increased activities compared to those of the free ligands. All synthesized compounds may serve as potential photoactive materials as indicated from their characteristic fluorescence properties. The second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of the ligands (L1-L3) was found to be considerable effect than that of urea and KDP (potassium dihydrogen phosphate).

  9. Unusual magnetic behaviors and electronic configurations driven by diverse Co(II) or Mn(II) MOF architectures.

    PubMed

    Bernini, María Celeste; Romero de Paz, Julio; Snejko, Natalia; Sáez-Puche, Regino; Gutierrez-Puebla, Enrique; Monge, María Ángeles

    2014-12-15

    Five novel metal organic frameworks were obtained by hydro-solvothermal reactions using the hexafluorisopropylidenebis(benzoic) acid (H2hfipbb) as linker and Co(II) or Mn(II) ions as connectors. [Co2(Hhfipbb)(TEA)], compound 1 (TEA = triethanolamine trianion) with a three-dimensional (3D) framework, and a tpu net; [Co1.5(hfipbb)2]·HN(CH2CH3)3 and [Co3(hfipbb)2]·2{HN(CH2CH3)3}, compounds 2 and 2-a, respectively, both with two-dimensional structure, sql topologies, and different layer packings. Compounds 3 and 4, having the general formula [M2(hfipbb)2]·C7H8, where M = Co (3) or Mn (4), have 3D frameworks with an sqc topology. A deep analysis of the magnetic measurements reveals different striking magnetic behaviors resulting from diverse secondary building unit and framework architectures. Compound 1 presents canted antiferromagnetic chains, compound 2 contains ferromagnetic linear trimeric clusters, and compound 3 exhibits ferromagnetic chains. For the three compounds, a 3D canted antiferromagnetic structure takes place at ∼8 K by means of weak magnetic interactions between the mentioned magnetic units. Such long-range magnetic order is precluded with the application of a high enough magnetic field. Compound 4 evidenced intrachain antiferromagnetic interactions.

  10. Structure, magnetism, and theoretical study of a mixed-valence Co(II)3Co(III)4 heptanuclear wheel: lack of SMM behavior despite negative magnetic anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Chibotaru, Liviu F; Ungur, Liviu; Aronica, Christophe; Elmoll, Hani; Pilet, Guillaume; Luneau, Dominique

    2008-09-17

    A mixed-valence Co(II)/Co(III) heptanuclear wheel [Co(II)3Co(III)4(L)6(MeO)6] (LH2 = 1,1,1-trifluoro-7-hydroxy-4-methyl-5-aza-hept-3-en-2-one) has been synthesized and its crystal structure determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The valence state of each cobalt ion was established by bond valence sum calculations. Studies of the temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility and the field dependence of the magnetization evidence ferromagnetic interactions within the compound. In order to understand the magnetic properties of this Co7 wheel, we performed ab initio calculations for each cobalt fragment at the CASSCF/CASPT2 level, including spin-orbit coupling effects within the SO-RASSI approach. The four Co(III) ions were found to be diamagnetic and to give a significant temperature-independent paramagnetic contribution to the susceptibility. The spin-orbit coupling on the three Co(II) sites leads to separations of approximately 200 cm(-1) between the ground and excited Kramers doublets, placing the Co7 wheel into a weak-exchange limit in which the lowest electronic states are adequately described by the anisotropic exchange interaction between the lowest Kramers doublets on Co(II) sites. Simulation of the exchange interaction was done within the Lines model, keeping the fully ab initio treatment of magnetic anisotropy effects on individual cobalt fragments using a recently developed methodology. A good description of the susceptibility and magnetization was obtained for nearest-neighbor (J1) and next-nearest-neighbor (J2) exchange parameters (1.5 and 5.5 cm(-1), respectively). The strong ferromagnetic interaction between distant cobalt ions arises as a result of low electron-promotion energies in the exchange bridges containing Co(III) ions. The calculations showed a large value of the magnetization along the main magnetic axis (10.1 mu(B)), which is a combined effect of the ferromagnetic exchange interaction and negative magnetic anisotropy on

  11. Crystal structure of cis-aqua­chlorido­(rac-5,5,7,12,12,14-hexa­methyl-1,4,8,11-tetra­aza­cyclo­tetra­decane-κ4 N)chromium(III) tetra­chlorido­zincate trihydrate from synchrotron data

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Dohyun; Choi, Jong-Ha

    2015-01-01

    The structure of the title compound, cis-[CrCl(cycb)(H2O)][ZnCl4]·3H2O (cycb is rac-5,5,7,12,12,14-hexa­methyl-1,4,8,11-tetra­aza­cyclo­tetra­decane; C16H36N4), has been determined from synchrotron data. In the complex cation, the CrIII ion is bound by four N atoms from the tetra­dentate cycb ligand, a chloride ion and one water mol­ecule in a cis arrangement, displaying a distorted octa­hedral coordination geometry. The distorted tetra­hedral [ZnCl4]2− anion and three additional water mol­ecules remain outside the coordination sphere. The Cr—N(cycb) bond lengths are in the range of 2.0837 (14) to 2.1399 (12) Å while the Cr—Cl and Cr—(OH2) bond lengths are 2.2940 (8) and 2.0082 (13) Å, respectively. The crystal packing is stabilized by hydrogen-bonding inter­actions between the N—H groups of the macrocyclic ligand, the O—H groups of the water mol­ecules and the Cl atoms of the tetra­chlorido­zincate anion, leading to the formation of a three-dimensional network. PMID:26396846

  12. Development of novel tetra- and trinucleotide microsatellite markers for giant grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus using 454 pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Keun-Sik; Noh, Choong Hwan; Moon, Shin-Joo; Han, Seung-Hee; Bang, In-Chul

    2016-06-01

    Giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus) is a commercially important species, but its wild population has recently been classified as vulnerable. This species has significant potential for use in aquaculture, though a greater understanding of population genetics is necessary for selective breeding programs to minimize kinship for genetically healthy individuals. High-throughput pyrosequencing of genomic DNA was used to identify and characterize novel tetra- and trinucleotide microsatellite markers in giant grouper from Sabah, Malaysia. In total, of 62,763 sequences containing simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were obtained, and 78 SSR loci were selected to possibly contain tetra- and trinucleotide repeats. Of these loci, 16 had tetra- and 8 had trinucleotide repeats, all of which exhibited polymorphisms within easily genotyped regions. A total of 143 alleles were identified with an average of 5.94 alleles per locus, with mean observed and expected heterozygosities of 0.648 and 0.620, respectively. Among of them, 15 microsatellite markers were identified without null alleles and with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. These alleles showed a combined non-exclusion probability of 0.01138. The probability of individual identification (PID) value combined with in descending order 12 microsatellite markers was 0.00008, which strongly suggests that the use of the microsatellite markers developed in this study in various combinations would result in a high resolution method for parentage analysis and individual identification. These markers could be used to establish a broodstock management program for giant grouper and to provide a foundation for genetic studies such as population structure, parentage analysis, and kinship selection.

  13. Synthesis and electrochemical studies of a new iron tetra-catecholamide complex.

    PubMed

    Cheraïti, N; Brik, M E; Bricard, L; Keita, B; Nadjo, L; Gaudemer, A

    1999-08-16

    A new tetra-catecholamide compound N5,N6-thiodipropanoyl-bis[N1,N10-bis(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl-spermidi ne)] (H8L) has been synthesised as an iron chelator of Fe (III). Cyclic voltammogram of the iron complex H2LFe run under an argon atmosphere shows a quasi-reversible redox process with E0 = -430 mV vs. SCE in CH3OH/H20 (60/40). This value approaches the range of biological reductants and consequently the complex may mimic the release of iron from enterobactin to the agents which are directly involved in cell metabolism.

  14. Metal binding and antioxidant properties of chimeric tri- and tetra-domained metallothioneins.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Jean-Luc; Baudrimont, Magalie; Carrier, Patrick; Peltier, Gilles; Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul

    2008-05-01

    An unusual tri-domained (alpha-beta-beta) natural oyster metallothionein (MT) is known, and non-oxidative MT dimers occur in vivo in mollusk species and in mammals. To assess the respective role of the MT domains, two chimeric MTs were constructed: a tetra-domained oyster MT corresponding to the alpha-beta-alpha-beta structure, in order to mimic the natural non-oxidative dimeric form, and a tri-domained alpha-beta-alpha oyster MT. Metal binding and putative antioxidant properties of these two chimeric MTs were investigated using expression of the related genes in the bacteria Escherichia coli. In a wild-type strain these MTs could efficiently bind Cd. In a superoxide dismutase (sodA sodB) null mutant, the tri-domained MT was found to exacerbate Cd toxicity whereas the tetra-domained MT efficiently protected bacteria from Cd. The paradoxical toxicity displayed by the tri-domained MT upon Cd contamination was linked to the generation of superoxide radicals generated by a mechanism which most probably involves a copper-redox cycling reaction, since a Cd-contaminated sodA sodB strain expressing this MT produced 4 times more O2(-) than the control bacteria, and MT toxicity disappeared in the presence of bathocuproine disulfonic acid, a copper chelator. In contrast, the tetra-domained form did not. Interestingly, in bacteria producing superoxide dismutase but hypersensitive to oxidative stress due to either mutations in thioredoxin and glutathione reductase pathways (WM104 mutant) or to a lack of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gshA mutant), both chimeric MTs were protecting against Cd toxicity. However, an unexpected lack of antioxidant function was observed for both chimeric MTs, which were found to enhance the toxicity of hydrogen peroxide in WM104, or that of menadione in QC1726. Altogether, our results suggest that superoxide dismutase activity counteracts the potential prooxidative effect of the tri-domained MT mediated by Cu ions and that the tetra

  15. n-Propyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-d-glucopyran-oside.

    PubMed

    Mönch, Bettina; Emmerling, Franziska; Kraus, Werner; Becker, Roland; Nehls, Irene

    2013-02-01

    THE TITLE COMPOUND [SYSTEMATIC NAME: (2R,3R,4S,5R,6R)-2-(acet-oxy-meth-yl)-6-propoxytetra-hydro-2H-pyran-3,4,5-triyl triacetate], C(17)H(26)O(10), was formed by a Koenigs-Knorr reaction of 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-α-d-glucopyranosyl bromide and n-propanol. The central ring adopts a chair conformation. The crystal does not contain any significant inter-actions such as hydrogen bonds.

  16. Bis(2-amino-5-chloro­pyridinium) tetra­chloridozincate

    PubMed Central

    Kefi, Riadh; Jeanneau, Erwann; Lefebvre, Frederic; Ben Nasr, Cherif

    2011-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, (C5H6ClN2)2[ZnCl4], contains two 2-amino-5-chloro­pyridinium cations and one [ZnCl4]2− dianion which are held together by N—H⋯Cl and C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds. The [ZnCl4]2− anions have a distorted tetra­hedral geometry. Weak inter­molecular π–π stacking inter­actions exist between neighbouring aromatic rings of the cations with a centroid–centroid distance of 3.712 (7) Å. PMID:21522283

  17. Pyrilocyanines. 24. Symmetrical tetra-tert-butyl substituted pyrilo-2-cyanines

    SciTech Connect

    Kurdyukov, V.V.; Ishchenko, A.A.; Kudinova, M.A.; Tolmachev, A.I.

    1987-12-01

    2,4-di-tert-butyl-6-methylpyrilium and -thiopyrilium salts were synthesized. From them were obtained symmetrical tetra-tert-butyl substituted ..cap alpha..-pyrilocarbo- and dicarbocyanines and their sulfur analogs. The ..cap alpha..-pyrilocyanines were converted to symmetrical ..cap alpha..-pyridocyanines. The effects of heteroresidue structure, length of polymethine chain, and solvent on the location and shape of the absorption bands of these dyes were studied. Their experimental spectral properties were compared with the results of quantum chemical calculations of average band location, second-power changes of bond order upon excitation, and theoretical electron donor capabilities.

  18. Structural and functional discussion of the tetra-trico-peptide repeat, a protein interaction module.

    PubMed

    Zeytuni, Natalie; Zarivach, Raz

    2012-03-07

    Tetra-trico-peptide repeat (TPR) domains are found in numerous proteins, where they serve as interaction modules and multiprotein complex mediators. TPRs can be found in all kingdoms of life and regulate diverse biological processes, such as organelle targeting and protein import, vesicle fusion, and biomineralization. This review considers the structural features of TPR domains that permit the great ligand-binding diversity of this motif, given that TPR-interacting partners display variations in both sequence and secondary structure. In addition, tools for predicting TPR-interacting partners are discussed, as are the abilities of TPR domains to serve as protein-protein interaction scaffolds in biotechnology and therapeutics.

  19. Crystal structure of non-centrosymmetric bis-(4-meth-oxy-benzyl-ammonium) tetra-chlorido-zincate.

    PubMed

    Mahbouli Rhouma, Najla; Rayes, Ali; Mezzadri, Francesco; Calestani, Gianluca; Loukil, Mohamed

    2016-07-01

    The structure of the title non-centrosymmetric organic-inorganic hybrid salt, (C8H12NO)2[ZnCl4], consists of two 4-meth-oxy-benzyl-ammonium cations sandwiched between anionic layers, formed by isolated tetra-chlorido-zincate tetra-hedra. The double layers extend parallel to the ac plane. The crystal packing is assured by Coulombic inter-actions and by a complex N-H⋯Cl and C-H⋯Cl hydrogen-bonding system mostly involving the positively charged ammonium groups and the chloride ligands of the isolated tetra-hedral [ZnCl4](2-) units. One of the methyl-ene-ammonium groups is disordered over two sets of sites in a 0.48 (2):0.52 (2) ratio. The crystal investigated was twinned by non-merohedry with a twin component ratio of 0.738 (2):0.262 (2).

  20. HPC - Platforms Penta Chart

    SciTech Connect

    Trujillo, Angelina Michelle

    2015-10-08

    Strategy, Planning, Acquiring- very large scale computing platforms come and go and planning for immensely scalable machines often precedes actual procurement by 3 years. Procurement can be another year or more. Integration- After Acquisition, machines must be integrated into the computing environments at LANL. Connection to scalable storage via large scale storage networking, assuring correct and secure operations. Management and Utilization – Ongoing operations, maintenance, and trouble shooting of the hardware and systems software at massive scale is required.

  1. HPC - Facilities Penta

    SciTech Connect

    Trujillo, Angelina Michelle

    2015-10-08

    Strategy, Planning, Acquiring- very large scale computing require very large physical infrastructures, pipes, pumps, power, etc. Planning and acquiring $25M+ infrastructure projects and bringing in more power to the county takes a lot of long lead time / planning. Integration- New physical infrastructure must be integrated into our buildings, with the LANL site power and water systems, with existing infrastructure, and with the machines. Very large physical infrastructure projects are necessary. Management and Utilization – Ongoing operations, monitoring, maintenance, and trouble shooting of the physical infrastructure is required.

  2. 4,11-Diaza-1,8-diazo­niacyclo­tetra­decane dichloride hemihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam-Ho; Hwang, In-Chul; Ha, Kwang

    2009-01-01

    In the title compound, C10H26N4 2+·2Cl−·0.5H2O, the cyclam (1,4,8,11-tetra­azacyclo­tetra­decane) dication adopts an endodentate conformation which my be inflenced by intra­molecular N—H⋯N hydrogen bonding. In the crystal structure, the components are linked by N—H⋯Cl and O—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds into chains along [100]. The water molecule is disordered over two sites in a 50:50 ratio. PMID:21577540

  3. Crystal structure of an unknown tetra-hydro-furan solvate of tetra-kis-(μ 3-cyanato-κ(3) N:N:N)tetra-kis-[(triphenyl-phosphane-κP)-silver(I)].

    PubMed

    Frenzel, Peter; Schaarschmidt, Dieter; Jakob, Alexander; Lang, Heinrich

    2015-10-01

    In the title compound, [{[(C6H5)3P]Ag}4{NCO}4], a distorted Ag4N4-heterocubane core is set up by four Ag(I) ions being coordinated by the N atoms of the cyanato anions in a μ 3-bridging mode. In addition, a tri-phenyl-phosphine ligand is datively bonded to each of the Ag(I) ions. Intra-molecular Ag⋯Ag distances as short as 3.133 (9) Å suggest the presence of argentophilic (d (10)⋯d (10)) inter-actions. Five moderate-to-weak C-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter-actions are observed in the crystal structure, spanning a three-dimensional network. A region of electron density was treated with the SQUEEZE procedure in PLATON [Spek (2015). Acta Cryst. C71, 9-18] following unsuccessful attempts to model it as being part of disordered tetra-hydro-furan solvent mol-ecules. The given chemical formula and other crystal data do not take into account these solvent mol-ecules.

  4. Crystal structure of an unknown tetra­hydro­furan solvate of tetra­kis­(μ 3-cyanato-κ3 N:N:N)tetra­kis­[(triphenyl­phosphane-κP)­silver(I)

    PubMed Central

    Frenzel, Peter; Schaarschmidt, Dieter; Jakob, Alexander; Lang, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    In the title compound, [{[(C6H5)3P]Ag}4{NCO}4], a distorted Ag4N4-heterocubane core is set up by four AgI ions being coordinated by the N atoms of the cyanato anions in a μ 3-bridging mode. In addition, a tri­phenyl­phosphine ligand is datively bonded to each of the AgI ions. Intra­molecular Ag⋯Ag distances as short as 3.133 (9) Å suggest the presence of argentophilic (d 10⋯d 10) inter­actions. Five moderate-to-weak C—H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter­actions are observed in the crystal structure, spanning a three-dimensional network. A region of electron density was treated with the SQUEEZE procedure in PLATON [Spek (2015). Acta Cryst. C71, 9–18] following unsuccessful attempts to model it as being part of disordered tetra­hydro­furan solvent mol­ecules. The given chemical formula and other crystal data do not take into account these solvent mol­ecules. PMID:26594421

  5. 75 FR 11740 - S-Abscisic Acid, (S)-5-(1-hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethyl-4-oxo-1-cyclohex-2-enyl)-3-methyl-penta-(2Z,4E...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 S-Abscisic Acid, (S)-5-(1-hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethyl-4-oxo-1- cyclohex-2-enyl)-3-methyl-penta-(2Z,4E)-dienoic Acid; Amendment to an Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance AGENCY... exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the biochemical pesticide S-Abscisic Acid,...

  6. Eight at one stroke - a synthetic tetra-disulfide peptide epitope.

    PubMed

    Schrimpf, Andreas; Linne, Uwe; Geyer, Armin

    2017-02-13

    We have designed a cysteine-rich β-hairpin peptide which dimerises spontaneously to the antiparallel double β-hairpin motif C1-C12', C1'-C12, C5-C8, C5'-C8'-tricyclo-(CHWECCitGCRLVC)2. The highly regioselective oxidation of eight cysteines yields an intermolecular bi-disulfide 24mer hinge peptide from two individual 12mer β-hairpins, each rigidified by an additional intramolecular disulfide bond - all in all a tetra-disulfide. The reaction kinetics of air-oxidation were followed by HPLC and the constitutional isomer was identified by mass spectrometry. The hairpin conformation was characterised in detail by NMR spectroscopy and the opening angle of the antiparallel hinge was estimated from drift times obtained by ion-mobility spectrometry. Based on a set of investigated disulfide motifs, we are able to rationalise how the unbalanced number of bonded and non-bonded hydrogen pairs in a 12 mer hairpin causes their dimerisation. The unique dimeric bi-/tetra-disulfides provide systematic insights into β-hairpin formation. They can serve as a standalone structural element for the oligomerisation of peptide epitopes where structural diversity is generated from a minimal number of amino acids.

  7. Tetra-sodium (dihydrogenhepta-oxido-digermanato)bis-(dihydrogentetra-oxido-germanato)dicopper(II) monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya-Feng; Li, Dan-Ping; Shi, Cui-Li; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Jin, Li

    2009-03-11

    In the hydro/solvothermally synthesized title compound, Na(4)[Cu(2)(H(2)Ge(2)O(7))(H(2)GeO(4))(2)]·H(2)O, the framework building units include CuO(4), GeO(2)(OH)(2) and GeO(3)(OH) tetra-hedra, the latter being condensed into H(2)Ge(2)O(7) (4-) dimers. All the tetra-hedra are connected by corner-sharing into four-membered-ring (4MR) secondary building units containing two CuO(4), one GeO(2)(OH)(2) and one GeO(3)(OH) entity. The 4MRs form chains by corner-sharing the Cu unit and adjacent chains are linked by H(2)Ge(2)O(7) (4-) dimers, generating layers containing ten-membered rings. Three sodium cations (one with site symmetry and one with site symmetry 2) and a water mol-ecule (O-atom site symmetry 2) complete the structure. A network of O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds helps to consolidate the packing.

  8. Mechanism of variable structural colour in the neon tetra: quantitative evaluation of the Venetian blind model

    PubMed Central

    Yoshioka, S.; Matsuhana, B.; Tanaka, S.; Inouye, Y.; Oshima, N.; Kinoshita, S.

    2011-01-01

    The structural colour of the neon tetra is distinguishable from those of, e.g., butterfly wings and bird feathers, because it can change in response to the light intensity of the surrounding environment. This fact clearly indicates the variability of the colour-producing microstructures. It has been known that an iridophore of the neon tetra contains a few stacks of periodically arranged light-reflecting platelets, which can cause multilayer optical interference phenomena. As a mechanism of the colour variability, the Venetian blind model has been proposed, in which the light-reflecting platelets are assumed to be tilted during colour change, resulting in a variation in the spacing between the platelets. In order to quantitatively evaluate the validity of this model, we have performed a detailed optical study of a single stack of platelets inside an iridophore. In particular, we have prepared a new optical system that can simultaneously measure both the spectrum and direction of the reflected light, which are expected to be closely related to each other in the Venetian blind model. The experimental results and detailed analysis are found to quantitatively verify the model. PMID:20554565

  9. Mechanism of variable structural colour in the neon tetra: quantitative evaluation of the Venetian blind model.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, S; Matsuhana, B; Tanaka, S; Inouye, Y; Oshima, N; Kinoshita, S

    2011-01-06

    The structural colour of the neon tetra is distinguishable from those of, e.g., butterfly wings and bird feathers, because it can change in response to the light intensity of the surrounding environment. This fact clearly indicates the variability of the colour-producing microstructures. It has been known that an iridophore of the neon tetra contains a few stacks of periodically arranged light-reflecting platelets, which can cause multilayer optical interference phenomena. As a mechanism of the colour variability, the Venetian blind model has been proposed, in which the light-reflecting platelets are assumed to be tilted during colour change, resulting in a variation in the spacing between the platelets. In order to quantitatively evaluate the validity of this model, we have performed a detailed optical study of a single stack of platelets inside an iridophore. In particular, we have prepared a new optical system that can simultaneously measure both the spectrum and direction of the reflected light, which are expected to be closely related to each other in the Venetian blind model. The experimental results and detailed analysis are found to quantitatively verify the model.

  10. Crystal structure of cyclo-bis-(μ4-2,2-di-allyl-malonato-κ(6) O (1),O (3):O (3):O (1'),O (3'):O (1'))tetra-kis-(triphenyl-phosphane-κP)tetra-silver(I).

    PubMed

    Frenzel, Peter; Jakob, Alexander; Schaarschmidt, Dieter; Rüffer, Tobias; Lang, Heinrich

    2014-10-01

    In the tetra-nuclear mol-ecule of the title compound, [Ag4(C9H10O4)2(C18H15P)4], the Ag(I) ion is coordinated by one P and three O atoms in a considerably distorted tetra-hedral environment. The two 2,2-di-allyl-malonate anions bridge four Ag(I) ions in a μ4-(κ(6) O (1),O (3):O (3):O (1'),O (3'):O (1')) mode, setting up an Ag4O8P4 core (point group symmetry -4..) of corner-sharing tetra-hedra. The shortest intra-molecular Ag⋯Ag distance of 3.9510 (3) Å reveals that no direct d (10)⋯d (10) inter-actions are present. Four weak intra-molecular C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds are observed in the crystal structure of the title compound, which most likely stabilize the tetra-nuclear silver core.

  11. mer-Tri-chlorido-tris-(tetra-hydro-thio-phene-κS)iridium(III): preparation and comparison with other mer-tri-chlorido-tris-(tetra-hydro-thio-phene-κS)metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Brown, Loren C; DuChane, Christine M; Merola, Joseph S

    2016-09-01

    The title complex, [IrCl3(C4H8S)3], was prepared according to a literature method. A suitable crystal was obtained by diffusion of pentane into a di-chloro-methane solution and analyzed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction at 100 K. The title complex is isotypic with mer-tri-chlorido-tris-(tetra-hydro-thio-phene-κS)rhodium(III). However, the orientation of the tetra-hydro-thio-phene rings is different from an earlier report of mer-tri-chlorido-tris-(tetra-hydro-thio-phene-κS)iridium(III) deposited in the Cambridge Structural Database. The IrS3Cl3 core shows a nearly octa-hedral structure with various bond angles within 1-2° of the perfect 90 or 180° expected for an octa-hedron. The structure of the title compound is compared with the previous iridium complex as well as the rhodium and other octa-hedral metal tris-tetra-hydro-thio-phene compounds previously structurally characterized. DFT calculations were performed, which indicate the mer isomer is significantly lower in energy than the fac isomer by 50.1 kJ mol(-1), thereby accounting for all compounds in the CSD being of the mer geometry. Powder X-ray diffraction of the bulk material showed that the preparation method yielded only the isomorph reported in this communication.

  12. Molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography of all the Saimiri taxa (Cebidae, Primates) inferred from mt COI and COII gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-García, Manuel; Luengas-Villamil, Kelly; Leguizamon, Norberto; de Thoisy, Benoit; Gálvez, Hugo

    2015-04-01

    Some previous genetic studies have been performed to resolve the molecular phylogenetics of the squirrel monkeys (Saimiri). However, these studies did not show consensus in how many taxa are within this genus and what the relationships among them are. For this reason, we sequenced 2,237 base pairs of the mt COI and COII genes in 218 Saimiri individuals. All, less 12 S. sciureus sciureus from French Guyana, were sampled in the wild. These samples represented all the living Saimiri taxa recognized. There were four main findings of this study. (1) Our analysis detected 17 different Saimiri groups: albigena, cassiquiarensis, five polyphyletic macrodon groups, three polyphyletic ustus groups, sciureus, collinsi, boliviensis, peruviensis, vanzolinii, oerstedii and citrinellus. Four different phylogenetic trees showed the Central American squirrel monkey (S. oerstedii) as the most differentiated taxon. In contrast, albigena was indicated to be the most recent taxon. (2) There was extensive hybridization and/or historical introgression among albigena, different macrodon groups, peruviensis, sciureus and collinsi. (3) Different tests showed that our maximum likelihood tree was consistent with two species of Saimiri: S. oerstedii and S. sciureus. If no cases of hybridization were detected implicating S. vanzolinii, this could be a third recognized species. (4) We also estimated that the first temporal splits within this genus occurred around 1.4-1.6 million years ago, which indicates that the temporal split events within Saimiri were correlated with Pleistocene climatic changes. If the biological species concept is applied because, in this case, it is operative due to observed hybridization in the wild, the number of species within this genus is probably more limited than recently proposed by other authors. The Pleistocene was the fundamental epoch when the mitochondrial Saimiri diversification process occurred.

  13. Magnetic Anisotropy in Pentacoordinate Ni(II) and Co(II) Complexes: Unraveling Electronic and Geometrical Contributions.

    PubMed

    Cahier, Benjamin; Perfetti, Mauro; Zakhia, Georges; Naoufal, Daoud; El-Khatib, Fatima; Guillot, Régis; Rivière, Eric; Sessoli, Roberta; Barra, Anne-Laure; Guihéry, Nathalie; Mallah, Talal

    2017-03-13

    The magnetic properties of the pentacoordinate [M(II) (Me4 cyclam)N3 ](+) (Me4 cyclam=tetramethylcyclam; N3 =azido; M=Ni, Co) complexes were investigated. Magnetization and EPR studies indicate that they have an easy plane of magnetization with axial anisotropy parameters D close to 22 and greater than 30 cm(-1) for the Ni and Co complexes, respectively. Ab initio calculations reproduced the experimental values of the zero-field splitting parameters and allowed the orientation of the anisotropy tensor axes with respect to the molecular frame to be determined. For M=Ni, the principal anisotropy axis lies along the Ni-Nazido direction perpendicular to the Ni(Me4 cyclam) mean plane, whereas for M=Co it lies in the Co(Me4 cyclam) mean plane and thus perpendicular to the Co-Nazido direction. These orientations match one of the possible solutions experimentally provided by single-crystal cantilever torque magnetometry. To rationalize the geometry and its impact on the orientation of the anisotropy tensor axis, calculations were carried out on model complexes [Ni(II) (NCH)5 ](2+) and [Co(II) (NCH)5 ](2+) by varying the geometry between square pyramidal and trigonal bipyramidal. The geometry of the complexes was found to be the result of a compromise between the electronic configuration of the metal ion and the structure-orienting effect of the Me4 cyclam macrocycle. Moreover, the orientation of the anisotropy axes is mainly dependent on the geometry of the complexes.

  14. Crystal structure of μ-1κC:2(η2)-carbonyl-carbonyl-1κC-chlorido-2κCl-μ-chlorido­borylene-1:2κ2 B:B-[1(η5)-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl](tri­cyclo­hexyl­phosphane-2κP)iron(II)platinum(II) benzene monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Braunschweig, Holger; Kramer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In the mol­ecular structure of the dinuclear title compound [η5-(C5(CH3)5)(CO)Fe{(μ-BCl)(μ-CO)}PtCl(P(C6H11)3)]·C6H6, the two metal atoms, iron(II) and platinum(II), are bridged by one carbonyl (μ-CO) and one chlorido­borylene ligand (μ-BCl). The PtII atom is additionally bound to a chloride ligand situated trans to the bridging borylene, and a tri­cyclo­hexyl­phosphane ligand (PCy3) trans to the carbonyl ligand, forming a distorted square-planar structural motif at the PtII atom. The FeII atom is bound to a penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl ligand [η5-C5(CH3)5] and one carbonyl ligand (CO), forming a piano-stool structure. Additionally, one benzene solvent mol­ecule is incorporated into the crystal structure, positioned staggered relative to the penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl ligand at the FeII atom, with a centroid–centroid separation of 3.630 (2) Å. PMID:25484763

  15. Bis(η5-cyclo­penta­dien­yl)bis­(2,4,6-tri­methyl­phenyl­tellurolato)zirconium(IV)

    PubMed Central

    Hector, Andrew L.; Levason, William; Reid, Gillian; Reid, Stuart D.; Webster, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The structure of the title compound, [Zr(C5H5)2(C9H11Te)2], consists of a zirconium(IV) centre bonded to two η5-coord­inated cyclo­penta­dienyl groups and two mesityltellurolate ligands; the discrete mol­ecule has crystallographic twofold rotation symmetry. The structural parameters compared with those in [(η5-Me5Cp)2Zr(TePh)2] [Howard, Trnka & Parkin (1995 ▶). Inorg. Chem. 34, 5900–5909] show that the greater steric demands of the bulky mesityl substituents are accommodated by widening Te—Zr—Te (∼8°) and by more acute Zr—Te—C (∼5°) angles, although the Zr—Te distances are essentially the same. The crystal studied exhibited some inversion twinning. PMID:21202209

  16. A novel method for evaluating enhancement using gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid in the hepatobiliary phase of magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Takatsu, Yasuo; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Miyati, Tosiaki; Shiozaki, Toshiki

    To investigate whether quantitative liver-portal vein contrast ratio (Q-LPC) can be used as a substitute for quantitative liver-spleen contrast ratio (Q-LSC) in the hepatobiliary phase (HBP) contrasting degree. Q-LSC and Q-LPC were calculated in HBP images that were obtained approximately 20 min after gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid injection, and relationship between them was evaluated. A very strong correlation was observed between Q-LSC and Q-LPC with respect to Child-Pugh class. Furthermore, Q-LPC values were not significantly different between patients with splenectomy or Gamna-Gandy bodies and those without. Therefore, Q-LPC can be useful instead of Q-LSC in patients with splenectomy or Gamna-Gandy bodies.

  17. New metastable hybrid phase, Zn 2(OH) 2(C 8H 4O 4), exhibiting unique oxo-penta-coordinated Zn(II) atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carton, Anne; Mesbah, Adel; Aranda, Lionel; Rabu, Pierre; François, Michel

    2009-04-01

    The metastable phase ( phase 1) Zn(OH) 2(tp) 2 (tp = C 8H 4O 42-) was found to be an intermediate forming during the hydrothermal synthesis of Zn 3(OH) 4tp ( phase 2). Its structure has been determined ab initio from synchrotron powder diffraction data and refined with the Rietveld method: space group P2 1/ c, a = 3.48856(2) Å, b = 5.84645(2) Å, c = 22.1331(1) Å, β = 103.46(1)°, Dx = 2.488 g/cm 3, Rp = 0.10, RB = 0.095 (402 independent reflections). The structures of the two analogues were compared. Whereas a mixed coordination of the zinc atoms was found in phase 2, phase 1 exhibits only penta-coordinated Zn(II). Moreover, different optical properties were observed, Zn 2(OH) 2(tp) showing photoluminescence at 378 nm under λex = 316 nm.

  18. Heteroatom-substituted tetra(3,4-pyrido)porphyrazines: a stride toward near-infrared-absorbing macrocycles.

    PubMed

    Vachova, Lenka; Machacek, Miloslav; Kučera, Radim; Demuth, Jiri; Cermak, Pavel; Kopecky, Kamil; Miletin, Miroslav; Jedlickova, Adela; Simunek, Tomas; Novakova, Veronika; Zimcik, Petr

    2015-05-28

    A synthesis procedure for heteroatom-substituted tetra(3,4-pyrido)porphyrazines that absorb light near 800 nm was developed. Based on the observed relationships between the structure and photophysical parameters, a novel highly photodynamically active (IC50 = 0.26 μM) compound was synthesized and biologically characterized.

  19. Bis{2-[2,5-bis­(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-imidazol-4-yl]pyridinium} tetra­cyanidoplatinate(II) tetra­hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Gámez-Heredia, Raquel; Navarro, Rosa E.; Höpfl, Herbert; Cruz-Enríquez, Adriana; Campos-Gaxiola, José J.

    2013-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title hydrated complex salt, (C18H14N5)2[Pt(CN)4]·4H2O, consists of one 2-[2,5-bis­(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-imidazol-4-yl]pyridinium cation, half a tetra­cyanidoplatinate(II) dianion, which is located about a crystallographic inversion center, and two water mol­ecules of crystallization. The PtII atom has a square-planar coordination environment, with Pt—CCN distances of 1.992 (4) and 2.000 (4) Å. In the cation, there is an N—H⋯N hydrogen bond linking adjacent pyridinium and pyridine rings in positions 4 and 5. Despite this, the organic component is non-planar, as shown by the dihedral angles of 10.3 (2), 6.60 (19) and 15.66 (18)° between the planes of the central imidazole ring and the pyridine/pyridinium substituents in the 2-, 4- and 5-positions. In the crystal, cations and anions are linked via O—H⋯O, O—H⋯N and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network. Additional π–π, C—H⋯O and C—H⋯N contacts provide stabilization to the crystal lattice. PMID:23794972

  20. Is the PentaBDE Replacement, Tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) Phosphate (TDCPP), a Developmental Neurotoxicant? Studies in PC12 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dishaw, Laura V.; Powers, Christina M.; Ryde, Ian T.; Roberts, Simon C.; Seidler, Frederic J.; Slotkin, Theodore A.; Stapleton, Heather M.

    2011-01-01

    Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) are used as replacements for the commercial PentaBDE mixture that was phased out in 2004. OPFRs are ubiquitous in the environment and detected at high concentrations in residential dust, suggesting widespread human exposure. OPFRs are structurally similar to neurotoxic organophosphate pesticides, raising concerns about exposure and toxicity to humans. This study evaluated the neurotoxicity of tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) compared to the organophosphate pesticide, chlorpyrifos (CPF), a known developmental neurotoxicant. We also tested the neurotoxicity of three structurally similar OPFRs, tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris (1-chloropropyl) phosphate (TCPP), and tris (1,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (TDBPP), and 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), a major component of PentaBDE. Using undifferentiated and differentiating PC12 cells, changes in DNA synthesis, oxidative stress, differentiation into dopaminergic or cholinergic neurophenotypes, cell number, cell growth and neurite growth were assessed. TDCPP displayed concentration-dependent neurotoxicity, often with effects equivalent to or greater than equimolar concentrations of CPF. TDCPP inhibited DNA synthesis, and all OPFRs decreased cell number, and altered neurodifferentiation. Although TDCPP elevated oxidative stress, there was no adverse effect on cell viability or growth. TDCPP and TDBPP promoted differentiation into both neuronal phenotypes, while TCEP and TCPP promoted only the cholinergic phenotype. BDE-47 had no effect on cell number, cell growth or neurite growth. Our results demonstrate that different OPFRs show divergent effects on neurodifferentiation, suggesting the participation of multiple mechanisms of toxicity. Additionally, these data suggest that OPFRs may affect neurodevelopment with similar or greater potency compared to known and suspected neurotoxicants. PMID:21255595

  1. Is the PentaBDE replacement, tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP), a developmental neurotoxicant? Studies in PC12 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dishaw, Laura V.; Powers, Christina M.; Ryde, Ian T.; Roberts, Simon C.; Seidler, Frederic J.; Slotkin, Theodore A.; Stapleton, Heather M.

    2011-11-15

    Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) are used as replacements for the commercial PentaBDE mixture that was phased out in 2004. OPFRs are ubiquitous in the environment and detected at high concentrations in residential dust, suggesting widespread human exposure. OPFRs are structurally similar to neurotoxic organophosphate pesticides, raising concerns about exposure and toxicity to humans. This study evaluated the neurotoxicity of tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) compared to the organophosphate pesticide, chlorpyrifos (CPF), a known developmental neurotoxicant. We also tested the neurotoxicity of three structurally similar OPFRs, tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris (1-chloropropyl) phosphate (TCPP), and tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (TDBPP), and 2,2 Prime ,4,4 Prime -tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), a major component of PentaBDE. Using undifferentiated and differentiating PC12 cells, changes in DNA synthesis, oxidative stress, differentiation into dopaminergic or cholinergic neurophenotypes, cell number, cell growth and neurite growth were assessed. TDCPP displayed concentration-dependent neurotoxicity, often with effects equivalent to or greater than equimolar concentrations of CPF. TDCPP inhibited DNA synthesis, and all OPFRs decreased cell number and altered neurodifferentiation. Although TDCPP elevated oxidative stress, there was no adverse effect on cell viability or growth. TDCPP and TDBPP promoted differentiation into both neuronal phenotypes, while TCEP and TCPP promoted only the cholinergic phenotype. BDE-47 had no effect on cell number, cell growth or neurite growth. Our results demonstrate that different OPFRs show divergent effects on neurodifferentiation, suggesting the participation of multiple mechanisms of toxicity. Additionally, these data suggest that OPFRs may affect neurodevelopment with similar or greater potency compared to known and suspected neurotoxicants.

  2. Click on silica: systematic immobilization of Co(II) Schiff bases to the mesoporous silica via click reaction and their catalytic activity for aerobic oxidation of alcohols.

    PubMed

    Rana, Bharat S; Jain, Suman L; Singh, Bhawan; Bhaumik, Asim; Sain, Bir; Sinha, Anil K

    2010-09-07

    The systematic immobilization of cobalt(II) Schiff base complexes on SBA-15 mesoporous silica via copper catalyzed [3 + 2] azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) "click reaction" involving either step-wise synthesis of silica-bound Schiff base ligand followed by its subsequent complexation with cobalt ions, or by the direct immobilization of preformed Co(II) Schiff base complex to the silica support is described. The catalytic activity of the prepared complexes was studied for the oxidation of alcohols to carbonyl compounds using molecular oxygen as oxidant. The immobilized complexes were recycled for several runs without loss in catalytic activity and no leaching was observed during this course.

  3. Novel FeII and CoII Complexes of Natural Product Tryptanthrin: Synthesis and Binding with G-Quadruplex DNA

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yi-ning; Zhang, Yan; Gu, Yun-qiong; Wu, Shi-yun; Shen, Wen-ying

    2016-01-01

    Tryptanthrin is one of the most important members of indoloquinoline alkaloids. We obtained this alkaloid from Isatis. Two novel FeII and CoII complexes of tryptanthrin were first synthesized. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses show that these complexes display distorted four-coordinated tetrahedron geometry via two heterocyclic nitrogen and oxygen atoms from tryptanthrin ligand. Binding with G-quadruplex DNA properties revealed that both complexes were found to exhibit significant interaction with G-quadruplex DNA. This study may potentially serve as the basis of future rational design of metal-based drugs from natural products that target the G-quadruplex DNA. PMID:27698647

  4. Gelation mechanism of tetra-armed poly(ethylene glycol) in aprotic ionic liquid containing nonvolatile proton source, protic ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Kei; Fujii, Kenta; Nishi, Kengo; Sakai, Takamasa; Yoshimoto, Nobuko; Morita, Masayuki; Shibayama, Mitsuhiro

    2015-04-02

    We report the gelation mechanism of tetra-armed prepolymer chains in typical aprotic ionic liquid (aIL), i.e., A-B type cross-end coupling reaction of tetra-armed poly(ethylene glycol)s with amine and activated ester terminals (TetraPEG-NH2 and TetraPEG-NHS, respectively) in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide ([C2mIm][TFSA]). In the ion gel system, we focused on the pH (or H(+) concentration) dependence of the gelation reaction. We thus applied the protic ionic liquid (pIL), 1-ethylimidazolium TFSA ([C2ImH][TFSA]), as a nonvolatile H(+) source, and added it into the solvent aIL. It was found that the gelation time of TetraPEG ion gel can be successfully controlled from 1 min to 3 h depending on the concentration of pIL (cpIL = 0-3 mM). This suggests that the acid-base properties of TetraPEG-NH2 showing acid-base equilibrium (-NH2 + H(+) ⇆ -NH3(+)) in the solutions play a key role in the gelation process. The acid dissociation constants, pKa's of TetraPEG-NH3(+) and C2ImH(+) (cation of pIL) in aIL were directly determined by potentiometric titration to be 16.4 and 13.7, respectively. This indicates that most of the H(+) ions bind to TetraPEG-NH2 and then C2ImH(+) exists as neutral C2Im. The reaction efficiency of amide bond (cross-linked point) systematically decreased with increasing cpIL, which was reflected to the mechanical strength of the ion gels. From these results, we discuss the gelation mechanism of TetraPEG in aIL to point out the relationship between polymer network structure and [H(+)] in the solutions.

  5. Crystal structure of bis­[trans-(1,4,8,11-tetra­aza­cyclo­tetra­decane-κ4 N)bis­(thio­cyanato-κN)chromium(III)] tetra­chlorido­zincate from synchrotron data

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Dohyun; Ryoo, Keon Sang; Choi, Jong-Ha

    2015-01-01

    The structure of the title compound, [Cr(NCS)2(cyclam)]2[ZnCl4] (cyclam = 1,4,8,11-tetra­aza­cyclo­tetra­decane, C10H24N4), has been determined from synchrotron data. The asymmetric unit contains two independent halves of the CrIII complex cations and half of a tetra­chlorido­zincate anion. In each complex cation, the CrIII atom is coordinated by the four N atoms of the cyclam ligand in the equatorial plane and by two N-bound NCS− anions in a trans axial arrangement, displaying a distorted octa­hedral geometry with crystallographic inversion symmetry. The mean Cr—N(cyclam) and Cr—N(NCS) bond lengths are 2.065 (4) and 1.995 (6) Å, respectively. The macrocyclic cyclam moieties adopt centrosymmetric trans-III configurations with six- and five-membered chelate rings in chair and gauche configurations, respectively. The [ZnCl4]2− anion, which lies about a twofold rotation axis, has a slightly distorted tetra­hedral geometry. The crystal packing is stabilized by hydrogen-bonding inter­actions between the N—H groups of the cyclam ligands, the S atoms of the NCS− groups and the Cl− ligands of the anion. PMID:25995875

  6. Photophysical and electrochemical properties of a dysprosium-zinc tetra(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin complex.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Tong; Liu, Dong-Sheng; Xu, Ya-Ping; Luo, Qiu-Yan; Pei, Yun-Peng

    2016-02-01

    A dysprosium-zinc porphyrin, [DyZn(TPPS)H3O]n (1) (TPPS = tetra(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin), was prepared through solvothermal reactions and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Complex 1 features a three-dimensional (3-D) porous open framework that is thermally stable up to 400 °C. Complex 1 displays a void space of 215 Å(3), occupying 9.2% of the unit cell volume. The fluorescence spectra reveal that it shows an emission band in the red region. The fluorescence lifetime is 39 µsec and the quantum yield is 1.7%. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurement revealed one quasi-reversible wave with E1/2  = 0.30 V.

  7. Solvent-dependent absorption and electronic relaxation dynamics of iron (III) tetra-4-N-methylpyridylporphine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Lenzi J.; Knappenberger, Kenneth L.

    2017-03-01

    Solvent-dependent excited-state relaxation dynamics of iron (III) tetra-4-N-methylpyridylporphine (FeTMPyP) were investigated using steady-state and femtosecond spectroscopies. Soret absorption for water-dispersed FeTMPyP consisted of two spectrally broad components centered at 3.12 eV and 2.92 eV, corresponding to π → π∗ and charge-transfer (C-T) transitions. The C-T transition exhibited inverse-dielectric-dependent energy shifts. Following 400-nm excitation, dynamics proceeded by femtosecond internal conversion from the initially prepared π∗ state to the C-T state, followed by solvent-dependent C-T relaxation. The C-T energy shifts and relaxation rates exhibited correlated dielectric dependences. C-T absorption energy and relaxation dynamics of FeTMPyP are sensitive indicators of surrounding dielectric environments.

  8. Application of ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid degrading bacterium Burkholderia cepacia on biotreatment process.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Ting; Shen, Shu-Min; Shu, Chi-Min

    2015-10-01

    Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA), the effluent of secondary biotreatment units, can be properly biodegraded by Burkholderia cepacia. Through batch degradation of EDTA, the raw wastewater of EDTA was controlled at 50 mg/L, and then nutrients was added in diluted wastewater to cultivate activated sludge, which the ratio of composition is depicted as "COD:N:P:Fe = 100:5:1:0.5". After 27 days, the removal efficiency of Fe-EDTA and COD was 100% and 92.0%, correspondingly. At the continuous process, the raw wastewater of EDTA was dictated at 166 mg/L before adding nutrients to cultivate activated sludge, in which the ratio of composition did also follow with batch process. After 22 days, the removal efficiency of Fe-EDTA and COD for experimental group was 71.46% and 62.58%, correspondingly. The results showed that the batch process was more suited for EDTA biodegradation.

  9. TETRA observation of gamma-rays at ground level associated with nearby thunderstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringuette, Rebecca; Case, Gary L.; Cherry, Michael L.; Granger, Douglas; Guzik, T. Gregory; Stewart, Michael; Wefel, John P.

    2013-12-01

    gamma-ray flashes (TGFs)—very short, intense bursts of electrons, positrons, and energetic photons originating from terrestrial thunderstorms—have been detected with satellite instruments. TGF and Energetic Thunderstorm Rooftop Array (TETRA), an array of NaI(Tl) scintillators at Louisiana State University, has now been used to detect similar bursts of 50 keV to over 2 MeV gamma-rays at ground level. After 2.6 years of observation, 24 events with durations 0.02-4.2 ms have been detected associated with nearby lightning, three of them coincident events observed by detectors separated by ~1000 m. Nine of the events occurred within 6 ms and 5 km of negative polarity cloud-to-ground lightning strokes with measured currents in excess of 20 kA. The events reported here constitute the first catalog of TGFs observed at ground level in close proximity to the acceleration site.

  10. Application of tetra-n-methylammonium hydroxide on cellulose dissolution and isolation from sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Chao; Wang, Chunming; Wang, Fengxue; Jia, Honghua; Wei, Ping; Zhao, Yin

    2016-01-20

    Cellulose isolation, a promising way for lignocellulosic biomass utilization, is always restricted by the poor solubility of cellulose. In this paper, tetra-n-methylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) was confirmed to be capable of readily dissolving/regenerating cellulose without chemical modification at room temperature. Meanwhile, cellulose isolation from lignocellulosic biomass by initially dissolving the biomass in TMAH followed by cellulose precipitation was proposed, and the isolated substance with average cellulose purity of 92.1 ± 0.3% could be obtained throughout this process under the optimum conditions: temperature 52 °C, time 60 min, and loading ratio of TMAH/biomass (w/w) 7.2:1. Besides, high efficiency cellulose isolation (i.e. >70% cellulose purity) could be continuously remained during 4-round cycles by using the recycled TMAH solvent without distinct activity loss.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of a new family of bi-, tri-, tetra-, and pentanuclear ferric complexes.

    PubMed

    Boskovic, Colette; Sieber, Andreas; Chaboussant, Grégory; Güdel, Hans U; Ensling, Jürgen; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Neels, Antonia; Labat, Gael; Stoeckli-Evans, Helen; Janssen, Stefan

    2004-08-09

    Nine members of a new family of polynuclear ferric complexes have been synthesized and characterized. The reaction of Fe(O(2)CMe)(2) with polydentate Schiff base proligands (H(2)L) derived from salicylidene-2-ethanolamine, followed in some cases by reaction with carboxylic acids, has afforded new complexes of general formulas [Fe(2)(pic)(2)(L)(2)] (where pic(-) is the anion of 2-picolinic acid), [Fe(3)(O(2)CMe)(3)(L)(3)], [Fe(4)(OR)(2)(O(2)CMe)(2)(L)(4)], and [Fe(5)O(OH)(O(2)CR)(4)(L)(4)]. The tri-, tetra-, and pentanuclear complexes all possess unusual structures and novel core topologies. Mössbauer spectroscopy confirms the presence of high-spin ferric centers in the tri- and pentanuclear complexes. Variable-temperature magnetic measurements suggest spin ground states of S = 0, 1/2, 0, and 5/2 for the bi-, tri-, tetra-, and pentanuclear complexes, respectively. Fits of the magnetic susceptibility data have provided the magnitude of the exclusively antiferromagnetic exchange interactions. In addition, an easy-axis-type magnetic anisotropy has been observed for the pentanuclear complexes, with D values of approximately -0.4 cm(-)(1) determined from modeling the low-temperature magnetization data. A low-temperature micro-SQUID study of one of the pentanuclear complexes reveals magnetization hysteresis at nonzero field. This is attributed to an anisotropy-induced energy barrier to magnetization reversal that is of molecular origin. Finally, an inelastic neutron scattering study of one of the trinuclear complexes has revealed that the magnetic behavior arises from two distinct species.

  12. Synthesis, magnetic properties, and STM spectroscopy of cobalt(II) Cubanes [Co(II) (4)(Cl)(4)(HL)(4)].

    PubMed

    Scheurer, Andreas; Ako, Ayuk M; Saalfrank, Rolf W; Heinemann, Frank W; Hampel, Frank; Petukhov, Konstantin; Gieb, Klaus; Stocker, Michael; Müller, Paul

    2010-04-26

    Reaction of cobalt(II) chloride hexahydrate with N-substituted diethanolamines H(2)L(2-4) (3) in the presence of LiH in anhydrous THF leads under anaerobic conditions to the formation of three isostructural tetranuclear cobalt(II) complexes [Co(II) (4)(Cl)(4)(HL(2-4))(4)] (4) with a [Co(4)(mu(3)-O)(4)](4+) cubane core. According to X-ray structural analyses, the complexes 4 a,c crystallize in the tetragonal space group I4(1)/a, whereas for complex 4 b the tetragonal space group P$\\bar 4$ was found. In the solid state the orientation of the cubane cores and the formation of a 3D framework were controlled by the ligand substituents of the cobalt(II) cubanes 4. This also allowed detailed magnetic investigations on single crystals. The analysis of the SQUID magnetic susceptibility data for 4 a gave intramolecular ferromagnetic couplings of the cobalt(II) ions (J(1) approximately 20.4 K, J(2) approximately 7.6 K), resulting in an S=6 ground-state multiplet. The anisotropy was found to be of the easy-axis type (D=-1.55 K) with a resulting anisotropy barrier of Delta approximately 55.8 K. Two-dimensional electron-gas (2DEG) Hall magnetization measurements revealed that complex 4 a is a single-molecule magnet and shows hysteretic magnetization characteristics with typical temperature and sweep-rate dependencies below a blocking temperature of about 4.4 K. The hysteresis loops collapse at zero field owing to fast quantum tunneling of the magnetization (QTM). The structural and electronic properties of cobalt(II) cubane 4 a, deposited on a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface, were investigated by means of STM and current imaging tunneling spectroscopy (CITS) at RT and standard atmospheric pressure. In CITS measurements the rather large contrast found at the expected locations of the metal centers of the molecules indicated the presence of a strongly localized LUMO.

  13. Di-μ-hydroxido-κ4 O:O-μ-trifluoro­methane­sulfonato-κ2 O:O′-bis­[(5,5′-dimethyl-2,2-bipyridine-κ2 N,N′)(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)ytterbium(III)] tetra­phenyl­borate 5,5′-dimethyl-2,2-bipyridine

    PubMed Central

    Kazhdan, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, [Yb2(CF3O3S)(C10H15)2(OH)2(C12H12N2)2](C24H20B)·C12H12N2, crystallizes as a half-sandwich complex with a bridging trifluoro­methane­sulfonate as well as two bridging hydroxide groups. The bound bipyridine ligands have N—C—C—N torsion angles of 13.1 (9) and −12.1 (8)°. The structure also contains an uncoordinated 5,5′-dimethyl-2,2′-bipyridine molecule with an N—C—C—N torsion angle of 169.5 (7)°. The triply bridged Yb centers are 3.5990 (4) Å apart. The Yb—N bond lengths are in the range 2.389 (6)–2.424 (5) Å. PMID:21201376

  14. Synthesis, X-ray crystal structure and spectroscopy of a Werner-type host Co(II) complex, trans-bisisothiocyanatotetrakis( trans-4-styrylpyridine)cobalt(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunakaran, C.; Thomas, K. R. J.; Shunmugasundaram, A.; Murugesan, R.

    2000-05-01

    Single crystals of the title Co(II) complex, [Co(stpy) 4(NCS) 2] [stpy= trans-4-styrylpyridine] are prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, and UV-visible spectroscopy and X-ray crystal structure determination. The complex crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pna2 1 with unit-cell parameters, a=32.058(3), b=15.362(5), c=9.818(5) Å, and Z=4. The structure consists of discrete monomeric units of [Co(stpy) 4(NCS) 2]. The equatorial positions of the Co(II) polyhedron are occupied by nitrogen atoms of the four stpy ligands and the axial positions are occupied by the nitrogen atoms of the two thiocyanate ions. The unit cell packing reveals interpenetration of styryl groups owing to conformational flexibility of phenyl and pyridyl rings in stpy ligands. Thus, it leads to efficient packing of the crystal lattice leaving no space available for guest inclusion. IR spectra reveal nitrogen coordination from stpy and terminal -NCS coordination of the thiocyanate group. The optical reflectance bands 475, 540 (shoulder) and 1022 nm suggest octahedral geometry in accordance with the X-ray data. However, the optical spectrum of acetonitrile solution shows an intense band at 615 nm and a weak shoulder at 570 nm suggesting participation of the solvent molecules in the coordination sphere. These bands indicate the presence of both tetrahedral and octahedral species in solution.

  15. Synthesis, structural characterization, thermal and electrochemical studies of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes containing thiazolylazo ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavan, S. S.; Sawant, V. A.

    2010-02-01

    Some thiazolylazo derivatives and their metal complexes of the type [M(L)(H 2O)Cl]; M = Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and L = 6-(2'-thiazolylazo)-2-mercapto-quinazolin-4-one (HL 1), 6-(4'-phenyl-2'-thiazolylazo)-2-mercapto-quinazolin-4-one (HL 2), 6-(2'-thiazolylazo)-2-mercapto-3-( m-tolyl)-quinazolin-4-one (HL 3) and 6-(4'-phenyl-2'-thiazolylazo)-2-mercapto-3-( m-tolyl)-quinazolin-4-one (HL 4) have been prepared. All the complexes were characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic moment, IR, UV-vis, ESR, TG-DTA and powder X-ray diffraction studies. IR spectra of these complexes reveal that the complex formation occurred through thiazole nitrogen, azo nitrogen, imino nitrogen and sulfur atom of the ligands. On the basis of electronic spectral data and magnetic susceptibility measurement octahedral geometry has been proposed for the Mn(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes and distorted octahedral geometry for the Cu(II) complexes. Electrochemical behavior of Ni(II) complexes exhibit quasireversible oxidation corresponding to Ni(III)/Ni(II) couple along with ligand reduction. X-ray diffraction study is used to elucidate the crystal structure of the complexes.

  16. Molecular structure, UV/vis spectra, and cyclic voltammograms of Mn(II), Co(II), and Zn(II) 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21-oxaporphyrins.

    PubMed

    Stute, Silvio; Götzke, Linda; Meyer, Dirk; Merroun, Mohamed L; Rapta, Peter; Kataeva, Olga; Seichter, Wilhelm; Gloe, Kerstin; Dunsch, Lothar; Gloe, Karsten

    2013-02-04

    The 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21-oxaporphyrin complexes of Mn(II), Co(II), and Zn(II) have been crystallized and studied by X-ray diffraction, NMR and UV/vis spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry as well as cyclic voltammetry. The X-ray structure of the earlier described Cu(II) complex is also reported. All complex structures possess a five-coordinate, approximately square-pyramidal geometry with a slight deviation of the heteroaromatic moieties from planarity. The packing structures are characterized by parallel strands of complex molecules interacting by weak hydrogen bonds. In the case of Zn(II) an octahedral complex has also been isolated using a side-chain hydroxy functionalized oxaporphyrin ligand; the structure was verified by NMR and EXAFS spectroscopy. Cyclic voltammetry studies reveal that the reduction of the complex bound Mn(II), Co(II), and Zn(II) ions is a ligand-centered process whereas the first oxidation step depends on the metal ion present.

  17. Spectroscopic and fluorescence studies on Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes with NO donor fluorescence dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refat, Moamen S.; El-Metwaly, Nashwa M.

    2011-10-01

    The reactions of the two common dyes [2TMPACT and 4PENI] with Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions were done. All the isolated complexes have been characterized by physicochemical and spectroscopic techniques. The IR data reflect the bidentate mode of 2TMPACT towards the mononuclear complex [Mn(II)] even its tetradentate in binuclear complexes [Co(II) and Cu(II)]. However, the bidentate mode is the only behavior of 4PENI ligand towards each metal ion in its mononuclear complexes. The UV-vis spectral analysis beside the magnetic moment measurements are proposed different geometries concerning each metal ions with the two ligands under investigation, as the Mn(II)-2TMPACT complex is an octahedral but Mn(II)-4PENI is a tetrahedral geometry. All the synthesized compounds are thermogravimetrically investigated. The proposed thermal decomposition was discussed for each compound with each step as well as, the kinetic parameters were calculated for all preferrible decomposition steps. The mass spectroscopy tool was used to emphasis on the suitable molecular formula proposed and the fragmentation patterns were displayed. The fluorescence properties of the synthesized ligands and their complexes were studied in DMSO at room temperature.

  18. Spectroscopic and fluorescence studies on Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes with NO donor fluorescence dyes.

    PubMed

    Refat, Moamen S; el-Metwaly, Nashwa M

    2011-10-15

    The reactions of the two common dyes [2TMPACT and 4PENI] with Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions were done. All the isolated complexes have been characterized by physicochemical and spectroscopic techniques. The IR data reflect the bidentate mode of 2TMPACT towards the mononuclear complex [Mn(II)] even its tetradentate in binuclear complexes [Co(II) and Cu(II)]. However, the bidentate mode is the only behavior of 4PENI ligand towards each metal ion in its mononuclear complexes. The UV-vis spectral analysis beside the magnetic moment measurements are proposed different geometries concerning each metal ions with the two ligands under investigation, as the Mn(II)-2TMPACT complex is an octahedral but Mn(II)-4PENI is a tetrahedral geometry. All the synthesized compounds are thermogravimetrically investigated. The proposed thermal decomposition was discussed for each compound with each step as well as, the kinetic parameters were calculated for all preferrible decomposition steps. The mass spectroscopy tool was used to emphasis on the suitable molecular formula proposed and the fragmentation patterns were displayed. The fluorescence properties of the synthesized ligands and their complexes were studied in DMSO at room temperature.

  19. Synthesis, molecular docking and evaluation of antifungal activity of Ni(II), Co(II) and Cu(II) complexes of porphyrin core macromolecular ligand.

    PubMed

    Singh, Urvashi; Malla, Ali Mohammad; Bhat, Imtiyaz Ahmad; Ahmad, Ajaz; Bukhari, Mohd Nadeem; Bhat, Sneha; Anayutullah, Syed; Hashmi, Athar Adil

    2016-04-01

    Porphyrin core dendrimeric ligand (L) was synthesized by Rothemund synthetic route in which p-hydroxy benzaldehyde and pyrrole were fused together. The prepared ligand was complexed with Ni(II), Cu(II) and Co(II) ions, separately. Both the ligand and its complexes were characterized by elemental analysis and spectroscopic studies (FT-IR, UV-Vis, (1)HNMR). Square planar geometries were proposed for Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) ions in cobalt, Nickel and copper complexes, respectively on the basis of UV-Vis spectroscopic data. The ligand and its complex were screened on Candida albicans (ATCC 10231), Aspergillus fumigatus (ATCC 1022), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (ATCC 9533) and Pencillium marneffei by determining MICs and inhibition zones. The activity of the ligand and its complexes was found to be in the order: CuL ˃ CoL ≈ NiL ˃ L. Detection of DNA damage at the level of the individual eukaryotic cell was observed by commet assay. Molecular docking technique was used to understand the ligand-DNA interactions. From docking experiment, we conclude that copper complex interacts more strongly than rest two.

  20. Neotropical Monogenoidea. 58. Three new species of Gyrodactylus (Gyrodactylidae) from Scleromystax spp. (Callichthyidae) and the proposal of COII gene as an additional fragment for barcoding gyrodactylids.

    PubMed

    Bueno-Silva, Marlus; Boeger, Walter A

    2014-06-01

    Based on molecular markers (COII and ITS1-ITS2) and morphological data, we describe three new Neotropical species of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832 from Scleromystax barbatus (Quoy et Gaimard) and Scleromystax macropterus (Regan) from southern Brazil. The three new species can be distinguished from each other by sequences of both molecular markers and morphology of hooks and anchors. Gyrodactylus bueni sp. n. is characterised by having hook with shaft curved, heel straight, shelf straight, toe pointed, anchor with superficial root slender, elongate and male copulatory organ armed with two rows of spinelets. Gyrodactylus major sp. n. presents hook with shaft, point curved, proximal shaft straight, heel convex, shelf convex, toe concave, anchor with superficial root robust and male copulatory organ armed with two rows of spinelets. Gyrodactylus scleromystaci sp. n. presents hook with shaft, point recurved, heel convex, shelf convex, toe pointed, anchor with superficial root curved and male copulatory organ armed with two rows of spinelets. These species appear to be closely related to other species of Gyrodactylus known from other species of Callichthyidae. These new species, however, differ by the comparative morphology of the haptoral hard structures and molecular data. Comparative analysis of sequences from these species of Gyrodactylus suggests that the COII gene may represent an important marker for the taxonomy of species of Gyrodactylidae and, perhaps, for species of other lineages of Monogenoidea.

  1. DNA cleavage, antibacterial, antifungal and anthelmintic studies of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes of coumarin Schiff bases: Synthesis and spectral approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Sangamesh A.; Prabhakara, Chetan T.; Halasangi, Bhimashankar M.; Toragalmath, Shivakumar S.; Badami, Prema S.

    2015-02-01

    The metal complexes of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) have been synthesized from 6-formyl-7,8-dihydroxy-4-methylcoumarin with o-toluidine/3-aminobenzotrifluoride. The synthesized Schiff bases and their metal complexes were structurally characterized based on IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, UV-visible, ESR, magnetic, thermal, fluorescence, mass and ESI-MS studies. The molar conductance values indicate that complexes are non-electrolytic in nature. Elemental analysis reveals ML2·2H2O [M = Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II)] stoichiometry, where 'L' stands for a singly deprotonated ligand. The presence of co-ordinated water molecules were confirmed by thermal studies. The spectroscopic studies suggest the octahedral geometry. Redox behavior of the complexes were confirmed by cyclic voltammetry. All the synthesized compounds were screened for their antibacterial (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas auregenosa, klebsiella, Proteus, Staphylococcus aureus and salmonella) antifungal (Candida, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus), anthelmintic (Pheretima posthuma) and DNA cleavage (Calf Thymus DNA) activity.

  2. DNA cleavage, antibacterial, antifungal and anthelmintic studies of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes of coumarin Schiff bases: synthesis and spectral approach.

    PubMed

    Patil, Sangamesh A; Prabhakara, Chetan T; Halasangi, Bhimashankar M; Toragalmath, Shivakumar S; Badami, Prema S

    2015-02-25

    The metal complexes of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) have been synthesized from 6-formyl-7,8-dihydroxy-4-methylcoumarin with o-toluidine/3-aminobenzotrifluoride. The synthesized Schiff bases and their metal complexes were structurally characterized based on IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, UV-visible, ESR, magnetic, thermal, fluorescence, mass and ESI-MS studies. The molar conductance values indicate that complexes are non-electrolytic in nature. Elemental analysis reveals ML2·2H2O [M = Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II)] stoichiometry, where 'L' stands for a singly deprotonated ligand. The presence of co-ordinated water molecules were confirmed by thermal studies. The spectroscopic studies suggest the octahedral geometry. Redox behavior of the complexes were confirmed by cyclic voltammetry. All the synthesized compounds were screened for their antibacterial (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas auregenosa, klebsiella, Proteus, Staphylococcus aureus and salmonella) antifungal (Candida, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus), anthelmintic (Pheretima posthuma) and DNA cleavage (Calf Thymus DNA) activity.

  3. Structural Dependence of the Ising-type Magnetic Anisotropy and of the Relaxation Time in Mononuclear Trigonal Bipyramidal Co(II) Single Molecule Magnets.

    PubMed

    Shao, Feng; Cahier, Benjamin; Rivière, Eric; Guillot, Régis; Guihéry, Nathalie; Campbell, Victoria E; Mallah, Talal

    2017-02-06

    This paper describes the correlation between Ising-type magnetic anisotropy and structure in trigonal bipyramidal Co(II) complexes. Three sulfur-containing trigonal bipyramidal Co(II) complexes were synthesized and characterized. It was shown that we can engineer the magnitude of the Ising anisotropy using ligand field theory arguments in conjunction with structural parameters. To prepare this series of compounds, we used, on the one hand, a tetradentate ligand containing three sulfur atoms and one amine (NS3(tBu)) and on the other hand three different axial ligands, namely, Cl(-), Br(-), and NCS(-). The organic ligand imposes a trigonal bipyramidal arrangement with the three sulfur atoms lying in the trigonal plane with long Co-S bond distances. The magnetic properties of the compounds were measured, and ab initio calculations were used to analyze the anisotropy parameters and perform magneto-structural correlations. We demonstrate that a smaller axial zero-field splitting parameter leads to slower relaxation time when the symmetry is strictly axial, while the presence of very weak rhombicity decreases the energy barrier and speeds the relaxation of the magnetization.

  4. ``Cs-tetra-ferri-annite:`` High-pressure and high-temperature behavior of a potential nuclear waste disposal phase

    SciTech Connect

    Comodi, P.; Zanazzi, P.F.; Weiss, Z.; Rieder, M.; Drabek, M.

    1999-03-01

    Structure deformations induced by pressure and temperature in synthetic Cs-tetra-ferri-annite 1M [Cs{sub 1.78}(Fe{sup 2+}{sub 5.93}Fe{sup 3+}{sub 0.07})(Si{sub 6.15}Fe{sup 3+}{sub 1.80}Al{sub 0.05})O{sub 20}(OH){sub 4}], space group C2/m, were analyzed to investigate the capability of the mica structure to store the radiogenic isotopes {sup 135}Cs and {sup 137}Cs. Cs-tetra-ferri-annite is not a mineral name, but for the sake of brevity is used here to designate a synthetic analog of the mineral tetra-ferri-annite. The bulk modulus and its pressure derivative determined by fitting the unit-cell volumes between 0 a/nd 47 kbar to a third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state are K{sub 0} = 257(8) kbar and K{prime}{sub 0} = 21(1), respectively. Between 23 C and 582 C, the a and b lattice parameters remain essentially unchanged, but the thermal expansion coefficient of the c axis is {alpha}{sub c} = 3.12(9) {times} 10{sup {minus}5} {degree}C{sup {minus}1}. High pressure (P) and high temperature (T) produce limited internal strain in the structure. The tetrahedral rotation angle, {alpha}, is very small and does not change significantly throughout the P and T range investigated. Above 450 C in air, Cs-tetra-ferri-annite underwent an oxidation of octahedral iron in the M2cis site, balanced by the loss of H and shown by a decrease of the unit-cell volume. Independent isobaric data on thermal expansion and isothermal compressibility data define the geometric equation of state for Cs-tetra-ferri-annite. On the whole, the data confirm that the structure of Cs-tetra-ferri-annite may be a suitable candidate for the storage of large ions, such as Cs in the interlayer and should be considered as a potential Synroc component.

  5. Highly regio- and diastereo-selective synthesis of novel tri- and tetra-cyclic perhydroquinoline architectures via an intramolecular [3 + 2] cycloaddition reaction.

    PubMed

    Bakthadoss, M; Kannan, D; Srinivasan, J; Vinayagam, V

    2015-03-14

    A facile and efficient synthetic protocol was established for the construction of novel tri- and tetra-cyclic pyrrolo/pyrrolizinoquinoline architectures via the in situ formation of azomethine ylide followed by an intramolecular [3 + 2] cycloaddition reaction strategy. This protocol leads to the creation of two/three new rings and three/four contiguous stereocentres, in which one of them is a tetra-substituted carbon center, in a highly diastereoselective fashion with excellent yields.

  6. 40 CFR 721.1800 - 3,3′,5,5′-Tetra-methyl-bi-phenyl-4,4′-diol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 3,3â²,5,5â²-Tetra-methyl-bi-phenyl-4,4â²-diol. 721.1800 Section 721.1800 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1800 3,3′,5,5′-Tetra-methyl-bi-phenyl-4,4′-diol. (a) Chemical...

  7. 40 CFR 721.1800 - 3,3′,5,5′-Tetra-methyl-bi-phenyl-4,4′-diol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 3,3â²,5,5â²-Tetra-methyl-bi-phenyl-4,4â²-diol. 721.1800 Section 721.1800 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1800 3,3′,5,5′-Tetra-methyl-bi-phenyl-4,4′-diol. (a) Chemical...

  8. 40 CFR 721.1800 - 3,3′,5,5′-Tetra-methyl-bi-phenyl-4,4′-diol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 3,3â²,5,5â²-Tetra-methyl-bi-phenyl-4,4â²-diol. 721.1800 Section 721.1800 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1800 3,3′,5,5′-Tetra-methyl-bi-phenyl-4,4′-diol. (a) Chemical...

  9. 40 CFR 721.1800 - 3,3′,5,5′-Tetra-methyl-bi-phenyl-4,4′-diol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 3,3â²,5,5â²-Tetra-methyl-bi-phenyl-4,4â²-diol. 721.1800 Section 721.1800 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1800 3,3′,5,5′-Tetra-methyl-bi-phenyl-4,4′-diol. (a) Chemical...

  10. 40 CFR 721.1800 - 3,3′,5,5′-Tetra-methyl-bi-phenyl-4,4′-diol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 3,3â²,5,5â²-Tetra-methyl-bi-phenyl-4,4â²-diol. 721.1800 Section 721.1800 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1800 3,3′,5,5′-Tetra-methyl-bi-phenyl-4,4′-diol. (a) Chemical...

  11. Crystal structure of bis-(μ2-tetra-bromo-phthalato-κ(2) O (1):O (2))bis[aqua(N,N,N',N'-tetra-methyl-ethane-1,2-di-amine-κ(2) N,N')copper(II)].

    PubMed

    Tobón-Trujillo, Luis Manuel; Villanueva-Sánchez, Luis Felipe; Martínez-Otero, Diego; Dorazco-González, Alejandro

    2015-09-01

    In the title complex, [Cu2(C8Br4O4)2(C6H16N2)2(H2O)2], the Cu(II) cation is chelated by a tetra-methyl-ethane-1,2-di-amine ligand and coordinated by a water mol-ecule as well as bridged by two tetra-bromo-phthalate anions in a distorted O3N2 trigonal-bipyramidal geometry. The two symmetry-related tetra-bromo-phthalate anions bridge the two Cu(II) cations, forming a centrosymmetric dinuclear complex in which the Cu⋯Cu separation is 5.054 (2) Å. Intra-molecular classic O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds occur in the dinuclear mol-ecule. In the crystal, the mol-ecules are linked by weak C-H⋯Br and C-H⋯O inter-actions into supra-molecular chains propagating along the b-axis direction.

  12. Crystal structure of hexa­kis­(dimethyl sulfoxide-κO)manganese(II) tetra­iodide

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Md Azimul; Davaasuren, Bambar; Rothenberger, Alexander; Wu, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The title salt, [Mn(C2H6OS)6]I4, is made up from discrete [Mn(DMSO)6]2+ (DMSO is dimethyl sulfoxide) units connected through non-classical hydrogen bonds to linear I4 2− tetra­iodide anions. The MnII ion in the cation, situated on a position with site symmetry -3., is octa­hedrally coordinated by O atoms of the DMSO mol­ecule with an Mn—O distance of 2.1808 (12) Å. The I4 2− anion contains a neutral I2 mol­ecule weakly coordinated by two iodide ions, forming a linear centrosymmetric tetra­iodide anion. The title compound is isotypic with the Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn analogues. PMID:27980832

  13. Conformational Change in Molecular Assembly of Nickel(II) Tetra(n-propyl)porphycene Triggered by Potential Manipulation.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Soichiro; Kawamoto, Teppei; Okawara, Toru; Hisaeda, Yoshio; Abe, Masaaki

    2016-12-27

    Metal-coordinated porphyrin and related compounds are important for developing molecular architectures that mimic enzymes. Porphycene, a structural isomer of porphyrin, has shown unique properties in semiartificial myoglobin. To explore its potential as a molecular building block, we studied the molecular assembly of nickel(II) tetra(n-propyl)porphycene (NiTPrPc), a metalloporphycene with introduced tetra n-propyl moieties, on the Au(111) electrode surface using in situ scanning tunneling microscopy. Because of the low molecular symmetry of NiTPrPc, the molecular assembly undergoes unique phase transitions due to conformational change of the n-propyl moieties. The phase transitions can be precisely controlled by the electrode potential, demonstrating that the latter can play an important role in the porphycene molecular assembly on Au surface. This new discovery indicates possible uses of this porphycene framework in molecular engineering.

  14. Isolation and structural characterization of tetra-n-propyl zirconate in hydrocarbon solution and the solid state.

    PubMed

    Day, V W; Klemperer, W G; Pafford, M M

    2001-11-05

    Tetra-n-propyl zirconate has been purified by vacuum distillation and isolated as an extremely moisture sensitive, crystalline solid. According to a single-crystal X-ray diffraction study, crystalline tetra-n-propyl zirconate is composed of tetrameric Zr(4)(OPr(n))(16) (1) molecules whose Zr(4)O(16) metal-oxygen core structure has virtual C(2)(h) symmetry, the same structure observed previously for n-alkyl orthotitanates. Carbon-13 NMR spectroscopic data indicate that this core structure is retained in hydrocarbon solution. Molecule 1 has the same M(4)O(16) metal-oxygen core structure as [CH(3)C(CH(2)O)(3)](2)M(4)(OPr(i))(10), M = Ti, where the metal centers have octahedral coordination geometry, but a metal-oxygen core structure different from that of the M = Zr case, where trigonal metaprismatic coordination geometry is observed.

  15. Bis(2-amino-1,3-benzothia­zol-3-ium) tetra­chloridozincate(II)

    PubMed Central

    Kefi, Riadh; Jeanneau, Erwann; Lefebvre, Frédéric; Ben Nasr, Cherif

    2011-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, (C7H7N2S)2[ZnCl4], contains a network of 2-amino­benzothia­zolium cations and tetra­hedral [ZnCl4]2− anions. The crystal packing is influenced by cation-to-anion N—H⋯Cl and C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds. The [ZnCl4]2− anions have a distorded tetra­hedral geometry. Inter­molecular π–π stacking inter­actions are present between neighboring benzene rings, thia­zole and benzene rings and neighboring thia­zole rings [centroid–centroid distances = 3.711 (2), 3.554 (1), 3.536 (2) and 3.572 (1) Å]. PMID:21754568

  16. Synthesis and characterization of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes of tridentate Schiff base derived from vanillin and DL-α-aminobutyric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, M. Sivasankaran; Joseyphus, R. Selwin

    2008-09-01

    Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes of the Schiff base derived from vanillin and DL-α-aminobutyric acid were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, electronic spectra, conductance measurements, magnetic measurements, powder XRD and biological activity. The analytical data show the composition of the metal complex to be [ML(H 2O)], where L is the Schiff base ligand. The conductance data indicate that all the complexes are non-electrolytes. IR results demonstrate the tridentate binding of the Schiff base ligand involving azomethine nitrogen, phenolic oxygen and carboxylato oxygen atoms. The IR data also indicate the coordination of a water molecule with the metal ion in the complex. The electronic spectral measurements show that Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes have tetrahedral geometry, while Cu(II) complex has square planar geometry. The powder XRD studies indicate that Co(II) and Cu(II) complexes are amorphous, whereas Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes are crystalline in nature. Magnetic measurements show that Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes have paramagnetic behaviour. Antibacterial results indicated that the metal complexes are more active than the ligand.

  17. [μ(2)-Bis(diphenyl-phosphanyl)methane][μ(3)-bis-(diphenyl-phosphanyl)meth-yl]trichlorido-tetra-gold(I) tetra-hydro-furan disolvate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan-Huan; Gao, Qian; Cui, Yue; Wang, Lin; Xie, Ya-Bo

    2011-01-08

    The title tetra-nuclear complex, [Au(4)(C(25)H(21)P(2))Cl(3)(C(25)H(22)P(2))]·2C(4)H(8)O, features two non-equivalent Ph(2)PCPPh(2) fragments, one of which represents the 'complete' mol-ecule (with two H atoms at the central C atom); each of the two P atoms of this mol-ecule is coordinated by an Au atom [Au-P = 2.2256 (13) and 2.2710 (13) Å], and these two Au atoms form an Au-Au bond [3.2945 (3) Å], thus closing the five-membered Au(2)P(2)C ring. The first of these Au atoms has a terminal chlorido ligand [Au-Cl = 2.2806 (12) Å], whereas the second Au atom forms a covalent bond with the central C atom of the bis-(diphenyl-phosphino)methyl group [Au-C = 2.114 (5) Å]; the latter group in turn coordinates with its P atoms the gold atoms of the Cl-Au-Au-Cl group [Au-P = 2.2356 (13) and 2.2338 (13), Au-Au = 3.3177 (3), Au-Cl = 2.3091 (12) and 2.2950 (13) Å], thus closing the second Au(2)P(2)C ring. The two such rings have different chemical functions, but both exhibit envelope conformations. However, the first (with different substituents at the Au atoms) is non-symmetrical with one of the P atoms in the flap position of the envelope; the other one has a conformation with mirror symmetry, and the gold-substituted C atom is displaced by 0.740 (5) Å from the almost exactly planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0038 Å) Au(2)P(2) group.

  18. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro antimicrobial studies of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes derived from macrocyclic compartmental ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Gammal, O. A.; Bekheit, M. M.; El-Brashy, S. A.

    2015-02-01

    New Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes derived from tetradentate macrocyclic nitrogen ligand, (1E,4E,8E,12E)-5,8,13,16-tetramethyl-1,4,9,12-tetrazacyclohexadeca-4,8,12,16-tetraene (EDHDH) have been synthesized. The complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, spectral (IR, UV-Vis, 1H NMR and ESR (for Cu(II) complex)) mass, and magnetic as well as thermal analysis measurements. The complexes afforded the formulae: [Cu(EDHDH)Cl2]·2EtOH and [M(EDHDH)X2]·nH2O where M = Co(II) and Ni(II), X = Cl- or OH-, n = 1,0, respectively. The data revealed an octahedral arrangement with N4 tetradentate donor sites in addition to two Cl atoms occupying the other two sites. ESR spectrum of Cu2+ complex confirmed the suggested geometry with values of a α2and β2 indicating that the in-plane σ-bonding and in-plane π-bonding are appreciably covalent, and are consistent with very strong σ-in-plane bonding in the complexes. The molecular modeling is drawn and showed the bond length, bond angle, chemical reactivity, energy components (kcal/mol) and binding energy (kcal/mol) for all the title compounds using DFT method. Also, the thermal behavior and the kinetic parameters of degradation were determined using Coats-Redfern and Horowitz-Metzger methods. Moreover, the in vitro antibacterial studies of all compounds screened against pathogenic bacteria (two Gram +ve and two Gram -ve) to assess their inhibiting potential. The assay indicated that the inhibition potential is metal ion dependent. The ligand, EDHDH, Co(II) and Cu(II) complexes exhibited a remarkable antibacterial activity against Streptococcus Pyogenes as Gram +ve and Proteus vulgaris as Gram -ve bacterial strains. On the other hand, Ni(II) complex revealed a moderate antibacterial activity against both Gram +ve organisms and no activity against Gram -ve bacterial strain.

  19. Syntheses and structures of two new coordination polymers generated from a 4-aminotriazole-bridged organic ligand and Co(II) salts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue Ru; Ma, Jian Ping; Dong, Yu Bin

    2017-03-01

    Organic ligands and counter-anions influence the coordination spheres of metal cations and hence the construction of coordination polymers (CPs). The specific bent geometries of five-membered heterocyclic triazole bridging organic ligands are capable of generating CPs with novel patterns not easily obtained using rigid linear ligands. A multidentate 4-aminotriazole-bridged organic ligand, namely 4-amino-3,5-bis(4,3'-bipyridyl-5'-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole (L) has been prepared and used to synthesize two Co(II) coordination polymers, namely poly[[[μ2-4-amino-3,5-bis(4,3'-bipyridyl-5'-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-κ(2)N:N']bis(methanol-κO)cobalt(II)] bis(perchlorate)], {[Co(C22H16N8)2(CH3OH)2](ClO4)2}n, (I), and poly[[μ3-4-amino-3,5-bis(4,3'-bipyridyl-5'-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-κ(3)N:N':N'']dichloridocobalt(II)], [CoCl2(C22H16N8)]n, (II), using CoX2 salts [X = ClO4 for (I) and Cl for (II)] under solvothermal conditions. Single-crystal X-ray structure analysis revealed that they both feature two-dimensional networks. Cobalt is located on an inversion centre in (I) and in a general position in (II). In (I), L functions as a bidentate cis-conformation ligand linking Co(II) ions, while it functions as a tridentate trans-conformation linker binding Co(II) ions in (II). In addition, O-H...N and N-H...O hydrogen bonds and C-H...π interactions exist in (I), while N-H...Cl and π-π interactions exist in (II), and these weak interactions play an important role in aligning the two-dimensional nets of (I) and (II) in the solid state. As the compounds were synthesized under the same conditions, the significant structural variations between (I) and (II) are believed to be determined by the different sizes and coordination abilities of the counter-anions. IR spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance UV-Vis spectra were also used to investigate the title compounds.

  20. Preparation and use of tetra-alkyl cobalt dicarbollide for extraction of cesium and strontium into hydrocarbon solvents

    DOEpatents

    Miller, R.L.; Pinkerton, A.B.; Abney, K.D.; Kinkead, S.A.

    1997-02-11

    Preparation and use of tetra-C-alkyl cobalt dicarbollide for extraction of cesium and strontium into hydrocarbon solvents. Tetra-C-alkyl derivatives of cobalt dicarbollide, Co(C{sub 2}R{sub 2}B{sub 9}H{sub 9}){sub 2}{sup {minus}}(CoB{sub 2}R{sub 4}{sup {minus}}; R=CH{sub 3} and C{sub 6}H{sub 13}) are demonstrated to be significant cesium and strontium extractants from acidic and alkaline solutions into non-toxic organic solvent systems. Extractions using mesitylene and diethylbenzene are compared to those with nitrobenzene as the organic phase. CoB{sub 2}-hexyl{sub 4}{sup {minus}} in diethylbenzene shows improved selectivity (10{sup 4}) for Cs over Na in acidic solution. In dilute alkaline solution, CoB{sub 2}-hexyl{sub 4}{sup {minus}} extracts Cs less efficiently, but more effectively removes Sr from higher base concentrations. A general synthesis of tetra-C-alkyl cobalt dicarbollides is described. 6 figs.

  1. Preparation and use of tetra-alkyl cobalt dicarbollide for extraction of cesium and strontium into hydrocarbon solvents

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Rebecca L.; Pinkerton, Anthony B.; Abney, Kent D.; Kinkead, Scott A.

    1997-01-01

    Preparation and use of tetra-C-alkyl cobalt dicarbollide for extraction of cesium and strontium into hydrocarbon solvents. Tetra-C-alkyl derivatives of cobalt dicarbollide, Co(C.sub.2 R.sub.2 B.sub.9 H.sub.9).sub.2.sup.- (CoB.sub.2 R.sub.4.sup.- ; R=CH.sub.3 and C.sub.6 H.sub.13) are demonstrated to be significant cesium and strontium extractants from acidic and alkaline solutions into non-toxic organic solvent systems. Extractions using mesitylene and diethylbenzene are compared to those with nitrobenzene as the organic phase. CoB.sub.2 -hexyl.sub.4.sup.- in diethylbenzene shows improved selectivity (10.sup.4) for Cs over Na in acidic solution. In dilute alkaline solution, CoB.sub.2 -hexyl.sub.4.sup.- extracts Cs less efficiently, but more effectively removes Sr from higher base concentrations. A general synthesis of tetra-C-alkyl cobalt dicarbollides is described.

  2. Digital recovery, modification, and analysis of Tetra Tech seismic horizon mapping, National Petroleum Reserve Alaska (NPRA), northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saltus, R.W.; Kulander, Christopher S.; Potter, Christopher J.

    2002-01-01

    We have digitized, modified, and analyzed seismic interpretation maps of 12 subsurface stratigraphic horizons spanning portions of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA). These original maps were prepared by Tetra Tech, Inc., based on about 15,000 miles of seismic data collected from 1974 to 1981. We have also digitized interpreted faults and seismic velocities from Tetra Tech maps. The seismic surfaces were digitized as two-way travel time horizons and converted to depth using Tetra Tech seismic velocities. The depth surfaces were then modified by long-wavelength corrections based on recent USGS seismic re-interpretation along regional seismic lines. We have developed and executed an algorithm to identify and calculate statistics on the area, volume, height, and depth of closed structures based on these seismic horizons. These closure statistics are tabulated and have been used as input to oil and gas assessment calculations for the region. Directories accompanying this report contain basic digitized data, processed data, maps, tabulations of closure statistics, and software relating to this project.

  3. Anticonvulsant activity of 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranose isolated from leaves of Mangifera indica.

    PubMed

    Viswanatha, G L; Mohan, C G; Shylaja, H; Yuvaraj, H C; Sunil, V

    2013-07-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the anticonvulsant activity of 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranose (PGG) isolated from methanolic leaf extracts of Mangifera indica in mice. Anticonvulsant activity of PGG was evaluated against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced and maximal electroshock (MES)-induced convulsions in mice. Additionally, locomotor activity and GABA levels in the brain were estimated to explore the possible CNS-depressant activity and mechanism behind the anticonvulsant activity, respectively. In these studies, PGG (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p.)) showed significant and dose-dependent inhibition of PTZ and MES-induced convulsions. Furthermore, PGG administration showed significant decrease in the locomotor activity as an indication of its CNS-depressant property; also, PGG has significantly increased the GABA levels in the cerebellum and whole brain other than the cerebellum. In conclusion, PGG isolated from M. indica showed potent anticonvulsant activity, and possible mechanism may be due to enhanced GABA levels in the brain.

  4. Apoptosis induced by penta-acetyl geniposide in C6 glioma cells is associated with JNK activation and Fas ligand induction

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, C.-H.; Tseng, T.-H.; Huang, C.-N.; Hsu, S.-P.; Wang, C.-J. . E-mail: wcj@csmu.edu.tw

    2005-01-15

    In our previous study, penta-acetyl geniposide ((AC){sub 5}GP) is suggested to induce tumor cell apoptosis through the specific activation of PKC{delta}. However, the downstream signal pathway of PKC{delta} has not yet been investigated. It was shown that JNK may play an important role in the regulation of apoptosis and could be a possible downstream signal of PKC{delta} isoforms. In the present study, we investigate whether JNK is involved in (AC){sub 5}GP induced apoptosis. The result reveals that (AC){sub 5}GP induces JNK activation and c-Jun phosphorylation thus stimulating the expression of Fas-L and Fas. Using SP600125 to block JNK activation shows that (AC){sub 5}GP-mediated apoptosis and related proteins expression are attenuated. Furthermore, we find that the (AC){sub 5}GP induces apoptosis through the activation of JNK/Jun/Fas L/Fas/caspase 8/caspase 3, a mitochondria-independent pathway. The JNK pathway is suggested to be the downstream signal of PKC{delta}, since rottlerin impedes (AC){sub 5}GP-induced JNK activation. Therefore, (AC){sub 5}GP mediates cell death via activation of PKC{delta}/JNK/FasL cascade signaling.

  5. TiO2/Ag modified penta-bismuth hepta-oxide nitrate and its adsorption performance for azo dye removal.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Eshraq Ahmed; Abdullah, Abdul Halim; Zainal, Zulkarnain; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Ban, Tan Kar

    2012-01-01

    A modified hydrophilic penta-bismuth hepta-oxide nitrate (Bi5O7NO3) surface was synthesized via a precipitation method using TiO2 and Ag as modified agents. The synthesized product was characterized by different analytical techniques. The removal efficiency was evaluated using mono- and di-sulphonated azo dyes as model pollutants. Different kinetic, isotherm and diffusion models were chosen to describe the adsorption process. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results revealed no noticeable differences in the chemical states of modified adsorbent when compared to pure Bi5O7NO3; however, the presence of hydrophilic centres such as TiO2 and Ag developed positively charged surface groups and improved its adsorption performance to a wide range of azo dyes. Dyes removal was found to be a function of adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, solution pH and temperature. The reduction of Langmuir 1,2-mixed order kinetics to the second or first-order kinetics could be successfully used to describe the adsorption of dyes onto the modified adsorbent. Mass transfer can be described by intra-particle diffusion at a certain stage, but it was not the rate limiting step that controlled the adsorption process. Homogenous behavior of adsorbent surface can be explored by applying Langmuir isotherm to fit the adsorption data.

  6. In vitro exposure of DE-71, a penta-PBDE mixture, on immune endpoints in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and B6C3F1 mice.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Jena R; Peden-Adams, Margie M; White, Natasha D; Bossart, Gregory D; Fair, Patricia A

    2015-02-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are an emerging contaminant of concern with low level exposures demonstrating toxicity in laboratory animals and wildlife, although immunotoxicity studies have been limited. Bottlenose dolphin peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and mouse splenocytes were exposed to environmentally relevant DE-71 (a penta-PBDE mixture) concentrations (0-50 µg ml(-1) ) in vitro. Natural killer (NK) cell activity and lymphocyte (B and T cell) proliferation were evaluated using the parallelogram approach for risk assessment. This study aimed to substantiate results from field studies with dolphins, assess the sensitivities between the mouse model and dolphins, and to evaluate risk using the parallelogram approach. In mouse cells, NK cell activity increased at in vitro doses 0.05, 0.5 and 25 µg DE-71 ml(-1) , whereas proliferation was not modulated. In dolphin cells, NK cell activity and lymphocyte proliferation was not altered after in vitro exposure. In vitro exposure of dolphin PBLs to DE-71 showed similar results to correlative field studies; NK cell activity in mice was more sensitive to in vitro exposure than dolphins, and the parallelogram approach showed correlation with all three endpoints to predict risk in bottlenose dolphins.

  7. The Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes with herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid - Synthesis and structural studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drzewiecka-Antonik, Aleksandra; Ferenc, Wiesława; Wolska, Anna; Klepka, Marcin T.; Cristóvão, Beata; Sarzyński, Jan; Rejmak, Paweł; Osypiuk, Dariusz

    2017-01-01

    The Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes with herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) were synthesized and structurally characterized. The geometry of metal-ligand interaction was refined using XAFS and DFT studies. The Co(2,4-D)2·6H2O and Ni(2,4-D)2·4H2O complexes have octahedral geometry with two carboxylate groups of 2,4-D anions and four water molecules in the coordination sphere. The square planar geometry around metal cations formed by the carboxylate groups from two monodentate ligands and two water molecules, is observed for Cu(2,4-D)2·4H2O complex. In the recrystallized Ni(II) complex dinuclear 'Chinese lantern' structures with bridging carboxylate groups of 2,4-D were observed.

  8. Structural, spectroscopic and redox properties of a mononuclear Co(II) thiolate complex--the reactivity toward S-alkylation: an experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Gennari, Marcello; Gerey, Bertrand; Hall, Nikita; Pécaut, Jacques; Vezin, Hervé; Collomb, Marie-Noëlle; Orio, Maylis; Duboc, Carole

    2012-10-28

    The structural, spectroscopic, redox properties and also the reactivity toward S-alkylation of a new mononuclear N2S2 dithiolate Co(II) complex [CoL] (1), with H(2)L = 2,2'-(2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'-diyl)bis(1,1-diphenylethanethiol), have been investigated. The X-ray structure of 1 has revealed an unusual distorted square planar geometry for a Co(II) ion within a thiolate environment. The X-band EPR spectrum of displays a rhombic S = 1/2 signal consistent with a low spin configuration for the d(7) Co(II) ion with a large g-anisotropy (g(x) = 2.94, g(y) = 2.32 and g(z) = 2.01). By pulsed EPR experiments (HYSCORE), two weak hyperfine couplings (hfc) of 3.2 and 2.2 MHz have been measured and attributed respectively to protons and nitrogen nuclei of the bipyridine unit. In addition, another hyperfine coupling (hfc) of 7.5 MHz has been attributed to the cobalt ion. DFT calculations have successfully reproduced the (59)Co and (14)N hfc parameters. However, multiconfigurational ab initio calculations were required to predict the g-tensor of 1. The cyclic voltammogram (CV) displays two one-electron metal based processes: a quasi-reversible Co(III)/Co(II) oxidation wave at E(1/2) = -0.5 V vs. Fc(+)/Fc and a quasi-reversible Co(II)/Co(I) reduction wave at E(1/2) = -1.7 V. 1 reacts with CH(3)I, generating the mono S-methylated complex, [CoL(Me)I] (1(Me)). The X-band EPR spectrum of 1(Me) displays a typical signal of a high spin (S = 3/2) Co(II) species. An optimized structure of 1(Me), calculated by DFT, is consistent with its EPR and UV-visible spectra. Time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations attribute the most prominent features observed in the electronic absorption spectra of 1 and 1(Me). The singly occupied MO (SOMO) of 1 shows a notable delocalization of the unpaired electron over the metal (85%) and the ligand, especially over the sulphur atoms (10.5%), indicating a certain degree of covalency for the Co-S bonds. In 1(Me), for two of the three SOMOs

  9. Thermal decomposition of solid solutions in systems of Fe(II), Co(II), and Ni(II) hydrogen maleates with the formation of bimetallic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudanova, L. I.; Logvinenko, V. A.; Sheludyakova, L. A.; Ishchenko, A. V.; Rudina, N. A.

    2017-01-01

    XRD phase analysis and thermal analysis are used to confirm the formation of a continuous series of solid solutions in which one cation is substituted for another in the systems Co(II) hydrogen maleate-Ni(II) hydrogen maleate; Fe(II) hydrogen maleate-Co(II) hydrogen maleate; and Fe(II) hydrogen maleate-Ni(II) hydrogen maleate. The unit cell volume of these solid solutions is shown to depend linearly on their composition. The linear character of changes in the initial temperatures of dehydration and thermal decomposition is established. Using the example of the first of these systems, it is shown that when heated, bimetallic nanoparticles embedded in the polymeric matrix of composites obtained via the thermal decomposition of solid solutions of hydrogen maleates undergo a second-order phase transition, resulting in decomposition of the solid solutions of metals at the Curie temperature.

  10. Design, synthesis and characterization of macrocyclic ligand based transition metal complexes of Ni(II), Cu(II) and Co(II) with their antimicrobial and antioxidant evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gull, Parveez; Malik, Manzoor Ahmad; Dar, Ovas Ahmad; Hashmi, Athar Adil

    2017-04-01

    Three new complexes Ni(II), Cu(II) and Co(II) were synthesized of macrocyclic ligand derived from 1, 4-dicarbonyl-phenyl-dihydrazide and O-phthalaldehyde in the ratio of 2:2. The synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility measurements, FTIR, UV-Vis., Mass and 1H NMR spectral studies. The electronic spectra of the metal complexes indicate a six coordinate octahedral geometry of the central metal ion. These metal complexes and the ligand were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against bacteria (E. coli, B. subtilis, S. aureus) and fungi (A. niger, A. flavus, C. albicans) and compared against standard drugs chloramphenicol and nystatin respectively. In addition, the antioxidant activity of the compounds was also investigated through scavenging effect on DPPH radicals.

  11. Identification of the forensically important sarcophagid flies Boerttcherisca peregrina, Parasarcophaga albiceps and Parasarcophaga dux (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) based on COII gene in China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Y D; Cai, J F; Li, X; Xiong, F; Su, R N; Chen, F L; Liu, Q L; Wang, X H; Chang, Y F; Zhong, M; Wang, X; Wen, J F

    2010-12-01

    Accurate species identication is a crucial step in forensic entomology, as the insect collected on a corpse can provide useful information for estimation of postmortem interval (PMI). The utility of the forensically important Sarcophagidae (Diptera) for crime scene investigation has been severely restricted, as morphological identification is difficult, especially the identification of females and larvae. In this study, a method for using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data and phylogenetic analysis was performed to distinguish the three Chinese sarcophagid species: Boerttcherisca peregrina (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830) Parasarcophaga albiceps (Meigen, 1826) and Parasarcophaga dux (Thompson, 1869) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). DNA was extracted and analyzed by a 189 bp fragment of cytochrome coxidase subunit II (COII) gene. The monophyletic branches of the phylogenetic tree reveal that this marker is suitable for discrimination between these species, providing high support for separation on congeneric species. Therefore, the molecular method applied to the sarcophagid species identification is feasible.

  12. Genetic structure of Africanized honeybee populations (Apis mellifera L.) from Brazil and Uruguay viewed through mitochondrial DNA COI-COII patterns.

    PubMed

    Collet, T; Ferreira, K M; Arias, M C; Soares, A E E; Del Lama, M A

    2006-11-01

    Mitochondrial genotypes of Africanized honeybees from Brazil and Uruguay were surveyed by DraI restriction of the COI-COII region. Eleven mitotypes were found, three of which had not previously been described (A28-A30). Out of 775 samples (725 from Brazil, 50 from Uruguay), 197 were A1 and 520 were A4. A1 frequency increases toward the north of Brazil, whereas A4 frequency increases toward the south, a pattern echoing the African distribution. The origin of the A4 and most of the A1 African patterns can be attributed to the introduction of Apis mellifera scutellata into Brazil in 1956. The A29 and A30 patterns have the P1 sequence observed in many Iberian Peninsula samples, which represent the traces of the introductions into Brazil and Uruguay by settlers.

  13. Synthesis, characterization, in vitro antimicrobial and DNA cleavage studies of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes with ONOO donor coumarin Schiff bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Sangamesh A.; Unki, Shrishila N.; Kulkarni, Ajaykumar D.; Naik, Vinod H.; Badami, Prema S.

    2011-01-01

    A series of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes have been synthesized with Schiff bases derived from 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde and 2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carbohydrazide/6-bromo-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carbohydrazide. The chelation of the complexes has been proposed in the light of analytical, spectral (IR, UV-Vis, 1H NMR, ESR, FAB-mass and fluorescence), magnetic and thermal studies. The measured molar conductance values indicate that, the complexes are non-electrolytic in nature. The redox behavior of the complexes was investigated with electrochemical method by using cyclic voltammetry. The Schiff bases and their metal complexes have been screened for their in vitro antibacterial ( Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhi) and antifungal activities ( Candida albicans, Cladosporium and Aspergillus niger) by MIC method. The DNA cleavage is studied by agarose gel electrophoresis method.

  14. Crystal structure of tetra­aqua­(di­methyl­formamide)­tetra­kis­(μ-N,2-dioxido­benzene-1-carboximidato)tetra­kis­(μ-tri­methyl­acetato)­tetra­manganese(III)sodiumyttrium–di­methyl­formamide–water (1/8.04/0.62)

    PubMed Central

    Travis, Jordan R.; Zeller, Matthias; Zaleski, Curtis M.

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis and crystal structure for the title compound, [YNaMn4(C7H4NO3)4(C5H9O2)4(H2O)3.76(C3H7NO)0.24]·8.04C3H7NO·0.62H2O or [YIIINa(OTMA)4[12-MCMn(III)N(shi)-4](H2O)3.76(DMF)0.24·8.04DMF·0.62H2O, where OTMA is tri­methyl­acetate, MC is metallacrown, shi3− is salicyl­hydroximate, and DMF is N,N-di­methyl­formamide, is reported. The macrocyclic metallacrown consists of an –[MnIII–N–O]4– ring repeat unit, and the metallacrown captures one YIII ion and one NaI ion in the central cavity on opposite faces of the metallacrown. Overall the metallacrown is domed towards the side of the NaI ion. Both the YIII and NaI ions are eight-coordinate, and the tri­methyl­acetate anions bridge the central YIII to each ring MnIII ion. The ring MnIII ions are six-coordinate with a tetra­gonally distorted octa­hedral geometry. PMID:26594496

  15. Crystal structure of 8-iodo-quinolinium tetra-chlorido-aurate(III).

    PubMed

    Onserio, Benard O; Tamang, Sem Raj; Hoefelmeyer, James D

    2015-12-01

    The structure of the title salt, (C9H7IN)[AuCl4], is comprised of planar 8-iodo-quinolinium cations (r.m.s. deviation = 0.05 Å) and square-planar tetra-chlorido-aurate(III) anions. The asymmetric unit contains one 8-iodo-quinolinium cation and two halfs of [AuCl4](-) anions, in each case with the central Au(III) atom located on an inversion center. Inter-molecular halogen-halogen contacts were found between centrosymmetric pairs of I [3.6178 (4) Å] and Cl atoms [3.1484 (11), 3.3762 (13), and 3.4935 (12) Å]. Inter-molecular N-H⋯Cl and C-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonding is also found in the structure. These inter-actions lead to the formation of a three-dimensional network. Additionally, there is an intra-molecular N-H⋯I hydrogen bond between the aromatic iminium and iodine. There are no aurophilic inter-actions or short contacts between I and Au atoms, and there are no notable π-stacking inter-actions between the aromatic cations.

  16. An oxalate selective electrode based on modified PVC-membrane with tetra-butylammonium--Clinoptilolite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hoseini, Zohre; Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Alireza

    2016-03-01

    A modified PVC-membrane electrode with tetra-butylammonium bromide - Clinoptilolite nano-particles (TBA-NCP) showed good Nernstian slope (29.9±0.6 mV per decade of oxalate concentration) in concentration range of 3.1×10(-7)-8.3×10(-1) mol L(-1) with a detection limit of 1.5×10(-7) mol L(-1). The best performance was obtained with a membrane composition of 31.5% PVC, 62.5% DOP and 6% TBA-NCP in the temperature range of 20-35 °C and the pH range of 4-9. The fast response time and good reproducibility over a period of 3 months are other characteristics of the sensor. The proposed electrode was successfully used as an indicator electrode in titration of oxalate ions with CaCl2 solution. The proposed electrode was also used in direct potentiometric determination of oxalate in many real samples such as: mushroom, black and green tea, spinach and beet.

  17. A Tb–Zn tetra(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin hybrid: Preparation, structure, photophysical and electrochemical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wen-Tong; Hu, Rong-Hua; Wang, Yin-Feng; Zhang, Xian; Liu, Juan

    2014-05-01

    A terbium-zinc porphyrin, i.e. [TbZn(TPPS)H{sub 3}O]{sub n} (1) (TPPS=tetra(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin), has been obtained from a solvothermal reaction and structurally analyzed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 is characteristic of a condensed three-dimensional (3-D) porous open framework with two types of infinite one-dimensional (1-D) chain-like structure. Compound 1 exhibits a void space of 215 Å{sup 3}, which is 9.2% of the unit-cell volume. TG/DTA measurement reveals that the framework of compound 1 is thermally stable up to 336 °C. In order to reveal its photophysical and electrochemical properties, we investigated compound 1 in detail with UV–vis spectra, fluorescence, quantum yield, luminescence lifetime, and CV/DPV. - Graphical abstract: A terbium–zinc porphyrin [TbZn(TPPS)H{sub 3}O]{sub n} has been obtained from a solvothermal reaction. It features a condensed 3-D porous open framework. It shows good thermal stability. - Highlights: • This paper reports a novel terbium–zinc porphyrin. • It features a novel condensed three-dimensional porous open framework. • The title compound is thermally stable up to 336 °C. • It is studied by UV–vis, fluorescence, quantum yield, lifetime, and CV/DPV.

  18. A tetra-layer microfluidic system for peptide affinity screening through integrated sample injection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weizhi; Huang, Yanyan; Jin, Yulong; Liu, Guoquan; Chen, Yi; Ma, Huimin; Zhao, Rui

    2013-05-21

    A novel integrated microfluidic system was designed and fabricated for affinity peptide screening with in situ detection. A tetra-layer microfluidic hybrid chip containing two top eccentric diffluent layers, an inter-layer and a bottom screening layer, was developed as the core device of the system. The eccentric diffluent layers were ingeniously invented for the vertical sample delivery from 2 top-inlets into 12 bottom-inlets, which eliminated the use of excessive accessories and complicated pipelines currently used in other systems. By using six pH gradient generators, the magnetic bead-based screening in 36 parallel chambers was simultaneously carried out under 6 different pH conditions from 5.4 to 8.2. This allowed simultaneous screening of 6 compounds and each under 6 different pH conditions. The fabricated chip system was applied to screening of affinity peptides towards β-endorphin antibody. The affinities of the peptide ligands to the antibody were assessed by on-chip confocal detection. The results from the screening study using this system indicated that the pentapeptide with the sequence of YGGFL had the highest affinity towards β-endorphin antibody at pH 7.1, which was further confirmed by the ELISA assay using a 96-well plate format. This microfluidic screening system is automatic, low-cost and reusable for not only peptide screening but also other bioactive compounds screening towards target molecules.

  19. Spectroscopic studies of the interaction between tetra-substituted aluminum phthalocyanines and bovine serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yipeng; Zheng, Liqin; Huang, Yide; Lin, Pingping; Yang, Hongqin; Peng, Yiru

    2014-11-01

    Serum albumin, the most abundant plasma protein in mammalian blood, shows significant effects on delivery and therapeutic efficacy of drugs, therefore, the investigation of binding interaction between serum albumin and drugs is vital and necessary. In the present study, the binding interaction of two aluminum (III) phthalocyanine (AlPc) derivatives, tetrasulfonate- and tetra-(p-sulfoazophenyl-4-aminosulfonyl)-substituted AlPc (complexes 1 and 2), with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated by UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. Adding BSA to the Pc complexes in water caused remarkable changes in the Q-band of the Pc complexes, indicating an altered aggregation behavior. When titrating these AlPcs with BSA in PBS, the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA was significantly quenched through a static quenching process. The binding of Pc complexes to BSA might change its conformation, evidenced by the red shift of maximum emission wavelength. Furthermore, binding constants and binding sites were obtained and binding ability between the Pc complexes and BSA was assessed. Our results suggest that complexes 1 and 2 readily interact with BSA whereas the latter shows more affinity (with higher binding constant value) to BSA, implying the stretched amphiphilic substituents of complex 2 may contribute to their transportation in the blood.

  20. Crystal structure of borated N,N,N′,N′-tetra­methyldi­amino­methane

    PubMed Central

    Louven, Kathrin; Quentin, Georgina; Strohmann, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    In the title compound, {[(di­methyl­amino)­meth­yl]di­methyl­amine}­trihydridoboron, C5H17BN2, the tetra­hedral geometry of the N—C—N unit is slightly disorted. As a result of the bulky amine substituents, a wider N—C—N angle of 113.6 (1)° is observed. The bond lengths between the N atom and methyl groups are slighly elongated to 1.481 (2) and 1.482 (2) Å at the borated N atom, whereas the distances between the other N atom and its methyl groups are only 1.461 (2) and 1.462 (2) Å. The studied crystal was twinned. The twin data refinement was subsequently carried out with a scale factor of 0.263 (1). The two lattices of the twin domains were rotated by 179.84°. PMID:26594453

  1. Synthesis and gas adsorption properties of tetra-armed microporous organic polymer networks based on triphenylamine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao; Yao, Shuwen; Yu, Miao; Jiang, Jia-Xing

    2014-04-01

    Two novel tetra-armed microporous organic polymers have been designed and synthesized via a nickel-catalyzed Yamamoto-type Ullmann cross-coupling reaction or Suzuki cross-coupling polycondensation. These polymers are stable in various solvents, including concentrated hydrochloric acid, and are thermally stable. The homocoupled polymer YPTPA shows much higher Brunauer-Emmet-Teller-specific surface area up to 1557 m(2) g(-1) than the copolymer SPTPA (544 m(2) g(-1)), and a high CO2 uptake ability of 3.03 mmol g(-1) (1.13 bar/273 K) with a CO2 /N2 sorption selectivity of 17.3:1. Both polymers show high isosteric heats of CO2 adsorption (22.7-26.5 kJ mol(-1)) because the incorporation of nitrogen atoms into the skeleton of microporous organic polymers enhances the interaction between the pore wall and the CO2 molecules. The values are higher than those of the porous aromatic frameworks, which contain neither additional polar functional groups nor nitrogen atoms, and are rather close to those of previously reported microporous organic polymers containing the nitrogen atoms on the pore wall. These data show that these materials would be potential candidates for applications in post-combustion CO2 capture and sequestration technology.

  2. Synthesis of tetra- and octa-aurated heteroaryl complexes towards probing aromatic indoliums

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jun; Sun, Tingting; He, Xin; An, Ke; Zhu, Jun; Zhao, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Polymetalated aromatic compounds are particularly challenging synthetic goals because of the limited thermodynamic stability of polyanionic species arising from strong electrostatic repulsion between adjacent carbanionic sites. Here we describe a facile synthesis of two polyaurated complexes including a tetra-aurated indole and an octa-aurated benzodipyrrole. The imido trinuclear gold(I) moiety exhibits nucleophilicity and undergoes an intramolecular attack on a gold(I)-activated ethynyl to generate polyanionic heteroaryl species. Their computed magnetic properties reveal the aromatic character in the five-membered ring. The incorporation of the aurated substituents at the nitrogen atom can convert non-aromaticity in the parent indolium into aromaticity in the aurated one because of hyperconjugation. Thus, the concept of hyperconjugative aromaticity is extended to heterocycles with transition metal substituents. More importantly, further analysis indicates that the aurated substituents can perform better than traditional main-group substituents. This work highlights the difference in aromaticity between polymetalated aryls and their organic prototypes. PMID:27186982

  3. Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor Based on Ethylene Tetra-Fluoro-Ethylene Hollow Fiber

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pan; He, Yu-Jing; Zhu, Xiao-Song; Shi, Yi-Wei

    2015-01-01

    A new kind of hollow fiber surface plasmon resonance sensor (HF-SPRS) based on the silver-coated ethylene tetra-fluoro-ethylene (ETFE) hollow fiber (HF) is presented. The ETFE HF-SPRS is fabricated, and its performance is investigated experimentally by measuring the transmission spectra of the sensor when filled by liquid sensed media with different refractive indices (RIs). Theoretical analysis based on the ray transmission model is also taken to evaluate the sensor. Because the RI of ETFE is much lower than that of fused silica (FSG), the ETFE HF-SPRS can extend the lower limit of the detection range of the early reported FSG HF-SPRS from 1.5 to 1.42 approximately. This could greatly enhance the application potential of HF-SPRS. Moreover, the joint use of both ETFE and FSG HF-SPRSs can cover a wide detection range from 1.42 to 1.69 approximately with high sensitivities larger than 1000 nm/RIU. PMID:26540062

  4. Conformational adaptation and manipulation of manganese tetra(4-pyridyl)porphyrin molecules on Cu(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xianwen; Lei, Shulai; Lotze, Christian; Czekelius, Constantin; Paulus, Beate; Franke, Katharina J.

    2017-03-01

    Porphyrins are highly flexible molecules and well known to adapt to their local environment via conformational changes. We studied the self-assembly of manganese meso-tetra(4-pyridyl)porphyrin (Mn-TPyP) molecules on a Cu(111) surface by low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (ATM). We observe molecular chains along the ⟨1 1 ¯ 0 ⟩ direction of the substrate. Within these chains, we identify two molecular conformations, which differ by the orientation of the upward bending of the macrocycle. Using density functional theory, we show that this saddle shape is a consequence of the rotation and inclination of the pyridyl groups towards Cu adatoms, which stabilize the metal-organic chains. The molecular conformations obey a strict alternation, reflecting the mutual enforcement of conformational adaptation in densely packed structures. Tunneling electrons from the STM tip can induce changes in the orientation of the pyridyl endgroups. The switching behaviour varies with the different adsorption configurations.

  5. Electrocatalytic Oxygen Reduction by Iron Tetra-arylporphyrins Bearing Pendant Proton Relays

    SciTech Connect

    Carver, Colin T.; Matson, Benjamin D.; Mayer, James M.

    2012-03-28

    Fe(III)meso-tetra(2-carboxyphenyl)porphine chloride (1) was investigated as an electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Rotating ring-disk voltammetry and independent reactions with hydrogen peroxide indicate that 1 has very high selectivity for reduction of O2 to H2O, without forming significant amounts of H2O2. Cyclic voltammetric measurements at high substrate/catalyst ratios allowed the determination of the turnover frequency (TOF) of 1, TOF = 103 s-1. The 4-carboxyphenyl isomer of 1, in which the carboxylic acids point away from the iron center, is a substantially slower and less selective catalyst. This direct comparison demonstrates that the value of the carboxylate groups positioned to act as proton delivery relays to enhance both the TOF and selectivity of 1 as a catalyst for the ORR. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  6. TETRA observation of gamma-rays at ground level associated with nearby thunderstorms

    PubMed Central

    Ringuette, Rebecca; Case, Gary L; Cherry, Michael L; Granger, Douglas; Guzik, T Gregory; Stewart, Michael; Wefel, John P

    2013-01-01

    [1] Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs)—very short, intense bursts of electrons, positrons, and energetic photons originating from terrestrial thunderstorms—have been detected with satellite instruments. TGF and Energetic Thunderstorm Rooftop Array (TETRA), an array of NaI(Tl) scintillators at Louisiana State University, has now been used to detect similar bursts of 50 keV to over 2 MeV gamma-rays at ground level. After 2.6 years of observation, 24 events with durations 0.02–4.2 ms have been detected associated with nearby lightning, three of them coincident events observed by detectors separated by ∼1000 m. Nine of the events occurred within 6 ms and 5 km of negative polarity cloud-to-ground lightning strokes with measured currents in excess of 20 kA. The events reported here constitute the first catalog of TGFs observed at ground level in close proximity to the acceleration site. PMID:26167428

  7. Mol-ecular and crystal structure of gossypol tetra-methyl ether with an unknown solvate.

    PubMed

    Honkeldieva, Muhabbat; Talipov, Samat; Mardanov, Rustam; Ibragimov, Bakhtiyar

    2015-02-01

    The title compound, C34H38O8 (systematic name: 5,5'-diisopropyl-2,2',3,3'-tetra-meth-oxy-7,7'-dimethyl-2H,2'H-8,8'-bi-[naphtho-[1,8-bc]furan]-4,4'-diol), has been obtained from a gossypol solution in a mixture of dimethyl sulfate and methanol. The mol-ecule is situated on a twofold rotation axis, so the asymmetric unit contains one half-mol-ecule. In the mol-ecule, the hy-droxy groups are involved in intra-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, and the two naphthyl fragments are inclined each to other by 83.8 (1)°. In the crystal, weak C-H⋯O and C-H⋯π inter-actions consolidate the packing, which exhibits channels with an approximate diameter of 6 Å extending along the c-axis direction. These channels are filled with highly disordered solvent mol-ecules, so their estimated scattering contribution was subtracted from the observed diffraction data using the SQUEEZE option in PLATON [Spek, A. L. (2015). Acta Cryst. C71, 9-18].

  8. Natural chymotrypsin-like-cleaved human mitochondrial peptides confirm tetra-, pentacodon, non-canonical RNA translations.

    PubMed

    Seligmann, Hervé

    2016-09-01

    Mass spectra of human mitochondrial peptides match non-canonical transcripts systematically (a) deleting mono/dinucleotides after trinucleotides (delRNA), (b) exchanging nucleotides (swinger RNA), translated according to tri, (c) tetra- and pentacodons (codons expanded by a 4th (and 5th) silent nucleotide(s)). Swinger transcriptions are 23 bijective transformations, nine symmetric (X<->Y, e.g. A<->C) and fourteen asymmetric exchanges (X->Y->Z->X, e.g. A->C->G->A). Here, proteomic analyses assuming cleavage after W,Y, F (chymotrypsin-like, for trypsinized samples) detect fewer chymotrypsinized than trypsinized peptides. Detected non-canonical peptides map preferentially on detected non-canonical RNAs for chymotrypsinized peptides, as previously found for trypsinized peptides. This suggests residual natural chymotrypsin-like digestion detectable within experimentally trypsinized peptide data. Some trypsinized peptides are detected twice, by analyses assuming trypsin, and those assuming chymotrypsin cleavages. They have higher spectra counts than peptides detected only once, meaning that abundant peptides are more frequently detected, but detection certainties resemble those for peptides detected only once. Analyses assuming 'incorrect' digestions are inadequate negative controls for digestion enzymes naturally active in biological samples. Chymotrypsin-analyses confirm non-canonical transcriptions/translations independently of results obtained assuming trypsinization, increase non-canonical peptidome coverage, indicating mitogenome-encoding of yet undetected proteins.

  9. DNA Barcodes of Rosy Tetras and Allied Species (Characiformes: Characidae: Hyphessobrycon) from the Brazilian Amazon Basin

    PubMed Central

    Castro Paz, Francis Paola; Batista, Jacqueline da Silva; Porto, Jorge Ivan Rebelo

    2014-01-01

    DNA barcoding can be an effective tool for fast and accurate species-level identification based on sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit (COI) gene. The diversity of this fragment can be used to estimate the richness of the respective species. In this study, we explored the use of DNA barcoding in a group of ornamental freshwater fish of the genus Hyphessobrycon. We sequenced the COI from 10 species of Hyphessobrycon belonging to the “Rosy Tetra Clade” collected from the Amazon and Negro River basins and combined our results with published data. The average conspecific and congeneric Kimura 2-parameter distances were 2.3% and 19.3%, respectively. Six of the 10 species were easily distinguishable by DNA barcoding (H. bentosi, H. copelandi, H. eques, H. epicharis, H. pulchrippinis, and H. sweglesi), whereas the remaining species (H. erythrostigma, H. pyrrhonotus, H. rosaceus and H. socolofi) lacked reciprocal monophyly. Although the COI gene was not fully diagnostic, the discovery of distinct evolutionary units in certain Hyphessobrycon species under the same specific epithet as well as haplotype sharing between different species suggest that DNA barcoding is useful for species identification in this speciose genus. PMID:24878569

  10. TETRA observation of gamma-rays at ground level associated with nearby thunderstorms.

    PubMed

    Ringuette, Rebecca; Case, Gary L; Cherry, Michael L; Granger, Douglas; Guzik, T Gregory; Stewart, Michael; Wefel, John P

    2013-12-01

    [1] Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs)-very short, intense bursts of electrons, positrons, and energetic photons originating from terrestrial thunderstorms-have been detected with satellite instruments. TGF and Energetic Thunderstorm Rooftop Array (TETRA), an array of NaI(Tl) scintillators at Louisiana State University, has now been used to detect similar bursts of 50 keV to over 2 MeV gamma-rays at ground level. After 2.6 years of observation, 24 events with durations 0.02-4.2 ms have been detected associated with nearby lightning, three of them coincident events observed by detectors separated by ∼1000 m. Nine of the events occurred within 6 ms and 5 km of negative polarity cloud-to-ground lightning strokes with measured currents in excess of 20 kA. The events reported here constitute the first catalog of TGFs observed at ground level in close proximity to the acceleration site.

  11. Coordination polymer based on Cu(II), Co(II) and 4,4'-bipyridine-2,6,2',6'-tetracarboxylate: synthesis, structure and adsorption properties.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhou; He, Xiang; Zhao, Yongmei; Shao, Min; Zhu, Shourong

    2009-04-21

    4,4'-Bipyridine-2,6,2',6'-tetracarboxylic acid H4L.3H2O, () and its copper(II) and cobalt (II) coordination polymers [Cu2L(H2O)4]2n () and {[Co(H2O)6].[Co3L2(H2O)2].10H2O}3n () have been hydrothermally synthesized. Compound packs into a crystal via H-bonds. Complex is a 2D coordination grid, in which Cu is in an elongated octahedral constructed by a mer-geometry pyridyl-2,6-dicarboxylate, one bridging carboxylate oxygen and two water molecules. The L4- is central symmetrical. Each pyridyl-2,6-dicarboxylate chelete to Cu(II) and one carboxylate bridge Cu(II) ions in a 1,1-fashion. The 2D coordination polymer links to adjacent layers via H-bonds. Complex is a metal-organic framework with 11.6x10.5 A rectangular channels. All Co(II) ions are located in an octahedral coordination environment. The rectangular channels are composed of Co2+-L4- walls and the walls are linked through carboxylate oxygen atoms and Co(II) ions. Co(H2O)6(2+) as counter ions fill in porous channel. The removal of water molecules from at 210 degrees C or higher affords the porous material [Co4L2]n, which can adsorb 16 (36%) methanol or 9 (32%) ethanol in the vapour phase. The porosity of is higher than reported 4,4'-bipyridine-2,6,2',6'- tetracarboxylate complexes. The framework of remains but the crystallinity is lost upon removal of the H2O molecules. The dehydrated framework of partially recovery crystallinity after it adsorbs H2O, CH3OH and C2H5OH. The methanol in the framework can be replaced by H2O reversibly.

  12. Demonstration of Thermo-Sensitive Tetra-Gel with Implication for Facile and Versatile Platform for a New Class of Smart Gels.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Akira; Sato, Shohei; Sakamaki, Tomoko; Sanjo, Mai; Tabata, Miyuki; Goda, Tatsuro; Asoh, Taka-Aki; Kikuchi, Akihiko; Miyahara, Yuji

    2017-04-10

    A tertiary branched poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) with controlled molecular weight, distribution and the end amino-functionalization (tetra-PNIPAAm-NH2) was studied for the ability to form a gel via in situ chain-end reaction with a counterpart tertiary branched poly(ethyleneglycol) bearing N-hydroxysuccinimide end groups (tetra-PEG-NHS), a well-documented class of building block to yield the tetra-gel. Some of these polymers, both comparable and distinct (relative to the counterpart) extended chain length pairs, provided a self-standing and macroscopically homogeneous gel, which was capable of undergoing thermo-sensitive and reversible change in hydration in line with the nature of PNIPAAm. Phantom network model based calculation indicated that a half molar fraction of the polymer chains in the network remained unreacted, revealing further room for optimizing the reaction condition. Since such tetra-PNIPAAm based motif can be readily tailored to a variety of other physicochemical stimuli-responsive analogues, our finding may give important insight into a platform for "smart" tetra-gels with exceptional mechanical properties and potentially highly controllable molecular cut-off capability.

  13. Chloridotris[μ2-2-(dimethyl­amino)­ethano­lato]-μ3-hydroxido-tri-μ2-trifluoro­acetato-tetra­copper(II) tetra­hydro­furan solvate

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, S. Tajammul; Bakar, Shahzad Abu; Mazhar, Mohammad; Zeller, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, [Cu4(C2F3O2)3(C4H10NO)3Cl(OH)]·C4H8O or [Cu4(TFA)3(dmae)3Cl(OH)]·THF (dmae is dimeth­yl­amino­ethano­late, TFA is trifluoro­acetate and THF is tetra­hydro­furan), has an approximate mol­ecular threefold symmetry with three equivalent {Cu(dmae)(TFA)} units bridging between a Cu—Cl and a hydroxide unit, with the latter two lying on the mol­ecular threefold axis. However, in the solid state, the tetranuclear complex has Ci symmetry. The Cu atom bonded to the Cl atom has a distorted tetra­hedral geometry. The other three Cu atoms have distorted square-pyramidal geometries with an NO4 coordination environment. The bonds within the CuNO3 base of the pyramid range from 1.953 (2) to 2.033 (3) Å, while the apical Cu—O bonds are significantly longer, ranging from 2.286 (2) to 2.377 (2) Å. The square-pyramidal geometries are augmented by weak inter­actions towards a sixth O atom, forming a highly distorted octa­hedral coordination environment [long Cu—O distances = 2.712 (2)–2.824 (2) Å]. The hydroxide group is hydrogen bonded to the tetra­hydro­furan solvent mol­ecule. One of the –CF3 groups shows minor disorder over two positions, with a refined occupancy ratio of 0.894 (4):0.106 (5). PMID:21587732

  14. Growth, spectroscopic and physicochemical properties of bis mercury ferric chloride tetra thiocyanate: A nonlinear optical crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, V.; Shihabuddeen Syed, A.; Jagannathan, K.; Rajarajan, K.

    2013-05-01

    Single crystal of bis mercury ferric chloride tetra thiocyanate [Hg2FeCl3(SCN)4; (MFCTC)] was grown from ethanol-water (3:1) mixed solvent using slow evaporation solvent technique (SEST) for the first time. The cell parameters of the grown crystal were confirmed by single crystal XRD. The coordination of transition metal ions with the SCN ligand is well-identified using FT-IR spectral analysis. The chemical composition of MFCTC was confirmed using CHNS elemental test. The ESR spectral profile of MFCTC was recorded from 298 K to 110 K, which strongly suggests the incorporation of Fe3+ ion and its environment with respect to SCN ligand. The HPLC chromatogram of MFCTC highlights the purity of the compound. The UV-Vis-NIR studies revealed the ultra violet cut-off wavelength of MFCTC in ethanol as 338 nm. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss of the sample were studied as a function of frequency and temperature. The TGA-DTA and DSC thermal analysis show that the sample is thermally stable up to 234.31 °C, which is comparatively far better than the thermal stability of Hg3CdCl2(SCN)6; (171.3 °C) and other metal-organic coordination complex crystals such as CdHg(SCN)4 (198.5 °C), Hg(N2H4CS)4Mn(SCN)4 (199.06 °C) and Hg(N2H4CS)4Zn(SCN)4 (185 °C). The SHG conversion efficiency of MFCTC is found to be higher than KDP.

  15. Improved antimicrobial therapy with cationic tetra- and octa-substituted phthalocyanines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelov, I.; Mantareva, V.; Kussovski, V.; Woehrle, D.; Borisova, E.; Avramov, L.

    2008-12-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) today is an innovative and not yet widespread light-drug initiated treatment that is based on the photoactive compound irradiated with proper light to produce oxygen species that are toxic to the pathogenic biological objects- bacteria, viruses, tumor cells. The obstacles that limited the efficacy of PDT concern to the selectivity and multi-drug resistance prolong time for cellular release and side effects of skin photosensitivity for commercial porphyrin originated photosensitizers (PS). Now there are very intensive investigations for introducing in practice a new, with a least side effects PSs for PDT. The usefulness of the more extended macromolecules structured with proper substituents refers not only to the improved optical properties like far-red and with intensive absorption and emission capacity, but mainly to the ability for selective delivery and adhesion to the target cells, such as bacteria or other pathogens. The present study focuses on the charge effect of photodynamic agent on the uptake capacity toward gram-negative bacteria cells and their further photoinactivation. The multi-drug resistant microorganism Aeromanas hydrophilla, which is causing diseases to fishes and humans, is treated. The new octa-cationic phthalocyanines are designed to compare PDT efficacy to the efficacy of tetra-substituted derivatives with the same functional peripheral substituents. The higher cellular accumulation to the bacteria cells as a result of the high number of positive charges of photosensitizer, leading to the better adhesion to the cellular membranes and improved photoinactivation of bacteria causing superficial and intraorgan infections. These results set a base of a rationale design of covalently octa-substituted phthalocyanines with positive charge for a successful treatment of microorganisms.

  16. Tri- and tetra-nuclear polypyridyl ruthenium(II) complexes as antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Gorle, Anil K; Feterl, Marshall; Warner, Jeffrey M; Wallace, Lynne; Keene, F Richard; Collins, J Grant

    2014-11-28

    A series of inert tri- and tetra-nuclear polypyridylruthenium(II) complexes that are linked by the bis[4(4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridyl)]-1,n-alkane ligand ("bb(n)" for n = 10, 12 and 16) have been synthesised and their potential as antimicrobial agents examined. Due to the modular nature of the synthesis of the oligonuclear complexes, it was possible to make both linear and non-linear tetranuclear ruthenium species. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the ruthenium(II) complexes were determined against four strains of bacteria--Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and Gram negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). In order to gain an understanding of the relative antimicrobial activities, the cellular uptake and water-octanol partition coefficients (log P) were determined for a selection of the ruthenium complexes. Although the trinuclear complexes were the most lipophilic based upon log P values and showed the greatest cellular uptake, the linear tetranuclear complexes were generally more active, with MIC values <1 μM against the Gram positive bacteria. Similarly, although the non-linear tetranuclear complexes were slightly more lipophilic and were taken up to a greater extent by the bacteria, they were consistently less active than their linear counterparts. Of particular note, the cellular accumulation of the oligonuclear ruthenium complexes was greater in the Gram negative strains compared to that in the Gram positive S. aureus and MRSA. The results demonstrate that the lower antimicrobial activity of polypyridylruthenium(II) complexes towards Gram negative bacteria, particularly P. aeruginosa, is not strongly correlated to the cellular accumulation but rather to a lower intrinsic ability to kill the Gram negative cells.

  17. Tetra-acetylajugasterone a new constituent of Vitex cienkowskii with vasorelaxant activity.

    PubMed

    Dongmo, Alain Bertrand; Nkeng-Efouet, Pepin Alango; Devkota, Krishna Prasad; Wegener, Jörg W; Sewald, Norbert; Wagner, Hildebert; Vierling, Wolfgang

    2014-05-15

    Tetra-acetylajugasterone C (TAAC) was found to be one of the naturally occurring compounds of the Cameroonian medicinal plant Vitex cienkowskii which is responsible for a vasorelaxant activity of an extract of this plant. The evaluation of the underlying mechanisms for the relaxing effect of TAAC was determined using aortic rings of rats and mice. TAAC produced a concentration-dependent relaxation in rat artery rings pre-contracted with 1μM noradrenaline (IC50: 8.40μM) or 60mM KCl (IC50: 36.30μM). The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor l-NAME (100μM) and the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor ODQ (10μM) significantly attenuated the vasodilatory effect of TAAC. TAAC also exerted a relaxing effect in aorta of wild-type mice (cGKI(+/+); IC50=13.04μM) but a weaker effect in aorta of mice lacking cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (cGKI(-/-); IC50=36.12μM). The involvement of calcium channels was studied in rings pre-incubated in calcium-free buffer and primed with 1μM noradrenaline prior to addition of calcium to elicit contraction. TAAC (100μM) completely inhibited the resulting calcium-induced vasoconstriction. The same concentration of TAAC showed a stronger effect on the tonic than on the phasic component of noradrenaline-induced contraction. This study shows that TAAC, a newly detected constituent of Vitex cienkowskii contributes to the relaxing effect of an extract of the plant. The effect is partially mediated by the involvement of the NO/cGMP pathway of the smooth muscle but additionally inhibition of calcium influx into the cell may play a role.

  18. Photophysical properties of catechol axially substituted tetra-α-(pentyloxy) titanium (IV) phthalocyanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xinxin; Lin, Ting; Lv, Huafei; Pan, Sujuan; Wu, Shijun; Zeng, Di; Jiang, Yufeng; Wang, Yuhua; Yang, Hongqin; Huang, Yide; Peng, Yiru

    2016-10-01

    Metal phthalocyanines (MPcs) have been found to be a promising photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancers and non-cancer diseases. Nevertheless, phthalocyanines are substantially limited in clinical applications owing to their poor solubility, aggregation and insufficient selectivity for cancer cells. Catechol is an important pharmaceutical intermediate, playing important in vivo biological activity in medicine. Using catechol (pyrocatechin) as axial ligands, utilizing of the pharmaceutical effect of catechins, could improve the bioavailability, and achieve synergistic therapeutic effect in PDT. To address these issues, a novel catechol axially substituted tetra-α-(pentyloxy) titanium(IV) (TiPc(OC5H11)4-Catechol) was synthesized. The structure of TiPc(OC5H11)4-Catechol was characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1HNMR and MS methods. The photophysical properties of TiPc(OC5H11)4 and TiPc(OC5H11)4-Catechol have been studied by UV/Vis and steady-state fluorescence spectra. After being axially substituted with catechin groups, no obviously intensity and position of maximum wavelength in Q-band of TiPc(OC5H11)4 and TiPc(OC5H11)4-Catechol were observed. The fluorescence intensity of TiPc(OC5H11)4 was stronger than that of TiPc(OC5H11)4-Catechol, but the fluorescence lifetime of TiPc(OC5H11)4-Catechol was longer than that of TiPc(OC5H11)4. TiPc(OC5H11)4-Catechol may be considered as a promising photosensitizer for PDT.

  19. Involvement of autophagy induction in penta-1,2,3,4,6-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose-induced senescence-like growth arrest in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yinhui; Yin, Shutao; Jiang, Cheng; Luo, Xiaohe; Guo, Xiao; Zhao, Chong; Fan, Lihong; Meng, Yubing; Lu, Junxuan; Song, Xinhua; Zhang, Xudong; Chen, Ni; Hu, Hongbo

    2014-02-01

    Growing evidence has demonstrated that autophagy plays important and paradoxical roles in carcinogenesis, while senescence is considered to be a crucial tumor-suppressor mechanism in cancer prevention and treatment. In the present study we demonstrated that both autophagy and senescence were induced in response to penta-1,2,3,4,6-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose (PGG), a chemopreventive polyphonolic compound, in multiple types of cancer cells. Analysis of these 2 events over the experimental time course indicated that autophagy and senescence occurred in parallel early in the process and dissociated later. The long-term culture study suggested that a subpopulation of senescent cells may have the capacity to reenter the cell cycle. Inhibition of autophagy by either a chemical inhibitor or RNA interference led to a significant reduction of PGG-induced senescence, followed by induction of apoptosis. These results suggested that autophagy promoted senescence induction by PGG and that PGG might exert its anticancer activity through autophagy-mediated senescence. For the first time, these findings uncovered the relationships among autophagy, senescence, and apoptosis induced by PGG. In addition, we identified that unfolded protein response signaling played a pivotal role in the autophagy-mediated senescence phenotype. Furthermore, our data showed that activation of MAPK8/9/10 (mitogen-activated protein kinase 8/9/10/c-Jun N-terminal kinases) was an essential upstream signal for PGG-induced autophagy. Finally, the key in vitro results were validated in vivo in a xenograft mouse model of human HepG2 liver cancer. Our findings provided novel insights into understanding the mechanisms and functions of PGG-induced autophagy and senescence in human cancer cells.

  20. Aryl phosphate esters within a major PentaBDE replacement product induce cardiotoxicity in developing zebrafish embryos: potential role of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    PubMed

    McGee, Sean P; Konstantinov, Alex; Stapleton, Heather M; Volz, David C

    2013-05-01

    Firemaster 550 (FM550) is an additive flame retardant formulation of brominated and aryl phosphate ester (APE) components introduced as a major replacement product for the commercial polybrominated diphenyl ether mixture (known as PentaBDE) used primarily in polyurethane foam. However, little is known about the potential effects of FM550-based ingredients during early vertebrate development. Therefore, we first screened the developmental toxicity of each FM550 component using zebrafish as an animal model. Based on these initial screening assays, we found that exposure to the brominated components as high as 10µM resulted in no significant effects on embryonic survival or development, whereas exposure to triphenyl phosphate (TPP) or mono-substituted isopropylated triaryl phosphate (mono-ITP)-two APEs comprising almost 50% of FM550-resulted in targeted effects on cardiac looping and function during embryogenesis. As these cardiac abnormalities resembled aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonist-induced phenotypes, we then exposed developing embryos to TPP or mono-ITP in the presence or absence of an AHR antagonist (CH223191) or AHR2-specific morpholino. Based on these studies, we found that CH223191 blocked heart malformations following exposure to mono-ITP but not TPP, whereas AHR2 knockdown failed to block the cardiotoxic effects of both components. Finally, using a cell-based human AHR reporter assay, we found that mono-ITP (but not TPP) exposure resulted in a significant increase in human AHR-driven luciferase activity at similar nominal concentrations as a potent reference AHR agonist (β-naphthoflavone). Overall, our findings suggest that two major APE components of FM550 induce severe cardiac abnormalities during early vertebrate development.

  1. Opposing Effects of Cucurbit[7]uril and 1,2,3,4,6-Penta-O-galloyl-β-d-glucopyranose on Amyloid β25-35 Assembly.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Natália E C; Do, Thanh D; Tro, Michael; LaPointe, Nichole E; Feinstein, Stuart C; Shea, Joan-Emma; Bowers, Michael T

    2016-02-17

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by extracellular deposits of amyloid β protein (Aβ) in the brain. The conversion of soluble monomers to amyloid Aβ fibrils is a complicated process and involves several transient oligomeric species, which are widely believed to be highly toxic and play a crucial role in the etiology of AD. The development of inhibitors to prevent formation of small and midsized oligomers is a promising strategy for AD treatment. In this work, we employ ion mobility spectrometry (IMS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to elucidate the structural modulation promoted by two potential inhibitors of Aβ oligomerization, cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]) and 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-d-glucopyranose (PGG), on early oligomer and fibril formation of the Aβ25-35 fragment. One and two CB[7] molecules bind to Aβ25-35 monomers and dimers, respectively, and suppress aggregation by remodeling early oligomer structures and inhibiting the formation of higher-order oligomers. On the other hand, nonselective binding was observed between PGG and Aβ25-35. The interactions between PGG and Aβ25-35, surprisingly, enhanced the formation of Aβ aggregates by promoting extended Aβ25-35 conformations in both homo- and hetero-oligomers. When both ligands were present, the inhibitory effect of CB[7] overrode the stimulatory effect of PGG on Aβ25-35 aggregation, suppressing the formation of large amyloid oligomers and eliminating the structural conversion from isotropic to β-rich topologies induced by PGG. Our results provide mechanistic insights into CB[7] and PGG action on Aβ oligomerization. They also demonstrate the power of the IMS technique to investigate mechanisms of multiple small-molecule agents on the amyloid formation process.

  2. Crystal structure of calpain-3 penta-EF-hand (PEF) domain - a homodimerized PEF family member with calcium bound at the fifth EF-hand

    SciTech Connect

    Partha, Sarathy K.; Ravulapalli, Ravikiran; Allingham, John S.; Campbell, Robert L.; Davies, Peter L.

    2014-08-21

    Calpains are Ca2+dependent intracellular cysteine proteases that cleave a wide range of protein substrates to help implement Ca2+ signaling in the cell. The major isoforms of this enzyme family, calpain-1 and calpain-2, are heterodimers of a large and a small subunit, with the main dimer interface being formed through their C-terminal penta-EF hand (PEF) domains. Calpain-3, or p94, is a skeletal muscle-specific isoform that is genetically linked to limb-girdle muscular dystrophy. Biophysical and modeling studies with the PEF domain of calpain-3 support the suggestion that full-length calpain-3 exists as a homodimer. Here, we report the crystallization of calpain-3's PEF domain and its crystal structure in the presence of Ca2+, which provides evidence for the homodimer architecture of calpain-3 and supports the molecular model that places a protease core at either end of the elongated dimer. Unlike other calpain PEF domain structures, the calpain-3 PEF domain contains a Ca2+ bound at the EF5-hand used for homodimer association. Three of the four Ca2+-binding EF-hands of the PEF domains are concentrated near the protease core, and have the potential to radically change the local charge within the dimer during Ca2+ signaling. Examination of the homodimer interface shows that there would be steric clashes if the calpain-3 large subunit were to try to pair with a calpain small subunit.

  3. Penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose ameliorates inflammation by inhibiting MyD88/NF-κB and MyD88/MAPK signalling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Se-Eun; Hyam, Supriya R; Jeong, Jin-Ju; Han, Myung Joo; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose The gallnut of Rhus chinensis MILL and its main constituent penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose (PGG) inhibited NF-κB activation in LPS-stimulated peritoneal and colonic macrophages. Here we have investigated PGG mechanisms underlying anti-inflammatory effects of PGG in vitro and in vivo. Experimental Approach Male C57BL/6 mice (18–22 g, 6 weeks old) were used to prepare peritoneal and colonic macrophages and for the induction of colitis by intrarectal administration of 2,3,4-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS). A range of inflammatory markers and transcription factors were evaluated by elisa, immunoblotting, flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Key Results Expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 or Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding to TLR-4 in LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages was not affected by PGG. However PGG inhibited binding of an anti-MyD88 antibody to peritoneal macrophages, but did not reduce binding of anti–IL-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK1) and IRAK4 antibodies to the macrophages with or without transfection with MyD88 siRNA. PGG potently reduced the activation of IRAK1, NF-κB, and MAPKs in LPS- or pepetidoglycan-stimulated peritoneal and colonic macrophages. PGG suppressed IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6 in LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages, while increasing expression of the anti-inflammatorycytokine IL-10. Oral administration of PGG inhibited colon shortening and myeloperoxidase activity in mice with TNBS-induced colitis, along with reducing NF-κB activation and IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels, whereas it increased IL-10. Conclusions and Implications PGG reduced activation of NF-κB and MAPK signalling pathways by directly interacting with the MyD88 adaptor protein. PGG may ameliorate inflammatory diseases such as colitis. PMID:23941302

  4. Crystal structure of cis-di­chlorido­(1,4,8,11-tetra­aza­cyclo­tetra­decane-κ4 N)chromium(III) (oxalato-κ2 O 1,O 2)(1,4,8,11-tetra­aza­cyclo­tetra­decane-κ4 N)chromium(III) bis(perchlorate) from synchrotron data

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Dohyun; Choi, Jong-Ha

    2016-01-01

    In the asymmetric unit of the title compound, [CrCl2(C10H24N4)][Cr(C2O4)(C10H24N4)](ClO4)2 (C10H24N4 = 1,4,8,11-tetra­aza­cyclo­tetra­decane, cyclam; C2O4 = oxalate, ox), there are two independent halves of the [CrCl2(cyclam)]+ and [Cr(ox)(cyclam)]+ cations, and one perchlorate anion. In the complex cations, which are completed by application of twofold rotation symmetry, the CrIII ions are coordinated by the four N atoms of a cyclam ligand, and by two chloride ions or one oxalate bidentate ligand in a cis arrangement, displaying an overall distorted octa­hedral coordination environment. The Cr—N(cyclam) bond lengths are in the range of 2.075 (5) to 2.096 (4) Å while the Cr—Cl and Cr—O(ox) bond lengths are 2.3358 (14) and 1.956 (4) Å, respectively. Both cyclam moieties adopt the cis-V conformation. The slightly distorted tetra­hedral ClO4 − anion remains outside the coordination sphere. The supra­molecular architecture includes N—H⋯O and N—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonding between cyclam NH donor groups, O atoms of the oxalate ligand or ClO4 − anions and one Cl ligand as acceptors, leading to a three-dimensional network structure. PMID:27746932

  5. endo-11-(Dibenzyl­amino)­tetra­cyclo­[5.4.0.03,10.05,9]undecane-8-one

    PubMed Central

    Karpoormath, Rajshekhar; Govender, Patrick; Govender, Thavendran; Kruger, Hendrik G.; Maguire, Glenn E. M.

    2011-01-01

    The structure of the title compound, C25H27NO, is a mono-ketone penta­cyclo­undecane (PCU) mol­ecule bearing a tertiary amine group. One of the methyl­ene groups in the PCU is disordered over two orientations with site-occupancy factors of 0.621 (7) and 0.379 (7). PMID:21522375

  6. Low-Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition of Silicon Dioxide Using Tetra-isocyanate-silane ( Si(NCO)4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Hitoshi; Sugiura, Osamu

    1994-10-01

    Deposition characteristics and step coverage of low-temperaturechemical vapor deposition silicon dioxide (CVD SiO2) using tetra-isocyanate-silane ( Si(NCO)4; TICS) and H2Ohave been investigated for application to interlayerdielectric films for advanced VLSI.The deposition rate was 13 nm/min at 100°C.The rate rapidly decreased with the increasing deposition temperature.It was determined by partial pressure rather than by flow rate of material gases.The step coverage showed a conformal profile.

  7. 4',4‴,7,7″-tetra-O-methylcupressuflavone inhibits seed germination of Lactuca sativa.

    PubMed

    DeForest, Jacob C; Du, Lin; Joyner, P Matthew

    2014-04-25

    Biflavonoids have been isolated from a wide variety of plant species, but little is known about their native biological functions. Here we report a possible ecological role for biflavonoids by describing the isolation of the biflavonoid 4',4‴,7,7″-tetra-O-methylcupressuflavone (1) from Araucaria columnaris and its inhibitory effect on seed germination. Compound 1 was isolated from needles of a single A. columnaris specimen and inhibited germination of Lactuca sativa seeds in a culture-dish assay; it was also detected in soil samples under the canopy where reduced germination was observed, but not in a location away from the canopy where germination was uninhibited.

  8. Fabricating photoswitches and field-effect transistors from self-assembled tetra(2-isopropyl-5-methyphenoxy) copper phthalocyanines nanowires.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chuanwei; Gao, Junshan; Xu, Guoyue; Zhang, Haiqian; Li, Yingying; Luo, Yan

    2009-05-01

    Tetra(2-isopropyl-5-methyphenoxy) copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) nanowires synthesized by a facile, low temperature self-assembled route, were incorporated into nano-devices: photoswitch and organic field-effect transistor. The devices were capable of switching on/off reversibly and fast by turning the 808 nm infrared light on/off. And the carrier mobility micro of CuPc nanowires incorporated in the devices was -0.02 cm2/V x s. The prelimenary results in this study show the potential application of metal phthalocyanine nanowires in low-cost fabrication of nano photo-electric devices.

  9. Bis(imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-1-ium) tetra­chlorido­cuprate(II) dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Mokaddem, Sonia; Boughzala, Habib

    2017-01-01

    In the title salt, (C7H7N2)2[CuCl4]·2H2O, the Cu2+ cation is coordinated by four Cl atoms and adopts a distorted tetra­hedral geometry. Two mol­ecules of imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine are protonated ensuring electrical neutrality. O—H⋯Cl and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the organic and the inorganic moieties, leading to a self-organized hydrated hybrid structure. PMID:28217341

  10. Microwave-assisted synthesis, characterization and spectral properties of non-peripherally tetra-substituted phthalocyanines containing eugenol moieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantar, Cihan; Şahin, Zarife Sibel; Büyükgüngör, Orhan; Şaşmaz, Selami

    2015-06-01

    The microwave-assisted synthesis and characterization of novel non-peripherally eugenol substituted metallophthalocyanines (M: Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II)) have been reported for the first time in this study. All the new compounds were characterized by a combination of FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and UV/vis spectroscopy techniques. The crystal structure of compound (1) was also determined by the single crystal diffraction technique. Newly synthesized eugenol substituted phthalocyanines have more redshift Q bands (about 17-18 nm) than previously reported eugenol substituted phthalocyanines. Zinc(II)phthalocyanine (1d) has an extra absorption band at 746 nm that calling "X band" at UV/vis spectrum.

  11. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, molecular modeling and antimicrobial activities of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) complexes containing the tetradentate aza Schiff base ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Sulekh; Ruchi

    2013-02-01

    Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II) complexes with a tetradentate macrocyclic ligand [1.2.5.6tetraoxo-3,4,7,8tetraaza-(1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8)tetrabenzene(L)] were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance measurements, mass, nmr, i.r., electronic and e.p.r. spectral studies. All the complexes are non electrolytes in nature and may be formulated as [M(L)X2] [where, M = Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and X = Cl-, CH3COO-]. On the basis of i.r., electronic and e.p.r. spectral studies a distorted octahedral geometry has been assigned for all complexes. The antimicrobial activities and LD50 values of the ligand and its complexes, as growth inhibiting agents, have been screened in vitro against two different species of bacteria and plant pathogenic fungi.

  12. Synthesis, antimicrobial activity, structural and spectral characterization and DFT calculations of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Pd(II) complexes of 4-amino-5-pyrimidinecarbonitrile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Tarek A.; Shaaban, Ibrahim A.; Farag, Rabei S.; Zoghaib, Wajdi M.; Afifi, Mahmoud S.

    2015-01-01

    Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Pd(II) complexes of 4-amino-5-pyrimidinecarbonitrile (APC) have been synthesized and characterized using elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility, mass spectrometry, infrared (4000-200 cm-1), UV-Visible (200-1100 nm), 1H NMR and ESR spectroscopy as well as TGA analysis. The molar conductance measurements in DMSO imply non-electrolytic complexes, formulated as [M(APC)2Cl2] where M = Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Pd(II). The infrared spectra of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes indicate a bidentate type of bonding for APC through the exocyclic amino and adjacent pyrimidine nitrogen as donors whereas APC coordinated to Pd(II) ion as a monodentated ligand via a pyrimidine nitrogen donor. The magnetic measurements and the electronic absorption spectra support distorted octahedral geometries for Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes however a square planar complex was favored for the Pd(II) complex (C2h skeleton symmetry). In addition, we carried out B3LYP and ω-B97XD geometry optimization at 6-31G(d) basis set except for Pd(II) where we implemented LanL2DZ/6-31G(d) combined basis set. The computational results favor all trans geometrical isomers where amino N, pyrimidine N and Cl are trans to each other (structure 1). Finally, APC and its divalent metal ion complexes were screened for their antibacterial activity, and the synthesized complexes were found to be more potent antimicrobial agents than APC against one or more microbial species.

  13. Synthesis, spectral characterization and thermal studies of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes with 2-amino benzoic acid- and 2-hydroxy benzoic acid thiophen-2-ylmethylene hydrazide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vinod P.; Singh, Pooja

    2013-03-01

    A series of metal complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) with 2-amino benzoic acid thiophen-2-ylmethylene hydrazide (Habth) and 2-hydroxy benzoic acid thiophen-2-ylmethylene hydrazide (Hhbth) have been synthesized. The complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility measurements, electronic, IR, NMR, ESR spectra and thermal studies (TGA and DTA). Molecular structure of the Habth ligand was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. Habth acts as a monobasic bidentate ligand in all its complexes bonding through a deprotonated Csbnd O- and lbond2 Cdbnd Nsbnd groups whereas, Hhbth acts as a monobasic bidentate in its Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes, bonding through a deprotonated Csbnd O- and lbond2 Cdbnd Nsbnd groups and as monobasic tridentate in Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes bonding through lbond2 Cdbnd O, lbond2 Cdbnd Nsbnd and deprotonated (Csbnd O)- groups with the metal ion. Electronic spectra suggest a square planar geometry for Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes of Habth and Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes of Hhbth. However, the Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes of Hhbth have octahedral geometry. The ESR spectra of Cu(II) complex of Hhbth in the solid state and in DMSO frozen solution show axial signals and suggest the presence of unpaired electron in d orbital of Cu(II). The Cu(II) complex of Habth in solid state shows isotropic signal, whereas, axial signal in DMSO frozen solution in the range of tetragonally distorted octahedral geometry due to interactions of DMSO molecules at axial positions. Thermal studies of some of the metal complexes show a multi-step decomposition pattern of bonded ligands in the complex.

  14. [N,N'-Bis(2,6-diisopropyl-phen-yl)methanimidamidato][η-1,4-bis-(tri-methyl-sil-yl)cyclo-octa-tetra-enyl](tetra-hydro-furan)-samarium(III) toluene monosolvate.

    PubMed

    Edelmann, Anja; Hrib, Cristian G; Hilfert, Liane; Blaurock, Steffen; Edelmann, Frank T

    2010-11-27

    The title compound, [Sm(C(25)H(35)N(2))(C(14)H(24)Si(2))(C(4)H(8)O)]·C(7)H(8), was prepared by treatment of anhydrous samarium trichloride with a 1:1 mixture of in situ-prepared Li(DippForm) [DippFormH = N,N'-bis-(2,6-diisopropyl-phen-yl)methanimidamide] and Li(2)(COT'') [COT'' = 1,4-bis-(trimethyl-sil-yl)cyclo-octa-tetra-enyl] in tetra-hydro-furan (THF). Despite the presence of two very bulky ligands (COT'' and DippForm), the mol-ecule still contains one coordinated THF ligand. The overall coordination geometry around the Sm(III) atom resembles a three-legged piano-stool with the COT'' ligand being η(8)-coordinated and the DippForm(-) anion acting as an N,N'-chelating ligand [Sm-N = 2.5555 (15) and 2.4699 (15) Å]. The asymmetric unit also contains a disordered mol-ecule of toluene, the refined ratio of the two components being 0.80 (4):0.20 (4).

  15. New type of single chain magnet: pseudo-one-dimensional chain of high-spin Co(II) exhibiting ferromagnetic intrachain interactions.

    PubMed

    Tangoulis, V; Lalia-Kantouri, M; Gdaniec, M; Papadopoulos, Ch; Miletic, V; Czapik, A

    2013-06-03

    Two new six-coordinated high-spin Co(II) complexes have been synthesized through the reactions of Co(II) salts with dipyridylamine (dpamH) and 5-nitro-salicylaldehyde (5-NO2-saloH) or 3-methoxy-salicylaldehyde (3-OCH3-saloH) under argon atmosphere: [Co(dpamH)2(5-NO2-salo)]NO3 (1) and [Co(dpamH)2(3-OCH3-salo)]NO3·1.3 EtOH·0.4H2O (2). According to the crystal packing of compound 1, two coordination cations are linked with two nitrate anions into a cyclic dimeric arrangement via N-H···O and C-H···O hydrogen bonds. In turn, these dimers are assembled into (100) layers through π-π stacking interactions between inversion-center related pyridine rings of the dpamH ligands. The crystal packing of compound 2 reveals a 1D assembly consisting solely from the coordination cations, which is formed by π-π stacking interactions between pyridine rings of one of the dpamH along the [010] and another 1D assembly of the coordination cations and nitrate anions through the N-H···O hydrogen-bonding interactions along the [001] direction. All complexes were magnetically characterized, and a new approximation method was used to fit the magnetic susceptibility data in the whole temperature range 2-300 K on the basis of an empirical expression which allows the treatment of each cobalt(II) ion in axial symmetry as an effective spin S(eff) = 1/2. In zero-field, dynamic magnetic susceptibility measurements show slow magnetic relaxation below 5.5 K for compound 2. The slow dynamics may originate from the motion of broad domain walls and is characterized by an Arrhenius law with a single energy barrier Δr/k(B) = 55(1) K for the [10-1488 Hz] frequency range. In order to reveal the importance of the crystal packing in the SCM behavior, a gentle heating process to 180 °C was carried out to remove the solvent molecules. The system, after heating, undergoes a major but not complete collapse of the network retaining to a small percentage its SCM character.

  16. Synthesis, spectral characterization and microbiological studies of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes with some novel 20-membered macrocyclic hydrazino-1,2,4-triazole Schiff bases.

    PubMed

    Avaji, Prakash Gouda; Patil, Sangamesh Amarappa

    2009-02-01

    A series of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes have been synthesized by template condensation of 2,6-diformyl-4-methylphenol and 3-substituted-4-amino-5-hydrazino-1,2,4-triazole with CoCl(2).6H(2)O, NiCl(2).6H(2)O and CuCl(2).2H(2)O chlorides in 2 + 2+2 molar ratio in ethanol. These complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, magnetic susceptibility, molar conductance, spectral (IR, Uv-Vis, ESR, (1)H NMR and FAB-mass), thermal, fluorescence and solid-state DC electrical conductivity studies. The observed molar conductance values indicate that they are non-electrolytes. Elemental analyses suggest the complexes to have 2:1 stoichiometry of the type [M(2)LX(2)] 2H(2)O (M = Co(II) & Cu(II), L = L(I)-L(IV) and X = Cl) and [Ni(2)LX(2)2H(2)O] 2H(2)O. The solid state DC electrical conductivity showed that the complexes were semiconducting. All the Schiff bases and their Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes were evaluated for their microbiological properties and some compounds showed promising results.

  17. Molecular structure and spectroscopic studies on novel complexes of coumarin-3-carboxylic acid with Ni(II), Co(II), Zn(II) and Mn(II) ions based on density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creaven, B. S.; Devereux, M.; Georgieva, I.; Karcz, D.; McCann, M.; Trendafilova, N.; Walsh, M.

    2011-12-01

    Novel Ni(II), Co(II), Zn(II) and Mn(II) complexes of coumarin-3-carboxylic acid (HCCA) were studied at experimental and theoretical levels. The complexes were characterised by elemental analyses, FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopy and by magnetic susceptibility measurements. The binding modes of the ligand and the spin states of the metal complexes were established by means of molecular modelling of the complexes studied and calculation of their IR, NMR and absorption spectra at DFT(TDDFT)/B3LYP level. The experimental and calculated data verified high spin Ni(II), Co(II) and Mn(II) complexes and a bidentate binding through the carboxylic oxygen atoms (CCA2). The model calculations predicted pseudo octahedral trans-[M(CCA2) 2(H 2O) 2] structures for the Zn(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) complexes and a binuclear [Mn 2(CCA2) 4(H 2O) 2] structure. Experimental and calculated 1H, 13C NMR, IR and UV-Vis data were used to distinguish the two possible bidentate binding modes (CCA1 and CCA2) as well as mononuclear and binuclear structures of the metal complexes.

  18. Theoretical and experimental studies on three new coordination complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II) with 2,4-dichloro-6-{(E)-[(5-chloro-2 sulfanylphenyl)imino]methyl}phenol Schiff base ligand.

    PubMed

    Kusmariya, Brajendra S; Mishra, A P

    2015-11-01

    Three mononuclear coordination complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II) have been synthesized from 2,4-dichloro-6-{(E)-[(5-chloro-2-sulfanylphenyl)imino]methyl}phenol ligand (H 2 L) obtained by simple condensation reaction of 3,5-dichloro-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde and 2-amino-4-chlorobenzenethiol and characterized by elemental analysis, spectral (FT-IR, electronic, and (1)H-NMR), molar conductance, thermal, SEM, PXRD, and fluorescence studies. The PXRD analysis and SEM-EDX micrographs show the crystalline nature of complexes. The domain size and the lattice strain of synthesized compounds have been determined according to Williamson-Hall plot. TG of the synthesized complexes illustrates the general decomposition pattern of the complexes. The ligand exhibits an interesting fluorescence property which is suppressed after complex formation. The Co(II) complex adopted a distorted octahedral configuration while Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes showed square planar geometry around metal center. The geometry optimization, HOMO-LUMO, molecular electrostatic potential map (MEP), and spin density of synthesized compounds have been performed by density functional theory (DFT) method using B3LYP/6-31G and B3LYP/LANL2DZ as basis set. Graphical abstract Three new coordination complexes of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) with 2,4-dichloro-6-{(E)-[(5-chloro-2 sulfanylphenyl)imino]methyl}phenol Schiff base ligand.

  19. Molecular structure and spectroscopic studies on novel complexes of coumarin-3-carboxylic acid with Ni(II), Co(II), Zn(II) and Mn(II) ions based on density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Creaven, B S; Devereux, M; Georgieva, I; Karcz, D; McCann, M; Trendafilova, N; Walsh, M

    2011-12-15

    Novel Ni(II), Co(II), Zn(II) and Mn(II) complexes of coumarin-3-carboxylic acid (HCCA) were studied at experimental and theoretical levels. The complexes were characterised by elemental analyses, FT-IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopy and by magnetic susceptibility measurements. The binding modes of the ligand and the spin states of the metal complexes were established by means of molecular modelling of the complexes studied and calculation of their IR, NMR and absorption spectra at DFT(TDDFT)/B3LYP level. The experimental and calculated data verified high spin Ni(II), Co(II) and Mn(II) complexes and a bidentate binding through the carboxylic oxygen atoms (CCA2). The model calculations predicted pseudo octahedral trans-[M(CCA2)(2)(H(2)O)(2)] structures for the Zn(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) complexes and a binuclear [Mn(2)(CCA2)(4)(H(2)O)(2)] structure. Experimental and calculated (1)H, (13)C NMR, IR and UV-Vis data were used to distinguish the two possible bidentate binding modes (CCA1 and CCA2) as well as mononuclear and binuclear structures of the metal complexes.

  20. Spectroscopic, magnetic and thermal studies of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes of 3-acetylcoumarin-isonicotinoylhydrazone and their antimicrobial and anti-tubercular activity evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunoor, Rekha S.; Patil, Basavaraj R.; Badiger, Dayananda S.; Vadavi, Ramesh S.; Gudasi, Kalagouda B.; Chandrashekhar, V. M.; Muchchandi, I. S.

    2010-11-01

    Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes with a new heterocyclic Schiff base derived by the condensation of isonicotinoylhydrazide and 3-acetylcoumarin have been synthesized. 1H, 13C and 2D HETCOR NMR analyses confirm the formation of title compound and existence of the same in two isomeric forms. The metal complexes were characterized on the basis of various spectroscopic techniques like electronic, EPR, IR, 1H and 13C NMR studies, elemental analysis, magnetic properties and thermogravimetric analysis, and also by the aid of molar conductivity measurements. It is found that the Schiff base behaves as a monobasic tridentate ligand coordinating in the imidol form with 1:1 metal to ligand stoichiometry. Trigonal bipyramidal geometry has been assigned for Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes, while tetrahedral for Co(II) and Zn(II) complexes. The compounds were subjected to antimicrobial and anti-tubercular activity screening using serial broth dilution method and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) is determined. Zn(II) complex has shown significant antifungal activity with an MIC of 6.25 μg/mL while Cu(II) complex is noticeable for antibacterial activity at the same concentration. Anti-TB activity of the ligand has enhanced on complexation with Co(II) and Ni(II) ions.

  1. Adaptive evolution of the lower jaw dentition in Mexican tetra (Astyanax mexicanus)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Mexican tetra (Astyanax mexicanus) has emerged as a good animal model to study the constructive and regressive changes associated with living in cave environments, as both the ancestral sighted morph and the cave dwelling morph are extant. The cave dwelling morphs lack eyes and body pigmentation, but have well developed oral and sensory systems that are essential for survival in dark environments. The cave forms and surface forms are interfertile and give rise to F1 hybrids progeny known as intermediates. In cavefish, degeneration of the lens is one of the key events leading to eye regression. We have previously shown that surgical lens removal in surface fish embryos has an effect on the craniofacial skeleton. Surprisingly, lens removal was also found to have an effect on the caudal teeth in the lower jaw. In order to understand this result, we analyzed the lower jaw and upper jaw dentitions of surface, cavefish and F1 hybrids of surface and cavefish and compared our findings with surface fish that underwent lens removal. We also investigated the upper jaw (premaxillae and maxillae) dentition in these fish. Results Our tooth analyses shows that cavefish have the highest numbers of teeth in the mandible and maxillae, surface forms have the lowest numbers and F1 hybrids are between these groups. These differences are not observed in the premaxillae. A wide diversity of cuspal morphology can also be found in these fish. Jaw size also differs amongst the groups, with the mandible exhibiting the greatest differences. Interestingly, tooth number in surgery fish is different only in the caudal region of the mandible; this is the region that is constrained in size in all morphs. Conclusion Our data provides the first detailed description of the jaw dentitions of two morphs of Astyanax mexicanus, as well as in F1 hybrids. Tooth number, patterning and cuspal morphology are enhanced in cavefish in all jaws. This is in contrast to the increase in tooth number

  2. Crystal structures of N(2),N(3),N(5),N(6)-tetra-kis-(pyridin-2-ylmeth-yl)pyrazine-2,3,5,6-tetra-carboxamide and N(2),N(3),N(5),N(6)-tetra-kis-(pyridin-4-ylmeth-yl)pyrazine-2,3,5,6-tetra-carboxamide.

    PubMed

    Cati, Dilovan S; Stoeckli-Evans, Helen

    2017-02-01

    The title compounds, C32H28N10O4· unknown solvent, (I), and C32H28N10O4, (II), are pyrazine-2,3,5,6-tetra-carboxamide derivatives. In (I), the substituents are (pyridin-2-ylmeth-yl)carboxamide, while in (II), the substituents are (pyridin-4-ylmeth-yl)carboxamide. Both compounds crystallize in the monoclinic space group P21/n, with Z' = 1 for (I), and Z' = 0.5 for (II). The whole mol-ecule of (II) is generated by inversion symmetry, the pyrazine ring being situated about a center of inversion. In (I), the four pyridine rings are inclined to the pyrazine ring by 83.9 (2), 82.16 (18), 82.73 (19) and 17.65 (19)°. This last dihedral angle involves a pyridine ring that is linked to the adjacent carboxamide O atom by an intra-molecular C-H⋯O hydrogen bond. In compound (II), the unique pyridine rings are inclined to the pyrazine ring by 33.3 (3) and 81.71 (10)°. There are two symmetrical intra-molecular C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds present in (II). In the crystal of (I), mol-ecules are linked by N-H⋯O and N-H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming layers parallel to (10-1). The layers are linked by C-H⋯O and C-H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional framework. In the crystal of (II), mol-ecules are linked by N-H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming chains propagating along the [010] direction. The chains are linked by a weaker N-H⋯N hydrogen bond, forming layers parallel to the (101) plane, which are in turn linked by C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional structure. In the crystal of compound (I), a region of disordered electron density was treated with the SQUEEZE routine in PLATON [Spek (2015 ▸). Acta Cryst. C71, 9-18]. Their contribution was not taken into account during refinement. In compound (II), one of the pyridine rings is positionally disordered, and the refined occupancy ratio for the disordered Car-Car-Npy atoms is 0.58 (3):0.42 (3).

  3. Hydrogen Permeability of a Polymer Based Composite Tank Material Under Tetra-Axial Strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, Eric H.

    2003-01-01

    of the microcracks in the material. This paper documents the results of hydrogen permeability testing on a Bismaleimide (BMI) based graphite fiber composite material under a variety of tetra-axial strain states.

  4. Crystal structures of N 2,N 3,N 5,N 6-tetra­kis­(pyridin-2-ylmeth­yl)pyrazine-2,3,5,6-tetra­carboxamide and N 2,N 3,N 5,N 6-tetra­kis­(pyridin-4-ylmeth­yl)pyrazine-2,3,5,6-tetra­carboxamide

    PubMed Central

    Cati, Dilovan S.; Stoeckli-Evans, Helen

    2017-01-01

    The title compounds, C32H28N10O4· unknown solvent, (I), and C32H28N10O4, (II), are pyrazine-2,3,5,6-tetra­carboxamide derivatives. In (I), the substituents are (pyridin-2-ylmeth­yl)carboxamide, while in (II), the substituents are (pyridin-4-ylmeth­yl)carboxamide. Both compounds crystallize in the monoclinic space group P21/n, with Z′ = 1 for (I), and Z′ = 0.5 for (II). The whole mol­ecule of (II) is generated by inversion symmetry, the pyrazine ring being situated about a center of inversion. In (I), the four pyridine rings are inclined to the pyrazine ring by 83.9 (2), 82.16 (18), 82.73 (19) and 17.65 (19)°. This last dihedral angle involves a pyridine ring that is linked to the adjacent carboxamide O atom by an intra­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bond. In compound (II), the unique pyridine rings are inclined to the pyrazine ring by 33.3 (3) and 81.71 (10)°. There are two symmetrical intra­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds present in (II). In the crystal of (I), mol­ecules are linked by N—H⋯O and N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming layers parallel to (10-1). The layers are linked by C—H⋯O and C—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional framework. In the crystal of (II), mol­ecules are linked by N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming chains propagating along the [010] direction. The chains are linked by a weaker N—H⋯N hydrogen bond, forming layers parallel to the (101) plane, which are in turn linked by C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional structure. In the crystal of compound (I), a region of disordered electron density was treated with the SQUEEZE routine in PLATON [Spek (2015 ▸). Acta Cryst. C71, 9–18]. Their contribution was not taken into account during refinement. In compound (II), one of the pyridine rings is positionally disordered, and the refined occupancy ratio for the disordered Car—Car—Npy atoms is 0.58 (3):0.42 (3). PMID:28217363

  5. The synthesis and characterization of nonperipherally tetra terminal alkynyl substituted phthalocyanines and glycoconjugation via the click reaction.

    PubMed

    Kanat, Zeliha; Dinçer, Hatice

    2014-06-21

    In order to obtain nonperipherally tetra terminal alkynyl substituted phthalocyanines (Pcs), new 3-pent-4-ynyloxy phthalonitrile (3) was prepared by the nucleophilic displacement reaction of 3-nitrophthalonitrile (1) and 4-pentyn-1-ol (2) and then cyclotetramerization was attained in the presence of zinc acetate, cobalt acetate, and/or DBU in n-pentanol without protection/deprotection. For the first time, the glycoconjugation of the nonperipherally tetra terminal alkynyl substituted zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) (6) can be easily achieved via the click reaction in a high yield. The electronic absorption spectrum of the glucopyranosyl substituted ZnPc (10) derivative showed a red-shifted Q band at 751 nm in dichloromethane due to the protonation of the meso nitrogens of the Pc macrocycle. Deacylation yielded ZnPc (11) bearing glucose substituents at nonperipheral positions with an improved water-solubility and non-aggregation in DMSO. The chemical structures of the new compounds were characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, FT-IR, UV-Vis, mass spectrometry and elemental analysis. Moreover, the phthalonitrile compound was characterized using X-ray.

  6. A study on chemical composition and detection of chemical adulteration in tetra pack milk samples commercially available in Multan.

    PubMed

    Awan, Adeela; Naseer, Misbah; Iqbal, Aasfa; Ali, Muhammad; Iqbal, Rehana; Iqbal, Furhan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the chemical composition of 8 tetra pack milk samples, Olpers (S1), Haleeb (S2), Good milk (S3), Everyday (S4), Milk Pack (S5), Dairy Queen (S6), Dairy Umang (S7), Nurpur (S8) available in local markets and to detect the presence of various chemical adulterants in tetra pack milk samples in Southern Punjab (Pakistan). Density, pH, solid not fat, total solids, lactometer reading, specific gravity and fat contents were analyzed to determine the chemical composition of milk samples. Our results revealed that all the studied parameters had statistically non significant differences (P>0.05) except total fat in milk samples which was significantly different (P=0.03) among the 8 studied milk samples. Presence of a number of chemical adulterants, formalin, cane sugar, starch, glucose, ammonium sulphate, salt, pulverized soap, detergents, skim milk powder, benzoic acid, salicylic acid, borax, boric acid and alkalinity were also detected in milk samples following standard procedures. Results indicated that formalin, cane sugar, glucose, alkalinity and benzoic acid were present in all samples while salt test was positive only for Olper milk. All other studied adulterants were not detected in 8 milk samples under study. % fat was the only significantly different feature among the studied milk quality parameters with S8 containing lowest while S5 having the maximum % fat.

  7. Sensitivity of photoelectron diffraction to conformational changes of adsorbed molecules: Tetra-tert-butyl-azobenzene/Au(111)

    PubMed Central

    Schuler, A.; Greif, M.; Seitsonen, A. P.; Mette, G.; Castiglioni, L.; Osterwalder, J.; Hengsberger, M.

    2017-01-01

    Electron diffraction is a standard tool to investigate the atomic structure of surfaces, interfaces, and adsorbate systems. In particular, photoelectron diffraction is a promising candidate for real-time studies of structural dynamics combining the ultimate time resolution of optical pulses and the high scattering cross-sections for electrons. In view of future time-resolved experiments from molecular layers, we studied the sensitivity of photoelectron diffraction to conformational changes of only a small fraction of molecules in a monolayer adsorbed on a metallic substrate. 3,3′,5,5′-tetra-tert-butyl-azobenzene served as test case. This molecule can be switched between two isomers, trans and cis, by absorption of ultraviolet light. X-ray photoelectron diffraction patterns were recorded from tetra-tert-butyl-azobenzene/Au(111) in thermal equilibrium at room temperature and compared to patterns taken in the photostationary state obtained by exposing the surface to radiation from a high-intensity helium discharge lamp. Difference patterns were simulated by means of multiple-scattering calculations, which allowed us to determine the fraction of molecules that underwent isomerization. PMID:28217715

  8. Sensitivity of photoelectron diffraction to conformational changes of adsorbed molecules: Tetra-tert-butyl-azobenzene/Au(111).

    PubMed

    Schuler, A; Greif, M; Seitsonen, A P; Mette, G; Castiglioni, L; Osterwalder, J; Hengsberger, M

    2017-01-01

    Electron diffraction is a standard tool to investigate the atomic structure of surfaces, interfaces, and adsorbate systems. In particular, photoelectron diffraction is a promising candidate for real-time studies of structural dynamics combining the ultimate time resolution of optical pulses and the high scattering cross-sections for electrons. In view of future time-resolved experiments from molecular layers, we studied the sensitivity of photoelectron diffraction to conformational changes of only a small fraction of molecules in a monolayer adsorbed on a metallic substrate. 3,3',5,5'-tetra-tert-butyl-azobenzene served as test case. This molecule can be switched between two isomers, trans and cis, by absorption of ultraviolet light. X-ray photoelectron diffraction patterns were recorded from tetra-tert-butyl-azobenzene/Au(111) in thermal equilibrium at room temperature and compared to patterns taken in the photostationary state obtained by exposing the surface to radiation from a high-intensity helium discharge lamp. Difference patterns were simulated by means of multiple-scattering calculations, which allowed us to determine the fraction of molecules that underwent isomerization.

  9. Electrochemical properties of poly(tetra ethylene glycol diacrylate)-based gel electrolytes for lithium-ion polymer batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Soo; Shin, Jung-Han; Moon, Seong-In; Yun, Mun-Soo

    The precursor for a gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) consisted of tetra (ethylene glycol) diacrylate monomer, benzoyl peroxide, and 1.1 M LiPF 6/EC:PC:EMC:DEC (30:20:30:20 wt.%). LiCoO 2/graphite cells were prepared and their electrochemical properties were evaluated at various current densities and temperatures. The viscosity of the precursor containing 5 vol.% tetra (ethylene glycol) diacrylate monomer was around 4.6 mPa s. The ionic conductivity of the gel polymer electrolyte at 20 °C was around 6.34×10 -3 S cm -1. The gel polymer electrolyte had good electrochemical stability up to 4.5 V versus Li/Li +. The capacity of the cell at 2.0 C rate was 74% of the discharge capacity at 0.2 C rate. The capacity of the cell at temperature of -10 °C was 81% of the discharge capacity at temperature of 20 °C. Discharge capacity of the cell with gel polymer electrolyte was stable with charge-discharge cycling.

  10. The visible light degradation activity and the photocatalytic mechanism of tetra(4-carboxyphenyl) porphyrin sensitized TiO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Huigang; Zhou, Dongmei; Wu, Zhangzhu; Wan, Junmin; Zheng, Xuming; Yu, Lihong; Phillips, David Lee

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Tetra(4-carboxyphenyl) porphyrin were chemically sensitized on TiO{sub 2}. • S2–S0 fluorescence intensity is enhanced and lifetime prolonged noticeably by TiO{sub 2}. • The TCPP-TiO{sub 2} exhibits better photoactivity under visible light than that of TiO{sub 2}. • The electronic relaxation dynamics is presented, catalytic mechanism is discussed. • Adsorption and photo degradation of MB were systematically investigated. - Abstract: Tetra(4-carboxyphenyl) porphyrin(TCPP) were chemically sensitized on TiO{sub 2} to act as visible light antenna and to modify the photoresponse properties of TiO{sub 2} particles, their properties of photo-generated holes and electrons were studied by transient absorption spectroscopes. The time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) technique revealed that the S2–S0 fluorescence intensity of TCPP is enhanced noticeably by TiO{sub 2}, and the lifetime prolonged. Adsorption and photo degradation of methylene blue (MB) over TCPP-TiO{sub 2} were systematically investigated. Moreover the overall picture of electronic relaxation dynamics for TCPP-TiO{sub 2} is presented, and the detailed short-time dynamics for visible-light induced catalytic mechanism was discussed. The development of the porphyrin-based photocatalyst provides an alternative approach in harnessing solar visible light and show promising prospect for the treatment of dye pollutants from wastewaters in future industrial application.

  11. 16-Methyl-11-(2-methyl-phen-yl)-14-phenyl-8,12-dioxa-14,15-di-aza-tetra-cyclo-[8.7.0.0(2,7).0(13,17)]hepta-deca-2(7),3,5,13(17),15-penta-ene-10-carbo-nitrile.

    PubMed

    Kanchanadevi, Jeevanandam; Anbalagan, Gopalakrishnan; Kannan, Damodharan; Bakthadoss, Manickam; Manivannan, Vadivelu

    2013-11-06

    In the title compound, C28H23N3O2, the pyrazole ring makes a dihedral angle of 16.90 (6)° with the phenyl ring to which it is attached. Both di-hydro-pyran rings exhibit half-chair conformations. Intramolecular C-H⋯O interactions generate S(6) and S(8) ring motifs. In the crystal, weak C-H⋯O and C-H⋯π interactions occur.

  12. Crystal structure of methyl 6-meth-oxy-11-(4-meth-oxy-phen-yl)-16-methyl-14-phenyl-8,12-dioxa-14,15-di-aza-tetra-cyclo-[8.7.0.0(2,7).0(13,17)]hepta-deca-2(7),3,5,13(17),15-penta-ene-10-carboxyl-ate.

    PubMed

    Vinayagam, V; Bakthadoss, M; Murugavel, S; Manikandan, N

    2014-09-01

    In the title compound, C30H28N2O6, the pyran ring adopts a slightly distorted half-chair conformation and the pyrone ring adopts an envelope conformation, with the C atom bearing the carboxyl-ate group as the flap. The pyrazole ring [maximum deviation = 0.002 (2) Å] forms a dihedral angle of 13.2 (1)° with the attached benzene ring. The near-planar atoms of the pyran ring and the pyrazole ring are close to coplanar, the dihedral angles between their mean planes being 6.4 (1)°. The dihedral angle between the pyrone ring and the benzene ring of the chromene unit is 10.7 (1)°. The mol-ecular conformation is stabilized by an intra-molecular C-H⋯O hydrogen bond, which generates an S(6) ring motif. In the crystal, C-H⋯O inter-actions generate supra-molecular chains propagating in [100] and these are connected into double layers that stack along the c-axis direction by weak π-π inter-actions between pyrazole rings [centroid-centroid distance = 3.801 (1) Å].

  13. Methyl 9-hy-droxy-15-methyl-2-oxo-11-(pyren-1-yl)-10-oxa-15-aza-tetra-cyclo-[7.6.0.0(1,12).0(3,8)]penta-deca-3(8),4,6-triene-12-carboxyl-ate.

    PubMed

    Sharmila, P; Jagadeesan, G; Raju, Rajesh; Raghavachary, Raghunathan; Aravindhan, S

    2013-01-01

    In the title compound, C32H25NO5, the furan and pyrrole rings each adopt an envelope conformation, the respective flap atoms being the C atom bearing the pyrene substituent and the CH2 atom adjacent to the N atom. The mol-ecular conformation is stabilized by an intra-molecular O-H⋯N hydrogen bond. In the crystal, C-H⋯O contacts link the mol-ecules, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to (001).

  14. 2,25-Dioxo-27,28-diphenyl-30-oxa-29-thia-3,10,17,24-tetra­aza­penta­cyclo­[24.2.1.112,15.04,9.018,23]triaconta-5,7,9(4),10,12,14,16,18,20,22,26,28-dodeca­ene chloro­form disolvate

    PubMed Central

    Askerov, Rizvan K.; Roznyatovsky, Vladimir V.; Katayev, Evgeny A.; Maharramov, Abel M.; Khrustalev, Victor N.

    2010-01-01

    The macrocycle of the title compound, C36H24N4O3S·2CHCl3, contains a rigid framework with the nitro­gen and oxygen heteroatoms pointing in towards the center of the macrocyclic cavity. The macrocycle is essentially planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.027 Å) except for the thio­phene ring. The dihedral angle between the thio­phene ring plane and the mean plane of the central macrocyclic core including all atoms except sulfur is 21.6 (1)°. Four intra­molecular hydrogen bonds occur: two are between the amide hydrogen atoms and the Schiff base nitro­gen atoms, while the others are between the amide hydrogen atoms and the sulfur atom of the thio­phene. The two solvate chloro­form mol­ecules are bound to the carbonyl oxygen atoms of the ligand by weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonding. In addition, the structure reveals inter­molecular Cl⋯Cl close contacts [3.308 (2), 3.404 (2) and 3.280 (2) Å] between the chloro­form solvate mol­ecules. In the crystal, the macrocycles form layers parallel to (101), with an inter­layer distance of 3.362 (3) Å. This short distance is determined by the stacking inter­actions between the amide carbonyl and imine fragments of neighboring ligands. PMID:21580409

  15. Methyl 9-(4-meth­oxy­phen­yl)-19-methyl-3,12-di­aza­penta­cyclo­[10.7.0.02,10.03,8.013,18]nona­deca-1(19),13(18),14,16-tetra­ene-10-carboxyl­ate

    PubMed Central

    Selvanayagam, S.; Sridhar, B.; Kathiravan, S.; Raghunathan, R.

    2013-01-01

    The title ester, C27H30N2O3, crystallizes with two independent mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit whose geometrical features are similar. In each mol­ecule, the pyrrolidine ring adopts an envelope conformation, with the fused C atom shared with the piperidine ring as the flap, and the piperidine ring adopts a chair conformation. In the crystal, C—H⋯π inter­actions link the inversion-related molecules and form a dimeric arrangement in the unit cell. PMID:23723920

  16. Crystal structure of a Cu(II) complex with a bridging ligand: poly[[penta-kis-[μ2-1,1'-(butane-1,4-di-yl)bis-(1H-imidazole)-κ(2) N (3):N (3')]dicopper(II)] tetranitrate tetra-hydrate].

    PubMed

    Wu, Fayuan; Shang, Mengxiang; Li, Shihua; Zhao, Yu

    2014-12-01

    A novel two-dimensional→three-dimensional Cu(II) coordination polymer, {[Cu2(C10H14N4)5](NO3)4·4H2O} n , based on the 1,1'-(butane-1,4-di-yl)bis-(1H-imidazole) (biim) ligand and containing one crystallographically unique Cu(II) atom, has been synthesized under hydro-thermal conditions. The Cu(II) atom is coordinated by five N atoms from biim ligands, one of which has crystallographically imposed inversion symmetry, giving rise to a slightly distorted CuN5 square-pyramidal geometry. The Cu(II) cations are linked by biim ligands to give a 4(4) layer; the layers are further bridged by biim ligands, generating a double sheet with a thickness of 14.61 Å. The sheet features rhombic Cu4(biim)4 windows built up from four Cu(II) centers and four biim ligands with dimensions of 14.11 × 14.07 Å(2). Each window of a layer is penetrated directly by the biim ligand of the adjacent net, giving a two-dimensional→three-dimensional entangled framework.

  17. 17-(5-Ethyl-6-methyl-heptan-2-yl)-10,13-dimethyl-2,3,4,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17-tetra-deca-hydro-1H-cyclo-penta[a]phenanthrene-3,7-diol from Chisocheton tomentosus (Meliaceae).

    PubMed

    Najmuldeen, Ibrahim A; Hadi, Abdul Hamid Abdul; Awang, Khalijah; Mohamad, Khalit; Ng, Seik Weng

    2008-10-22

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C(29)H(50)O(2), contains two mol-ecules; one mol-ecule is linked to the other by two O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, whereas only one of the hydr-oxy groups of the second mol-ecule is involved in hydrogen bonding. This gives rise to a chain that runs along the a axis of the monoclinic unit cell.

  18. Crystal structure of 22,24,25-trimethyl-8,11,14-trioxa-25-aza­tetra­cyclo­[19.3.1.02,7.015,20]penta­cosa-2,4,6,15(20),16,18-hexaen-23-one

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Van Tuyen; Truong, Hong Hieu; Le, Tuan Anh; Soldatenkov, Anatoly T.; Thi, Tuyet Anh Dang; Tran, Thi Thanh Van; Esina, Natalia Ya.; Khrustalev, Victor N.

    2017-01-01

    The title compound, C24H29NO4, is the product of a Petrenko–Kritchenko condensation of 1,5-bis­(2-formyl­phen­oxy)-3-oxa­pentane, pentan-3-one and methyl­ammonium acetate in ethanol. The mol­ecule has mirror symmetry. The aza-14-crown-3 ether ring adopts a bowl conformation stabilized by a weak intra­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bond. The conformation of the C—O—C—C—O—C—C—O—C polyether chain is t–g+–t–t–g−–t (t = trans, 180°; g = gauche, ±60°). The dihedral angle between the benzene rings fused to the aza-14-crown-4-ether moiety is 72.68 (4)°. The piperidinone ring adopts a chair conformation. The nitro­gen atom has a trigonal–pyramidal geometry, the sum of the bond angles being 335.9°. In the crystal, the mol­ecules are linked by weak C—H⋯O inter­actions, forming zigzag chains propagating along the [100] direction. PMID:28217324

  19. DNA cleavage, antimicrobial, spectroscopic and fluorescence studies of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes with SNO donor coumarin Schiff bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Sangamesh A.; Naik, Vinod H.; Kulkarni, Ajaykumar D.; Badami, Prema S.

    2010-01-01

    A series of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes of the type ML 2 have been synthesized with Schiff bases derived from methylthiosemicarbazone and 5-formyl-6-hydroxy coumarin/8-formyl-7-Hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin. The complexes are insoluble in common organic solvents but soluble in DMF and DMSO. The measured molar conductance values in DMF indicate that, the complexes are non-electrolytes in nature. In view of analytical, spectral (IR, UV-vis, ESR, FAB-mass and fluorescence), magnetic and thermal studies, it has been concluded that, all the metal complexes possess octahedral geometry in which ligand is coordinated to metal ion through azomethine nitrogen, thione sulphur and phenolic oxygen atom via deprotonation. The redox behavior of the metal complexes was investigated by using cyclic voltammetry. The Schiff bases and their complexes have been screened for their antibacterial ( Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi) and antifungal activities ( Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Cladosporium) by Minimum Inhibitory Concentration method. The DNA cleavage is studied by agarose gel electrophoresis method.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of Cu(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes of a number of sulfadrug azodyes and their application for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    El-Baradie, K; El-Sharkawy, R; El-Ghamry, H; Sakai, K

    2014-01-01

    The azodye ligand (HL(1)) was synthesized from the coupling of sulfaguanidine diazonium salt with 2,4-dihydroxy-benzaldehyde while the two ligands, HL(2) and HL(3), were prepared by the coupling of sulfadiazine diazonium salt with salicylaldehyde (HL(2)) and 2,4-dihydroxy-benzaldehyde (HL(3)). The prepared ligands were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, (1)H NMR and mass spectra. Cu(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes of the prepared ligands have been synthesized and characterized by various spectroscopic techniques like IR, UV-Visible as well as magnetic and thermal (TG and DTA) measurements. It was found that all the ligands behave as a monobasic bidentate which coordinated to the metal center through the azo nitrogen and α-hydroxy oxygen atoms in the case of HL(1) and HL(3). HL(2) coordinated to the metal center through sulfonamide oxygen and pyrimidine nitrogen. The applications of the prepared complexes in the oxidative degradation of indigo carmine dye exhibited good catalytic activity in the presence of H2O2 as an oxidant. The reactions followed first-order kinetics and the rate constants were determined. The degradation reaction involved the catalytic action of the azo-dye complexes toward H2O2 decomposition, which can lead to the generation of HO radicals as a highly efficient oxidant attacking the target dye. The detailed kinetic studies and the mechanism of these catalytic reactions are under consideration in our group.

  1. Synthesis, characterization and quantum chemical ab initio calculations of new dimeric aminocyclodiphosph(V)azane and its Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Alaghaz, Abdel-Nasser M A; Al-Sehemi, Abdullah G; El-Gogary, Tarek M

    2012-09-01

    The complexes of type [M(2)LCl(2)] in which M=Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions and L are 1,3-o-pyridyl-2,4-dioxo-2',4'-bis(3-benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl-2-iminothiophene) cyclodiphosph(V)azane, were prepared and their structures were characterized by different physical techniques (IR, UV-Vis, (1)H NMR, (31)P NMR, mass, TGA, DTA, XRD, SEM, magnetic moment and electrical conductance measurements). Ab initio calculations at the level of DFT B3LYP/6-31G(d) were utilized to find the optimum geometry of the ligand. Spectral characterization of the ligand was simulated using DT-DFT method. Infrared spectra of the complexes indicate deprotonation and coordination of the imine NH. It also confirms that nitrogen atoms of the pyridine group and thiazole group contribute to the complexation. NBO natural charges were computed and discussed in the light of coordination centers. Electronic spectra and magnetic susceptibility measurements as well as quantum chemical calculations reveal square planar geometry for Cu(II) and Ni(II) complexes and tetrahedral geometry for Co(II) complex. The elemental analyses and mass spectral data have justified the M(2)LCl(2) composition of complexes.

  2. Molecular systematics and phylogeography of Cebus capucinus (Cebidae, Primates) in Colombia and Costa Rica by means of the mitochondrial COII gene.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Garcia, Manuel; Castillo, Maria Ignacia; Ledezma, Andrea; Leguizamon, Norberto; Sánchez, Ronald; Chinchilla, Misael; Gutierrez-Espeleta, Gustavo A

    2012-04-01

    We propose the first molecular systematic hypothesis for the origin and evolution of Cebus capucinus based on an analysis of 710 base pairs (bp) of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) mitochondrial gene in 121 C. capucinus specimens sampled in the wild. The animals came from the borders of Guatemala and Belize, Costa Rica, and eight different departments of Colombia (Antioquia, Chocó, Sucre, Bolivar, Córdoba, Magdalena, Cauca, and Valle del Cauca). Three different and significant haplotype lineages were found in Colombia living sympatrically in the same departments. They all presented high levels of gene diversity but the third Colombian gene pool was determined likely to be the most ancestral lineage. The second Colombian mitochondrial (mt) haplogroup is likely the source of origin of the unique Central America mt haplogroup that was detected. Our molecular population genetics data do not agree with the existence of two well-defined subspecies in Central America (limitaneus and imitator). This Central America mt haplogroup showed significantly less genetic diversity than the Colombian mt haplogroups. All the C. capucinus analyzed showed evidence of historical population expansions. The temporal splits among these four C. capucinus lineages were related to the completion of the Panamanian land bridge as well as to climatic changes during the Quaternary Period.

  3. Coligand-regulated assembly, fluorescence, and magnetic properties of Co(II) and Cd(II) complexes with a non-coplanar dicarboxylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Ling-Yun; Liu, Guang-Zhen; Ma, Lu-Fang; Wang, Li-Ya

    2013-10-01

    A non-coplanar dicarboxylate ndca (H2ndca=5-norbornene-2,3-dicarboxylic acid), combining with various dipyridyl-typed tectons, constructs six Cd(II)/Co(II) coordination polymers under hydrothermal conditions, namely [Co(ndca)(H2O)]n (1), {[Co(ndca)(bpe)(H2O)]·H2O}n (2), [Co(ndca)(bpa)0.5(H2O)]n (3), [Cd(ndca)(bpe)(H2O)]n (4), {[Cd(ndca)(bpa)(H2O)]·0.5H2O}n (5), and {[Cd(ndca)(bpp) (H2O)]·H2O}n (6) (bpe=1,2-di(4-pyridyl)ethylene, bpa=1,2-bi(4-pyridyl)ethane, and bpp=1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane). All these compounds contain various metal(II)-carboxylate motifs, including carboxylate binuclear (2, 4, 5), carboxylate chain (1, 6) and carboxylate layer (3), which are further extended by dipyridyl-typed coligands to afford a vast diversity of the structures with 2D pyknotic layers (1, 6), 2D open layer (5), 2D→3D interpenetrated networks (2,4), and 3D pillared-layer framework (3), respectively. In addition, fluorescent spectra of Cd(II) complexes and magnetic properties of Co(II) complexes are also given.

  4. MtDNA COI-COII marker and drone congregation area: an efficient method to establish and monitor honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) conservation centres.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Bénédicte; Alburaki, Mohamed; Legout, Hélène; Moulin, Sibyle; Mougel, Florence; Garnery, Lionel

    2015-05-01

    Honeybee subspecies have been affected by human activities in Europe over the past few decades. One such example is the importation of nonlocal subspecies of bees which has had an adverse impact on the geographical repartition and subsequently on the genetic diversity of the black honeybee Apis mellifera mellifera. To restore the original diversity of this local honeybee subspecies, different conservation centres were set up in Europe. In this study, we established a black honeybee conservation centre Conservatoire de l'Abeille Noire d'Ile de France (CANIF) in the region of Ile-de-France, France. CANIF's honeybee colonies were intensively studied over a 3-year period. This study included a drone congregation area (DCA) located in the conservation centre. MtDNA COI-COII marker was used to evaluate the genetic diversity of CANIF's honeybee populations and the drones found and collected from the DCA. The same marker (mtDNA) was used to estimate the interactions and the haplotype frequency between CANIF's honeybee populations and 10 surrounding honeybee apiaries located outside of the CANIF. Our results indicate that the colonies of the conservation centre and the drones of the DCA show similar stable profiles compared to the surrounding populations with lower level of introgression. The mtDNA marker used on both DCA and colonies of the conservation centre seems to be an efficient approach to monitor and maintain the genetic diversity of the protected honeybee populations.

  5. Application of dahlia-like molybdenum disulfide nanosheets for solid phase extraction of Co(II) in vegetable and water samples.

    PubMed

    Aghagoli, Mohammad Javad; Hossein Beyki, Mostafa; Shemirani, Farzaneh

    2017-05-15

    Recently, molybdenum disulfide has been attracted considerable attention due to its unique three layered structure. Adsorption sites with abundant electron density on edges and surfaces of MoS2 can adsorb different metal ions with no need to ligand and functionalization. In this study, dahlia-like MoS2 nanosheets were prepared by a simple hydrothermal method and characterized using different tools such as FESEM, TEM, EDX, XRD, DLS and zeta potential measurements. Then, they were applied for solid phase extraction of Co(II) as an example of heavy metals. Different factors (the pH, adsorbent amount, contact time, type of eluent, matrix and reusability) affecting the extraction process were studied. Under optimum conditions, the relative standard deviation, adsorption capacity and limit of detection were 2.3%, 80.0mgg(-1) and 0.31μgL(-1), respectively. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analyzing the standard reference material (SRM 1640a) and spiked real samples.

  6. Suppressing of slow magnetic relaxation in tetracoordinate Co(II) field-induced single-molecule magnet in hybrid material with ferromagnetic barium ferrite

    PubMed Central

    Nemec, Ivan; Herchel, Radovan; Trávníček, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    The novel field-induced single-molecule magnet based on a tetracoordinate mononuclear heteroleptic Co(II) complex involving two heterocyclic benzimidazole (bzi) and two thiocyanido ligands, [Co(bzi)2(NSC)2], (CoL4), was prepared and thoroughly characterized. The analysis of AC susceptibility data resulted in the spin reversal energy barrier U = 14.7 cm−1, which is in good agreement with theoretical prediction, Utheor. = 20.2 cm−1, based on axial zero-field splitting parameter D = −10.1 cm−1 fitted from DC magnetic data. Furthermore, mutual interactions between CoL4 and ferromagnetic barium ferrite BaFe12O19 (BaFeO) in hybrid materials resulted in suppressing of slow relaxation of magnetization in CoL4 for 1:2, 1:1 and 2:1 mass ratios of CoL4 and BaFeO despite the lack of strong magnetic interactions between two magnetic phases. PMID:26039085

  7. Synthesis, characterization, antibacterial activities and carbonic anhydrase enzyme inhibitor effects of new arylsulfonylhydrazone and their Ni(II), Co(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Ummühan Ozmen; Arslan, Fatma; Hamurcu, Fatma

    2010-01-01

    Ethane sulfonic acide hydrazide (esh: CH(3)CH(2)SO(2)NHNH(2)) derivatives as 5-methylsalicyl-aldehydeethanesulfonylhydrazone (5msalesh), 5-methyl-2-hydroxyacetophenoneethane sulfonylhydrazone (5mafesh) and their Ni(II), Co(II) complexes have been synthesized for the first time. The structure of these compounds has been investigated by elemental analysis, FT-IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, LC/MS, UV-vis spectrophotometric method, magnetic susceptibility, thermal studies and conductivity measurements. The antibacterial activities of synthesized compounds were studied against Gram positive bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus magaterium and Gram negative bacteria; Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli by using the microdilution broth method. The biological activity screening showed that ligands have more activity than complexes against the tested bacteria. The inhibition activities of these compounds on carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) have been investigated by comparing IC(50) and K(i) values and it has been found that 5msalesh and its complexes have more enzyme inhibition efficiency than other compounds.

  8. Synthesis, characterization, antibacterial activities and carbonic anhydrase enzyme inhibitor effects of new arylsulfonylhydrazone and their Ni(II), Co(II) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özdemir, Ümmühan Özmen; Arslan, Fatma; Hamurcu, Fatma

    2010-01-01

    Ethane sulfonic acide hydrazide ( esh: CH 3CH 2SO 2NHNH 2) derivatives as 5-methylsalicyl-aldehydeethanesulfonylhydrazone ( 5msalesh), 5-methyl-2-hydroxyacetophenoneethane sulfonylhydrazone ( 5mafesh) and their Ni(II), Co(II) complexes have been synthesized for the first time. The structure of these compounds has been investigated by elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, LC/MS, UV-vis spectrophotometric method, magnetic susceptibility, thermal studies and conductivity measurements. The antibacterial activities of synthesized compounds were studied against Gram positive bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus magaterium and Gram negative bacteria; Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli by using the microdilution broth method. The biological activity screening showed that ligands have more activity than complexes against the tested bacteria. The inhibition activities of these compounds on carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) have been investigated by comparing IC 50 and Ki values and it has been found that 5msalesh and its complexes have more enzyme inhibition efficiency than other compounds.

  9. Supramolecular complexes of Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) p-hydroxybenzoates with caffeine: Synthesis, spectral characterization and crystal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taşdemir, Erdal; Özbek, Füreya Elif; Sertçelik, Mustafa; Hökelek, Tuncer; Çelik, Raziye Çatak; Necefoğlu, Hacali

    2016-09-01

    Three novel complexes Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) containing p-hydroxybenzoates and caffeine ligands were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR and UV-vis Spectroscopy, molar conductivity and single crystal X-ray diffraction methods. The thermal properties of the synthesized complexes were investigated by TGA/DTA. The general formula of the complexes is [M(HOC6H4COO)2(H2O)4]·2(C8H10N4O2)·8H2O (where: M: Co, Ni and Zn). The IR studies showed that carboxylate groups of p-hydroxybenzoate ligands have monodentate coordination mode. The M2+ ions are octahedrally coordinated by two p-hydroxybenzoate ligands, four water molecules leading to an overall MO6 coordination environment. The medium-strength hydrogen bondings involving the uncoordinated caffeine ligands and water molecules, coordinated and uncoordinated water molecules and p-hydroxybenzoate ligands lead to three-dimensional supramolecular networks in the crystal structures.

  10. Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes with coumarin-8-yl Schiff-bases: Spectroscopic, in vitro antimicrobial, DNA cleavage and fluorescence studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Sangamesh A.; Unki, Shrishila N.; Kulkarni, Ajaykumar D.; Naik, Vinod H.; Badami, Prema S.

    2011-09-01

    A new series of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes of the type ML·2H 2O of Schiff-bases derived from m-substituted thiosemicarbazides and 8-acetyl-7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin have been synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic studies. Schiff-bases exhibit thiol-thione tautomerism wherein sulphur plays an important role in the coordination. The coordination possibility of the Schiff-bases towards metal ions have been proposed in the light of elemental analyses, spectral (IR, UV-vis, FAB-mass, ESR and fluorescence), magnetic and thermal studies. The low molar conductance values in DMF indicate that, the metal complexes are non-electrolytes. The cyclic voltammetric studies suggested that, the Cu(II) and Ni(II) complexes are of single electron transfer quasi-reversible nature. The Schiff-bases and its metal complexes have been evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial ( Escherichia coli, Staphilococcus aureus, Bascillus subtilis and Salmonella typhi) and antifungal activities ( Candida albicans, Cladosporium and Aspergillus niger) by MIC method. The Schiff-base I and its metal complexes exhibited DNA cleavage activity on isolated DNA of A. niger.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of Cu(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes of a number of sulfadrug azodyes and their application for wastewater treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Baradie, K.; El-Sharkawy, R.; El-Ghamry, H.; Sakai, K.

    2014-03-01

    The azodye ligand (HL1) was synthesized from the coupling of sulfaguanidine diazonium salt with 2,4-dihydroxy-benzaldehyde while the two ligands, HL2 and HL3, were prepared by the coupling of sulfadiazine diazonium salt with salicylaldehyde (HL2) and 2,4-dihydroxy-benzaldehyde (HL3). The prepared ligands were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR and mass spectra. Cu(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes of the prepared ligands have been synthesized and characterized by various spectroscopic techniques like IR, UV-Visible as well as magnetic and thermal (TG and DTA) measurements. It was found that all the ligands behave as a monobasic bidentate which coordinated to the metal center through the azo nitrogen and α-hydroxy oxygen atoms in the case of HL1 and HL3. HL2 coordinated to the metal center through sulfonamide oxygen and pyrimidine nitrogen. The applications of the prepared complexes in the oxidative degradation of indigo carmine dye exhibited good catalytic activity in the presence of H2O2 as an oxidant. The reactions followed first-order kinetics and the rate constants were determined. The degradation reaction involved the catalytic action of the azo-dye complexes toward H2O2 decomposition, which can lead to the generation of HOrad radicals as a highly efficient oxidant attacking the target dye. The detailed kinetic studies and the mechanism of these catalytic reactions are under consideration in our group.

  12. Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes with coumarin-8-yl Schiff-bases: spectroscopic, in vitro antimicrobial, DNA cleavage and fluorescence studies.

    PubMed

    Patil, Sangamesh A; Unki, Shrishila N; Kulkarni, Ajaykumar D; Naik, Vinod H; Badami, Prema S

    2011-09-01

    A new series of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes of the type ML·2H2O of Schiff-bases derived from m-substituted thiosemicarbazides and 8-acetyl-7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin have been synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic studies. Schiff-bases exhibit thiol-thione tautomerism wherein sulphur plays an important role in the coordination. The coordination possibility of the Schiff-bases towards metal ions have been proposed in the light of elemental analyses, spectral (IR, UV-vis, FAB-mass, ESR and fluorescence), magnetic and thermal studies. The low molar conductance values in DMF indicate that, the metal complexes are non-electrolytes. The cyclic voltammetric studies suggested that, the Cu(II) and Ni(II) complexes are of single electron transfer quasi-reversible nature. The Schiff-bases and its metal complexes have been evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial (Escherichia coli, Staphilococcus aureus, Bascillus subtilis and Salmonella typhi) and antifungal activities (Candida albicans, Cladosporium and Aspergillus niger) by MIC method. The Schiff-base I and its metal complexes exhibited DNA cleavage activity on isolated DNA of A. niger.

  13. Synthesis, physico-chemical investigations of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes and their in vitro microbial, cytotoxic, DNA cleavage studies.

    PubMed

    Bagihalli, Gangadhar B; Patil, Sangamesh A

    2010-06-01

    A series of metal complexes of cobalt(II), nickel(II), and copper(II) have been synthesized with newly derived biologically active ligands. These ligands were synthesized by the condensation of 2-amino-4-phenyl-1,3-thiazole with 8-formyl-7-hydroxy- 4-methylcoumarin. The probable structure of the complexes has been proposed on the basis of analytical and spectroscopic data (IR, UV-Vis, ESR, FAB-mass, and thermoanalytical). Electrochemical study of the complexes is also reported. Elemental analysis of the complexes confined them to stoichiometry of the type ML(2).2H(2)O [M = Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II)]. The Schiff base and its metal(II) complexes have been screened for their antibacterial (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus pyogenes, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and antifungal activities (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, and Cladosporium) by the MIC method. The brine shrimp bioassay was carried out to study their in vitro cytotoxic properties, and also the Schiff base and its metal(II) complexes have been studied for DNA cleavage.

  14. Synthesis, DFT Calculation, and Antimicrobial Studies of Novel Zn(II), Co(II), Cu(II), and Mn(II) Heteroleptic Complexes Containing Benzoylacetone and Dithiocarbamate

    PubMed Central

    Ekennia, Anthony C.; Onwudiwe, Damian C.; Olasunkanmi, Lukman O.; Osowole, Aderoju A.; Ebenso, Eno E.

    2015-01-01

    Heteroleptic complexes of zinc(II), copper(II), manganese(II), and cobalt(II) of the types [MLL′(H2O)2]·nH2O and [MLL′]·nH2O have been synthesized using sodium N-methyl-N-phenyldithiocarbamate (L) and benzoylacetone (L′). The metal complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, electrical conductance, magnetic susceptibility, infrared (IR), and UV-visible spectroscopic studies. The electrical conductance measurements revealed the nonelectrolytic nature of the synthesized complexes. The results of the elemental analyses, magnetic susceptibility measurements, and electronic spectra inferred that the Zn(II) complex adopted a four-coordinate geometry while the Co(II), Cu(II), and Mn(II) complexes assumed octahedral geometries. The IR spectra showed that the metal ions coordinated with the ligands via the S- and O-donor atoms. The geometry, electronic, and thermodynamic parameters of the complexes were obtained from density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The spin density distributions, relative strength of H–bonds, and thermodynamic parameters revealed that the order of stability of the metal complexes is Mn < Co < Cu > Zn. The agar diffusion methods were used to study the antimicrobial activity of the complexes against two Gram positive bacteria (S. aureus and S. pneumoniae), one Gram negative bacterium (E. coli), and two fungi organisms (A. niger and A. candida) and the complexes showed a broad spectrum of activities against the microbes. PMID:26681931

  15. Synthesis, characterization, DFT calculations and biological studies of Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II) and Cd(II) complexes based on a tetradentate ONNO donor Schiff base ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Rahman, Laila H.; Ismail, Nabawia M.; Ismael, Mohamed; Abu-Dief, Ahmed M.; Ahmed, Ebtehal Abdel-Hameed

    2017-04-01

    This study highlights synthesis and characterization of a tetradentate ONNO Schiff base ligand namely (1, 1‧- (pyridine-2, 3-dimethyliminomethyl) naphthalene-2, 2‧-diol) and hereafter denotes as "HNDAP″ and selected metal complexes including Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II) and Cd(II) as a central metal. HNDAP was synthesized from 1:2 M ratio condensation of 2, 3-diaminopyridine and 2- hydroxy-1-naphthaldhyde, respectively. The stoichiometric ratios of the prepared complexes were estimated using complementary techniques such as; elemental analyses (-C, H, N), FT-IR, magnetic measurements and molar conductivity. Furthermore, their physicochemical studies were carried out using thermal TGA, DTA and kinetic-thermodynamic studies along with DFT calculations. The results of elemental analyses showed that these complexes are present in a 1:1 metal-to- ligand molar ratio. Moreover, the magnetic susceptibilities values at room temperature revealed that Mn(II), Fe(II) and Co(II) complexes are paramagnetic in nature and have an octahedral (Oh) geometry. In contrast, Cd(II) is diamagnetic and stabilizes in square planar sites. The molar conductivity measurements indicated that all complexes are nonelectrolytes in dimethyl formamide. Spectral data suggested that the ligand is as tetradentate and coordinated with Co(II) ion through two phenolic OH and two azomethine nitrogen. However, for Mn(II), Fe(II) and Cd(II) complexes, the coordination occurred through two phenolic oxygen and two azomethine nitrogen with deprotonation of OH groups. The proposed chemical structures have been validated by quantum mechanics calculations. Antimicrobial activities of both the HNDAP Schiff base ligand and its metal complexes were tested against strains of Gram (-ve) E. coli and Gram (+ve) B. subtilis and S. aureus bacteria and C. albicans, A. flavus and T. rubrum fungi. All the prepared compounds showed good results of inhibition against the selected pathogenic microorganisms. The investigated

  16. 40 CFR 721.9530 - Bis(2,2,6,6-tetra-methyl-piper-idinyl) ester of cycloalkyl spir-o-ke-tal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) ester of cycloalkyl spir-o-ke-tal. 721.9530 Section 721.9530 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9530 Bis(2,2,6,6-tetra-methyl-piper-idinyl) ester...) The chemical substance identified generically as bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl pi-per-idin-yl) ester of...

  17. Efficient batch and continuous flow Suzuki cross-coupling reactions under mild conditions, catalysed by polyurea-encapsulated palladium (II) acetate and tetra-n-butylammonium salts.

    PubMed

    Lee, Connie K Y; Holmes, Andrew B; Ley, Steven V; McConvey, Ian F; Al-Duri, Bushra; Leeke, Gary A; Santos, Regina C D; Seville, Jonathan P K

    2005-04-28

    Suzuki cross-coupling reactions are effected in both conventional organic solvents, under continuous flow conditions at 70 degree C, and in batch mode in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2), at temperatures as low as 40 degrees C in the presence of palladium(II) acetate microencapsulated in polyurea [PdEnCat] and tetra-n-butylammonium salts.

  18. 40 CFR 721.5400 - 3,6,9,12,15,18,21-Hepta-oxa-tetra-triaoctanoic acid, sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 3,6,9,12,15,18,21-Hepta-oxa-tetra-triaoctanoic acid, sodium salt. 721.5400 Section 721.5400 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical...

  19. Intra- and inter-nucleosomal interactions of the histone H4 tail revealed with a human nucleosome core particle with genetically-incorporated H4 tetra-acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Wakamori, Masatoshi; Fujii, Yoshifumi; Suka, Noriyuki; Shirouzu, Mikako; Sakamoto, Kensaku; Umehara, Takashi; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2015-01-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histones, such as lysine acetylation of the N-terminal tails, play crucial roles in controlling gene expression. Due to the difficulty in reconstituting site-specifically acetylated nucleosomes with crystallization quality, structural analyses of histone acetylation are currently performed using synthesized tail peptides. Through engineering of the genetic code, translation termination, and cell-free protein synthesis, we reconstituted human H4-mono- to tetra-acetylated nucleosome core particles (NCPs), and solved the crystal structures of the H4-K5/K8/K12/K16-tetra-acetylated NCP and unmodified NCP at 2.4 Å and 2.2 Å resolutions, respectively. The structure of the H4-tetra-acetylated NCP resembled that of the unmodified NCP, and the DNA wrapped the histone octamer as precisely as in the unmodified NCP. However, the B-factors were significantly increased for the peripheral DNAs near the N-terminal tail of the intra- or inter-nucleosomal H4. In contrast, the B-factors were negligibly affected by the H4 tetra-acetylation in histone core residues, including those composing the acidic patch, and at H4-R23, which interacts with the acidic patch of the neighboring NCP. The present study revealed that the H4 tetra-acetylation impairs NCP self-association by changing the interactions of the H4 tail with DNA, and is the first demonstration of crystallization quality NCPs reconstituted with genuine PTMs. PMID:26607036

  20. Crystal structure of bis-[cis-(1,4,8,11-tetra-aza-cyclo-tetra-deca-ne-κ(4)N)bis(thio-cyanato-κN)chrom-ium(III)] dichromate monohydrate from synchrotron X-ray diffraction data.

    PubMed

    Moon, Dohyun; Takase, Masahiro; Akitsu, Takashiro; Choi, Jong-Ha

    2017-01-01

    The structure of the complex salt, cis-[Cr(NCS)2(cyclam)]2[Cr2O7]·H2O (cyclam = 1,4,8,11-tetra-aza-cyclo-tetra-decane, C10H24N4), has been determined from synchrotron data. The asymmetric unit comprises of one [Cr(NCS)2(cyclam)](+) cation, one half of a Cr2O7(2-) anion (completed by inversion symmetry) and one half of a water mol-ecule (completed by twofold rotation symmetry). The Cr(III) ion is coordinated by the four cyclam N atoms and by two N atoms of cis-arranged thio-cyanate anions, displaying a distorted octa-hedral coordination sphere. The Cr-N(cyclam) bond lengths are in the range 2.080 (2) to 2.097 (2) Å while the average Cr-N(NCS) bond length is 1.985 (4) Å. The macrocyclic cyclam moiety adopts the cis-V conformation. The bridging O atom of the dichromate anion is disordered around an inversion centre, leading to a bending of the Cr-O-Cr bridging angle [157.7 (3)°]; the anion has a staggered conformation. The crystal structure is stabilized by inter-molecular hydrogen bonds involving the cyclam N-H groups and water O-H groups as donor groups, and the O atoms of the Cr2O7(2-) anion and water mol-ecules as acceptor groups, giving rise to a three-dimensional network.

  1. Tetra-arsenic tetra-sulfide (As4S 4) promotes apoptosis in retinoid acid -resistant human acute promyelocytic leukemic NB4-R1 cells through downregulation of SET protein.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanfeng; He, Pengcheng; Liu, Feng; Zhou, Naicen; Cheng, Xiaoyan; Shi, Lili; Zhu, Huachao; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Mei

    2014-04-01

    Tetra-arsenic tetra-sulfide (As4S4) is an arsenic compound with antitumor activity, especially in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) that are resistant to retinoic acid (RA). Although recent studies have revealed that the therapeutic action of As4S4 is closely associated with the induction of cellular apoptosis, the exact molecular mechanism underlying this action in RA-resistant APL remains to be clarified. In this study, we found that As4S4-induced apoptosis was accompanied by reduced mRNA and protein expression of SET gene in RA-resistant NB4-R1 cells. Moreover, RNAi knockdown of SET gene further promoted As4S4-induced apoptosis, while SET overexpression recovered the cell viability, suggesting that As4S4 induces apoptosis through the reduction of SET protein in NB4-R1 cells. We also observed that the knockdown of SET gene resulted in the upregulation of protein phosphatase 2 (PP2A) expression and the downregulation of promyelocytic leukemia and retinoic acid receptor α fusion gene (PML-RARα) expression, which were enhanced by As4S4 treatments. By contrast, overexpression of SET gene resulted in PP2A downregulation and PML-RARα upregulation, which were abolished by As4S4 pretreatment. Since PP2A is a proapoptotic factor and PML-RARα is an antiapoptotic factor, our results suggest that As4S4-induced apoptosis in RA-resistant NB4-R1 cells is through the downregulation of SET protein expression, which, in turn, increases PP2A and reduces PML-RARα expressions to lead to cell apoptosis.

  2. Unravelling exceptional acetylene and carbon dioxide adsorption within a tetra-amide functionalized metal-organic framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, Florian; da Silva, Ivan; Al Smail, Nada H.; Easun, Timothy L.; Savage, Mathew; Godfrey, Harry G. W.; Parker, Stewart F.; Manuel, Pascal; Yang, Sihai; Schröder, Martin

    2017-02-01

    Understanding the mechanism of gas-sorbent interactions is of fundamental importance for the design of improved gas storage materials. Here we report the binding domains of carbon dioxide and acetylene in a tetra-amide functionalized metal-organic framework, MFM-188, at crystallographic resolution. Although exhibiting moderate porosity, desolvated MFM-188a exhibits exceptionally high carbon dioxide and acetylene adsorption uptakes with the latter (232 cm3 g-1 at 295 K and 1 bar) being the highest value observed for porous solids under these conditions to the best of our knowledge. Neutron diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering studies enable the direct observation of the role of amide groups in substrate binding, representing an example of probing gas-amide binding interactions by such experiments. This study reveals that the combination of polyamide groups, open metal sites, appropriate pore geometry and cooperative binding between guest molecules is responsible for the high uptakes of acetylene and carbon dioxide in MFM-188a.

  3. Bis(1-methyl-piperazine-1,4-diium) di-μ-bromido-bis-[tetra-bromido-bismuthate(III)] dihydrate.

    PubMed

    Essid, Manel; Roisnel, Thierry; Marouani, Houda

    2014-06-01

    In the title hydrated salt, (C5H14N2)2[Bi2Br10]·2H2O, the com-plete [Bi2Br10](4-) biocta-hedron is generated by crystallographic inversion symmetry. The diprotonated piperazine ring adopts a chair conformation, with the methyl group occupying an equatorial position. In the crystal, the tetra-anions and water mol-ecules are linked by O-H⋯Br and O-H⋯(Br,Br) hydrogen bonds to generate [100] chains. The chains are crosslinked by N-H⋯Br, N-H⋯O and C-H⋯Br hydrogen bonds originating from the piperazinediium dications, thereby forming a three-dimensional network.

  4. N,N′-Bis(2-aza­niumylbenz­yl)ethane-1,2-diaminium tetra­chloride

    PubMed Central

    Garza Rodríguez, Luis Ángel; Bernès, Sylvain; Elizondo Martínez, Perla; Nájera Martínez, Blanca; Pérez Rodríguez, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, C16H26N4 4+·4Cl−, is based on a fully protonated tetra­amine. In the cation, both benzene rings are connected by an all-trans chain, and the rings are almost parallel, with an angle between the mean planes of 8.34 (12)°. The benzene rings are arranged in such a way that the NH3 + substituents are oriented cis with respect to the central chain. This arrangement is a consequence of multiple N—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds, involving all N—H groups in the cation and the four independent Cl− anions. These contacts have strengths ranging from weak to strong (based on H⋯Cl separations), and generate a complex three-dimensional crystal structure with no preferential crystallographic orientation for the contacts. PMID:22199749

  5. The mechanism of color change in the neon tetra fish: a light-induced tunable photonic crystal array.

    PubMed

    Gur, Dvir; Palmer, Benjamin A; Leshem, Ben; Oron, Dan; Fratzl, Peter; Weiner, Steve; Addadi, Lia

    2015-10-12

    The fresh water fish neon tetra has the ability to change the structural color of its lateral stripe in response to a change in the light conditions, from blue-green in the light-adapted state to indigo in the dark-adapted state. The colors are produced by constructive interference of light reflected from stacks of intracellular guanine crystals, forming tunable photonic crystal arrays. We have used micro X-ray diffraction to track in time distinct diffraction spots corresponding to individual crystal arrays within a single cell during the color change. We demonstrate that reversible variations in crystal tilt within individual arrays are responsible for the light-induced color variations. These results settle a long-standing debate between the two proposed models, the "Venetian blinds" model and the "accordion" model. The insight gained from this biogenic light-induced photonic tunable system may provide inspiration for the design of artificial optical tunable systems.

  6. Poly[[hexa-aqua-sesqui(μ-benzene-1,2,4,5-tetra-carboxyl-ato)dicopper(II)disodium] monohydrate].

    PubMed

    Camara, Magatte; Keita, Mohamed Fadel; Cisse, Cherif Cheikh Samsidine; Daiguebonne, Carole; Guillou, Olivier

    2014-08-01

    In the title compound, {[Cu2Na2(C10H2O8)1.5(H2O)6]·H2O} n , the Cu(2+) ion is hexa-coordinated by five O atoms from benzene-1,2,4,5-tetra-carboxyl-ate (btec(4-)) ligands and one water mol-ecule. The Na(+) ion is also hexa-coordinated, by four O atoms from btec(4-) ligands and two water mol-ecules. One of the two btec(4-) mol-ecules sits on a crystallographic inversion centre. CuO6 and NaO6 octa-hedra are connected, forming bi-dimensional layers. These layers, which extend parallel to the ac plane, are further inter-connected by μ10- or μ11-bridging btec(4-) ligands and by O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, involving both btec(4-) ligands and water mol-ecules, forming a three-dimensional network.

  7. Molecular modelling of the interactions of tetra-(4-N-methylpyridyl) porphin with TA and CG sites on DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Ford, K G; Pearl, L H; Neidle, S

    1987-01-01

    The molecular structure of the DNA-intercalating ligand tetra-(4-N-methylpyridyl) porphin has been determined by X-ray crystallography. The porphyrin has a precise centre of symmetry; the central core is planar, with the N-methylpyridyl groups inclined to it at angles of 66-72 degrees. Molecular modelling of this structure into TpA and CpG sites of intercalated DNA, has been performed, and approximate energetics calculated. It has been shown that only the CpG site can have full ligand intercalation, since the thymine methyl group sterically hinders such geometry at TpA sites. Modelling indicates the importance of electrostatic effects in the low-energy forms of intercalated and part-intercalated complexes at both sequences. PMID:3627998

  8. Crystal growth, stability and photoluminescence studies of tetra aqua diglycine magnesium (II) hexa aqua magnesium (II) bis sulfate crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil Murugan, G.; Ramasamy, P.

    2011-03-01

    Single crystals of tetra aqua diglycine magnesium (II) hexa aqua magnesium (II) bis sulfate have been grown from saturated aqueous solution by slow evaporation solution growth technique. The solubility of the title compound in water at various temperatures has been determined. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses reveal that the title compound crystallizes in triclinic system with space group P1¯. Fourier transform infrared spectral analyses confirm the presence of functional groups in the grown crystal. The thermal stability of the grown crystal has been investigated by thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetric analysis. It indicates that the material is stable upto 100 °C. The crystalline perfection of the grown crystal has been evaluated by high-resolution X-ray diffraction technique. Vickers microhardness measurements indicate the mechanical strength of the grown crystal. Photoluminescence of the grown crystal has been investigated and it reveals that the crystal has blue-violet fluorescence emission.

  9. Studies on barium bis-para-nitrophenolate para-nitrophenol tetra hydrate NLO single crystal by unidirectional growth method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uthrakumar, R.; Vesta, C.; Jose, M.; Sugandhi, K.; Krishnan, S.; Jerome Das, S.

    2010-08-01

    The unidirectional crystal growth technique has been employed for the bulk growth of semi-organic nonlinear optical barium bis-para-nitrophenolate para-nitrophenol tetra hydrate single crystals along the (2 2 0) direction with almost high solute-crystal conversion efficiency. The grown crystal was subjected to single crystal and powder XRD analyses in order to confirm the crystal identity. Optical absorption studies reveal very high transmittance in the entire visible and near IR region. The presence of various functional groups is confirmed by FTIR analysis. Low dielectric loss at high frequency region is indicative of enhanced optical quality with lesser defects. Photoconductivity measurements carried out on the grown crystal reveal the negative photoconducting nature.

  10. Tris(4-formyl­phen­yl)phosphane oxide tetra­hydro­furan hemisolvate

    PubMed Central

    Kakoullis, James; Fronczek, Frank R.; Maverick, Andrew W.

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, C21H15O4P·0.5C4H8O, contains an ordered phosphane oxide in a general position and a tetra­hydro­furan solvent mol­ecule disordered about a twofold axis. All three aldehyde substituents are nearly coplanar with their attached benzene rings, with C—C—C—O torsion angles in the range 1.64 (17)–4.24 (19)°. All three have different conformations with respect to the P=O group, one syn, one anti, and one gauche. Two of the aldehyde substituents form inter­molecular C—H⋯O contacts. PMID:24109424

  11. High-nuclearity homoleptic and heteroleptic coordination cages based on tetra-capped truncated tetrahedral and cuboctahedral metal frameworks.

    PubMed

    Argent, Stephen P; Adams, Harry; Riis-Johannessen, Thomas; Jeffery, John C; Harding, Lindsay P; Ward, Michael D

    2006-01-11

    Two new types of coordination cage have been prepared and structurally characterized: [M16(mu-L1)24]X32 are based on a tetra-capped truncated tetrahedral core and have a bridging ligand L1 along each of the 24 edges; [M12(mu-L1)12(mu3-L2)4]X24 are based on a cuboctahedral core which is supported by a combination of face-capping ligands L2 and edge-bridging ligands L1. The difference between the two illustrates how combinations of ligands with different coordination modes can generate coordination cages which are not available using one ligand type on its own.

  12. Geometric and chelation influences on the electronic structure and optical properties of tetra(carboxylic acid)phenyleneethynylene dyes.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Asher; Risko, Chad; Ratner, Mark A

    2008-05-08

    A quantum-chemical study on the consequences of geometric modification and chelation on the electronic structure and optical properties of a tetra(carboxylic acid)phenyleneethynylene dye, of interest for chemical sensing applications, is presented. Rotation within the central biphenylene and complexation with divalent metal ions--in particular Cu2+--lead to notable changes in the absorption and emission profiles. Calculations at both the density functional theory (DFT) and Hartree-Fock (HF) levels are used to evaluate geometric potential energy surfaces for rotation within the central biphenylene unit; HF coupled with configuration interaction singles (HF-CIS) is used to investigate the first excited state of the dye. Time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) calculations are employed to assess changes in optical absorption and fluorescence as a function of geometry and chelation.

  13. The selective interactions of cationic tetra-p-guanidinoethylcalix[4]arene with lipid membranes: theoretical and experimental model studies.

    PubMed

    Korchowiec, Beata; Gorczyca, Marcelina; Rogalska, Ewa; Regnouf-de-Vains, Jean-Bernard; Mourer, Maxime; Korchowiec, Jacek

    2016-01-07

    Behavior of cationic tetra-p-guanidinoethylcalix[4]arene (CX1) and its building block, p-guanidinoethylphenol (mCX1) in model monolayer lipid membranes was investigated using all atom molecular dynamics simulations and surface pressure measurements. Members of two classes of lipids were taken into account: zwitterionic 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and anionic 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-l-serine sodium salt (DMPS) as models of eukaryotic and bacterial cell membranes, respectively. It was demonstrated that CX1 and mCX1 accumulate near the negatively charged DMPS monolayers. The adsorption to neutral monolayers was negligible. In contrast to mCX1, CX1 penetrated into the hydrophobic part of the monolayer. The latter effect, which is possible due to a flip-flop inversion of the CX1 orientation in the lipid layer compared to the aqueous phase, may be responsible for its antibacterial activity.

  14. 3-(4-Chloro-phenyl-diazen-yl)-1-methyl-1,4,5,6-tetra-hydro-pyridine.

    PubMed

    Meneghetti, Fiorella; Bombieri, Gabriella; Tonelli, Michele

    2008-06-19

    The title compound, C(12)H(14)ClN(3), represents the planar azoenamine tautomer. The benzene ring forms a dihedral angle of 2.5 (1)° with the azoenamine group. Electron delocalization is indicated by the values of the bond lengths in the chain. The tetra-hydro-pyridine ring adopts a half-chair conformation and the dihedral angle between the least-squares plane defined by the five coplanar C atoms and the azoenamine unit is 2.0 (1)°, while the envelope-flap C atom lies out of this plane by 0.579 (2) Å. The mol-ecular packing is governed by van der Waals inter-actions through the stacking of adjacent mol-ecules, resulting in a two-dimensional sheet structure.

  15. A novel tri-axis MEMS gyroscope with in-plane tetra-pendulum proof masses and enhanced sensitive springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, M. C.; Jiao, J. W.; Yan, P. L.; Mi, B. W.; Qin, S.

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a tri-axis MEMS gyroscope design with novel tetra-pendulum proof masses for X-, Y-axis and regular proof masses for Z-axis rate sensing, which are all coupled with and embedded in a conventional tuning fork driving frame. The four pendulum proof masses are suspended via the torsional springs to a common center anchor and can be driven to swing around the anchor via the tilted transforming springs as the driving frame is oscillated in an anti-phase mode. As an X-, Y-axis angular rate is applied, the tetra-pendulum proof masses will rotate around the torsional springs in pairs for X- and Y-axis differential sensing, respectively. In particular, we investigated the relationship between the tilting angle of the transforming spring and its transforming efficiency, i.e. the amplitude ratio of the pendulum's swing to the driving oscillation, which shows a straight impact on the sensitivity. By theoretical analysis and Ansys simulation, we achieved an optimal tilting angle of 22.5°, which extends along the angular bisector of the pendulum's and driving mass’ moving direction and demonstrates a significant increase in transforming efficiency by about 40%, compared with the trivial tilting angle of 45°. By employing an SOI-based bulk micromachining process, the prototype device with the optimal design of the transforming spring (type I) and that with the trivial design (type II) for reference have been successfully fabricated. As expected, the testing results indicate an increase of more than 20% in the X- and Y- sensitivities, which is mainly from the enhanced sensitive transforming springs.

  16. Design and dosimetric analysis of a 385 MHz TETRA head exposure system for use in human provocation studies.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Gernot; Bolz, Thomas; Uberbacher, Richard; Escorihuela-Navarro, Ana; Bahr, Achim; Dorn, Hans; Sauter, Cornelia; Eggert, Torsten; Danker-Hopfe, Heidi

    2012-10-01

    A new head exposure system for double-blind provocation studies investigating possible effects of terrestrial trunked radio (TETRA)-like exposure (385 MHz) on central nervous processes was developed and dosimetrically analyzed. The exposure system allows localized exposure in the temporal brain, similar to the case of operating a TETRA handset at the ear. The system and antenna concept enables exposure during wake and sleep states while an electroencephalogram (EEG) is recorded. The dosimetric assessment and uncertainty analysis yield high efficiency of 14 W/kg per Watt of accepted antenna input power due to an optimized antenna directly worn on the subject's head. Beside sham exposure, high and low exposure at 6 and 1.5 W/kg (in terms of maxSAR10g in the head) were implemented. Double-blind control and monitoring of exposure is enabled by easy-to-use control software. Exposure uncertainty was rigorously evaluated using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD)-based computations, taking into account anatomical differences of the head, the physiological range of the dielectric tissue properties including effects of sweating on the antenna, possible influences of the EEG electrodes and cables, variations in antenna input reflection coefficients, and effects on the specific absorption rate (SAR) distribution due to unavoidable small variations in the antenna position. This analysis yielded a reasonable uncertainty of <±45% (max to min ratio of 4.2 dB) in terms of maxSAR10g in the head and a variability of <±60% (max to min ratio of 6 dB) in terms of mass-averaged SAR in different brain regions, as demonstrated by a brain region-specific absorption analysis.

  17. Synthesis, characterization, equilibrium study and biological activity of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) complexes of polydentate Schiff base ligand.

    PubMed

    El-Sherif, Ahmed A; Shehata, Mohamed R; Shoukry, Mohamed M; Barakat, Mohammad H

    2012-10-01

    Schiff base ligand, 1,4-bis[(2-hydroxybenzaldehyde)propyl]piperazine (BHPP), and its Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) metal complexes were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility, molar conductance and spectral (IR and UV-vis) studies. The ground state of BHPP ligand was investigated using the BUILDER module of MOE. Metal complexes are formed in the 1:1 (M:L) ratio as found from the elemental analysis and found to have the general formula [ML]·nH(2)O, where M=Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II), L=BHPP. In all the studied complexes, the (BHPP) ligand behaves as a hexadentate divalent anion with coordination involving the two azomethine nitrogen's, the two nitrogen atoms of piperazine ring and the two deprotonated phenolic OH-groups. The magnetic and spectral data indicates octahedral geometry of metal(II) complexes. The ligand and their metal chelates have been screened for their antimicrobial activities using the disc diffusion method against the selected bacteria and fungi. They were found to be more active against Gram-positive than Gram-negative bacteria. Protonation constants of (BHPP) ligand and stability constants of its Cu(2+), Co(2+) and Ni(2+) complexes were determined by potentiometric titration method in 50% DMSO-water solution at ionic strength of 0.1 M sodium nitrate. It has been observed that the protonated Schiff base ligand (BHPP) have four protonation constants. The divalent metal ions Cu(2+), Ni(2+) and Co(2+) form 1:1 complexes.

  18. Hydrothermal Syntheses and Crystal Structures of Ni(II), Co(II), and Cu(II), Bis( trans-4-pyridylacrylate) Interpenetration Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yen-Hsiang; Lin, Chia-Shiang; Chen, Shiang-Ying; Tsai, Hui-Lien; Ueng, Chuen-Her; Lu, Kuang-Lieh

    2001-02-01

    Three metal-organic polymeric networks, Ni(C8H6NO2)2(H2O)2 (1), Co(C8H6NO2)2 (2), and Cu(C8H6NO2)2(H2O)2 (3), were synthesized by the hydrothermal method. Single-crystal X-ray analysis revealed that within these compounds metal centers are linked through trans-4-pyridylacrylate ligands to form interpenetrating infinite networks. The Ni(II) and Cu(II) compounds possess an overlay of interpenetrating square grid layers, whereas the Co(II) compound possesses interpenetrating diamondoid networks. Comparing these three compounds, the formation of cavities potentially for guest molecule inclusion within the interpenetrating networks could be achieved by taking advantage of the coordination nature of metals. Crystal structures of all three compounds were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods and solved by direct method. Crystal data for 1: orthorhombic, space group Pbcn, a=13.735(3) Å, b=6.995(2) Å, c=16.723(3) Å, V=1606.7(6) Å3, Z=4, final refinement (I>2σ(I)): R1=0.0296, wR2=0.0843. Crystal data for 2: monoclinic, space group Cc, a=11.5717(9) Å, b=21.2838(16) Å, c=8.5504(7) Å, β=130.5210(10)°, V=1600.8(2) Å3, Z=4, final refinement (I>2σ(I)): R1=0.0347, wR2=0.0879. Crystal data for 3: orthorhombic, space group Pbcn, a=13.6844(13) Å, b=7.5053(8) Å, c=15.929(4) Å, V=1636.0(5) Å3, Z=4, final refinement (I>2σ(I)), R1=0.0299, wR2=0.0787.

  19. Coligand-regulated assembly, fluorescence, and magnetic properties of Co(II) and Cd(II) complexes with a non-coplanar dicarboxylate

    SciTech Connect

    Xin, Ling-Yun; Liu, Guang-Zhen; Ma, Lu-Fang; Wang, Li-Ya

    2013-10-15

    A non-coplanar dicarboxylate ndca (H{sub 2}ndca=5-norbornene-2,3-dicarboxylic acid), combining with various dipyridyl-typed tectons, constructs six Cd(II)/Co(II) coordination polymers under hydrothermal conditions, namely [Co(ndca)(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (1), ([Co(ndca)(bpe)(H{sub 2}O)]·H{sub 2}O){sub n} (2), [Co(ndca)(bpa){sub 0.5}(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (3), [Cd(ndca)(bpe)(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (4), ([Cd(ndca)(bpa)(H{sub 2}O)]·0.5H{sub 2}O){sub n} (5), and ([Cd(ndca)(bpp) (H{sub 2}O)]·H{sub 2}O){sub n} (6) (bpe=1,2-di(4-pyridyl)ethylene, bpa=1,2-bi(4-pyridyl)ethane, and bpp=1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane). All these compounds contain various metal(II)–carboxylate motifs, including carboxylate binuclear (2, 4, 5), carboxylate chain (1, 6) and carboxylate layer (3), which are further extended by dipyridyl-typed coligands to afford a vast diversity of the structures with 2D pyknotic layers (1, 6), 2D open layer (5), 2D→3D interpenetrated networks (2,4), and 3D pillared-layer framework (3), respectively. In addition, fluorescent spectra of Cd(II) complexes and magnetic properties of Co(II) complexes are also given. - Graphical abstract: Six various cadmium(II)/cobalt(II)–organic frameworks were constructed by 5-norbornene-2,3-dicarboxylic acid and different bis(pyridine) rod-like tectons, and Cd (II) complexes exhibit blue–violet emissions, whereas Co (II) complexes show antiferromagnetic behaviours. Display Omitted.

  20. COII/tRNA[sup Lys] intergenic 9-bp deletion and other mtDNA markers clearly reveal that the Tharus (Southern Nepal) have oriental affinities

    SciTech Connect

    Passarino, G.; Semino, O.; Santachiara-Benerecetti, A.S.; Modiano, G. )

    1993-09-01

    The authors searched for the East Asian mtDNA 9-bp deletion in the intergenic COII/tRNA[sup Lys] region in a sample of 107 Tharus (50 from central Terai and 57 from eastern Terai), a population whose anthropological origin has yet to be completely clarified. The deletion, detected by electrophoresis of the PCR-amplified nt 7392-8628 mtDNA fragment after digestion with HaeIII, was found in about 8% of both Tharu groups but was found in none of the 76 Hindus who were examined as a non-Oriental neighboring control population. A complete triplication of the 9-bp unit, the second case so far reported, was also observed in one eastern Tharu. All the mtDNAs with the deletion, and that with the triplication, were further characterized (by PCR amplification of the relevant mTDNA fragments and their digestion with the appropriate enzymes) to locate them in the Ballinger et al. phylogeny of East Asian mtDNA haplotypes. The deletion was found to be associated with four different haplotypes, two of which are reported for the first time. One of the deletions and especially the triplication could be best explained by the assumption of novel length-change events. Ballinger's classification of East Asian mtDNA haplotypes is mainly based on the phenotypes for the DdeI site at nt 10394 and the AluI site at nt 10397. Analysis of the entire Tharu sample revealed that more than 70% of the Tharus have both sites, the association of which has been suggested as an ancient East Asian peculiarity. These results conclusively indicate that the Tharus have a predominantly maternal Oriental ancestry. Moreover, they show at least one and perhaps two further distinct length mutations, and this suggests that the examined region is a hot spot of rearrangements. 21 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro anticancer activity of 18-membered octaazamacrocyclic complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), Cd(II) and Sn(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kareem, Abdul; Zafar, Hina; Sherwani, Asif; Mohammad, Owais; Khan, Tahir Ali

    2014-10-01

    An effective series of 18 membered octaazamacrocyclic complexes of the type [MLX2], where X = Cl or NO3 have been synthesized by template condensation reaction of oxalyl dihydrazide with dibenzoylmethane and metal salt in 2:2:1 molar ratio. The formation of macrocyclic framework, stereochemistry and their overall geometry have been characterized by various physico-chemical studies viz., elemental analysis, electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), I.R, UV-Vis, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and TGA/DTA studies. These studies suggest formation of octahedral macrocyclic complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), Cd(II) and Sn(II). The molar conductance values suggest nonelectrolytic nature for all the complexes. Thermogravimatric analysis shows that all the complexes are stable up to 600 °C. All these complexes have been tested against different human cancer cell lines i.e. human hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep3B), human cervical carcinoma (HeLa), human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7) and normal cells (PBMC). The newly synthesized 18-membered octaazamacrocyclic complexes during in vitro anticancer evaluation, displayed moderate to good cytotoxicity on liver (Hep3B), cervical (HeLa) and breast (MCF7) cancer cell lines, respectively. The most effective anticancer cadmium complex (C34H28N10CdO10) was found to be active with IC50 values, 2.44 ± 1.500, 3.55 ± 1.600 and 4.82 ± 1.400 in micro-molar on liver, cervical and breast cancer cell lines, respectively.

  2. A tetra­nuclear cubane-like nickel(II) complex with a tridentate salicyl­idene­imine Schiff base ligand: tetra­kis­[μ3-4-methyl-N-(2-oxidophen­yl)salicylideneiminato]tetra­kis­[methano­lnickel(II)] methanol 0.8-solvate

    PubMed Central

    Pavlović, Gordana; Majer, Mihael; Cindrić, Marina

    2016-01-01

    The tetra­nuclear title complex, [Ni4(C14H11NO2)4(CH3OH)4]·0.8CH3OH, has a distorted cubane topology shaped by four Schiff base ligands. The cubane [Ni4(μ3-O4)] core is formed via the O atoms from the Schiff base ligands. The octa­hedrally coordinated NiII ions occupy alternating vertices of the cube. Each NiII ion is coordinated by one O,N,O′-tridentate dianionic ligand, two O atoms of oxidophenyl groups from adjacent ligands and the O atom of a coordinating methanol mol­ecule. The cubane core is stabilized via an intra­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bond between the hy­droxy group of the coordinating methanol mol­ecules and the phenolate O atom of the aldehyde Schiff base fragment. Additional stabilization is obtained via intra­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving aromatic C—H groups and the oxygen atoms of adjacent methanol mol­ecules. In the crystal, complex mol­ecules are linked into chains parallel to the c axis via weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The partial-occupancy disordered methanol solvent mol­ecule has a site occupancy of 0.8 and is linked to the tetra­nuclear unit via an inter­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bond involving a phenolate O atom. PMID:27980828

  3. Synthesis, antimicrobial activity, structural and spectral characterization and DFT calculations of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Pd(II) complexes of 4-amino-5-pyrimidinecarbonitrile.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Tarek A; Shaaban, Ibrahim A; Farag, Rabei S; Zoghaib, Wajdi M; Afifi, Mahmoud S

    2015-01-25

    Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Pd(II) complexes of 4-amino-5-pyrimidinecarbonitrile (APC) have been synthesized and characterized using elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility, mass spectrometry, infrared (4000-200 cm(-1)), UV-Visible (200-1100 nm), (1)H NMR and ESR spectroscopy as well as TGA analysis. The molar conductance measurements in DMSO imply non-electrolytic complexes, formulated as [M(APC)2Cl2] where M=Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Pd(II). The infrared spectra of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes indicate a bidentate type of bonding for APC through the exocyclic amino and adjacent pyrimidine nitrogen as donors whereas APC coordinated to Pd(II) ion as a monodentated ligand via a pyrimidine nitrogen donor. The magnetic measurements and the electronic absorption spectra support distorted octahedral geometries for Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes however a square planar complex was favored for the Pd(II) complex (C2h skeleton symmetry). In addition, we carried out B3LYP and ω-B97XD geometry optimization at 6-31G(d) basis set except for Pd(II) where we implemented LanL2DZ/6-31G(d) combined basis set. The computational results favor all trans geometrical isomers where amino N, pyrimidine N and Cl are trans to each other (structure 1). Finally, APC and its divalent metal ion complexes were screened for their antibacterial activity, and the synthesized complexes were found to be more potent antimicrobial agents than APC against one or more microbial species.

  4. Synthesis, characterization and biological activities of Cu(II), Co(II), Mn(II), Fe(II), and UO2(VI) complexes with a new Schiff Base hydrazone: O-hydroxyacetophenone-7-chloro-4-quinoline hydrazone.

    PubMed

    Al-Shaalan, Nora H

    2011-10-13

    The Schiff base hydrazone ligand HL was prepared by the condensation reaction of 7-chloro-4-quinoline with o-hydroxyacetophenone. The ligand behaves either as monobasic bidentate or dibasic tridentate and contain ONN coordination sites. This was accounted for be the presence in the ligand of a phenolic azomethine and imine groups. It reacts with Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Mn(II), UO(2) (VI) and Fe(II) to form either mono- or binuclear complexes. The ligand and its metal complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, IR, NMR, Mass, and UV-Visible spectra. The magnetic moments and electrical conductance of the complexes were also determined. The Co(II), Ni(II) and UO(2) (VI) complexes are mononuclear and coordinated to NO sites of two ligand molecules. The Cu(II) complex has a square-planar geometry distorted towards tetrahedral, the Ni(II) complex is octahedral while the UO(2) (VI) complex has its favoured heptacoordination. The Co(II), Mn(II) complexes and also other Ni(II) and Fe(III) complexes, which were obtained in the presence of Li(OH) as deprotonating agent, are binuclear and coordinated via the NNNO sites of two ligand molecules. All the binuclear complexes have octahedral geometries and their magnetic moments are quite low compared to the calculated value for two metal ions complexes and thus antiferromagnetic interactions between the two adjacent metal ions. The ligand HL and metal complexes were tested against a strain of Gram +ve bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus), Gram -ve bacteria (Escherichia coli), and fungi (Candida albicans). The tested compounds exhibited high antibacterial activities.

  5. A new approach for simultaneous determination of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Pd(II) using 2-thiophenaldehyde-3-thiosemicarbazone as reagent by solid phase microextraction-high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Varinder; Aulakh, Jatinder Singh; Malik, Ashok Kumar

    2007-11-05

    A new method is proposed herein for the sorption, separation and simultaneous determination of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Pd(II) using 2-thiophenaldehyde-3-thiosemicarbazone (TPTS) as a reagent by solid phase microextraction-high performance liquid chromatography-UV detection. The method is based upon the sorption of metal complexes on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fiber from aqueous solution followed by desorption in the desorption chamber of solid phase microextraction-high performance liquid chromatography (SPME-HPLC) interface. Reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography using acetonitrile:water (65:35) as an eluent on a C18 column has been used to achieve the separation. The effects of agitation, addition of salts, extraction time and desorption time are examined to obtain optimized conditions. The detection limits for Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Pd(II) are 9, 6, 1 and 7 ng L(-1) based on 3sigma of blank response. The precision is calculated to be less than 3.5% (R.S.D.) for all species. A 10 time enhancement in the signal is observed for SPME when compared with direct analysis. The method is successfully applied to several synthetic mixtures without interference from other common metal ions such as Mo(VI), V(V), Ag(I), Sn(IV), Cd(II), Zn(II), Pb(II), Cr(III) and Cr(VI). The proposed method is tested for the determination of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Pd(II) in alloys and water samples spiked with these metal ions.

  6. Synthesis, characterization, DFT and biological studies of (Z)-N‧-(2-oxoindolin-3-ylidene)picolinohydrazide and its Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakha, T. H.; El-Gammal, O. A.; Metwally, H. M.; Abu El-Reash, G. M.

    2014-03-01

    The picolinohydrazide derivative: (Z)-N‧-(2-oxoindolin-3-ylidene)picolinohydrazide (H2IPH) and its Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes have been synthesized and investigated by using the modern spectroscopic and physicochemical techniques viz. IR, 1H NMR, UV-Vis spectrometric methods and magnetic moment measurements. The investigation study revealed that the ligand acts as monobasic tri- and tetradentate in Co(II) and Ni(II) complex, respectively and as neutral tridentate in Cu(II) complex. On the basis of magnetic moment and spectral studies, a six coordinated octahedral geometry is assigned for all complexes. The molecular modeling are drawn and showed the bond length, bond angle, chemical reactivity, energy components (kcal/mol) and binding energy (kcal/mol) for all the title compounds and also NLO for the ligand is shown. The energy gap between the HOMO and LUMO for Ni(II) complex is (-7 eV) which indicates that these compound is a promising structure for photovoltaic devices such as solar cells. A comparison of the experimental and theoretical spectra can be very useful in making correct assignments and understanding the basic chemical shift. The thermal behavior and the kinetic parameters of degradation were determined using Coats-Redfern and Horowitz-Metzger methods. The in vitro antibacterial studies of these complexes screened against pathogenic bacteria proved them as growth inhibiting agents. Antitumor activity, carried out in vitro on human mammary gland (breast) MCF7, have shown that the Co(II) complex exhibited potent activity followed by the ligand, Cu(II) and Ni(II) complexes.

  7. Data Validation Standard Operating Procedure for EPA Method 1613 Revision B, Tetra-through Octa-chlorinated Dioxins and Furans by Isotope Dillution (High Resolution Gas Chromatography/High Resolution Mass Spectrometry)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Method used for isomer specific determination todetect the Tetra- through octa- chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans associatedwith the CWA, RCRA, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act and the SDWA

  8. Crystal structure of aqua[N-(2-oxidobenzyl-κO)-l-leucinato-κ(2) N,O](1,10-phenanthroline-κ(2) N,N')-nickel(II) penta-hydrate.

    PubMed

    Faizi, Md Serajul Haque; Sharkina, Natalia O

    2015-02-01

    In the title compound, [Ni(C13H17NO3)(C12H8N2)(H2O)]·5H2O, the Ni(II) atom is in a distorted octa-hedral coordination environment provided by the two N atoms of one bidentate phenanthroline ligand and two O atoms and one N atom from a tridentate 2-[(2-hy-droxy-benz-yl)amino]-4-methyl-penta-noic acid (HAMA) ligand and one water mol-ecule. The complex was prepared by the reaction of nickel(II) nitrate with HAMA in the presence of 1,10-phenanthroline in a 1:1:1 ratio. In the crystal, the complex mol-ecules and solvate water mol-ecules are associated via O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional network.

  9. Lewis Acid and Substituent Effects on the Molecular Mechanism for the Nazarov Reaction of Penta-1,4-dien-3-one and Derivatives. A Topological Analysis Based on the Combined Use of Electron Localization Function and Catastrophe Theory.

    PubMed

    Polo, Victor; Andrés, Juan

    2007-05-01

    The joint use of the topological analysis provided by the electron localization function (ELF) and catastrophe theory (CT), at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) calculation level, allows us to examine the Lewis acid (protonation H(+) and presence of BH3) and the role of an electron donor substituent (-OCH3) at α and β positions along the course of the molecular mechanism for the Nazarov rearrangement of penta-1,4-dien-3-one and eight derivatives. The progress of the reaction is monitored by the changes of the ELF structural stability domains (SSDs), each change being controlled by a turning point derived from CT. These SSDs and the corresponding turning points are associated with a sequence of elementary chemical steps. Along the cyclization path of penta-1,4-diene-3-one, four SSDs as well as three turning points (cusp1-fold1-cusp2) have been characterized. The first and second SSDs correspond to a polarization of the C-O bond and electronic redistribution among the C-C bonds, respectively, and they can be associated with the formation of an oxyallyl structure. The third and fourth SSDs can be assigned to the ring closure process. Protonation of the oxygen atom shifts the reactive directly into the second SSD, greatly reducing the activation and reaction energies. The electronic effects due to Lewis acids and electron donor substituents have been rationalized in terms of calculations of mesomeric structures from ELF basin populations. The combination of Lewis acids together with α and β -OCH3 substitutions renders a cooperative and competitive effect on activation and reaction free energies, respectively.

  10. Crystal structure of hexa­kis­(dmpu)-di-μ2-hydroxido-dialuminium tetraiodide dmpu tetra­solvate [dmpu is 1,3-di­methyl­tetra­hydro­pyrimidin-2(1H)-one]: a centrosymmetric dinuclear aluminium complex containing AlO5 polyhedra

    PubMed Central

    Lundberg, Daniel; Lyczko, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    The structure of the title compound, [Al2(OH)2(C6H12N2O)6]I4·4C6H12N2O (systematic name: di-μ2-hydroxido-bis­{tris­[1,3-di­methyl­tetra­hydro­pyrimidin-2(1H)-one-κO]aluminium} tetra­iodide 1,3-di­methyl­tetra­hydro­pyrimidin-2(1H)-one tetra­solvate), is composed of two Al(C6H12N2O)3 moieties linked into a centrosymmetric dinuclear unit by a pair of bridging hydroxide ions. The aluminium cations show a distorted trigonal bipyramidal AlO5 coordination environment formed only by monodentate ligands. The Al—O bond lengths are in the range 1.789 (2)–1.859 (2) Å (mean bond length = 1.818 Å). The non-coordinating iodide anions compensate the charge of the complex cation. The remaining solvent mol­ecules and the iodide counter-anions inter­act with the complex cation by weak non-classical C—H⋯I and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. PMID:26396749

  11. Crystal structure of cyclo-bis­(μ4-2,2-di­allyl­malonato-κ6 O 1,O 3:O 3:O 1′,O 3′:O 1′)tetra­kis­(triphenyl­phosphane-κP)tetra­silver(I)

    PubMed Central

    Frenzel, Peter; Jakob, Alexander; Schaarschmidt, Dieter; Rüffer, Tobias; Lang, Heinrich

    2014-01-01

    In the tetra­nuclear mol­ecule of the title compound, [Ag4(C9H10O4)2(C18H15P)4], the AgI ion is coordinated by one P and three O atoms in a considerably distorted tetra­hedral environment. The two 2,2-di­allyl­malonate anions bridge four AgI ions in a μ4-(κ6 O 1,O 3:O 3:O 1′,O 3′:O 1′) mode, setting up an Ag4O8P4 core (point group symmetry -4..) of corner-sharing tetra­hedra. The shortest intra­molecular Ag⋯Ag distance of 3.9510 (3) Å reveals that no direct d 10⋯d 10 inter­actions are present. Four weak intra­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds are observed in the crystal structure of the title compound, which most likely stabilize the tetra­nuclear silver core. PMID:25484645

  12. 4,11-Diaza-1,8-diazo­niacyclo­tetra­decane bis­(pyridine-2-carboxyl­ate) dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam-Ho; Ha, Kwang

    2009-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C10H26N4 2+·2C6H4NO2 −·2H2O, consists of half of a doubly protonated 1,4,8,11-tetra­azacyclo­tetra­decane (cyclam) dication, a pyridine-2-carboxyl­ate anion and a solvent water mol­ecule. The complete dication is generated by a crystallographic centre and adopts an endodentate conformation which may be influenced by intra­molecular N—H⋯N hydrogen bonding. The carboxyl­ate group of the anion appears to be delocalized on the basis of the C—O bond lengths [1.257 (2) and 1.250 (2) Å]. In the crystal structure, the components are linked by inter­molecular N—H⋯O, N—H⋯N and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. PMID:21577953

  13. New anti-HIV aptamers based on tetra-end-linked DNA G-quadruplexes: effect of the base sequence on anti-HIV activity.

    PubMed

    D'Atri, Valentina; Oliviero, Giorgia; Amato, Jussara; Borbone, Nicola; D'Errico, Stefano; Mayol, Luciano; Piccialli, Vincenzo; Haider, Shozeb; Hoorelbeke, Bart; Balzarini, Jan; Piccialli, Gennaro

    2012-10-04

    This communication reports on the synthesis and biophysical, biological and SAR studies of a small library of new anti-HIV aptamers based on the tetra-end-linked G-quadruplex structure. The new aptamers showed EC(50) values against HIV-1 in the range of 0.04-0.15 μM as well as affinities for the HIV-1 gp120 envelope in the same order of magnitude.

  14. Versatile supramolecular reactivity of zinc-tetra(4-pyridyl)porphyrin in crystalline solids: Polymeric grids with zinc dichloride and hydrogen-bonded networks with mellitic acid.

    PubMed

    Lipstman, Sophia; Goldberg, Israel

    2009-12-11

    Crystal engineering studies confirm that the zinc-tetra(4-pyridyl)porphyrin building block reveals versatile supramolecular chemistry. In this work, it was found to be reactive in the assembly of both (a) a 2D polymeric array by a unique combination of self-coordination and coordination through external zinc dichloride linkers and (b) an extended heteromolecular hydrogen-bonded network with mellitic acid sustained by multiple connectivity between the component species.

  15. Visible-light-induced water oxidation by a hybrid photocatalyst consisting of bismuth vanadate and copper(II) meso-tetra(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Shu; Negishi, Ryo; Tada, Hiroaki

    2016-03-04

    Copper(II) meso-tetra(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin surface-modified monoclinic scheelite bismuth vanadate (CuTCPP/BiVO4) has been synthesized via a two-step route involving chemisorption of TCPP on BiVO4 and successive Cu(II) ion incorporation into the TCPP, and the surface modification drastically enhances the water oxidation to oxygen (O2) under visible-light irradiation (λ > 430 nm).

  16. (S)-4-tert-Butyl-2-(1,2,3,4-tetra­hydro­isoquinolin-3-yl)-1,3-thia­zole

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Sunayna; Govender, Thavendran; Kruger, Hendrik G.; Maguire, Glenn E. M.

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, C16H20N2S, a potential tetra­hydro­isoquinoline (TIQ) thia­zole ligand, the N-containing six-membered ring of the TIQ unit adopts a half-chair conformation. There are four mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit. No classical hydrogen bonds or π–π inter­actions were found in the crystal structure. PMID:22904929

  17. 4,4,5,5-Tetra­methyl-1,3,2λ5-dioxa­phospho­lan-2-one

    PubMed Central

    Skarżyńska, Anna; Trzeciak, Anna M.; Gniewek, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    The five-membered ring in the title compound, C6H13O3P, exists in an envelope conformation with one of the ring C atoms at the flap position. The coordination geometry around the P atom is a distorted tetra­hedron. The crystal structure is stabilized by several weak C—H⋯O and P—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network. PMID:22091172

  18. Synthesis, molecular structure, biological properties and molecular docking studies on Mn(II), Co(II) and Zn(II) complexes containing bipyridine-azide ligands.

    PubMed

    Thamilarasan, Vijayan; Jayamani, Arumugam; Sengottuvelan, Nallathambi

    2015-01-07

    Metal complexes of the type Mn(bpy)2(N3)2 (1), Co(bpy)2(N3)2·3H2O (2) and Zn2(bpy)2(N3)4 (3) (Where bpy = 2,2-bipyridine) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and spectral (FT-IR, UV-vis) studies. The structure of complexes (1-3) have been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies and the configuration of ligand-coordinated metal(II) ion was well described as distorted octahedral coordination geometry for Mn(II), Co(II) and distorted square pyramidal geometry for Zn(II) complexes. DNA binding interaction of these complexes (1-3) were investigated by UV-vis absorption, fluorescence circular dichroism spectral and molecular docking studies. The intrinsic binding constants Kb of complexes 1, 2 and 3 with CT-DNA obtained from UV-vis absorption studies were 8.37 × 10(4), 2.23 × 10(5) and 5.52 × 10(4) M(-1) respectively. The results indicated that the three complexes are able to bind to DNA with different binding affinity, in the order 2 > 1 > 3. Complexes (1-3) exhibit a good binding propensity to bovine serum albumin (BSA) proteins having relatively high binding constant values. Gel electrophoresis assay demonstrated the ability of the complexes 1-3 promote the cleavage ability of the pBR322 plasmid DNA in the presence of the reducing agent 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) but with different cleavage mechanisms: the complex 3 cleaves DNA via hydrolytic pathway (T4 DNA ligase assay), while the DNA cleavage by complexes 1 and 2 follows oxidative pathway. The chemical nuclease activity follows the order: 2 > 1 > 3. The effects of various activators were also investigated and the nuclease activity efficacy followed the order MPA > GSH > H2O2 > Asc. The cytotoxicity studies of complexes 1-3 were tested in vitro on breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and they found to be active.

  19. Synthesis, spectral, antitumor, antioxidant and antimicrobial studies on Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) complexes of 4-[(1H-Benzoimidazol-2-ylimino)-methyl]-benzene-1,3-diol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-wakiel, Nadia; El-keiy, Mai; Gaber, Mohamed

    2015-08-01

    A new Schiff base of 2-aminobenzimidazole with 2,4-dihydroybezaldehyde (H3L), and its Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) complexes have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance, thermal analysis (TGA), inductive coupled plasma (ICP), magnetic moment measurements, IR, EI-mass, UV-Vis. and ESR spectral studies. On the basis of spectral studies and analytical data, it is evident that the Schiff base acts as dibasic tridentate ligand coordinating via deprotonated OH, NH and azomethine nitrogen atom. The results showed that Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes have tetrahedral structure while Cu(II) complexes has octahedral geometry. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of the thermal decomposition stages have been evaluated. The studied complexes were tested for their in vitro antimicrobial activities against some bacterial strains. The anticancer activity of the ligand and its metal complexes is evaluated against human liver Carcinoma (HEPG2) cell. These compounds exhibited a moderate and weak activity against the tested HEPG2 cell lines with IC50 of 9.08, 18.2 and 19.7 μg/ml for ligand, Cu(II) and Ni(II) complexes, respectively. In vitro antioxidant activity of the newly synthesized compounds has also been evaluated.

  20. Synthesis, spectral and thermal studies of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes 1-(4,6-dimethyl-pyrimidin-2-ylazo)-naphthalen-2-ol.

    PubMed

    Gaber, M; Ayad, M M; El-Sayed, Y S Y

    2005-11-01

    The electronic absorption spectra of 1-(4,6-dimethyl-pyrimidin-2-ylazo)-naphthalen-2-ol is studied in organic solvents of different polarity as well as in buffer solutions of varying pH values at different temperatures and different ratios of methanol. The probable structure of the azodye has been assigned on the basis of spectral studies (IR and (1)H NMR). The effect of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions on the emission spectrum of the free azodye is also assigned. The stoichiometry of the metal complexes is determined spectrophotometrically and conductometrically. Novel complexes of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) with the pyrimidine azodye have been synthesized and characterized on the basis of elemental analyses, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility measurements, IR, electronic as well as ESR spectral studies The thermal decomposition of the metal complexes is studied by TGA and DTA techniques. The kinetic parameters like activation energy, pre-exponential factor and entropy of activation are estimated.

  1. Coordination behavior of tetraaza [N4] ligand towards Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Cu(I) and Pd(II) complexes: Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and anticancer activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Boraey, Hanaa A.

    2012-11-01

    Novel eight Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Cu(I) and Pd(II) complexes with [N4] ligand (L) i.e. 2-amino-N-{2-[(2-aminobenzoyl)amino]ethyl}benzamide have been synthesized and structurally characterized by elemental analysis, spectral, thermal (TG/DTG), magnetic, and molar conductivity measurements. On the basis of IR, mass, electronic and EPR spectral studies an octahedral geometry has been proposed for Co(II), Ni(II) complexes and Cu(II) chloride complex, square-pyramidal for Cu(I) bromide complex. For Cu(II) nitrate complex (6), Pd(II) complex (8) square planar geometry was proposed. The EPR data of Cu(II) complexes in powdered form indicate dx2-y2 ground state of Cu(II) ion. The antitumor activity of the synthesized ligand and some selected metal complexes has been studied. The palladium(II) complex (8) was found to display cytotoxicity (IC50 = 25.6 and 41 μM) against human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and human hepatocarcinoma HEPG2 cell line.

  2. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, molecular modeling and potentiometric studies of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes with 1,1-diaminobutane-Schiff base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaghaz, Abdel-Nasser M. A.

    2014-08-01

    Complexes of cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) of general composition [M(L)(H2O)2]·2H2O have been synthesized [L = N,N";-bis(2-hydroxybenzylidene)-1,1-diaminobutane]. The elemental analysis, molar conductance measurements, magnetic susceptibility measurements, mass, IR, UV, NMR, SEM, EDX, thermal and EPR spectral studies of the compounds led to the conclusion that the ligand acts as a tetradentate manner. The molar conductance of the complexes in fresh solution of DMSO lies in the range of 7.46-9.13 Ω-1 cm2 mol-1 indicating their non-electrolytic behavior. On the basis of analytical and spectroscopic techniques, octahedral geometry of the complexes was proposed. The Schiff base acts as tetradentate ligand, coordinated through deprotonated phenolic oxygen and azomethine nitrogen atoms. The ligand field parameters were calculated for Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes and their values were found in the range reported for a octahedral structure. The molecular parameters of the ligand and its Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes have been calculated. Protonation constants of Schiff base and stability constants of their binary metal complexes have been determined potentiometrically in 50% DMSO-water media at 25 °C and ionic strength 0.10 M sodium perchlorate.

  3. Synthesis, characterization and DNA binding/cleavage, protein binding and cytotoxicity studies of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes of aminonaphthoquinone.

    PubMed

    Kosiha, A; Parthiban, C; Elango, Kuppanagounder P

    2017-03-01

    The Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes of an aminonaphthoquinone ligand (L) have been prepared and characterized using analytical and spectral techniques. The structures of L and its Zn(II) complex are confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction study. The results indicate that Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes possess tetrahedral geometry while Cu(II) complex exhibits square planar structure. The interaction of L and its complexes with CT-DNA reveal that they could interact with CT-DNA through intercalation. The DNA cleavage studies of the L and its complexes indicate that the Cu(II) and Ni(II) complexes cleave the circular form of the DNA relatively to a greater extent than the other complexes. The results of the interaction of these compounds with bovine serum albumin (BSA) indicate that the complexes exhibit a strong binding to BSA over the L. The in vitro anticancer activities indicate that these compounds exhibit substantial activity against human breast (MCF7) and lung cancer (A549) cell lines. The characteristics of apoptosis in cell morphology have been observed using AO/EB and DAPI staining and the results suggest that an apoptotic mode of cell death with these compounds. The overall results and discussion indicate that coordination of metal ions with the ligand enhances the biological activity.

  4. XAFS and bond-valence determination of the structures and compositions of surface functional groups and Pb(II) and Co(II) sorption products on single-crystal {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Bargar, J.R.; Towle, S.N.; Parks, G.A.; Brown, G.E. Jr.

    1997-01-15

    The structures and compositions of Pb(II) adsorption complexes and surface binding sites on {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0001) and (1{bar 1}02) surfaces were investigated in the presence of water using grazing-incidence X-ray absorption fine structure (GI-XAFS) spectroscopy. Pb(II) ions were found to adsorb in an inner-sphere mode on {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (1{bar 1}02) but as outer-sphere complexes on {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0001). The distance between the outer-sphere complexes and the surface places useful constraints on double-layer properties of water. A bond-valence model is described that relates the reactivities of surface functional groups and adsorption complexes to their molecular structures and compositions, and places constraints on the stoichiometries of adsorption reactions, including proton release. The EXAFS and modeling results suggest that Pb(II) and Co(II) ions bond to [3Al--O{sup {minus}1/2}] and [Al--OH{sub 2}{sup +1/2}] surface functional groups. In contrast, [2Al--OH] groups complex Co(II) but not Pb(II). The results indicate the importance of using structurally defined surface sites to describe reactions at oxide-water interfaces.

  5. Synthesis, characterization and biological activity of some new VO(IV), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes of chromone based NNO Schiff base derived from 2-aminothiazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalanithi, M.; Kodimunthiri, D.; Rajarajan, M.; Tharmaraj, P.

    2011-11-01

    Coordination compounds of VO(IV), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) with the Schiff base obtained through the condensation of 2-aminothiazole with 3-formyl chromone were synthesized. The compounds were characterized by 1H, 13C NMR, UV-Vis, IR, Mass, EPR, molar conductance and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The Cu(II) complex possesses tetrahedrally distorted square planar geometry whereas Co(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II) show distorted tetrahedral geometry. The VO(IV) complex shows square pyramidal geometry. The cyclic voltammogram of Cu (II) complex showed a well defined redox couple Cu(II)/Cu(I) with quasireversible nature. The antimicrobial activity against the species Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albigans and Aspergillus niger was screened and compared to the activity of the ligand. Emission spectrum was recorded for the ligand and the metal(II) complexes. The second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency was measured and found to have one fourth of the activity of urea. The SEM image of the copper(II) complex implies that the size of the particles is 2 μm.

  6. Synthesis, spectroscopic, antimicrobial and DNA cleavage studies of new Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Zn(II) and Hg(II) complexes with naphthofuran-2-carbohydrazide Schiff base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halli, Madappa B.; Sumathi, R. B.

    2012-08-01

    A series of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Zn(II) and Hg(II) complexes have been synthesized with newly synthesized Schiff base derived from naphthofuran-2-carbohydrazide and cinnamaldehyde. The elemental analyses of the complexes are confined to the stoichiometry of the type MLCl2 [M = Co(II) and Cu(II)], ML2Cl2 [M = Ni(II), Cd(II), Zn(II) and Hg(II)] respectively, where L is Schiff base ligand. Structures have been proposed from elemental analyses, IR, electronic, mass, 1H NMR, ESR spectral data, magnetic, and thermal studies. The measured low molar conductance values in DMF indicate that the complexes are non-electrolytes. Spectroscopic studies suggest coordination occurs through azomethine nitrogen and carbonyl oxygen of the ligand with the metal ions. The Schiff base and its complexes have been screened for their antibacterial (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhi) and antifungal (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Cladosporium and Candida albicans) activities by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method. The DNA cleavage studies by agarose gel electrophoresis method was studied for all the complexes.

  7. Crystal structure of non-centrosymmetric bis­(4-meth­oxy­benzyl­ammonium) tetra­chlorido­zincate

    PubMed Central

    Mahbouli Rhouma, Najla; Rayes, Ali; Mezzadri, Francesco; Calestani, Gianluca; Loukil, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The structure of the title non-centrosymmetric organic–inorganic hybrid salt, (C8H12NO)2[ZnCl4], consists of two 4-meth­oxy­benzyl­ammonium cations sandwiched between anionic layers, formed by isolated tetra­chlorido­zincate tetra­hedra. The double layers extend parallel to the ac plane. The crystal packing is assured by Coulombic inter­actions and by a complex N—H⋯Cl and C—H⋯Cl hydrogen-bonding system mostly involving the positively charged ammonium groups and the chloride ligands of the isolated tetra­hedral [ZnCl4]2− units. One of the methyl­ene­ammonium groups is disordered over two sets of sites in a 0.48 (2):0.52 (2) ratio. The crystal investigated was twinned by non-merohedry with a twin component ratio of 0.738 (2):0.262 (2). PMID:27555961

  8. Crystal structure of the thermochromic bis­(di­ethyl­ammonium) tetra­chlorido­cuprate(II) complex

    PubMed Central

    Aldrich, Emily P.; Bussey, Katherine A.; Connell, Jennifer R.; Reinhart, Erin F.; Oshin, Kayode D.; Mercado, Brandon Q.; Oliver, Allen G.

    2016-01-01

    In the structure of the title complex salt, (Et2NH2)2[CuCl4], the asymmetric unit consists of four unique di­ethyl­ammonium cations and three unique tetra­chlorido­cuprate anions. Two of the three anions are located with their copper atoms on independent crystallographic twofold axes, while the remaining tetra­chlorido­cuprate is located at a general position of the ortho­rhom­bic space group P21212. Two of the three Cu atoms adopt a distorted square-planar/disphenoidal geometry and the third Cu atom has a regular square-planar coordination environment. The di­ethyl­ammonium cations form an extensive hydrogen-bonded network through N—H⋯Cl inter­actions with the tetra­chlorido­cuprate anions, resulting in a two-dimensional sheet-like hydrogen-bonded network parallel to the ab direction. The complex was observed to undergo a color shift from deep green at room temperature to pale yellow at temperatures above 328 K. PMID:26870581

  9. Novel approach to study the cardiovascular effects and mechanism of action of urban particulate matter using lung epithelial-endothelial tetra-culture system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ha Ryong; Cho, Han Soo; Shin, Da Young; Chung, Kyu Hyuck

    2017-02-01

    In vitro models have become increasingly sophisticated, and their usefulness in supporting toxicity testing is well established. The present study was designed to establish a novel in vitro model that mimics the cellular network surrounding airways and pulmonary blood vessels, to study the cardiovascular toxic effects of particulate matter (PM). Transwell culture method was used to develop a novel tetra-culture system consisting of tri-cultures (one lung epithelial and two immune cell lines) in the apical chamber and endothelial cells in the basolateral chamber. Tri-cultures were exposed to standard reference material (SRM) 1648a, an urban PM. SRM 1648a did not show cytotoxic effects; however, it increased IL-6 level in apical and basolateral chambers. The cells in the basolateral chamber showed increased monocyte adhesion. Furthermore, exposure of tri-cultured cells to SRM 1648a in the apical chamber induced ICAM-1 expression in endothelial cells in the basolateral chamber by activating the IL-6/STAT3 pathway. In conclusion, a tetra-culture system was established to facilitate the identification of cellular adhesion molecule expression induced by the interaction between pulmonary epithelial and endothelial cells. The tetra-culture system will contribute to elucidation of the relationships between inhalable PM and cardiovascular diseases.

  10. Electropolymerizable peripherally tetra-{2-[3-(diethylamino)phenoxy]ethoxy} substituted as well as axially (4-phenylpiperazin-1-yl)propanoxy-disubstituted silicon phthalocyanines and their electrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Biyiklioglu, Zekeriya; Alp, Hakan

    2015-11-21

    A novel type of peripherally tetra-substituted as well as axially disubstituted silicon(iv) phthalocyanine containing electropolymerizable ligands was designed and synthesized for the first time. Axial bis-hydroxy silicon phthalocyanine 2 was prepared from 2(3),9(10),16(17),23(24)-tetrakis-{2-[3-(diethylamino)phenoxy]ethoxy}phthalocyanine 1 in dichloromethane by using 1.8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) and trichlorosilane. Peripherally tetra and axially di-substituted silicon phthalocyanine 4 was synthesized from 2(3),9(10),16(17),23(24)-tetrakis-{2-[3-(diethylamino)phenoxy]ethoxy}silicon(iv)phthalocyanine dihydroxide 2 with 1-(3-chloropropyl)-4-phenylpiperazine 3 in toluene in the presence of NaH at 120 °C. These complexes were fully characterized by various spectroscopy techniques such as (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, IR, UV-Vis, and MALDI-TOF spectroscopy and elemental analysis as well. Electropolymerization properties of silicon(IV) phthalocyanine complexes were investigated by cyclic and square wave voltammetry. Electrochemical studies reveal that silicon(IV) phthalocyanine complexes were electropolymerized on the working electrode during the anodic potential scan. This study is the first example of electropolymerization of both peripherally tetra and axially di-substituted silicon phthalocyanines on the same molecule.

  11. Different hydrogen-bonded structures in three 2-thienyl-substituted tetra­hydro-1,4-ep­oxy-1-benzazepines

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Maria C.; Palma, Alirio; Bahsas, Ali; Cobo, Justo; Glidewell, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    The mol­ecules of (2RS,4SR)-2-exo-(5-bromo-2-thienyl)-7-chloro-2,3,4,5-tetra­hydro-1H-1,4-ep­oxy-1-benzazepine, C14H11BrClNOS, (I), are linked into cyclic centrosymmetric dimers by C—H⋯π(thienyl) hydrogen bonds. Each such dimer makes rather short Br⋯Br contacts with two other dimers. In (2RS,4SR)-2-exo-(5-methyl-2-thienyl)-2,3,4,5-tetra­hydro-1H-1,4-ep­oxy-1-benzazepine, C15H15NOS, (II), a com­bination of C—H⋯O and C—H⋯π(thienyl) hydrogen bonds links the mol­ecules into chains of rings. A more complex chain of rings is formed in (2RS,4SR)-7-chloro-2-exo-(5-methyl-2-thienyl)-2,3,4,5-tetra­hydro-1H-1,4-ep­oxy-1-benzazepine, C15H14ClNOS, (III), built from a combination of two independent C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, one C—H⋯π(arene) hydrogen bond and one C—H⋯π(thienyl) hydro­gen bond. PMID:19726868

  12. How is the anionic tetrahedral intermediate involved in the isomerization of aspartyl peptides to iso-aspartyl ones? A DFT study on the tetra-peptide.

    PubMed

    Yamabe, Shinichi; Guan, Wei; Sakaki, Shigeyoshi

    2012-10-21

    An isomerization reaction of a tetra-peptide, Ac-Gly-Asp-Gly-Gly-NHMe → Ac-Gly-isoAsp-Gly-Gly-NHMe, was investigated by DFT calculations. Thirteen water molecules were added to the peptide for simulating proton transfers during the isomerization. As a starting analysis, the number (m) of water molecules participating in ready proton transfers was examined by the use of a small model system, H(3)C-NH-C(=O)-CH(2)-CH(2)-COOH and (H(2)O)(m). The m = 2 stepwise path was found to be of the smallest activation free energy. On the basis of this result, the first isomerization path of the tetra-peptide was obtained with four elementary processes. The m = 2 proton-transfer pattern is involved in them. A different proton transfer gives the second isomerization path with six elementary processes. The second path (with ionization) is more likely than the first one (without ionization). Formation of the five membered rings of the aminosuccinimidyl-residue and anionic tetrahedral intermediates enhances the encapsulation of H(3)O(+) through the wound tetra-peptide ring. The role of the hydrogen bonds on the encapsulation was discussed in terms of the optimized geometries of proton-transfer transition states and intermediates.

  13. Synthesis, crystal structure and properties of a novel tetra-nuclear Cu complex of ANPyO

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Jinjian; Liu Zuliang; Cheng Jian

    2013-01-15

    A transition metal Cu complex with 2,6-diamino-3,5-dinitropyridine-N-oxide (ANPyO) ligand has been synthesized and its crystal structure has been analyzed by X-ray diffraction methods. The crystal belongs to Triclinic system with space group P-1. The cell parameters are a=8.6710(17) nm, b=11.226(2) nm, c=18.741(4) nm, {alpha}=98.26(3), {beta}=102.60(3), {gamma}=109.17(3), V=1635.1(6) nm{sup 3}, D{sub c}=1.957 g/cm{sup 3}, {mu}=2.663 mm{sup -1}, F(000)=968, Z=2, R{sub 1}=0.0764, WR{sub 2}=0.1608. The thermal decomposition process of the title complex was studied by means of the TG-DTG and DSC at a heating rate of 20 K/min. It consists of two slow endothermic peaks and one violent exothermic peak with 37.22% residues. The apparent activation energy and pre-exponential factor of the complex in thermal decomposition process were calculated by means of the Kissinger method and Ozawa-Doyle method. The thermal decomposition of AP was accelerated due to the catalyst of the complex, it suggests that the complex can provide theoretical support to further performance study as it is added to the propellant formulations to regulate the burning rate. - Graphical abstract: A novel tetra-nuclear Cu complex of ANPyO was synthesized and its molecular structure was measured. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have synthesized and characterized a new tetra-nuclear Cu complex. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have measured its molecular structure and thermal decomposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A special coordination mode between ligand and central copper atoms has been obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It provides theoretical support to further performance study as energetic catalyst.

  14. Crystal structure of N′′-benzyl-N′′-[3-(benzyl­dimethyl­aza­nium­yl)prop­yl]-N,N,N′,N′-tetra­methyl­guanidinium bis­(tetra­phenyl­borate)

    PubMed Central

    Tiritiris, Ioannis; Kantlehner, Willi

    2015-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title salt, C24H38N4 2+·2C24H20B−, the C—N bond lengths in the central CN3 unit of the guanidinium ion are 1.3364 (13), 1.3407 (13) and 1.3539 (13) Å, indicating partial double-bond character. The central C atom is bonded to the three N atoms in a nearly ideal trigonal–planar geometry and the positive charge is delocalized in the CN3 plane. The bonds between the N atoms and the terminal methyl groups of the guanidinium moiety and the four C—N bonds to the central N atom of the (benzyl­dimethyl­aza­nium­yl)propyl group have single-bond character. In the crystal, C—H⋯π inter­actions between the guanidin­ium H atoms and the phenyl C atoms of the tetra­phenyl­borate ions are present, leading to the formation of a two-dimensional supra­molecular pattern parallel to the ac plane. PMID:26870511

  15. Crystal structure of tetra­kis­(isonicotinamide-κN)bis­(thio­cyanato-κN)cobalt(II)–isonicotinamide–ethanol (1/2/1)

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Tristan; Jess, Inke; Näther, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Co(NCS)2(C6H6N2O)4]·2C6H6N2O·C2H5OH, comprises one CoII cation, two thio­cyanate anions, four coordinating and two solvent isonicotinamide molecules and one ethanol solvent mol­ecule. The CoII cations are octa­hedrally coordinated by four N-coordinating isonicotinamide ligands and two terminally N-bonded thio­cyanate anions. These discrete complexes are linked by inter­molecular N—H⋯O and N—H⋯S hydrogen-bonding inter­actions into a three-dimensional network. The two isonicotinamide and the ethanol solvent mol­ecules are embedded in channels of this network and are linked through further N—H⋯O and N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds to the network. The ethanol solvent mol­ecule is disordered over two sets of sites (occupancy ratio 0.6:0.4). PMID:27536386

  16. Unravelling exceptional acetylene and carbon dioxide adsorption within a tetra-amide functionalized metal-organic framework

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, Florian; da Silva, Ivan; Al Smail, Nada H.; Easun, Timothy L.; Savage, Mathew; Godfrey, Harry G. W.; Parker, Stewart F.; Manuel, Pascal; Yang, Sihai; Schröder, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism of gas-sorbent interactions is of fundamental importance for the design of improved gas storage materials. Here we report the binding domains of carbon dioxide and acetylene in a tetra-amide functionalized metal-organic framework, MFM-188, at crystallographic resolution. Although exhibiting moderate porosity, desolvated MFM-188a exhibits exceptionally high carbon dioxide and acetylene adsorption uptakes with the latter (232 cm3 g−1 at 295 K and 1 bar) being the highest value observed for porous solids under these conditions to the best of our knowledge. Neutron diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering studies enable the direct observation of the role of amide groups in substrate binding, representing an example of probing gas-amide binding interactions by such experiments. This study reveals that the combination of polyamide groups, open metal sites, appropriate pore geometry and cooperative binding between guest molecules is responsible for the high uptakes of acetylene and carbon dioxide in MFM-188a. PMID:28176793

  17. Macroporous condensed poly(tetra fluoro-ethylene). II. In vivo effect on adhesion formation and tissue integration.

    PubMed

    Voskerician, Gabriela; Rodriguez, Analiz; Gingras, Peter H

    2007-08-01

    This study investigated the in vivo correlation between construct parameters (surface area, pore size) and polymer chemistry in modulating mesh-intestinal adhesions and mesh-abdominal wall integration of condensed poly(tetra fluoro-ethylene) (cPTFE) in hernia repair. A defect created by excising a 2 cm circular section of the abdominal wall from a rat was repaired with cPTFE or either one of the following synthetic meshes: expanded PTFE (ePTFE), ePTFE + polypropylene (PP), PP or PP + oxidized regenerated cellulose (ORC). The intestinal adhesion and abdominal wall integration were studied quantitatively by measuring the pull-out force required to separate each mesh from the respective tissue at 1 and 3 months postimplantation. The hydrophobic, large pore meshes, such as cPTFE and ePTFE + PP led to reduced adhesions. Further, the presence of ORC contributed to reduction in adhesions of the more hydrophilic PP + ORC mesh. The large pore size, thinner meshes such as cPTFE and PP + ORC led to better tissue integration compared to the other meshes tested. Through hydrophobic chemistry, low profile, and increased pore size, cPTFE balances the rapid resolution of the inflammatory and wound healing response that resists adhesion formation, with efficient integration within the surrounding abdominal tissue.

  18. Preparation and characterization of sterile sub-200 nm meso-tetra(4-hydroxylphenyl)porphyrin-loaded nanoparticles for photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Konan, Yvette Niamien; Cerny, Radovan; Favet, Joselyne; Berton, Myriam; Gurny, Robert; Allémann, Eric

    2003-01-01

    A photosensitizer, meso-tetra(4-hydroxyphenyl)porphyrin, was incorporated into sub-150 nm nanoparticles using the emulsification-diffusion technique in order to perform sterilization by filtration using 0.22 microm membranes. The three selected polyesters (poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide), (50:50 PLGA, 75:25 PLGA) and poly(D,L-lactide (PLA)) for the nanoparticle production were all amorphous in nature and have similar molecular weights but different copolymer molar ratios. The influence of the copolymer molar ratio and the theoretical drug loading was investigated in terms of particle size, drug loading, entrapment efficiency and surface characteristics. With all the polymers used, sub-150 nm nanoparticles were produced with good reproducibility and narrow size distributions irrespective of both the polymer nature and the theoretical drug loading. After purification by cross-flow filtration, the nanoparticle suspensions were sterilized by membrane filtration and freeze-dried in the presence of a lyoprotectant (trehalose). For all types of nanoparticles, complete redispersion in various media could be obtained. All final freeze-dried products were refiltrable on a 0.22 microm membrane and were stable in terms of mean particle size and drug loading over a period up to 6 months. The effective drug loading increased at higher theoretical drug loading, the entrapment efficiency was however decreased. The same trend was observed with the three polyesters. The sterility of the final freeze-dried nanoparticles was confirmed by the results of the sterility testing which showed no bacterial contamination.

  19. Synthesis and properties of 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-lauroylimidophenyl)porphyrin and its metal complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Er-jun; Cheng, Xiu-li; Wang, Dong; Tang, Xue-xin; Yu, Shuang-jiang; Shi, Tong-shun

    2007-11-01

    Transition metal complexes of 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-lauroylimidophenyl)porphyrin TLPPM [M = Mn(Cl), Fe(Cl), Co, Ni, Cu, Zn] have been synthesized and characterized by means of elemental analyses, UV-VIS spectra, infrared spectra, 1H NMR spectra, molar conductance, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarized optical microscopy (POM), cyclic voltammetry, luminescence spectra and surface photovoltage spectroscopies. The porphyrin ligand shows liquid crystalline behaviour, and it exhibits a high phase transition temperature 182 °C and a broad mesophase temperature span, 88 °C. The oxidation and reduction properties of the compounds were investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The photovoltaic properties and charge transfer process of the compounds were investigated by surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS) and electric field-induced surface photovoltage spectroscopic (EFISPS) techniques, which revealed that all the compounds are p-type semiconductors. Quantum yields of the S 1 → S 0 fluorescence were measured at room temperature. These studies will contribute to further choice and application of the liquid crystals.

  20. Selective accumulation of meso-tetra(hydroxyphenyl)chlorin in steroid-synthesizing cells of the rat adrenal gland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo-Benkmann, Mario; Muhm, Markus; Gahlen, Johannes; Vry, Magnus-Sebastian; Deubzer, Hedwig; Holloschi, Andreas; Haffner, Matthias; Heym, Christine; Senninger, Norbert

    1998-04-01

    Rat adrenal glands fluoresce intensely after systemic application of meso-tetra(hydroxyphenyl)chlorin (mTHPC). We investigated which parts of the adrenal gland accumulate mTHPC. Furthermore we examined the time course of adrenal mTHPC-accumulation. Ten male Wistar rats each were given 0.5 or 0.7 mg mTHPC kg-1 iv. Each two animals were perfused with normal saline and Zamboni fixative 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours after photosensitization. Untreated animals served as controls. Fluorescence was quantified on 20 micrometer frozen sections with CCD-camera and appropriate software. Immunohistochemistry identified specific cell types with antibodies to steroid-synthesizing enzymes. The cortex exhibited an intense fluorescence, with weaker fluorescence of corticocytes in the zona glomerulosa compared to the other zones. Besides intensely fluorescing singly lying scattered cells, the medulla showed a faint mTHPC-induced fluorescence. Immunohistochemistry revealed that intramedullary cells with intense fluorescence were corticocytes, showing a positive reaction to the 21-(beta) -hydroxylase antibody. Peak accumulation of mTHPC was always observed after 24 hours. Our results indicate for the first time that only steroid synthesizing cells of the adrenal gland exhibit an intense photosensitizer-induced fluorescence. Thus mTHPC-application is an uncomplicated method to identify steroid-synthesizing cells, possibly also in other organs.