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Sample records for coinage metal surfaces

  1. Chemical transformations drive complex self-assembly of uracil on close-packed coinage metal surfaces.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, Anthoula C; Fischer, Sybille; Reichert, Joachim; Diller, Katharina; Blobner, Florian; Klappenberger, Florian; Allegretti, Francesco; Seitsonen, Ari P; Barth, Johannes V

    2012-03-27

    We address the interplay of adsorption, chemical nature, and self-assembly of uracil on the Ag(111) and Cu(111) surfaces as a function of molecular coverage (0.3 to 1 monolayer) and temperature. We find that both metal surfaces act as templates and the Cu(111) surface acts additionally as a catalyst for the resulting self-assembled structures. With a combination of STM, synchrotron XPS, and NEXAFS studies, we unravel a distinct polymorphism on Cu(111), in stark contrast to what is observed for the case of uracil on the more inert Ag(111) surface. On Ag(111) uracil adsorbs flat and intact and forms close-packed two-dimensional islands. The self-assembly is driven by stable hydrogen-bonded dimers with poor two-dimensional order. On Cu(111) complex structures are observed exhibiting, in addition, a strong annealing temperature dependence. We determine the corresponding structural transformations to be driven by gradual deprotonation of the uracil molecules. Our XPS study reveals unambiguously the tautomeric signature of uracil in the contact layer and on Cu(111) the molecule's deprotonation sites. The metal-mediated deprotonation of uracil and the subsequent electron localization in the molecule determine important biological reactions. Our data show a dependence between molecular coverage and molecule-metal interaction on Cu(111), as the molecules tilt at higher coverages in order to accommodate a higher packing density. After deprotonation of both uracil N atoms, we observe an adsorption geometry that can be understood as coordinative anchoring with a significant charge redistribution in the molecule. DFT calculations are employed to analyze the surface bonding and accurately describe the pertaining electronic structure.

  2. The carbon-tolerance mechanism of Ni-based alloy with coinage metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mingyang; Fu, Zhaoming; Yang, Zongxian

    2013-11-01

    Using the first-principles calculations, we investigate the successive dehydrogenation of CH4, as well as the diffusion of CH (the most important carbon-containing intermediate), on the Ni(111) surfaces doped with coinage metals. It is found that, although alloying of Ni with coinage metals can to some extent affect the CH4 dehydrogenation, the coking inhibition on the alloy surface mainly roots in the large diffusion barrier of CH, as well as the reduction of the number of active adsorption sites for CHx. These results give a clue for designing new catalyst with higher coking resistance.

  3. Special Issue: Coinage Metal (Copper, Silver, and Gold) Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Carabineiro, Sónia Alexandra Correia

    2016-01-01

    The subject of catalysis by coinage metals (copper, silver, and gold) comes up increasingly day-by-day. This Special Issue aims to cover the numerous aspects of the use of these metals as catalysts for several reactions. It deals with synthesis and characterization of copper, silver and gold based catalysis, their characterization and use, both for heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis, and some of their potential applications. PMID:27338316

  4. Quantitative Prediction of Molecular Adsorption: Structure and Binding of Benzene on Coinage Metals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Maaß, Friedrich; Willenbockel, Martin; Bronner, Christopher; Schulze, Michael; Soubatch, Serguei; Tautz, F Stefan; Tegeder, Petra; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2015-07-17

    Interfaces between organic molecules and solid surfaces play a prominent role in heterogeneous catalysis, molecular sensors and switches, light-emitting diodes, and photovoltaics. The properties and the ensuing function of such hybrid interfaces often depend exponentially on molecular adsorption heights and binding strengths, calling for well-established benchmarks of these two quantities. Here we present systematic measurements that enable us to quantify the interaction of benzene with the Ag(111) coinage metal substrate with unprecedented accuracy (0.02 Å in the vertical adsorption height and 0.05 eV in the binding strength) by means of normal-incidence x-ray standing waves and temperature-programed desorption techniques. Based on these accurate experimental benchmarks for a prototypical molecule-solid interface, we demonstrate that recently developed first-principles calculations that explicitly account for the nonlocality of electronic exchange and correlation effects are able to determine the structure and stability of benzene on the Ag(111) surface within experimental error bars. Remarkably, such precise experiments and calculations demonstrate that despite different electronic properties of copper, silver, and gold, the binding strength of benzene is equal on the (111) surface of these three coinage metals. Our results suggest the existence of universal binding energy trends for aromatic molecules on surfaces. PMID:26230807

  5. Assessing the influence of van der Waals corrected exchange-correlation functionals on the anisotropic mechanical properties of coinage metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ji-Hwan; Park, Jong-Hun; Soon, Aloysius

    2016-07-01

    Current materials-related calculations employ density-functional theory (DFT), commonly using the (semi-)local-density approximations for the exchange-correlation (xc) functional. The difficulties in arriving at a reasonable description of van der Waals (vdW) interactions by DFT-based models is to date a big challenge. In this work, we use various flavors of vdW-corrected DFT xc functionals—ranging from the quasiempirical force-field add-on vdW corrections to self-consistent nonlocal correlation functionals—to study the bulk lattice and mechanical properties (including the elastic constants and anisotropic indices) of the coinage metals (copper, silver, and gold). We critically assess the reliability of the different vdW-corrected DFT methods in describing their anisotropic mechanical properties which have been less reported in the literature. In the context of this work, we regard that our results reiterate the fact that advocating a so-called perfect vdW-inclusive xc functional for describing the general physics and chemistry of these coinage metals could be a little premature. These challenges to modern-day functionals for anisotropically strained coinage metals (e.g., at the faceted surfaces of nanostructures) may well be relevant to other strained material systems.

  6. The chemical origin and catalytic activity of coinage metals: from oxidation to dehydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Syu, Cih-Ying; Yang, Hao-Wen; Hsu, Fu-Hsing; Wang, Jeng-Han

    2014-04-28

    The high oxidation activity of coinage metals (Cu, Ag and Au) has been widely applied in various important reactions, such as oxidation of carbon monoxide, alkenes or alcohols. The catalytic behavior of those inert metals has mostly been attributable to their size effect, the physical effect. In the present study, the chemical effects on their high oxidation activity have been investigated. We mechanistically examine the direct and oxidative dehydrogenation (partial oxidation) reactions of ethanol to acetaldehyde on a series of transition metals (groups 9, 10 and 11) with identical physical characteristics and varied chemical origins using density functional theory (DFT) calculations and electronic structure analyses at the GGA-PW91 level. The energetic results show that coinage metals have much lower activation energies and higher exothermicities for the oxidative dehydrogenation steps although they have higher energy for the direct dehydrogenation reaction. In the electronic structure analyses, coinage metals with saturated d bands can efficiently donate electrons to O* and OH*, or other electronegative adspecies, and better promote their p bands to higher energy levels. The negatively charged O* and OH* with high-lying p bands are responsible for lowering the energies in oxidative steps. The mechanistic understanding well explains the better oxidation activity of coinage metals and provides valuable information on their utilization in other useful applications, for example, the dehydrogenation process. PMID:24626959

  7. The chemical origin and catalytic activity of coinage metals: from oxidation to dehydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Syu, Cih-Ying; Yang, Hao-Wen; Hsu, Fu-Hsing; Wang, Jeng-Han

    2014-04-28

    The high oxidation activity of coinage metals (Cu, Ag and Au) has been widely applied in various important reactions, such as oxidation of carbon monoxide, alkenes or alcohols. The catalytic behavior of those inert metals has mostly been attributable to their size effect, the physical effect. In the present study, the chemical effects on their high oxidation activity have been investigated. We mechanistically examine the direct and oxidative dehydrogenation (partial oxidation) reactions of ethanol to acetaldehyde on a series of transition metals (groups 9, 10 and 11) with identical physical characteristics and varied chemical origins using density functional theory (DFT) calculations and electronic structure analyses at the GGA-PW91 level. The energetic results show that coinage metals have much lower activation energies and higher exothermicities for the oxidative dehydrogenation steps although they have higher energy for the direct dehydrogenation reaction. In the electronic structure analyses, coinage metals with saturated d bands can efficiently donate electrons to O* and OH*, or other electronegative adspecies, and better promote their p bands to higher energy levels. The negatively charged O* and OH* with high-lying p bands are responsible for lowering the energies in oxidative steps. The mechanistic understanding well explains the better oxidation activity of coinage metals and provides valuable information on their utilization in other useful applications, for example, the dehydrogenation process.

  8. Resistance to sulfur poisoning of Ni-based alloy with coinage (IB) metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaopei; Zhang, Yanxing; Yang, Zongxian

    2015-12-01

    The poisoning effects of S atom on the (1 0 0), (1 1 0) and (1 1 1) metal surfaces of pure Ni and Ni-based alloy with IB (coinage) metals (Cu, Ag, Au) are systematically studied. The effects of IB metal dopants on the S poisoning features are analyzed combining the density functional theory (DFT) results with thermodynamics data using the ab initio atomistic thermodynamic method. It is found that introducing IB doping metals into Ni surface can shift the d-band center downward from the Fermi level and weaken the adsorption of S on the (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) surfaces, and the S tolerance ability increases in the order of Ni, Cu/Ni, Ag/Ni and Au/Ni. Nevertheless, on the (1 1 1) surface, the S tolerance ability increases in the order of Ag/Ni (or Cu/Ni), Ni, and Au/Ni. When we increase the coverage of the IB metal dopants, we found that not only Au, but Cu and Ag can increase its S tolerance. We therefore propose that alloying can increase its S tolerance and alloying with Au would be a better way to increase the resistance to sulfur poisoning of the Ni anode as compared with the pure Ni and the Ag- or, Cu-doped Ni materials.

  9. Surface acidity scales: Experimental measurements of Brønsted acidities on anatase TiO2 and comparison with coinage metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silbaugh, Trent L.; Boaventura, Jaime S.; Barteau, Mark A.

    2016-08-01

    The first quantitative surface acidity scale for Brønsted acids on a solid surface is presented through the use of titration-displacement and equilibrium experiments on anatase TiO2. Surface acidities of species on TiO2 correlated with gas phase acidities, as was previously observed in qualitative studies of Brønsted acid displacement on Ag(110), Cu(110) and Au(111). A 90% compression of the surface acidity scale relative to the gas phase was observed due to compensation from the covalent component of the conjugate base - surface bond. Adsorbed conjugate bases need not be completely anionic for correlations with gas phase acidities to hold. Positive and negative substituent effects, such as substituted fluorine and hydrocarbon sidechain dispersion interactions with the surface, may modify the surface acidity scale, in agreement with previous experimental and theoretical work on Au(111).

  10. Sonochemical procedures; the main synthetic method for synthesis of coinage metal ion supramolecular polymer nano structures.

    PubMed

    Shahangi Shirazi, Fatemeh; Akhbari, Kamran

    2016-07-01

    During the last two decades, supramolecular polymers have received great attention and the number of their synthesized compounds is still growing. Although people have long been interested in their crystalline network form it was only until 2005 that the first examples of nano- or microscale coordination polymers particles be demonstrated. This review tries to give an overview of all nano supramolecular compounds which were reported from coinage metal ions, their attributed synthetic procedures and to investigate the relation between the dimensions of coinage metal ions (Cu, Ag and Au) coordination and supramolecular polymers with their nano-structural morphologies and dimensions. Eleven compounds (from twenty compounds) with nano-structure morphology were prepared by sonochemical process and Ag(I) coordination and supramolecular polymer nano-structures can be easily prepared by sonochemical procedures. PMID:26964923

  11. Sonochemical procedures; the main synthetic method for synthesis of coinage metal ion supramolecular polymer nano structures.

    PubMed

    Shahangi Shirazi, Fatemeh; Akhbari, Kamran

    2016-07-01

    During the last two decades, supramolecular polymers have received great attention and the number of their synthesized compounds is still growing. Although people have long been interested in their crystalline network form it was only until 2005 that the first examples of nano- or microscale coordination polymers particles be demonstrated. This review tries to give an overview of all nano supramolecular compounds which were reported from coinage metal ions, their attributed synthetic procedures and to investigate the relation between the dimensions of coinage metal ions (Cu, Ag and Au) coordination and supramolecular polymers with their nano-structural morphologies and dimensions. Eleven compounds (from twenty compounds) with nano-structure morphology were prepared by sonochemical process and Ag(I) coordination and supramolecular polymer nano-structures can be easily prepared by sonochemical procedures.

  12. Coinage metal complexes supported by the tri- and tetraphosphine ligands.

    PubMed

    Dau, Minh Thuy; Shakirova, Julia R; Karttunen, Antti J; Grachova, Elena V; Tunik, Sergey P; Melnikov, Alexey S; Pakkanen, Tapani A; Koshevoy, Igor O

    2014-05-01

    A series of tri- and tetranuclear phosphine complexes of d(10) metal ions supported by the polydentate ligands, bis(diphenylphosphinomethyl)phenylphosphine (PPP) and tris(diphenylphosphinomethyl)phosphine (PPPP), were synthesized. All the compounds under study, [AuM2(PPP)2](3+) (M = Au (1), Cu (2), Ag (3)), [M4(PPPP)2](4+) (M = Ag (4), Au (5)), [AuAg3(PPPP)2](4+) (6), and [Au2Cu2(PPPP)2(NCMe)4](4+) (7), were characterized crystallographically. The trinuclear clusters 1-3 contain a linear metal core, while in the isostructural tetranuclear complexes 4-6 the metal framework has a plane star-shaped arrangement. Cluster 7 adopts a structural motif that involves a digold unit bridged by two arms of the PPPP phosphines and decorated two spatially separated Cu(I) ions chelated by the remaining P donors. The NMR spectroscopic investigation in DMSO solution revealed the heterometallic clusters 2, 3, and 6 are stereochemically nonrigid and undergo reversible metal ions redistribution between several species, accompanied by their solvation-desolvation. The complexes 1-3 and 5-7 exhibit room temperature luminescence in the solid state (Φem = 6-64%) in the spectral region from 450 to 563 nm. The phosphorescence observed originates from the triplet excited states, determined by the metal cluster-centered dσ* → pσ transitions. PMID:24750114

  13. Adsorption of large hydrocarbons on coinage metals: a van der Waals density functional study.

    PubMed

    Björk, Jonas; Stafström, Sven

    2014-09-15

    The adsorption of organic molecules onto the close-packed facets of coinage metals is studied, and how accurately adsorption heights can be described by using recent advances of the van der Waals density functional (vdWDF), with optPBE/vdWDF, optB86b/vdWDF, vdWDF2, and rev/vdWDF2 functionals is illustrated. The adsorption of two prototypical aromatic hydrocarbons is investigated, and the calculated adsorption heights are compared to experimental literature values from normal incident X-ray standing wave absorption and a state-of-the-art semi-empirical method. It is shown that both the optB86b/vdWDF and rev/vdWDF2 functionals describe adsorption heights with an accuracy of 0.1 Å, compared to experimental values, and are concluded as reliable methods of choice for related systems.

  14. Probing the Structure, Dynamics, and Bonding of Coinage Metal Complexes of White Phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Forfar, Laura C; Zeng, Dihao; Green, Michael; McGrady, John E; Russell, Christopher A

    2016-04-01

    A series of cationic white phosphorus complexes of the coinage metals Au and Cu have been synthesised and characterised both in the solid state and in solution. All complexes feature a P4 unit coordinated through an edge P-P vector (η(2)-like), although the degree of activation (as measured by the coordinated P-P bond length) is greater in the gold species. All of the cations are fluxional on the NMR timescale at room temperature, but in the case of the gold systems fluxionality is frozen out at -90 °C. Electronic structure calculations suggest that this fluxionality proceeds via an η(1)-coordinated M-P4 intermediate. PMID:26918670

  15. N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Phosphinidene Complexes of the Coinage Metals.

    PubMed

    Doddi, Adinarayana; Bockfeld, Dirk; Nasr, Alexandre; Bannenberg, Thomas; Jones, Peter G; Tamm, Matthias

    2015-11-01

    Coinage metal complexes of the N-heterocyclic carbene-phosphinidene adduct IPr⋅PPh (IPr=1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazolin-2-ylidene) were prepared by its reaction with CuCl, AgCl, and [(Me2 S)AuCl], which afforded the monometallic complexes [(IPr⋅PPh)MCl] (M=Cu, Ag, Au). The reaction with two equivalents of the metal halides gave bimetallic [(IPr⋅PPh)(MCl)2 ] (M=Cu, Au); the corresponding disilver complex could not be isolated. [(IPr⋅PPh)(CuOTf)2 ] was prepared by reaction with copper(I) trifluoromethanesulfonate. Treatment of [(IPr⋅PPh)(MCl)2 ] (M=Cu, Au) with Na(BAr(F) ) or AgSbF6 afforded the tetranuclear complexes [(IPr⋅PPh)2 M4 Cl2 ]X2 (X=BAr(F) or SbF6 ), which contain unusual eight-membered M4 Cl2 P2 rings with short cuprophilic or aurophilic contacts along the chlorine-bridged M⋅⋅⋅M axes. Complete chloride abstraction from [(IPr⋅PPh)(AuCl)2 ] was achieved with two equivalents of AgSbF6 in the presence of tetrahydrothiophene (THT) to form [(IPr⋅PPh){Au(THT)}2 ][SbF6 ]2 . The cationic tetra- and dinuclear complexes were used as catalysts for enyne cyclization and carbene transfer reactions. PMID:26365325

  16. Monomeric copper(I), silver(I), and gold(I) alkyne complexes and the coinage metal family group trends.

    PubMed

    Dias, H V Rasika; Flores, Jaime A; Wu, Jiang; Kroll, Peter

    2009-08-12

    A series of thermally stable, easily isolable, monomeric, and isoleptic coinage metal alkyne complexes have been reported. Treatment of [N{(C(3)F(7))C(Dipp)N}(2)]Li (the lithium salt of the 1,3,5-triazapentadiene [N{(C(3)F(7))C(Dipp)N}(2)]H) with AuCl, CF(3)SO(3)Ag or CF(3)SO(3)Cu in the presence of 3-hexyne led to the corresponding coinage metal alkyne complex [N{(C(3)F(7))C(Dipp)N}(2)]M(EtC[triple bond]CEt) in good yield (M = Au, Ag, Cu; Dipp = 2,6-diisopropylphenyl). X-ray crystal structures of the three coinage metal alkynes are remarkably similar, and show the presence of trigonal-planar metal sites with eta(2)-bonded 3-hexyne. The M-C and M-N bond distances vary in the order Cu < Au < Ag. The bending of the C-C[triple bond]C bond angle is largest for the gold, followed by Cu and Ag adducts. The gold adduct also shows the largest decrease in C[triple bond]C stretching frequency in Raman, while the Ag adduct shows the smallest change compared to that of the uncoordinated alkyne. DFT calculations on [N{(CF(3))C(Ph)N}(2)]M(EtC[triple bond]CEt) and the related ClM(EtC[triple bond]CEt) predict that the M-alkyne bond energy varies in the order Ag < Cu < Au. The gold adducts are also predicted to have the longest C[triple bond]C, largest deviation of C-C[triple bond]C bond angle from linearity, and smallest C[triple bond]C stretching frequency, followed by the Cu and Ag adducts. In these triazapentadienyl coinage metal adducts, the sigma-donation from alkyne --> M dominates over the M --> alkyne pi-back-donation. PMID:19610646

  17. Coinage metal coordination chemistry of stable primary, secondary and tertiary ferrocenylethyl-based phosphines.

    PubMed

    Azizpoor Fard, M; Rabiee Kenaree, A; Boyle, P D; Ragogna, P J; Gilroy, J B; Corrigan, J F

    2016-02-21

    Ferrocene-based phosphines constitute an important auxiliary ligand in inorganic chemistry. Utilizing the (ferrocenylethyl)phosphines (FcCH2CH2)3-nHnP (Fc = ferrocenyl; n = 2, 1; n = 1, 2; n = 0, 3) the synthesis of a series of coordination complexes [(FcCH2CH2)3-nHnPCuCl]4 (n = 2, 1-CuCl; n = 0, 3-CuCl), [(FcCH2CH2)2HPCuCl] (2-CuCl), {[(FcCH2CH2)H2P]2AgCl}2 (1-AgCl), [(FcCH2CH2)2HPAgCl] (2-AgCl), [(FcCH2CH2)3PAgCl]4 (3-AgCl), [(FcCH2CH2)3PM(OAc)]4 (M = Cu, 3-CuOAc M = Ag, 3-AgOAc), [(FcCH2CH2)3-nHnPAuCl] (n = 1, 2-AuCl; n = 0, 3-AuCl), via the reaction between the free phosphine and MX (M = Cu, Ag and Au; X = Cl, OAc), is described. The reaction between the respective phosphine with a suspension of metal-chloride or -acetate in a 1 : 1 ratio in THF at ambient temperature affords coordinated phosphine-coinage metal complexes. Varying structural motifs are observed in the solid state, as determined via single crystal X-ray analysis of 1-CuCl, 3-CuCl, 1-AgCl, 3-AgCl, 3-CuOAc, 3-AgOAc, 2-AuCl and 3-AuCl. Complexes 1-CuCl and 3-CuCl are tetrameric Cu(i) cubane-like structures with a Cu4Cl4 core, whereas silver complexes with primary and tertiary phosphine reveal two different structural types. The structure of 1-AgCl, unlike the rest, displays the coordination of two phosphines to each silver atom and shows a quadrangle defined by two Ag and two Cl atoms. In contrast, 3-AgCl is distorted from a cubane structure via elongation of one of the ClAg distances. 3-CuOAc and 3-AgOAc are isostructural with step-like cores, while complexes 2-AuCl and 3-AuCl reveal a linear geometry of a phosphine gold(i) chloride devoid of any aurophilic interactions. All of the complexes were characterized in solution by multinuclear (1)H, (13)C{(1)H} and (31)P NMR spectroscopic techniques; the redox chemistry of the series of complexes was examined using cyclic voltammetry. This class of complexes has been found to exhibit one reversible Fe(ii)/Fe(iii) oxidation couple, suggesting the

  18. Coinage metal coordination chemistry of stable primary, secondary and tertiary ferrocenylethyl-based phosphines.

    PubMed

    Azizpoor Fard, M; Rabiee Kenaree, A; Boyle, P D; Ragogna, P J; Gilroy, J B; Corrigan, J F

    2016-02-21

    Ferrocene-based phosphines constitute an important auxiliary ligand in inorganic chemistry. Utilizing the (ferrocenylethyl)phosphines (FcCH2CH2)3-nHnP (Fc = ferrocenyl; n = 2, 1; n = 1, 2; n = 0, 3) the synthesis of a series of coordination complexes [(FcCH2CH2)3-nHnPCuCl]4 (n = 2, 1-CuCl; n = 0, 3-CuCl), [(FcCH2CH2)2HPCuCl] (2-CuCl), {[(FcCH2CH2)H2P]2AgCl}2 (1-AgCl), [(FcCH2CH2)2HPAgCl] (2-AgCl), [(FcCH2CH2)3PAgCl]4 (3-AgCl), [(FcCH2CH2)3PM(OAc)]4 (M = Cu, 3-CuOAc M = Ag, 3-AgOAc), [(FcCH2CH2)3-nHnPAuCl] (n = 1, 2-AuCl; n = 0, 3-AuCl), via the reaction between the free phosphine and MX (M = Cu, Ag and Au; X = Cl, OAc), is described. The reaction between the respective phosphine with a suspension of metal-chloride or -acetate in a 1 : 1 ratio in THF at ambient temperature affords coordinated phosphine-coinage metal complexes. Varying structural motifs are observed in the solid state, as determined via single crystal X-ray analysis of 1-CuCl, 3-CuCl, 1-AgCl, 3-AgCl, 3-CuOAc, 3-AgOAc, 2-AuCl and 3-AuCl. Complexes 1-CuCl and 3-CuCl are tetrameric Cu(i) cubane-like structures with a Cu4Cl4 core, whereas silver complexes with primary and tertiary phosphine reveal two different structural types. The structure of 1-AgCl, unlike the rest, displays the coordination of two phosphines to each silver atom and shows a quadrangle defined by two Ag and two Cl atoms. In contrast, 3-AgCl is distorted from a cubane structure via elongation of one of the ClAg distances. 3-CuOAc and 3-AgOAc are isostructural with step-like cores, while complexes 2-AuCl and 3-AuCl reveal a linear geometry of a phosphine gold(i) chloride devoid of any aurophilic interactions. All of the complexes were characterized in solution by multinuclear (1)H, (13)C{(1)H} and (31)P NMR spectroscopic techniques; the redox chemistry of the series of complexes was examined using cyclic voltammetry. This class of complexes has been found to exhibit one reversible Fe(ii)/Fe(iii) oxidation couple, suggesting the

  19. Well-defined coinage metal transfer agents for the synthesis of NHC-based nickel, rhodium and palladium macrocycles.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Rhiann E; Storey, Caroline M; Chaplin, Adrian B

    2016-06-01

    With a view to use as carbene transfer agents, well-defined silver(i) and copper(i) complexes of a macrocyclic NHC-based pincer ligand, bearing a central lutidine donor and a dodecamethylene spacer [CNC-(CH2)12, 1], have been prepared. Although the silver adduct is characterised by X-ray diffraction as a dinuclear species anti-[Ag(μ-1)]2(2+), variable temperature measurements indicate dynamic structural interchange in solution involving fragmentation into mononuclear [Ag(1)](+) on the NMR time scale. In contrast, a mononuclear structure is evident in both solution and the solid-state for the analogous copper adduct partnered with the weakly coordinating [BAr(F)4](-) counter anion. A related copper derivative, bearing instead the more coordinating cuprous bromide dianion [Cu2Br4](2-), is notable for the adoption of an interesting tetranuclear assembly in the solid-state, featuring two cuprophilic interactions and two bridging NHC donors, but is not retained on dissolution. Coinage metal precursors [M(1)]n[BAr(F)4]n (M = Ag, n = 2; M = Cu, n = 1) both act as carbene transfer agents to afford palladium, rhodium and nickel complexes of 1 and the effectiveness of these precursors has been evaluated under equivalent reaction conditions. PMID:27157720

  20. Well-defined coinage metal transfer agents for the synthesis of NHC-based nickel, rhodium and palladium macrocycles.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Rhiann E; Storey, Caroline M; Chaplin, Adrian B

    2016-06-01

    With a view to use as carbene transfer agents, well-defined silver(i) and copper(i) complexes of a macrocyclic NHC-based pincer ligand, bearing a central lutidine donor and a dodecamethylene spacer [CNC-(CH2)12, 1], have been prepared. Although the silver adduct is characterised by X-ray diffraction as a dinuclear species anti-[Ag(μ-1)]2(2+), variable temperature measurements indicate dynamic structural interchange in solution involving fragmentation into mononuclear [Ag(1)](+) on the NMR time scale. In contrast, a mononuclear structure is evident in both solution and the solid-state for the analogous copper adduct partnered with the weakly coordinating [BAr(F)4](-) counter anion. A related copper derivative, bearing instead the more coordinating cuprous bromide dianion [Cu2Br4](2-), is notable for the adoption of an interesting tetranuclear assembly in the solid-state, featuring two cuprophilic interactions and two bridging NHC donors, but is not retained on dissolution. Coinage metal precursors [M(1)]n[BAr(F)4]n (M = Ag, n = 2; M = Cu, n = 1) both act as carbene transfer agents to afford palladium, rhodium and nickel complexes of 1 and the effectiveness of these precursors has been evaluated under equivalent reaction conditions.

  1. Coinage metal complexes with bridging hybrid phosphine-NHC ligands: synthesis of di- and tetra-nuclear complexes.

    PubMed

    Simler, Thomas; Braunstein, Pierre; Danopoulos, Andreas A

    2016-03-28

    A series of P-NHC-type hybrid ligands containing both PR2 and N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) donors on meta-bis-substituted phenylene backbones, L(Cy), L(tBu) and L(Ph) (R = Cy, tBu, Ph, respectively), was accessed through a modular synthesis from a common precursor, and their coordination chemistry with coinage metals was explored and compared. Metallation of L(Ph)·n(HBr) (n = 1, 2) with Ag2O gave the pseudo-cubane [Ag4Br4(L(Ph))2], isostructural to [Ag4Br4(L(R))2] (R = Cy, tBu) (T. Simler, P. Braunstein and A. A. Danopoulos, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed., 2015, 54, 13691), whereas metallation of ·HBF4 (R = Ph, tBu) led to the dinuclear complexes [Ag2(L(R))2](BF4)2 which, in the solid state, feature heteroleptic Ag centres and a 'head-to-tail' (HT) arrangement of the bridging ligands. In solution, interconversion with the homoleptic 'head-to-head' (HH) isomers is facilitated by ligand fluxionality. 'Head-to-tail' [Cu2Br2(L(R))2] (R = Cy, tBu) dinuclear complexes were obtained from L(R)·HBr and [Cu5(Mes)5], Mes = 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl, which also feature bridging ligands and heteroleptic Cu centres. Although the various ligands L(R)l ed to structurally analogous complexes for R = Cy, tBu and Ph, the rates of dynamic processes occurring in solution are dependent on R, with faster rates for R = Ph. Transmetallation of both NHC and P donor groups from [Ag4Br4(L(tBu))2] to AuI by reaction with [AuCl(THT)] (THT = tetrahydrothiophene) led to L(tBu) transfer and to the dinuclear complex [Au2Cl2L(tBu)] with one L(tBu) ligand bridging the two Au centres. Except for the silver pseudo-cubanes, all other complexes do not exhibit metallophilic interactions. PMID:26886084

  2. Spin and orbital magnetism of coinage metal trimers (Cu{sub 3}, Ag{sub 3}, Au{sub 3}): A relativistic density functional theory study

    SciTech Connect

    Afshar, Mahdi; Sargolzaei, Mohsen

    2013-11-15

    We have demonstrated electronic structure and magnetic properties of Cu{sub 3}, Ag{sub 3} and Au{sub 3} trimers using a full potential local orbital method in the framework of relativistic density functional theory. We have also shown that the non-relativistic generalized gradient approximation for the exchange-correlation energy functional gives reliable magnetic properties in coinage metal trimers compared to experiment. In addition we have indicated that the spin-orbit coupling changes the structure and magnetic properties of gold trimer while the structure and magnetic properties of copper and silver trimers are marginally affected. A significant orbital moment of 0.21μ{sub B} was found for most stable geometry of the gold trimer whereas orbital magnetism is almost quenched in the copper and silver trimers.

  3. Shedding Light on the Photochemistry of Coinage-Metal Phosphorescent Materials: A Time-Resolved Laue Diffraction Study of an AgI–CuI Tetranuclear Complex

    PubMed Central

    Jarzembska, Katarzyna N.; Kamiński, Radosław; Fournier, Bertrand; Trzop, Elżbieta; Sokolow, Jesse D.; Henning, Robert; Chen, Yang; Coppens, Philip

    2015-01-01

    The triplet excited state of a new crystalline form of a tetranuclear coordination d10–d10-type complex, Ag2Cu2L4 (L = 2-diphenylphosphino-3-methylindole ligand), containing AgI and CuI metal centers has been explored using the Laue pump–probe technique with ≈80 ps time resolution. The relatively short lifetime of 1 μs is accompanied by significant photoinduced structural changes, as large as the Ag1···Cu2 distance shortening by 0.59(3) Å. The results show a pronounced strengthening of the argentophilic interactions and formation of new Ag···Cu bonds on excitation. Theoretical calculations indicate that the structural changes are due to a ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) strengthening the Ag···Ag interaction, mainly occurring from the methylindole ligands to the silver metal centers. QM/MM optimizations of the ground and excited states of the complex support the experimental results. Comparison with isolated molecule optimizations demonstrates the restricting effect of the crystalline matrix on photoinduced distortions. The work represents the first time-resolved Laue diffraction study of a heteronuclear coordination complex and provides new information on the nature of photoresponse of coinage metal complexes, which have been the subject of extensive studies. PMID:25238405

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of a Series of Quaternary Chalcogenides Ba LnMQ3 ( Ln=Rare Earth, M=Coinage Metal, Q=Se or Te)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuting; Ibers, James A.

    1999-10-01

    The compounds BaGdAuSe3, BaLaCuTe3, BaYCuTe3, BaYAgTe3, BaLaAgTe3, BaYbCuTe3, BaGdAgTe3, BaNdCuTe3, and BaPrCuTe3 were prepared by the reaction in a BaBr2/KBr flux at 850°C of a rare earth, a coinage-group metal, a chalcogen, and BaSe or BaTe. The unit cells of all of the compounds and the crystal structures of the first four compounds were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods. With the exception of BaLaCuTe3, which crystallizes with four formula units in the orthorhombic space group Pnma, all of these compounds crystallize with four formula units in the orthorhombic space group Cmcm. BaLaCuTe3, isostructural with β-BaLaCuSe3 and Eu2CuS3 (i.e., Eu2+Eu3+Cu+(S2-)3), and BaGdAuSe3, BaYCuTe3, and BaYAgTe3, isostructural with KZrCuS3, crystallize in a layered structure in which there are 2∞[LnMQ2-3] layers separated by Ba2+ ions. Ln atoms are coordinated by six Q atoms at the corners of a distorted octahedron, and M atoms are coordinated by four Q atoms at the corners of a tetrahedron. The layers are formed by the connection of edge-sharing octahedral chains and corner-sharing tetrahedral chains. Ba atoms are coordinated by seven Q atoms in BaLaCuTe3 and by eight Q atoms in BaGdAuSe3, BaYCuTe3, and BaYAgTe3. BaNdAgTe3 shows temperature-dependent paramagnetism. Its magnetic susceptibility follows the Curie-Weiss law. The effective magnetic moment of 3.4(3) μB is in agreement with the theoretical value of 3.6 μB for Nd3+.

  5. High performance Au-Cu alloy for enhanced visible-light water splitting driven by coinage metals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingyang; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Ting; Wang, Defa; Liu, Lequan; Ye, Jinhua

    2016-03-28

    A Au-Cu alloy strategy is, for the first time, demonstrated to be effective in enhancing visible-light photocatalytic H2 evolution via promoting metal interband transitions. Au3Cu/SrTiO3, in which oxidation of Cu was successfully restrained, showed the highest visible-light H2 evolution activity.

  6. High performance Au-Cu alloy for enhanced visible-light water splitting driven by coinage metals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingyang; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Ting; Wang, Defa; Liu, Lequan; Ye, Jinhua

    2016-03-28

    A Au-Cu alloy strategy is, for the first time, demonstrated to be effective in enhancing visible-light photocatalytic H2 evolution via promoting metal interband transitions. Au3Cu/SrTiO3, in which oxidation of Cu was successfully restrained, showed the highest visible-light H2 evolution activity. PMID:26952932

  7. Catalytic cross-coupling of diazo compounds with coinage metal-based catalysts: an experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Rivilla, Ivan; Sameera, W M C; Alvarez, Eleuterio; Díaz-Requejo, M Mar; Maseras, Feliu; Pérez, Pedro J

    2013-03-28

    We examined the ability of Tp(x)M (Tp(x) = hydrotris(pyrazolyl)borate ligand; M = Cu and Ag) and IPrMCl (IPr = 1,3-bis(diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene; M = Cu, Ag, Au) complexes as catalyst precursors for the cross-coupling of diazo compounds. Experimental data showed that the metal centre can be tuned with the appropriate selection of the ligand to yield either the homo- or hetero-coupling (cross-coupling) products. A computational study of the reaction mechanism allowed the rationalization of the experimental reactivity patterns, and the identification of the key reaction step controlling the selectivity: the initial reaction between the metallocarbene intermediate and one of the diazo compounds.

  8. 78 FR 14154 - Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ... and consideration of candidate designs for the Raoul Wallenberg Congressional Gold Medal; review and... any theme or design proposals relating to circulating coinage, bullion coinage, Congressional...

  9. Hydrogen Interaction with Metal Halides: the Nuclear Quadrupole Coupling Constant of Gold in the {p}{-H}_2{-AuCl} Complex and Trends in the Other Hydrogen-Coinage Metal Halide Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obenchain, Daniel A.; Grubbs, G. S. Grubbs, Ii; Pickett, Herbert M.; Novick, Stewart E.

    2013-06-01

    The rotational spectrum of p-H_2-AuCl has been measured using a laser ablation equipped FTMW cavity spectrometer. The predicted structure, using a 60 electron core potential and an aug-cc-pVQZ at the MP2 level of theory, shows that H_2 has an r_e = 0.91Å. A predicted value for the eQq(χ_{aa}) of gold required a semi-empirical method using the results of previous AuCl complexes in the gas phase. Transitions have been measured across multiple J levels, and have been used to determine the rotational constants, centrifugal distortion constants, and nuclear quadrupole coupling constants of multiple isotopologues. The o-H_2-AuCl has also been observed. While the monomer value of the eQq of ^{197}Au was determined to be 9.63112(13) MHz in ^{197}Au^{35}Cl, we observed a significant change in the eQq of ^{197}Au in p-H_2-^{197}Au^{35}Cl to a value of -817.9983(36) MHz [0.02728556(12) cm^{-1}], giving rise to a Au hyperfine component splittings of approximately 220 MHz [0.007 cm^{-1}] and suggesting a change in electronic structure with the interaction of H_2. We will present a summary of the hydrogen-coinage metal halide talks given at this conference, including trends in eQq and hydrogen metal halide dissociation energies. D. Figgen, G. Rauhut, M. Dolh, H. Stoll J. Chem. Phys. 311(2005) 227. K. A. Peterson, C. Puzzarini, Theor. Chem. Acc. 114 (2005) 283. C. J. Evans, C. L. Gerry J. Mol. Spectrosc. 203 (2000) 105.

  10. Gold/palladium and silver/palladium colloids as novel metallic substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Pergolese, Barbara; Bigotto, Adriano; Muniz-Miranda, Maurizio; Sbrana, Giuseppe

    2005-02-01

    New surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates, composed of gold or silver colloidal nanoparticles doped with palladium, were prepared. These novel colloids are stable and maintain a satisfactory SERS efficiency, even after long aging. The interest in doping the coinage metal nanoparticles with palladium is due to the well-known catalytic activity of this metal. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy were used to characterize the shape and size of the metal particles. It was found that these bimetallic colloidal nanoparticles have a core-shell structure, with gold or silver coated with palladium clusters.

  11. Shedding Light on the Photochemistry of Coinage-Metal Phosphorescent Materials: A Time-Resolved Laue Diffraction Study of an AgI-CuI Tetranuclear Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Jarzembska, Katarzyna N.; Kami,; #324; ski, Radoslaw; Fournier, Bertrand; Trzop, El; #380; bieta,; Sokolow, Jesse D.; Henning, Robert; Chen, Yang; Coppens, Philip

    2014-11-14

    The triplet excited state of a new crystalline form of a tetranuclear coordination d10–d10-type complex, Ag2Cu2L4 (L = 2-diphenylphosphino-3-methylindole ligand), containing AgI and CuI metal centers has been explored using the Laue pump–probe technique with ≈80 ps time resolution. The relatively short lifetime of 1 μs is accompanied by significant photoinduced structural changes, as large as the Ag1···Cu2 distance shortening by 0.59(3) Å. The results show a pronounced strengthening of the argentophilic interactions and formation of new Ag···Cu bonds on excitation. Theoretical calculations indicate that the structural changes are due to a ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) strengthening the Ag···Ag interaction, mainly occurring from the methylindole ligands to the silver metal centers. QM/MM optimizations of the ground and excited states of the complex support the experimental results. Comparison with isolated molecule optimizations demonstrates the restricting effect of the crystalline matrix on photoinduced distortions. The work represents the first time-resolved Laue diffraction study of a heteronuclear coordination complex and provides new information on the nature of photoresponse of coinage metal complexes, which have been the subject of extensive studies.

  12. 76 FR 57806 - Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... United States Mint Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee Meeting ACTION: Notification of Citizens Coinage..., section 5135(b)(8)(C), the United States Mint announces the Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee (CCAC.... Location: Conference Room A, United States Mint, 801 9th Street, NW., Washington, DC 20220. Subject:...

  13. 76 FR 34811 - Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... United States Mint Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee Meeting ACTION: Notification of Citizens Coinage... 5135(b)(8)(C), the United States Mint announces the Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee (CCAC) public... CONTACT: Greg Weinman, Acting United States Mint Liaison to the CCAC; 801 9th Street, NW.; Washington,...

  14. 76 FR 2754 - Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... United States Mint Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee Meeting ACTION: Notification of Citizens Coinage..., section 5135(b)(8)(C), the United States Mint announces the Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee (CCAC...: 8th Floor Board Room, United States Mint, 801 9th Street, NW., Washington, DC 20220. Subject:...

  15. 78 FR 57221 - Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... United States Mint Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee Meeting ACTION: Notification of Citizens Coinage..., section 5135(b)(8)(C), the United States Mint announces the Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee (CCAC... meeting at the United States Mint; 801 9th Street NW.; Washington, DC; Conference Room A. Subject:...

  16. 75 FR 70363 - Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... United States Mint Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee; Meeting ACTION: Notification of Citizens Coinage..., section 5135(b)(8)(C), the United States Mint announces the Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee (CCAC...: 8th Floor Board Room, United States Mint, 801 9th Street, NW., Washington, DC 20220. Subject:...

  17. Synthesis of Pyrene-Fused Pyrazaacenes on Metal Surfaces: Toward One-Dimensional Conjugated Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li; Papageorgiou, Anthoula C; Oh, Seung Cheol; Sağlam, Özge; Reichert, Joachim; Duncan, David A; Zhang, Yi-Qi; Klappenberger, Florian; Guo, Yuanyuan; Allegretti, Francesco; More, Sandeep; Bhosale, Rajesh; Mateo-Alonso, Aurelio; Barth, Johannes V

    2016-01-26

    We investigated the synthesis of one-dimensional nanostructures via Schiff base (imine) formation on three close-packed coinage metal (Au, Ag, and Cu) surfaces under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. We demonstrate the feasibility of forming pyrene-fused pyrazaacene-based oligomers on the Ag(111) surface by thermal annealing of tetraketone and tetraamine molecules, which were designed to afford cyclocondensation products. Direct visualization by scanning tunneling microscopy of reactants, intermediates, and products with submolecular resolution and the analysis of their statistical distribution in dependence of stoichiometry and annealing temperature together with the inspection of complementary X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy signatures provide unique insight in the reaction mechanism, its limitations, and the role of the supporting substrate. In contrast to the reaction on Ag(111), the reactants desorb from the Au(111) surface before reacting, whereas they decompose on the Cu(111) surface during the relevant thermal treatment.

  18. Self-assembly of strongly dipolar molecules on metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunkel, Donna A.; Hooper, James; Simpson, Scott; Miller, Daniel P.; Routaboul, Lucie; Braunstein, Pierre; Doudin, Bernard; Beniwal, Sumit; Dowben, Peter; Skomski, Ralph; Zurek, Eva; Enders, Axel

    2015-03-01

    The role of dipole-dipole interactions in the self-assembly of dipolar organic molecules on surfaces is investigated. As a model system, strongly dipolar model molecules, p-benzoquinonemonoimine zwitterions (ZI) of type C6H2(⋯ NHR)2(⋯ O)2 on crystalline coinage metal surfaces were investigated with scanning tunneling microscopy and first principles calculations. Depending on the substrate, the molecules assemble into small clusters, nano gratings, and stripes, as well as in two-dimensional islands. The alignment of the molecular dipoles in those assemblies only rarely assumes the lowest electrostatic energy configuration. Based on calculations of the electrostatic energy for various experimentally observed molecular arrangements and under consideration of computed dipole moments of adsorbed molecules, the electrostatic energy minimization is ruled out as the driving force in the self-assembly. The structures observed are mainly the result of a competition between chemical interactions and substrate effects. The substrate's role in the self-assembly is to (i) reduce and realign the molecular dipole through charge donation and back donation involving both the molecular HOMO and LUMO, (ii) dictate the epitaxial orientation of the adsorbates, specifically so on Cu(111), and (iii) inhibit attractive forces between neighboring chains in the system ZI/Cu(111), which results in regularly spaced molecular gratings.

  19. The Role of Weak Interactions in Strong Intermolecular M···Cl Complexes of Coinage Metal Pyrazolates: Spectroscopic and DFT Study.

    PubMed

    Titov, Aleksei A; Guseva, Ekaterina A; Filippov, Oleg A; Babakhina, Galina M; Godovikov, Ivan A; Belkova, Natalia V; Epstein, Lina M; Shubina, Elena S

    2016-09-01

    The nondestructive reversible complexation of the macrocyclic group 11 metal pyrazolates {[3,5-(CF3)2Pz]M}3 (M = Cu(I), Ag(I)) to the halogen atom X = Cl, Br of η(3)-allyliron tricarbonyl halides (η(3)-2-R-C3H4)Fe(CO)3X is revealed by the variable-temperature spectroscopic (IR, NMR) study combined with density functional theory calculations. The composition of all complexes at room temperature is determined as 1:1. In the case of the [AgL]3 macrocycle, complexes 1:2 are observed at low temperature (<260 K). The complex's stability depends on the substituents in the allyl fragment and halide ligand as well as on the metal atom (Ag(I), Cu(I)) in the macrocycle. For bulky substituents (Me and Ph) the endo/exo equilibrium of the parent (η(3)-2-R-C3H4)Fe(CO)3X shifts upon the complex formation in favor of the exo isomer due to additional noncovalent interactions of the substituent with macrocycle. PMID:27529380

  20. Organometallic chemistry of metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Muetterties, E.L.

    1981-06-01

    The organometallic chemistry of metal surfaces is defined as a function of surface crystallography and of surface composition for a set of cyclic hydrocarbons that include benzene, toluene, cyclohexadienes, cyclohexene, cyclohexane, cyclooctatetraene, cyclooctadienes, cyclooctadiene, cycloheptatriene and cyclobutane. 12 figures.

  1. 78 FR 23635 - Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... United States Mint Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee; Public Meeting ACTION: Notification of Citizens... 31, section 5135(b)(8)(C), the United States Mint announces the Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee.... Location: Conference Room A, United States Mint, 801 9th Street NW., Washington, DC 20220. Subject:...

  2. 78 FR 36034 - Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... United States Mint Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee; Public Meeting ACTION: Notification of Citizens... 31, section 5135(b)(8)(C), the United States Mint announces the Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee.... Location: Conference Room A, United States Mint, 801 9th Street NW., Washington, DC 20220. Subject:...

  3. SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Gray, A.G.; Schweikher, E.W.

    1958-05-27

    The treatment of metallic uranium to provide a surface to which adherent electroplates can be applied is described. Metallic uranium is subjected to an etchant treatment in aqueous concentrated hydrochloric acid, and the etched metal is then treated to dissolve the resulting black oxide and/or chloride film without destroying the etched metal surface. The oxide or chloride removal is effected by means of moderately concentrated nitric acid in 3 to 20 seconds.

  4. Corrosion-resistant metal surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    2009-03-24

    The present invention relates to metal surfaces having thereon an ultrathin (e.g., less than ten nanometer thickness) corrosion-resistant film, thereby rendering the metal surfaces corrosion-resistant. The corrosion-resistant film includes an at least partially crosslinked amido-functionalized silanol component in combination with rare-earth metal oxide nanoparticles. The invention also relates to methods for producing such corrosion-resistant films.

  5. Noble-Metal-Free Materials for Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Detection.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xianjun; Melkersson, Jenny; Wu, Shiqun; Wang, Lingzhi; Zhang, Jinlong

    2016-09-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is an attractive tool for the sensing of molecules in the fields of chemical and biochemical analysis as it enables the sensitive detection of molecular fingerprint information even at the single-molecule level. In addition to traditional coinage metals in SERS analysis, recent research on noble-metal-free materials has also yielded highly sensitive SERS activity. This Minireview presents the recent development of noble-metal-free materials as SERS substrates and their potential applications, especially semiconductors and emerging graphene-based nanostructures. Rather than providing an exhaustive review of this field, possible contributions from semiconductor substrates, characteristics of graphene enhanced Raman scattering, as well as effect factors such as surface plasmon resonance, structure and defects of the nanostructures that are considered essential for SERS activity are emphasized. The intention is to illustrate, through these examples, that the promise of noble-metal-free materials for enhancing detection sensitivity can further fuel the development of SERS-related applications. PMID:27191682

  6. Metallic surfaces with special wettability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kesong; Jiang, Lei

    2011-03-01

    Metals are important and irreplaceable engineered materials in our society. Nature is a school for scientists and engineers, which has long served as a source of inspiration for humans. Inspired by nature, a variety of metallic surfaces with special wettability have been fabricated in recent years through the combination of surface micro- and nanostructures and chemical composition. These metallic surfaces with special wettability exhibit important applications in anti-corrosion, microfluidic systems, oil-water separation, liquid transportation, and other fields. Recent achievements in the fabrication and application of metallic surfaces with special wettability are presented in this review. The research prospects and directions of this field are also briefly addressed. We hope this review will be beneficial to expand the practical applications of metals and offer some inspirations to the researchers in the fields of engineering, biomedicine, and materials science.

  7. Decontaminating metal surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Childs, Everett L.

    1984-11-06

    Radioactively contaminated surfaces can be electrolytically decontaminated with greatly increased efficiencies by using electrolytes containing higher than heretofore conventional amounts of nitrate, e.g.,>600 g/l of NaNO.sub.3, or by using nitrate-containing electrolytes which are acidic, e.g., of a pH<6.

  8. Decontaminating metal surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Childs, E.L.

    1984-01-23

    Radioactively contaminated surfaces can be electrolytically decontaminated with greatly increased efficiencies by using electrolytes containing higher than heretofore conventional amounts of nitrate, e.g., >600 g/1 of NaNO/sub 3/, or by using nitrate-containing electrolytes which are acidic, e.g., of a pH < 6.

  9. Lotus-like effect for metal filings recovery and particle removal on heated metal surfaces using Leidenfrost water droplets.

    PubMed

    Tan, Cher Lin Clara; Sapiha, Kostantyn; Leong, Yoke Fun Hannah; Choi, Siwon; Anariba, Franklin; Thio, Beng Joo Reginald

    2015-07-21

    A "lotus-like" effect is applied to demonstrate the ability of the Leidenfrost water droplets to recover Cu particles on a heated Al substrate. Cu particles on the heated surface adhere to the rim of the Leidenfrost droplets and eventually coat the droplets' surface to form an aggregation. When Fe filings are added to the Cu particles, the aggregated mixture can then be collected using a strong rare earth magnet (NdFeB) upon evaporation of the water. We also show that the Leidenfrost effect can be effectively utilized to recover both hydrophobic (dust and activated carbon) and hydrophilic (SiO2 and MgO) particles from heated Al surfaces without any topographical modification or surfactant addition. Our results show that hydrophobic and hydrophilic materials can be collected with >92% and >96% effectiveness on grooved and smooth Al surfaces, respectively. Furthermore, we observed no significant differences in the amount of material collected above the Leidenfrost point within the tested temperature range (240 °C vs. 340 °C) as well as when the Al sheet was replaced with a Cu sheet as the substrate. However, we did observe that the Leidenfrost droplets were able to collect a greater amount of material when the working liquid was water than when it was ethanol. Our findings show promise in the development of an effective precious coinage metal filings recovery technology for application in the mint industry, as well as the self-cleaning of metallic and semiconductor surfaces where manual cleaning is not amenable. PMID:26053932

  10. Modeling adsorption and reactions of organic molecules at metal surfaces.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Tkatchenko, Alexandre; Scheffler, Matthias

    2014-11-18

    response effects enables reliable modeling of structure and stability for a broad class of organic molecules adsorbed on metal surfaces. This method was demonstrated to achieve quantitative accuracy for aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, naphthalene, anthracene, and diindenoperylene), C60, and sulfur/oxygen-containing molecules (thiophene, NTCDA, and PTCDA) on close-packed and stepped metal surfaces, leading to an overall accuracy of 0.1 Å in adsorption heights and 0.1 eV in binding energies with respect to state-of-the-art experiments. An unexpected finding is that vdW interactions contribute more to the binding of strongly bound molecules on transition-metal surfaces than for molecules physisorbed on coinage metals. The accurate inclusion of vdW interactions also significantly improves tilting angles and adsorption heights for all the studied molecules, and can qualitatively change the potential-energy surface for adsorbed molecules with flexible functional groups. Activation barriers for molecular switches and reaction precursors are modified as well.

  11. Modeling adsorption and reactions of organic molecules at metal surfaces.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Tkatchenko, Alexandre; Scheffler, Matthias

    2014-11-18

    response effects enables reliable modeling of structure and stability for a broad class of organic molecules adsorbed on metal surfaces. This method was demonstrated to achieve quantitative accuracy for aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, naphthalene, anthracene, and diindenoperylene), C60, and sulfur/oxygen-containing molecules (thiophene, NTCDA, and PTCDA) on close-packed and stepped metal surfaces, leading to an overall accuracy of 0.1 Å in adsorption heights and 0.1 eV in binding energies with respect to state-of-the-art experiments. An unexpected finding is that vdW interactions contribute more to the binding of strongly bound molecules on transition-metal surfaces than for molecules physisorbed on coinage metals. The accurate inclusion of vdW interactions also significantly improves tilting angles and adsorption heights for all the studied molecules, and can qualitatively change the potential-energy surface for adsorbed molecules with flexible functional groups. Activation barriers for molecular switches and reaction precursors are modified as well. PMID:24915492

  12. Modeling Adsorption and Reactions of Organic Molecules at Metal Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    response effects enables reliable modeling of structure and stability for a broad class of organic molecules adsorbed on metal surfaces. This method was demonstrated to achieve quantitative accuracy for aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, naphthalene, anthracene, and diindenoperylene), C60, and sulfur/oxygen-containing molecules (thiophene, NTCDA, and PTCDA) on close-packed and stepped metal surfaces, leading to an overall accuracy of 0.1 Å in adsorption heights and 0.1 eV in binding energies with respect to state-of-the-art experiments. An unexpected finding is that vdW interactions contribute more to the binding of strongly bound molecules on transition-metal surfaces than for molecules physisorbed on coinage metals. The accurate inclusion of vdW interactions also significantly improves tilting angles and adsorption heights for all the studied molecules, and can qualitatively change the potential-energy surface for adsorbed molecules with flexible functional groups. Activation barriers for molecular switches and reaction precursors are modified as well. PMID:24915492

  13. Magnetoelectric coupling at metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Gerhard, Lukas; Yamada, T.K.; Balashov, T.; Takacs, A. F.; Wesselink, R.J.H.; Daene, Markus W; Fechner, M.; Ostanin, S.; Ernst, Arthur; Mertig, I.; Wulfhekel, Wulf

    2010-10-01

    Magnetoelectric coupling allows the magnetic state of a material to be changed by an applied electric field. To date, this phenomenon has mainly been observed in insulating materials such as complex multiferroic oxides. Bulk metallic systems do not exhibit magnetoelectric coupling, because applied electric fields are screened by conduction electrons. We demonstrate strong magnetoelectric coupling at the surface of thin iron films using the electric field from a scanning tunnelling microscope, and are able to write, store and read information to areas with sides of a few nanometres. Our work demonstrates that high-density, non-volatile information storage is possible in metals.

  14. METHOD OF CLEANING METAL SURFACES

    DOEpatents

    Winkler, H.W.; Morfitt, J.W.; Little, T.H.

    1959-05-19

    Cleaning fluids for removing deposits from metal surfaces are described. The cleaning agents of the invention consist of aqueous nitric acid and an amhydrous nitrate salt of a metal which is lower in the electromotive series than the element of the deposit to be removed. In general, the salt content of thc cleaning agents ranged from 10 to 90%, preferably from 10 to 40% by weight; and the balance of the composition comprises nitric acid of any strength from extremely dilute up to concentrated strength.

  15. Method for decontamination of radioactive metal surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Bray, L.A.

    1996-08-13

    Disclosed is a method for removing radioactive contaminants from metal surfaces by applying steam containing an inorganic acid and cerium IV. Cerium IV is applied to contaminated metal surfaces by introducing cerium IV in solution into a steam spray directed at contaminated metal surfaces. Cerium IV solution is converted to an essentially atomized or vapor phase by the steam.

  16. Method for decontamination of radioactive metal surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Bray, Lane A.

    1996-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for removing radioactive contaminants from metal surfaces by applying steam containing an inorganic acid and cerium IV. Cerium IV is applied to contaminated metal surfaces by introducing cerium IV in solution into a steam spray directed at contaminated metal surfaces. Cerium IV solution is converted to an essentially atomized or vapor phase by the steam.

  17. Metal-hydrogen bridge bonding of hydrocarbons on metal surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Gavin, Robert M.; Reutt, Janice; Muetterties, Earl L.

    1981-01-01

    Molecular orbital studies implicate multicenter metal-hydrogen-carbon interactions as contributors to the bonding of chemisorbed hydrocarbons on clean metal surfaces. The most stable geometries appear to be those that achieve the maximum multicenter bonding to the coordinately unsaturated metal atoms in the vicinity of the anchoring metal-carbon interaction. Energy differences between possible surface sites are of the same magnitude as stabilization energies for three-center bonding of hydrogen atoms to the metal surface. Accordingly, secondary interactions of hydrogen with neighboring metal atoms may be significant determining factors in surface structures. The model predictions are compared with known structures and are used to propose a mechanism for hydrocarbon reactions on metal surfaces. These metal-hydrogen-carbon interactions are presumed to be intermediate points or states in C—H bond-breaking processes. PMID:16593041

  18. Structured surfaces on metal optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinkopf, Ralf; Hartung, Johannes; Kinast, Jan; Gebhardt, Andreas; Risse, Stefan; Eberhardt, Ramona

    2015-09-01

    Diamond machining of metal optics is a flexible way to manufacture structured elements on different surface geometries. Especially curved substrates such as spheres, aspheres, or freeforms in combination with structured elements enable innovative products like headlights of automobiles or spectrometers in life science or space applications. Using diamond turning, servo turning, milling, and shaping, different technologies for arbitrary geometries are available. The addressed wavelengths are typically in the near- infrared (NIR) and infrared (IR) spectral range. Applying additional finishing processes, diamond machining is also used for optics applicable down to the EUV spectral range. This wide range of applications is represented in the used materials, too. However, one important material group for diamond machining is metal substrates. For diamond machining of structured surfaces, it is important to consider the microstructure of the utilized materials thoroughly. Especially amorphous materials as nickel-phosphorus alloys or fine-grained copper allow the fine structuring of refractive and diffractive structures. The paper analyzes the influence variables for diamond machining of structured surfaces and shows the use of this research for applications in the spectral range from IR to EUV.

  19. Surface Finish after Laser Metal Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rombouts, M.; Maes, G.; Hendrix, W.; Delarbre, E.; Motmans, F.

    Laser metal deposition (LMD) is an additive manufacturing technology for the fabrication of metal parts through layerwise deposition and laser induced melting of metal powder. The poor surface finish presents a major limitation in LMD. This study focuses on the effects of surface inclination angle and strategies to improve the surface finish of LMD components. A substantial improvement in surface quality of both the side and top surfaces has been obtained by laser remelting after powder deposition.

  20. Surface chemistry of liquid metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, J. Adin, Jr.; Peebles, Henry; Peebles, Diamond; Rye, Robert; Yost, Fred

    1993-01-01

    The fundamental surface chemistry of the behavior of liquid metals spreading on a solid substrate is not at all well understood. Each of these questions involves knowing the details of the structure of interfaces and their dynamics. For example the structure of a monolayer of tin oxide on pure liquid tin is unknown. This is in contrast to the relatively large amount of data available on the structure of copper oxide monolayers on solid, pure copper. However, since liquid tin has a vapor pressure below 10(exp -10)torr for a reasonable temperature range above its melting point, it is possible to use the techniques of surface science to study the geometric, electronic and vibrational structures of these monolayers. In addition, certain techniques developed by surface chemists for the study of liquid systems can be applied to the ultra-high vacuum environment. In particular we have shown that light scattering spectroscopy can be used to study the surface tension tensor of these interfaces. The tin oxide layer in particular is very interesting in that the monolayer is rigid but admits of bending. Ellipsometric microscopy allows the visualization of monolayer thick films and show whether island formation occurs at various levels of dosing.

  1. Ambient plasma for metal surface treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuamatha, Prasad; Dhali, Shirshak

    2003-10-01

    The results of using ambient plasma for cleaning and treating metal surfaces are presented. Metal surfaces are cleaned with atmospheric pressure argon/hydrogen or argon/oxygen plasma. The cleaned surface was characterized by XPS and was found to consist of exposed metal with very low carbon content. Profilometry and optical imaging results show that plasma are very effective in removing oil and paint coatings from the surface of metals. This technique is a non-polluting alternative to surface treatments that currently use chemicals/solvents. In addition the plasma has been shown to improve the binding properties by uniformly hydroxylating the surface.

  2. Refractory thermal insulation for smooth metal surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    To protect rocket metal surfaces from engine exhaust heat, a refractory thermal insulation mixture, which adheres to smooth metals, has been developed. Insulation protection over a wide temperature range can be controlled by thickness of the applied mixture.

  3. Electrochemical nitridation of metal surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Heli; Turner, John A.

    2015-06-30

    Electrochemical nitridation of metals and the produced metals are disclosed. An exemplary method of electrochemical nitridation of metals comprises providing an electrochemical solution at low temperature. The method also comprises providing a three-electrode potentiostat system. The method also comprises stabilizing the three-electrode potentiostat system at open circuit potential. The method also comprises applying a cathodic potential to a metal.

  4. Synthesis metal nanoparticle

    DOEpatents

    Bunge, Scott D.; Boyle, Timothy J.

    2005-08-16

    A method for providing an anhydrous route for the synthesis of amine capped coinage-metal (copper, silver, and gold) nanoparticles (NPs) using the coinage-metal mesityl (mesityl=C.sub.6 H.sub.2 (CH.sub.3).sub.3 -2,4,6) derivatives. In this method, a solution of (Cu(C.sub.6 H.sub.2 (CH.sub.3).sub.3).sub.5, (Ag(C.sub.6 H.sub.2 (CH.sub.3).sub.3).sub.4, or (Au(C.sub.6 H.sub.2 (CH.sub.3).sub.3).sub.5 is dissolved in a coordinating solvent, such as a primary, secondary, or tertiary amine; primary, secondary, or tertiary phosphine, or alkyl thiol, to produce a mesityl precursor solution. This solution is subsequently injected into an organic solvent that is heated to a temperature greater than approximately 100.degree. C. After washing with an organic solvent, such as an alcohol (including methanol, ethanol, propanol, and higher molecular-weight alcohols), oxide free coinage NP are prepared that could be extracted with a solvent, such as an aromatic solvent (including, for example, toluene, benzene, and pyridine) or an alkane (including, for example, pentane, hexane, and heptane). Characterization by UV-Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that the NPs were approximately 9.2.+-.2.3 nm in size for Cu.degree., (no surface oxide present), approximately 8.5.+-.1.1 nm Ag.degree. spheres, and approximately 8-80 nm for Au.degree..

  5. Solar cell having improved front surface metallization

    SciTech Connect

    Lillington, D.R.; Mardesich, N.; Dill, H.G.; Garlick, G.F.J.

    1987-09-15

    This patent describes a solar cell comprising: a first layer of gallium arsenide semiconductor material of an N+ conductivity; a second layer of gallium arsenide semiconductor material of an N conductivity overlying the first layer; a third layer of gallium arsenide semiconductor material of a P conductivity overlying the N conductivity layer and forming a P-N junction therebetween. A layer of aluminium gallium arsenide semiconductor material of a p conductivity overlying the front major surface of the P conductivity third layer and having an exposed surface essentially parallel to the front major surface and at least one edge; a plurality of metallic contact lines made of a first metal alloy composition and being spaced apart by a first predetermined distance traversing the exposed surface and extending through the aluminium gallium arsenide layer to the front major surface and making electrical contact to the third layer; a plurality of longitudinally disposed metallic grid lines made of a second metal alloy composition and being spaced apart by a second predetermined distance located on the exposed surface of the aluminium gallium arsenide layer and which cross the metallic contact lines and make electrical contact to the metallic lines; a flat metallic strip disposed on the aluminium gallium arsenide layer exposed surface near the edge, the strip electrically coupling the metallic grid lines to one another; and a back contact located on the back major surface.

  6. 75 FR 11228 - Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee March 2010 Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... United States Mint Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee March 2010 Public Meeting AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notification. SUMMARY: Pursuant to United States Code, Title 31, section 5135(b)(8)(C), the United States Mint announces the Citizens Coinage Advisory...

  7. 75 FR 1684 - Notification of Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee January 2010 Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... United States Mint Notification of Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee January 2010 Public Meeting ACTION... States Code, Title 31, section 5135(b)(8)(C), the United States Mint announces the Citizens Coinage....m. Location: Conference Room 5 North, United States Mint, 801 9th Street, NW., Washington, DC...

  8. Surface polaritons of a metal-insulator-metal curved slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, Afshin

    2016-09-01

    The properties of s- and p-polarized surface polariton modes propagating circumferentially around a portion of a cylindrical metal-insulator-metal structure are studied, theoretically. By using the Maxwell equations in conjunction with the Drude model for the dielectric function of the metals and applying the appropriate boundary conditions, the dispersion relations of surface waves for two types of modes, are derived and numerically solved. The effects of the slab curvature and insulator thickness on the propagation of electromagnetic modes are investigated. The differences of the s- and p-polarized surface modes are also shown.

  9. The interaction of a metal deactivator with metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Schreifels, J.A. ); Morris, R.E.; Turner, N.H.; Mowery, R.L. )

    1990-01-01

    In modern aircraft fuel systems, the fuel is used as a heat transfer medium to dissipate heat from the avionics and hydraulic systems. Under these conditions, the fuel can undergo autooxidations. Autooxidations of net fuel can result in the formation of insoluble gum and sediment which can impair operation of the jet engine. Metal deactivator additives (MDA) were developed to counteract the catalytic activity of dissolved metals. The authors have directed their efforts at ascertaining the various mechanisms by which MDA can act, particularly in accelerated stability testing. One objective of this study was to determine to what extent interactions with metal surfaces of the test apparent govern the effectiveness of metal deactivators. This paper describes an examination of metal surfaces exposed to MDA solutions to determine under what, if any, conditions metal passivation can occur.

  10. Surface protected lithium-metal-oxide electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Kang, Sun-Ho

    2016-04-05

    A lithium-metal-oxide positive electrode having a layered or spinel structure for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell and battery is disclosed comprising electrode particles that are protected at the surface from undesirable effects, such as electrolyte oxidation, oxygen loss or dissolution by one or more lithium-metal-polyanionic compounds, such as a lithium-metal-phosphate or a lithium-metal-silicate material that can act as a solid electrolyte at or above the operating potential of the lithium-metal-oxide electrode. The surface protection significantly enhances the surface stability, rate capability and cycling stability of the lithium-metal-oxide electrodes, particularly when charged to high potentials.

  11. Frictional effects near a metal surface.

    PubMed

    Dou, Wenjie; Nitzan, Abraham; Subotnik, Joseph E

    2015-08-01

    When a classical master equation (CME) is used to describe the nonadiabatic dynamics of a molecule at metal surfaces, we show that in the regime of reasonably strong molecule-metal couplings, the CME can be reduced to a Fokker-Planck equation with an explicit form of electronic friction. For a single metal substrate at thermal equilibrium, the electronic friction and random force satisfy the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. When we investigate the time scale for an electron transfer (ET) event between the molecule and metal surface, we find that the ET rates show a turnover effect (just as in Kramer's theory) as a function of frictional damping. PMID:26254638

  12. Frictional effects near a metal surface

    SciTech Connect

    Dou, Wenjie; Subotnik, Joseph E.; Nitzan, Abraham

    2015-08-07

    When a classical master equation (CME) is used to describe the nonadiabatic dynamics of a molecule at metal surfaces, we show that in the regime of reasonably strong molecule-metal couplings, the CME can be reduced to a Fokker-Planck equation with an explicit form of electronic friction. For a single metal substrate at thermal equilibrium, the electronic friction and random force satisfy the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. When we investigate the time scale for an electron transfer (ET) event between the molecule and metal surface, we find that the ET rates show a turnover effect (just as in Kramer’s theory) as a function of frictional damping.

  13. An extensive computational study of the adsorption of thiophene on transition metal surfaces: role of van der Waals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas, Tomas; Kara, Abdelkader

    2014-03-01

    Van der Waals (vdWs) interactions play a significant role in the determination of the adsorption characteristics at the interface between a molecule and a substrate. In this study, self-consistent inclusion of vdW interactions in density functional theory provides a good perspective to understand the interaction between organic adsorbates and inorganic interfaces. We present the results of adsorption of thiophene (C4H4S) on various transition metal surfaces with the goal of comparing the performance of five different vdW functionals (optB86, optB88, optPBE, revPBE, rPW86). Seven metallic substrates (100) are used for our study; three coinage metals (Au, Ag, Cu) and four reactive metals (Pt, Pd, Rh, Ni). The results show that vdWs inclusion enhances the interaction for Ag (0.08 to 0.73 eV), Au (0.14 to 0.86 eV), Cu (0.12 eV to 0.77 eV), Ni(1.56 to 2.34 eV), Pt (1.6 to 2.51 eV), Pd (1.67 to 2.54), Rh (1.74 to 2.96 eV). In addition, we performed calculations for adsorption heights along with analysis of the electronic changes (charge transfer, changes in the d-band of the substrate, and change in the work function) to complement our understanding of these systems. This work is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Basic Energy Science under Contract No DE-FG02-11ER16243.

  14. Method of boronizing transition metal surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Koyama, Koichiro; Shimotake, Hiroshi

    1983-01-01

    A method is presented for preparing a boride layer on a transition metal substrate for use in corrosive environments or as a harden surface in machine applications. This method is particularly useful in treating current collectors for use within a high temperature and corrosive electrochemical cell environment. A melt of a alkali metal boride tetrafluoride salt including such as KF to lower its melting point is prepared including a dissolved boron containing material, for instance NiB, MnB.sub.2, or CrB.sub.2. A transition metal to be coated is immersed in the melt at a temperature of no more than 700.degree. C. and a surface boride layer of that transition metal is formed within a period of about 24 hours on the substrate surface.

  15. Method of boronizing transition metal surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Koyama, Koichiro; Shimotake, Hiroshi.

    1983-08-16

    A method is presented for preparing a boride layer on a transition metal substrate for use in corrosive environments or as a harden surface in machine applications. This method is particularly useful in treating current collectors for use within a high temperature and corrosive electrochemical cell environment. A melt of a alkali metal boride tetrafluoride salt including such as KF to lower its melting point is prepared including a dissolved boron containing material, for instance NiB, MnB[sub 2], or CrB[sub 2]. A transition metal to be coated is immersed in the melt at a temperature of no more than 700 C and a surface boride layer of that transition metal is formed within a period of about 24 hours on the substrate surface. 4 figs.

  16. Attachment of hyaluronan to metallic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Pitt, William G; Morris, Robert N; Mason, Mitchell L; Hall, Matthew W; Luo, Yi; Prestwich, Glenn D

    2004-01-01

    Metal implants are in general not compatible with the tissues of the human body, and in particular, blood exhibits a severe hemostatic response. Herein we present results of a technique to mask the surface of metals with a natural biopolymer, hyaluronan (HA). HA has minimal adverse interactions with blood and other tissues, but attachment of bioactive peptides can promote specific biological interactions. In this study, stainless steel was cleaned and then surface-modified by covalent attachment of an epoxy silane. The epoxy was subsequently converted to an aldehyde functional group and reacted with hyaluronan through an adipic dihydrazide linkage, thus covalently immobilizing the HA onto the steel surface. Fluorescent labeling of the HA showed that the surface had a fairly uniform covering of HA. When human platelet rich plasma was placed on the HA-coated surface, there was no observable adhesion of platelets. HA derivatized with a peptide containing the RGD peptide sequence was also bound to the stainless steel. The RGD-containing peptide was bioactive as exemplified by the attachment and spreading of platelets on this surface. Furthermore, when the RGD peptide was replaced with the nonsense RDG sequence, minimal adhesion of platelets was observed. This type of controlled biological activity on a metal surface has potential for modulating cell growth and cellular interactions with metallic implants, such as vascular stents, orthopedic implants, heart valve cages, and more. PMID:14661254

  17. 75 FR 6791 - Notification of Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee February 2010 Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... 9th Street NW., Washington, DC 20220. Subject: Review 2011 First Spouse Gold Coin and Medal Program..., bullion coinage, Congressional Gold Medals, and national and other medals. Advises the Secretary of...

  18. Internal and surface phenomena in metal combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreizin, Edward L.; Molodetsky, Irina E.; Law, Chung K.

    1995-01-01

    Combustion of metals has been widely studied in the past, primarily because of their high oxidation enthalpies. A general understanding of metal combustion has been developed based on the recognition of the existence of both vapor-phase and surface reactions and involvement of the reaction products in the ensuing heterogeneous combustion. However, distinct features often observed in metal particle combustion, such as brightness oscillations and jumps (spearpoints), disruptive burning, and non-symmetric flames are not currently understood. Recent metal combustion experiments using uniform high-temperature metal droplets produced by a novel micro-arc technique have indicated that oxygen dissolves in the interior of burning particles of certain metals and that the subsequent transformations of the metal-oxygen solutions into stoichiometric oxides are accompanied with sufficient heat release to cause observed brightness and temperature jumps. Similar oxygen dissolution has been observed in recent experiments on bulk iron combustion but has not been associated with such dramatic effects. This research addresses heterogeneous metal droplet combustion, specifically focusing on oxygen penetration into the burning metal droplets, and its influence on the metal combustion rate, temperature history, and disruptive burning. A unique feature of the experimental approach is the combination of the microgravity environment with a novel micro-arc Generator of Monodispersed Metal Droplets (GEMMED), ensuring repeatable formation and ignition of uniform metal droplets with controllable initial temperature and velocity. The droplet initial temperatures can be adjusted within a wide range from just above the metal melting point, which provides means to ignite droplets instantly upon entering an oxygen containing environment. Initial droplet velocity will be set equal to zero allowing one to organize metal combustion microgravity experiments in a fashion similar to usual microgravity

  19. Theory of sum frequency generation from metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebsch, A.

    The time-dependent density functional approach is used to evaluate the optical sum frequency generation from metal surfaces. Attention is focussed on the magnitude and frequency variation of the element χzzz(ω1,ω2). Four types of metal surfaces are considered: simple metals, alkali metal overlayers, noble metals, and charged metal surfaces. Differences and similarities with respect to second harmonic generation from these surfaces are pointed out.

  20. Terahertz NDE for Metallic Surface Roughness Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madaras, Eric I.; Anastasi, Robert F.

    2006-01-01

    Metallic surface roughness in a nominally smooth surface is a potential indication of material degradation or damage. When the surface is coated or covered with an opaque dielectric material, such as paint or insulation, then inspecting for surface changes becomes almost impossible. Terahertz NDE is a method capable of penetrating the coating and inspecting the metallic surface. The terahertz frequency regime is between 100 GHz and 10 THz and has a free space wavelength of 300 micrometers at 1 THz. Pulsed terahertz radiation, can be generated and detected using optical excitation of biased semiconductors with femtosecond laser pulses. The resulting time domain signal is 320 picoseconds in duration. In this application, samples are inspected with a commercial terahertz NDE system that scans the sample and generates a set of time-domain signals that are a function of the backscatter from the metallic surface. Post processing is then performed in the time and frequency domains to generate C-scan type images that show scattering effects due to surface non-uniformity.

  1. Coinage metal complexes supported by a "PN(3)P" scaffold.

    PubMed

    Rao, Gyandshwar Kumar; Gorelsky, Serge I; Korobkov, Ilia; Richeson, Darrin

    2015-11-28

    A series of monovalent group 11 complexes, [2,6-{Ph2PNMe}2(NC5H3)]CuBr 1, [2,6-{Ph2PNMe}2(NC5H3)]CuOTf 2, [2,6-{Ph2PNMe}2(NC5H3)]AgOTf 3, and [2,6-{Ph2PNMe}2(NC5H3)](AuCl)24, supported by a neutral PN(3)P ligand have been synthesized and characterized by multinuclear NMR and single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The variation of the coordination properties were analyzed and electronic structure calculations have been carried out to provide insight on the bonding details in these complexes. The Cu(I) complexes displayed an unusual coordination geometry with a tridentate pincer ligand and an overall four coordinate trigonal pyramidal geometry. In contrast the Ag(I) analogue displayed a bidentate κ(2)-P,P' ligation leaving the pyridyl-N atom uncoordinated and yielding a pyramidalized trigonal planar geometry around Ag. The bimetallic Au(I) complex completed the series and displayed a monodentate P-bonded ligand and a linear coordination geometry.

  2. Method of coating metal surfaces to form protective metal coating thereon

    DOEpatents

    Krikorian, Oscar H.; Curtis, Paul G.

    1992-01-01

    A process is disclosed for forming a protective metal coating on a metal surface using a flux consisting of an alkali metal fluoride, an alkaline earth metal fluoride, an alkali metal fluoaluminate, an alkali metal fluosilicate, and mixtures thereof. The flux, in particulate form, is mixed with particles of a metal coating material which may comprise aluminum, chromium, mixtures thereof, and alloys containing at least 50 wt. % aluminum and the particulate mixture is applied to the metal surface in a single step, followed by heating the coated metal surface to a temperature sufficient to cause the metal coating material to react with the metal surface to form a protective reaction product in the form of a metal coating bonded to the metal surface. The metal surface which reacts with the metal coating material to form the protective coating may comprise Fe, Co, Ni, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Hf, Ta, W, Re and alloys thereof.

  3. Method of coating metal surfaces to form protective metal coating thereon

    DOEpatents

    Krikorian, O.H.; Curtis, P.G.

    1992-03-31

    A process is disclosed for forming a protective metal coating on a metal surface using a flux consisting of an alkali metal fluoride, an alkaline earth metal fluoride, an alkali metal fluoaluminate, an alkali metal fluosilicate, and mixtures thereof. The flux, in particulate form, is mixed with particles of a metal coating material which may comprise aluminum, chromium, mixtures thereof, and alloys containing at least 50 wt. % aluminum and the particulate mixture is applied to the metal surface in a single step, followed by heating the coated metal surface to a temperature sufficient to cause the metal coating material to react with the metal surface to form a protective reaction product in the form of a metal coating bonded to the metal surface. The metal surface which reacts with the metal coating material to form the protective coating may comprise Fe, Co, Ni, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Hf, Ta, W, Re and alloys thereof. 1 figure.

  4. Rigid multipodal platforms for metal surfaces.

    PubMed

    Valášek, Michal; Lindner, Marcin; Mayor, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    In this review the recent progress in molecular platforms that form rigid and well-defined contact to a metal surface are discussed. Most of the presented examples have at least three anchoring units in order to control the spatial arrangement of the protruding molecular subunit. Another interesting feature is the lateral orientation of these foot structures which, depending on the particular application, is equally important as the spatial arrangement of the molecules. The numerous approaches towards assembling and organizing functional molecules into specific architectures on metal substrates are reviewed here. Particular attention is paid to variations of both, the core structures and the anchoring groups. Furthermore, the analytical methods enabling the investigation of individual molecules as well as monomolecular layers of ordered platform structures are summarized. The presented multipodal platforms bearing several anchoring groups form considerably more stable molecule-metal contacts than corresponding monopodal analogues and exhibit an enlarged separation of the functional molecules due to the increased footprint, as well as restrict tilting of the functional termini with respect to the metal surface. These platforms are thus ideally suited to tune important properties of the molecule-metal interface. On a single-molecule level, several of these platforms enable the control over the arrangement of the protruding rod-type molecular structures (e.g., molecular wires, switches, rotors, sensors) with respect to the surface of the substrate. PMID:27335731

  5. Rigid multipodal platforms for metal surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Valášek, Michal; Lindner, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Summary In this review the recent progress in molecular platforms that form rigid and well-defined contact to a metal surface are discussed. Most of the presented examples have at least three anchoring units in order to control the spatial arrangement of the protruding molecular subunit. Another interesting feature is the lateral orientation of these foot structures which, depending on the particular application, is equally important as the spatial arrangement of the molecules. The numerous approaches towards assembling and organizing functional molecules into specific architectures on metal substrates are reviewed here. Particular attention is paid to variations of both, the core structures and the anchoring groups. Furthermore, the analytical methods enabling the investigation of individual molecules as well as monomolecular layers of ordered platform structures are summarized. The presented multipodal platforms bearing several anchoring groups form considerably more stable molecule–metal contacts than corresponding monopodal analogues and exhibit an enlarged separation of the functional molecules due to the increased footprint, as well as restrict tilting of the functional termini with respect to the metal surface. These platforms are thus ideally suited to tune important properties of the molecule–metal interface. On a single-molecule level, several of these platforms enable the control over the arrangement of the protruding rod-type molecular structures (e.g., molecular wires, switches, rotors, sensors) with respect to the surface of the substrate. PMID:27335731

  6. RF Breakdown of Metallic Surfaces in Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    BastaniNejad, M.; Elmustafa, A.A.; Yonehara, K.; Chung, M.; Jansson, A.; Hu, M.; Moretti, A.; Popovic, M.; Alsharo'a, M.; Neubauer, M.; Sah, R.; /Muons Inc., Batavia

    2009-05-01

    In earlier reports, microscopic images of the surfaces of metallic electrodes used in high-pressure gas-filled 805 MHz RF cavity experiments were used to investigate the mechanism of RF breakdown of tungsten, molybdenum, and beryllium electrode surfaces. Plots of remnants were consistent with the breakdown events being due to field emission, due to the quantum mechanical tunnelling of electrons through a barrier as described by Fowler and Nordheim. In the work described here, these studies have been extended to include tin, aluminium, and copper. Contamination of the surfaces, discovered after the experiments concluded, have cast some doubt on the proper qualities to assign to the metallic surfaces. However, two significant results are noted. First, the maximum stable RF gradient of contaminated copper electrodes is higher than for a clean surface. Second, the addition of as little as 0.01% of SF6 to the hydrogen gas increased the maximum stable gradient, which implies that models of RF breakdown in hydrogen gas will be important to the study of metallic breakdown.

  7. Modelling the appearance of heritage metallic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, L.; Hindmarch, J.; Robson, S.; Terras, M.

    2014-06-01

    Polished metallic surfaces exhibit a high degree of specularity, which makes them difficult to reproduce accurately. We have applied two different techniques for modelling a heritage object known as the Islamic handbag. Photogrammetric multi-view stereo enabled a dense point cloud to be extracted from a set of photographs with calibration targets, and a geometrically accurate 3D model produced. A new method based on photometric stereo from a set of images taken in an illumination dome enabled surface normals to be generated for each face of the object and its appearance to be rendered, to a high degree of visual realism, when illuminated by one or more light sources from any angles. The specularity of the reflection from the metal surface was modelled by a modified Lorentzian function.

  8. Continuous metal plasmonic frequency selective surfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianfa; Ou, Jun-Yu; Papasimakis, Nikitas; Chen, Yifang; Macdonald, Kevin F; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2011-11-01

    In the microwave part of the spectrum, where losses are minimal, metal films regularly patterned (perforated) on the sub-wavelength scale achieve spectral selectivity by balancing the transmission and reflection characteristics of the surface. Here we show for optical frequencies, where joule losses are important, that periodic structuring of a metal film without violation of continuity (i.e. without perforation) is sufficient to achieve substantial modification of reflectivity. By engineering the geometry of the structure imposed on a surface one can dramatically change the perceived color of the metal without employing any form of chemical modification, thin-film coating or diffraction effects. This novel frequency selective effect is underpinned by plasmonic Joule losses in the constituent elements of the patterns (dubbed 'intaglio' and 'bas relief' metamaterials to distinguish indented and raised structures respectively) and is specific to the optical part of the spectrum. It has the advantage of maintaining the integrity of metal surfaces and is well suited to high-throughput fabrication via techniques such as nano-imprint. PMID:22109206

  9. Protection of lithium metal surfaces using chlorosilanes.

    PubMed

    Marchioni, Filippo; Star, Kurt; Menke, Erik; Buffeteau, Thierry; Servant, Laurent; Dunn, Bruce; Wudl, Fred

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, we present a new approach for protecting metallic lithium surfaces based on a reaction between the thin native layer of lithium hydroxide present on the surface and various chlorosilane derivatives. The chemical composition of the resulting layer and the chemistry involved in layer formation were analyzed by polarization modulated infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Spectroscopy shows the disappearance of surface hydroxide groups and the appearance of silicon and chloride on the lithium surface. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) show that this surface treatment protects the lithium from certain gas-phase reactions and is ionically conductive.

  10. The Surface Chemistry of Metal Chalcogenide Nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Nicholas Charles

    The surface chemistry of metal chalcogenide nanocrystals is explored through several interrelated analytical investigations. After a brief discussion of the nanocrystal history and applications, molecular orbital theory is used to describe the electronic properties of semiconductors, and how these materials behave on the nanoscale. Quantum confinement plays a major role in dictating the optical properties of metal chalcogenide nanocrystals, however surface states also have an equally significant contribution to the electronic properties of nanocrystals due to the high surface area to volume ratio of nanoscale semiconductors. Controlling surface chemistry is essential to functionalizing these materials for biological imaging and photovoltaic device applications. To better understand the surface chemistry of semiconducting nanocrystals, three competing surface chemistry models are presented: 1.) The TOPO model, 2.) the Non-stoichiometric model, and 3.) the Neutral Fragment model. Both the non-stoichiometric and neutral fragment models accurately describe the behavior of metal chalcogenide nanocrystals. These models rely on the covalent bond classification system, which divides ligands into three classes: 1.) X-type, 1-electron donating ligands that balance charge with excess metal at the nanocrystal surface, 2.) L-type, 2-electron donors that bind metal sites, and 3.) Z-type, 2-electron acceptors that bind chalcogenide sites. Each of these ligand classes is explored in detail to better understand the surface chemistry of metal chalcogenide nanocrystals. First, chloride-terminated, tri-n-butylphosphine (Bu 3P) bound CdSe nanocrystals were prepared by cleaving carboxylate ligands from CdSe nanocrystals with chlorotrimethylsilane in Bu3P solution. 1H and 31P{1H} nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of the isolated nanocrystals allowed assignment of distinct signals from several free and bound species, including surface-bound Bu3P and [Bu3P-H]+[Cl]- ligands as well as a Bu

  11. Superoleophobic Surfaces Obtained via Hierarchical Metallic Meshes.

    PubMed

    Grynyov, Roman; Bormashenko, Edward; Whyman, Gene; Bormashenko, Yelena; Musin, Albina; Pogreb, Roman; Starostin, Anton; Valtsifer, Viktor; Strelnikov, Vladimir; Schechter, Alex; Kolagatla, Srikanth

    2016-05-01

    Hierarchical metallic surfaces demonstrating pronounced water and oil repellence are reported. The surfaces were manufactured with stainless-steel microporous meshes, which were etched with perfluorononanoic acid. As a result, a hierarchical relief was created, characterized by roughness at micro- and sub-microscales. Pronounced superoleophobicity was registered with regard to canola, castor, sesame, flax, crude (petroleum), and engine oils. Relatively high sliding angles were recorded for 5 μL turpentine, olive, and silicone oil droplets. The stability of the Cassie-like air trapping wetting state, established with water/ethanol solutions, is reported. The omniphobicity of the surfaces is due to the interplay of their hierarchical relief and surface fluorination. PMID:27077637

  12. Surface plasmon polaritons in artificial metallic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briscoe, Jayson Lawrence

    Surface plasmon polaritons have been the focus of intense research due to their many unique properties such as high electromagnetic field localization, extreme sensitivity to surface conditions, and subwavelength confinement of electromagnetic waves. The area of potential impact is vast and includes promising advancements in photonic circuits, high speed photodetection, hyperspectral imaging, spectroscopy, enhanced solar cells, ultra-small scale lithography, and microscopy. My research has focused on utilizing these properties to design and demonstrate new phenomena and implement real-world applications using artificial metallic nanostructures. Artificial metallic nanostructures employed during my research begin as thin planar gold films which are then lithographically patterned according to previously determined dimensions. The result is a nanopatterned device which can excite surface plasmon polaritons on its surface under specific conditions. Through my research I characterized the optical properties of these devices for further insight into the interesting properties of surface plasmon polaritons. Exploration of these properties led to advancements in biosensing, development of artificial media to enhance and control light-matter interactions at the nanoscale, and hybrid plasmonic cavities. Demonstrations from these advancements include: label-free immunosensing of Plasmodium in a whole blood lysate, low part-per-trillion detection of microcystin-LR, enhanced refractive index sensitivity of novel resonant plasmonic devices, a defect-based plasmonic crystal, spontaneous emission modification of colloidal quantum dots, and coupling of plasmonic and optical Fabry-Perot resonant modes in a hybrid cavity.

  13. Process Of Bonding A Metal Brush Structure To A Planar Surface Of A Metal Substrate

    DOEpatents

    Slattery, Kevin T.; Driemeyer, Daniel E.; Wille; Gerald W.

    1999-11-02

    Process for bonding a metal brush structure to a planar surface of a metal substrate in which an array of metal rods are retained and immobilized at their tips by a common retention layer formed of metal, and the brush structure is then joined to a planar surface of a metal substrate via the retention layer.

  14. Method for preparing hydride configurations and reactive metal surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Silver, G.L.

    1984-05-18

    A method for preparing reactive metal surfaces, particularly uranium surfaces is disclosed, whereby the metal is immediately reactive to hydrogen gas at room temperature and low pressure. The metal surfaces are first pretreated by exposure to an acid which forms an adherent hydride-bearing composition on the metal surface. Subsequent heating of the pretreated metal at a temperature sufficient to decompose the hydride coating in vacuum or inert gas renders the metal surface instantaneously reactive to hydrogen gas at room temperature and low pressure.

  15. METHOD OF FORMING A PROTECTIVE COATING ON FERROUS METAL SURFACES

    DOEpatents

    Schweitzer, D.G.; Weeks, J.R.; Kammerer, O.F.; Gurinsky, D.H.

    1960-02-23

    A method is described of protecting ferrous metal surfaces from corrosive attack by liquid metals, such as liquid bismuth or lead-bismuth alloys. The nitrogen content of the ferrous metal surface is first reduced by reacting the metal surface with a metal which forms a stable nitride. Thereafter, the surface is contacted with liquid metal containing at least 2 ppm zirconium at a temperature in the range of 550 to 1100 deg C to form an adherent zirconium carbide layer on the ferrous surface.

  16. Modeling surface roughness scattering in metallic nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Moors, Kristof; Sorée, Bart; Magnus, Wim

    2015-09-28

    Ando's model provides a rigorous quantum-mechanical framework for electron-surface roughness scattering, based on the detailed roughness structure. We apply this method to metallic nanowires and improve the model introducing surface roughness distribution functions on a finite domain with analytical expressions for the average surface roughness matrix elements. This approach is valid for any roughness size and extends beyond the commonly used Prange-Nee approximation. The resistivity scaling is obtained from the self-consistent relaxation time solution of the Boltzmann transport equation and is compared to Prange-Nee's approach and other known methods. The results show that a substantial drop in resistivity can be obtained for certain diameters by achieving a large momentum gap between Fermi level states with positive and negative momentum in the transport direction.

  17. Enantioselective recognition at mesoporous chiral metal surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Wattanakit, Chularat; Côme, Yémima Bon Saint; Lapeyre, Veronique; Bopp, Philippe A.; Heim, Matthias; Yadnum, Sudarat; Nokbin, Somkiat; Warakulwit, Chompunuch; Limtrakul, Jumras; Kuhn, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Chirality is widespread in natural systems, and artificial reproduction of chiral recognition is a major scientific challenge, especially owing to various potential applications ranging from catalysis to sensing and separation science. In this context, molecular imprinting is a well-known approach for generating materials with enantioselective properties, and it has been successfully employed using polymers. However, it is particularly difficult to synthesize chiral metal matrices by this method. Here we report the fabrication of a chirally imprinted mesoporous metal, obtained by the electrochemical reduction of platinum salts in the presence of a liquid crystal phase and chiral template molecules. The porous platinum retains a chiral character after removal of the template molecules. A matrix obtained in this way exhibits a large active surface area due to its mesoporosity, and also shows a significant discrimination between two enantiomers, when they are probed using such materials as electrodes. PMID:24548992

  18. Stability and surface dynamics of metal nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chang-Hua

    In this thesis, we have systematically investigated the stability, surface dynamics, electronic transport, and growth of metal nanowires using a semiclassical free energy functional based on the mean-field interacting electron model, which is simple and general enough. In this model, the ionic degrees of freedom of the wire are modeled as an incompressible fluid, and the conducting electrons are treated as a Fermi gas confined within the wire with Dirichlet boundary conditions. In equilibrium, we prove that the electron-electron interaction is a second-order effect to the total grand canonical free energy, while the shell-correction to the noninteracting grand canonical free energy is a first-order effect. To leading order, the electron-electron interactions just renormalize the Weyl parameters, such as the average energy density, surface tension and mean curvature energy, but not the mesoscopic shell effect. This finding for open mesoscopic systems is a generalization of the well-known Strutinsky theorem for finite-Fermion systems. It is for this reason that self-consistent jellium calculations obtain essentially identical equilibrium mesoscopic effects as calculations based on the free-electron model. However, for systems out of equilibrium, the electron-electron interaction plays important roles. First of all, the Strutinsky theorem breaks down in the non-equilibrium case. Secondly, the gauge invariance condition is violated if the electron-electron interaction is not adequately included. We first derive a thermodynamic phase diagram for jellium nanowires, which predicts that cylindrical wires with certain "magic" conductance values are stable with respect to small perturbations up to remarkably high temperatures and high applied voltage. We have shown that Jahn-Teller-distorted wires can be stable. The derived sequence of stable cylindrical and elliptical geometries explains the experimentally observed shell and supershell structures for alkali metals. Highly

  19. Surface science studies of metal hexaborides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenary, Michael

    2012-04-01

    Over 30 years of surface science research on metal hexaborides are reviewed. Of this class of compounds, lanthanum hexaboride has been the subject of the majority of the studies because of its outstanding properties as a thermionic emitter. The use of LaB6 cathodes as an electron source stems from the unusually low work function of ~2.5 eV for the (100) surface combined with a low evaporation rate at high temperatures. Of particular interest has been the determination of the surface geometric and electronic structure responsible for the low work function and how the work function is affected by various adsorbates. The low-index faces of single crystals of LaB6 and other hexaborides have been studied with a variety of ultrahigh vacuum surface science methods to gain a better understanding of the structure and properties of the clean surfaces as well as their interactions with gases such as O2, H2O and CO.

  20. Stabilizing the surface of lithium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughey, J. T.; Liu, Gao; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2014-05-01

    Lithium metal is an ideal anode for the next generation of high capacity rechargeable batteries, including Li-air, Li-S, and other Li-based batteries using intercalation compounds. To enable the broad applications for lithium anodes, more fundamental studies need to be conducted to simultaneously address the two barriers discussed above. One of the key breakthroughs in this field may come from the development of new electrolytes (and additives) which can form a stable SEI layer with enough mechanical strength and flexibility. The ideal electrolyte may consist of only two components; one component inhibits dendrite growth, while another component forms a stable SEI layer to improve Coulombic efficiency. In this review, the status of three approaches at manipulating and controlling the lithium metal – electrolyte interface were discussed. While previous studies concentrated on coatings with minimal surface connectivity, the approaches discussed, namely a coating that forms and dissipates into the electrolyte based on charge density, a coating bonded to the termination layer of lithium, and a conformal carbonate coating formed at the interface, all highlight new research directions. Although there are still many obstacles to be overcome, we are optimistic that Li metal can be used as an anode in rechargeable batteries in the foreseeable future. This will enable wide

  1. Modification of surface properties of copper-refractory metal alloys

    DOEpatents

    Verhoeven, J.D.; Gibson, E.D.

    1993-10-12

    The surface properties of copper-refractory metal (CU-RF) alloy bodies are modified by heat treatments which cause the refractory metal to form a coating on the exterior surfaces of the alloy body. The alloys have a copper matrix with particles or dendrites of the refractory metal dispersed therein, which may be niobium, vanadium, tantalum, chromium, molybdenum, or tungsten. The surface properties of the bodies are changed from those of copper to that of the refractory metal.

  2. Ultra-smooth metal surfaces generated by pressure-induced surface deformation of thin metal films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logeeswaran, V. J.; Chan, M.-L.; Bayam, Y.; Saif Islam, M.; Horsley, D. A.; Li, X.; Wu, W.; Wang, S. Y.; Williams, R. S.

    2007-05-01

    We present a mechanical pressing technique for generating ultra-smooth surfaces on thin metal films by flattening the bumps, asperities, rough grains and spikes of a freshly vacuum deposited metal film. The method was implemented by varying the applied pressure from 100 MPa to 600 MPa on an e-beam evaporated silver film of thickness 1000 Å deposited on double-polished (100)-oriented silicon surfaces, resulting in a varying degree of film smoothness. The surface morphology of the thin film was studied using atomic force microscopy. Notably, at a pressure of ˜600 MPa an initial silver surface with 13-nm RMS roughness was plastically deformed and transformed to an ultra-flat plane with better than 0.1 nm RMS. Our demonstration with the e-beam evaporated silver thin film exhibits the potential for applications in decreasing the scattering-induced losses in optical metamaterials, plasmonic nanodevices and electrical shorts in molecular-scale electronic devices.

  3. Method for providing adhesion to a metal surface

    DOEpatents

    Harrah, L.A.; Allred, R.E.; Wilson, K.V. Jr.

    1992-02-18

    A process for treating metal surfaces to obtain improved susceptibility to bonding with adhesive compositions is disclosed. A metal surface is oxidized with a halogen to form a monolayer of halide ions on the surface. The halide ions are then exchanged with azide ions to form an azide monolayer on the metal surface. Upon contact of the treated surface with an adhesive composition, the azide layer may be thermally or photochemically decomposed to form active nitrene species, which react to bond the adhesive composition to the metal surface.

  4. Method for providing adhesion to a metal surface

    DOEpatents

    Harrah, Larry A.; Allred, Ronald E.; Wilson, Jr., Kennard V.

    1992-01-01

    A process for treating metal surfaces to obtain improved susceptibility to bonding with adhesive compositions is disclosed. A metal surface is oxidized with a halogen to form a monolayer of halide ions on the surface. The halide ions are then exchanged with azide ions to form an azide monolayer on the metal surface. Upon contact of the treated surface with an adhesive composition, the azide layer may be thermally or photochemically decomposed to form active nitrene species, which react to bond the adhesive composition to the metal surface.

  5. Stereochemical Recognition of Helicenes on Metal Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Karl-Heinz

    2016-06-21

    The chiral recognition among biomolecules is fundamentally important for many processes of life, including the stereochemistry of evolution. Of special interest is chiral recognition during crystallization of racemates, when either homochiral recognition leads to a conglomerate of homochiral crystals or heterochiral recognition dominates resulting in a racemic compound. The complex nature of molecular recognition at the level of nucleation and crystal growth renders it difficult to understand and calls for manageable model systems. Notably, the approach of studying aggregation of molecules at surfaces under well-defined conditions includes the benefit of the availability of a multitude of highly sensitive investigation methods, of which scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) with its submolecular resolution is tremendously valuable. Heterogeneous nucleation at surfaces is strongly favored over homogeneous nucleation in solution; hence, surfaces are significantly involved in stereochemical recognition during crystallization. Helicenes are a fascinating class of chiral compounds with outstanding optical activity. These π-conjugated, ortho-fused, aromatic hydrocarbons are promising candidates for organic electronic devices such as sensors, circular dichroic photonics, liquid crystal displays or spin filters. But in particular the defined footprint of their terminal benzo rings on a surface makes them interesting for studying stereochemical recognition with different single crystalline surfaces and the impact this has, in turn, on intermolecular recognition. In this Account, we describe the self-assembly of helicenes on metal surfaces with the focus on stereochemical recognition in two-dimensional structures. Using the isomeric all-carbon helicenes, heptahelicene and dibenzohelicene as examples, different aggregation phenomena on different surfaces of single crystalline copper, silver, and gold are investigated. By means of STM different modes of transmission of

  6. Stereochemical Recognition of Helicenes on Metal Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Karl-Heinz

    2016-06-21

    The chiral recognition among biomolecules is fundamentally important for many processes of life, including the stereochemistry of evolution. Of special interest is chiral recognition during crystallization of racemates, when either homochiral recognition leads to a conglomerate of homochiral crystals or heterochiral recognition dominates resulting in a racemic compound. The complex nature of molecular recognition at the level of nucleation and crystal growth renders it difficult to understand and calls for manageable model systems. Notably, the approach of studying aggregation of molecules at surfaces under well-defined conditions includes the benefit of the availability of a multitude of highly sensitive investigation methods, of which scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) with its submolecular resolution is tremendously valuable. Heterogeneous nucleation at surfaces is strongly favored over homogeneous nucleation in solution; hence, surfaces are significantly involved in stereochemical recognition during crystallization. Helicenes are a fascinating class of chiral compounds with outstanding optical activity. These π-conjugated, ortho-fused, aromatic hydrocarbons are promising candidates for organic electronic devices such as sensors, circular dichroic photonics, liquid crystal displays or spin filters. But in particular the defined footprint of their terminal benzo rings on a surface makes them interesting for studying stereochemical recognition with different single crystalline surfaces and the impact this has, in turn, on intermolecular recognition. In this Account, we describe the self-assembly of helicenes on metal surfaces with the focus on stereochemical recognition in two-dimensional structures. Using the isomeric all-carbon helicenes, heptahelicene and dibenzohelicene as examples, different aggregation phenomena on different surfaces of single crystalline copper, silver, and gold are investigated. By means of STM different modes of transmission of

  7. Surface preparation methods to enhance dynamic surface property measurements of shocked metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zellner, M. B.; Vogan McNeil, W.; Gray, G. T.; Huerta, D. C.; King, N. S. P.; Neal, G. E.; Valentine, S. J.; Payton, J. R.; Rubin, J.; Stevens, G. D.; Turley, W. D.; Buttler, W. T.

    2008-04-01

    This effort investigates surface-preparation methods to enhance dynamic surface-property measurements of shocked metal surfaces. To assess the ability of making reliable and consistent dynamic surface-property measurements, the amount of material ejected from the free surface upon shock release to vacuum (ejecta) was monitored for shocked Al-1100 and Sn targets. Four surface-preparation methods were considered: Fly-cut machine finish, diamond-turned machine finish, polished finish, and ball rolled. The samples were shock loaded by in-contact detonation of HE PBX-9501 on the front side of the metal coupons. Ejecta production at the back side or free side of the metal coupons was monitored using piezoelectric pins, optical shadowgraphy, and x-ray attenuation radiography.

  8. Metal-oxide-semiconductor photocapacitor for sensing surface plasmon polaritons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalilzade-Rezaie, Farnood; Peale, Robert E.; Panjwani, Deep; Smith, Christian W.; Nath, Janardan; Lodge, Michael; Ishigami, Masa; Nader, Nima; Vangala, Shiva; Yannuzzi, Mark; Cleary, Justin W.

    2015-09-01

    An electronic detector of surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) is reported. SPPs optically excited on a metal surface using a prism coupler are detected by using a close-coupled metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor. Semitransparent metal and graphene gates function similarly. We report the dependence of the photoresponse on substrate carrier type, carrier concentration, and back-contact biasing.

  9. The Surface Structure of Ground Metal Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boas, W.; Schmid, E.

    1944-01-01

    The changes produced on metallic surfaces as a result of grinding and polishing are not as yet fully understood. Undoubtedly there is some more or less marked change in the crystal structure, at least, in the top layer. Hereby a diffusion of separated crystal particles may be involved, or, on plastic material, the formation of a layer in greatly deformed state, with possible recrystallization in certain conditions. Czochralski verified the existence of such a layer on tin micro-sections by successive observations of the texture after repeated etching; while Thomassen established, roentgenographically by means of the Debye-Scherrer method, the existence of diffused crystal fractions on the surface of ground and polished tin bars, which he had already observed after turning (on the lathe). (Thickness of this layer - 0.07 mm). Whether this layer borders direct on the undamaged base material or whether deformed intermediate layers form the transition, nothing is known. One observation ty Sachs and Shoji simply states that after the turning of an alpha-brass crystal the disturbance starting from the surface, penetrates fairly deep (approx. 1 mm) into the crystal (proof by recrystallization at 750 C).

  10. 78 FR 42592 - Notification of Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee July 23 and 24, 2013, Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... and discussion of candidate designs for the 2014 Civil Rights Act of 1964 Commemorative Coin Program... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Notification of Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee July 23 and 24, 2013,...

  11. 77 FR 35480 - Notification of Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee June 26, 2012, Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... United States Mint Notification of Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee June 26, 2012, Public Meeting...: Pursuant to United States Code, Title 31, section 5135(b)(8)(C), the United States Mint announces the.... Time: 9:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m. Location: 8th Floor Board Room, United States Mint, 801 9th Street...

  12. 75 FR 34215 - Notification of Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee June 28, 2010 Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... United States Mint Notification of Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee June 28, 2010 Public Meeting...: Pursuant to United States Code, Title 31, section 5135(b)(8)(C), the United States Mint announces the...: Cliff Northup, United States Mint Liaison to the CCAC; 801 9th Street, NW.; Washington, DC 20220;...

  13. 76 FR 24959 - Notification of Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee, Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... United States Mint Notification of Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee, Public Meeting ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to United States Code, Title 31, section 5135(b)(8)(C), the United States Mint announces..., 2011. Time: 9 a.m. to 1 p.m. Location: Conference Room A, United States Mint, 801 9th Street,...

  14. 75 FR 22187 - Notification of Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee April 27, 2010 Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... United States Mint Notification of Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee April 27, 2010 Public Meeting SUMMARY: Pursuant to United States Code, Title 31, section 5135(b)(8)(C), the United States Mint announces... Northup, United States Mint Liaison to the CCAC; 801 9th Street, NW.; Washington, DC 20220; or call...

  15. 75 FR 13344 - Revised Meeting Time for Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee March 2010 Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... United States Mint Revised Meeting Time for Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee March 2010 Public Meeting AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notification. SUMMARY: Pursuant to United States Code, Title 31, section 5135(b)(8)(C), the United States Mint announces the Citizens...

  16. 76 FR 44400 - Notification of Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee July 26, 2011 Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... United States Mint Notification of Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee July 26, 2011 Public Meeting...: Pursuant to United States Code, Title 31, section 5135(b)(8)(C), the United States Mint announces the.... Time: 9 a.m. to 1 p.m. Location: United States Mint, 801 9th Street, NW., Washington, DC,...

  17. 75 FR 62184 - Notification of Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee October 26, 2010 Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... 2012 America the Beautiful Quarter-Dollar Coins, designs for the Arnold Palmer Congressional Gold Medal, and designs for the New Frontier Congressional Gold Medal. Interested persons should call 202-354-6700..., bullion coinage, Congressional Gold Medals, and national and other medals. Advises the Secretary of...

  18. Method for cleaning and passivating a metal surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, George B. (Inventor); Carpenter, Norman F. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A cleaning solvent useful in the cleaning of metal surfaces, e.g. nickle-iron alloys, contains sulfamic acid, citric acid, a solvent for hydrocarbon residues, and a surfactant. Metal surfaces are cleaned by contacting the surface with the cleaning solvent and then passivated by contact with aqueous solutions of citric acid or sodium nitrite or a combination of the two.

  19. Sink property of metallic glass free surfaces

    DOE PAGES

    Shao, Lin; Fu, Engang; Price, Lloyd; Chen, Di; Chen, Tianyi; Wang, Yongqiang; Xie, Guoqiang; Lucca, Don A.

    2015-03-16

    When heated to a temperature close to glass transition temperature, metallic glasses (MGs) begin to crystallize. Under deformation or particle irradiation, crystallization occurs at even lower temperatures. Hence, phase instability represents an application limit for MGs. Here, we report that MG membranes of a few nanometers thickness exhibit properties different from their bulk MG counterparts. The study uses in situ transmission electron microscopy with concurrent heavy ion irradiation and annealing to observe crystallization behaviors of MGs. For relatively thick membranes, ion irradiations introduce excessive free volumes and thus induce nanocrystal formation at a temperature linearly decreasing with increasing ion fluences.more » For ultra-thin membranes, however, the critical temperature to initiate crystallization is about 100 K higher than the bulk glass transition temperature. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that this effect is due to the sink property of the surfaces which can effectively remove excessive free volumes. These findings suggest that nanostructured MGs having a higher surface to volume ratio are expected to have higher crystallization resistance, which could pave new paths for materials applications in harsh environments requiring higher stabilities.« less

  20. Sink property of metallic glass free surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Lin; Fu, Engang; Price, Lloyd; Chen, Di; Chen, Tianyi; Wang, Yongqiang; Xie, Guoqiang; Lucca, Don A.

    2015-03-16

    When heated to a temperature close to glass transition temperature, metallic glasses (MGs) begin to crystallize. Under deformation or particle irradiation, crystallization occurs at even lower temperatures. Hence, phase instability represents an application limit for MGs. Here, we report that MG membranes of a few nanometers thickness exhibit properties different from their bulk MG counterparts. The study uses in situ transmission electron microscopy with concurrent heavy ion irradiation and annealing to observe crystallization behaviors of MGs. For relatively thick membranes, ion irradiations introduce excessive free volumes and thus induce nanocrystal formation at a temperature linearly decreasing with increasing ion fluences. For ultra-thin membranes, however, the critical temperature to initiate crystallization is about 100 K higher than the bulk glass transition temperature. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that this effect is due to the sink property of the surfaces which can effectively remove excessive free volumes. These findings suggest that nanostructured MGs having a higher surface to volume ratio are expected to have higher crystallization resistance, which could pave new paths for materials applications in harsh environments requiring higher stabilities.

  1. Sink property of metallic glass free surfaces.

    PubMed

    Shao, Lin; Fu, Engang; Price, Lloyd; Chen, Di; Chen, Tianyi; Wang, Yongqiang; Xie, Guoqiang; Lucca, Don A

    2015-03-16

    When heated to a temperature close to glass transition temperature, metallic glasses (MGs) begin to crystallize. Under deformation or particle irradiation, crystallization occurs at even lower temperatures. Hence, phase instability represents an application limit for MGs. Here, we report that MG membranes of a few nanometers thickness exhibit properties different from their bulk MG counterparts. The study uses in situ transmission electron microscopy with concurrent heavy ion irradiation and annealing to observe crystallization behaviors of MGs. For relatively thick membranes, ion irradiations introduce excessive free volumes and thus induce nanocrystal formation at a temperature linearly decreasing with increasing ion fluences. For ultra-thin membranes, however, the critical temperature to initiate crystallization is about 100 K higher than the bulk glass transition temperature. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that this effect is due to the sink property of the surfaces which can effectively remove excessive free volumes. These findings suggest that nanostructured MGs having a higher surface to volume ratio are expected to have higher crystallization resistance, which could pave new paths for materials applications in harsh environments requiring higher stabilities.

  2. Method for preparing hydride configurations and reactive metal surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Silver, Gary L.

    1988-08-16

    A method for preparing highly hydrogen-reactive surfaces on metals which normally require substantial heating, high pressures, or an extended induction period, which involves pretreatment of said surfaces with either a non-oxidizing acid or hydrogen gas to form a hydrogen-bearing coating on said surfaces, and subsequently heating said coated metal in the absence of moisture and oxygen for a period sufficient to decompose said coating and cooling said metal to room temperature. Surfaces so treated will react almost instantaneously with hydrogen gas at room temperature and low pressure. The method is particularly applicable to uranium, thorium, and lanthanide metals.

  3. A chemical equilibrium model for metal adsorption onto bacterial surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fein, Jeremy B.; Daughney, Christopher J.; Yee, Nathan; Davis, Thomas A.

    1997-08-01

    This study quantifies metal adsorption onto cell wall surfaces of Bacillus subtilis by applying equilibrium thermodynamics to the specific chemical reactions that occur at the water-bacteria interface. We use acid/base titrations to determine deprotonation constants for the important surface functional groups, and we perform metal-bacteria adsorption experiments, using Cd, Cu, Pb, and Al, to yield site-specific stability constants for the important metal-bacteria surface complexes. The acid/base properties of the cell wall of B. subtilis can best be characterized by invoking three distinct types of surface organic acid functional groups, with pK a values of 4.82 ± 0.14, 6.9 ± 0.5, and 9.4 ± 0.6. These functional groups likely correspond to carboxyl, phosphate, and hydroxyl sites, respectively, that are displayed on the cell wall surface. The results of the metal adsorption experiments indicate that both the carboxyl sites and the phosphate sites contribute to metal uptake. The values of the log stability constants for metal-carboxyl surface complexes range from 3.4 for Cd, 4.2 for Pb, 4.3 for Cu, to 5.0 for Al. These results suggest that the stabilities of the metal-surface complexes are high enough for metal-bacterial interactions to affect metal mobilities in many aqueous systems, and this approach enables quantitative assessment of the effects of bacteria on metal mobilities.

  4. Photoelectric scanner makes detailed work function maps of metal surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasor, N. S.

    1966-01-01

    Photoelectric scanning device maps the work function of a metal surface by scanning it with a light spot and measuring the resulting photocurrent. The device is capable of use over a range of surface temperatures.

  5. Heat transfer performance of metal fiber sintered surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajikawa, T.; Takazawa, H.; Mizuki, M.

    1983-03-01

    Boiling heat transfer performance on stainless steel metal fiber sintered surfaces is experimentally investigated with Freon 11 (R11) as the working fluid. The boiling heat transfer coefficient for the optimum surface structure gives a tenfold improvement over a smooth surface. The nondimensional specific parameter including all design parameters is introduced to explain the trend of the performance of various kinds of metal fiber sintered surfaces. Moreover, the metal fiber sintered surface clad with titanium film is suggested to be appropriate to an evaporator for Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) system.

  6. Slow collisions of multicharged ions with metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, F.W.

    1993-12-31

    Some recent experimental results in the area of multicharged ion-surface interactions are summarized. Discussed are measurements of projectile K-Auger electron emission during interactions of hydrogen-like multicharged ions with clean and cesiated metal surfaces, measurements of total electron yields for various multicharged ions incident on metal targets, and measurements of projectile angular scattering during grazing metal surface collisions. The various experimental results are presented to illustrate progress in the understanding of multicharged ion-surface interactions in the area of above- vs sub-surface neutralization and relaxation processes, as well as to identify certain aspects of such interactions where the picture is as yet still incomplete.

  7. Process to restore obliterated serial numbers on metal surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, S. G.; Parker, B.; Chisum, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    Metal smeared into grooves of serial numbers by grinding or filing can be cleaned out by process called cavitation. Ultrasonic vibrator generates very high frequency vibrations in water which create millions of microscopic bubbles. Cavitation bubbles impact metal surface at thousands of pounds per square inch pressure. Metal particles filling grooves are broken away.

  8. Engineering Polarons at a Metal Oxide Surface.

    PubMed

    Yim, C M; Watkins, M B; Wolf, M J; Pang, C L; Hermansson, K; Thornton, G

    2016-09-01

    Polarons in metal oxides are important in processes such as catalysis, high temperature superconductivity, and dielectric breakdown in nanoscale electronics. Here, we study the behavior of electron small polarons associated with oxygen vacancies at rutile TiO_{2}(110), using a combination of low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), density functional theory, and classical molecular dynamics calculations. We find that the electrons are symmetrically distributed around isolated vacancies at 78 K, but as the temperature is reduced, their distributions become increasingly asymmetric, confirming their polaronic nature. By manipulating isolated vacancies with the STM tip, we show that particular configurations of polarons are preferred for given locations of the vacancies, which we ascribe to small residual electric fields in the surface. We also form a series of vacancy complexes and manipulate the Ti ions surrounding them, both of which change the associated electronic distributions. Thus, we demonstrate that the configurations of polarons can be engineered, paving the way for the construction of conductive pathways relevant to resistive switching devices. PMID:27661706

  9. Engineering Polarons at a Metal Oxide Surface.

    PubMed

    Yim, C M; Watkins, M B; Wolf, M J; Pang, C L; Hermansson, K; Thornton, G

    2016-09-01

    Polarons in metal oxides are important in processes such as catalysis, high temperature superconductivity, and dielectric breakdown in nanoscale electronics. Here, we study the behavior of electron small polarons associated with oxygen vacancies at rutile TiO_{2}(110), using a combination of low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), density functional theory, and classical molecular dynamics calculations. We find that the electrons are symmetrically distributed around isolated vacancies at 78 K, but as the temperature is reduced, their distributions become increasingly asymmetric, confirming their polaronic nature. By manipulating isolated vacancies with the STM tip, we show that particular configurations of polarons are preferred for given locations of the vacancies, which we ascribe to small residual electric fields in the surface. We also form a series of vacancy complexes and manipulate the Ti ions surrounding them, both of which change the associated electronic distributions. Thus, we demonstrate that the configurations of polarons can be engineered, paving the way for the construction of conductive pathways relevant to resistive switching devices.

  10. Selective Metal-vapor Deposition on Organic Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Tsujioka, Tsuyoshi

    2016-02-01

    Selective metal-vapor deposition signifies that metal-vapor atoms are deposited on a hard organic surface, but not on a soft (low glass transition temperature, low Tg ) surface. In this paper, we introduce the origin, extension, and applications of selective metal-vapor deposition. An amorphous photochromic diarylethene film shows light-controlled selective metal-vapor deposition, which is caused by a large Tg change based on photoisomerization, but various organic surfaces, including organic crystal and polymers, can be utilized for achieving selective metal-vapor deposition. Various applications of selective metal-vapor deposition, including cathode patterning of organic light-emitting devices, micro-thin-film fuses, multifunctional diffraction gratings, in-plane electrical bistability for memory devices, and metal-vapor integration, have been demonstrated.

  11. Surface X-ray emission from lanthanide metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübinger, F.; Shulakov, A. S.; Starke, K.; Grigoriev, A.; Kaindl, G.

    2003-02-01

    O 3 X-ray emission (XE) upon 5p 3/2 electron-impact ionization of La(0 0 0 1) and Sm(0 0 0 1) metal surfaces exhibits up to 30% spectral intensity from the topmost atomic surface layer. The energy separation of surface and bulk XE peaks is explained by the surface core-level shift of La and the surface valence transition of Sm. While the bulk XE spectra are in reasonable agreement with theoretical sd partial density of states (DOS), the experimental access to the partial surface-layer DOS opens new opportunities in studying surface phenomena in lanthanide metals and compounds.

  12. Dynamic interactions of Leidenfrost droplets on liquid metal surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yujie; Liu, Jing

    2016-09-01

    Leidenfrost dynamic interaction effects of the isopentane droplets on the surface of heated liquid metal were disclosed. Unlike conventional rigid metal, such conductive and deformable liquid metal surface enables the levitating droplets to demonstrate rather abundant and complex dynamics. The Leidenfrost droplets at different diameters present diverse morphologies and behaviors like rotation and oscillation. Depending on the distance between the evaporating droplets, they attract and repulse each other through the curved surfaces beneath them and their vapor flows. With high boiling point up to 2000 °C, liquid metal offers a unique platform for testing the evaporating properties of a wide variety of liquid even solid.

  13. Non-destructive photoacoustic imaging of metal surface defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Seungwan; Kim, Jeesu; Yun, Jong Pil; Kim, Chulhong

    2016-11-01

    The detection of metal surface defects is important in achieving the goals of product quality enhancement and manufacturing cost reduction. Identifying the defects with visual inspection is difficult, inaccurate, and time-consuming. Thus, several inspection methods using line cameras, magnetic field, and ultrasound have been proposed. However, identifying small defects on metal surfaces remains a challenge. To deal with this problem, we propose the use of photoacoustic imaging (PAI) as a new non-destructive imaging tool to detect metal surface defects. We successfully visualized two types of cracks (i.e., unclassified and seam cracks) in metal plate samples using PAI. In addition, we successfully extracted cracked edges from height-encoded photoacoustic maximum amplitude projection images using the Laplacian of Gaussian filtering method, and then, quantified the detected edges for a statistical analysis. We concluded that PAI can be useful in detecting metal surface defects reducing the defect rate and manufacturing cost during metal production.

  14. Metals at the surface of last scatter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali-Haïmoud, Yacine; Hirata, Christopher M.; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2011-04-01

    Standard big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) predicts only a trace abundance of lithium and no heavier elements, but some alternatives predict a nonzero primordial metallicity. Here we explore whether CMB measurements may set useful constraints to the primordial metallicity and/or whether the standard CMB calculations are robust, within the tolerance of forthcoming CMB maps, to the possibility of primordial metals. Metals would affect the recombination history (and thus CMB power spectra) in three ways: (1) Lyα photons can be removed (and recombination thus accelerated) by photoionizing metals; (2) The Bowen resonance-fluorescence mechanism may degrade Lyβ photons and thus enhance the Lyβ escape probability and speed up recombination; (3) Metals could affect the low-redshift tail of the CMB visibility function by providing additional free electrons. The last two of these provide the strongest CMB signal. However, the effects are detectable in the Planck satellite only if the primordial metal abundance is at least a few hundredths of solar for (2) and a few tenths of solar for (3). We thus conclude that Planck will not be able to improve upon current constraints to primordial metallicity, at the level of a thousandth of solar, from the Lyman-α forest and ultra-metal-poor halo stars, and that the CMB power-spectrum predictions for Planck suffer no uncertainty arising from the possibility that there may be primordial metals.

  15. Cell Surface-based Sensing with Metallic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ziwen; Rotello, Vincent M.

    2015-01-01

    Metallic nanoparticles provide versatile scaffolds for biosensing applications. In this review, we focus on the use of metallic nanoparticles for cell surface sensings. Examples of the use of both specific recognition and array-based “chemical nose” approaches to cell surface sensing will be discussed. PMID:25853985

  16. An Atomistic View on Fundamental Transport Processes on Metal Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Giesen, Margret

    2007-06-14

    In this lecture I present an introduction to the time-resolved observation of atomic transport processes on metal surfaces using scanning tunneling microscopy video sequences. The experimental data is analyzed using scaling law concepts known from statistical thermodynamics. I will present studies from metal surfaces in vacuum as well as in electrolyte.

  17. Pendant-Drop Surface-Tension Measurement On Molten Metal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Man, Kin Fung; Thiessen, David

    1996-01-01

    Method of measuring surface tension of molten metal based on pendant-drop method implemented in quasi-containerless manner and augmented with digital processing of image data. Electrons bombard lower end of sample rod in vacuum, generating hanging drop of molten metal. Surface tension of drop computed from its shape. Technique minimizes effects of contamination.

  18. Recent applications of liquid metals featuring nanoscale surface oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Taylor V.; Dickey, Michael D.

    2016-05-01

    This proceeding describes recent efforts from our group to control the shape and actuation of liquid metal. The liquid metal is an alloy of gallium and indium which is non-toxic, has negligible vapor pressure, and develops a thin, passivating surface oxide layer. The surface oxide allows the liquid metal to be patterned and shaped into structures that do not minimize interfacial energy. The surface oxide can be selectively removed by changes in pH or by applying a voltage. The surface oxide allows the liquid metal to be 3D printed to form free-standing structures. It also allows for the liquid metal to be injected into microfluidic channels and to maintain its shape within the channels. The selective removal of the oxide results in drastic changes in surface tension that can be used to control the flow behavior of the liquid metal. The metal can also wet thin, solid films of metal that accelerates droplets of the liquid along the metal traces .Here we discuss the properties and applications of liquid metal to make soft, reconfigurable electronics.

  19. Surface plasmon resonance in super-periodic metal nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leong, Haisheng

    Surface plasmon resonances in periodic metal nanostructures have been investigated over the past decade. The periodic metal nanostructures have served as new technology platforms in fields such as biological and chemical sensing. An existing method to determine the surface plasmon resonance properties of these metal nanostructures is the measurement of the light transmission or reflection from these nanostructures. The measurement of surface plasmon resonances in either the transmission or reflection allows one to resolve the surface plasmon resonance in metal nanostructures. In this dissertation, surface plasmon resonances in a new type of metal nanostructures were investigated. The new nanostructures were created by patterning traditional periodic nanohole and nanoslit arrays into diffraction gratings. The patterned nanohole and 11anoslit arrays have two periods in the structures. The new nanostructures are called "super-periodic" nanostructures. With rigorous finite difference time domain (FDTD) numerical simulations, surface plasmon resonances in super-periodic nanoslit and nanohole arrays were investigated. It was found that by creating a super-period in periodic metal nanostructures, surface plasmon radiations can be observed in the non-zero order diffractions. This discovery presents a new method of characterizing the surface plasmon resonances in metal nanostructures. Super-periodic gold nanoslit and nanohole arrays were fabricated with the electron beam lithography technique. The surface plasmon resonances were measured in the first order diffraction by using a CCD. The experimental results confirm well with the FDTD numerical simulations.

  20. Interpretation of valence band photoemission spectra at organic-metal interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovanelli, L.; Bocquet, F. C.; Amsalem, P.; Lee, H.-L.; Abel, M.; Clair, S.; Koudia, M.; Faury, T.; Petaccia, L.; Topwal, D.; Salomon, E.; Angot, T.; Cafolla, A. A.; Koch, N.; Porte, L.; Goldoni, A.; Themlin, J.-M.

    2013-01-01

    Adsorption of organic molecules on well-oriented single-crystal coinage metal surfaces fundamentally affects the energy distribution curve of ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy spectra. New features not present in the spectrum of the pristine metal can be assigned as “interface states” having some degree of molecule-substrate hybridization. Here it is shown that interface states having molecular orbital character can easily be identified at low binding energy as isolated features above the featureless substrate sp plateau. On the other hand, much care must be taken in assigning adsorbate-induced features when these lie within the d-band spectral region of the substrate. In fact, features often interpreted as characteristic of the molecule-substrate interaction may actually arise from substrate photoelectrons scattered by the adsorbates. This phenomenon is illustrated through a series of examples of noble-metal single-crystal surfaces covered by monolayers of large π-conjugated organic molecules.

  1. ELECTROCATALYSIS ON SURFACES MODIFIED BY METAL MONOLAYERS DEPOSITED AT UNDERPOTENTIALS.

    SciTech Connect

    ADZIC,R.

    2000-12-01

    The remarkable catalytic properties of electrode surfaces modified by monolayer amounts of metal adatoms obtained by underpotential deposition (UPD) have been the subject of a large number of studies during the last couple of decades. This interest stems from the possibility of implementing strictly surface modifications of electrocatalysts in an elegant, well-controlled way, and these bi-metallic surfaces can serve as models for the design of new catalysts. In addition, some of these systems may have potential for practical applications. The UPD of metals, which in general involves the deposition of up to a monolayer of metal on a foreign substrate at potentials positive to the reversible thermodynamic potential, facilitates this type of surface modification, which can be performed repeatedly by potential control. Recent studies of these surfaces and their catalytic properties by new in situ surface structure sensitive techniques have greatly improved the understanding of these systems.

  2. Cell surface engineering of microorganisms towards adsorption of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng-Song; Tao, Hu-Chun

    2015-06-01

    Heavy metal contamination has become a worldwide environmental concern due to its toxicity, non-degradability and food-chain bioaccumulation. Conventional physical and chemical treatment methods for heavy metal removal have disadvantages such as cost-intensiveness, incomplete removal, secondary pollution and the lack of metal specificity. Microbial biomass-based biosorption is one of the approaches gaining increasing attention because it is effective, cheap, and environmental friendly and can work well at low concentrations. To enhance the adsorption properties of microbial cells to heavy metal ions, the cell surface display of various metal-binding proteins/peptides have been performed using a cell surface engineering approach. The surface engineering of Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria and yeast towards the adsorption of heavy metals are reviewed in this article. The problems and future perspectives of this technology are discussed.

  3. Metal-organic framework materials with ultrahigh surface areas

    DOEpatents

    Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Wilmer, Christopher E.; Eryazici, Ibrahim; Snurr, Randall Q.; Gomez-Gualdron, Diego A.; Borah, Bhaskarjyoti

    2015-12-22

    A metal organic framework (MOF) material including a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area greater than 7,010 m.sup.2/g. Also a metal organic framework (MOF) material including hexa-carboxylated linkers including alkyne bond. Also a metal organic framework (MOF) material including three types of cuboctahedron cages fused to provide continuous channels. Also a method of making a metal organic framework (MOF) material including saponifying hexaester precursors having alkyne bonds to form a plurality of hexa-carboxylated linkers including alkyne bonds and performing a solvothermal reaction with the plurality of hexa-carboxylated linkers and one or more metal containing compounds to form the MOF material.

  4. Visualization of latent fingerprint corrosion of metallic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Bond, John W

    2008-07-01

    Chemical reactions between latent fingerprints and a variety of metal surfaces are investigated by heating the metal up to temperatures of approximately 600 degrees C after deposition of the fingerprint. Ionic salts present in the fingerprint residue corrode the metal surface to produce an image of the fingerprint that is both durable and resistant to cleaning of the metal. The degree of fingerprint enhancement appears independent of the elapsed time between deposition and heating but is very dependent on both the composition of the metal and the level of salt secretion by the fingerprint donor. Results are presented that show practical applications for the enhancement to fingerprints deposited in arson crime scenes, contaminated by spray painting, or deposited on brass cartridge cases prior to discharge. The corrosion of the metal surface is further exploited by the demonstration of a novel technique for fingerprint enhancement based on the electrostatic charging of the metal and then the preferential adherence of a metallic powder to the corroded part of the metal surface.

  5. Femtosecond laser color marking of metal and semiconductor surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionin, Andrey A.; Kudryashov, Sergey I.; Makarov, Sergey V.; Seleznev, Leonid V.; Sinitsyn, Dmitry V.; Golosov, Evgeniy V.; Golosova, Ol'ga A.; Kolobov, Yuriy R.; Ligachev, Alexander E.

    2012-05-01

    Color marking of rough or smooth metal (Al, Cu, Ti) and semiconductor (Si) surfaces was realized via femtosecond laser fabrication of periodic surface nanorelief, representing one-dimensional diffraction gratings. Bright colors of the surface nanorelief, especially for longer electromagnetic wavelengths, were provided during marking through pre-determined variation of the laser incidence angle and the resulting change of the diffraction grating period. This coloration technique was demonstrated for the case of silicon and various metals to mark surfaces in any individual color with a controllable brightness level and almost without their accompanying chemical surface modification.

  6. Formation of carbyne and graphyne on transition metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Qinghong; Ding, Feng

    2014-10-01

    The electronic and geometric structures of carbyne on various transition metal surfaces were investigated by theoretical calculations. It was found that carbyne on non-active metal surfaces has a polyynic structure, while a polycumulenic structure is more stable on active catalyst surfaces. The self-assembly of carbyne on a metal substrate could lead to the synthesis of graphyne.The electronic and geometric structures of carbyne on various transition metal surfaces were investigated by theoretical calculations. It was found that carbyne on non-active metal surfaces has a polyynic structure, while a polycumulenic structure is more stable on active catalyst surfaces. The self-assembly of carbyne on a metal substrate could lead to the synthesis of graphyne. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Computational details and structural information of carbon chains on Ni(111) and Rh(111) surfaces, carbon island on Cu(111), Ni(111), Rh(111) and Ru(0001) surfaces. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr03757j

  7. A local view of bonding and diffusion at metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Feibelman, P.J.

    1996-09-01

    First-principles density functional calculations and corresponding experimental results underline the importance of basic chemical concepts, such as coordination, valence saturation and promotion-hybridization energetics, in understanding bonding and diffusion of atoms at and on metal surfaces. Several examples are reviewed, including outer-layer relaxations of clean hcp(0001) surfaces, liquid-metal-embrittlement energetics, separation energies of metal-adatom dimers, concerted substitutional self-diffusion on fcc(001) surfaces, and adsorption and diffusion barrier sites for adatoms near steps.

  8. X-ray Fluorescence analytical criteria to assess the fineness of ancient silver coins: Application on Ptolemaic coinage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantarelou, Vasiliki; Ager, Francisco José; Eugenidou, Despoina; Chaves, Francisca; Andreou, Alexandros; Kontou, Elena; Katsikosta, Niki; Respaldiza, Miguel Angel; Serafin, Patrizia; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Zarkadas, Charalambos; Polikreti, Kyriaki; Karydas, Andreas Germanos

    2011-09-01

    The application of X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis in a non-invasive manner on ancient silver coins may not provide reliable bulk compositional data due to possible presence of a surface, silver enriched layer. The present work proposes a set of three complementary analytical methodologies to assess and improve the reliability of XRF data in such cases: a) comparison of XRF data on original and cleaned micro-spots on coin surface, b) Ag K/L ratio test and c) comparison of experimental and theoretically simulated intensities of the Rayleigh characteristic radiation emitted from the anode. The proposed methodology was applied on 82 silver coins from the collection of Ioannes Demetriou, donated to the Numismatic Museum of Athens in the 1890s. The coins originate from different mints and are attributed to the first five Ptolemaic kings' reign (321-180 B.C.). They were analyzed in-situ by using a milli-probe XRF spectrometer. The presence of an Ag-enriched layer was excluded for the majority of them. The silver fineness was found to be high, with very low concentrations of copper and lead. The composition data provide important information about possible sources of silver during the Ptolemaic period and indications of a gradual coinage debasement after 270 B.C. due to economic or technical reasons.

  9. Ceramic formation on metallic surfaces (ceramization) for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Rieu, J

    1993-01-01

    Surface transformations can be performed on metals in order to combine their load-bearing properties to the inertness and wear resistance of ceramics. In a joint prosthesis, metals are useful for their high fatigue strength and ductility, but they are more sensitive to superficial corrosion and wear than ceramics. Coating a ceramic on metal surface will improve the qualities of the metallic component. The various ways of transforming a metallic surface into a ceramic one are described. First, the surface treatments to improve the friction and wear properties are analysed. Coatings and surface transformations give superficial inert compounds. Many techniques are used to create hard, corrosion resistant layers on the surface. The processes may involve heating of the treated parts. But some metals cannot be heated without an alteration of their mechanical properties. The adhesion strength--and thus, the lifetime--of the ceramic layers depend on the binding forces and on the structure of the interfaces between the bulk metal and the outermost ceramic. Coatings generally have a lower adhesion strength than in-situ formed phases and the risk of peeling is higher. Second, the plasma-sprayed coatings performed to improve the bone anchorage are described. This review does not deal with bioactive materials. So, only the alumina coatings and their mechanical compatibility advantage are present.

  10. Surfaces and interfaces of ceramics and metals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Structures of surfaces of several ceramic oxides were studied by use of reflection electron microscopy (REM) and associated techniques. High-temperature annealing in air or oxygen gives smooth, flat crystal faces in most cases, including the (111) MgO surface, previously thought to be facetted. Stability of the (111) MgO surface is shown to be due to a surface superlattice reconstruction. Surface superlattices, stable in air, have also been shown to exist on sapphire and rutile crystal faces. The segregation of Ca to the surface of MgO has been studied using reflection electron energy loss techniques. Initial studies of Cu-Au alloy crystal surfaces, necessarily carried out in ultra-high vacuum, have been made using RHEED and Auger electron spectroscopy. Clean alloy surfaces show surface reconstructions associated with the segregation of Au atoms at the surface. High-temperature annealing results in the segregation of sulfur to the surface and the formation of a variety of surface superlattice structures. Structures of solid-solid interfaces have been studied using a wide variety of electron-optical techniques including nanodiffraction and electron holography. In particular the interfaces in semiconductor multiple quantum well structures and also multilayer structures of Si and Co have been studied.

  11. The Electronic Structure of Nonpolar Surfaces in Insulating Metal Oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zherebetskyy, Danylo; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2013-03-01

    Understanding the electronic and geometric structures of metal oxide surfaces has a key interest in many technological areas. A randomly chosen crystal surface has a high probability of being polar, unstable and containing in-gap states due to surface dangling bonds. As a result, the surface should be stabilized by passivation or reconstruction. However, do the nonpolar surfaces of ionic crystals of insulating metal oxides need the passivation or reconstruction similar to covalent crystals? We address this question by analyzing the nonpolar surfaces and their electronic structure for the common crystal structures of metal oxides. The study using periodic DFT calculations is performed for following representatives: Cu2O, ZnO, Al2O3, TiO2, V2O5, WO3, CaTiO3, Mg2SiO4. It has been shown that the nonpolar surface can be constructed out of dipole-free, charge-neutral and stoichiometric unit cells for each crystal. We demonstrate that all constructed and relaxed nonpolar surfaces of the metal oxides show a clear band gap. It should be emphasized that the constructed surfaces are neither reconstructed nor passivated. Additionally, we show a correlation between the electronic structure of the relaxed surfaces and Ewald energies calculated for the surface ions.

  12. Multilayer Relaxation and Surface Energies of Metallic Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Rodriguez, Agustin M.; Ferrante, John

    1994-01-01

    The perpendicular and parallel multilayer relaxations of fcc (210) surfaces are studied using equivalent crystal theory (ECT). A comparison with experimental and theoretical results is made for AI(210). The effect of uncertainties in the input parameters on the magnitudes and ordering of surface relaxations for this semiempirical method is estimated. A new measure of surface roughness is proposed. Predictions for the multilayer relaxations and surface energies of the (210) face of Cu and Ni are also included.

  13. Method for producing highly reflective metal surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, J.B.; Steger, P.J.; Wright, R.R.

    1982-03-04

    The invention is a novel method for producing mirror surfaces which are extremely smooth and which have high optical reflectivity. The method includes depositing, by electrolysis, an amorphous layer of nickel on an article and then diamond-machining the resulting nickel surface to increase its smoothness and reflectivity. The machined nickel surface then is passivated with respect to the formation of bonds with electrodeposited nickel. Nickel then is electrodeposited on the passivated surface to form a layer of electroplated nickel whose inside surface is a replica of the passivated surface. The mandrel then may be-re-passivated and provided with a layer of electrodeposited nickel, which is then recovered from the mandrel providing a second replica. The mandrel can be so re-used to provide many such replicas. As compared with producing each mirror-finished article by plating and diamond-machining, the new method is faster and less expensive.

  14. Nucleate boiling incipience over metallic/non-metallic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petralanda, Naiara

    Incipience wall superheats over super-smooth Si, Al and Ti surfaces were collected at 1atm saturation conditions with FC-72 as the working fluid. Before experimentation, the fluid was put through a 2 hour degassing process to remove vapor. In addition a novel micro-heater was designed and fabricated that provided a constant temperature surface condition with slow heating rates. The average incipience wall superheats were 23.5K for Si, 26.4K for Al and 27.7K for Ti with a variance of less than 0.8K for all three cases. Contact angles were also measured; however, due to the highly wettability of the fluid, the resulting measurements showed large variability. For all cases, incipience occurred at approximately 30% of the homogeneous superheat limit predicted from classical theory. The observed differences in the wall superheat for the three surfaces was small. The primary surface heating element has a surface area of 250 mu m x 250mum which resulted in a very small Grashof number for the system. Consequently, the temperature profile over the heating element was evaluated from the steady Laplace equation using the Fourier integral method. Based on the critical radius at the time of incipience, it was determined that the temperature gradient over the vapor embryo is very small, and thus it can be assumed that the embryo is approximately equal to the wall temperature. Finally, since the measured surface roughness is an order of magnitude less than the critical radius for incipience it is concluded that nucleation could not have been initiated due to any vapor trapped within asperities on the surface. A theoretical framework based on homogeneous-like nucleation and the macroscopic contact angle is proposed. By analyzing the free energy barrier in terms of the vapor cluster, the liquid/vapor interface and the solid/vapor interface, the chemical potential at incipience for FC-72 and water can be determined from experimental measurements of wall superheat and liquid

  15. Surface magnetoelectric effect in ferromagnetic metal films.

    PubMed

    Duan, Chun-Gang; Velev, Julian P; Sabirianov, R F; Zhu, Ziqiang; Chu, Junhao; Jaswal, S S; Tsymbal, E Y

    2008-09-26

    A surface magnetoelectric effect is revealed by density-functional calculations that are applied to ferromagnetic Fe(001), Ni(001), and Co(0001) films in the presence of an external electric field. The effect originates from spin-dependent screening of the electric field which leads to notable changes in the surface magnetization and the surface magnetocrystalline anisotropy. These results are of considerable interest in the area of electrically controlled magnetism and magnetoelectric phenomena. PMID:18851486

  16. How do energetic ions damage metallic surfaces?

    SciTech Connect

    Osetskiy, Yury N.; Calder, Andrew F.; Stoller, Roger E.

    2015-02-20

    Surface modification under bombardment by energetic ions observed under different conditions in structural and functional materials and can be either unavoidable effect of the conditions or targeted modification to enhance materials properties. Understanding basic mechanisms is necessary for predicting properties changes. The mechanisms activated during ion irradiation are of atomic scale and atomic scale modeling is the most suitable tool to study these processes. In this paper we present results of an extensive simulation program aimed at developing an understanding of primary surface damage in iron by energetic particles. We simulated 25 keV self-ion bombardment of Fe thin films with (100) and (110) surfaces at room temperature. A large number of simulations, ~400, were carried out allow a statistically significant treatment of the results. The particular mechanism of surface damage depends on how the destructive supersonic shock wave generated by the displacement cascade interacts with the free surface. Three basic scenarios were observed, with the limiting cases being damage created far below the surface with little or no impact on the surface itself, and extensive direct surface damage on the timescale of a few picoseconds. In some instances, formation of large <100> vacancy loops beneath the free surface was observed, which may explain some earlier experimental observations.

  17. How do energetic ions damage metallic surfaces?

    DOE PAGES

    Osetskiy, Yury N.; Calder, Andrew F.; Stoller, Roger E.

    2015-02-20

    Surface modification under bombardment by energetic ions observed under different conditions in structural and functional materials and can be either unavoidable effect of the conditions or targeted modification to enhance materials properties. Understanding basic mechanisms is necessary for predicting properties changes. The mechanisms activated during ion irradiation are of atomic scale and atomic scale modeling is the most suitable tool to study these processes. In this paper we present results of an extensive simulation program aimed at developing an understanding of primary surface damage in iron by energetic particles. We simulated 25 keV self-ion bombardment of Fe thin films withmore » (100) and (110) surfaces at room temperature. A large number of simulations, ~400, were carried out allow a statistically significant treatment of the results. The particular mechanism of surface damage depends on how the destructive supersonic shock wave generated by the displacement cascade interacts with the free surface. Three basic scenarios were observed, with the limiting cases being damage created far below the surface with little or no impact on the surface itself, and extensive direct surface damage on the timescale of a few picoseconds. In some instances, formation of large <100> vacancy loops beneath the free surface was observed, which may explain some earlier experimental observations.« less

  18. Non-catalytic surfaces for metallic heat shields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swann, R. T.; Wood, G. M.; Brown, R. D.; Upchurch, B. T.; Allen, G. J.

    1984-01-01

    The magnitude of the atom recombination coefficients needed for metal heat shield surfaces on Shuttle-type vehicles is analyzed and discussed. Prior work which identifies surfaces having low catalytic activity is reviewed. Arc tunnel tests to evaluate catalytic activity are described and the difficulties of such tests are discussed. Results are presented which show major differences between atom recombination and atom exchange from molecules. Results of surface analysis show that bulk and surface composition of a coating are different.

  19. Study of THz surface waves (TSW) on bare and coated metal surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Mufei

    Scope and Method of Study. The focus of the research was to investigate the propagation characteristics (such as field distribution, attenuation and group velocity) of terahertz surface waves on bare and dielectric coated metal surface. The experiment was carried out on a modified standard terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system. Surface waves were coupled into the metal surface using the parallel plate waveguide coupling mechanism. The picosecond terahertz pulses were generated and detected using the Grischkowsky photo-conductive transmitter and antenna driven by a femtosecond laser. Findings and Conclusions. Surface waves at microwave and terahertz frequencies are weakly guided on bare metal surface due to the high metal conductivity. Detailed wave coupling analysis and experiment has shown that on a bare metal surface, the majority of energy remains to be uncoupled freely propagating waves. The spatial extent of the terahertz surface wave collapses two orders of magnitude upon the addition of the sub-wavelength dielectric layer on the metal surface. Simple theory in terahertz range gives an accurate explanation to this effect. Direct experimental measurements of the terahertz surface wave on an aluminum surface covered with a 12.5 mum thick dielectric layer have completely characterized the wave. The measurements of the frequency-dependent exponential fall-off of the evanescent wave from the surface agree well with theory.

  20. Single crystal metal wedges for surface acoustic wave propagation

    DOEpatents

    Fisher, E.S.

    1980-05-09

    An ultrasonic testing device has been developed to evaluate flaws and inhomogeneities in the near-surface region of a test material. A metal single crystal wedge is used to generate high frequency Rayleigh surface waves in the test material surface by conversion of a slow velocity, bulk acoustic mode in the wedge into a Rayleigh wave at the metal-wedge test material interface. Particular classes of metals have been found to provide the bulk acoustic modes necessary for production of a surface wave with extremely high frequency and angular collimation. The high frequency allows flaws and inhomogeneities to be examined with greater resolution. The high degree of angular collimation for the outgoing ultrasonic beam permits precision angular location of flaws and inhomogeneities in the test material surface.

  1. Single crystal metal wedges for surface acoustic wave propagation

    DOEpatents

    Fisher, Edward S.

    1982-01-01

    An ultrasonic testing device has been developed to evaluate flaws and inhomogeneities in the near-surface region of a test material. A metal single crystal wedge is used to generate high frequency Rayleigh surface waves in the test material surface by conversion of a slow velocity, bulk acoustic mode in the wedge into a Rayleigh wave at the metal-wedge test material interface. Particular classes of metals have been found to provide the bulk acoustic modes necessary for production of a surface wave with extremely high frequency and angular collimation. The high frequency allows flaws and inhomogeneities to be examined with greater resolution. The high degree of angular collimation for the outgoing ultrasonic beam permits precision angular location of flaws and inhomogeneities in the test material surface.

  2. Metal Surface Decontamination by the PFC Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Hui-Jun Won; Gye-Nam Kim; Wang-Kyu Choi; Chong-Hun Jung; Won-Zin Oh

    2006-07-01

    PFC (per-fluorocarbon) spray decontamination equipment was fabricated and its decontamination behavior was investigated. Europium oxide powder was mixed with the isotope solution which contains Co-60 and Cs-137. The different shape of metal specimens artificially contaminated with europium oxide powder was used as the surrogate contaminants. Before and after the application of the PFC spray decontamination method, the radioactivity of the metal specimens was measured by MCA. The decontamination factors were in the range from 9.6 to 62.4. The spent PFC solution was recycled by distillation. Before and after distillation, the turbidity of PFC solution was also measured. From the test results, it was found that more than 98% of the PFC solution could be recycled by a distillation. (authors)

  3. Method for producing highly reflective metal surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jones B.; Steger, Philip J.; Wright, Ralph R.

    1983-01-01

    The invention is a novel method for producing mirror surfaces which are extremely smooth and which have high optical reflectivity. The method includes electrolessly depositing an amorphous layer of nickel on an article and then diamond-machining the resulting nickel surface to increase its smoothness and reflectivity. The machined nickel surface then is passivated with respect to the formation of bonds with electrodeposited nickel. Nickel then is electrodeposited on the passivated surface to form a layer of electroplated nickel whose inside surface is a replica of the passivated surface. The electroplated nickel layer then is separated from the passivated surface. The mandrel then may be re-passivated and provided with a layer of electrodeposited nickel, which is then recovered from the mandrel providing a second replica. The mandrel can be so re-used to provide many such replicas. As compared with producing each mirror-finished article by plating and diamond-machining, the new method is faster and less expensive.

  4. Characterising metal build-up on urban road surfaces.

    PubMed

    Egodawatta, Prasanna; Ziyath, Abdul M; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2013-05-01

    Reliable approaches for predicting pollutant build-up are essential for accurate urban stormwater quality modelling. Based on the in-depth investigation of metal build-up on residential road surfaces, this paper presents empirical models for predicting metal loads on these surfaces. The study investigated metals commonly present in the urban environment. Analysis undertaken found that the build-up process for metals primarily originating from anthropogenic (copper and zinc) and geogenic (aluminium, calcium, iron and manganese) sources were different. Chromium and nickel were below detection limits. Lead was primarily associated with geogenic sources, but also exhibited a significant relationship with anthropogenic sources. The empirical prediction models developed were validated using an independent data set and found to have relative prediction errors of 12-50%, which is generally acceptable for complex systems such as urban road surfaces. Also, the predicted values were very close to the observed values and well within 95% prediction interval. PMID:23416742

  5. Modulation of photoacoustic signal generation from metallic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Mitcham, Trevor; Homan, Kimberly; Frey, Wolfgang; Chen, Yun-Sheng; Emelianov, Stanislav; Hazle, John; Bouchard, Richard

    2013-05-01

    The ability to image metallic implants is important for medical applications ranging from diagnosis to therapy. Photoacoustic (PA) imaging has been recently pursued as a means to localize metallic implants in soft tissue. The work presented herein investigates different mechanisms to modulate the PA signal generated by macroscopic metallic surfaces. Wires of five different metals are tested to simulate medical implants/tools, while surface roughness is altered or physical vapor deposition (PVD) coatings are added to change the wires' overall optical absorption. PA imaging data of the wires are acquired at 970 nm. Results indicate that PA signal generation predominately occurs in a wire's metallic surface and not its aqueous surroundings. PA signal generation is similar for all metals tested, while addition of PVD coatings offers significant modulations (i.e., 4-dB enhancement and 26-dB reduction achieved) in PA signal generation. Results also suggest that PA signal increases with increasing surface roughness. Different coating and roughness schemes are then successfully utilized to generate spatial PA signal patterns. This work demonstrates the potential of surface modifications to enhance or reduce PA signal generation to permit improved PA imaging of implants/tools (i.e., providing location/orientation information) or to allow PA imaging of surrounding tissue.

  6. Surface discharge of heavy metals from low farmland.

    PubMed

    Hamada, K; Yoshinaga, I; Hitomi, T; Miura, A; Shiratani, E; Takaki, K

    2007-01-01

    Runoff heavy metals from farmland were examined using the field data for the summer of 2005. The observation farmland is located on lowland where the irrigation water was contaminated with the drained water from the upstream farmlands. The area of the farmland is 11.2 ha, of which 6.0 ha and 4.5 ha have been used for rice paddy fields and soybean cultivation, respectively. During the observation, heavy metal concentrations at the downstream end were usually found to be higher than those in the irrigation water. That is, the heavy metal concentrations increased due to the passage of the water through the farmland. This increase in the heavy metal concentrations is not equal to the discharge of the heavy metal because the evaporation on the surface of the paddy field and the absorption by plants makes the surface water volume small. The discharged load from the farmland generally indicates the gross surface load from the farmland. When the effects of circulation irrigation on the heavy metal concentrations are estimated, the discharged load from the farmland should be calculated as the net surface load. When the runoff heavy metals from the circulation irrigation farmland are estimated, it is important to consider the inflowing heavy metals with irrigation water. All the heavy metal types observed in this study were discharged from the farmland. The net surface loads of Cr, Fe, Cd, and Pb were 371 microg m(-2) day(-1), 14.9 mg m(-2) day(-1), 0.26 microg m(-2) day(-1), and 3.3 microm( -2) day(-1), respectively. PMID:17711004

  7. Leidenfrost point reduction on micropatterned metallic surfaces.

    PubMed

    del Cerro, Daniel Arnaldo; Marín, Alvaro G; Römer, Gertwillem R B E; Pathiraj, B; Lohse, Detlef; Huis in 't Veld, Albertus J

    2012-10-23

    Droplets are able to levitate when deposited over a hot surface exceeding a critical temperature. This is known as the Leidenfrost effect. This phenomenon occurs when the surface is heated above the so-called Leidenfrost point (LFP), above which the vapor film between the droplet and hot surface is able to levitate the droplet. Such a critical temperature depends on several factors. One of the most studied parameters has been the surface roughness. Almost all of the experimental studies in the literature have concluded that the LFP increases with the roughness. According to these results, it seems that the roughness is detrimental for the stability of the vapor film. In contrast with these results, we present here a micropatterned surface that significantly reduces the LFP. The temperature increase, relative to the boiling point, required to reach the LFP is 70% lower than that on the flat surface. The reasons for such an effect are qualitatively and quantitatively discussed with a simple semiempirical model. This result can be relevant to save energy in applications that take advantage of the Leidenfrost effect for drop control or drag reduction.

  8. Surface Plasmon Resonance Evaluation of Colloidal Metal Aerogel Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David D.; Sibille, Laurent; Cronise, Raymond J.; Noever, David A.

    1997-01-01

    Surface plasmon resonance imaging has in the past been applied to the characterization of thin films. In this study we apply the surface plasmon technique not to determine macroscopic spatial variations but rather to determine average microscopic information. Specifically, we deduce the dielectric properties of the surrounding gel matrix and information concerning the dynamics of the gelation process from the visible absorption characteristics of colloidal metal nanoparticles contained in aerogel pores. We have fabricated aerogels containing gold and silver nanoparticles. Because the dielectric constant of the metal particles is linked to that of the host matrix at the surface plasmon resonance, any change 'in the dielectric constant of the material surrounding the metal nanoparticles results in a shift in the surface plasmon wavelength. During gelation the surface plasmon resonance shifts to the red as the average or effective dielectric constant of the matrix increases. Conversely, formation of an aerogel or xerogel through supercritical extraction or evaporation of the solvent produces a blue shift in the resonance indicating a decrease in the dielectric constant of the matrix. From the magnitude of this shift we deduce the average fraction of air and of silica in contact with the metal particles. The surface area of metal available for catalytic gas reaction may thus be determined.

  9. Femtosecond laser-induced electronic plasma at metal surface

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Zhaoyang; Mao, Samuel S.

    2008-08-04

    We develop a theoretical analysis to model plasma initiation at the early stage of femtosecond laser irradiation of metal surfaces. The calculation reveals that there is a threshold intensity for the formation of a microscale electronic plasma at the laser-irradidated metal surface. As the full width at half maximum of a laser pulse increases from 15 to 200 fs, the plasma formation threshold decreases by merely about 20%. The dependence of the threshold intensity on laser pulse width can be attributed to laser-induced surface electron emission, in particular due to the effect of photoelectric effect.

  10. Modeling of water outgassing from metal surfaces (III)

    SciTech Connect

    Minxu Li; H. F. Dylla

    1995-06-01

    A model of water adsorption on metal oxide layers and water outgassing from metal surfaces has been developed. The oxide layer is assumed to have porous structure and a pore length (l) distribution of l/l{sup 2}. Numerical evaluation shows that the quantity of water adsorbed is logarithmic with time within a certain time range as experimentally observed. The outgassing rate from surfaces with adsorbed water distributed uniformly on the inner surfaces of individual pores is shown analytically to be inversely proportional to time. This result is consistent with frequently observed pumpdown curves.

  11. Sulfur-induced structural motifs on copper and gold surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walen, Holly

    The interaction of sulfur with copper and gold surfaces plays a fundamental role in important phenomena that include coarsening of surface nanostructures, and self-assembly of alkanethiols. Here, we identify and analyze unique sulfur-induced structural motifs observed on the low-index surfaces of these two metals. We seek out these structures in an effort to better understand the fundamental interactions between these metals and sulfur that lends to the stability and favorability of metal-sulfur complexes vs. chemisorbed atomic sulfur. We choose very specific conditions: very low temperature (5 K), and very low sulfur coverage (≤ 0.1 monolayer). In this region of temperature-coverage space, which has not been examined previously for these adsorbate-metal systems, the effects of individual interactions between metals and sulfur are most apparent and can be assessed extensively with the aid of theory and modeling. Furthermore, at this temperature diffusion is minimal and relatively-mobile species can be isolated, and at low coverage the structures observed are not consumed by an extended reconstruction. The primary experimental technique is scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The experimental observations presented here---made under identical conditions---together with extensive DFT analyses, allow comparisons and insights into factors that favor the existence of metal-sulfur complexes, vs. chemisorbed atomic sulfur, on metal terraces. We believe this data will be instrumental in better understanding the complex phenomena occurring between the surfaces of coinage metals and sulfur.

  12. Surface properties of simple metals in a structureless pseudopotential model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiejna, Adam

    1993-03-01

    The structureless pseudopotential model of Perdew, Tran, and Smith [Phys. Rev. B 42, 11 627 (1990)] is applied to determine surface properties of Al, Mg, Pb, Zn, and alkali metals. Results of self-consistent Kohn-Sham calculations of surface energies, work functions, and the location of the image plane both for a flat-metal (uncorrugated) surface and for the exposed single-crystal faces are presented. In contrast to jellium, the calculated distance from the image-plane position to the uniform positive background edge increases with the decreasing mean electron density in the bulk metal. The calculated surface energies show more realistic weaker face dependence compared to the previous perturbational or variational calculations of this type and agree well with those predicted by the second-order pseudopotential perturbation theory.

  13. Stimulated emission of surface plasmons by electron tunneling in metal-barrier-metal structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siu, D. P.; Gustafson, T. K.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that correlation currents arising from the superposition of pairs of states on distinct sides of a potential barrier in metal-barrier-metal structures can result in inelastic tunneling through the emission of surface plasmons. Net gain of an externally excited plasmon field is possible.

  14. Isolation and characterization of bacteria resistant to metallic copper surfaces.

    PubMed

    Santo, Christophe Espírito; Morais, Paula Vasconcelos; Grass, Gregor

    2010-03-01

    Metallic copper alloys have recently attracted attention as a new antimicrobial weapon for areas where surface hygiene is paramount. Currently it is not understood on a molecular level how metallic copper kills microbes, but previous studies have demonstrated that a wide variety of bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Clostridium difficile, are inactivated within minutes or a few hours of exposure. In this study, we show that bacteria isolated from copper alloy coins comprise strains that are especially resistant against the toxic properties exerted by dry metallic copper surfaces. The most resistant of 294 isolates were Gram-positive staphylococci and micrococci, Kocuria palustris, and Brachybacterium conglomeratum but also included the proteobacterial species Sphingomonas panni and Pseudomonas oleovorans. Cells of some of these bacterial strains survived on copper surfaces for 48 h or more. Remarkably, when these dry-surface-resistant strains were exposed to moist copper surfaces, resistance levels were close to those of control strains and MICs for copper ions were at or below control strain levels. This suggests that mechanisms conferring resistance against dry metallic copper surfaces in these newly isolated bacterial strains are different from well-characterized copper ion detoxification systems. Furthermore, staphylococci on coins did not exhibit increased levels of resistance to antibiotics, arguing against coselection with copper surface resistance traits. PMID:20048058

  15. Surface plasmon dispersion analysis in the metal-oxide-metal tunnel diode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohue, J. F.; Wang, E. Y.

    1987-01-01

    A detailed model of surface plasmon dispersion in the metal-oxide-metal tunnel diode is presented in order to clarify the spectral emission from this diode. The model predicts the location of the spectral peaks and the emission between the peaks by considering the effects of retardation on the surface plasmon. A nonradiative mode is found to play a major role in the transition from the visible to UV peaks in the diode spectra.

  16. Method for producing functionally graded nanocrystalline layer on metal surface

    DOEpatents

    Ajayi, Oyelayo O.; Hershberger, Jeffrey G.

    2010-03-23

    An improved process for the creation or formation of nanocrystalline layers on substrates' surfaces is provided. The process involves "prescuffing" the surface of a substrate such as a metal by allowing friction to occur on the surface by a load-bearing entity making rubbing contact and moving along and on the substrate's surface. The "prescuffing" action is terminated when the coefficient of friction between the surface and the noise is rising significantly. Often, the significant rise in the coefficient of friction is signaled by a change in pitch of the scuffing action sound emanating from the buffeted surface. The "prescuffing" gives rise to a harder and smoother surface which withstands better any inadequate lubrication that may take place when the "prescuffed" surface is contacted by other surfaces.

  17. Surface tension of liquid metals and alloys--recent developments.

    PubMed

    Egry, I; Ricci, E; Novakovic, R; Ozawa, S

    2010-09-15

    Surface tension measurements are a central task in the study of surfaces and interfaces. For liquid metals, they are complicated by the high temperatures and the consequently high reactivity characterising these melts. In particular, oxidation of the liquid surface in combination with evaporation phenomena requires a stringent control of the experimental conditions, and an appropriate theoretical treatment. Recently, much progress has been made on both sides. In addition to improving the conventional sessile drop technique, new containerless methods have been developed for surface tension measurements. This paper reviews the experimental progress made in the last few years, and the theoretical framework required for modelling and understanding the relevant physico-chemical surface phenomena.

  18. Method for the decontamination of metallic surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Purohit, Ankur; Kaminski, Michael D.; Nunez, Luis

    2003-01-01

    A method of decontaminating a radioactively contaminated oxide on a surface. The radioactively contaminated oxide is contacted with a diphosphonic acid solution for a time sufficient to dissolve the oxide and subsequently produce a precipitate containing most of the radioactive values. Thereafter, the diphosphonic solution is separated from the precipitate. HEDPA is the preferred diphosphonic acid and oxidizing and reducing agents are used to initiate precipitation. SFS is the preferred reducing agent.

  19. Laser processing of metal surfaces for increasing paint adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirose, Tomiyasu; Ichihara, Hideki; Sugimoto, Kenji; Sasazawa, Kazuo; Shibasaki, Shouji

    2000-01-01

    Painted metal exteriors of buildings begin to degrade in about 10 years due to solar heat, UV rays, the sea salt adhesion, the acid rain etc. When degradation and exfoliation of the paint film occurs, rust appears in the metal and replacement or repainting becomes necessary. The adhesion of paints on metal is usually achieved by chemical adhesion or by increasing the surface area by blast processing. In this study, the possibility of improving paint adhesion by forming minute holes on the metal surface by laser irradiation was studied through modeling of the adhesion of the paint film and adaptability to deformation. The viscosity and painting method depend on the size and location of the oles. The presence of the holes makes it possible to form complicated shapes by pressing because the holes absorb some of the strain caused by pressing.

  20. Emerging Applications of Liquid Metals Featuring Surface Oxides

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Gallium and several of its alloys are liquid metals at or near room temperature. Gallium has low toxicity, essentially no vapor pressure, and a low viscosity. Despite these desirable properties, applications calling for liquid metal often use toxic mercury because gallium forms a thin oxide layer on its surface. The oxide interferes with electrochemical measurements, alters the physicochemical properties of the surface, and changes the fluid dynamic behavior of the metal in a way that has, until recently, been considered a nuisance. Here, we show that this solid oxide “skin” enables many new applications for liquid metals including soft electrodes and sensors, functional microcomponents for microfluidic devices, self-healing circuits, shape-reconfigurable conductors, and stretchable antennas, wires, and interconnects. PMID:25283244

  1. Electronic decoupling of a cyclophane from a metal surface

    PubMed Central

    Matino, Francesca; Schull, Guillaume; Köhler, Felix; Gabutti, Sandro; Mayor, Marcel; Berndt, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Electronic self-decoupling of an organic chromophore from a metal substrate is achieved using a naphtalenediimide cyclophane to spatially separate one chromophore unit of the cyclophane from the substrate. Observations of vibronic excitations in scanning tunneling spectra demonstrate the success of this approach. These excitations contribute a significant part of the tunneling current and give rise to clear structure in scanning tunneling microscope images. We suggest that this approach may be extended to implement molecular functions at metal surfaces. PMID:21059947

  2. Superconductivity of metal-induced surface reconstructions on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchihashi, Takashi

    2016-11-01

    Recent progress in superconducting metal-induced surface reconstructions on silicon is reviewed, mainly focusing on the results of the author’s group. After a brief introduction of an ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV)-low-temperature (LT)-compatible electron transport measurement system, direct observation of the zero resistance state for the Si(111)-(\\sqrt{7} × \\sqrt{3} )-In surface is described, which demonstrates the existence of a superconducting transition in this class of two-dimensional (2D) materials. The measurement and analysis of the temperature dependence of the critical current density indicate that a surface atomic step works as a Josephson junction. This identification is further confirmed by LT-scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) observation of Josephson vortices trapped at atomic steps on the Si(111)-(\\sqrt{7} × \\sqrt{3} )-In surface. These experiments reveal unique features of metal-induced surface reconstructions on silicon that may be utilized to explore novel superconductivity.

  3. Molecule-to-metal bonds: electrografting polymers on conducting surfaces.

    PubMed

    Palacin, Serge; Bureau, Christophe; Charlier, Julienne; Deniau, Guy; Mouanda, Brigitte; Viel, Pascal

    2004-10-18

    Electrografting is a powerful and versatile technique for modifying and decorating conducting surfaces with organic matter. Mainly based on the electro-induced polymerization of dissolved electro-active monomers on metallic or semiconducting surfaces, it finds applications in various fields including biocompatibility, protection against corrosion, lubrication, soldering, functionalization, adhesion, and template chemistry. Starting from experimental observations, this Review highlights the mechanism of the formation of covalent metal-carbon bonds by electro-induced processes, together with major applications such as derivatization of conducting surfaces with biomolecules that can be used in biosensing, lubrication of low-level electrical contacts, reversible trapping of ionic waste on reactive electrografted surfaces as an alternative to ion-exchange resins, and localized modification of conducting surfaces, a one-step process providing submicrometer grafted areas and which is used in microelectronics.

  4. RFID Label Tag Design for Metallic Surface Environments

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chong Ryol; Eom, Ki Hwan

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a metal mount RFID tag that works reliably on metallic surfaces. The method proposes the use of commercial label type RFID tags with 2.5 mm thick Styrofoam103.7 with a relative permittivity of 1.03 attached on the back of the tag. In order to verify the performance of the proposed method, we performed experiments on an electric transformer supply chain system. The experimental results showed that the proposed tags can communicate with readers from a distance of 2 m. The recognition rates are comparable to those of commercial metallic mountable tags. PMID:22346612

  5. Enrichment of metals in the surface sediments of Sapanca Lake

    SciTech Connect

    Bakan, G.; Balkas, T.I.

    1999-01-01

    A comprehensive lake sediment study was performed on the Sapanca Lake of Turkey in which certain metal analyses were conducted using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The purpose of the study was to find the enrichment of metals in the surface sediments of Sapanca Lake. A method, namely, the index of geoaccumulation, was used to define the degree of anthropogenic pollution in the Sapanca Lake basin. Results of the geoaccumulation index indicate that only enrichments of trace metals, cadmium, and lead are found.

  6. Carbide and carbonitride surface treatment method for refractory metals

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, G.A.; Schildbach, M.A.

    1996-12-03

    A carbide and carbonitride surface treatment method for refractory metals is provided, in steps including, heating a part formed of boron, chromium, hafnium, molybdenum, niobium, tantalum, titanium, tungsten or zirconium, or alloys thereof, in an evacuated chamber and then introducing reaction gases including nitrogen and hydrogen, either in elemental or water vapor form, which react with a source of elemental carbon to form carbon-containing gaseous reactants which then react with the metal part to form the desired surface layer. Apparatus for practicing the method is also provided, in the form of a carbide and carbonitride surface treatment system including a reaction chamber, a source of elemental carbon, a heating subassembly and a source of reaction gases. Alternative methods of providing the elemental carbon and the reaction gases are provided, as well as methods of supporting the metal part, evacuating the chamber with a vacuum subassembly and heating all of the components to the desired temperature. 5 figs.

  7. Controlling the topology of Fermi surfaces in metal nanofilms.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, M; Gray, A; Sheverdyaeva, P M; Moras, P; Hong, H; Huang, L-C; Tang, S-J; Kobayashi, K; Carbone, C; Chiang, T-C; Matsuda, I

    2012-07-13

    The properties of metal crystals are governed by the electrons of the highest occupied states at the Fermi level and determined by Fermi surfaces, the Fermi energy contours in momentum space. Topological regulation of the Fermi surface has been an important issue in synthesizing functional materials, which we found to be realized at room temperature in nanometer-thick films. Reducing the thickness of a metal thin film down to its electron wavelength scale induces the quantum size effect and the electronic system changes from three to two-dimensional, transforming the Fermi surface topology. Such an ultrathin film further changes its topology through one-dimensional (1D) structural deformation of the film when it is grown on a 1D substrate. In particular, when the interface has 1D metallic bands, the system is additionally stabilized by forming an electron energy gap by hybridization between 1D states of the film and substrate.

  8. In vivo surface roughness evolution of a stressed metallic implant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Henry

    2016-10-01

    Implant-associated infection, a serious medical issue, is caused by the adhesion of bacteria to the surface of biomaterials; for this process the surface roughness is an important property. Surface nanotopography of medical implant devices can control the extent of bacterial attachment by modifying the surface morphology; to this end a model is introduced to facilitate the analysis of a nanoscale smooth surface subject to mechanical loading and in vivo corrosion. At nanometre scale rough surface promotes friction, hence reduces the mobility of the bacteria; this sessile environment expedites the biofilm growth. This manuscript derives the controlling equation for surface roughness evolution for metallic implant subject to in-plane stresses, and predicts the in vivo roughness changes within 6 h of continued mechanical loading at different stress level. This paper provides analytic tool and theoretical information for surface nanotopography of medical implant devices.

  9. SO2 surface chemistry on metal substrates. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Y.M.; Sloan, D.; White, J.M.

    1995-12-31

    The surface chemistry, induced by thermal and non-thermal methods, of SO2 on metal substrates is reviewed. The substrate temperature during dosing is important; regardless of metal, adsorption is dissociative at 300 K and molecular at 100 K. On Ni, Pd, and Pt, molecular adsorption occurs through the S and one O atom, and the molecular plane is perpendicular to the surface. However, on Ag and Cu, adsorption occurs only through the S with the molecular plane perpendicular to the surface. The differences can be attributed to the structure of the metal`s molecular orbitals and their interactions with the SO2 orbitals. Upon heating, SO2 dissociates on all transition metal surfaces with the exception of Ag, Au, and Cu, where only molecular desorption occurs. On Pt, Fe, and Pd, additional reactions are observed between SO2 and its dissociation products. The nonthermal reactions induced by photons and electrons for monolayer coverages of SO2 on Ag (111) are dominated by molecular desorption. Desorption cross sections for 313 nm photons and 50 eV electrons were 2.8 x 10(exp {minus}20) sq cm and approx. 1 x 10(exp {minus}16) sq cm, respectively. Nonthermal excitation mechanisms and quenching processes as well as interesting characteristics of SO2 under irradiation are also reviewed.

  10. Making Metals Transparent for White Light by Spoof Surface Plasmons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xian-Rong; Peng, Ru-Wen; Fan, Ren-Hao

    2010-12-01

    From first-principles computations we reveal that metallic gratings consisting of narrow slits may become transparent for extremely broad bandwidths under oblique incidence. This phenomenon can be explained by a concrete picture in which the incident wave drives free electrons on the conducting surfaces and part of the slit walls to form spoof surface plasmons (SSPs). The SSPs then propagate on the slit walls but are abruptly discontinued by the bottom edges to form oscillating charges that emit the transmitted wave. This picture explicitly demonstrates the conversion between light and SSPs and indicates clear guidelines for enhancing SSP excitation and propagation. Making structured metals transparent may lead to a variety of applications.

  11. Geometrically induced surface polaritons in planar nanostructured metallic cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Davids, P. S.; Intravia, F; Dalvit, Diego A.

    2014-01-14

    We examine the modal structure and dispersion of periodically nanostructured planar metallic cavities within the scattering matrix formulation. By nanostructuring a metallic grating in a planar cavity, artificial surface excitations or spoof plasmon modes are induced with dispersion determined by the periodicity and geometric characteristics of the grating. These spoof surface plasmon modes are shown to give rise to new cavity polaritonic modes at short mirror separations that modify the density of modes in nanostructured cavities. The increased modal density of states form cavity polarirons have a large impact on the fluctuation induced electromagnetic forces and enhanced hear transfer at short separations.

  12. Laser surface treatment of amorphous metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katakam, Shravana K.

    Amorphous materials are used as soft magnetic materials and also as surface coatings to improve the surface properties. Furthermore, the nanocrystalline materials derived from their amorphous precursors show superior soft magnetic properties than amorphous counter parts for transformer core applications. In the present work, laser based processing of amorphous materials will be presented. Conventionally, the nanocrystalline materials are synthesized by furnace heat treatment of amorphous precursors. Fe-based amorphous/nanocrystalline materials due to their low cost and superior magnetic properties are the most widely used soft magnetic materials. However, achieving nanocrystalline microstructure in Fe-Si-B ternary system becomes very difficult owing its rapid growth rate at higher temperatures and sluggish diffusion at low temperature annealing. Hence, nanocrystallization in this system is achieved by using alloying additions (Cu and Nb) in the ternary Fe-Si-B system. Thus, increasing the cost and also resulting in reduction of saturation magnetization. laser processing technique is used to achieve extremely fine nanocrystalline microstructure in Fe-Si-B amorphous precursor. Microstructure-magnetic Property-laser processing co-relationship has been established for Fe-Si-B ternary system using analytical techniques. Laser processing improved the magnetic properties with significant increase in saturation magnetization and near zero coercivity values. Amorphous materials exhibit excellent corrosion resistance by virtue of their atomic structure. Fe-based amorphous materials are economical and due to their ease of processing are of potential interest to synthesize as coatings materials for wear and corrosion resistance applications. Fe-Cr-Mo-Y-C-B amorphous system was used to develop thick coatings on 4130 Steel substrate and the corrosion resistance of the amorphous coatings was improved. It is also shown that the mode of corrosion depends on the laser processing

  13. Modulation of human osteoblasts by metal surface chemistry.

    PubMed

    Hofstetter, Wilhelm; Sehr, Harald; de Wild, Michael; Portenier, Jeannette; Gobrecht, Jens; Hunziker, Ernst B

    2013-08-01

    The use of metal implants in dental and orthopedic surgery is continuously expanding and highly successful. While today longevity and load-bearing capacity of the implants fulfill the expectations of the patients, acceleration of osseointegration would be of particular benefit to shorten the period of convalescence. To further clarify the options to accelerate the kinetics of osseointegration, within this study, the osteogenic properties of structurally identical surfaces with different metal coatings were investigated. To assess the development and function of primary human osteoblasts on metal surfaces, cell viability, differentiation, and gene expression were determined. Titanium surfaces were used as positive, and surfaces coated with gold were used as negative controls. Little differences in the cellular parameters tested for were found when the cells were grown on titanium discs sputter coated with titanium, zirconium, niobium, tantalum, gold, and chromium. Cell number, activity of cell layer-associated alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and levels of transcripts encoding COL1A1 and BGLAP did not vary significantly in dependence of the surface chemistry. Treatment of the cell cultures with 1,25(OH)2 D3 /Dex, however, significantly increased ALP activity and BGLAP messenger RNA levels. The data demonstrate that the metal layer coated onto the titanium discs exerted little modulatory effects on cell behavior. It is suggested that the microenvironment regulated by the peri-implant tissues is more effective in regulating the tissue response than is the material of the implant itself.

  14. Evaluation of Metal-Fueled Surface Reactor Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, David I.; Marcille, Thomas F.; Kapernick, Richard J.; Hiatt, Matthew T.; Amiri, Benjamin W.

    2007-01-30

    Surface fission power systems for use on the Moon and Mars may provide the first use of near-term reactor technology in space. Most near-term surface reactor concepts specify reactor temperatures <1000 K to allow the use of established material and power conversion technology and minimize the impact of the in-situ environment. Metal alloy fuels (e.g. U-10Zr and U-10Mo) have not traditionally been considered for space reactors because of high-temperature requirements, but they might be an attractive option for these lower temperature surface power missions. In addition to temperature limitations, metal fuels are also known to swell significantly at rather low fuel burnups ({approx}1 a/o), but near-term surface missions can mitigate this concern as well, because power and lifetime requirements generally keep fuel burnups <1 a/o. If temperature and swelling issues are not a concern, then a surface reactor concept may be able to benefit from the high uranium density and relative ease of manufacture of metal fuels. This paper investigates two reactor concepts that utilize metal fuels. It is found that these concepts compare very well to concepts that utilize other fuels (UN, UO2, UZrH) on a mass basis, while also providing the potential to simplify material safeguards issues.

  15. Helium atmospheric pressure plasma jets touching dielectric and metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norberg, Seth A.; Johnsen, Eric; Kushner, Mark J.

    2015-07-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs) are being investigated in the context plasma medicine and biotechnology applications, and surface functionalization. The composition of the surface being treated ranges from plastics, liquids, and biological tissue, to metals. The dielectric constant of these materials ranges from as low as 1.5 for plastics to near 80 for liquids, and essentially infinite for metals. The electrical properties of the surface are not independent variables as the permittivity of the material being treated has an effect on the dynamics of the incident APPJ. In this paper, results are discussed from a computational investigation of the interaction of an APPJ incident onto materials of varying permittivity, and their impact on the discharge dynamics of the plasma jet. The computer model used in this investigation solves Poisson's equation, transport equations for charged and neutral species, the electron energy equation, and the Navier-Stokes equations for the neutral gas flow. The APPJ is sustained in He/O2 = 99.8/0.2 flowing into humid air, and is directed onto dielectric surfaces in contact with ground with dielectric constants ranging from 2 to 80, and a grounded metal surface. Low values of relative permittivity encourage propagation of the electric field into the treated material and formation and propagation of a surface ionization wave. High values of relative permittivity promote the restrike of the ionization wave and the formation of a conduction channel between the plasma discharge and the treated surface. The distribution of space charge surrounding the APPJ is discussed.

  16. Theoretical Studies of the Surface Tension of Liquid Metal System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroud, D. G.; Shih, W. H.

    1985-01-01

    A major goal of this project is to understand the surface tension and other thermophysical properties of liquid metals and alloys from a fundamental viewpoint. The approach is to calculate these quantities by a first principles technique which combines the statistical-mechanical theory of the liquid state with an electronic pseudopotential theory of electrons in metals. The inhomogeneity of the surface is treated using an ionic-density-functional formalism developed with the support of NASA. Of particular interest are the variation of surface tension with temperature and impurity concentration: such variations strongly influence the types of convection which make take place in a low-gravity environment. Some progress has already been achieved in computing the reduction of surface tension due to the presence of low-surface-tension impurities, and the corresponding surface segregation of such impurities. In the coming year, it is planned to concentrate on the surface properties of materials of particular interest to the MSA program: Si, Ga and GaSn alloys. An additional goal is to gain some theoretical understanding of the high temperature thermophysical properties of liquid metals, particularly high melting point materials which have not been studied extensively from a theoretical viewpoint.

  17. Formation, Removal, and Reformation of Surface Coatings on Various Metal Oxide Surfaces Inspired by Mussel Adhesives.

    PubMed

    Kang, Taegon; Oh, Dongyeop X; Heo, Jinhwa; Lee, Han-Koo; Choy, Seunghwan; Hawker, Craig J; Hwang, Dong Soo

    2015-11-11

    Mussels survive by strongly attaching to a variety of different surfaces, primarily subsurface rocks composed of metal oxides, through the formation of coordinative interactions driven by protein-based catechol repeating units contained within their adhesive secretions. From a chemistry perspective, catechols are known to form strong and reversible complexes with metal ions or metal oxides, with the binding affinity being dependent on the nature of the metal ion. As a result, catechol binding with metal oxides is reversible and can be broken in the presence of a free metal ion with a higher stability constant. It is proposed to exploit this competitive exchange in the design of a new strategy for the formation, removal, and reformation of surface coatings and self-assembled monolayers (SAM) based on catechols as the adhesive unit. In this study, catechol-functionalized tri(ethylene oxide) (TEO) was synthesized as a removable and recoverable self-assembled monolayer (SAM) for use on oxides surfaces. Attachment and detachment of these catechol derivatives on a variety of surfaces was shown to be reversible and controllable by exploiting the high stability constant of catechol to soluble metal ions, such as Fe(III). This tunable assembly based on catechol binding to metal oxides represents a new concept for reformable coatings with applications in fields ranging from friction/wettability control to biomolecular sensing and antifouling.

  18. Surface structures of polar and non-polar metal oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlin, Sara E.

    Metal oxides have long been a challenge to surface science since many traditional surface techniques are often affected by their insulating nature. In particular, high current electron beams can cause charging effects in addition to potentially desorbing surface species and damaging the surface. The development of a low current, low energy electron diffraction (LEED) system has allowed us to investigate metal oxide surfaces while significantly limiting the above mentioned complications. This low current LEED system has been used to perform a structural LEED-IV study of the reconstructed TiO2(011)-(2x1) surface. This surface is known to experience significant oxygen desorption when exposed to high current electron beams. The low current LEED system was crucial to maintain confidence in the structure found, which generally agreed with recently published models, but did not confirm one key feature. The oxygen atoms at the surface were not found to be asymmetrically bonded, which has been thought to be the cause of this surface's enhanced photocatalytic activity. We have also used the low current LEED system to investigate the polar oxide surfaces of ZnO(000 1¯) and MgO(111)-(✓3x✓3)R30°. For Zn0(000 1¯) LEED-IV structural study was combined with Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations to investigate the impact of hydrogen on the surface. Our results support a disordered, fractional coverage of hydrogen terminating the surface. MgO(111)-(✓3x✓3)R30° has proven to be a challenging reconstructed surface. Both LEED-IV and surface x-ray diffraction (SXRD) find that previously proposed models for the surface are not a good fit to the data, so other models have been explored. The SXRD data in particular suggest that the reconstruction is more than one atomic layer deep.

  19. Modelling of Surfaces. Part 1: Monatomic Metallic Surfaces Using Equivalent Crystal Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Ferrante, John; Rodriguez, Agustin M.

    1994-01-01

    We present a detailed description of equivalent crystal theory focusing on its application to the study of surface structure. While the emphasis is in the structure of the algorithm and its computational aspects, we also present a comprehensive discussion on the calculation of surface energies of metallic systems with equivalent crystal theory and other approaches. Our results are compared to experiment and other semiempirical as well as first-principles calculations for a variety of fcc and bcc metals.

  20. Comparative study of metal adsorption on the metal and the oxide surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magkoev, T. T.; Vladimirov, G. G.; Remar, D.; Moutinho, A. M. C.

    2002-05-01

    Adsorption of Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni and Cu atoms at coverage not exceeding two monolayers on the surface of ultrathin (10-15 Å) alumina and magnesia films (γ-Al 2O 3(111) or α-Al 2O 3(1000) and MgO(111) grown on Mo(110) were studied in ultrahigh vacuum by means of electron spectroscopy techniques (Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), work function measurements and reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS)). At very low metal coverage and low substrate temperature (85 K) when the film can be viewed as consisting of separate adatoms and/or very small clusters the electronic properties of adatoms on the oxide films, on one hand, and on Mo(110) surface, on the other hand, are quite different. With increasing metal coverage, the properties on both the oxide and the metallic substrates change becoming similar at the coverage close to monolayer. On the Mo(110) surface the electronic properties change gradually with the metal coverage, whereas on the oxide there is a critical coverage of about 0.15 ML separating ionic and metallic adsorption of the metal species. It is shown that the lateral interaction of adatoms on the oxide surface plays a dominant role in the formation of the band-like structure of the adsorbed 2D film.

  1. Quantum Chemistry for Surface Segregation in Metal Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Sholl, David

    2006-08-31

    Metal alloys are vital materials for the fabrication of high-flux, high-selectivity hydrogen separation membranes. A phenomenon that occurs in alloys that does not arise in pure metals is surface segregation, where the composition of the surface differs from the bulk composition. Little is known about the strength of surface segregation in the alloys usually considered for hydrogen membranes. Despite this lack of knowledge, surface segregation may play a decisive role in the ability of appropriately chosen alloys to be resistant to chemical poisoning, since membrane poisoning is controlled by surface chemistry. The aim of this Phase I project is to develop quantum chemistry approaches to assess surface segregation in a prototypical hydrogen membrane alloy, fcc Pd{sub 75}Cu{sub 25}. This alloy is known experimentally to have favorable surface properties as a poison resistant H{sub 2} purification membrane (Kamakoti et al., Science 307 (2005) 569-573), but previous efforts at modeling surfaces of this alloy have ignored the possible role of surface segregation (Alfonso et al., Surf. Sci. 546 (2003) 12-26).

  2. Laser cleaning of metal surfaces: physical processes and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veiko, V. P.; Mutin, T. J.; Smirnov, V. N.; Shakhno, E. A.; Batishche, S. A.

    2008-01-01

    Physical processes occurring by laser cleaning of metal surfaces from soiling particles, coatings and near-surface oxide or corroded layer are considered. Unconventional methods of laser cleaning which promote increasing the quality and effectiveness of cleaning and solving of the problem of soiling substance gathering are proposed. Applications of these methods in a number of novel fields, such as pinholes cleaning, coatings removal, radioactive contaminated layers removal, cleaning of objects of historic and cultural heritage are considered.

  3. Surface-polaritonlike waves guided by thin, lossy metal films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stegeman, G. I.; Burke, J. J.; Hall, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    Surface-plasmon polaritons guided by thin, lossy metallic films bounded by dissimilar dielectric media are investigated. New solutions to the dispersion relation are found, representing waves that are leaky (radiative) in one of the dielectrics. The new waves are interpreted in terms of the coupling of a damped surface plasmon at one interface with continuum modes at the other. Their excitation by end-fire coupling techniques is suggested.

  4. Interaction potential between a helium atom and metal surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takada, Y.; Kohn, W.

    1985-01-01

    By employing an S-matrix theory for evanescent waves, the repulsive potential between a helium atom and corrugated metal surfaces has been calculated. P-wave interactions and intra-atomic correlation effects were found to be very important. The corrugation part of the interaction potential is much weaker than predicted by the effective-medium theory. Application to Cu, Ni, and Ag (110) surfaces gives good agreement with experiment without any adjustable parameters.

  5. Temporal pulse shaping for smoothing of printed metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Yuval; Zenou, Michael; Dolev, Omer; Kotler, Zvi

    2015-01-01

    The surfaces of laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) printed metal structures show typical roughness characteristic of the metal droplet size (3 to 10 μm). Submicron voids are often observed in the bulk of such printed metal structures with consequences on the mechanical strength, chemical resistivity, and electrical conductivity. We present the results of our efforts to reduce surface roughness and bulk voids by controlled laser melting. We have used temporally shaped pulses from a fiber laser tunable in the range from 1 to 600 ns in order to improve the quality of LIFT printed copper and aluminum structures. For the best case shown, roughness was improved from RRMS=0.8 μm to RRMS=0.2 μm and the relative percentage of the voids was reduced from 7.3% to 0.9%.

  6. PARTITION COEFFICIENTS FOR METALS IN SURFACE WATER, SOIL, AND WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents metal partition coefficients for the surface water pathway and for the source model used in the Multimedia, Multi-pathway, Multi-receptor Exposure and Risk Assessment (3MRA) technology under development by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Partition ...

  7. Autocatalytic dissociation of water at stepped transition metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekoez, Rengin; Woerner, Swenja; Ghiringhelli, Luca M.; Donadio, Davide

    2014-03-01

    By means of density functional theory calculations, we investigate the adsorption and dissociation of water clusters on flat and stepped surfaces of several transition metals: Rh, Ir, Pd, Pt, and Ru. We find that water binds preferentially to the edge of the steps than to terrace sites, so that isolated clusters or one-dimensional water wires can be isolated by differential desorption. The enhanced reactivity of metal atoms at the step edge and the cooperative effect of hydrogen bonding enhance the chances of partial dissociation of water clusters on stepped surfaces. For example, water dissociation on Pt and Ir surface turns from endothermic at terraces to exothermic at steps. The interpretation of water dissociation is achieved by analyzing changes in the electronic structure of both water and metals, especially focusing on the interaction between the lone-pair electrons of water and the d-band of the metals. The shift in the energetics of water dissociation at steps is expected to play a prominent role in catalysis and fuel cells reactions, as the density of steps at surfaces could be an additional parameter to design more efficient anode materials or catalytic substrates.

  8. Gravity- and strain-induced electric fields outside metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, F.; Opat, G. I.

    1992-05-01

    The gravity-induced electric field outside a metal object supported against gravity is predominantly due to its differential compression which arises in supporting its own weight. This Dessler-Michel-Rorschach-Trammell (DMRT) field, as it has come to be known, is expected to be proportional to the strain derivative of the work function of the surface. We report the results of an experiment designed to produce this effect with mechanically applied strain rather than with gravity. In essence, we have measured the strain-induced contact-potential variation between a metal surface of known strain gradient and an unstrained capacitive probe. We describe useful solutions to the problems faced in such an experiment, which were not adequately addressed by earlier workers. A knowledge of the DMRT field is of considerable importance to experiments designed to compare the gravitational acceleration of charged particles and antiparticles inside a metallic shield. Past experiments with electrons yielded results contrary to the then-expected DMRT field. We review and partially extend the theoretical background by drawing on later results based on the jellium model of metal surfaces. Our results for Cu and Au surfaces are consistent with jellium-based calculations which imply a DMRT field that is about an order of magnitude smaller and of opposite sign to the early estimates.

  9. Metal halide solid-state surface treatment for nanocrystal materials

    DOEpatents

    Luther, Joseph M.; Crisp, Ryan; Beard, Matthew C.

    2016-04-26

    Methods of treating nanocrystal and/or quantum dot devices are described. The methods include contacting the nanocrystals and/or quantum dots with a solution including metal ions and halogen ions, such that the solution displaces native ligands present on the surface of the nanocrystals and/or quantum dots via ligand exchange.

  10. Microbial Specificity of Metallic Surfaces Exposed to Ambient Seawater

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, B. R.; Bard, R. F.; Tosteson, T. R.

    1984-01-01

    High-molecular-weight materials associated with the extracellular matrix and film found on titanium and aluminum surfaces after exposure to flowing coastal seawater were isolated. This material was purified by hydroxylapatite chromatography and subsequently employed to produce antibodies in the toad, Bufo marinus. The antibodies were immobilized on a solid support and employed to isolate adhesion-enhancing, high-molecular-weight materials from the laboratory culture media of bacterial strains recovered from the respective metallic surfaces during the course of their exposure to seawater. The adhesion-enhancing materials produced by the surface-associated bacterial strains were immunologically related to the extracellular biofouling matrix material found on the surfaces from which these bacteria were isolated. The surface selectivity of these bacterial strains appeared to be based on the specificity of the interaction between adhesion-enhancing macromolecules produced by these bacteria and the surfaces in question. PMID:16346622

  11. Enhanced Raman spectroscopic study of rotational isomers on metal surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loo, B. H.; Lee, Y. G.; Frazier, D. O.

    1986-01-01

    Surfaced-enhanced Raman spectroscopy has been used to study rotational isomers of succinonitrile and N-methyl-thioacetamide on Cu and Ag surfaces. Both the gauche and trans conformers of succinonitrile are found to chemisorb on the metal surface. The doubly degenerate nu(C-triple bond-N) in the free molecules is removed when succinonitrile adsorbs on copper, which indicates that the two (C-triple bond-N) groups are no longer chemically equivalent. Both conformers are found to coordinate to the copper surface through the pi system of one of the two (C-triple bond-N) groups. In the case of N-methyl-thioacetamide, the population of the cis isomer is greatly increased on Cu and Ag surfaces. This is probably due to surface-induced cis-trans isomerization, in which the predominant trans isomer is converted to the cis isomer.

  12. Microbial specificity of metallic surfaces exposed to ambient seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Zaidi, B.R.; Bard, R.F.; Tosteson, T.R.

    1984-09-01

    High-molecular-weight materials associated with the extracellular matrix and film found on titanium and aluminum surfaces after exposure to flowing coastal seawater were isolated. This material was purified by hydroxylapatite chromatography and subsequently employed to produce antibodies in the toad, Bufo marinus. The antibodies were immobilized on a solid support and employed to isolate adhesion-enhancing, high-molecular-weight materials from the laboratory culture media of bacterial strains recovered from the respective metallic surfaces during the course of their exposure to seawater. The adhesion-enhancing materials produced by the surface-associated bacterial strains were immunologically related to the extracellular biofouling matrix material found on the surfaces from which these bacteria were isolated. The surface selectivity of these bacterial strains appeared to be based on the specificity of the interaction between adhesion-enhancing macromolecules produced by these bacteria and the surfaces in question. 30 references, 6 tables.

  13. CO2 hydrogenation on a metal hydride surface.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shunsuke; Borgschulte, Andreas; Ferri, Davide; Bielmann, Michael; Crivello, Jean-Claude; Wiedenmann, Daniel; Parlinska-Wojtan, Magdalena; Rossbach, Peggy; Lu, Ye; Remhof, Arndt; Züttel, Andreas

    2012-04-28

    The catalytic hydrogenation of CO(2) at the surface of a metal hydride and the corresponding surface segregation were investigated. The surface processes on Mg(2)NiH(4) were analyzed by in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) combined with thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) and mass spectrometry (MS), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). CO(2) hydrogenation on the hydride surface during hydrogen desorption was analyzed by catalytic activity measurement with a flow reactor, a gas chromatograph (GC) and MS. We conclude that for the CO(2) methanation reaction, the dissociation of H(2) molecules at the surface is not the rate controlling step but the dissociative adsorption of CO(2) molecules on the hydride surface. PMID:22433948

  14. Surface entropy of liquid transition and noble metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosh, R. C.; Das, Ramprosad; Sen, Sumon C.; Bhuiyan, G. M.

    2015-07-01

    Surface entropy of liquid transition and noble metals has been investigated using an expression obtained from the hard-sphere (HS) theory of liquid. The expression is developed from the Mayer's extended surface tension formula [Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids 380 (2013) 42-47]. For interionic interaction in metals, Brettonet-Silbert (BS) pseudopotentials and embedded atom method (EAM) potentials have been used. The liquid structure is described by the variational modified hypernetted chain (VMHNC) theory. The essential ingredient of the expression is the temperature dependent effective HS diameter (or packing fraction), which is calculated from the aforementioned potentials together with the VMHNC theory. The obtained results for the surface entropy using the effective HS diameter are found to be good in agreement with the available experimental as well as other theoretical values.

  15. Laser Nanostructurization of the Metal and Alloy Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanavin, Andrei; Kozlovskaya, Natalia; Krokhin, Oleg; Zavestovskaya, Irina

    2010-10-01

    The results from experimental and theoretical investigation of material pulsed laser treatment aimed at obtaining nano- and microstructured surface are presented. An experiment has been performed on the modification of indium surface using a solid-state diode-pumped laser. It has been shown that nano- and micro-size structures are formed under laser melting and fast crystallization of the metal surface. The kinetics of the crystallization of metals under superfast cooling. The distribution function for crystalline nuclei dimensions is analytically found within the framework of the classical kinetic equation in case of superfast temperature changing. The average number of particles in the crystalline nuclei and relative volume of the crystalline phase are determined as functions of thermodynamic and laser treatment regime parameters. Good agreement is observed with experimental results for ultrashort laser pulses induced micro- and nanostructures production.

  16. Fine tuning of graphene-metal adhesion by surface alloying.

    PubMed

    Alfè, D; Pozzo, M; Miniussi, E; Günther, S; Lacovig, P; Lizzit, S; Larciprete, R; Santos Burgos, B; Menteş, T O; Locatelli, A; Baraldi, A

    2013-01-01

    We show that bimetallic surface alloying provides a viable route for governing the interaction between graphene and metal through the selective choice of the elemental composition of the surface alloy. This concept is illustrated by an experimental and theoretical characterization of the properties of graphene on a model PtRu surface alloy on Ru(0001), with a concentration of Pt atoms in the first layer between 0 and 50%. The progressive increase of the Pt content determines the gradual detachment of graphene from the substrate, which results from the modification of the carbon orbital hybridization promoted by Pt. Alloying is also found to affect the morphology of graphene, which is strongly corrugated on bare Ru, but becomes flat at a Pt coverage of 50%. The method here proposed can be readily extended to several supports, thus opening the way to the conformal growth of graphene on metals and to a full tunability of the graphene-substrate interaction. PMID:23938361

  17. Field emission of electrons from cylindrical metallic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodha, Mahendra Singh; Dixit, Amrit

    2008-10-01

    In this communication the authors have derived an almost exact expression for the tunneling probability of an electron through the surface potential barrier on account of a negative charge on a cylindrical metallic dust particle and have used it to obtain the field emission current density from the surface of the particle. Based on these results, a parametric analysis of the phenomenon and comparison to the results of JWKB approximation (similar to Fowler-Nordheim theory) has been presented. These results are also applicable to a number of applications based on electric field emission from a thin metallic wire surrounded by a coaxial cylindrical surface at a high electric potential with respect to the wire. The investigation is of relevance to dusty plasmas in space and laboratory and carbon nanotubes.

  18. Strong Casimir force reduction through metallic surface nanostructuring

    PubMed Central

    Intravaia, Francesco; Koev, Stephan; Jung, Il Woong; Talin, A. Alec; Davids, Paul S.; Decca, Ricardo S.; Aksyuk, Vladimir A.; Dalvit, Diego A. R.; López, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The Casimir force between bodies in vacuum can be understood as arising from their interaction with an infinite number of fluctuating electromagnetic quantum vacuum modes, resulting in a complex dependence on the shape and material of the interacting objects. Becoming dominant at small separations, the force has a significant role in nanomechanics and object manipulation at the nanoscale, leading to a considerable interest in identifying structures where the Casimir interaction behaves significantly different from the well-known attractive force between parallel plates. Here we experimentally demonstrate that by nanostructuring one of the interacting metal surfaces at scales below the plasma wavelength, an unexpected regime in the Casimir force can be observed. Replacing a flat surface with a deep metallic lamellar grating with sub-100 nm features strongly suppresses the Casimir force and for large inter-surfaces separations reduces it beyond what would be expected by any existing theoretical prediction. PMID:24071657

  19. Recommended values of clean metal surface work functions

    SciTech Connect

    Derry, Gregory N. Kern, Megan E.; Worth, Eli H.

    2015-11-15

    A critical review of the experimental literature for measurements of the work functions of clean metal surfaces of single-crystals is presented. The tables presented include all results found for low-index crystal faces except cases that were known to be contaminated surfaces. These results are used to construct a recommended value of the work function for each surface examined, along with an uncertainty estimate for that value. The uncertainties are based in part on the error distribution for all measured work functions in the literature, which is included here. The metals included in this review are silver (Ag), aluminum (Al), gold (Au), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), iridium (Ir), molybdenum (Mo), niobium (Nb), nickel (Ni), palladium (Pd), platinum (Pt), rhodium (Rh), ruthenium (Ru), tantalum (Ta), and tungsten (W)

  20. Strong Casimir force reduction through metallic surface nanostructuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intravaia, Francesco; Koev, Stephan; Jung, Il Woong; Talin, A. Alec; Davids, Paul S.; Decca, Ricardo S.; Aksyuk, Vladimir A.; Dalvit, Diego A. R.; López, Daniel

    2013-09-01

    The Casimir force between bodies in vacuum can be understood as arising from their interaction with an infinite number of fluctuating electromagnetic quantum vacuum modes, resulting in a complex dependence on the shape and material of the interacting objects. Becoming dominant at small separations, the force has a significant role in nanomechanics and object manipulation at the nanoscale, leading to a considerable interest in identifying structures where the Casimir interaction behaves significantly different from the well-known attractive force between parallel plates. Here we experimentally demonstrate that by nanostructuring one of the interacting metal surfaces at scales below the plasma wavelength, an unexpected regime in the Casimir force can be observed. Replacing a flat surface with a deep metallic lamellar grating with sub-100 nm features strongly suppresses the Casimir force and for large inter-surfaces separations reduces it beyond what would be expected by any existing theoretical prediction.

  1. Understanding the biological responses of nanostructured metals and surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, Terry C.; Reiss, Rebecca A.

    2014-08-01

    Metals produced by Severe Plastic Deformation (SPD) offer distinct advantages for medical applications such as orthopedic devices, in part because of their nanostructured surfaces. We examine the current theoretical foundations and state of knowledge for nanostructured biomaterials surface optimization within the contexts that apply to bulk nanostructured metals, differentiating how their microstructures impact osteogenesis, in particular, for Ultrafine Grained (UFG) titanium. Then we identify key gaps in the research to date, pointing out areas which merit additional focus within the scientific community. For example, we highlight the potential of next-generation DNA sequencing techniques (NGS) to reveal gene and non-coding RNA (ncRNA) expression changes induced by nanostructured metals. While our understanding of bio-nano interactions is in its infancy, nanostructured metals are already being marketed or developed for medical devices such as dental implants, spinal devices, and coronary stents. Our ability to characterize and optimize the biological response of cells to SPD metals will have synergistic effects on advances in materials, biological, and medical science.

  2. Nanotubular surface modification of metallic implants via electrochemical anodization technique.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu-Ning; Jin, Ming; Zheng, Yudong; Guan, Yueping; Lu, Xin; Luo, Jing-Li

    2014-01-01

    Due to increased awareness and interest in the biomedical implant field as a result of an aging population, research in the field of implantable devices has grown rapidly in the last few decades. Among the biomedical implants, metallic implant materials have been widely used to replace disordered bony tissues in orthopedic and orthodontic surgeries. The clinical success of implants is closely related to their early osseointegration (ie, the direct structural and functional connection between living bone and the surface of a load-bearing artificial implant), which relies heavily on the surface condition of the implant. Electrochemical techniques for modifying biomedical implants are relatively simple, cost-effective, and appropriate for implants with complex shapes. Recently, metal oxide nanotubular arrays via electrochemical anodization have become an attractive technique to build up on metallic implants to enhance the biocompatibility and bioactivity. This article will thoroughly review the relevance of electrochemical anodization techniques for the modification of metallic implant surfaces in nanoscale, and cover the electrochemical anodization techniques used in the development of the types of nanotubular/nanoporous modification achievable via electrochemical approaches, which hold tremendous potential for bio-implant applications. In vitro and in vivo studies using metallic oxide nanotubes are also presented, revealing the potential of nanotubes in biomedical applications. Finally, an outlook of future growth of research in metallic oxide nanotubular arrays is provided. This article will therefore provide researchers with an in-depth understanding of electrochemical anodization modification and provide guidance regarding the design and tuning of new materials to achieve a desired performance and reliable biocompatibility.

  3. Nanotubular surface modification of metallic implants via electrochemical anodization technique

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu-Ning; Jin, Ming; Zheng, Yudong; Guan, Yueping; Lu, Xin; Luo, Jing-Li

    2014-01-01

    Due to increased awareness and interest in the biomedical implant field as a result of an aging population, research in the field of implantable devices has grown rapidly in the last few decades. Among the biomedical implants, metallic implant materials have been widely used to replace disordered bony tissues in orthopedic and orthodontic surgeries. The clinical success of implants is closely related to their early osseointegration (ie, the direct structural and functional connection between living bone and the surface of a load-bearing artificial implant), which relies heavily on the surface condition of the implant. Electrochemical techniques for modifying biomedical implants are relatively simple, cost-effective, and appropriate for implants with complex shapes. Recently, metal oxide nanotubular arrays via electrochemical anodization have become an attractive technique to build up on metallic implants to enhance the biocompatibility and bioactivity. This article will thoroughly review the relevance of electrochemical anodization techniques for the modification of metallic implant surfaces in nanoscale, and cover the electrochemical anodization techniques used in the development of the types of nanotubular/nanoporous modification achievable via electrochemical approaches, which hold tremendous potential for bio-implant applications. In vitro and in vivo studies using metallic oxide nanotubes are also presented, revealing the potential of nanotubes in biomedical applications. Finally, an outlook of future growth of research in metallic oxide nanotubular arrays is provided. This article will therefore provide researchers with an in-depth understanding of electrochemical anodization modification and provide guidance regarding the design and tuning of new materials to achieve a desired performance and reliable biocompatibility. PMID:25258532

  4. High surface area graphene-supported metal chalcogenide assembly

    DOEpatents

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Kuntz, Joshua; Orme, Christine A.

    2016-04-19

    A composition comprising at least one graphene-supported assembly, which comprises a three-dimensional network of graphene sheets crosslinked by covalent carbon bonds, and at least one metal chalcogenide compound disposed on said graphene sheets, wherein the chalcogen of said metal chalcogenide compound is selected from S, Se and Te. Also disclosed are methods for making and using the graphene-supported assembly, including graphene-supported MoS.sub.2. Monoliths with high surface area and conductivity can be achieved. Lower operating temperatures in some applications can be achieved. Pore size and volume can be tuned.

  5. Electromagnetic Detection of Stress Gradients at the Surfaces of Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, William F.; Zinke, Otto H.

    2004-02-26

    A general, integral expression is developed which relates measurements of the variations of the imaginary component of complex- reluctance with frequency to stress profiles near the surfaces of metals. The technique should yield either applied or residual stress profiles produced, for example, by heat-treating, metal-working, fatigue, or peening. It may even be applicable to carburizing. The technique of measurement cancels out the effects of any pre-treatment residual-stress profile (subject to the assumption of superposition). The general, integral expression is induced from the results of measurements on a steel bar which is subjected to both tensile tests and bending tests.

  6. Electromagnetic Detection of Stress Gradients at the Surfaces of Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, William F.; Zinke, Otto H.

    2004-02-01

    A general, integral expression is developed which relates measurements of the variations of the imaginary component of complex- reluctance with frequency to stress profiles near the surfaces of metals. The technique should yield either applied or residual stress profiles produced, for example, by heat-treating, metal-working, fatigue, or peening. It may even be applicable to carburizing. The technique of measurement cancels out the effects of any pre-treatment residual-stress profile (subject to the assumption of superposition). The general, integral expression is induced from the results of measurements on a steel bar which is subjected to both tensile tests and bending tests.

  7. Light waves guided by a single curved metallic surface.

    PubMed

    Krammer, H

    1978-01-15

    Propagation of TE-waves along a single curved metallic surface with radius of curvature much larger than wavelength is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Approximate analytic expressions for the field configuration yield that power concentrates in a small region near the metal. The attenuation constant per unit angle of bend (radian) is given by the real part of the inverse of the refractive index, independent of the radius of curvature and of the mode number. In agreement with theory experiments with 10-microm radiation showed that low loss guiding can be realized.

  8. Surface modes at metallic an photonic crystal interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Weitao

    2009-01-01

    A surface mode is an electromagnetic field distribution bounded at a surface. It decays exponentially with the distance from the surface on both sides of the surface and propagates at the surface. The surface mode exists at a metal-dielectric interface as surface plasmon (1) or at a photonic crystal surface terminated properly (34; 35; 36). Besides its prominent near-filed properties, it can connect structures at its propagation surface and results in far-field effects. Extraordinary transmission (EOT) and beaming are two examples and they are the subjects I am studying in this thesis. EOT means the transmission through holes in an opaque screen can be much larger than the geometrical optics limitation. Based on our everyday experience about shadows, the transmission equals the filling ratio of the holes in geometrical optics. The conventional diffraction theory also proved that the transmission through a subwavelength circular hole in an infinitely thin perfect electric conductor (PEC) film converges to zero when the hole's dimension is much smaller than the wavelength (40). Recently it is discovered that the transmission can be much larger than the the filling ratio of the holes at some special wavelengths (41). This cannot be explained by conventional theories, so it is called extraordinary transmission. It is generally believed that surface plasmons play an important role (43; 44) in the EOT through a periodic subwavelength hole array in a metallic film. The common theories in literatures are based on these arguments. The surface plasmons cannot be excited by incident plane waves directly because of momentum mismatch. The periodicity of the hole arrays will provide addition momentum. When the momentum-matching condition of surface plasmons is satisfied, the surface plasmons will be excited. Then these surface plasmons will collect the energy along the input surface and carry them to the holes. So the transmission can be bigger than the filling ratio. Based on

  9. Bacteria immobilisation on hydroxyapatite surface for heavy metals removal.

    PubMed

    Piccirillo, C; Pereira, S I A; Marques, A P G C; Pullar, R C; Tobaldi, D M; Pintado, M E; Castro, P M L

    2013-05-30

    Selected bacterial strains were immobilised on the surface of hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 - HAp) of natural origin (fish bones). The capacity of the material, alone and in combination with the bacterial strains to act as heavy metal removers from aqueous streams was assessed. Pseudomonas fluorescens (S3X), Microbacterium oxydans (EC29) and Cupriavidus sp. (1C2) were chosen based on their resistance to heavy metals and capacity of adsorbing the metals. These systems were tested using solutions of Zn(II), Cd(II) and in solutions containing both metals. A synergistic effect between the strains and HAp, which is effective in removing the target heavy metals on its own, was observed, as the combination of HAp with the bacterial strains led to higher adsorption capacity for both elements. For the solutions containing only one metal the synergistic effect was greater for higher metal concentrations; 1C2 and EC29 were the most effective strains for Zn(II) and Cd(II) respectively, while S3X was less effective. Overall, an almost four-fold increase was observed for the maximum adsorption capacity for Zn(II) when 1C2 was employed - 0.433 mmol/g in comparison of 0.121 mmol/g for the unmodified HAp. For Cd(II), on the other hand, an almost three-fold increase was registered with EC29 bacterial strain - 0.090 vs 0.036 mmol/g for the unmodified HAp. When the solutions containing both metals were tested, the effect was more marked for lower concentrations. PMID:23524400

  10. Wireless Metal Detection and Surface Coverage Sensing for All-Surface Induction Heating

    PubMed Central

    Kilic, Veli Tayfun; Unal, Emre; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2016-01-01

    All-surface induction heating systems, typically comprising small-area coils, face a major challenge in detecting the presence of a metallic vessel and identifying its partial surface coverage over the coils to determine which of the coils to power up. The difficulty arises due to the fact that the user can heat vessels made of a wide variety of metals (and their alloys). To address this problem, we propose and demonstrate a new wireless detection methodology that allows for detecting the presence of metallic vessels together with uniquely sensing their surface coverages while also identifying their effective material type in all-surface induction heating systems. The proposed method is based on telemetrically measuring simultaneously inductance and resistance of the induction coil coupled with the vessel in the heating system. Here, variations in the inductance and resistance values for an all-surface heating coil loaded by vessels (made of stainless steel and aluminum) at different positions were systematically investigated at different frequencies. Results show that, independent of the metal material type, unique identification of the surface coverage is possible at all freqeuncies. Additionally, using the magnitude and phase information extracted from the coupled coil impedance, unique identification of the vessel effective material is also achievable, this time independent of its surface coverage. PMID:26978367

  11. Wireless Metal Detection and Surface Coverage Sensing for All-Surface Induction Heating.

    PubMed

    Kilic, Veli Tayfun; Unal, Emre; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2016-01-01

    All-surface induction heating systems, typically comprising small-area coils, face a major challenge in detecting the presence of a metallic vessel and identifying its partial surface coverage over the coils to determine which of the coils to power up. The difficulty arises due to the fact that the user can heat vessels made of a wide variety of metals (and their alloys). To address this problem, we propose and demonstrate a new wireless detection methodology that allows for detecting the presence of metallic vessels together with uniquely sensing their surface coverages while also identifying their effective material type in all-surface induction heating systems. The proposed method is based on telemetrically measuring simultaneously inductance and resistance of the induction coil coupled with the vessel in the heating system. Here, variations in the inductance and resistance values for an all-surface heating coil loaded by vessels (made of stainless steel and aluminum) at different positions were systematically investigated at different frequencies. Results show that, independent of the metal material type, unique identification of the surface coverage is possible at all freqeuncies. Additionally, using the magnitude and phase information extracted from the coupled coil impedance, unique identification of the vessel effective material is also achievable, this time independent of its surface coverage. PMID:26978367

  12. Surface imaging of metallic material fractures using optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Hutiu, Gheorghe; Duma, Virgil-Florin; Demian, Dorin; Bradu, Adrian; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh

    2014-09-10

    We demonstrate the capability of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to perform topography of metallic surfaces after being subjected to ductile or brittle fracturing. Two steel samples, OL 37 and OL 52, and an antifriction Sn-Sb-Cu alloy were analyzed. Using an in-house-built swept source OCT system, height profiles were generated for the surfaces of the two samples. Based on such profiles, it can be concluded that the first two samples were subjected to ductile fracture, while the third one was subjected to brittle fracture. The OCT potential for assessing the surface state of materials after fracture was evaluated by comparing OCT images with images generated using an established method for such investigations, scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Analysis of cause of fracture is essential in response to damage of machinery parts during various accidents. Currently the analysis is performed using SEM, on samples removed from the metallic parts, while OCT would allow in situ imaging using mobile units. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the OCT capability to replace SEM has been demonstrated. SEM is a more costly and time-consuming method to use in the investigation of surfaces of microstructures of metallic materials.

  13. Surface imaging of metallic material fractures using optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Hutiu, Gheorghe; Duma, Virgil-Florin; Demian, Dorin; Bradu, Adrian; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh

    2014-09-10

    We demonstrate the capability of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to perform topography of metallic surfaces after being subjected to ductile or brittle fracturing. Two steel samples, OL 37 and OL 52, and an antifriction Sn-Sb-Cu alloy were analyzed. Using an in-house-built swept source OCT system, height profiles were generated for the surfaces of the two samples. Based on such profiles, it can be concluded that the first two samples were subjected to ductile fracture, while the third one was subjected to brittle fracture. The OCT potential for assessing the surface state of materials after fracture was evaluated by comparing OCT images with images generated using an established method for such investigations, scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Analysis of cause of fracture is essential in response to damage of machinery parts during various accidents. Currently the analysis is performed using SEM, on samples removed from the metallic parts, while OCT would allow in situ imaging using mobile units. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the OCT capability to replace SEM has been demonstrated. SEM is a more costly and time-consuming method to use in the investigation of surfaces of microstructures of metallic materials. PMID:25321671

  14. Helium atmospheric pressure plasma jets touching dielectric and metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Norberg, Seth A. Johnsen, Eric; Kushner, Mark J.

    2015-07-07

    Atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs) are being investigated in the context plasma medicine and biotechnology applications, and surface functionalization. The composition of the surface being treated ranges from plastics, liquids, and biological tissue, to metals. The dielectric constant of these materials ranges from as low as 1.5 for plastics to near 80 for liquids, and essentially infinite for metals. The electrical properties of the surface are not independent variables as the permittivity of the material being treated has an effect on the dynamics of the incident APPJ. In this paper, results are discussed from a computational investigation of the interaction of an APPJ incident onto materials of varying permittivity, and their impact on the discharge dynamics of the plasma jet. The computer model used in this investigation solves Poisson's equation, transport equations for charged and neutral species, the electron energy equation, and the Navier-Stokes equations for the neutral gas flow. The APPJ is sustained in He/O{sub 2} = 99.8/0.2 flowing into humid air, and is directed onto dielectric surfaces in contact with ground with dielectric constants ranging from 2 to 80, and a grounded metal surface. Low values of relative permittivity encourage propagation of the electric field into the treated material and formation and propagation of a surface ionization wave. High values of relative permittivity promote the restrike of the ionization wave and the formation of a conduction channel between the plasma discharge and the treated surface. The distribution of space charge surrounding the APPJ is discussed.

  15. Free surface stability of liquid metal plasma facing components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiflis, P.; Christenson, M.; Szott, M.; Kalathiparambil, K.; Ruzic, D. N.

    2016-10-01

    An outstanding concern raised over the implementation of liquid metal plasma facing components in fusion reactors is the potential for ejection of liquid metal into the fusion plasma. The influences of Rayleigh-Taylor-like and Kelvin-Helmholtz-like instabilities were experimentally observed and quantified on the thermoelectric-driven liquid-metal plasma-facing structures (TELS) chamber at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. To probe the stability boundary, plasma currents and velocities were first characterized with a flush probe array. Subsequent observations of lithium ejection under exposure in the TELS chamber exhibited a departure from previous theory based on linear perturbation analysis. The stability boundary is mapped experimentally over the range of plasma impulses of which TELS is capable to deliver, and a new theory based on a modified set of the shallow water equations is presented which accurately predicts the stability of the lithium surface under plasma exposure.

  16. Porous metals and alternate bearing surfaces in shoulder arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Shannon R; Urits, Ivan; Murthi, Anand M

    2016-03-01

    Total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) provides an effective solution for the treatment of glenohumeral arthritis. However, long-term outcomes have been limited by glenoid component aseptic loosening and polyethylene (PE) wear. Previous attempts to improve glenoid fixation with metal-backed glenoids resulted in inferior results. Newer component designs that contain porous metal allow for biological ingrowth of the prosthesis, potentially improving longevity and overall outcomes. Porous metal can also improve humeral component fixation, obviating the need for cement and simplifying revision surgery. Advances such as highly cross-linked polyethylene (HXLPE), vitamin E-doped HXLPE, and alternate bearing surfaces like ceramics and pyrolytic carbon have proven to provide superior wear characteristics in other joint replacements and may prove beneficial in the shoulder as well. PMID:26797775

  17. The Interaction of Hydrogen with Simple and Noble Metals Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprunger, Phillip T.

    The basic concepts of adsorption are illustrated by the investigation of a simple adsorbate (hydrogen) with the "simplest" metals (simple and noble metals). Theoretically tractable, these systems serve as an excellent test of our basic understanding of chemisorption. The interaction of atomic and molecular hydrogen with the surfaces of Mg(0001), Mg(1120), Li(110), K(110), Ag(110), and Ag(111) have been studied with a variety of experimental probes. In all cases, no evidence for H_2 associative or dissociative adsorption is observed at the substrate temperature investigated (>=q90 K). In the case of the simple metals below 150 K, atomic hydrogen is bound to the surfaces in a strongly chemisorbed state (hydride). For Mg and Li, the hydride is localized to the surface wherein the substrate electron density is lower than the bulk. Because of the low electron density, hydrogen is absorbed into the bulk of K at low temperatures and forms a bulk-hydride phase. However, these low-temperature phases are metastable. In the case of Mg, hydrogen moves into lower energy configuration bonding sites which are closer to or below the surface plane. However, the hydride characteristics are absent; the H atom is effectively screened because of the higher jellium density. In contrast, upon annealing, hydrogen is absorbed into the bulk of Li and K and phase separation occurs forming regions of clean metal and bulk hydride areas. The results are compared to theoretical studies; the propensity for absorption over adsorption is understood in terms of jellium-based models. In the case of silver, at 100 K, atomic hydrogen bonds in trigonal sites on both the (110) and (111) surfaces. As a function of H concentration, a sequence of lattice gas superstructures is observed; these phases are accompanied by small H-induced displacements of the substrate surface atoms. In the case of Ag(110), the low-temperature phase is metastable; upon annealing, hydrogen desorption from low energy states is

  18. Method for Reduction of Silver Biocide Plating on Metal Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, John; Nalette, Timothy; Beringer, Durwood

    2013-01-01

    Silver ions in aqueous solutions (0.05 to 1 ppm) are used for microbial control in water systems. The silver ions remain in solution when stored in plastic containers, but the concentration rapidly decreases to non-biocidal levels when stored in metal containers. The silver deposits onto the surface and is reduced to non-biocidal silver metal when it contacts less noble metal surfaces, including stainless steel, titanium, and nickel-based alloys. Five methods of treatment of contact metal surfaces to deter silver deposition and reduction are proposed: (1) High-temperature oxidation of the metal surface; (2) High-concentration silver solution pre-treatment; (3) Silver plating; (4) Teflon coat by vapor deposition (titanium only); and (5) A combination of methods (1) and (2), which proved to be the best method for the nickel-based alloy application. The mechanism associated with surface treatments (1), (2), and (5) is thought to be the development of a less active oxide layer that deters ionic silver deposition. Mechanism (3) is an attempt to develop an equilibrium ionic silver concentration via dissolution of metallic silver. Mechanism (4) provides a non-reactive barrier to deter ionic silver plating. Development testing has shown that ionic silver in aqueous solution was maintained at essentially the same level of addition (0.4 ppm) for up to 15 months with method (5) (a combination of methods (1) and (2)), before the test was discontinued for nickel-based alloys. Method (1) resulted in the maintenance of a biocidal level (approximately 0.05 ppm) for up to 10 months before that test was discontinued for nickel-based alloys. Methods (1) and (2) used separately were able to maintain ionic silver in aqueous solution at essentially the same level of addition (0.4 ppm) for up to 10 months before the test was discontinued for stainless steel alloys. Method (3) was only utilized for titanium alloys, and was successful at maintaining ionic silver in aqueous solution at

  19. Making metals transparency for white light by surface plasmons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Ru-Wen; Huang, Xian-Rong; Fan, Ren-Hao; Li, Jia; Hu, Qing; Wang, Mu

    2012-02-01

    We demonstrate both experimentally and theoretically that metallic gratings consisting of narrow slits become transparent for extremely broad bandwidths under oblique incidence. This phenomenon can be explained by a concrete picture in which the incident wave drives free electrons on the conducting surfaces and part of the slit walls to form surface plasmons (SPs). The SPs then propagate on the slit walls but are abruptly discontinued by the bottom edges to form oscillating charges that emit the transmitted wave. This picture explicitly demonstrates the conversion between light and SPs and indicates clear guidelines for enhancing SP excitation and propagation. Making structured metals transparent may lead to a variety of applications. References: Xian-Rong Huang, Ru-Wen Peng, and Ren-Hao Fan, Phys. Rev. Lett. (2010)105, 243901; and Ren-Hao Fan, Ru-Wen Peng, Xian-Rong Huang, Jia Li, Qing Hu, and Mu Wang, manuscript prepared(2011).

  20. Atmospheric corrosion and chloride deposition on metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Matthes, Steven A.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.

    2004-01-01

    Atmospheric corrosion and chloride deposition on metal surfaces was studied at an unpolluted coastal (marine) site, an unpolluted rural inland site, and a polluted urban site. Chloride deposition by both wet (precipitation) and dry deposition processes over a multi-year period was measured using ion chromatography analysis of incident precipitation and precipitation runoff from the surface of metal samples. Chloride deposition was measured on zinc, copper, lead, mild steel, and non-reactive blank panels, as well as two panels coated with thermal-sprayed zinc alloys. Chloride deposition measured by runoff chemistry was compared with chloride deposition measurements made by the ASTM wet candle technique. Corrosion mass loss as a function of distance from the ocean is presented for copper and mild steel in bold exposures on the west coast.

  1. Wetting Transitions of Inert Gases on Alkali Metal Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojan, M. J.; McDonald, I. A.; Cole, M. W.; Steele, W. A.

    1996-03-01

    Theoretical and experimental discoveries have been made recently of wetting and prewetting transitions of helium and hydrogen films on alkali metal surfaces [1,2]. New experiments show anomalous nonwetting behavior of Ne on Rb and Cs [3]. Building on earlier work [4], we have done and will describe results from the first Monte Carlo simulations showing wetting transitions for classical gases on alkali metal surfaces. * Research supported by an NSF Materials Research Group grant. 1. R. B.Hallock, J. Low Temp. Phys. 101, 31, 1995 2. M. W. Cole, J. Low Temp. Phys. 101, 25, 1995. 3. G. B. Hess, M. Sabatini, and M. H. W. Chan, unpublished 4. J. E. Finn and P. A. Monson, Phys. Rev. A 39, 6402, 1989.

  2. A Liquid Metal Flume for Free Surface Magnetohydrodynamic Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Nornberg, M.D.; Ji, H.; Peterson, J.L.; Rhoads, J.R.

    2008-08-27

    We present an experiment designed to study magnetohydrodynamic effects in free-surface channel flow. The wide aspect ratio channel (the width to height ratio is about 15) is completely enclosed in an inert atmosphere to prevent oxidization of the liquid metal. A custom-designed pump reduces entrainment of oxygen, which was found to be a problem with standard centrifugal and gear pumps. Laser Doppler Velocimetry experiments characterize velocity profiles of the flow. Various flow constraints mitigate secondary circulation and end effects on the flow. Measurements of the wave propagation characteristics in the liquid metal demonstrate the surfactant effect of surface oxides and the damping of fluctuations by a cross-channel magnetic field.

  3. Adventitious Carbon on Primary Sample Containment Metal Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calaway, M. J.; Fries, M. D.

    2015-01-01

    Future missions that return astromaterials with trace carbonaceous signatures will require strict protocols for reducing and controlling terrestrial carbon contamination. Adventitious carbon (AC) on primary sample containers and related hardware is an important source of that contamination. AC is a thin film layer or heterogeneously dispersed carbonaceous material that naturally accrues from the environment on the surface of atmospheric exposed metal parts. To test basic cleaning techniques for AC control, metal surfaces commonly used for flight hardware and curating astromaterials at JSC were cleaned using a basic cleaning protocol and characterized for AC residue. Two electropolished stainless steel 316L (SS- 316L) and two Al 6061 (Al-6061) test coupons (2.5 cm diameter by 0.3 cm thick) were subjected to precision cleaning in the JSC Genesis ISO class 4 cleanroom Precision Cleaning Laboratory. Afterwards, the samples were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy.

  4. Improved Method Being Developed for Surface Enhancement of Metallic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabb, Timothy P.; Telesman, Jack; Kantzos, Peter T.

    2001-01-01

    Surface enhancement methods induce a layer of beneficial residual compressive stress to improve the impact (FOD) resistance and fatigue life of metallic materials. A traditional method of surface enhancement often used is shot peening, in which small steel spheres are repeatedly impinged on metallic surfaces. Shot peening is inexpensive and widely used, but the plastic deformation of 20 to 40 percent imparted by the impacts can be harmful. This plastic deformation can damage the microstructure, severely limiting the ductility and durability of the material near the surface. It has also been shown to promote accelerated relaxation of the beneficial compressive residual stresses at elevated temperatures. Low-plasticity burnishing (LPB) is being developed as an improved method for the surface enhancement of metallic materials. LPB is being investigated as a rapid, inexpensive surface enhancement method under NASA Small Business Innovation Research contracts NAS3-98034 and NAS3-99116, with supporting characterization work at NASA. Previously, roller burnishing had been employed to refine surface finish. This concept was adopted and then optimized as a means of producing a layer of compressive stress of high magnitude and depth, with minimal plastic deformation (ref. 1). A simplified diagram of the developed process is given in the following figure. A single pass of a smooth, free-rolling spherical ball under a normal force deforms the surface of the material in tension, creating a compressive layer of residual stress. The ball is supported in a fluid with sufficient pressure to lift the ball off the surface of the retaining spherical socket. The ball is only in mechanical contact with the surface of the material being burnished and is free to roll on the surface. This apparatus is designed to be mounted in the conventional lathes and vertical mills currently used to machine parts. The process has been successfully applied to nickel-base superalloys by a team from the

  5. Long-range spoof surface plasmons on the doubly corrugated metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong-Qiang; Kong, Ling-Bao; Liu, Pu-Kun

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, symmetric spoof surface plasmon (SSP) mode on the doubly corrugated metal surfaces is indentified as long-range spoof surface plasmon (LRSSP) because of its extreme low propagation loss and symmetric dominant field profile so as short-range SSP (SRSSP) for anti-symmetric mode. Based on theoretical calculation and numerical simulation of finite integration method, symmetric and anti-symmetric SSP modes with various gap sizes between these two identical corrugated metal surfaces are investigated in terahertz (THz) regime and good agreement is realized. Besides, the low loss superiority of LRSSP diminishes along with the increased gap size. This work opens up new avenues to utilize this long-range surface mode in far-infrared, THz or lower frequency band and can find many potential applications such as low-loss waveguide, filters and novel electronic sources.

  6. Molecular metal catalysts on supports: organometallic chemistry meets surface science.

    PubMed

    Serna, Pedro; Gates, Bruce C

    2014-08-19

    Recent advances in the synthesis and characterization of small, essentially molecular metal complexes and metal clusters on support surfaces have brought new insights to catalysis and point the way to systematic catalyst design. We summarize recent work unraveling effects of key design variables of site-isolated catalysts: the metal, metal nuclearity, support, and other ligands on the metals, also considering catalysts with separate, complementary functions on supports. The catalysts were synthesized with the goal of structural simplicity and uniformity to facilitate incisive characterization. Thus, they are essentially molecular species bonded to porous supports chosen for their high degree of uniformity; the supports are crystalline aluminosilicates (zeolites) and MgO. The catalytic species are synthesized in reactions of organometallic precursors with the support surfaces; the precursors include M(L)2(acetylacetonate)1-2, with M = Ru, Rh, Ir, or Au and the ligands L = C2H4, CO, or CH3. Os3(CO)12 and Ir4(CO)12 are used as precursors of supported metal clusters, and some such catalysts are made by ship-in-a-bottle syntheses to trap the clusters in zeolite cages. The simplicity and uniformity of the supported catalysts facilitate precise structure determinations, even in reactive atmospheres and during catalysis. The methods of characterizing catalysts in reactive atmospheres include infrared (IR), extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies, and complementary methods include density functional theory and atomic-resolution aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy for imaging of individual metal atoms. IR, NMR, XANES, and microscopy data demonstrate the high degrees of uniformity of well-prepared supported species. The characterizations determine the compositions of surface metal complexes and clusters, including the ligands and the metal

  7. Molecular metal catalysts on supports: organometallic chemistry meets surface science.

    PubMed

    Serna, Pedro; Gates, Bruce C

    2014-08-19

    Recent advances in the synthesis and characterization of small, essentially molecular metal complexes and metal clusters on support surfaces have brought new insights to catalysis and point the way to systematic catalyst design. We summarize recent work unraveling effects of key design variables of site-isolated catalysts: the metal, metal nuclearity, support, and other ligands on the metals, also considering catalysts with separate, complementary functions on supports. The catalysts were synthesized with the goal of structural simplicity and uniformity to facilitate incisive characterization. Thus, they are essentially molecular species bonded to porous supports chosen for their high degree of uniformity; the supports are crystalline aluminosilicates (zeolites) and MgO. The catalytic species are synthesized in reactions of organometallic precursors with the support surfaces; the precursors include M(L)2(acetylacetonate)1-2, with M = Ru, Rh, Ir, or Au and the ligands L = C2H4, CO, or CH3. Os3(CO)12 and Ir4(CO)12 are used as precursors of supported metal clusters, and some such catalysts are made by ship-in-a-bottle syntheses to trap the clusters in zeolite cages. The simplicity and uniformity of the supported catalysts facilitate precise structure determinations, even in reactive atmospheres and during catalysis. The methods of characterizing catalysts in reactive atmospheres include infrared (IR), extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies, and complementary methods include density functional theory and atomic-resolution aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy for imaging of individual metal atoms. IR, NMR, XANES, and microscopy data demonstrate the high degrees of uniformity of well-prepared supported species. The characterizations determine the compositions of surface metal complexes and clusters, including the ligands and the metal

  8. Laser-Driven Corrugation Instability of Liquid Metal Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keilmann, Fritz

    1983-12-01

    During intense CO2-laser irradiation deep corrugations build up on liquid metals such as Hg, In, Sn, Al, and Pb. Spacing, orientation, growth, and decay of the corrugations are studied, by visible light diffraction; support is found for a model of stimulated scattering where the incident light parametrically decays into both the surface corrugation and a surface plasmon. Thermal evaporation supplies the nonlinearity. The instability provides polarization-dependent absorption and can be expected in laser-metalworking and laser-plasma situations.

  9. Protective coatings of metal surfaces by cold plasma treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manory, R.; Grill, A.

    1985-01-01

    The cold plasma techniques for deposition of various types of protective coatings are reviewed. The main advantage of these techniques for deposition of ceramic films is the lower process temperature, which enables heat treating of the metal prior to deposition. In the field of surface hardening of steel, significant reduction of treatment time and energy consumption were obtained. A simple model for the plasma - surface reactions in a cold plasma system is presented, and the plasma deposition techniques are discussed in view of this model.

  10. Unveiling nickelocene bonding to a noble metal surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachellier, N.; Ormaza, M.; Faraggi, M.; Verlhac, B.; Vérot, M.; Le Bahers, T.; Bocquet, M.-L.; Limot, L.

    2016-05-01

    The manipulation of a molecular spin state in low-dimensional materials is central to molecular spintronics. The designs of hybrid devices incorporating magnetic metallocenes are very promising in this regard, but are hampered by the lack of data regarding their interaction with a metal. Here, we combine low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory calculations to investigate a magnetic metallocene at the single-molecule level—nickelocene. We demonstrate that the chemical and electronic structures of nickelocene are preserved upon adsorption on a copper surface. Several bonding configurations to the surface are identified, ranging from the isolated molecule to molecular layers governed by van der Waals interactions.

  11. Molecular switches from benzene derivatives adsorbed on metal surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Filimonov, Sergey N.; Carrasco, Javier; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Transient precursor states are often experimentally observed for molecules adsorbing on surfaces. However, such precursor states are typically rather short-lived, quickly yielding to more stable adsorption configurations. Here we employ first-principles calculations to systematically explore the interaction mechanism for benzene derivatives on metal surfaces, enabling us to selectively tune the stability and the barrier between two metastable adsorption states. In particular, in the case of the tetrachloropyrazine molecule, two equally stable adsorption states are identified with a moderate and conceivably reversible barrier between them. We address the feasibility of experimentally detecting the predicted bistable behaviour and discuss its potential usefulness in a molecular switch. PMID:24157660

  12. Method of inducing surface ensembles on a metal catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Miller, S.S.

    1987-10-02

    A method of inducing surface ensembles on a transition metal catalyst used in the conversion of a reactant gas or gas mixture, such as carbon monoxide and hydrogen into hydrocarbons (the Fischer-Tropsch reaction) is disclosed which comprises adding a Lewis base to the syngas (CO + H/sub 2/) mixture before reaction takes place. The formation of surface ensembles in this manner restricts the number and types of reaction pathways which will be utilized, thus greatly narrowing the product distribution and maximizing the efficiency of the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. Similarly, amines may also be produced by the conversion of reactant gas or gases, such as nitrogen, hydrogen, or hydrocarbon constituents.

  13. Mathematical model of the metal mould surface temperature optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlynek, Jaroslav; Knobloch, Roman; Srb, Radek

    2015-11-01

    The article is focused on the problem of generating a uniform temperature field on the inner surface of shell metal moulds. Such moulds are used e.g. in the automotive industry for artificial leather production. To produce artificial leather with uniform surface structure and colour shade the temperature on the inner surface of the mould has to be as homogeneous as possible. The heating of the mould is realized by infrared heaters located above the outer mould surface. The conceived mathematical model allows us to optimize the locations of infrared heaters over the mould, so that approximately uniform heat radiation intensity is generated. A version of differential evolution algorithm programmed in Matlab development environment was created by the authors for the optimization process. For temperate calculations software system ANSYS was used. A practical example of optimization of heaters locations and calculation of the temperature of the mould is included at the end of the article.

  14. Nonhazardous solvent composition and method for cleaning metal surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Googin, John M.; Simandl, Ronald F.; Thompson, Lisa M.

    1993-01-01

    A solvent composition for displacing greasy and oily contaminants as well as water and/or aqueous residue from metallic surfaces, especially surfaces of radioactive materials so that such surfaces can be wiped clean of the displaced contaminants, water and/or aqueous residue. The solvent composition consists essentially of a blend of nonpolar aliphatic hydrocarbon solvent having a minimum flash point of about 140.degree. F. and 2 to 25 volume percent of a polar solvent having a flash point sufficiently high so as to provide the solvent composition with a minimum flash point of at least 140.degree. F. The solvent composition is nonhazardous so that when it is used to clean the surfaces of radioactive materials the waste in the form of paper or cloth wipes, lab coats and the like used in the cleaning operation is not considered to be mixed waste composed of a hazardous solvent and a radioactive material.

  15. Nonhazardous solvent composition and method for cleaning metal surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Googin, J.M.; Simandl, R.F.; Thompson, L.M.

    1993-05-04

    A solvent composition for displacing greasy and oily contaminants as well as water and/or aqueous residue from metallic surfaces, especially surfaces of radioactive materials so that such surfaces can be wiped clean of the displaced contaminants, water and/or aqueous residue. The solvent composition consists essentially of a blend of nonpolar aliphatic hydrocarbon solvent having a minimum flash point of about 140 F and 2 to 25 volume percent of a polar solvent having a flash point sufficiently high so as to provide the solvent composition with a minimum flash point of at least 140 F. The solvent composition is nonhazardous so that when it is used to clean the surfaces of radioactive materials the waste in the form of paper or cloth wipes, lab coats and the like used in the cleaning operation is not considered to be mixed waste composed of a hazardous solvent and a radioactive material.

  16. Footprint organization of chiral molecules on metallic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uñac, R. O.; Rabaza, A. V. Gil; Vidales, A. M.; Zgrablich, G.

    2007-10-01

    We study the behavior of chiral molecules adsorbed on clean metallic surfaces using a lattice-gas model and Monte Carlo simulation. The aim is to model and simulate the structure (footprints and organization) formed by molecules on the surface as they adsorb. The model, which is applicable to chiral species like S- and R-alanine, or similar, discloses the conditions to generate different ordered phases that have been observed in experiments by other authors. In our model, each enantiomer may adsorb in two different configurations (species) and several effects are taken into account: inhibition, blockage of neighboring adsorptive sites (steric effects) and promotion of sites representing, in some sense, modifications in the surface properties due to molecule-surface interactions. These adsorption rules are inspired by the enantiomeric character of adsorbed species. We perform a systematic study of the different phases formed in order to qualitatively understand the mechanism for the formation of adsorbate structures experimentally found by other authors.

  17. Mathematical model of the metal mould surface temperature optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Mlynek, Jaroslav Knobloch, Roman; Srb, Radek

    2015-11-30

    The article is focused on the problem of generating a uniform temperature field on the inner surface of shell metal moulds. Such moulds are used e.g. in the automotive industry for artificial leather production. To produce artificial leather with uniform surface structure and colour shade the temperature on the inner surface of the mould has to be as homogeneous as possible. The heating of the mould is realized by infrared heaters located above the outer mould surface. The conceived mathematical model allows us to optimize the locations of infrared heaters over the mould, so that approximately uniform heat radiation intensity is generated. A version of differential evolution algorithm programmed in Matlab development environment was created by the authors for the optimization process. For temperate calculations software system ANSYS was used. A practical example of optimization of heaters locations and calculation of the temperature of the mould is included at the end of the article.

  18. Polarization of electric-field noise near metallic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, Philipp; Gorman, Dylan J.; Daniilidis, Nikos; Häffner, Hartmut

    2015-07-01

    Electric-field noise in proximity to metallic surfaces is a poorly understood phenomenon that appears in different areas of physics. Trapped ion quantum information processors are particularly susceptible to this noise, leading to motional decoherence, which ultimately limits the fidelity of quantum operations. On the other hand, trapped ions present an ideal tool to study this effect, opening new possibilities in surface science. In this work we analyze and measure the polarization of the noise field in a microfabricated ion trap for various noise sources. We find that technical noise sources and noise emanating directly from the surface give rise to different degrees of polarization, which allows us to differentiate between the two noise sources. Based on this we demonstrate a method to infer the magnitude of surface noise in the presence of technical noise.

  19. Binding of an adatom to a simple metal surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntington, H. B.; Turk, L. A.; White, W. W., III

    1975-01-01

    The density functional formalism of Hohenberg and Kohn is used to investigate the energies, charge densities and forces which hold an adatom on the surface of a simple metal. The valence wavefunction of the adatom is fitted to the Herman-Skillman solutions at large distance and is simplified somewhat in the core region. The field of the ion is represented by the Ashcroft pseudopotential. For the metal the jellium model is used. Detailed calculations are carried out for a sodium adatom on a sodium surface. Simply juxtaposing adatom and surface gives a binding energy of about 1/3 eV. This value is approximately twice the surface energy per atom in the close-packed plane. Charge redistributions as determined variationally increase the binding energy by about 10%. The equilibrium distance for the adatom turns out to be 1.66 A from the surface, as compared with 1.52 A, the observed value for one-half the distance between the close-packed planes.

  20. Effect of Surface Roughness on Optical Heating of Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auinger, M.; Ebbinghaus, P.; Blümich, A.; Erbe, A.

    2014-01-01

    Heating by absorption of light is a commonly used technique to ensure a fast temperature increase of metallic samples. The rate of heating when using optical heating depends critically on the absorption of light by a sample. Here, the reflection and scattering of light from UV to IR by surfaces with different roughness of iron-based alloy samples (Fe, 1 wt-% Cr) is investigated. A combination of ellipsometric and optical scattering measurements is used to derive a simplified parametrisation which can be used to obtain the absorption of light from random rough metal surfaces, as prepared through conventional grinding and polishing techniques. By modelling the ellipsometric data of the flattest sample, the pseudodielectric function of the base material is derived. Describing an increased roughness by a Maxwell-Garnett model does not yield a reflectivity which follows the experimentally observed sum of scattered and reflected intensities. Therefore, a simple approach is introduced, based on multiple reflections, where the number of reflections depends on the surface roughness. This approach describes the data well, and is subsequently used to estimate the fraction of absorbed energy. Using numerical modelling, the effect on the heating rate is investigated. A numerical example is analysed, which shows that slight changes in roughness may result in big differences of the energy input into a metallic sample, with consequences on the achieved temperatures. Though the model oversimplifies reality, it provides a physically intuitive approach to estimate trends.

  1. Density functional theory study of mercury adsorption on metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Steckel, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Density functional theory _DFT_ calculations are used to characterize the interaction of mercury with copper, nickel, palladium, platinum, silver, and gold surfaces. Mercury binds relatively strongly to all the metal surfaces studied, with binding energies up to _1 eV for Pt and Pd. DFT calculations underestimate the energy of adsorption with respect to available experimental data. Plane-wave DFT results using the local density approximation and the Perdew-Wang 1991 and Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof parametrizations of the generalized gradient approximation indicate that binding of mercury at hollow sites is preferred over binding at top orbridge sites. The interaction with mercury in order of increasing reactivity over the six metals studied is Ag_Au_Cu_Ni_Pt_Pd. Binding is stronger on the _001_ faces of the metal surfaces, where mercury issituated in fourfold hollow sites as opposed to the threefold hollow sites on _111_ faces. In general, mercury adsorption leads to decreases in the work function; adsorbate-induced work function changes are particularly dramatic on Pt.

  2. Density functional theory study of mercury adsorption on metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Steckel, Janice A.

    2008-03-10

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are used to characterize the interaction of mercury with copper, nickel, palladium, platinum, silver, and gold surfaces. Mercury binds relatively strongly to all the metal surfaces studied, with binding energies up to ~1eV for Pt and Pd. DFT calculations underestimate the energy of adsorption with respect to available experimental data. Plane-wave DFT results using the local density approximation and the Perdew-Wang 1991 and Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof parametrizations of the generalized gradient approximation indicate that binding of mercury at hollow sites is preferred over binding at top or bridge sites. The interaction with mercury in order of increasing reactivity over the six metals studied is Agmetal surfaces, where mercury is situated in fourfold hollow sites as opposed to the threefold hollow sites on (111) faces. Finally, in general, mercury adsorption leads to decreases in the work function; adsorbate-induced work function changes are particularly dramatic on Pt.

  3. Development of latent fingerprints on metallic surfaces using electropolymerization processes.

    PubMed

    Bersellini, C; Garofano, L; Giannetto, M; Lusardi, F; Mori, G

    2001-07-01

    We propose a new process for developing latent fingerprints on metal items, applicable to unfired weapons made of Ergal in particular. The method is based on the presence of fatty acids that are contained in fingerprints and act as an insulator on the surface where fingerprints are to be developed. The process of polymerization occurs on the metal portions left untouched by finger contact. Hence, the developing process results as a negative pattern of the original fingerprint. The reaction consists in the electropolymerization of pyrrole and substituted porphyrins, i.e., tetra (o-aminophenyl) porphyrine: radical-cations are generated on superficial nucleation sites by oxidation of monomer, close to the electrode surface; subsequently, the radical species react with the neutral monomer, which begins to diffuse to the electrode. We have also studied the polymer's morphology by means of SEM and AFM, in order to find a correlation between the reagent to be used and the quality of the enhancement process. These are only preliminary results; however, they show that the suggested method is a new way to increase the rate of success in developing latent fingerprints on metal surfaces. In this regard, it may be considered complementary to other conventional procedures, due to the low costs of the instruments and reagents, and the rapidity and simplicity of the treatment.

  4. Carbide and carbonitride surface treatment method for refractory metals

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, Glenn A.; Schildbach, Marcus A.

    1996-01-01

    A carbide and carbonitride surface treatment method for refractory metals is provided, in steps including, heating a part formed of boron, chromium, hafnium, molybdenum, niobium, tantalum, titanium, tungsten or zirconium, or alloys thereof, in an evacuated chamber and then introducing reaction gases including nitrogen and hydrogen, either in elemental or water vapor form, which react with a source of elemental carbon to form carbon-containing gaseous reactants which then react with the metal part to form the desired surface layer. Apparatus for practicing the method is also provided, in the form of a carbide and carbonitride surface treatment system (10) including a reaction chamber (14), a source of elemental carbon (17), a heating subassembly (20) and a source of reaction gases (23). Alternative methods of providing the elemental carbon (17) and the reaction gases (23) are provided, as well as methods of supporting the metal part (12), evacuating the chamber (14) with a vacuum subassembly (18) and heating all of the components to the desired temperature.

  5. Peptide immobilisation on porous silicon surface for metal ions detection.

    PubMed

    Sam, Sabrina S; Chazalviel, Jean-Noël Jn; Gouget-Laemmel, Anne Chantal Ac; Ozanam, François F; Etcheberry, Arnaud A; Gabouze, Nour-Eddine N

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a Glycyl-Histidyl-Glycyl-Histidine (GlyHisGlyHis) peptide is covalently anchored to the porous silicon PSi surface using a multi-step reaction scheme compatible with the mild conditions required for preserving the probe activity. In a first step, alkene precursors are grafted onto the hydrogenated PSi surface using the hydrosilylation route, allowing for the formation of a carboxyl-terminated monolayer which is activated by reaction with N-hydroxysuccinimide in the presence of a peptide-coupling carbodiimide N-ethyl-N'-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide and subsequently reacted with the amino linker of the peptide to form a covalent amide bond. Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy are used to investigate the different steps of functionalization.The property of peptides to form stable complexes with metal ions is exploited to achieve metal-ion recognition by the peptide-modified PSi-based biosensor. An electrochemical study of the GlyHisGlyHis-modified PSi electrode is achieved in the presence of copper ions. The recorded cyclic voltammograms show a quasi-irreversible process corresponding to the Cu(II)/Cu(I) couple. The kinetic factors (the heterogeneous rate constant and the transfer coefficient) and the stability constant of the complex formed on the porous silicon surface are determined. These results demonstrate the potential role of peptides grafted on porous silicon in developing strategies for simple and fast detection of metal ions in solution.

  6. First Principles Simulations of Ice Nucleation at Metal Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaelides, Angelos

    2005-03-01

    Ice nucleation at solid surfaces is of relevance to countless scientific and technological processes. In particular the nucleation of ice nano-crystals on metal surfaces is often a key first step in cloud formation and corrosion [1]. Yet unfortunately this remains one of the most poorly understood natural phenomena; severely lacking in atomic level understanding. Here, we discuss detailed density functional theory studies aimed at putting our understanding of ice nucleation at metals on a much firmer footing. Specifically the properties of H2O hexamers - the smallest `building blocks' of ice - adsorbed on a number of close-packed transition metal surfaces have been examined. We find that the competing influences of substrate reactivity and hexamer-substrate epitaxial mismatch conspire to yield a rich variety of (novel) hexameric ice structures, some of which have been observed by recent scanning tunnelling microscopy experiments [2]. [1] H.R. Pruppacher and J.D. Klett, Microphysics of Clouds and Precipitation, (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 2003). [2] K. Morgenstern, et al., (To be published).

  7. Peptide immobilisation on porous silicon surface for metal ions detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sam, Sabrina S.; Chazalviel, Jean-Noël Jn; Gouget-Laemmel, Anne Chantal Ac; Ozanam, François F.; Etcheberry, Arnaud A.; Gabouze, Nour-Eddine N.

    2011-06-01

    In this work, a Glycyl-Histidyl-Glycyl-Histidine (GlyHisGlyHis) peptide is covalently anchored to the porous silicon PSi surface using a multi-step reaction scheme compatible with the mild conditions required for preserving the probe activity. In a first step, alkene precursors are grafted onto the hydrogenated PSi surface using the hydrosilylation route, allowing for the formation of a carboxyl-terminated monolayer which is activated by reaction with N-hydroxysuccinimide in the presence of a peptide-coupling carbodiimide N-ethyl- N'-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide and subsequently reacted with the amino linker of the peptide to form a covalent amide bond. Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy are used to investigate the different steps of functionalization. The property of peptides to form stable complexes with metal ions is exploited to achieve metal-ion recognition by the peptide-modified PSi-based biosensor. An electrochemical study of the GlyHisGlyHis-modified PSi electrode is achieved in the presence of copper ions. The recorded cyclic voltammograms show a quasi-irreversible process corresponding to the Cu(II)/Cu(I) couple. The kinetic factors (the heterogeneous rate constant and the transfer coefficient) and the stability constant of the complex formed on the porous silicon surface are determined. These results demonstrate the potential role of peptides grafted on porous silicon in developing strategies for simple and fast detection of metal ions in solution.

  8. Controlling magnetism on metal surfaces with non-magnetic means: electric fields and surface charging.

    PubMed

    Brovko, Oleg O; Ruiz-Díaz, Pedro; Dasa, Tamene R; Stepanyuk, Valeri S

    2014-03-01

    We review the state of the art of surface magnetic property control with non-magnetic means, concentrating on metallic surfaces and techniques such as charge-doping or external electric field (EEF) application. Magneto-electric coupling via EEF-based charge manipulation is discussed as a way to tailor single adatom spins, exchange interaction between adsorbates or anisotropies of layered systems. The mechanisms of paramagnetic and spin-dependent electric field screening and the effect thereof on surface magnetism are discussed in the framework of theoretical and experimental studies. The possibility to enhance the effect of EEF by immersing the target system into an electrolyte or ionic liquid is discussed by the example of substitutional impurities and metallic alloy multilayers. A similar physics is pointed out for the case of charge traps, metallic systems decoupled from a bulk electron bath. In that case the charging provides the charge carrier density changes necessary to affect the magnetic moments and anisotropies in the system. Finally, the option of using quasi-free electrons rather than localized atomic spins for surface magnetism control is discussed with the example of Shockley-type metallic surface states confined to magnetic nanoislands. PMID:24523356

  9. Controlling magnetism on metal surfaces with non-magnetic means: electric fields and surface charging.

    PubMed

    Brovko, Oleg O; Ruiz-Díaz, Pedro; Dasa, Tamene R; Stepanyuk, Valeri S

    2014-03-01

    We review the state of the art of surface magnetic property control with non-magnetic means, concentrating on metallic surfaces and techniques such as charge-doping or external electric field (EEF) application. Magneto-electric coupling via EEF-based charge manipulation is discussed as a way to tailor single adatom spins, exchange interaction between adsorbates or anisotropies of layered systems. The mechanisms of paramagnetic and spin-dependent electric field screening and the effect thereof on surface magnetism are discussed in the framework of theoretical and experimental studies. The possibility to enhance the effect of EEF by immersing the target system into an electrolyte or ionic liquid is discussed by the example of substitutional impurities and metallic alloy multilayers. A similar physics is pointed out for the case of charge traps, metallic systems decoupled from a bulk electron bath. In that case the charging provides the charge carrier density changes necessary to affect the magnetic moments and anisotropies in the system. Finally, the option of using quasi-free electrons rather than localized atomic spins for surface magnetism control is discussed with the example of Shockley-type metallic surface states confined to magnetic nanoislands.

  10. Friction, Wear, and Surface Damage of Metals as Affected by Solid Surface Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bisson, Edmond E; Johnson, Robert L; Swikert, Max A; Godfrey, Douglas

    1956-01-01

    As predicted by friction theory, experiments showed that friction and surface damage of metals can be reduced by solid surface films. The ability of materials to form surface films that prevent welding was a very important factor in wear of dry and boundary lubricated surfaces. Films of graphitic carbon on cast irons, nio on nickel alloys, and feo and fe sub 3 o sub 4 on ferrous materials were found to be beneficial. Abrasive films such as fe sub 2 o sub 3 or moo sub 3 were definitely detrimental. It appears that the importance of oxide films to friction and wear processes has not been fully appreciated.

  11. Surface modification by metal ion implantation forming metallic nanoparticles in an insulating matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvadori, M. C.; Teixeira, F. S.; Sgubin, L. G.; Cattani, M.; Brown, I. G.

    2014-08-01

    There is special interest in the incorporation of metallic nanoparticles in a surrounding dielectric matrix for obtaining composites with desirable characteristics such as for surface plasmon resonance, which can be used in photonics and sensing, and controlled surface electrical conductivity. We have investigated nanocomposites produced by metal ion implantation into insulating substrates, where the implanted metal self-assembles into nanoparticles. The nanoparticles nucleate near the maximum of the implantation depth profile (projected range), which can be estimated by computer simulation using the TRIDYN code. TRIDYN is a Monte Carlo simulation program based on the TRIM (Transport and Range of Ions in Matter) code that takes into account compositional changes in the substrate due to two factors: previously implanted dopant atoms, and sputtering of the substrate surface. Our study show that the nanoparticles form a bidimentional array buried a few nanometers below the substrate surface. We have studied Au/PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate), Pt/PMMA, Ti/alumina and Au/alumina systems. Transmission electron microscopy of the implanted samples show that metallic nanoparticles form in the insulating matrix. These nanocomposites have been characterized by measuring the resistivity of the composite layer as a function of the implantation dose. The experimental results are compared with a model based on percolation theory, in which electron transport through the composite is explained by conduction through a random resistor network formed by the metallic nanoparticles. Excellent agreement is found between the experimental results and the predictions of the theory. We conclude in that the conductivity process is due only to percolation (when the conducting elements are in geometric contact) and that the contribution from tunneling conduction is negligible.

  12. Metal ion implantation for large scale surface modification

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, I.G.

    1992-10-01

    Intense energetic beams of metal ions can be produced by using a metal vapor vacuum arc as the plasma discharge from which the ion beam is formed. We have developed a number of ion sources of this kind and have built a metal ion implantation facility which can produce repetitively pulsed ion beams with mean ion energy up to several hundred key, pulsed beam current of more than an ampere, and time averaged current of several tens of milliamperes delivered onto a downstream target. We've also done some preliminary work on scaling up this technology to very large size. For example, a 50-cm diameter (2000 cm[sup 2]) set of beam formation electrodes was used to produce a pulsed titanium beam with ion current over 7 amperes at a mean ion energy of 100 key. Separately, a dc embodiment has been used to produce a dc titanium ion beam with current over 600 mA, power supply limited in this work, and up to 6 amperes of dc plasma ion current was maintained for over an hour. In a related program we've developed a plasma immersion method for applying thin metallic and compound films in which the added species is atomically mixed to the substrate. By adding a gas flow to the process, well-bonded compound films can also be formed; metallic films and multilayers as well as oxides and nitrides with mixed transition zones some hundreds of angstroms thick have been synthesized. Here we outline these parallel metal-plasma-based research programs and describe the hardware that we've developed and some of the surface modification research that we've done with it.

  13. Growth morphology of thin films on metallic and oxide surfaces.

    PubMed

    Krupski, Aleksander

    2014-02-01

    In this work we briefly review recent investigations concerning the growth morphology of thin metallic films on the Mo(110) and Ni3Al(111) surfaces, and Fe and copper phthalocyanine (C32H16N8Cu) on the Al2O3/Ni3Al(111) surface. Comparison of Ag, Au, Sn, and Pb growth on the Mo(110) surface has shown a number of similarities between these adsorption systems, except that surface alloy formation has only been observed in the case of Sn and Au. In the Pb/Mo(110) and Pb/Ni3Al(111) adsorption systems selective formation of uniform Pb island heights during metal thin film growth has been observed and interpreted in terms of quantum size effects. Furthermore, our studies showed that Al2O3 on Ni3Al(111) exhibits a large superstructure in which the unit cell has a commensurate relation with the substrate lattice. In addition, copper phthalocyanine chemisorbed weakly onto an ultra-thin Al2O3 film on Ni3Al(111) and showed a poor template effect of the Al2O3/Ni3Al(111) system. In the case of iron cluster growth on Al2O3/Ni3Al(111) the nucleation sites were independent of deposition temperature, yet the cluster shape showed a dependence. In this system, Fe clusters formed a regular hexagonal lattice on the Al2O3/Ni3Al(111). PMID:24445588

  14. Electron Scattering at Surfaces and Interfaces of Transition Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Pengyuan

    The effect of surfaces on the electron transport at reduced scales is attracting continuous interest due to its broad impact on both the understanding of materials properties and their application for nanoelectronics. The size dependence of for conductor's electrical resistivity rho due to electron surface scattering is most commonly described within the framework of Fuchs and Sondheimer (FS) and their various extensions, which uses a phenomenological scattering parameter p to define the probability of electrons being elastically (i.e. specularly) scattered by the surface without causing an increase of rho at reduced size. However, a basic understanding of what surface chemistry and structure parameters determine the specularity p is still lacking. In addition, the assumption of a spherical Fermi surface in the FS model is too simple for transition metals to give accurate account of the actual surface scattering effect. The goal of this study is to develop an understanding of the physics governing electron surface/interface scattering in transition metals and to study the significance of their Fermi surface shape on surface scattering. The advancement of the scientific knowledge in electron surface and interface scattering of transition metals can provide insights into how to design high-conductivity nanowires that will facilitate the viable development of advanced integrated circuits, thermoelectric power generation and spintronics. Sequential in situ and ex situ transport measurements as a function of surface chemistry demonstrate that electron surface/interface scattering can be engineered by surface doping, causing a decrease in the rho. For instance, the rho of 9.3-nm-thick epitaxial and polycrystalline Cu is reduced by 11--13% when coated with 0.75 nm Ni. This is due to electron surface scattering which exhibits a specularity p = 0.7 for the Cu-vacuum interface that transitions to completely diffuse (p = 0) when exposed to air. In contrast, Ni-coated surfaces

  15. Ion-induced spike effects on metal surfaces.

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, S. E.; Birtcher, R. C.; Materials Science Division; Univ. of Salford

    1999-01-01

    The effects of single Xe ion impacts on the surfaces of Au, Ag, In and Pb have been studied using in-situ transmission electron microscopy. Individual ion impacts produce surface craters with associated expelled material. The cratering efficiency scales with the density of the irradiated metal. Calculation indicates that, when collision cascades occur near surfaces (within about 5 nm) with energy densities sufficient to cause local melting, craters will occur. Crater formation occurs as a result of the explosive outflow of material from the hot molten core of the cascade. This would appear to indicate that, although the number of atoms in a spike is small and its duration short, it is reasonable to use macroscopic concepts such as vibrational temperature, melting and flow to describe spike effects.

  16. Distinctive Damage Patterns on THA Metal Bearing Surfaces: Case Studies

    PubMed Central

    Heiner, Anneliese D; Tikekar, Nishant M; Kruger, Karen M; Lannutti, John J; Brown, Thomas D

    2014-01-01

    Retrieval analysis of total joint arthroplasty components has primarily focused on assessing wear or other damage to polyethylene components. As damage to the opposing bearing surface can accelerate polyethylene wear and damage, and especially with the use of hard-on-hard articulations, retrieval analysis benefits from incorporating evaluation of hard bearing surfaces as well. The purpose of this study is to report six case studies of metal bearing surfaces with distinctive damage patterns, to interpret them in the context of adverse events plausibly responsible for their creation, and to suggest their likely clinical or scientific significance. The specific damage patterns reported here are 1) extensive scraping, 2) circumferential discoloration, 3) a long chain of periodic micro-indentations, 4) pitting with deposits, 5) scratches with small-radius directional changes, and 6) indentation with scraping. PMID:25328465

  17. Graphyne on metallic surfaces: A density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazić, P.; Crljen, Ž.

    2015-03-01

    We show how a structural modification of graphene, which gives the carbon allotrope graphyne, can induce an energy gap at the K point of the Brillouin zone. Upon adsorption on metallic surfaces, the same mechanism is responsible for a further modification of energy bands which occurs via the charge transfer mechanism. We perform the calculation based on the density functional theory with the novel nonlocal van der Waals-density functional correlation of the adsorption of graphyne on Cu(111), Ni(111), and Co(0001) surfaces and show the dependence of the band change on the charge transfer in the system. The binding of graphyne appears to be stronger than that of graphene on the same surfaces.

  18. Molecular-level assemblies on metal oxide surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Schoonover, J.R.; Bignozzi, C.; Meyer, T.

    1996-07-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to explore molecular-level assemblies based on polypyridyl transition metal complexes attached to metal oxide surfaces to provide the basis for applications such as energy conversion and electricity generation, photoremediation of hazardous waste, chemical sensors, and optical storage and photorefractive devices for communications and optical computing. We have elucidated the fundamental factors that determine the photochemistry and photophysics of a series of these photoactive inorganic complexes in solution and on metal oxide substrates by exploiting our unique transient laser capabilities. This data is being utilized to design and fabricate molecular-level photonic devices. The rich chemistry of transition metal polypyridyl complexes can be utilized to prepare molecular assemblies having well-defined redox or excited-state properties that can be finely tuned to produce desired materials properties. We plan to explore other novel applications such as photorefractive switches and optical sensors using this molecular engineering approach.

  19. Influence of Surface Morphology on the Antimicrobial Effect of Transition Metal Oxides in Polymer Surface.

    PubMed

    Oh, Yoo Jin; Hubauer-Brenner, Michael; Hinterdorfer, Peter

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the physical properties of transition metal oxide surfaces were examined using scanning probe microscopic (SPM) techniques for elucidating the antimicrobial activity of molybdenum trioxide (MoO3), tungsten trioxide (WO3), and zinc oxide (ZnO) embedded into the polymers thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) and polypropylene (PP). We utilized atomic force microscopy (AFM) in the contact imaging mode and its derivative single-pass Kelvin probe force microscopy for investigating samples that were presumably identical in their compositions, but showed different antimicrobial activity in bacterial adhesion tests. Our results revealed that surfaces with larger roughness and higher surface potential variation showed stronger antimicrobial activities compared to smoother and homogeneously charge-distributed surfaces. In addition, capacitance gradient (dC/dZ) measurements were performed to elucidate the antimicrobial activity arising from the different dielectric behavior of the transition metal oxides in this heterogeneous polymer surface. We found that the nano-scale exposure of transition metal oxides on polymer surfaces provided strong antimicrobial effects. Applications arising from our studies will be useful for public and healthcare environments.

  20. Influence of Surface Morphology on the Antimicrobial Effect of Transition Metal Oxides in Polymer Surface.

    PubMed

    Oh, Yoo Jin; Hubauer-Brenner, Michael; Hinterdorfer, Peter

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the physical properties of transition metal oxide surfaces were examined using scanning probe microscopic (SPM) techniques for elucidating the antimicrobial activity of molybdenum trioxide (MoO3), tungsten trioxide (WO3), and zinc oxide (ZnO) embedded into the polymers thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) and polypropylene (PP). We utilized atomic force microscopy (AFM) in the contact imaging mode and its derivative single-pass Kelvin probe force microscopy for investigating samples that were presumably identical in their compositions, but showed different antimicrobial activity in bacterial adhesion tests. Our results revealed that surfaces with larger roughness and higher surface potential variation showed stronger antimicrobial activities compared to smoother and homogeneously charge-distributed surfaces. In addition, capacitance gradient (dC/dZ) measurements were performed to elucidate the antimicrobial activity arising from the different dielectric behavior of the transition metal oxides in this heterogeneous polymer surface. We found that the nano-scale exposure of transition metal oxides on polymer surfaces provided strong antimicrobial effects. Applications arising from our studies will be useful for public and healthcare environments. PMID:26726428

  1. Infrared transparent frequency selective surface based on metallic meshes

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Miao; Xu, Nianxi; Liu, Hai; Gao, Jinsong

    2014-02-15

    This paper presents an infrared transparent frequency selective surface (ITFSS) based on metallic meshes. In this ITFSS structure, periodic cross-slot units are integrated on square metallic meshes empowered by coating and UV-lithography. A matching condition is proposed to avoid the distortion of units. Experimental results show that this ITFSS possesses a good transmittance of 80% in the infrared band of 3–5 μm, and also a stable band-pass behavior at the resonance frequency of 36.4 GHz with transmittance of −0.56 dB. Theoretical simulations about the ITFSS diffractive characteristics and frequency responses are also investigated. The novel ITFSS will attract renewed interest and be exploited for applications in various fields.

  2. Direct versus hydrogen assisted CO dissociation on metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfonso, Dominic

    2012-02-01

    We present investigations of the formation of precursor hydrocarbon species relevant to production of liquid hydrocarbons on low index surfaces of various important noble and transition metals. The formation could occur via the so-called carbide mechanism where direct CO dissociation takes place, followed by stepwise hydrogenation of C yielding CHx species. Formation of precursor CHx species could also potentially take place through hydrogenated CO intermediates. First-principles calculations of energetics and barriers of CO conversion to hydrocarbons species were performed using plane-wave periodic density functional theory. Our calculations indicate that the two pathways are generally competitive on transition metals. A microkinetic model, with input thermodynamics and kinetic parameters estimated from electronic structure calculations, has been developed. The two pathways will be further examined using microkinetic approach to determine whether the aforementioned finding holds at realistic conditions.

  3. Assembly of Ferrocene Molecules on Metal Surfaces Revisited.

    PubMed

    Ormaza, Maider; Abufager, Paula; Bachellier, Nicolas; Robles, Roberto; Verot, Martin; Le Bahers, Tangui; Bocquet, Marie-Laure; Lorente, Nicolas; Limot, Laurent

    2015-02-01

    Metallocene (MCp2) wires have recently attracted considerable interest in relation to molecular spintronics due to predictions concerning their half-metallic nature. This exciting prospect is however hampered by the little and often-contradictory knowledge we have concerning the metallocene self-assembly and interaction with a metal. Here, we elucidate these aspects by focusing on the adsorption of ferrocene on Cu(111) and Cu(100). Combining low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory calculations, we demonstrate that the two-dimensional molecular arrangement consists of vertical- and horizontal-lying molecules. The noncovalent T-shaped interactions between Cp rings of vertical and horizontal molecules are essential for the stability of the physisorbed molecular layer. These results provide a fresh insight into ferrocene adsorption on surfaces and may serve as an archetypal reference for future work with this important variety of organometallic molecules. PMID:26261954

  4. Surface Plasmon Resonance Evaluation of Colloidal Metal Aerogel Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David D.; Sibille, Laurent; Cronise, Raymond J.; Noever, David A.

    1997-01-01

    We have fabricated aerogels containing gold, silver, and platinum nanoparticles for gas catalysis applications. By applying the concept of an average or effective dielectric constant to the heterogeneous interlayer surrounding each particle, we extend the technique of immersion spectroscopy to porous or heterogeneous media. Specifically, we apply the predominant effective medium theories for the determination of the average fractional composition of each component in this inhomogeneous layer. Hence, the surface area of metal available for catalytic gas reaction is determined. The technique is satisfactory for statistically random metal particle distributions but needs further modification for aggregated or surfactant modified systems. Additionally, the kinetics suggest that collective particle interactions in coagulated clusters are perturbed during silica gelation resulting in a change in the aggregate geometry.

  5. Adhesion of metals to a clean iron surface studied with LEED and Auger emission spectroscopy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of the results of adhesion experiments conducted with various metals contacting a clean iron surface. The metals included gold, silver, nickel, platinum, lead, tantalum, aluminum, and cobalt. Some of the metals were examined with oxygen present on their surface as well as in the clean state. The results indicate that, with the various metals contacting iron, the cohesively weaker will adhere and transfer to the cohesively stronger. The chemical activity of the metal also influenced the adhesive forces measured. With oxygen present on the metal surface, the adhesive forces measured could be correlated with the binding energy of the metal to oxygen.

  6. Covalent immobilization of liposomes on plasma functionalized metallic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Mourtas, S; Kastellorizios, M; Klepetsanis, P; Farsari, E; Amanatides, E; Mataras, D; Pistillo, B R; Favia, P; Sardella, E; d'Agostino, R; Antimisiaris, S G

    2011-05-01

    A method was developed to functionalize biomedical metals with liposomes. The novelty of the method includes the plasma-functionalization of the metal surface with proper chemical groups to be used as anchor sites for the covalent immobilization of the liposomes. Stainless steel (SS-316) disks were processed in radiofrequency glow discharges fed with vapors of acrylic acid to coat them with thin adherent films characterized by surface carboxylic groups, where liposomes were covalently bound through the formation of amide bonds. For this, liposomes decorated with polyethylene glycol molecules bearing terminal amine-groups were prepared. After ensuring that the liposomes remain intact, under the conditions applying for immobilization; different attachment conditions were evaluated (incubation time, concentration of liposome dispersion) for optimization of the technique. Immobilization of calcein-entrapping liposomes was evaluated by monitoring the percent of calcein attached on the surfaces. Best results were obtained when liposome dispersions with 5mg/ml (liposomal lipid) concentration were incubated on each disk for 24h at 37°C. The method is proposed for developing drug-eluting biomedical materials or devices by using liposomes that have appropriate membrane compositions and are loaded with drugs or other bioactive agents. PMID:21273051

  7. Surface studies of metals after interaction with hydrogen isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, David Samuel

    1998-12-01

    The objective of this research is to characterize surfaces of metals after interaction with hydrogen isotopes. Iron, which does not readily bond with hydrogen, and palladium, which strongly bonds with hydrogen, were studied. Observations of surfaces are used to determine the nature of their metamorphosis due to such exposures. An experimental study of pure iron foil (99.99%) exposed to a hot, dense hydrogen and argon gas mixture in a ballistic compressor yielded evidence for new structural and compositional changes of the metal due to the exposure. Atomic force microscope (AFM) studies demonstrated surfaces to be highly uneven, where height variations were often 2 mum for many micron-sized regions scanned. An iron foil exposed to argon gases alone revealed unique dendritic patterns but negligible height variations for micron-size scans. A cold rolled single crystal palladium cathode was electrolyzed in a solution of Dsb2O and 15% Hsb2SOsb4 by volume for 12 minutes. The cathode bent toward the anode during electrolysis. Examination of both concave and convex surfaces using the scanning electron microscope (SEM), scanning tunneling microscope (STM), and AFM revealed rimmed craters with faceted crystals inside and multi-textured surfaces. Also pairs of cold rolled polycrystalline palladium cathodes underwent electrolysis for six minutes or less, in Dsb2O and Hsb2O solutions, each solution containing 15% Hsb2SOsb4, by volume. Surface morphologies of the heavy water electrolyzed samples revealed asperities, craters, and nodules, and evidence of recrystallization and crystal planes. After 1.5 years, new AFM studies of the same Pd surfaces exposed to heavy water electrolyte exhibited loose, nanometer-sized particles. However, the surfaces of Pd cathodes exposed to light water electrolyte remained nearly identical to morphologies of foils not electrolyzed, and did not change with time. No surface asperities or loose grains were observed on the latter. Secondary ion mass

  8. Surface shape resonances and surface plasmon polariton excitations in bottle-shaped metallic gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skigin, Diana C.; Depine, Ricardo A.

    2001-04-01

    We study surface plasmon polariton excitations and surface shape resonances in a lossy metallic grating with bivalued cavities. The modal formalism is used to solve the diffraction problem for the infinite grating and the homogeneous problem for a single cavity in a plane surface. Both polarization modes are considered. We provide curves of reflected efficiency versus wavelength as well as near-field plots. The resonances are identified as dips in the reflected efficiency, which imply significant power absorptions. Results for various depths of the cavities and for several angles of incidence are shown, where the different types of resonant behavior can be appreciated. Particular attention is paid to the changes introduced by the finite conductivity of the metal in relation to the results obtained for a perfect conductor.

  9. Plasmon-polaritons on graphene-metal surface and their use in biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salihoglu, Omer; Balci, Sinan; Kocabas, Coskun

    2012-05-01

    We studied excitation of surface plasmon-polaritons on graphene-metal surface. The metal surface is functionalized by transfer printing of graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition on copper foils. Surface plasmon resonance characteristics of monolayer and multilayer graphene on the metal surface are presented. We were able to obtain the dispersion relation of graphene-metal surface which reveals the essential feature of the plasmon-polaritons. As an application, we fabricated a surface plasmon resonance sensor integrated with a microfluidic device to study nonspecific physical interaction between graphene layer and proteins.

  10. Influence of Surface Coating on Metal Ion Release: Evaluation in Patients With Metal Allergy.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Peter; Weik, Thomas; Roider, Gabriele; Summer, Burkhard; Thomsen, Marc

    2016-05-01

    Nickel, chromium, and cobalt in stainless steel and Cobalt-chrome-molybdenum (CoCrMo) alloys may induce allergy. The objectives of this study were to evaluate surface coating regarding ion release, patch test reactivity, and arthroplasty performance. Materials and methods included patch test in 31 patients with metal allergy and 30 patients with no allergy to stainless steel and CoCrMo disks that are uncoated or coated by titanium nitride/zirconium nitride (TiN/ZrN). Assessment include atomic absorption spectrometry of released nickel, cobalt, and chromium from the disks after exposure to distilled water, artificial sweat and culture medium. Results showed that both coatings reduced the nickel and chromium release from stainless steel and CoCrMo disks and mostly the cobalt release from the disks (maximally 11.755 µg/cm(2)/5 d to 1.624 by Ti-N and to 0.442 by ZrN). Six of the 31 patients with metal allergy reacted to uncoated disks, but none reacted to the coated disks. The current authors report on exemplary patients with metal allergy who had symptom relief by revision with surface-coated arthroplasty. The authors concluded that the surface coating may prevent cutaneous and peri-implant allergic reactions. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):S24-S30.].

  11. Influence of Surface Coating on Metal Ion Release: Evaluation in Patients With Metal Allergy.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Peter; Weik, Thomas; Roider, Gabriele; Summer, Burkhard; Thomsen, Marc

    2016-05-01

    Nickel, chromium, and cobalt in stainless steel and Cobalt-chrome-molybdenum (CoCrMo) alloys may induce allergy. The objectives of this study were to evaluate surface coating regarding ion release, patch test reactivity, and arthroplasty performance. Materials and methods included patch test in 31 patients with metal allergy and 30 patients with no allergy to stainless steel and CoCrMo disks that are uncoated or coated by titanium nitride/zirconium nitride (TiN/ZrN). Assessment include atomic absorption spectrometry of released nickel, cobalt, and chromium from the disks after exposure to distilled water, artificial sweat and culture medium. Results showed that both coatings reduced the nickel and chromium release from stainless steel and CoCrMo disks and mostly the cobalt release from the disks (maximally 11.755 µg/cm(2)/5 d to 1.624 by Ti-N and to 0.442 by ZrN). Six of the 31 patients with metal allergy reacted to uncoated disks, but none reacted to the coated disks. The current authors report on exemplary patients with metal allergy who had symptom relief by revision with surface-coated arthroplasty. The authors concluded that the surface coating may prevent cutaneous and peri-implant allergic reactions. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):S24-S30.]. PMID:27219723

  12. Surface Modification of Metallic Glass Composites Through Severe Plastic Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Sundeep; Arora, Harpreet Singh; Mridha, Sanghita

    2015-03-01

    Refinement of crystalline dendrites in a metallic glass composite, Zr56.2Ti13.8Nb5.0Cu6.9Ni5.6Be12.5, was demonstrated by friction stir processing. The surface hardness of the amorphous matrix as well as the crystalline dendritic phase was found to increase by nearly a factor of two for the processed specimens. Higher hardness for the amorphous matrix was explained by the interaction of shear bands, while that for the crystalline dendrite was explained by grain refinement.

  13. Model for outgassing of water from metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Minxu; Dylla, Fred

    1993-06-01

    Numerous measurements of outgassing from metal surfaces show that the outgassing obeys a power law of the form Q=Q{sub 10}t{sup -alpha}, where alpha is typically near unity. For unbaked systems, outgassing is dominated by water. This work demonstrates that alpha is a function of the water vapor exposure during venting of the system, and the physical properties of the passivation oxide layer on the surface. An analytic expression for the outgassing rate is derived based on the assumption that the rate of water diffusing through the passivation oxide layer to the surface governs the rate of its release into the vacuum. The source distribution function for the desorbing water is assumed to be a combination of a Gaussian distribution centered at the interior surface driven by atmospheric exposure, and a uniform concentration throughout the bulk. We have measured the outgassing rate from a clean stainless-steel (type 304) chamber as a function of water exposure to the chamber surface from <1 to 600 monolayers. The measured outgassing rate data show that alpha tends to 0.5 for low H{sub 2}O exposures and tends to 1.5 for high H{sub 2}O exposures as predicted by the model.

  14. A comparison of several surface finish measurement methods as applied to ground ceramic and metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, P.J.; Martin, R.L.; Riester, L.

    1996-01-01

    Surface finish is one of the most common measures of surface quality of ground ceramics and metal parts and a wide variety of methods and parameters have been developed to measure it. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the surface roughness parameters obtained on the same two specimens from three different types of measuring instruments: a traditional mechanical stylus system, a non-contact laser scanning system, and the atomic force microscope (two different AFM systems were compared). The same surface-ground silicon nitride and Inconel 625 alloy specimens were used for all measurements in this investigation. Significant differences in arithmetic average roughness, root-mean-square roughness, and peak-to-valley roughness were obtained when comparing data from the various topography measuring instruments. Non-contact methods agreed better with the others on the metal specimen than on the ceramic specimen. Reasons for these differences include the effective dimensions and geometry of the probe with respect to the surface topography; the reflectivity of the surface, and the type of filtering scheme Results of this investigation emphasize the importance of rigorously specifying the manner of surface roughness measurement when either reporting roughness data or when requesting that roughness data be provided.

  15. Surface structure determinations of crystalline ionic thin films grown on transition metal single crystal surfaces by low energy electron diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J.G.

    2000-05-01

    The surface structures of NaCl(100), LiF(100) and alpha-MgCl2(0001) adsorbed on various metal single crystals have been determined by low energy electron diffraction (LEED). Thin films of these salts were grown on metal substrates by exposing the heated metal surface to a molecular flux of salt emitted from a Knudsen cell. This method of investigating thin films of insulators (ionic salts) on a conducting substrate (metal) circumvents surface charging problems that plagued bulk studies, thereby allowing the use of electron-based techniques to characterize the surface.

  16. Super-Absorbent polymer gels for oil and grease removal from metal and non-metal surfaces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research is to develop a new surface cleaning technology for removal of oil, grease and particulate matters from metal and non-metal surfaces. It is desired that the cleaner is in solid form and is VOC-exempt, HAP-free, non-toxic, non-corrosive, non-ozone depleting, recyclable...

  17. Thermodynamic aspects of dehydrogenation reactions on noble metal surfaces.

    PubMed

    Svane, K L; Hammer, B

    2014-11-01

    The reaction free energy for dehydrogenation of phenol, aniline, thiophenol, benzoic acid, and 1,4-benzenediol on the close packed copper, silver, and gold surfaces has been studied by density functional theory calculations. Dehydrogenation of thiophenol is found to be favourable on all three surfaces while aniline does not dehydrogenate on any of them. For phenol, benzenediol and benzoic acid dehydrogenation is favourable on copper and silver only, following the general trend of an increasing reaction free energy when going form gold to silver to copper. This trend can be correlated with the changes in bond lengths within the molecule upon dehydrogenation. While copper is able to replace hydrogen, leaving small changes in the bond lengths of the aromatic ring, the metal-molecule bond is weaker for silver and gold, resulting in a partial loss of aromaticity. This difference in bond strength leads to pronounced differences in adsorption geometries upon multiple dehydrogenations.

  18. Thermodynamic aspects of dehydrogenation reactions on noble metal surfaces.

    PubMed

    Svane, K L; Hammer, B

    2014-11-01

    The reaction free energy for dehydrogenation of phenol, aniline, thiophenol, benzoic acid, and 1,4-benzenediol on the close packed copper, silver, and gold surfaces has been studied by density functional theory calculations. Dehydrogenation of thiophenol is found to be favourable on all three surfaces while aniline does not dehydrogenate on any of them. For phenol, benzenediol and benzoic acid dehydrogenation is favourable on copper and silver only, following the general trend of an increasing reaction free energy when going form gold to silver to copper. This trend can be correlated with the changes in bond lengths within the molecule upon dehydrogenation. While copper is able to replace hydrogen, leaving small changes in the bond lengths of the aromatic ring, the metal-molecule bond is weaker for silver and gold, resulting in a partial loss of aromaticity. This difference in bond strength leads to pronounced differences in adsorption geometries upon multiple dehydrogenations. PMID:25381535

  19. Visualization of terahertz surface waves propagation on metal foils

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinke; Wang, Sen; Sun, Wenfeng; Feng, Shengfei; Han, Peng; Yan, Haitao; Ye, Jiasheng; Zhang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Exploitation of surface plasmonic devices (SPDs) in the terahertz (THz) band is always beneficial for broadening the application potential of THz technologies. To clarify features of SPDs, a practical characterization means is essential for accurately observing the complex field distribution of a THz surface wave (TSW). Here, a THz digital holographic imaging system is employed to coherently exhibit temporal variations and spectral properties of TSWs activated by a rectangular or semicircular slit structure on metal foils. Advantages of the imaging system are comprehensively elucidated, including the exclusive measurement of TSWs and fall-off of the time consumption. Numerical simulations of experimental procedures further verify the imaging measurement accuracy. It can be anticipated that this imaging system will provide a versatile tool for analyzing the performance and principle of SPDs. PMID:26729652

  20. Thermodynamic aspects of dehydrogenation reactions on noble metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Svane, K. L. Hammer, B.

    2014-11-07

    The reaction free energy for dehydrogenation of phenol, aniline, thiophenol, benzoic acid, and 1,4-benzenediol on the close packed copper, silver, and gold surfaces has been studied by density functional theory calculations. Dehydrogenation of thiophenol is found to be favourable on all three surfaces while aniline does not dehydrogenate on any of them. For phenol, benzenediol and benzoic acid dehydrogenation is favourable on copper and silver only, following the general trend of an increasing reaction free energy when going form gold to silver to copper. This trend can be correlated with the changes in bond lengths within the molecule upon dehydrogenation. While copper is able to replace hydrogen, leaving small changes in the bond lengths of the aromatic ring, the metal-molecule bond is weaker for silver and gold, resulting in a partial loss of aromaticity. This difference in bond strength leads to pronounced differences in adsorption geometries upon multiple dehydrogenations.

  1. Liquid Metal Pump Technologies for Nuclear Surface Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.

    2007-01-01

    Multiple liquid metal pump options are reviewed for the purpose of determining the technologies that are best suited for inclusion in a nuclear reactor thermal simulator intended to rest prototypical space nuclear surface power system components. Conduction, induction and thermoelectric electromagnetic pumps are evaluated based on their performance characteristics and the technical issues associated with incorporation into a reactor system. A thermoelectric electromagnetic pump is selected as the best option for use in NASA-MSFC's Fission Surface Power-Primary Test Circuit reactor simulator based on its relative simplicity, low power supply mass penalty, flight heritage, and the promise of increased pump efficiency over those earlier pump designs through the use of skutterudite thermoelectric elements.

  2. Electron Scattering at Surfaces and Interfaces of Transition Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Pengyuan

    The effect of surfaces on the electron transport at reduced scales is attracting continuous interest due to its broad impact on both the understanding of materials properties and their application for nanoelectronics. The size dependence of for conductor's electrical resistivity rho due to electron surface scattering is most commonly described within the framework of Fuchs and Sondheimer (FS) and their various extensions, which uses a phenomenological scattering parameter p to define the probability of electrons being elastically (i.e. specularly) scattered by the surface without causing an increase of rho at reduced size. However, a basic understanding of what surface chemistry and structure parameters determine the specularity p is still lacking. In addition, the assumption of a spherical Fermi surface in the FS model is too simple for transition metals to give accurate account of the actual surface scattering effect. The goal of this study is to develop an understanding of the physics governing electron surface/interface scattering in transition metals and to study the significance of their Fermi surface shape on surface scattering. The advancement of the scientific knowledge in electron surface and interface scattering of transition metals can provide insights into how to design high-conductivity nanowires that will facilitate the viable development of advanced integrated circuits, thermoelectric power generation and spintronics. Sequential in situ and ex situ transport measurements as a function of surface chemistry demonstrate that electron surface/interface scattering can be engineered by surface doping, causing a decrease in the rho. For instance, the rho of 9.3-nm-thick epitaxial and polycrystalline Cu is reduced by 11--13% when coated with 0.75 nm Ni. This is due to electron surface scattering which exhibits a specularity p = 0.7 for the Cu-vacuum interface that transitions to completely diffuse (p = 0) when exposed to air. In contrast, Ni-coated surfaces

  3. Theory of catalytic dissociation of hydrogen atoms on a metal surface

    SciTech Connect

    Konstantinov, O. V. Dymnikov, V. D.; Mittsev, M. A.

    2008-08-15

    The model of hydrogen atom ionization near a metal surface is discussed on the basis of a comparison between the metal work function and the atom ionization energy. In the theoretical calculation, it is shown that the hydrogen atom ionization energy decreases when the atom approaches the metal surface. The ionization energy vanishes when the distance between proton and the metal surface is somewhat less than the Bohr radius.

  4. Giant and switchable surface activity of liquid metal via surface oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mohammad Rashed; Eaker, Collin B.; Bowden, Edmond F.; Dickey, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    We present a method to control the interfacial tension of a liquid alloy of gallium via electrochemical deposition (or removal) of the oxide layer on its surface. In sharp contrast with conventional surfactants, this method provides unprecedented lowering of surface tension (∼500 mJ/m2 to near zero) using very low voltage, and the change is completely reversible. This dramatic change in the interfacial tension enables a variety of electrohydrodynamic phenomena. The ability to manipulate the interfacial properties of the metal promises rich opportunities in shape-reconfigurable metallic components in electronic, electromagnetic, and microfluidic devices without the use of toxic mercury. This work suggests that the wetting properties of surface oxides—which are ubiquitous on most metals and semiconductors—are intrinsic “surfactants.” The inherent asymmetric nature of the surface coupled with the ability to actively manipulate its energetics is expected to have important applications in electrohydrodynamics, composites, and melt processing of oxide-forming materials. PMID:25228767

  5. Observation of radiative surface plasmons in metal-oxide-metal tunnel junctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohue, J. F.; Yang, E. Y.

    1986-01-01

    A peak in the UV region of the spectrum of light emitted from metal-oxide-metal (MOM) tunnel junctions has been observed at room temperature. Both the amplitude and wavelength of the peak are sensitive to applied junction bias. The UV peak corresponds to the normal or radiative surface plasmon mode while a visible peak, also present in the present spectra and reported in past MOM literature, is due to the tangential or nonradiative mode. The radiative mode requires no surface roughness or gratings for photon coupling. The results show that it is possible to obtain radiative surface plasmon production followed by a direct decay into photons with MOM tunnel diodes. A MOM diode with a double anode structure is found to emit light associated only with the nonradiative mode. The thickness dependence of the UV peak, along with the experimental results of the double anode MOM diode and the ratio of the UV peak to visible peak, support the contention that the UV light emission is indeed due to the radiative surface plasmon.

  6. Surface nano-architecture of a metal-organic framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makiura, Rie; Motoyama, Soichiro; Umemura, Yasushi; Yamanaka, Hiroaki; Sakata, Osami; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2010-07-01

    The rational assembly of ultrathin films of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)-highly ordered microporous materials-with well-controlled growth direction and film thickness is a critical and as yet unrealized issue for enabling the use of MOFs in nanotechnological devices, such as sensors, catalysts and electrodes for fuel cells. Here we report the facile bottom-up fabrication at ambient temperature of such a perfect preferentially oriented MOF nanofilm on a solid surface (NAFS-1), consisting of metalloporphyrin building units. The construction of NAFS-1 was achieved by the unconventional integration in a modular fashion of a layer-by-layer growth technique coupled with the Langmuir-Blodgett method. NAFS-1 is endowed with highly crystalline order both in the out-of-plane and in-plane orientations to the substrate, as demonstrated by synchrotron X-ray surface crystallography. The proposed structural model incorporates metal-coordinated pyridine molecules projected from the two-dimensional sheets that allow each further layer to dock in a highly ordered interdigitated manner in the growth of NAFS-1. We expect that the versatility of the solution-based growth strategy presented here will allow the fabrication of various well-ordered MOF nanofilms, opening the way for their use in a range of important applications.

  7. Reactions of metal ions at surfaces of hydrous iron oxide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hem, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    Cu, Ag and Cr concentrations in natural water may be lowered by mild chemical reduction involving ferric hydroxide-ferrous ion redox processes. V and Mo solubilities may be controlled by precipitation of ferrous vanadate or molybdate. Concentrations as low as 10-8.00 or 10-9.00 M are readily attainable for all these metals in oxygen-depleted systems that are relatively rich in Fe. Deposition of manganese oxides such as Mn3O4 can be catalyzed in oxygenated water by coupling to ferrous-ferric redox reactions. Once formed, these oxides may disproportionate, giving Mn4+ oxides. This reaction produces strongly oxidizing conditions at manganese oxide surfaces. The solubility of As is significantly influenced by ferric iron only at low pH. Spinel structures such as chromite or ferrites of Cu, Ni, and Zn, are very stable and if locally developed on ferric hydroxide surfaces could bring about solubilities much below 10-9.00 M for divalent metals near neutral pH. Solubilities calculated from thermodynamic data are shown graphically and compared with observed concentrations in some natural systems. ?? 1977.

  8. Isocyanide ligands adsorbed on metal surfaces: applications in catalysis, nanochemistry, and molecular electronics.

    PubMed

    Angelici, Robert J; Lazar, Mihaela

    2008-10-20

    Knowledge of the coordination chemistry and reactivity of isocyanide ligands in transition-metal complexes forms the basis for understanding the adsorption and reactions of isocyanides on metal surfaces. In this overview, we explore reactions (often catalytic) of isocyanides adsorbed on metal surfaces that reflect their patterns of reactivity in metal complexes. We also examine applications of isocyanide adsorption to the stabilization of metal nanoparticles, the functionalization of metal electrodes, and the creation of conducting organic-metal junctions in molecule-scale electronic devices.

  9. A Method to Manipulate Surface Tension of a Liquid Metal via Surface Oxidation and Reduction.

    PubMed

    Eaker, Collin B; Khan, M Rashed; Dickey, Michael D

    2016-01-26

    Controlling interfacial tension is an effective method for manipulating the shape, position, and flow of fluids at sub-millimeter length scales, where interfacial tension is a dominant force. A variety of methods exist for controlling the interfacial tension of aqueous and organic liquids on this scale; however, these techniques have limited utility for liquid metals due to their large interfacial tension. Liquid metals can form soft, stretchable, and shape-reconfigurable components in electronic and electromagnetic devices. Although it is possible to manipulate these fluids via mechanical methods (e.g., pumping), electrical methods are easier to miniaturize, control, and implement. However, most electrical techniques have their own constraints: electrowetting-on-dielectric requires large (kV) potentials for modest actuation, electrocapillarity can affect relatively small changes in the interfacial tension, and continuous electrowetting is limited to plugs of the liquid metal in capillaries. Here, we present a method for actuating gallium and gallium-based liquid metal alloys via an electrochemical surface reaction. Controlling the electrochemical potential on the surface of the liquid metal in electrolyte rapidly and reversibly changes the interfacial tension by over two orders of magnitude ( ̴500 mN/m to near zero). Furthermore, this method requires only a very modest potential (< 1 V) applied relative to a counter electrode. The resulting change in tension is due primarily to the electrochemical deposition of a surface oxide layer, which acts as a surfactant; removal of the oxide increases the interfacial tension, and vice versa. This technique can be applied in a wide variety of electrolytes and is independent of the substrate on which it rests.

  10. Diffusion and Phase Transformations of Transition Metals on Silicon Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ming-Yi.

    The role of surface diffusion and surface phase reaction kinetics of nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co) on Si(111) and Si(100) are investigated under Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) conditions using Auger Spectroscopy (AES), Reflection High Electron Energy Diffraction (RHEED) and surface X-ray diffraction. The surface segregation phenomenon and the formation conditions for Si(111)-sqrt{19 } x sqrt{19}- rm R+/-23.4^circ phase (hereafter called sqrt{19}) for Ni/Si(111) are studied by RHEED and AES. Quench cooling induces surface segregation which restores the total accumulated dose of Ni to two surfaces of the wafer. The coverage dependence of phases thus produced follows: 7 x 7 to 1 x 1-RC(0.05Ml) to sqrt{19} (0.16Ml) then to B-type NiSi_2. It is found that there are 3 Ni atoms in the sqrt{19 } unit cell. A "race" of bulk diffusion versus surface diffusion for Ni in/on Si(111) is studied by depositing a laterally confined dot of metal on one side of the double side polished and UHV cleaned Si wafer and then measuring the lateral Auger profile on the reverse side following annealing and quenching. Ni reaches the far side of the wafer at temperatures as low as 500C via bulk diffusion with no measurable contribution from the surface paths, which are short-circuited by numerous, fast bulk paths. Similar results are found for Ni and Co on Si(111) and Si(100). The diffusivity and solid solubility calculated from the experiments are close to the bulk values known from the literature. In addition, the thermal stability, phase transformation and different dissolution mechanisms of sqrt {19} and 1 x 1-RC surface phases of Ni/Si(111) are carefully examined. The activation energies of these processes are compared on an Arrhenius plot. These are discussed in terms of the migration and formation mechanisms involved in these phase transformations. An energy level diagram is used to summarize the atomistic kinetics.

  11. Amplification of hot electron flow by the surface plasmon effect on metal-insulator-metal nanodiodes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Changhwan; Nedrygailov, Ievgen I; Lee, Young Keun; Ahn, Changui; Lee, Hyosun; Jeon, Seokwoo; Park, Jeong Young

    2015-11-01

    Au-TiO2-Ti nanodiodes with a metal-insulator-metal structure were used to probe hot electron flows generated upon photon absorption. Hot electrons, generated when light is absorbed in the Au electrode of the nanodiode, can travel across the TiO2, leading to a photocurrent. Here, we demonstrate amplification of the hot electron flow by (1) localized surface plasmon resonance on plasmonic nanostructures fabricated by annealing the Au-TiO2-Ti nanodiodes, and (2) reducing the thickness of the TiO2. We show a correlation between changes in the morphology of the Au electrodes caused by annealing and amplification of the photocurrent. Based on the exponential dependence of the photocurrent on TiO2 thickness, the transport mechanism for the hot electrons across the nanodiodes is proposed. PMID:26451470

  12. Amplification of hot electron flow by the surface plasmon effect on metal-insulator-metal nanodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Changhwan; Nedrygailov, Ievgen I.; Lee, Young Keun; Ahn, Changui; Lee, Hyosun; Jeon, Seokwoo; Park, Jeong Young

    2015-11-01

    Au-TiO2-Ti nanodiodes with a metal-insulator-metal structure were used to probe hot electron flows generated upon photon absorption. Hot electrons, generated when light is absorbed in the Au electrode of the nanodiode, can travel across the TiO2, leading to a photocurrent. Here, we demonstrate amplification of the hot electron flow by (1) localized surface plasmon resonance on plasmonic nanostructures fabricated by annealing the Au-TiO2-Ti nanodiodes, and (2) reducing the thickness of the TiO2. We show a correlation between changes in the morphology of the Au electrodes caused by annealing and amplification of the photocurrent. Based on the exponential dependence of the photocurrent on TiO2 thickness, the transport mechanism for the hot electrons across the nanodiodes is proposed.

  13. Evaluation of ultrasonic cavitation of metallic and non-metallic surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Narinder K.

    1992-01-01

    1,1,2 trichloro-1,2,2 trifluoro ethane (CFC-113) commercially known as Freon-113 is the primary test solvent used for validating the cleaned hardware at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Due to the ozone depletion problem, the current United States policy calls for the phase out of Freons by 1995. NASAs chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) replacement group at KSC has opted to use water as a replacement fluid for the validation process since water is non-toxic, inexpensive, and is environmentally friendly. The replacement validation method calls for the ultrasonification of the small parts with water at 52 C for a cycle or two of 10 min duration wash using commercial ultrasonic baths. In this project, experimental data was obtained to assess the applicability of the proposed validation method for any damage of the metallic and non-metallic surfaces resulting from ultrasonic cavitation.

  14. Large Rashba spin splitting of a metallic surface-state band on a semiconductor surface.

    PubMed

    Yaji, Koichiro; Ohtsubo, Yoshiyuki; Hatta, Shinichiro; Okuyama, Hiroshi; Miyamoto, Koji; Okuda, Taichi; Kimura, Akio; Namatame, Hirofumi; Taniguchi, Masaki; Aruga, Tetsuya

    2010-05-17

    The generation of spin-polarized electrons at room temperature is an essential step in developing semiconductor spintronic applications. To this end, we studied the electronic states of a Ge(111) surface, covered with a lead monolayer at a fractional coverage of 4/3, by angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES), spin-resolved ARPES and first-principles electronic structure calculation. We demonstrate that a metallic surface-state band with a dominant Pb 6p character exhibits a large Rashba spin splitting of 200 meV and an effective mass of 0.028 m(e) at the Fermi level. This finding provides a material basis for the novel field of spin transport/accumulation on semiconductor surfaces. Charge density analysis of the surface state indicated that large spin splitting was induced by asymmetric charge distribution in close proximity to the nuclei of Pb atoms.

  15. Spatial Variability and Distribution of the Metals in Surface Runoff in a Nonferrous Metal Mine

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Bozhi; Chen, Yangbo; Zhu, Guocheng; Wang, Zhenghua; Zheng, Xie

    2016-01-01

    The spatial variation and distribution features of the metals tested in the surface runoff in Xikuangshan Bao Daxing miming area were analyzed by combining statistical methods with a geographic information system (GIS). The results showed that the maximum concentrations of those five kinds of the metals (Sb, Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd) in the surface runoff of the antimony mining area were lower than the standard value except the concentration of metal Ni. Their concentrations were 497.1, 2.0, 1.8, 22.2, and 22.1 times larger than the standard value, respectively. This metal pollution was mainly concentrated in local areas, which were seriously polluted. The variation coefficient of Sb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Cd was between 0.4 to 0.6, wherein the Sb's spatial variability coefficient is 50.56%, indicating a strong variability. Variation coefficients of the rest of metals were less than 50%, suggesting a moderate variability. The spatial structure analysis showed that the squared correlation coefficient (R2) of the models fitting for Sb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Cd was between 0.721 and 0.976; the ratio of the nugget value (C0) to the abutment value (C + C0) was between 0.0767 and 0.559; the semivariogram of Sb, Zn, Ni, and Pb was in agreement with a spherical model, while semivariogram of Cu and Cd was in agreement with Gaussian model, and both had a strong spatial correlation. The trend and spatial distribution indicated that those pollution distributions resulting from Ni, Pb, and Cd are similar, mainly concentrated in both ends of north and south in eastern part. The main reasons for the pollution were attributed to the residents living, transportation, and industrial activities; the Sb distribution was concentrated mainly in the central part, of which the pollution was assigned to the mining and the industrial activity; the pollution distributions of Zn and Cu were similar, mainly concentrated in both ends of north and south as well as in west; the sources of the metals were

  16. Spatial Variability and Distribution of the Metals in Surface Runoff in a Nonferrous Metal Mine.

    PubMed

    Ren, Bozhi; Chen, Yangbo; Zhu, Guocheng; Wang, Zhenghua; Zheng, Xie

    2016-01-01

    The spatial variation and distribution features of the metals tested in the surface runoff in Xikuangshan Bao Daxing miming area were analyzed by combining statistical methods with a geographic information system (GIS). The results showed that the maximum concentrations of those five kinds of the metals (Sb, Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd) in the surface runoff of the antimony mining area were lower than the standard value except the concentration of metal Ni. Their concentrations were 497.1, 2.0, 1.8, 22.2, and 22.1 times larger than the standard value, respectively. This metal pollution was mainly concentrated in local areas, which were seriously polluted. The variation coefficient of Sb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Cd was between 0.4 to 0.6, wherein the Sb's spatial variability coefficient is 50.56%, indicating a strong variability. Variation coefficients of the rest of metals were less than 50%, suggesting a moderate variability. The spatial structure analysis showed that the squared correlation coefficient (R (2)) of the models fitting for Sb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Cd was between 0.721 and 0.976; the ratio of the nugget value (C 0) to the abutment value (C + C 0) was between 0.0767 and 0.559; the semivariogram of Sb, Zn, Ni, and Pb was in agreement with a spherical model, while semivariogram of Cu and Cd was in agreement with Gaussian model, and both had a strong spatial correlation. The trend and spatial distribution indicated that those pollution distributions resulting from Ni, Pb, and Cd are similar, mainly concentrated in both ends of north and south in eastern part. The main reasons for the pollution were attributed to the residents living, transportation, and industrial activities; the Sb distribution was concentrated mainly in the central part, of which the pollution was assigned to the mining and the industrial activity; the pollution distributions of Zn and Cu were similar, mainly concentrated in both ends of north and south as well as in west; the sources of the metals

  17. Radiation damage from single heavy ion impacts on metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, S.E.; Birtcher, R.C.

    1998-06-01

    The effects of single ion impacts on the surfaces of films of Au, Ag, In and Pb have been studied using in-situ transmission electron microscopy. On all of these materials, individual ion impacts produce surface craters, in some cases, with associated expelled material. The cratering efficiency scales with the density of the irradiated metal. For very thin Au foils ({approx} 20--50 nm), in some cases individual ions are seen to punch small holes completely through the foil. Continued irradiation results in a thickening of the foil. The process giving rise to crater and hole formation and other changes observed in the thin foils has been found to be due to pulsed localized flow--i.e. melting and flow due to the thermal spikes arising from individual ion impacts. Experiments carried out on thin films of silver sandwiched between SiO{sub 2} layers have indicated that pulsed localized flow also occurs in this system and contributes to the formation of Ag nanoclusters in SiO{sub 2}--a system of interest for its non-linear optical properties. Calculation indicates that, when ion-induced, collision cascades occur near surfaces (within {approx} 5 nm) with energy densities sufficient to cause melting, craters are formed. Crater formation occurs as a result of the explosive outflow of material from the hot molten core of the cascade. Processes occurring in the sandwiched layer are less well understood.

  18. Enhanced Electron-Phonon Coupling at Metal Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Plummer, Ward E.

    2010-08-04

    The Born-Oppenheimer approximation (BOA) decouples electronic from nuclear motion, providing a focal point for most quantum mechanics textbooks. However, a multitude of important chemical, physical and biological phenomena are driven by violations of this approximation. Vibronic interactions are a necessary ingredient in any process that makes or breaks a covalent bond, for example, conventional catalysis or enzymatically delivered biological reactions. Metastable phenomena associated with defects and dopants in semiconductors, oxides, and glasses entail violation of the BOA. Charge exchange in inorganic polymers, organic slats and biological systems involves charge- induced distortions of the local structure. A classic example is conventional superconductivity, which is driven by the electron-lattice interaction. High-resolution angle-resolved photoemission experiments are yielding new insight into the microscopic origin of electron-phonon coupling (EPC) in anisotropic two-dimensional systems. Our recent surface phonon measurement on the surface of a high-Tc material clearly indicates an important momentum dependent EPC in these materials. In the last few years we have shifted our research focus from solely looking at electron phonon coupling to examining the structure/functionality relationship at the surface of complex transition metal compounds. The investigation on electron phonon coupling has allowed us to move to systems where there is coupling between the lattice, the electrons and the spin.

  19. Rate of Heat Transfer from Finned Metal Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G Fayette; Rehbock, A

    1930-01-01

    The object was to evaluate the factors which control the rate of heat transfer to a moving current of air from finned metal surfaces similar to those used on aircraft engine cylinders. The object was to establish data which will enable the finning of cooling surfaces to be designed to suit the particular needs of any specific application. Most of the work was done on flat copper specimens 6 inches square, upon which were mounted copper fins with spacings varying from 1/2 inch to 1/12 inch. All fins were 1 inch deep, 6 inches long, and .020 inch thick. The results of the investigation are given in the form of curves included here. In general, it was found that for specimens of this kind, the effectiveness of a given fin does not decrease very rapidly until its distance from adjacent fins has been reduced to 1/9 or 1/10 of an inch. A formula for the heat transfer from a flat surface without fins was developed, and an approximate formula for the finned specimens is suggested.

  20. Magnetism and surface structure of atomically controlled ultrathin metal films.

    SciTech Connect

    Shiratsuchi, Yu.; Yamamoto, M.; Bader, S. D.; Materials Science Division; Osaka Univ.

    2007-01-01

    We review the correlation of magnetism and surface structure in ultrathin metal films, including the tailoring of novel magnetic properties using atomic scale control of the nanostructure. We provide an overview of modern fabrication and characterization techniques used to create and explore these fascinating materials, and highlight important phenomena of interest. We also discuss techniques that control and characterize both the magnetic and structural properties on an atomic scale. Recent advances in the development and applications of these techniques allow nanomagnetism to be investigated in an unprecedented manner. A system cannot necessarily retain a two-dimensional structure as it enters the ultrathin region, but it can transform into a three-dimensional, discontinuous structure due to the Volmer-Weber growth mechanism. This structural transformation can give rise to superparamagnetism. During this evolution, competing factors such as interparticle interactions and the effective magnetic anisotropy govern the magnetic state. These magnetic parameters are influenced by the nanostructure of the film. In particular, controlling the magnetic anisotropy is critical for determining the magnetic properties. Surface effects play especially important roles in influencing both the magnitude and direction of the magnetic anisotropy in ultrathin films. By properly altering the surface structure, the strength and direction of the magnetic anisotropy are controlled via spin-orbit and/or dipole interactions.

  1. Facile synthesis and improved optical activity in ZnO nanocrystallites doped with coinage metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Dojalisa; Panda, N. R.; Acharya, B. S.

    2015-06-01

    We report the growth of well-oriented rod and flower-like nanostructures of ZnO doped with copper, gold and silver synthesized by sonochemical method. The nanostructures were grown in a nutrient solution made of zinc nitrate (Zn(NO3)2 . 6H2O) and ammonia at low temperature with varying the dopant. XRD, TEM, UV-VIS, photoluminescence and FTIR spectra were recorded to study the crystallinity, microstructure and optical properties of the samples. XRD results show the formation of hexagonal wurtzite phase of ZnO with changing lattice parameters with doping. Both direct and indirect evidences were obtained from the XRD pattern confirming the incorporation of the dopant. Enhanced UV absorbance and PL emissions for ZnO has been observed and the role of Cu, Ag and Au in altering these properties has been investigated. Shift in UV band and evolution of new visible emission bands in the Pl spectra have been explained on the basis of incorporation of impurity occupying different states in the band gap of ZnO.

  2. Synthesis and structural characterization of isolable phosphine coinage metal π-complexes

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Nathan D.; Toste, F. Dean

    2008-01-01

    The chemical community has recently witnessed a dramatic increase in the application of cationic gold(I)-phosphine complexes as homogeneous catalysts for organic synthesis. The majority of gold(I)-catalyzed reactions rely on nucleophilic additions to carbon–carbon multiple bonds, which have been activated by coordination to a cationic gold(I) catalyst. However, structural evidence for coordination of cationic gold(I) complexes to alkynes has been limited. Here, we report the crystal structure of a gold(I)-phosphine η2-coordinated alkyne. Related Ag(I) and Cu(I) complexes have been synthesized for comparison. The crystallization of these complexes was enabled by tethering a labile alkyne ligand to a strongly coordinating triarylphosphine. This approach also proved applicable to crystallization of the first gold(I)-phosphine η2-coordinated alkene.

  3. Metal thin film growth on multimetallic surfaces: From quaternary metallic glass to binary crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Jing, Dapeng

    2010-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis mainly focuses on the nucleation and growth of metal thin films on multimetallic surfaces. First, we have investigated the Ag film growth on a bulk metallic glass surface. Next, we have examined the coarsening and decay of bilayer Ag islands on NiAl(110) surface. Third, we have investigated the Ag film growth on NiAl(110) surface using low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). At last, we have reported our investigation on the epitaxial growth of Ni on NiAl(110) surface. Some general conclusions can be drawn as follows. First, Ag, a bulk-crystalline material, initially forms a disordered wetting layer up to 4-5 monolayers on Zr-Ni-Cu-Al metallic glass. Above this coverage, crystalline 3D clusters grow, in parallel with the flatter regions. The cluster density increases with decreasing temperature, indicating that the conditions of island nucleation are far-from-equilibrium. Within a simple model where clusters nucleate whenever two mobile Ag adatoms meet, the temperature-dependence of cluster density yields a (reasonable) upper limit for the value of the Ag diffusion barrier on top of the Ag wetting layer of 0.32 eV. Overall, this prototypical study suggests that it is possible to grow films of a bulk-crystalline metal that adopt the amorphous character of a glassy metal substrate, if film thickness is sufficiently low. Next, the first study of coarsening and decay of bilayer islands has been presented. The system was Ag on NiAl(110) in the temperature range from 185 K to 250 K. The coarsening behavior, has some similarities to that seen in the Ag(110) homoepitaxial system studied by Morgenstern and co-workers. At 185 K and 205 K, coarsening of Ag islands follows a Smoluchowski ripening pathway. At 205 K and 250 K, the terrace diffusion limited Ostwald ripening dominants. The experimental observed temperature for the transition from SR to OR is 205 K. The SR exhibits anisotropic island diffusion and the OR exhibits 1D decay of island

  4. Organometallic Chemistry and catalysis on gold metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Angelici, Robert J.

    2007-11-21

    As in transition metal complexes, C{triple_bond}N-R ligands adsorbed on powdered gold undergo attack by amines to give putative diaminocarbene groups on the gold surface. This reaction forms the basis for the discovery of a gold metal-catalyzed reaction of C{triple_bond}N-R, primary amines (R{prime}NH{sub 2}) and O{sub 2} to give carbodiimides (R{prime}-N{double_bond}C{double_bond}N-R). An analogous reaction of C{triple_bond}O, RNH{sub 2}, and O{sub 2} gives isocyanates (R-N{double_bond}C{double_bond}O), which react with additional amine to give urea (RNH){sub 2}C{double_bond}O products. The gold-catalyzed reaction of C{triple_bond}N-R with secondary amines (HNR{prime}{sub 2}) and O{sub 2} gives mixed ureas RNH(CO)NR{prime}{sub 2}. In another type of gold-catalyzed reaction, secondary amines HN(CH{sub 2}R){sub 2} react with O{sub 2} to undergo dehydrogenation to the imine product, RCH{double_bond}N(CH{sub 2}R). Of special interest is the high catalytic activity of gold powder, which is otherwise well-known for its poor catalytic properties.

  5. Ferroplasmons: Intense Localized Surface Plasmons in Metal-Ferromagnetic Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Sachan, Ritesh; Malasi, Abhinav; Ge, Jingxuan; Yadavali, Sagar P; Gangopadhyay, Anup; Krishna, Dr. Hare; Garcia, Hernando; Duscher, Gerd J M; Kalyanaraman, Ramki

    2014-01-01

    Interaction of photons with matter at length scales far below their wavelengths has given rise to many novel phenomena, including localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). However, LSPR with narrow bandwidth (BW) is observed only in a select few noble metals, and ferromagnets are not among them. Here, we report the discovery of LSPR in ferromagnetic Co and CoFe alloy (8% Fe) in contact with Ag in the form of bimetallic nanoparticles prepared by pulsed laser dewetting. These plasmons in metal-erromagnetic nanostructures, or ferroplasmons (FP) for short, are in the visible spectrum with comparable intensity and BW to those of the LSPRs from the Ag regions. This finding was enabled by electron energy-loss mapping across individual nanoparticles in a monochromated scanning transmission electron microscope. The appearance of the FP is likely due to plasmonic interaction between the contacting Ag and Co nanoparticles. Since there is no previous evidence for materials that simultaneously show ferromagnetism and such intense LSPRs, this discovery may lead to the design of improved plasmonic materials and applications. It also demonstrates that materials with interesting plasmonic properties can be synthesized using bimetallic nanostructures in contact with each other.

  6. Surface potential determination in metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moragues, J. M.; Ciantar, E.; Jerisian, R.; Sagnes, B.; Oualid, J.

    1994-11-01

    Different methods using the relationship between surface potential Psi(sub S) and gate bias V(sub G) in metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors have been compared. These methods can be applied even if the doping profile is very abrupt and the interface state density very high. The shifts of midgap, flatband, and threshold voltages, observed after Fowler-Nordheim electron injection, and deduced from the various Psi(sub S(V (sub G)) relationships obtained by these different methods, are in good agreement. These shifts give the number of effective oxide trapped charges (N(sub ox)) per unit area and acceptor-like and donor-like interface states (N(sub SS)A and N(sub SS)D) which are created during the electron injection. We reveal that the number of positive charges created in the gate oxide, unlike the number of generated interface states, strongly depends on the position of the post-metallization annealing step in the process. After relaxation of the stressed MOS capacitors, most of the generated positive charges can be attributed, in the MOS capacitors studied, to hydrogen-related species. It seems that the interface states are essentially created by the recombination of holes generated by electron impact.

  7. Wear resistance of a metal surface modified with minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kislov, S. V.; Kislov, V. G.; Balasch, P. V.; Skazochkin, A. V.; Bondarenko, G. G.; Tikhonov, A. N.

    2016-02-01

    The article describes the advantages of the new technology of mineral coating of metal products for the friction pair of mechanical systems. It presents the research results of the wear rate of the samples made of 12X13 steel (X12Cr13) with mineral layers, in the experiments with a piston ring sliding inside a cylinder liner with grease. The wear rate of the samples with mineral layers is lower almost by two factors than that of the samples made of grey foundry iron and untreated samples. As the result of slip/rolling abrasion tests of parts with mineral layers under conditions of high contact pressure, a suggestion was made concerning probable mechanics of surface wear.

  8. Foam and gel methods for the decontamination of metallic surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Nunez, Luis; Kaminski, Michael Donald

    2007-01-23

    Decontamination of nuclear facilities is necessary to reduce the radiation field during normal operations and decommissioning of complex equipment. In this invention, we discuss gel and foam based diphosphonic acid (HEDPA) chemical solutions that are unique in that these solutions can be applied at room temperature; provide protection to the base metal for continued applications of the equipment; and reduce the final waste form production to one step. The HEDPA gels and foams are formulated with benign chemicals, including various solvents, such as ionic liquids and reducing and complexing agents such as hydroxamic acids, and formaldehyde sulfoxylate. Gel and foam based HEDPA processes allow for decontamination of difficult to reach surfaces that are unmanageable with traditional aqueous process methods. Also, the gel and foam components are optimized to maximize the dissolution rate and assist in the chemical transformation of the gel and foam to a stable waste form.

  9. The electrochemisty of surface modified <10 nm metal oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Joseph J. P.

    Chapter One provides a general introduction of the research on metal oxide nanoparticles (MOx), highlighting their synthesis, surface modification, and functionalization. Emphasis is given to the different synthetic route for producing small (<10 nm) MOx nanoparticles with narrow size distributions. Different methods for modifying their surface with small organic molecules are discussed with focus given to silanes and phosphates. Furthermore, functionalizing surface modified nanoparticles for specific functions is addressed, with markers for analytically relevant nanoscale quantification being the primary focus. Chapter Two describes in detail the thermal degradation synthesis used for the generation of small MOx nanoparticles. It demonstrates the versatile of the synthesis by successfully synthesizing ZrO 2 and IrO2 nanoparticles. Preliminary work involving the formation of Bi2S3, Bi2O3, and RuO2 nanomaterials is also addressed. The solvothermal synthesis of indium tin oxide (ITO) is also shown for comparison to ITO produced by thermal degradation. Chapter Three details the surface modification of ITO nanoparticles and subsequent electrochemical tagging with a ferrocene moiety. ITO nanoparticles were synthesized via thermal degradation. These nanoparticles underwent a ligand exchange with a covalently binding mondentate silane terminated with a primary amine. Acyl chloride coupling between the amine and chlorocarbonylferrocene provided an electrochemical tag to quantify the level of surface modification. Electrochemisty of the quasi-diffusing nanoparticles was evaluated via cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA), and mircodisk electrode (microE) experiments. Chapter Four investigates spectroscopic tagging of ITO and ZrO2 nanoparticles as well as electrochemical tagging of ZrO 2 and IrO2 nanoparticles. An unbound azo-dye was synthesized and attempts were made to attach the dye to the surface of ITO nanoparticles. Imine couple between a spectroscopic tag

  10. Solution-based deposition of ultrathin metal oxide films on metal and superconductor surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westwood, Glenn

    Solution chemical methods were used to deposit ultrathin metal oxide films on metal and superconductor surfaces. Platinum-molybdenum oxide films were deposited by spontaneous adsorption and electrodeposition of hexamolybdoplatinate, PtMO6O248-. Spectroscopic characterization by 17O and 195Pt NMR showed that the PtMo6O248- anion is stable in aqueous solution below pH 4. The interaction of this solution stable anion with Au and Ag was characterized by in situ scanning tunneling microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. The anion was partially reduced upon adsorption on Ag, but spontaneously adsorbed on Au to form an amorphous surface phase. The electrodeposition of hexamolybdoplatinate on Au electrodes resulted in an electrode surface that was different from the spontaneously adsorbed species, in terms of composition, voltammetry, and reactivity. Cyclic voltammetry was also used to compare the reactivity of these materials for the electrooxidation of methanol. Ultrathin zirconia films were deposited on YBa2Cu3O 7-delta by alternating exposures to tetra n-propyl zirconate, Zr4(OPrn)16, and H2O in n-propanol. Physical and chemical characterization of these films was done by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and cross-section transmission electron microscopy. The zirconia films were determined to be ultrathin (<10 nm) and highly conformal to the surface of YBa2Cu3O7-delta. Metal-insulator-superconductor tunnel junctions fabricated in this fashion were characterized by current-voltage and conductivity-voltage measurements. Solution deposition from Zr4(OPrn) 16 was also used to deposit ultrathin zirconia films on gold, silver, and aluminum surfaces. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to compare the physical properties of these films. Electrical measurements showed that zirconia films on Ag and Au are not insulating, but aluminum-zirconia-aluminum capacitors fabricated by this method

  11. Surface-Emitting Distributed Feedback Terahertz Quantum-Cascade Lasers in Metal-Metal Waveguides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Sushil; Williams, Benjamin S.; Qin, Qi; Lee, Alan W. M.; Hu, Qing; Reno, John L.

    2007-01-01

    Single-mode surface-emitting distributed feedback terahertz quantumcascade lasers operating around 2.9 THz are developed in metal-metal waveguides. A combination of techniques including precise control of phase of reflection at the facets, and u e of metal on the sidewalls to eliminate higher-order lateral modes allow robust single-mode operation over a range of approximately 0.35 THz. Single-lobed far-field radiation pattern is obtained using a pi phase-shift in center of the second-order Bragg grating. A grating device operating at 2.93 THz lased up to 149 K in pulsed mode and a temperature tuning of 19 .7 GHz was observed from 5 K to 147 K. The same device lased up to 78 K in continuous-wave (cw) mode emitting more than 6 m W of cw power at 5 K. ln general, maximum temperature of pulsed operation for grating devices was within a few Kelvin of that of multi-mode Fabry-Perot ridge lasers

  12. High surface area, electrically conductive nanocarbon-supported metal oxide

    DOEpatents

    Worsley, Marcus A; Han, Thomas Yong-Jin; Kuntz, Joshua D; Cervanted, Octavio; Gash, Alexander E; Baumann, Theodore F; Satcher, Jr., Joe H

    2014-03-04

    A metal oxide-carbon composite includes a carbon aerogel with an oxide overcoat. The metal oxide-carbon composite is made by providing a carbon aerogel, immersing the carbon aerogel in a metal oxide sol under a vacuum, raising the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to atmospheric pressure, curing the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol at room temperature, and drying the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to produce the metal oxide-carbon composite. The step of providing a carbon aerogel can provide an activated carbon aerogel or provide a carbon aerogel with carbon nanotubes that make the carbon aerogel mechanically robust.

  13. High surface area, electrically conductive nanocarbon-supported metal oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Han, Thomas Yong-Jin; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Cervantes, Octavio; Gash, Alexander E.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.

    2015-07-14

    A metal oxide-carbon composite includes a carbon aerogel with an oxide overcoat. The metal oxide-carbon composite is made by providing a carbon aerogel, immersing the carbon aerogel in a metal oxide sol under a vacuum, raising the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to atmospheric pressure, curing the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol at room temperature, and drying the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to produce the metal oxide-carbon composite. The step of providing a carbon aerogel can provide an activated carbon aerogel or provide a carbon aerogel with carbon nanotubes that make the carbon aerogel mechanically robust.

  14. The role of surface and applied stresses in the stability of fcc(111) oriented metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Todd Marlin

    Surface stress f and surface free energy gamma are thought to play a significant role in the restructuring of solid surfaces on both atomic and mesoscopic length scales. We investigate the link between surface stress and surface free energy and various aspects of atomistic models by deriving general expressions for simple central-force pair potentials and an embedded-atom method (EVA) potential. The relationships between these surface thermodynamic quantities and other macroscopic bulk quantities, such as equilibrium bulk modulus B, cohesive energy Ec, lattice parameter a0 and shear modulus G, are made explicit within the framework of these models. It is shown that pair potential models are inherently unable to accurately describe real metal surfaces because of the neglect of many-body effects. The EAM potentials account for these contributions and yield good qualitative agreement with first principles calculations of f and gamma on clean, metal low-index surfaces. We also show that the EAM potentials are flexible enough to provide a good quantitative agreement as well. We discuss two contributions to f and gamma in terms of B and G, and find a correlation between the relative magnitudes of f and gamma and the ratio B/G. The significant effects of relaxation have been determined from molecular dynamics computer simulations of both the pair potential and EAM models. We then present the results of a theoretical study on the stability of fcc(111) metal surfaces to certain commensurate-incommensurate reconstructive phase transformations. Specifically, we have performed computer simulation studies on the 22 x √3 surface reconstruction of Au(111). This reconstruction involves a uniaxial contraction of the top monolayer corresponding to a surface strain of about 4.3% and has been observed to be the stable structure for the clean surface at low temperatures. The driving force for the reconstruction has been identified as f-gamma, while the opposing force is due to the

  15. Spoof surface plasmon modes on doubly corrugated metal surfaces at terahertz frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong-Qiang; Kong, Ling-Bao; Du, Chao-Hai; Liu, Pu-Kun

    2016-06-01

    Spoof surface plasmons (SSPs) have many potential applications such as imaging and sensing, communications, innovative leaky wave antenna and many other passive devices in the microwave and terahertz (THz) spectrum. The extraordinary properties of SSPs (e.g. extremely strong near field, enhanced beam–wave interaction) make them especially attractive for developing novel THz electronic sources. SSP modes on doubly corrugated metal surfaces are investigated and analyzed both theoretically and numerically in this paper. The analytical SSP dispersion expressions of symmetric and anti-symmetric modes are obtained with a simplified modal field expansion method; the results are also verified by the finite integration method. Additionally, the propagation losses are also considered for real copper surfaces with a limited constant conductivity in a THz regime. It is shown that the asymptotical frequency of the symmetric mode at the Brillouin boundary decreases along with the decreased gap size between these two corrugated metal surfaces while the asymptotical frequency increases for the anti-symmetric mode. The anti-symmetric mode demonstrates larger propagation losses than the symmetric mode. Further, the losses for both symmetric and anti-symmetric modes decrease when this gap size enlarges. By decreasing groove depth, the asymptotical frequency increases for both the symmetric and the anti-symmetric mode, but the variation of propagation losses is more complicated. Propagation losses increase along with the increased period. Our studies on the dispersion characteristics and propagation losses of SSP modes on this doubly corrugated metallic structure with various parameters is instructive for numerous applications such as waveguides, circuitry systems with high integration, filters and powerful electronic sources in the THz regime.

  16. Surface coating for prevention of metallic seed migration in tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyunseok; Park, Jong In; Lee, Won Seok; Park, Min; Son, Kwang-Jae; Bang, Young-bong; Choy, Young Bin E-mail: sye@snu.ac.kr; Ye, Sung-Joon E-mail: sye@snu.ac.kr

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In radiotherapy, metallic implants often detach from their deposited sites and migrate to other locations. This undesirable migration could cause inadequate dose coverage for permanent brachytherapy and difficulties in image-guided radiation delivery for patients. To prevent migration of implanted seeds, the authors propose a potential strategy to use a biocompatible and tissue-adhesive material called polydopamine. Methods: In this study, nonradioactive dummy seeds that have the same geometry and composition as commercial I-125 seeds were coated in polydopamine. Using scanning electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the surface of the polydopamine-coated and noncoated seeds was characterized. The detachment stress between the two types of seeds and the tissue was measured. The efficacy of polydopamine-coated seed was investigated through in vitro migration tests by tracing the seed location after tissue implantation and shaking for given times. The cytotoxicity of the polydopamine coating was also evaluated. Results: The results of the coating characterization have shown that polydopamine was successfully coated on the surface of the seeds. In the adhesion test, the polydopamine-coated seeds had 2.1-fold greater detachment stress than noncoated seeds. From the in vitro test, it was determined that the polydopamine-coated seed migrated shorter distances than the noncoated seed. This difference was increased with a greater length of time after implantation. Conclusions: The authors suggest that polydopamine coating is an effective technique to prevent migration of implanted seeds, especially for permanent prostate brachytherapy.

  17. Ionization of Rydberg atoms colliding with a metal surface

    SciTech Connect

    Sjakste, J.; Borisov, A. G.; Gauyacq, J. P.

    2006-04-15

    We report on a theoretical study of the ionization process of Xe* Rydberg atoms colliding with a metal surface, in the presence of an external electric field. The evolution of the Xe* outer electron is studied by a wave packet propagation approach, allowing to include all dynamical aspects of the collision, in particular nonadiabatic inter-Rydberg transitions. We investigate how the different Xe* Stark states formed in the external field couple together and ionize on the surface and how the different polarizations of the electronic cloud in the Xe* states are reflected in their ionization properties. We show that the presence of the external electric field can significantly perturb the dynamics of the ionization process. Our results account for recent results from Dunning et al. [Nucl. Inst. Meth. B 203, 69 (2003)]. In particular, it is explained how the external electric field present in the experimental procedure of Dunning et al. leads to the apparent absence of a polarization effect in the ionization process.

  18. Microexplosions initiated by a microwave capillary torch on a metal surface at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritsinin, S. I.; Davydov, A. M.; Kossyi, I. A.

    2015-07-01

    The interaction of the plasma of a microwave capillary argon torch with a metal surface was studied experimentally. It is shown that the interaction of the plasma jet generated by the capillary plasma torch with the metal in atmospheric-pressure air leads to the initiation of microexplosions (sparks) on the metal surface. As a result, the initially smooth surface acquires a relief in the form of microtips and microcraters. The possibility of practical application of the observed phenomenon is discussed.

  19. Microexplosions initiated by a microwave capillary torch on a metal surface at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Gritsinin, S. I.; Davydov, A. M.; Kossyi, I. A.

    2015-07-15

    The interaction of the plasma of a microwave capillary argon torch with a metal surface was studied experimentally. It is shown that the interaction of the plasma jet generated by the capillary plasma torch with the metal in atmospheric-pressure air leads to the initiation of microexplosions (sparks) on the metal surface. As a result, the initially smooth surface acquires a relief in the form of microtips and microcraters. The possibility of practical application of the observed phenomenon is discussed.

  20. Probing surface band bending of surface-engineered metal oxide nanowires.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng-Ying; Retamal, Jose Ramon Duran; Wu, I-Wen; Lien, Der-Hsien; Chen, Ming-Wei; Ding, Yong; Chueh, Yu-Lun; Wu, Chih-I; He, Jr-Hau

    2012-11-27

    We in situ probed the surface band bending (SBB) by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) in conjunction with field-effect transistor measurements on the incompletely depleted ZnO nanowires (NWs). The diameter range of the NWs is ca. 150-350 nm. Several surface treatments (i.e., heat treatments and Au nanoparticle (NP) decoration) were conducted to assess the impact of the oxygen adsorbates on the SBB. A 100 °C heat treatment leads to the decrease of the SBB to 0.74 ± 0.15 eV with 29.9 ± 3.0 nm width, which is attributed to the removal of most adsorbed oxygen molecules from the ZnO NW surfaces. The SBB of the oxygen-adsorbed ZnO NWs is measured to be 1.53 ± 0.15 eV with 43.2 ± 2.0 nm width. The attachment of Au NPs to the NW surface causes unusually high SBB (2.34 ± 0.15 eV with the wide width of 53.3 ± 1.6 nm) by creating open-circuit nano-Schottky junctions and catalytically enhancing the formation of the charge O(2) adsorbates. These surface-related phenomena should be generic to all metal oxide nanostructures. Our study is greatly beneficial for the NW-based device design of sensor and optoelectronic applications via surface engineering.

  1. Review of the highlights of X-ray studies of liquid metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Pershan, P. S.

    2014-12-14

    X-ray studies of the interface between liquid metals and their coexisting vapor are reviewed. After a brief discussion of the few elemental liquid metals for which the surface Debye-Waller effect is sufficiently weak to allow measurement, this paper will go on to discuss the various types of surface phenomena that have been observed for liquid metal alloys. These include surface adsorption, surface freezing, surface aggregation of nm size atomic clusters, and surface chemistry that leads to new 3D crystalline phases.

  2. Apparatus for coating a surface with a metal utilizing a plasma source

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Ian G.; MacGill, Robert A.; Galvin, James E.

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus and method for coating or layering a surface with a metal utilizing a metal vapor vacuum arc plasma source. The apparatus includes a trigger mechanism for actuating the metal vacuum vapor arc plasma source in a pulsed mode at a predetermined rate. The surface or substrate to be coated or layered is supported in position with the plasma source in a vacuum chamber. The surface is electrically biased for a selected period of time during the pulsed mode of operation of the plasma source. Both the pulsing of the metal vapor vacuum arc plasma source and the electrical biasing of the surface are synchronized for selected periods of time.

  3. Ultrafast switching of surface plasmonic conditions in nonplasmonic metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bévillon, E.; Colombier, J. P.; Recoules, V.; Zhang, H.; Li, C.; Stoian, R.

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate that ultrafast carrier excitation can drastically affect electronic structures in nonplasmonic metals and determine a transient, brief surface plasmonic state, potentially creating the conditions for a plasmonic switch. The initial state can be related to d -band partial filling and splitting, with a pseudo-band-gap accommodating the chemical potential. This determines a quasi-resonant-like spectral behavior of the optical constants for pumping carriers across the d -band pseudogap, i.e., visible frequencies. The relation between real and imaginary parts of the refractive index does not fulfill surface plasmonic conditions in the visible photon range. Using first-principles molecular dynamics and Kubo-Greenwood formalism for laser-excited tungsten we show that carrier heating mobilizes d electrons into collective inter- and intraband transitions leading to a sign flip in the imaginary optical conductivity, activating plasmonic properties for the initial nonplasmonic phase. The drive for the laser-induced optical evolution in this case does not rely on a variation of the free electron number but can be visualized as an increasingly damped character of the quasiresonance at visible frequencies. Here laser heating determines an energy-dependent degree of occupation with broadening profiles. The subsequent evolution of optical indices for the excited material is confirmed by time-resolved ultrafast ellipsometry. The large optical tunability extends the existence spectral domain of surface plasmons in ranges typically claimed in laser self-organized nanostructuring. Nonequilibrium heating is thus a strong factor for engineering optical control of evanescent excitation waves, particularly important in laser nanostructuring strategies.

  4. The local metallicity-surface brightness relationship in galactic disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Stuart D.

    1995-01-01

    We present the results of a first attempt to employ multiaperture masks to obtain spectrophotometry of H II regions in nearby galaxies. A total of 97 H II regions in six southern spiral galaxies were observed using a combination of multiaperture masks and conventional long-slit spectrophotometry. The oxygen abundances derived from the multiaperture mask observations using the empirical abundance diagnostic R(sub 23) are shown to be consistent with those from long-slit spectra and generally show better reproducibility and object definition. Although the number of objects that can be observed simultaneously with this particular system is still quite limited compared with either imaging spectrophotometry or fiber-fed spectrographs, the spectral resolution offered and high throughput in the blue help make multiaperture spectrophotometry a competitive technique for increasing the sampling of H II regions in both radial distance and luminosity. There is still no clear trend of abundance gradient with either the galaxy's luminosity or its Hubble type, although the extrapolated central abundance does appear to correlate with galaxy luminosity/mass. In order to avoid difficulty in choosing an appropriate normalizing radius, we instead plot the oxygen abundance against the underlying I-band surface brightness at the radial distance of the H II region and confirm the existence of a local metallicity-surface brightness reltaionship within the disks of spiral galaxies. Although the simple closed-boc model of galaxy evolution predicts almost the right form of this relationship, a more realistic multizone model employing expnentially decreasing gas infall provides a more satisfactory fit to the observational data, provided the expected enriched gas return from dying low-mass stars shedding their envelopes at late epochs is properly taken into account. This same model, with a star formation law based upon self-regulating star formation in a three-dimensional disk (Dopita & Ryder

  5. ENHANCING DAMAGE VISIBILITY ON METALLIC BEARING SURFACES: A SIMPLE TECHNIQUE FOR PHOTOGRAPHY AND VIEWING

    PubMed Central

    Heiner, Anneliese D.; Kruger, Karen M.; Baer, Thomas E.; Brown, Thomas D.

    2012-01-01

    Damage to metallic bearing surfaces typically involves scratches, scrapes, metal transfer, and organic deposits. This damage can cause accelerated wear of the opposing surface and subsequent implant failure. Photography and viewing of metallic bearing surfaces, for documenting this damage, is hindered by optical reflectivity. This note demonstrates a simple, practical technique for metallic bearing surface photography and viewing that minimizes this reflectivity problem, that does not involve any modification of the bearing surface, and that allows for improved observation and documentation of overall damage. When the metallic bearing surface is placed within a tube of translucent material, the appearance of damage on that bearing surface is dramatically enhanced, showing up against a smooth, even background with excellent contrast and with fine detail achievable. PMID:23333257

  6. Enhancing damage visibility on metallic bearing surfaces: a simple technique for photography and viewing.

    PubMed

    Heiner, Anneliese D; Kruger, Karen M; Baer, Thomas E; Brown, Thomas D

    2013-03-01

    Damage to metallic bearing surfaces typically involves scratches, scrapes, metal transfer, and organic deposits. This damage can cause accelerated wear of the opposing surface and subsequent implant failure. Photography and viewing of metallic bearing surfaces, for documenting this damage, are hindered by optical reflectivity. This note demonstrates a simple, practical technique for metallic bearing surface photography and viewing that minimizes this reflectivity problem, that does not involve any modification of the bearing surface, and that allows for improved observation and documentation of overall damage. When the metallic bearing surface is placed within a tube of translucent material, the appearance of damage on that bearing surface is dramatically enhanced, showing up against a smooth, even background with excellent contrast and with fine detail achievable.

  7. Testing of Liquid Metal Components for Nuclear Surface Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Godfroy, Thomas J.; Pearson, J. Boise

    2010-01-01

    The Early Flight Fission Test Facility (EFF-TF) was established by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to provide a capability for performing hardware-directed activities to support multiple in-space nuclear reactor concepts by using a non-nuclear test methodology. This includes fabrication and testing at both the module/component level and near prototypic reactor configurations. The EFF-TF is currently supporting an effort to develop an affordable fission surface power (AFSP) system that could be deployed on the Lunar surface. The AFSP system is presently based on a pumped liquid metal-cooled (Sodium-Potassium eutectic, NaK-78) reactor design. This design was derived from the only fission system that the United States has deployed for space operation, the Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP) 10A reactor, which was launched in 1965. Two prototypical components recently tested at MSFC were a pair of Stirling power conversion units that would be used in a reactor system to convert heat to electricity, and an annular linear induction pump (ALIP) that uses travelling electromagnetic fields to pump the liquid metal coolant through the reactor loop. First ever tests were conducted at MSFC to determine baseline performance of a pair of 1 kW Stirling convertors using NaK as the hot side working fluid. A special test rig was designed and constructed and testing was conducted inside a vacuum chamber at MSFC. This test rig delivered pumped NaK for the hot end temperature to the Stirlings and water as the working fluid on the cold end temperature. These test were conducted through a hot end temperature range between 400 to 550C in increments of 50 C and a cold end temperature range from 30 to 70 C in 20 C increments. Piston amplitudes were varied from 6 to 1 1mm in .5 mm increments. A maximum of 2240 Watts electric was produced at the design point of 550 hot end, 40 C cold end with a piston amplitude of 10.5mm. This power level was reached at a gross thermal

  8. Focused terahertz radiation formed by coherently scattered surface plasmon polaritons from partially uncorrugated metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnai, Y.; Shinoda, H.; Hillmer, H.

    2011-09-01

    We present that a focus of terahertz radiation can be tailored based on coherent scattering of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) from a partially defected metal corrugation based on numerical simulations. The introduction of teeth defects in the corrugation allows coupling of the guided SPPs with the radiation and the far-field behavior is tailored by the spatial arrangement of such defects. The proposed structures serve as a kind of planar lenses which are quite thin and inexpensive. Promising applications include interfacing lens antennas between terahertz plasmonic integrated circuits and the external free space, which make terahertz systems very compact and low-cost.

  9. Effect of wear of bearing surfaces on elastohydrodynamic lubrication of metal-on-metal hip implants.

    PubMed

    Liu, F; Jin, Z M; Hirt, F; Rieker, C; Roberts, P; Grigoris, P

    2005-09-01

    The effect of geometry change of the bearing surfaces owing to wear on the elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) of metal-on-metal (MOM) hip bearings has been investigated theoretically in the present study. A particular MOM Metasul bearing (Zimmer GmbH) was considered, and was tested in a hip simulator using diluted bovine serum. The geometry of the worn bearing surface was measured using a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) and was modelled theoretically on the assumption of spherical geometries determined from the maximum linear wear depth and the angle of the worn region. Both the CMM measurement and the theoretical calculation were directly incorporated into the elastohydrodynamic lubrication analysis. It was found that the geometry of the original machined bearing surfaces, particularly of the femoral head with its out-of-roundness, could lead to a large reduction in the predicted lubricant film thickness and an increase in pressure. However, these non-spherical deviations can be expected to be smoothed out quickly during the initial running-in period. For a given worn bearing surface, the predicted lubricant film thickness and pressure distribution, based on CMM measurement, were found to be in good overall agreement with those obtained with the theoretical model based on the maximum linear wear depth and the angle of the worn region. The gradual increase in linear wear during the running-in period resulted in an improvement in the conformity and consequently an increase in the predicted lubricant film thickness and a decrease in the pressure. For the Metasul bearing tested in an AMTI hip simulator, a maximum total linear wear depth of approximately 13 microm was measured after 1 million cycles and remained unchanged up to 5 million cycles. This resulted in a threefold increase in the predicted average lubricant film thickness. Consequently, it was possible for the Metasul bearing to achieve a fluid film lubrication regime during this period, and this was

  10. Bond-Energy and Surface-Energy Calculations in Metals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberhart, James G.; Horner, Steve

    2010-01-01

    A simple technique appropriate for introductory materials science courses is outlined for the calculation of bond energies in metals from lattice energies. The approach is applied to body-centered cubic (bcc), face-centered cubic (fcc), and hexagonal-closest-packed (hcp) metals. The strength of these bonds is tabulated for a variety metals and is…

  11. NON-POLLUTING METAL SURFACE FINISHING PRETREATMENT AND PRETREATMENT/CONVERSION COATING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Picklex, a proprietary formulation, is an alterantive to conventional metal surface pretreatments and is claimed not to produce waste or lower production or lower performance. A laboratory program was designed to evaluate Picklex in common, large scale, polluting surface finishin...

  12. Rotating Molten Metallic Drops and Their Applications for Surface Tension Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhim, W. K.; Ishikawa, T.

    1998-01-01

    Shapes and stability of rotating molten metal drops carrying net surface electric charges are experimentally investigated, and the feasibility of measureing surface tension based on drop rotation is examined.

  13. Quasi-One-Dimensional Metal-Insulator Transitions in Compound Semiconductor Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J Z; Fan, W; Verstraete, M J; Zanolli, Z; Fan, J; Yang, X B; Xu, H; Tong, S Y

    2016-09-01

    Existing examples of Peierls-type 1D systems on surfaces involve depositing metallic overlayers on semiconducting substrates, in particular, at step edges. Here we propose a new class of Peierls system on the (101[over ¯]0) surface of metal-anion wurtzite semiconductors. When the anions are bonded to hydrogen or lithium atoms, we obtain rows of threefold coordinated metal atoms that act as one-atom-wide metallic structures. First-principles calculations show that the surface is metallic, and below a certain critical temperature the surface will condense to a semiconducting state. The idea of surface scaffolding is introduced in which the rows are constrained to move along simple up-down and/or sideways displacements, mirroring the paradigm envisioned in Peierls's description. We predict that this type of insulating state should be visible in the partially hydrogenated (101[over ¯]0) surface of many wurtzite compounds. PMID:27661702

  14. Preparation of transition metal nanoparticles and surfaces modified with (CO) polymers synthesized by RAFT

    DOEpatents

    McCormick, III, Charles L.; Lowe, Andrew B.; Sumerlin, Brent S.

    2006-10-25

    A new, facile, general one-phase method of generating thiol-functionalized transition metal nanoparticles and surface modified by (co)polymers synthesized by the RAFT method is described. The method includes the steps of forming a (co)polymer in aqueous solution using the RAFT methodology, forming a collidal transition metal precursor solution from an appropriate transition metal; adding the metal precursor solution or surface to the (co)polymer solution, adding a reducing agent into the solution to reduce the metal colloid in situ to produce the stabilized nanoparticles or surface, and isolating the stabilized nanoparticles or surface in a manner such that aggregation is minimized. The functionalized surfaces generated using these methods can further undergo planar surface modifications, such as fuctionalization with a variety of different chemical groups, expanding their utility and application.

  15. Preparation of transition metal nanoparticles and surfaces modified with (co)polymers synthesized by RAFT

    DOEpatents

    McCormick, III, Charles L.; Lowe, Andrew B.; Sumerlin, Brent S.

    2011-12-27

    A new, facile, general one-phase method of generating thiol-functionalized transition metal nanoparticles and surfaces modified by (co)polymers synthesized by the RAFT method is described. The method includes the steps of forming a (co)polymer in aqueous solution using the RAFT methodology, forming a colloidal transition metal precursor solution from an appropriate transition metal; adding the metal precursor solution or surface to the (co)polymer solution, adding a reducing agent into the solution to reduce the metal colloid in situ to produce the stabilized nanoparticles or surface, and isolating the stabilized nanoparticles or surface in a manner such that aggregation is minimized. The functionalized surfaces generated using these methods can further undergo planar surface modifications, such as functionalization with a variety of different chemical groups, expanding their utility and application.

  16. Preparation of transition metal nanoparticles and surfaces modified with (CO)polymers synthesized by RAFT

    DOEpatents

    McCormick, III., Charles L.; Lowe, Andrew B.; Sumerlin, Brent S.

    2006-11-21

    A new, facile, general one-phase method of generating thio-functionalized transition metal nanoparticles and surfaces modified by (co)polymers synthesized by the RAFT method is described. The method includes the stops of forming a (co)polymer in aqueous solution using the RAFT methodology, forming a colloidal transition metal precursor solution from an appropriate transition metal; adding the metal precursor solution or surface to the (co)polymer solution, adding a reducing agent into the solution to reduce the metal colloid in situ to produce the stabilized nanoparticles or surface, and isolating the stabilized nanoparticles or surface in a manner such that aggregation is minimized. The functionalized surfaces generated using these methods can further undergo planar surface modifications, such as functionalization with a variety of different chemical groups, expanding their utility and application.

  17. Quasi-One-Dimensional Metal-Insulator Transitions in Compound Semiconductor Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J. Z.; Fan, W.; Verstraete, M. J.; Zanolli, Z.; Fan, J.; Yang, X. B.; Xu, H.; Tong, S. Y.

    2016-09-01

    Existing examples of Peierls-type 1D systems on surfaces involve depositing metallic overlayers on semiconducting substrates, in particular, at step edges. Here we propose a new class of Peierls system on the (10 1 ¯0 ) surface of metal-anion wurtzite semiconductors. When the anions are bonded to hydrogen or lithium atoms, we obtain rows of threefold coordinated metal atoms that act as one-atom-wide metallic structures. First-principles calculations show that the surface is metallic, and below a certain critical temperature the surface will condense to a semiconducting state. The idea of surface scaffolding is introduced in which the rows are constrained to move along simple up-down and/or sideways displacements, mirroring the paradigm envisioned in Peierls's description. We predict that this type of insulating state should be visible in the partially hydrogenated (10 1 ¯0 ) surface of many wurtzite compounds.

  18. Elastoplasmonic interaction in metal-insulator-metal localized surface plasmon systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrabti, Abdelali; Lévêque, Gaëtan; Akjouj, Abdellatif; Pennec, Yan; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram; Nicolas, Rana; Maurer, Thomas; Adam, Pierre-Michel

    2016-08-01

    We investigate theoretically and numerically the coupling between elastic and localized surface plasmon modes in a system of gold nanocylinders separated from a thin gold film by a dielectric spacer of few nanometers thickness. That system supports plasmon modes confined in between the bottom of the nanocylinder and the top of the gold film, which arise from the formation of interference patterns by short-wavelength metal-insulator-metal propagating plasmon. First, we present the plasmonic properties of the system though computer-simulated extinction spectra and field maps associated to the different optical modes. Next, a simple analytical model is introduced, which allows to correctly reproduce the shape and wavelengths of the plasmon modes. This model is used to investigate the efficiency of the coupling between an elastic deformation and the plasmonic modes. In the last part of the paper, we present the full numerical simulations of the elastic properties of the system, and then compute the acousto-plasmonic coupling between the different plasmon modes and five acoustic modes of very different shape. The efficiency of the coupling is assessed first by evaluating the modulation of the resonance wavelength, which allows comparison with the analytical model, and finally in term of time-modulation of the transmission spectra on the full visible range, computed for realistic values of the deformation of the nanoparticle.

  19. Magnetic modulation of surface plasmon modes in magnetoplasmonic metal-insulator-metal cavities.

    PubMed

    Ferreiro-Vila, E; García-Martín, J M; Cebollada, A; Armelles, G; González, M U

    2013-02-25

    The magnetic modulation of the surface plasmon-polariton (SPP) wavevector is experimentally and theoretically studied for the plasmonic modes excited in metal-insulator-metal (MIM) magnetoplasmonic cavities. For this purpose, Ag/SiO₂/Ag multilayers with different SiO₂ layer thickness in which a thin Co layer is positioned near the top Ag/SiO₂ interface, near the bottom SiO₂/Ag one, or near both of them, are studied. The magnetoplasmonic MIM cavities present symmetric (SM) and antisymmetric (AM) plasmonic modes, of different wavevector and electromagnetic field profiles inside the MIM cavity. We show that the magnetic SPP wavevector modulation strongly depends on which mode is considered, the cavity thickness, and the number and specific location of Co layers within the structure. With only one ferromagnetic layer, a net modulation is obtained, of higher magnitude as we reduce the SiO₂ layer thickness. The introduction of a second Co layer in the structure reduces the modulation due to the non-reciprocal character of SPP modes under an applied magnetic field. Moreover, we demonstrate that the non-reciprocal nature of the SPP modulation can be experimentally visualized in the magnetic hysteresis loops under plasmon excitation conditions by using two Co layers with different magnetization switching fields. PMID:23482025

  20. Magnetic modulation of surface plasmon modes in magnetoplasmonic metal-insulator-metal cavities.

    PubMed

    Ferreiro-Vila, E; García-Martín, J M; Cebollada, A; Armelles, G; González, M U

    2013-02-25

    The magnetic modulation of the surface plasmon-polariton (SPP) wavevector is experimentally and theoretically studied for the plasmonic modes excited in metal-insulator-metal (MIM) magnetoplasmonic cavities. For this purpose, Ag/SiO₂/Ag multilayers with different SiO₂ layer thickness in which a thin Co layer is positioned near the top Ag/SiO₂ interface, near the bottom SiO₂/Ag one, or near both of them, are studied. The magnetoplasmonic MIM cavities present symmetric (SM) and antisymmetric (AM) plasmonic modes, of different wavevector and electromagnetic field profiles inside the MIM cavity. We show that the magnetic SPP wavevector modulation strongly depends on which mode is considered, the cavity thickness, and the number and specific location of Co layers within the structure. With only one ferromagnetic layer, a net modulation is obtained, of higher magnitude as we reduce the SiO₂ layer thickness. The introduction of a second Co layer in the structure reduces the modulation due to the non-reciprocal character of SPP modes under an applied magnetic field. Moreover, we demonstrate that the non-reciprocal nature of the SPP modulation can be experimentally visualized in the magnetic hysteresis loops under plasmon excitation conditions by using two Co layers with different magnetization switching fields.

  1. Chemical energy dissipation at surfaces under UHV and high pressure conditions studied using metal-insulator-metal and similar devices.

    PubMed

    Diesing, Detlef; Hasselbrink, Eckart

    2016-07-01

    Metal heterostructures have been used in recent years to gain insights into the relevance of energy dissipation into electronic degrees of freedom in surface chemistry. Non-adiabaticity in the surface chemistry results in the creation of electron-hole pairs, the number and energetic distribution of which need to be studied in detail. Several types of devices, such as metal-insulator-metal, metal-semiconductor and metal-semiconductor oxide-semiconductor, have been used. These devices operate by spatially separating the electrons from the holes, as an internal barrier allows only - or at least favours - transport from the top to the back electrode for one kind of carrier. An introduction into the matter, a survey of the literature and a critical discussion of the state of research is attempted. PMID:27186600

  2. Second quantization model for surface plasmon polariton in metallic nano wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thi Phuong Lan, Nguyen; Thi Nga, Do; Viet, Nguyen Ai

    2016-06-01

    A model of effective Hamiltonian is proposed in second quantization representation for system of surface plasmons and photon (polariton) in metallic nano wires. The dispersion relation curves of surface plasmon polariton was calculated by mean of the Bogoliubov diagonalization method. The surface plasmon photon vertexes are considered. The conditions for excitation surface plasmon, existence plasmon radiate modes, and a possible application of metallic nano wires were also discussed.

  3. Temperature Dependence in Femtosecond Desorption at Metal Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misewich, James

    1998-03-01

    Femtosecond laser induced desorption at metal surfaces is distinguished by two salient observations: the high yield of the reaction and the short correlation time in pump-probe measurements. This has led to the proposal of a model for desorption induced by multiple electronic transitions (DIMET). (J.A. Misewich, T.F. Heinz, and D.M. Newns, Phys. Rev. Lett. v.68 (1992) 3737.) The effect of the adsorbate temperature in DIMET has been studied using stochastic trajectory calculations with initial adsorbate vibrational quantum state occupation. We find that initial vibrational excitation substantially increases the desorption yield. These findings are related to two experimental observations. The long time-scale wings found in femtosecond time-resolved correlation measurements are thought to reflect the residual vibrational excitation left in the undesorbed adlayer following the first laser pulse. (J.A. Misewich, A. Kalamarides, T.F. Heinz, U. Hoefer, and M.M.T. Loy, J. Chem. Phys. v.100 (1994) 736.) Also, the wavelength dependence of femtosecond desorption experiments (S. Deliwala, R.J. Finlay, J.R. Goldman, T.H. Her, W.D. Mieher, and E. Mazur, Chem. Phys. Lett. v.242 (1995) 617 and D.G. Busch and W. Ho, Phys. Rev. Lett. v.77 (1996) 1338.) suggests a role for nonthermalized electrons which is interpreted in terms of the vibrational excitation left in the adlayer from unsuccessful DIET (single excitation) events as a result of the wavelength dependent nonthermalized electron distribution.

  4. Decontamination of U-metal Surface by an Oxidation Etching System

    SciTech Connect

    Stout, R B; Kansa, E J; Shaffer, R J; Weed, H C

    2000-12-18

    A surface oxidation treatment is described to remove surface contamination from uranium (U) metal and/or hydrides of uranium and heavy metals (HM) from U-metal parts. In the case of heavy metal atomic contamination on a surface, and potentially several atomic layers beneath, the surface oxidation treatment combines both chemical and chemically driven mechanical processes. The chemical process is a controlled temperature-time oxidization process that creates a thin film of uranium oxide (UO{sub 2} and higher oxides) on the U-metal surface. The chemically driven mechanical process is strain induced by the volume increase as the U-metal surface transforms to a UO{sub 2} surface film. These volume strains are sufficiently large to cause surface failure spalling/scale formation and thus, removal of a U-oxide film that contains the HM-contaminated surface. The case of a HM-hydride surface contamination layer can be treated similarly by using inert hot gas to decompose the U-hydrides and/or HM-hydrides that are contiguous with the surface. A preliminary analysis to design and to plan for a sequence of tests is developed. The tests will provide necessary and sufficient data to evaluate the effective implementation and operational characteristics of a safe and reliable system. The following description is limited to only a surface oxidation process for HM-decontamination.

  5. Charged and metallic molecular monolayers through surface-induced aromatic stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimel, G.; Duhm, S.; Salzmann, I.; Gerlach, A.; Strozecka, A.; Niederhausen, J.; Bürker, C.; Hosokai, T.; Fernandez-Torrente, I.; Schulze, G.; Winkler, S.; Wilke, A.; Schlesinger, R.; Frisch, J.; Bröker, B.; Vollmer, A.; Detlefs, B.; Pflaum, J.; Kera, S.; Franke, K. J.; Ueno, N.; Pascual, J. I.; Schreiber, F.; Koch, N.

    2013-03-01

    Large π-conjugated molecules, when in contact with a metal surface, usually retain a finite electronic gap and, in this sense, stay semiconducting. In some cases, however, the metallic character of the underlying substrate is seen to extend onto the first molecular layer. Here, we develop a chemical rationale for this intriguing phenomenon. In many reported instances, we find that the conjugation length of the organic semiconductors increases significantly through the bonding of specific substituents to the metal surface and through the concomitant rehybridization of the entire backbone structure. The molecules at the interface are thus converted into different chemical species with a strongly reduced electronic gap. This mechanism of surface-induced aromatic stabilization helps molecules to overcome competing phenomena that tend to keep the metal Fermi level between their frontier orbitals. Our findings aid in the design of stable precursors for metallic molecular monolayers, and thus enable new routes for the chemical engineering of metal surfaces.

  6. Bearing surfaces for hip arthroplasty - is metal-on-metal a passing fancy?

    PubMed

    Lee, Reginald K; Nevelos, Jim; Vigdorchik, Jonathan; Markel, David C

    2012-12-01

    Metal-on-metal bearings have had popularity that has waxed and waned over the years. The advantages realized relative to wear resistance and strength had been offset by early failures, manufacturing difficulty, and most recently by adverse soft tissue responses to the metallic debris. The bearing's history, evolution, advantages and disadvantages will be discussed in attempt to answer the question: is metal-on-metal a passing fancy?

  7. Contact mechanics and elastohydrodynamic lubrication in a novel metal-on-metal hip implant with an aspherical bearing surface.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qingen; Gao, Leiming; Liu, Feng; Yang, Peiran; Fisher, John; Jin, Zhongmin

    2010-03-22

    Diameter and diametral clearance of the bearing surfaces of metal-on-metal hip implants and structural supports have been recognised as key factors to reduce the dry contact and hydrodynamic pressures and improve lubrication performance. On the other hand, application of aspherical bearing surfaces can also significantly affect the contact mechanics and lubrication performance by changing the radius of the curvature of a bearing surface and consequently improving the conformity between the head and the cup. In this study, a novel metal-on-metal hip implant employing a specific aspherical bearing surface, Alpharabola, as the acetabular surface was investigated for both contact mechanics and elastohydrodynamic lubrication under steady-state conditions. When compared with conventional spherical bearing surfaces, a more uniform pressure distribution and a thicker lubricant film thickness within the loaded conjunction were predicted for this novel Alpharabola hip implant. The effects of the geometric parameters of this novel acetabular surface on the pressure distribution and lubricant thickness were investigated. A significant increase in the predicted lubricant film thickness and a significant decrease in the dry contact and hydrodynamic pressures were found with appropriate combinations of these geometric parameters, compared with the spherical bearing surface.

  8. 40 CFR 52.253 - Metal surface coating thinner and reducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metal surface coating thinner and... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.253 Metal surface... described in 40 CFR part 81, dated July 1, 1979, except as follows: (1) In the following portions of...

  9. 40 CFR 52.253 - Metal surface coating thinner and reducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Metal surface coating thinner and... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.253 Metal surface... described in 40 CFR part 81, dated July 1, 1979, except as follows: (1) In the following portions of...

  10. 40 CFR 52.253 - Metal surface coating thinner and reducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Metal surface coating thinner and... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.253 Metal surface... described in 40 CFR part 81, dated July 1, 1979, except as follows: (1) In the following portions of...

  11. Surface-plasmon cross coupling in molecular fluorescence near a corrugated thin metal film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruhlke, R. W.; Holland, W. R.; Hall, D. G.

    1968-01-01

    Surface plasmons on opposite sides of a thin metal film can cross couple in the presence of a surface corrugation, or grating. The observation of this cross-coupling phenomenon as a radiative-decay mechanism for molecules near a corrugated thin metal film is reported.

  12. Colonization by Cladosporium spp. of painted metal surfaces associated with heating and air conditioning systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahearn, D. G.; Simmons, R. B.; Switzer, K. F.; Ajello, L.; Pierson, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. hebarum colonized painted metal surfaces of covering panels and register vents of heating, air conditioning and ventilation systems. Hyphae penetrated the paint film and developed characteristic conidiophores and conidia. The colonies were tightly appressed to the metal surface and conidia were not readily detectable via standard air sampling procedures.

  13. Surface-induced resistivity of thin metallic films bounded by a rough fractal surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz, Raúl C.; Finger, Ricardo; Arenas, Claudio; Kremer, German; Moraga, Luis

    2002-11-01

    We have extended the modified formalism of Sheng, Xing, and Wang [J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 11 L299 (1999)] to allow the calculation of the conductivity of a thin metallic film bounded by a rough fractal surface. We utilized the so-called k-correlation model proposed by Palasantzas and Barnas [Phys. Rev. B 48, 14 472 (1993); 56, 7726 (1997)], to describe the height-height autocorrelation function corresponding to a self-affine roughness. This extension permits the calculation of the conductivity of the film as a function of the r.m.s. roughness amplitude δ, of the lateral correlation length ξ, of the mean free path in the bulk l, and of the roughness exponent H. We found that the degree of surface irregularity, represented by the roughness exponent H characterizing the surface, does influence the conductivity of the film, as first discovered by Palasantzas and Barnas. However, this influence manifests itself for large bulk mean free paths l~1000 nm and for large correlation lengths ξ~5 nm, in which case the conductivity of the film for H=1 exceeds by about 30% the conductivity for H=0.2, an effect which is smaller than that reported by Palasantzas and Barnas. For correlation lengths ξ below 1 nm and mean free paths l~100 nm, the influence of the roughness exponent H on the conductivity is reduced to below 10%, and for smaller mean free paths and correlation lengths the conductivity becomes insensitive to H. We also found that Mathiessen's rule is severily violated in the case of thin metallic films. The resistivity of the film coincides roughly with the surface-limited resistivity only in the case of ultrathin films t<5 nm. For thicker films 100 nm>t>5 nm, the resistivity of the film exceeds by some 20 to 30 % the value dictated by Mathiessen's rule. And conversely, the apparent surface-induced resistivity estimated assuming the validity of Mathiessen's rule, exceeds by nearly one order of magnitude the true surface-induced resistivity, except in the case of

  14. Use of reagents to convert chrysotile and amosite asbestos used as insulation or protection for metal surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi; Petrakis, Leon

    2000-12-12

    A composition for converting asbestos-containing material, covering metal pipes or other metal surfaces, to non-regulated, environmentally benign-materials, and inhibiting the corrosion of the metal pipes or other metal surfaces. The composition comprises a combination of at least two multiple-functional group reagents, in which each reagent includes a Fluro acid component and a corrosion inhibiting compoment. A method for converting asbestos-containing material, covering metal pipes or other metal surfaces, to non-regulated, environmentally benign-materials, and inhibiting the corrosion of the metal pipes or other metal surfaces is also provided.

  15. State promotion and neutralization оf ions near metal surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinoviev, A. N.

    2011-05-01

    When a multiply charged ion with charge Z approaches the metal surface, a dipole is formed by the multiply charged ion and the charge induced in the metal. The states for such a dipole are promoted into continuum with decreasing ion-surface distance and cross the states formed from metal atom. The model proposed explains the dominant population of deep bound states in collisions considered.

  16. Surface modification of Cu metal particles by the chemical reaction between the surface oxide layer and a halogen surfactant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Shun; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Itoh, Takashi; Motomiya, Kenichi; Tohji, Kazuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Surface oxides on small (2-5 μm) copper metal particles can be removed by chemical reaction with tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) isocyanurate (TIC) in diethylene glycol mono-n-hexyl ether (DGHE) solution under mild conditions where metal particles are not damaged. Surface oxides convert to copper bromide species and subsequently dissolve into the solvent. It was found that resultant surface species are resistant to re-oxidation due to remaining surface bromides. This finding opens up a possibility to create microclines based on cheap copper nanoparticles.

  17. The Reduction of Aqueous Metal Species on the Surfaces of Fe(II)-Containing Oxides: The Role of Surface Passivation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, A.F.; Peterson, M.L.

    1998-01-01

    The reduction of aqueous transition metal species at the surfaces of Fe(II)- containing oxides has important ramifications in predicting the transport behavior in ground water aquifers. Experimental studies using mineral suspensions and electrodes demonstrate that structural Fe(II) heterogeneously reduces aqueous ferric, cupric, vanadate and chromate ions on magnetite and ilmenite surfaces. The rates of metal reduction on natural oxides is strongly dependent on the extent of surface passivation and redox conditions in the weathering environment. Synchrotron studies show that surface oxidation of Fe(II)-containing oxide minerals decreases their capacity for Cr(VI) reduction at hazardous waste disposal sites.

  18. Insights into the superhydrophobicity of metallic surfaces prepared by electrodeposition involving spontaneous adsorption of airborne hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peng; Cao, Ling; Zhao, Wei; Xia, Yue; Huang, Wei; Li, Zelin

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical fabrication of micro/nanostructured metallic surfaces with superhydrophobicity has recently aroused great attention. However, the origin still remains unclear why smooth hydrophilic metal surfaces become superhydrophobic by making micro/nanostructures without additional surface modifications. In this work, several superhydrophobic micro/nanostructured metal surfaces were prepared by a facile one-step electrodeposition process, including non-noble and noble metals such as copper, nickel, cadmium, zinc, gold, and palladium with (e.g. Cu) or without (e.g. Au) surface oxide films. We demonstrated by SEM and XPS that both hierarchical micro/nanostructures and spontaneous adsorption of airborne hydrocarbons endowed these surfaces with excellent superhydrophobicity. We revealed by XPS that the adsorption of airborne hydrocarbons at the Ar+-etched clean Au surface was rather quick, such that organic contamination can hardly be prevented in practical operation of surface wetting investigation. We also confirmed by XPS that ultraviolet-O3 treatment of the superhydrophobic metal surfaces did not remove the adsorbed hydrocarbons completely, but mainly oxidized them into hydrophilic oxygen-containing organic substances. We hope our findings here shed new light on deeper understanding of superhydrophobicity for micro/nanostructured metal surfaces with and without surface oxide films.

  19. Multilayer Relaxation and Surface Energies of FCC and BCC Metals Using Equivalent Crystal Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Agustin M.; Bozzolo, Guillermo; Ferrante, John

    1993-01-01

    The multilayer relaxation of fcc and bcc metal surfaces is calculated using equivalent crystal theory. The results for changes in interplanar spacings of planes close to the surface and the ensuing surface energies are discussed in reference to other theoretical results and compared to available experimental data. The calculation includes high-index surfaces for which no other theoretical results are known.

  20. Internal and Surface Phenomena in Heterogenous Metal Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreizin, Edward L.

    1997-01-01

    The phenomenon of gas dissolution in burning metals was observed in recent metal combustion studies, but it could not be adequately explained by the traditional metal combustion models. The research reported here addresses heterogeneous metal combustion with emphasis on the processes of oxygen penetration inside burning metal and its influence on the metal combustion rate, temperature history, and disruptive burning. The unique feature of this work is the combination of the microgravity environment with a novel micro-arc generator of monodispersed metal droplets, ensuring repeatable formation and ignition of uniform metal droplets with a controllable initial temperature and velocity. Burning droplet temperature is measured in real time with a three wavelength pyrometer. In addition, particles are rapidly quenched at different combustion times, cross-sectioned, and examined using SEM-based techniques to retrieve the internal composition history of burning metal particles. When the initial velocity of a spherical particle is nearly zero, the microgravity environment makes it possible to study the flame structure, the development of flame nonsymmetry, and correlation of the flame shape with the heterogeneous combustion processes.

  1. Surface plasma wave assisted second harmonic generation of laser over a metal film

    SciTech Connect

    Chauhan, Santosh; Parashar, J.

    2015-01-15

    Second harmonic generation of laser mode converted surface plasma wave (SPW) over a corrugated metal film is studied. The laser, impinged on the metal film, under attenuated total reflection configuration, excites SPW over the metal–vacuum interface. The excited SPW extends over a much wider surface area than the laser spot cross-section. It exerts a second harmonic ponderomotive force on metal electrons, imparting them velocity that beats with the surface ripple to produce a nonlinear current, driving resonant second harmonic surface plasma wave.

  2. Robust hybrid elastomer/metal-oxide superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Hoshian, S; Jokinen, V; Franssila, S

    2016-08-21

    We introduce a new type of hybrid material: a nanostructured elastomer covered by a hard photoactive metal-oxide thin film resembling the exoskeleton of insects. It has extreme water repellency and fast self-recovery after damage. A new fabrication method for replicating high aspect ratio, hierarchical re-entrant aluminum structures into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is presented. The method is based on a protective titania layer deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on the aluminum template. The ALD titania transfers to the elastomeric scaffold via sacrificial release etching. The sacrificial release method allows for high aspect ratio, even 100 μm deep and successful release of overhanging structures, unlike conventional peeling. The ALD titania conformally covers the 3D multihierarchical structures of the template and protects the polymer during the release etch. Afterwards it prevents the high aspect ratio nanostructures from elasticity based collapse. The resulting nanostructured hybrid PDMS/titania replicas display robust superhydrophobicity without any further fluoro-coating or modification. Their mechanical and thermal robustness results from a thick nanostructured elastomeric layer which is conformally covered by ceramic titania instead of a monolayer hydrophobic coating. We have demonstrated the durability of these replicas against mechanical abrasion, knife scratches, rubbing, bending, peel tape test, high temperature annealing, UV exposure, water jet impingement and long term underwater storage. Though the material loses its superhydrophobicity in oxygen plasma exposure, a fast recovery from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic can be achieved after 20 min UV irradiation. UV-assisted recovery is correlated with the high photoactivity of ALD titania film. This novel hybrid material will be applicable to the large area superhydrophobic surfaces in practical outdoor applications. PMID:27418238

  3. Testing of Liquid Metal Components for Nuclear Surface Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, K. A.; Pearson, J. B.; Godfroy, T. J.; Schoenfeld, M.; Webster, K.; Briggs, M. H.; Geng, S. M.; Adkins, H. E.; Werner, J. E.

    2010-01-01

    The capability to perform testing at both the module/component level and in near prototypic reactor configurations using a non-nuclear test methodology allowed for evaluation of two components critical to the development of a potential nuclear fission power system for the lunar surface. A pair of 1 kW Stirling power convertors, similar to the type that would be used in a reactor system to convert heat to electricity, were integrated into a reactor simulator system to determine their performance using pumped NaK as the hot side working fluid. The performance in the pumped-NaK system met or exceed the baseline performance measurements where the converters were electrically heated. At the maximum hot-side temperature of 550 C the maximum output power was 2375 watts. A specially-designed test apparatus was fabricated and used to quantify the performance of an annular linear induction pump that is similar to the type that could be used to circulate liquid metal through the core of a space reactor system. The errors on the measurements were generally much smaller than the magnitude of the measurements, permitting accurate performance evaluation over a wide range of operating conditions. The pump produced flow rates spanning roughly 0.16 to 5.7 l/s (2.5 to 90 GPM), and delta p levels from less than 1 kPa to 90 kPa (greater than 0.145 psi to roughly 13 psi). At the nominal FSP system operating temperature of 525 C the maximum efficiency was just over 4%.

  4. Robust hybrid elastomer/metal-oxide superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Hoshian, S; Jokinen, V; Franssila, S

    2016-08-21

    We introduce a new type of hybrid material: a nanostructured elastomer covered by a hard photoactive metal-oxide thin film resembling the exoskeleton of insects. It has extreme water repellency and fast self-recovery after damage. A new fabrication method for replicating high aspect ratio, hierarchical re-entrant aluminum structures into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is presented. The method is based on a protective titania layer deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on the aluminum template. The ALD titania transfers to the elastomeric scaffold via sacrificial release etching. The sacrificial release method allows for high aspect ratio, even 100 μm deep and successful release of overhanging structures, unlike conventional peeling. The ALD titania conformally covers the 3D multihierarchical structures of the template and protects the polymer during the release etch. Afterwards it prevents the high aspect ratio nanostructures from elasticity based collapse. The resulting nanostructured hybrid PDMS/titania replicas display robust superhydrophobicity without any further fluoro-coating or modification. Their mechanical and thermal robustness results from a thick nanostructured elastomeric layer which is conformally covered by ceramic titania instead of a monolayer hydrophobic coating. We have demonstrated the durability of these replicas against mechanical abrasion, knife scratches, rubbing, bending, peel tape test, high temperature annealing, UV exposure, water jet impingement and long term underwater storage. Though the material loses its superhydrophobicity in oxygen plasma exposure, a fast recovery from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic can be achieved after 20 min UV irradiation. UV-assisted recovery is correlated with the high photoactivity of ALD titania film. This novel hybrid material will be applicable to the large area superhydrophobic surfaces in practical outdoor applications.

  5. Surface x-ray diffraction of complex metal oxide surfaces and interfaces--a new era

    SciTech Connect

    Schlepuetz, C. M.; Willmott, P. R.; Pauli, S. A.; Herger, R.; Martoccia, D.; Bjoerck, M.; Kumah, D.; Clarke, R.; Yacoby, Y.

    2009-01-29

    The availability of high-brilliance hard x-ray synchrotron radiation and the advent of novel photon counting area detectors have brought surface x-ray diffraction (SXRD) into a new era. It is now possible to record large numbers of structure factors with much improved reliability within reasonable beamtime durations. As a result, structural determination of the surfaces and interfaces of complex crystallographic systems and heterostructures has now become feasible, especially in conjunction with phase-retrieval methods. It is thereby hoped that detailed structural information will shed light on the unusual physical properties of these systems. Complex metal oxide systems investigated at the Materials Science beamline of the Swiss Light Source, including the surface of SrTiO{sub 3}, the interface between LaAlO{sub 3} and SrTiO{sub 3}, and the structure of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} grown on NdGaO{sub 3}, SrTiO{sub 3}, and (LaSr)(AlTa)O{sub 3} will be presented as examples of what is now possible using SXRD.

  6. Design of metal-dielectric grating lasers only supporting surface-wave-like modes.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Po-Jui; Chang, Shu-Wei

    2014-11-17

    We present a prototype of semiconductor lasers with plasmonic periodic structures that only support transverse-magnetic modes at telecommunication wavelengths. The structure does not sustain transverse-electric guided modes which are irrelevant to surface-wave-enhanced applications, and lasing modes must be surface-wave-like. With thin low-index dielectric buffers near the metal surface, the threshold gain is kept at a decent level around the photonic band edge. Thin windows are then opened on the metal surface to let out significant surface fields. This facilitates usages of surface waves for the spectroscopy and sensing.

  7. Replication of surface features from a master model to an amorphous metallic article

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, William L.; Bakke, Eric; Peker, Atakan

    1999-01-01

    The surface features of an article are replicated by preparing a master model having a preselected surface feature thereon which is to be replicated, and replicating the preselected surface feature of the master model. The replication is accomplished by providing a piece of a bulk-solidifying amorphous metallic alloy, contacting the piece of the bulk-solidifying amorphous metallic alloy to the surface of the master model at an elevated replication temperature to transfer a negative copy of the preselected surface feature of the master model to the piece, and separating the piece having the negative copy of the preselected surface feature from the master model.

  8. New physics of metals: fermi surfaces without Fermi liquids.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, P W

    1995-01-01

    I relate the historic successes, and present difficulties, of the renormalized quasiparticle theory of metals ("AGD" or Fermi liquid theory). I then describe the best-understood example of a non-Fermi liquid, the normal metallic state of the cuprate superconductors. PMID:11607559

  9. STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS OF METAL PARTITIONING TO MINERAL SURFACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The conceptual understanding of surface complexation reactions that control trace element partitioning to mineral surfaces is limited by the assumption that the solid reactant possesses a finite, time-invariant population of surface functional groups. This assumption has limited...

  10. Asymmetries in transition metal XPS spectra: metal nanoparticle structure, and interaction with the graphene-structured substrate surface.

    PubMed

    Sacher, E

    2010-03-16

    Transition-metal XPS spectra have traditionally been considered to possess a natural asymmetry, extending to the high-binding-energy side. This is based on the fact that these spectra have generally been found experimentally to have such an asymmetry, as well as on the confirmation of asymmetry offered by the Doniach-Sunjić equation, an equation based on the proposal that the conduction electron scattering amplitude for interband absorption or emission in metals, at the Fermi level, is a singularity. Our discovery that metal nanoparticles, prepared under vacuum and characterized without exposure to air, have symmetric peaks, which become asymmetric with time, informed us that these peak asymmetries have other sources. On the basis of our belief that all metal spectra are composed of symmetric peaks, where the asymmetries are attributed to overlapping minor peaks that are consistent with known physical and chemical phenomena associated with that metal, we have shown that, for the metals that we have studied, these asymmetries contain much information, otherwise unavailable, on the structures, contaminants, oxidation, and interfacial interactions of nanoparticle surfaces. The existence of this information has been demonstrated for several metals, and its value is shown by its use in explaining the strong interfacial bonding of the nanoparticles with substrates having graphene structures. A possible future research direction is offered in the field of metal-metal interactions in nanoparticle alloys.

  11. [Bionic surface design in metal on metal bearings for total hip arthroplasty--optimization of tribological characteristics].

    PubMed

    Böhling, U; Scholz, J; Thomas, W; Grundei, H

    2005-04-01

    Bionic systems are aiming to integrate natural observing into mechanical solutions. This has been realized in the design of metal on metal bearing in total hip resurface arthroplasty. The articular side of the femoral cup is covered with a dimple like surface. Under laboratory condition this so called "surf-metal-cup" achieved a reduction of the mechanical wear to almost a third part in comparison to a metal-cup with plane surface. This advantage, caused by the reduced friction-coefficient due to improved hydrodynamic lubrication could also be proved under laboratory conditions. The clinical introduction is expected to offer a significant extension of durability in this prosthetic system and needs to be proved in a long-term study.

  12. Water adsorption behavior on metal surfaces and its influence on surface potential studied by in situ SPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, L. Q.; Zhao, X. M.; Bai, Y.; Qiao, L. J.

    2012-09-01

    The water adsorption behavior on the surfaces of chromium, copper and gold and its effect on the surface potential at various relative humidity were studied by in situ scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM) combined with force calibration. The thickness of water layer on different surfaces was obtained from the force-distance curve. It increases with the rise of humidity. The Volta potential map was measured using SKPFM within a wide humidity range of 20-100% as a function of the thickness of water layers. The surface potential decreases with the increasing thickness of water layers on the metal surfaces. The difference in the water adsorption behavior and its effect on surface potential originates from the different surface properties of three metals, such as the roughness and contact angle.

  13. Mechanisms of barrier formation in schottky contacts: Metal-induced surface and interface states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mönch, Winfried

    1990-01-01

    Metal as well as nonmetal adatoms are generally inducing surface states and dipoles on semiconductor surfaces. Both effects may be understood in a bond picture, which describes adatom-substrate bonds in a surface-molecule model, and in the band picture, which considers the tailing of adatom electron wave functions into the semiconductor. These two approaches have in common a charge transfer between the adatoms and the substrate which may be modeled by the difference of their electronegativities. The same concept may be applied to metal-semiconductor contacts. In that energy range, where the metal conduction band overlaps the semiconductor band gap, metal electron wave functions are tailing into the semiconductor and a charge transfer occurs between the respective continuum of metal-induced gap states (MIGS) and the metal. Deviations of barrier heights in Schottky contacts from what is predicted by that MIGS-and-electronegativity concept are attributed to fabrication-induced defects of donor type or interface strain.

  14. Mechanisms of barrier formation in schottky contacts: Metal-induced surface and interface states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mönch, Winfried

    1989-11-01

    Metal as well as nonmetal adatoms are generally inducing surface states and dipoles on semiconductor surfaces. Both effects may be understood in a bond picture, which describes adatom-substrate bonds in a surface-molecule model, and in the band picture, which considers the tailing of adatom electron wave functions into the semiconductor. These two approaches have in common a charge transfer between the adatoms and the substrate which may be modeled by the difference of their electronegativities. The same concept may be applied to metal-semiconductor contacts. In that energy range, where the metal conduction band overlaps the semiconductor band gap, metal electron wave functions are tailing into the semiconductor and a charge transfer occurs between the respective continuum of metal-induced gap states (MIGS) and the metal. Deviations of barrier heights in Schottky contacts from what is predicted by that MIGS-and-electronegativity concept are attributed to fabrication-induced defects of donor type or interface strain.

  15. Supersonic metal plasma impact on a surface: An optical investigation of the pre-surface region

    SciTech Connect

    Fusion Science Group, AFRD; Plasma Applications Group, AFRD; Ni, Pavel A.; Anders, Andre

    2009-12-15

    Aluminum plasma, produced in high vacuum by a pulsed, filtered cathodic arc plasma source, was directed onto a wall where if formed a coating. The accompanying ?optical flare? known from the literature was visually observed, photographed, and spectroscopically investigated with appropriately high temporal (1 ?s) and spatial (100 ?m) resolution. Consistent with other observations using different techniques, it was found that the impact of the fully ionized plasma produces metal neutrals as well as desorbed gases, both of which interact with the incoming plasma. Most effectively are charge exchange collisions between doubly charged aluminum and neutral aluminum, which lead to a reduction of the flow of doubly charged before they reach the wall, and a reduction of neutrals as the move away from the surface. Those plasma-wall interactions are relevant for coating processes as well as for interpreting the plasma properties such as ion charge state distributions.

  16. Relationship between heavy metal contents and clay mineral properties in surface sediments: Implications for metal pollution assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yueh-Min; Gao, Jin-bo; Yuan, Yong-Qiang; Ma, Jun; Yu, Shen

    2016-08-01

    Clay minerals in surface sediments can affect the adsorption of heavy metals. However, few historical studies have focused on the influence of fine clay mineral characteristics on metal sorption. Since the reactions between heavy metals and fine clay minerals in sediments remain obscure, this study investigates the influence of fine clay mineral characteristics on metal sorption in a typical urbanizing small watershed. Clay minerals, including nanoparticles with various size fractions ranging from 1000 to 2000 (clay), 450-1000 (fine clay), and 220-450 (very fine clay) nm were used to demonstrate their transformation from well crystalline to poorly crystalline. The nanoparticles were collected and evaluated by determination of their surface area, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and chemical analyses. The relationship between metal content and properties of the surface sediments was also revealed by canonical correlation analysis. With smaller particle sizes, nanoparticles (very fine clay) were observed to be poorly crystalline, possibly indicating few repetitions of unit cells as a result of preferential structural disruption of other crystal planes caused by pressure-induced phase transition in the fine-size fractions. The first canonical matrix (M) variables of metal contents can be predicted by both surface area and pore volume, followed by kaolinite and illite contents. On the other hand, the category of metal, i.e., Cu, Cr, Zn, or Pb, was significantly correlated with the first 'M' canonical variables. The data obtained in the present study are of fundamental significance in advancing our understanding of the reactions between heavy metals and fine clay minerals in the terrestrial ecosystem.

  17. Characteristics and mechanism of laser-induced surface damage initiated by metal contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Shuang; Sun, Mingying; Shi, Shuaixu; Li, Zhaoyan; Zhang, Ya-nan; Liu, Zhigang

    2015-08-01

    In high power laser facility, contaminants on optics surfaces reduce damage resistance of optical elements and then decrease their lifetime. By damage test experiments, laser damage induced by typical metal particles such as stainless steel 304 is studied. Optics samples with metal particles of different sizes on surfaces are prepared artificially based on the file and sieve. Damage test is implemented in air using a 1-on-1 mode. Results show that damage morphology and mechanism caused by particulate contamination on the incident and exit surfaces are quite different. Contaminants on the incident surface absorb laser energy and generate high temperature plasma during laser irradiation which can ablate optical surface. Metal particles melt and then the molten nano-particles redeposit around the initial particles. Central region of the damaged area bears the same outline as the initial particle because of the shielding effect. However, particles on the exit surface absorb a mass of energy, generate plasma and splash lots of smaller particles, only a few of them redeposit at the particle coverage area on the exit surface. Most of the laser energy is deposited at the interface of the metal particle and the sample surface, and thus damage size on the exit surface is larger than that on the incident surface. The areas covered by the metal particle are strongly damaged. And the damage sites are more serious than that on the incident surface. Besides damage phenomenon also depends on coating and substrate materials.

  18. Quantum Confinement of Surface Electrons by Molecular Nanohoop Corrals.

    PubMed

    Taber, Benjamen N; Gervasi, Christian F; Mills, Jon M; Kislitsyn, Dmitry A; Darzi, Evan R; Crowley, William G; Jasti, Ramesh; Nazin, George V

    2016-08-18

    Quantum confinement of two-dimensional surface electronic states has been explored as a way for controllably modifying the electronic structures of a variety of coinage metal surfaces. In this Letter, we use scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM/STS) to study the electron confinement within individual ring-shaped cycloparaphenylene (CPP) molecules forming self-assembled films on Ag(111) and Au(111) surfaces. STM imaging and STS mapping show the presence of electronic states localized in the interiors of CPP rings, inconsistent with the expected localization of molecular electronic orbitals. Electronic energies of these states show considerable variations correlated with the molecular shape. These observations are explained by the presence of localized states formed due to confinement of surface electrons by the CPP skeletal framework, which thus acts as a molecular electronic "corral". Our experiments suggest an approach to robust large-area modification of the surface electronic structure via quantum confinement within molecules forming self-assembled layers. PMID:27459268

  19. Surface structures from low energy electron diffraction: Atoms, small molecules and an ordered ice film on metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Materer, N.F.

    1995-09-01

    We investigated the surface bonding of various adsorbates (0, S, C{sub 2}H{sub 3} and NO) along with the resulting relaxation of the Pt(111) surface using low energy electron diffiraction (LEED). LEED experiments have been performed on these ordered overlayers along with theoretical structural analysis using automated tensor LEED (ATLEED). The resulting surface structures of these ordered overlayers exhibit similar adsorbate-induced relaxations. In all cases the adsorbate occupies the fcc hollow site and induces an approximately 0.1 A buckling of the metal surface. The three metal atoms directly bonded to the adsorbate are ``pulled`` out of the surface and the metal atom that is not bound to the adsorbate is `pushed`` inward. In order to understand the reliability of such details, we have carried out a comprehensive study of various non-structural parameters used in a LEED computation. We also studied the adsorption of water on the Pt(lll) surface. We ordered an ultra thin ice film on this surface. The film`s surface is found to be the (0001) face of hexagonal ice. This surface is apparently terminated by a full-bilayer, in which the uppermost water molecules have large vibrational amplitudes even at temperatures as low as 90 K. We examined two other metal surfaces besides Pt(111): Ni(111) and Fe(lll). On Ni(111), we have studied the surface under a high coverage of NO. On both Ni(111) and Pt(111) NO molecules occupy the hollow sites and the N-0 bond distances are practically identical. The challenging sample preparation of an Fe(111) surface has been investigated and a successful procedure has been obtained. The small interlayer spacing found on Fe(111) required special treatment in the LEED calculations. A new ATLEED program has been developed to handle this surface.

  20. Roles in Modulation of Molecular Structures on Metal Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, H.-J.

    2007-03-01

    We studied the adsorption of organic molecules, their growth behavior, and their physical properties on silver and gold surfaces at the single molecule or sub-molecular scale by using low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopes. Combined with low energy electron diffraction and first-principles density functional theory calculations, the key parameters in modulating molecular structures on metals are analyzed. It is found that the alkyl chains of quinacridone derivatives (QA) determine the orientation of molecular overlayers on an Ag(110) substrate. The interaction of QA and the Ag substrate is primarily due to chemical bonding of oxygen to specific positions at the silver substrate, determining the molecular orientation and preferred adsorption site. However, the intermolecular arrangement can be adjusted via the length of attached alkyl chains. We are thus able to fabricate uniform QA films with very well controlled physical properties. Furthermore, by thermal and chemical control, we are able to self-assemble three dimensional molecular nanostructures, e.g. ordered PTCDA structures exclusively on flat Ag(111) facets, or DMe-DCNQI structures exclusively on stepped Ag(221) facets. It is demonstrated that bonding, the key factor for selectivity, occurs via the end-atoms, while the molecule's mid-region arches away from the substrate. Theoretical results, obtained by high-level theory, are consistent with the experimental observations, which have previously been interpreted in terms of bonding through the mid-region. In collaboration with D.X. Shi, S.X. Du, W. Ji, Z.T. Deng, L. Gao, Institute of Physics, and X. Lin, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China; C. Seidel and H. Fuchs, Universit"at M"unster, Germany; W.A. Hofer, The University of Liverpool, Britain; and S. T. Pantelides, Vanderbilt University, USA. [1] D.X. Shi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 226101(2006). [2] S.X. Du et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 226101(2006). [3] L. Gao et al., Phys. Rev. B 73, 075424(2006).

  1. Formation mechanism and anticorrosive properties of thin siloxane films on metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Petrunin, M.A.; Nazarov, A.P.; Mikhailovski, Yu.N.

    1996-01-01

    The adsorption of different ethoxysilanes on Al was studied. It was established that during polymolecular adsorption of ethoxysilanes from the vapor phase on aluminum the first monolayer is adsorbed irreversibly with adsorption van der Waals bonds between silane molecules and the aluminum surface. The covalent bonding of silanes with the surface (Al-O-Si bonds) occurs in the presence of adsorbed water on the aluminum surface. The presence of a silane monolayer on Al decreases water adsorption on the surface, and inhibits hydration of the oxide metal film. The formation of a negatively charged siloxane film on the aluminum surface inhibits local metal corrosion, and a positively charged layer activates it in chloride containing media. The formation of the surface siloxane polymer by the modification of metals inhibits the metal dissolution under polymer coatings. It is caused by silane chemisorption and negative charging of the metal surface. The presence of negatively charged groups causes difficulties of an electrostatic character for the migration of aggressive ions to the metal surface.

  2. Hydrogen-induced surface metallization of SrTiO3(001).

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, M; Yukawa, R; Ozawa, K; Yamamoto, S; Hirahara, T; Hasegawa, S; Silly, M G; Sirotti, F; Matsuda, I

    2012-03-16

    Surface metallization of SrTiO3(001) by hydrogen adsorption is experimentally confirmed for the first time by photoemission spectroscopy and surface conductivity measurements. The metallic state is assigned to a quantized state in the space-charge layer induced by electron doping from hydrogen atoms. The measured two-dimensional (2D) conductivity is well above the 2D Ioffe-Regel limit indicating that the system is in a metallic conduction regime. The mean free path of the surface electron is estimated to be several nanometers at room temperature. PMID:22540498

  3. Raising the shields: PCR in the presence of metallic surfaces protected by tailor-made coatings.

    PubMed

    Scherag, Frank D; Brandstetter, Thomas; Rühe, Jürgen

    2014-10-01

    The implementation of PCR reactions in the presence of metallic surfaces is interesting for the generation of novel bioanalytical devices, because metals exhibit high mechanical stability, good thermal conductivity, and flexibility during deformation. However, metallic substrates are usually non-compatible with enzymatic reactions such as PCR due to poisoning of the active center of the enzyme or nonspecific adsorption of the enzymeto the metal surface, which could result in protein denaturation. We present a method for the generation of polymer coatings on metallic surfaces which are designed to minimize protein adsorption and also prevent the release of metal ions. These coatings consist of three layers covalently linked to each other; a self-assembled monolayer to promote adhesion, a photochemically generated barrier layer and a photochemically generated hydrogel. The coatings can be deposited onto aluminum, stainless steel, gold and copper surfaces. We compare PCR efficiencies in the presence of bare metallic surfaces with those of surfaces treated with the novel coating system. PMID:25108478

  4. Selective placement of carbon nanotubes on metal-oxide surfaces.

    PubMed

    Hannon, J B; Afzali, A; Klinke, Ch; Avouris, Ph

    2005-09-13

    We describe a method to selectively position carbon nanotubes on Al2O3 and HfO2 surfaces. The method exploits the selective binding of alkylphosphonic acids to oxide surfaces with large isoelectric points (i.e. basic rather than acidic surfaces). We have patterned oxide surfaces with acids using both microcontact printing and conventional lithography. With proper choice of the functional end group (e.g., -CH3 or -NH2), nanotube adhesion to the surface can be either prevented or enhanced.

  5. Atomic-scale roughness of Li metal surface evident in soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prendergast, David; Wan, Liwen; Liang, Yufeng; Chuang, Yi-De; Qiao, Ruimin; Yan, Shishen; Yang, Wanli

    2015-03-01

    Realizing Li metal electrodes depends on fundamental understanding and efficient control of surface properties, which requires reliable characterization of the Li metal surface. Controlled experiments of Li K-edge soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) reveal evidence of steady oxidation of the Li metal surface even under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions. The XAS of the short-lived Li metal surface, prepared by in-situ scratching, exhibits a prominent peak at 55.6 eV, more intense and at a slightly higher energy than the first peak expected for bulk Li metal at 55 eV. First-principles XAS calculations explain the origin of both the increased intensity and energy shift. This required the use of surface structural models with under-coordinated Li atoms and an estimated 4 Åinelastic mean-free-path for Auger electrons, implying extreme surface sensitivity of the measurements to the first 2-3 atomic layers. This work provides a benchmark on both experiment and theory for further studies of Li and other reactive metal surfaces, which are currently under scrutiny for next-generation energy storage devices. DP, LW, and YL acknowledge support from the Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, an Energy Innovation Hub funded by the US Dept. of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences.

  6. Conversion of multilayer graphene into continuous ultrathin sp3-bonded carbon films on metal surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Odkhuu, Dorj; Shin, Dongbin; Ruoff, Rodney S.; Park, Noejung

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of multilayer graphenes into sp3-bonded carbon films on metal surfaces (through hydrogenation or fluorination of the outer surface of the top graphene layer) is indicated through first-principles computations. The main driving force for this conversion is the hybridization between sp3 orbitals and metal surface dz2 orbitals. The induced electronic gap states and spin moments in the carbon layers are confined in a region within 0.5 nm of the metal surface. Whether the conversion occurs depend on the fraction of hydrogenated (fluorinated) C atoms at the outer surface and on the number of stacked graphene layers. In the analysis of the Eliashberg spectral functions for the sp3 carbon films on a metal surface that is diamagnetic, the strong covalent metal-sp3 carbon bonds induce soft phonon modes that predominantly contribute to large electron-phonon couplings, suggesting the possibility of phonon-mediated superconductivity. Our computational results suggest a route to experimental realization of large-area ultrathin sp3-bonded carbon films on metal surfaces. PMID:24253851

  7. Nature of indigenous sulfur segregated to the free metal surface and to the scale-metal interface

    SciTech Connect

    Smeggil, J.G.; Peterson, G.G. )

    1988-02-01

    Sulfur segregation to the free metal surface of a Ni-20(wt.%)Cr-12(wt.%)Al alloy has been documented by high-temperature scanning Auger electron microscopy. Preferential enrichment of sulfur occurs to the surface of the chromium-rich {gamma} phase in the two-phase {gamma} nickel-{beta} (NiAl) alloy. Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) studies have indicated that for a free metal surface, i.e., metal without an overlying thermally grown oxide scale, the surface segregated sulfur correlated with both S{sup {minus}2} and elemental sulfur. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) characterization of fractured oxide films thermally grown on the Ni-Cr-Al alloy indicated that both a labile, i.e., relatively volatile, and a refractory sulfur species exist at the scale-metal interface. Elemental sulfur as detected by ESCA has the volatility characteristics found for the labile sulfur species found in the scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-EDAX studies.

  8. The Sapphire (0001) Surface, Clean and with d-metal Overlayers: Density Functional - LDA Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdozzi, C.; Jennison, D. R.; Schultz, P. A.; Sears, M. P.

    1998-03-01

    Previous theoretical work for the a-Al2O3(0001) surface mostly used very thin slabs, and limited theoretical information is available on the binding of metal overlayers. Also, no systematic information is available about the dependence of the metal-ceramic interaction on metal coverage. We present here results using the local density approximation for the structural and electronic properties of the a-Al2O3(0001) surface, with and without d-metal overlayers Pt, Ag, Cu, and with sufficiently thick slabs to find the bottom of the unusually large and deep surface relaxation in this material. Our thick slab site-optimized calculations are performed for 1, 2/3 and 1/3 monolayer (ML) coverage. The adhesion energy and the nature of the interfacial bond vary greatly with metal coverage and can be understood in terms of the relative roles of the surface Madelung potential and the strength of the lateral metal-metal bond. Our study should in principle succeed in bracketing the phenomenology of adhesion and wetting at least for the right-most part of the d-metal periodic table. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Corresponding author: claudio@sandia.gov.

  9. Modeling and verifying the polarizing reflectance of real-world metallic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Berger, Kai; Weidlich, Andrea; Wilkie, Alexander; Magnor, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Using measurements of real-world samples of metals, the proposed approach verifies predictions of bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) models. It employs ellipsometry to verify both the actual polarizing effect and the overall reflectance behavior of the metallic surfaces. PMID:24804944

  10. Development and characterization of diamond film and compound metal surface high current photocathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Shurter, R.P.; Moir, D.C.; Devlin, D.J.; Springer, R.W.; Archuleta, T.A.

    1997-09-01

    High current photocathodes operating in vacuum environments as high as 8xE-5 torr are being developed at Los Alamos for use in a new generation of linear induction accelerators. We report quantum efficiencies in wide bandgap semiconductors, pure metals, and compound metal surfaces photocathode materials illuminated by ultraviolet laser radiation.

  11. Dynamic Image Forces Near a Metal Surface and the Point-Charge Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabovich, A. M.; Voitenko, A. I.

    2012-01-01

    The problem of charge motion governed by image force attraction near a plane metal surface is considered and solved self-consistently. The temporal dispersion of metal dielectric permittivity makes the image forces dynamic and, hence, finite, contrary to the results of the conventional approach. Therefore, the maximal attainable velocity turns out…

  12. Dynamics of formation of Ru, Os, Ir and Au metal nanocrystals on doped graphitic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Pitto-Barry, Anaïs; Sadler, Peter J; Barry, Nicolas P E

    2016-03-11

    The fabrication of precious metal (ruthenium, osmium, gold, and iridium) nanocrystals from single atoms has been studied in real-time. The dynamics of the first stage of the metal nanocrystallisation on a doped (B,S)-graphitic surface are identified, captured, and reported. PMID:26698913

  13. Apparatus for coating a surface with a metal utilizing a plasma source

    DOEpatents

    Brown, I.G.; MacGill, R.A.; Galvin, J.E.

    1991-05-07

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for coating or layering a surface with a metal utilizing a metal vapor vacuum arc plasma source. The apparatus includes a trigger mechanism for actuating the metal vacuum vapor arc plasma source in a pulsed mode at a predetermined rate. The surface or substrate to be coated or layered is supported in position with the plasma source in a vacuum chamber. The surface is electrically biased for a selected period of time during the pulsed mode of operation of the plasma source. Both the pulsing of the metal vapor vacuum arc plasma source and the electrical biasing of the surface are synchronized for selected periods of time. 10 figures.

  14. Mechanical interlocking of cotton fibers on slightly textured surfaces of metallic cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Youqiang; Tian, Yu; Meng, Yonggang

    2016-05-01

    Mechanical interlocking is widely applied in industry and general lives of human beings. In this work, we realized the control of locking or sliding states of cotton fibers on the metal surfaces with slightly different textures through traditional machining. Three types of sliding states, i.e., locking, one-way sliding, and two-way sliding have been achieved. It is found that the locking or sliding of the cotton fibers on the metallic cylinder depends on the friction coefficient and the ratio of cotton fiber diameter, 2r, to the height of the rough peaks, h, of metal surfaces. When the critical ratio h/r exceeds 1, the cotton fibers could tightly attach to the metallic surface through mechanical interlocking. This work provided a convenient and universal method for the control of interlocking or sliding of fiber-based materials on textured surfaces.

  15. Mechanical interlocking of cotton fibers on slightly textured surfaces of metallic cylinders

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Youqiang; Tian, Yu; Meng, Yonggang

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical interlocking is widely applied in industry and general lives of human beings. In this work, we realized the control of locking or sliding states of cotton fibers on the metal surfaces with slightly different textures through traditional machining. Three types of sliding states, i.e., locking, one-way sliding, and two-way sliding have been achieved. It is found that the locking or sliding of the cotton fibers on the metallic cylinder depends on the friction coefficient and the ratio of cotton fiber diameter, 2r, to the height of the rough peaks, h, of metal surfaces. When the critical ratio h/r exceeds 1, the cotton fibers could tightly attach to the metallic surface through mechanical interlocking. This work provided a convenient and universal method for the control of interlocking or sliding of fiber-based materials on textured surfaces. PMID:27156720

  16. Mechanical interlocking of cotton fibers on slightly textured surfaces of metallic cylinders.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Youqiang; Tian, Yu; Meng, Yonggang

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical interlocking is widely applied in industry and general lives of human beings. In this work, we realized the control of locking or sliding states of cotton fibers on the metal surfaces with slightly different textures through traditional machining. Three types of sliding states, i.e., locking, one-way sliding, and two-way sliding have been achieved. It is found that the locking or sliding of the cotton fibers on the metallic cylinder depends on the friction coefficient and the ratio of cotton fiber diameter, 2r, to the height of the rough peaks, h, of metal surfaces. When the critical ratio h/r exceeds 1, the cotton fibers could tightly attach to the metallic surface through mechanical interlocking. This work provided a convenient and universal method for the control of interlocking or sliding of fiber-based materials on textured surfaces. PMID:27156720

  17. Surface energetics of alkaline-earth metal oxides: Trends in stability and adsorption of small molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajdich, Michal; Nørskov, Jens K.; Vojvodic, Aleksandra

    2015-04-01

    We present a systematic theoretical investigation of the surface properties, stability, and reactivity of rocksalt type alkaline-earth metal oxides including MgO, CaO, SrO, and BaO. The accuracy of commonly used exchange-correlation density functionals (LDA, PBE, RPBE, PBEsol, BEEF-vdW, and hybrid HSE) and random-phase approximation (RPA) is evaluated and compared to existing experimental values. Calculated surface energies of the four most stable surface facets under vacuum conditions, the (100) surface, the metal and oxygen terminated octopolar (111), and the (110) surfaces, exhibit a monotonic increase in stability from MgO to BaO. On the MgO(100) surface, adsorption of CO, NO, and CH4 is characterized by physisorption while H2O chemisorbs, which is in agreement with experimental findings. We further use the on-top metal adsorption of CO and NO molecules to map out the surface energetics of each alkaline-earth metal oxide surface. The considered functionals all qualitatively predict similar adsorption energy trends. The ordering between the adsorption energies on different surface facets can be attributed to differences in the local geometrical surface structure and the electronic structure of the metal constituent of the alkaline-earth metal oxide. The striking observation that CO adsorption strength is weaker than NO adsorption on the (100) terraces as the period of the alkaline-earth metal in the oxide increases is analyzed in detail in terms of charge redistribution within the σ and π channels of adsorbates. Finally, we also present oxygen adsorption and oxygen vacancy formation energies in these oxide systems.

  18. Quantum Chemical Study of Raman Spectroscopy of Substituted Benzene Derivatives Adsorbed on Metal Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, De-Yin; Tian, Zhong-Qun

    2011-06-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) can be applied to obtain the information of molecules at the noble metal surfaces. But there are a number of difficulties to clearly correlate Raman spectra with microscopic molecular structures on metal surfaces. The main reason is that it is difficult to characterize unambiguously the metal surface structures and the influence of the binding interaction on SERS signals of the probe molecules. According to the surface selection rule of SERS, the electromagnetic enhancement will not change relative Raman intensities of vibrational modes with the same irreducible representation. Therefore, the change of the relative Raman intensities of the total symmetric modes may only originate from the chemical enhancement. In order to understand how the chemical interaction modulates the Raman intensity of individual modes, it is necessary to systematically investigate the Raman spectra of probe molecules themselves and the dependence of SERS signals on the binding interaction, adsorption sites, excitation wavelengths and metal property. Some probe molecules, including aniline, 1,4-benzenediamine, p-aminothiophenol, benzyl chlorine, and 4,4^'-bipyridine are investigated based on quantum chemical calculations. Raman spectra of these molecules and their adsorbed species were predicted and compared with experimentally measured spectra. The metal surfaces were mimicked using the metallic cluster model, where the silver or gold surfaces were replaced by silver or gold clusters, respectively. The density functional theory approach was employed to obtain the optimized structures and vibrational spectra by combining all-electron basis sets of 6-311+G** for atoms in the molecules and the poseudopotential basis set of LANL2DZ for metal atoms. The vibrational frequency shift and the relative Raman intensity are related to the adsorption configuration of the probe molecules. For all these molecules, the ring breathing mode and the C-C stretching

  19. Energy level alignment of single-wall carbon nanotubes on metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clair, Sylvain; Kim, Yousoo; Kawai, Maki

    2011-06-01

    We studied the electronic configuration of single-wall carbon nanotubes adsorbed on well-defined Au(111) and Cu(111) surfaces. We found opposite behaviors for their energy-level alignment with metal: nanotubes are p-doped on Au(111) and n-doped on Cu(111). The doping level is not uniquely defined for a particular metal surface but rather exhibits a distribution depending on several uncontrolled factors such as nanotube geometry and adsorption configuration.

  20. Friction and surface chemistry of some ferrous-base metallic glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    The friction properties of some ferrous-base metallic glasses were measured both in argon and in vacuum to a temperature of 350 C. The alloy surfaces were also analyzed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to identify the compounds and elements present on the surface. The results of the investigation indicate that even when the surfaces of the amorphous alloys, or metallic glasses, are atomically clean, bulk contaminants such as boric oxide and silicon dioxide diffuse to the surfaces. Friction measurements in both argon and vacuum indicate that the alloys exhibit higher coefficients of friction in the crystalline state than they do in the amorphous state.

  1. Atmospheric thermometry for metallic surfaces by laser-induced second-harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedanekar, Niranjan R.; Yin, Huiqi; Laurendeau, Normand M.

    1996-07-01

    To the best of our knowledge we report the first demonstration of surface thermometry using laser-induced second-harmonic generation (SHG) on a realistic metallic surface at atmospheric pressure. The surface is probed with a pulsed infrared laser beam and the SHG signal is monitored in reflection. For metallic silver, the SHG signal is found to be temperature dependent in the 25-120 degrees C range. The current accuracy of the method is +/-5 degrees C. Future work with platinum should permit the application of SHG thermometry to much higher surface temperatures.

  2. Profiles of optical surface waves formed at the metal - photorefractive crystal interface

    SciTech Connect

    Akhmedzhanov, I M

    2012-10-31

    Photorefractive surface waves propagating in a stationary regime along the surface of the metal - photorefractive crystal (SBN-75) interface are considered. The transverse structure of the optical field distribution is calculated in the near- and far-field zones, depending on the angle of incidence of the exciting wave. The calculation results are in good agreement with the published experimental results. It is shown that the photorefractive effect leads to a splitting of the spectrum of a surface plasmon polariton excited at the metal - photorefractive crystal interface. (surface waves)

  3. Synthesis and characterization of diazonium functionalized nanoparticles for deposition on metal surfaces.

    PubMed

    Joselevich, María; Williams, Federico J

    2008-10-21

    Silica nanoparticles were surface-functionalized with diazonium groups. The reaction steps leading to the formation of the diazonium functionality were followed with IR and XPS, and the structure of the diazonium-functionalized nanoparticle was confirmed with solid state NMR. Nanoparticle size distribution was determined with DLS, SEM, and TEM. The nanoparticles were then covalently bonded to gold and iron surfaces. Their spatial distribution over the metal surface was analyzed by SEM. Diazonium modification of nanoparticles represents a new method for the covalent attachment of nanoparticles to metal surfaces.

  4. Anisotropy analysis of the surface energy of hcp ( c/ a < 1.633) metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dou-Dou; Zhang, Jian-Min; Xu, Ke-Wei

    2006-08-01

    In this paper, anisotropy of the surface energy of 5 hcp metals Be, Hf, Ru, Ti and Y have been analyzed. The surface energies of three kinds of representative surfaces, ( h 0 l), ( h h l) and ( h k 0) belong to [0 1 0], [ 1 1¯ 0] and [0 0 1] crystal band, respectively, have been calculated using the modified embedded atom method. For all 5 hcp metals, the (1 1 0) plane has the minimum surface energy in all 35 surfaces studied. Considering surface energy minimization solely, the (1 1 0) texture should be favorable in the hcp films. The fact that the short termination corresponds to much lower surface energy than long one implies the former is more stable for those surfaces having two possible terminations. Such as the prism plane (1 0 0), only the short termination was observed in experiment.

  5. Studies of liquid metal surfaces using Auger spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, S.; Fine, J.

    1982-01-01

    The surface composition of liquid gallium-tin alloys is studied in an Auger electron spectrometer as a function of bulk composition and temperature. The sessile drop samples are cleaned by argon ion bombardment sputtering of the liquid. This technique produces surfaces that are entirely free of impurities within the sensitivity of the spectrometer and remain so for many days. Tin is found to be strongly adsorbed at the liquid-vacuum interface. Surface concentrations based on Auger measurements are found to be in reasonably good agreement with values calculated from surface tension measurements interpreted in terms of a monolayer depth distribution model for the adsorbed tin.

  6. An inverse method for flue gas shielded metal surface temperature measurement based on infrared radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B.; Xu, C. L.; Wang, S. M.

    2016-07-01

    The infrared temperature measurement technique has been applied in various fields, such as thermal efficiency analysis, environmental monitoring, industrial facility inspections, and remote temperature sensing. In the problem of infrared measurement of the metal surface temperature of superheater surfaces, the outer wall of the metal pipe is covered by radiative participating flue gas. This means that the traditional infrared measurement technique will lead to intolerable measurement errors due to the absorption and scattering of the flue gas. In this paper, an infrared measurement method for a metal surface in flue gas is investigated theoretically and experimentally. The spectral emissivity of the metal surface, and the spectral absorption and scattering coefficients of the radiative participating flue gas are retrieved simultaneously using an inverse method called quantum particle swarm optimization. Meanwhile, the detected radiation energy simulated using a forward simulation method (named the source multi-flux method) is set as the input of the retrieval. Then, the temperature of the metal surface detected by an infrared CCD camera is modified using the source multi-flux method in combination with these retrieved physical properties. Finally, an infrared measurement system for metal surface temperature is built to assess the proposed method. Experimental results show that the modified temperature is closer to the true value than that of the direct measured temperature.

  7. Noninvasive noble metal nanoparticle arrays for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inya-Agha, Obianuju; Forster, Robert J.; Keyes, Tia E.

    2007-02-01

    Noble metal nanoparticles arrays are well established substrates for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Their ability to enhance optical fields is based on the interaction of their surface valence electrons with incident electromagnetic radiation. In the array configuration, noble metal nanoparticles have been used to produce SER spectral enhancements of up to 10 8 orders of magnitude, making them useful for the trace analysis of physiologically relevant analytes such as proteins and peptides. Electrostatic interactions between proteins and metal surfaces result in the preferential adsorption of positively charged protein domains onto metal surfaces. This preferential interaction has the effect of disrupting the native conformation of the protein fold, with a concomitant loss of protein function. A major historic advantage of Raman microspectroscopy has been is its non-invasive nature; protein denaturation on the metal surfaces required for SER spectroscopy renders it a much more invasive technique. Further, part of the analytical power of Raman spectroscopy lies in its use as a secondary conformation probe. The protein structural loss which occurs on the metal surface results in secondary conformation readings which are not true to the actual native state of the analyte. This work presents a method for chemical fabrication of noble metal SERS arrays with surface immobilized layers which can protect protein native conformation without excessively mitigating the electromagnetic enhancements of spectra. Peptide analytes are used as model systems for proteins. Raman spectra of alpha lactalbumin on surfaces and when immobilized on these novel arrays are compared. We discuss the ability of the surface layer to protect protein structure whilst improving signal intensity.

  8. Localized surface plasmon of quasi-one-dimensional metallic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mingzhao

    2007-05-01

    The plasmon resonance of noble metal nanoparticles provides interesting optical properties in the visible and near-infrared region, and is highly tunable by varying the shape and the composition of the nanoparticles. The rod-like gold nanostructures can be synthesized by a seed-mediated method in aqueous surfactant solutions. Starting from different types of gold seeds, either single crystalline gold nanorods or penta-fold twinned gold bipyramids can be synthesized in decent yield with silver(I) added into the growth solution. These nanostructures have pronounced plasmon resonance varying in the 1˜2 eV range. The bipyramids are strikingly monodisperse in shape, which leads to the sharpest ensemble longitudinal plasmon resonance reported so far for metal colloid solutions. A mechanism based on the underpotential deposition of silver was thus suggested to explain the essential role of Ag(I) in the growth process. The optical spectra of the gold colloids were simulated with the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The results show excellent agreement with recent experimental optical spectra. The local field enhancement (|E|/|E0|) was studied at the plasmon resonance. Sharper structural features produce more significant enhancement and the largest enhancement of more than a factor of 200 is seen around the poles of the bipyramid. A large internal field enhancement by more than a factor of 30 is found for the bipyramids, which suggests that they will exhibit very strong optical nonlinearities. The plasmon can be further tuned by introducing the core/shell nanostructures such as metal/metal or metal/semiconductor nanorods. Following a simple procedure, a homogeneous layer of silver with 1-4 nm thickness can be plated onto the gold nanorods, which shifts the longitudinal plasmon mode of the nanorods toward blue. The silver layer can be converted to semiconductors silver sulfide or selenide, with the longitudinal plasmon resonance tuned toward red. The metal

  9. Influences of Mn(II) and V(IV) on Bacterial Surface Chemistry and Metal Reactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, S.; Fakra, S.; Glasauer, S.

    2009-05-01

    Microorganisms in terrestrial and marine environments are typically bathed in solutions that contain a range of metal ions, toxic and beneficial. Bacteria such as Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 are metabolically versatile in their respiration, and the reductive dissolution of widely dispersed metals such as Fe(III), Mn(IV), or V(V) can present unique challenges if nearby bodies of water are used for irrigation or drinking. In redox transition zones, dissimilatory metal reduction (DMR) by bacteria can lead to generation of high concentrations of soluble metals. It has been shown that metals will associate with negatively charged bacterial membranes, and the mechanisms of metal reduction are well defined for many species of bacteria. The interaction of metals with the cell wall during DMR is, however, not well documented; very little is known about the interaction of respired transition metals with membrane lipids. Furthermore, bacterial surfaces tend to change in response to their immediate environments. Variations in conditions such as oxygen or metal presence may affect surface component composition, including availability of metal reactive sites. Our research seeks to characterize the biochemical nature of metal-membrane interactions, as well as identify the unique changes at the cell surface that arise as a result of metal presence in their environments. We have utilized scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) to examine the dynamics of soluble Mn(II) and V(IV) interactions with purified bacterial membranes rather than whole cells. This prevents intracellular interferences, and allows for near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopic analyses of cell surface and surface-associated components. NEXAFS spectra for carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen edges indicate that Mn(II) and V(IV) induce biological modifications of the cell membrane in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. These changes depend not only on the metal, but also on the presence of

  10. Launching focused surface plasmon in circular metallic grating

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Pawan; Tripathi, V. K.; Kumar, Ashok; Shao, X.

    2015-01-07

    The excitation of focused surface plasma wave (SPW) over a metal–vacuum interface embedded with circular surface grating is investigated theoretically. The normally impinged radiation imparts oscillatory velocity to free electrons that beats with the surface ripple to produce a nonlinear current, driving the SPW. As SPW propagates, it gets focused. The focused radiation has a maximum at the centre of grating and decreases beyond the centre due to diffraction. The amplitude of SPW is fixed for a given groove depth and increases rapidly around the resonance frequency. The intensity at the focus point depends on dimensions of the grating. It increases with the radiation frequency approaching the surface plasmon resonance. The scheme has potential applications for photonic devices and surface enhanced Raman scattering.

  11. Organic molecules on silicon surface: A way to tune metal dependent Schottky barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinal, M. K.

    2016-09-01

    Effect of covalently bonded organic molecules on p-type Si surfaces, in controlling the performance of metal-silicon Schottky junctions, is studied. Monolayers of 1-dodecyne were formed on hydrated surfaces of p-type Si ((100) orientation) using weak Lewis acid. The chemical modification results in highly homogeneous surfaces. Gold-Si and Aluminum-Si junctions were prepared, both, on modified and unmodified Si surfaces, and I-V characteristics were studied. The results have been interpreted in terms of energy band diagrams. It is demonstrated that the molecular monolayer of 1-dodecyne is effective in controlling the surface states leading to unpinning of the Fermi level and junction responding to the work function of the metal, as expected from theoretical considerations. The simple method presented provides a unique technique to tune the electrical properties of devices with metal-semiconductor interfaces.

  12. Scaling Relationships for Adsorption Energies of C2 Hydrocarbons on Transition Metal Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G

    2011-08-18

    Using density functional theory calculations we show that the adsorption energies for C{sub 2}H{sub x}-type adsorbates on transition metal surfaces scale with each other according to a simple bond order conservation model. This observation generalizes some recently recognized adsorption energy scaling laws for AH{sub x}-type adsorbates to unsaturated hydrocarbons and establishes a coherent simplified description of saturated as well as unsaturated hydrocarbons adsorbed on transition metal surfaces. A number of potential applications are discussed. We apply the model to the dehydrogenation of ethane over pure transition metal catalysts. Comparison with the corresponding full density functional theory calculations shows excellent agreement.

  13. Selective Metal Deposition on a Phase-Separated Polymer Blend Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujioka, Tsuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Koji

    2013-07-01

    We report selective metal deposition on a phase-separated polymer blend surface. A polymer blend film consisting of polystyrene (PS) and a polystyrene-block-polybutadiene copolymer (PS-BR) was annealed, and a micro-phase-separated film was obtained. Pb was evaporated onto the phase-separated surface without an evaporation mask and was selectively deposited on the PS phase but not on the PS-BR phase. We achieved fine metal patterns corresponding to the microphase separation. This result suggests a novel method of preparing fine metal patterns for electronics and photonics.

  14. Optical-to-THz radiation conversion on a semi-metal surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, V. A.; Oladyshkin, I. V.; Fadeev, D. A.

    2016-08-01

    We consider the possibility of generation of broadband terahertz (THz) radiation upon reflection of a p-polarised femtosecond laser pulse from the surface of a semi-metal. The hydrodynamic model of an instantaneous quadratic response of metals is generalised, and analytical results and numerical simulation data are presented. It is shown that transition from highly conductive metals to semi-metals is accompanied by a significant increase in the efficiency of the THz signal generation due to the reduction of the effective charge carrier mass and attenuation of the shielding of optical and THz fields.

  15. Fate and effects of metals in the sea-surface microlayer

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, J.T.; Apts, C.W.

    1983-05-01

    Although significant portions of the metals from atmospheric particulate matter (APM) dissolve in seawater, the long residence times of metals in the sea-surface microlayer (upper 50 ..mu..m) lead to high microlayer metals concentrations compared to the subsurface water. APM at realistic deposition levels is not toxic to neustonic flatfish eggs, but ionic metals at the same concentrations as those found in the deposited APM inhibit egg hatching and larval survival. APM deposition rates between 2 and 7 mg/m/sup 2//hr negatively impact photosynthesis of phytoneuston, but not phytoplankton. 9 references.

  16. Self-Supplied Nano-Fusing and Transferring Metal Nanostructures via Surface Oxide Reduction.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jaeho; Seo, Ji-Won; Kim, Jong Yun; Lee, Jaemin; Cho, Changsoon; Kang, Juhoon; Choi, Sung-Yool; Lee, Jung-Yong

    2016-01-20

    Here, we demonstrate that chemical reduction of oxide layers on metal nanostructures fuses junctions at nanoscale to improve the opto-electrical performance, and to ensure environmental stability of the interconnected nanonetwork. In addition, the reducing reaction lowers the adhesion force between metal nanostructures and substrates, facilitating the detachment of them from substrates. Detached metal nanonetworks can be easily floated on water and transferred onto various substrates including hydrophobic, floppy, and curved surfaces. Utilizing the detached metal nanostructures, semitransparent organic photovoltaics is fabricated, presenting the applicability of proposed reduction treatment in the device applications. PMID:26700597

  17. Surface/structure functionalization of copper-based catalysts by metal-support and/or metal-metal interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konsolakis, Michalis; Ioakeimidis, Zisis

    2014-11-01

    Cu-based catalysts have recently attracted great attention both in catalysis and electro-catalysis fields due to their excellent catalytic performance and low cost. Given that their performance is determined, to a great extent, by Cu sites local environment, considerable efforts have been devoted on the strategic modifications of the electronic and structural properties of Cu sites. In this regard, the feasibility of tuning the local structure of Cu entities by means of metal-support or metal-metal interactions is investigated. More specifically, the physicochemical properties of Cu entities are modified by employing: (i) different oxides (CeO2, La2O3, Sm2O3), or (ii) ceria-based mixed oxides (Ce1-xSmxOδ) as supporting carriers, and (iii) a second metal (Cobalt) adjacent to Cu (bimetallic Cu-Co/CeO2). A characterization study, involving BET, XRD, TPR, and XPS, reveal that significant modifications on structural, redox and electronic properties of Cu sites can be induced by adopting either different oxide carriers or bimetallic complexes. Fundamental insights into the tuning of Cu local environment by metal-support or metal-metal interactions are provided, paving the way for real-life industrial applications.

  18. Liquid Metal Pump Technologies for Nuclear Surface Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.

    2007-01-01

    Multiple liquid metal pump options are reviewed for the purpose of determining the technologies that are best suited for inclusion in a nuclear reactor thermal simulator intended to test prototypical space nuclear system components. Conduction, induction, and thermoelectric electromagnetic pumps are evaluated based on their performance characteristics and the technical issues associated incorporation into a reactor system. The thermoelectric electromagnetic pump is recommended for inclusion in the present system based on favorable quantitative and qualitative measures relative to the other options under consideration.

  19. Detailed first-principles studies on surface energy and work function of hexagonal metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, De-Peng; Zhu, Quanxi; Wang, Shao-Qing

    2016-09-01

    The surface energies and work functions for ten kinds of Miller-indices surfaces of hexagonal metals, Be, Mg, Tc, Re, Ru, and Os are calculated by means of the density functional theory (DFT) method. The results show that the metals belonging to the same group have a very similar rule in work functions and surface energies. The work functions of (0001), (01 1 - 1)" separators=",, and (10 1 - 0)" separators=", surfaces are generally larger than the work functions of (11 2 - 1)" separators=",, (11 2 - 2)" separators=",, (11 2 - 3)" separators=",, and (31 4 - 0)" separators=", surfaces. In contrast to work functions, there is more regularity in the crystallographic orientation dependence of surface energies. However, for the metals belonging to different groups, there are always some differences in the exact order of orientation dependence. It is also shown that the work functions and surface energies of the main group metals decrease as they go from top to the bottom in the same group of periodic table, while for the transition metals, they do not always obey this rule.

  20. Optimum Design Of Addendum Surfaces In Sheet Metal Forming Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debray, K.; Sun, Z. C.; Radjai, R.; Guo, Y. Q.; Dai, L.; Gu, Y. X.

    2004-06-01

    The design of addendum surfaces in sheet forming process is very important for the product quality, but it is very time-consuming and needs tedious trial-error corrections. In this paper, we propose a methodology to automatically generate the addendum surfaces and then to optimize them using a forming modelling solver. The surfaces' parameters are taken as design variables and modified in course of optimization. The finite element mesh is created on the initial addendum surfaces and mapped onto the modified surfaces without remeshing operation. The Feasible Sequential Quadratic Programming (FSQP) is adopted as our algorithm of optimization. Two objective functions are used: the first one is the thickness function to minimize the thickness variation on the workpiece ; the second one is the appearance function aiming to avoid the scratching defects on the external surfaces of panels. The FSQP is combined with our "Inverse Approach" or "One Step Approach" which is a very fast forming solver. This leads to a very efficient optimization procedure. The present methodology is applied to a square box. The addendum surfaces are characterised by four geometrical variables. The influence of optimization criteria is studied and discussed.

  1. ''Green'' Biopolymers for Improved Decontamination of Metals from Surfaces: Sorptive Characterization and Coating Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, Brian H.; Kurtiz,Tanya

    1999-06-01

    The proposed research aims to develop a fundamental understanding of important biological and physical chemical parameters for effective decontamination of metal surfaces using environmentally benign aqueous-based biopolymer solutions. Understanding how heavy metal-chelating biopolymers coat and interact with contaminated surfaces will benefit the development of novel, safe, easy-to-apply decontamination methodologies for removal of radionuclides and heavy metals. The benefits of these methodologies will include the following: (1) decreased exposure hazards for workers; (2) decreased secondary waste generation; (3) increased efficiency of decontamination; (4) positive public appeal and development of novel, nature-friendly business opportunities; and (5) lower cost of cleanup to the government. We propose to use aqueous biopolymer solutions to coat a contaminated metal surface (i.e., steel), solubilize the heavy metals (e.g., uranium) from the surface, and bind the heavy metals into the biopolymer. The biopolymer coating (containing the immobilized hazardous metal contaminants) will then be removed as a viscous film, as a dry powder, or by washing. This ''apply, wait, and remove'' procedure will reduce the amount of worker time spent in decontamination activities.

  2. ''Green'' Biopolymers for Improved Decontamination of Metals from Surfaces: Sorptive Characterization and Coating Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, Brian H.

    2002-04-30

    The proposed research aimed to develop a fundamental understanding of important biological and physical chemical parameters for effective decontamination of metal surfaces using environmentally benign aqueous-based biopolymer solutions. Understanding how heavy metal-chelating biopolymers coat and interact with contaminated surfaces will benefit the development of novel, safe, easy-to-apply decontamination methodologies for removal of radionuclides and heavy metals. The benefits of these methodologies include the following: decreased exposure hazards for workers; decreased secondary waste generation; increased efficiency of decontamination; positive public appeal and development of novel, nature-friendly business opportunities; and lower cost of cleanup to the government. We proposed to use aqueous biopolymer solutions to coat a contaminated metal surface (i.e., steel), solubilize the heavy metals (e.g., uranium) from the surface, and bind the heavy metals into the biopolymer. The biopolymer coating (containing the immobilized hazardous metal contaminants) was to be removed as a viscous film, as a dry powder, or by washing. This ''apply, wait, and remove'' procedure will reduce the amount of worker time spent in decontamination activities.

  3. ''Green'' Biopolymers for Improved Decontamination of Metals from Surfaces: Sorptive Characterization and Coating Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, Brian H.; Kuritz, Tanya

    2000-06-01

    The proposed research aims to develop a fundamental understanding of important biological and physical chemical parameters for effective decontamination of metal surfaces using environmentally benign aqueous-based biopolymer solutions. Understanding how heavy metal-chelating biopolymers coat and interact with contaminated surfaces will benefit the development of novel, safe, easy-to-apply decontamination methodologies for removal of radionuclides and heavy metals. The benefits of these methodologies will include the following: (1) decreased exposure hazards for workers; (2) decreased secondary waste generation; (3) increased efficiency of decontamination; (4) positive public appeal and development of novel, nature-friendly business opportunities; and (5) lower cost of cleanup to the government. We propose to use aqueous biopolymer solutions to coat a contaminated metal surface (i.e., steel), solubilize the heavy metals (e.g., uranium) from the surface, and bind the heavy metals into the biopolymer. The biopolymer coating (containing the immobilized hazardous metal contaminants) will then be removed as a viscous film, as a dry powder, or by washing. This ''apply, wait, and remove'' procedure will reduce the amount of worker time spent in decontamination activities.

  4. Catalytic Dealkylation of Ethers to Alcohols on Metal Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yang, Biao; Lin, Haiping; Miao, Kangjian; Zhu, Pan; Liang, Liangbo; Sun, Kewei; Zhang, Haiming; Fan, Jian; Meunier, Vincent; Li, Youyong; Li, Qing; Chi, Lifeng

    2016-08-16

    On-surface synthesis has prompted much interest in recent years because it provides an alternative strategy for controlling chemical reactions and allows for the direct observation of reaction pathways. Herein, we combined scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory to provide extensive evidence for the conversion of alkoxybenzene-containing ethers into alcohols by means of surface synthesis. The reported dealkylation reactions are finely controlled by the annealing parameters, which govern the onset of successive alkyl chains dissociations. Moreover, density functional theory calculations elucidate the details of the reaction pathways, showing that dealkylation reactions are surface-assisted and very different from their homogeneous analogues in solution. PMID:27432690

  5. Corrosion protection of metals by silane surface treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Danqing

    2005-07-01

    The need for toxic chromate replacements in metal-finishing industries has prompted an intensive search for replacement technologies in recent years. Among the replacements that have been proposed, those that are based upon the use of organofunctional silanes rank very high in terms of performance, broad applicability as well as ease of application. This dissertation presents a four-part work: (1) structural characterization of silane films on metals, (2) mechanism studies of silane-treated metal systems, (3) development of water-based silane systems, and (4) measurements of other properties of silane films. In part 1, silane films, i.e., bis-[triethoxysilylpropyl]tetrasulfide (bis-sulfur silane) and bis-[trimethoxysilylpropyl]amine (bis-amino silane) were deposited on AA 2024-T3 and were characterized mainly using reflection-absorption Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-RA) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. In part 2, the mechanistic study of corrosion protection of AA 2024-T3 by bis-sulfur silane film was carried out. In summation, the following two factors play critical roles in the corrosion protection of AA 2024-T3: (1) the formation of a highly crosslinked interfacial layer, and (2) high water resistance of silane films. The former inhibits corrosion in the following two ways: (1) blocking favorable sites for water adsorption by the formation of AlOSi bonds at the interface which effectively reduces the tendency of aqueous corrosion; and (2) bonding tightly to the metal and thus restricting transportation of the existing corrosion products away from their original sites which hinders pit growth. It should be noted that a high density of AlOSi bonds can be obtained employing bis-silanes rather than mono-silanes. A high water resistance makes water penetration difficult in silane films. This is essential for preventing AlOSi bonds from hydrolysis. In part 3, test results for newly-developed water-based silane systems were

  6. Monitoring of heavy metal pollution in surface waters from Aries River, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levei, E. A.; Moldovan, O.; Senila, M.; Miclean, M.; Tanaselia, C.; Roman, C.; Abraham, B.; Cordos, E. A.

    2009-04-01

    Mining activities have a long history in the Aries catchment. The extraction of precious metals containing ores culminated in the mid 20th century and then decreased continuously. The mining industry created a beneficial economic development of the region but the negative environmental impact due to acid mine drainage combined with heavy metal pollution of surface waters still remains, after most of the mining operations were closed. This study presents the results of a monitoring surveillance of heavy metal concentrations in surface waters from 12 monitoring stations along the Aries River, during March-October 2008. The results showed that downstream of mining activities an increase of all metal concentrations in surface waters was observed, but the water quality improved with the distance from contaminant sources due to the dilution effect of less polluted tributaries.

  7. Leaky-Wave Radiations by Modulating Surface Impedance on Subwavelength Corrugated Metal Structures.

    PubMed

    Cai, Ben Geng; Li, Yun Bo; Ma, Hui Feng; Jiang, Wei Xiang; Cheng, Qiang; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-01-01

    One-dimensional (1D) subwavelength corrugated metal structures has been described to support spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). Here we demonstrate that a periodically modulated 1D subwavelength corrugated metal structure can convert spoof SPPs to propagating waves. The structure is fed at the center through a slit with a connected waveguide on the input side. The subwavelength corrugated metal structure on the output surface is regarded as metasurface and modulated periodically to realize the leaky-wave radiation at the broadside. The surface impedance of the corrugated metal structure is modulated by using cosine function and triangle-wave function, respectively, to reach the radiation effect. Full wave simulations and measuremental results are presented to validate the proposed design. PMID:27035269

  8. Leaky-Wave Radiations by Modulating Surface Impedance on Subwavelength Corrugated Metal Structures

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Ben Geng; Li, Yun Bo; Ma, Hui Feng; Jiang, Wei Xiang; Cheng, Qiang; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-01-01

    One-dimensional (1D) subwavelength corrugated metal structures has been described to support spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). Here we demonstrate that a periodically modulated 1D subwavelength corrugated metal structure can convert spoof SPPs to propagating waves. The structure is fed at the center through a slit with a connected waveguide on the input side. The subwavelength corrugated metal structure on the output surface is regarded as metasurface and modulated periodically to realize the leaky-wave radiation at the broadside. The surface impedance of the corrugated metal structure is modulated by using cosine function and triangle-wave function, respectively, to reach the radiation effect. Full wave simulations and measuremental results are presented to validate the proposed design. PMID:27035269

  9. Enhancing surface plasmon resonances of metallic nanoparticles by diatom biosilica.

    PubMed

    Ren, Fanghui; Campbell, Jeremy; Wang, Xiangyu; Rorrer, Gregory L; Wang, Alan X

    2013-07-01

    Diatoms are single-celled algaes that make photonic-crystal-like silica shells or frustules with hierarchical micro- & nano-scale features consisting of two-dimensional periodic pores. This article reports the use of diatom frustules as an integration platform to enhance localized surface plasmon resonances of self-assembled silver nanoparticles (NPs) on the surface of diatom frustules. Theoretical and experimental results show enhanced localized surface plasmons due to the coupling with the guided-mode resonances of the frustules. We observed 2 × stronger optical extinction and over 4 × higher sensitivity of surface-enhanced Raman scattering of Rhodmine 6G from the NPs-on-diatom than the NPs-on-glass structure.

  10. Surface engineering of the quality factor of metal coated microcantilevers

    SciTech Connect

    Ergincan, O.; Kooi, B. J.; Palasantzas, G.

    2014-12-14

    We performed noise measurements to obtain the quality factor (Q) and frequency shift of gold coated microcantilevers before and after surface modification using focused ion beam. As a result of our studies, it is demonstrated that surface engineering offers a promising method to control and increase the Q factor up to 50% for operation in vacuum. Surface modification could also lead to deviations from the known Q ∼ P{sup −1} behavior at low vacuum pressures P within the molecular regime. Finally, at higher pressures within the continuum regime, where Q is less sensitive to surface changes, a power scaling Q ∼ P{sup c} with c ≈ 0.3 was found instead of c = 0.5. The latter is explained via a semi-empirical formulation to account for continuum dissipation mechanisms at significant Reynolds numbers Re ∼ 1.

  11. Enhancing surface plasmon resonances of metallic nanoparticles by diatom biosilica.

    PubMed

    Ren, Fanghui; Campbell, Jeremy; Wang, Xiangyu; Rorrer, Gregory L; Wang, Alan X

    2013-07-01

    Diatoms are single-celled algaes that make photonic-crystal-like silica shells or frustules with hierarchical micro- & nano-scale features consisting of two-dimensional periodic pores. This article reports the use of diatom frustules as an integration platform to enhance localized surface plasmon resonances of self-assembled silver nanoparticles (NPs) on the surface of diatom frustules. Theoretical and experimental results show enhanced localized surface plasmons due to the coupling with the guided-mode resonances of the frustules. We observed 2 × stronger optical extinction and over 4 × higher sensitivity of surface-enhanced Raman scattering of Rhodmine 6G from the NPs-on-diatom than the NPs-on-glass structure. PMID:23842317

  12. Plasmonics—the interaction of light with metal surface electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroó, Norbert; Rácz, Péter

    2016-08-01

    The realization of light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation opened up an enormous wealth of potential new research and technologies in a broad wavelength range of electromagnetic waves. One of the new fields is plasmonics, based on the special properties of some materials with negative refractive index. In this case surface electromagnetic waves, coupled to surface electrons, the so-called surface plasmons can be generated. These waves among others represent a large enhancement of the EM field near the surface of the materials. The present paper illustrates some of the consequences of this phenomenon for a broad range of phenomena from ‘lasing’ to electron pairing. The latter is the basic condition for superconductivity, in our case found at room temperature. Measurements with a scanning tunneling microscope, furthermore electron and photon emission studies are the source of the presented experimental data.

  13. Hydrogen Adsorption, Absorption and Diffusion on and in Transition Metal Surfaces: A DFT Study

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrin, Peter A.; Kandoi, Shampa; Nilekar, Anand U.; Mavrikakis, Manos

    2012-01-04

    Periodic, self-consistent DFT-GGA(PW91) calculations are used to study the interaction of hydrogen with different facets of seventeen transition metals—the (100) and (111) facets of face-centered cubic (fcc) metals, the (0001) facet of hexagonal-close packed (hcp) metals, and the (100) and (110) facets of body-centered cubic (bcc) metals. Calculated geometries and binding energies for surface and subsurface hydrogen are reported and are, in general, in good agreement with both previous modeling studies and experimental data. There are significant differences between the binding on the close-packed and more open (100) facets of the same metal. Geometries of subsurface hydrogen on different facets of the same metal are generally similar; however, binding energies of hydrogen in the subsurface of the different facets studied showed significant variation. Formation of surface hydrogen is exothermic with respect to gas-phase H₂ on all metals studied with the exception of Ag and Au. For each metal studied, hydrogen in its preferred subsurface state is always less stable than its preferred surface state. The magnitude of the activation energy for hydrogen diffusion from the surface layer into the first subsurface layer is dominated by the difference in the thermodynamic stability of these two states. Diffusion from the first subsurface layer to one layer further into the bulk does not generally have a large thermodynamic barrier but still has a moderate kinetic barrier. Despite the proximity to the metal surface, the activation energy for hydrogen diffusion from the first to the second subsurface layer is generally similar to experimentally-determined activation energies for bulk diffusion found in the literature. There are also some significant differences in the activation energy for hydrogen diffusion into the bulk through different facets of the same metal.

  14. Method for preparing surfaces of metal composites having a brittle phase for plating. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Coates, C.W.; Wilson, T.J.

    1982-05-19

    The present invention is directed to a method for preparing surfaces of two-phase metal composites having relatively brittle and malleable components for plating with corrosion-resistant material. In practice of the present invention, the surfaces of the composite are etched to remove a major portion or fraction of the brittle component. The etched surface is then peened with particulates for breaking the brittle component from the surfaces and for spreading or smearing the malleable component over the surfaces. The peened surface is then chemically cleaned of residual traces of the brittle component to which the corrosion-resistant material may be plated thereon in an adherent manner.

  15. Laser-induced nanoscale superhydrophobic structures on metal surfaces.

    PubMed

    Jagdheesh, R; Pathiraj, B; Karatay, E; Römer, G R B E; Huis in't Veld, A J

    2011-07-01

    The combination of a dual-scale (nano and micro) roughness with an inherent low-surface energy coating material is an essential factor for the development of superhydrophobic surfaces. Ultrashort pulse laser (USPL) machining/structuring is a promising technique for obtaining the dual-scale roughness. Sheets of stainless steel (AISI 304 L SS) and Ti-6Al-4V alloys were laser-machined with ultraviolet laser pulses of 6.7 ps, with different numbers of pulses per irradiated area. The surface energy of the laser-machined samples was reduced via application of a layer of perfluorinated octyltrichlorosilane (FOTS). The influence of the number of pulses per irradiated area on the geometry of the nanostructure and the wetting properties of the laser-machined structures has been studied. The results show that with an increasing number of pulses per irradiated area, the nanoscale structures tend to become predominantly microscale. The top surface of the microscale structures is seen covered with nanoscale protrusions that are most pronounced in Ti-6Al-4V. The laser-machined Ti-6Al-4V surface attained superhydrophobicity, and the improvement in the contact angle was >27% when compared to that of a nontextured surface.

  16. Surface-protein interactions on different stainless steel grades: effects of protein adsorption, surface changes and metal release.

    PubMed

    Hedberg, Y; Wang, X; Hedberg, J; Lundin, M; Blomberg, E; Wallinder, I Odnevall

    2013-04-01

    Implantation using stainless steels (SS) is an example where an understanding of protein-induced metal release from SS is important when assessing potential toxicological risks. Here, the protein-induced metal release was investigated for austenitic (AISI 304, 310, and 316L), ferritic (AISI 430), and duplex (AISI 2205) grades in a phosphate buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4) solution containing either bovine serum albumin (BSA) or lysozyme (LSZ). The results show that both BSA and LSZ induce a significant enrichment of chromium in the surface oxide of all stainless steel grades. Both proteins induced an enhanced extent of released iron, chromium, nickel and manganese, very significant in the case of BSA (up to 40-fold increase), whereas both proteins reduced the corrosion resistance of SS, with the reverse situation for iron metal (reduced corrosion rates and reduced metal release in the presence of proteins). A full monolayer coverage is necessary to induce the effects observed.

  17. Molecular modeling of organic corrosion inhibitors: why bare metal cations are not appropriate models of oxidized metal surfaces and solvated metal cations.

    PubMed

    Kokalj, Anton

    2014-01-01

    The applicability of various models of oxidized metal surfaces - bare metal cations, clusters of various size, and extended (periodic) slabs - that are used in the field of quantum-chemical modeling of corrosion inhibitors is examined and discussed. As representative model systems imidazole inhibitor, MgO surface, and solvated Mg(2+) ion are considered by means of density-functional-theory calculations. Although the results of cluster models are prone to cluster size and shape effects, the clusters of moderate size seem useful at least for qualitative purposes. In contrast, the bare metal cations are useless not only as models of oxidized surfaces but also as models of solvated cations, because they bind molecules several times stronger than the more appropriate models. In particular, bare Mg(2+) binds imidazole by 5.9 eV, while the slab model of MgO(001) by only 0.35 eV. Such binding is even stronger for 3+ cations, e.g., bare Al(3+) binds imidazole by 17.9 eV. The reasons for these fantastically strong binding energies are discussed and it is shown that the strong bonding is predominantly due to electron charge transfer from molecule to metal cation, which stems from differences between molecular and metal ionization potentials.

  18. Pollution distribution of heavy metals in surface soil at an informal electronic-waste recycling site.

    PubMed

    Fujimori, Takashi; Takigami, Hidetaka

    2014-02-01

    We studied distribution of heavy metals [lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn)] in surface soil at an electronic-waste (e-waste) recycling workshop near Metro Manila in the Philippines to evaluate the pollution size (spot size, small area or the entire workshop), as well as to assess heavy metal transport into the surrounding soil environment. On-site length-of-stride-scale (~70 cm) measurements were performed at each surface soil point using field-portable X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF). The surface soil at the e-waste recycling workshop was polluted with Cu, Zn and Pb, which were distributed discretely in surface soil. The site was divided into five areas based on the distance from an entrance gate (y-axis) of the e-waste recycling workshop. The three heavy metals showed similar concentration gradients in the y-axis direction. Zn, Pb and Cu concentrations were estimated to decrease to half of their maximum concentrations at ~3, 7 and 7 m from the pollution spot, respectively, inside the informal e-waste recycling workshop. Distance from an entrance may play an important role in heavy metal transport at the soil surface. Using on-site FP-XRF, we evaluated the metal ratio to characterise pollution features of the solid surface. Variability analysis of heavy metals revealed vanishing surficial autocorrelation over metre ranges. Also, the possibility of concentration prediction at unmeasured points using geostatistical kriging was evaluated, and heavy metals had a relative "small" pollution scales and remained inside the original workshop compared with toxic organohalogen compounds. Thus, exposure to heavy metals may directly influence the health of e-waste workers at the original site rather than the surrounding habitat and environmental media. PMID:23645478

  19. Pollution distribution of heavy metals in surface soil at an informal electronic-waste recycling site.

    PubMed

    Fujimori, Takashi; Takigami, Hidetaka

    2014-02-01

    We studied distribution of heavy metals [lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn)] in surface soil at an electronic-waste (e-waste) recycling workshop near Metro Manila in the Philippines to evaluate the pollution size (spot size, small area or the entire workshop), as well as to assess heavy metal transport into the surrounding soil environment. On-site length-of-stride-scale (~70 cm) measurements were performed at each surface soil point using field-portable X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF). The surface soil at the e-waste recycling workshop was polluted with Cu, Zn and Pb, which were distributed discretely in surface soil. The site was divided into five areas based on the distance from an entrance gate (y-axis) of the e-waste recycling workshop. The three heavy metals showed similar concentration gradients in the y-axis direction. Zn, Pb and Cu concentrations were estimated to decrease to half of their maximum concentrations at ~3, 7 and 7 m from the pollution spot, respectively, inside the informal e-waste recycling workshop. Distance from an entrance may play an important role in heavy metal transport at the soil surface. Using on-site FP-XRF, we evaluated the metal ratio to characterise pollution features of the solid surface. Variability analysis of heavy metals revealed vanishing surficial autocorrelation over metre ranges. Also, the possibility of concentration prediction at unmeasured points using geostatistical kriging was evaluated, and heavy metals had a relative "small" pollution scales and remained inside the original workshop compared with toxic organohalogen compounds. Thus, exposure to heavy metals may directly influence the health of e-waste workers at the original site rather than the surrounding habitat and environmental media.

  20. Reactive solute transport in streams: A surface complexation approach for trace metal sorption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runkel, R.L.; Kimball, B.A.; McKnight, Diane M.; Bencala, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    A model for trace metals that considers in-stream transport, metal oxide precipitation-dissolution, and pH-dependent sorption is presented. Linkage between a surface complexation submodel and the stream transport equations provides a framework for modeling sorption onto static and/or dynamic surfaces. A static surface (e.g., an iron-oxide-coated streambed) is defined as a surface with a temporally constant solid concentration. Limited contact between solutes in the water column and the static surface is considered using a pseudokinetic approach. A dynamic surface (e.g., freshly precipitated metal oxides) has a temporally variable solid concentration and is in equilibrium with the water column. Transport and deposition of solute mass sorbed to the dynamic surface is represented in the stream transport equations that include precipitate settling. The model is applied to a pH-modification experiment in an acid mine drainage stream. Dissolved copper concentrations were depressed for a 3 hour period in response to the experimentally elevated pH. After passage of the pH front, copper was desorbed, and dissolved concentrations returned to ambient levels. Copper sorption is modeled by considering sorption to aged hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) on the streambed (static surface) and freshly precipitated HFO in the water column (dynamic surface). Comparison of parameter estimates with reported values suggests that naturally formed iron oxides may be more effective in removing trace metals than synthetic oxides used in laboratory studies. The model's ability to simulate pH, metal oxide precipitation-dissolution, and pH-dependent sorption provides a means of evaluating the complex interactions between trace metal chemistry and hydrologic transport at the field scale.

  1. Charge transfer and formation of reduced Ce{sup 3+} upon adsorption of metal atoms at the ceria (110) surface

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, Michael

    2012-04-07

    The modification of cerium dioxide with nanoscale metal clusters is intensely researched for catalysis applications, with gold, silver, and copper having been particularly well studied. The interaction of the metal cluster with ceria is driven principally by a localised interaction between a small number of metal atoms (as small as one) and the surface and understanding the fundamentals of the interaction of metal atoms with ceria surfaces is therefore of great interest. Much attention has been focused on the interaction of metals with the (111) surface of ceria, since this is the most stable surface and can be grown as films, which are probed experimentally. However, nanostructures exposing other surfaces such as (110) show high activity for reactions including CO oxidation and require further study; these nanostructures could be modified by deposition of metal atoms or small clusters, but there is no information to date on the atomic level details of metal-ceria interactions involving the (110) surface. This paper presents the results of density functional theory (DFT) corrected for on-site Coulomb interactions (DFT+U) calculations of the adsorption of a number of different metal atoms at an extended ceria (110) surface; the metals are Au, Ag, Cu, Al, Ga, In, La, Ce, V, Cr, and Fe. Upon adsorption all metals are oxidised, transferring electron(s) to the surface, resulting in localised surface distortions. The precise details depend on the identity of the metal atom. Au, Ag, Cu each transfer one electron to the surface, reducing one Ce ion to Ce{sup 3+}, while of the trivalent metals, Al and La are fully oxidised, but Ga and In are only partially oxidised. Ce and the transition metals are also partially oxidised, with the number of reduced Ce ions possible in this surface no more than three per adsorbed metal atom. The predicted oxidation states of the adsorbed metal atoms should be testable in experiments on ceria nanostructures modified with metal atoms.

  2. Charge transfer and formation of reduced Ce3+ upon adsorption of metal atoms at the ceria (110) surface.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Michael

    2012-04-01

    The modification of cerium dioxide with nanoscale metal clusters is intensely researched for catalysis applications, with gold, silver, and copper having been particularly well studied. The interaction of the metal cluster with ceria is driven principally by a localised interaction between a small number of metal atoms (as small as one) and the surface and understanding the fundamentals of the interaction of metal atoms with ceria surfaces is therefore of great interest. Much attention has been focused on the interaction of metals with the (111) surface of ceria, since this is the most stable surface and can be grown as films, which are probed experimentally. However, nanostructures exposing other surfaces such as (110) show high activity for reactions including CO oxidation and require further study; these nanostructures could be modified by deposition of metal atoms or small clusters, but there is no information to date on the atomic level details of metal-ceria interactions involving the (110) surface. This paper presents the results of density functional theory (DFT) corrected for on-site Coulomb interactions (DFT+U) calculations of the adsorption of a number of different metal atoms at an extended ceria (110) surface; the metals are Au, Ag, Cu, Al, Ga, In, La, Ce, V, Cr, and Fe. Upon adsorption all metals are oxidised, transferring electron(s) to the surface, resulting in localised surface distortions. The precise details depend on the identity of the metal atom. Au, Ag, Cu each transfer one electron to the surface, reducing one Ce ion to Ce(3+), while of the trivalent metals, Al and La are fully oxidised, but Ga and In are only partially oxidised. Ce and the transition metals are also partially oxidised, with the number of reduced Ce ions possible in this surface no more than three per adsorbed metal atom. The predicted oxidation states of the adsorbed metal atoms should be testable in experiments on ceria nanostructures modified with metal atoms.

  3. Metallographic study of metallic fragment of lunar surface material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mints, R. I.; Petukhova, T. M.; Ivanov, A. V.

    1974-01-01

    A high precision investigation of a metallic fragment from the lunar material returned by the Soviet Luna 16 automatic station revealed three characteristic temperature intervals with different kinetics of solid solution decomposition. The following were found in the structure of the iron-nickel-cobalt alloy: (1) delta-phase and alpha-ferrite of diffusional, displacement origin in the grain boundary and acicular forms; and (2) martensite of isothermal and athermal nature, acicular, lamellar, massive, and dendritic. The diversity of the shapes of structural constituents is associated with the effect on their formation of elastic distortions and various mechanisms of deformation relaxation processes.

  4. Liquid-Metal Pump Technologies for Nuclear Surface Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, K. A.

    2007-01-01

    Multiple liquid-metal pump options are reviewed for the purpose of determining the technologies that are best suited for inclusion in a nuclear reactor thermal simulator intended to test prototypical space nuclear system components. Conduction, induction, and thermoelectric electromagnetic pumps are evaluated based on their performance characteristics and the technical issues associated with incorporation into a reactor system. The thermoelectric pump is recommended for inclusion in the planned system at NASA MSFC based on its relative simplicity, low power supply mass penalty, flight heritage, and the promise of increased pump efficiency over earlier flight pump designs through the use of skutterudite thermoelectric elements.

  5. The calculation of surface orbital energies for specific types of active sites on dispersed metal catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, R.L.; Lahanas, K.M.; Cole, F.

    1992-11-01

    An angular overlap calculation has been used to determine the s, p, and d orbital energy levels of the different types of surface sites present on dispersed metal catalysts. These data can permit a Frontier Molecular Orbital treatment of specific site activities as long as the surface orbital availability for overlap with adsorbed substrates is considered along with its energy value and symmetry.

  6. The calculation of surface orbital energies for specific types of active sites on dispersed metal catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, R.L.; Lahanas, K.M.; Cole, F.

    1992-01-01

    An angular overlap calculation has been used to determine the s, p, and d orbital energy levels of the different types of surface sites present on dispersed metal catalysts. These data can permit a Frontier Molecular Orbital treatment of specific site activities as long as the surface orbital availability for overlap with adsorbed substrates is considered along with its energy value and symmetry.

  7. Guided evolution of bulk metallic glass nanostructures: A platform for designing three-dimensional electrocatalytic surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Doubek, Gustavo; Sekol, Ryan C.; Li, Jinyang; Ryu, Won -Hee; Gittleson, Forrest S.; Nejati, Siamak; Moy, Eric; Reid, Candy; Carmo, Marcelo; Linardi, Marcelo; Bordeenithikasem, Punnathat; Kinser, Emily; Liu, Yanhui; Tong, Xiao; Osuji, Chinedum; Schroers, Jan; Mukherjee, Sundeep; Taylor, Andre D.

    2015-12-22

    Precise control over catalyst surface composition and structure is necessary to improve the function of electrochemical systems. To that end, bulk metallic glass (BMG) alloys with atomically dispersed elements provide a highly processable, nanoscale platform for electrocatalysis and surface modification. Here we report on nanostructures of Pt-based BMGs that are modified with various subtractive and additive processes to improve their electrochemical performance.

  8. Investigation of Liquid Metal Heat Exchanger Designs for Fission Surface Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyson, Rodger W.; Penswick, Barry; Robbie, Malcolm; Geng, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Fission surface power is an option for future Moon and Mars surface missions. High power nuclear reactor heated Stirling convertors are an option to provide reliable power for long duration outpost operations. This report investigates various design approaches for the liquid metal to acceptor heat exchange and clarifies the details used in the analysis.

  9. Surface treatment of polyimide film for metal magnetron deposition in vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, V.; Vertyanov, D.; Timoshenkov, S.; Nikolaev, V.

    2014-12-01

    This paper brings forward a solution for acquisition of good quality metallization layers on the polyimide substrate by magnetron deposition in vacuum environment. Different film type structures have been analyzed after refining and activation surface treatment operations. Positive effect was shown after the application of polyimide lacquer for surface dielectric film planarization and for structural defects elimination.

  10. Surface functionalization of metal-organic polyhedron for homogeneous cyclopropanation catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Weigang; Yuan, Daqiang; Yakovenko, Andrey; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2012-03-13

    A super-paddlewheel (comprised of two paddlewheels) metal-organic polyhedron (MOP) containing surface hydroxyl groups was synthesized and characterized. Condensation reactions with linear alkyl anhydrides lead to new MOPs with enhanced solubility. As a result, the surface-modified MOP 4 was demonstrated as a homogeneous Lewis-acid catalyst.

  11. A STUDY ON HIGH STRENGTH BOLTED JOINT WITH METAL-SPRAYED CONTACT SURFACES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minami, Kuniaki; Saito, Masamichi; Yokoyama, Hideki; Sugimoto, Ichiro; Nojima, Takao; Masunaga, Toshihiko; Nagasaki, Eiji

    Slip coefficient of high-strength bolt friction joints is well known to depend on the condition of contact surfaces. The coefficient is determined as 0.4 in the Specifications for Highway Bridges and the Design Standards for Railway Structures and Commentary (Steel Structures) in Japan, in the condition of roughened contact surfaces with mill scale removed or painted contact surfaces with inorganic zinc rich paint. However, the slip coefficient with metal-sprayed surfaces is not clear. For the joints with metalsprayed surfaces, hot-dip galvanized bolts are applied and such bolts are tightened by turn-of-nut method. However, it is unclear how much axial force is induced into the bolts in the joints with metal-sprayed surfaces. In order to examine slip coefficient of the bolted joints with metal-sprayed contact surfaces slip tests of high strength bolted joints were carried out. On the basis of above examinations, the slip coefficient with metal-sprayed surfaces is proposed in this paper. To clarify the induced axial force of the bolts, bolt-tightening tests were carried out. Considering bolt diameter, bolt length, induced axial forces and their relaxation, nut rotation angles are proposed in relation to different bolt size.

  12. Surface functionalization of metal-organic polyhedron for homogeneous cyclopropanation catalysis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Weigang; Yuan, Daqiang; Yakovenko, Andrey; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2011-05-01

    A super-paddlewheel (comprised of two paddlewheels) metal-organic polyhedron (MOP) containing surface hydroxyl groups was synthesized and characterized. Condensation reactions with linear alkyl anhydrides lead to new MOPs with enhanced solubility. As a result, the surface-modified MOP 4 was demonstrated as a homogeneous Lewis-acid catalyst.

  13. FDTD/TDSE study of surface-enhanced infrared absorption by metal nanoparticles.

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.-H.; Schatz, G. C.; Gray, S. K.; Chemistry; Northwestern Univ.; National Cheng-Kung Univ.

    2006-01-01

    We study surface-enhanced infrared absorption, including multiphoton processes, due to the excitation of surface plasmons on metal nanoparticles. The time-dependent Schroedinger equation and finite-difference time-domain method are self-consistently coupled to treat the problem.

  14. [Characterizing methods of structure and character for silane film on metal surface].

    PubMed

    Xu, Yi; Tang, Shou-yuan; Zhang, Xiao-feng

    2004-04-01

    Surface analysis methods for structure and characters of silane film on metal surface were reviewed in this paper. Many instrumental methods, such as XPS, ATR-FTIR, RA-FTIR, SIMS, ellipsometry, EIS and so on, were applied to characterizing different silane films on different metal base surfaces. According to the research on silane film formation mechanism, silane film state, silane film structure, silane film thickness, silane film corrosion resistance and so on, factors which affect silane film properties were discussed. Various parameters were proposed for characterizing silane film. Merits and defects of various surface analysis methods were expressed. In order to acquire more chemical information, different surface analysis methods can be combined for detection at the same time. Regarding the results from these detection and analysis, new silane treatment technique for metal surface can be optimized and improved greatly. Some other kinds of surface analysis methods were also mentioned in this paper. More advanced researches in the field of silane film analysis on metal surface were prospected. PMID:15766167

  15. Controlling Surface Chemistry of Gallium Liquid Metal Alloys to Enhance their Fluidic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyas, Nahid; Cumby, Brad; Cook, Alexander; Durstock, Michael; Tabor, Christopher; Materials; Manufacturing Directorate Team

    Gallium liquid metal alloys (GaLMAs) are one of the key components of emerging technologies in reconfigurable electronics, such as tunable radio frequency antennas and electronic switches. Reversible flow of GaLMA in microchannels of these types of devices is hindered by the instantaneous formation of its oxide skin in ambient environment. The oxide film sticks to most surfaces leaving unwanted metallic residues that can cause undesired electronic properties. In this report, residue-free reversible flow of a binary alloy of gallium (eutectic gallium indium) is demonstrated via two types of surface modifications where the oxide film is either protected by an organic thin film or chemically removed. An interface modification layer (alkyl phosphonic acids) was introduced into the microfluidic system to modify the liquid metal surface and protect its oxide layer. Alternatively, an ion exchange membrane was utilized as a 'sponge-like' channel material to store and slowly release small amounts of HCl to react with the surface oxide of the liquid metal. Characterization of these interfaces at molecular level by surface spectroscopy and microscopy provided with mechanistic details for the interfacial interactions between the liquid metal surface and the channel materials.

  16. Superhydrophobic metallic surfaces functionalized via femtosecond laser surface processing for long term air film retention when submerged in liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuhlke, Craig A.; Anderson, Troy P.; Li, Pengbo; Lucis, Michael J.; Roth, Nick; Shield, Jeffrey E.; Terry, Benjamin; Alexander, Dennis R.

    2015-03-01

    Femtosecond laser surface processing (FLSP) is a powerful technique used to create self-organized microstructures with nanoscale features on metallic surfaces. By combining FLSP surface texturing with surface chemistry changes, either induced by the femtosecond laser during processing or introduced through post processing techniques, the wetting properties of metals can be altered. In this work, FLSP is demonstrated as a technique to create superhydrophobic surfaces on grade 2 titanium and 304 stainless steel that can retain an air film (plastron) between the surface and a surrounding liquid when completely submerged. It is shown that the plastron lifetime when submerged in distilled water or synthetic stomach acid is critically dependent on the specific degree of surface micro- and nano-roughness, which can be tuned by controlling various FLSP parameters. The longest plastron lifetime was on a 304 stainless steel sample that was submerged in distilled water and maintained a plastron for 41 days, the length of time of the study, with no signs of degradation. Also demonstrated for the first time is the precise control of pulse fluence and pulse count to produce three unique classes of surface micron/nano-structuring on titanium.

  17. Structure of ultrathin oxide layers on metal surfaces from grazing scattering of fast atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, H.; Seifert, J.; Blauth, D.; Busch, M.; Schüller, A.; Wethekam, S.

    2009-10-01

    The structure of ultrathin oxide layers grown on metal substrates is investigated by grazing scattering of fast atoms from the film surface. We present three recent experimental techniques which allow us to study the structure of ordered oxide films on metal substrates in detail. (1) A new variant of a triangulation method with fast atoms based on the detection of emitted electrons, (2) rainbow scattering under axial surface channeling conditions, and (3) fast atom diffraction (FAD) for studies on the structure of oxide films. Our examples demonstrate the attractive features of grazing fast atom scattering as a powerful analytical tool in surface physics.

  18. Organometallic Probe for the Electronics of Base-Stabilized Group 11 Metal Cations.

    PubMed

    Braunschweig, Holger; Ewing, William C; Kramer, Thomas; Mattock, James D; Vargas, Alfredo; Werner, Christine

    2015-08-24

    A number of trimetalloborides have been synthesized through the reactions of base-stabilized coinage metal chlorides with a dimanganaborylene lithium salt in the hope of using this organometallic platform to compare and evaluate the electronics of these popular coinage metal fragments. The adducts of Cu(I), Ag(I), and Au(I) ions, stabilized by tricyclohexylphosphine (PCy3), N-1,3-bis(4-methylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene (ITol), or 1-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-3,3,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidin-2-ylidene (CAAC), with [{Cp(CO)2Mn}2B](-) were studied spectroscopically, structurally, and computationally. The geometries of the adducts fall into two classes, one symmetric and one asymmetric, each relying on the combined characteristics of both the metal and ligand. The energetic factors proposed as the causes of the structural differences were investigated by ETS-NOCV (extended transition state-natural orbitals for chemical valence) analysis, which showed the final geometry to be controlled by the competition between the tendency of the coinage metal to adopt a higher or lower coordination number and the willingness of the cationic fragment to participate in back-bonding interactions. PMID:26178571

  19. Evaluation of the residue from microset on various metal surfaces.

    SciTech Connect

    Brumbach, Michael Todd

    2011-04-01

    Fast-curing impression materials are sometimes used to cast negative-mold replications of physical defects on material surfaces. The negative-mold impressions can then be used for further measurements to record the nature of the defect. These impression materials have been designed to cure quickly, and with very low adhesion, so that they can be easily removed from the surface leaving little residual contamination. Unfortunately, some contaminant is retained by the substrate material. This investigation seeks to identify the composition and quantity of the remaining material upon removal of Microset Synthetic Rubber Replicating Compound from several material surfaces. Coe-Flex was used as a relative comparison to Microset. On fifteen different substrate materials the Microset leaves no visible trace of contaminant, however, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows evidence of a thin silicone-based contaminant film of approximately 2 nm thickness.

  20. Solubility and Surface Adsorption Characteristics of Metal Oxides to High Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    D.J. Wesolowski; M.L. Machesky; S.E. Ziemniak; C. Xiao; D.A. Palmer; L.M. Anovitz; P. Benezeth

    2001-05-04

    The interaction of high temperature aqueous solutions with mineral surfaces plays a key role in many aspects of fossil, geothermal and nuclear energy production. This is an area of study in which the subsurface geochemical processes that determine brine composition, porosity and permeability changes, reservoir integrity, and fluid flow rates overlap with the industrial processes associated with corrosion of metal parts and deposition of solids in pipes and on heat exchanger surfaces. The sorption of ions on mineral surfaces is also of great interest in both the subsurface and ''above ground'' regimes of power production, playing a key role in subsurface migration of contaminants (nuclear waste disposal, geothermal brine re-injection, etc.) and in plant operations (corrosion mitigation, migration of radioactive metals from reactor core to heat exchanger, etc.). In this paper, results of the solubility and surface chemistry of metal oxides relevant to both regimes are summarized.

  1. In situ X-ray nanotomography of metal surfaces during electropolishing

    DOE PAGES

    Nave, Maryana I.; Allen, Jason P.; Karen Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen; Wang, Jun; Kalidindi, Surya R.; Kornev, Konstantin G.

    2015-10-15

    A low voltage electropolishing of metal wires is attractive for nanotechnology because it provides centimeter long and micrometer thick probes with the tip radius of tens of nanometers. Using X-ray nanotomography we studied morphological transformations of the surface of tungsten wires in a specially designed electrochemical cell where the wire is vertically submersed into the KOH electrolyte. We show that stability and uniformity of the probe span is supported by a porous shell growing at the surface of tungsten oxide and shielding the wire surface from flowing electrolyte. We discovered that the kinetics of shell growth at the triple line,more » where meniscus meets the wire, is very different from that of the bulk of electrolyte. Many metals follow similar electrochemical transformations hence the discovered morphological transformations of metal surfaces are expected to play significant role in many natural and technological applications.« less

  2. Metal-Free on-Surface Photochemical Homocoupling of Terminal Alkynes.

    PubMed

    Colazzo, Luciano; Sedona, Francesco; Moretto, Alessandro; Casarin, Maurizio; Sambi, Mauro

    2016-08-17

    On-surface synthesis involving the homocoupling of aryl-alkynes affords the buildup of bisacetylene derivatives directly at surfaces, which in turn may be further used as ingredients for the production of novel functional materials. Generally, homocoupling of terminal alkynes takes place by thermal activation of molecular precursors on metal surfaces. However, the interaction of alkynes with surface metal atoms often induces unwanted reaction pathways when thermal energy is provided to the system. In this contribution we report about light-induced metal-free homocoupling of terminal alkynes on highly oriented pyrolitic graphite (HOPG). The reaction occurred with high efficiency and selectivity within a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of aryl-alkynes and led to the generation of large domains of ordered butadiynyl derivatives. Such a photochemical uncatalyzed pathway represents an original approach in the field of topological C-C coupling at the solid/liquid interface. PMID:27437555

  3. In situ X-ray nanotomography of metal surfaces during electropolishing

    PubMed Central

    Nave, Maryana I.; Allen, Jason P.; Karen Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen; Wang, Jun; Kalidindi, Surya R.; Kornev, Konstantin G.

    2015-01-01

    A low voltage electropolishing of metal wires is attractive for nanotechnology because it provides centimeter long and micrometer thick probes with the tip radius of tens of nanometers. Using X-ray nanotomography we studied morphological transformations of the surface of tungsten wires in a specially designed electrochemical cell where the wire is vertically submersed into the KOH electrolyte. It is shown that stability and uniformity of the probe span is supported by a porous shell growing at the surface of tungsten oxide and shielding the wire surface from flowing electrolyte. It is discovered that the kinetics of shell growth at the triple line, where meniscus meets the wire, is very different from that of the bulk of electrolyte. Many metals follow similar electrochemical transformations hence the discovered morphological transformations of metal surfaces are expected to play significant role in many natural and technological applications. PMID:26469184

  4. In situ X-ray nanotomography of metal surfaces during electropolishing

    SciTech Connect

    Nave, Maryana I.; Allen, Jason P.; Karen Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen; Wang, Jun; Kalidindi, Surya R.; Kornev, Konstantin G.

    2015-10-15

    A low voltage electropolishing of metal wires is attractive for nanotechnology because it provides centimeter long and micrometer thick probes with the tip radius of tens of nanometers. Using X-ray nanotomography we studied morphological transformations of the surface of tungsten wires in a specially designed electrochemical cell where the wire is vertically submersed into the KOH electrolyte. We show that stability and uniformity of the probe span is supported by a porous shell growing at the surface of tungsten oxide and shielding the wire surface from flowing electrolyte. We discovered that the kinetics of shell growth at the triple line, where meniscus meets the wire, is very different from that of the bulk of electrolyte. Many metals follow similar electrochemical transformations hence the discovered morphological transformations of metal surfaces are expected to play significant role in many natural and technological applications.

  5. Adsorption of lysozyme on base metal surfaces in the presence of an external electric potential.

    PubMed

    Ei Ei, Htwe; Nakama, Yuhi; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Imanaka, Hiroyuki; Ishida, Naoyuki; Imamura, Koreyoshi

    2016-11-01

    The impact of external electric potential on the adsorption of a protein to base metal surfaces was examined. Hen egg white lysozyme (LSZ) and six types of base metal plates (stainless steel SUS316L (St), Ti, Ta, Zr, Cr, or Ni) were used as the protein and adsorption surface, respectively. LSZ was allowed to adsorb on the surface under different conditions (surface potential, pH, electrolyte type and concentration, surface material), which was monitored using an ellipsometer. LSZ adsorption was minimized in the potential range above a certain threshold and, in the surface potential range below the threshold, decreasing the surface potential increased the amount of protein adsorbed. The threshold potential for LSZ adsorption was shifted toward a positive value with increasing pH and was lower for Ta and Zr than for the others. A divalent anion salt (K2SO4) as an electrolyte exhibited the adsorption of LSZ in the positive potential range while a monovalent salt (KCl) did not. A comprehensive consideration of the obtained results suggests that two modes of interactions, namely the electric force by an external electric field and electrostatic interactions with ionized surface hydroxyl groups, act on the LSZ molecules and determine the extent of suppression of LSZ adsorption. All these findings appear to support the view that a base metal surface can be controlled for the affinity to a protein by manipulating the surface electric potential as has been reported on some electrode materials. PMID:27478958

  6. Adsorption of lysozyme on base metal surfaces in the presence of an external electric potential.

    PubMed

    Ei Ei, Htwe; Nakama, Yuhi; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Imanaka, Hiroyuki; Ishida, Naoyuki; Imamura, Koreyoshi

    2016-11-01

    The impact of external electric potential on the adsorption of a protein to base metal surfaces was examined. Hen egg white lysozyme (LSZ) and six types of base metal plates (stainless steel SUS316L (St), Ti, Ta, Zr, Cr, or Ni) were used as the protein and adsorption surface, respectively. LSZ was allowed to adsorb on the surface under different conditions (surface potential, pH, electrolyte type and concentration, surface material), which was monitored using an ellipsometer. LSZ adsorption was minimized in the potential range above a certain threshold and, in the surface potential range below the threshold, decreasing the surface potential increased the amount of protein adsorbed. The threshold potential for LSZ adsorption was shifted toward a positive value with increasing pH and was lower for Ta and Zr than for the others. A divalent anion salt (K2SO4) as an electrolyte exhibited the adsorption of LSZ in the positive potential range while a monovalent salt (KCl) did not. A comprehensive consideration of the obtained results suggests that two modes of interactions, namely the electric force by an external electric field and electrostatic interactions with ionized surface hydroxyl groups, act on the LSZ molecules and determine the extent of suppression of LSZ adsorption. All these findings appear to support the view that a base metal surface can be controlled for the affinity to a protein by manipulating the surface electric potential as has been reported on some electrode materials.

  7. Biomimetic hemocompatible coatings through immobilization of hyaluronan derivatives on metal surfaces.

    PubMed

    Thierry, Benjamin; Winnik, Françoise M; Merhi, Yahye; Griesser, Hans J; Tabrizian, Maryam

    2008-10-21

    Biomimetic coatings offer exciting options to modulate the biocompatibility of biomaterials. The challenge is to create surfaces that undergo specific interactions with cells without promoting nonspecific fouling. This work reports an innovative approach toward biomimetic surfaces based on the covalent immobilization of a carboxylate terminated PEGylated hyaluronan (HA-PEG) onto plasma functionalized NiTi alloy surfaces. The metal substrates were aminated via two different plasma functionalization processes. Hyaluronan, a natural glycosaminoglycan and the major constituent of the extracellular matrix, was grafted to the substrates by reaction of the surface amines with the carboxylic acid terminated PEG spacer using carbodiimide chemistry. The surface modification was monitored at each step by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). HA-immobilized surfaces displayed increased hydrophilicity and reduced fouling, compared to bare surfaces, when exposed to human platelets (PLT) in an in vitro assay with radiolabeled platelets (204.1 +/- 123.8 x 10 (3) PLT/cm (2) vs 538.5 +/- 100.5 x 10 (3) PLT/cm (2) for bare metal, p < 0.05). Using a robust plasma patterning technique, microstructured hyaluronan surfaces were successfully created as demonstrated by XPS chemical imaging. The bioactive surfaces described present unique features, which result from the synergy between the intrinsic biological properties of hyaluronan and the chemical composition and morphology of the polymer layer immobilized on a metal surface.

  8. Re-Emission of Hydrogen from Metal Surfaces.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jin-Gor

    An experimental investigation has been made of the recombination of deuterium atoms on stainless steel surface. A limited study on gold has been performed also. The problem of poor reproducibility of the recombination data on stainless steel surface can be solved by a pre -bombardment by a D('+) ion beam with a fluence of 5 x 10('18)cm(' -2) or by a pre-bombardment of Ar('+) ion beam with a fluence of 4 x 10('16)cm('-2) on the surface. These pre-bombardments sputter off at least 10 nm oxide layer on the surface and generate a stable condition on the surface to be studied. The irreproducibility of data is believed to be due to the presence of an oxide layer on the steel surface. The data of gold, which is free of oxide on its surface, has been proved reproducible without any pre-bombardment. The present data for recombination on a stainless steel surface can be summarized in the form 2 (sigma) k(,r) = 4 x 10('-23)exp{-0.245/kT} cm('4)sec('-1). This is the Arrhenius form 2 (sigma) k(,r) = K(,0)exp {-E(,k)/kT}. Our determined value of K(,0) is 4 x 10('-23)cm('4)sec('-1), to an accuracy of 28%; E(,k) is 0.245 ev, with a possible error of 7%. At temperatures ranging from 410 to 550(DEGREES)K, the recombination coefficients of gold can be expressed as 2 (sigma) k(,r) = 2.2 x 10('-23)exp{-0.32/kT} cm('4)sec('-1). Thus, K(,0) is 2.2 x 10('-23)cm('4)sec(' -1) and E(,k) is 0.32 ev, with the same errors as those in stainless steel data. A large fraction of deuterium has been found retained in the gold sample at temperatures below 410(DEGREES)K. For the temperatures above 410(DEGREES)K, no retention can be detected and the transport of deuterium is recombination limited rather than diffusion limited.

  9. Model for water outgassing from metal surfaces. II

    SciTech Connect

    Li, M.; Dylla, H.F. )

    1994-07-01

    The outgassing rate from an electropolished stainless steel (type 304) surface is measured after the surface is exposed to H[sub 2]O vapor at pressures ([ital p][sub 0]) of 10[sup [minus]3]--10 Torr for exposure periods ([ital t][sub 0]) of 3--600 min. The system is kept at 310, 350, or 390 K during H[sub 2]O exposures and subsequent outgassing measurements. Our data show that the outgassing rate is proportional to [ital p][sup [ital n

  10. [Variation characteristics and controlling factors of heavy metals in the South Yellow Sea surface seawaters].

    PubMed

    He, Zhi-Peng; Song, Jin-Ming; Zhang, Nai-Xing; Xu, Ya-Yan; Zheng, Guo-Xia; Zhang, Peng

    2008-05-01

    Based on the 8 cruises data of surface seawater heavy metals and other related environmental factors from 1997 to 2004 of the South Yellow Sea (SYS), distribution patterns, mechanisms controlling the distributions and pollution levels of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn) were studied with the data of 2003-10, and 8-year-fluctuation trends of heavy metals were also discussed. The average concentrations of heavy metals in surface seawater were 2.33, 0.078, 1.41, 0.003 6, 0.37, 6.21 microg/L respectively. The average concentrations showed a relatively stable trend in 8 years, except Zn's distinct upward tendency. The distribution patterns corresponded to the distance away from the coastline,that was, the content of heavy metals (except Pb) was low in central area while high inshore. Those were responses of human activity in the marginal sea, however, in some local areas, Pb was controlled by atmospheric deposition, Cd was relative to pH and salinity, Hg was related to organic carbon, Cu and Zn were influenced by runoff and drainage, and the resuspending of sediments played important roles on the content and distribution of As. Compared to the Marine Water Quality Standard of China, heavy metals indicated that SYS was a first class sea, and Ecological Risk Index analysis showed that SYS was a low ecological risk sea. In conclusion, seawater quality of heavy metals in SYS surface seawater is relatively good in general.

  11. Electric current induced flow of liquid metals: Mechanism and substrate-surface effects

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, P.; Howarth, J.; Dutta, I.

    2014-01-28

    Long range, continuous flow of liquid metals occurs upon application of an electric current. Here, we report experimental results elucidating the mechanism of current-induced liquid metal flow, and its dependence on substrate surface condition. It is shown that the observed flow is diffusion-controlled, with the flow-rate depending linearly on applied current density, indicating that it is driven by electromigration. The effective charge number for liquid electromigration, Z*, of several pure metals, such as Al, Bi, Ga, Sn, and Pb, were deduced from the experimental results and were found to be close to the elemental valency. With the exception of liquid Pb, Z* for all liquid metals tested in this study were positive, indicating that: (i) electron wind contributes much less to Z* in liquid metals than in solids, and (ii) with a few exceptions, liquid metals generally flow in the direction of the electric current. On smooth substrates which are wetted well by the liquid metal, flow occurs in a thin, continuous stream. On rough surfaces which are poorly wetted, on the other hand, discrete beads of liquid form, with mass transport between adjacent beads occurring by surface diffusion on the substrate. A rationale for the role of substrate roughness in fostering this observed transition in flow mechanism is presented.

  12. Reconstruction of the (310), (210) and (110) surfaces in fcc metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. P.; Voter, A. F.

    We have investigated the 1 × 2 missing-row reconstruction for the (310), (210), and (110) surfaces of Ni, Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag, Au, and Al using embedded atom potentials. The embedded method (EAM) predicts that on the (310) and (110) surfaces, only Au and Pt reconstruct, but that all seven metals reconstruct on the (210) face. We also introduce a simple model, based on the second moment of the missing bond distribution, that predicts 1 × 2 and possibly higher-order reconstruction for all (210) surfaces and for (110) and (310) surfaces of metals with a large Cauchy pressure ( C12- C44). On the (110) surfaces, the EAM and the simple model predictions agree with experiment, but not on the (210) surface in the one case studied.

  13. Reconstruction of the (310), (210) and (110) surfaces in fcc metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. P.; Voter, A. F.

    1991-03-01

    We have investigated the 1×2 missing-row reconstruction for the (310), (210), and (110) surfaces of Ni, Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag, Au, and Al using embedded atom potentials. The embedded method (EAM) predicts that on the (310) and (110) surfaces, only Au and Pt reconstruct, but that all seven metals reconstruct on the (210) face. We also introduce a simple model, based on the second moment of the missing bond distribution, that predicts 1×2 and possibly higher-order reconstruction for all (210) surfaces and for (110) and (310) surfaces of metals with a large Cauchy pressure ( C12- C44). On the (110) surfaces, the EAM and the simple model predictions agree with experiment, but not on the (210) surface in the one case studied.

  14. Fabrication and condensation characteristics of metallic superhydrophobic surface with hierarchical micro-nano structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Fuqiang; Wu, Xiaomin

    2016-05-01

    Metallic superhydrophobic surfaces have various applications in aerospace, refrigeration and other engineering fields due to their excellent water repellent characteristics. This study considers a simple but widely applicable fabrication method using a two simultaneous chemical reactions method to prepare the acid-salt mixed solutions to process the metal surfaces with surface deposition and surface etching to construct hierarchical micro-nano structures on the surface and then modify the surface with low surface-energy materials. Al-based and Cu-based superhydrophobic surfaces were fabricated using this method. The Al-based superhydrophobic surface had a water contact angle of 164° with hierarchical micro-nano structures similar to the lotus leaves. The Cu-based surface had a water contact angle of 157° with moss-like hierarchical micro-nano structures. Droplet condensation experiments were also performed on these two superhydrophobic surfaces to investigate their condensation characteristics. The results show that the Al-based superhydrophobic surface has lower droplet density, higher droplet jumping probability, slower droplet growth rate and lower surface coverage due to the more structured hierarchical structures.

  15. Heavy metals pollution and pb isotopic signatures in surface sediments collected from Bohai Bay, North China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bo; Lu, Jin; Hao, Hong; Yin, Shuhua; Yu, Xiao; Wang, Qiwen; Sun, Ke

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the characteristics and potential sources of heavy metals pollution, surface sediments collected from Bohai Bay, North China, were analyzed for the selected metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn). The Geoaccumulation Index was used to assess the level of heavy metal pollution. Pb isotopic compositions in sediments were also measured to effectively identify the potential Pb sources. The results showed that the average concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were 0.15, 79.73, 28.70, 36.56, 25.63, and 72.83 mg/kg, respectively. The mean concentrations of the studied metals were slightly higher than the background values. However, the heavy metals concentrations in surface sediments in Bohai Bay were below the other important bays or estuaries in China. The assessment by Geoaccumulation Index indicated that Cr, Zn, and Cd were classified as "the unpolluted" level, while Ni, Cu, and Pb were ranked as "unpolluted to moderately polluted" level. The order of pollution level of heavy metals was: Pb > Ni > Cu > Cr > Zn > Cd. The Pb isotopic ratios in surface sediments varied from 1.159 to 1.185 for (206)Pb/(207)Pb and from 2.456 to 2.482 for (208)Pb/(207)Pb. Compared with Pb isotopic radios in other sources, Pb contaminations in the surface sediments of Bohai Bay may be controlled by the mix process of coal combustion, aerosol particles deposition, and natural sources.

  16. Effects of d-band shape on the surface reactivity of transition-metal alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Hongliang; Vojvodic, Aleksandra; Voss, Johannes; Nørskov, Jens K.; Abild-Pedersen, Frank

    2014-03-01

    The d-band shape of a metal site, governed by the local geometry and composition of materials, plays an important role in determining trends of the surface reactivity of transition-metal alloys. We discuss this phenomenon using the chemisorption of various adsorbates such as C, N, O, and their hydrogenated species on Pd bimetallic alloys as an example. For many alloys, the d-band center, even with consideration of the d-band width and sp electrons, can not describe variations in reactivity from one surface to another. We investigate the effect of the d-band shape, represented by higher moments of the d band, on the local electronic structure of adsorbates, e.g., energy and filling of adsorbate-metal antibonding states. The upper d-band edge ɛu, defined as the highest peak position of the Hilbert transform of the density of states projected onto d orbitals of an active metal site, is identified as an electronic descriptor for the surface reactivity of transition metals and their alloys, regardless of variations in the d-band shape. The utilization of the upper d-band edge with scaling relations enables a considerable reduction of the parameter space in search of improved alloy catalysts and further extends our understanding of the relationship between the electronic structure and chemical reactivity of metal surfaces.

  17. Taxonomy of factors which influence heavy metal build-up on urban road surfaces.

    PubMed

    Liu, An; Gunawardana, Chandima; Gunawardena, Janaka; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Ayoko, Godwin A; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2016-06-01

    Heavy metals build-up on urban road surfaces is a complex process and influenced by a diverse range of factors. Although numerous research studies have been conducted in the area of heavy metals build-up, limited research has been undertaken to rank these factors in terms of their influence on the build-up process. This results in limitations in the identification of the most critical factor/s for accurately estimating heavy metal loads and for designing effective stormwater treatment measures. The research study undertook an in-depth analysis of the factors which influence heavy metals build-up based on data generated from a number of different geographical locations around the world. Traffic volume was found to be the highest ranked factor in terms of influencing heavy metals build-up while land use was ranked the second. Proximity to arterial roads, antecedent dry days and road surface roughness has a relatively lower ranking. Furthermore, the study outcomes advances the conceptual understanding of heavy metals build-up based on the finding that with increasing traffic volume, total heavy metal build-up load increases while the variability decreases. The outcomes from this research study are expected to contribute to more accurate estimation of heavy metals build-up loads leading to more effective stormwater treatment design.

  18. Mechanical tearing of graphene on an oxidizing metal surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Lijin; Gupta, Aparna; Shaina, P. R.; Das Gupta, Nandita; Jaiswal, Manu

    2015-12-01

    Graphene, the thinnest possible anticorrosion and gas-permeation barrier, is poised to transform the protective coatings industry for a variety of surface applications. In this work, we have studied the structural changes of graphene when the underlying copper surface undergoes oxidation upon heating. Single-layer graphene directly grown on a copper surface by chemical vapour deposition was annealed under ambient atmosphere conditions up to 400 °C. The onset temperature of the surface oxidation of copper is found to be higher for graphene-coated foils. Parallel arrays of graphene nanoripples are a ubiquitous feature of pristine graphene on copper, and we demonstrate that these form crucial sites for the onset of the oxidation of copper, particularly for ˜0.3-0.4 μm ripple widths. In these regions, the oxidation proceeds along the length of the nanoripples, resulting in the formation of parallel stripes of oxidized copper regions. We demonstrate from temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy that the primary defect formation process in graphene involves boundary-type defects rather than vacancy or sp3-type defects. This observation is consistent with a mechanical tearing process that splits graphene into small polycrystalline domains. The size of these is estimated to be sub-50 nm.

  19. Multiscale Simulations of Polymers Close to (Metal) Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremer, Kurt

    2004-03-01

    We present a multi scale coarse-graining scheme for efficient molecular dynamics simulations of polymers. The approach is applied to a model system of bisphenol-A-polycarbonate (BPA-PC) liquids in contact with a (111) nickel surface. For bulk properties a suitably coarse grained bead spring model is simulated by molecular dynamics (MD) methods with model parameters directly derived from quantum chemical calculations. The surface interactions are parameterized and incorporated by extensive quantum mechanical density functional calculations using the Car-Parrinello approach. We find selective adsorption of different constituents of the PC monomer. Close to the surface this leads to a strong variation of the melt structure due to different end groups. Extensions to other systems and to surfaces with defects will shortly be discussed as well. This work was supported by the Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research), grant No.03 N 6015 on materials simulations. References: Abrams CF, Delle Site L, Kremer K, PHYS REV E 67, 021807 (2003); Delle Site L, Abrams CF, Alavi A, Kremer K, PHYS REV LETT 89, 156103 (2002); Delle Site L, Leon S, Kremer K, preprint (2003)

  20. Multifunctionality of organometallic quinonoid metal complexes: surface chemistry, coordination polymers, and catalysts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Bok; Pike, Robert D; Sweigart, Dwight A

    2013-11-19

    Quinonoid metal complexes have potential applications in surface chemistry, coordination polymers, and catalysts. Although quinonoid manganese tricarbonyl complexes have been used as secondary building units (SBUs) in the formation of novel metal-organometallic coordination networks and polymers, the potentially wider applications of these versatile linkers have not yet been recognized. In this Account, we focus on these diverse new applications of quinonoid metal complexes, and report on the variety of quinonoid metal complexes that we have synthesized. Through the use of [(η(6)-hydroquinone)Mn(CO)3](+), we are able to modify the surface of Fe3O4 and FePt nanoparticles (NPs). This process occurs either by the replacement of oleylamine with neutral [(η(5)-semiquinone)Mn(CO)3] at the NP surface, or by the binding of anionic [(η(4)-quinone)Mn(CO)3](-) upon further deprotonation of [(η(5)-semiquinone)Mn(CO)3] at the NP surface. We have demonstrated chemistry at the intersection of surface-modified NPs and coordination polymers through the growth of organometallic coordination polymers onto the surface modified Fe3O4 NPs. The resulting magnetic NP/organometallic coordination polymer hybrid material exhibited both the unique superparamagnetic behavior associated with Fe3O4 NPs and the paramagnetism attributable to the metal nodes, depending upon the magnetic range examined. By the use of functionalized [(η(5)-semiquinone)Mn(CO)3] complexes, we attained the formation of an organometallic monolayer on the surface of highly ordered pyrolitic graphite (HOPG). The resulting organometallic monolayer was not simply a random array of manganese atoms on the surface, but rather consisted of an alternating "up and down" spatial arrangement of Mn atoms extending from the HOPG surface due to hydrogen bonding of the quinonoid complexes. We also showed that the topology of metal atoms on the surface could be controlled through the use of quinonoid metal complexes. A quinonoid