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Sample records for cold estuarine waters

  1. Discovery of bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase (PhaC)-encoding genes from seasonal Baltic Sea ice and cold estuarine waters.

    PubMed

    Pärnänen, Katariina; Karkman, Antti; Virta, Marko; Eronen-Rasimus, Eeva; Kaartokallio, Hermanni

    2015-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are macromolecules produced by bacteria as means for storing carbon and energy in intracellular granules. PHAs have physical properties similar to those of plastics and have become of interest to industry as materials for environmentally friendly bioplastic production. There is an ongoing search for new PHA-producing bacterial strains and PHA-synthesizing enzymes tolerating extreme conditions to find ways of producing PHAs at cold temperatures and high solute concentrations. Moreover, the study of PHA producers in the sea-ice biome can aid in understanding the microbial ecology of carbon cycling in ice-associated ecosystems. In this study, PHA producers and PHA synthase genes were examined under the extreme environmental conditions of sea ice and cold seawater to find evidence of PHA production in an environment requiring adaptation to high salinity and cold temperatures. Sea ice and cold estuarine water samples were collected from the northern Baltic Sea and evidence of PHA production was gathered, using microscopy with Nile Blue A staining of PHA-granules and PCR assays detecting PHA-synthesis genes. The PHA granules and PHA synthases were found at all sampling locations, in both sea ice and water, and throughout the sampling period spanning over 10 years. Our study shows, for the first time, that PHA synthesis occurs in Baltic Sea cold-adapted bacteria in their natural environment, which makes the Baltic Sea and its cold environments an interesting choice in the quest for PHA-synthesizing bacteria and synthesis genes.

  2. Biofouling Growth in Cold Estuarine Waters and Evaluation of Some Chitosan and Copper Anti-Fouling Paints

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, Émilien; Bonnet, Claudie; Lemarchand, Karine

    2009-01-01

    Ecological concerns about antifouling paints containing non-green tin and copper compounds have highlighted the need for environmentally friendly alternatives. We report here a field test conducted in estuarine waters over two months designed to evaluate the efficiency of a number of active natural and man-made chemical ingredients added into a silicon-polyurethane marine paint. Early steps of biofouling in cold seawater of the St. Lawrence Estuary (Canada) were observed. Analyses, including dry biomass, flow cytometry and spectrofluorimetry, demonstrated a short-term antibacterial action of chitosan-based paints although no significant anti-algal action was observed. Cuprous oxide paints were efficient against bacteria and algae invasion in the first two weeks, especially those with added organic biocides such as isothiazolone and copper pyrithione. However, the overall dry biomass and chlorophyll a content were similar for all chitosan-and copper-based paints after 63 days. Microscopic observations revealed variation in the highly diverse benthic diatom population including species Navicula, Melosira, Cocconeis, Nitshzcia, Fragilaria and Amphora. Results suggest no real long-term efficiency for tested antifouling paints and highlight a particular need for green antifouling ingredients that are active under northern estuarine conditions. PMID:19742133

  3. Biofouling growth in cold estuarine waters and evaluation of some chitosan and copper anti-fouling paints.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Emilien; Bonnet, Claudie; Lemarchand, Karine

    2009-07-14

    Ecological concerns about antifouling paints containing non-green tin and copper compounds have highlighted the need for environmentally friendly alternatives. We report here a field test conducted in estuarine waters over two months designed to evaluate the efficiency of a number of active natural and man-made chemical ingredients added into a silicon-polyurethane marine paint. Early steps of biofouling in cold seawater of the St. Lawrence Estuary (Canada) were observed. Analyses, including dry biomass, flow cytometry and spectrofluorimetry, demonstrated a short-term antibacterial action of chitosan-based paints although no significant anti-algal action was observed. Cuprous oxide paints were efficient against bacteria and algae invasion in the first two weeks, especially those with added organic biocides such as isothiazolone and copper pyrithione. However, the overall dry biomass and chlorophyll a content were similar for all chitosan-and copper-based paints after 63 days. Microscopic observations revealed variation in the highly diverse benthic diatom population including species Navicula, Melosira, Cocconeis, Nitshzcia, Fragilaria and Amphora. Results suggest no real long-term efficiency for tested antifouling paints and highlight a particular need for green antifouling ingredients that are active under northern estuarine conditions.

  4. Concentration of enteroviruses from estuarine water.

    PubMed

    Farrah, S R; Goyal, S M; Gerba, C P; Wallis, C; Melnick, J L

    1977-05-01

    Pleated cartridge filters readily adsorb viruses in estuarine water at low pH containing aluminum chloride. Adsorbed viruses are efficiently recovered by treating filters with glycine buffer at high pH. By using these procedures, it was possible to recover approximately 70% of the poliovirus added to 400 liters of estuarine water in 3 liters of filter eluate. Reconcentration of virus in the filter eluate in small volumes that are convenient for viral assays was more difficult. Reconcentration methods described previously for eluates from filters that process tap water or treated wastewater were inadequate when applied to eluates from filters used to process estuarine water containing large amounts of organic compounds. Two methods were found to permit efficient concentration of virus in filter eluates in small volumes. In both methods, virus in 3 liters of filter eluate was adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide flocs and then recovered in approximately 150 ml of buffered fetal calf serum. Additional reductions in volume were achieved by ultrafiltration or hydroextraction. By using these procedures 60 to 80% of the virus in 3 liters of filter eluate could be recovered in a final volume of 10 to 40 ml.

  5. Concentration of enteroviruses from estuarine water.

    PubMed Central

    Farrah, S R; Goyal, S M; Gerba, C P; Wallis, C; Melnick, J L

    1977-01-01

    Pleated cartridge filters readily adsorb viruses in estuarine water at low pH containing aluminum chloride. Adsorbed viruses are efficiently recovered by treating filters with glycine buffer at high pH. By using these procedures, it was possible to recover approximately 70% of the poliovirus added to 400 liters of estuarine water in 3 liters of filter eluate. Reconcentration of virus in the filter eluate in small volumes that are convenient for viral assays was more difficult. Reconcentration methods described previously for eluates from filters that process tap water or treated wastewater were inadequate when applied to eluates from filters used to process estuarine water containing large amounts of organic compounds. Two methods were found to permit efficient concentration of virus in filter eluates in small volumes. In both methods, virus in 3 liters of filter eluate was adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide flocs and then recovered in approximately 150 ml of buffered fetal calf serum. Additional reductions in volume were achieved by ultrafiltration or hydroextraction. By using these procedures 60 to 80% of the virus in 3 liters of filter eluate could be recovered in a final volume of 10 to 40 ml. PMID:18088

  6. Coastal and Estuarine Waters: Light Behavior. Coastal and Estuarine Waters: Optical Sensors and Remote Sensing.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article summarizes the use of remote sensing techniques and technology to monitor coastal and estuarine waters. These waters are rich in mineral particles stirred up from the seabed by tides and waves and dissolved organic matter transported by rivers. The majority of the li...

  7. Coastal and Estuarine Waters: Light Behavior. Coastal and Estuarine Waters: Optical Sensors and Remote Sensing.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article summarizes the use of remote sensing techniques and technology to monitor coastal and estuarine waters. These waters are rich in mineral particles stirred up from the seabed by tides and waves and dissolved organic matter transported by rivers. The majority of the li...

  8. Relating watershed nutrient loads to satellite derived estuarine water quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nutrient enhanced phytoplankton production is a cause of degraded estuarine water quality. Yet, relationships between watershed nutrient loads and the spatial and temporal scales of phytoplankton blooms and subsequent water quality impairments remain unquantified for most systems...

  9. Relating watershed nutrient loads to satellite derived estuarine water quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nutrient enhanced phytoplankton production is a cause of degraded estuarine water quality. Yet, relationships between watershed nutrient loads and the spatial and temporal scales of phytoplankton blooms and subsequent water quality impairments remain unquantified for most systems...

  10. The ionization of acids in estuarine waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millero, Frank J.

    1981-11-01

    The stoichiometric, K HA∗, and apparent, K' HA, constants for the ionization of a number of weak acids (NH 4+, HSO 4-, HF, H 2O, B(OH) 3, H 2CO 3, HCO 3-, H 3PO 4, H 2PO 4-, HPO 42, H 3AsO 4 H 2AsO 4- and HAsO 42-) in seawater at 25°C diluted with water have been fitted to equations of the form ( MILLERO, 1979). In K HA∗ = In K HA + AS 1/2 + BS where In KHA is the thermodynamic constant in water, S is the salinity, A and B are adjustable parameters. The validity of this equation in estuarine waters has been examined by using an ion pairing model ( MILLERO and SCHREIBER, 1981). The calculated values of K HA∗ and K' HA at S = 35%. are in good agreement with the measured values for all the systems examined. The equation used to extrapolate the measured values to pure water KHA predicted values that agreed with those determined by using the ion pairing model. The exception was the ionization of HPO 42- due to the strong interactions of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ with PO 43-. The differences in the predicted values of K HA∗ in seawater diluted with pure water and average river water were very small for all the acids except HPO 42- (the maximum ΔpK = 0.96 in average river water). The larger difference in the K HA∗ for HPO 42- in river waters is due to the strong interactions of Ca 2+ and PO 43-.

  11. Biogeochemical classification of South Florida's estuarine and coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Briceño, Henry O; Boyer, Joseph N; Castro, Joffre; Harlem, Peter

    2013-10-15

    South Florida's watersheds have endured a century of urban and agricultural development and disruption of their hydrology. Spatial characterization of South Florida's estuarine and coastal waters is important to Everglades' restoration programs. We applied Factor Analysis and Hierarchical Clustering of water quality data in tandem to characterize and spatially subdivide South Florida's coastal and estuarine waters. Segmentation rendered forty-four biogeochemically distinct water bodies whose spatial distribution is closely linked to geomorphology, circulation, benthic community pattern, and to water management. This segmentation has been adopted with minor changes by federal and state environmental agencies to derive numeric nutrient criteria. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The densities of Changjiang estuarine waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guohua; Hu, Bolu; Zhang, Lijun; Ji, Rong; Jin, Jiancheng; Chen, Bing

    1993-09-01

    In order to check the validity of the International Equation of State of Seawater set up by the UNESCO in 1980 for application to China coastal waters, the authors measured the relative density of Changjiang estuarine seawater and seawater solutions diluted with the Changjiang River water at one atmosphere from 5 35 salinity under 15 24°C with a high precision magnetic float densimeter designed by them. The average standard deviation of measured values was ±2.3×10-3 kgm-3. the statistical results showed that for all samples from the Changjiang estuary, the measured density with the densimeter was always higher than the density calculated by the UNESCO equation. The average differences, for dry season and flood season seawater samples were (+6.3±2.3)×10-3kgm-3 and (+8.1±2.3)×10-3kgm-3, respectively. The average difference between the measured and calculated (from the UNESCO equation) density increased linearly as salinity decreased and became +47.2×10-3 kgm-3 at the Changjiang River water salinity limit of around 0.134. A linear correlation was found between this average difference and the [Ca2+]/s ratio value. The experimental average values of [Ca2+]/s, [SO{4/2-}]/s, [Mg2+]/s, and [Sr2+]/s were 0.01183±1.0×10-4, 0.07698±1.7×10-4, 0.03743±8.1×10-5 and 2.26×10-4, respectively, at sample salinities of 30 to 35. The experimental value of [Ca2+]/s for the Wuhu Changjiang River water was 0.2597. The resulting densities of all samples were then fitted to an equation of the form d- d w = B 1s1/2+ B 2s+ B 3s3/2+ B 4s2 where d w is the density of SMOW and B 1, B 2, B 3 and B 4 are temperature-dependent parameters. The average standard deviation between calculated densities of this equation and experimental values was ±3.9×10-3 kgm-3.

  13. Cumulative impact of marinas on estuarine water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAllister, T. L.; Overton, M. F.; Brill, E. D.

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to present a modeling approach for assessing and managing the cumulative impact of marinas on estuarine systems. In doing so, both a water-quality model and a planning and management model are developed. The water-quality model predicts biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and fecal coliform (FC) loadings from marina sources in a hypothetical North Carolina estuary. By running the water-quality model repeatedly with varied loading input, impact coefficients are determined. These impact coefficients are used in the planning and management model, the output of which gives the sizes and locations of marinas in the estuarine system such that dissolved oxygen (DO) and FC water-quality standards are maintained. Five different estuarine development scenarios are considered. Each scenario is evaluated with respect to both maximum and uniform land development constraints. In addition, two alternative fecal coliform standards are used with each of the development options.

  14. Cumulative Impact of Marinas on Estuarine Water Quality

    PubMed

    McAllister; Overton; Brill

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to present a modeling approach for assessing and managing the cumulative impact of marinas on estuarine systems. In doing so, both a water-quality model and a planning and management model are developed. The water-quality model predicts biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and fecal coliform (FC) loadings from marina sources in a hypothetical North Carolina estuary. By running the water-quality model repeatedly with varied loading input, impact coefficients are determined. These impact coefficients are used in the planning and management model, the output of which gives the sizes and locations of marinas in the estuarine system such that dissolved oxygen (DO) and FC water-quality standards are maintained.Five different estuarine development scenarios are considered. Each scenario is evaluated with respect to both maximum and uniform land development constraints. In addition, two alternative fecal coliform standards are used with each of the development options.

  15. Effects of chlorobrominated and chlorinated cooling waters on estuarine organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Liden, L.H.; Burton, D.T.; Bongers, L.H.; Holland, A.F.

    1980-01-01

    Research report:Continuous-flow bioassays were conducted during August 1976 to compare the effects of chlorobrominated and chlorinated condenser cooling effluents on several selected estuarine food-chain organisms. Two fish species, two bivalve species, a copepod, and naturally occurring phytoplankton communities were studied. Toxic effects of chlorobrominated and chlorinated power plant cooling waters on estuarine organisms appear to be similar with respect to the lethal and sublethal response indicators used in the study. However, more comparative tests must be conducted to define any differences in toxicities of bromine chloride or chlorine residual oxidants. (50 references, 5 tables)

  16. Towards Sustainable Water Quality In Estuarine Impoundments: Sediment Processes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, J.; Worrall, F.

    Several estuarine impoundment schemes have been built or are proposed in the UK and worldwide. The impounding of estuaries is currently a popular approach to urban regeneration in the UK. By creation of an aesthetically pleasing amenity impound- ment, including the drowning of "unsightly" tidal mud flats, it is hoped that prestige development will be encouraged in the estuarine area. Impounding fundamentally alters the dynamics of estuaries, with consequences in terms of sedimentation patterns and rates, and water quality. The SIMBA Project at- tempts to understand the controls on water quality in impoundments, with a view to- wards long term and sustainable high water quality through good barrage design and management practice. The results of process based studies, concentrating on interactions between sediment and water quality in the systems, are presented. A series of sequential extraction exper- iments have been carried out on cores of sediment to model the releases from sediment under different environmental conditions likely to be encountered in the impound- ments. Results are related to similar experiments carried out on suspended particulate material, and to pore-water experiments carried out using gel-probes.

  17. Towards Sustainable Water Quality In Estuarine Impoundments: The Current State.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, J.; Worrall, F.

    Several estuarine impoundment schemes have been built or are proposed in the UK and worldwide. The impounding of estuaries is currently a popular approach to urban regeneration in the UK. By creation of an aesthetically pleasing amenity impound- ment, including the drowning of "unsightly" tidal mud flats, it is hoped that prestige development will be encouraged in the estuarine area. Impounding fundamentally alters the dynamics of estuaries, with consequences in terms of sedimentation patterns and rates, and water quality. The SIMBA Project at- tempts to understand the controls on water quality in impoundments, with a view to- wards long term and sustainable high water quality through good barrage design and management practice. Detailed water quality surveys have been carried out on a total of 79 dates on the Tees, Tawe, Wansbeck and Blyth estuaries. Water quality parameters which have been determined are pH, Eh, dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), conductivity, transparency, suspended solids, alkalinity, temperature, nutri- ents (nitrate+nitrite, ammonium and orthophosphate), and a large range of dissolved metals. Statistical analyses are used to demonstrate the major controls on water qual- ity in impoundments. A distinction is made between total tidal exclusion (freshwater) systems, in which water quality is primarily influenced by external/catchment factors, and partial tidal exclusion systems, in which water quality is processed internally. This internal processing is due to density stratification creating compartments of saline wa- ter in contact with oxygen demanding sediments and isolated from the atmosphere, which leads to conditions of low DO and changes in redox conditions which may lead to release of metals and phosphate from the sediment.

  18. Relating watershed nutrient loads to satellite derived estuarine water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehrter, J. C.; Le, C.

    2015-12-01

    Nutrient enhanced phytoplankton production is a cause of degraded estuarine water quality. Yet, relationships between watershed nutrient loads and the spatial and temporal scales of phytoplankton blooms and subsequent water quality impairments remain unquantified for most systems. This is partially due to a lack of observations. In many systems, satellite remote sensing of water quality variables may be used to supplement limited field observations and improve understanding of linkages to nutrients. Here, we present the results from a field and satellite ocean color study that quantitatively links nutrients to variations in estuarine water quality endpoints. The study was conducted in Pensacola Bay, Florida, an estuary in the northern Gulf of Mexico that is impacted by watershed nutrients. We developed new empirical band ratio algorithms to retrieve phytoplankton biomass as chlorophyll a (chla), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), and suspended particulate matter (SPM) from the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS). MERIS had suitable spatial resolution (300-m) for the scale of Pensacola Bay (area = 370 km2, mean depth = 3.4 m) and a spectral band centered at wavelength 709 nm that was used to minimize the effect of organic matter on chla retrieval. The algorithms were applied to daily MERIS remote sensing reflectance (level 2) data acquired from 2003 to 2011 to calculate nine-year time-series of mean monthly chla, CDOM, and SPM concentrations. The MERIS derived time-series were then analyzed for statistical relations with time-series of mean monthly river discharge and river loads of nitrogen, phosphorus, dissolved organic carbon, and SPM. Regression analyses revealed significant relationships between river loads and MERIS water quality variables. The simple regression models provide quantitative predictions about how much chla, CDOM, and SPM concentrations in Pensacola Bay will increase with increased river loading, which is necessary information

  19. 2016 Draft Estuarine/Marine Copper Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Documents pertain to Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality criteria for Copper (2016 Estuarine/marine). These documents contain the safe levels of Copper in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  20. Ultraviolet devitalization of eight selected enteric viruses in estuarine water.

    PubMed

    Hill, W F; Hamblet, F E; Benton, W H; Akin, E W

    1970-05-01

    The effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the devitalization of eight selected enteric viruses suspended in estuarine water was determined. The surviving fractions of each virus were calculated and then plotted against the UV exposure time for purposes of comparison. Analytical assessment of the survival data for each virus consisted of least squares regression analysis for determination of intercepts and slope functions. All data were examined for statistical significance. When the slope function of each virus was compared against the slope function of poliovirus type 1, the analytical findings indicated that poliovirus types 2 and 3, echovirus types 1 and 11, and coxsackievirus A-9 exhibited similar devitalization characteristics in that no statistically significant difference was found (P > 0.05). Conversely, the devitalization characteristics of coxsackievirus B-1 and reovirus type 1 were dissimilar from those of poliovirus type 1 in that a statistically significant difference was found between the slope functions (P < 0.05). This observed difference in devitalization of coxsackievirus B-1 and reovirus type 1 was attributed primarily to the frequency distribution of single and aggregate virions, the geometric configuration, the size of the aggregates, and the severity of aggregation. The devitalization curve of coxsackievirus B-1 was characteristic of a retardant die-away curve. The devitalization curve of reovirus type 1 was characteristic of a multihittype curve. The calculated devitalization half-life values for poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3; echovirus types 1 and 11; coxsackievirus types A-9 and B-1; and reovirus type 1 were 2.8, 3.1, 2.7, 2.8, 3.2, 3.1, 4.0, 4.0 sec, respectively. These basic data should facilitate an operative extrapolation of the findings to the applied situation. It was concluded that UV can be highly effective and provide a reliable safety factor in treating estuarine water.

  1. Halogen radicals contribute to photooxidation in coastal and estuarine waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Kimberly M.; Mitch, William A.

    2016-05-01

    Although halogen radicals are recognized to form as products of hydroxyl radical (•OH) scavenging by halides, their contribution to the phototransformation of marine organic compounds has received little attention. We demonstrate that, relative to freshwater conditions, seawater halides can increase photodegradation rates of domoic acid, a marine algal toxin, and dimethyl sulfide, a volatile precursor to cloud condensation nuclei, up to fivefold. Using synthetic seawater solutions, we show that the increased photodegradation is specific to dissolved organic matter (DOM) and halides, rather than other seawater salt constituents (e.g., carbonates) or photoactive species (e.g., iron and nitrate). Experiments in synthetic and natural coastal and estuarine water samples demonstrate that the halide-specific increase in photodegradation could be attributed to photochemically generated halogen radicals rather than other photoproduced reactive intermediates [e.g., excited-state triplet DOM (3DOM*), reactive oxygen species]. Computational kinetic modeling indicates that seawater halogen radical concentrations are two to three orders of magnitude greater than freshwater •OH concentrations and sufficient to account for the observed halide-specific increase in photodegradation. Dark •OH generation by gamma radiolysis demonstrates that halogen radical production via •OH scavenging by halides is insufficient to explain the observed effect. Using sensitizer models for DOM chromophores, we show that halogen radicals are formed predominantly by direct oxidation of Cl- and Br- by 3DOM*, an •OH-independent pathway. Our results indicate that halogen radicals significantly contribute to the phototransformation of algal products in coastal or estuarine surface waters.

  2. Halogen radicals contribute to photooxidation in coastal and estuarine waters

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Kimberly M.; Mitch, William A.

    2016-01-01

    Although halogen radicals are recognized to form as products of hydroxyl radical (•OH) scavenging by halides, their contribution to the phototransformation of marine organic compounds has received little attention. We demonstrate that, relative to freshwater conditions, seawater halides can increase photodegradation rates of domoic acid, a marine algal toxin, and dimethyl sulfide, a volatile precursor to cloud condensation nuclei, up to fivefold. Using synthetic seawater solutions, we show that the increased photodegradation is specific to dissolved organic matter (DOM) and halides, rather than other seawater salt constituents (e.g., carbonates) or photoactive species (e.g., iron and nitrate). Experiments in synthetic and natural coastal and estuarine water samples demonstrate that the halide-specific increase in photodegradation could be attributed to photochemically generated halogen radicals rather than other photoproduced reactive intermediates [e.g., excited-state triplet DOM (3DOM*), reactive oxygen species]. Computational kinetic modeling indicates that seawater halogen radical concentrations are two to three orders of magnitude greater than freshwater •OH concentrations and sufficient to account for the observed halide-specific increase in photodegradation. Dark •OH generation by gamma radiolysis demonstrates that halogen radical production via •OH scavenging by halides is insufficient to explain the observed effect. Using sensitizer models for DOM chromophores, we show that halogen radicals are formed predominantly by direct oxidation of Cl− and Br− by 3DOM*, an •OH-independent pathway. Our results indicate that halogen radicals significantly contribute to the phototransformation of algal products in coastal or estuarine surface waters. PMID:27162335

  3. Enhanced submarine ground water discharge form mixing of pore water and estuarine water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Jonathan B.; Cable, Jaye E.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Lindenberg, Mary K.

    2004-01-01

    Submarine ground water discharge is suggested to be an important pathway for contaminants from continents to coastal zones, but its significance depends on the volume of water and concentrations of contaminants that originate in continental aquifers. Ground water discharge to the Banana River Lagoon, Florida, was estimated by analyzing the temporal and spatial variations of Cl− concentration profiles in the upper 230 cm of pore waters and was measured directly by seepage meters. Total submarine ground water discharge consists of slow discharge at depths > ∼70 cm below seafloor (cmbsf) of largely marine water combined with rapid discharge of mixed pore water and estuarine water above ∼70 cmbsf. Cl− profiles indicate average linear velocities of ∼0.014 cm/d at depths > ∼70 cmbsf. In contrast, seepage meters indicate water discharges across the sediment-water interface at rates between 3.6 and 6.9 cm/d. The discrepancy appears to be caused by mixing in the shallow sediment, which may result from a combination of bioirrigation, wave and tidal pumping, and convection. Wave and tidal pumping and convection would be minor because the tidal range is small, the short fetch of the lagoon limits wave heights, and large density contacts are lacking between lagoon and pore water. Mixing occurs to ∼70 cmbsf, which represents depths greater than previously reported. Mixing of oxygenated water to these depths could be important for remineralization of organic matter.

  4. Occurrence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Estuarine Waters and Oysters of New Hampshire

    PubMed Central

    Bartley, Clara H.; Slanetz, L. W.

    1971-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus was isolated from water and oysters collected from seven different sampling stations in the Great Bay and Little Bay estuarine areas of New Hampshire. The morphological and biochemical characteristics of 50 isolates conformed in general to those described for this organism in the literature. All isolates produced hemolysis on blood-agar. To date, there have been no reports of V. parahaemolyticus food poisoning outbreaks due to the consumption of fish or shellfish harvested from this estuarine region. PMID:5574329

  5. Characteristics of two novel cold- and salt-tolerant ammonia-oxidizing bacteria from Liaohe Estuarine Wetland.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao; Bai, Jie; Li, Kui-Ran; Zhao, Yang-Guo; Tian, Wei-Jun; Dang, Jia-Jia

    2017-01-15

    To achieve a better contaminant removal efficiency in a low-temperature and high-salt environment, two novel strains of cold- and salt-tolerant ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), i.e., Ochrobactrum sp. (HXN-1) and Aquamicrobium sp. (HXN-2), were isolated from the surface sediment of Liaohe Estuarine Wetland (LEW), China. The optimization of initial ammonia nitrogen concentration, pH, carbon-nitrogen ratio, and petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) to improve the ammonia-oxidation capacity of the two bacterial strains was studied. Both bacterial strains showed a high ammonia nitrogen removal rate of over 80% under a high salinity of 10‰. Even at a temperature as low as 15°C, HXN-1 and HXN-2 could achieve an ammonia nitrogen removal rate of 53% and 62%, respectively. The cold- and salt-tolerant AOB in this study demonstrated a high potential for ammonia nitrogen removal from LEW. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. DEVELOPING A NATIONALLY CONSISTENT APPROACH FOR ASSESSING REGIONAL ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN NUTRIENTS AND BENTHIC BIOLOGICAL CONDITION IN ESTUARINE WATERS. AN ANALYSIS USING NATIONAL COASTAL ASSESSMENT DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identifying candidate water quality criteria in estuarine waters is confounded by differences among estuaries and biogeographic regions. Dealing with these differences is paramount to successfully addressing estuarine water quality impairment. As such, we outline an approach to...

  7. DEVELOPING A NATIONALLY CONSISTENT APPROACH FOR ASSESSING REGIONAL ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN NUTRIENTS AND BENTHIC BIOLOGICAL CONDITION IN ESTUARINE WATERS. AN ANALYSIS USING NATIONAL COASTAL ASSESSMENT DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identifying candidate water quality criteria in estuarine waters is confounded by differences among estuaries and biogeographic regions. Dealing with these differences is paramount to successfully addressing estuarine water quality impairment. As such, we outline an approach to...

  8. Water use patterns of estuarine vegetation in a tidal creek system.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lili; Lockington, David A; Poh, Seng-Chee; Gasparon, Massimo; Lovelock, Catherine E

    2013-06-01

    Water availability is a key determinant of the zonation patterns in estuarine vegetation, but water availability and the use of different water sources over space and time are not well understood. We have determined the seasonal water use patterns of riparian vegetation over an estuarine ecotone. Our aim was to investigate how the water use patterns of estuarine vegetation respond to variations in the availability of tidal creek water and rain-derived freshwater. The levels of natural stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen were assessed in the stem of the mangrove Avicennia marina (tall and scrub growth forms), Casuarina glauca and Melaleuca quinquenervia that were distributed along transects from river/creek-front towards inland habitats. The isotopic composition of plant tissues and the potential water sources were assessed in both the wet season, when freshwater from rainfall is present, and the dry season, when mangrove trees are expected to be more dependent on tidal water, and when Casuarina and Melaleuca are expected to be dependent on groundwater. Our results indicate that rainwater during the wet season contributes significantly to estuarine vegetation, even to creek-side mangroves which are inundated by tidal creek water daily, and that estuarine vegetation depends primarily on freshwater throughout the year. In contrast, high intertidal scrub mangroves were found to use the greatest proportion of tidal creek water, supplemented by groundwater in the dry season. Contrary to prediction, inland trees C. glauca and M. quinquenervia were found also to rely predominantly on rainwater--even in the dry season. The results of this study reveal a high level of complexity in vegetation water use in estuarine settings.

  9. Suspended solids moderate the degradation and sorption of waste water-derived pharmaceuticals in estuarine waters.

    PubMed

    Aminot, Yann; Fuster, Laura; Pardon, Patrick; Le Menach, Karyn; Budzinski, Hélène

    2017-08-26

    This study focuses on the fate of pharmaceuticals discharged into an estuarine environment, particularly into the Turbidity Maximum Zone (TMZ). Batch experiments were set up to investigate the factors regulating the degradation of 53 selected pharmaceuticals. Treated effluents from Bordeaux city (France) were mixed with water from the estuarine Garonne River during 4weeks under 6 characterized conditions in order to assess the influence of suspended particulates, sterilization, untreated wastewater input and dilution on the degradation kinetics. Of the 53 pharmaceuticals monitored, 43 were quantified at the initial time. Only 7 exhibited a persistent behavior (e.g. carbamazepine, meprobamate) while biotic degradation was shown to be the main attenuation process for 38 molecules (e.g. abacavir, ibuprofen highly degradable). Degradation was significantly enhanced by increasing concentrations of suspended solids. A persistence index based on the half-lives of the compounds has been calculated for each of the 43 pharmaceuticals to provide a practical estimate of their relative stability. The stability of pharmaceuticals in estuarine environments is likely to be highly variable and attenuated primarily by changes in suspended solid concentration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Sudden Failure of Swimming in Cold Water

    PubMed Central

    Keatinge, W. R.; Prys-Roberts, C.; Cooper, K. E.; Honour, A. J.; Haight, J.

    1969-01-01

    To investigate the effect of cold water on swimming four men who declared themselves good swimmers were immersed fully clothed on separate days in water at 23·7° and 4·7° C. The time that they were able to swim in the cold water was much shorter than in the warm. The two shortest swims ended after 1·5 and 7·6 minutes, before rectal temperature fell, when the men suddenly floundered after developing respiratory distress with breathing rates of 56–60/min. The other cold swims, by the two fattest men, ended less abruptly with signs of general and peripheral hypothermia. It is concluded that swimming in cold water was stopped partly by respiratory reflexes in the thin men and hypothermia in the fat, and partly by the cold water's high viscosity. The longer swimming times of the fat men are attributed largely to their greater buoyancy enabling them to keep their heads above water during the early hyperventilation. The findings explain some reports of sudden death in cold water. It is clearly highly dangerous to attempt to swim short distances to shore without a life-jacket in water near 0° C. PMID:5764250

  11. Sudden failure of swimming in cold water.

    PubMed

    Keatinge, W R; Prys-Roberts, C; Cooper, K E; Honour, A J; Haight, J

    1969-02-22

    To investigate the effect of cold water on swimming four men who declared themselves good swimmers were immersed fully clothed on separate days in water at 23.7 degrees and 4.7 degrees C. The time that they were able to swim in the cold water was much shorter than in the warm. The two shortest swims ended after 1.5 and 7.6 minutes, before rectal temperature fell, when the men suddenly floundered after developing respiratory distress with breathing rates of 56-60/min. The other cold swims, by the two fattest men, ended less abruptly with signs of general and peripheral hypothermia.It is concluded that swimming in cold water was stopped partly by respiratory reflexes in the thin men and hypothermia in the fat, and partly by the cold water's high viscosity. The longer swimming times of the fat men are attributed largely to their greater buoyancy enabling them to keep their heads above water during the early hyperventilation.The findings explain some reports of sudden death in cold water. It is clearly highly dangerous to attempt to swim short distances to shore without a life-jacket in water near 0 degrees C.

  12. Mechanisms driving estuarine water quality: A 3D biogeochemical model for informed management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild-Allen, Karen; Skerratt, Jenny; Whitehead, Jason; Rizwi, Farhan; Parslow, John

    2013-12-01

    Estuaries are amongst the most productive marine ecosystems of the world but are also some of the most degraded due to coastal urban development. Sparse sampling of complex interactions between estuarine physics, sediment transport, chemistry, and biology limits understanding of the processes controlling estuarine water quality and confounds active management. We use a 3D coupled hydrodynamic, sediment and biogeochemical model to identify the key mechanisms driving fine-scale fluctuations in water quality in a temperate micro-tidal salt wedge estuary [Derwent Estuary, Tasmania]. Model results are dynamically consistent with relatively sparse monitoring data collected over a seasonal cycle and are considered to be a plausible hypothesis of sub-monitoring scale processes occurring in the estuary. The model shows enhanced mixing of nutrients across the pycnocline downstream of the salt wedge front that supports a persistent phytoplankton bloom. The length and flow regime of the estuary results in nutrient recycling and retention in the estuarine circulation driving a decline in bottom water dissolved oxygen in the mid- and upper-reaches. A budget analysis of modelled nitrogen suggests high levels of denitrification are critical to the maintenance of existing water quality. Active estuarine management focused on the improvement of bottom water dissolved oxygen for ecological health reasons must either concurrently reduce anthropogenic nitrogen loads or be sure to maintain high levels of microbial denitrification for net water quality improvement.

  13. An 'extreme' future for estuaries? Effects of extreme climatic events on estuarine water quality and ecology.

    PubMed

    Wetz, Michael S; Yoskowitz, David W

    2013-04-15

    Recent climate observations suggest that extreme climatic events (ECE; droughts, floods, tropical cyclones, heat waves) have increased in frequency and/or intensity in certain world regions, consistent with climate model projections that account for man's influence on the global climate system. A synthesis of existing literature is presented and shows that ECE affect estuarine water quality by altering: (1) the delivery and processing of nutrients and organic matter, (2) physical-chemical properties of estuaries, and (3) ecosystem structure and function. From the standpoint of estuarine scientists and resource managers, a major scientific challenge will be to project the estuarine response to ECE that will co-occur with other important environmental changes (i.e., natural climate variability, global warming, sea level rise, eutrophication), as this will affect the provisioning of important ecosystem services provided by estuaries.

  14. Method 365.5 Determination of Orthophosphate in Estuarine and Coastal Waters by Automated Colorimetric Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    This method provides a procedure for the determination of low-level orthophosphate concentrations normally found in estuarine and/or coastal waters. It is based upon the method of Murphy and Riley1 adapted for automated segmented flow analysis2 in which the two reagent solutions ...

  15. Modeling aspects of estuarine eutrophication. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning mathematical modeling of existing water quality stresses in estuaries, harbors, bays, and coves. Both physical hydraulic and numerical models for estuarine circulation are discussed. (Contains a minimum of 96 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Method 365.5 Determination of Orthophosphate in Estuarine and Coastal Waters by Automated Colorimetric Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    This method provides a procedure for the determination of low-level orthophosphate concentrations normally found in estuarine and/or coastal waters. It is based upon the method of Murphy and Riley1 adapted for automated segmented flow analysis2 in which the two reagent solutions ...

  17. Resolving drivers of variability in estuarine metabolism from sustained observations of water quality in the SE US

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examine trends in water quality in long-term monitoring (10-15 y) data collected at 5 estuarine systems of NOAA’s National Estuarine Research Reserve System: Grand Bay, MS; Weeks Bay, AL; Apalachicola Bay, FL; Rookery Bay, FL, and Guana Tolomatos and Matanzas Rivers, FL. These...

  18. Resolving drivers of variability in estuarine metabolism from sustained observations of water quality in the SE US

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examine trends in water quality in long-term monitoring (10-15 y) data collected at 5 estuarine systems of NOAA’s National Estuarine Research Reserve System: Grand Bay, MS; Weeks Bay, AL; Apalachicola Bay, FL; Rookery Bay, FL, and Guana Tolomatos and Matanzas Rivers, FL. These...

  19. Optimizing alginate beads for the immobilisation of Phaeodactylum tricornutum in estuarine waters.

    PubMed

    Cabrita, Maria Teresa; Raimundo, Joana; Pereira, Patrícia; Vale, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses the influence of calcium as hardening agent, on alginate gel bead stability and suitability for the growth of Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin (Bacillariophyceae) in estuarine waters. Alginate beads produced with 1, 2, 4, 5 and 6% of CaCl2 solutions were investigated for stability and suitability for growth of P. tricornutum cells, under mean salinity 27, at 220 and 440 rpm stirring laboratory conditions, and in devices placed under in situ estuarine conditions. Gel stability and suitability for cell growth were evaluated through bead diameter, bead disruption, dissolution and loss of spherical shape, cell viability and specific growth rates. Beads gelled with 5% CaCl2 were found the most suitable to sustain gel stability and cell growth in the estuarine waters. These beads were surveyed during dredging operations in the Tagus estuary, both in situ and in estuarine water under laboratory conditions, showing significantly lowered growth rates possibly due to Mn, Co and As accumulated in the cells. Results confirmed that the monitoring tool presented is reliable and effective for the assessment of anthropogenic impacts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fate of toxic metals during estuarine mixing of fresh water with saline water.

    PubMed

    Farajnejad, Hamed; Karbassi, Abdolreza; Heidari, Mehdi

    2017-10-04

    Metals are among the most common environmental pollutants, and their presence in high concentration in waters and biota have devastating effects on flora, fauna, and human health. Flocculation process of metals during estuarine mixing can reduce the environmental hazards of metals and also can provide micronutrients to the aquatic system. The present investigation provides a thorough study of eliminating colloidal elements of copper, manganese, nickel, lead, and zinc during estuarine mixing of Shalmanrood River water with Caspian Sea water in Iran. The processes of flocculation were carried out in six different salinity regimes (0.45-2.4 ppt). The obtained result is indicative of non-conservative behavior of the studied metals. Higher flocculation resulted in a lower salinity regime. The obtained results indicated that most of the metals were eliminated during the initial mixing of fresh water with sea water at 0.45-0.9 ppt salinity interval. The trend of flocculation rates of elements is as follows: Zn (59.3%) > Pb (47.6%) > Mn (37.5%) > Cu (29.2%) > Ni (27%).The annual average load of copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) from Shalmanrood River to Caspian Sea decreases as a result of flocculation process from 9.9, 7.7, 8.9, 5.1, and 23.2 tons per year to 7, 4.8, 6.5, 2.7, and 9.4 tons per year, respectively. According to the cluster analysis, parameters such as temperature, pH, and Eh do not have any impact on flocculation of elements expect for Pb. The only parameter that influences the flocculation of Mn is the salinity. Metal speciation studies that are carried out by Eh-pH software show that the studied metals are present as oxides (Zn, Cu, and Ni) and hydroxides (Mn and Pb).

  1. Distribution of Sulfate-Reducing Communities from Estuarine to Marine Bay Waters.

    PubMed

    Colin, Yannick; Goñi-Urriza, Marisol; Gassie, Claire; Carlier, Elisabeth; Monperrus, Mathilde; Guyoneaud, Rémy

    2017-01-01

    Estuaries are highly dynamic ecosystems in which freshwater and seawater mix together. Depending on tide and river inflows, particles originating from rivers or from the remobilization of sediments accumulate in the water column. Due to the salinity gradient and the high heterotrophic activity in the estuarine plume, hypoxic and anoxic microniches may form in oxygenated waters, sustaining favorable conditions for resuspended anaerobic microorganisms. In this context, we tested the hypothesis that anaerobic sulfate-reducing prokaryotes may occur in the water column of the Adour River. Using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and dsrAB-based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) techniques, we characterized total prokaryotic and sulfate-reducing communities along a gradient from estuarine to marine bay waters. Sulfate-reducing prokaryotes were further characterized by the description of dsrB genes and the cultivation of sulfidogenic anaerobic microorganisms. As a result, physical-chemical parameters had a significant effect on water bacterial diversity and community structure along the studied gradient. The concentration of cultured sulfidogenic microorganisms ranged from 1 to 60 × 10(3) cells l(-1) in the water column. Sulfate-reducing prokaryotes occurring in estuarine waters were closely related to microorganisms previously detected in freshwater sediments, suggesting an estuarine origin, mainly by the remobilization of the sediments. In the marine bay station, sediment-derived sulfate-reducing prokaryotes were not cultured anymore, probably due to freshwater dilution, increasing salinity and extended oxic stress. Nevertheless, isolates related to the type strain Desulfovibrio oceani were cultured from the diluted plume and deep marine waters, indicating the occurrence of autochthonous sulfate-reducing bacteria offshore.

  2. Ecology of Vibrio vulnificus in estuarine waters of eastern North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Pfeffer, Courtney S; Hite, M Frances; Oliver, James D

    2003-06-01

    While several studies on the ecology of Vibrio vulnificus in Gulf Coast environments have been reported, there is little information on the distribution of this pathogen in East Coast waters. Thus, we conducted a multiyear study on the ecology of V. vulnificus in estuarine waters of the eastern United States, employing extensive multiple regression analyses to reveal the major environmental factors controlling the presence of this pathogen, and of Vibrio spp., in these environments. Monthly field samplings were conducted between July 2000 and April 2002 at six different estuarine sites along the eastern coast of North Carolina. At each site, water samples were taken and nine physicochemical parameters were measured. V. vulnificus isolates, along with estuarine bacteria, Vibrio spp., Escherichia coli organisms, and total coliforms, were enumerated in samples from each site by using selective media. During the last 6 months of the study, sediment samples were also analyzed for the presence of vibrios, including V. vulnificus. Isolates were confirmed as V. vulnificus by using hemolysin gene PCR or colony hybridization. V. vulnificus was isolated only when water temperatures were between 15 and 27 degrees C, and its presence correlated with water temperature and dissolved oxygen and vibrio levels. Levels of V. vulnificus in sediments were low, and no evidence for an overwintering in this environment was found. Multiple regression analysis indicated that vibrio levels were controlled primarily by temperature, turbidity, and levels of dissolved oxygen, estuarine bacteria, and coliforms. Water temperature accounted for most of the variability in the concentrations of both V. vulnificus (47%) and Vibrio spp. (48%).

  3. Ecology of Vibrio vulnificus in Estuarine Waters of Eastern North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Pfeffer, Courtney S.; Hite, M. Frances; Oliver, James D.

    2003-01-01

    While several studies on the ecology of Vibrio vulnificus in Gulf Coast environments have been reported, there is little information on the distribution of this pathogen in East Coast waters. Thus, we conducted a multiyear study on the ecology of V. vulnificus in estuarine waters of the eastern United States, employing extensive multiple regression analyses to reveal the major environmental factors controlling the presence of this pathogen, and of Vibrio spp., in these environments. Monthly field samplings were conducted between July 2000 and April 2002 at six different estuarine sites along the eastern coast of North Carolina. At each site, water samples were taken and nine physicochemical parameters were measured. V. vulnificus isolates, along with estuarine bacteria, Vibrio spp., Escherichia coli organisms, and total coliforms, were enumerated in samples from each site by using selective media. During the last 6 months of the study, sediment samples were also analyzed for the presence of vibrios, including V. vulnificus. Isolates were confirmed as V. vulnificus by using hemolysin gene PCR or colony hybridization. V. vulnificus was isolated only when water temperatures were between 15 and 27°C, and its presence correlated with water temperature and dissolved oxygen and vibrio levels. Levels of V. vulnificus in sediments were low, and no evidence for an overwintering in this environment was found. Multiple regression analysis indicated that vibrio levels were controlled primarily by temperature, turbidity, and levels of dissolved oxygen, estuarine bacteria, and coliforms. Water temperature accounted for most of the variability in the concentrations of both V. vulnificus (47%) and Vibrio spp. (48%). PMID:12788759

  4. ESTIMATION OF INHERENT OPTICAL PROPERTIES AND THE WATER QUALITY COMPONENTS IN THE NEUSE RIVER-PAMLICO SOUND ESTUARINE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field observations carried out in the Neuse River-Pamlico Sound Estuarine System (NRE-PS), North Carolina, USA were used to develop optical algorithms for assessing inherent optical properties, IOPs (absorption and backscattering) associated with water quality components (WQC).

  5. Method 349.0 Determination of Ammonia in Estuarine and Coastal Waters by Gas Segmented Continuous Flow Colorimetric Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    This method provides a procedure for the determination of ammonia in estuarine and coastal waters. The method is based upon the indophenol reaction,1-5 here adapted to automated gas-segmented continuous flow analysis.

  6. Method 440.0 Determination of Carbon and Nitrogen in Sediments and Particulatesof Estuarine/Coastal Waters Using Elemental Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elemental analysis is used to determine particulate carbon (PC) and particulate nitrogen (PN) in estuarine and coastal waters and sediment. The method measures the total carbon and nitrogen irrespective of source (inorganic or organic).

  7. Method 440.0 Determination of Carbon and Nitrogen in Sediments and Particulatesof Estuarine/Coastal Waters Using Elemental Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elemental analysis is used to determine particulate carbon (PC) and particulate nitrogen (PN) in estuarine and coastal waters and sediment. The method measures the total carbon and nitrogen irrespective of source (inorganic or organic).

  8. Method 349.0 Determination of Ammonia in Estuarine and Coastal Waters by Gas Segmented Continuous Flow Colorimetric Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    This method provides a procedure for the determination of ammonia in estuarine and coastal waters. The method is based upon the indophenol reaction,1-5 here adapted to automated gas-segmented continuous flow analysis.

  9. Toxicity of ozonated estuarine water to juvenile blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) and Juvenile Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus)

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, L.B.; Burton, D.T.

    1981-02-01

    Large quantitites of estuarine and marine water are treated with chlorine to prevent condenser system fouling at power plants. Chlorine and its residual by-products, however, are toxic to many forms of aquatic life. Ozone is one alternative oxidant which has proven to be an effective biocide and disinfectant in many fresh water applications. Ozonation of estuarine and marine waters, however, may produce residual compounds similar to those produced by chlorination. This study was initiated to provide baseline information on the toxicity of ozonated estuarine water to two representative estuarine species. The blue crab, Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, and the Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus Latrobe, were selected because of their wide distribution and commercial importance. The toxicity of ozone has been compared with chlorine toxicity data from the literature in an effort to examine possible similarities in toxicity.

  10. ESTIMATION OF INHERENT OPTICAL PROPERTIES AND THE WATER QUALITY COMPONENTS IN THE NEUSE RIVER-PAMLICO SOUND ESTUARINE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field observations carried out in the Neuse River-Pamlico Sound Estuarine System (NRE-PS), North Carolina, USA were used to develop optical algorithms for assessing inherent optical properties, IOPs (absorption and backscattering) associated with water quality components (WQC).

  11. Cold water immersion: kill or cure?

    PubMed

    Tipton, M J; Collier, N; Massey, H; Corbett, J; Harper, M

    2017-08-23

    What is the topic of this review? This is the first review to look across the broad field of 'cold water immersion' and to determine the threats and benefits associated with it as both a hazard and a treatment. What advances does it highlight? The level of evidence supporting each of the areas reviewed is assessed. Like other environmental constituents, such as pressure, heat and oxygen, cold water can be either good or bad, threat or treatment, depending on circumstance. Given the current increase in the popularly of open cold water swimming, it is timely to review the various human responses to cold water immersion (CWI) and consider the strength of the claims made for the effects of CWI. As a consequence, in this review we look at the history of CWI and examine CWI as a precursor to drowning, cardiac arrest and hypothermia. We also assess its role in prolonged survival underwater, extending exercise time in the heat and treating hyperthermic casualties. More recent uses, such as in the prevention of inflammation and treatment of inflammation-related conditions, are also considered. It is concluded that the evidence base for the different claims made for CWI are varied, and although in most instances there seems to be a credible rationale for the benefits or otherwise of CWI, in some instances the supporting data remain at the level of anecdotal speculation. Clear directions and requirements for future research are indicated by this review. © 2017 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  12. Complexation Reactions Between Trace Metals and Specific Functional Groups In Natural Organic Matter From Estuarine Waters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-30

    molecular-weight thiols (glutathione or cysteine) could not be eluted from a C18 column. Similar results were observed for Ag- phytochelatin complexes...separately. The HPLC results showed that glutathione, cysteine, n-acetyl-cysteine, phytochelatins and others are all present in the estuarine water...Mar. Chem., 55, 113-128. Mehra, R.K., Tran, K. Scott, G.W., Mulchandani, P. and Saini, S.S.. 1996. Ag(I)-Binding to phytochelatin . J. Inorg. Biochem

  13. Water quality monitoring in estuarine waters using the Landsat Thematic Mapper

    SciTech Connect

    Lavery, P.; Pattiaratchi, C. . Centre for Water Research); Wyllie, A.; Hick, P.

    1993-12-01

    Due to the impacts of rural and urban development on southwestern Australian estuaries, and the general isolation of these water bodies, there is a need to develop water quality monitoring systems that are both repetitive and cost-effective. The literature suggests that Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) has spectral and spatial characteristics that are suited to monitoring small coastal water bodies. This study examined the potential for the satellite-based TM sensor to serve as a regulator monitoring tool. Atmospherically corrected TM digital data acquired on four dates over summer 1990/91 and concurrent field measurements collected at the time of the satellite over-pass over the Peel-Harvey Estuarine System were used to obtain multitemporal, empirical algorithms for predicting pigment concentration, Secchi disk depth (SDD), and salinity. Highly significant, predictive algorithms were developed for these parameters. It is concluded that Landsat TM has the resolution and accuracy to be a potentially very useful monitoring tool. However, cloud cover and delays in data acquisition seriously diminish its usefulness for monitoring on anything less than a seasonal basis. Laboratory-based radiometric studies also indicated that Landsat TM was unlikely to be useful in determining the taxonomic composition of phytoplankton blooms in coastal waters.

  14. Mechanisms of nickel toxicity to fish and invertebrates in marine and estuarine waters.

    PubMed

    Blewett, Tamzin A; Leonard, Erin M

    2017-04-01

    In freshwater settings the toxicity of the trace metal nickel (Ni) is relatively well understood. However, until recently, there was little knowledge regarding Ni toxicity in waters of higher salinity, where factors such as water chemistry and the physiology of estuarine and marine biota would be expected to alter toxicological impact. This review summarizes recent literature investigating Ni toxicity in marine and estuarine invertebrates and fish. As in freshwater, three main mechanisms of Ni toxicity exist: ionoregulatory impairment, inhibition of respiration, and promotion of oxidative stress. However, unlike in freshwater biota, where mechanisms of toxicity are largely Class-specific, the delineation of toxic mechanisms between different species is less defined. In general, despite changes in Ni speciation in marine waters, organism physiology appears to be the main driver of toxic impact, a fact that will need to be accounted for when adapting regulatory tools (such as bioavailability normalization) from freshwater to estuarine and marine environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cold compaction of water ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durham, William B.; McKinnon, William B.; Stern, Laura A.

    2005-09-01

    Hydrostatic compaction of granulated water ice was measured in laboratory experiments at temperatures 77 K to 120 K. We performed step-wise hydrostatic pressurization tests on 5 samples to maximum pressures P of 150 MPa, using relatively tight (0.18-0.25 mm) and broad (0.25-2.0 mm) starting grain-size distributions. Compaction change of volume is highly nonlinear in P, typical for brittle, granular materials. No time-dependent creep occurred on the lab time scale. Significant residual porosity (~0.10) remains even at highest P. Examination by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveals a random configuration of fractures and broad distribution of grain sizes, again consistent with brittle behavior. Residual porosity appears as smaller, well-supported micropores between ice fragments. Over the interior pressures found in smaller midsize icy satellites and Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs), substantial porosity can be sustained over solar system history in the absence of significant heating and resultant sintering.

  16. Cold compaction of water ice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durham, W.B.; McKinnon, W.B.; Stern, L.A.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrostatic compaction of granulated water ice was measured in laboratory experiments at temperatures 77 K to 120 K. We performed step-wise hydrostatic pressurization tests on 5 samples to maximum pressures P of 150 MPa, using relatively tight (0.18-0.25 mm) and broad (0.25-2.0 mm) starting grain-size distributions. Compaction change of volume is highly nonlinear in P, typical for brittle, granular materials. No time-dependent creep occurred on the lab time scale. Significant residual porosity (???0.10) remains even at highest P. Examination by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveals a random configuration of fractures and broad distribution of grain sizes, again consistent with brittle behavior. Residual porosity appears as smaller, well-supported micropores between ice fragments. Over the interior pressures found in smaller midsize icy satellites and Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs), substantial porosity can be sustained over solar system history in the absence of significant heating and resultant sintering. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Close range, aircraft and satellite monitoring trophic status of inland, estuarine and coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitelson, A. A.; Gurlin, D.; Moses, W. J.; Berdnikov, S. V.; Saprygin, V. V.

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this work was to test the performance of models used red and near infra-red (NIR) spectral regions (NIR-red models) for the remote estimation of the chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentration in turbid productive case 2 waters. We focused on determining the ability of the models to estimate chl-a concentrations below 20 mg m-3, which are typical for estuarine and coastal waters, and assessing the potential of MODIS and MERIS to estimate chl-a concentrations, using NIR-red models. Reflectance data were collected in inland, estuarine, and coastal waters by hyperspectral radiometers just beneath the water surface, hyperspectral imaging sensor AISA on board an aircraft, and satellite sensors MODIS and MERIS. Algorithms established using proximal sensing were applied to aircraft and satellite data. The algorithms yielded high accuracy in estimating chl-a concentrations from AISA and MERIS data. The results illustrated the potential of the NIR-Red models to estimate chl-a concentration in turbid productive waters with a high accuracy. Nevertheless, challenges still remain in calibrating the models for their universal application to satellite data. The in situ data collection technique needs to be adapted to maximize the number of stations that can be assessed with a single satellite image. The spatial heterogeneity of the water within a satellite pixel area around each station needs to be accounted for. So are any changes in the bio-physical and bio-optical characteristics of the water at each station during the time elapsed between the satellite overpass and the in situ data collection. Accurate and reliable atmospheric correction of the satellite data is still a major challenge for turbid productive waters. Provided these factors can be effectively accounted for, robustly calibrated algorithms can be developed for real-time estimation of chl-a concentration, which will greatly benefit scientists and natural resource managers in making informed decisions on

  18. When hot water freezes before cold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, J. I.

    2009-01-01

    I suggest that the origin of the Mpemba effect (the freezing of hot water before cold) is due to freezing-point depression by solutes, either gaseous or solid, whose solubility decreases with increasing temperature so that they are removed when water is heated. The solutes are concentrated ahead of the freezing front by zone refining in water that has not been heated, reducing the temperature of the freezing front, and thereby reducing the temperature gradient and heat flux, slowing the progress of the freezing front. I present a simple calculation of this effect, and suggest experiments to test this hypothesis.

  19. Hot and cold water issues deftly described.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2016-02-01

    Speaking at a Legionella Control Association Open Day on 9 October last year in Tamworth, Mike Quest, an LCA director and Committee Member who is an independent water hygiene and safety consultant and an NHS Authorising Engineer, presented his standpoint on effective risk assessment and monitoring of complex hot and cold water systems. He also focused on some of the challenges for engineering and estates teams in maintaining water temperatures within 'safe limits' in modern buildings, with reference to the complications he had seen in a hospital project he has recently been working on.

  20. A method to identify estuarine water quality exceedances associated with ocean conditions.

    PubMed

    Brown, Cheryl A; Nelson, Walter G

    2015-03-01

    Wind-driven coastal upwelling along the Pacific Northwest Coast of the USA results in oceanic water that may be periodically entrained into adjacent estuaries and which possesses high nutrients and low dissolved oxygen (DO). Measurement of water quality indicators during these upwelling water entrainment events would represent extreme values for water quality thresholds derived from typical estuarine conditions. Tools are therefore needed to distinguish upwelled waters from other causes of exceedances of water quality thresholds within estuaries of the region. We present an example application of logistic regression models to predict the probability of exceedance of a water quality threshold, using DO data from the Yaquina estuary, Oregon, USA. Models including water temperature and salinity correctly classified exceedances of DO about 80 % of the time. Inclusion of in situ fluorescence in the logistic regression model for DO improved the model performance and reduced the rate of false positives.

  1. Nitrogen over enrichment in subtropical Pearl River estuarine coastal waters: Possible causes and consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Kedong; Harrison, Paul J.

    2008-07-01

    Hong Kong is surrounded by estuarine, coastal and oceanic waters. In this study, monthly averages over a 10 year time series of salinity, temperature, chlorophyll a (chl a), dissolved oxygen (DO), dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), silicate (SiO 4) and orthophosphate (PO 4) at three representative stations around Hong Kong were used to examine if excess nitrogen in estuarine influenced waters is due to P limitation. The monthly distribution clearly shows the dominant influence of the seasonal change in river discharge in the Pearl River estuary and adjacent coastal waters. In winter, the river discharge is small and more oceanic waters are dominant and as a result, salinity is high, and chlorophyll and nutrients are low. In summer, when the river discharge is high, salinity decreases and nutrients increase. DIN is very high, reaching 100 μM in the estuary. This indicates over enrichment of nitrogen relative to P and consequently there is an excess of N in coastal waters of Hong Kong. P remains low (˜1 μM) and can potentially limit both phytoplankton biomass and N utilization which was demonstrated in field incubation experiments. P limitation would result in excess N being left in the estuarine influenced waters south of Hong Kong. Phosphate concentration is lower in the Pearl River estuary than in many other eutrophied estuaries. Therefore, this relatively low PO 4 concentration should be a significant factor limiting a further increase in the magnitude of algal biomass and in the degree of eutrophication in the Pearl River estuary. The export of the excess N offshore into the northern South China Sea may result in an increase in the size of the region that is P limited in summer.

  2. 21 CFR 880.6085 - Hot/cold water bottle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hot/cold water bottle. 880.6085 Section 880.6085... Devices § 880.6085 Hot/cold water bottle. (a) Identification. A hot/cold water bottle is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with hot or cold...

  3. 21 CFR 880.6085 - Hot/cold water bottle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hot/cold water bottle. 880.6085 Section 880.6085... Devices § 880.6085 Hot/cold water bottle. (a) Identification. A hot/cold water bottle is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with hot or cold...

  4. 21 CFR 880.6085 - Hot/cold water bottle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hot/cold water bottle. 880.6085 Section 880.6085... Devices § 880.6085 Hot/cold water bottle. (a) Identification. A hot/cold water bottle is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with hot or cold...

  5. 21 CFR 880.6085 - Hot/cold water bottle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hot/cold water bottle. 880.6085 Section 880.6085... Devices § 880.6085 Hot/cold water bottle. (a) Identification. A hot/cold water bottle is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with hot or cold...

  6. Analytical characterization of selective benthic flux components in estuarine and coastal waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Jeffrey N.

    2011-01-01

    Benthic flux is the rate of flow across the bed of a water body, per unit area of bed. It is forced by component mechanisms, which interact. For example, pressure gradients across the bed, forced by tide, surface gravity waves, density gradients, bed–current interaction, turbulence, and terrestrial hydraulic gradients, drive an advective benthic flux of water and constituents between estuarine and coastal waters, and surficial aquifers. Other mechanisms also force benthic flux, such as chemical gradients, bioturbation, and dispersion. A suite of component mechanisms force a total benthic flux at any given location, where each member of the suite contributes a component benthic flux. Currently, the types and characteristics of component interactions are not fully understood. For example, components may interact linearly or nonlinearly, and the interaction may be constructive or destructive. Benthic flux is a surface water–groundwater interaction process. Its discharge component to a marine water body is referred to, in some literature, as submarine groundwater discharge. Benthic flux is important in characterizing water and constituent budgets of estuarine and coastal systems. Analytical models to characterize selective benthic flux components are reviewed. Specifically, these mechanisms are for the component associated with the groundwater tidal prism, and forced by surface gravity wave setup, surface gravity waves on a plane bed, and the terrestrial hydraulic gradient. Analytical models are applied to the Indian River Lagoon, Florida; Great South Bay, New York; and the South Atlantic Bight in South Carolina and portions of North Carolina.

  7. Toxic pressure of herbicides on microalgae in Dutch estuarine and coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booij, Petra; Sjollema, Sascha B.; van der Geest, Harm G.; Leonards, Pim E. G.; Lamoree, Marja H.; de Voogt, W. Pim; Admiraal, Wim; Laane, Remi W. P. M.; Vethaak, A. Dick

    2015-08-01

    For several decades now, there has been an increase in the sources and types of chemicals in estuarine and coastal waters as a consequence of anthropogenic activities. This has led to considerable concern about the effects of these chemicals on the marine food chain. The fact is that estuarine and coastal waters are the most productive ecosystems with high primary production by microalgae. The toxic pressure of specific phytotoxic chemicals now poses a major threat to these ecosystems. In a previous study, six herbicides (atrazine, diuron, irgarol, isoproturon, terbutryn and terbutylazine) were identified as the main contaminants affecting photosynthesis in marine microalgae. The purpose of this study is to investigate the toxic pressure of these herbicides in the Dutch estuarine and coastal waters in relation to the effective photosystem II efficiency (ΦPSII) in microalgae. Temporal and spatial variations in the concentrations of these herbicides were analyzed based on monitoring data. Additionally, a field study was carried out in which chemical analysis of water was performed and also a toxicity assessment using the Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) fluorometry assay that measures ΦPSII. The toxic pressure on ΦPSII in microalgae has decreased with 55-82% from 2003 to 2012, with the Western Scheldt estuary showing the highest toxic pressure. By combining toxicity data from the PAM assay with chemical analysis of herbicide concentrations, we have identified diuron and terbutylazine as the main contributors to the toxic pressure on microalgae. Although direct effects are not expected, the toxic pressure is close to the 10% effect level in the PAM assay. A compliance check with the current environmental legislation of the European Union revealed that the quality standards are not sufficient to protect marine microalgae.

  8. Microbiological Indices for total coliform and E. coli bacteria in estuarine waters.

    PubMed

    Neill, Michael

    2004-11-01

    Bacterial counts for total coliforms and E. coli in estuaries are normally orders of magnitude greater at the freshwater end than at the seaward end and tidal movements and variations in freshwater flows produce continual change in the freshwater/seawater mix--this causes the bacterial counts to vary greatly throughout the estuary and the complexity creates difficulty in appraising or assessing the bacterial counts (i.e. difficulties arise when deciding if the bacterial counts for estuarine water samples are within an acceptable range--relative to their corresponding salinities). The situation is further complicated in estuaries where sewage is discharged directly. Microbiological criteria and indices that can be used in a practical way to overcome these difficulties were developed. The procedure is summarised as follows: 1. Primary criteria are proposed for total coliform and for E. coli bacteria in the freshwater at the head of the estuary and in full seawater at the mouth of the estuary. 2. For estuarine or transitional waters (i.e. waters with salinity ranging from 0 per thousand to 35 per thousand), distinct criteria are calculated for each individual sample--with a separate criterion for total coliforms and for E. coli--the individual criteria are founded on the primary criteria and vary with salinity on a pro-rata or linear basis. 3. Finally, the Microbiological Index for each result is obtained by dividing the actual bacterial count by the corresponding criterion--the acceptable Index is then equal to 1--at any salinity (i.e. where the Index is <1 then the bacterial count complies with the criterion, and where the Index is >1 then the count breaches the criterion). The Index also indicates the extent of the compliance or non-compliance with the corresponding criteria. An example of the application of the Microbiological Index is also presented--including examples of graphs that demonstrate how microbiological data for estuarine waters can be summarised and

  9. National estuarine inventory: Classified shellfish growing waters by estuary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Broutman, M.A.; Leonard, D.L.

    1986-12-01

    The report is the first in a series of reports that compile information on classified shellfish waters as an indicator of coliform bacteria pollution in the Nation's estuaries. Data for the report have been derived from the 1985 National Shellfish Register. Although the Register has provided consistent data on acreage of classified shellfish waters by state, use of it as a national water-quality indicator has been hindered because of the influence of factors other than water quality on classification. The report improves the 1985 Register data by: (1) reorganizing data into 92 estuaries on the East, West, and Gulf coasts that comprise the National Estuarine Inventory, and (2) correcting data for areas that were classified for reasons other than water quality.

  10. Distribution of tritium in estuarine waters: the role of organic matter.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew; Millward, Geoffrey E; Stemp, Martin

    2009-10-01

    Tritium is an important environmental radionuclide whose reactivity with ligands and solids in aquatic systems is assumed to be limited. We studied the fractionation and sorption of tritium (added as tritiated water) in river water and seawater, and found that its distribution appears to be influenced by its affinity for organic matter. Tritium rapidly equilibrates with dissolved organic ligands that are retained by a reverse-phase C18 column, and with suspended sediment particles. Significantly, a measurable fraction of sorbed tritium associates with proteinaceous material that is potentially available to sediment-feeding organisms. These characteristics have not been reported previously and cannot be accounted for solely by isotopic exchange with hydrogen. Nevertheless, they are in qualitative agreement with available measurements of tritium in estuarine and coastal waters where its principal discharge is as tritiated water. Further research into the estuarine biogeochemical behaviour of tritium is required and radiological distribution coefficients and concentration factors that are assumed for this radionuclide may require reconsideration.

  11. Ionic regulation in aglomerular tropical estuarine pufferfishes submitted to sea water dilution.

    PubMed

    Prodocimo, V; Freire, C A.

    2001-07-30

    Two common tropical estuarine pufferfishes were used in this study. The main species was Sphoeroides testudineus Linnaeus, 1758, a very abundant species in the estuaries of Paranaguá Bay (Paraná, Brazil), found in waters of salinity between 0 per thousand (tidal creeks) and 34 per thousand (tidal plains). The second species was S. greeleyi Gilbert, 1900, a species limited in distribution to an area of higher salinity ( approximately 30 per thousand) than S. testudineus. The present work thus aimed at evaluating the capacity of ionic regulation of both species of pufferfishes when submitted to salinity decrease, relating the results with both species' distribution in nature. Ion regulation curves for sodium (Na(+)), chloride (Cl(-)), and magnesium (Mg(2+)) ions after 6 h and 15 days of exposure of the abundant S. testudineus to the salinities of 30 per thousand, 20 per thousand, 10 per thousand, and 5 per thousand were elaborated, as well as for Cl(-) and Mg(2+) after 6 h and 15 days of exposure of both species to the extreme salinities of 35 per thousand and 5 per thousand. Both species kept their plasma Cl(-) ( approximately 120-160 mM), and Mg(2+) ( approximately 1.3 mM) concentrations stable, as did S. testudineus for Na(+) ( approximately 130 mM). Na(+) (measured only for S. testudineus) and Cl(-) were either hyper-regulated (in 5 per thousand) or kept iso-ionic ( approximately 7-10 per thousand), but more often hypo-regulated (20-35 per thousand). In contrast, Mg(2+) was strongly hypo-regulated in all salinities. According to their distribution records in nature, S. greeleyi was less able to tolerate strong sea water dilution, showing mortality after 5 days in 5 per thousand water. These estuarine pufferfishes are thus efficient regulators of plasma ionic concentrations in diluted sea water, as expected from their occupation of estuaries. The experiments have supported the distribution records of both species in the estuarine complex and resident estuarine

  12. Transfer of gold nanoparticles from the water column to the estuarine food web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferry, John L.; Craig, Preston; Hexel, Cole; Sisco, Patrick; Frey, Rebecca; Pennington, Paul L.; Fulton, Michael H.; Scott, I. Geoff; Decho, Alan W.; Kashiwada, Shosaku; Murphy, Catherine J.; Shaw, Timothy J.

    2009-07-01

    Within the next five years the manufacture of large quantities of nanomaterials may lead to unintended contamination of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The unique physical, chemical and electronic properties of nanomaterials allow new modes of interaction with environmental systems that can have unexpected impacts. Here, we show that gold nanorods can readily pass from the water column to the marine food web in three laboratory-constructed estuarine mesocosms containing sea water, sediment, sea grass, microbes, biofilms, snails, clams, shrimp and fish. A single dose of gold nanorods (65 nm length × 15 nm diameter) was added to each mesocosm and their distribution in the aqueous and sediment phases monitored over 12 days. Nanorods partitioned between biofilms, sediments, plants, animals and sea water with a recovery of 84.4%. Clams and biofilms accumulated the most nanoparticles on a per mass basis, suggesting that gold nanorods can readily pass from the water column to the marine food web.

  13. Northeastern Florida Bay estuarine creek data, water years 1996-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hittle, Clinton D.; Zucker, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

    From October 1995 to September 2000 (water years 1996-2000), continuous 15-minute stage, water velocity, salinity, and water temperature data were collected at seven estuarine creeks that flow into northeastern Florida Bay. These creeks include West Highway Creek, Stillwater Creek, Trout Creek, Mud Creek, Taylor River, Upstream Taylor River, and McCormick Creek. Discharge was computed at 15-minute intervals using mean water velocity and the cross-sectional area of the channel. Fifteen-minute unit values are presented for comparison of the quantity, quality, timing, and distribution of flows through the creeks. Revised discharge estimation formulas are presented for three noninstrumented sites (East Highway Creek, Oregon Creek and Stillwater Creek) that utilize an improved West Highway discharge rating. Stillwater Creek and Upstream Taylor River were originally noninstrumented sites; both were fully instrumented in 1999. Discharge rating equations are presented for these sites and were developed using a simple linear regression.

  14. VIS - A database on the distribution of fishes in inland and estuarine waters in Flanders, Belgium.

    PubMed

    Brosens, Dimitri; Breine, Jan; Van Thuyne, Gerlinde; Belpaire, Claude; Desmet, Peter; Verreycken, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    The Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO) has been performing standardized fish stock assessments in Flanders, Belgium. This Flemish Fish Monitoring Network aims to assess fish populations in public waters at regular time intervals in both inland waters and estuaries. This monitoring was set up in support of the Water Framework Directive, the Habitat Directive, the Eel Regulation, the Red List of fishes, fish stock management, biodiversity research, and to assess the colonization and spreading of non-native fish species. The collected data are consolidated in the Fish Information System or VIS. From VIS, the occurrence data are now published at the INBO IPT as two datasets: 'VIS - Fishes in inland waters in Flanders, Belgium' and 'VIS - Fishes in estuarine waters in Flanders, Belgium'. Together these datasets represent a complete overview of the distribution and abundance of fish species pertaining in Flanders from late 1992 to the end of 2012. This data paper discusses both datasets together, as both have a similar methodology and structure. The inland waters dataset contains over 350,000 fish observations, sampled between 1992 and 2012 from over 2,000 locations in inland rivers, streams, canals, and enclosed waters in Flanders. The dataset includes 64 fish species, as well as a number of non-target species (mainly crustaceans). The estuarine waters dataset contains over 44,000 fish observations, sampled between 1995 and 2012 from almost 50 locations in the estuaries of the rivers Yser and Scheldt ("Zeeschelde"), including two sampling sites in the Netherlands. The dataset includes 69 fish species and a number of non-target crustacean species. To foster broad and collaborative use, the data are dedicated to the public domain under a Creative Commons Zero waiver and reference the INBO norms for data use.

  15. Co-occurrence of phycocyanin- and phycoerythrin-rich Synechococcus in subtropical estuarine and coastal waters of Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongbin; Jing, Hongmei; Wong, Thomas H C; Chen, Bingzhang

    2014-02-01

    Phylogenetic diversity of Synechococcus with different pigmentation in subtropical estuarine and coastal waters of Hong Kong was revealed by the phylogeny of cpcBA and cpeBA operons encoding for phycocyanin (PC) and phycoerythrin (PE). Synechococcus containing only PC (PC-rich Synechococcus) dominated at the estuarine station in summer, whereas PE-rich marine Synechococcus containing both PC and PE (PE-rich Synechococcus) dominated in the coastal waters. Our PC sequences are closely related to freshwater strains but differed from Baltic Sea strains, implying that they were from river discharge. Among PE-rich Synechococcus, clones grouping with strains containing only phycoerythrobilin (PEB-only) were abundant in July, while clones grouping with strains possessing a low content of phycourobilin (PUB) in addition to PEB (low PUB/PEB) were more abundant in January at both stations. Clones of high PUB/PEB types were only presented at the coastal station, but were not detected at the estuarine station. The much higher diversity of both PC-rich and PE-rich Synechococcus, as compared with the Baltic Sea, and the occurrence of the high PUB/PEB strains indicate the high dynamic nature of this subtropical estuarine-coastal environment with strong mixing of water masses ranging from Pearl River plume to oceanic South China Sea water. Our results of phylogenetic study agreed well with flow cytometric counts, which revealed the coexistence of PC-rich and PE-rich Synechococcus in the subtropical coastal waters and the dominance of the former type in the estuarine waters during summer high freshwater discharge. These results indicate that picocyanobacteria, particularly PC-rich Synechococcus, which has long been overlooked, are an important part of the primary production, and they could play an important role in the microbial food web in estuarine ecosystems.

  16. Colloidal size spectra, composition and estuarine mixing behavior of DOM in river and estuarine waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhengzhen; Stolpe, Björn; Guo, Laodong; Shiller, Alan M.

    2016-05-01

    Flow field-flow fractionation (FlFFF) coupled on-line with UV absorbance and fluorescence detectors was used to examine the colloidal composition and size distribution of optically active dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the lower Mississippi River (MR), the East Pearl River (EPR), the St. Louis Bay (SLB) estuary, and coastal waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico. In addition to field studies, laboratory mixing experiments using river and seawater end-members were carried out to study the processes controlling the estuarine mixing behavior and size partitioning of colloids with different sizes and composition. The colloidal size spectra of chromophoric DOM and humic-like DOM showed one dominant peak in the 0.5-4 nm size range, representing >75% of the total FlFFF-recoverable colloids. In contrast, protein-like DOM showed a bi-modal distribution with peaks at 0.5-4 nm and 4-8 nm, as well as a major portion (from ∼41% in the EPR to ∼72% in the Mississippi Bight) partitioned to the >20 nm size fraction. Bulk DOM was lower in abundance and molecular-weight in the MR compared with the EPR, while the proportion of colloidal protein-like DOM in the >20 nm size range was slightly larger in the MR compared with the EPR. These features are consistent with differences in land use, hydrological conditions, and water residence time between the two river basins, with more autochthonous DOM in MR waters. In the SLB estuary, different DOM components demonstrated different mixing behaviors. The abundance of colloidal chromophoric DOM decreased with increasing salinity and showed evident removal during estuarine mixing even though the bulk DOM appeared to be conservative. In contrast, colloidal humic-like DOM behaved conservatively inside SLB and during laboratory mixing experiments. The ratio of colloidal protein-like to humic-like DOM generally increased with increasing salinity, consistent with increasing autochthonous protein-like DOM and removal of terrestrially

  17. Bioaccumulation from food and water of cadmium, selenium and zinc in an estuarine fish, Ambassis jacksoniensis.

    PubMed

    Creighton, N; Twining, J

    2010-10-01

    The glassfish, Ambassis jacksoniensis, is a key, mid-level species in an estuarine food web on the east coast of Australia. Estuaries are subject to contamination from urban and industrial activities. The biokinetics of Cd, Se and Zn accumulation by glassfish from water and food were assessed using radioisotopes. Metal uptake from water was not regulated over the range of water metal concentrations examined. Metal uptake from food was assessed using brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) fed radio-labelled algae. The assimilation efficiency from food was 9.5 ± 2.5%, 23 ± 2.2% and 4.6 ± 0.6% for Cd, Se and Zn, respectively. The potential for biomagnification was low for all metals. Food is the main metal uptake pathway for glassfish, with 97%, 99% and 98% of the uptake of Cd, Se and Zn, respectively, estimated to be from food.

  18. Extracellular enzyme activity at the air-water interface of an estuarine lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudryk, Z. J.; Skórczewski, P.

    2004-01-01

    Variations in hydrolytic activity of eight extracellular enzymes in surface and subsurface waters in estuarine Lake Gardno were measured. The ranking of potential activity rates of the assayed enzymes was the same in both surface and subsurface water, i.e. esterase > lipase > aminopeptidase > phosphatase > β-glucosidase > α-glucosidase > chitinase > β-lactosidase. The vertical activity profiles show that esterase, aminopeptidase, α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase and β-lactosidase reached the highest values in surface layer, whereas lipase, phosphatase and chitinase showed maximum activity in subsurface water. Significant differences in enzyme activity between different parts of the studied lake were demonstrated, with higher values in the seawater zone, and lower values in the freshwater zone.

  19. An artificial water body provides habitat for an endangered estuarine seahorse species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claassens, Louw

    2016-10-01

    Anthropogenic development, especially the transformation of natural habitats to artificial, is a growing concern within estuaries and coastal areas worldwide. Thesen Islands marina, an artificial water body, added 25 ha of new estuarine habitat to the Knysna Estuary in South Africa, home to the Knysna seahorse. This study aimed to answer: (I) Can an artificial water body provide suitable habitat for an endangered seahorse species? And if so (II) what characteristics of this new habitat are important in terms of seahorse utilization? Four major habitat types were identified within the marina canals: (I) artificial reno mattress (wire baskets filled with rocks); (II) Codium tenue beds; (III) mixed vegetation on sediment; and (IV) barren canal floor. Seahorses were found throughout the marina system with significantly higher densities within the reno mattress habitat. The artificial water body, therefore, has provided suitable habitat for Hippocampus capensis, a noteworthy finding in the current environment of coastal development and the increasing shift from natural to artificial.

  20. Comparison of the Seasonal Variations of Synechococcus Assemblage Structures in Estuarine Waters and Coastal Waters of Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Xiaomin; Vidyarathna, Nayani K.; Palenik, Brian; Lee, Puiyin

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal variation in the phylogenetic composition of Synechococcus assemblages in estuarine and coastal waters of Hong Kong was examined through pyrosequencing of the rpoC1 gene. Sixteen samples were collected in 2009 from two stations representing estuarine and ocean-influenced coastal waters, respectively. Synechococcus abundance in coastal waters gradually increased from 3.6 × 103 cells ml−1 in March, reaching a peak value of 5.7 × 105 cells ml−1 in July, and then gradually decreased to 9.3 × 103 cells ml−1 in December. The changes in Synechococcus abundance in estuarine waters followed a pattern similar to that in coastal waters, whereas its composition shifted from being dominated by phycoerythrin-rich (PE-type) strains in winter to phycocyanin-only (PC-type) strains in summer owing to the increase in freshwater discharge from the Pearl River and higher water temperature. The high abundance of PC-type Synechococcus was composed of subcluster 5.2 marine Synechococcus, freshwater Synechococcus (F-PC), and Cyanobium. The Synechococcus assemblage in the coastal waters, on the other hand, was dominated by marine PE-type Synechococcus, with subcluster 5.1 clades II and VI as the major lineages from April to September, when the summer monsoon prevailed. Besides these two clades, clade III cooccurred with clade V at relatively high abundance in summer. During winter, the Synechococcus assemblage compositions at the two sites were similar and were dominated by subcluster 5.1 clades II and IX and an undescribed clade (represented by Synechococcus sp. strain miyav). Clade IX Synechococcus was a relatively ubiquitous PE-type Synechococcus found at both sites, and our study demonstrates that some strains of the clade have the ability to deal with large variation of salinity in subtropical estuarine environments. Our study suggests that changes in seawater temperature and salinity caused by the seasonal variation of monsoonal forcing are two major determinants of

  1. Estuarine water-quality and sediment data, and surface-water and ground-water-quality data, Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay, Camden County, Georgia, January 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leeth, David C.; Holloway, Owen G.

    2000-01-01

    In January 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey collected estuarine-water, estuarine-sediment, surface-water, and ground-water quality samples in the vicinity of Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay, Camden County, Georgia. Data from these samples are used by the U.S. Navy to monitor the impact of submarine base activities on local water resources. Estuarine water and sediment data were collected from five sites on the Crooked River, Kings Bay, and Cumberland Sound. Surface-water data were collected from seven streams that discharge from Naval Submarine Base, Kings Bay. Ground-water data were collected from six ground-water monitoring wells completed in the water-table zone of the surficial aquifer at Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay. Samples were analyzed for nutrients, total and dissolved trace metals, total and dissolved organic carbon, oil and grease, total organic halogens, biological and chemical oxygen demand, and total and fecal coliform. Trace metals in ground and surface waters did not exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Drinking Water Standards; and trace metals in surface water also did not exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Surface Water Standards. These trace metals included arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, tin, and zinc. Barium was detected in relatively high concentrations in ground water (concentrations ranged from 18 to 264 micrograms per liter). Two estuarine water samples exceeded the Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Environmental Protection Division standards for copper (concentrations of 6.2 and 3.0 micrograms per liter).

  2. Arm insulation and swimming in cold water.

    PubMed

    Lounsbury, David S; Ducharme, Michel B

    2008-09-01

    To test whether adding insulation to the arms would improve cold water swimming performance by delaying swimming failure (SF). Novice (n = 7) and expert (n = 8) swimmers, clothed and equipped with a personal flotation device, each performed two trials in a swimming flume filled with 10 degrees C water. During free swimming (FS), subjects performed swimming until failure, followed by the Heat Escape Lessening Posture. In free swimming with additional insulation (FSA), subjects wore custom-fitted armbands. Trials ended when rectal temperature decreased to 34 degrees C or after 2 h of immersion. Measurements included: rectal and skin temperatures, heat flow, and various appraisals of swimming performance. FSA was thermally advantageous versus FS. Rectal temperature cooling rates during swimming (dT/dt Swim) were faster for FS compared to FSA (0.050 +/- 0.007 degrees C min(-1) vs. 0.042 +/- 0.006 degrees C min(-1), P < 0.01). Armbands maintained arm skin temperature about 10 degrees C warmer, for approximately 70 min (P < 0.001). Although additional insulation did not greatly improve physical performances, video analysis showed that swimming technique in FSA was maintained 10-15% better than in FS between minutes 30 and 50 (P < 0.001). SF was achieved in 5/30 trials, with increases in stroke rate (6.6 str min(-1)) and decreases in stroke length (0.24 m str(-1)) observed. In this simulation of cold water swimming survival, equipping subjects with neoprene armbands appears to have partially preserved muscle function, but with unimpressive effects on overall performance. SF is a complex entity, but is evidently related to both triceps skinfold and arm girth.

  3. Understanding spatial variability in extreme estuarine water levels to inform better coastal management practise.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyddon, Charlotte; Plater, Andy, ,, Prof.; Brown, Jenny, ,, Dr.; Leonardi, Nicoletta, ,, Dr.

    2017-04-01

    Coastal zones worldwide are subject to short term, local variations in sea-level, particularly communities and industries developed on estuaries. Astronomical high tides, meteorological storm surges and increased river flow present a combined flood hazard. This can elevate water level at the coast above predicted levels, generating extreme water levels. These contributions can also interact to alter the phase and amplitude of tides and surges, and thus cause significant mismatches between the predicted and observed water level. The combined effect of tide, surge, river flow and their interactions are the key to understanding and assessing flood risk in estuarine environments for design purposes. Delft3D-FLOW, a hydrodynamic model which solves the unsteady shallow-water equation, is used to access spatial variability in extreme water levels for a range of historical events of different severity within the Severn Estuary, southwest England. Long-term tide gauge records from Ilfracombe and Mumbles and river level data from Sandhurst are analysed to generate a series of extreme water level events, representing the 90th, 95th and 99th percentile conditions, to force the model boundaries. To separate out the time-varying contributions of tidal, fluvial, meteorological processes and their interactions the model is run with different physical forcing. A low pass filter is applied to "de-tide" the residual water elevation, to separate out the time-varying meteorological residual and the tide-surge interactions within the surge. The filtered surge is recombined with the predicted tide so the peak occurs at different times relative to high water. The resulting time series are used to force the model boundary to identify how the interactive processes influence the timing of extreme water level across the estuarine domain. This methodology is first validated using the most extreme event on record to ensure that modelled extreme water levels can be predicted with confidence

  4. Estuarine water quality in parks of the Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network: vital signs estuarine nutrient-enrichment monitoring, 2006-11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caldwell, James M.; Nixon, Matthew E.; Neckles, Hilary A.; Pooler, Penelope S.

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes results of water-quality monitoring within estuaries of the National Park Service Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network (NCBN) from 2006 through 2011. Data collection formed part of the NCBN Vital Signs Monitoring Program implemented to detect threats of estuarine nutrient enrichment. Data included here were collected from six parks at predetermined intervals: Cape Cod National Seashore, Massachusetts (2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011); Fire Island National Seashore, New York (2009, 2011); Gateway National Recreation Area, New York and New Jersey (2010); Assateague Island National Seashore, Maryland and Virginia (2006, 2008, 2010); George Washington Birthplace National Monument, Virginia (2009, 2011); and Colonial National Historic Park, Virginia (2008, 2010). Monitoring variables consisted of dissolved-oxygen concentration, chlorophyll a concentration, attenuation of downwelling photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), turbidity, water temperature, and salinity. All monitoring was conducted during four-week summer index periods. The monitoring design incorporated data collection at multiple, complementary spatial and temporal scales. Within each park, a spatial survey was conducted once during the index period following a probability design using a grid of tessellated hexagons as the basis for sample site selection. The spatial survey was supplemented with weekly measurements at a subset of sites and continuous monitoring at a single reference site. Within parks, data were reported as area-weighted water-quality conditions during each index period, the location and extent of estuarine area within condition categories, and spatial and temporal trends. In addition, we used a repeated measures analysis of variance to determine the extent to which variability in three water quality metrics (chlorophyll a in surface water, dissolved oxygen in bottom water, and water clarity expressed by PAR attenuation) was explained by year to year changes in

  5. Estuarine and coastal water dynamics controlling sediment movement and plume development in Long Island Sound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruggles, F. H., Jr. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. As the Connecticut River flows into Long Island Sound, large plumes develop during the mixing of ocean and estuarine waters. Plumes were delineated for July 28, October 8, October 27, and December 2, 1972, by analyzing ERTS-1 imagery with the SRI Electronic Satellite Image Analysis Console (ESIAC). Because the chemical and physical composition of the plume and ocean water were not too different, the ESIAC was utilized to expand the scenes and subject the transparencies to varying combinations of viewing techniques to identify and delineate the plumes. Best results were obtained when band 5 transparencies were used. Indications are, when the scene being analyzed is predominantly in the first two steps of the gray scale, it is best to use the negative transparencies. When the analysis is being done above the first two steps of the gray scale, it is best to use the positive transparencies.

  6. Power, fresh water, and food from cold, deep sea water.

    PubMed

    Othmer, D F; Roels, O A

    1973-10-12

    Many times more solar heat energy accumulates in the vast volume of warm tropic seas than that produced by all of our power plants. The looming energy crisis causes a renewal of interest in utilizing this stored solar heat to give, in addition to electric power, vast quantities of fresh water. Warm surface water, when evaporated, generates steam, to power a turbine, then fresh water when the steam is condensed by the cold water. A great increase in revenues over that from power and fresh water is shown by a substantial mariculture pilot plant. Deep sea water contains large quantities of nutrients. These feed algae which feed shellfish, ultimately shrimps and lobsters, in shallow ponds. Wastes grow seaweed of value; and combined revenues from desalination, power generation, and mariculture will give substantial profit.

  7. Finger and toe temperatures on exposure to cold water and cold air.

    PubMed

    Van der Struijs, Norbert R; Van Es, Eline M; Raymann, Roy J E M; Daanen, Hein A M

    2008-10-01

    Subjects with a weak cold-induced vasodilatation response (CIVD) to experimental cold-water immersion of the fingers in a laboratory setting have been shown to have a higher risk for local cold injuries when exposed to cold in real life. Most of the cold injuries in real life, however, occur in the foot in cold air rather than in the hand in cold water. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to investigate the within-subject relation between CIVD in the fingers and toes exposed to cold water and cold air. In 4 experimental sessions, 11 healthy male subjects immersed their toes and fingers in 5 degrees C water and exposed the fingers and toes to -18 degrees C cold air for 30 min. The pad temperature of the middle three digits was measured. CIVD in water was more pronounced in the fingers (onset time 5.1 +/- 1.8 min; amplitude 5.0 +/- 2.1 degrees C) than in the toes (onset time 10.6 +/- 6.0 min; amplitude 3.0 +/- 1.0 degrees C). Out of 22 skin temperature responses to cold air, 13 were not identifiable as CIVD. The mean skin temperatures for fingers and toes during the last 20 min of cold exposure were 25.6 +/- 7.1 degrees C and 20.9 +/- 6.8 degrees C, respectively, for air and 9.3 +/- 1.9 degrees C and 7.1 +/- 1.3 degrees C for water immersion. There was a strong relation between the mean temperature of the fingers during cold-water immersion and toes during cold air exposure (r = 0.83, P < 0.01), showing that a weak CIVD response in the hand is related to a weak response in the foot. We conclude that the cold-water finger immersion test is related to the temperature response in the toes and may thus continue to serve as a valid indicator for the risk of local cold injuries.

  8. The capability of estuarine sediments to remove nitrogen: implications for drinking water resource in Yangtze Estuary.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin; Wang, Dongqi; Deng, Huanguang; Li, Yangjie; Chang, Siqi; Wu, Zhanlei; Yu, Lin; Hu, Yujie; Yu, Zhongjie; Chen, Zhenlou

    2014-09-01

    Water in the Yangtze Estuary is fresh most of the year because of the large discharge of Yangtze River. The Qingcaosha Reservoir built on the Changxing Island in the Yangtze Estuary is an estuarine reservoir for drinking water. Denitrification rate in the top 10 cm sediment of the intertidal marshes and bare mudflat of Yangtze Estuarine islands was measured by the acetylene inhibition method. Annual denitrification rate in the top 10 cm of sediment was 23.1 μmol m(-2) h(-1) in marshes (ranged from 7.5 to 42.1 μmol m(-2) h(-1)) and 15.1 μmol m(-2) h(-1) at the mudflat (ranged from 6.6 to 26.5 μmol m(-2) h(-1)). Annual average denitrification rate is higher at mashes than at mudflat, but without a significant difference (p = 0.084, paired t test.). Taking into account the vegetation and water area of the reservoir, a total 1.42 × 10(8) g N could be converted into nitrogen gas (N2) annually by the sediment, which is 97.7 % of the dissolved inorganic nitrogen input through precipitation. Denitrification in reservoir sediment can control the bioavailable nitrogen level of the water body. At the Yangtze estuary, denitrification primarily took place in the top 4 cm of sediment, and there was no significant spatial or temporal variation of denitrification during the year at the marshes and mudflat, which led to no single factor determining the denitrification process but the combined effects of the environmental factors, hydrologic condition, and wetland vegetation.

  9. Phytoplankton blooms in estuarine and coastal waters: seasonal patterns and key species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carstensen, Jacob; Klais, Riina; Cloern, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Phytoplankton blooms are dynamic phenomena of great importance to the functioning of estuarine and coastal ecosystems. We analysed a unique (large) collection of phytoplankton monitoring data covering 86 coastal sites distributed over eight regions in North America and Europe, with the aim of investigating common patterns in the seasonal timing and species composition of the blooms. The spring bloom was the most common seasonal pattern across all regions, typically occurring early (February–March) at lower latitudes and later (April–May) at higher latitudes. Bloom frequency, defined as the probability of unusually high biomass, ranged from 5 to 35% between sites and followed no consistent patterns across gradients of latitude, temperature, salinity, water depth, stratification, tidal amplitude or nutrient concentrations. Blooms were mostly dominated by a single species, typically diatoms (58% of the blooms) and dinoflagellates (19%). Diatom-dominated spring blooms were a common feature in most systems, although dinoflagellate spring blooms were also observed in the Baltic Sea. Blooms dominated by chlorophytes and cyanobacteria were only common in low salinity waters and occurred mostly at higher temperatures. Key bloom species across the eight regions included the diatoms Cerataulina pelagica and Dactyliosolen fragilissimus and dinoflagellates Heterocapsa triquetra and Prorocentrum cordatum. Other frequent bloom-forming taxa were diatom genera Chaetoceros, Coscinodiscus, Skeletonema, and Thalassiosira. Our meta-analysis shows that these 86 estuarine-coastal sites function as diatom-producing systems, the timing of that production varies widely, and that bloom frequency is not associated with environmental factors measured in monitoring programs. We end with a perspective on the limitations of conclusions derived from meta-analyses of phytoplankton time series, and the grand challenges remaining to understand the wide range of bloom patterns and

  10. Phytoplankton blooms in estuarine and coastal waters: Seasonal patterns and key species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carstensen, Jacob; Klais, Riina; Cloern, James E.

    2015-09-01

    Phytoplankton blooms are dynamic phenomena of great importance to the functioning of estuarine and coastal ecosystems. We analysed a unique (large) collection of phytoplankton monitoring data covering 86 coastal sites distributed over eight regions in North America and Europe, with the aim of investigating common patterns in the seasonal timing and species composition of the blooms. The spring bloom was the most common seasonal pattern across all regions, typically occurring early (February-March) at lower latitudes and later (April-May) at higher latitudes. Bloom frequency, defined as the probability of unusually high biomass, ranged from 5 to 35% between sites and followed no consistent patterns across gradients of latitude, temperature, salinity, water depth, stratification, tidal amplitude or nutrient concentrations. Blooms were mostly dominated by a single species, typically diatoms (58% of the blooms) and dinoflagellates (19%). Diatom-dominated spring blooms were a common feature in most systems, although dinoflagellate spring blooms were also observed in the Baltic Sea. Blooms dominated by chlorophytes and cyanobacteria were only common in low salinity waters and occurred mostly at higher temperatures. Key bloom species across the eight regions included the diatoms Cerataulina pelagica and Dactyliosolen fragilissimus and dinoflagellates Heterocapsa triquetra and Prorocentrum cordatum. Other frequent bloom-forming taxa were diatom genera Chaetoceros, Coscinodiscus, Skeletonema, and Thalassiosira. Our meta-analysis shows that these 86 estuarine-coastal sites function as diatom-producing systems, the timing of that production varies widely, and that bloom frequency is not associated with environmental factors measured in monitoring programs. We end with a perspective on the limitations of conclusions derived from meta-analyses of phytoplankton time series, and the grand challenges remaining to understand the wide range of bloom patterns and processes that

  11. 21 CFR 880.6085 - Hot/cold water bottle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hot/cold water bottle. 880.6085 Section 880.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6085 Hot/cold water bottle....

  12. Water organic pollution and eutrophication influence soil microbial processes, increasing soil respiration of estuarine wetlands: site study in jiuduansha wetland.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Wang, Lei; Hu, Yu; Xi, Xuefei; Tang, Yushu; Chen, Jinhai; Fu, Xiaohua; Sun, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Undisturbed natural wetlands are important carbon sinks due to their low soil respiration. When compared with inland alpine wetlands, estuarine wetlands in densely populated areas are subjected to great pressure associated with environmental pollution. However, the effects of water pollution and eutrophication on soil respiration of estuarine and their mechanism have still not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, two representative zones of a tidal wetland located in the upstream and downstream were investigated to determine the effects of water organic pollution and eutrophication on soil respiration of estuarine wetlands and its mechanism. The results showed that eutrophication, which is a result of there being an excess of nutrients including nitrogen and phosphorus, and organic pollutants in the water near Shang shoal located upstream were higher than in downstream Xia shoal. Due to the absorption and interception function of shoals, there to be more nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter in Shang shoal soil than in Xia shoal. Abundant nitrogen, phosphorus and organic carbon input to soil of Shang shoal promoted reproduction and growth of some highly heterotrophic metabolic microorganisms such as β-Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria which is not conducive to carbon sequestration. These results imply that the performance of pollutant interception and purification function of estuarine wetlands may weaken their carbon sequestration function to some extent.

  13. Water Organic Pollution and Eutrophication Influence Soil Microbial Processes, Increasing Soil Respiration of Estuarine Wetlands: Site Study in Jiuduansha Wetland

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yue; Wang, Lei; Hu, Yu; Xi, Xuefei; Tang, Yushu; Chen, Jinhai; Fu, Xiaohua; Sun, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Undisturbed natural wetlands are important carbon sinks due to their low soil respiration. When compared with inland alpine wetlands, estuarine wetlands in densely populated areas are subjected to great pressure associated with environmental pollution. However, the effects of water pollution and eutrophication on soil respiration of estuarine and their mechanism have still not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, two representative zones of a tidal wetland located in the upstream and downstream were investigated to determine the effects of water organic pollution and eutrophication on soil respiration of estuarine wetlands and its mechanism. The results showed that eutrophication, which is a result of there being an excess of nutrients including nitrogen and phosphorus, and organic pollutants in the water near Shang shoal located upstream were higher than in downstream Xia shoal. Due to the absorption and interception function of shoals, there to be more nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter in Shang shoal soil than in Xia shoal. Abundant nitrogen, phosphorus and organic carbon input to soil of Shang shoal promoted reproduction and growth of some highly heterotrophic metabolic microorganisms such as β-Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria which is not conducive to carbon sequestration. These results imply that the performance of pollutant interception and purification function of estuarine wetlands may weaken their carbon sequestration function to some extent. PMID:25993326

  14. A vacuum-operated pore-water extractor for estuarine and freshwater sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winger, Parley V.; Lasier, Peter J.

    1991-01-01

    A vacuum-operated pore-water extractor for estuarine and freshwater sediments was developed and constructed from a fused-glass air stone attached with aquarium airline tubing to a 30 or 60 cc polypropylene syringe. Pore water is extracted by inserting the air stone into the sediment and creating a vacuum by retracting and bracing the syringe plunger. A hand-operated vacuum pump attached to a filtration flask was also evaluated as an alternative vacuum source. The volume and time to extract pore water varies with the number of devices and the sediment particle size. Extraction time is longer for fine sediments than for sandy sediments. Four liters of sediment generally yield between 500 and 1,500 mL of pore water. The sediment that surrounds and accumulates on the air stone acts as a filter, and, except for the first few milliliters, the collected pore water is clear. Because there is no exposure to air or avenue for escape, volatile compounds andin situ characteristics are retained in the extracted pore water.

  15. Dynamics of pore-water and salt in estuarine marshes subjected to tide and evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Shen, C.; Li, L.; Lockington, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Salt dynamics in estuarine tidal marshes are strongly associated with their intrinsic hydrological processes and ecological behaviors, which are not well understood. Numerical simulations were carried out to investigate the transport and distribution of pore water and salt in a vertical cross section perpendicular to the tidal creek that subjects to spring-neap tide and evaporation. Vaporizing pore water from unsaturated soil surface with salt left in soils, the time-variant actual evaporation is affected by aerodynamic factors as well as soil conditions, including pore-water saturation, solute concentration and the thickness of salt precipitation above the soil surface (efflorescence). Different simulation cases were performed by adjusting the tidal signal, marsh platform slope and soil properties. The simulation analysis indicates that, the tide-averaged soil salinity increases with the reduction of inundation period in a spring-neap tide cycle. As the salt accumulated by evaporation could leave soil from seepage back to seawater during ebbtide, the pore-water salinity at the surface within the tidal range remains close to that of seawater. With the presence of hyper-saline soil and efflorescence, salt flat develops only in the area where capillary connection between evaporating surface and water-saturated soil is maintained while tidal inundation absent. On the contrary, the sandy supratidal marsh where hydrological connections are disrupted keeps a relatively low soil salinity (40-60 ppt) and pore-water saturation as evaporation remains low throughout the tidal cycles.

  16. Cohort studies of health effects among people exposed to estuarine waters: North Carolina, Virginia, and Maryland.

    PubMed

    Moe, C L; Turf, E; Oldach, D; Bell, P; Hutton, S; Savitz, D; Koltai, D; Turf, M; Ingsrisawang, L; Hart, R; Ball, J D; Stutts, M; McCarter, R; Wilson, L; Haselow, D; Grattan, L; Morris, J G; Weber, D J

    2001-10-01

    A variety of human symptoms have been associated with exposure to the dinoflagellate Pfiesteria and have been grouped together into a syndrome termed "possible estuary-associated syndrome." Prospective cohort studies of health effects associated with exposure to estuarine waters that may contain Pfiesteria spp. and related organisms are in progress in North Carolina, Virginia, and Maryland. The three studies recruited cohorts of 118-238 subjects who work or engaged in recreation in estuary waters. Baseline health and neuropsychological evaluations are conducted, and study subjects are followed prospectively for 2-5 years with periodic assessments of health and performance on a battery of neuropsychological tests. Health symptoms and estuary water exposure are recorded by telephone interviews or diaries every 1-2 weeks. Water quality information, including measurements of Pfiesteria spp., is collected in the areas where the subjects are working. Because it is not possible to measure individual exposure to Pfiesteria or a toxin produced by this organism, these studies examine surrogate exposure measures (e.g., time spent in estuary waters, in a fish kill area, or in waters where Pfiesteria DNA was detected by molecular amplification). Preliminary analyses of the first 2 years (1998-2000) of data indicate that none of the three ongoing cohorts have detected adverse health effects. However, there have not been any reported fish kills associated with Pfiesteria since the studies began, so it is possible that none of the study subjects have been exposed to toxin-producing Pfiesteria spp.

  17. Cohort studies of health effects among people exposed to estuarine waters: North Carolina, Virginia, and Maryland.

    PubMed Central

    Moe, C L; Turf, E; Oldach, D; Bell, P; Hutton, S; Savitz, D; Koltai, D; Turf, M; Ingsrisawang, L; Hart, R; Ball, J D; Stutts, M; McCarter, R; Wilson, L; Haselow, D; Grattan, L; Morris, J G; Weber, D J

    2001-01-01

    A variety of human symptoms have been associated with exposure to the dinoflagellate Pfiesteria and have been grouped together into a syndrome termed "possible estuary-associated syndrome." Prospective cohort studies of health effects associated with exposure to estuarine waters that may contain Pfiesteria spp. and related organisms are in progress in North Carolina, Virginia, and Maryland. The three studies recruited cohorts of 118-238 subjects who work or engaged in recreation in estuary waters. Baseline health and neuropsychological evaluations are conducted, and study subjects are followed prospectively for 2-5 years with periodic assessments of health and performance on a battery of neuropsychological tests. Health symptoms and estuary water exposure are recorded by telephone interviews or diaries every 1-2 weeks. Water quality information, including measurements of Pfiesteria spp., is collected in the areas where the subjects are working. Because it is not possible to measure individual exposure to Pfiesteria or a toxin produced by this organism, these studies examine surrogate exposure measures (e.g., time spent in estuary waters, in a fish kill area, or in waters where Pfiesteria DNA was detected by molecular amplification). Preliminary analyses of the first 2 years (1998-2000) of data indicate that none of the three ongoing cohorts have detected adverse health effects. However, there have not been any reported fish kills associated with Pfiesteria since the studies began, so it is possible that none of the study subjects have been exposed to toxin-producing Pfiesteria spp. PMID:11677189

  18. Estuarine water quality in parks of the Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network: Development and early implementation of vital signs estuarine nutrient-enrichment monitoring, 2003-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kopp, Blaine S.; Nielsen, Martha; Glisic, Dejan; Neckles, Hilary A.

    2009-01-01

    This report documents results of pilot tests of a protocol for monitoring estuarine nutrient enrichment for the Vital Signs Monitoring Program of the National Park Service Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network. Data collected from four parks during protocol development in 2003-06 are presented: Gateway National Recreation Area, Colonial National Historic Park, Fire Island National Seashore, and Assateague Island National Seashore. The monitoring approach incorporates several spatial and temporal designs to address questions at a hierarchy of scales. Indicators of estuarine response to nutrient enrichment were sampled using a probability design within park estuaries during a late-summer index period. Monitoring variables consisted of dissolved-oxygen concentration, chlorophyll a concentration, water temperature, salinity, attenuation of downwelling photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), and turbidity. The statistical sampling design allowed the condition of unsampled locations to be inferred from the distribution of data from a set of randomly positioned "probability" stations. A subset of sampling stations was sampled repeatedly during the index period, and stations were not rerandomized in subsequent years. These "trend stations" allowed us to examine temporal variability within the index period, and to improve the sensitivity of the monitoring protocol to detecting change through time. Additionally, one index site in each park was equipped for continuous monitoring throughout the index period. Thus, the protocol includes elements of probabilistic and targeted spatial sampling, and the temporal intensity ranges from snapshot assessments to continuous monitoring.

  19. Ultraviolet Devitalization of Eight Selected Enteric Viruses in Estuarine Water 1

    PubMed Central

    Hill, William F.; Hamblet, Frederick E.; Benton, William H.; Akin, Elmer W.

    1970-01-01

    The effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the devitalization of eight selected enteric viruses suspended in estuarine water was determined. The surviving fractions of each virus were calculated and then plotted against the UV exposure time for purposes of comparison. Analytical assessment of the survival data for each virus consisted of least squares regression analysis for determination of intercepts and slope functions. All data were examined for statistical significance. When the slope function of each virus was compared against the slope function of poliovirus type 1, the analytical findings indicated that poliovirus types 2 and 3, echovirus types 1 and 11, and coxsackievirus A-9 exhibited similar devitalization characteristics in that no statistically significant difference was found (P > 0.05). Conversely, the devitalization characteristics of coxsackievirus B-1 and reovirus type 1 were dissimilar from those of poliovirus type 1 in that a statistically significant difference was found between the slope functions (P < 0.05). This observed difference in devitalization of coxsackievirus B-1 and reovirus type 1 was attributed primarily to the frequency distribution of single and aggregate virions, the geometric configuration, the size of the aggregates, and the severity of aggregation. The devitalization curve of coxsackievirus B-1 was characteristic of a retardant die-away curve. The devitalization curve of reovirus type 1 was characteristic of a multihittype curve. The calculated devitalization half-life values for poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3; echovirus types 1 and 11; coxsackievirus types A-9 and B-1; and reovirus type 1 were 2.8, 3.1, 2.7, 2.8, 3.2, 3.1, 4.0, 4.0 sec, respectively. These basic data should facilitate an operative extrapolation of the findings to the applied situation. It was concluded that UV can be highly effective and provide a reliable safety factor in treating estuarine water. Images PMID:4316273

  20. Seasonal dynamics of the genus: Planktoniella Schutt in the estuarine waters of Indian Sundarbans.

    PubMed

    Sekh, Sanoyaz; Biswas, Biswajit; Mandal, Manjushree; Sarkar, Neera Sen

    2016-01-01

    The study highlights the dynamics and morphological characteristics of the Genus Planktoniella Schutt. The two available species P. sol (Wallich) Schutt. and P. blanda (Schmidt) Syvertsen and Hasle are important components of the phytoplankton assemblage in the estuarine system of Indian Sundarbans and also marine systems elsewhere. The sampling sites for the purpose of this study include four different spots along a riverine stretch in the estuarine region adjacent to the Tiger Reserve in the Indian Sundarbans flowing into the Bay of Bengal. Integrated phytoplankton samples were preserved for the purpose from composite water samples from each site. The water samples were analysed in field for determining pH, temperature, salinity, conductivity, TDS, turbidity and DO and subsequent to treatment and processing, the samples were microscopically analysed in the laboratory. Significant negative correlation of cell count of both species found with respect to temperature and turbidity. P. sol versus temperature (significant at α = 0.01, p = 0.001) and P. blanda versus temperature (significant at α = 0.05, p = 0.037); P. sol versus turbidity (at α = 0.05, p = 0.019) and P. blanda versus turbidity (at α = 0.05, p = 0.019). Significant positive correlation found with respect to DO and as correlation between the two species themselves. A model has been generated for each of the two species with temperature, turbidity and DO as predictor variables and the two species of Planktoniella as response variables. The influence of other dominant phytoplankton in the samples has also been considered with Pearson correlation computed for each set of species.

  1. Contamination of estuarine water, biota, and sediment by halogenated organic compounds: A field study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, W.E.; Rostad, C.E.; Chiou, C.T.; Brinton, T.I.; Barber, L.B.; Demcheck, D.K.; Demas, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    Studies conducted in the vicinity of an industrial outfall in the Calcasieu River estuary, Louisiana, have shown that water, bottom and suspended sediment, and four different species of biota are contaminated with halogenated organic compounds (HOC) including haloarenes. A "salting-out" effect in the estuary moderately enhanced the partitioning tendency of the contaminants into biota and sediments. Contaminant concentrations in water, suspended sediments, and biota were found to be far below the values predicted on the basis of the assumption of phase equilibria with respect to concentrations in bottom sediment. Relative concentration factors of HOC between biota (catfish) and bottom sediment increased with increasing octanol/estuarine water partition coefficients (Kow*), maximizing at log Kow* of about 5, although these ratios were considerably less than equilibrium values. In contrast, contaminant concentrations in water, biota, and suspended sediments were much closer to equilibrium values. Bioconcentration factors of HOC determined on the basis of lipid content for four different biotic species correlated reasonably well with equilibrium triolein/water partition coefficients (Ktw).

  2. When does hot water freeze faster then cold water? A search for the Mpemba effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brownridge, James D.

    2011-01-01

    It is possible to consistently observe hot water freezing faster than cold water under certain conditions. All conditions except the initial temperature of water specimens must be the same and remain so during cooling, and the cold water must supercool to a temperature significantly lower than the temperature to which the hot water supercools. For hot water at an initial temperature of >≈80 °C and cold water at <≈20 °C, the cold water must supercool to a temperature of at least ≈5.5 °C, lower than the temperature to which hot water supercools. With these conditions satisfied, we observed initially hot water freezing before the initially cold water 28 times in 28 attempts. If the cold water does not supercool, it will freeze before the hot water because it always cools to 0 °C first regardless of the initial temperatures.

  3. Choice chamber experiments to test the attraction of postflexion Rhabdosargus holubi larvae to water of estuarine and riverine origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Nicola C.; Cowley, Paul D.; Whitfield, Alan K.; Kaiser, Horst

    2008-03-01

    Although the recruitment of larvae and juveniles of marine fishes into estuaries has been well documented, little is known about the factors governing the immigration of estuary-associated marine fishes into estuaries. Fishes have a well-developed sense of smell and it has been suggested by several workers that olfactory cues of freshwater or estuarine origin serve as stimuli, attracting larvae and juveniles of estuary-associated species into estuaries. Attraction of postflexion Rhabdosargus holubi larvae to estuary and river water from the Kowie estuarine system, South Africa, was measured using a rectangular choice chamber. In experiments, conducted during peak recruitment periods, larvae selected estuary and river water with a significantly higher frequency than sea water. This study, the first to assess the possible role of olfaction in the recruitment process of an estuary-associated marine fish species, demonstrates that larvae are able to recognise water from different origins, probably based on odour.

  4. Controls on water acidification and de-oxygenation in an estuarine waterway, eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C.; Wood, M.; Haskins, P.; Ryffel, T.; Lin, J.

    2004-09-01

    The quality of soil and water was investigated in an estuarine floodplain system, eastern Australia. The backswamp portion of the floodplain is underlain by sulfidic sediments at depths about 0.5-0.9 m below the ground surface. Actual acid sulfate soils have developed due to sulfide oxidation as a consequence of land drainage since the early 1900s. These acid sulfate soils have a high measured total actual acidity (TAA, up to 500 mmol H +/kg). However, only a very small proportion (<2%) of this TAA occurs in a water-soluble form. Water quality monitoring in the creek (Rocky Mouth Creek) draining the estuarine embayment during the period from May 1998 to July 2000 shows that acidic flows (pH<4.5) of several months occurred intermittently in the upper reach of the creek. This may be attributed to the hydrolysis of Fe 3+ after the oxidation of Fe 2+ that is exported into the creek from acid sulfate soils through an artificial drain network. It is hypothesized that Fe 2+ is being generated by biological iron reduction, which consumes H + and thereby drives the conversion of retained acids to soluble acids. This allows the release of retained acids and subsequently the translocation of acids from soils to the adjacent waterway. Monitoring results also show clear responses of pH and dissolved oxygen (DO) to heavy rainfall events during the period of alternating high (>6) pH-dominated flows. Frequently, pH and DO levels in the creek water drop during flooding. Results from field investigation and experimental simulation suggest that DO depletion associated with organic matter decomposition takes place rapidly in the floodwater inundating the soils and this DO-depleted water has a significant capacity to further de-oxygenate any receiving water. However, the consumption of DO in floodwater is not clearly related to oxidation of Fe 2+. It is not certain what other DO consumers are involved in the process and further research is needed to fill this knowledge gap.

  5. Absence of Gradients and Nernstian Equilibrium Stripping (AGNES) for the determination of [Zn(2+)] in estuarine waters.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Holly B C; Galceran, Josep; Companys, Encarna; Braungardt, Charlotte; Worsfold, Paul; Puy, Jaume; Comber, Sean

    2016-03-17

    Zinc (Zn) has been classified as a "Specific Pollutant" under Annex VIII of the EU Water Framework Directive by two thirds of the EU member states. As a result, the UK Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) for Transitional and Coastal (TrAC) Waters has been reduced from 612 nM to 121 nM total dissolved Zn. It is widely accepted that the free metal ion ([Zn(2+)]) is the most bioavailable fraction, but there are few techniques available to determine its concentration in these waters. In this work, Absence of Gradients and Nernstian Equilibrium Stripping (AGNES) has been applied, for the first time, to determine [Zn(2+)] in estuarine waters. The AGNES method had a mean RSD of ±18%, a (deposition time dependent) limit of detection of 0.73 nM and a [Zn(2+)] recovery of 112 ± 19% from a certified reference material (BCR-505; Estuarine Water). AGNES results for 13 estuarine samples (salinity 0.1-31.9) compared well (P = 0.02) with Competitive Ligand Exchange Cathodic Stripping Voltammetry (CLE-AdCSV) except for one sample. AGNES requires minimal sample manipulation, is unaffected by adsorption of interfering species at the electrode surface and allows direct determination of free zinc ion concentrations. Therefore AGNES results can be used in conjunction with ecotoxicological studies and speciation modelling to set and test compliance with water quality standards. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Preliminary Evidence for the Amplification of Global Warming in Shallow, Intertidal Estuarine Waters.

    PubMed

    Oczkowski, Autumn; McKinney, Richard; Ayvazian, Suzanne; Hanson, Alana; Wigand, Cathleen; Markham, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, mean annual water temperature in northeastern U.S. estuaries has increased by approximately 1.2°C, with most of the warming recorded in the winter and early spring. A recent survey and synthesis of data from four locations in Southern Rhode Island has led us to hypothesize that this warming may be amplified in the shallow (<1 m), nearshore portions of these estuaries. While intertidal areas are not typically selected as locations for long-term monitoring, we compiled data from published literature, theses, and reports that suggest that enhanced warming may be occurring, perhaps at rates three times higher than deeper estuarine waters. Warmer spring waters may be one of the factors influencing biota residing in intertidal regions both in general as well as at our specific sites. We observed greater abundance of fish, and size of Menidia sp., in recent (2010-2012) seine surveys compared to similar collections in 1962. While any linkages are speculative and data are preliminary, taken together they suggest that shallow intertidal portions of estuaries may be important places to look for the effects of climate change.

  7. Preliminary Evidence for the Amplification of Global Warming in Shallow, Intertidal Estuarine Waters

    PubMed Central

    Oczkowski, Autumn; McKinney, Richard; Ayvazian, Suzanne; Hanson, Alana; Wigand, Cathleen; Markham, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, mean annual water temperature in northeastern U.S. estuaries has increased by approximately 1.2°C, with most of the warming recorded in the winter and early spring. A recent survey and synthesis of data from four locations in Southern Rhode Island has led us to hypothesize that this warming may be amplified in the shallow (<1 m), nearshore portions of these estuaries. While intertidal areas are not typically selected as locations for long-term monitoring, we compiled data from published literature, theses, and reports that suggest that enhanced warming may be occurring, perhaps at rates three times higher than deeper estuarine waters. Warmer spring waters may be one of the factors influencing biota residing in intertidal regions both in general as well as at our specific sites. We observed greater abundance of fish, and size of Menidia sp., in recent (2010–2012) seine surveys compared to similar collections in 1962. While any linkages are speculative and data are preliminary, taken together they suggest that shallow intertidal portions of estuaries may be important places to look for the effects of climate change. PMID:26510009

  8. A search for cold water rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheney, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    SAR imagery obtained by Seasat in the Sargasso Sea during 1978 is examined for cold ring signatures. One orbit on August 26 is thought to have imaged the edge of a cold ring, although the ring's position was not well known at the time. During another orbit on September 23, drifting buoy and expendable bathythermography data furnished conclusive evidence that the ring was centered directly in the SAR swath. Although some suggestive patterns are visible in the images, it is not clear that cold rings can be identified by SAR, even though dynamically similar features, such as the Gulf Stream and warm rings, can be accurately detected. The suggestion is made that cold rings may be imaged inadequately because of their lack of surface temperature gradient.

  9. Biological indicators of changes in water quality and habitats of the coastal and estuarine areas of the Greater Everglades Ecosystem; Chapter 11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wachnicka, Anna; Wingard, Georgiana L.; Entry, James A.; Gottlieb, Andrew D.; Jayachandran, Krish; Ogram, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the application of various biological indicators to studying the anthropogenic and natural changes in water quality and habitats that have occurred in the coastal and estuarine areas of the Greater Everglades ecosystem.

  10. Method 353.4 Determination of Nitrate and Nitrite in Estuarine and Coastal Waters by Gas Segmented Continuous Flow Colorimetric Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    This method provides a procedure for determining nitrate and nitrite concentrations in estuarine and coastal waters. Nitrate is reduced to nitrite by cadmium,1-3 and the resulting nitrite determined by formation of an azo dye.4-6

  11. Method 353.4 Determination of Nitrate and Nitrite in Estuarine and Coastal Waters by Gas Segmented Continuous Flow Colorimetric Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    This method provides a procedure for determining nitrate and nitrite concentrations in estuarine and coastal waters. Nitrate is reduced to nitrite by cadmium,1-3 and the resulting nitrite determined by formation of an azo dye.4-6

  12. Development and application of a shipboard method for spectrophotometric determination of trace dissolved manganese in estuarine and coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Sichao; Huang, Yongming; Yuan, Dongxing; Zhu, Yong; Zhou, Tingjin

    2015-01-01

    A shipboard method for the determination of trace dissolved manganese in estuarine and coastal waters was developed using a technique of reverse flow injection analysis, which adopted a 1-m liquid waveguide capillary cell and spectrophotometric detection of manganese derivation with 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN). The design of dual-sample-carrier speeded up the sample throughput and eliminated the Schlieren effect. The salinity of estuarine and coastal waters caused a huge increase in the blank absorption value at the maximum absorption wavelength; therefore, a less sensitive detection wavelength was selected to achieve a low blank value while the method sensitivity was not significantly decreased. Method parameters were optimized. The salinity effect from estuarine and coastal waters was carefully investigated, and interference from iron was evaluated. The proposed method had high sensitivity with a detection limit of 3.0 nmol L-1 and a wide linear range of 10-1500 nmol L-1 for dissolved manganese in seawater (S=35). The analytical results of five water samples with different salinities obtained using the proposed method showed good agreement with those using a reference ICP-MS method. The sample throughput of the proposed method was 120 h-1, which was capable of obtaining high spatial and temporal resolution data in shipboard analysis. The proposed method had the advantages of convenient application in estuarine and coastal waters with different salinities, low detection limit, as well as high sample throughput. The proposed method was successfully applied to a 24 h on-line analysis and a shipboard underway analysis of dissolved manganese in the Jiulongjiang Estuary.

  13. Evaluation of the diffusive gradient in a thin film technique for monitoring trace metal concentrations in estuarine waters.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Ryan J K; Teasdale, Peter R; Warnken, Jan; Schleich, Robin R

    2003-06-15

    Monitoring trace metal concentrations in dynamic estuarine waters is not straightforward. This study demonstrated that important information could be obtained from intensive sampling of physicochemical parameters and trace metal concentrations, in the Gold Coast Broadwater, Australia. A regular pattern of variation in Cu and Ni concentrations was related to the movement of water passed point sources with tidal flows, rather than due to conventional estuarine mixing of end-member waters. However, this approach was logistically demanding and expensive. The diffusive gradients in a thin film (DGT) technique was used as an alternative method due to its continual time-integrated response to changes in trace metal concentrations. Significant correlations were found between 24 h DGT-labile measurements and 0.45-microm filterable measurements, on time-averaged composite samples (grab samples combined every 4 h for 24 h), for Cu (n = 24, r = 0.965, p < 0.001), Pb (n = 24, r = 0.799, p < 0.001), Zn (n = 17, r = 0.909, p < 0.001), and Ni (n = 23, r = 0.916, p < 0.001). DGT-labile measurements as a fraction of 0.45 microm-filterable concentrations were 21 +/- 2% for Cu, 29 +/- 11% for Pb, 28 +/- 5% for Zn, and 27 +/- 12% for Ni, demonstrating the speciation capabilities of DGT. Although DGT measurements were confirmed as being highly operationally defined, DGT was still found to be very promising as a monitoring approach, particularly for dynamic estuarine waters.

  14. Certified reference material for the quality control of cadmium, copper nickel and zinc determination in estuarine water (CRM 505).

    PubMed

    Quevauviller, P; Kramer, K J; Vinhas, T

    1996-02-01

    Analyses of estuarine water samples are routinely carried out by a number of laboratories to monitor the level of environmental contamination by toxic substances, e.g. heavy metals. A series of interlaboratory studies has been organised by the Community Bureau of Reference, BCR (now renamed Standards, Measurements and Testing Programme) to improve the quality of the determinations of selected trace metals in estuarine water samples. The improvement achieved allowed to produce a reference material (CRM 505) which was certified for its content of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn. Further improvements were considered to be necessary for the certification of other trace elements, e.g. Pb. This material was collected in the Tagus Estuary, carefully prepared (filtered and acidified) and its homogeneity and long term stability were verified. This paper presents the work performed for the certification of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn. Indicative values are reported for As, Co, Fe, Mn, Pb and V.

  15. New record of Akashiwo sanguinea (Dinophyta) in the tropical estuarine waters of Northeastern Brazil (Western Atlantic).

    PubMed

    Koening, M L; Flores Montes, M J; Eskinazi Leça, E; Tiburcio, A S X S

    2014-02-01

    This study reports the occurrence and the effect of the environmental factors on the spatial and temporal distribution of the dinoflagellate Akashiwo sanguinea (Hirasaka) Hansen & Moestrup in estuarine waters of northeastern Brazil. Samples were collected at seven stations from March 2007 to February 2008 during high tide and low tide, using Van Dorn bottles. The samples were immediately fixed with Lugol and analyzed with the Utermöhl method. Water samples were also collected for the identification of the hydrological characteristics of the area. Akashiwo sanguinea occurred throughout the annual cycle and at all sampling sites with densities ranging between 5 and 410 x 103 cells.L-1. The highest densities were recorded at low tide, especially during the months of the rainy season (July: 210 x 103 cells.L-1; August: 410 x 103 cells.L-1). Density values were within the normal range and blooms were not detected. Despite being common in the area, the species showed preference for sites with high concentrations of orthophosphate and total dissolved phosphorus and with salinity in the mesohaline regime.

  16. FDA Throws Cold Water on Whole Body Cryotherapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_163907.html FDA Throws Cold Water on Whole Body Cryotherapy Exposure to ultra-low temperatures shows no benefits ... There's no evidence that a growing trend called whole body cryotherapy is effective, but it does pose a number ...

  17. Cold Water Fatalities: An Overview of Physiological Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernhartsen, J. C.; Schlenker, Richard

    1981-01-01

    Cold water fatalities are described and defined, including drownings, trauma, hydrocution and hypothermia. The levels of hypothermia are outlined, and symptoms and steps to stop and reverse hypothermia are described. (DS)

  18. Cold Water Fatalities: An Overview of Physiological Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernhartsen, J. C.; Schlenker, Richard

    1981-01-01

    Cold water fatalities are described and defined, including drownings, trauma, hydrocution and hypothermia. The levels of hypothermia are outlined, and symptoms and steps to stop and reverse hypothermia are described. (DS)

  19. Water Quality Gradients across Albemarle-Pamlico Estuarine System: Seasonal Variations and Model Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.; Xie, L.; Pietrafesa, L.

    2004-12-01

    The seasonal variations of water quality parameters as nitrite plus nitrate (NO23), total phosphate (PO4), Chlorophyll a and dissolved oxygen (DO) are analyzed across the Croatan-Roanoke-Albemarle-Pamlico-Core Sounds Estuarine System (CAPES). Overall, several patterns are observed: The Chowan-Roanoke-Albemarle system is generally phosphorous limiting for phytoplankton growth, while both the Tar-Pamlico and the Neuse Rivers are generally nitrogen limiting. The largest PO4 gradients exist in the upper estuary of the Albemarle Sound and the largest NO23 gradients exist in the upper estuary of the Neuse and the Tar-Pamlico Rivers. Dissolved oxygen appears to have the strongest seasonal signal among the water quality variables with highest DO values observed during winter (within the CAPES and in the nearshore area) or spring (in the continental shelf and deeper ocean) and lowest during summer. Chlorophyll a concentrations are highest during spring (within the CAPES) or winter (offshore). In contrast, the NO23 and PO4 concentrations in both the Tar-Pamlico and Neuse River Estuaries are usually higher during the second half of the year. The time differences of the peak nutrient and chlorophyll a concentrations suggest that highest algal growth rate (and hence nutrient uptake rate) occur during spring while the consumed nutrients are released to the water column through a nutrient recycling method later in the year. A coupled three-dimensional hydrodynamic water quality model is then applied to the entire system. The general model set-up and parameter derivation of the model is presented in the paper. The basic observed water quality characteristics such as the nutrient limiting pattern and the spatial gradients across the system are reproduced in the model. The model results also suggest that nutrient fluxes, generated from the diagenesis of deposited organic matters and released from the sediment bed may be an important mechanism for nutrient recycling in the region.

  20. Changes in Landing Mechanics after Cold-Water Immersion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, He; Toner, Michael M.; Lemonda, Thomas J.; Zohar, Mor

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of cold-water immersion on kinematics and kinetics during a drop-landing task. On four separate occasions, 9 men performed drop-landings from a 0.6-m platform to a force platform following 30-min immersion to the hip-joint in thermoneutral water (control; 34 [degrees]C) and in cold water…

  1. Changes in Landing Mechanics after Cold-Water Immersion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, He; Toner, Michael M.; Lemonda, Thomas J.; Zohar, Mor

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of cold-water immersion on kinematics and kinetics during a drop-landing task. On four separate occasions, 9 men performed drop-landings from a 0.6-m platform to a force platform following 30-min immersion to the hip-joint in thermoneutral water (control; 34 [degrees]C) and in cold water…

  2. Report of ad hoc OTEC cold water pipe committee

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, R.; Giannotti, J.; Deuchler, W.; Scotti, R.; Stadter, J.; Walsh, J. P.; Weiss, R.

    1980-02-01

    Now that the design work on the pilot plant is scheduled to start in the near future, DOE has considered it essential that an overall look be taken at the cold water pipe design process. The VSE Corporation, in its role as a support contractor to DOE, was tasked to organize a small study group to answer the question, Where do we stand on the verification of the computer models of the cold water pipe response by experimental measurements. The committee has studied all the available results of the cold water pipe development program. This report summarizes those results. The development and present capabilities of the computer programs used to calculate the response of a cold water pipe attached to a platform under known at-sea conditions are discussed. The various cold water pipe designs that have been done using the computer programs are summarized. The experiments that have been conducted up to the present time to measure the response of cold water pipes at-sea and in experimental tanks are described. The results of these experiments are presented. The experimental results are compared with the predictions made with the analytical computer programs. Conclusions drawn as a result of this analysis are presented and some recommendations are made. (WHK)

  3. Predicting Copper Speciation in Estuarine Waters-Is Dissolved Organic Carbon a Good Proxy for the Presence of Organic Ligands?

    PubMed

    Pearson, Holly B C; Comber, Sean D W; Braungardt, Charlotte; Worsfold, Paul J

    2017-02-21

    A new generation of speciation-based aquatic environmental quality standards (EQS) for metals have been developed using models to predict the free metal ion concentration, the most ecologically relevant form, to set site-specific values. Some countries such as the U.K. have moved toward this approach by setting a new estuarine and marine water EQS for copper, based on an empirical relationship between copper toxicity to mussels (Mytilus sp.) and ambient dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. This assumes an inverse relationship between DOC and free copper ion concentration owing to complexation by predominantly organic ligands. At low DOC concentrations, the new EQS is more stringent, but above 162 μM DOC it is higher than the previous value. However, the relationship between DOC and copper speciation is poorly defined in estuarine waters. This research discusses the influence of DOC from different sources on copper speciation in estuaries and concludes that DOC is not necessarily an accurate predictor of copper speciation. Nevertheless, the determination of ligand strength and concentrations by Competitive Ligand Exchange Adsorptive Cathodic Stripping Voltammetry enabled the prediction of the free metal ion concentration within an order of magnitude for estuarine waters by using a readily available metal speciation model (Visual MINTEQ).

  4. Hydro-environmental modelling for bathing water compliance of an estuarine basin.

    PubMed

    Kashefipour, S M; Lin, B; Harris, E; Falconer, R A

    2002-04-01

    In recent years, considerable investment has been committed to sewerage infrastructure and new sewage treatment plants in the catchment surrounding an estuarine basin along the north-west coast of England. Although this capital investment has resulted in a marked reduction in the input of bacterial loads, relatively high counts of faecal indicator organisms are still being encountered in the coastal receiving waters, and the local bathing waters continue to fail on occasions to comply with the European Community (EC) Bathing Water Directive (1976) mandatory standards. Details are given herein of a comprehensive modelling study aimed at quantifying the impact of various bacterial inputs into the estuary and surrounding coastal waters on the bathing water quality. The model domain includes the coastal area and the entire estuary (namely the Ribble) up to the tidal limits of its tributaries. Faecal coliforms have been used as the main water quality indicator organisms. The numerical model developed for this study combines a depth integrated two-dimensional coastal model and a cross-sectionally integrated one-dimensional river model, and is capable of predicting water surface elevations, velocity fields and faecal coliform concentration distributions across the entire model domain. The hydrodynamic model was calibrated using water level and velocity measurements from three surveys and then validated against measured data from three other surveys. In order to predict the faecal coliform concentration distributions, variable faecal coliform decay rates were used, i.e. different values of decay rates were applied to the coastal and riverine waters, for day- and nighttime, and for wet and dry weather conditions. The maximum and minimum decay rates used were 2.32/day and 0.71/day for the dry and wet weather surveys, respectively. The model was then applied to (i) assess the impact of previous discharge strategies and investigate the effectiveness of future capital

  5. Performance of Passive Samplers for Monitoring Estuarine Water Column Concentrations: 1. Contaminants of Concern

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contaminants enter marine and estuarine environments and can potentially pose risk to human and ecological health. Measuring contaminants of concern (COC) in these aqueous media can be difficult due to their relatively low solubilities and tendency to associate with environmenta...

  6. Performance of Passive Samplers for Monitoring Estuarine Water Column Concentrations: 1. Contaminants of Concern

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contaminants enter marine and estuarine environments and can potentially pose risk to human and ecological health. Measuring contaminants of concern (COC) in these aqueous media can be difficult due to their relatively low solubilities and tendency to associate with environmenta...

  7. Distinct Aeromonas Populations in Water Column and Associated with Copepods from Estuarine Environment (Seine, France).

    PubMed

    Chaix, Gautier; Roger, Frédéric; Berthe, Thierry; Lamy, Brigitte; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle; Lafite, Robert; Forget-Leray, Joëlle; Petit, Fabienne

    2017-01-01

    Aeromonas spp. are ubiquitous bacteria primarily recovered from aquatic ecosystems. They are found in fresh water as well as estuarine and marine waters, and in association with numerous autochthonous aquatic organisms in these environments. However, aeromonads are also etiologic agents of fish diseases and are now recognized as emerging pathogens in humans. The estuary is therefore a key environment, harboring autochthonous aeromonads, and aeromonads originating from humans and animals, mainly released by treated WWTP effluent or watershed run-off via tributaries. The present study compares the abundance and the diversity of Aeromonas populations. Over 2 years of monitoring (eight campaigns from February 2013 to November 2015), the occurrence of Aeromonas was investigated within the water column (water and fluid mud) and in association with copepods. Moreover, the diversity of Aeromonas populations was ascertained by analyzing gyrB and radA sequences, and the antibiotic-resistance phenotypes were determined using the disk diffusion method. This study shows, for the first time, the presence of Aeromonas spp. in water (1.1 × 10(2) to 1.2 ± 0.3 × 10(3) CFU.100 mL(-1)), fluid mud (2.6 ± 2.6 × 10(2) to 9.8 ± 0.9 × 10(3) CFU.g(-1)) and in association with living copepods (1.9 ± 0.7 × 10(2) to >1.1 × 10(4) CFU.g(-1)) in the Seine estuary. Moreover, the diversity study, conducted on 36 strains isolated from the water column and 47 strains isolated from copepods, indicates distinct populations within these two compartments. Strains distributed in five clusters corresponding to A. bestiarum (n = 6; 5.45%), A. encheleia (n = 1; 0.91%), A. media (n = 22; 20.0%), A. rivipollensis (n = 34; 30.91%) and A. salmonicida (n = 47; 42.73%). A. salmonicida is the most abundant species associated with Eurytemora affinis (n = 35; 74.47%). In contrast, A. salmonicida accounts for only 30.56% (n = 11) of isolates in the water column. This study shows the coexistence of distinct

  8. Distinct Aeromonas Populations in Water Column and Associated with Copepods from Estuarine Environment (Seine, France)

    PubMed Central

    Chaix, Gautier; Roger, Frédéric; Berthe, Thierry; Lamy, Brigitte; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle; Lafite, Robert; Forget-Leray, Joëlle; Petit, Fabienne

    2017-01-01

    Aeromonas spp. are ubiquitous bacteria primarily recovered from aquatic ecosystems. They are found in fresh water as well as estuarine and marine waters, and in association with numerous autochthonous aquatic organisms in these environments. However, aeromonads are also etiologic agents of fish diseases and are now recognized as emerging pathogens in humans. The estuary is therefore a key environment, harboring autochthonous aeromonads, and aeromonads originating from humans and animals, mainly released by treated WWTP effluent or watershed run-off via tributaries. The present study compares the abundance and the diversity of Aeromonas populations. Over 2 years of monitoring (eight campaigns from February 2013 to November 2015), the occurrence of Aeromonas was investigated within the water column (water and fluid mud) and in association with copepods. Moreover, the diversity of Aeromonas populations was ascertained by analyzing gyrB and radA sequences, and the antibiotic-resistance phenotypes were determined using the disk diffusion method. This study shows, for the first time, the presence of Aeromonas spp. in water (1.1 × 102 to 1.2 ± 0.3 × 103 CFU.100 mL-1), fluid mud (2.6 ± 2.6 × 102 to 9.8 ± 0.9 × 103 CFU.g-1) and in association with living copepods (1.9 ± 0.7 × 102 to >1.1 × 104 CFU.g-1) in the Seine estuary. Moreover, the diversity study, conducted on 36 strains isolated from the water column and 47 strains isolated from copepods, indicates distinct populations within these two compartments. Strains distributed in five clusters corresponding to A. bestiarum (n = 6; 5.45%), A. encheleia (n = 1; 0.91%), A. media (n = 22; 20.0%), A. rivipollensis (n = 34; 30.91%) and A. salmonicida (n = 47; 42.73%). A. salmonicida is the most abundant species associated with Eurytemora affinis (n = 35; 74.47%). In contrast, A. salmonicida accounts for only 30.56% (n = 11) of isolates in the water column. This study shows the coexistence of distinct populations of

  9. Mercury concentrations in red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus, from estuarine and offshore waters of Florida.

    PubMed

    Adams, Douglas H; Onorato, Gregory V

    2005-03-01

    Dorsal muscle tissue from 712 red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus, from Florida waters were analyzed for total mercury content. Mercury levels detected in these red drum varied but in most study areas were usually lower than regulatory threshold guidelines. Total mercury levels in individual fish from all study areas ranged from 0.020 to 3.6 ppm (wet weight). Total mercury levels detected in red drum from the Florida Keys-Florida Bay area were often higher than those in fish from all other estuarine study areas. Positive relationships between total mercury levels and fish size (length and weight) and fish age were observed in most Florida study areas, indicating that mercury levels tend to increase over time as red drum grow. The majority of large, mature red drum examined contained mercury levels greater than the 0.5-ppm threshold level set by the Florida Department of Health (DOH). Approximately 94% of all adult red drum from offshore waters adjacent to Tampa Bay contained mercury levels greater than or equal to the 0.5-ppm threshold level, and 64% contained levels greater than or equal to the DOH 1.5-ppm "no consumption" level. All fish from this area with mercury levels greater than 1.5 ppm were large individuals (670 mm SL). Eight percent of legal-size red drum from Florida waters contained total mercury levels greater than or equal to the 0.5-ppm threshold level. The majority (52%) of these legal-size fish greater than or equal to 0.5 ppm were from the Florida Keys-Florida Bay area. In the Florida recreational fishery, the current maximum size limit for this species is an effective filter that prevents humans from consuming those red drum with the greatest likelihood of containing high mercury levels.

  10. Environmental control on cold-water carbonate mounds development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rüggeberg, A.; Liebetrau, V.; Raddatz, J.; Flögel, S.; Dullo, W.-Chr.; Exp. 307 Scientific Party, Iodp

    2009-04-01

    Cold-water coral reefs are very abundant along the European continental margin in intermediate water depths and are able to build up large mound structures. These carbonate mounds particularly occur in distinct mound provinces on the Irish and British continental margins. Previous investigations resulted in a better understanding of the cold-water coral ecology and the development of conceptual models to explain carbonate mound build-up. Two different hypotheses were evoked to explain the origin and development of carbonate mounds, external versus internal control (e.g., Freiwald et al. 2004 versus e.g. Hovland 1990). Several short sediment cores have been obtained from Propeller Mound, Northern Porcupine Seabight, indicating that cold-water corals grew during interglacial and warm interstadial periods of the Late Pleistocene controlled by environmental and climatic variability supporting the external control hypothesis (e.g. Dorschel et al. 2005, R

  11. Cold fusion experiments with ordinary water and thin nickel foil

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Takaaki )

    1993-11-01

    Cold fusion experiments with ordinary water and thin nickel foils are described. The temperature variation and the surface condition of the foils are examined. It has been proven that ordinary water can produce excess heat. Furthermore, reaction products are recorded on nuclear emulsions. Charged particles, electrons, protons, and deuterons, are observed. Micro-explosions caused by gravity decay of neutron nuclei are also recorded. Many traces indicating tiny black holes and white holes are clearly observed. The mechanisms of cold fusion with ordinary water are discussed in terms of the Nattoh model. 17 refs., 9 figs.

  12. Cold-water refuges for climate resilience in Oregon coastal ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Many rivers and streams in the Pacific Northwest are currently listed as impaired under the Clean Water Act as a result of high summer water temperatures. Adverse effects of warm waters include impacts to salmon and steelhead populations that may already be stressed by habitat alteration, disease, predation, and fishing pressures. Thermal refuges may help mitigate the effects of increasing temperatures. In this presentation, we define cold-water refuges as areas buffered from regional climate effects by groundwater, physical habitat heterogeneity, or other watershed attributes. Processes forming these features include groundwater-surface water interactions, and hyporheic exchange at a range of spatial and temporal scales. Patterns associated with these processes may provide useful indicators for mapping and predicting the locations and extent of these features. Fish may congregate at high densities within cold-water refuges during critical periods of thermal stress, but there may be trade-offs associated with refuge use including predation, disease risk, and reduced foraging opportunities. These factors all contribute to determining refuge effectiveness. Watershed management and restoration strategies could consider these features and their potential utility to cold-water fish, and we conclude with examples of types of watershed restoration actions that might help foster cold-water refuge creation and maintenance.M Many rivers and streams in the Pacific Nort

  13. Cold-water refuges for climate resilience in Oregon coastal ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Many rivers and streams in the Pacific Northwest are currently listed as impaired under the Clean Water Act as a result of high summer water temperatures. Adverse effects of warm waters include impacts to salmon and steelhead populations that may already be stressed by habitat alteration, disease, predation, and fishing pressures. Thermal refuges may help mitigate the effects of increasing temperatures. In this presentation, we define cold-water refuges as areas buffered from regional climate effects by groundwater, physical habitat heterogeneity, or other watershed attributes. Processes forming these features include groundwater-surface water interactions, and hyporheic exchange at a range of spatial and temporal scales. Patterns associated with these processes may provide useful indicators for mapping and predicting the locations and extent of these features. Fish may congregate at high densities within cold-water refuges during critical periods of thermal stress, but there may be trade-offs associated with refuge use including predation, disease risk, and reduced foraging opportunities. These factors all contribute to determining refuge effectiveness. Watershed management and restoration strategies could consider these features and their potential utility to cold-water fish, and we conclude with examples of types of watershed restoration actions that might help foster cold-water refuge creation and maintenance.M Many rivers and streams in the Pacific Nort

  14. COLD WATER VAPOR IN THE BARNARD 5 MOLECULAR CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Wirström, E. S.; Persson, C. M.; Charnley, S. B.; Cordiner, M. A.; Buckle, J. V.; Takakuwa, S.

    2014-06-20

    After more than 30 yr of investigations, the nature of gas-grain interactions at low temperatures remains an unresolved issue in astrochemistry. Water ice is the dominant ice found in cold molecular clouds; however, there is only one region where cold (∼10 K) water vapor has been detected—L1544. This study aims to shed light on ice desorption mechanisms under cold cloud conditions by expanding the sample. The clumpy distribution of methanol in dark clouds testifies to transient desorption processes at work—likely to also disrupt water ice mantles. Therefore, the Herschel HIFI instrument was used to search for cold water in a small sample of prominent methanol emission peaks. We report detections of the ground-state transition of o-H{sub 2}O (J = 1{sub 10}-1{sub 01}) at 556.9360 GHz toward two positions in the cold molecular cloud, Barnard 5. The relative abundances of methanol and water gas support a desorption mechanism which disrupts the outer ice mantle layers, rather than causing complete mantle removal.

  15. Cold Water Vapor in the Barnard 5 Molecular Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wirstrom, E. S.; Charnley, S. B.; Persson, C. M.; Buckle, J. V.; Cordiner, M. A.; Takakuwa, S.

    2014-01-01

    After more than 30 yr of investigations, the nature of gas-grain interactions at low temperatures remains an unresolved issue in astrochemistry. Water ice is the dominant ice found in cold molecular clouds; however, there is only one region where cold ((is) approximately 10 K) water vapor has been detected-L1544. This study aims to shed light on ice desorption mechanisms under cold cloud conditions by expanding the sample. The clumpy distribution of methanol in dark clouds testifies to transient desorption processes at work-likely to also disrupt water ice mantles. Therefore, the Herschel HIFI instrument was used to search for cold water in a small sample of prominent methanol emission peaks. We report detections of the ground-state transition of o-H2O (J = 110-101) at 556.9360 GHz toward two positions in the cold molecular cloud, Barnard 5. The relative abundances of methanol and water gas support a desorption mechanism which disrupts the outer ice mantle layers, rather than causing complete mantle removal.

  16. Increased caloric intake soon after exercise in cold water.

    PubMed

    White, Lesley J; Dressendorfer, Rudolph H; Holland, Eric; McCoy, Sean C; Ferguson, Michael A

    2005-02-01

    We examined the acute effect of cold-water temperature on post-exercise energy intake (EI) for 1 h. In a randomized, crossover design, 11 men (25.6 +/- 5 y) exercised for 45 min on a submersed cycle ergometer at 60 +/- 2% VO2max in 33 degrees C (neutral) and 20 degrees (cold) water temperatures, and also rested for 45 min (control). Energy expenditure (EE) was determined using indirect calorimetry before, during, and after each condition. Following exercise or rest, subjects had free access to a standard assortment of food items of known caloric value. EE was similar for the cold and neutral water conditions, averaging 505 +/- 22 (+/- standard deviation) and 517 +/- 42 kcal, respectively (P = NS). EI after the cold condition averaged 877 +/- 457 kcal, 44% and 41% higher (P < 0.05) than for the neutral and resting conditions, respectively. Cold-water temperature thus stimulated post-exercise EI. Water temperature warrants consideration in aquatic programs designed for weight loss.

  17. Punctuated Stratigraphic Appearance of Cold-Water Coral Reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberli, G. P.; Correa, T.; Massaferro, J. L.

    2008-05-01

    Existing and new data acquired with an AUV document a high abundance of cold-water coral mounds in the bottom of the Straits of Florida (SoF). These mounds display a large variability of shapes and heights. The abundance and variability encountered in these and modern cold-water coral mounds elsewhere is in stark contrast to lack of reported ancient cold-water coral reefs. Furthermore, the stratigraphic distribution suggests that cold-water corals punctuate the stratigraphic record with times of bloom and times of near complete absence. In the Florida Bahamas region, for example, the stratigraphic distribution is non-uniform. Preliminary age dating of the modern coral mounds produce ages of a few hundred to 1300 years for corals at the surface of the mounds. Sub-bottom profiles and seismic data across the investigated mound fields reveal that the "modern" mounds root in Pleistocene strata but are absent in the Pliocene strata below. Cores taken during ODP Legs 101 and 166 in the SoF confirm the punctuated appearance as deep-water coral rubble was penetrated only in the Pleistocene and in the upper Oligocene strata. The vast occurrence of Oligocene cold-water coral mounds is also visible on a 2-D seismic line in the northern SoF and on a 3-D seismic survey in the southwestern portion of the SoF. In this latter data set a mid-Miocene and the base of Tertiary seismic horizon also image mounded features. These spikes in reef development indicate that environmental conditions were only occasionally favorable for reef growth. The punctuated appearance is surprising as the core and seismic data document continuous current activity since the late Miocene in the SoF. We speculate that the "modern" bloom of cold-water coral reefs in the Pleistocene coincides with the onset of the large barrier reef systems in the Australia and Belize.

  18. Delineation of estuarine fronts in the German Bight using airborne laser-induced water Raman backscatter and fluorescence of water column constituents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.; Swift, R. N.

    1982-01-01

    The acquisition and application of airborne laser induced emission spectra from German Bight water during the 1979 MARSEN experiment is detailed for the synoptic location of estuarine fronts. The NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) was operated in the fluorosensing mode. A nitrogen laser transmitter at 337.1 nm was used to stimulate the water column to obtain Gelbstoff or organic material fluorescence spectra together with water Raman backscatter. Maps showing the location and relative strength of estuarine fronts are presented. The distribution of the fronts indicates that mixing within the German Bight takes place across a relatively large area. Reasonable agreement between the patterns observed by the AOL and published results are obtained. The limitations and constraints of this technique are indicated and improvements to the AOL fluorosensor are discussed with respect to future ocean mapping applications.

  19. Genomics and Ecophysiology of Heterotrophic Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria Isolated from Estuarine Surface Water.

    PubMed

    Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Severin, Ina; Hansen, Lars H; Riemann, Lasse

    2015-07-07

    to perform this process, but lack of knowledge about their autecology and the factors that constrain their N2 fixation hamper an understanding of their ecological importance in marine waters. The present study documents a high variability of genomic and ecophysiological properties related to N2 fixation in three heterotrophic isolates obtained from estuarine surface waters and shows that these organisms fix N2 under a surprisingly broad range of conditions and at significant rates. The observed intricate regulation of N2 fixation for the isolates indicates that indigenous populations of heterotrophic diazotrophs have discrete strategies to cope with environmental controls of N2 fixation. Hence, community-level generalizations about the regulation of N2 fixation in marine heterotrophic bacterioplankton may be problematic. Copyright © 2015 Bentzon-Tilia et al.

  20. Application of factor and cluster analysis for characterization of river and estuarine water systems A case study: Mahanadi River (India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, Unmesh Chandra; Sundaray, Sanjay Kumar; Rath, Prasant; Nayak, Binod Bihari; Bhatta, Dinabandhu

    2006-12-01

    SummaryIn order to establish the natural and anthropogenic processes and factors responsible for enrichment of hydrological features, R-mode factor analysis and cluster analysis are applied for three different sets of data i.e. total, fresh and saline influenced stations in Mahanadi river systems. The results of R-mode factor analyses reveal that anthropogenic contribution of nutrients is responsible for lowering DO and pH level of water, though its intensity is different in fresh and saline systems as well as in different seasons. The different magnitude of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) loading with respect to total nitrogen and phosphorus demonstrated the intensity of organic pollution in different water systems. The removal of silicate in saline system is clearly visible through factor analysis and different mode of association of TSS is reflected seasonally. The relationships among the stations are highlighted by cluster analysis represented in dendrograms to categorize different level of contamination. Considering the diversity of the mechanisms played in estuarine and river water systems, it is felt that statistically their data should be treated separately on the basis of influence of salinity. It is confirmed from our results that the relative importance water quality characteristics varies with specific system. This study presents necessity and usefulness of multivariate statistical techniques for evaluation and monitoring network for effective management of fresh and estuarine systems.

  1. Extraction tools for identification of chemical contaminants in estuarine and coastal waters to determine toxic pressure on primary producers.

    PubMed

    Booij, Petra; Sjollema, Sascha B; Leonards, Pim E G; de Voogt, Pim; Stroomberg, Gerard J; Vethaak, A Dick; Lamoree, Marja H

    2013-09-01

    The extent to which chemical stressors affect primary producers in estuarine and coastal waters is largely unknown. However, given the large number of legacy pollutants and chemicals of emerging concern present in the environment, this is an important and relevant issue that requires further study. The purpose of our study was to extract and identify compounds which are inhibitors of photosystem II activity in microalgae from estuarine and coastal waters. Field sampling was conducted in the Western Scheldt estuary (Hansweert, The Netherlands). We compared four different commonly used extraction methods: passive sampling with silicone rubber sheets, polar organic integrative samplers (POCIS) and spot water sampling using two different solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. Toxic effects of extracts prepared from spot water samples and passive samplers were determined in the Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) fluorometry bioassay. With target chemical analysis using LC-MS and GC-MS, a set of PAHs, PCBs and pesticides was determined in field samples. These compound classes are listed as priority substances for the marine environment by the OSPAR convention. In addition, recovery experiments with both SPE cartridges were performed to evaluate the extraction suitability of these methods. Passive sampling using silicone rubber sheets and POCIS can be applied to determine compounds with different structures and polarities for further identification and determination of toxic pressure on primary producers. The added value of SPE lies in its suitability for quantitative analysis; calibration of passive samplers still needs further investigation for quantification of field concentrations of contaminants.

  2. MONITORING SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIATIONS OF DISSOLVED OXYGEN IN ESTUARINE BOTTOM WATERS OF NORTHEASTERN, US

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.EPA National Coastal Assessment (NCA) program is designed to address several
    broad questions:1) what are the conditions of estuarine resources, how are they changing,
    and what causes those changes; 2)which monitoring designs, indicators,and protocols are
    ...

  3. COMPLEMENTARY MONITORING DESIGNS TO DOCUMENT REGIONAL GRADIENTS, AND TEMPORTAL VARIATIONS OF DISSOLOVED OXYGEN IN ESTUARINE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA National Coastal Assessment program is designed to address two broad questions: 1) what are the conditions of estuarine resources, how are they changing, and what causes those changes; 2) which monitoring designs, indicators, and protocols are appropriate for assessi...

  4. Self-rescue swimming in cold water: the latest advice.

    PubMed

    Ducharme, Michel B; Lounsbury, David S

    2007-08-01

    According to the 2006 Canadian Red Cross Drowning Report, 2007 persons died of cold-water immersion in Canada between 1991 and 2000. These statistics indicate that prevention of cold-water immersion fatalities is a significant public health issue for Canadians. What should a person do after accidental immersion in cold water? For a long time, aquatic safety organizations and government agencies stated that swimming should not be attempted, even when a personal flotation device (PFD) is worn. The objective of the present paper is to present the recent scientific evidence making swimming a viable option for self-rescue during accidental cold-water immersion. Early studies in the 1960s and 1970s led to a general conclusion that "people are better off if they float still in lifejackets or hang on to wreckage and do not swim about to try to keep warm". Recent evidence from the literature shows that the initial factors identified as being responsible for swimming failure can be either easily overcome or are not likely the primary contributors to swimming failure. Studies over the last decade reported that swimming failure might primarily be related not to general hypothermia, but rather to muscle fatigue of the arms as a consequence of arm cooling. This is based on the general observation that swimming failure developed earlier than did systemic hypothermia, and can be related to low temperature of the arm muscles following swimming in cold water. All of the above studies conducted in water between 10 and 14 degrees C indicate that people can swim in cold water for a distance ranging between about 800 and 1500 m before being incapacitated by the cold. The average swimming duration for the studies was about 47 min before incapacitation, regardless of the swimming ability of the subjects. Recent evidence shows that people have a very accurate idea about how long it will take them to achieve a given swimming goal despite a 3-fold overestimation of the absolute distance to

  5. Cold water aquifer storage. [air conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddell, D. L.; Davison, R. R.; Harris, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    A working prototype system is described in which water is pumped from an aquifer at 70 F in the winter time, chilled to a temperature of less than 50 F, injected into a ground-water aquifer, stored for a period of several months, pumped back to the surface in the summer time. A total of 8.1 million gallons of chilled water at an average temperature of 48 F were injected. This was followed by a storage period of 100 days. The recovery cycle was completed a year later with a total of 8.1 million gallons recovered. Approximately 20 percent of the chill energy was recovered.

  6. Europe-wide estuarine export and surface water concentrations of PFOS and PFOA.

    PubMed

    Lindim, C; van Gils, J; Cousins, I T

    2016-10-15

    The STREAM-EU model was used to predict the water concentrations, estuarine export and retention of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in the eleven most populated European river catchments to provide a European-wide perspective on the contamination by these substances. Emissions of PFOS and PFOA to those catchments were calculated based on population, wealth and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) coverage and efficiency using a previously published method and used as model input. Our estimated emissions showed the lowest values for the Thames catchment (PFOS: 0.4 ton/y; PFOA: 0.2 ton/y) and the highest values for the Rhine for PFOS (1.6 ton/y) and for the Dnieper for PFOA (1.7 ton/y). The model predicted concentrations agreed reasonable well with the existing range of measurements, apart from for PFOA in the River Po, where there is a known historical industrial contamination, and PFOS in the Rhone River, where results were much higher than the few measurements available. It was concerning that the model predicted that the surface water EQS for PFOS (0.65 ng/L) was exceeded by a wide margin in all the eleven studied European river catchments. The total calculated riverine export to the seas from the eleven catchments was 4.5 ton/y of PFOS and 3.7 ton/y of PFOA with highest exported quantities from the Rhine (PFOS: 1.0 ton/y; PFOA: 1.0 ton/y) and Danube estuaries (PFOS: 0.9 ton/y; PFOA: 0.7 ton/y). For the seas where the rivers discharge, riverine discharge of PFOS was estimated to be 2.5-30 times more important as an input than atmospheric deposition, whereas for PFOA the opposite was true (atmospheric deposition was 2-10 times more important) except for very small seas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Investigation of the Mid-Atlantic coast sudden cold water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, D.; Kafatos, M.; Liu, Z.; Chiu, L.

    2003-12-01

    In the midsummer of this year, it was reported that there was a tremendous change in ocean temperature along the Mid-Atlantic coast, dropping as much as 10 degrees overnight. This sudden sea surface temperature drop affected local tourism and fishing, keep the tourists out of water at this vacation time, caused local tuna fishing hasn't been as good this year, but the cold water lured chill-loving striped bass close to shore, and has two to three weeks of great rockfish, which fishermen could normally get till fall. This article investigates this event by using satellite observations, numerical model outputs, and surface weather analysis. It is found that the North Atlantic cold current, combined with the coastal upwelling driven by the weather influence might cause this sudden cold SST event.

  8. Canadian water quality guidelines. Appendix 22: Interim marine and estuarine water quality guidelines for general variables

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This document has been prepared in response to the need for marine water quality guidelines for general water quality variables. It presents interim guidelines, summaries of existing guidelines if any, the rationale for the guidelines, and variable-specific background information, and notes gaps in data, for the following variables: Debris, including floating or submerged litter, and settleable matter; dissolved oxygen; pH; salinity; temperature; and suspended solids and turbidity. For the purpose of this document, the marine environment includes shorelines, estuaries up to the freshwater limit, and nearshore and offshore waters.

  9. Cold anticyclonic eddies formed from cold pool water in the southern Middle Atlantic Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flagg, Charles N.; Wallace, Douglas; Kolber, Zbigniew

    1997-12-01

    AVHRR satellite imagery of the southern Mid-Atlantic Bight during May 1993 revealed a large area of cold water over the shelf break and slope that appeared to spin up into a series of southward propagating anticyclonic eddies. The eddies had diameters of 35-45 km at the surface and moved southward at about 20 cm/sec. A radial TOYO CTD (to 50m) and ADCP velocity (to 400m) transect was conducted across the southern-most of these eddies. The upper 50 meters had minimum temperatures of less than 7°C and salinities of about 33 pss, characteristics similar to cold pool waters usually found over the continental shelf. ADCP velocity data from one of the eddies revealed anticyclonic flow extending to a depth of about 250m. The transport of cold pool water by the eddies was estimated to be 0.1 to 0.2 Sv which is of the same order as the annual mean alongshore transport of shelf water in this region. The origin of the deeper water within the eddy is unlikely to be the continental shelf because the shelf break is less than 100 m. The depth and velocity profiles along the TOYO transect were consistent with the constant potential vorticity eddy model of Flierl (1979) although the source of the eddy kinetic energy is uncertain. The cause for the exodus of cold pool water from the shelf, which extended northward to at least 38°N, is unclear but must involve the establishment of an alongshore baroclinic pressure gradient against the usual southwestward shelf flow. It is possible that the intrusion of Gulf Stream waters onto the shelf near Cape Hatteras was a precursor of this off shelf transport. The southern-most eddy was marked by high biological productivity and very high oxygen supersaturation. The phytoplankton bloom detected within the exported cold pool water, located over the continental slope, suggests a mechanism whereby production fueled by nutrients derived from the shelf can be locally exported into deep water.

  10. Unorthodox bubbles when boiling in cold water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Scott; Granick, Steve

    2014-01-01

    High-speed movies are taken when bubbles grow at gold surfaces heated spotwise with a near-infrared laser beam heating water below the boiling point (60-70 °C) with heating powers spanning the range from very low to so high that water fails to rewet the surface after bubbles detach. Roughly half the bubbles are conventional: They grow symmetrically through evaporation until buoyancy lifts them away. Others have unorthodox shapes and appear to contribute disproportionately to heat transfer efficiency: mushroom cloud shapes, violently explosive bubbles, and cavitation events, probably stimulated by a combination of superheating, convection, turbulence, and surface dewetting during the initial bubble growth. Moreover, bubbles often follow one another in complex sequences, often beginning with an unorthodox bubble that stirs the water, followed by several conventional bubbles. This large dataset is analyzed and discussed with emphasis on how explosive phenomena such as cavitation induce discrepancies from classical expectations about boiling.

  11. Unorthodox bubbles when boiling in cold water.

    PubMed

    Parker, Scott; Granick, Steve

    2014-01-01

    High-speed movies are taken when bubbles grow at gold surfaces heated spotwise with a near-infrared laser beam heating water below the boiling point (60-70 °C) with heating powers spanning the range from very low to so high that water fails to rewet the surface after bubbles detach. Roughly half the bubbles are conventional: They grow symmetrically through evaporation until buoyancy lifts them away. Others have unorthodox shapes and appear to contribute disproportionately to heat transfer efficiency: mushroom cloud shapes, violently explosive bubbles, and cavitation events, probably stimulated by a combination of superheating, convection, turbulence, and surface dewetting during the initial bubble growth. Moreover, bubbles often follow one another in complex sequences, often beginning with an unorthodox bubble that stirs the water, followed by several conventional bubbles. This large dataset is analyzed and discussed with emphasis on how explosive phenomena such as cavitation induce discrepancies from classical expectations about boiling.

  12. VIS – A database on the distribution of fishes in inland and estuarine waters in Flanders, Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Brosens, Dimitri; Breine, Jan; Van Thuyne, Gerlinde; Belpaire, Claude; Desmet, Peter; Verreycken, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO) has been performing standardized fish stock assessments in Flanders, Belgium. This Flemish Fish Monitoring Network aims to assess fish populations in public waters at regular time intervals in both inland waters and estuaries. This monitoring was set up in support of the Water Framework Directive, the Habitat Directive, the Eel Regulation, the Red List of fishes, fish stock management, biodiversity research, and to assess the colonization and spreading of non-native fish species. The collected data are consolidated in the Fish Information System or VIS. From VIS, the occurrence data are now published at the INBO IPT as two datasets: ‘VIS - Fishes in inland waters in Flanders, Belgium’ and ‘VIS - Fishes in estuarine waters in Flanders, Belgium’. Together these datasets represent a complete overview of the distribution and abundance of fish species pertaining in Flanders from late 1992 to the end of 2012. This data paper discusses both datasets together, as both have a similar methodology and structure. The inland waters dataset contains over 350,000 fish observations, sampled between 1992 and 2012 from over 2,000 locations in inland rivers, streams, canals, and enclosed waters in Flanders. The dataset includes 64 fish species, as well as a number of non-target species (mainly crustaceans). The estuarine waters dataset contains over 44,000 fish observations, sampled between 1995 and 2012 from almost 50 locations in the estuaries of the rivers Yser and Scheldt (“Zeeschelde”), including two sampling sites in the Netherlands. The dataset includes 69 fish species and a number of non-target crustacean species. To foster broad and collaborative use, the data are dedicated to the public domain under a Creative Commons Zero waiver and reference the INBO norms for data use. PMID:25685001

  13. Methodology evaluation for remotely estimating water quality parameters in estuarine waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostater, Charles R., Jr.; Gimond, Manuel

    1995-12-01

    Water absorption signatures were measured from water samples placed in a 50 cm pathlength cylindrical cuvette. Quantitative analysis of chlorophyll-a and dissolved organic matter (DOM- humic acid, fulvic acid, or tannic acid) was conducted using second derivative spectra followed by computation of double inflection ratio (DIR) spectra for all possible combinations of bands (from 362 - 1115 nm with 252 channels). A specially designed instrument system is described which allows measurements of absorption of particulate and dissolved organic matter (chlorophyll-a and DOM) in a water sample. The ability of the system to allow measurement of absorption signatures and relating the data to observed or in-situ water reflectance signatures measured from a moving or in-situ platform is described. The methods demonstrate the value of high spectral resolution signatures to estimate concentrations of the water quality parameters and an analytical technique using optimal ambient correlation spectroscopy for selecting bands or channels for estimating concentrations directly from spectral absorption signatures.

  14. Methodology evaluation for remotely estimating water quality parameters in estuarine waters

    SciTech Connect

    Bostater, C.; Gimond, M.

    1995-12-31

    Water absorption signatures were measured from water samples placed in a 50 cm pathlength cylindrical cuvette. Quantitative analysis of chlorophyll-a and dissolved organic matter (DOM-humic acid, fulvic acid, or tannic acid) was conducted using second derivative spectra followed by computation of double inflection ratio (DIR) spectra for all possible combinations of bands (from 362--1,115 nm with 252 channels). A specially designed instrument system is described which allows measurements of absorption of particulate and dissolved organic matter (chlorophyll-a and DOM) in a water sample. The ability of the system to allow measurement of absorption signatures and relating the data to observed or in-situ water reflectance signatures measured from a moving or in-situ platform is described. The methods demonstrate the value of high spectral resolution signatures to estimate concentrations of the water quality parameters and an analytical technique using optimal ambient correlation spectroscopy for selecting bands or channels for estimating concentrations directly from spectral absorption signatures.

  15. Estimating chlorophyll-a concentration in inland, estuarine and coastal waters: from close range to satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitelson, A. A.; Gurlin, D.; Moses, W. J.; Rundquist, D. C.

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this work was to test the performance of a recently developed three-band model and its special case, a two-band model, for the remote estimation of the chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentration in turbid productive case 2 waters. We specifically focused on (a) determining the ability of the models to estimate chl-a concentration below 20 mg m-3, typical for estuarine and coastal waters, and (b) assessing the potential of MODIS and MERIS to estimate chl-a concentrations, using red and near-infrared (NIR) bands. Reflectance data were collected in inland, estuarine, and coastal waters by hyperspectral radiometers just beneath the water surface, hyperspectral imaging sensor AISA on board an aircraft, and satellite sensors MODIS and MERIS. Algorithms established using proximal sensing were applied to aircraft and satellite data. The algorithms yielded high accuracy in estimating chl-a concentrations from AISA and MERIS data. The results illustrated the potential of the NIR-Red models to estimate chl-a concentration in turbid productive waters with a high accuracy. Nevertheless, challenges still remain in calibrating the models for their universal application to satellite data. The in situ data collection technique needs to be adapted to maximize the number of stations that can be assessed with a single satellite image. The spatial heterogeneity of the water within a satellite pixel area around each station needs to be accounted for. So are any changes in the bio-physical and bio-optical characteristics of the water at each station during the time elapsed between the satellite overpass and the in situ data collection. Accurate and reliable atmospheric correction of the satellite data is still a major challenge for turbid productive waters. Provided these factors can be effectively accounted for, robustly calibrated algorithms can be developed for real-time estimation of chl-a concentration, which will greatly benefit scientists and natural resource managers in

  16. PBF Cooling Tower under construction. Cold water basin is five ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Cooling Tower under construction. Cold water basin is five feet deep. Foundation and basin walls are reinforced concrete. Camera facing west. Pipe openings through wall in front are outlets for return flow of cool water to reactor building. Photographer: John Capek. Date: September 4, 1968. INEEL negative no. 68-3473 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. Lessons: Science: "Sinkholes." Students Observe What Happens When Ice-Cold Water Mingles with Warm Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanCleave, Janice

    2000-01-01

    This intermediate-level science activity has students observe the effect of ice-cold water mingling with warm water. Water's behavior and movement alters with shifts in temperature. Students must try to determine how temperature affects the movement of water. Necessary materials include a pencil, cup, glass jar, masking tape, warm water, ice…

  18. Lessons: Science: "Sinkholes." Students Observe What Happens When Ice-Cold Water Mingles with Warm Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanCleave, Janice

    2000-01-01

    This intermediate-level science activity has students observe the effect of ice-cold water mingling with warm water. Water's behavior and movement alters with shifts in temperature. Students must try to determine how temperature affects the movement of water. Necessary materials include a pencil, cup, glass jar, masking tape, warm water, ice…

  19. Assessment of the Water Quality Components in Turbid Estuarine Waters Based on Radiative Transfer Approximations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bio-geo-optical data collected in the Neuse River Estuary, North Carolina, USA were used to develop a semi-empirical optical algorithm for assessing inherent optical properties associated with water quality components (WQCs). Three wavelengths (560, 665 and 709 nm) were explored ...

  20. Assessment of the Water Quality Components in Turbid Estuarine Waters Based on Radiative Transfer Approximations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bio-geo-optical data collected in the Neuse River Estuary, North Carolina, USA were used to develop a semi-empirical optical algorithm for assessing inherent optical properties associated with water quality components (WQCs). Three wavelengths (560, 665 and 709 nm) were explored ...

  1. Comparisons between warm and cold water swim stress in mice.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, P; Chipkin, R E

    1984-08-06

    The following experiments evaluated the effects of warm- or cold-water swim stress on tail-flick latencies (TFL) in mice. To first determine the appropriate control group, the TFL's of dry-vs-dunked mice were compared. Dry mice had significantly shorter TFL's than dunked mice, implying that the dampness of the mouse's tail contributed to the increase in the TFL. Therefore, dunked mice were used as the relevant control for the swum mice. Cold water swimming (2 degrees C) produced a significant increase in the TFL; this was not blocked by the opiate antagonist naloxone (3 mg/kg sc) or potentiated by the enkephalinase inhibitor thiorphan (100 mg/kg sc). Warm water swimming (32 degrees C) up to 3 min produced an inconsistent effect on TFL's, implying that the effects were at the threshold of detectability. Naloxone attenuated and thiorphan modestly potentiated the effects of warm water swimming on TFL's. This suggests that warm water swim stress-induced increases in mouse TFL's may involve opioid pathways, whereas cold water swim stress-induced changes in mice TFL's appear not to be opioid mediated.

  2. Cold vacuum drying residual free water test description

    SciTech Connect

    Pajunen, A.L.

    1997-12-23

    Residual free water expected to remain in a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) after processing in the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility is investigated based on three alternative models of fuel crevices. Tests and operating conditions for the CVD process are defined based on the analysis of these models. The models consider water pockets constrained by cladding defects, water constrained in a pore or crack by flow through a porous bed, and water constrained in pores by diffusion. An analysis of comparative reaction rate constraints is also presented indicating that a pressure rise test can be used to show MCO`s will be thermally stable at operating temperatures up to 75 C.

  3. Metagenomic Insights into Effects of Chemical Pollutants on Microbial Community Composition and Function in Estuarine Sediments Receiving Polluted River Water.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiao-Ming; Chen, Chang; Zheng, Tian-Ling

    2017-05-01

    Pyrosequencing and metagenomic profiling were used to assess the phylogenetic and functional characteristics of microbial communities residing in sediments collected from the estuaries of Rivers Oujiang (OS) and Jiaojiang (JS) in the western region of the East China Sea. Another sediment sample was obtained from near the shore far from estuaries, used for contrast (CS). Characterization of estuary sediment bacterial communities showed that toxic chemicals potentially reduced the natural variability in microbial communities, while they increased the microbial metabolic enzymes and pathways. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrobenzene were negatively correlated with the bacterial community variation. The dominant class in the sediments was Gammaproteobacteria. According to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enzyme profiles, dominant enzymes were found in estuarine sediments, which increased greatly, such as 2-oxoglutarate synthase, acetolactate synthase, inorganic diphosphatase, and aconitate hydratase. In KEGG pathway profiles, most of the pathways were also dominated by specific metabolism in these sediments and showed a marked increase, for instance alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism, carbon fixation pathways in prokaryotes, and aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis. The estuarine sediment bacterial diversity varied with the polluted river water inputs. In the estuary receiving river water from the more seriously polluted River Oujiang, the sediment bacterial community function was more severely affected.

  4. Hydrocarbons identified in extracts from estuarine water accommodated no. 2 fuel oil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, B. W.; Walker, A. L.; Bieri, R. H.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented on a computerized gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer analysis of methylene chloride and n-heptane extracts of a No. 2 fuel oil accommodated estuarine water sample. The analytical method is briefly described, and the limitations on the identifications are categorized. Some attempt was made to determine major and trace constituents in the water accommodate. Altogether 66 hydrocarbon compounds were identified specifically, and 75 compounds were partially identified. Seven compounds could be recognized as major constituents of the water accommodated oil and ten were present only as traces. The aromatic compounds found were alkyl benzenes, naphthalene, tetralin, indane, biphenyl, fluorene, anthracene, and some of their alkyl substituted isomers in the range of carbon numbers C7 to C15. Four n-alkanes, C10 to C13, were found along with four other assorted hydrocarbons.

  5. Water or ice?--the challenge for invertebrate cold survival.

    PubMed

    Block, William

    2003-01-01

    The ecophysiology of cold tolerance in many terrestrial invertebrate animals is based on water and its activity at low temperatures, affecting cell, tissue and whole organism functions. The normal body water content of invertebrates varies from 40 to 90% of their live weight, which is influenced by water in their immediate environment, especially in species with a water vapour permeable cuticle. Water gain from, or loss to, the surrounding atmosphere may affect animal survival, but under sub-zero conditions body water status becomes more critical for overwinter survival in many species. Water content influences the supercooling capacity of many insects and other arthropods. Trehalose is known to maintain membrane integrity during desiccation stress in several taxa. Dehydration affects potential ice nucleators by reducing or masking their activity and a desiccation protection strategy has been detected in some species. When water crystallises to ice in an animal it greatly influences the physiology of nearby cells, even if the cells remain unfrozen. A proportion of body water remains unfrozen in many cold hardened invertebrates when they are frozen, which allows basal metabolism to continue at a low level and aids recovery to normal function when thawing occurs. About 22% of total body water remains unfrozen from calculations using differential scanning calorimetry (compared with ca 19% in food materials). The ratio of unfrozen to frozen water components in insects is 1:4 (1:6 for foods). Such unfrozen water may aid recovery of freezing tolerant species after a freezing exposure. Rapid changes in cold hardiness of some arthropods may be brought about by subtle shifts in body water management. It is recognised that cold tolerance strategies of many invertebrates are related to desiccation resistance, and possibly to mechanisms inherent in insect diapause, but the role of water is fundamental to them all. Detailed experimental studies are needed to provide information

  6. Water-hammer in the cold leg during an SBLOCA due to cold ECCS injection

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, M.G.; Ghan, L.S.

    1991-12-01

    Water-hammer might occur in the cold leg of pressurized water reactors (PWR) during small break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCA`s), when cold emergency core cooling system (ECCS) water is injected into a pipe that may be partially filled with saturated steam. The water may mix with the steam and cause it to condense abruptly. Depending on the flow regime present, slugs of liquid may then be accelerated towards each other or against the piping structure. The possibility of this phenomenon is of concern to us because it may become a dominant phenomenon and change the character of the transient. In performing the code scaling, applicability, and uncertainty study (CSAU) on a SBLOCA scenario, we had to examine the possibility that the transient being analyzed could experience water-hammer and thus depart from the scope of the study. Two criteria for water-hammer initiation were investigated and tested using a RELAP5/MOD3 simulation of the transient. Our results indicated a very low likelihood of occurrence of the phenomenon. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Water-hammer in the cold leg during an SBLOCA due to cold ECCS injection

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, M.G.; Ghan, L.S.

    1991-01-01

    Water-hammer might occur in the cold leg of pressurized water reactors (PWR) during small break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCA's), when cold emergency core cooling system (ECCS) water is injected into a pipe that may be partially filled with saturated steam. The water may mix with the steam and cause it to condense abruptly. Depending on the flow regime present, slugs of liquid may then be accelerated towards each other or against the piping structure. The possibility of this phenomenon is of concern to us because it may become a dominant phenomenon and change the character of the transient. In performing the code scaling, applicability, and uncertainty study (CSAU) on a SBLOCA scenario, we had to examine the possibility that the transient being analyzed could experience water-hammer and thus depart from the scope of the study. Two criteria for water-hammer initiation were investigated and tested using a RELAP5/MOD3 simulation of the transient. Our results indicated a very low likelihood of occurrence of the phenomenon. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Phylogenetic Analysis of Culturable Dimethyl Sulfide-Producing Bacteria from a Spartina-Dominated Salt Marsh and Estuarine Water

    PubMed Central

    Ansede, John H.; Friedman, Robert; Yoch, Duane C.

    2001-01-01

    Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), an abundant osmoprotectant found in marine algae and salt marsh cordgrass, can be metabolized to dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and acrylate by microbes having the enzyme DMSP lyase. A suite of DMS-producing bacteria isolated from a salt marsh and adjacent estuarine water on DMSP agar plates differed markedly from the pelagic strains currently in culture. While many of the salt marsh and estuarine isolates produced DMS and methanethiol from methionine and dimethyl sulfoxide, none appeared to be capable of producing both methanethiol and DMS from DMSP. DMSP, and its degradation products acrylate and β-hydroxypropionate but not methyl-3-mecaptopropionate or 3-mercaptopropionate, served as a carbon source for the growth of all the α- and β- but only some of the γ-proteobacterium isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that all of the isolates were in the group Proteobacteria, with most of them belonging to the α and γ subclasses. Only one isolate was identified as a β-proteobacterium, and it had >98% 16S rRNA sequence homology with a terrestrial species of Alcaligenes faecalis. Although bacterial population analysis based on culturability has its limitations, bacteria from the α and γ subclasses of the Proteobacteria were the dominant DMS producers isolated from salt marsh sediments and estuaries, with the γ subclass representing 80% of the isolates. The α-proteobacterium isolates were all in the Roseobacter subgroup, while many of the γ-proteobacteria were closely related to the pseudomonads; others were phylogenetically related to Marinomonas, Psychrobacter, or Vibrio species. These data suggest that DMSP cleavage to DMS and acrylate is a characteristic widely distributed among different phylotypes in the salt marsh-estuarine ecosystem. PMID:11229912

  9. Pore water distributions of dissolved copper and copper-complexing ligands in estuarine and coastal marine sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Skrabal, S.A.; Donat, J.R.; Burdige, D.J.

    2000-06-01

    The distributions and seasonal variability of total dissolved Cu (TDCu) and Cu-complexing ligands in sediment pore waters have been investigated at two contrasting sites in the Chesapeake Bay. Two ligand classes, which differ on the basis of the conditional stability constants (K{prime}{sub cond}) of their Cu complexes, were detected at all depths at both sites. For comparison, one pore water profile from a slope station off of the Chesapeake Bay also showed the presence of two ligand classes. Virtually all TDCu fluxing from these sediments is complexed during sediment-water exchange. A relatively small fraction of the TDCu is exchanged as inorganic species, which are widely regarded as the most bioavailable form of Cu. Total ligand concentrations are 15 to >100 times higher in the upper intervals of the pore waters relative to ligand concentrations in the bottom waters of the Chesapeake Bay (30--60 nM), consistent with previous observations of fluxes of these ligands from the sediments to overlying waters. These results suggest that sediments are potentially significant sources of Cu-complexing ligands to the overlying waters of the Chesapeake Bay, and perhaps, other shallow water estuarine and coastal environments. Copper-complexing ligands released from sediment pore waters may play an important role in influencing Cu speciation in overlying waters.

  10. Pouring 'Cold Water' on Hot Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, A. E.

    1995-09-01

    The extensive recrystallization of type-6 OC has been interpreted as having resulted either from prograde thermal metamorphism of initially cold, unequilibrated material [1,2] or from autometamorphism due to slow cooling of material that accreted while still hot (1000-1200 K). Although the physical implausibility of hot accretion has been addressed [3], no comprehensive evaluation has been made of arguments in its favor. As shown below, these arguments are based on incomplete data, flawed experiments or improbable interpretations. Correlation between petrologic type and Ca in low-Ca pyroxene. Models of prograde metamorphism assume that, with increasing temperature, opx acquires Ca at the expense of diopside. Analyses of pyroxene in 10 H chondrites showed no correlation between Ca in pyroxene cores and increasing petrologic type [4], but more extensive data sets show such correlations [1,5,6]. A review of data for 51 OC [7] shows a progressive increase in the Wo content of low-Ca pyroxene with petrologic type: Wo 0.4-1.2 in type-3 and -4; Wo 1.2-1.6 in type-5; and Wo 1.6-2.2 in type-6. Striated opx. Undeformed striated opx were interpreted as having formed from inverted protopyroxene during slow cooling [8]; striated opx from H4 Quenggouk were found to convert into normal opx within 1 week during annealing at 1100 K [9]. Because prograde metamorphism probably lasted ~60 Ma [10], there should be no striated opx remaining in type-4 or -5 OC. However, samples of 99% twinned clinopyroxene (analogous to that in chondrules in type-3 OC) annealed for >3 weeks at <=1250 K exhibited only very minor inversion to opx [11-13]. These experiments are consistent with prograde metamorphism; it seems likely that Quenggouk pyroxene probably had a substantial proportion of opx lamellae to begin with. Spinodal decomposition textures and cooling rates. Spinodal decomposition textures in pyroxene in type 4-5 OC were observed to have the same periodicities as those in type-3 OC [14]; it

  11. Distribution and spawning dynamics of capelin (Mallotus villosus) in Glacier Bay, Alaska: A cold water refugium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arimitsu, M.L.; Piatt, John F.; Litzow, Michael A.; Abookire, Alisa A.; Romano, Marc D.; Robards, Martin D.

    2008-01-01

    Pacific capelin (Mallotus villosus) populations declined dramatically in the Northeastern Pacific following ocean warming after the regime shift of 1977, but little is known about the cause of the decline or the functional relationships between capelin and their environment. We assessed the distribution and abundance of spawning, non-spawning adult and larval capelin in Glacier Bay, an estuarine fjord system in southeastern Alaska. We used principal components analysis to analyze midwater trawl and beach seine data collected between 1999 and 2004 with respect to oceanographic data and other measures of physical habitat including proximity to tidewater glaciers and potential spawning habitat. Both spawning and non-spawning adult Pacific capelin were more likely to occur in areas closest to tidewater glaciers, and those areas were distinguished by lower temperature, higher turbidity, higher dissolved oxygen and lower chlorophyll a levels when compared with other areas of the bay. The distribution of larval Pacific capelin was not sensitive to glacial influence. Pre-spawning females collected farther from tidewater glaciers were at a lower maturity state than those sampled closer to tidewater glaciers, and the geographic variation in the onset of spawning is likely the result of differences in the marine habitat among sub-areas of Glacier Bay. Proximity to cold water in Glacier Bay may have provided a refuge for capelin during the recent warm years in the Gulf of Alaska.

  12. OTEC Cold Water Pipe-Platform Subsystem Dynamic Interaction Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Varley, Robert; Halkyard, John; Johnson, Peter; Shi, Shan; Marinho, Thiago

    2014-05-09

    A commercial floating 100-megawatt (MW) ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power plant will require a cold water pipe (CWP) with a diameter of 10-meter (m) and length of up to 1,000 m. The mass of the cold water pipe, including entrained water, can exceed the mass of the platform supporting it. The offshore industry uses software-modeling tools to develop platform and riser (pipe) designs to survive the offshore environment. These tools are typically validated by scale model tests in facilities able to replicate real at-sea meteorological and ocean (metocean) conditions to provide the understanding and confidence to proceed to final design and full-scale fabrication. However, today’s offshore platforms (similar to and usually larger than those needed for OTEC applications) incorporate risers (or pipes) with diameters well under one meter. Secondly, the preferred construction method for large diameter OTEC CWPs is the use of composite materials, primarily a form of fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP). The use of these material results in relatively low pipe stiffness and large strains compared to steel construction. These factors suggest the need for further validation of offshore industry software tools. The purpose of this project was to validate the ability to model numerically the dynamic interaction between a large cold water-filled fiberglass pipe and a floating OTEC platform excited by metocean weather conditions using measurements from a scale model tested in an ocean basin test facility.

  13. Suspended sediment concentration mapping based on the MODIS satellite imagery in the East China inland, estuarine, and coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xianping; Sokoletsky, Leonid; Wei, Xiaodao; Shen, Fang

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to improve the retrieval accuracy for the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) from in situ and satellite remote sensing measurements in turbid East China estuarine and coastal waters. For this aim, three important tasks are formulated and solved: 1) an estimation of remote-sensing reflectance spectra R rs(λ) after atmospheric correction; 2) an estimation of R rs(λ) from the radiometric signals above the air-water surface; and 3) an estimation of SSC from R rs(λ). Six different models for radiometric R rs(λ) determination and 28 models for SSC versus R rs(λ) are analyzed based on the field observations made in the Changjiang River estuary and its adjacent coastal area. The SSC images based on the above-mentioned analysis are generated for the area.

  14. The application of laser-Raman light scattering to the determination of sulfate in sea and estuarine waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandy, A. R.

    1973-01-01

    Laser-Raman light scattering is a technique for determining sulfate concentrations in sea and estuarine waters with apparently none of the interferences inherent in the gravimetric and titrametric methods. The Raman measurement involved the ratioing of the peak heights of an unknown sulfate concentration and a nitrate internal standard. This ratio was used to calculate the unknown sulfate concentration from a standard curve. The standard curve was derived from the Raman data on prepared nitrate-sulfate solutions. At the 99.7% confidence level, the accuracy of the Raman technique was 7 to 8.6 percent over the concentration range of the standard curve. The sulfate analyses of water samples collected at the mouth of the James River, Hampton, Virginia, demonstrated that in most cases sulfate had a constant concentration relative to salinity in this area.

  15. Nucleic acid extraction from polluted estuarine water for detection of viruses and bacteria by PCR and RT-PCR analysis.

    PubMed

    Petit, F; Craquelin, S; Guespin-Michel, J; Buffet-Janvresse, C

    1999-03-01

    We describe an extraction protocol for genomic DNA and RNA of both viruses and bacteria from polluted estuary water. This procedure was adapted to the molecular study of microflora of estuarine water where bacteria and viruses are found free, forming low-density biofilms, or intimately associated with organo-mineral particles. The sensitivity of the method was determined with seeded samples for RT-PCR and PCR analysis of viruses (10 virions/mL), and bacteria (1 colony-forming unit mL). We report an example of molecular detection of both poliovirus and Salmonella in the Seine estuary (France) and an approach to studying their association with organo-mineral particles.

  16. Factors affecting metal exchange between sediment and water in an estuarine reservoir: a spatial and seasonal observation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Joo-Hyon; Lee, Young Geun; Lee, Keun-Young; Cha, Sung Min; Cho, Kyung Hwa; Lee, Yun Seok; Ki, Seo Jin; Yoon, In-Ho; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Kim, Joon Ha

    2009-11-01

    Water quality response in a reservoir has often been assessed using relatively restricted datasets that cannot provide sufficient information, thereby giving rise to a dramatic over- or underestimate of actual figures. In this paper we discuss how the levels of metallic elements between the sediment and overlying water in an estuarine reservoir can be influenced by aquatic parameters in response to spatial and seasonal conditions. To better elucidate the interfacial exchange between sediment and water, statistical analyses are employed to intensive data sets collected from the Yeongsan Reservoir (YSR), Korea, which has undergone widespread deterioration in water quality due to the continuous growth of anthropogenic sources. During three seasonal sampling campaigns, we found that oxygen deficiency at the bottom water layer promotes Fe and Ni accumulation in sediment, likely due to the formation of sulfide and oxide complexes under anoxic and suboxic environments, respectively. In addition, salinity levels as high as 11 per thousand in the bottom water layer during autumn substantially increase the release of Mn, restricting the use of YSR as a primary source of agricultural irrigation water. Although most dissolved metals are at acceptable levels for sustaining aquatic life, it is recommended that for long-term planning the elevated Fe and Mn levels in sediment should be controlled with oxygen deficiency during dry weather to ensure a sustainable water supply or, at a minimum, better coordinated operation of YSR.

  17. Sensitivity of modeled estuarine circulation to spatial and temporal resolution of input meteorological forcing of a cold frontal passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, Robert J.; Taeb, Peyman; Lazarus, Steven; Splitt, Michael; Holman, Bryan P.; Colvin, Jeffrey

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a four member ensemble of meteorological forcing is generated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model in order to simulate a frontal passage event that impacted the Indian River Lagoon (IRL) during March 2015. The WRF model is run to provide high and low, spatial (0.005° and 0.1°) and temporal (30 min and 6 h) input wind and pressure fields. The four member ensemble is used to force the Advanced Circulation model (ADCIRC) coupled with Simulating Waves Nearshore (SWAN) and compute the hydrodynamic and wave response. Results indicate that increasing the spatial resolution of the meteorological forcing has a greater impact on the results than increasing the temporal resolution in coastal systems like the IRL where the length scales are smaller than the resolution of the operational meteorological model being used to generate the forecast. Changes in predicted water elevations are due in part to the upwind and downwind behavior of the input wind forcing. The significant wave height is more sensitive to the meteorological forcing, exhibited by greater ensemble spread throughout the simulation. It is important that the land mask, seen by the meteorological model, is representative of the geography of the coastal estuary as resolved by the hydrodynamic model. As long as the temporal resolution of the wind field captures the bulk characteristics of the frontal passage, computational resources should be focused so as to ensure that the meteorological model resolves the spatial complexities, such as the land-water interface, that drive the land use responsible for dynamic downscaling of the winds.

  18. [Advances in copepod resting egg ecology in estuarine and coastal waters].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Luan, Lei-lei; Chen, Liang-dong; Yang, Yu-feng

    2015-07-01

    Copepods are the key group in aquatic ecosystems, and play an important role in energy flow, the cycle of materials and information transfer. This paper summarized the distribution and composition of the copepods that spawn resting eggs in the estuarine and coastal marine areas. It also reviewed the survival time, hatching rates, abundance of resting eggs in the sediments, and the potential recruitment into the plankton population as correlated with environmental factors. The prospects of copepod resting egg ecology were also proposed in order to provide new ideas for future research.

  19. SHORT-TERM METHODS FOR ESTIMATING THE CHRONIC TOXICITY OF EFFLUENTS AND RECEIVING WATERS TO WEST COAST MARINE AND ESTUARINE ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual describes six short-term (forty minutes to seven days) estuarine and marine methods for measuring the chronic toxicity of effluents and receiving waters to eight species: the topsmelt, Atherinops affinis; the mysid, Holmesimysis costata; the sea urchin, Stronglocentro...

  20. SHORT-TERM METHODS FOR ESTIMATING THE CHRONIC TOXICITY OF EFFLUENTS AND RECEIVING WATERS TO WEST COAST MARINE AND ESTUARINE ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual describes six short-term (forty minutes to seven days) estuarine and marine methods for measuring the chronic toxicity of effluents and receiving waters to eight species: the topsmelt, Atherinops affinis; the mysid, Holmesimysis costata; the sea urchin, Stronglocentro...

  1. Gold coast seaway smartrelease decision support system: optimising recycled water release in a sub tropical estuarine environment.

    PubMed

    Stuart, G; Hollingsworth, A; Thomsen, F; Szylkarski, S; Khan, S; Tomlinson, R; Kirkpatrick, S; Catterall, K; Capati, B

    2009-01-01

    Gold Coast Water is responsible for the management of the water, recycled water and wastewater assets of the City of the Gold Coast on Australia's east coast. Excess treated recycled water is released at the Gold Coast Seaway, a man-made channel connecting the Broadwater Estuary with the Pacific Ocean, on an outgoing tide in order for the recycled water to be dispersed before the tide changes and re-enters the Broadwater estuary. Rapid population growth has placed increasing demands on the city's recycled water release system and an investigation of the capacity of the Broadwater to assimilate a greater volume of recycled water over a longer release period was undertaken in 2007. As an outcome, Gold Coast Water was granted an extension of the existing release licence from 10.5 hours per day to 13.3 hours per day from the Coombabah wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The Seaway SmartRelease Project has been designed to optimise the release of the recycled water from the Coombabah WWTP in order to minimise the impact to the receiving estuarine water quality and maximise the cost efficiency of pumping. In order achieve this; an optimisation study that involves intensive hydrodynamic and water quality monitoring, numerical modelling and a web-based decision support system is underway. An intensive monitoring campaign provided information on water levels, currents, winds, waves, nutrients and bacterial levels within the Broadwater. This data was then used to calibrate and verify numerical models using the MIKE by DHI suite of software. The Decision Support System will then collect continually measured data such as water levels, interact with the WWTP SCADA system, run the numerical models and provide the optimal time window to release the required amount of recycled water from the WWTP within the licence specifications.

  2. Estimation of Chlorophyll-a Concentration in Inland, Estuarine, and Coastal Waters using Aircraft and Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, W. J.; Gitelson, A. A.; Berdnikov, S.; Povazhnyy, V.

    2009-12-01

    A three-band model and a two-band model, which use reflectances in the red and near Infrared (NIR) wavebands that match the spectral channels of MODIS and MERIS, were tested for estimating chl-a concentration in turbid and productive inland, estuarine, and coastal waters using remotely sensed aircraft and satellite data. The NIR-red models were first tested with data collected by field spectrometers from inland, estuarine, and coastal water bodies with widely varying biophysical characteristics, from different geographic locations. The models showed a very close and steady relationship with chl-a concentration (r2 > 0.9), effectively accounting for variations in other constituents such as suspended solids and dissolved organic matter. The high accuracy and stability obtained with the field spectrometer data lent to the development of algorithms that can be applied to aircraft and satellite data. When applied to multi-temporal data from the aircraft sensor, AISA, the output from the two-band NIR-red model, with wavebands that match the MERIS spectral channels at 665 nm and 708 nm, had very close relationships with chl-a concentration (r2 > 0.87) for each image. But the slope and offset of the linear relationship varied between the images due to non-uniform atmospheric effects. A relative atmospheric correction of the AISA images resulted in conformity of the slopes and offset. The two-band MODIS NIR-red model and the two-band and three-band MERIS NIR-red models were applied to MODIS and MERIS images. Four different atmospheric correction schemes were tried for MODIS data and two schemes for MERIS data. The two-band and three-band MERIS NIR-red model values, when applied to MERIS images, had a very close and steady relationship with chl-a concentration (r2 > 0.95). Data collected in four different campaigns on Azov Sea and Taganrog Bay in 2008 were used to calibrate and develop MERIS NIR-red algorithms that were validated with data collected in 2009. The two

  3. Time of death of victims found in cold water environment.

    PubMed

    Karhunen, Pekka J; Goebeler, Sirkka; Winberg, Olli; Tuominen, Markku

    2008-04-07

    Limited data is available on the application of post-mortem temperature methods to non-standard conditions, especially in problematic real life cases in which the body of the victim is found in cold water environment. Here we present our experience on two cases with known post-mortem times. A 14-year-old girl (rectal temperature 15.5 degrees C) was found assaulted and drowned after a rainy cold night (+5 degrees C) in wet clothing (four layers) at the bottom of a shallow ditch, lying in non-flowing water. The post-mortem time turned out to be 15-16 h. Four days later, at the same time in the morning, after a cold (+/- 0 degrees C) night, a young man (rectal temperature 10.8 degrees C) was found drowned in a shallow cold drain (+4 degrees C) wearing similar clothing (four layers) and being exposed to almost similar environmental and weather conditions, except of flow (7.7 l/s or 0.3 m/s) in the drain. The post-mortem time was deduced to be 10-12 h. We tested the applicability of five practical methods to estimate time of death. Henssge's temperature-time of death nomogram method with correction factors was the most versatile and gave also most accurate results, although there is limited data on choosing of correction factors. In the first case, the right correction factor was close to 1.0 (recommended 1.1-1.2), suggesting that wet clothing acted like dry clothing in slowing down body cooling. In the second case, the right correction factor was between 0.3 and 0.5, similar to the recommended 0.35 for naked bodies in flowing water.

  4. Molecular Approach to Microbiological Examination of Water Quality in the Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (NERR) in Mississippi, USA.

    PubMed

    Kishinhi, Stephen S; Tchounwou, Paul B; Farah, Ibrahim O

    2013-01-01

    Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (NERR) is an important ecosystem in the Mississippi Gulf Coast. It serves as important nursery areas for juveniles of many species of fish. The bay is also used for fishing, crabbing, oyster togging, boating as well as recreation. Like in other aquatic environments, this bay may be contaminated by microorganisms including pathogenic bacteria. The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of water in the Grand Bay NERR and determine the levels and potential source(s) of human fecal pollution. To achieve this goal, water samples were collected aseptically every month in Bayou Heron, Bayou Cumbest, Point Aux Chenes Bay and Bangs Lake. Enterococci were concentrated from water samples by membrane filtration according to the methodology outlined in USEPA Method 1600. After incubation, DNA was extracted from bacteria colonies on the membrane filters by using QIAamp DNA extraction kit. Water samples were also tested for the presence of traditional indicator bacteria including: heterotrophic plate count, total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and Enterococcus bacteria. The marker esp gene was detected in one site of Bayou Cumbest, an area where human populations reside. Data from this study indicates higher concentrations of indicator bacteria compared to the recommended acceptable levels. Presence of esp marker and high numbers of indicator bacteria suggest a public health concern for shellfish and water contact activities. Hence, control strategies should be developed and implemented to prevent further contamination of the Grand bay NERR waters.

  5. Salvage and recovery of the OTEC-1 cold water pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Tracy, D.E.; Vadus, J.R.

    1983-05-01

    During autumn 1982, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) was assisted by the U.S. Navy in recovering the 2,250-foot-long ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC-1) cold water pipe which was vertically moored in 4,500 feet of water 22 miles off the northwest coast of the island of Hawaii. The pipe recovery was successfully completed on October 9, 1982, in one of the Navy's deepest salvage efforts on record, and will be deployed down the slope at Keahole Point to supply cold water for the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii. The salvage and recovery of such a large flexible object almost 1/2-mile in length, weighing 50 tons in water, from a depth of 4,500 feet, was unique to the Navy's experience. This operation required extensive planning and coordination among numerous Naval and commercial units; shipyard preparation of the ocean heavy lift platform barge; utilization of the deep submersible research vehicle TURTLE; and use of various support vessels and ancillary equipment. It provided an opportunity to test new technology applicable to offshore and deep sea operations and to obtain material specimens for testing of pipe strength degradation due to long-term exposure to sea water.

  6. Determination of dissolved boron in fresh, estuarine, and geothermal waters by d.c. argon-plasma emission spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ball, J.W.; Thompson, J.M.; Jenne, E.A.

    1978-01-01

    A d.c. argon-plasma emission spectrometer is used to determine dissolved boron in natural (fresh and estuarine) water samples. Concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 250 mg l-1. The emission-concentration function is linear from 0.02 to 1000 mg l-1. Achievement of a relative standard deviation of ??? 3% requires frequent restandardization to offset sensitivity changes. Dilution may be necessary to overcome high and variable electron density caused by differences in alkali-metal content and to avoid quenching of the plasma by high solute concentrations of sodium and other easily ionized elements. The proposed method was tested against a reference method and found to be more sensitive, equally or more precise and accurate, less subject to interferences, with a wider linear analytical range than the carmine method. Analyses of standard reference samples yielded results in all cases within one standard deviation of the means. ?? 1978.

  7. Multi-Mission Remote Sensing of Suspended Particulate Matter and Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient in the Yangtze Estuarine and Coastal Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, X.; Salama, S.; Shen, F.

    2016-08-01

    During the Dragon-3 project (ID: 10555) period, we developed and improved the atmospheric correction algorithms (AC) and retrieval models of suspended sediment concentration ( ) and diffuse attenuation coefficient ( ) for the Yangtze estuarine and coastal waters. The developed models were validated by measurements with consistently stable and fairly accurate estimations, reproducing reasonable distribution maps of and over the study area. Spatial-temporal variations of were presented and the mechanisms of the sediment transport were discussed. We further examined the compatibility of the developed AC algorithms and retrieval model and the consistency of satellite products for multi-sensor such as MODIS/Terra/Aqua, MERIS/Envisat, MERSI/ FY-3 and GOCI. The inter-comparison of multi- sensor suggested that different satellite products can be combined to increase revisit frequency and complement a temporal gap of time series satellites that may exist between on-orbit and off- orbit, facilitating a better monitor on the spatial- temporal dynamics of .

  8. Water-quality trends and basin activities and characteristics for the Albemarle-Pamlico estuarine system, North Carolina and Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harned, D.A.; Davenport, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    The Albemarle-Pamlico estuarine system has a total basin area of nearly 31,000 square miles and includes the Neuse, Tar, Pamlico, Roanoke, Chowan, and Alligator Rivers, and the Albemarle, Pamlico, Currituck, Croatan, and Roanoke Sounds. Albemarle Sound receives the greatest freshwater inflow of all the sounds in the estuarine system. Inflow to this sound averages about 13,500 cubic feet per second. Inflow to Pamlico Sound from the Pamlico River averages around 5,400 cubic feet per second, and average inflow into the Neuse River estuary is about 6,100 cubic feet per second. Approximately one-half of the inflow into the system is from ground-water discharge. The Neuse River basin has had the greatest increases in wastewater discharges (650 percent since the 1950's) and had the greatesttotal wastewater discharges of any of the basins in the study area, averaging about 200 million gallons per day in 1988. Wastewater discharges into the Neuse and Tar Rivers were nearly equal to the 7-day, 10-year low flows for these rivers. Land-use data compiled in 1973 for the lower parts of the Neuse River basin and lower part of the Tar-Pamlico River basin indicate that 25 percent of the area was evergreen forest, 25 percent was forested wetlands, 20 percent was cropland and pasture, 12 percent was mixed forest, 10 percent was nonforested wetland, and 4 percent was urban. The amount of nonforested wetland in the part of the study area along the Outer Banks declined 6.5 percent from 1973 to 1983. The numbers of farms and acreage in agricultural use in the study area have declined since the 1920's. A decrease of more than 60 percentin the number of farms was shown between the early 1950's and 1982. Fertilizer sales increased through the 1970's, but declined in the 1980's. Manufacturing employment has increased in the last 30 years, while agricultural employment has decreased. Data from seven stations of the U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Quality Accounting Network were used to

  9. Cognitive, psychomotor, and physical performance in cold air after cooling by exercise in cold water.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Catherine; Tharion, William J; Sils, Ingrid V; Castellani, John W

    2007-06-01

    This study evaluated performance after lowering core temperature at different rates while local tissues were either cooled (lower body) or not cooled (upper body). There were 10 men who volunteered to perform up to 8 cold water immersions (CWI) at combinations of 2 water temperatures (10 degrees C and 15 degrees C), 2 depths [waist (W), chest (C)], and 2 walking speeds (0.44 or 0.88 m x s(-1)) until their core temperature fell to 35.5 degrees C, stabilized above that temperature, or they requested to stop. They also completed a control trial (120 min rest in 19 degrees C air). Immediately following each CWI and control, cognitive and physical performance tests were performed in cold air (10 degrees C; CAE). Overall, the CWI protocol lowered rectal temperature by 0.3-1.0 degrees C. Mean skin temperature was approximately 26 degrees C and finger temperature was approximately 15 degrees C during CAE. No statistical differences were observed across trials for any cognitive test. On the physical performance tests, step test performance was degraded approximately 12% on CWI trials compared with control, but there were no differences in manual dexterity, hand grip strength, marksmanship, or pull-ups. These results indicate that cognitive performance can be maintained despite mild hypothermia, and that physical performance is related to local tissue temperature, not a moderately reduced core temperature.

  10. Ecotoxicological water assessment of an estuarine river from the Brazilian Northeast, potentially affected by industrial wastewater discharge.

    PubMed

    de Melo Gurgel, Piatã; Navoni, Julio Alejandro; de Morais Ferreira, Douglisnilson; do Amaral, Viviane Souza

    2016-12-01

    Water pollution generated by industrial effluents discharge is a threat to the maintenance of aquatic ecosystems and human development. The Jundiai River estuarine, located in Northeast Brazil, receives an industrial pretreated effluent load from the city of Macaíba/RN/Brazil. The present study aimed to assess the water quality of this water reservoir through i) physicochemical characterization, ii) quantification of metal concentration and iii) by an ecotoxicological assessment carried out using Mysidopsis juniae and Pomacea lineata. The study was performed throughout the period comprising May to September 2014. Physicochemical variables such as chloride, total solids and electrical conductivity presented values in the waste discharge point, significantly different with those located out of the waste releasing point. Apart from that, metal concentration showed variable behavior throughout the monitored period. Levels of Al, Fe, Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Ag were over the considered guidelines. Both natural and anthropogenic sources seem to be involved in the resulting environmental scenario. A reduction in the fecundity rate (using Mysidopsis juniae) along with an increase in mortality rate (in both species) was observed ratifying the presence of toxic substances in this water reservoir. Moreover, a correlation analysis stated an association of the aforementioned toxicological effects with the delivery of industrial waste products. The ecotoxicological assessment performed highlighted the presence of toxic substance/s in water from the Jundiai River. Especially as a consequence of industrial activity, a fact that might threaten the bioma and, therefore, the human health of the population settled in the studied region.

  11. Remediation of aquaculture water in the estuarine wetlands using coal cinder-zeolite balls/reed wetland combination strategy.

    PubMed

    Tian, Weijun; Qiao, Kaili; Yu, Huibo; Bai, Jie; Jin, Xin; Liu, Qing; Zhao, Jing

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the modified coal cinders and zeolite powders in proportion of 2:1 were mixed with modified polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) with a ratio of 20:1 (w/v) to make a new sorbent and biological carrier-the coal cinder-zeolite balls (CCZBs). The maximum absorption capacities of ammonia nitrogen and Chemical Oxygen Demand (CODCr) on CCZBs, adsorption process were evaluated in batch experiments. And then they were combined with reed wetland for bioremediation of micro-polluted aquaculture water in estuarine wetlands. The results showed that the removal efficiencies of ammonia nitrogen and CODCr improved with the decrease in water inflow and increase in inflow concentrations. Efficiencies of 67.3% and 71.3% for ammonia nitrogen and CODCr under water flow of 10 L/h were obtained when their inflow concentrations were 1.77 and 56.0 mg/L respectively. This strategy can be served as a model system for bioremediation in situ of aquaculture water and other organic polluted or eutrophic water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Transient natural convection of cold water in a vertical channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Ryoichi

    2016-05-01

    The two-dimensional differential transform method (DTM) is applied to analyse the transient natural convection of cold water in a vertical channel. The cold water gives rise to a density variation with temperature that may not be linearized. The vertical channel is composed of doubly infinite parallel plates, one of which has a constant prescribed temperature and the other of which is insulated. Considering the temperature-dependent viscosity and thermal conductivity of the water, approximate analytical (series) solutions for the temperature and flow velocity are derived. The transformed functions included in the solutions are obtained through a simple recursive procedure. Numerical computation is performed for the entire range of water temperature conditions around the temperature at the density extremum point, i.e. 4°C. Numerical results illustrate the effects of the temperature-dependent properties on the transient temperature and flow velocity profiles, volumetric flow rate, and skin friction. The DTM is a powerful tool for solving nonlinear transient problems as well as steady problems.

  13. Nationwide review of oxygen depletion and eutrophication in estuarine and coastal waters: Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Whitledge, T.E.

    1985-09-01

    The Status and Trends Program of the Ocean Assessment Division of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) contracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory to assess the health of the estuarine and coastal environments in the US as indicated by low oxygen concentrations, eutrophication or mass mortalities of biological organisms. This intensive eutrophication or mass mortalities of biological organisms. This intensive but brief survey was accomplished through subcontracts to five regional investigators and represented the (1) Northeast, (2) Southeast, (3) Florida, (4) Gulf Coast, and (5) West Coast regions of the country. Each principal investigator was responsible for a subset of the 196 estuaries or embayments in his region. Additional information on other contaminants were also included in the reports when such information was deemed important. An exhaustive search of all literature was not possible owing to the time and money constraints; however, significant data were located for most of the estuaries. 1 fig.

  14. Neuromuscular function during knee extension exercise after cold water immersion.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Wijayanto, Titis; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2017-06-23

    Human adaptability to cold environment has been focused on in the physiological anthropology and related research area. Concerning the human acclimatization process in the natural climate, it is necessary to conduct a research assessing comprehensive effect of cold environment and physical activities in cold. This study investigated the effect of cold water immersion on the exercise performance and neuromuscular function during maximal and submaximal isometric knee extension. Nine healthy males participated in this study. They performed maximal and submaximal (20, 40, and 60% maximal load) isometric knee extension pre- and post-immersion in 23, 26, and 34 °C water. The muscle activity of the rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL) was measured using surface electromyography (EMG). The percentages of the maximum voluntary contraction (%MVC) and mean power frequency (MPF) of EMG data were analyzed. The post-immersion maximal force was significantly lower in 23 °C than in 26 and 34 °C conditions (P < 0.05). The post-immersion %MVC of RF was significantly higher than pre-immersion during 60% maximal exercise in 23 and 26 °C conditions (P < 0.05). In the VL, the post-immersion %MVC was significantly higher than pre-immersion in 23 and 26 °C conditions during 20% maximal exercise and in 26 °C at 40 and 60% maximal intensities (P < 0.05). The post-immersion %MVC of VL was significantly higher in 26 °C than in 34 °C at 20 and 60% maximal load (P < 0.05). The post-immersion MPF of RF during 20% maximal intensity was significantly lower in 23 °C than in 26 and 34 °C conditions (P < 0.05), and significantly different between three water temperature conditions at 40 and 60% maximal intensities (P < 0.05). The post-immersion MPF of VL during three submaximal trials were significantly lower in 23 and 26 °C than in 34 °C conditions (P < 0.05). The lower shift of EMG frequency would be connected with the decrease in the

  15. Rare earth elements in scleractinian cold-water corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raddatz, J.; Liebetrau, V.; Hathorne, E. C.; Rüggeberg, A.; Dullo, W.; Frank, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Rare Earth Elements (REE) have a great potential to trace continental input, particle scavenging and the oxidation state of seawater. These REE are recorded in the skeleton of the cosmopolitan cold-water corals Lophelia pertusa. Here we use an online preconcentration ICP-MS method (Hathorne et al. 2012) to measure REE concentrations in seawater and associated cold-water coral carbonates in order to investigate their seawater origin. Scleractinian cold-water corals were collected in-situ and alive and with corresponding seawater samples covering from the European Continental Margin. The seawater REE patterns are characterized by the typical negative cerium anomaly of seawater, but are distinct for the northern Norwegian Margin and the Oslo Fjord, probably related to continental input. Initial results for the corresponding coral samples suggest that these distinct REE patterns of ambient seawater are recorded by the coral skeletons although some fractionation during incorporation into the aragonite occurs. This indicates that scleractinian cold-water corals can serve as a valuable archive for seawater derived REE signatures, as well radiogenic Nd isotope compositions. In a second step we analysed fossil coral samples from various locations, which were oxidatively and reductively cleaned prior to analysis. Initial results reveal that sediment-buried fossil (early Pleistocene to Holocene) coral samples from the Norwegian Margin and the Porcupine Seabight (Challenger Mound, IODP Site 1317) do not show the expected seawater REE patterns. In particular, the fossil coral-derived REE patterns lack a negative cerium anomaly suggesting that fossil coral-REE patterns do not represent ambient seawater. Thus, we suggest that the oxidative-reductive cleaning method widely used for cleaning of marine carbonates such as foraminifera prior to measurements of seawater-derived trace metal and isotope compositions are not sufficient for REE and Nd isotopes in sediment-buried coral-water

  16. Seasonal dynamics of bacterial community structure and composition in cold and hot drinking water derived from surface water reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Henne, Karsten; Kahlisch, Leila; Höfle, Manfred G; Brettar, Ingrid

    2013-10-01

    In temperate regions, seasonal variability of environmental factors affects the bacterial community in source water and finished drinking water. Therefore, the bacterial core community and its seasonal variability in cold and the respective hot drinking water was investigated. The bacterial core community was studied by 16S rRNA-based SSCP fingerprint analyses and band sequencing of DNA and RNA extracts of cold and hot water (60 °C). The bacterial communities of cold and hot drinking water showed a highly different structure and phylogenetic composition both for RNA and DNA extracts. For cold drinking water substantial seasonal dynamics of the bacterial community was observed related to environmental factors such as temperature and precipitation affecting source and drinking water. Phylogenetic analyses of the cold water community indicated that the majority of phylotypes were very closely affiliated with those detected in former studies of the same drinking water supply system (DWSS) in the preceding 6 years, indicating a high stability over time. The hot water community was very stable over time and seasons and highly distinct from the cold water with respect to structure and composition. The hot water community displayed a lower diversity and its phylotypes were mostly affiliated with bacteria of high temperature habitats with high growth rates indicated by their high RNA content. The conversion of the cold to the hot water bacterial community is considered as occurring within a few hours by the following two processes, i) by decay of most of the cold water bacteria due to heating, and ii) rapid growth of the high temperature adapted bacteria present in the hot water (co-heated with the cold water in the same device) using the nutrients released from the decaying cold water bacteria. The high temperature adapted bacteria originated partially from low abundant but beforehand detected members of the cold water; additionally, the rare members ("seed bank ") of the

  17. The influence of ethnicity on thermosensitivity during cold water immersion.

    PubMed

    Glickman, E L; Cheatham, C C; Caine, N; Blegen, M

    2001-07-01

    This investigation evaluated the influence of ethnicity, Caucasian (CAU) vs. African American (AA), on thermosensitivity and metabolic heat production (HP) during cold water immersion (20 degrees C) in 15 CAU (22.7 +/- 2.7 yr) vs. 7 AA (21.7 +/- 2.7 yr) males. Following a 20-min baseline period (BASE), subjects were immersed in 20 degrees C water until esophageal temperature (Tes) reached 36.5 degrees C or for a maximum pre-occlusion (Pre-OCC) time of 40 min. Arm and thigh cuffs were then inflated to 180 and 220 mm Hg, respectively, for 10 min (OCC). Following release of the inflated cuffs (Post-OCC), the slope of the relationship between the decrease in Tes and the increase in HP was used to define thermosensitivity (beta). ANOVA revealed no significant difference in thermosensitivity between CAU and AA (CAU = 3.56 +/- 1.54 vs. AA = 2.43 +/- 1.58 W.kg(-1). degrees C(-1)). No significant differences (p > 0.05) were found for Tsk (CAU = 24.2 +/- 1.1 vs. AA = 25.1 +/- 1.1 degrees C) or HP (p > 0.05; CAU = 2.5 +/- 0.8 vs. AA = 36.5 +/- 1.8 W.kg(-1)). However, a significant (p < 0.05) main effect for ethnicity for Tes was observed (CAU = 36.7 +/- 1.8 vs. AA = 36.5 +/- 1.8 degrees C). These data suggest, despite a differential response in Tes between AA and CAU groups, the beta of HP during cold water immersion is similar between CAU and AA. Therefore, these data demonstrate that when faced with a cold challenge, there is a similar response in HP between CAU and AA that is accompanied by a differential response in Tes.

  18. Lightweight concrete OTEC cold water pipe tests, phase 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oconnor, J. S.

    1981-03-01

    A one third scale model of a cold water pipe (CWP) for a 40 MW/sub ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plantship was constructed of reinforced lightweight concrete and tested to destruction. Failure occurred at approximately 138 percent of the design load for the once in 100 year storm condition in the Atlantic-1 siting area. The concept of using Neoprene bearing pads to provide flexibility of the joint between pipe segments was also verified. Measured deflections and stresses generally agreed with computer generated predictions and validated the design methods used. It is indicated that a light weight concrete CWP can be built with conventional material, and processes.

  19. Determination of picomolar levels of platinum in estuarine waters: a comparison of cathodic stripping voltammetry and isotope dilution-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Obata, Hajime; Yoshida, Tetsuaki; Ogawa, Hiroshi

    2006-10-27

    A comparative study to determine picomolar concentrations of platinum in natural waters was performed using two different analytical techniques. Results obtained by cathodic stripping voltammetry (CSV) were compared with those obtained by isotope dilution-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICPMS) combined with anion exchange resin column extraction method. Using successive UV irradiations with low-pressure mercury (L-Hg) lamp for 4h prior to CSV analysis, the results of both methods were comparable. Without adequate photolytic decomposition, the results obtained using CSV were generally lower than those obtained using ID-ICPMS in the estuarine waters around Tokyo Bay. This difference implies the presence of organically complexed Pt species in the estuarine waters. The Pt enrichment in the middle of the Tokyo Bay estuaries probably reflects the anthropogenic release of Pt from highly populated areas in Tokyo.

  20. Effective Climate Refugia for Cold-water Fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebersole, J. L.; Morelli, T. L.; Torgersen, C.; Isaak, D.; Keenan, D.; Labiosa, R.; Fullerton, A.; Massie, J.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change threatens to create fundamental shifts in in the distributions and abundances of endothermic organisms such as cold-water salmon and trout species (salmonids). Recently published projected declines in mid-latitude salmonid distributions under future climates range from modest to severe, depending on modeling approaches, assumptions, and spatial context of analyses. Given these projected losses, increased emphasis on management for ecosystem resilience to help buffer cold-water fish populations and their habitats against climate change is emerging. Using terms such as "climate-proofing", "climate-ready", and "climate refugia", such efforts stake a claim for an adaptive, anticipatory planning response to the climate change threat. To be effective, such approaches will need to address critical uncertainties in both the physical basis for projected landscape changes in water temperature and streamflow, as well as the biological responses of organisms. Recent efforts define future potential climate refugia based on projected streamflows, air temperatures, and associated water temperature changes. These efforts reflect the relatively strong conceptual foundation for linkages between regional climate change and local hydrological responses and thermal dynamics. Yet important questions remain. Drawing on case studies throughout the Pacific Northwest, we illustrate some key uncertainties in the responses of salmonids and their habitats to altered hydro-climatic regimes currently not well addressed by physical or ecological models. Key uncertainties include biotic interactions, organismal adaptive capacity, local climate decoupling due to groundwater-surface water interactions, the influence of human engineering responses, and synergies between climatic and other stressors. These uncertainties need not delay anticipatory planning, but rather highlight the need for identification and communication of actions with high probabilities of success, and targeted

  1. Cold-water coral banks and submarine landslides: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mol, Ben; Huvenne, Veerle; Canals, Miquel

    2009-06-01

    This paper aims to review the relation between cold-water coral bank development and submarine landslides. Both are common features on continental margins, but so far it has not been reviewed which effect—if at all—they may have upon each other. Indirect and direct relations between coral banks and landslides are evaluated here, based on four case studies: the Magellan Mound Province in the Porcupine Seabight, where fossil coral banks appear partly on top of a buried slide deposit; the Sula Ridge Reef Complex and the Storegga landslide both off mid-Norway; and the Mauritania coral bank province, associated with the Mauritanian Slide Complex. For each of these locations, positive and negative relationships between both features are discussed, based on available datasets. Locally submarine landslides might directly favour coral bank development by creating substratum where corals can settle on, enhancing turbulence due to abrupt seabed morphological variations and, in some cases, causing fluid seepage. In turn, some of these processes may contribute to increased food availability and lower sedimentation rates. Landslides can also affect coral bank development by direct erosion of the coral banks, and by the instantaneous increase of turbidity, which may smother the corals. On the other hand, coral banks might have a stabilising function and delay or stop the headwall retrogradation of submarine landslides. Although local relationships can be deduced from these case studies, no general and direct relationship exists between submarine landslides and cold-water coral banks.

  2. Performance of Passive Samplers for Monitoring Estuarine Water Column Concentrations 1. Contaminants of Concern

    PubMed Central

    Perron, Monique M.; Burgess, Robert M.; Suuberg, Eric M.; Cantwell, Mark G.; Pennell, Kelly G.

    2014-01-01

    Contaminants enter marine and estuarine environments and pose a risk to human and ecological health. Recently, passive sampling devices have been utilized to estimate dissolved concentrations of COCs, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In the present study, the performance of three common passive samplers was evaluated for sampling PAHs and PCBs at several stations in the temperate estuary Narragansett Bay (Rhode Island, USA). Sampler polymers included polyethylene (PE), polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coated solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers, and polyoxymethylene (POM). Dissolved concentrations of each contaminant were calculated using measured sampler concentrations adjusted for equilibrium conditions with performance reference compounds (PRCs) and chemical-specific partition coefficients derived in the laboratory. Despite differences in PE and POM sampler concentrations, calculated total dissolved concentrations ranged from 14–93 ng/L and 13–465 pg/L for PAHs and PCBs, respectively. Dissolved concentrations of PAHs were approximately three times greater based on POM compared to PE while dissolved concentrations of PCBs based on PE were approximately three times greater than POM. Concentrations in SPME were not reported due to the lack of detectable chemical in the amount of PDMS polymer deployed. Continued research is needed to improve and support PE and POM use for the routine monitoring of COCs. For example, a better understanding of the use of PRCs with POM is critically needed. PMID:23832638

  3. A record of estuarine water contamination from the Cd content of foraminiferal tests in San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    VanGeen, A.; Luoma, S.N.

    1999-01-01

    A five-year dissolved Cd time series from San Francisco Bay and adjacent coastal water shows that the composition of surface water towards the mouth of the estuary is determined largely by the effect of coastal upwelling. Cd concentrations inside and outside the estuary (0.2-1.0 nmol/kg) increase as Cd-rich deep water is advected to the surface near the coast during spring and summer. On average, the mean Cd concentrations inside San Francisco Bay (0.54 nmol/kg) during 1991-1995 was significantly higher than outside (0.35 nmol/kg), however. Surface samples collected throughout San Francisco Bay confirm an internal Cd source unrelated to river discharge. The Cd content of the test of a benthic foraminifer (Elphidiella hannai) in a dated sediment core from San Francisco Bay was measured to determine if the water column Cd enrichments in San Francisco Bay could be related to the rapid development of the watershed. The method is based on the observation that the Cd/Ca ratio of carefully cleaned tests of foraminifera is, determined by the dissolved Cd content of overlying water at the time of test formation. Pre-industrial foraminiferal Cd/Ca ratios in the sediment core average 274 ?? 15 nmol/mol (n = 19) nmol/mol. Foraminiferal Cd/Ca ratios increased to 386 ?? 33 nmol/mol (n = 19) over the past several decades indicating a 40% increase in the mean Cd content of surface water in Central San Francisco Bay. We suggest that, in addition to Cd discharges into the estuary, indirect consequences of agricultural development in the Central Valley of California could have contributed to this increase. This new method to reconstruct estuarine contamination is not affected by some of the processes that complicate the interpretation of changes in bulk sediment metal concentrations.

  4. Influence of UV-B radiation on lead speciation in the presence of natural particles of estuarine waters.

    PubMed

    Kumar, M Praveen; Mota, A M; Gonçalves, M L S

    2016-09-01

    The influence of UV-B irradiation on filtered and non-filtered water samples collected in a non-polluted area of Tagus estuary was evaluated in this study. In the laboratory, both samples were titrated with lead (Pb(+2)) followed by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV), before and after 1 and 10 days under UV-B irradiation. Metal-ligand complexing parameters were obtained based on a macromolecular heterogeneous ligand described by two distinct sites with a labile behavior, and a third small homogeneous weaker group, which concentration was determined from a potentiometric titration. Under UV-B radiation, the complexing strength decreased with time in both (filtered and non-filtered) irradiated samples, but this effect was more pronounced in the non-filtered water, which might be due to some adsorption of dissolved macromolecular ligands on the particles and/or to further degradation of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Furthermore, the presence of particles favored the break-down of the macromolecular ligand under long UV-B exposure time. These results present ecological implications for the estuarine ecosystems such as bioavailability and toxicity.

  5. Short-term methods for estimating the chronic toxicity of effluents and receiving water to marine and estuarine organisms. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Klemm, D.J.; Morrison, G.E.; Norberg-King, T.J.; Peltier, W.H.; Heber, M.A.

    1994-07-01

    This manual describes six short-term (one hour to nine days) estuarine and marine methods for measuring the chronic toxicity of effluents and receiving waters to five species; the sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus; the inland silverside, Menidia beryllina; the mysid, Mysidopsis bahia; the sea urchin, Arbacia punctualata; and the red macroalga, Champia parvula. The methods include single and multiple concentration static renewal and static nonrenewal toxicity tests for effluents and receiving waters. Also included are guidelines on laboratory safety, quality assurance, facilities, and equipment and supplies; dilution water; effluent and receiving water sample collection, preservation, shipping, and holding; test conditions; toxicity test data analysis; report preparation; and organism culturing, holding, and handling.

  6. Response of Bacterial Metabolic Activity to Riverine Dissolved Organic Carbon and Exogenous Viruses in Estuarine and Coastal Waters: Implications for CO2 Emission

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jie; Sun, Mingming; Shi, Zhen; Harrison, Paul J.; Liu, Hongbin

    2014-01-01

    A cross-transplant experiment between estuarine water and seawater was conducted to examine the response of bacterial metabolic activity to riverine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) input under virus-rich and virus-free conditions, as well as to exogenous viruses. Riverine DOC input increased bacterial production significantly, but not bacterial respiration (BR) because of its high lability. The bioavailable riverine DOC influenced bulk bacterial respiration in two contrasting ways; it enhanced the bulk BR by stimulating bacterial growth, but simultaneously reduced the cell-specific BR due to its high lability. As a result, there was little stimulation of the bulk BR by riverine DOC. This might be partly responsible for lower CO2 degassing fluxes in estuaries receiving high sewage-DOC that is highly labile. Viruses restricted microbial decomposition of riverine DOC dramatically by repressing the growth of metabolically active bacteria. Bacterial carbon demand in the presence of viruses only accounted for 7–12% of that in the absence of viruses. Consequently, a large fraction of riverine DOC was likely transported offshore to the shelf. In addition, marine bacteria and estuarine bacteria responded distinctly to exogenous viruses. Marine viruses were able to infect estuarine bacteria, but not as efficiently as estuarine viruses, while estuarine viruses infected marine bacteria as efficiently as marine viruses. We speculate that the rapid changes in the viral community due to freshwater input destroyed the existing bacteria-virus relationship, which would change the bacterial community composition and affect the bacterial metabolic activity and carbon cycling in this estuary. PMID:25036641

  7. Response of bacterial metabolic activity to riverine dissolved organic carbon and exogenous viruses in estuarine and coastal waters: implications for CO2 emission.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie; Sun, Mingming; Shi, Zhen; Harrison, Paul J; Liu, Hongbin

    2014-01-01

    A cross-transplant experiment between estuarine water and seawater was conducted to examine the response of bacterial metabolic activity to riverine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) input under virus-rich and virus-free conditions, as well as to exogenous viruses. Riverine DOC input increased bacterial production significantly, but not bacterial respiration (BR) because of its high lability. The bioavailable riverine DOC influenced bulk bacterial respiration in two contrasting ways; it enhanced the bulk BR by stimulating bacterial growth, but simultaneously reduced the cell-specific BR due to its high lability. As a result, there was little stimulation of the bulk BR by riverine DOC. This might be partly responsible for lower CO2 degassing fluxes in estuaries receiving high sewage-DOC that is highly labile. Viruses restricted microbial decomposition of riverine DOC dramatically by repressing the growth of metabolically active bacteria. Bacterial carbon demand in the presence of viruses only accounted for 7-12% of that in the absence of viruses. Consequently, a large fraction of riverine DOC was likely transported offshore to the shelf. In addition, marine bacteria and estuarine bacteria responded distinctly to exogenous viruses. Marine viruses were able to infect estuarine bacteria, but not as efficiently as estuarine viruses, while estuarine viruses infected marine bacteria as efficiently as marine viruses. We speculate that the rapid changes in the viral community due to freshwater input destroyed the existing bacteria-virus relationship, which would change the bacterial community composition and affect the bacterial metabolic activity and carbon cycling in this estuary.

  8. MODIS-based retrieval of suspended sediment concentration and diffuse attenuation coefficient in Chinese estuarine and coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokoletsky, Leonid; Yang, Xianping; Shen, Fang

    2014-11-01

    Radiative transfer modelling in atmosphere, water, and on the air-water surface was used to create an algorithm and computer code for satellite monitoring Chinese estuarine and coastal waters. The atmospheric part of the algorithm is based on the Reference Evaluation of Solar Transmittance (REST) model for calculation of optical properties of the atmosphere from the top of the atmosphere to the target; for modelling optical properties from target towards satellite's sensor, an optical reciprocity principle has been used. An algorithm uses estimates derived from three different sources: 1) the MODIS-based software; 2) radiative transfer equations, and 3) well-known empirical relationships between measured parameters and optical depths and transmittances for such atmospheric components as molecules, aerosols, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, precipitable water vapor and uniformly mixed gases. Using this model allowed us to derive a reliable relationship relating an important parameter, the diffuse-to-global solar incoming irradiance ratio, to the aerosol optical thickness, solar zenith angle and wavelength. The surface and underwater parts of the algorithm contained theoretical and semi-empirical relationships between inherent (such as absorption, scattering and backscattering coefficients) and apparent (remote-sensing reflectance and diffuse attenuation coefficient, Kd) optical properties, and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) measured in the Yangtze River Estuary and its adjacent coastal area. The first false colour maps of SSC and Kd demonstrated a well accordance with the multi-year field observations in the region, and suggest promise for use of this algorithm for the regular monitoring of Chinese and worldwide natural waters.

  9. Methane emission through ebullition from a non-vegetated estuarine mudflat: The mechanics of tide-driven water level changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, L. D.; Chen, X.; Schafer, K. V.

    2015-12-01

    Ebullition is an important pathway for methane (CH4) to the atmosphere in wetlands. Water level changes have been suggested to trigger ebullition, especially in tidally flooding areas. Bubble transport in submerged sediments results from a multi-phase, dynamic interaction between gaseous and solid phases under the modulation of a liquid phase. To improve understanding of how cyclic ebbing and flooding tides trigger ebullition events, a continuous dynamic dual-chamber system was designed and installed in a non-vegetated mudflat site of an estuarine temperate marsh. Episodic sharp increases in methane concentration signaling ebullition events were primarily observed during ebbing tides (15 events of total 19 events) and occasionally during flooding tides (four events). Laboratory chamber measurements on a mud monolith from the site confirmed that the flooding tide could trigger ebullition releases of gas bubbles. We developed a conceptual sediment fracturing model associated with bubble expansion to unify these observations, arguing that decreases in water level lower the effective stress surrounding isolated gas bubbles and enable trapped bubbles to move upwards via bubble expansion and fracturing of overlying sediments. Increases in relative permittivity measured on the monolith with ground penetrating radar suggest that more water may invade macropores during the initial stage of flooding; subsequent matrix expansion under lowered effective stress then leads to fracture propagation and bubble release. Melting of the surface frozen layer during the spring thaw resulted in increases of methane concentration, comparable in strength to the ebullition fluxes which were associated with large fluctuations in water level around spring tides. Our findings demonstrate the importance of water level changes in triggering ebullition from non-vegetated mudflat areas in tidal wetlands, modulated by the mechanical properties of shallow, soft sediments.

  10. OTEC Cold Water Pipe Design for Problems Caused by Vortex-Excited Oscillations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    to structural damage and to destructive failures. The cold water pipe of an OTEC plant is nominally a bluff, flexible cylinder with a large aspect... OTEC cold water pipe. Practical design calculations are given as examples throughout the various sections of the report. This report is limited in...structural response parameters relevant to the OTEC cold water pipe. There are important problems associated with the shedding of vortices from cylinders in

  11. Ultra-trace-level determination of polar pesticides and their transformation products in surface and estuarine water samples using column liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Steen, R J; Hogenboom, A C; Leonards, P E; Peerboom, R A; Cofino, W P; Brinkman, U A

    1999-10-01

    A method is developed for the determination of polar pesticides and their transformation products [atrazine, deethylatrazine, deisopropylatrazine, hydroxyatrazine, diuron, 3,4-dichlorophenylmethylurea, 3,4-dichlorophenylurea (DPU), monuron, bentazone, anthranil-isopropylamide, chloridazon, metolachlor] in surface, estuarine and sea water samples at the low ng/l level. Solid-phase extraction is combined off-line with column liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric detection (LC-ESI-MS-MS). The applicability of two solid-phase materials, i.e., LiChrolut EN cartridges and graphitized carbon black extraction disks, is evaluated. The influence of the organic solvent used in gradient LC, as well as the amount of co-extracted humic material on the ESI process is studied. The eluotropic strength of the organic solvent was found to have a distinct effect on the sensitivity of ESI-MS if coupled with LC gradient separations. Methanol gave much better results than acetonitrile and phenylurea compounds are more susceptible to solvent changes than triazines. Co-extracted humic material causes signal suppression in ESI-MS-MS detection. The degree of suppression depends upon the sample pH and the nature of the samples, i.e., surface or estuarine water. Detection limits in LC-ESI-MS-MS ranged from 0.2 to 2 ng/l, with the exception of DPU (8 ng/l). The applicability of the procedure was demonstrated by analyzing surface and estuarine water.

  12. Uptake of Trace Elements in Aragonitic Otoliths of an Estuarine Dependent Fish, Spotted Seatrout, from surface waters of Chesapeake Bay.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorval, E.; Jones, C.; Hannigan, R.; Sako, A.

    2002-05-01

    Seagrass beds in Chesapeake Bay are critical habitats for early life stages of Spotted seatrout, {\\Cynoscion nebulosus}. Spotted seatrout spawn in surface waters in the Bay during late spring and thereafter their larvae settle in seagrass beds where the juveniles spend three to four months. These habitats provide refuge and food for larvae and juveniles, influencing growth, mortality, and survival rates. Identification of essential seagrass habitats for estuarine-dependent fish is of primary importance given the current decline in habitat quality. We hypothesized that the geochemistry of surface waters in Chesapeake Bay is different along both the latitudinal and longitudinal gradients, and that we could use trace elements in otoliths as a natural tag to differentiate survivors among seagrass beds. We investigated the relationship between water and otolith trace element chemistry and we present here some preliminary results. From July to September 2001 we collected surface waters during spring tide from seagrass beds and around the mouth of the Potomac, Rappahannock, and York river. Waters were filtered through a 0.45 uM filter and acidified to pH < 2 with ultrapure nitric acid. In September, we collected juvenile fish in seagrass beds along the Western and Eastern shores, Tangier and Smith Islands. From each individual fish one sagittal otolith was extracted, cleaned with milli-Q water, soaked for 5 minutes in ultrapure hydrogen peroxide, rinsed, and sonicated. All dried and cleaned otoliths were dissolved in ultrapure nitric acid. We used trace metal clean procedures to process both water and otoliths and trace elements were measured by sector field ICP-MS. Both waters and otoliths showed distinct chemical signatures among seagrass beds, and samples could be classified with high accuracy to their respective sites of collection. For most seagrass beds Ba/Ca, Rb/Ca, V/Ca showed inverse relationship between water and otolith whereas Sr/Ca was positively correlated

  13. Determination of iodide and total iodine in estuarine waters by cathodic stripping voltammetry using a vibrating silver amalgam microwire electrode.

    PubMed

    Espada-Bellido, Estrella; Bi, Zhaoshun; Salaün, Pascal; van den Berg, Constant M G

    2017-11-01

    Iodide in natural waters is an important nutrient to aquatic organisms and its determination is of relevance to marine aquaculture. For this reason it is of interest to have a simple analytical method for determination of iodide in water samples. Iodide in seawater can be determined electrochemically by cathodic stripping voltammetry (CSV) with a mercury drop electrode which has environmental drawbacks. In an attempt to minimise the use of mercury in voltammetry, a vibrating silver amalgam microwire electrode is used here for the determination by CSV of iodide speciation in natural waters including seawater. Microwire electrodes were made from silver wires (diameter: 12.5µm) and electrochemically coated with mercury. The electrode surface was stable for extended periods of analyses (at least one week) and was then replaced. The optimised conditions include a pH 8, a frequency of 500Hz and a deposition time of 60s, among others. The microwire was reactivated between scans using a conditioning potential at -3 V for 1s. The detection limit for iodide in seawater was found to be 0.7nM I(-) at a deposition time of 60s. The response increased linearly with the concentration of iodide in seawater up to 100nM I(-). The method was successfully applied to various samples from the estuary of the river Mersey (Liverpool Bay). An existing procedure for iodine speciation was modified to enable determination of iodate and total iodine as well as iodide in estuarine waters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Use of estuarine water column tests for detecting toxic conditions in ambient areas of the Chesapeake Bay watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.W. Jr.; Ziegenfuss, M.C.; Anderson, R.D.; Killen, W.D. Jr. )

    1995-02-01

    Various estuarine water column toxicity tests were conducted twice in nine different ambient stations in the Chesapeake Bay watershed over a 2-year period (1991 to 1993) to determine if toxic conditions existed. The following 8-d toxicity tests were conducted: larval sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) survival and growth test; larval grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) survival and growth test; and a copepod (Eurytemora affinis) life-cycle test. During the second year of testing, two 48-h coot clam (Mulinia lateralis) tests were conducted at each station during each testing period. In 1991, the toxicity tests were conducted twice at stations in the Potomac River at Morgantown and Dahlgren, and in the Patapsco River and the Wye River at the Manor House. All of the above tests were conducted during the fall of 1992 and spring of 1993 at two stations in the Wye River, Nanticoke River, and Middle River. Inorganic contaminants, organic contaminants, and water-quality conditions were measured concurrently during the toxicity testing of ambient water. In 1991, reduced growth of sheepshead minnow larvae was reported at both Potomac River stations during the first test. Significant mortality of either the copepod or sheepshead minnow larvae was also reported at the Wye River during both tests. Results from the 1992/93 testing generally showed minimal effects for three of the test species at all stations. Reduced normal shell development was reported for the coot clam at both Middle River stations during the fall and spring tests concurrently with concentrations of various trace metals that exceeded chronic marine water-quality criteria.

  15. Microbiological evaluation of cold-water shrimp (Pandalus borealis).

    PubMed

    Zapatka, F A; Bartolomeo, B

    1973-06-01

    A bacteriological survey of the Maine shrimp industry was conducted to investigate the conditions associated with the production of frozen, raw, peeled shrimp. In-plant samples and finished product units were collected from seven plants. The most probable number of Escherichia coli, coliforms, and coagulase-positive staphylococci, as well as aerobic plate counts (APC), were determined. Freshly harvested shrimp collected from fishing vessels had an APC geometric mean of 510/g, and E. coli, coliforms, and coagulase-positive staphylococci were absent. Subsequent storage and insanitary practices during processing increased the APC and introduced coliforms. However, the low air temperatures (18 to 45 F) in the plants and the large volumes of cold water (34 F) used during processing inhibited significant bacterial buildup in the finished product.

  16. Microbiological Evaluation of Cold-Water Shrimp (Pandalus borealis)

    PubMed Central

    Zapatka, Francis A.; Bartolomeo, Beverly

    1973-01-01

    A bacteriological survey of the Maine shrimp industry was conducted to investigate the conditions associated with the production of frozen, raw, peeled shrimp. In-plant samples and finished product units were collected from seven plants. The most probable number of Escherichia coli, coliforms, and coagulase-positive staphylococci, as well as aerobic plate counts (APC), were determined. Freshly harvested shrimp collected from fishing vessels had an APC geometric mean of 510/g, and E. coli, coliforms, and coagulase-positive staphylococci were absent. Subsequent storage and insanitary practices during processing increased the APC and introduced coliforms. However, the low air temperatures (18 to 45 F) in the plants and the large volumes of cold water (34 F) used during processing inhibited significant bacterial buildup in the finished product. PMID:4577485

  17. Cold water-soluble polysaccharides from tetrasporic Pterocladia capillacea.

    PubMed

    Errea, M I; Matulewicz, M C

    1994-11-01

    Cold water extraction of tetrasporic Pterocladia capillacea led to the isolation of a product which was characterized and further treated with Cetrimide. The complexed material was subjected to fractional solubilization in solutions of increasing sodium chloride concentration and six fractions were separated. The two major products obtained, one soluble in Cetrimide solution, the other soluble in 0.5 M sodium chloride, were subjected to structural studies, carried out by methylation analysis and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The results obtained indicated for the former a backbone mainly constituted by alternating 3-linked beta-D-galactose units and 4-linked 3,6-anhydro-alpha-L-galactose residues, but with other structural features probably responsible for its non-gelling properties. The acidic fraction is a complex polysaccharide sulphated mainly on C-6 of the beta-D-galactose units and on C-3 of the alpha-L-galactose residues.

  18. Effect of evening postexercise cold water immersion on subsequent sleep.

    PubMed

    Robey, Elisa; Dawson, Brian; Halson, Shona; Gregson, Warren; King, Stuart; Goodman, Carmel; Eastwood, Peter

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of cold water immersion after evening exercise on subsequent sleep quality and quantity in trained cyclists. In the evenings (~1900 h) on three separate occasions, male cyclists (n = 11) underwent either no exercise (control, CON), exercise only (EX), or exercise followed by cold water immersion (CWI). EX comprised cycling for 15 min at 75% peak power, then a 15-min maximal time trial. After each condition, a full laboratory-based sleep study (polysomnography) was performed. Core and skin temperature, heart rate, salivary melatonin, ratings of perceived fatigue, and recovery were measured in each trial. No differences were observed between conditions for any whole night sleep measures, including total sleep time, sleep efficiency, sleep onset latency, rapid eye movement onset latency, wake after sleep onset, or proportion of the night spent in different sleep stages. Core temperature in EX and CWI trials was higher than CON, until it decreased below that of EX and CON until bedtime in CWI. After bedtime, core temperature was similar for all conditions throughout the night, except for a 90-min period where it was lower for CWI than EX and CON (3.5-4.5 h postexercise). Heart rates for EX and CWI were both significantly higher than CON postexercise until bedtime, whereas skin temperature after CWI was significantly lower than EX and CON, remaining lower than EX until 3 h postexercise. Melatonin levels and recovery ratings were similar between conditions. Fatigue ratings were significantly elevated after exercise in both CWI and EX conditions, with EX still being elevated compared with CON at bedtime. Whole night sleep architecture is not affected by evening exercise alone or when followed by CWI.

  19. The influence of age on thermosensitivity during cold water immersion.

    PubMed

    Glickman, Ellen L; Caine-Bish, N; Cheatham, C C; Blegen, M; Potkanowicz, E S

    2002-01-01

    This investigation evaluated the influence of older age (OLD) vs younger age (YNG) on thermosensitivity and metabolic heat production (HP) during cold water immersion (20 degrees C) in 15 YNG (22.7 +/- 2.7 years) vs 7 OLD (41.7 +/- 2.7 years) individuals. After a 20-minute baseline (BASE) period, subjects were immersed in 20 degrees C water until esophageal temperature (Tes) reached 36.5 degrees C, or for a maximum preocclusion (pre-OCC) time of 40 minutes. Arm and thigh cuffs were then inflated to 180 and 220 mm Hg, respectively, for 10 minutes (termed "occlusion" [OCC]). After release of the inflated cuffs (postocclusion [post-OCC]), the slope (beta) of the relationship between the decrease in Tes and the increase in HP was used to quantify thermosensitivity. Analysis of variance showed no significant difference in thermosensitivity between OLD and YNG (OLD = 2.25 +/- 1.72 W x kg(-1) x degrees C(-1) vs YNG = 3.56 +/- 1.53 W x kg(-1) x degrees C(-1)). No significant differences (P > .05) were found for mean skin temperature (Tsk; OLD = 23.8 degrees C +/- 0.31 degrees C vs YNG = 24.2 degrees C +/- 0.19 degrees C), HP (P > .05; OLD = 3.10 +/- 0.38 W x kg(-1) vs YNG = 2.50 +/- 0.22 W x kg(-1)), or Tes (OLD = 36.61 degrees C +/- 0.11 degrees C vs YNG = 36.74 degrees C +/- 0.06 degrees C). Therefore, these data demonstrate that when faced with a cold challenge, there is a similar response in beta, HP, Tes, and Tsk between OLD and YNG individuals.

  20. Ban on commercial fishing in the estuarine waters of New South Wales, Australia: Community consultation and social impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Momtaz, Salim Gladstone, William

    2008-02-15

    In its effort to resolve the conflict between commercial and recreational fishers the New South Wales (NSW) government (NSW Fisheries) banned commercial fishing in the estuarine waters. The NSW Fisheries conducted a number of studies and held meetings with the affected communities including commercial fishers prior to the implementation of the ban. To investigate how community consultation played a role in the decision-making process especially as perceived by the commercial fishers and to determine actual social impacts of the ban on commercial fishers, in-depth interviews were conducted with the commercial fishers. This research reveals that despite the NSW Fisheries' consultations with commercial fishers prior to the closure, the latter were confused about various vital aspects of the decision. It further reveals that, the commercial fishers faced a number of significant changes as a result of this decision. We argue that a better decision-making process and outcome would have been possible through a meaningful consultation with the commercial fishers and a social impact assessment.

  1. Distribution and sources of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in suspended particulate matter in water from two Brazilian estuarine systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maioli, Otávio L. G.; Rodrigues, Kamila C.; Knoppers, Bastiaan A.; Azevedo, Débora A.

    2011-07-01

    The levels of selected organic markers, including 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 16 of which are classified as priority pollutants by the US-EPA and perylene, aliphatic hydrocarbons (total and linear alkanes) and petroleum biomarkers (hopanes and steranes), were measured in suspended particulate matter (SPM) of the Mundaú-Manguaba estuarine-lagoon system (MMELS) in northeastern Brazil and the Paraíba do Sul River (PSR) estuary in southeastern Brazil, both of which are affected by sugarcane agriculture and urbanization. A total of 33 surface water samples of SPM were collected (22 from the MMELS and 11 from the PSR). The ∑16PAH ranged from 221 to 1243 ng g -1 in the MMELS and from 228 to 1814 ng g -1 in the PSR. Hopane and sterane concentrations in the PSR were higher than in the MMELS due to the input from petrogenic sources in PSR. The contributions of higher plants were also observed by n-alkane analyses. The PAH isomeric ratios indicated that the SPM from MMELS showed characteristics of combustion from biomass or petroleum and PSR was associated to petrogenic input, either from combustion or from unburned petroleum. Three sampling sites located near to the sugarcane plant and mouth of the rivers showed higher PAH concentrations and may largely be considered as highly contaminated. However, levels of n-alkanes and petroleum biomarkers in both study areas were relatively low.

  2. Light absorption properties of CDOM in the Changjiang (Yangtze) estuarine and coastal waters: An alternative approach for DOC estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiaolong; Shen, Fang; Liu, Yangyang

    2016-11-01

    Field measurements of CDOM absorption properties and DOC concentrations were collected in the Changjiang estuarine and coastal waters from 2011 to 2013. CDOM absorption coefficient at 355 nm (ag (355)) was found to be inversely correlated with salinity, with Pearson's coefficients r of -0.901 and -0.826 for summer and winter observations, respectively. Analysis results of the relationships between salinity and CDOM optical properties (i.e., absorption coefficient and spectral slope) suggested that terrigenous inputs dominated CDOM sources in the Changjiang estuary, but the proportion of terrigenous CDOM declined with increasing salinity. The level of CDOM in the Changjiang estuary was lower compared to some of the major estuaries in the world, which could be attributed to several controlling factors such as vegetation cover in the drainage basin, the origin of recharged streams and high sediment load in the Changjiang estuary. We further evaluated the relationships between CDOM and DOC and their mixing behavior among world's major estuaries. An empirical model was finally developed to estimate DOC concentration from ag (355) and spectral slope S275-295 using a non-linear regression. This empirical relationship was calibrated using the Cal dataset, and was validated with the Val dataset, resulting in an acceptable error with the R2 of 0.746, the RMSE of 20.99 μmol/L and the rMAD of 14.46%.

  3. Estimation of chlorophyll-a concentration in estuarine waters: case study of the Pearl River estuary, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuanzhi; Lin, Hui; Chen, Chuqun; Chen, Liding; Zhang, Bing; Gitelson, Anatoly A.

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this work is to estimate chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentration in the Pearl River estuary in China. To test the performance of algorithms for the estimation of the chl-a concentration in these productive turbid waters, the maximum band ratio (MBR) and near-infrared-red (NIR-red) models are used in this study. Specific focus is placed on (a) comparing the ability of the models to estimate chl-a in the range 1-12 mg m - 3, which is typical for coastal and estuarine waters, and (b) assessing the potential of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) and Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) to estimate chl-a concentrations. Reflectance spectra and water samples were collected at 13 stations with chl-a ranging from 0.83 to 11.8 mg m - 3 and total suspended matter from 9.9 to 21.5 g m - 3. A close relationship was found between chl-a concentration and total suspended matter concentration with the determining coefficient (R2) above 0.89. The MBR calculated in the spectral bands of MODIS proved to be a good proxy for chl-a concentration (R2 > 0.93). On the other hand, both the NIR-red three-band model, with wavebands around 665, 700, and 730 nm, and the NIR-red two-band model (with bands around 665 and 700 nm) explained more than 95% of the chl-a variation, and we were able to estimate chl-a concentrations with a root mean square error below 1 mg m - 3. The two- and three-band NIR-red models with MERIS spectral bands accounted for 93% of the chl-a variation. These findings imply that the extensive database of MODIS and MERIS images could be used to quantitatively monitor chl-a in the Pearl River estuary.

  4. Local and regional effects of reopening a tidal inlet on estuarine water quality, seagrass habitat, and fish assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milbrandt, Eric C.; Bartleson, Richard D.; Coen, Loren D.; Rybak, Olexandr; Thompson, Mark A.; DeAngelo, Jacquelyn A.; Stevens, Philip W.

    2012-06-01

    Blind Pass is an inlet that separates Sanibel and Captiva Islands in southwest Florida but has historically closed and opened by both anthropogenic and natural processes. In July 2010, a dredging project to open the small inlet between the two barrier islands was completed. The objective of this study was to use and supplement ongoing estuary-monitoring programs to examine the responses of water quality, seagrass habitat metrics, and fish assemblages both in the immediate vicinity of the inlet and at broader scales (up to 40 km2). As far as we are aware, there are no previous studies with this intensity of sampling, both before and after an inlet opening. Significant increases in salinity and turbidity were observed inside Blind Pass, with significant decreases in CDOM and chlorophyll a, however, the effects were not far-reaching and limited to less than 1.7 km from the inlet within Pine Island Sound. Seagrass habitat metrics were expected to respond rapidly after the inlet was opened given the reduced light attenuation. However, there were no changes in shoot densities, species composition, and epiphytic algae within the approximately one-year duration of the study. The reopening of the pass did not substantially change fish assemblage structure, except for those from deeper habitats. Although immediate increases in the abundances of estuarine-dependent species were predicted in shallow habitats post opening, this did not occur. In conclusion, the effects of reopening a relatively small ocean inlet on water quality were apparent in the immediate vicinity of the inlet (within 1.7 km), but far-reaching effects on water quality, seagrass metrics, and fish assemblages were not immediately apparent in this well-flushed estuary. If subtle changes in tidal exchange and circulation affect productivity of seagrasses or its fish assemblages at broad scales, it may take several years to reach a steady state.

  5. Columnaris as a disease of cold-water fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1945-01-01

    A natural outbreak of columnaris disease among wild adult and hatchery-reared fingerling salmon in the State of Washington is described. The disease is identified by the recovery of the causative organism, Bacillus columnaris Davis, which may be readily identified by its characteristic action in forming columns on the surfaces of infected material held in a water mount on a microscope slide. The gross lesions vary in appearance according to the particular organ affected but are formed, essentially, by the progressive necrosis and disintegration of the tissues. The tissues primarily affected are skin, body musculature, and the gills. Cultivation of the causative organism in tryptone solutions is recorded. Controlled, laboratory-induced infections indicate that among the cold-water fishes, columnaris disease is of little consequence to fingerlings at water temperatures below 55° F., but becomes highly pathogenic at temperatures in excess of 70° F. Between these temperature thresholds, the degree and severity of the infection is markedly influenced by factors adverse to the host. No effective control measures have been found.

  6. Hot and cold water as a supercritical solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuentevilla, Daphne Anne

    This dissertation addresses the anomalous properties of water at high temperatures near the vapor-liquid critical point and at low temperatures in the supercooled liquid region. The first part of the dissertation is concerned with the concentration dependence of the critical temperature, density, and pressure of an aqueous sodium chloride solution. Because of the practical importance of an accurate knowledge of critical parameters for industrial, geochemical, and biological applications, an empirical equation for the critical locus of aqueous sodium chloride solutions was adopted in 1999 by the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS) as a guideline. However, since this original Guideline on the Critical Locus of Aqueous Solutions of Sodium Chloride was developed, two new theoretical developments occurred, motivating the first part of this dissertation. Here, I present a theory-based formulation for the critical parameters of aqueous sodium chloride solutions as a proposed replacement for the empirical formulation currently in use. This formulation has been published in the International Journal of Thermophysics and recommended by the Executive Committee of IAPWS for adoption as a Revised Guideline on the Critical Locus of Aqueous Solutions of Sodium Chloride. The second part of the dissertation addresses a new concept, considering cold water as a supercritical solvent. Based on the idea of a second, liquid-liquid, critical point in supercooled water, we explore the possibility of supercooled water as a novel supercooled solvent through the thermodynamics of critical phenomena. In 2006, I published a Physical Review letter presenting a parametric scaled equation of state for supercooled-water. Further developments based on this work led to a phenomenological mean-field "two-state" model, clarifying the nature of the phase separation in a polyamorphic single-component liquid. In this dissertation, I modify this two-state model to

  7. Cognitive, Psychomotor, and Physical Performance in Cold Air After Cooling by Exercise in Cold Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    Saybrook, CT ) were at- tached at 11 skin sites: foot, calf, anterior thigh, abdo - men, chest, triceps, anterior aspect of the forearm, sub- scapular...Effects of cold experience and training on administration of emergency medical treatment in the cold. Groton, CT : Naval Submarine Medical Research

  8. Cold Vacuum Drying facility potable water system design description (SYS 26)

    SciTech Connect

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-07-02

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) potable water (PW) system. The PW system provides potable water to the CVDF for supply to sinks, water closets, urinals, showers, custodial service sinks, drinking fountains, the decontamination shower, supply water to the non-PW systems, and makeup water for the de-ionized water system.

  9. Total body water and water turnover rates in the estuarine diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin) during the transition from dormancy to activity.

    PubMed

    Harden, Leigh Anne; Duernberger, Kimberly Anne; Jones, T Todd; Williard, Amanda Southwood

    2014-12-15

    Water and salt concentrations in an animal's body fluids can fluctuate with changing environmental conditions, posing osmoregulatory challenges that require behavioral and physiological adjustments. The purpose of this study was to investigate body water dynamics in the estuarine diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin), a species that undergoes seasonal dormancy in salt marsh habitats. We conducted a field study to determine the total body water (%TBW), water turnover rate (WTR) and daily water flux (DWF) of female terrapins in south eastern North Carolina pre- and post-emergence from winter dormancy. Terrapins were injected with [(2)H]deuterium on two occasions and washout of the isotope was monitored by taking successive blood samples during the period of transition from dormancy to activity. The WTR and DWF of dormant terrapins were significantly lower than those of active terrapins (WTR(dormant)=49.70±15.94 ml day(-1), WTR(active)=100.20±20.36 ml day(-1), DWF(dormant)=10.52±2.92%TBW day(-1), DWF(active)=21.84±7.30%TBW day(-1)). There was no significant difference in %TBW between dormant and active terrapins (75.05±6.19% and 74.54±4.36%, respectively). The results from this field study provide insight into the terrapin's ability to maintain osmotic homeostasis while experiencing shifts in behavioral and environmental conditions. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Spatial Distribution of Triclosan in Sediments and Water of an Urbanized Estuarine Embayment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triclosan (TCS) is a broad spectrum anti-microbial compound found in many consumer and personal care products. TCS enters water bodies primarily through wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent and may also be introduced by combined sewer overflows or surface water runoff. TC...

  11. Spatial Distribution of Triclosan in Sediments and Water of an Urbanized Estuarine Embayment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triclosan (TCS) is a broad spectrum anti-microbial compound found in many consumer and personal care products. TCS enters water bodies primarily through wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent and may also be introduced by combined sewer overflows or surface water runoff. TC...

  12. A Method to Identify Estuarine Water Quality Exceedances Associated with Ocean Conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wind driven coastal upwelling along the Pacific Northwest Coast of the US results in oceanic water that may be periodically entrained into adjacent estuaries and which possess high nutrients and low dissolved oxygen (DO). Measurement of water quality indicators during these upwe...

  13. A Method to Identify Estuarine Water Quality Exceedances Associated with Ocean Conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wind driven coastal upwelling along the Pacific Northwest Coast of the US results in oceanic water that may be periodically entrained into adjacent estuaries and which possess high nutrients and low dissolved oxygen (DO). Measurement of water quality indicators during these upwe...

  14. Using National Coastal Assessment Data to Model Estuarine Water Quality at Large Spatial Scales

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/MethodThe water quality of the Nation’s estuaries is attracting increasing scrutiny in light of burgeoning coastal population growth and enhanced delivery of nutrients via riverine flux. The USEPA has evaluated water quality in US estuaries in the Nation...

  15. Predicting the occurrence of cold water patches at intermittent and ephemeral tributary confluences with warm rivers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Small, cold tributary streams can provide important thermal refuge habitat for cold-water fishes such as Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) residing in warm, downstream receiving waters. We investigated the potential function of small perennial and non-perennial tributary stream...

  16. Effects of seated and standing cold water immersion on recovery from repeated sprinting.

    PubMed

    Leeder, Jonathan D C; van Someren, Ken A; Bell, Phillip G; Spence, John R; Jewell, Andrew P; Gaze, David; Howatson, Glyn

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of two different hydrostatic pressures (seated or standing) during cold water immersion at attenuating the deleterious effects of strenuous exercise on indices of damage and recovery. Twenty four male well-trained games players (age 23 ± 3 years; body mass 81.4 ± 8.7 kg: [Formula: see text]O2max 57.5 ± 4.9 ml∙kg(-1)∙min(-1)) completed the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST) and were randomly assigned to either a control, seated cold water immersion or a standing cold water immersion (14 min at 14°C). Maximal isometric voluntary contraction, counter-movement jump, creatine kinase, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) were measured before and up to 72 h following the LIST. All dependent variables showed main effects for time (P < 0.05) following the LIST, indicating physiological stress and muscle damage following the exercise. There were no significant group differences between control and either of the cold water immersion interventions. Seated cold water immersion was associated with lower DOMS than standing cold water immersion (effect size = 1.86; P = 0.001). These data suggest that increasing hydrostatic pressure by standing in cold water does not provide an additional recovery benefit over seated cold water immersion, and that both seated and standing immersions have no benefit in promoting recovery following intermittent sprint exercise.

  17. Predicting the occurrence of cold water patches at intermittent and ephemeral tributary confluences with warm rivers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Small, cold tributary streams can provide important thermal refuge habitat for cold-water fishes such as Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) residing in warm, downstream receiving waters. We investigated the potential function of small perennial and non-perennial tributary stream...

  18. Response to selection for bacterial cold water disease resistance in rainbow trout

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A family-based selection program was initiated at the National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture in 2005 to improve resistance to bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) in rainbow trout. The objective of this study was to estimate response to 2 generations of selection. A total of 14,841 juven...

  19. Changes in Menidia beryllina Gene Expression and In Vitro Hormone-Receptor Activation After Exposure to Estuarine Waters Near Treated Wastewater Outfalls.

    PubMed

    Cole, Bryan J; Brander, Susanne M; Jeffries, Ken M; Hasenbein, Simone; He, Guochun; Denison, Michael S; Fangue, Nann A; Connon, Richard E

    2016-08-01

    Fishes in estuarine waters are frequently exposed to treated wastewater effluent, among numerous other sources of contaminants, yet the impacts of these anthropogenic chemicals are not well understood in these dynamic and important waterways. Inland silversides (Menidia beryllina) at an early stage of development [12 days posthatch (dph)] were exposed to waters from two estuarine wastewater-treatment outfall locations in a tidal estuary, the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta (California, USA) that had varied hydrology and input volumes. The genomic response caused by endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) in these waters was determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction on a suite of hormonally regulated genes. Relative androgenic and estrogenic activities of the waters were measured using CALUX reporter bioassays. The presence of bifenthrin, a pyrethroid pesticide and known EDC, as well as caffeine and the anti-inflammatory pharmaceutical ibuprofen, which were used as markers of wastewater effluent input, were determined using instrumental analysis. Detectable levels of bifenthrin (2.89 ng L(-1)) were found on one of the sampling dates, and caffeine was found on all sampling dates, in water from the Boynton Slough. Neither compound was detected at the Carquinez Strait site, which has a much smaller effluent discharge input volume relative to the receiving water body size compared with Boynton Slough. Water samples from both sites incubated in the CALUX cell line induced estrogenic and androgenic activity in almost all instances, though the estrogenicity was relatively higher than the androgenicity. Changes in the abundance of mRNA transcripts of endocrine-responsive genes and indicators of general chemical stress were observed after a 96-h exposure to waters from both locations. The relative levels of endocrine response, changes in gene transcript abundance, and contaminant concentrations were greater in water from the Boynton Slough site despite those

  20. Maximum likelihood mixture estimation to determine metal background values in estuarine and coastal sediments within the European Water Framework Directive.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, J G; Tueros, I; Borja, A; Belzunce, M J; Franco, J; Solaun, O; Valencia, V; Zuazo, A

    2006-11-01

    Some of the recently derived European Directives, such as the Water Framework and Marine Strategy, have, as ultimate aims, to achieve concentrations of hazardous substances in the marine environment near background values. Hence, the determination of natural background levels, in marine sediments, is highly relevant. The present study proposes the use of the maximum likelihood mixture estimation (MLME) to determine regional background levels and upper threshold of metal concentration, with the Basque Country as a case study (with a data set of 575 samples, from estuarine and littoral areas, including both intertidal and subtidal sediments). The heuristic procedure is applied with unimodal data distributions (Cd, Cr, Fe and Ni) and the mixture density estimations, based upon maximum likelihood, are carried out with polypopulational data distributions (As, Cu, Mn, Hg, Pb and Zn). The upper limits of the distribution are proposed, as the limits between 'High Status' and 'Good Status' (according to the Water Framework Directive terminology). The regional upper limits were 0.45 microg g(-1) for Cd, 71 microg g(-1) for Cr, 53,542 microg g(-1) for Fe, 57 microg g(-1) for Ni, 24 microg g(-1) for As, 64 microg g(-1) for Cu, 447 microg g(-1) for Mn, 0.27 microg g(-1) for Hg, 66 microg g(-1) for Pb, and 248 microg g(-1) for Zn. The results from this study can assist further in the determination of sediment reference conditions, to assess chemical status, within the above-mentioned directives; likewise, it will be studied as a useful methodology in determining regional metal backgrounds in other European countries.

  1. Assessment of estuarine water-quality indicators using MODIS medium-resolution bands: initial results from Tampa Bay, FL

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hu, Chuanmin; Chen, Zhiqiang; Clayton, Tonya D.; ,; Brock, John C.; Muller-Karger, Frank E.

    2004-01-01

    Using Tampa Bay, FL as an example, we explored the potential for using MODIS medium-resolution bands (250- and 500-m data at 469-, 555-, and 645-nm) for estuarine monitoring. Field surveys during 21–22 October 2003 showed that Tampa Bay has Case-II waters, in that for the salinity range of 24–32 psu, (a) chlorophyll concentration (11 to 23 mg m−3), (b) colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption coefficient at 400 nm (0.9 to 2.5 m−1), and (c) total suspended sediment concentration (TSS: 2 to 11 mg L−1) often do not co-vary. CDOM is the only constituent that showed a linear, inverse relationship with surface salinity, although the slope of the relationship changed with location within the bay. The MODIS medium-resolution bands, although designed for land use, are 4–5 times more sensitive than Landsat-7/ETM+ data and are comparable to or higher than those of CZCS. Several approaches were used to derive synoptic maps of water constituents from concurrent MODIS medium-resolution data. We found that application of various atmospheric-correction algorithms yielded no significant differences, due primarily to uncertainties in the sensor radiometric calibration and other sensor artifacts. However, where each scene could be groundtruthed, simple regressions between in situ observations of constituents and at-sensor radiances provided reasonable synoptic maps. We address the need for improvements of sensor calibration/characterization, atmospheric correction, and bio-optical algorithms to make operational and quantitative use of these medium-resolution bands.

  2. Assessing the influence of nutrient reduction on water quality using a three-dimensional model: case study in a tidal estuarine system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Cheng; Chan, Wen-Ting

    2014-12-01

    A coupled three-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model has been developed and applied to the Danshuei River estuarine system and adjacent coastal sea. The water quality model considers various species of nitrogen, phosphorus, organic carbon, and phytoplankton as well as dissolved oxygen and is driven by a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The hydrodynamic and water quality models were validated with observations of water surface elevation, velocity, salinity distribution, and water quality parameters. Statistical error analysis shows that predictions of hydrodynamics, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and nutrients from the model simulation quantitatively agreed with the observed data. The validated model was then applied to predict water quality conditions as a result of a reduction in nutrient loadings based on different engineering strategies. The simulated results revealed that the dissolved oxygen concentration would increase significantly and would be higher than 2 mg/L in the main stream and in three tributaries to meet the minimum statutory requirement for dissolved oxygen. Active estuarine management focused on the reduction of anthropogenic nutrient loads is needed for improvement in water quality.

  3. OTEC Advanced Composite Cold Water Pipe: Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Alan Miller; Matthew Ascari

    2011-09-12

    Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion can exploit natural temperature gradients in the oceans to generate usable forms of energy (for example, cost-competitive baseload electricity in tropical regions such as Hawaii) free from fossil fuel consumption and global warming emissions.The No.1 acknowledged challenge of constructing an OTEC plant is the Cold Water Pipe (CWP), which draws cold water from 1000m depths up to the surface, to serve as the coolant for the OTEC Rankine cycle. For a commercial-scale plant, the CWP is on the order of 10m in diameter.This report describes work done by LMSSC developing the CWP for LM MS2 New Ventures emerging OTEC business. The work started in early 2008 deciding on the minimum-cost CWP architecture, materials, and fabrication process. In order to eliminate what in previous OTEC work had been a very large assembly/deployment risk, we took the innovative approach of building an integral CWP directly from theOTEC platform and down into the water. During the latter half of 2008, we proceeded to a successful small-scale Proof-of-Principles validation of the new fabrication process, at the Engineering Development Lab in Sunnyvale. During 2009-10, under the Cooperative Agreement with the US Dept. of Energy, we have now successfully validated key elements of the process and apparatus at a 4m diameter scale suitable for a future OTEC Pilot Plant. The validations include: (1) Assembly of sandwich core rings from pre-pultruded hollow 'planks,' holding final dimensions accurately; (2) Machine-based dispensing of overlapping strips of thick fiberglass fabric to form the lengthwise-continuous face sheets, holding accurate overlap dimensions; (3) Initial testing of the fabric architecture, showing that the overlap splices develop adequate mechanical strength (work done under a parallel US Naval Facilities Command program); and (4) Successful resin infusion/cure of 4m diameter workpieces, obtaining full wet-out and a non-discernable knitline between

  4. Nitrous oxide sources and sinks in coastal aquifers and coupled estuarine receiving waters.

    PubMed

    LaMontagne, Michael G; Duran, Robert; Valiela, Ivan

    2003-06-20

    Sources and sinks of the atmospherically reactive gas nitrous oxide (N(2)O) were determined in the heavily nutrient loaded Childs River in Cape Cod, MA. Surface waters were supersaturated and bottom waters were depleted with N(2)O throughout the system. In apparent septic effluent plumes, N(2)O concentrations reached 3 orders of magnitude above atmospheric equilibrium. Because nitrate and N(2)O concentrations correlated in groundwater entering the estuary, septic tank effluent appeared responsible for the supersaturated concentrations of N(2)O in surface waters. A hyperbolic function fit nitrate and N(2)O concentrations in the water column of the estuary with a maximum supersaturation of approximately 60 nM. From surface water supersaturation we predicted a release of 480 nmol N(2)O m(-2) h(-1) to the atmosphere in the summer. Property plots of salinity vs. bottom-water N(2)O suggested a benthic sink of N(2)O. Consistent with this trend, sediments consumed rather than released N(2)O in most flux measurements. Nutrient loading did not directly alter benthic N(2)O flux, potentially because stratification limited exposure of sediments to nitrate-rich surface waters, but macroalgal cover increased benthic N(2)O consumption. Sediment N(2)O consumption averaged 111 nmol N(2)O m(-2) h(-1) and correlated with oxygen uptake. Losses from the system to the atmosphere and sediments exceeded inputs of N(2)O contaminated groundwater, which suggests missing N(2)O sources.

  5. NUTRIENT CRITERIA TECHNICAL GUIDANCE MANUAL - ESTUARINE AND COASTAL MARINE WATERS, OCTOBER 2001

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nutrient overenrichment is a major cause of water pollution in the United States. The purpose of this manual is to provide scientifically defensible technical guidance to assist States, authorized Tribes, and other governmental entities in developing numeric nutrient criteria fo...

  6. NUTRIENT CRITERIA TECHNICAL GUIDANCE MANUAL - ESTUARINE AND COASTAL MARINE WATERS, OCTOBER 2001

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nutrient overenrichment is a major cause of water pollution in the United States. The purpose of this manual is to provide scientifically defensible technical guidance to assist States, authorized Tribes, and other governmental entities in developing numeric nutrient criteria fo...

  7. Anthropogenic impacts on the water and salt budgets of St Lucia estuarine lake in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrie, Robynne A.; Stretch, Derek D.

    2011-05-01

    Lake St Lucia in South Africa is part of a UNESCO World Heritage site and a Ramsar wetland of international importance. Like many coastal wetlands worldwide, anthropogenic activities including catchment land-use changes, water diversions/abstractions, and manipulation of the mouth state have significantly affected its functioning over the past century. Questions concerning its sustainability have motivated a re-evaluation of management decisions made in the past and of options for the future. A model for the water and salt budgets has therefore been used to investigate "what if" scenarios in terms of past anthropogenic interventions. In particular, simulations allow us to evaluate the effects of diverting the Mfolozi river from St Lucia on the functioning of the system and on the occurrence of various water level/salinity states that drive the biological functioning of the ecosystem. In the past, when the St Lucia estuary and the Mfolozi river had a combined inlet, the mouth was predominantly open. The lake had relatively stable water levels but variable salinities that increased during dry conditions due to evaporative losses and saltwater inflows from the sea. If the mouth closed, the Mfolozi flow was diverted into the lake which reduced salinities and maintained or increased water levels. Simulations indicate that without a link to the Mfolozi the lake system would naturally have a mainly closed inlet with lower average salinities but more variable water levels. During dry conditions water levels would reduce and result in desiccation of large areas of the lake as has recently occurred. We conclude that the artificial separation of the St Lucia and Mfolozi inlets underpins the most significant impacts on the water & salt budget of the lake and that its reversal is key to the sustainability of the system.

  8. Potential influence of sugarcane cultivation on estuarine water quality of Louisiana's gulf coast.

    PubMed

    Southwick, Lloyd M; Grigg, Brandon C; Kornecki, Ted S; Fouss, James L

    2002-07-17

    Sugarcane is cultivated on some 170000 ha of land in south central and southwestern Louisiana. This acreage drains into bayous and rivers that empty into Louisiana's coastal bays and estuaries. For a number of years the state's Department of Agriculture and Forestry and Department of Environmental Quality have collected water quality data from this sugarcane area. Study of these data shows that approximately one in five detections of atrazine is above the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for drinking water. Currently there is no U.S. atrazine standard for protection of aquatic life. February and October detections of this herbicide are probably due to sugarcane cultivation. Nitrate levels have remained below the MCL for drinking water, but nitrate and phosphorus concentrations may pose a potential for eutrophication problems. The contribution of sugarcane production to the nutrient status of Louisiana's coastal water bodies is difficult to assess because there are other sources of nutrients in the area and native soil phosphorus levels are high. Cultural practices such as subsurface drains, open drainage ditches, and postharvest residue management have potential through enhancement of soil infiltration for decreasing sugarcane's contribution to water quality problems in southern and coastal Louisiana. A new field project is being installed at the Louisiana State University Agricultural Experiment Station's Sugarcane Research Station at St. Gabriel to assess the water quality benefits of these practices with respect to sugarcane cultivation.

  9. Applications of MODIS Fluorescence Line Height Measurements to Monitor Water Quality Trends and Algal Bloom Activity in Coastal and Estuarine Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, A.; Ryan, J. P.; Moreno-Madriñán, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    Recent advances in satellite and airborne remote sensing, such as improvements in sensor and algorithm calibrations and atmospheric correction procedures have provided for increased coverage of remote-sensing, ocean color products for coastal regions. In particular, for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), calibration updates, improved aerosol retrievals, and new aerosol models have led to improved atmospheric correction algorithms for turbid waters and have improved the retrieval of ocean-color. This has opened the way for studying coastal ocean phenomena and processes at finer spatial scales. Human population growth and changes in coastal management practices have brought about significant changes in the concentrations of organic and inorganic, particulate and dissolved substances entering the coastal ocean. There is increasing concern that these inputs have led to declines in water quality and increases in local concentrations of phytoplankton, which could result in harmful algal blooms. In two case studies we present improved and validated MODIS coastal observations of fluorescence line height (FLH) to: (1) assess trends in water quality for Tampa Bay, Florida; and (2) illustrate seasonal and annual variability of algal bloom activity in Monterey Bay, California, as well as document estuarine/riverine plume induced red tide events. In a comprehensive analysis of long term (2003-2011) in situ monitoring data and imagery from Tampa Bay, we assess the validity of the MODIS FLH product against chlorophyll-a and a suite of water quality parameters taken in a variety of conditions throughout this large, optically complex estuarine system. A systematic analysis of sampling sites throughout the bay illustrates that the correlations between FLH and in situ chlorophyll-a are influenced by water quality parameters of total nitrogen, total phosphorous, turbidity and biological oxygen demand. Sites that correlated well with satellite imagery were in depths

  10. Use of salinity mixing models to estimate the contribution of creek water fecal indicator bacteria to an estuarine environment: Newport Bay, California.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Karen; Ahn, Jong Ho; Litton, Rachel M; Grant, Stanley B

    2007-08-01

    The contribution of freshwater discharge to fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) impairment of an estuarine environment can be approximated from simple, two end-member mixing models using salinity as a tracer. We conducted a yearlong time series investigation of Newport Bay, a regionally important estuarine embayment in southern California, assessing the concentrations of FIB, specifically Escherichia coli and enterococci bacteria, and salinity. In total, eight within-bay stations and one offshore control site were sampled nearly once per week and the three tributaries draining into Newport Bay were sampled approximately daily. Using salinity as a conservative tracer for water mass mixing and determining the end-member values of FIB in both the creek sites and the offshore site, we created a linear, two end-member mixing model of FIB within Newport Bay. Deviations from the mixing model suggest either an additional source of FIB to the bay (e.g. bird feces, storm drain discharge) or regrowth and/or die-off of FIB within the bay. Our results indicate that salinity mixing models can be useful in predicting changes in FIB concentrations in the estuarine environments and can help narrow the search for sources of FIB to the bay and enhance our understanding of the fate of FIB within the bay.

  11. Analysis of the cold-water restraint procedure in gastric ulceration and body temperature.

    PubMed

    Landeira-Fernandez, J

    2004-10-15

    Gastric mucosal injury induced by body restraint can be enhanced when combined with cold-water immersion. Based on this fact, the present study had two main purposes: (i) to examine the contribution of each of these two forms of stress on the development of gastric ulceration and regulation of body temperature and (ii) to investigate the importance of the animal's consciousness on gastric ulceration induced by the cold-water restraint. Independent groups of animals were exposed for 3 h to one of the following stressful treatments: body restraint plus cold-water (20+1 degrees C) immersion, body restraint alone or cold-water immersion alone. Control animals were not exposed to any form of stress. Half of the animals submitted to each of the four treatments were anesthetized with thionembutal (35 mg/kg), whereas the other half was injected with saline. Results indicated that body restraint alone was not sufficient to induce gastric ulceration or changes in body temperature. On the other hand, cold-water exposure, either alone or in conjunction with body restraint, induced the same amount of stomach erosions and hypothermia. Therefore, it appears that body restraint does not play an important role on gastric ulceration induced by the cold-water restraint procedure. Present results also indicated that conscious and anesthetized animals immersed in cold water presented robust gastric ulceration and a marked drop in body temperature. However, conscious animals developed more severe gastric damage in comparison to anesthetized animals although both groups presented the same degree of hypothermia. These findings suggest that hypothermia resulting from cold-water exposure has a deleterious effect on gastric ulceration but the animal's conscious activity during the cold-water immersion increases the severity of gastric mucosal damage. It is concluded that cold-water restraint is a useful procedure for the study of the underlying mechanisms involved in stress

  12. Needs Assessment for the Use of NASA Remote Sensing Data in the Development and Implementation of Estuarine and Coastal Water Quality Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiering, Bruce; Underwood, Lauren; Ellis, Chris; Lehrter, John; Hagy, Jim; Schaeffer, Blake

    2010-01-01

    The goals of the project are to provide information from satellite remote sensing to support numeric nutrient criteria development and to determine data processing methods and data quality requirements to support nutrient criteria development and implementation. The approach is to identify water quality indicators that are used by decision makers to assess water quality and that are related to optical properties of the water; to develop remotely sensed data products based on algorithms relating remote sensing imagery to field-based observations of indicator values; to develop methods to assess estuarine water quality, including trends, spatial and temporal variability, and seasonality; and to develop tools to assist in the development and implementation of estuarine and coastal nutrient criteria. Additional slides present process, criteria development, typical data sources and analyses for criteria process, the power of remote sensing data for the process, examples from Pensacola Bay, spatial and temporal variability, pixel matchups, remote sensing validation, remote sensing in coastal waters, requirements for remotely sensed data products, and needs assessment. An additional presentation examines group engagement and information collection. Topics include needs assessment purpose and objectives, understanding water quality decision making, determining information requirements, and next steps.

  13. Environmental studies on river water quality with reference to suitability for agricultural purposes: Mahanadi river estuarine system, India--a case study.

    PubMed

    Sundaray, Sanjay Kumar; Nayak, Binod Bihari; Bhatta, Dinabandhu

    2009-08-01

    Hydrochemistry of surface water (pH, specific conductance, total dissolved solids, sulfate, chloride, nitrate, bicarbonate, hardness, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium) in the Mahanadi river estuarine system, India was used to assess the quality of water for agricultural purposes. The samples were studied for 31 different stations during six different seasons in the years 2001-2003. Chemical data were used for mathematical calculations (SAR, Na%, RSC, potential salinity, permeability index, Kelly's index, magnesium hazard, osmotic pressure and salt index) for better understanding the suitability river water quality for agricultural purposes. The river water is free from nitrate-nitrogen hazard and has much less osmotic pressure and RSC values. Further there is no complete precipitation of calcium and magnesium in the study area. The results revealed that waters of some polluted stations like Sambalpur down (D/s of Sambalpur town) and Kathjodi (Cuttack) down (D/s of Cuttack town) are unsuitable up to some extent, where as it is quite unsuitable in case of estuarine samples during the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. The results were verified by USSL and Wilcox diagrams, which show all the fresh water zone samples (low-medium salinity with low sodium) of the study area are in the 'Excellent to good' category and are suitable to irrigate all soils for semi-tolerant and tolerant as well as sensitive crops.

  14. Oxygen-deficient waters along the Japanese coast and their effects upon the estuarine ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, T

    2001-01-01

    Development of hypoxia in Japan has been confirmed in the inner part of almost every major bay of Japan on the Pacific Coast from Tokyo southward. This paper presents multiple aspects (present condition, hydraulic mechanism, effect upon fisheries, historical progress and nutrient budget between sediment and water) using Mikawa Bay, where Japan's most serious hypoxia occurs, as an example. Although hypoxia basically results from the increase of nutrient load input from domestic and livestock sources, the intense reclamation of shallows (including tidal flats) and the large reduction in river flow due to farmland irrigation drastically accelerated dissolved oxygen deficiency. Oxygen-deficient waters in Mikawa Bay are large enough to strip the water purification capacity of the remaining shallows. Unfortunately, the shallows have turned from a purifier to a source of nutrient load. These conditions are more or less common in all bays where the dissolved oxygen-deficient waters have been reported. To break this cycle, dissolved oxygen deficiency must be contained to the extent that the purification capacity of the shallows can be restored to an efficient level. For this purpose, the first thing to do is to restore tidal flats over an extensive area and to recover sufficient water flow, which may be a more urgent imperative than reducing the nutrient load input.

  15. Estuarine, Inland and Coastal Water Quality Monitoring Using Earth Observation Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Delu

    2013-01-01

    The quality of water is one of the top issues worldwide. The objective of this project (ID. 5351) is to adapt or develop available algorithms to the high turbid water (extremely high concentration of suspended particulate matter and plankton blooms), and to monitor the suspended matter and associated turbidity/light attenuation and plankton blooms in particular of cyanobacteria and red tides in coastal and lake waters. In this final report, we give the executive status and the achievements of our project. First, we introduce the project objectives, research methods, partners and roles in brief. Second, we give the in-situ data measurements during the period of our project. Third, we present the details of the achievements and final results of our project. Finally, the recommendations and the publications are present in the last sections.

  16. Apparent and inherent optical properties of turbid estuarine waters: measurements, empirical quantification relationships, and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doxaran, David; Cherukuru, Nagur; Lavender, Samantha J.

    2006-04-01

    Spectral measurements of remote-sensing reflectance (Rrs) and absorption coefficients carried out in three European estuaries (Gironde and Loire in France, Tamar in the UK) are presented and analyzed. Typical Rrs and absorption spectra are compared with typical values measured in coastal waters. The respective contributions of the water constituents, i.e., suspended sediments, colored dissolved organic matter, and phytoplankton (characterized by chlorophyll-a), are determined. The Rrs spectra are then reproduced with an optical model from the measured absorption coefficients and fitted backscattering coefficients. From Rrs ratios, empirical quantification relationships are established, reproduced, and explained from theoretical calculations. These quantification relationships were established from numerous field measurements and a reflectance model integrating the mean values of the water constituents' inherent optical properties. The model's sensitivity to the biogeochemical constituents and to their nature and composition is assessed.

  17. FerryMon: Using ferries as hydrochemical observatories in estuarine and coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paerl, H.; Guajardo, R.; Peierls, B.; Rossignol, K.; Braddy, J.

    2007-12-01

    Estuaries are among the most productive and resourceful aquatic ecosystems on Earth. They are strongly influenced by hydrochemical stressors, including nutrient enrichment and climatic factors such as droughts, storms and floods. Clarifying how estuaries respond to these stresses will provide an understanding of how hydrologic and chemical processes control ecological condition and change of these ecosystems. This understanding will greatly benefit from a spatially and temporally-intensive observational program, which, when coupled to modeling will help predict future responses to external anthropogenic (nutrient) and climatic (hydrologic) perturbations. North Carolina's Pamlico Sound System (PSS) is the Nation's second largest estuary. It exemplifies the impacts of human development (eutrophication) and large climatic perturbations (hurricanes). We are using 3 NC DOT ferries to conduct unattended hydrochemical monitoring of water quality, habitat and ecological condition of the PSS. This program, FerryMon (www.ferrymon.org), uses temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, and chlorophyll a sensors coupled to discrete sampling of nutrients, organics, photopigment and molecular indicators to assess water quality in a near real-time manner over a range of relevant physical, chemical and biological time scales. An autonomous vertical profiler (AVP), equipped with sensors similar to those on the ferries, provides complementary vertical profile data. This capability is timely given unprecedented human development and a period of elevated tropical storm and hurricane activity affecting coastal water quality and habitat conditions and fisheries resources. FerryMon is used to calibrate remotely sensed indicators of water quality (photopigments, turbidity), facilitating scaling up to the ecosystem level. It is integrated with complementary observational programs (LTERs, NEON, ORION, WATERS, SEACOOS), and it supports interdisciplinary research aimed at

  18. An evaluation of climate change effects in estuarine salinity patterns: Application to Ria de Aveiro shallow water system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, Catarina I. C.; Vaz, Nuno; Dias, João M.

    2017-04-01

    It is of global interest, for the definition of effective adaptation strategies, to make an assessment of climate change impacts in coastal environments. In this study, the salinity patterns adjustments and the correspondent Venice System zonations adaptations are evaluated through numerical modelling for Ria de Aveiro, a mesotidal shallow water lagoon located in the Portuguese coast, for the end of the 21st century in a climate change context. A reference (equivalent to present conditions) and three future scenarios are defined and simulated, both for wet and dry conditions. The future scenarios are designed with the following changes to the reference: scenario 1) projected mean sea level (MSL) rise; scenario 2) projected river flow discharges; and scenario 3) projections for both MSL and river flow discharges. The projections imposed are: a MSL rise of 0.42 m; a freshwater flow reduction of ∼22% for the wet season and a reduction of ∼87% for the dry season. Modelling results are analyzed for different tidal ranges. Results indicate: a) a salinity upstream intrusion and a generalized salinity increase for sea level rise scenario, with higher significance in middle-to-upper lagoon zones; b) a maximum salinity increase of ∼12 in scenario 3 and wet conditions for Espinheiro channel, the one with higher freshwater contribution; c) an upstream displacement of the saline fronts occurring in wet conditions for all future scenarios, with stronger expression for scenario 3, of ∼2 km in Espinheiro channel; and d) a landward progression of the saltier physical zones established in the Venice System scheme. The adaptation of the ecosystem to the upstream relocation of physical zones may be blocked by human settlements and other artificial barriers surrounding the estuarine environment.

  19. H. R. 3120: This title may be cited as the Estuarine Zone and Marine Waters Combined Sewer Overflow Control Act. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundredth First Congress, First Session, August 3, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    H.R. 3120 is a bill to establish permit requirements for overflows from combined storm water and sanitary sewer systems discharging into the estuarine zone and marine waters and to require the correction of such systems to minimize discharges into those waters, to mitigate the effects of pollution discharges into estuaries and oceans, and for other purposes.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF NITROGEN LOADING-RESPONSE RELATIONSHIPS FOR ESTUARINE WATERS USING AN EMPIRICAL COMPARATIVE SYSTEMS APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is growing evidence that human activities have dramatically changed the amounts, distribution, and movement of major nutrient elements (nitrogen-N and phosphorus-P) in the landscape and have increased nutrient loading to receiving waters. Some of these changes affect use o...

  1. Preliminary Evidence for the Amplification of Global Warming in Shallow, Intertidal Estuarine Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past 50 years, mean annual water temperature in northeastern U.S. estuaries has increased by approximately 1.2°C, with most of the warming recorded in the winter and early spring. We hypothesize that this warming may be amplified in the shallow (<2m), nearshore portions ...

  2. Preliminary Evidence for the Amplification of Global Warming in Shallow, Intertidal Estuarine Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past 50 years, mean annual water temperature in northeastern U.S. estuaries has increased by approximately 1.2°C, with most of the warming recorded in the winter and early spring. We hypothesize that this warming may be amplified in the shallow (<2m), nearshore portions ...

  3. Toward N Criteria in Coastal Waters: Normalizing N Loading for Estuarine Volume and Local Residence Time

    EPA Science Inventory

    One approach to developing criteria for nitrogen (N) in coastal waters has been to determine quantitative relationships between N loading and ecological effects (e.g., hypoxia) in coastal estuaries. Although this approach has met with some success, data obtained from field sites ...

  4. A quality assurance program for determination of herbicides in estuarine waters.

    PubMed

    Gaskill, A; Jayanty, R K

    1981-01-01

    A quality assurance program was developed for two grantee laboratories studying the herbicides atrazine and linuron in Chesapeake Bay water. Proposed methodologies were evaluated by performance and system audits. The objectives of the quality assurance program and the results of the audit program are discussed.

  5. Factors dominating stratification cycle and seasonal water quality variation in a Korean estuarine reservoir.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Geun; Kang, Joo-Hyon; Ki, Seo Jin; Cha, Sung Min; Cho, Kyung Hwa; Lee, Yun Seok; Park, Yongeun; Lee, Seung Won; Kim, Joon Ha

    2010-05-01

    A comprehensive monitoring program was conducted during 2005-2007 to investigate seasonal variations of hydrologic stability and water quality in the Yeongsan Reservoir (YSR), located at the downstream end of the Yeongsan River, Korea. A principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to identify factors dominating the seasonal water quality variation from a large suite of measured data--11 physico-chemical parameters from 48 sampling sites. The results showed that three principal components explained approximately 62% of spatio-seasonal water quality variation, which are related to stratifications, pollutant loadings and resultant eutrophication, and the advective mixing process during the episodic rainfall-runoff events. A comparison was then made between YSR and an upstream freshwater reservoir (Damyang Reservoir, DYR) in the same river basin during an autumn season. It was found that the saline stratification and pollutant input from the upstream contributed to greater concentrations of nutrients and organic matter in YSR compared to DYR. In YSR, saline stratification in combination with thermal stratification was a dominant cause of the longer period (for two consecutive seasons) of hypoxic conditions at the reservoir bottom. The results presented here will help better understand the season- and geography-dependent characteristics of reservoir water quality in Asian Monsoon climate regions such as Korea.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF NITROGEN LOADING-RESPONSE RELATIONSHIPS FOR ESTUARINE WATERS USING AN EMPIRICAL COMPARATIVE SYSTEMS APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is growing evidence that human activities have dramatically changed the amounts, distribution, and movement of major nutrient elements (nitrogen-N and phosphorus-P) in the landscape and have increased nutrient loading to receiving waters. Some of these changes affect use o...

  7. Toward N Criteria in Coastal Waters: Normalizing N Loading for Estuarine Volume and Local Residence Time

    EPA Science Inventory

    One approach to developing criteria for nitrogen (N) in coastal waters has been to determine quantitative relationships between N loading and ecological effects (e.g., hypoxia) in coastal estuaries. Although this approach has met with some success, data obtained from field sites ...

  8. Guiding BMP adoption to improve water quality in various estuarine ecosystems in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Keipert, N; Weaver, D; Summers, R; Clarke, M; Neville, S

    2008-01-01

    The Australian Government's Coastal Catchment Initiative (CCI) seeks to achieve targeted reductions in nutrient pollution to key coastal water quality hotspots, reducing algal blooms and fish kills. Under the CCI a Water Quality Improvement Plan (WQIP) is being prepared for targeted estuaries (Swan-Canning, near Perth, and the Vasse-Geographe, 140 km south of Perth) to address nutrient pollution issues. A range of projects are developing, testing and implementing agricultural Best Management Practices (BMPs) to reduce excessive loads of nutrients reaching the receiving waters. This work builds on progress-to-date achieved in a similar project in the Peel-Harvey Catchment (70 km south of Perth). It deals with the necessary steps of identifying the applicability of BMPs for nutrient attenuation, developing and promoting BMPs in the context of nutrient use and attenuation on farm and through catchments and estimating the degree to which BMP implementation can protect receiving waters. With a range of BMPs available with varying costs and effectiveness, a Decision Support System (DSS) to guide development of the WQIP and implementation of BMPs to protect receiving waters, is under development. As new information becomes available the DSS will be updated to ensure relevance and accuracy for decision-making and planning purposes. The DSS, calibrated for application in the catchments, will play a critical role in adaptive implementation of the WQIP by assessing the effect of land use change and management interventions on pollutant load generation and by providing a tool to guide priority setting and investment planning to achieve agreed WQIP load targets.

  9. Influence of Ambient Current on the Temperature Increasing Rate of Bottom Cold Water in a Shelf Sea: a Case Study of the Seto Inland Sea, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, X.; Guo, X.; Takeoka, H.

    2016-02-01

    Based on hydrographic data collected monthly from 1971 to 2000 in the Seto Inland Sea, a semi-enclosed shelf sea in the western Japan, the presence of bottom cold water (BCW) in summer was confirmed in several wide basins (called "Nada" in Japanese) inside the sea. The water temperature inside the BCW shows two types of increasing rates: a constant one from spring to summer in most wide basins but an acceleration from spring to summer in a specific wide basin named Iyo Nada. The causes for different increasing rate in the wide basins were analyzed with a numerical model that is able to reproduce the aforementioned phenomenon. Using model results, we calculated the advection and diffusion of heat for the BCWs in both horizontal and vertical directions. The intensification of horizontal advection of heat in the bottom layer was found to be the major cause for the acceleration of increasing rate of bottom water temperature in the Iyo Nada. Since the horizontal gradient of water temperature inside and outside the BCW does not change greatly from spring to summer, the intensification of horizontal advection of heat is therefore attributed to the intensification of subtidal current in the bottom layer. Numerical experiments show that the gradually intensified estuarine circulation from spring to summer that flows across the BCW in the Iyo Nada is the cause for the acceleration of increasing rate of water temperature inside the BCW. In other wide basins, the bottom estuarine circulation does not encounter the BCW, and therefore does not affect the increasing rate of water temperature inside the BCW. As the presence of BCW is a common phenomenon in stratified shallow waters,the influence of ambient subtidal current on it is likely an important process to understand its seasonal and interannual variations.

  10. Larval fish assemblages in a tropical mangrove estuary and adjacent coastal waters: Offshore-inshore flux of marine and estuarine species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooi, A. L.; Chong, V. C.

    2011-10-01

    A total of 92,934 fish larvae representing 19 families were sampled monthly from the Sangga Kecil estuary (Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve) and adjacent coastal waters from May 2002 to October 2003. Larval fish assemblages were numerically dominated by Gobiidae (50.1%) and Engraulidae (38.4%). Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) revealed that the larval fish assemblages, including their ontogenetic stages, differed between the mangrove estuary and adjacent offshore waters, and that salinity, turbidity and zooplankton food are the major environmental factors structuring the larval fish assemblages. Estuarine preflexion gobiid larvae were ubiquitous in the coastal and estuarine waters. Larval stages of euryhaline species that were spawned in offshore waters, such as Engraulidae and Clupeidae, were largely advected into mangrove areas at the postflexion stages. Larvae of other euryhaline fishes (Sciaenidae, Blenniidae and Cynoglossidae) that may have been spawned inside the estuary were, however, exported to offshore waters. Given that the collective number of juvenile and adult fish families in the Matang estuary was 53, while the number of larval families was only 17, the former is quite disconnected from the existing larval fish population in the estuary.

  11. Three-phase solvent bar micro-extraction as an approach to silver ultra-traces speciation in estuarine water samples.

    PubMed

    López-López, José Antonio; Herce-Sesa, Belén; Moreno, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Silver ion inputs into the environment due to human activities have been increased in the last years because it has been used as a bactericide with application in medical, homecare and self-care products. In addition, it is toxic at low concentration for aquatic organisms. In estuarine waters, salinity and dissolved organic matter (DOM) regulate Ag(+) concentration by the formation of complexes as AgCln((n-1)-) and Ag-DOM. Difficulties of Ag(+) analysis in estuaries are associated to its low concentration level and interferences of sample matrix. Liquid and solid phase extraction methods have been used for speciation of silver in waters; however, miniaturized methods that offer a better environmental profile are desirable. Hollow fiber liquid phase micro-extraction (HFLPME) allows obtaining higher pre-concentration factors with a reduction of waste generation. Notwithstanding, some operational improvements are needed to permit their use as a routine method that can be afforded using a configuration of three-phase solvent bar micro-extraction (3PSBME). In this work, tri-isobutylphosphine sulphide (TIBPS) has been used as an extractant for Ag(+) pre-concentration in estuarine waters by 3PSBME. Under optimized conditions, Ag(+) has been pre-concentrated 60 times and the method presents a limit of detection of 1.53 ng L(-1). To evaluate which Ag species is transported by TIBPS, Cl(-) and DOM have been added to synthetic samples. As a result, a decrease in Ag pre-concentration efficiency after additions has been observed and quantified. Results showed that Ag(+) is selectively transported by TIBPS from estuarine water samples after comparison of the results with those obtained by the reference method of liquid extraction with APDC/DDDC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Cold-Climate Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, J.; Salasovich, J.; Hillman, T.

    2005-11-01

    The Solar Heating and Lighting Sub-program has set the key goal to reduce the cost of saved energy [Csav, defined as (total cost, $)/(total discounted savings, kWh_thermal)] for solar domestic water heaters (SDWH) by at least 50%. To determine if this goal is attainable and prioritize R&D for cold-climate SDWH, life-cycle analyses were done with hypothetical lower-cost components in glycol, drainback, and thermosiphon systems. Balance-of-system (BOS, everything but the collector) measures included replacing metal components with polymeric versions and system simplification. With all BOS measures in place, Csav could be reduced more than 50% with a low-cost, selectively-coated, glazed polymeric collector, and slightly less than 50% with either a conventional selective metal-glass or a non-selective glazed polymer collector. The largest percent reduction in Csav comes from replacing conventional pressurized solar storage tanks and metal heat exchangers with un-pressurized polymer tanks with immersed polymer heat exchangers, which could be developed with relatively low-risk R&D.

  13. Protistan parasites as mortality drivers in cold water crab fisheries.

    PubMed

    Frank Morado, J; Siddeek, M S M; Mullowney, Darrell R; Dawe, Earl G

    2012-06-01

    From a historical perspective, several protistan taxa, including the recently re-aligned Microsporidia, have been associated with or identified as causes of mortalities in crustacean populations. Depending upon the host species, associated protistan prevalences could be as low as 5% or approach 100%. It has generally been assumed that reported prevalences translated directly into significant mortalities that could impact the distribution and abundance of affected populations. However, this assumption may be incorrect especially when the dynamics of host-pathogen-environment interactions are not entirely understood. We will discuss the presumed impact of several protistan pathogens on temperate and cold water commercial crab species. By using selected examples such as a ciliate in the Dungeness crab (Cancer magister) and Hematodinium sp. infections in North Pacific crabs, we will attempt to contrast differences between prevalence and mortality, acute and chronic infections/mortalities, age or size selectivity of affected population, and geographically restricted and widespread epizootics. We will also briefly discuss the potential impact of environmental changes such as climate change and ocean acidification on both host and protistan pathogen.

  14. Effects of waves on water dispersion in a semi-enclosed estuarine bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delpey, M. T.; Ardhuin, F.; Otheguy, P.

    2012-04-01

    The bay of Saint Jean de Luz - Ciboure is a touristic destination located in the south west of France on the Basque coast. This small bay is 1.5km wide for 1km long. It is semi-enclosed by breakwaters, so that the area is mostly protected from waves except in its eastern part, where wave breaking is regularly observed over a shallow rock shelf. In the rest of the area the currents are generally weak. The bay receives fresh water inflows from two rivers. During intense raining events, the rivers can introduce pollutants in the bay. The input of pollutants combined with the low level dynamic of the area can affect the water quality for several days. To study such a phenomenon, mechanisms of water dispersion in the bay are investigated. The present paper focuses on the effects of waves on bay dynamics. Several field experiments were conducted in the area, combining wave and current measurements from a set of ADCP and ADV, lagrangian difter experiments in the surfzone, salinity and temperature profile measurements. An analysis of this set of various data is provided. It reveals that the bay combines remarkable density stratification due to fresh water inflows and occasionally intense wave-induced currents in the surfzone. These currents have a strong influence on river plume dynamics when the sea state is energetic. Moreover, modifications of hydrodynamics in the bay passes are found to be remarkably correlated with sea state evolutions. This result suggests a significant impact of waves on the bay flushing. To further analyse these phenomena, a three dimensional numerical model of bay hydrodynamics is developed. The model aims at reproducing fresh water inflows combined with wind-, tide- and wave-induced currents and mixing. The model of the bay is implemented using the code MOHID , which has been modified to allow the three dimensional representation of wave-current interactions proposed by Ardhuin et al. [2008b] . The circulation is forced by the wave field modelled

  15. Cold Urticaria

    MedlinePlus

    ... throat when consuming cold food or drink Severe reactions may include: A whole-body response (anaphylaxis), which ... to cold water. The majority of cold urticaria reactions occur when skin is exposed to temperatures lower ...

  16. Effectiveness of Glycerol Ingestion for Enhanced Body Water Retention during Cold Water Immersion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    carbohydrate (CHO) meal was consumed by all subjects to minimize differences in nutritional status. This was designed to ensure sufficient substrate...GLY in the ingested solution was 79 ± 8 ml. The mean nutritional values for the predive 10 meals consumed by each treatment group did not differ...body or head-out immersion. Additionally, Rochelle and Horvath (1978) found that surfers who were chronically exposed to cold water exhibited a smaller

  17. Optimizing an estuarine water quality monitoring program through an entropy-based hierarchical spatiotemporal Bayesian framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alameddine, Ibrahim; Karmakar, Subhankar; Qian, Song S.; Paerl, Hans W.; Reckhow, Kenneth H.

    2013-10-01

    The total maximum daily load program aims to monitor more than 40,000 standard violations in around 20,000 impaired water bodies across the United States. Given resource limitations, future monitoring efforts have to be hedged against the uncertainties in the monitored system, while taking into account existing knowledge. In that respect, we have developed a hierarchical spatiotemporal Bayesian model that can be used to optimize an existing monitoring network by retaining stations that provide the maximum amount of information, while identifying locations that would benefit from the addition of new stations. The model assumes the water quality parameters are adequately described by a joint matrix normal distribution. The adopted approach allows for a reduction in redundancies, while emphasizing information richness rather than data richness. The developed approach incorporates the concept of entropy to account for the associated uncertainties. Three different entropy-based criteria are adopted: total system entropy, chlorophyll-a standard violation entropy, and dissolved oxygen standard violation entropy. A multiple attribute decision making framework is adopted to integrate the competing design criteria and to generate a single optimal design. The approach is implemented on the water quality monitoring system of the Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina, USA. The model results indicate that the high priority monitoring areas identified by the total system entropy and the dissolved oxygen violation entropy criteria are largely coincident. The monitoring design based on the chlorophyll-a standard violation entropy proved to be less informative, given the low probabilities of violating the water quality standard in the estuary.

  18. The effect of repeated mild cold water immersions on the adaptation of the vasomotor responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Wijayanto, Titis; Kuroki, Hideto; Lee, Joo-Young; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2012-07-01

    There are several types of cold adaptation based on the alteration of thermoregulatory response. It has been thought that the temperature of repeated cold exposures during the adaptation period is one of the factors affecting the type of cold adaptation developed. This study tested the hypothesis that repeated mild cold immersions would induce an insulative cold adaptation but would not alter the metabolic response. Seven healthy male participants were immersed to their xiphoid process level repeatedly in 26°C water for 60 min, 3 days every week, for 4 weeks. During the first and last exposure of this cold acclimation period, the participants underwent body immersion tests measuring their thermoregulatory responses to cold. Separately, they conducted finger immersion into 5°C water for 30 min to assess their cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD) response before and after cold acclimation. During the immersion to xiphoid process, participants showed significantly lower mean skin temperature and skin blood flow in the forearm post-acclimation, while no adaptation was observed in the metabolic response. Additionally, blunted CIVD responses were observed after cold acclimation. From these results, it was considered that the participants showed an insulative-type of cold acclimation after the repeated mild cold immersions. The major finding of this study was the acceptance of the hypothesis that repeated mild cold immersion was sufficient to induce insulative cold adaptation but did not alter the metabolic response. It is suggested that the adaptation in the thermoregulatory response is specific to the response which is repeatedly stimulated during the adaptation process.

  19. The effect of repeated mild cold water immersions on the adaptation of the vasomotor responses.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Wijayanto, Titis; Kuroki, Hideto; Lee, Joo-Young; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2012-07-01

    There are several types of cold adaptation based on the alteration of thermoregulatory response. It has been thought that the temperature of repeated cold exposures during the adaptation period is one of the factors affecting the type of cold adaptation developed. This study tested the hypothesis that repeated mild cold immersions would induce an insulative cold adaptation but would not alter the metabolic response. Seven healthy male participants were immersed to their xiphoid process level repeatedly in 26°C water for 60 min, 3 days every week, for 4 weeks. During the first and last exposure of this cold acclimation period, the participants underwent body immersion tests measuring their thermoregulatory responses to cold. Separately, they conducted finger immersion into 5°C water for 30 min to assess their cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD) response before and after cold acclimation. During the immersion to xiphoid process, participants showed significantly lower mean skin temperature and skin blood flow in the forearm post-acclimation, while no adaptation was observed in the metabolic response. Additionally, blunted CIVD responses were observed after cold acclimation. From these results, it was considered that the participants showed an insulative-type of cold acclimation after the repeated mild cold immersions. The major finding of this study was the acceptance of the hypothesis that repeated mild cold immersion was sufficient to induce insulative cold adaptation but did not alter the metabolic response. It is suggested that the adaptation in the thermoregulatory response is specific to the response which is repeatedly stimulated during the adaptation process.

  20. Performance of passive samplers for monitoring estuarine water column concentrations: 2. Emerging contaminants.

    PubMed

    Perron, Monique M; Burgess, Robert M; Suuberg, Eric M; Cantwell, Mark G; Pennell, Kelly G

    2013-10-01

    Measuring dissolved concentrations of emerging contaminants, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and triclosan, can be challenging due to their physicochemical properties resulting in low aqueous solubilities and association with particles. Passive sampling methods have been applied to assess dissolved concentrations in water and sediments primarily for legacy contaminants. Although the technology is applicable to some emerging contaminants, the use of passive samplers with emerging contaminants is limited. In the present study, the performance of 3 common passive samplers was evaluated for sampling PBDEs and triclosan. Passive sampling polymers included low-density polyethylene (PE) and polyoxymethylene (POM) sheets, and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-coated solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers. Dissolved concentrations were calculated using measured sampler concentrations and laboratory-derived partition coefficients. Dissolved tri-, tetra-, and pentabrominated PBDE congeners were detected at several of the study sites at very low pg/L concentrations using PE and POM. Calculated dissolved water concentrations of triclosan ranged from 1.7 ng/L to 18 ng/L for POM and 8.8 ng/L to 13 ng/L for PE using performance reference compound equilibrium adjustments. Concentrations in SPME were not reported due to lack of detectable chemical in the PDMS polymer deployed. Although both PE and POM were found to effectively accumulate emerging contaminants from the water column, further research is needed to determine their utility as passive sampling devices for emerging contaminants. © 2013 SETAC.

  1. Performance of Passive Samplers for Monitoring Estuarine Water Column Concentrations: 2. Emerging Contaminants

    PubMed Central

    Perron, Monique M.; Burgess, Robert M.; Suuberg, Eric M.; Cantwell, Mark G.; Pennell, Kelly G.

    2014-01-01

    Measuring dissolved concentrations of emerging contaminants, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and triclosan, can be challenging due to their physicochemical properties resulting in low aqueous solubilities and association with particles. Passive sampling methods have been applied to assess dissolved concentrations in water and sediments primarily for legacy contaminants. Although the technology is applicable to some emerging contaminants, the use of passive samplers with emerging contaminants is limited. In the present study, the performance of three common passive samplers was evaluated for sampling PBDEs and triclosan. Passive sampling polymers included low density polyethylene (PE) and polyoxymethylene (POM) sheets, and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coated solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers. Dissolved concentrations were calculated using measured sampler concentrations and laboratory derived partition coefficients. Dissolved tri-, tetra-, and pentabrominated PBDE congeners were detected at several of the study sites at very low pg/L concentrations using PE and POM. Calculated dissolved water concentrations of triclosan ranged from 1.7 to 18 ng/L for POM and 8.8 to 13 ng/L for PE using performance reference compound (PRC) equilibrium adjustments. Concentrations in SPME were not reported due to lack of detectable chemical in the PDMS polymer deployed. Although both PE and POM were found to effectively accumulate emerging contaminants from the water column, further research is needed to determine their utility as passive sampling devices for emerging contaminants. PMID:23595851

  2. Contaminants in water, sediment and fish biomonitor species from natural and artificial estuarine habitats along the urbanized Gold Coast, Queensland.

    PubMed

    Waltham, Nathan J; Teasdale, Peter R; Connolly, Rod M

    2011-12-01

    Metal and pesticide contaminants were measured in water, sediment and fish species in various Gold Coast waterways, Queensland. With the exception of Cu, metal concentrations in water, measured using the diffuse gradients in a thin film (DGT) technique, complied with relevant Australian guidelines. Cu concentrations in these waterways have been related to recreational vessel activities previously. All sediment metal concentrations measured were below the national guidelines, although Cu, Zn and Pb were found to vary significantly between habitat types. Evidence of spikes in sediment pesticide concentrations (some banned over 50 years ago) was observed in some artificial residential waterways. Heavy metals and pesticides were measured in the tissue (muscle, gills and liver) of three economically important species of fish, with different feeding strategies (partly herbivore Arrhamphus sclerolepis, carnivore Acanthopagrus australis, detritivore Mugil cephalus). We tested the hypothesis that fish accumulate different amounts of contaminants from wetland habitats affected by different intensities of anthropogenic activities (i.e., marinas, artificial residential canals, artificial residential lakes, estuaries and natural, vegetated waterways). Significantly higher concentrations of Cu were found in the gills of each fish species from marinas compared to fish caught in other waterways. Furthermore, fish caught in canals had the second highest Cu and natural waterways the lowest. These results support the stated hypothesis for Cu and furthermore indicate that these fish species are suitable as biomonitors in estuarine waterways. Metal and pesticide concentrations in the edible muscle tissue of all fish complied with the Australian Food Standard Code recommended limits for human consumption, apart from As which is likely to be due to bioconcentration of lower toxicity organo-As species. These results indicate a low health risk for humans consuming fish, in terms of

  3. Transfer of chemical elements from a contaminated estuarine sediment to river water. A leaching assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, Manuela; Peres, Sara; Magalhães, M. Clara F.

    2014-05-01

    Wastes of a former Portuguese steel industry were deposited during 40 years on the left bank of the Coina River, which flows into the estuary of the Tagus River near Lisbon. The aim of this study was to evaluate the release of the chemical elements from the contaminated sediment to the river water. A leaching experiment (four replicates) was performed using 1.6 kg/replicate of sediment from a landfill located in the Coina River bank, forming a lagoon subject to tidal influence. River water coming from this lagoon was collected during low tide. This water (200 mL) was added to the moist sediment, contained in cylindrical reactors, and was collected after 24 h of percolation. The leaching experiments were conducted for 77 days being leachates collected at time zero, after 28, 49 and 77 days with the sediment always moist. The sediment was characterized for: pH, electric conductivity (EC), total organic carbon (TOC), extractable phosphorus and potassium, mineral nitrogen, iron from iron oxides (crystalline and non-crystalline) and manganese oxides. Multi-elemental analysis was also made by ICP-INAA. Leachates and river water were analysed for pH, EC, hydrogencarbonate and sulfatetot by titrations, chloride by potentiometry, and multi-elemental composition by ICP-MS. The sediment presented pH=7.2, EC=18.5 dS/m, TOC=147.8 g/kg, high concentrations of extractable phosphorous (62.8 mg/kg) and potassium (1236.8 mg/kg), mineral nitrogen=11.3 mg/kg. The non-crystalline fraction of iron oxides corresponds to 99% (167.5 g Fe/kg) of the total iron oxides, and manganese from manganese oxides was low (52.7 mg/kg). Sediment is considered contaminated. It contained high concentrations (g/kg) of Zn (2.9), Pb (0.9), Cr (0.59), Cu (0.16), As (0.07), Cd (0.005), and Hg (0.001), which are above Canadian values for marine sediments quality guidelines for protection of aquatic life. River water had: pH=8.2, EC=28.6 dS/m, csulfate=1.23 g/L, and [Cl-]=251.6 mg/L. The concentrations of Cd (0

  4. Characterization and evaluation of hydrological processes responsible for spatiotemporal variation of surface water quality at Narmada estuarine region in Gujarat, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Nirmal; Kumar, Pankaj; Basil, George; Kumar, Rita N.; Kharrazi, Ali; Avtar, Ram

    2015-09-01

    This study is an effort to trace the spatiotemporal variation in water at Narmada estuarine region through solute concentration. A total of 72 water samples were collected and analyzed from three sampling points along with in situ measurement of tidal height at monthly basis for 2 years. Result shows that spatiotemporal variation of water quality occurs because of the following main mechanisms, i.e., carbonate weathering, dilution and seawater-freshwater mixing. Firstly, points situated toward inland showing the simple dilution effect on receiving high amount of monsoonal precipitation. Secondly, tidal fluctuation pattern has a strong influence on the water quality taken from the point located in near proximity to the coast. Finally, it can be concluded that water quality shows a different response, in accordance with the different tidal phase and the distance from the sea.

  5. Inherent and apparent optical properties of the complex estuarine waters of Tampa Bay: What controls light?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Chengfeng; Hu, Chuanmin; English, David; Cannizzaro, Jennifer; Chen, Zhiqiang; Kovach, Charles; Anastasiou, Christopher J.; Zhao, Jun; Carder, Kendall L.

    2013-01-01

    Inherent and apparent optical properties (IOPs and AOPs) of Tampa Bay (Florida, USA) were measured during fourteen cruises between February 1998 and October 2010 to understand how these properties relate to one another and what controls light absorption and diffuse attenuation in this moderately sized (˜1000 km2), shallow estuary (average depth ˜4 m). The IOPs and AOPs included: 1) absorption coefficients of three optically significant constituents: phytoplankton pigments, detrital particles, and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM); 2) particulate backscattering coefficients; 3) chlorophyll-a concentrations; 4) above-water remote sensing reflectance; 5) downwelling diffuse attenuation coefficients (Kd) at eight wavelengths and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Results showed substantial variability in all IOPs and AOPs in both space and time, with most IOPs spanning more than two orders of magnitude and showing strong co-variations. Of all four bay segments, Old Tampa Bay showed unique optical characteristics. During the wet season, the magnitude of blue-green-light absorption was dominated by CDOM, while during the dry season all three constituents contributed significantly. However, the variability in Kd (PAR, 490 nm, 555 nm) was driven mainly by the variability of detrital particles and phytoplankton as opposed to CDOM. This observation explained, at least to first order, why a nutrient reduction management strategy used by the Tampa Bay Estuary Program since the 1990s led to improved water clarity in most of Tampa Bay. The findings of this study provided the optical basis to fine tune existing or develop new algorithms to estimate the various optical water quality parameters from space.

  6. Carbon-13 variations in the dissolved inorganic carbon in estuarine waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sackett, William M.; Netratanawong, Toedsit; Holmes, M. Elizabeth

    The stable carbon isotope composition of dissolved inorganic carbon [DIC] was measured in Tampa Bay and Florida Bay. The dependence of isotopic composition was evaluated in terms of atmospheric CO2 exchange, carbon exchange between fresh water and seawater (i.e. salinity) and DIC derived from the reaction between calcium carbonate and organically derived CO2.The extent of organic carbon oxidation and the magnitude of organic carbon loading [pollution] in an estuary have implications for variations in the δ13C of DIC and its use as an indicator of the relative amounts of land and marine derived organic and inorganic carbon in paleogeographic studies.

  7. COHORT STUDIES OF HEALTH EFFECTS AMONG PEOPLE EXPOSED TO ESTUARINE WATERS: NORTH CAROLINA, VIRGINIA, AND MARYLAND. (R827084)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A variety of human symptoms have been associated with exposure to the dinoflagellate
    Pfiesteria and have been grouped together into a syndrome termed "possible estuary-associated
    syndrome," Prospective cohort studies of health effects associated with exposure to estuarine w...

  8. COHORT STUDIES OF HEALTH EFFECTS AMONG PEOPLE EXPOSED TO ESTUARINE WATERS: NORTH CAROLINA, VIRGINIA, AND MARYLAND. (R827084)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A variety of human symptoms have been associated with exposure to the dinoflagellate
    Pfiesteria and have been grouped together into a syndrome termed "possible estuary-associated
    syndrome," Prospective cohort studies of health effects associated with exposure to estuarine w...

  9. Evaluation of a digital model for estuarine water quality simulation in waste allocation studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seaburn, G.E.; Jennings, Marshall E.; Merritt, Michael L.

    1979-01-01

    Hydrologic and water-quality data were collected on 4 estuaries in Pasco, Citrus, and Pinellas Counties, Florida, to evaluate modeling results. Current and predicted waste loading of the four estuaries was simulated by use of a two-dimensional steady-state, intertidal-condition model. Concentrations of DO, carbonaceous and nitrogenous BOD, and chloride were simulated as averages over a tidal cycle. General equations for the model are based on the law of conservation of mass. Assumption of steady-state required that water-quality data for calibration be averaged over an appropriate time cycle with respect to volume and cross-section. Diurnal DO fluctuation was determined in 2 estuaries for evaluating the influence of photosynthesis and respiration. The estuary model is best applied by calibrating it for a particular set of observed conditions, and then using this calibrated model for sensitivity analyses without attempting to verify the chosen parameter values against a second set of conditions. Sensitivity analyses included dispersion coefficient , decay rates, photosynthesis, and respiration. (Woodard-USGS)

  10. Real-time redox speciation of iron in estuarine and coastal surface waters.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yongming; Yuan, Dongxing; Zhu, Yong; Feng, Sichao

    2015-03-17

    An automated, shipboard-use system was developed for real-time speciation of iron in coastal surface waters. It comprised a towed Fish underway sampler and a modified reverse flow injection analysis system with a liquid waveguide capillary flow cell-spectrophotometric detection device. The detection was based on the reaction between ferrozine and Fe(II). The detection limits of 0.3 and 0.7 nM were achieved for Fe(II) and Fe(II+III), together with their respective dynamic linear ranges of 0.5-250 and 0.9-250 nM. The system was successfully deployed and run consecutively for about 1 week during a cruise in August 2009 to the East China Sea off the Changjiang Estuary. The distribution of operationally defined field dissolvable Fe(II) and Fe(II+III) (expressed as Fea(II) and Fea(II+III)) in these areas was obtained, which showed that both Fea(II) and Fea(II+III) concentrations decreased with salinity when there were relatively high Fea(II) concentrations (up to about 120 nM) near shore. A distinct distribution of Fea(II) to Fea(II+III) ratios was also revealed, with a ratio of 0.58 in the water off Changjiang Estuary and 0.19 in the open ocean.

  11. PCB congener distribution in estuarine water, sediment and fish samples: implications for monitoring programs.

    PubMed

    Fikslin, Thomas J; Santoro, Edward D

    2003-09-01

    Traditional analyses for PCBs in environmental matrices have focused on commercial Aroclor mixtures with detection limits in the 100 to 1000 part per trillion range. This approach has recently been supplanted by analyses for specific PCB compounds called congeners with detection limits less than 0.5 ppt. At the national level, total PCB determinations based upon selected PCB congeners typically characterize analyses of surface water, sediment and tissue. These federal efforts rely on a suite of 18 to 20 congeners out of a total of 209 congeners to characterize total PCB. The present study compares total PCB estimates based upon this subset of congeners with estimates based upon an expanded list of 81 congeners from water, sediment and fish tissue collected from the Delaware Estuary. Analytical data from monitoring programs conducted in the Delaware Estuary by the Delaware River Basin Commission, NOAA National Ocean Service, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency from 1996 to 1998 were evaluated. Total PCB estimates derived from the different sets of congeners, including the adjustment factor of 2.0 used by NOAA, were compared. This evaluation indicated that differences exist between total PCB determinations based upon these approaches, and that these differences vary depending on the matrix analyzed. The bias associated with using a smaller set of PCB congeners, and the implications for risk assessment are discussed.

  12. Clean Sampling and Analysis of River and Estuarine Waters for Trace Metal Studies.

    PubMed

    Jiann, Kuo-Tung; Wen, Liang-Saw; Santschi, Peter H

    2016-07-01

    Most of the trace metal concentrations in ambient waters obtained a few decades ago have been considered unreliable owing to the lack of contamination control. Developments of some techniques aiming to reduce trace metal contamination in the last couple of decades have resulted in concentrations reported now being orders of magnitude lower than those in the past. These low concentrations often necessitate preconcentration of water samples prior to instrumental analysis of samples. Since contamination can appear in all phases of trace metal analyses, including sample collection (and during preparation of sampling containers), storage and handling, pretreatments, and instrumental analysis, specific care needs to be taken in order to reduce contamination levels at all steps. The effort to develop and utilize "clean techniques" in trace metal studies allows scientists to investigate trace metal distributions and chemical and biological behavior in greater details. This advancement also provides the required accuracy and precision of trace metal data allowing for environmental conditions to be related to trace metal concentrations in aquatic environments. This protocol that is presented here details needed materials for sample preparation, sample collection, sample pretreatment including preconcentration, and instrumental analysis. By reducing contamination throughout all phases mentioned above for trace metal analysis, much lower detection limits and thus accuracy can be achieved. The effectiveness of "clean techniques" is further demonstrated using low field blanks and good recoveries for standard reference material. The data quality that can be obtained thus enables the assessment of trace metal distributions and their relationships to environmental parameters.

  13. Effects of Cold Water Immersion on Muscle Oxygenation During Repeated Bouts of Fatiguing Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Simon S.; Ting, Kin Hung; Hon, Maurice; Fung, Natalie Y.; Choi, Manfi M.; Cheng, Juno C.; Yeung, Ella W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Postexercise cold water immersion has been advocated to athletes as a means of accelerating recovery and improving performance. Given the effects of cold water immersion on blood flow, evaluating in vivo changes in tissue oxygenation during cold water immersion may help further our understanding of this recovery modality. This study aimed to investigate the effects of cold water immersion on muscle oxygenation and performance during repeated bouts of fatiguing exercise in a group of healthy young adults. Twenty healthy subjects performed 2 fatiguing bouts of maximal dynamic knee extension and flexion contractions both concentrically on an isokinetic dynamometer with a 10-min recovery period in between. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a cold water immersion (treatment) or passive recovery (control) group. Changes in muscle oxygenation were monitored continuously using near-infrared spectroscopy. Muscle performance was measured with isokinetic dynamometry during each fatiguing bout. Skin temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, and muscle soreness ratings were also assessed. Repeated measures ANOVA analysis was used to evaluate treatment effects. The treatment group had a significantly lower mean heart rate and lower skin temperature compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Cold water immersion attenuated a reduction in tissue oxygenation in the second fatiguing bout by 4% when compared with control. Muscle soreness was rated lower 1 day post-testing (P < 0.05). However, cold water immersion had no significant effect on muscle performance in subsequent exercise. As the results show that cold water immersion attenuated decreased tissue oxygenation in subsequent exercise performance, the metabolic response to exercise after cold water immersion is worthy of further exploration. PMID:26735552

  14. Effect of river discharge and geometry on tides and net water transport in an estuarine network, an idealized model applied to the Yangtze Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alebregtse, N. C.; de Swart, H. E.

    2016-07-01

    Tidal propagation in, and division of net water transport over different channels in an estuarine network are analyzed using a newly developed idealized model. The water motion in this model is governed by the cross-sectionally averaged shallow water equations and is forced by tides at the seaward boundaries and by river discharge. Approximate analytical solutions are constructed by means of a harmonic truncation and a perturbation expansion in a small parameter, being the ratio of tidal amplitude and depth. The net water transport results from an imposed river discharge and from residual water transport generated by nonlinear tidal rectification. Two new drivers are identified that contribute to the net water transport in tidal estuarine networks, viz. the generation of residual water transport due to gradients in dynamic pressure and due to a coupling between the tidally averaged and quarter diurnal currents through the quadratic bottom stress. The model is applied in a case study on the Yangtze Estuary, to investigate tides and division of net water transport over its multiple channels during the wet and dry season, as well as before and after the construction of the Deepwater Navigation Channel. Model results agree fairly well with observations. Process analysis reveals that the decrease in tides from dry to wet season is due to enhanced bottom stress generated by river-tide interactions. Also, the seasonal variations in net water transport are explained. It is furthermore shown and explained that due to the Deepwater Navigation Channel tidal currents have increased and net water transport has decreased in the North Passage. These changes have profound implications for net sediment transport and salinity intrusion.

  15. Performance of a biological deoxygenation process for ships' ballast water treatment under very cold water conditions.

    PubMed

    de Lafontaine, Yves; Despatie, Simon-Pierre

    2014-02-15

    Water deoxygenation is listed among the promising on-board treatment technologies to treat ships' ballast waters to reduce the risk of species transfer. We assessed the performance of a yeast-based bioreactive deoxygenation process in very cold water (<2°C) and determined the potential toxicity of the residual treated waters. Experiments using two treatment levels (0.5% and 1% v/v) were conducted in large-volume (4.5m(3)) tanks over 19 days at mean temperature of 1.5°C. Time to hypoxia varied between 10.3 and 16 days, being slightly higher than the predicted time of 9.8 days from previous empirical relationships. Water deoxygenation was achieved when yeast density exceeded 5×10(5) viable cellsmL(-1) and variation in time to hypoxia was mainly explained by difference in yeast growth. There was no oxycline and no significant difference in yeast density over the 2-m deep water column. Results from six bioassays indicated weak toxic response of treated waters at the 1.0% level, but no potential toxic response at the 0.5% treatment level. Results confirmed that the potential application of a yeast-based deoxygenation process for treating ships' ballast waters extended over the range of water temperature typically encountered during most shipping operational conditions. Time to reach full deoxygenation may however be limiting for universal application of this treatment which should be preferably used for ships making longer voyages in cold environments. There was no evidence that biological deoxygenation at low temperature did increase toxicity risk of treated waters to impede their disposal at the time of discharge. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Environmental forcing of the Campeche cold-water coral province, southern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebbeln, D.; Wienberg, C.; Wintersteller, P.; Freiwald, A.; Becker, M.; Beuck, L.; Dullo, C.; Eberli, G. P.; Glogowski, S.; Matos, L.; Forster, N.; Reyes-Bonilla, H.; Taviani, M.

    2014-04-01

    With an extension of > 40 km2 the recently discovered Campeche cold-water coral province located at the northeastern rim of the Campeche Bank in the southern Gulf of Mexico belongs to the largest coherent cold-water coral areas discovered so far. The Campeche province consists of numerous 20-40 m-high elongated coral mounds that are developed in intermediate water depths of 500 to 600 m. The mounds are colonized by a vivid cold-water coral ecosystem that covers the upper flanks and summits. The rich coral community is dominated by the framework-building Scleractinia Enallopsammia profunda and Lophelia pertusa, while the associated benthic megafauna shows a rather scarce occurrence. The recent environmental setting is characterized by a high surface water production caused by a local upwelling center and a dynamic bottom-water regime comprising vigorous bottom currents, obvious temporal variability, and strong density contrasts, which all together provide optimal conditions for the growth of cold-water corals. This setting - potentially supported by the diel vertical migration of zooplankton in the Campeche area - controls the delivering of food particles to the corals. The Campeche cold-water coral province is, thus, an excellent example highlighting the importance of the oceanographic setting in securing the food supply for the development of large and vivid cold-water coral ecosystems.

  17. Environmental forcing of the Campeche cold-water coral province, southern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebbeln, D.; Wienberg, C.; Wintersteller, P.; Freiwald, A.; Becker, M.; Beuck, L.; Dullo, C.; Eberli, G. P.; Glogowski, S.; Matos, L.; Forster, N.; Reyes-Bonilla, H.; Taviani, M.; MSM 20-4 shipboard scientific party, the

    2013-11-01

    With an extension of >40 km2 the recently discovered Campeche cold-water coral province located at the northeastern rim of the Campeche Bank in the southern Gulf of Mexico belongs to the largest coherent cold-water coral areas discovered so far. The Campeche province consists of numerous 20 to 40 m high coral ridges that are developed in intermediate water depths of 500 to 600 m. The ridges are colonized by a vivid cold-water coral ecosystem that covers the upper flanks and summits. The rich coral community is dominated by the framework-building scleractinia Enallopsammia profunda and Lophelia pertusa while the associated benthic megafauna shows a rather scarce occurrence. The recent environmental setting is characterized by a high surface water production caused by a local upwelling center and a dynamic bottom water regime comprising vigorous bottom currents, internal waves and strong density contrasts, which all together provide optimal conditions for the growth of cold-water corals. The strong hydrodynamics - potentially supported by the diel vertical migration of zooplankton in the Campeche area - drive the delivering of food particles to the corals. The Campeche cold-water coral province is, thus, an excellent example highlighting the importance of the hydrographic setting in securing the food supply for the development of large and vivid cold-water coral ecosystems.

  18. Cold Water Swimming Beneficially Modulates Insulin Sensitivity in Middle-Aged Individuals.

    PubMed

    Gibas-Dorna, Magdalena; Chęcińska, Zuzanna; Korek, Emilia; Kupsz, Justyna; Sowińska, Anna; Krauss, Hanna

    2016-10-01

    We determined whether cold water swimming for six consecutive months results in adaptive changes in body composition and insulin sensitivity. Thirty healthy subjects aged 50.2 ± 9.4 years were exposed to cold water at least twice a week. Body composition was determined and serum glucose and insulin served to calculate beta-cell function, insulin sensitivity, and resistance using HOMA2. Compared with control subjects, swimmers were overweight, and had greater percent body fat and beta cell function. Women had lower values of BMI, fat free mass, muscle mass, visceral adipose tissue level, and greater percent body fat than men. Increased insulin sensitivity and decreased insulin secretion and resistance from beginning to middle of swim season was observed in females and in lean subjects. Findings suggest that men and women differ in regard to body composition and response to repeated cold exposure. Cold water swimming may beneficially modulate insulin sensitivity in cold acclimated lean swimmers.

  19. Testing of a technique for remotely measuring water salinity in an estuarine environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomann, G. C.

    1975-01-01

    An aircraft experiment was flown on November 7, 1973 to test a technique for remote water salinity measurement. Apparent temperatures at 21 cm and 8-14 micron wavelengths were recorded on eight runs over a line along which the salinity varied from 5 to 30%. Boat measurements were used for calibration and accuracy calculations. Overall RMS accuracy over the complete range of salinities was 3.6%. Overall RMS accuracy for salinities greater than 10%, where the technique is more sensitive, was 2.6%. Much of this error is believed to be due to inability to exactly locate boat and aircraft positions. The standard deviation over the eight runs for salinities or = 10% is 1.4%; this error contains a component due to mislocation of the aircraft also. It is believed that operational use of the technique is possible with accuracies of 1-2%.

  20. Estuarine River Data for the Ten Thousand Islands Area, Florida, Water Year 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byrne, Michael J.; Patino, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected stream discharge, stage, salinity, and water-temperature data near the mouths of 11 tributaries flowing into the Ten Thousand Islands area of Florida from October 2004 to June 2005. Maximum positive discharge from Barron River and Faka Union River was 6,000 and 3,200 ft3/s, respectively; no other tributary exceeded 2,600 ft3/s. Salinity variation was greatest at Barron River and Faka Union River, ranging from 2 to 37 ppt, and from 3 to 34 ppt, respectively. Salinity maximums were greatest at Wood River and Little Wood River, each exceeding 40 ppt. All data were collected prior to the commencement of the Picayune Strand Restoration Project, which is designed to establish a more natural flow regime to the tributaries of the Ten Thousand Islands area.

  1. Modelling the fate and transport of faecal bacteria in estuarine and coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Gao, Guanghai; Falconer, Roger A; Lin, Binliang

    2015-11-15

    This paper details a numerical model developed to predict the fate and transport of faecal bacteria in receiving surface waters. The model was first validated by comparing model predicted faecal bacteria concentrations with available field measurements. The model simulations agreed well with the observation data. After calibration, the model was applied to investigate the effects of different parameters, including: tidal processes, river discharges from the upstream boundaries and bacteria inputs from the upstream boundaries, wastewater treatment works (WwTWs), rivers and combined sewer overflows (CSO), on the concentrations of faecal bacteria in the Ribble Estuary. The results revealed that the tide and upstream boundary bacteria inputs were the primary factors controlling the distribution of faecal bacteria. The bacteria inputs from the WwTWs in the model domain were generally found not to have a significant impact on distribution of faecal bacteria in the estuary. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. ESTUARINE HABITAT RESTORATION

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, Ronald M.; Borde, Amy B.

    2015-09-01

    Restoring estuarine habitats generally means repairing damages caused by humans and natural forces. Because of the extensive human occupation, development, and use of coastal areas for centuries, the extensive estuarine habitats have been either destroyed or significantly impaired.

  3. Bacterial reworking of terrigenous and marine organic matter in estuarine water columns and sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgoin, Luc-Henri; Tremblay, Luc

    2010-10-01

    Amino acids and the bacterial biomarkers muramic acid and D-amino acids were quantified in the ultrafiltered dissolved, particulate and sedimentary organic matter (UDOM, POM and SOM) of the St. Lawrence system (Canada). The main objectives were to better describe the fate of terrigenous and marine organic matter (OM) in coastal zones and to quantify the bacterial contributions to OM composition and diagenesis. Regardless of their origin, the carbon (C) content of the particles substantially decreased with depth, especially near the water-sediment interface. Major diagenetic transformations of organic nitrogen (N) were revealed and important differences were observed between terrigenous and marine OM. Amino acid contents of particles decreased by 66-93% with depth and accounted for 12-30% of the particulate C losses in marine locations. These percentages were respectively 18-56% and 7-11% in the Saguenay Fjord where terrigenous input is important. A preferential removal of particulate N and amino acids with depth or during transport was measured, but only in marine locations and for N-rich particles. This leads to very low amino acid yields in deep marine POM. However, these yields then increased to a level up to three times higher after deposition on sediments, where SOM showed lower C:N ratios than deep POM. The associated increase of bacterial biomarker yields suggests an active in situ resynthesis of amino acids by benthic bacteria. The N content of the substrate most likely determines whether a preferential degradation or an enrichment of N and amino acid are observed. For N-poor OM, such as terrigenous or deep marine POM, the incorporation of exogenous N by attached bacteria can be measured, while the organic N is preferentially used or degraded in N-rich OM. Compared to the POM from the same water samples, the extracted UDOM was poor in N and amino acids and appeared to be mostly made of altered plant and bacterial fragments. Signs of in situ marine

  4. Strength training adaptations after cold-water immersion.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, Michael; Faude, Oliver; Klein, Markus; Pieter, Andrea; Emrich, Eike; Meyer, Tim

    2014-09-01

    Several studies analyzed the effectiveness of cold-water immersion (CWI) to support recovery after strenuous exercise, but the overall results seem to be conflicting. Most of these studies analyzed only short-term recovery effects, whereas the adaptational aspect has been widely neglected. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of repeated cooling after training sessions (CWI) on adaptations to strength training. Seventeen trained male students volunteered the study. After a 2-week familiarization period, a pretest (T1) of 1 repetition maximum (RM) and 12RM was conducted followed by the 5-week strength training period (within-subject design). After the posttest (T2) and a 2-week detraining period, a retention test (T3) was carried out. Directly after each training session, CWI was applied for 1 randomly assigned leg. Cooling consisted of 3 4-minute intervals with a 30-second rest period. The other leg was not cooled. A significant increase in 1RM and 12RM from baseline to T2 and T3 (p < 0.001), respectively, and a further significant increase in 12RM from T2 to T3 (p ≤ 0.05) were observed. In addition, a tendency for a large leg effect with higher values for the "control leg" in both parameters (p = 0.08 each) and a moderate time × leg interaction in favor of the control leg was found (1RM: p = 0.11; 12RM: p = 0.09). The percentage change differences between both conditions were 1.6% for the increase in 1RM from T1 to T2 and 2.0% from T1 to T3 in favor of the control leg. Long-term strength training adaptations in trained subjects can be negatively affected by CWI. However, effects were small, and the practical relevance relative to possible recovery effects needs to be considered in a sports practical setting.

  5. Cold water immersion recovery after simulated collision sport exercise.

    PubMed

    Pointon, Monique; Duffield, Rob

    2012-02-01

    This investigation examined the effects of cold water immersion (CWI) recovery after simulated collision sport exercise. Ten male rugby athletes performed three sessions consisting of a 2 × 30-min intermittent-sprint exercise (ISE) protocol with either tackling (T) or no tackling (CONT), followed by a 20-min CWI intervention (TCWI) or passive recovery (TPASS and CONT) in a randomized order. The ISE consisted of a 15-m sprint every minute separated by self-paced bouts of hard running, jogging, and walking for the remainder of the minute. Every sixth rotation, participants performed 5 × 10-m runs, receiving a shoulder-led tackle to the lower body on each effort. Sprint time and distance covered during ISE were recorded, with voluntary (maximal voluntary contraction; MVC) and evoked neuromuscular function (voluntary activation; VA), electromyogram (root mean square (RMS)), ratings of perceived muscle soreness (MS), capillary and venous blood markers for metabolites and muscle damage, respectively measured before and after exercise, immediately after recovery, and 2 and 24 h after recovery. Total distance covered during exercise was significantly greater in CONT (P = 0.01), without differences between TPASS and TCWI (P > 0.05). TCWI resulted in increased MVC, VA, and RMS immediately after recovery (P < 0.05). M-wave amplitude and peak twitch were significantly increased after recovery and 2 h after recovery, respectively, in TCWI (P < 0.05). Although TCWI had no effect on the elevation in blood markers for muscle damage (P > 0.05), lactate was significantly reduced after recovery compared with TPASS (P = 0.04). CWI also resulted in reduced MS 2 h after recovery compared with TPASS (P < 0.05). The introduction of body contact reduces exercise performance, whereas the use of CWI results in a faster recovery of MVC, VA, and RMS and improves muscle contractile properties and perceptions of soreness after collision-based exercise.

  6. Effect of cold water immersion on postexercise parasympathetic reactivation.

    PubMed

    Buchheit, M; Peiffer, J J; Abbiss, C R; Laursen, P B

    2009-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of cold water immersion (CWI) on postexercise parasympathetic reactivation. Ten male cyclists (age, 29 +/- 6 yr) performed two repeated supramaximal cycling exercises (SE(1) and SE(2)) interspersed with a 20-min passive recovery period, during which they were randomly assigned to either 5 min of CWI in 14 degrees C or a control (N) condition where they sat in an environmental chamber (35.0 +/- 0.3 degrees C and 40.0 +/- 3.0% relative humidity). Rectal temperature (T(re)) and beat-to-beat heart rate (HR) were recorded continuously. The time constant of HR recovery (HRRtau) and a time (30-s) varying vagal-related HR variability (HRV) index (rMSSD(30s)) were assessed during the 6-min period immediately following exercise. Resting vagal-related HRV indexes were calculated during 3-min periods 2 min before and 3 min after SE(1) and SE(2). Results showed no effect of CWI on T(re) (P = 0.29), SE performance (P = 0.76), and HRRtau (P = 0.61). In contrast, all vagal-related HRV indexes were decreased after SE(1) (P < 0.001) and tended to decrease even further after SE(2) under N condition but not with CWI. When compared with the N condition, CWI increased HRV indexes before (P < 0.05) and rMSSD(30s) after (P < 0.05) SE(2). Our study shows that CWI can significantly restore the impaired vagal-related HRV indexes observed after supramaximal exercise. CWI may serve as a simple and effective means to accelerate parasympathetic reactivation during the immediate period following supramaximal exercise.

  7. Effects of adaptation on biodegradation rates in sediment/water cores from estuarine and freshwater environments

    SciTech Connect

    Spain, J.C.; Pritchard, P.H.; Bourquin, A.W.

    1980-10-01

    Experiments were devised to determine whether exposure to xenobiotics would cause microbial populations to degrade the compounds more rapidly during subsequent exposures. Studies were done with water/sediment systems (ecocores) taken from a salt marsh and a river. Systems were tested for adaptation to the model compounds methyl parathion and p-nitrophenol. /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ released from radioactive parent compounds was used as a measure of mineralization. River populations preexposed to p-nitrophenol at concentrations as low as 60 ..mu..g/liter degraded the nitrophenol much faster than did control populations. River populations preexposed to methyl parathion also adapted to degrade the pesticide more rapidly, but higher concentrations were required. Salt marsh populations did not adapt to degrade methyl parathion. p-nitrophenol-degrading bacteria were isolated from river samples but not from salt marsh samples. Numbers of nitrophenol-degrading bacteria increased 4 to 5 orders of magnitude during adaptation. Results indicate that the ability of populations to adapt depends on the presence of specific microorganisms. Biodegradation rates in laboratory systems can be affected by concentration and prior exposure; therefore, adaptation must be considered when such systems are used to predict the fate of xenobiotics in the environment.

  8. Evidence for anthropogenic 14C-enrichment in estuarine waters adjacent to the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahad, Jason M. E.; Ganeshram, Raja S.; Spencer, Robert G. M.; Uher, Günther; Gulliver, Pauline; Bryant, Charlotte L.

    2006-04-01

    The isotopic composition (δ13C and Δ14C) of high molecular weight dissolved organic carbon (HMW DOC) was studied in the Tyne and Tweed estuaries, NE England. Despite significant removal of terrigenous HMW DOC in the low salinity regions (S < 15), Δ14C remained modern with little variation around 115‰. This lack of apparent age discrimination was attributed to either non-oxidative removal or the absence of a significant proportion of old refractory C in the HMW DOC pool. At S > 15, we observed seaward increases in δ13C and Δ14C. With no documented local 14C inputs, we attributed non-bomb related 14C-enrichment at S > 15 to a possible `lingering effect' of distal anthropogenic sources in near-coastal North Sea HMW DOC. Given the global distribution of potential sources, we propose that anthropogenic 14C should be considered in assigning ages of DOC pools in near-coastal waters and suggest its possible use as a tracer for DOC transformations.

  9. Use of a water effect ratio to develop an estuarine copper site-specific standard

    SciTech Connect

    Brosnan, T.

    1995-12-31

    Development of a copper site-specific standard in New York Harbor involved several steps: (1) EPA`s Indicator Species Procedure was used to develop a Water Effect Ratio (WER), which produces a biologically-based adjustment to the existing criteria. Samples from seven stations were collected during high and low river-flow conditions in 1992--93. Toxicity testing included embryo-larval development tests on two bivalves, an urchin, and a shrimp. A red algae was used for a sexual reproduction test. This testing yielded WER`s of 1.33 2.1 7, with an average of 1.49. When multiplied by the existing EPA criteria of 2.9 ug/L (total recoverable), this yielded a preliminary acute site specific standard of 4.3 ug/L (total recoverable); (2) Further analysis of these data, combined with a literature search of similar data, resulted in a recalculation of the original national acute criteria value, from 2.9 ug/L (total recoverable) to 5.3 ug/L (dissolved). Multiplying the WER by the recalculated national criteria yielded a final acute site, specific criteria of 7.9 ug/L (dissolved); (3) Finally, EPA`s original criteria indicated that achieving the acute criterion would be protective of chronic effects (i.e. the acute:chronic ratio (ACR) was 2). However, EPA, recently decided that an ACR of 2 was no longer valid, and decided to use the freshwater ACR of 2.8. This resulted in a recalculation of the national chronic criteria to 3.75 ug/L (dissolved). Combined with the WER of 1.49, this yielded a final chronic site specific standard of 5.6 ug/L. The new standard eliminated ambient violations in most of the harbor, and removed the need for wasteload allocations at 12 of NYC`s 14 sewage treatment plants.

  10. Genomics and Ecophysiology of Heterotrophic Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria Isolated from Estuarine Surface Water

    PubMed Central

    Severin, Ina; Hansen, Lars H.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ability to reduce atmospheric nitrogen (N2) to ammonia, known as N2 fixation, is a widely distributed trait among prokaryotes that accounts for an essential input of new N to a multitude of environments. Nitrogenase reductase gene (nifH) composition suggests that putative N2-fixing heterotrophic organisms are widespread in marine bacterioplankton, but their autecology and ecological significance are unknown. Here, we report genomic and ecophysiology data in relation to N2 fixation by three environmentally relevant heterotrophic bacteria isolated from Baltic Sea surface water: Pseudomonas stutzeri strain BAL361 and Raoultella ornithinolytica strain BAL286, which are gammaproteobacteria, and Rhodopseudomonas palustris strain BAL398, an alphaproteobacterium. Genome sequencing revealed that all were metabolically versatile and that the gene clusters encoding the N2 fixation complex varied in length and complexity between isolates. All three isolates could sustain growth by N2 fixation in the absence of reactive N, and this fixation was stimulated by low concentrations of oxygen in all three organisms (≈4 to 40 µmol O2 liter−1). P. stutzeri BAL361 did, however, fix N at up to 165 µmol O2 liter−1, presumably accommodated through aggregate formation. Glucose stimulated N2 fixation in general, and reactive N repressed N2 fixation, except that ammonium (NH4+) stimulated N2 fixation in R. palustris BAL398, indicating the use of nitrogenase as an electron sink. The lack of correlations between nitrogenase reductase gene expression and ethylene (C2H4) production indicated tight posttranscriptional-level control. The N2 fixation rates obtained suggested that, given the right conditions, these heterotrophic diazotrophs could contribute significantly to in situ rates. PMID:26152586

  11. Hymenobacter koreensis sp. nov. and Hymenobacter saemangeumensis sp. nov., isolated from estuarine water.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ji Young; Chun, Jeesun; Choi, Ahyoung; Moon, Sung Hyun; Cho, Jang-Cheon; Jahng, Kwang Yeop

    2013-12-01

    Two Gram-reaction-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile and red-pink-pigmented bacterial strains, designated GYR3077(T) and GSR0100(T), were isolated from a water sample of the Mangyung estuary enclosed by the Saemangeum Embankment in JEOLlabuk-do, South Korea, and were characterized using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA genes of strains GYR3077(T) and GSR0100(T) exhibited sequence similarities of 95.9 % to Hymenobacter deserti ZLB-3(T) and 96.6 % to Hymenobacter soli PB17(T), respectively, and indicated that these isolates belonged to the phylum Bacteroidetes. The major cellular fatty acids present in the two isolates were iso-C15 : 0, C16 : 1ω5c, summed feature 4 (iso-C17 : 1 I and/or anteiso-C17 : 1 B) and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c). The major respiratory quinone and polyamine patterns were menaquinone-7 and sym-homospermidine, characteristic of the genus Hymenobacter. Flexirubin-type pigments were absent in both strains. The DNA G+C contents of strains GYR3077(T) and GSR0100(T) were 60.2 mol% and 61.9 mol%, respectively. The major polar lipid of strains GYR3077(T) and GSR0100(T) was phosphatidylethanolamine. Based on the morphological and physiological properties, strains GYR3077(T) and GSR0100(T) were considered to represent two novel species of the genus Hymenobacter, for which the names Hymenobacter koreensis sp. nov. (type strain GYR3077(T) = KACC 16451(T) = JCM 17924(T)) and Hymenobacter saemangeumensis sp. nov. (type strain GSR0100(T) = KACC 16452(T) = JCM 17923(T)) are proposed.

  12. [COLD and HOT nature of Coptis & Evodia and their prescriptions investigated with diet restriction/cold-water swimming mice models].

    PubMed

    Ren, Yong-shen; Wang, Jia-bo; Zhao, Yan-ling; Zhang, Ping; Zhao, Hai-ping; Zhang, Xue-ru; Zhou, Can-ping; Xiao, Xiao-he; Jin, Cheng

    2009-11-01

    To establish a new method to evaluate the COLD and HOT nature of Coptis & Evodia and their prescriptions Zuojinwan and Fanzuojinwan. Physical models of mice were established by diet restriction with cold-water swimming (weak model, WM) and fed with high protein animal feeds (strong model, SM). An instrument with cold and hot pads was used to investigate the variation of temperature tropism among SM and WM groups of mice affected by drugs. Meanwhile, the oxygen consumption and activity of adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) were detected, in order to investigate the mechanism of energy metabolism which might be affected by these drugs. The results showed that the drug effects gradually changed in an order of "Coptis-->Zuojinwan--> Fanzuojinwan-->Evodia". In detail, Coptis increased the remaining rate (RR) of mice on hot pad, decreased oxygen consumption and ATPase activity (n=6, P < 0.01 or P < 0.05), while Evodia performed inversely; which indicated the COLD nature of Coptis and HOT nature of Evodia, and confirmed with their traditional definition in medicinal works. In conclusion, the methods applied in this work, can objectively and directly express the nature disparity between the two herbs and predict the tendency of changes of the nature of their combination, which brings a new approach in investigation of the nature theory of traditional Chinese medicine.

  13. Criticality Safety Evaluation Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facilities Process Water Handling System

    SciTech Connect

    KESSLER, S.F.

    2000-08-10

    This report addresses the criticality concerns associated with process water handling in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. The controls and limitations on equipment design and operations to control potential criticality occurrences are identified.

  14. EPA Method 245.1: Determination of Mercury in Water by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAM lists this method for preparation and analysis of aqueous liquid and drinking water samples. This method will determine mercuric chloride and methoxyethylmercuric acetate as total mercury using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry.

  15. Cold Vacuum Drying facility deionized water system design description (SYS 25)

    SciTech Connect

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-07-02

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) de-ionized water system. The de-ionized water system is used to provide clean, conditioned water, free from contaminants, chlorides and iron for the CVD Facility. Potable water is supplied to the deionized water system, isolated by a backflow prevention device. After the de-ionization process is complete, via a packaged de-ionization unit, de-ionized water is supplied to the process deionization unit.

  16. Repeated cold showers as a method of habituating humans to the initial responses to cold water immersion.

    PubMed

    Eglin, Clare M; Tipton, Michael J

    2005-03-01

    The hypothesis that the initial responses to cold water immersion could be attenuated by repeated cold showers was tested. Eighteen (13 men, 5 women) non-habituated subjects undertook two 3-min head-out seated immersions into stirred water at 10 degrees C wearing swim wear. The immersions were separated by 4 days during which time they took six cold showers. The subjects were randomly split into three groups with different showering regimes: 3 min at 10 degrees C on the back (10B); 3 min at 15 degrees C on the back (15B); and 30 s at 10 degrees C on the back followed by 30 s on the front (10BF). Over the first 30 s of immersion respiratory frequency ( f (R)) was reduced by 21% in groups 10B and 10BF from 54 (14) to 44 (16) breaths.min(-1) ( P <0.05), and 33 (8) to 26 (10) breaths.min(-1) ( P <0.05) respectively, following repeated showers. Group 15B showed no change in f (R). The tachycardia induced on immersion in water at 10 degrees C was not reduced by repeated showers except in group 15B during the last 150 s [from 119 (23) to 105 (25) beats.min(-1), P <0.05]. Repeated showering in water at 10 degrees C reduced the respiratory drive (as measured by f (R)) during head-out immersion in water at the same temperature. No such habituation was observed with repeated showers in warmer water (15 degrees C). It is concluded that when the body surface area cooled is the same, the rate of change of skin temperature is an important factor in determining the degree of habituation produced.

  17. Water and Electrolyte Exchange during Exposure to Cold, Altitude and Combined Cold and Altitude

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-28

    Ther- mogenic drinking was inhibited by beta-2, but not beta-l-adrenergic antagonists as well as by captopril , an inhibitor of the conversion of...least, for the thermogenic drink. To test further this possibility, the angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril , was administered i.p. to...of the vehicle used to dissolved captopril . This group was also transfered from the cold to a neutral environment. Two additional groups, not

  18. Cross-Saharan transport of water vapor via recycled cold pool outflows from moist convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trzeciak, Tomasz M.; Garcia-Carreras, Luis; Marsham, John H.

    2017-02-01

    Very sparse data have previously limited observational studies of meteorological processes in the Sahara. We present an observed case of convectively driven water vapor transport crossing the Sahara over 2.5 days in June 2012, from the Sahel in the south to the Atlas in the north. A daily cycle is observed, with deep convection in the evening generating moist cold pools that fed the next day's convection; the convection then generated new cold pools, providing a vertical recycling of moisture. Trajectories driven by analyses were able to capture the direction of the transport but not its full extent, particularly at night when cold pools are most active, and analyses missed much of the water content of cold pools. The results highlight the importance of cold pools for moisture transport, dust and clouds, and demonstrate the need to include these processes in models in order to improve the representation of Saharan atmosphere.

  19. Cross‐Saharan transport of water vapor via recycled cold pool outflows from moist convection

    PubMed Central

    Trzeciak, Tomasz M.; Garcia‐Carreras, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Very sparse data have previously limited observational studies of meteorological processes in the Sahara. We present an observed case of convectively driven water vapor transport crossing the Sahara over 2.5 days in June 2012, from the Sahel in the south to the Atlas in the north. A daily cycle is observed, with deep convection in the evening generating moist cold pools that fed the next day's convection; the convection then generated new cold pools, providing a vertical recycling of moisture. Trajectories driven by analyses were able to capture the direction of the transport but not its full extent, particularly at night when cold pools are most active, and analyses missed much of the water content of cold pools. The results highlight the importance of cold pools for moisture transport, dust and clouds, and demonstrate the need to include these processes in models in order to improve the representation of Saharan atmosphere. PMID:28344367

  20. Effects of cold water immersion on lower extremity joint biomechanics during running.

    PubMed

    Fukuchi, Claudiane Arakaki; da Rocha, Emmanuel Souza; Stefanyshyn, Darren John

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the influence of cryotherapy on lower extremity running biomechanics. Twenty-six healthy male volunteers were randomised into two intervention groups: cold water (cold water at ~11°C) or tepid water (tepid water at ~26°C). They were required to run at 4.0 ± 0.2 m · s(-1) before and after they underwent water immersion for 20 min. Differences between pre- and post-intervention were used to compare the influence of water intervention during running. Peak joint angles, peak joint moments, peak ground reaction forces (GRF) and contact time (CT) were calculated using three-dimensional gait analysis. Independent t-tests were applied with a significant alpha level set at 0.05. Decreased peak propulsive and vertical GRF, decreased plantarflexion moments, increased hip flexion angle and longer CT were observed following cold water immersion. Although cold water immersion (cryotherapy) affected the running movement, none of the alterations have been related to running biomechanical patterns associated with injuries. Therefore, our results indicated that cold water immersion appears safe prior to running activities.

  1. Methane production correlates positively with methanogens, sulfate-reducing bacteria and pore water acetate at an estuarine brackish-marsh landscape scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, C.; She, C. X.; Jin, Y. F.; Yang, P.; Huang, J. F.

    2013-11-01

    Methane production is influenced by the abundance of methanogens and the availability of terminal substrates. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) also play an important role in the anaerobic decomposition of organic matter. However, the relationships between methane production and methanogen populations, pore water terminal substrates in estuarine brackish marshes are poorly characterized, and even to our knowledge, no published research has explored the relationship between methane production rate and abundance of SRB and pore water dimethyl sulfide (DMS) concentration. We investigated methane production rate, abundances of methanogens and SRB, concentrations of pore water terminal substrates and electron acceptors at a brackish marsh landscape dominated by Phragmites australis, Cyperus malaccensis and Spatina alterniflora marshes zones in the Min River estuary. The average rates of methane production at a soil depth of 30 cm in the three marsh zones were 0.142, 0.058 and 0.067 μg g-1 d-1, respectively. The abundance of both methanogens and SRB in the soil of the P. australis marsh with highest soil organic carbon content was higher than in the C. malaccensis and S. alterniflora marshes. The abundance of methanogens and SRB in the three soil layers was statistically indistinguishable. Mean pore water DMS concentrations at a soil depth of 30 cm under the S. alterniflora marsh were higher than those in the C. malaccensis and P. australis marshes. Methane production rate increased with the abundance of both methanogens and SRB across three marsh zones together at the landscape scale, and also increased with the concentration of pore water acetate, but did not correlate with concentrations of pore water DMS and dissolved CO2. Our results suggest that, provided that substrates are available in ample supply, methanogens can continue to produce methane regardless of whether SRB are prevalent in estuarine brackish marshes.

  2. Imposed Cold-water Ingestion during Open Water Swimming in Internationally Ranked Swimmers.

    PubMed

    Hue, O; Monjo, R; Riera, F

    2015-11-01

    The authors explored the effects of open water swimming in a tropical environment on both core temperature (T c) and thermal perceptions of high-level swimmers during an official international 10-km race and two 5-km swimming tests. The swimmers drank neutral water (i. e., 28.0±3.0°C) ad libitum every 2,000 m during Competition, whereas the ingested volume was imposed in the 5-km tests: every 1,000 m, they drank 190 mL of cold water (CW, 1.1±0.7°C) or neutral water (NW, 28.0±3.0°C). They also self-rated their thermal comfort and sensation (TC and TS), and their T c was recorded. The study demonstrated that adequate fluid intake significantly decreased T c in swimmers swimming at race pace in hot water (i. e., 37.5±0.3°C vs. 38.3±0.4°C, in NW vs. Competition, respectively). This effect was more pronounced with cold water (i. e., 36.7±1.1°C, in CW). No significant changes were noted in mean heart rate (i. e., 145±5, 143±4 and 141±5 bpm for NW, CW and Competition, respectively). Further studies are needed to explore the effect of this cooling method on the performances of international swimmers during tropical swimming events.

  3. Nosocomial transmission of Legionella pneumophila to a child from a hospital's cold-water supply.

    PubMed

    Johansson, P J Hugo; Andersson, Kaj; Wiebe, Thomas; Schalén, Claes; Bernander, Sverker

    2006-01-01

    Human Legionella infections mainly consist of community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia and rarely affect children. We describe a nosocomial infection with Legionella pneumophila, serogroup 1, subgroup OLDA, in an immunocompromized 2-y-old girl at a paediatric clinic. L. pneumophila identical to that of the patient was found in the hospital's cold-water but not in the hot-water distribution system. Transmission of Legionella to the girl most probably occurred by Legionella-contaminated cold water mixed and heated by water from the hot-water system. Mixing of hot and cold water probably occurred through thermostatic water mixing valves connected to showers regulated by a handle at the shower head. Nosocomial Legionella infection might thus have occurred, although circulating hot water temperatures never dropped below 53 degrees C and cultures for surveillance of Legionella from central parts of the hot-water system have been consistently negative. Legionellae were successfully eliminated from the hospital's cold-water distribution system by hot water flushing at 73 degrees C for 1h.

  4. Additive effects of caffeine and cold water during submaximal leg exercise.

    PubMed

    Doubt, T J; Hsieh, S S

    1991-04-01

    Ten males exercised for 55 min at 1.5 W.kg-1 in 28 degrees C and 18 degrees C water to determine whether cold water plus caffeine (CF) ingestion had additive effects on energy production or core temperature. Two immersions were done at each water temperature, once with CF (5 mg.kg-1) and once with placebo (PL). Cold water alone (28 PL vs 18 PL) decreased free fatty acid (FFA, -13 +/- 8%) and glycerol (-37 +/- 15%) and increased lactate (18 +/- 12%), VO2 (11 +/- 3%), and minute ventilation (VE, 8 +/- 4%) but did not change glucose, heart rate (HR), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), or rectal temperature. CF alone (28 PL vs 28 CF) increased FFA (52 +/- 18%), glycerol (14 +/- 8%), lactate (28 +/- 10%), VO2 (9 +/- 3%), VE (7 +/- 5%), HR (4 +/- 1%), and rectal temperature (2 +/- 0.4%) but did not alter RER. Significant additive effects of cold water + CF (28 PL vs 18 CF) were noted for FFA, glycerol, lactate, VO2, and VE but not for RER and rectal temperature. These findings indicate that additive effects of cold water + CF alter substrate availability and increase energy production, but without a change in lipid utilization or core temperature. It may be concluded that use of CF during exercise in cold water has no physiological benefit.

  5. Supercooling and the Mpemba effect: When hot water freezes quicker than cold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auerbach, David

    1995-10-01

    Temperature measurements taken near vessel walls show that initially hot water may well begin to freeze quicker than cold. This is not, as previously surmised, due to the cooling history of the water (e.g., air expulsion during heating). Rather, supercooling virtually always takes place. On those occasions where the cold water supercools sufficiently more than the hot the Mpemba scenario is the following: The hot water supercools, but only slightly, before spontaneously freezing. Superficially it looks completely frozen. The cold water (in larger volume than that of the hot sample) supercools to a lower local temperature than the hot before it spontaneously freezes. This scenario can occur more often for ambient cooling temperatures between -6 °C and -12 °C.

  6. The responses of skin blood flow, mean arterial pressure and R-R interval induced by cold stimulation with cold wind and ice water.

    PubMed

    Shibahara, N; Matsuda, H; Umeno, K; Shimada, Y; Itoh, T; Terasawa, K

    1996-11-06

    This study was designed to evaluate the peripheral circulation response to cold wind stimulation. Skin blood flow (SBF), ECG R-R intervals (RRs) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured in ten healthy men under strictly controlled conditions. Cold wind flow and ice water bath were prepared as cold stimulations. The subjects were exposed to each cold stimulation and the values of the responses were simultaneously recorded. The cold wind stimulation reduced SBF (maximally 40.4 +/- 3.2%) and increased MAP (maximally 106.9 +/- 1.3%), but did not affect RRs. On the other hand, all parameters were affected by the ice water stimulation, which reduced SBF to 16.4 +/- 1.2% and RRs to 85.1 +/- 3.0%, and increased MAP to 130.6 +/- 2.4% compared with the control state. All subjects suffered from intense pain during the ice water but not the cold wind stimulation, and two of them were eliminated from this study because of vagotonia. After phentolamine iontophoresis was used to block the receptor of peripheral alpha-adrenergic nerve terminals, the cold wind stimulation did not affect SBF. These results suggest that cold wind stimulation is a useful test for evaluating peripheral alpha-adrenergic nerve function in relation to cold sensation, without increase of RRs and noxious pain.

  7. Spatial variability in surface-water pCO2 and gas exchange in the world's largest semi-enclosed estuarine system: St. Lawrence Estuary (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinauer, Ashley; Mucci, Alfonso

    2017-07-01

    The incomplete spatial coverage of CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) measurements across estuary types represents a significant knowledge gap in current regional- and global-scale estimates of estuarine CO2 emissions. Given the limited research on CO2 dynamics in large estuaries and bay systems, as well as the sources of error in the calculation of pCO2 (carbonic acid dissociation constants, organic alkalinity), estimates of air-sea CO2 fluxes in estuaries are subject to large uncertainties. The Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence (EGSL) at the lower limit of the subarctic region in eastern Canada is the world's largest estuarine system, and is characterized by an exceptional richness in environmental diversity. It is among the world's most intensively studied estuaries, yet there are no published data on its surface-water pCO2 distribution. To fill this data gap, a comprehensive dataset was compiled from direct and indirect measurements of carbonate system parameters in the surface waters of the EGSL during the spring or summer of 2003-2016. The calculated surface-water pCO2 ranged from 435 to 765 µatm in the shallow partially mixed upper estuary, 139-578 µatm in the deep stratified lower estuary, and 207-478 µatm along the Laurentian Channel in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Overall, at the time of sampling, the St. Lawrence Estuary served as a very weak source of CO2 to the atmosphere, with an area-averaged CO2 degassing flux of 0.98 to 2.02 mmol C m-2 d-1 (0.36 to 0.74 mol C m-2 yr-1). A preliminary analysis revealed that respiration (upper estuary), photosynthesis (lower estuary), and temperature (Gulf of St. Lawrence) controlled the spatial variability in surface-water pCO2. Whereas we used the dissociation constants of Cai and Wang (1998) to calculate estuarine pCO2, formulations recommended for best practices in open ocean environments may underestimate pCO2 at low salinities, while those of Millero (2010) may result in overestimates.

  8. A light water excess heat reaction suggests that cold fusion may be alkali-hydrogen fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, R.T. )

    1992-09-01

    This paper reports that Mills and Kneizys presented data in support of a light water excess heat reaction obtained with an electrolytic cell highly reminiscent of the Fleischmann-Pons cold fusion cell. The claim of Mills and Kneizys that their excess heat reaction can be explained on the basis of a novel chemistry, which supposedly also explains cold fusion, is rejected in favor of their reaction being, instead, a light water cold fusion reaction. It is the first known light water cold fusion reaction to exhibit excess heat, it may serve as a prototype to expand our understanding of cold fusion. From this new reactions are deduced, including those common to past cold fusion studies. This broader pattern of nuclear reactions is typically seen to involve a fusion of the nuclides of the alkali atoms with the simplest of the alkali-type nuclides, namely, protons, deuterons, and tritons. Thus, the term alkali-hydrogen fusion seems appropriate for this new type of reaction with three subclasses: alkali-hydrogen fusion, alkali-deuterium fusion, and alkali-tritium fusion. A new three-dimensional transmission resonance model (TRM) is sketched. Finally, preliminary experimental evidence in support of the hypothesis of a light water nuclear reaction and alkali-hydrogen fusion is reported. Evidence is presented that appears to strongly implicate the transmission resonance phenomenon of the new TRM.

  9. The effect of cold acclimation on the water relations and freezing tolerance of Hordeum vulgare L.

    PubMed

    Burchett, S; Niven, S; Fuller, M P

    2006-01-01

    During a 5 degree C and a 5/-1 degree C cold acclimation (CA) regime there was a significant decline in the water potential of winter barley, and a concurrent decline in tissue water content of the 5/-1 degree C CA plants. Results of carbohydrate analysis illustrated a significant (P < 0.001) accumulation of sucrose, fructose and glucose in the 5/-1 degree C CA plants, which was inversely correlated to water potential. Using an infrared imaging radiometer during a convection frost test the water release time (WRT) of 5/-1 degree C CA was demonstrated to be significantly (P < 0.001) longer than that observed in non-cold acclimated plants. This observation is consistent with visual analysis of exotherm curves where the rate of cellular water release to extracellular ice is reduced in the 5/-1 degree C CA plants, compared to the non-cold acclimated plants. These biochemical and physiological changes were correlated to increased plant health following a non-lethal freezing test to -5 degree C, where non-cold acclimated plants produced 2.3 +/- 0.3 tillers and 5 degree C and 5/-1 degree C CA plants produced 2.4 +/- 0.3 and 4.7 +/- 0.7 tillers, respectively. Results from this study imply that cold acclimation leads to changes in the physical state of water that result in a less osmotically responsive cellular environment and subsequently significantly less damage to meristematic tissue.

  10. Geochemical and physical constraints for the occurrence of living cold-water corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flögel, S.; Dullo, W.-Chr.; Pfannkuche, O.; Kiriakoulakis, K.; Rüggeberg, A.

    2014-01-01

    Cold-water coral communities cover a wide range of possible habitats in terms of latitude, ocean basins, and depth, with ongoing studies continually expanding occurrences in various regions of the global ocean. A range of factors determines the formation of cold-water coral reefs, such as physical, hydrochemical, and biological (e.g. food supply) factors. Recently, more and more modeling studies have emerged using a variety of mathematical approaches have emerged including environmental niche factor analysis (ENFA) and predictive habitat suitability models. However, only few studies have attempted to characterize the underlying suite of hydro-biogeochemical and physical constraints of cold-water coral reefs and to differentiate between pristine reef growth vs. sites with reduced or no coral occurrences. This study concentrates on new data and a compilation of existing data sets on the physical and chemical properties in the NE Atlantic and the Mediterranean. It explores the influence of ambient bottom waters and its characteristics on living cold-water reefs and mounds formed by Lophelia pertusa. Several questions are addressed: (1) what are the physical and geochemical boundary conditions of living cold-water corals? (2) Do these geochemical parameters correlate with proposed physical prerequisites? (3) Is there a general difference in the signature of living and dead coral sites?

  11. Distribution of the Luminous Bacterium Beneckea harveyi in a Semitropical Estuarine Environment.

    PubMed

    O'brien, C H; Sizemore, R K

    1979-11-01

    Bioluminescent bacteria were found in the water column, sediment, shrimp, and gastrointestinal tract of marine fishes from the semitropical estuarine environment of the East Lagoon, Galveston Island, Tex. Populations in the water column decreased during cold weather while sedimentary populations persisted. The highest percentages of luminous organisms were isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of marine fishes, where they persisted during 5 days of starvation. The presence of chitin temporarily increased intestinal populations. All isolates were Beneckea harveyi, whose natural habitat appears to be the gut of fishes and whose free-living reservoir appears to be marine sediments.

  12. Legionella species diversity and dynamics from surface reservoir to tap water: from cold adaptation to thermophily

    PubMed Central

    Lesnik, René; Brettar, Ingrid; Höfle, Manfred G

    2016-01-01

    Water samples of the Drinking Water Supply System (DWSS) of the city of Braunschweig were analysed for its Legionella species composition using genus-specific PCR amplicons and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) fingerprint analyses based on 16S rRNA genes. These analyses comprised the whole supply chain including raw water, treatment process and large-scale storage, and a seasonal study of finished drinking water sampled monthly from cold and hot tap water. Treatment of raw water had a major impact on Legionella species by reducing their diversity and abundances. The Legionella species composition of the tap water was highly distinct from that of both source waters. In cold water, 8–14 different phylotypes of Legionella (PTLs) were observed per sample with relative abundances ranging from >1% to 53%. In hot water, L. pneumophila was present during all seasons at high relative abundances (8–40%) accompanied by 5–14 other PTLs of which 6 PTLs were in common with cold water. This thermophilic Legionella community, including L. pneumophila, was able to grow in the hot water above 50 °C. Such thermophilic Legionella populations are of general relevance for drinking water management and public health, but also for the ecology and evolution of the genus Legionella. PMID:26528838

  13. Legionella species diversity and dynamics from surface reservoir to tap water: from cold adaptation to thermophily.

    PubMed

    Lesnik, René; Brettar, Ingrid; Höfle, Manfred G

    2016-05-01

    Water samples of the Drinking Water Supply System (DWSS) of the city of Braunschweig were analysed for its Legionella species composition using genus-specific PCR amplicons and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) fingerprint analyses based on 16S rRNA genes. These analyses comprised the whole supply chain including raw water, treatment process and large-scale storage, and a seasonal study of finished drinking water sampled monthly from cold and hot tap water. Treatment of raw water had a major impact on Legionella species by reducing their diversity and abundances. The Legionella species composition of the tap water was highly distinct from that of both source waters. In cold water, 8-14 different phylotypes of Legionella (PTLs) were observed per sample with relative abundances ranging from >1% to 53%. In hot water, L. pneumophila was present during all seasons at high relative abundances (8-40%) accompanied by 5-14 other PTLs of which 6 PTLs were in common with cold water. This thermophilic Legionella community, including L. pneumophila, was able to grow in the hot water above 50 °C. Such thermophilic Legionella populations are of general relevance for drinking water management and public health, but also for the ecology and evolution of the genus Legionella.

  14. Oxytocin decreases colonic motility of cold water stressed rats via oxytocin receptors

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiao; Xi, Tao-Fang; Li, Yu-Xian; Wang, Hai-Hong; Qin, Ying; Zhang, Jie-Ping; Cai, Wen-Ting; Huang, Meng-Ting; Shen, Ji-Qiao; Fan, Xi-Min; Shi, Xuan-Zheng; Xie, Dong-Ping

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether cold water intake into the stomach affects colonic motility and the involvement of the oxytocin-oxytocin receptor pathway in rats. METHODS: Female Sprague Dawley rats were used and some of them were ovariectomized. The rats were subjected to gastric instillation with cold (0-4 °C, cold group) or room temperature (20-25 °C, control group) saline for 14 consecutive days. Colon transit was determined with a bead inserted into the colon. Colonic longitudinal muscle strips were prepared to investigate the response to oxytocin in vitro. Plasma concentration of oxytocin was detected by ELISA. Oxytocin receptor expression was investigated by Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemistry was used to locate oxytocin receptors. RESULTS: Colon transit was slower in the cold group than in the control group (P < 0.05). Colonic smooth muscle contractile response to oxytocin decreased, and the inhibitory effect of oxytocin on muscle contractility was enhanced by cold water intake (0.69 ± 0.08 vs 0.88 ± 0.16, P < 0.05). Atosiban and tetrodotoxin inhibited the effect of oxytocin on colonic motility. Oxytocin receptors were located in the myenteric plexus, and their expression was up-regulated in the cold group (P < 0.05). Cold water intake increased blood concentration of oxytocin, but this effect was attenuated in ovariectomized rats (286.99 ± 83.72 pg/mL vs 100.56 ± 92.71 pg/mL, P < 0.05). However, in ovariectomized rats, estradiol treatment increased blood oxytocin, and the response of colonic muscle strips to oxytocin was attenuated. CONCLUSION: Cold water intake inhibits colonic motility partially through oxytocin-oxytocin receptor signaling in the myenteric nervous system pathway, which is estrogen dependent. PMID:25152590

  15. Oxytocin decreases colonic motility of cold water stressed rats via oxytocin receptors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao; Xi, Tao-Fang; Li, Yu-Xian; Wang, Hai-Hong; Qin, Ying; Zhang, Jie-Ping; Cai, Wen-Ting; Huang, Meng-Ting; Shen, Ji-Qiao; Fan, Xi-Min; Shi, Xuan-Zheng; Xie, Dong-Ping

    2014-08-21

    To investigate whether cold water intake into the stomach affects colonic motility and the involvement of the oxytocin-oxytocin receptor pathway in rats. Female Sprague Dawley rats were used and some of them were ovariectomized. The rats were subjected to gastric instillation with cold (0-4 °C, cold group) or room temperature (20-25 °C, control group) saline for 14 consecutive days. Colon transit was determined with a bead inserted into the colon. Colonic longitudinal muscle strips were prepared to investigate the response to oxytocin in vitro. Plasma concentration of oxytocin was detected by ELISA. Oxytocin receptor expression was investigated by Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemistry was used to locate oxytocin receptors. Colon transit was slower in the cold group than in the control group (P < 0.05). Colonic smooth muscle contractile response to oxytocin decreased, and the inhibitory effect of oxytocin on muscle contractility was enhanced by cold water intake (0.69 ± 0.08 vs 0.88 ± 0.16, P < 0.05). Atosiban and tetrodotoxin inhibited the effect of oxytocin on colonic motility. Oxytocin receptors were located in the myenteric plexus, and their expression was up-regulated in the cold group (P < 0.05). Cold water intake increased blood concentration of oxytocin, but this effect was attenuated in ovariectomized rats (286.99 ± 83.72 pg/mL vs 100.56 ± 92.71 pg/mL, P < 0.05). However, in ovariectomized rats, estradiol treatment increased blood oxytocin, and the response of colonic muscle strips to oxytocin was attenuated. Cold water intake inhibits colonic motility partially through oxytocin-oxytocin receptor signaling in the myenteric nervous system pathway, which is estrogen dependent.

  16. Monthly variation and vertical distribution of parent and alkyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in estuarine water column: Role of suspended particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaowei; Yuan, Ke; Chen, Baowei; Lin, Li; Huang, Bensheng; Luan, Tiangang

    2016-09-01

    The distribution and interaction of parent and alkyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (EPA-34 PAHs) among the multiple phases were investigated in estuarine water column of Humen outlet over a 12-months period. The water column was divided into 5 vertical layers, and each layer included dissolved phase, large- and small-size suspended particular matter (SPM). Regarding to EPA-34 PAHs, alkyl homologues were abundant, especially in the dissolved phase and small-size SPM. Moreover, SPM contributed a large proportion of EPA-34 PAHs in the water column especially for the large-size SPM, which therefore play an important role for the transportation of these pollutants. The EPA-34 PAHs concentrations in water column during wet season were higher than those in the dry season due to the decreasing of KD values which were affected by TSS and salinity obviously. Generally, the EPA-34 PAHs concentrations in the water column increased with the increasing of water depth, most of the highest concentrations of EPA-34 PAHs were found in the near-bottom layer due to the rapid sinking of large-size SPM and sediment resuspension. Additionally, during the ebb-flood tide period, the EPA-34 PAHs concentrations in different phases of the water column fluctuated oppositely based on the effects of hydrodynamic conditions.

  17. A column-switching method for quantification of the enantiomers of omeprazole in native matrices of waste and estuarine water samples.

    PubMed

    Barreiro, Juliana Cristina; Vanzolini, Kenia Lourenço; Madureira, Tânia Vieira; Tiritan, Maria Elizabeth; Cass, Quezia Bezerra

    2010-06-30

    This work reports the use of a two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) system for quantification of the enantiomers of omeprazole in distinct native aqueous matrices. An octyl restricted-access media bovine serum albumin column (RAM-BSA C(8)) was used in the first dimension, while a polysaccharide-based chiral column was used in the second dimension with either ultraviolet (UV-vis) or ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry (IT-MS/MS) detection. An in-line configuration was employed to assess the exclusion capacity of the RAM-BSA columns to humic substances. The excluded macromolecules had a molecular mass in the order of 18 kDa. Good selectivity, extraction efficiency, accuracy, and precision were achieved employing a very small amount (500 microL or 1.00 mL) of native water sample per injection, with detection limits of 5.00 microg L(-1), using UV-vis, and 0.0250 microg L(-1), using IT-MS/MS. The total analysis time was only 35 min, with no time spent on sample preparation. The methods were successfully applied to analyze a series of waste and estuarine water samples. The enantiomers were detected in an estuarine water sample collected from the Douro River estuary (Portugal) and in an influent sample from the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) of São Carlos (Brazil). As far as we are concerned, this is the first report of the occurrence of (+)-omeprazole and (-)-omeprazole in native aqueous matrices.

  18. Effects of Drying Temperature on Barrier and Mechanical Properties of Cold-Water Fish Gelatin Films

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fish gelatin films made from Alaska pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) and Alaska pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) were dried at 4C, 23C, 40C, and 60C. The tensile, thermal, thermal stability, water sorption, and water vapor permeability properties were examined for cold-cast gelatin films (dried b...

  19. Coral mucus fuels the sponge loop in warm- and cold-water coral reef ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Rix, Laura; de Goeij, Jasper M.; Mueller, Christina E.; Struck, Ulrich; Middelburg, Jack J.; van Duyl, Fleur C.; Al-Horani, Fuad A.; Wild, Christian; Naumann, Malik S.; van Oevelen, Dick

    2016-01-01

    Shallow warm-water and deep-sea cold-water corals engineer the coral reef framework and fertilize reef communities by releasing coral mucus, a source of reef dissolved organic matter (DOM). By transforming DOM into particulate detritus, sponges play a key role in transferring the energy and nutrients in DOM to higher trophic levels on Caribbean reefs via the so-called sponge loop. Coral mucus may be a major DOM source for the sponge loop, but mucus uptake by sponges has not been demonstrated. Here we used laboratory stable isotope tracer experiments to show the transfer of coral mucus into the bulk tissue and phospholipid fatty acids of the warm-water sponge Mycale fistulifera and cold-water sponge Hymedesmia coriacea, demonstrating a direct trophic link between corals and reef sponges. Furthermore, 21–40% of the mucus carbon and 32–39% of the nitrogen assimilated by the sponges was subsequently released as detritus, confirming a sponge loop on Red Sea warm-water and north Atlantic cold-water coral reefs. The presence of a sponge loop in two vastly different reef environments suggests it is a ubiquitous feature of reef ecosystems contributing to the high biogeochemical cycling that may enable coral reefs to thrive in nutrient-limited (warm-water) and energy-limited (cold-water) environments. PMID:26740019

  20. Coral mucus fuels the sponge loop in warm- and cold-water coral reef ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Rix, Laura; de Goeij, Jasper M; Mueller, Christina E; Struck, Ulrich; Middelburg, Jack J; van Duyl, Fleur C; Al-Horani, Fuad A; Wild, Christian; Naumann, Malik S; van Oevelen, Dick

    2016-01-07

    Shallow warm-water and deep-sea cold-water corals engineer the coral reef framework and fertilize reef communities by releasing coral mucus, a source of reef dissolved organic matter (DOM). By transforming DOM into particulate detritus, sponges play a key role in transferring the energy and nutrients in DOM to higher trophic levels on Caribbean reefs via the so-called sponge loop. Coral mucus may be a major DOM source for the sponge loop, but mucus uptake by sponges has not been demonstrated. Here we used laboratory stable isotope tracer experiments to show the transfer of coral mucus into the bulk tissue and phospholipid fatty acids of the warm-water sponge Mycale fistulifera and cold-water sponge Hymedesmia coriacea, demonstrating a direct trophic link between corals and reef sponges. Furthermore, 21-40% of the mucus carbon and 32-39% of the nitrogen assimilated by the sponges was subsequently released as detritus, confirming a sponge loop on Red Sea warm-water and north Atlantic cold-water coral reefs. The presence of a sponge loop in two vastly different reef environments suggests it is a ubiquitous feature of reef ecosystems contributing to the high biogeochemical cycling that may enable coral reefs to thrive in nutrient-limited (warm-water) and energy-limited (cold-water) environments.

  1. Effects of cold front passage on turbulent fluxes over a large inland water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q.; Liu, H.

    2011-12-01

    Turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat over a large inland water in southern USA were measured using the eddy covariance method through the year of 2008. In addition, net radiation, air temperatures and relative humidity, and water temperature in different depths were also measured. The specific objective of this study is to examine effects of a cold front passage on the surface energy fluxes. For the typical cold front event selected from April 11 to 14, air temperature decreased by 16°C, while surface temperature only dropped 6°C. Atmospheric vapor pressure decreased by 1.6 kPa, while that in the water-air interface dropped 0.7 kPa. The behavior difference in the water-air interface was caused by the passage of cold, dry air masses immediately behind the cold front. During the cold front event, sensible heat and latent heat flux increased by 171 W m-2 and 284 W m-2, respectively. Linear aggression analysis showed that the sensible heat flux was proportional to the product of wind speed and the temperature gradient of water-air interface, with a correlation coefficient of 0.95. Latent heat flux was proportional to the product of wind speed and vapor pressure difference between the water surface and overlaying atmosphere, with a correlation coefficient of 0.81. Also, the correlations between both fluxes and the wind speed were weak. This result indicated that the strong wind associated with the cold front event contributed to the turbulent mixing, which indirectly enhanced surface energy exchange between the water surface and the atmosphere. The relationship between the water heat storage energy and turbulent fluxes was also examined.

  2. European Cold-Water Corals: Hydrography and Geochemistry. What is the message?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dullo, W.-C.; Rüggeberg, A.; Flögel, S.

    2009-04-01

    Cold-water corals are known to be abundant in the world's oceans forming unique reef structures mainly built up by colonial azooxanthellate scleractinians Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata. Focusing on the European continental margin, these cold-water coral reefs occur on moraine ridges off Norway to small coral topped mounds and huge coral banks in the Rockall Trough, the Porcupine Seabight, the Gulf of Cadiz, but only have a patchy occurrence in the Mediterranean Sea. Living cold-water coral reefs occur over a wide bathymetric and hydrographical range. We found that cold-water coral reefs are limited to different intermediate water masses. Measurements of the physical and geological properties showed that parameters such as temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen content, current intensities, and different substrates vary widely without specifically impacting the distribution of living cold-water coral reefs. The habitat of living reefs along the Atlantic European continental margin comprises a temperature-salinity field, with its lower boundary equivalent to the Intermediate Salinity Maximum (ISM). Therefore, cold-water corals of these reefs may report environmental changes, present and past, if the proper geochemical tools are applied. Sr-isotopes seem to be a very promising proxy, since they portray very well the temperature conditions of the ambient seawater from which the coral precipitates. The correlation of established proxies such as ^18O and ^13C with temperature is possible as well, however, it remains difficult since there is no direct temperature equation applicable as in shallow-water corals. Other temperature proxies such as Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca and U/Ca are in?uenced by the complex microstructure of the aragonite skeleton, the rate of calci?cation, and other vital effects observed for coral species. We will present a variety of established and new proxies and will discuss their application and interpretation potential.

  3. Effect of cold water immersion on repeated 1-km cycling performance in the heat.

    PubMed

    Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Abbiss, Chris R; Watson, Greig; Nosaka, Kazunori; Laursen, Paul B

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effect of a short cold water immersion (CWI) intervention on rectal and muscle temperature, isokinetic strength and 1-km cycling time trial performance in the heat. Ten male cyclists performed a 1-km time trial at 35.0+/-0.3 degrees C and 40.0+/-3.0% relative humidity, followed by 20 min recovery sitting in either cold water (14 degrees C) for 5 min or in 35 degrees C air (control); a second 1-km time trial immediately followed. Peak and mean cycling power output were recorded for both time trials. Rectal and muscle temperature, and maximal isokinetic concentric torque of the knee extensors were measured before and immediately after the first and second time trials. Rectal temperature was not different between cold water immersion and control conditions at any time points. After the second time trial, however, muscle temperature was significantly lower (-1.3+/-0.7 degrees C) in cold water immersion compared with the control trial. While peak and mean power decreased from the first to second time trial in both conditions (-86+/-54 W and -24+/-16 W, respectively), maximal isokinetic concentric torque was similar between conditions at all time points. The 5 min cold water immersion intervention lowered muscle temperature but did not affect isokinetic strength or 1-km cycling performance. Copyright (c) 2008 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. View of cold water eddies in Falkland Current off southern Argentina

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-12-14

    SL4-137-3608 (14 Dec. 1973) --- A view of cold water eddies in the Falkland Current off the South Atlantic coast of southern Argentina as seen from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. This picture was taken by one of the Skylab 4 crewmen using a hand-held 70mm Hasselblad camera. This land area (left corner) extends south along the coast from Puerto Deseado (center left border) for about 50 miles. Within the ocean, several light blue areas are visible and represent the occurrence of plankton with the Falkland Current. Over the ocean, the cold water eddies are identified by the circular cloud-free areas within the cloud street pattern and bordered by cumulus cloud buildup (white). The cloud streets indicate the wind is from the southwest and do not form over eddies because energy form the atmosphere is absorbed by the cold ocean water. On the downwind side of the eddies, cumulus clouds tend to form as the cold moist air flows over the warmer water. Similar cloud and eddy features have been observed by the Skylab 4 crewmen in the Yucatan Current off Yucatan Peninsula and in some parts of the South Pacific. Studies are underway by Dr. George Maul, NOAA, and Dr. Robert Stevenson, ONR, to determine the significance of the cold water eddies to ocean dynamics. Photo credit: NASA

  5. The role of salinity in shaping dissolved inorganic nitrogen and N₂O dynamics in estuarine sediment-water interface.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Catarina; Magalhães, Catarina; Joye, Samantha B; Bordalo, Adriano A

    2013-01-15

    We investigated the influence of salinity on sediment inorganic nitrogen dynamics in three Portuguese estuaries (Cávado, Ave and Douro). Anaerobic slurry experiments were run at different salinity treatments (0, 10, and 25) and net changes in concentration of nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, and nitrous oxide were monitored. Salinity-induced NH₄⁺ sediment desorption was observed at all sites. No significant salinity driven changes in NO₃⁻ concentrations were observed, except for Ave estuarine sediments, where NO₃⁻ consumption increased 10 times as the salinity rose from 0 to 10. In the upper stretches of the three estuaries, N₂O production increased sharply as salinity rose. Although no stimulation of N₂O production was observed in higher salinity areas, the salinity-driven changes in N₂O production are of major concern given the greenhouse characteristics of the gas. The global trend of decreasing freshwater discharge, and therefore increase in salinity, to estuarine systems could thereby exacerbate N₂O production and global warming. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Disparity in disinfection byproducts concentration between hot and cold tap water.

    PubMed

    Liu, Boning; Reckhow, David A

    2015-03-01

    The quality of water entering a distribution system may differ substantially from the quality at the point of exposure to the consumer. This study investigated temporal variations in the levels of regulated and non-regulated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in cold and hot tap water in a home on a medium-sized municipal water system. In addition, samples were collected directly from the water plant with some being held in accordance with a simulated distribution system (SDS) test protocol. The location for this work was a system in western Massachusetts, USA that uses free chlorine as a final disinfectant. Very little short term variability of DBPs at the point of entry (POE) was observed. The concentration of DBPs in the time-variable SDS test was similar to concentrations in the cold water tap. For most DBPs, the concentrations continued to increase as the cold water tap sample was held for the time-variable SDS incubation period. However, the impact of heating on DBP levels was compound specific. For example, the concentrations of trihalomethanes (THMs), dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) and chloropicrin (CP) were substantially higher in the hot water tap than in the cold water time-variable SDS samples. In contrast, the concentration of trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) was lower in the heated hot tap water, but about equal to that observed in the cold tap water. The situation was more pronounced for dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN), bromodichloroacetic acid (BDCAA), bromochloroacetic acid (BCAA) and 1,1,1-trichloropropanone (TCP), which all showed lower concentrations in the hot water then in either of the cold water samples (instantaneous or time-variable SDS). The latter was viewed as a clear indication of thermally-induced decomposition. The ratio of unknown total organic halide (UTOX) to TOX was substantially lower in the hot tap water as the THM to TOX ratio became correspondingly larger. The results of this study show that DBP exposure in the home is not well represented by

  7. Moving in extreme environments: open water swimming in cold and warm water

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Open water swimming (OWS), either ‘wild’ such as river swimming or competitive, is a fast growing pastime as well as a part of events such as triathlons. Little evidence is available on which to base high and low water temperature limits. Also, due to factors such as acclimatisation, which disassociates thermal sensation and comfort from thermal state, individuals cannot be left to monitor their own physical condition during swims. Deaths have occurred during OWS; these have been due to not only thermal responses but also cardiac problems. This paper, which is part of a series on ‘Moving in Extreme Environments’, briefly reviews current understanding in pertinent topics associated with OWS. Guidelines are presented for the organisation of open water events to minimise risk, and it is concluded that more information on the responses to immersion in cold and warm water, the causes of the individual variation in these responses and the precursors to the cardiac events that appear to be the primary cause of death in OWS events will help make this enjoyable sport even safer. PMID:24921042

  8. Moving in extreme environments: open water swimming in cold and warm water.

    PubMed

    Tipton, Michael; Bradford, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Open water swimming (OWS), either 'wild' such as river swimming or competitive, is a fast growing pastime as well as a part of events such as triathlons. Little evidence is available on which to base high and low water temperature limits. Also, due to factors such as acclimatisation, which disassociates thermal sensation and comfort from thermal state, individuals cannot be left to monitor their own physical condition during swims. Deaths have occurred during OWS; these have been due to not only thermal responses but also cardiac problems. This paper, which is part of a series on 'Moving in Extreme Environments', briefly reviews current understanding in pertinent topics associated with OWS. Guidelines are presented for the organisation of open water events to minimise risk, and it is concluded that more information on the responses to immersion in cold and warm water, the causes of the individual variation in these responses and the precursors to the cardiac events that appear to be the primary cause of death in OWS events will help make this enjoyable sport even safer.

  9. How geomorphology and groundwater level affect the spatio-temporal variability of riverine cold water patches?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wawrzyniak, Vincent; Piégay, Hervé; Allemand, Pascal; Vaudor, Lise; Goma, Régis; Grandjean, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Temperature is a key factor for river ecosystems. In summer, patches of cold water are formed in the river by groundwater seepage. These patches have strong ecological significance and extend to the surface water in a well-mixed riverine system. These patches can serve as thermal refuges for some fish species during summer. In this study, the temporal variability and spatial distribution of cold water patches were explored along a 50 km river reach (the lower Ain River, France) using thermal infrared airborne remote sensing. This study examines a new range of processes acting on cold water patches at different scales that have not previously been touched upon in the literature. Three airborne campaigns were conducted during the summers of 2010, 2011 and 2014. Based on these images, a large number of cold water patches were identified using an automated method. Four types of patches were observed: tributary plumes, cold side channels (former channels or point-bar backwater channels), side seeps (located directly in the river channel) and gravel bar seeps (occurring at the downstream end of gravel bars). Logistic regression was used to analyse the longitudinal distribution of cold water patches according to geomorphologic indicators reflecting current or past fluvial process. Side seeps were found to be related to the local geology. Cold side channels were correlated to contemporary and past lateral river mobility. Gravel bar seeps were related to the current development of bars and are more prevalent in wandering reaches than in single-bed incised and paved reaches. The logistic model was subsequently used to evaluate gravel bar seep variability in the past. The model suggests larger numbers of seeps in the mid-20th century when bar surface area was higher. Interannual variability in the occurrence and spatial extent of side seeps and gravel bar seeps appear to be related to groundwater level fluctuations. Cold side channels exhibited greater interannual stability

  10. Cold-water coral growth and mound formation on the Pen Duick Escarpment, Gulf of Cadiz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mienis, Furu; de Stigter, Henko C.; de Haas, Henk; Groot, Diane; Frank, Norbert; van Weering, Tjeerd C. E.

    2010-05-01

    Abundant skeletal remains of cold-water corals in sediments around the Pen Duick Escarpment, southern Gulf of Cadiz, suggest that corals thrived in the area in a relatively recent past. Cold-water coral carbonate mounds with heights of up to 60 m are found at about 550 m water depth on the edge of an elevation delimited by the Pen Duick Escarpment. Coral debris is abundantly present in the sediment on the carbonate mounds as well as on the escarpment, with Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata as most common species. However, living coral is rare, and a mud drape of a few cm to tens of cm thick is usually found covering the coral-bearing sediment. On and off mound sediment cores are presently investigated in detail to determine the timing of the decline of cold-water coral communities on the Pen Duick Escarpment. Planktonic foraminifera oxygen isotope stratigraphy and U/Th datings of coral debris from the on mound core show that the main framework building cold-water corals Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata were present on the mound during glacial periods (Marine Isotope Stage 2, 6 and 8) and the early Holocene, but absent during the late Holocene. During glacial periods a dense framework of cold-water corals existed and sedimentation rates were high. Both on and off mound cores show low magnetic susceptibility values until marine isotope stage 3, after which values are increasing. A large hiatus is found between 36 and 141 kyr. Our finding that cold-water corals on Pen Duick escarpment occurred mostly during glacial times contrasts with that of cold-water corals on the Rockall Trough margins and in the Porcupine Seabight, where they seem to have mainly lived during interglacials. The reason for the late Holocene decline of cold-water corals on Pen Duick escarpment is still a matter of speculation. Observations made with CTD and long-term deployment of benthic landers indicate activity of internal waves in the area with semi-diurnal periodicity, inducing

  11. Steady hydrodynamic loads due to vortex shedding from the OTEC cold water pipe. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, O.M.

    1982-01-13

    This report is limited in scope to consideration of the problems caused by vortex shedding from flexible, bluff cylinders in steady current flows, as these problems apply to the OTEC cold water pipe. In particular, the steady deflections caused by the amplified drag forces that accompany vortex-excited oscillations are considered. Emphasis placed upon the discussion of design methods, applications of these methods to practical problems, and comparison with available experimental data. A discussion is given of laboratory and field studies that have been conducted with model OTEC cold water pipes. Various devices that have been developed for the suppression of vortex-excited oscillations also are discussed. A comparison is made of the effectiveness of various suppresion devices and procedures, and practical approaches to implementing their application are presented. The implications of vortex-induced hydrodynamic drag and the suppression of vortex-excited oscillations in OTEC cold water pipe design are discussed briefly.

  12. Responses to sudden cold-water immersion in inexperienced swimmers following training.

    PubMed

    Croft, James L; Button, Chris; Hodge, Ken; Lucas, Samuel J E; Barwood, Martin J; Cotter, James D

    2013-08-01

    When suddenly immersed in cold water, humans typically exhibit the cold shock response, although training can attenuate hyperventilation. This study extends previous findings by considering the influence of physical activity to maintain buoyancy and subsequent swimming performance. Six inexperienced swimmers (three men and three women; mean age 22.8) received 1 wk of cold-water head-out immersions (10 x 3 min at 15 degrees C) alongside mental skills training to improve their treading water technique and to control hyperventilation upon immersion. Six inexperienced control swimmers (four men and two women; mean age 21.8) received immersions in temperate water (27 degrees C). Ventilation, brain blood flow velocity, and blood oxygenation were measured during a physiological test in which participants trod water for 150 s. In a subsequent simulated survival test, performance (swimming duration and distance) and perception of effort were recorded. All the tests were in 10 degrees C water with the head out. There were significant improvements in the intervention group's ability to suppress rapid increases in respiratory frequency; 62 +/- 24 breaths x min(-1) to 33 +/- 12. The drop in brain blood flow was smaller and more transient than that previously reported due to the hypertensive response associated with treading water. Inexperienced swimmers could benefit from cold-water habituation combined with mental skills training in order to improve voluntary control over the respiratory portion of the cold shock response as part of learning to tread water. This may improve survival prospects in a real-life emergency scenario such as an overturned boat.

  13. Clumped isotope composition of cold-water corals: A role for vital effects?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spooner, Peter T.; Guo, Weifu; Robinson, Laura F.; Thiagarajan, Nivedita; Hendry, Katharine R.; Rosenheim, Brad E.; Leng, Melanie J.

    2016-04-01

    The carbonate clumped isotope thermometer is a promising tool for determining past ocean temperatures. It is based on the temperature dependence of rare isotopes 'clumping' into the same carbonate ion group in the carbonate mineral lattice. The extent of this clumping effect is independent of the isotope composition of the water from which carbonate precipitates, providing unique advantages over many other paleotemperature proxies. Existing calibrations of this thermometer in cold-water and warm-water corals suggest clumped isotope 'vital effects' are negligible in cold-water corals but may be significant in warm-water corals. Here, we test the calibration of the carbonate clumped isotope thermometer in cold-water corals with a recently collected and well characterised sample set spanning a range of coral genera (Balanophyllia, Caryophyllia, Dasmosmilia, Desmophyllum, Enallopsammia and Javania). The clumped isotope compositions (Δ47) of these corals exhibit systematic dependences on their growth temperatures, confirming the basis of the carbonate clumped isotope thermometer. However, some cold-water coral genera show Δ47 values that are higher than the expected equilibrium values by up to 0.05‰ (equivalent to underestimating temperature by ∼9 °C) similar to previous findings for some warm-water corals. This finding suggests that the vital effects affecting corals Δ47 are common to both warm- and cold-water corals. By comparison with models of the coral calcification process we suggest that the clumped isotope offsets in these genera are related to the kinetic isotope effects associated with CO2 hydration/hydroxylation reactions in the corals' calcifying fluid. Our findings complicate the use of the carbonate clumped isotope thermometer in corals, but suggest that species- or genus-specific calibrations could be useful for the future application of this paleotemperature proxy.

  14. Static Characteristics of Absorption Chiller-Heater Supplying Cold and Hot Water Simultaneously

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Naoyuki; Irie, Tomoyoshi

    Absorption chiller-heaters which can supply both chilled water and hot water at the same time, are used for cooling and heating air conditioning systems. In this paper, we classified absorption cold and hot water generating cycles and control methods, studied these absorption cycles by cycle simulation. In economizer cycle, condensed refrigerant which heats hot water is transported to cooling cycle and used effectively for cooling chilled water, Concerning with transported condensed refrigerant, there are two methods, all condensed refrigerant or required refrigerant for cooling are transported to cooling cycle, and required refrigerant method is better for energy saving. Adding improvement of solution control to this economizer cycle, simultaneous cold and hot water supplying chiller-heaters have good characteristics of energy saving in the all region.

  15. Postexercise cold-water immersion improves intermittent high-intensity exercise performance in normothermia.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Avina; Mulligan, James; Egaña, Mikel

    2016-11-01

    A brief cold water immersion between 2 continuous high-intensity exercise bouts improves the performance of the latter compared with passive recovery in the heat. We investigated if this effect is apparent in normothermic conditions (∼19 °C), employing an intermittent high-intensity exercise designed to reflect the work performed at the high-intensity domain in team sports. Fifteen young active men completed 2 exhaustive cycling protocols (Ex1 and Ex2: 12 min at 85% ventilatory threshold (VT) and then an intermittent exercise alternating 30-s at 40% peak power (Ppeak) and 30 s at 90% Ppeak to exhaustion) separated by 15 min of (i) passive rest, (ii) 5-min cold-water immersion at 8 °C, and (iii) 10-min cold-water immersion at 8 °C. Core temperature, heart rate, rates of perceived exertion, and oxygen uptake kinetics were not different during Ex1 among conditions. Time to failure during the intermittent exercise was significantly (P < 0.05) longer during Ex2 following the 5- and 10-min cold-water immersions (7.2 ± 3.5 min and 7.3 ± 3.3 min, respectively) compared with passive rest (5.8 ± 3.1 min). Core temperature, heart rate, and rates of perceived exertion were significantly (P < 0.05) lower during most periods of Ex2 after both cold-water immersions compared with passive rest. The time constant of phase II oxygen uptake response during the 85% VT bout of Ex2 was not different among the 3 conditions. A postexercise, 5- to 10-min cold-water immersion increases subsequent intermittent high-intensity exercise compared with passive rest in normothermia due, at least in part, to reductions in core temperature, circulatory strain, and effort perception.

  16. Tidal-Fluvial and Estuarine Processes in the Lower Columbia River: I. Along-channel Water Level Variations, Pacific Ocean to Bonneville Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Jay, D. A.; Leffler, K.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Borde, Amy B.

    2015-03-01

    This two-part paper provides comprehensive time and frequency domain analyses and models of along-channel water level variations in the 234km-long Lower Columbia River and Estuary (LCRE) and documents the response of floodplain wetlands thereto. In Part I, power spectra, continuous wavelet transforms, and harmonic analyses are used to understand the influences of tides, river flow, upwelling and downwelling, and hydropower operations ("power-peaking") on the water level regime. Estuarine water levels are influenced primarily by astronomical tides and coastal processes, and secondarily by river flow. The importance of coastal and tidal influences decreases in the landward direction, and water levels are increasingly controlled by river flow variations at periods from ≤1 day to years. Water level records are only slightly non-stationary near the ocean, but become increasingly irregular upriver. Although astronomically forced tidal constituents decrease above the estuary, tidal fortnightly and overtide variations increase for 80-200km landward, both relative to major tidal constituents and in absolute terms.

  17. Turbulent coagulation of particles smaller than the length scales of turbulence and equilibrium sorption of phenanthrene to clay: Implications for pollutant transport in the estuarine water column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunk, Brett Kenneth

    1997-11-01

    Pollutant and particle transport in estuaries is affected by a multitude of physical, chemical and biological processes. In this research the importance of equilibrium sorption and turbulent coagulation were studied. Sorption in estuaries was modeled using phenanthrene, bacterial extracellular polymer and kaolinite clay as surrogates for a hydrophobic organic pollutant, dissolved organic matter and inorganic suspended sediment, respectively. Experiments over a range of estuarine salinities showed that ionic strength had the largest effect on the extent of sorption, while the effect of extracellular polymer coatings on the mineral surfaces was insignificant. Further calculations using typical estuarine suspended sediment concentrations indicated that equilibrium sorption could not fully account for the solid/solution phase distribution of hydrophobic organic compounds in the estuarine water column. For particles that are small compared to the length scales of turbulence, the rate of coagulation is related to the dynamics of the smallest turbulent eddies since they have the highest shear rate. Experimental and theoretical effort focused on determining the coagulation rate of spherical particles in isotropic turbulence. A pair diffusion approximation valid for rapidly fluctuating flows was used to calculate the rate of coagulation in a randomly varying isotropic linear flow field. Dynamic simulations of particle coagulation in Gaussian turbulence were computed over a range of representative values of particle-particle interactions (i.e, hydrodynamic interactions and van der Waals attraction) and total strain (i.e., the product of the strain rate and its time scale). The computed coagulation rates for isotropic turbulence differed from analytical approximations valid at large and small total strain. As expected, particle interactions were found to be significant. Experimental measurements of coagulation in grid-generated turbulence were obtained by measuring the loss

  18. Carbonate cementation by cold marine waters: evidence from carbonate mounds at the NE Atlantic margin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taberner, C.; Richter, T. O.; van Weering, T. C. E.; Vonhof, H. B.; Stadnitskaya, A.

    2003-04-01

    Cementation of marine carbonate sediments by marine waters is well known to occur either in shallow tropical to temperate carbonate platforms, or during burial from modified interstitial brines. Cementation by cold marine waters is traditionally ruled out for both recent and fossil carbonates. We present petrographic and stable isotope (δ18O, δ13C) results on well-cemented carbonates from cold-water carbonate mounds at the SW and SE Rockall Margin (700--800m water depth). Calcite micritic cements, as well as concentrically zoned microspar filling cavities (e.g. foraminifera), have been recognised in dredged hardground samples and carbonate concretions from sediment cores. Microsampled cements have δ13C and δ18O values (respectively ≈+3.5 ppm PDB and ≈+5 ppm PDB) that appear to be in equilibrium with glacial intermediate waters, more than with present-day Atlantic waters at those depths. Cementation during glacial intervals is also indicated by AMS 14C ages of well-cemented deep-water carbonate rocks (hardgrounds) of 25--29ka, thus bracketing the marine isotope stage 3/2 boundary. These data provide evidence for carbonate cementation by cold marine waters and have implications for the paleoceanographic interpretation of deep-water carbonate mounds. Additionally, these results provide new insights for the re-evaluation of the depth of deposition of carbonate mounds from the geological record.

  19. Active diver thermal protection requirements for cold water diving.

    PubMed

    Lippitt, M W; Nuckols, M L

    1983-07-01

    An analysis of the supplemental heating requirements for military divers, both surface-tended and free-swimming, is presented. Specific categories of diver heat loss, including respiratory losses and suit convective losses, are characterized over a range of water temperatures, depths, and breathing gas mixtures. The need for a 1-kW diver heater is identified to accommodate deep dives where the limitation of a surface-supplied hot water source and a long hot water umbilical pose an unacceptable burden. A 0.5-kW heater is shown to be satisfactory to extend the performance of existing closed circuit-breathing apparatuses for shallow water operations in water temperatures as low as 40 degrees F. Substantial benefits in heat savings are shown through the use of passive regenerative breath heaters and alternative suit inflation gases for drysuit use.

  20. Linking benthic hydrodynamics and cold-water coral occurrences: A high-resolution model study at three cold-water coral provinces in the NE Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohn, Christian; Rengstorf, Anna; White, Martin; Duineveld, Gerard; Mienis, Furu; Soetaert, Karline; Grehan, Anthony

    2014-03-01

    Observations from numerous cold-water coral locations in the NE Atlantic show energetic near-bottom flow dynamics along the European continental margin at individual coral mounds and mound clusters. Dynamics are largely controlled by tide-topography interaction generating and enhancing periodic motions such as trapped waves, freely propagating internal tides and internal hydraulic jumps. In this study, linkages between key abiotic parameters and cold water coral occurrences are explored across entire cold-water coral mound provinces using an integrated modelling and observational approach. The 3-D ocean circulation model ROMS-AGRIF was applied to simulate near-bottom hydrodynamic conditions at three provinces in the NE Atlantic (Logachev mounds, Arc mounds and Belgica mounds) adopting a nested model setup with a central grid resolution of 250 m. Simulations were carried out with a focus on accurate high-resolution topography and tidal forcing. The central model bathymetry was taken from high-resolution INSS (Irish National Seabed Survey) seafloor mapping data. The model was integrated over a full one-year reference period starting from the 1st January 2010. Interannual variability was not considered. Tidal forcing was obtained from a global solution of the Oregon State University (OSU) inverse tidal model. Modelled fields of benthic currents were validated against available independent in situ observations. Coral assemblage patterns (presence and absence locations) were obtained from benthic surveys of the EU FP7 CoralFISH programme and supplemented by data from additional field surveys. Modelled near-bottom currents, temperature and salinity were analysed for a 1-month subset (15th April to 15th May 2010) corresponding to the main CoralFISH survey period. The model results show intensified near-bottom currents in areas where living corals are observed by contrast with coral absence and random background locations. Instantaneous and time-mean current speeds at

  1. Investigation of the matrix effects on a HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method and application for monitoring triazine, phenylurea and chloroacetanilide concentrations in fresh and estuarine waters.

    PubMed

    Mazzella, N; Delmas, F; Delest, B; Méchin, B; Madigou, C; Allenou, J-P; Gabellec, R; Caquet, Th

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the effects of matrix interferences on the analytical performance of a new multiresidue method based on off-line solid phase extraction followed by reversed-phase liquid chromatographic separation and electrospray triple quadrupole mass spectrometric detection were investigated. This technique allows the simultaneous determination of 30 triazines, phenylureas and chloroacetanilides, extracted from freshwaters, in 40 minutes. Quantifications were performed with the use of appropriate internal standards (i.e. atrazine D5, diuron D6 and metolachlor D6). The limits of quantification were from 1 to 32 ng L(-1) for the triazines, from 5 to 59 ng L(-1) for the phenylureas and from 13 to 54 ng L(-1) for the chloroacetanilides. The matrix effects were studied by spiking various waters (i.e. tap, river, pond and sea waters) with the chemicals of interest. The results showed that the samples with the highest conductivity (i.e. seawater) and the most abundant dissolved organic matter content (i.e. pond water) exhibited important matrix effects with signal suppressions and high imprecision, respectively. These matrix effects were strongly minimized by performing appropriate internal standardizations. Afterward, this analytical method was applied for analyzing environmental samples from either river or estuarine waters and for monitoring herbicide input in a freshwater-seawater interface.

  2. Freezing Characteristics of Molding Sand with Water by Cold Air Flow for Freeze Mold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horibe, Akihiko; Inaba, Hideo; Haruki, Naoto; Miyagawa, Yasunori

    This paper reports the freezing characteristics of sand molded with "the freeze mold method". The freeze mold method is the casting process where little water is added to cast sand then they are frozen and become harden as a mold. Instead of using organic hardener, this molding technology possibly reduces resources and environment loading. We aimed at the practical application of the freeze mold method and chose cold airflow as the medium taking heat away from the mold. At first the sand with water was filled into a rectangular container that is the test section. Then cold air flowed into the container. Consequently, the mold was cooled and frozen by the cold airflow. The freezing behavior of the sample by cold airflow was investigated experimentally under the conditions of added water amount, superficial velocity, inflow air temperature and fixed bed height. As a result, the freezing completion time becomes long as the added water amount increases. However, an increase in the added water amount doesn't influence the pressure loss of the test section so much. Moreover, the empirical equation was derived to predict the freezing completion time.

  3. Clumped Isotope Composition of Cold-Water Corals: A Role for Vital Effects?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spooner, P.; Guo, W.; Robinson, L. F.

    2014-12-01

    Measurements on a set of cold-water corals (mainly Desmophyllum dianthus) have suggested that their clumped isotope composition could serve as a promising proxy for reconstructing paleocean temperatures. Such measurements have also offered support for certain isotope models of coral calcification. However, there are differences in the clumped isotope compositions between warm-water and cold-water corals, suggesting that different kinds of corals could have differences in their biocalcification processes. In order to understand the systematics of clumped isotope variations in cold-water corals more fully, we present clumped isotope data from a range of cold-water coral species from the tropical Atlantic and the Southern Ocean.Our samples were either collected live or recently dead (14C ages < 1,000 yrs) with associated temperature data. They include a total of 11 solitary corals and 1 colonial coral from the Atlantic, and 8 solitary corals from the Southern Ocean. The data indicate that coral clumped isotope systematics may be more complicated than previously thought. For example, for the genus Caryophyllia we observe significant variations in clumped isotope compositions for corals which grew at the same temperature with an apparent negative correlation between Δ47 and δ18O, different to patterns previously observed in Desmophyllum. These results indicate that existing isotope models of biocalcification may not apply equally well to all corals. Clumped isotope vital effects may be present in certain cold-water corals as they are in warm-water corals, complicating the use of this paleoclimate proxy.

  4. Cold water corals of the Northeast Atlantic margin: Archives of intermediate water circulation during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, N.; Paterne, M.; Ayliffe, L.; Lutringer, A.; Blamart, D.; van Weering, T.

    2003-04-01

    We present combined 230Th/U and 14C dating and stable isotope analyses on benthic corals from the northeastern North Atlantic in order to investigate past changes of the thermohaline circulation. The reef forming cold water corals Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata were raised from intermediate depth (˜750m bsl) from carbonate mounds along Rockall and Porcupine Bank and Porcupine Seabight.The 230Th/U ages range from today to 247,400yr. The δ234U, 230Th/232Th, and X-ray images indicate negligible alteration of the investigated corals, i.e. open system behavior. Very young deep-sea corals were accurately dated by means of 230Th/U dating. One in-situ living Lophelia coral yielded a mean age of 1995AD, matching the date of collection in 1999AD. From this coral, the measured and calculated seawater Δ14C values are indistinguishable, and the reservoir age Rinterm of the upper intermediate waters is 710±80 years. Several modern corals, being dated between 1950AD and 1986AD, recorded the atmospheric 14C/12C increase due to the nuclear tests in the early 60s. The modern pre-bomb Δ14C value of the North Atlantic intermediate waters was determined at an average of -65±7o/oo, and the mean reservoir age at 500±50 years. Finally, several investigated benthic coral grew during the second step of the deglaciation and during the Holocene climate optimum (from 10,900 to about 8,000 CAL yr BP). The reservoir age of average 530±65 years is equivalent to that of today indicating that, during the studied coral growth episodes, a modern type oceanic circulation, as well as the air-sea and surface to deeper adjacent water 14CO2 exchanges prevailed in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean.

  5. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Water in Cold Acclimating Red Osier Dogwood Stem 1

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Michael J.; Bryant, Robert G.; Weiser, Conrad J.

    1974-01-01

    The pulsed and continuous-wave nuclear magnetic resonance of water in cold-acclimating red osier dogwood (Cornus stolonifera Michx) stem showed reduced relaxation times and increased line width. The reduction of relaxation times suggests an over-all restriction in the motional characteristics of the water. The increased line width is not related to a molecular property of the water, but is useful in estimating the initiation of cold acclimation. Biphasic relaxation characteristics may be related to partitioning of the water at the cellular level. The liquid water content of the stem was a weak function of temperature between −25 and −55 C, corresponding to approximately 0.15 gram of water per gram of dry stem. The quantity of unfrozen water at subfreezing temperatures was not strongly dependent on the degree of cold acclimation. It is concluded that the ability of dogwood to survive low temperatures depends on its ability to tolerate diminished quantities of liquid water. PMID:16658896

  6. Different conditions of cold water immersion test for diagnosing hand-arm vibration syndrome.

    PubMed

    Laskar, S; Harada, Noriaki

    2005-11-01

    The cold water immersion test with finger skin temperature (FST) measurement is used to assess vascular disorders in hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS). The test method is currently being standardized within the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in which a water temperature of 12°C for 5 min of hand immersion and an option of using a waterproof hand covering during immersion are proposed. It is necessary to evaluate the diagnostic significance of the test with FST measurement under different conditions to provide a proper management of HAVS patients. The aim of this article is to review research findings of this test with FST measurement and discuss test conditions influencing the results and diagnostic significance.Different conditions were employed, and the test results were shown to be influenced by water temperature, immersion time and other conditions such as room temperature, season, ischemia during immersion, and evaluation parameters. These factors need to be considered in the standardization of the cold water immersion test with FST measurement. It has been mentioned that a high water temperature, a short immersion time and other conditions should be chosen to expose a subject to minimal suffering during the test. A water temperature between 10°C and 15°C and a 5 min immersion might be suitable for the cold water immersion test. The reported sensitivity and specificity evaluating rewarming to the initial temperature for the test using a water temperature of 12°C and a 3 min immersion are 58% and 100%, respectively; these are low but similar to those for tlie water immersion test at 10°C. Therefore, the proposed cold water immersion test at 12°C for 5 min by the ISO (Draft International Standard) is the focus of much interest, and further studies are needed to obtain sufficient data for evaluating the diagnostic significance of the test. At present, the test needs to be used together with a test battery.

  7. Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility tempered water and tempered water cooling system design description

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1998-11-30

    This document provides the System Design Description (SDD) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Tempered Water (TW) and Tempered Water Cooling (TWC) System . The SDD was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-002, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998), The HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-O02, 1998, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, and the CVDF Design Summary Report. The SDD contains general descriptions of the TW and TWC equipment, the system functions, requirements and interfaces. The SDD provides references for design and fabrication details, operation sequences and maintenance. This SOD has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

  8. 21 CFR 890.5720 - Water circulating hot or cold pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water circulating hot or cold pack. 890.5720 Section 890.5720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5720...

  9. 21 CFR 890.5720 - Water circulating hot or cold pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Water circulating hot or cold pack. 890.5720 Section 890.5720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5720...

  10. Atlantic salmon and eastern oyster breeding programs at the National Cold Water Marine Aquaculture Center

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The USDA-ARS National Cold Water Marine Aquaculture Center (NCWMAC) focuses on the coldwater marine aquaculture industry’s highest priority research needs including development of improved genetic stocks. Coldwater aquaculture production has potential for expansion, and both Atlantic salmon and Eas...

  11. Comparing cold-stored and freshly lifted water oak (Quercus nigra) seedlings based on physiological parameters

    Treesearch

    Rosa C. Goodman; Kent G. Apostol; Douglass F. Jacobs; Barrett C. Wilson; Emile S. Gardiner

    2007-01-01

    Water oak is often used in afforestation projects in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley, but its field performance is often poor due to low survival rates and severe top dieback immediately after planting. The poor physiological quality of planting stock may be a contributing factor to this transplanting problem. In this study, cold storage was investigated to...

  12. Field evaluation of rainbow trout selectively bred for resistance to bacterial cold water disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) is a frequent cause of elevated mortality in rainbow trout and the development of effective control strategies is a priority within the U.S. Since 2005, the NCCCWA has implemented a selective breeding program and has created three genetic lines of outbred rainbow...

  13. Field evaluation of rainbow trout selectively bred for resistance to bacterial cold water disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) is a frequent cause of elevated mortality in rainbow trout and the development of effective control strategies is a priority within the U.S. Since 2005, the NCCCWA has implemented a selective breeding program designed to increase survival following BCWD exposure....

  14. Role of long non-coding RNAs in bacterial cold water disease pathogenesis in rainbow trout

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) caused by Flavobacterium psychrophilum is one of the major causes of mortality in salmonids. Three genetic lines of rainbow trout designated as ARS-Fp-R (resistant), ARS-Fp-C (control) and ARS-Fp-S (susceptible) have significant differences in survival rate follow...

  15. 21 CFR 890.5720 - Water circulating hot or cold pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Water circulating hot or cold pack. 890.5720 Section 890.5720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5720...

  16. 21 CFR 890.5720 - Water circulating hot or cold pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Water circulating hot or cold pack. 890.5720 Section 890.5720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5720...

  17. 21 CFR 890.5720 - Water circulating hot or cold pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Water circulating hot or cold pack. 890.5720 Section 890.5720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5720...

  18. Primer for identifying cold-water refuges to protect and restore thermal diversity in riverine landscapes

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA recently released a primer that provides guidance to Region 10 Tribes, States, and local watershed community groups to support the identification, protection, and restoration of critical cold water refuges for the protection of salmonids. This primer will assist these entiti...

  19. Response to selection for bacterial cold water disease resistance in rainbow trout

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previous studies indicate that resistance to experimental bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) challenge is heritable and thus may be improved through selective breeding. Our objective was to estimate response after one generation of genetic selection for resistance to BCWD in a pedigreed population ...

  20. Mixing Hot and Cold Water Streams at a T-Junction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, David; Zhang, Mingqian; Xu, Zhenghe; Ryan, Jim; Wanke, Sieghard; Afacan, Artin

    2008-01-01

    A simple mixing of a hot- and cold-water stream at a T-junction was investigated. The main objective was to use mass and energy balance equations to predict mass low rates and the temperature of the mixed stream after the T-junction, and then compare these with the measured values. Furthermore, the thermocouple location after the T-junction and…

  1. Atlantic salmon and eastern oyster breeding programs at the National Cold Water Marine Aquaculture Center

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The USDA-ARS National Cold Water Marine Aquaculture Center (NCWMAC) focuses on the coldwater marine aquaculture industry's highest priority research needs including development of improved genetic stocks. Coldwater aquaculture production has potential for expansion, and both Atlantic salmon and East...

  2. Mixing Hot and Cold Water Streams at a T-Junction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, David; Zhang, Mingqian; Xu, Zhenghe; Ryan, Jim; Wanke, Sieghard; Afacan, Artin

    2008-01-01

    A simple mixing of a hot- and cold-water stream at a T-junction was investigated. The main objective was to use mass and energy balance equations to predict mass low rates and the temperature of the mixed stream after the T-junction, and then compare these with the measured values. Furthermore, the thermocouple location after the T-junction and…

  3. In vitro evaluation mimics influences of winter cold water ingestion on ruminal function

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ingestion of cold feed and water may suddenly reduce ruminal temperature, which could result in decreased microbial activity and diet digestibility. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between critical rumen in vitro incubation temperature and activity of ruminal microorga...

  4. In Vitro Evaluation Mimics Influences of Winter Cold Water Ingestion on Ruminal Function

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ingestion of cold feed and water may suddenly reduce ruminal temperature, which could result in decreased microbial activity and diet digestibility. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between critical rumen in vitro incubation temperature and activity of ruminal microorga...

  5. Marine and estuarine protection: Programs and activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    The booklet describes: the mission of the current problems and threats to the coastal and marine waters of the US; the Office of Marine and Estuarine Protection of EPA; EPA's ocean dumping and plastics programs; EPA's point source control activities; near-coastal waters activities; and associated federal legislation.

  6. Physicochemical and phytochemical properties of cold and hot water extraction from Hibiscus sabdariffa.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Rodrigues, Milena M; Plaza, Maria L; Azeredo, Alberto; Balaban, Murat O; Marshall, Maurice R

    2011-04-01

    Hibiscus cold (25 °C) and hot (90 °C) water extracts were prepared in various time-temperature combinations to determine equivalent extraction conditions regarding their physicochemical and phytochemical properties. Equivalent anthocyanins concentration was obtained at 25 °C for 240 min and 90 °C for 16 min. Total phenolics were better extracted with hot water that also resulted in a higher antioxidant capacity in these extracts. Similar polyphenolic profiles were observed between fresh and dried hibiscus extracts. Hibiscus acid and 2 derivatives were found in all extracts. Hydroxybenzoic acids, caffeoylquinic acids, flavonols, and anthocyanins constituted the polyphenolic compounds identified in hibiscus extracts. Two major anthocyanins were found in both cold and hot extracts: delphynidin-3-sambubioside and cyanidin-3-sambubioside. In general, both cold and hot extractions yielded similar phytochemical properties; however, under cold extraction, color degradation was significantly lower and extraction times were 15-fold longer. Hibiscus beverages are prepared from fresh or dried calyces by a hot extraction and pasteurized, which can change organoleptic, nutritional, and color attributes. Nonthermal technologies such as dense phase carbon dioxide may maintain their fresh-like color, flavor, and nutrients. This research compares the physicochemical and phytochemical changes resulting from a cold and hot extraction of fresh and dried hibiscus calyces and adds to the knowledge of work done on color, quality attributes, and antioxidant capacity of unique tropical products. In addition, the research shows how these changes could lead to alternative nonthermal processes for hibiscus.

  7. Cold-water coral growth under extreme environmental conditions, the Cape Lookout area, NW Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mienis, F.; Duineveld, G.; Davies, A. J.; Lavaleye, M. J. N.; Ross, S. W.; Seim, H.; Bane, J.; van Haren, H.; Bergman, M.; de Haas, H.; Brooke, S.; van Weering, T.

    2013-12-01

    The Cape Lookout cold-water coral area off the coast of North Carolina forms the shallowest and northernmost cold-water coral mound area on the Blake Plateau in the NW Atlantic. Cold-water coral habitats near Cape Lookout are occasionally bathed in the Gulf Stream, which is characterised by oligotrophic warm water and strong surface currents. Here, we present the first insights into the mound distribution and morphology, sedimentary environment and coral cover and near-bed environmental conditions as recorded by bottom landers from this coral area. The mounds occur between 320-550 m water depth and are characterised by high acoustic backscatter indicating the presence of hard structure. Three distinct mound morphologies were observed, (1) a mound with a flattened top at 320 m, (2) multi-summited mounds with a tear drop shape in the middle part of the area and (3) a single mound at 540 m water depth. Echosounder profiles show the presence of a strong reflector underneath all mound structures that forms the base of the mounds. This reflector cropped out at the downstream side of the single mound and consists of carbonate slabs. Video analysis revealed that all mounds are covered by Lophelia pertusa and that living colonies only occur close to the summits of the SSW side of the mounds, which is the side that faces the strongest currents. Off mound areas were characterised by low backscatter and sediment ripples, indicating the presence of relatively strong bottom currents. Two bottom landers were deployed amidst the coral mounds between December 2009 and May 2010. Both landers recorded prominent features near the seabed as well as in the overlying water column. The period between December and April was characterised by several events of increasing temperature and salinity, coinciding with increased flow and near-bed acoustic backscatter. During these events temperature fluctuated by up to 9 °C within a day, which is the largest temperature variability as measured so

  8. Cold-water coral growth under extreme environmental conditions, the Cape Lookout area, NW Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mienis, F.; Duineveld, G. C. A.; Davies, A. J.; Lavaleye, M. M. S.; Ross, S. W.; Seim, H.; Bane, J.; van Haren, H.; Bergman, M. J. N.; de Haas, H.; Brooke, S.; van Weering, T. C. E.

    2014-05-01

    The Cape Lookout cold-water coral area off the coast of North Carolina forms the shallowest and northernmost cold-water coral mound area on the Blake Plateau in the NW Atlantic. Cold-water coral habitats near Cape Lookout are occasionally bathed in the Gulf Stream, which is characterised by oligotrophic warm water and strong surface currents. Here, we present the first insights into the mound distribution and morphology, sedimentary environment and coral cover and near-bed environmental conditions as recorded by bottom landers from this coral area. The mounds occur between 320 and 550 m water depth and are characterised by high acoustic backscatter indicating the presence of hard structure. Three distinct mound morphologies were observed: (1) a mound with a flattened top at 320 m, (2) multi-summited mounds with a teardrop shape in the middle part of the area and (3) a single mound at 540 m water depth. Echosounder profiles show the presence of a strong reflector underneath all mound structures that forms the base of the mounds. This reflector cropped out at the downstream side of the single mound and consists of carbonate slabs. Video analysis revealed that all mounds are covered by Lophelia pertusa and that living colonies only occur close to the summits of the SSW side of the mounds, which is the side that faces the strongest currents. Off-mound areas were characterised by low backscatter and sediment ripples, indicating the presence of relatively strong bottom currents. Two bottom landers were deployed amidst the coral mounds between December 2009 and May 2010. Both landers recorded prominent events, characterised by large fluctuations in environmental conditions near the seabed as well as in the overlying water column. The period between December and April was characterised by several events of increasing temperature and salinity, coinciding with increased flow and near-bed acoustic backscatter. During these events temperature fluctuated by up to 9 °C within a

  9. Influence of the geologic and geomorphologic characteristics and of crab burrows on the interrelation between surface water and groundwater in an estuarine coastal wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carol, Eleonora S.; Kruse, Eduardo E.; Pousa, Jorge L.

    2011-06-01

    SummaryThe interrelation between surface water and groundwater in intertidal flats is often studied through mathematical models. In many cases these models need to be supported by an integral analysis of the geologic, geomorphologic, hydrologic and biological characteristics of the environment that are to be obtained from field surveys. The marshy environment of the River Ajo in the Samborombon Bay wetland, Argentina, is a typical example of an estuarine coastal zone. Geologic and geomorphologic surveys were carried out, as well as measurements of surface water and groundwater level changes as a response of the aquifer to tidal forcing. The banks of the River Ajo are either scarped with storm flats, or mildly sloped with intertidal flats and numerous crab burrows. Sediments are mainly silty-clayey with low permeability, and lie over silty-sandy layers. At the erosion scarps the tidal wave enters the aquifer as a sub-horizontal flow through the pore space of the sediments. The tidal range in the aquifer depends on the lithological characteristics of the sediments and on the side changes of their hydraulic conductivity. The rise of the water table at high water and its subsequent fall are nearly sinusoidal, with a period similar to that of the tide at the river. At the intertidal flats, instead, the tidal wave enters the aquifer mainly as a sub-vertical flow through the crab burrows. As the crab burrows are not interconnected, they are not distinct pathways for preferential flow. Therefore, the groundwater flux into the river is very slow during low water, and the recovery of the water table takes a long time. The tidal influence upon the water table on both kinds of banks affects only a narrow strip of the aquifer. Not only are the characteristics of the marshy environment of the River Ajo representative of most of the Samborombon Bay wetland; they can also be extended to other similar coastal wetlands to help preserve these invaluable environments.

  10. Trawls and cooling-water intakes as estuarine fish sampling tools: Comparisons of catch composition, trends in relative abundance, and length selectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, M. F. D.

    2008-01-01

    Fish populations in estuaries are often monitored with traditional sampling gears such as trawls. Trawling is relatively expensive and may be hindered by environmental conditions such as tides and substrates. Power station cooling-water intake screens have been effectively used as estuarine fish sampling devices for many years, but very few quantitative comparisons of intake fish-catch characteristics with samples from other collection methods have been made. Fish collected at the cooling-water intake of a large power station in the lower Forth estuary, UK, were more similar in assemblage composition to fish caught by nearby pelagic trawling than to fish caught by Agassiz (demersal) trawling, mostly because the intake and pelagic-trawl catches were largely composed of clupeids ( Sprattus sprattus and Clupea harengus). The intake catch was typified by pelagic, demersal, and benthic species, however, and was less variable than the catches made by the two trawls. Monthly trends in relative abundance correlated reasonably well between the intake and trawl samples. Fish collected at the intake tended to be significantly smaller than those collected by trawling, which was probably attributable to the intake's smaller mesh size. The study highlighted the utility of a cooling-water intake as an efficient, low-cost fish sampling device, which should be considered as an alternative to trawling as the cost of the latter increases into the future.

  11. Geology as destiny: cold waters run deep in western Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Sally. Duncan

    2002-01-01

    The summer of 2001 brought the second-worst drought on record in Oregon, resulting in historically low streamflows and reservoir levels, stressed aquatic ecosystems, and even dramatic confrontations between irrigators and federal resource agencies in the Klamath basin. These events underscore the critical and growing importance of water availability and allocation in...

  12. Diffusion of Water Vapour Through Cold Gore-Tex(trademark)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    van Beest and Wittgen (8). The samples were placed directly onto the wet surface with the equivalent of a ten-millimetre air gap between the sample and...046 (1992). 8. van Beest , C. A. and P. P. M. M. Wittgen. A simple apparatus to measure water vapor resistance of textiles. Text. Res. J., Vol 56, 9, p

  13. The Mpemba effect: When can hot water freeze faster than cold?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeng, Monwhea

    2006-06-01

    We review the Mpemba effect, where initially hot water freezes faster than initially cold water. Although the effect might appear impossible, it has been observed in numerous experiments and was discussed by Aristotle, Francis Bacon, Roger Bacon, and Descartes. It has a rich and fascinating history, including the story of the secondary school student, Erasto Mpemba, who reintroduced the effect to the twentieth century scientific community. The phenomenon is simple to describe and illustrates numerous important issues about the scientific method: the role of skepticism in scientific inquiry, the influence of theory on experiment and observation, the need for precision in the statement of a scientific hypothesis, and the nature of falsifiability. Proposed theoretical mechanisms for the Mpemba effect and the results of contemporary experiments on the phenomenon are surveyed. The observation that hot water pipes are more likely to burst than cold water pipes is also discussed.

  14. Ice-Water Immersion and Cold-Water Immersion Provide Similar Cooling Rates in Runners With Exercise-Induced Hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Clements, Julie M; Casa, Douglas J; Knight, J; McClung, Joseph M; Blake, Alan S; Meenen, Paula M; Gilmer, Allison M; Caldwell, Kellie A

    2002-06-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether ice-water immersion or cold-water immersion is the more effective treatment for rapidly cooling hyperthermic runners. DESIGN AND SETTING: 17 heat-acclimated highly trained distance runners (age = 28 +/- 2 years, height = 180 +/- 2 cm, weight = 68.5 +/- 2.1 kg, body fat = 11.2 +/- 1.3%, training volume = 89 +/- 10 km/wk) completed a hilly trail run (approximately 19 km and 86 minutes) in the heat (wet-bulb globe temperature = 27 +/- 1 degrees C) at an individually selected "comfortable" pace on 3 occasions 1 week apart. The random, crossover design included (1) distance run, then 12 minutes of ice-water immersion (5.15 +/- 0.20 degrees C), (2) distance run, then 12 minutes of cold-water immersion (14.03 +/- 0.28 degrees C), or (3) distance run, then 12 minutes of mock immersion (no water, air temperature = 28.88 +/- 0.76 degrees C). MEASUREMENTS: Each subject was immersed from the shoulders to the hip joints for 12 minutes in a tub. Three minutes elapsed between the distance run and the start of immersion. Rectal temperature was recorded at the start of immersion, at each minute of immersion, and 3, 6, 10, and 15 minutes postimmersion. No rehydration occurred during any trial. RESULTS: Length of distance run, time to complete distance run, rectal temperature, and percentage of dehydration after distance run were similar (P >.05) among all trials, as was the wet-bulb globe temperature. No differences (P >.05) for cooling rates were found when comparing ice-water immersion, cold-water immersion, and mock immersion at the start of immersion to 4 minutes, 4 to 8 minutes, and the start of immersion to 8 minutes. Ice-water immersion and cold-water immersion cooling rates were similar (P >.05) to each other and greater (P <.05) than mock immersion at 8 to 12 minutes, the start of immersion to 10 minutes, and the start of immersion to every other time point thereafter. Rectal temperatures were similar (P >.05) between ice-water immersion and

  15. Ice-Water Immersion and Cold-Water Immersion Provide Similar Cooling Rates in Runners With Exercise-Induced Hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    Clements, Julie M.; Casa, Douglas J.; Knight, J. Chad; McClung, Joseph M.; Blake, Alan S.; Meenen, Paula M.; Gilmer, Allison M.; Caldwell, Kellie A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether ice-water immersion or cold-water immersion is the more effective treatment for rapidly cooling hyperthermic runners. Design and Setting: 17 heat-acclimated highly trained distance runners (age = 28 ± 2 years, height = 180 ± 2 cm, weight = 68.5 ± 2.1 kg, body fat = 11.2 ± 1.3%, training volume = 89 ± 10 km/wk) completed a hilly trail run (approximately 19 km and 86 minutes) in the heat (wet-bulb globe temperature = 27 ± 1°C) at an individually selected “comfortable” pace on 3 occasions 1 week apart. The random, crossover design included (1) distance run, then 12 minutes of ice-water immersion (5.15 ± 0.20°C), (2) distance run, then 12 minutes of cold-water immersion (14.03 ± 0.28°C), or (3) distance run, then 12 minutes of mock immersion (no water, air temperature = 28.88 ± 0.76°C). Measurements: Each subject was immersed from the shoulders to the hip joints for 12 minutes in a tub. Three minutes elapsed between the distance run and the start of immersion. Rectal temperature was recorded at the start of immersion, at each minute of immersion, and 3, 6, 10, and 15 minutes postimmersion. No rehydration occurred during any trial. Results: Length of distance run, time to complete distance run, rectal temperature, and percentage of dehydration after distance run were similar (P > .05) among all trials, as was the wet-bulb globe temperature. No differences (P > .05) for cooling rates were found when comparing ice-water immersion, cold-water immersion, and mock immersion at the start of immersion to 4 minutes, 4 to 8 minutes, and the start of immersion to 8 minutes. Ice-water immersion and cold-water immersion cooling rates were similar (P > .05) to each other and greater (P < .05) than mock immersion at 8 to 12 minutes, the start of immersion to 10 minutes, and the start of immersion to every other time point thereafter. Rectal temperatures were similar (P > .05) between ice-water immersion and cold-water immersion at the

  16. The physiological response to cold-water immersion following a mixed martial arts training session.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Angus; Carr, Sam; Cross, Sean; Petersen, Carl; Lewis, John G; Gieseg, Steven P

    2017-01-17

    Combative sport is one of the most physically intense forms of exercise, yet the effect of recovery interventions has been largely unexplored. We investigated the effect of cold-water immersion on structural, inflammatory, and physiological stress biomarkers following a mixed martial arts (MMA) contest preparation training session in comparison with passive recovery. Semiprofessional MMA competitors (n = 15) were randomly assigned to a cold-water immersion (15 min at 10 °C) or passive recovery protocol (ambient air) completed immediately following a contest preparation training session. Markers of muscle damage (urinary myoglobin), inflammation/oxidative stress (urinary neopterin + total neopterin (neopterin + 7,8-dihydroneopterin)), and hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA) activation (saliva cortisol) were determined before, immediately after, and 1, 2, and 24 h postsession. Ratings of perceived soreness and fatigue, counter movement jump, and gastrointestinal temperature were also measured. Concentrations of all biomarkers increased significantly (p < 0.05) postsession. Cold water immersion attenuated increases in urinary neopterin (p < 0.05, d = 0.58), total neopterin (p < 0.05, d = 0.89), and saliva cortisol after 2 h (p < 0.05, d = 0.68) and urinary neopterin again at 24 h (p < 0.01, d = 0.57) in comparison with passive recovery. Perceived soreness, fatigue, and gastrointestinal temperatures were also lower for the cold-water immersion group at several time points postsession whilst counter movement jump did not differ. Combative sport athletes who are subjected to impact-induced stress may benefit from immediate cold-water immersion as a simple recovery intervention that reduces delayed onset muscle soreness as well as macrophage and HPA activation whilst not impairing functional performance.

  17. Cassini detection of Enceladus's cold water-group plume ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Tokar, Robert L; Thomsen, Michelle F; Wilson, Robert J; Johnson, R E; Young, D T; Crary, F J; Coates, A J; Jones, G H; Paty, C S

    2009-01-01

    This study reports direct detection by the Cassini plasma spectrometer of freshly-produced water-group ions (O{sup +}, OH{sup +}, H{sub 2}O{sup +}, H{sub 3}O{sup +}) and heavier water dimer ions (H{sub x}O{sub 2}{sup +}) very close to Enceladus and where the plasma begins to emerge from the Enceladus plume The data wcre obtained during two close (52 and 25 km) flybys of Enceladus in 2008, and are similar to ion data in cometary comas. The ions are observed in detectors looking in the Cassini ram direction at energies consistent with the Cassini speed, indicating a nearly stagnant plasma flow in the plume. North of Enceladus the plasma slowing commences about 4 to 6 Enceladus radii away, while south of Enccladus signatures ofthe interaction are detected as far as 22 Enceladus radii away.

  18. Cold Water Jets on a Hot Si surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ji Yong; Min, Chang-Ki; Cahill, David; Granick, Steve

    2010-03-01

    We are using a femtosecond pump-probe apparatus to study heat transfer when a pulsed jet of liquid water impinges on a hot Pt-coated Si surface (Leidenfrost Effect). The light source in the experiment is a 100 mW Er:fiber laser operating at a wavelength of λ=1550 nm; the total volume of the pulsed water jet is ˜0.9 mm^3. The temperature change within the Si substrate at a distance of 50 microns from the interface is measured by a novel time-resolved thermometry based on two-photon absorption. We measure the thermal conductance of the water layer within 50 nm of the interface by time-domain thermo-reflectance; changes in the thermal conductance provide a direct measurement of the contact time of the liquid. We convert the integral of the temperature excursion to the energy transferred using a Green's function solution of heat conduction in the Si substrate. Both the energy transferred and contact time show a smooth evolution from high values at 110C to low values at 210C without any clear indication of a Leidenfrost point.

  19. Tidal-Fluvial and Estuarine Processes in the Lower Columbia River: II. Water Level Models, Floodplain Wetland Inundation, and System Zones

    SciTech Connect

    Jay, David A.; Borde, Amy B.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.

    2016-04-26

    Spatially varying water-level regimes are a factor controlling estuarine and tidal-fluvial wetland vegetation patterns. As described in Part I, water levels in the Lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE) are influenced by tides, river flow, hydropower operations, and coastal processes. In Part II, regression models based on tidal theory are used to quantify the role of these processes in determining water levels in the mainstem river and floodplain wetlands, and to provide 21-year inundation hindcasts. Analyses are conducted at 19 LCRE mainstem channel stations and 23 tidally exposed floodplain wetland stations. Sum exceedance values (SEVs) are used to compare wetland hydrologic regimes at different locations on the river floodplain. A new predictive tool is introduced and validated, the potential SEV (pSEV), which can reduce the need for extensive new data collection in wetland restoration planning. Models of water levels and inundation frequency distinguish four zones encompassing eight reaches. The system zones are the wave- and current-dominated Entrance to river kilometer (rkm) 5; the Estuary (rkm-5 to 87), comprised of a lower reach with salinity, the energy minimum (where the turbidity maximum normally occurs), and an upper estuary reach without salinity; the Tidal River (rkm-87 to 229), with lower, middle, and upper reaches in which river flow becomes increasingly dominant over tides in determining water levels; and the steep and weakly tidal Cascade (rkm-229 to 234) immediately downstream from Bonneville Dam. The same zonation is seen in the water levels of floodplain stations, with considerable modification of tidal properties. The system zones and reaches defined here reflect geological features and their boundaries are congruent with five wetland vegetation zones

  20. Toxicity of acid-sulphate soil leachate and aluminium to the embryos and larvae of Australian bass (Macquaria novemaculeata) in estuarine water.

    PubMed

    Hyne, R V; Wilson, S P

    1997-01-01

    The toxicity of leachate water from acid-sulphate soil to the early life stages of Australian bass, Macquaria novemaculeata, incubated in seawater was evaluated. Acid-sulphate soil leachate water (pH> or =6.8) delayed the hatching of fertilised eggs, but after 48 h the per cent hatching was normal. In comparison, acidic saline water (25 per thousand salinity) at pH 4.0 or less prevented embryos from hatching. The survival of yolk-sac larvae exposed to acid-sulphate soil leachate water at a concentration of 32% in seawater and an initial pH of 7.2, was significantly different to controls after 96 hours. In corresponding tests with only acidified saline water (20 per thousand salinity), pH levels equal to or below 5.0 killed yolk-sac larvae after 96 h exposure. Aluminum showed a pH dependent toxicity to yolk-sac larvae, with added aluminium as low as 200 microg litre(-1) having a significant effect on larval survival at pH 5.5, and concentrations of 600-800 microg litre(-1) having a significant effect on larval survival at an initial pH range of 6.0 < pH < 6.8. It was concluded that significant mortality of the early life stages of Australian bass would occur if they are exposed to acid-sulphate soil leachate that results in a pH in the receiving estuarine water below 5.5, or when the pH is below 6.8 and aluminium is present at a total concentration of 800 microg litre(-1) or greater.

  1. Effect of cold-water immersion duration on body temperature and muscle function.

    PubMed

    Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Abbiss, Chris R; Watson, Greig; Nosaka, Ken; Laursen, Paul B

    2009-08-01

    This study compared the effect of 5, 10 and 20 min of cold-water (14 degrees C) immersion on rectal and muscle temperature and neuromuscular function. Twelve cyclists performed four cycling time-to-exhaustion trials in hot conditions (40 degrees C and 40%rh), followed 25 min later by cold-water immersion for 5, 10 or 20 min or 20 min in room temperature (24 degrees C; control). Rectal temperature was measured continuously, and muscle temperature was measured before, immediately after and 45 min after the time-to-exhaustion-test, as well as before and after water immersion. Sixty-second maximal voluntary isometric torque and isokinetic torque of the knee extensors were measured before, immediately after and 55 min after time-to-exhaustion-test. A greater rate of decrease in rectal temperature was observed in all water immersion conditions 45-80 min after time-to-exhaustion-test compared with control. Compared with control, muscle temperature 45 min after time-to-exhaustion-test was lower for all water immersion conditions; however, muscle temperature was lower for the 10- and 20-min conditions compared with 5 min. Isometric torque measured 55 min after time-to-exhaustion-test was lower for all conditions. Isokinetic torque was lower for all conditions immediately and 55-min post-time-to-exhaustion-test. Of the durations measured, 5 min of cold-water immersion appeared as the most appropriate duration for reducing rectal temperature but limiting decreases in muscle temperature.

  2. Calcification rates and the effect of ocean acidification on Mediterranean cold-water corals.

    PubMed

    Maier, C; Watremez, P; Taviani, M; Weinbauer, M G; Gattuso, J P

    2012-05-07

    Global environmental changes, including ocean acidification, have been identified as a major threat to scleractinian corals. General predictions are that ocean acidification will be detrimental to reef growth and that 40 to more than 80 per cent of present-day reefs will decline during the next 50 years. Cold-water corals (CWCs) are thought to be strongly affected by changes in ocean acidification owing to their distribution in deep and/or cold waters, which naturally exhibit a CaCO(3) saturation state lower than in shallow/warm waters. Calcification was measured in three species of Mediterranean cold-water scleractinian corals (Lophelia pertusa, Madrepora oculata and Desmophyllum dianthus) on-board research vessels and soon after collection. Incubations were performed in ambient sea water. The species M. oculata was additionally incubated in sea water reduced or enriched in CO(2). At ambient conditions, calcification rates ranged between -0.01 and 0.23% d(-1). Calcification rates of M. oculata under variable partial pressure of CO(2) (pCO(2)) were the same for ambient and elevated pCO(2) (404 and 867 µatm) with 0.06 ± 0.06% d(-1), while calcification was 0.12 ± 0.06% d(-1) when pCO(2) was reduced to its pre-industrial level (285 µatm). This suggests that present-day CWC calcification in the Mediterranean Sea has already drastically declined (by 50%) as a consequence of anthropogenic-induced ocean acidification.

  3. Controlling the Distribution of Cold Water in Air Cooling Systems of Underground Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szlązak, Nikodem; Obracaj, Dariusz; Swolkień, Justyna; Piergies, Kazimierz

    2016-12-01

    In Polish underground mines in which excavations are subjected to high heat load, central and group cooling systems based on indirect cooling units are implemented. Chilled water, referred to as cold water and produced in chillers, is distributed through a pipeline network to air coolers located in mining and development districts. The coolers are often moved to other locations and the pipeline network undergoes constant modification. In such a system, parameters of cold water in different branches of the pipeline network need to be controlled. The article presents the principles for controlling the cooling capacity of air coolers installed in an underground mine. Also, the authors propose automatic control of water flow rate in underground pipeline network and in particular coolers, depending on the temporary cooling load in the system. The principles of such a system, controlling cold water distribution, and the functions of its individual components are described. Finally, an example of an automatic control of water flow rate in a central cooling system currently implemented in a mine is presented.

  4. Biogeochemistry and geomicrobiology of cold-water coral carbonate mounds - lessons learned from IODP Expedition 307

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferdelman, Timothy; Wehrmann, Laura; Mangelsdorf, Kai; Kano, Akihiro; Williams, Trevor; Jean-Pierre, Henriet

    2010-05-01

    Large mound structures associated with cold-water coral ecosystems commonly occur on the slopes of continental margins, for instance, west of Ireland in the Porcupine Seabight, the Gulf of Cadiz or the Straits of Florida. In the Porcupine Seabight over 1500 mounds of up to 5 km in diameter and 250 m height lie at water depths of 600 to 900 m. The cold-water coral reef ecosystems associated with these structures are considered to be "hotspots" of organic carbon mineralization and microbial systems. To establish a depositional and biogeochemical/diagenetic model for cold-water carbonate mounds, Challenger Mound and adjacent continental slope sites were drilled in May 2005 during IODP Expedition 307. One major objective was to test whether deep sub-surface hydrocarbon flow and enhanced microbial activity within the mound structure was important in producing and stabilizing these sedimentary structures. Drilling results showed that the Challenger mound succession (IODP Site U1317) is 130 to 150 meters thick, and mainly consists of floatstone and rudstone facies formed of fine sediments and cold-water branching corals. Pronounced recurring cycles on the scales of several meters are recognized in carbonate content (up to 70% carbonate) and color reflectance, and are probably associated with Pleistocene glacial-interglacial cycles. A role for methane seepage and subsequent anaerobic oxidation was discounted both as a hard-round substrate for mound initiation and as a principal source of carbonate within the mound succession. A broad sulfate-methane transition (approximately 50 m thick)within the Miocene sediments suggested that the zone of anaerobic oxidation of methane principally occurs below the moundbase. In the mound sediments, interstitial water profiles of sulfate, alkalinity, Mg, and Sr suggested a tight coupling between carbonate diagenesis and low rates of microbial sulfate reduction. Overall organic carbon mineralization within cold-water coral mound appeared

  5. Argon used as dry suit insulation gas for cold-water diving

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cold-water diving requires good thermal insulation because hypothermia is a serious risk. Water conducts heat more efficiently compared to air. To stay warm during a dive, the choice of thermal protection should be based on physical activity, the temperature of the water, and the duration of exposure. A dry suit, a diving suit filled with gas, is the most common diving suit in cold water. Air is the traditional dry suit inflation gas, whereas the thermal conductivity of argon is approximately 32% lower compared to that of air. This study evaluates the benefits of argon, compared to air, as a thermal insulation gas for a dry suit during a 1-h cold-water dive by divers of the Royal Netherlands Navy. Methods Seven male Special Forces divers made (in total) 19 dives in a diving basin with water at 13°C at a depth of 3 m for 1 h in upright position. A rubber dry suit and woollen undergarment were used with either argon (n = 13) or air (n = 6) (blinded to the divers) as suit inflation gas. Core temperature was measured with a radio pill during the dive. Before, halfway, and after the dive, subjective thermal comfort was recorded using a thermal comfort score. Results No diver had to abort the test due to cold. No differences in core temperature and thermal comfort score were found between the two groups. Core temperature remained unchanged during the dives. Thermal comfort score showed a significant decrease in both groups after a 60-min dive compared to baseline. Conclusions In these tests the combination of the dry suit and undergarment was sufficient to maintain core temperature and thermal comfort for a dive of 1 h in water at 13°C. The use of argon as a suit inflation gas had no added value for thermal insulation compared to air for these dives. PMID:24438580

  6. Argon used as dry suit insulation gas for cold-water diving.

    PubMed

    Vrijdag, Xavier Ce; van Ooij, Pieter-Jan Am; van Hulst, Robert A

    2013-06-03

    Cold-water diving requires good thermal insulation because hypothermia is a serious risk. Water conducts heat more efficiently compared to air. To stay warm during a dive, the choice of thermal protection should be based on physical activity, the temperature of the water, and the duration of exposure. A dry suit, a diving suit filled with gas, is the most common diving suit in cold water. Air is the traditional dry suit inflation gas, whereas the thermal conductivity of argon is approximately 32% lower compared to that of air. This study evaluates the benefits of argon, compared to air, as a thermal insulation gas for a dry suit during a 1-h cold-water dive by divers of the Royal Netherlands Navy. Seven male Special Forces divers made (in total) 19 dives in a diving basin with water at 13 degrees C at a depth of 3 m for 1 h in upright position. A rubber dry suit and woollen undergarment were used with either argon (n = 13) or air (n = 6) (blinded to the divers) as suit inflation gas. Core temperature was measured with a radio pill during the dive. Before, halfway, and after the dive, subjective thermal comfort was recorded using a thermal comfort score. No diver had to abort the test due to cold. No differences in core temperature and thermal comfort score were found between the two groups. Core temperature remained unchanged during the dives. Thermal comfort score showed a significant decrease in both groups after a 60-min dive compared to baseline. In these tests the combination of the dry suit and undergarment was sufficient to maintain core temperature and thermal comfort for a dive of 1h in water at 13 degrees C. The use of argon as a suit inflation gas had no added value for thermal insulation compared to air for these dives.

  7. Modern estuarine siliceous spiculites, Tasmania, Australia: A non-polar link to Phanerozoic spiculitic cherts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, C. M.; James, N. P.; Kyser, T. K.; Barrett, N.; Hirst, A. J.

    2008-02-01

    Biosiliceous sedimentary rocks are well known from the geologicrecord and many are correctly interpreted to have formed indeep-water or cold-water environments. Shallow non-polar spiculitesare also known from the rock record, yet no modern analog hasbeen documented for such environments. Bathurst Harbour, anestuarine system in southwest Tasmania, provides this much-neededmodern analog. In this system a sharp halocline separates tannin-richlow-salinity surface waters from clear marine bottom waters.Tannins supply few nutrients and substantially reduce lightpenetration to bottom environments, resulting in a thinned photiczone and the mixing of deeper-water sub-photic biotas of softcorals, bryozoans, and sponges with other organisms more typicalof this temperate shallow-water environment. The well-definedhalocline allows a typically marine biota, including echinoderms,to live in bottom waters of this estuarine setting. The bioclasticfactory, producing both carbonate and siliceous particles, existsin marine subphotic bottom waters of incised channel and shallowrocky environments along the shoreline. Extensive organic-richsoft sediments in protected embayments generate few bioclasts,but contain allochthonous sponge spicules transported from theadjacent bioclastic factory. Trapping of organic material withinthe estuarine system lowers sediment pH and promotes dissolutionof carbonate biofragments, resulting in preferential preservationof siliceous sponge spicules. This situation implies that manybiosiliceous neritic deposits in the rock record may be theresult of similar preferential preservation.

  8. Sudden Clearing of Estuarine Waters upon Crossing the Threshold from Transport to Supply Regulation of Sediment Transport as an Erodible Sediment Pool is Depleted: San Francisco Bay, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2011-01-01

    The quantity of suspended sediment in an estuary is regulated either by transport, where energy or time needed to suspend sediment is limiting, or by supply, where the quantity of erodible sediment is limiting. This paper presents a hypothesis that suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) in estuaries can suddenly decrease when the threshold from transport to supply regulation is crossed as an erodible sediment pool is depleted. This study was motivated by a statistically significant 36% step decrease in SSC in San Francisco Bay from water years 1991-1998 to 1999-2007. A quantitative conceptual model of an estuary with an erodible sediment pool and transport or supply regulation of sediment transport is developed. Model results confirm that, if the regulation threshold was crossed in 1999, SSC would decrease rapidly after water year 1999 as observed. Estuaries with a similar history of a depositional sediment pulse followed by erosion may experience sudden clearing. ?? 2011 Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation (outside the USA).

  9. Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility process water conditioning system design description

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1998-11-30

    This document provides the System Design Description (SDD) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Process Water Conditioning (PWC) System. The SDD was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-002, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998), the HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-O02, 1998, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, and the CVDF Design Summary Report. The SDD contains general descriptions of the PWC equipment, the system functions, requirements and interfaces. The SDD provides references for design and fabrication details, operation sequences and maintenance. This SDD has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

  10. Voluntary water intake during and following moderate exercise in the cold.

    PubMed

    Mears, Stephen A; Shirreffs, Susan M

    2014-02-01

    Exercising in cold environments results in water losses, yet examination of resultant voluntary water intake has focused on warm conditions. The purpose of the study was to assess voluntary water intake during and following exercise in a cold compared with a warm environment. Ten healthy males (22 ± 2 years, 67.8 ± 7.0 kg, 1.77 ± 0.06 m, VO₂peak 60.5 ± 8.9 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹) completed two trials (7-8 days). In each trial subjects sat for 30 min before cycling at 70% VO₂peak (162 ± 27W) for 60 min in 25.0 ± 0.1 °C, 50.8 ± 1.5% relative humidity (RH; warm) or 0.4 ± 1.0 °C, 68.8 ± 7.5% RH (cold). Subjects then sat for 120 min at 22.2 ± 1.2 °C, 50.5 ± 8.0% RH. Ad libitum drinking was allowed during the exercise and recovery periods. Urine volume, body mass, serum osmolality, and sensations of thirst were measured at baseline, postexercise and after 60 and 120 min of the recovery period. Sweat loss was greater in the warm trial (0.96 ± 0.18 l v 0.48 ± 0.15 l; p < .0001) but body mass losses over the trials were similar (1.15 ± 0.34% (cold) v 1.03 ± 0.26% (warm)). More water was consumed throughout the duration of the warm trial (0.81 ± 0.42 l v 0.50 ± 0.49 l; p = .001). Cumulative urine output was greater in the cold trial (0.81 ± 0.46 v 0.54 ± 0.31 l; p = .036). Postexercise serum osmolality was higher compared with baseline in the cold (292 ± 2 v 287 ± 3 mOsm.kg⁻¹, p < .0001) and warm trials (288 ± 5 v 285 ± 4 mOsm·kg⁻¹; p = .048). Thirst sensations were similar between trials (p > .05). Ad libitum water intake adjusted so that similar body mass losses occurred in both trials. In the cold there appeared to a blunted thirst response.

  11. Methodology to assess the mobility of trace elements between water and contaminated estuarine sediments as a function of the site physico-chemical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Fdez-Ortiz de Vallejuelo, Silvia; Gredilla, Ainara; de Diego, Alberto; Arana, Gorka; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2014-03-01

    This work presents an innovative methodology to have a rapid diagnosis about the mobility of selected trace elements of known toxicity and biological risk (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn and Zn) present in contaminated sediments. The novel strategy presented in this work uses, therefore, the own estuarine water in contact with sediments as the extracting agent to perform the mobility tests, simulating the real situation of the estuary. This water suffers from different physico-chemical conditions (low and high tides) and gives consequently, rather better information than the one obtained by the routine sequential extraction procedures. The final step of this methodology was the use of spatial modelling by kriging method and multivariate chemometric analysis, both for a better interpretation of the results. To achieve this goal, sediment and water samples were strategically collected at eight different points (four in tributary rivers, one in a closed dock, two in the main channel and another one in the mouth) along the Nerbioi-Ibaizabal River estuary (Metropolitan Bilbao, Basque Country) approximately every three months (summer, autumn, winter and spring) during a whole year. Physico-chemical changes, such as pH, carbonate content and organic matter of the sediments, together with variations in water salinity appear to be responsible for metal mobility from the sediment to the water layer. The influence of these variables was higher in the sites located close to the sea. Moreover, the mobility of trace elements was even higher at high tide in sediments with lower metal content. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Photolytic degradation of methyl-parathion and fenitrothion in ice and water: implications for cold environments.

    PubMed

    Weber, Jan; Kurková, Romana; Klánová, Jana; Klán, Petr; Halsall, Crispin J

    2009-12-01

    Here we investigate the photodegradation of structurally similar organophosphorus pesticides; methyl-parathion and fenitrothion in water (20 degrees C) and ice (-15 degrees C) under environmentally-relevant conditions with the aim of comparing these laboratory findings to limited field observations. Both compounds were found to be photolyzed more efficiently in ice than in aqueous solutions, with quantum yields of degradation being higher in ice than in water (fenitrothion > methyl-parathion). This rather surprising observation was attributed to the concentration effect caused by freezing the aqueous solutions. The major phototransformation products included the corresponding oxons (methyl-paraoxon and fenitroxon) and the nitrophenols (3-methyl-nitrophenol and nitrophenol) in both irradiated water and ice samples. The presence of oxons in ice following irradiation, demonstrates an additional formation mechanism of these toxicologically relevant compounds in cold environments, although further photodegradation of oxons in ice indicates that photochemistry of OPs might be an environmentally important sink in cold environments.

  13. Flexible retractable cold water pipe for an ocean thermal energy conversion system

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, J.G.; Trimble, L.C.

    1985-02-05

    A cold water pipe for an ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) system comprises a tubular membrane made of a fabric such as a canvas, which is substantially impervious to flowing water. A proximal end of the pipe is secured to a surface structure such as a ship, and a distal end of the pipe is extendible from the surface structure to a selected ocean depth. The pipe functions as a conduit through which cold water from the selected ocean depth can be drawn to the surface structure for use in a thermodynamic process of the OTEC system. The distal end of the pipe can be quickly retracted to the surface structure when it becomes desirable to move the surface structure.

  14. Human thermal responses during leg-only exercise in cold water.

    PubMed Central

    Golden, F S; Tipton, M J

    1987-01-01

    1. Exercise during immersion in cold water has been reported by several authors to accelerate the rate of fall of core temperature when compared with rates seen during static immersion. The nature of the exercise performed, however, has always been whole-body in nature. 2. In the present investigation fifteen subjects performed leg exercise throughout a 40 min head-out immersion in water at 15 degrees C. The responses obtained were compared with those seen when the subjects performed an identical static immersion. 3. Aural and rectal temperatures were found to fall by greater amounts during static immersion. 4. It is concluded that 'the type of exercise performed' should be included in the list of factors which affect core temperature during cold water immersion. PMID:3443951

  15. Estuarine Food Webs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuaries provide habitat for abundant plants, animals and micro-organisms, ranging from microscopic plankton (bacteria, yeasts, algae, protozoa) to larger benthic and pelagic organisms (seagrass, clams, crabs, sea trout, pelicans and dolphins). Estuarine biota can be characteri...

  16. Estuarine Food Webs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuaries provide habitat for abundant plants, animals and micro-organisms, ranging from microscopic plankton (bacteria, yeasts, algae, protozoa) to larger benthic and pelagic organisms (seagrass, clams, crabs, sea trout, pelicans and dolphins). Estuarine biota can be characteri...

  17. Thermal and metabolic responses of military divers during a 6-hour static dive in cold water.

    PubMed

    Riera, Florence; Horr, Reed; Xu, Xiaojiang; Melin, Bruno; Regnard, Jacques; Bourdon, Lionel

    2014-05-01

    Human thermal responses during prolonged whole-body immersion in cold water are of interest for the military, especially French SEALS. This study aims at describing the thermo-physiological responses. There were 10 male military divers who were randomly assigned to a full immersion in neutral (34 degrees C), moderately cold (18 degrees C), and cold (10 degrees C) water wearing their operational protective devices (5.5 mm wetsuit with 3.0 mm thick underwear) for 6 h in a static position. Rectal temperature (T(re)) and 14 skin temperatures (T(sk)), blood analysis (stress biomarkers, metabolic substrates), and oxygen consumption (Vo2) were collected. At 34 degrees C, there were no significant modifications of the thermo-physiological responses over time. The most interesting result was that rates of rectal temperature decrease (0.15 +/- 0.02 degrees C x min(-1)) were the same between the two cold stress experimental conditions (at 18 degrees C and 10 degrees C). At the final experiment, rectal temperature was not significantly different between the two cold stress experimental conditions. Mean T(sk) decreased significantly during the first 3 h of immersion and then stabilized at a lower level at 10 degrees C (25.6 +/- 0.8 degrees C) than at 18 degrees C (29.3 +/- 0.9 degrees C). Other results demonstrate that the well-trained subjects developed effective physiological reactions. However, these reactions are consistently too low to counterbalance the heat losses induced by cold temperature conditions and long-duration immersion. This study shows that providing divers with thermal protection is efficient for a long-duration immersion from a medical point of view, but not from an operational one when skin extremities were taken into account.

  18. Cold gas spraying of semiconductor coatings for the photooxidation of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmler, T.; Gutzmann, H.; Hillebrand, P.; Schieda, M.; Just, R.; Gärtner, F.; Bogdanoff, P.; Herrmann-Geppert, I.; Klassen, T.

    2013-09-01

    This contribution shows the potential of cold gas spraying for the production of photoelectrodes employing photoelectrocatalysts for the water oxidation reaction. Conventional methods of coating usually employ sol-gel methods and calcination to obtain a good binding of the coating to the substrate. In cold gas spraying, particles are accelerated to high velocities by a pressurized gas. Nitrogen is used as process gas, preheated and then expanded in a De Laval type nozzle. On impact with the substrate the particles deform, break up and build an efficient interface to the back contact (as revealed, for example, by scanning electron microscopy). Cold gas spraying is a method for the direct bonding of particles to a substrate and does not require additives that have to be removed e.g. by a calcination step. Thereby it allows the direct fabrication of a working electrode ensemble. In our initial experiments, the state-of-the-art photocatalyst titanium dioxide (TiO2) was explored. The cold-gas-sprayed coatings revealed significantly higher activities for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER), as compared to films derived from wet-chemical processes. Due to the demand for photocatalysts with band gap suitable for visible light absorption, this approach was extended to the promising catalyst material hematite. In correlation with photoelectrochemical measurements, the operating parameters of the cold gas spray process are discussed in terms of their influence on the photocatalytic properties of the semiconductor.

  19. Blood is hotter than water: popular use of hot and cold in Kel Tamasheq illness management.

    PubMed

    Randall, S C

    1993-03-01

    Ethnographic data on Malian Kel Tamasheq use of hot-cold classification in illness management within the household show that, although hot and cold vocabulary is known by most people, the concepts of opposition and balance are only one of several approaches to treating illness and are rarely used in practice. This differs from the importance ascribed to hot and cold by Tamasheq traditional healer specialists as cited in the literature. The logic of the classification is based on symptoms rather than foods, and is associated with the presence or absence of blood or water. Many people are able to reproduce this symptomatic logic without being able to articulate its details. Because of their more frequent contact with blood through menstruation and childbirth, women are more susceptible to cold symptoms which are most frequently and clearly articulated in relation to gynaecological illnesses. Knowledge and understanding of the classification varies by social class, with those groups more recently assimilated into the Tamasheq population less likely to subscribe to this interpretation of illness. The influence of data collection methodology to the apparent importance of hot and cold as an explanatory system is also discussed.

  20. The Validity Chlorophyll-a Estimation by Sun Induced Fluorescence in Estuarine Waters: An Analysis of Long-term (2003-2011) Water Quality Data from Tampa Bay, Florida (USA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno-Madrinan, Max Jacobo; Fischer, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Satellite observation of phytoplankton concentration or chlorophyll-a is an important characteristic, critically integral to monitoring coastal water quality. However, the optical properties of estuarine and coastal waters are highly variable and complex and pose a great challenge for accurate analysis. Constituents such as suspended solids and dissolved organic matter and the overlapping and uncorrelated absorptions in the blue region of the spectrum renders the blue-green ratio algorithms for estimating chlorophyll-a inaccurate. Measurement of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence, on the other hand, which utilizes the near infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, may provide a better estimate of phytoplankton concentrations. While modelling and laboratory studies have illustrated both the utility and limitations of satellite baseline algorithms based on the sun induced chlorophyll fluorescence signal, few have examined the empirical validity of these algorithms using a comprehensive long term in situ data set. In an unprecedented analysis of a long term (2003-2011) in situ monitoring data from Tampa Bay, Florida (USA), we assess the validity of the FLH product from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) against chlorophyll ]a and a suite of water quality parameters taken in a variety of conditions throughout a large optically complex estuarine system. A systematic analysis of sampling sites throughout the bay is undertaken to understand how the relationship between FLH and in situ chlorophyll-a responds to varying conditions within the estuary including water depth, distance from shore and structures and eight water quality parameters. From the 39 station for which data was derived, 22 stations showed significant correlations when the FLH product was matched with in situ chlorophyll-alpha data. The correlations (r2) for individual stations within Tampa Bay ranged between 0.67 (n=28, pless than 0.01) and-0.457 (n=12, p=.016), indicating that

  1. Isolation of Legionella pneumophila from the cold water of hospital ice machines: implications for origin and transmission of the organism.

    PubMed

    Stout, J E; Yu, V L; Muraca, P

    1985-04-01

    Although the mode of transmission of L. pneumophila is as yet unclear, the hot water distribution system has been shown to be the reservoir for Legionella within the hospital environment. In this report we identify a previously unrecognized reservoir for L. pneumophila within the hospital environment, ie, the cold water dispensers of hospital ice machines. The cold water dispensers of 14 ice machines were cultured monthly over a 1-year period. Positive cultures were obtained from 8 of 14 dispensers, yielding from 1 to 300 CFU/plate. We were able to link the positivity of these cold water sites to the incoming cold water supply by recovering L. pneumophila from the cold water storage tank, which is directly supplied by the incoming municipal water line. This was accomplished by a novel enrichment experiment designed to duplicate the conditions (temperature, sediment, stagnation, and continuous seeding) of the hot water system. Our data indicate that significant contamination of cold water outlets with L. pneumophila can occur. Although no epidemiologic link to disease was made, the fact that the primary source of a patient's drinking water is from the ice machines warrants further investigation of these water sources as possible reservoirs.

  2. Impact of climate and hydrology on juvenile fish recruitment towards estuarine nursery grounds in the context of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinagre, Catarina; Santos, Filipe Duarte; Cabral, Henrique Nogueira; Costa, Maria José

    2009-11-01

    Larvae of various coastal fish undergo immigration from spawning grounds towards estuarine nurseries. Several environmental factors can have an important impact on survival at this stage making it crucial for recruitment. Generalized linear models were applied in order to investigate the relation between river drainage, sea surface temperature (SST), NAO index and the North-South wind component intensity, over the two months prior to the estuarine colonization peak, and the densities of Platichthys flesus, Dicentrarchus labrax, Diplodus vulgaris and Diplodus bellottii in the nursery grounds based on a discontinuous historical dataset (from 1978 to 2006), for the Tagus estuary. The relation between SST over the 12 months prior to the estuarine colonization peak and fish densities in the nurseries was also investigated, as it integrates the periods of spawning stock maturation, spawning and larval immigration. While SST over the prior 12 months was negatively correlated with the abundance of P. flesus, it was positively correlated with the abundance of D. bellottii. Abundance of D. vulgaris was positively correlated with SST in the two months prior to the estuarine colonization peak, while the abundance of D. labrax was positively correlated with river drainage. The relations between SST and the abundance of P. flesus, a cold-water species with declining densities, and the subtropical species D. bellottii and D. vulgaris, which are increasing in abundance, are indicative of species abundance alterations related to climate warming. Dicentrarchus labrax will probably also be affected by climate change because of lowered precipitation and consequently river drainage.

  3. Examination of factors dominating the sediment-water diffusion flux of DDT-related compounds measured by passive sampling in an urbanized estuarine bay.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yan; Wu, Chen-Chou; Bao, Lian-Jun; Shi, Lei; Song, Lin; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2016-12-01

    The fate of hydrophobic organic compounds in aquatic environment are largely determined by their exchange at sediment-water interface, which is highly dynamic and subject to rapidly evolving environmental conditions. In turn, environmental conditions may be governed by both physicochemical parameters and anthropogenic events. To examine the importance of various impact factors, passive sampling devices were deployed at the seafloor of Hailing Bay, an urbanized estuarine bay in Guangdong Province of South China to measure the sediment-water diffusion fluxes of several metabolites of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD and o,p'-DDD. The physicochemical properties of water (temperature, pH, salinity and dissolved oxygen) and surface sediment (sediment organic matter, physical composition, pH, water content, colony forming unit and catalase activity) were also measured. The results showed that the diffusion fluxes of o,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE at sites A1 and A2 near a fishing boat maintenance facility ranged from 0.42 to 4.73 ng m(-2) d(-1) (from sediment to overlying water), whereas those at offshore sites varied between -0.03 and -3.02 ng m(-2) d(-1) (from overlying water to sediment), implicating A1 and A2 as the sources of the target compounds. The distribution patterns of the diffusion fluxes of the target compounds were different from those of water and sediment parameters (water temperature, salinity, sediment texture, pH, colony forming unit and catalase activity) at six sampling sites. This finding suggested that none of these parameters were critical in dictating the sediment-water diffusion fluxes. Besides, decreases in the contents of kerogen and black carbon by 6.7% and 11% would enhance the diffusion fluxes of the target compounds by 11-14% and 12-23%, respectively, at site A1, indicating that kerogen and black carbon were the key factors in mediating the sediment-water diffusion fluxes of DDT-related compounds in field

  4. Interdecadal Trichodesmium variability in cold North Atlantic waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivero-Calle, Sara; Del Castillo, Carlos E.; Gnanadesikan, Anand; Dezfuli, Amin; Zaitchik, Benjamin; Johns, David G.

    2016-11-01

    Studies of the nitrogen cycle in the ocean generally assume that the distribution of the marine diazotroph, Trichodesmium, is restricted to warm, tropical, and subtropical oligotrophic waters. Here we show evidence that Trichodesmium are widely distributed in the North Atlantic. We report an approximately fivefold increase during the 1980s and 1990s in Trichodesmium presence near the British Isles with respect to the average over the last 50 years. A potential explanation is an increase in the Saharan dust source starting in the 1980s, coupled with changes in North Atlantic winds that opened a pathway for dust transport. Results from a coarse-resolution model in which winds vary but iron deposition is climatologically fixed suggest frequent nitrogen limitation in the region and reversals of the Portugal current, but it does not simulate the observed changes in Trichodesmium. Our results suggest that Trichodesmium may be capable of growth at temperatures below 20°C and challenge assumptions about their latitudinal distribution. Therefore, we need to reevaluate assumptions about the temperature limitations of Trichodesmium and the dinitrogen (N2) fixation capabilities of extratropical strains, which may have important implications for the global nitrogen budget.

  5. Interdecadal Trichodesmium Variability in Cold North Atlantic Waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivero-Calle, Sara; Del Castillo, Carlos E.; Dezfuli, Amin; Gnanadesikan, Anand; Zaitchik, Benjamin; Johns, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the nitrogen cycle in the ocean generally assume that the distribution of the marine diazotroph, Trichodesmium, is restricted to warm, tropical, and subtropical oligotrophic waters. Here we show evidence that Trichodesmium are widely distributed in the North Atlantic. We report an approximately vefold increase during the 1980s and 1990s in Trichodesmium presence near the British Isles with respect to the average over the last 50 years. A potential explanation is an increase in the Saharan dust source starting in the 1980s, coupled with changes in North Atlantic winds that opened a pathway for dust transport. Results from a coarse-resolution model in which winds vary but iron deposition is climatologically fixed suggest frequent nitrogen limitation in the region and reversals of the Portugal current, but it does not simulate the observed changes in Trichodesmium. Our results suggest that Trichodesmium may be capable of growth at temperatures below 20C and challenge assumptions about their latitudinal distribution. Therefore, we need to reevaluate assumptions about the temperature limitations of Trichodesmium and the dinitrogen (N2) xation capabilities of extratropical strains, which may have important implications for the global nitrogen budget.

  6. Cold Water Fish Gelatin Methacryloyl Hydrogel for Tissue Engineering Application.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hee Jeong; Shin, Su Ryon; Cha, Jae Min; Lee, Soo-Hong; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Do, Jeong Tae; Song, Hyuk; Bae, Hojae

    2016-01-01

    Gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) is a versatile biomaterial that has been used in various biomedical fields. Thus far, however, GelMA is mostly obtained from mammalian sources, which are associated with a risk of transmission of diseases, such as mad cow disease, as well as certain religious restrictions. In this study, we synthesized GelMA using fish-derived gelatin by a conventional GelMA synthesis method, and evaluated its physical properties and cell responses. The lower melting point of fish gelatin compared to porcine gelatin allowed larger-scale synthesis of GelMA and enabled hydrogel fabrication at room temperature. The properties (mechanical strength, water swelling degree and degradation rate) of fish GelMA differed from those of porcine GelMA, and could be tuned to suit diverse applications. Cells adhered, proliferated, and formed networks with surrounding cells on fish GelMA, and maintained high initial cell viability. These data suggest that fish GelMA could be utilized in a variety of biomedical fields as a substitute for mammalian-derived materials.

  7. Cold Water Fish Gelatin Methacryloyl Hydrogel for Tissue Engineering Application

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hee Jeong; Shin, Su Ryon; Cha, Jae Min; Lee, Soo-Hong; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Do, Jeong Tae; Song, Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    Gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) is a versatile biomaterial that has been used in various biomedical fields. Thus far, however, GelMA is mostly obtained from mammalian sources, which are associated with a risk of transmission of diseases, such as mad cow disease, as well as certain religious restrictions. In this study, we synthesized GelMA using fish-derived gelatin by a conventional GelMA synthesis method, and evaluated its physical properties and cell responses. The lower melting point of fish gelatin compared to porcine gelatin allowed larger-scale synthesis of GelMA and enabled hydrogel fabrication at room temperature. The properties (mechanical strength, water swelling degree and degradation rate) of fish GelMA differed from those of porcine GelMA, and could be tuned to suit diverse applications. Cells adhered, proliferated, and formed networks with surrounding cells on fish GelMA, and maintained high initial cell viability. These data suggest that fish GelMA could be utilized in a variety of biomedical fields as a substitute for mammalian-derived materials. PMID:27723807

  8. Effects of menthol application on the skin during prolonged immersion in cool and cold water.

    PubMed

    Botonis, P G; Kounalakis, S N; Cherouveim, E D; Koskolou, M D; Geladas, N D

    2017-09-20

    The aim of the study was to compare the effect of skin surface menthol application on rectal temperature (Tre) during prolonged immersion in cool and cold water. We hypothesized that menthol application would lead to a slower Tre decline due to the reduced heat loss as a consequence of the menthol-induced vasoconstriction and that this effect would be attenuated during cold-water immersion. Six male subjects were immersed for 55 minutes in stirred cool (24°C) or cold (14°C) water immediately after attaining a Tre of 38°C by cycling at 60% of maximum heart rate on two occasions: without (ΝM) and with (M) whole-body skin application of menthol cream. Tre, the proximal-distal skin temperature gradient, and oxygen uptake were continuously measured. ANOVA with repeated measures was employed to detect differences among variables. Significance level was set at 0.05. The area under the curve for Tre was calculated and was greater in 24°C M (-1.81 ± 8.22 a.u) compared to 24°C NM (-27.09 ± 19.09 a.u., P = .03, r = .90), 14°C NM (-18.08 ± 10.85 a.u., P = .03, r = .90), and 14°C M (-11.71 ± 12.58 a.u, P = .05, r = .81). In cool water, oxygen uptake and local vasoconstriction were increased (P ≤ .05) by 39 ± 25% and 56 ± 37%, respectively, with menthol compared to ΝM, while no differences were observed in cold water. Menthol application on the skin before prolonged immersion reduces heat loss resulting in a blunted Tre decline. However, such a response is less obvious at 14°C water immersion, possibly because high-threshold cold-sensitive fibers are already maximally recruited and the majority of cold receptors saturated. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Influence of pyridostigmine bromide on human thermoregulation during cold-water immersion

    SciTech Connect

    Cadarette, B.S.; Prusaczyk, W.K.; Sawka, M.N. )

    1991-03-11

    This study examined the effects of an oral 30 mg dose of pyridostigmine bromide (PYR) on thermoregulatory and physiological responses during cold stress. Six men were immersed in chilled stirred water for up to 180 minutes; once 2 hours following ingestion of PYR and once 2 hours following ingestion of a placebo (CON). With PYR, mean ({plus minus} SD) red blood cell cholinesterase inhibition was 33 ({plus minus}12)% at 110 minutes post-ingestion. Cholinesterase inhibition was negatively related to lean body mass. Abdominal discomfort caused termination in 3 of 6 PYR experiments ({bar X} immersion time = 117 min) but in no CON experiments ({bar X} immersion time = 142 min, p > 0.05). During immersion, metabolic rate increased significantly over pre-immersion levels, and increased with duration of immersion, but did not differ between conditions. PYR had no significant effect on rectal temperature, mean body temperature, thermal sensation, heart rate, or plasma cortisol concentration. It was concluded that a 30 mg dose of PYR does not increase susceptibility to hypothermia in humans immersed in cold-water; however, in combination with cold-stress, PYR may result in marked abdominal cramping and limit cold tolerance.

  10. Modeling the fate of p,p'-DDT in water and sediment of two typical estuarine bays in South China: Importance of fishing vessels' inputs.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shu-Ming; Zhang, Xianming; Bao, Lian-Jun; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2016-05-01

    Antifouling paint applied to fishing vessels is the primary source of dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) to the coastal marine environments of China. With the aim to provide science-based support of potential regulations on DDT use in antifouling paint, we utilized a fugacity-based model to evaluate the fate and impact of p,p'-DDT, the dominant component of DDT mixture, in Daya Bay and Hailing Bay, two typical estuarine bays in South China. The emissions of p,p'-DDT from fishing vessels to the aquatic environments of Hailing Bay and Daya Bay were estimated as 9.3 and 7.7 kg yr(-1), respectively. Uncertainty analysis indicated that the temporal variability of p,p'-DDT was well described by the model if fishing vessels were considered as the only direct source, i.e., fishing vessels should be the dominant source of p,p'-DDT in coastal bay areas of China. Estimated hazard quotients indicated that sediment in Hailing Bay posed high risk to the aquatic system, and it would take at least 21 years to reduce the hazards to a safe level. Moreover, p,p'-DDT tends to migrate from water to sediment in the entire Hailing Bay and Daya Bay. On the other hand, our previous research indicated that p,p'-DDT was more likely to migrate from sediment to water in the maricultured zones located in shallow waters of these two bays, where fishing vessels frequently remain. These findings suggest that relocating mariculture zones to deeper waters would reduce the likelihood of farmed fish contamination by p,p'-DDT.

  11. Cold water immersion of the ankle decreases neuromuscular response of lower limb after inversion movement.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Christiane S G; Alonso, Carolina S; Liporaci, Rogério F; Vieira, Fernando; Guirro, Rinaldo R J

    2014-01-01

    Cryotherapy has been associated with a significant decrease in nerve conduction velocity and muscle contraction with possible effects on exercise and physical training. To quantify the electromyographic response of the lateral gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, fibularis longus, rectus femoris and gluteus medius to ankle inversion following cold water immersion. The peak values of the root mean square (RMS) were obtained from 35 healthy and active university subjects after the use of a tilt platform to force the ankle into 30° of inversion before, immediately after, and 10, 20, and 30 minutes after water immersion at 4±2°C, for 20 minutes. The Shapiro-Wilk test, repeated measures analysis, Bonferroni's post-hoc, and linear regression analysis provided the results. Peak RMS was significantly lower at all times after cold water immersion, with residual effect of up to 30 minutes, when compared to pre-immersion for all muscles, except for immediate post-immersion for the gluteus medius. After cold water immersion of the ankle, special care should be taken in activities that require greater neuromuscular control.

  12. A Picture on the Wall: Innovative Mapping Reveals Cold-Water Coral Refuge in Submarine Canyon

    PubMed Central

    Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Tyler, Paul A.; Masson, Doug G.; Fisher, Elizabeth H.; Hauton, Chris; Hühnerbach, Veit; Le Bas, Timothy P.; Wolff, George A.

    2011-01-01

    Cold-water corals are azooxanthellate species found throughout the ocean at water depths down to 5000 m. They occur in patches, reefs or large mound structures up to 380 m high, and as ecosystem engineers create important habitats for a diverse fauna. However, the majority of these habitats are now within reach of deep-sea bottom trawling. Many have been severely damaged or are under threat, despite recent protection initiatives. Here we present a cold-water coral habitat type that so far has been overlooked – quite literally – and that has received minimal impact from human activities. Vertical and overhanging cliffs in deep-sea canyons, revealed using an innovative approach to marine habitat mapping, are shown to provide the perfect substratum for extensive cold-water coral-based communities. Typical canyon-related processes, including locally enhanced internal tides and focussed downslope organic carbon transport, provide favourable environmental conditions (current regime, food input) to sustain the communities, even outside the optimal depth and density envelopes reported elsewhere in the NE Atlantic. Our findings show that deep-sea canyons can form natural refuges for faunal communities sensitive to anthropogenic disturbance, and have the potential to fulfil the crucial role of larval sources for the recolonisation of damaged sites elsewhere on the margin. PMID:22194903

  13. Interpreting the temperature of water at cold springs and the importance of gravitational potential energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manga, Michael; Kirchner, James W.

    2004-05-01

    Circulating groundwater transports heat. If groundwater flow velocities are sufficiently high, most of the subsurface heat transport can occur by advection. This is the case, for example, in the Cascades volcanic arc where much of the background geothermal heat is transported advectively and then discharged when the groundwater emerges at springs. The temperature of spring water can thus be used to infer the geothermal heat flux. If spring water temperature is many degrees warmer than the ambient temperature, as it is at hot springs, determining the heat discharged at springs is straightforward. At large-volume cold springs, however, the geothermal warming of water is small because the added heat is diluted in a large volume of water. We show that in order to interpret the temperature of cold springs we must account for three processes: (1) conversion of gravitational potential energy to heat through viscous dissipation, (2) conduction of heat to or from the Earth's surface, and (3) geothermal warming. Using spring temperature data from the central Oregon Cascades and Mount Shasta, California, we show that the warming due to surface heat exchange and dissipation of gravitational potential energy can be comparable to that due to geothermal heating. Unless these confounding sources of heating are taken into account, estimates of geothermal heat flux derived from temperatures of cold springs can be incorrect by large factors.

  14. Monitoring strategies for drill cutting discharge in the vicinity of cold-water coral ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Purser, Autun; Thomsen, Laurenz

    2012-11-01

    Cold-water coral reefs represent some of the most biodiverse and biomass rich ecosystems in the marine environment. Despite this, ecosystem functioning is still poorly understood and the susceptibility of key species to anthropogenic activities and pollutants is unknown. In European waters, cold-water corals are often found in greatest abundance on the continental margin, often in regions rich in hydrocarbon reserves. In this viewpoint paper we discuss some of the current strategies employed in predicting and minimizing exposure of cold-water coral reef ecosystems on the Norwegian margin to waste materials produced during offshore drilling operations by the oil and gas industry. In the light of recent in situ and experimental research conducted with the key reef species Lophelia pertusa, we present some possible improvements to these strategies which may be utilized by industry and managers to further reduce the likelihood of exposure. We further highlight important outstanding research questions in this field. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A picture on the wall: innovative mapping reveals cold-water coral refuge in submarine canyon.

    PubMed

    Huvenne, Veerle A I; Tyler, Paul A; Masson, Doug G; Fisher, Elizabeth H; Hauton, Chris; Hühnerbach, Veit; Le Bas, Timothy P; Wolff, George A

    2011-01-01

    Cold-water corals are azooxanthellate species found throughout the ocean at water depths down to 5000 m. They occur in patches, reefs or large mound structures up to 380 m high, and as ecosystem engineers create important habitats for a diverse fauna. However, the majority of these habitats are now within reach of deep-sea bottom trawling. Many have been severely damaged or are under threat, despite recent protection initiatives. Here we present a cold-water coral habitat type that so far has been overlooked--quite literally--and that has received minimal impact from human activities. Vertical and overhanging cliffs in deep-sea canyons, revealed using an innovative approach to marine habitat mapping, are shown to provide the perfect substratum for extensive cold-water coral-based communities. Typical canyon-related processes, including locally enhanced internal tides and focussed downslope organic carbon transport, provide favourable environmental conditions (current regime, food input) to sustain the communities, even outside the optimal depth and density envelopes reported elsewhere in the NE Atlantic. Our findings show that deep-sea canyons can form natural refuges for faunal communities sensitive to anthropogenic disturbance, and have the potential to fulfil the crucial role of larval sources for the recolonisation of damaged sites elsewhere on the margin.

  16. Pharmacological investigations on adaptation in rats subjected to cold water immersion stress.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Arvind; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh; Singh, Nirmal

    2011-06-01

    The present study was designed to investigate whether adaptogenic factors may be transferred from stress adapted rats to naïve rats and to explore the nature of endogenous adaptogens by pharmacological modulation. The rats were subjected to cold water immersion stress by placing them individually in a tank of water (depth=15.5cm; temperature=16±2°C) for 5min. The rats were subjected to single episode of cold water immersion stress for acute stress; while for adaptation, the rats were subjected to repeated episodes of same stressor for 5 consecutive days. The plasma of stress adapted rats was administered to naïve rats before subjecting to acute stress. The stress related behavioral alterations were assessed using the actophotometer, the hole board, the open field and the social interaction tests. Acute stress with single episode of cold water immersion was associated with behavioral alterations. However, the behavioral alterations were significantly restored on subjecting repeated episodes of cold water immersion. Administration of plasma of stress adapted rats also attenuated acute stress associated behavioral alterations. Administration of naltrexone abolished the restoration of behavioral changes as a part of adaptive process in repeated stress subjected rats as well as the anti-stress effects of plasma of stress adapted rat. It may be concluded that opioids may be the potential endogenous adaptogens that tend to restore the homeostasis during repeated episodes of stress. Furthermore, the endogenous adaptogens may be transferred in the form of plasma from repeated stress subjected rats to the naïve rats to confer the anti-stress properties. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Slow climate velocities of mountain streams portend their role as refugia for cold-water biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Isaak, Daniel J; Young, Michael K; Luce, Charles H; Hostetler, Steven W; Wenger, Seth J; Peterson, Erin E; Ver Hoef, Jay M; Groce, Matthew C; Horan, Dona L; Nagel, David E

    2016-04-19

    The imminent demise of montane species is a recurrent theme in the climate change literature, particularly for aquatic species that are constrained to networks and elevational rather than latitudinal retreat as temperatures increase. Predictions of widespread species losses, however, have yet to be fulfilled despite decades of climate change, suggesting that trends are much weaker than anticipated and may be too subtle for detection given the widespread use of sparse water temperature datasets or imprecise surrogates like elevation and air temperature. Through application of large water-temperature databases evaluated for sensitivity to historical air-temperature variability and computationally interpolated to provide high-resolution thermal habitat information for a 222,000-km network, we estimate a less dire thermal plight for cold-water species within mountains of the northwestern United States. Stream warming rates and climate velocities were both relatively low for 1968-2011 (average warming rate = 0.101 °C/decade; median velocity = 1.07 km/decade) when air temperatures warmed at 0.21 °C/decade. Many cold-water vertebrate species occurred in a subset of the network characterized by low climate velocities, and three native species of conservation concern occurred in extremely cold, slow velocity environments (0.33-0.48 km/decade). Examination of aggressive warming scenarios indicated that although network climate velocities could increase, they remain low in headwaters because of strong local temperature gradients associated with topographic controls. Better information about changing hydrology and disturbance regimes is needed to complement these results, but rather than being climatic cul-de-sacs, many mountain streams appear poised to be redoubts for cold-water biodiversity this century.

  18. Slow climate velocities of mountain streams portend their role as refugia for cold-water biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Isaak, Daniel J.; Young, Michael K.; Luce, Charles H.; Hostetler, Steven W.; Wenger, Seth J.; Peterson, Erin E.; Ver Hoef, Jay M.; Groce, Matthew C.; Horan, Dona L.; Nagel, David E.

    2016-01-01

    The imminent demise of montane species is a recurrent theme in the climate change literature, particularly for aquatic species that are constrained to networks and elevational rather than latitudinal retreat as temperatures increase. Predictions of widespread species losses, however, have yet to be fulfilled despite decades of climate change, suggesting that trends are much weaker than anticipated and may be too subtle for detection given the widespread use of sparse water temperature datasets or imprecise surrogates like elevation and air temperature. Through application of large water-temperature databases evaluated for sensitivity to historical air-temperature variability and computationally interpolated to provide high-resolution thermal habitat information for a 222,000-km network, we estimate a less dire thermal plight for cold-water species within mountains of the northwestern United States. Stream warming rates and climate velocities were both relatively low for 1968–2011 (average warming rate = 0.101 °C/decade; median velocity = 1.07 km/decade) when air temperatures warmed at 0.21 °C/decade. Many cold-water vertebrate species occurred in a subset of the network characterized by low climate velocities, and three native species of conservation concern occurred in extremely cold, slow velocity environments (0.33–0.48 km/decade). Examination of aggressive warming scenarios indicated that although network climate velocities could increase, they remain low in headwaters because of strong local temperature gradients associated with topographic controls. Better information about changing hydrology and disturbance regimes is needed to complement these results, but rather than being climatic cul-de-sacs, many mountain streams appear poised to be redoubts for cold-water biodiversity this century. PMID:27044091

  19. Slow climate velocities of mountain streams portend their role as refugia for cold-water biodiversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Isaak, Daniel J.; Young, Michael K; Luce, Charles H; Hostetler, Steven W.; Wengerd, Seth J.; Peterson, Erin E.; Ver Hoef, Jay; Groce, Matthew C.; Horan, Dona L.; Nagel, David E.

    2016-01-01

    The imminent demise of montane species is a recurrent theme in the climate change literature, particularly for aquatic species that are constrained to networks and elevational rather than latitudinal retreat as temperatures increase. Predictions of widespread species losses, however, have yet to be fulfilled despite decades of climate change, suggesting that trends are much weaker than anticipated and may be too subtle for detection given the widespread use of sparse water temperature datasets or imprecise surrogates like elevation and air temperature. Through application of large water-temperature databases evaluated for sensitivity to historical air-temperature variability and computationally interpolated to provide high-resolution thermal habitat information for a 222,000-km network, we estimate a less dire thermal plight for cold-water species within mountains of the northwestern United States. Stream warming rates and climate velocities were both relatively low for 1968–2011 (average warming rate = 0.101 °C/decade; median velocity = 1.07 km/decade) when air temperatures warmed at 0.21 °C/decade. Many cold-water vertebrate species occurred in a subset of the network characterized by low climate velocities, and three native species of conservation concern occurred in extremely cold, slow velocity environments (0.33–0.48 km/decade). Examination of aggressive warming scenarios indicated that although network climate velocities could increase, they remain low in headwaters because of strong local temperature gradients associated with topographic controls. Better information about changing hydrology and disturbance regimes is needed to complement these results, but rather than being climatic cul-de-sacs, many mountain streams appear poised to be redoubts for cold-water biodiversity this century.

  20. Simulation modeling of estuarine ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    A simulation model has been developed of Galveston Bay, Texas ecosystem. Secondary productivity measured by harvestable species (such as shrimp and fish) is evaluated in terms of man-related and controllable factors, such as quantity and quality of inlet fresh-water and pollutants. This simulation model used information from an existing physical parameters model as well as pertinent biological measurements obtained by conventional sampling techniques. Predicted results from the model compared favorably with those from comparable investigations. In addition, this paper will discuss remotely sensed and conventional measurements in the framework of prospective models that may be used to study estuarine processes and ecosystem productivity.

  1. Dehumidification of Moist Air by Direct Contact Heat and Mass Transfer in Cold Water Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inaba, Hideo; Horibe, Akihiko; Haruki, Naoto; Ishioka, Tohru; Takeuchi, Yoshiyuki

    This paper has dealt with the direct contact heat and mass transfer characteristics of dehumidification of flowing moist air bubbles in a cold water solution (propylene glycoI). The saturated water-vapor humidity of propylene glycol water solution was measured under some conditions of temperature and mass concentration of the water solution. Experiments on dehumidification of air bubbles were performed by ascending air bubbles in the water absorbing solution for various parameters of air temperature, humidity and flow rate etc. The experimental data of air bubble diameter, dehumidification rate and apparent heat transfer coefficient were correlated by means of some experimental parameters such as air temperature, humidity, flow rate and height of water solution layer.

  2. Effects of Cold Water Immersion on Muscle Oxygenation During Repeated Bouts of Fatiguing Exercise: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Simon S; Ting, Kin Hung; Hon, Maurice; Fung, Natalie Y; Choi, Manfi M; Cheng, Juno C; Yeung, Ella W

    2016-01-01

    Postexercise cold water immersion has been advocated to athletes as a means of accelerating recovery and improving performance. Given the effects of cold water immersion on blood flow, evaluating in vivo changes in tissue oxygenation during cold water immersion may help further our understanding of this recovery modality. This study aimed to investigate the effects of cold water immersion on muscle oxygenation and performance during repeated bouts of fatiguing exercise in a group of healthy young adults. Twenty healthy subjects performed 2 fatiguing bouts of maximal dynamic knee extension and flexion contractions both concentrically on an isokinetic dynamometer with a 10-min recovery period in between. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a cold water immersion (treatment) or passive recovery (control) group. Changes in muscle oxygenation were monitored continuously using near-infrared spectroscopy. Muscle performance was measured with isokinetic dynamometry during each fatiguing bout. Skin temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, and muscle soreness ratings were also assessed. Repeated measures ANOVA analysis was used to evaluate treatment effects. The treatment group had a significantly lower mean heart rate and lower skin temperature compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Cold water immersion attenuated a reduction in tissue oxygenation in the second fatiguing bout by 4% when compared with control. Muscle soreness was rated lower 1 day post-testing (P < 0.05). However, cold water immersion had no significant effect on muscle performance in subsequent exercise. As the results show that cold water immersion attenuated decreased tissue oxygenation in subsequent exercise performance, the metabolic response to exercise after cold water immersion is worthy of further exploration.

  3. The Effect of Water Temperature during Cold-Water Immersion on Recovery from Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage.

    PubMed

    Vieira, A; Siqueira, A F; Ferreira-Junior, J B; do Carmo, J; Durigan, J L Q; Blazevich, A; Bottaro, M

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of 5 and 15°C cold-water immersion on recovery from exercise resulting in exercise-induced muscle damage. 42 college-aged men performed 5×20 drop-jumps and were randomly allocated into one of 3 groups: (1) 5°C; (2) 15°C; or (3) control. After exercise, individuals from the cold-water immersion groups had their lower limbs immerged in iced water for 20 min. Isometric knee extensor torque, countermovement jump, muscle soreness, and creatine kinase were measured before, immediately after, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 168 h post-exercise. There was no between-group difference in isometric strength recovery (p=0.73). However, countermovement jump recovered quicker in cold-water immersion groups compared to control group (p<0.05). Countermovement jump returned to baseline after 72 h in 15°C, 5°C group recovered after 96 h and control did not recovered at any time point measured. Also, creatine kinase returned to baseline at 72 h and remained stable for all remaining measurements for 15°C group, whereas remained elevated past 168 h in both 5°C and control groups. There was a trend toward lower muscle soreness (p=0.06) in 15°C group compared to control at 24 h post-exercise. The result suggests that cold-water immersion promote recovery of stretch-shortening cycle performance, but not influence the recovery of maximal contractile force. Immersion at warmer temperature may be more effective than colder temperatures promoting recovery from strenuous exercise. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Cold-Climate Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems: Cost/Benefit Analysis and Opportunities for Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, J.; Hillman, T.; Salasovich, J.

    2005-01-01

    To determine potential for reduction in the cost of saved energy (COSE) for cold-climate solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems, COSE was computed for three types of cold climate water heating systems. For each system, a series of cost-saving measures was considered: (1) balance of systems (BOS): tank, heat exchanger, and piping-valving measures; and (2) four alternative lower-cost collectors. Given all beneficial BOS measures in place, >50% reduction of COSE was achievable only with selective polymer collectors at half today's selective collector cost. In all three system types, today's metal-glass selective collector achieved the same COSE as the hypothesized non-selective polymer collector.

  5. Controls on Flux Rates of Dissolved Gaseous Mercury Emitted from an Estuarine Water Column to the Atmosphere in Eastern New Jersey.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, S.; Wollenberg, J.

    2006-12-01

    The emission rate of mercury from a water surface is influenced by a matrix of water quality parameters, including dissolved organic material (DOM), incident radiation, pH, salinity, and dissolved oxygen. As part of a larger project examining the total flux of dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) from water, land, and plant surfaces, this work attempts to characterize the variables that control the emission of mercury from a estuarine water surface. The project's principal field site is a long recognized site of historic mercury contamination, the Ventron/Velsicol Superfund site located near the headwaters of Berry's Creek in eastern New Jersey. A number of field sites were selected longitudinally along a gradient of aqueous mercury concentration, DOM concentration, and salinity. Mercury fluxes at one site were measured over a continuous 55-hour period using flux chambers and field portable mercury analyzers, including those that measure absorbance (Mercury Instruments UT-3000) and those that measure fluorescence (Tekran). Here we report on fluxes of mercury from the water column as a function of water quality parameters. Measured mercury flux rates from the water surface ranged from near zero to almost 70 ng/m2/h. During the daytime, flux rates covaried positively with incoming solar radiation, with best fits approximated by a logarithmic relationship. Surprisingly, the highest mercury flux rates were observed at night. Nighttime fluxes appear to occur after a transition from daytime dissolved oxygen oversaturated conditions due to algal photosynthesis, to lower dissolved oxygen at nighttime. Clear relations between mercury flux rate and turbidity, pH, temperature, and salinity were not observed. Regionally elevated mercury concentrations may be sourced from this site, as the atmospheric mercury concentration measured 2m above the water surface varied inversely with windspeed. Maximum flux rates decreased with distance downstream, from near 70 ng/m2/h adjacent to the

  6. Spatial Scales of Bacterial Diversity in Cold-Water Coral Reef Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Schöttner, Sandra; Wild, Christian; Hoffmann, Friederike; Boetius, Antje; Ramette, Alban

    2012-01-01

    Background Cold-water coral reef ecosystems are recognized as biodiversity hotspots in the deep sea, but insights into their associated bacterial communities are still limited. Deciphering principle patterns of bacterial community variation over multiple spatial scales may however prove critical for a better understanding of factors contributing to cold-water coral reef stability and functioning. Methodology/Principal Findings Bacterial community structure, as determined by Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA), was investigated with respect to (i) microbial habitat type and (ii) coral species and color, as well as the three spatial components (iii) geomorphologic reef zoning, (iv) reef boundary, and (v) reef location. Communities revealed fundamental differences between coral-generated (branch surface, mucus) and ambient microbial habitats (seawater, sediments). This habitat specificity appeared pivotal for determining bacterial community shifts over all other study levels investigated. Coral-derived surfaces showed species-specific patterns, differing significantly between Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata, but not between L. pertusa color types. Within the reef center, no community distinction corresponded to geomorphologic reef zoning for both coral-generated and ambient microbial habitats. Beyond the reef center, however, bacterial communities varied considerably from local to regional scales, with marked shifts toward the reef periphery as well as between different in- and offshore reef sites, suggesting significant biogeographic imprinting but weak microbe-host specificity. Conclusions/Significance This study presents the first multi-scale survey of bacterial diversity in cold-water coral reefs, spanning a total of five observational levels including three spatial scales. It demonstrates that bacterial communities in cold-water coral reefs are structured by multiple factors acting at different spatial scales, which has fundamental

  7. Effect of cold-water immersion on skeletal muscle contractile properties in soccer players.

    PubMed

    García-Manso, Juan Manuel; Rodríguez-Matoso, Darío; Rodríguez-Ruiz, David; Sarmiento, Samuel; de Saa, Yves; Calderón, Javier

    2011-05-01

    This study was designed to analyze changes in muscle response after cold-water immersion. The vastus lateralis of the dominant leg was analyzed in 12 professional soccer players from the Spanish 2nd Division B using tensiomyography, before and after four cold-water immersions at 4°C lasting 4 mins each. Core temperature, skin temperature, and heart rate were monitored. A significant interaction (P ≤ 0.05) was found in muscle deformation between control conditions (5.12 ± 2.27 mm) and (1) immersion 3 (3.64 ± 2.27 mm) and (2) immersion 4 (3.38 ± 1.34 mm). A steady decrease was also observed in response velocity (immersion 1, -7.3%; immersion 2, -25.9%; immersion 3, -30.0%; immersion 4, -36.6%) and contraction velocity (immersion 1, -11.5%; immersion 2, -22.1%; immersion 3, -35.0%; immersion 4, -41.9%), with statistically significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) in relation to the reference values commencing with the third immersion. No significant differences were found between control conditions in subsequent exposures to cold water for the values of response time and contraction time. Sustained time and reaction time showed an increase during repeated exposures and with longer exposure time, although the increase was not statistically significant. This study shows that repeated cold-water immersions (4 × 4 mins at 4°C) cause considerable alterations to muscle behavior. These alterations significantly affect the state of muscles and their response capacity, particularly in relation to muscle stiffness and muscle contraction velocity.

  8. The effects of cold-water immersion on power output and heart rate in elite cyclists.

    PubMed

    Schniepp, Jason; Campbell, Teri S; Powell, Kasey L; Pincivero, Danny M

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of cold-water immersion on power output, heart rate, and time to peak power in 10 well-trained cyclists. The Compu-trainer Professional Model 8001 computerized stationary trainer was used to evaluate maximum power, average power, and time to peak power during a simulated cycling sprint. The heart rate was measured using a Polar heart rate monitor. Subjects performed 2 maximum-effort sprints (for approximately 30 seconds) separated by either an experimental condition (15 minutes of cold-water immersion at 12 degrees C up to the level of the iliac crest) or a control condition (15 minutes of quiet sitting). All subjects participated under both control and experimental conditions in a counterbalanced design in which 5 subjects performed the experimental condition first and the other 5 subjects performed the control condition first. Each condition was separated by at least 2 days. The time to peak power was not different between the 2 conditions. Maximum and average powers declined by 13.7 and 9.5% for the experimental condition but only by 4.7 and 2.3% for the control condition, respectively. The results also demonstrated a significantly greater decline in maximum heart rate after cold-water immersion (8.1%) than under the control condition (2.4%). Average heart rate showed a decrease of 4.2% under the experimental condition, as compared with an increase of 1.5% under the control condition. The major findings of this study suggest that a relatively brief period of cold-water immersion can manifest significant physiological effects that can impair cycling performance.

  9. COLDEX-86: Fluid and Electrolyte Changes during Prolonged Cold Water Immersion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    whole body immersion in cold water for extended periods, there is a diuresis , natriuresis , kaliuresis, and significant decrease in plasma volume... diuresis , natriuresis , and kaliuresis are common observations (4,10,13). Urine flow rates have been shown to increase from pre-immersion values of... diuresis 19. ABSTRACT (Coninue on reverse If necesary and identify by block number) Dehydration and hypothermia are major inhibitors of diver performance in

  10. Preliminary steps toward formation of a generalized budget for cold-water carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Abigail M.

    1988-11-01

    High-latitude carbonate sediments were once considered isolated exceptions to the tropical rule. They are now being studied throughout the world and preliminary descriptive models have been proposed. Constituents, composition and distribution of cold-water carbonate sediments have been described, and they are diagnostically different from their tropical counterparts. The rates of depositional and post-depositional processes may differ as well. The present study of the rates of gross production, net production and diagenesis was undertaken at Shell Beach in the Gulf of Maine (43°45'N, 69°45'W), a shelly pocket beach. Surface and subsurface sediments were collected and analyzed for CaCO 3 content, assemblage and alteration. Population density of dominant organisms and the weight of skeletal material in typical adults were determined. Transport of sediment was observed. Gross production by dominant organisms was calculated to be 1600 g CaCO 3/m 2 y over the area of production. Net production, while less exact, was on the order of 13-130 g CaCO 3/m 2 y. The difference between these is explained by strong destructive diagenesis, dominantly biological, and at a rate of 80-1300 g CaCO 3/m 3 y. The large gap between gross and net production seems to be characteristic of cold-water carbonate sediments, as does the strongly destructive diagenesis. The gap must be remembered when assessing fossil cold-water populations.

  11. Cold-water immersion alters muscle recruitment and balance of basketball players during vertical jump landing.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Christiane de Souza Guerino; Vicente, Rafael Chagas; Cesário, Mauricio Donini; Guirro, Rinaldo Roberto de Jesus

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of cold-water immersion on the electromyographic (EMG) response of the lower limb and balance during unipodal jump landing. The evaluation comprised 40 individuals (20 basketball players and 20 non-athletes). The EMG response in the lateral gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, fibular longus, rectus femoris, hamstring and gluteus medius; amplitude and mean speed of the centre of pressure, flight time and ground reaction force (GRF) were analysed. All volunteers remained for 20 min with their ankle immersed in cold-water, and were re-evaluated immediately post and after 10, 20 and 30 min of reheating. The Shapiro-Wilk test, Friedman test and Dunn's post test (P < 0.05) were used. The EMG response values decreased for the lateral gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, fibular longus and rectus femoris of both athletes and non-athletes (P < 0.05). The comparison between the groups showed that the EMG response was lower for the athletes. Lower jump flight time and GRF, greater amplitude and mean speed of centre of pressure were predominant in the athletes. Cold-water immersion decreased the EMG activity of the lower limb, flight time and GRF and increased the amplitude and mean speed of centre of pressure.

  12. OTEC cold water pipe design for problems caused by vortex-excited oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, O. M.

    1980-03-14

    Vortex-excited oscillations of marine structures result in reduced fatigue life, large hydrodynamic forces and induced stresses, and sometimes lead to structural damage and to diestructive failures. The cold water pipe of an OTEC plant is nominally a bluff, flexible cylinder with a large aspect ratio (L/D = length/diameter), and is likely to be susceptible to resonant vortex-excited oscillations. The objective of this report is to survey recent results pertaining to the vortex-excited oscillations of structures in general and to consider the application of these findings to the design of the OTEC cold water pipe. Practical design calculations are given as examples throughout the various sections of the report. This report is limited in scope to the problems of vortex shedding from bluff, flexible structures in steady currents and the resulting vortex-excited oscillations. The effects of flow non-uniformities, surface roughness of the cylinder, and inclination to the incident flow are considered in addition to the case of a smooth cyliner in a uniform stream. Emphasis is placed upon design procedures, hydrodynamic coefficients applicable in practice, and the specification of structural response parameters relevant to the OTEC cold water pipe. There are important problems associated with in shedding of vortices from cylinders in waves and from the combined action of waves and currents, but these complex fluid/structure interactions are not considered in this report.

  13. Physiological response of the cold-water coral Desmophyllum dianthus to thermal stress and ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Gori, Andrea; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine; Hennige, Sebastian J; Murray, Fiona; Rottier, Cécile; Wicks, Laura C; Roberts, J Murray

    2016-01-01

    Rising temperatures and ocean acidification driven by anthropogenic carbon emissions threaten both tropical and temperate corals. However, the synergistic effect of these stressors on coral physiology is still poorly understood, in particular for cold-water corals. This study assessed changes in key physiological parameters (calcification, respiration and ammonium excretion) of the widespread cold-water coral Desmophyllum dianthus maintained for ∼8 months at two temperatures (ambient 12 °C and elevated 15 °C) and two pCO2 conditions (ambient 390 ppm and elevated 750 ppm). At ambient temperatures no change in instantaneous calcification, respiration or ammonium excretion rates was observed at either pCO2 levels. Conversely, elevated temperature (15 °C) significantly reduced calcification rates, and combined elevated temperature and pCO2 significantly reduced respiration rates. Changes in the ratio of respired oxygen to excreted nitrogen (O:N), which provides information on the main sources of energy being metabolized, indicated a shift from mixed use of protein and carbohydrate/lipid as metabolic substrates under control conditions, to less efficient protein-dominated catabolism under both stressors. Overall, this study shows that the physiology of D. dianthus is more sensitive to thermal than pCO2 stress, and that the predicted combination of rising temperatures and ocean acidification in the coming decades may severely impact this cold-water coral species.

  14. Physiological response of the cold-water coral Desmophyllum dianthus to thermal stress and ocean acidification

    PubMed Central

    Ferrier-Pagès, Christine; Hennige, Sebastian J.; Murray, Fiona; Rottier, Cécile; Wicks, Laura C.; Roberts, J. Murray

    2016-01-01

    Rising temperatures and ocean acidification driven by anthropogenic carbon emissions threaten both tropical and temperate corals. However, the synergistic effect of these stressors on coral physiology is still poorly understood, in particular for cold-water corals. This study assessed changes in key physiological parameters (calcification, respiration and ammonium excretion) of the widespread cold-water coral Desmophyllum dianthus maintained for ∼8 months at two temperatures (ambient 12 °C and elevated 15 °C) and two pCO2 conditions (ambient 390 ppm and elevated 750 ppm). At ambient temperatures no change in instantaneous calcification, respiration or ammonium excretion rates was observed at either pCO2 levels. Conversely, elevated temperature (15 °C) significantly reduced calcification rates, and combined elevated temperature and pCO2 significantly reduced respiration rates. Changes in the ratio of respired oxygen to excreted nitrogen (O:N), which provides information on the main sources of energy being metabolized, indicated a shift from mixed use of protein and carbohydrate/lipid as metabolic substrates under control conditions, to less efficient protein-dominated catabolism under both stressors. Overall, this study shows that the physiology of D. dianthus is more sensitive to thermal than pCO2 stress, and that the predicted combination of rising temperatures and ocean acidification in the coming decades may severely impact this cold-water coral species. PMID:26855864

  15. Post exercise changes in compartmental body temperature accompanying intermittent cold water cooling in the hyperthermic horse.

    PubMed

    Marlin, D J; Scott, C M; Roberts, C A; Casas, I; Holah, G; Schroter, R C

    1998-01-01

    Whereas the efficacy of cold water cooling of horses has been demonstrated by several studies, the dynamics of temperature changes within and between compartments (primarily muscle, blood [core], skin and deep core [rectal]) have not been investigated. Changes in body temperature associated with cold water cooling were investigated in the hyperthermic horse. Muscle (TMU), pulmonary artery (TPA), rectal (TREC), tail-skin (TTSK) and coat surface (TCOAT) temperatures, were monitored continuously in 5 Thoroughbred horses during and after exercise in hot humid (30 degrees C and 80% RH) conditions on a treadmill. Horses were cooled in the hot humid environment with cold water (approximately 6 degrees C) for 6 30 s periods. Between each 30 s cooling period the horses stood for 30 s. A total of 180 l of cold water was applied. Horses were monitored for a further 4 min following the final cooling period. From the end of exercise to the end of the final cooling (6.5 min), mean (+/- s.e.) rates of decrease for TTSK and TPA were similar (0.8 +/- 0.1 and 0.8 +/- 0.1 degrees C/min, respectively). The effects on TMU and TREC were less marked, with average rates of 0.2 +/- 0.1 and 0.0 +/- 0.1 degrees C/min, respectively. During the first 4 min of cooling, TPA fell during the 30 s period of water application and rose during each 30 s period of standing. When TPA fell below approximately 36.5 degrees C, these variations were suppressed and TPA rose steadily, despite continued applications; TREC and TMU continued to fall, although less rapidly than before. These observations are consistent with the onset of skin vasoconstriction at low TPA. The mechanism is mediated through a cooling of circulating blood volume providing a greater capacity for heat transfer between muscle and circulation. Intermittent application of cold water (approximately 6 degrees C) improves heat removal without apparent deleterious effects and is well tolerated. Even when hypothermia develops (based on TPA

  16. Influence of cold water immersion on limb and cutaneous blood flow at rest.

    PubMed

    Gregson, Warren; Black, Mark A; Jones, Helen; Milson, Jordon; Morton, James; Dawson, Brian; Atkinson, Greg; Green, Daniel J

    2011-06-01

    Cold water immersion reduces exercise-induced muscle damage. Benefits may partly arise from a decline in limb blood flow; however, no study has comprehensively investigated the influence of different degrees of cooling undertaken via cold water immersion on limb blood flow responses. To determine the influence of cold (8°C) and cool (22°C) water immersion on lower limb and cutaneous blood flow. Controlled laboratory study. Nine men were placed in a semireclined position and lowered into 8°C or 22°C water to the iliac crest for two 5-minute periods interspersed with 2 minutes of nonimmersion. Rectal and thigh skin temperature, deep and superficial muscle temperature, heart rate, mean arterial pressure, thigh cutaneous blood velocity (laser Doppler), and superficial femoral artery blood flow (duplex ultrasound) were measured during immersion and for 30 minutes after immersion. Indices of vascular conductance were calculated (flux and blood flow/mean arterial pressure). Reductions in rectal temperature (8°C, 0.2° ± 0.1°C; 22°C, 0.1° ± 0.1°C) and thigh skin temperature (8°C, 6.2° ± 0.5°C; 22°C, 3.2° ± 0.2°C) were greater in 8°C water than in 22°C (P < .01). Femoral artery conductance was reduced to a similar extent immediately after immersion (~30%) and 30 minutes after immersion (~40%) under both conditions (P < .01). In contrast, there was less thigh cutaneous vasoconstriction during and after immersion in 8°C water compared with 22°C (P = .01). These data suggest that immersion at both temperatures resulted in similar whole limb blood flow but, paradoxically, more blood was distributed to the skin in the colder water. This suggests that colder temperatures may be associated with reduced muscle blood flow, which could provide an explanation for the benefits of cold water immersion in alleviating exercise-induced muscle damage in sports and athletic contexts. Colder water temperatures may be more effective in the treatment of exercise

  17. Water-rich basalts at mid-ocean-ridge cold spots.

    PubMed

    Ligi, Marco; Bonatti, Enrico; Cipriani, Anna; Ottolini, Luisa

    2005-03-03

    Although water is only present in trace amounts in the suboceanic upper mantle, it is thought to play a significant role in affecting mantle viscosity, melting and the generation of crust at mid-ocean ridges. The concentration of water in oceanic basalts has been observed to stay below 0.2 wt%, except for water-rich basalts sampled near hotspots and generated by 'wet' mantle plumes. Here, however, we report unusually high water content in basaltic glasses from a cold region of the mid-ocean-ridge system in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean. These basalts are sodium-rich, having been generated by low degrees of melting of the mantle, and contain unusually high ratios of light versus heavy rare-earth elements, implying the presence of garnet in the melting region. We infer that water-rich basalts from such regions of thermal minima derive from low degrees of 'wet' melting greater than 60 km deep in the mantle, with minor dilution by melts produced by shallower 'dry' melting--a view supported by numerical modelling. We therefore conclude that oceanic basalts are water-rich not only near hotspots, but also at 'cold spots'.

  18. Estuarine Food for Thought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M�ller-Solger, A. B.; M�ller-Navarra, D. B.

    2002-12-01

    Recent research in animal and human nutrition has shown the importance of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) such as the n-3 LC-PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). These LC-PUFA are needed for healthy development and functioning of the nervous and vascular systems. De novo synthesis or elongation to LC-PUFA in animals is inefficient at best; thus sufficient amounts of these PUFA must be supplied by food sources. Algae, especially diatoms, dinoflagellates, and cryptophytes, are the quantitatively most important producers of EPA and DHA. These types of algae often dominate estuarine producer communities. The upper San Francisco Estuary is no exception, and we found its LC-PUFA-rich phytoplankton biomass, but not the quantitatively prevalent terrestrial plant detritus, to be highly predictive of zooplankton (Daphnia) growth. In contrast, in freshwater lakes dominated by relatively LC-PUFA-poor phytoplankton, EPA, not total phytoplankton biomass, best predicted Daphnia growth. The commonly high abundance of LC-PUFA-rich algae in estuaries may help explain the high trophic efficiencies in these systems and resulting high consumer production. Moreover, LC-PUFA-rich estuarine food resources may also provide essential nutrition and associated health and evolutionary benefits to land-dwelling consumers of such foods, including humans. Ensuring LC-PUFA-rich, uncontaminated estuarine production is thus an important goal for estuarine restoration and a convincing argument for estuarine conservation.

  19. Calcification rates and the effect of ocean acidification on Mediterranean cold-water corals

    PubMed Central

    Maier, C.; Watremez, P.; Taviani, M.; Weinbauer, M. G.; Gattuso, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    Global environmental changes, including ocean acidification, have been identified as a major threat to scleractinian corals. General predictions are that ocean acidification will be detrimental to reef growth and that 40 to more than 80 per cent of present-day reefs will decline during the next 50 years. Cold-water corals (CWCs) are thought to be strongly affected by changes in ocean acidification owing to their distribution in deep and/or cold waters, which naturally exhibit a CaCO3 saturation state lower than in shallow/warm waters. Calcification was measured in three species of Mediterranean cold-water scleractinian corals (Lophelia pertusa, Madrepora oculata and Desmophyllum dianthus) on-board research vessels and soon after collection. Incubations were performed in ambient sea water. The species M. oculata was additionally incubated in sea water reduced or enriched in CO2. At ambient conditions, calcification rates ranged between −0.01 and 0.23% d−1. Calcification rates of M. oculata under variable partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) were the same for ambient and elevated pCO2 (404 and 867 µatm) with 0.06 ± 0.06% d−1, while calcification was 0.12 ± 0.06% d−1 when pCO2 was reduced to its pre-industrial level (285 µatm). This suggests that present-day CWC calcification in the Mediterranean Sea has already drastically declined (by 50%) as a consequence of anthropogenic-induced ocean acidification. PMID:22130603

  20. Criticality safety evaluation report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility`s process water handling system

    SciTech Connect

    Roblyer, S.D.

    1998-02-12

    This report addresses the criticality concerns associated with process water handling in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). The controls and limitations on equipment design and operations to control potential criticality occurrences are identified. The effectiveness of equipment design and operation controls in preventing criticality occurrences during normal and abnormal conditions is evaluated and documented in this report. Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is removed from existing canisters in both the K East and K West Basins and loaded into a multicanister overpack (MCO) in the K Basin pool. The MCO is housed in a shipping cask surrounded by clean water in the annulus between the exterior of the MCO and the interior of the shipping cask. The fuel consists of spent N Reactor and some single pass reactor fuel. The MCO is transported to the CVDF near the K Basins to remove process water from the MCO interior and from the shipping cask annulus. After the bulk water is removed from the MCO, any remaining free liquid is removed by drawing a vacuum on the MCO`s interior. After cold vacuum drying is completed, the MCO is filled with an inert cover gas, the lid is replaced on the shipping cask, and the MCO is transported to the Canister Storage Building. The process water removed from the MCO contains fissionable materials from metallic uranium corrosion. The process water from the MCO is first collected in a geometrically safe process water conditioning receiver tank. The process water in the process water conditioning receiver tank is tested, then filtered, demineralized, and collected in the storage tank. The process water is finally removed from the storage tank and transported from the CVDF by truck.

  1. Spatial Variability of Factors Influencing the Distribution of Triclosan in Sediments and Water of an Urbanized Estuarine Embayment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triclosan (TCS) is a broad spectrum anti-microbial compound added to many consumer and personal care products. TCS enters water bodies primarily through wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent and may be introduced by combined sewer overflows or surface water runoff. In estu...

  2. RELATIONS BETWEEN BACTERIAL NITROGEN METABOLISM AND GROWTH EFFICIENCY IN AN ESTUARINE AND AN OPEN-WATER ECOSYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bacterial uptake or release of dissolved nitrogen compounds (amino nitrogen, urea, ammonium and nitrate) were examined in 0.8 |m filtered water from an estuary (Santa Rosa Sound [SRS], northwestern Florida) and an open-water location in the Gulf of Mexico [GM]. The bacterial nutr...

  3. Spatial Variability of Factors Influencing the Distribution of Triclosan in Sediments and Water of an Urbanized Estuarine Embayment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triclosan (TCS) is a broad spectrum anti-microbial compound added to many consumer and personal care products. TCS enters water bodies primarily through wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent and may be introduced by combined sewer overflows or surface water runoff. In estu...

  4. RELATIONS BETWEEN BACTERIAL NITROGEN METABOLISM AND GROWTH EFFICIENCY IN AN ESTUARINE AND AN OPEN-WATER ECOSYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bacterial uptake or release of dissolved nitrogen compounds (amino nitrogen, urea, ammonium and nitrate) were examined in 0.8 |m filtered water from an estuary (Santa Rosa Sound [SRS], northwestern Florida) and an open-water location in the Gulf of Mexico [GM]. The bacterial nutr...

  5. The acoustic bubble: Ocean, cetacean and extraterrestrial acoustics, and cold water cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leighton, T. G.

    2017-01-01

    This paper summarizes the content of a plenary lecture on the author’s personal research into the interactions between bubbles and sound fields, covering particular topics involving the climatically important gas exchange between atmosphere and ocean, the implications of bubbly ocean water to marine mammals that use sound, and the opportunities afforded by incorporating acoustical sensors onto probes launched to investigate other worlds in our solar system. It closes with recent data on the opportunities of bubble acoustics to investigate methods of cold water cleaning.

  6. Measurement of liquid water content in a melting snowpack using cold calorimeter techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A.; Jones, E. B.; Howell, S.

    1980-01-01

    Liquid water in a snowpack is a quantifiable parameter of hydrological significance. It is also important in the interpretation of snowpack remote sensing data using microwave techniques. One acceptable approach to measuring liquid water content of a snowpack (by weight) is the cold calorimeter. This technique is presented from theory through application. Silicon oil was used successfully as the freezing agent. Consistent results can be obtained even when using operators with a minimum of training. Data can be obtained approximately every 15 minutes by using two calorimeters and three operators. Accuracy within one to two percent can be achieved under reasonable field conditions.

  7. Measurement of liquid water content in a melting snowpack using cold calorimeter techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A.; Jones, E. B.; Howell, S.

    1980-01-01

    Liquid water in a snowpack is a quantifiable parameter of hydrological significance. It is also important in the interpretation of snowpack remote sensing data using microwave techniques. One acceptable approach to measuring liquid water content of a snowpack (by weight) is the cold calorimeter. This technique is presented from theory through application. Silicon oil was used successfully as the freezing agent. Consistent results can be obtained even when using operators with a minimum of training. Data can be obtained approximately every 15 minutes by using two calorimeters and three operators. Accuracy within one to two percent can be achieved under reasonable field conditions.

  8. Optimizing Cold-Water Immersion for Exercise-Induced Hyperthermia: An Evidence-Based Paper.

    PubMed

    Nye, Emma A; Edler, Jessica R; Eberman, Lindsey E; Games, Kenneth E

    2016-06-02

    Reference: Zhang Y, Davis JK, Casa DJ, Bishop PA. Optimizing cold water immersion for exercise-induced hyperthermia: a meta-analysis. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2015;47(11):2464-2472. Clinical Questions: Do optimal procedures exist for implementing cold-water immersion (CWI) that yields high cooling rates for hyperthermic individuals? One reviewer performed a literature search using PubMed and Web of Science. Search phrases were cold water immersion, forearm immersion, ice bath, ice water immersion, immersion, AND cooling. Studies were included based on the following criteria: (1) English language, (2) full-length articles published in peer-reviewed journals, (3) healthy adults subjected to exercise-induced hyperthermia, and (4) reporting of core temperature as 1 outcome measure. A total of 19 studies were analyzed. Pre-immersion core temperature, immersion water temperature, ambient temperature, immersion duration, and immersion level were coded a priori for extraction. Data originally reported in graphical form were digitally converted to numeric values. Mean differences comparing the cooling rates of CWI with passive recovery, standard deviation of change from baseline core temperature, and within-subjects r were extracted. Two independent reviewers used the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale to assess the risk of bias. Cold-water immersion increased the cooling rate by 0.03°C/min (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.03, 0.04°C/min) compared with passive recovery. Cooling rates were more effective when the pre-immersion core temperature was ≥38.6°C (P = .023), immersion water temperature was ≤10°C (P = .036), ambient temperature was ≥20°C (P = .013), or immersion duration was ≤10 minutes (P < .001). Cooling rates for torso and limb immersion (mean difference = 0.04°C/min, 95% CI = 0.03, 0.06°C/min) were higher (P = .028) than those for forearm and hand immersion (mean difference = 0.01°C/min, 95% CI = -0.01, 0.04°C/min). Hyperthermic

  9. Comparison of solid-phase and pore-water approaches for assessing the quality of marine and estuarine sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, Robert Scott; Chapman, Duane C.

    1992-01-01

    As part of our continuing evaluation of the pore-water approach for assessing sediment quality, we made a series of side-by-side comparisons between the standard 10-day amphipod whole sediment test with the corophiid Grandidierella japonica and a suite of tests using pore water extracted from the same sediments. the pore-water tests evaluated were the sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) sperm cell test and morphological development assay, the life-cycle test with the polychaete Dinophilus gyrociliatus, and acute exposures of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) embryo-larval stages. Sediment and surface microlayer samples were collected from contaminated sites. Whole-sediment, pore-water, and surface microlayer toxicity tests were performed. Pore-water toxicity tests were considerably more sensitive than the whole-sediment amphipod test, which is currently the most sensitive toxicity test now recommended for determining the acceptability of dredged material for open ocean disposal.

  10. Water-quality data from continuously monitored sites in the Albemarle Sound estuarine system, North Carolina, 1989-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrett, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    Water-quality measurements were made at 11 sites in or near North Carolina?s Albemarle Sound. Measurements taken at 15-minute intervals included near-surface and near-bottom specific conductance; near-surface water temperature; and near-surface, mid-depth, and near-bottom dissolved-oxygen concentrations. Salinities generally ranged from less than 0.1 to about 32 parts per thousand during the period October 1989 through September 1991. Recorded water temperatures were between zero and 35 degrees Celsius during the measurement period. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations ranged from less than 1 milligram per liter to 19 milligrams per liter. Daily mean values of specific conductance; salinity; water temperature; dissolved-oxygen concentrations; and dissolved oxygen, percent saturation, are presented in tables and graphs. Five-day mean values of water temperature and dissolved-oxygen concentrations for day and night conditions are also presented in tables.

  11. Climate, invasive species and land use drive population dynamics of a cold-water specialist

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kovach, Ryan P.; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Whited, Diane C.; Schmetterling, David A.; Dux, Andrew M; Muhlfeld, Clint C.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is an additional stressor in a complex suite of threats facing freshwater biodiversity, particularly for cold-water fishes. Research addressing the consequences of climate change on cold-water fish has generally focused on temperature limits defining spatial distributions, largely ignoring how climatic variation influences population dynamics in the context of other existing stressors.We used long-term data from 92 populations of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus – one of North America's most cold-adapted fishes – to quantify additive and interactive effects of climate, invasive species and land use on population dynamics (abundance, variability and growth rate).Populations were generally depressed, more variable and declining where spawning and rearing stream habitat was limited, invasive species and land use were prevalent and stream temperatures were highest. Increasing stream temperature acted additively and independently, whereas land use and invasive species had additive and interactive effects (i.e. the impact of one stressor depended on exposure to the other stressor).Most (58%–78%) of the explained variation in population dynamics was attributed to the presence of invasive species, differences in life history and management actions in foraging habitats in rivers, lakes and reservoirs. Although invasive fishes had strong negative effects on populations in foraging habitats, proactive control programmes appeared to effectively temper their negative impact.Synthesis and applications. Long-term demographic data emphasize that climate warming will exacerbate imperilment of cold-water specialists like bull trout, yet other stressors – especially invasive fishes – are immediate threats that can be addressed by proactive management actions. Therefore, climate-adaptation strategies for freshwater biodiversity should consider existing abiotic and biotic stressors, some of which provide potential and realized opportunity for conservation

  12. Increasing the Accuracy of pH Measurements in Estuarine and Brackish Water: the Need for an Improved Pitzer Model for TRIS in Seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, D. R.; Gallego, J.

    2016-02-01

    pH measurements in seawater on the total scale are calibrated against TRIS-seawater buffers. The current state of the art for definition of pH in these buffers uses Harned cell measurements. However, while these measurements have only been made in the salinity range 20 - 40, pH measurements in estuarine and brackish waters at lower salinities require the assignment of pH values to low salinity TRIS buffers. The assigned pH values of TRIS-seawater buffers at salinities less than 20 are currently based on (i) interpolation with measurements made in pure TRIS solutions at low ionic strength, and/or (ii) on measurements made in sodium chloride solutions. An additional problem is that as the salinity decreases, the composition of the buffer departs ever more from standard seawater, in order to maintain a minimum concentration of TRIS in the buffer. An alternative approach is to develop a Pitzer model for TRIS in seawater that is sufficiently accurate to reproduce both the Harned cell data in the salinity range 20 - 40, and the low ionic strength TRIS data. This approach would also allow the increasing proportion of TRIS at lower salinities to be treated effectively. In order to test this approach, the MIAMI model for the seawater electrolyte, together with published Pitzer parameters for TRIS, has been used to calculate the Harned cell potentials for TRIS-seawater buffers at 25°C in the salinity range 20 - 40. Comparison with experimental measurements shows significant and consistent offsets. We examine the extent to which this offset can be reduced by re-evaluation of TRIS parameters using updated data on the sodium chloride / water system, and identify priorities for new measurements that would yield increased accuracy of the Pitzer model for TRIS-seawater buffers.

  13. Lipid-induced thermogenesis is up-regulated by the first cold-water immersions in juvenile penguins.

    PubMed

    Teulier, Loïc; Rey, Benjamin; Tornos, Jérémy; Le Coadic, Marion; Monternier, Pierre-Axel; Bourguignon, Aurore; Dolmazon, Virginie; Romestaing, Caroline; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Duchamp, Claude; Roussel, Damien

    2016-07-01

    The passage from shore to marine life is a critical step in the developmen