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Sample records for cold estuarine waters

  1. Discovery of bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase (PhaC)-encoding genes from seasonal Baltic Sea ice and cold estuarine waters.

    PubMed

    Pärnänen, Katariina; Karkman, Antti; Virta, Marko; Eronen-Rasimus, Eeva; Kaartokallio, Hermanni

    2015-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are macromolecules produced by bacteria as means for storing carbon and energy in intracellular granules. PHAs have physical properties similar to those of plastics and have become of interest to industry as materials for environmentally friendly bioplastic production. There is an ongoing search for new PHA-producing bacterial strains and PHA-synthesizing enzymes tolerating extreme conditions to find ways of producing PHAs at cold temperatures and high solute concentrations. Moreover, the study of PHA producers in the sea-ice biome can aid in understanding the microbial ecology of carbon cycling in ice-associated ecosystems. In this study, PHA producers and PHA synthase genes were examined under the extreme environmental conditions of sea ice and cold seawater to find evidence of PHA production in an environment requiring adaptation to high salinity and cold temperatures. Sea ice and cold estuarine water samples were collected from the northern Baltic Sea and evidence of PHA production was gathered, using microscopy with Nile Blue A staining of PHA-granules and PCR assays detecting PHA-synthesis genes. The PHA granules and PHA synthases were found at all sampling locations, in both sea ice and water, and throughout the sampling period spanning over 10 years. Our study shows, for the first time, that PHA synthesis occurs in Baltic Sea cold-adapted bacteria in their natural environment, which makes the Baltic Sea and its cold environments an interesting choice in the quest for PHA-synthesizing bacteria and synthesis genes. PMID:25280551

  2. Biofouling Growth in Cold Estuarine Waters and Evaluation of Some Chitosan and Copper Anti-Fouling Paints

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, Émilien; Bonnet, Claudie; Lemarchand, Karine

    2009-01-01

    Ecological concerns about antifouling paints containing non-green tin and copper compounds have highlighted the need for environmentally friendly alternatives. We report here a field test conducted in estuarine waters over two months designed to evaluate the efficiency of a number of active natural and man-made chemical ingredients added into a silicon-polyurethane marine paint. Early steps of biofouling in cold seawater of the St. Lawrence Estuary (Canada) were observed. Analyses, including dry biomass, flow cytometry and spectrofluorimetry, demonstrated a short-term antibacterial action of chitosan-based paints although no significant anti-algal action was observed. Cuprous oxide paints were efficient against bacteria and algae invasion in the first two weeks, especially those with added organic biocides such as isothiazolone and copper pyrithione. However, the overall dry biomass and chlorophyll a content were similar for all chitosan-and copper-based paints after 63 days. Microscopic observations revealed variation in the highly diverse benthic diatom population including species Navicula, Melosira, Cocconeis, Nitshzcia, Fragilaria and Amphora. Results suggest no real long-term efficiency for tested antifouling paints and highlight a particular need for green antifouling ingredients that are active under northern estuarine conditions. PMID:19742133

  3. Coastal and Estuarine Waters: Light Behavior. Coastal and Estuarine Waters: Optical Sensors and Remote Sensing.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article summarizes the use of remote sensing techniques and technology to monitor coastal and estuarine waters. These waters are rich in mineral particles stirred up from the seabed by tides and waves and dissolved organic matter transported by rivers. The majority of the li...

  4. Relating watershed nutrient loads to satellite derived estuarine water quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nutrient enhanced phytoplankton production is a cause of degraded estuarine water quality. Yet, relationships between watershed nutrient loads and the spatial and temporal scales of phytoplankton blooms and subsequent water quality impairments remain unquantified for most systems...

  5. Biogeochemical classification of South Florida's estuarine and coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Briceño, Henry O; Boyer, Joseph N; Castro, Joffre; Harlem, Peter

    2013-10-15

    South Florida's watersheds have endured a century of urban and agricultural development and disruption of their hydrology. Spatial characterization of South Florida's estuarine and coastal waters is important to Everglades' restoration programs. We applied Factor Analysis and Hierarchical Clustering of water quality data in tandem to characterize and spatially subdivide South Florida's coastal and estuarine waters. Segmentation rendered forty-four biogeochemically distinct water bodies whose spatial distribution is closely linked to geomorphology, circulation, benthic community pattern, and to water management. This segmentation has been adopted with minor changes by federal and state environmental agencies to derive numeric nutrient criteria. PMID:23968989

  6. Particle-water interactions of platinum-based anticancer drugs in river water and estuarine water.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew; Mascorda, Llucia

    2015-01-01

    The cytotoxic, platinum-based anticancer drugs, cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin, enter the aquatic environment largely in municipal wastes via excretion from outpatients undergoing chemotherapy. The environmental behaviour, effects and fate of these drugs are, however, unknown. In this study, the adsorption of the drugs to untreated and chemically modified (oxide-free and organic-free) sediment was examined in both river water and low salinity (S=3.2) estuarine water in order to determine the nature and extent of their interactions with suspended particles. In all cases, adsorption isotherms were linear, and the slopes of the relationships, or distribution coefficients (KDs), ranged from about 10(2) to 10(3) ml g(-1). Overall, adsorption decreased in the order: cisplatin>carboplatin>oxaliplatin; in river water and: cisplatin>carboplatin, oxaliplatin; in estuarine water. There was no clear dependence of adsorption on sediment treatment but, for all sediment types, both cisplatin and carboplatin adsorption was greater in river water than in estuarine water. Qualitatively, these observations are consistent with the rates of formation of reactive, aquated degradation products and the dependencies of these rates on aqueous chloride concentration. We predict that during transport through an estuarine turbidity maximum (of suspended sediment concentration=1 g L(-1)), up to about 45% of cisplatin and 35% of carboplatin are filtered out from the aqueous phase but that no more than 7% of oxaliplatin is retained.

  7. DEVELOPING A NATIONALLY CONSISTENT APPROACH FOR ASSESSING REGIONAL ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN NUTRIENTS AND BENTHIC BIOLOGICAL CONDITION IN ESTUARINE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identifying candidate water quality criteria in estuarine waters is confounded by differences among estuaries and biogeographic regions. Addressing these differences is paramount to assess estuarine water quality impairment successfully. We outline an approach to investigate rela...

  8. Towards Sustainable Water Quality In Estuarine Impoundments: The Current State.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, J.; Worrall, F.

    Several estuarine impoundment schemes have been built or are proposed in the UK and worldwide. The impounding of estuaries is currently a popular approach to urban regeneration in the UK. By creation of an aesthetically pleasing amenity impound- ment, including the drowning of "unsightly" tidal mud flats, it is hoped that prestige development will be encouraged in the estuarine area. Impounding fundamentally alters the dynamics of estuaries, with consequences in terms of sedimentation patterns and rates, and water quality. The SIMBA Project at- tempts to understand the controls on water quality in impoundments, with a view to- wards long term and sustainable high water quality through good barrage design and management practice. Detailed water quality surveys have been carried out on a total of 79 dates on the Tees, Tawe, Wansbeck and Blyth estuaries. Water quality parameters which have been determined are pH, Eh, dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), conductivity, transparency, suspended solids, alkalinity, temperature, nutri- ents (nitrate+nitrite, ammonium and orthophosphate), and a large range of dissolved metals. Statistical analyses are used to demonstrate the major controls on water qual- ity in impoundments. A distinction is made between total tidal exclusion (freshwater) systems, in which water quality is primarily influenced by external/catchment factors, and partial tidal exclusion systems, in which water quality is processed internally. This internal processing is due to density stratification creating compartments of saline wa- ter in contact with oxygen demanding sediments and isolated from the atmosphere, which leads to conditions of low DO and changes in redox conditions which may lead to release of metals and phosphate from the sediment.

  9. Relating watershed nutrient loads to satellite derived estuarine water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehrter, J. C.; Le, C.

    2015-12-01

    Nutrient enhanced phytoplankton production is a cause of degraded estuarine water quality. Yet, relationships between watershed nutrient loads and the spatial and temporal scales of phytoplankton blooms and subsequent water quality impairments remain unquantified for most systems. This is partially due to a lack of observations. In many systems, satellite remote sensing of water quality variables may be used to supplement limited field observations and improve understanding of linkages to nutrients. Here, we present the results from a field and satellite ocean color study that quantitatively links nutrients to variations in estuarine water quality endpoints. The study was conducted in Pensacola Bay, Florida, an estuary in the northern Gulf of Mexico that is impacted by watershed nutrients. We developed new empirical band ratio algorithms to retrieve phytoplankton biomass as chlorophyll a (chla), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), and suspended particulate matter (SPM) from the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS). MERIS had suitable spatial resolution (300-m) for the scale of Pensacola Bay (area = 370 km2, mean depth = 3.4 m) and a spectral band centered at wavelength 709 nm that was used to minimize the effect of organic matter on chla retrieval. The algorithms were applied to daily MERIS remote sensing reflectance (level 2) data acquired from 2003 to 2011 to calculate nine-year time-series of mean monthly chla, CDOM, and SPM concentrations. The MERIS derived time-series were then analyzed for statistical relations with time-series of mean monthly river discharge and river loads of nitrogen, phosphorus, dissolved organic carbon, and SPM. Regression analyses revealed significant relationships between river loads and MERIS water quality variables. The simple regression models provide quantitative predictions about how much chla, CDOM, and SPM concentrations in Pensacola Bay will increase with increased river loading, which is necessary information

  10. Cold water aquifer storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddell, D. L.; Davison, R. R.; Harris, W. B.

    1980-03-01

    A working prototype system is described in which water is pumped from an aquifer at 70 F in the winter time, chilled to a temperature of less than 50 F, injected into a ground-water aquifer, stored for a period of several months, pumped back to the surface in the summer time. A total of 8.1 million gallons of chilled water at an average temperature of 48 F were injected. This was followed by a storage period of 100 days. The recovery cycle was completed a year later with a total of 8.1 million gallons recovered. Approximately 20 percent of the chill energy was recovered.

  11. Utilization of cyclohexanol by bacteria in a tropical estuarine water.

    PubMed

    Ilori, M O

    1999-01-01

    The Lagos lagoon is a wide expanse of estuarine water. The range of temperature, pH and conductivity of samples collected from 3 sources were 27-30 degrees C, 7.8-8.3 and 2.34-2.85 mS respectively. Consistent increase and decrease in the population of indigenous bacteria occurred in the test and control experiments respectively. Organisms in samples from Apapa and Iddo utilized cyclohexanol better than those in the sample from the University of Lagos. The cyclohexanol degrading bacteria were identified as species of Pseudomonas. Acinetobacter, Vibrio, Micrococcus and Flavobacterium. Pseudomonas sp. had the highest growth potential on cyclohexanol. These organisms play important roles in reducing the pollutant loads of the Lagos lagoon.

  12. Halogen radicals contribute to photooxidation in coastal and estuarine waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Kimberly M.; Mitch, William A.

    2016-05-01

    Although halogen radicals are recognized to form as products of hydroxyl radical (•OH) scavenging by halides, their contribution to the phototransformation of marine organic compounds has received little attention. We demonstrate that, relative to freshwater conditions, seawater halides can increase photodegradation rates of domoic acid, a marine algal toxin, and dimethyl sulfide, a volatile precursor to cloud condensation nuclei, up to fivefold. Using synthetic seawater solutions, we show that the increased photodegradation is specific to dissolved organic matter (DOM) and halides, rather than other seawater salt constituents (e.g., carbonates) or photoactive species (e.g., iron and nitrate). Experiments in synthetic and natural coastal and estuarine water samples demonstrate that the halide-specific increase in photodegradation could be attributed to photochemically generated halogen radicals rather than other photoproduced reactive intermediates [e.g., excited-state triplet DOM (3DOM*), reactive oxygen species]. Computational kinetic modeling indicates that seawater halogen radical concentrations are two to three orders of magnitude greater than freshwater •OH concentrations and sufficient to account for the observed halide-specific increase in photodegradation. Dark •OH generation by gamma radiolysis demonstrates that halogen radical production via •OH scavenging by halides is insufficient to explain the observed effect. Using sensitizer models for DOM chromophores, we show that halogen radicals are formed predominantly by direct oxidation of Cl‑ and Br‑ by 3DOM*, an •OH-independent pathway. Our results indicate that halogen radicals significantly contribute to the phototransformation of algal products in coastal or estuarine surface waters.

  13. Halogen radicals contribute to photooxidation in coastal and estuarine waters.

    PubMed

    Parker, Kimberly M; Mitch, William A

    2016-05-24

    Although halogen radicals are recognized to form as products of hydroxyl radical ((•)OH) scavenging by halides, their contribution to the phototransformation of marine organic compounds has received little attention. We demonstrate that, relative to freshwater conditions, seawater halides can increase photodegradation rates of domoic acid, a marine algal toxin, and dimethyl sulfide, a volatile precursor to cloud condensation nuclei, up to fivefold. Using synthetic seawater solutions, we show that the increased photodegradation is specific to dissolved organic matter (DOM) and halides, rather than other seawater salt constituents (e.g., carbonates) or photoactive species (e.g., iron and nitrate). Experiments in synthetic and natural coastal and estuarine water samples demonstrate that the halide-specific increase in photodegradation could be attributed to photochemically generated halogen radicals rather than other photoproduced reactive intermediates [e.g., excited-state triplet DOM ((3)DOM*), reactive oxygen species]. Computational kinetic modeling indicates that seawater halogen radical concentrations are two to three orders of magnitude greater than freshwater (•)OH concentrations and sufficient to account for the observed halide-specific increase in photodegradation. Dark (•)OH generation by gamma radiolysis demonstrates that halogen radical production via (•)OH scavenging by halides is insufficient to explain the observed effect. Using sensitizer models for DOM chromophores, we show that halogen radicals are formed predominantly by direct oxidation of Cl(-) and Br(-) by (3)DOM*, an (•)OH-independent pathway. Our results indicate that halogen radicals significantly contribute to the phototransformation of algal products in coastal or estuarine surface waters. PMID:27162335

  14. Halogen radicals contribute to photooxidation in coastal and estuarine waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Kimberly M.; Mitch, William A.

    2016-05-01

    Although halogen radicals are recognized to form as products of hydroxyl radical (•OH) scavenging by halides, their contribution to the phototransformation of marine organic compounds has received little attention. We demonstrate that, relative to freshwater conditions, seawater halides can increase photodegradation rates of domoic acid, a marine algal toxin, and dimethyl sulfide, a volatile precursor to cloud condensation nuclei, up to fivefold. Using synthetic seawater solutions, we show that the increased photodegradation is specific to dissolved organic matter (DOM) and halides, rather than other seawater salt constituents (e.g., carbonates) or photoactive species (e.g., iron and nitrate). Experiments in synthetic and natural coastal and estuarine water samples demonstrate that the halide-specific increase in photodegradation could be attributed to photochemically generated halogen radicals rather than other photoproduced reactive intermediates [e.g., excited-state triplet DOM (3DOM*), reactive oxygen species]. Computational kinetic modeling indicates that seawater halogen radical concentrations are two to three orders of magnitude greater than freshwater •OH concentrations and sufficient to account for the observed halide-specific increase in photodegradation. Dark •OH generation by gamma radiolysis demonstrates that halogen radical production via •OH scavenging by halides is insufficient to explain the observed effect. Using sensitizer models for DOM chromophores, we show that halogen radicals are formed predominantly by direct oxidation of Cl- and Br- by 3DOM*, an •OH-independent pathway. Our results indicate that halogen radicals significantly contribute to the phototransformation of algal products in coastal or estuarine surface waters.

  15. Enhanced submarine ground water discharge form mixing of pore water and estuarine water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Jonathan B.; Cable, Jaye E.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Lindenberg, Mary K.

    2004-01-01

    Submarine ground water discharge is suggested to be an important pathway for contaminants from continents to coastal zones, but its significance depends on the volume of water and concentrations of contaminants that originate in continental aquifers. Ground water discharge to the Banana River Lagoon, Florida, was estimated by analyzing the temporal and spatial variations of Cl− concentration profiles in the upper 230 cm of pore waters and was measured directly by seepage meters. Total submarine ground water discharge consists of slow discharge at depths > ∼70 cm below seafloor (cmbsf) of largely marine water combined with rapid discharge of mixed pore water and estuarine water above ∼70 cmbsf. Cl− profiles indicate average linear velocities of ∼0.014 cm/d at depths > ∼70 cmbsf. In contrast, seepage meters indicate water discharges across the sediment-water interface at rates between 3.6 and 6.9 cm/d. The discrepancy appears to be caused by mixing in the shallow sediment, which may result from a combination of bioirrigation, wave and tidal pumping, and convection. Wave and tidal pumping and convection would be minor because the tidal range is small, the short fetch of the lagoon limits wave heights, and large density contacts are lacking between lagoon and pore water. Mixing occurs to ∼70 cmbsf, which represents depths greater than previously reported. Mixing of oxygenated water to these depths could be important for remineralization of organic matter.

  16. Removal of hexavalent chromium from estuarine waters by model substrates and natural sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, L.M.; Schick, L.L.

    1981-12-01

    Chromate removal from waters with a range of salinities (0-32%) was studied by using both model substrates, alumina and kaolinite, and natural estuarine sediments in order to determine possible effects of sediment on dissolved chromate in estuarine systems. The dependence of chromate removal on sediment concentrations (<1 g L/sup -1/) will be ineffective in removing dissolved chromate from the water column, though the reaction will be important in deposited sediments. Chromate removal is more effective in low- than high-salinity regimes. Removal by model substrates decreases monotonically with increasing salinity but shows a peak in the 0.1-1.0% range with estuarine sediments. This latter behavior shows similarity with the salinity dependence of chromate reduction by gallic acid, suggesting reductive adsorption by the estuarine sediments. Naturally occurring levels of phosphate ansilicate show negligible effect on chromate removal.

  17. Water use patterns of estuarine vegetation in a tidal creek system.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lili; Lockington, David A; Poh, Seng-Chee; Gasparon, Massimo; Lovelock, Catherine E

    2013-06-01

    Water availability is a key determinant of the zonation patterns in estuarine vegetation, but water availability and the use of different water sources over space and time are not well understood. We have determined the seasonal water use patterns of riparian vegetation over an estuarine ecotone. Our aim was to investigate how the water use patterns of estuarine vegetation respond to variations in the availability of tidal creek water and rain-derived freshwater. The levels of natural stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen were assessed in the stem of the mangrove Avicennia marina (tall and scrub growth forms), Casuarina glauca and Melaleuca quinquenervia that were distributed along transects from river/creek-front towards inland habitats. The isotopic composition of plant tissues and the potential water sources were assessed in both the wet season, when freshwater from rainfall is present, and the dry season, when mangrove trees are expected to be more dependent on tidal water, and when Casuarina and Melaleuca are expected to be dependent on groundwater. Our results indicate that rainwater during the wet season contributes significantly to estuarine vegetation, even to creek-side mangroves which are inundated by tidal creek water daily, and that estuarine vegetation depends primarily on freshwater throughout the year. In contrast, high intertidal scrub mangroves were found to use the greatest proportion of tidal creek water, supplemented by groundwater in the dry season. Contrary to prediction, inland trees C. glauca and M. quinquenervia were found also to rely predominantly on rainwater--even in the dry season. The results of this study reveal a high level of complexity in vegetation water use in estuarine settings.

  18. Mechanisms driving estuarine water quality: A 3D biogeochemical model for informed management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild-Allen, Karen; Skerratt, Jenny; Whitehead, Jason; Rizwi, Farhan; Parslow, John

    2013-12-01

    Estuaries are amongst the most productive marine ecosystems of the world but are also some of the most degraded due to coastal urban development. Sparse sampling of complex interactions between estuarine physics, sediment transport, chemistry, and biology limits understanding of the processes controlling estuarine water quality and confounds active management. We use a 3D coupled hydrodynamic, sediment and biogeochemical model to identify the key mechanisms driving fine-scale fluctuations in water quality in a temperate micro-tidal salt wedge estuary [Derwent Estuary, Tasmania]. Model results are dynamically consistent with relatively sparse monitoring data collected over a seasonal cycle and are considered to be a plausible hypothesis of sub-monitoring scale processes occurring in the estuary. The model shows enhanced mixing of nutrients across the pycnocline downstream of the salt wedge front that supports a persistent phytoplankton bloom. The length and flow regime of the estuary results in nutrient recycling and retention in the estuarine circulation driving a decline in bottom water dissolved oxygen in the mid- and upper-reaches. A budget analysis of modelled nitrogen suggests high levels of denitrification are critical to the maintenance of existing water quality. Active estuarine management focused on the improvement of bottom water dissolved oxygen for ecological health reasons must either concurrently reduce anthropogenic nitrogen loads or be sure to maintain high levels of microbial denitrification for net water quality improvement.

  19. An 'extreme' future for estuaries? Effects of extreme climatic events on estuarine water quality and ecology.

    PubMed

    Wetz, Michael S; Yoskowitz, David W

    2013-04-15

    Recent climate observations suggest that extreme climatic events (ECE; droughts, floods, tropical cyclones, heat waves) have increased in frequency and/or intensity in certain world regions, consistent with climate model projections that account for man's influence on the global climate system. A synthesis of existing literature is presented and shows that ECE affect estuarine water quality by altering: (1) the delivery and processing of nutrients and organic matter, (2) physical-chemical properties of estuaries, and (3) ecosystem structure and function. From the standpoint of estuarine scientists and resource managers, a major scientific challenge will be to project the estuarine response to ECE that will co-occur with other important environmental changes (i.e., natural climate variability, global warming, sea level rise, eutrophication), as this will affect the provisioning of important ecosystem services provided by estuaries.

  20. Method 365.5 Determination of Orthophosphate in Estuarine and Coastal Waters by Automated Colorimetric Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    This method provides a procedure for the determination of low-level orthophosphate concentrations normally found in estuarine and/or coastal waters. It is based upon the method of Murphy and Riley1 adapted for automated segmented flow analysis2 in which the two reagent solutions ...

  1. Modeling aspects of estuarine eutrophication. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning mathematical modeling of existing water quality stresses in estuaries, harbors, bays, and coves. Both physical hydraulic and numerical models for estuarine circulation are discussed. (Contains a minimum of 96 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Phage f2 desorption from clay in estuarine water using nonionic detergents, beef extract, and chaotropic agents.

    PubMed

    Armon, R; Cabelli, V J

    1988-08-01

    Experimentally adsorbed bacteriophage f2 was eluted from clay particles in estuarine water using 1% Tween, 80.3% beef extract, and 0.3 M NaNO3 with 54% recovery. Replacing sodium nitrate with tetrasodium pyrophosphate (0.4 M) increased the recovery to 81%. Estuarine sediments treated with 1% Tween 80 revealed significantly higher male-specific phage elutions.

  3. Resolving drivers of variability in estuarine metabolism from sustained observations of water quality in the SE US

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examine trends in water quality in long-term monitoring (10-15 y) data collected at 5 estuarine systems of NOAA’s National Estuarine Research Reserve System: Grand Bay, MS; Weeks Bay, AL; Apalachicola Bay, FL; Rookery Bay, FL, and Guana Tolomatos and Matanzas Rivers, FL. These...

  4. Optimizing alginate beads for the immobilisation of Phaeodactylum tricornutum in estuarine waters.

    PubMed

    Cabrita, Maria Teresa; Raimundo, Joana; Pereira, Patrícia; Vale, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses the influence of calcium as hardening agent, on alginate gel bead stability and suitability for the growth of Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin (Bacillariophyceae) in estuarine waters. Alginate beads produced with 1, 2, 4, 5 and 6% of CaCl2 solutions were investigated for stability and suitability for growth of P. tricornutum cells, under mean salinity 27, at 220 and 440 rpm stirring laboratory conditions, and in devices placed under in situ estuarine conditions. Gel stability and suitability for cell growth were evaluated through bead diameter, bead disruption, dissolution and loss of spherical shape, cell viability and specific growth rates. Beads gelled with 5% CaCl2 were found the most suitable to sustain gel stability and cell growth in the estuarine waters. These beads were surveyed during dredging operations in the Tagus estuary, both in situ and in estuarine water under laboratory conditions, showing significantly lowered growth rates possibly due to Mn, Co and As accumulated in the cells. Results confirmed that the monitoring tool presented is reliable and effective for the assessment of anthropogenic impacts.

  5. Method 349.0 Determination of Ammonia in Estuarine and Coastal Waters by Gas Segmented Continuous Flow Colorimetric Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    This method provides a procedure for the determination of ammonia in estuarine and coastal waters. The method is based upon the indophenol reaction,1-5 here adapted to automated gas-segmented continuous flow analysis.

  6. Method 440.0 Determination of Carbon and Nitrogen in Sediments and Particulatesof Estuarine/Coastal Waters Using Elemental Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elemental analysis is used to determine particulate carbon (PC) and particulate nitrogen (PN) in estuarine and coastal waters and sediment. The method measures the total carbon and nitrogen irrespective of source (inorganic or organic).

  7. Toxicity of ozonated estuarine water to juvenile blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) and Juvenile Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus)

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, L.B.; Burton, D.T.

    1981-02-01

    Large quantitites of estuarine and marine water are treated with chlorine to prevent condenser system fouling at power plants. Chlorine and its residual by-products, however, are toxic to many forms of aquatic life. Ozone is one alternative oxidant which has proven to be an effective biocide and disinfectant in many fresh water applications. Ozonation of estuarine and marine waters, however, may produce residual compounds similar to those produced by chlorination. This study was initiated to provide baseline information on the toxicity of ozonated estuarine water to two representative estuarine species. The blue crab, Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, and the Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus Latrobe, were selected because of their wide distribution and commercial importance. The toxicity of ozone has been compared with chlorine toxicity data from the literature in an effort to examine possible similarities in toxicity.

  8. ESTIMATION OF INHERENT OPTICAL PROPERTIES AND THE WATER QUALITY COMPONENTS IN THE NEUSE RIVER-PAMLICO SOUND ESTUARINE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field observations carried out in the Neuse River-Pamlico Sound Estuarine System (NRE-PS), North Carolina, USA were used to develop optical algorithms for assessing inherent optical properties, IOPs (absorption and backscattering) associated with water quality components (WQC).

  9. A method to identify estuarine water quality exceedances associated with ocean conditions.

    PubMed

    Brown, Cheryl A; Nelson, Walter G

    2015-03-01

    Wind-driven coastal upwelling along the Pacific Northwest Coast of the USA results in oceanic water that may be periodically entrained into adjacent estuaries and which possesses high nutrients and low dissolved oxygen (DO). Measurement of water quality indicators during these upwelling water entrainment events would represent extreme values for water quality thresholds derived from typical estuarine conditions. Tools are therefore needed to distinguish upwelled waters from other causes of exceedances of water quality thresholds within estuaries of the region. We present an example application of logistic regression models to predict the probability of exceedance of a water quality threshold, using DO data from the Yaquina estuary, Oregon, USA. Models including water temperature and salinity correctly classified exceedances of DO about 80 % of the time. Inclusion of in situ fluorescence in the logistic regression model for DO improved the model performance and reduced the rate of false positives.

  10. Cold compaction of water ice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durham, W.B.; McKinnon, W.B.; Stern, L.A.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrostatic compaction of granulated water ice was measured in laboratory experiments at temperatures 77 K to 120 K. We performed step-wise hydrostatic pressurization tests on 5 samples to maximum pressures P of 150 MPa, using relatively tight (0.18-0.25 mm) and broad (0.25-2.0 mm) starting grain-size distributions. Compaction change of volume is highly nonlinear in P, typical for brittle, granular materials. No time-dependent creep occurred on the lab time scale. Significant residual porosity (???0.10) remains even at highest P. Examination by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveals a random configuration of fractures and broad distribution of grain sizes, again consistent with brittle behavior. Residual porosity appears as smaller, well-supported micropores between ice fragments. Over the interior pressures found in smaller midsize icy satellites and Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs), substantial porosity can be sustained over solar system history in the absence of significant heating and resultant sintering. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. When hot water freezes before cold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, J. I.

    2009-01-01

    I suggest that the origin of the Mpemba effect (the freezing of hot water before cold) is due to freezing-point depression by solutes, either gaseous or solid, whose solubility decreases with increasing temperature so that they are removed when water is heated. The solutes are concentrated ahead of the freezing front by zone refining in water that has not been heated, reducing the temperature of the freezing front, and thereby reducing the temperature gradient and heat flux, slowing the progress of the freezing front. I present a simple calculation of this effect, and suggest experiments to test this hypothesis.

  12. Toxic pressure of herbicides on microalgae in Dutch estuarine and coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booij, Petra; Sjollema, Sascha B.; van der Geest, Harm G.; Leonards, Pim E. G.; Lamoree, Marja H.; de Voogt, W. Pim; Admiraal, Wim; Laane, Remi W. P. M.; Vethaak, A. Dick

    2015-08-01

    For several decades now, there has been an increase in the sources and types of chemicals in estuarine and coastal waters as a consequence of anthropogenic activities. This has led to considerable concern about the effects of these chemicals on the marine food chain. The fact is that estuarine and coastal waters are the most productive ecosystems with high primary production by microalgae. The toxic pressure of specific phytotoxic chemicals now poses a major threat to these ecosystems. In a previous study, six herbicides (atrazine, diuron, irgarol, isoproturon, terbutryn and terbutylazine) were identified as the main contaminants affecting photosynthesis in marine microalgae. The purpose of this study is to investigate the toxic pressure of these herbicides in the Dutch estuarine and coastal waters in relation to the effective photosystem II efficiency (ΦPSII) in microalgae. Temporal and spatial variations in the concentrations of these herbicides were analyzed based on monitoring data. Additionally, a field study was carried out in which chemical analysis of water was performed and also a toxicity assessment using the Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) fluorometry assay that measures ΦPSII. The toxic pressure on ΦPSII in microalgae has decreased with 55-82% from 2003 to 2012, with the Western Scheldt estuary showing the highest toxic pressure. By combining toxicity data from the PAM assay with chemical analysis of herbicide concentrations, we have identified diuron and terbutylazine as the main contributors to the toxic pressure on microalgae. Although direct effects are not expected, the toxic pressure is close to the 10% effect level in the PAM assay. A compliance check with the current environmental legislation of the European Union revealed that the quality standards are not sufficient to protect marine microalgae.

  13. Analytical characterization of selective benthic flux components in estuarine and coastal waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Jeffrey N.

    2011-01-01

    Benthic flux is the rate of flow across the bed of a water body, per unit area of bed. It is forced by component mechanisms, which interact. For example, pressure gradients across the bed, forced by tide, surface gravity waves, density gradients, bed–current interaction, turbulence, and terrestrial hydraulic gradients, drive an advective benthic flux of water and constituents between estuarine and coastal waters, and surficial aquifers. Other mechanisms also force benthic flux, such as chemical gradients, bioturbation, and dispersion. A suite of component mechanisms force a total benthic flux at any given location, where each member of the suite contributes a component benthic flux. Currently, the types and characteristics of component interactions are not fully understood. For example, components may interact linearly or nonlinearly, and the interaction may be constructive or destructive. Benthic flux is a surface water–groundwater interaction process. Its discharge component to a marine water body is referred to, in some literature, as submarine groundwater discharge. Benthic flux is important in characterizing water and constituent budgets of estuarine and coastal systems. Analytical models to characterize selective benthic flux components are reviewed. Specifically, these mechanisms are for the component associated with the groundwater tidal prism, and forced by surface gravity wave setup, surface gravity waves on a plane bed, and the terrestrial hydraulic gradient. Analytical models are applied to the Indian River Lagoon, Florida; Great South Bay, New York; and the South Atlantic Bight in South Carolina and portions of North Carolina.

  14. National shellfish register of classified estuarine waters, 1990. Data supplement

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The 1990 Register summarized data on 3,172 of the Nation's classified shellfish-growing areas. However, State and Federal shellfish officials often need area-specific data to manage their daily operations. The Data Supplement, therefore, provides detailed information about local classified shellfish-growing areas for both the 1985 and 1990 Registers. It also updates relevant information that has become available since the publication of the 1990 Register, specifically in the areas of classifications, pollution sources affecting shellfish-growing waters, harvests, and evolving issues.

  15. National estuarine inventory: Classified shellfish growing waters by estuary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Broutman, M.A.; Leonard, D.L.

    1986-12-01

    The report is the first in a series of reports that compile information on classified shellfish waters as an indicator of coliform bacteria pollution in the Nation's estuaries. Data for the report have been derived from the 1985 National Shellfish Register. Although the Register has provided consistent data on acreage of classified shellfish waters by state, use of it as a national water-quality indicator has been hindered because of the influence of factors other than water quality on classification. The report improves the 1985 Register data by: (1) reorganizing data into 92 estuaries on the East, West, and Gulf coasts that comprise the National Estuarine Inventory, and (2) correcting data for areas that were classified for reasons other than water quality.

  16. 21 CFR 880.6085 - Hot/cold water bottle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hot/cold water bottle. 880.6085 Section 880.6085... Devices § 880.6085 Hot/cold water bottle. (a) Identification. A hot/cold water bottle is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with hot or cold...

  17. 21 CFR 880.6085 - Hot/cold water bottle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hot/cold water bottle. 880.6085 Section 880.6085... Devices § 880.6085 Hot/cold water bottle. (a) Identification. A hot/cold water bottle is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with hot or cold...

  18. 21 CFR 880.6085 - Hot/cold water bottle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hot/cold water bottle. 880.6085 Section 880.6085... Devices § 880.6085 Hot/cold water bottle. (a) Identification. A hot/cold water bottle is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with hot or cold...

  19. 21 CFR 880.6085 - Hot/cold water bottle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hot/cold water bottle. 880.6085 Section 880.6085... Devices § 880.6085 Hot/cold water bottle. (a) Identification. A hot/cold water bottle is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with hot or cold...

  20. 21 CFR 880.6085 - Hot/cold water bottle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hot/cold water bottle. 880.6085 Section 880.6085... Devices § 880.6085 Hot/cold water bottle. (a) Identification. A hot/cold water bottle is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with hot or cold...

  1. Transfer of gold nanoparticles from the water column to the estuarine food web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferry, John L.; Craig, Preston; Hexel, Cole; Sisco, Patrick; Frey, Rebecca; Pennington, Paul L.; Fulton, Michael H.; Scott, I. Geoff; Decho, Alan W.; Kashiwada, Shosaku; Murphy, Catherine J.; Shaw, Timothy J.

    2009-07-01

    Within the next five years the manufacture of large quantities of nanomaterials may lead to unintended contamination of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The unique physical, chemical and electronic properties of nanomaterials allow new modes of interaction with environmental systems that can have unexpected impacts. Here, we show that gold nanorods can readily pass from the water column to the marine food web in three laboratory-constructed estuarine mesocosms containing sea water, sediment, sea grass, microbes, biofilms, snails, clams, shrimp and fish. A single dose of gold nanorods (65 nm length × 15 nm diameter) was added to each mesocosm and their distribution in the aqueous and sediment phases monitored over 12 days. Nanorods partitioned between biofilms, sediments, plants, animals and sea water with a recovery of 84.4%. Clams and biofilms accumulated the most nanoparticles on a per mass basis, suggesting that gold nanorods can readily pass from the water column to the marine food web.

  2. Co-occurrence of phycocyanin- and phycoerythrin-rich Synechococcus in subtropical estuarine and coastal waters of Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongbin; Jing, Hongmei; Wong, Thomas H C; Chen, Bingzhang

    2014-02-01

    Phylogenetic diversity of Synechococcus with different pigmentation in subtropical estuarine and coastal waters of Hong Kong was revealed by the phylogeny of cpcBA and cpeBA operons encoding for phycocyanin (PC) and phycoerythrin (PE). Synechococcus containing only PC (PC-rich Synechococcus) dominated at the estuarine station in summer, whereas PE-rich marine Synechococcus containing both PC and PE (PE-rich Synechococcus) dominated in the coastal waters. Our PC sequences are closely related to freshwater strains but differed from Baltic Sea strains, implying that they were from river discharge. Among PE-rich Synechococcus, clones grouping with strains containing only phycoerythrobilin (PEB-only) were abundant in July, while clones grouping with strains possessing a low content of phycourobilin (PUB) in addition to PEB (low PUB/PEB) were more abundant in January at both stations. Clones of high PUB/PEB types were only presented at the coastal station, but were not detected at the estuarine station. The much higher diversity of both PC-rich and PE-rich Synechococcus, as compared with the Baltic Sea, and the occurrence of the high PUB/PEB strains indicate the high dynamic nature of this subtropical estuarine-coastal environment with strong mixing of water masses ranging from Pearl River plume to oceanic South China Sea water. Our results of phylogenetic study agreed well with flow cytometric counts, which revealed the coexistence of PC-rich and PE-rich Synechococcus in the subtropical coastal waters and the dominance of the former type in the estuarine waters during summer high freshwater discharge. These results indicate that picocyanobacteria, particularly PC-rich Synechococcus, which has long been overlooked, are an important part of the primary production, and they could play an important role in the microbial food web in estuarine ecosystems.

  3. Colloidal size spectra, composition and estuarine mixing behavior of DOM in river and estuarine waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhengzhen; Stolpe, Björn; Guo, Laodong; Shiller, Alan M.

    2016-05-01

    Flow field-flow fractionation (FlFFF) coupled on-line with UV absorbance and fluorescence detectors was used to examine the colloidal composition and size distribution of optically active dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the lower Mississippi River (MR), the East Pearl River (EPR), the St. Louis Bay (SLB) estuary, and coastal waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico. In addition to field studies, laboratory mixing experiments using river and seawater end-members were carried out to study the processes controlling the estuarine mixing behavior and size partitioning of colloids with different sizes and composition. The colloidal size spectra of chromophoric DOM and humic-like DOM showed one dominant peak in the 0.5-4 nm size range, representing >75% of the total FlFFF-recoverable colloids. In contrast, protein-like DOM showed a bi-modal distribution with peaks at 0.5-4 nm and 4-8 nm, as well as a major portion (from ∼41% in the EPR to ∼72% in the Mississippi Bight) partitioned to the >20 nm size fraction. Bulk DOM was lower in abundance and molecular-weight in the MR compared with the EPR, while the proportion of colloidal protein-like DOM in the >20 nm size range was slightly larger in the MR compared with the EPR. These features are consistent with differences in land use, hydrological conditions, and water residence time between the two river basins, with more autochthonous DOM in MR waters. In the SLB estuary, different DOM components demonstrated different mixing behaviors. The abundance of colloidal chromophoric DOM decreased with increasing salinity and showed evident removal during estuarine mixing even though the bulk DOM appeared to be conservative. In contrast, colloidal humic-like DOM behaved conservatively inside SLB and during laboratory mixing experiments. The ratio of colloidal protein-like to humic-like DOM generally increased with increasing salinity, consistent with increasing autochthonous protein-like DOM and removal of terrestrially

  4. An artificial water body provides habitat for an endangered estuarine seahorse species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claassens, Louw

    2016-10-01

    Anthropogenic development, especially the transformation of natural habitats to artificial, is a growing concern within estuaries and coastal areas worldwide. Thesen Islands marina, an artificial water body, added 25 ha of new estuarine habitat to the Knysna Estuary in South Africa, home to the Knysna seahorse. This study aimed to answer: (I) Can an artificial water body provide suitable habitat for an endangered seahorse species? And if so (II) what characteristics of this new habitat are important in terms of seahorse utilization? Four major habitat types were identified within the marina canals: (I) artificial reno mattress (wire baskets filled with rocks); (II) Codium tenue beds; (III) mixed vegetation on sediment; and (IV) barren canal floor. Seahorses were found throughout the marina system with significantly higher densities within the reno mattress habitat. The artificial water body, therefore, has provided suitable habitat for Hippocampus capensis, a noteworthy finding in the current environment of coastal development and the increasing shift from natural to artificial.

  5. Extracellular enzyme activity at the air-water interface of an estuarine lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudryk, Z. J.; Skórczewski, P.

    2004-01-01

    Variations in hydrolytic activity of eight extracellular enzymes in surface and subsurface waters in estuarine Lake Gardno were measured. The ranking of potential activity rates of the assayed enzymes was the same in both surface and subsurface water, i.e. esterase > lipase > aminopeptidase > phosphatase > β-glucosidase > α-glucosidase > chitinase > β-lactosidase. The vertical activity profiles show that esterase, aminopeptidase, α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase and β-lactosidase reached the highest values in surface layer, whereas lipase, phosphatase and chitinase showed maximum activity in subsurface water. Significant differences in enzyme activity between different parts of the studied lake were demonstrated, with higher values in the seawater zone, and lower values in the freshwater zone.

  6. Comparison of the Seasonal Variations of Synechococcus Assemblage Structures in Estuarine Waters and Coastal Waters of Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Xiaomin; Vidyarathna, Nayani K.; Palenik, Brian; Lee, Puiyin

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal variation in the phylogenetic composition of Synechococcus assemblages in estuarine and coastal waters of Hong Kong was examined through pyrosequencing of the rpoC1 gene. Sixteen samples were collected in 2009 from two stations representing estuarine and ocean-influenced coastal waters, respectively. Synechococcus abundance in coastal waters gradually increased from 3.6 × 103 cells ml−1 in March, reaching a peak value of 5.7 × 105 cells ml−1 in July, and then gradually decreased to 9.3 × 103 cells ml−1 in December. The changes in Synechococcus abundance in estuarine waters followed a pattern similar to that in coastal waters, whereas its composition shifted from being dominated by phycoerythrin-rich (PE-type) strains in winter to phycocyanin-only (PC-type) strains in summer owing to the increase in freshwater discharge from the Pearl River and higher water temperature. The high abundance of PC-type Synechococcus was composed of subcluster 5.2 marine Synechococcus, freshwater Synechococcus (F-PC), and Cyanobium. The Synechococcus assemblage in the coastal waters, on the other hand, was dominated by marine PE-type Synechococcus, with subcluster 5.1 clades II and VI as the major lineages from April to September, when the summer monsoon prevailed. Besides these two clades, clade III cooccurred with clade V at relatively high abundance in summer. During winter, the Synechococcus assemblage compositions at the two sites were similar and were dominated by subcluster 5.1 clades II and IX and an undescribed clade (represented by Synechococcus sp. strain miyav). Clade IX Synechococcus was a relatively ubiquitous PE-type Synechococcus found at both sites, and our study demonstrates that some strains of the clade have the ability to deal with large variation of salinity in subtropical estuarine environments. Our study suggests that changes in seawater temperature and salinity caused by the seasonal variation of monsoonal forcing are two major determinants of

  7. Estuarine water-quality and sediment data, and surface-water and ground-water-quality data, Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay, Camden County, Georgia, January 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leeth, David C.; Holloway, Owen G.

    2000-01-01

    In January 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey collected estuarine-water, estuarine-sediment, surface-water, and ground-water quality samples in the vicinity of Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay, Camden County, Georgia. Data from these samples are used by the U.S. Navy to monitor the impact of submarine base activities on local water resources. Estuarine water and sediment data were collected from five sites on the Crooked River, Kings Bay, and Cumberland Sound. Surface-water data were collected from seven streams that discharge from Naval Submarine Base, Kings Bay. Ground-water data were collected from six ground-water monitoring wells completed in the water-table zone of the surficial aquifer at Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay. Samples were analyzed for nutrients, total and dissolved trace metals, total and dissolved organic carbon, oil and grease, total organic halogens, biological and chemical oxygen demand, and total and fecal coliform. Trace metals in ground and surface waters did not exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Drinking Water Standards; and trace metals in surface water also did not exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Surface Water Standards. These trace metals included arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, tin, and zinc. Barium was detected in relatively high concentrations in ground water (concentrations ranged from 18 to 264 micrograms per liter). Two estuarine water samples exceeded the Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Environmental Protection Division standards for copper (concentrations of 6.2 and 3.0 micrograms per liter).

  8. Estuarine water quality in parks of the Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network: vital signs estuarine nutrient-enrichment monitoring, 2006-11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caldwell, James M.; Nixon, Matthew E.; Neckles, Hilary A.; Pooler, Penelope S.

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes results of water-quality monitoring within estuaries of the National Park Service Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network (NCBN) from 2006 through 2011. Data collection formed part of the NCBN Vital Signs Monitoring Program implemented to detect threats of estuarine nutrient enrichment. Data included here were collected from six parks at predetermined intervals: Cape Cod National Seashore, Massachusetts (2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011); Fire Island National Seashore, New York (2009, 2011); Gateway National Recreation Area, New York and New Jersey (2010); Assateague Island National Seashore, Maryland and Virginia (2006, 2008, 2010); George Washington Birthplace National Monument, Virginia (2009, 2011); and Colonial National Historic Park, Virginia (2008, 2010). Monitoring variables consisted of dissolved-oxygen concentration, chlorophyll a concentration, attenuation of downwelling photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), turbidity, water temperature, and salinity. All monitoring was conducted during four-week summer index periods. The monitoring design incorporated data collection at multiple, complementary spatial and temporal scales. Within each park, a spatial survey was conducted once during the index period following a probability design using a grid of tessellated hexagons as the basis for sample site selection. The spatial survey was supplemented with weekly measurements at a subset of sites and continuous monitoring at a single reference site. Within parks, data were reported as area-weighted water-quality conditions during each index period, the location and extent of estuarine area within condition categories, and spatial and temporal trends. In addition, we used a repeated measures analysis of variance to determine the extent to which variability in three water quality metrics (chlorophyll a in surface water, dissolved oxygen in bottom water, and water clarity expressed by PAR attenuation) was explained by year to year changes in

  9. Estuarine and coastal water dynamics controlling sediment movement and plume development in Long Island Sound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruggles, F. H., Jr. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. As the Connecticut River flows into Long Island Sound, large plumes develop during the mixing of ocean and estuarine waters. Plumes were delineated for July 28, October 8, October 27, and December 2, 1972, by analyzing ERTS-1 imagery with the SRI Electronic Satellite Image Analysis Console (ESIAC). Because the chemical and physical composition of the plume and ocean water were not too different, the ESIAC was utilized to expand the scenes and subject the transparencies to varying combinations of viewing techniques to identify and delineate the plumes. Best results were obtained when band 5 transparencies were used. Indications are, when the scene being analyzed is predominantly in the first two steps of the gray scale, it is best to use the negative transparencies. When the analysis is being done above the first two steps of the gray scale, it is best to use the positive transparencies.

  10. Factors which affect shivering in man during cold water immersion.

    PubMed

    Martin, S; Cooper, K E

    1981-07-01

    Six subjects were immersed in cold water (15.15 +/- 0.42 degrees C) and were asked to perform two tasks. Shivering elicited by the cold water immersion was attenuated and/or abolished by the mental arithmetic task and in some instances by a voluntary isometric contraction of forearm muscles. Some reasons for these results are discussed. Key words: Cold water immersion, mental arithmetic forearm isometric contraction, attenuation of shivering.

  11. Phytoplankton blooms in estuarine and coastal waters: seasonal patterns and key species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carstensen, Jacob; Klais, Riina; Cloern, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Phytoplankton blooms are dynamic phenomena of great importance to the functioning of estuarine and coastal ecosystems. We analysed a unique (large) collection of phytoplankton monitoring data covering 86 coastal sites distributed over eight regions in North America and Europe, with the aim of investigating common patterns in the seasonal timing and species composition of the blooms. The spring bloom was the most common seasonal pattern across all regions, typically occurring early (February–March) at lower latitudes and later (April–May) at higher latitudes. Bloom frequency, defined as the probability of unusually high biomass, ranged from 5 to 35% between sites and followed no consistent patterns across gradients of latitude, temperature, salinity, water depth, stratification, tidal amplitude or nutrient concentrations. Blooms were mostly dominated by a single species, typically diatoms (58% of the blooms) and dinoflagellates (19%). Diatom-dominated spring blooms were a common feature in most systems, although dinoflagellate spring blooms were also observed in the Baltic Sea. Blooms dominated by chlorophytes and cyanobacteria were only common in low salinity waters and occurred mostly at higher temperatures. Key bloom species across the eight regions included the diatoms Cerataulina pelagica and Dactyliosolen fragilissimus and dinoflagellates Heterocapsa triquetra and Prorocentrum cordatum. Other frequent bloom-forming taxa were diatom genera Chaetoceros, Coscinodiscus, Skeletonema, and Thalassiosira. Our meta-analysis shows that these 86 estuarine-coastal sites function as diatom-producing systems, the timing of that production varies widely, and that bloom frequency is not associated with environmental factors measured in monitoring programs. We end with a perspective on the limitations of conclusions derived from meta-analyses of phytoplankton time series, and the grand challenges remaining to understand the wide range of bloom patterns and

  12. Estuarine water quality in parks of the Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network: Development and early implementation of vital signs estuarine nutrient-enrichment monitoring, 2003-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kopp, Blaine S.; Nielsen, Martha; Glisic, Dejan; Neckles, Hilary A.

    2009-01-01

    This report documents results of pilot tests of a protocol for monitoring estuarine nutrient enrichment for the Vital Signs Monitoring Program of the National Park Service Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network. Data collected from four parks during protocol development in 2003-06 are presented: Gateway National Recreation Area, Colonial National Historic Park, Fire Island National Seashore, and Assateague Island National Seashore. The monitoring approach incorporates several spatial and temporal designs to address questions at a hierarchy of scales. Indicators of estuarine response to nutrient enrichment were sampled using a probability design within park estuaries during a late-summer index period. Monitoring variables consisted of dissolved-oxygen concentration, chlorophyll a concentration, water temperature, salinity, attenuation of downwelling photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), and turbidity. The statistical sampling design allowed the condition of unsampled locations to be inferred from the distribution of data from a set of randomly positioned "probability" stations. A subset of sampling stations was sampled repeatedly during the index period, and stations were not rerandomized in subsequent years. These "trend stations" allowed us to examine temporal variability within the index period, and to improve the sensitivity of the monitoring protocol to detecting change through time. Additionally, one index site in each park was equipped for continuous monitoring throughout the index period. Thus, the protocol includes elements of probabilistic and targeted spatial sampling, and the temporal intensity ranges from snapshot assessments to continuous monitoring.

  13. Water organic pollution and eutrophication influence soil microbial processes, increasing soil respiration of estuarine wetlands: site study in jiuduansha wetland.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Wang, Lei; Hu, Yu; Xi, Xuefei; Tang, Yushu; Chen, Jinhai; Fu, Xiaohua; Sun, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Undisturbed natural wetlands are important carbon sinks due to their low soil respiration. When compared with inland alpine wetlands, estuarine wetlands in densely populated areas are subjected to great pressure associated with environmental pollution. However, the effects of water pollution and eutrophication on soil respiration of estuarine and their mechanism have still not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, two representative zones of a tidal wetland located in the upstream and downstream were investigated to determine the effects of water organic pollution and eutrophication on soil respiration of estuarine wetlands and its mechanism. The results showed that eutrophication, which is a result of there being an excess of nutrients including nitrogen and phosphorus, and organic pollutants in the water near Shang shoal located upstream were higher than in downstream Xia shoal. Due to the absorption and interception function of shoals, there to be more nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter in Shang shoal soil than in Xia shoal. Abundant nitrogen, phosphorus and organic carbon input to soil of Shang shoal promoted reproduction and growth of some highly heterotrophic metabolic microorganisms such as β-Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria which is not conducive to carbon sequestration. These results imply that the performance of pollutant interception and purification function of estuarine wetlands may weaken their carbon sequestration function to some extent.

  14. Water organic pollution and eutrophication influence soil microbial processes, increasing soil respiration of estuarine wetlands: site study in jiuduansha wetland.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Wang, Lei; Hu, Yu; Xi, Xuefei; Tang, Yushu; Chen, Jinhai; Fu, Xiaohua; Sun, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Undisturbed natural wetlands are important carbon sinks due to their low soil respiration. When compared with inland alpine wetlands, estuarine wetlands in densely populated areas are subjected to great pressure associated with environmental pollution. However, the effects of water pollution and eutrophication on soil respiration of estuarine and their mechanism have still not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, two representative zones of a tidal wetland located in the upstream and downstream were investigated to determine the effects of water organic pollution and eutrophication on soil respiration of estuarine wetlands and its mechanism. The results showed that eutrophication, which is a result of there being an excess of nutrients including nitrogen and phosphorus, and organic pollutants in the water near Shang shoal located upstream were higher than in downstream Xia shoal. Due to the absorption and interception function of shoals, there to be more nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter in Shang shoal soil than in Xia shoal. Abundant nitrogen, phosphorus and organic carbon input to soil of Shang shoal promoted reproduction and growth of some highly heterotrophic metabolic microorganisms such as β-Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria which is not conducive to carbon sequestration. These results imply that the performance of pollutant interception and purification function of estuarine wetlands may weaken their carbon sequestration function to some extent. PMID:25993326

  15. Water Organic Pollution and Eutrophication Influence Soil Microbial Processes, Increasing Soil Respiration of Estuarine Wetlands: Site Study in Jiuduansha Wetland

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yue; Wang, Lei; Hu, Yu; Xi, Xuefei; Tang, Yushu; Chen, Jinhai; Fu, Xiaohua; Sun, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Undisturbed natural wetlands are important carbon sinks due to their low soil respiration. When compared with inland alpine wetlands, estuarine wetlands in densely populated areas are subjected to great pressure associated with environmental pollution. However, the effects of water pollution and eutrophication on soil respiration of estuarine and their mechanism have still not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, two representative zones of a tidal wetland located in the upstream and downstream were investigated to determine the effects of water organic pollution and eutrophication on soil respiration of estuarine wetlands and its mechanism. The results showed that eutrophication, which is a result of there being an excess of nutrients including nitrogen and phosphorus, and organic pollutants in the water near Shang shoal located upstream were higher than in downstream Xia shoal. Due to the absorption and interception function of shoals, there to be more nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter in Shang shoal soil than in Xia shoal. Abundant nitrogen, phosphorus and organic carbon input to soil of Shang shoal promoted reproduction and growth of some highly heterotrophic metabolic microorganisms such as β-Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria which is not conducive to carbon sequestration. These results imply that the performance of pollutant interception and purification function of estuarine wetlands may weaken their carbon sequestration function to some extent. PMID:25993326

  16. A vacuum-operated pore-water extractor for estuarine and freshwater sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winger, Parley V.; Lasier, Peter J.

    1991-01-01

    A vacuum-operated pore-water extractor for estuarine and freshwater sediments was developed and constructed from a fused-glass air stone attached with aquarium airline tubing to a 30 or 60 cc polypropylene syringe. Pore water is extracted by inserting the air stone into the sediment and creating a vacuum by retracting and bracing the syringe plunger. A hand-operated vacuum pump attached to a filtration flask was also evaluated as an alternative vacuum source. The volume and time to extract pore water varies with the number of devices and the sediment particle size. Extraction time is longer for fine sediments than for sandy sediments. Four liters of sediment generally yield between 500 and 1,500 mL of pore water. The sediment that surrounds and accumulates on the air stone acts as a filter, and, except for the first few milliliters, the collected pore water is clear. Because there is no exposure to air or avenue for escape, volatile compounds andin situ characteristics are retained in the extracted pore water.

  17. Dynamics of pore-water and salt in estuarine marshes subjected to tide and evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Shen, C.; Li, L.; Lockington, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Salt dynamics in estuarine tidal marshes are strongly associated with their intrinsic hydrological processes and ecological behaviors, which are not well understood. Numerical simulations were carried out to investigate the transport and distribution of pore water and salt in a vertical cross section perpendicular to the tidal creek that subjects to spring-neap tide and evaporation. Vaporizing pore water from unsaturated soil surface with salt left in soils, the time-variant actual evaporation is affected by aerodynamic factors as well as soil conditions, including pore-water saturation, solute concentration and the thickness of salt precipitation above the soil surface (efflorescence). Different simulation cases were performed by adjusting the tidal signal, marsh platform slope and soil properties. The simulation analysis indicates that, the tide-averaged soil salinity increases with the reduction of inundation period in a spring-neap tide cycle. As the salt accumulated by evaporation could leave soil from seepage back to seawater during ebbtide, the pore-water salinity at the surface within the tidal range remains close to that of seawater. With the presence of hyper-saline soil and efflorescence, salt flat develops only in the area where capillary connection between evaporating surface and water-saturated soil is maintained while tidal inundation absent. On the contrary, the sandy supratidal marsh where hydrological connections are disrupted keeps a relatively low soil salinity (40-60 ppt) and pore-water saturation as evaporation remains low throughout the tidal cycles.

  18. Seasonal dynamics of the genus: Planktoniella Schutt in the estuarine waters of Indian Sundarbans.

    PubMed

    Sekh, Sanoyaz; Biswas, Biswajit; Mandal, Manjushree; Sarkar, Neera Sen

    2016-01-01

    The study highlights the dynamics and morphological characteristics of the Genus Planktoniella Schutt. The two available species P. sol (Wallich) Schutt. and P. blanda (Schmidt) Syvertsen and Hasle are important components of the phytoplankton assemblage in the estuarine system of Indian Sundarbans and also marine systems elsewhere. The sampling sites for the purpose of this study include four different spots along a riverine stretch in the estuarine region adjacent to the Tiger Reserve in the Indian Sundarbans flowing into the Bay of Bengal. Integrated phytoplankton samples were preserved for the purpose from composite water samples from each site. The water samples were analysed in field for determining pH, temperature, salinity, conductivity, TDS, turbidity and DO and subsequent to treatment and processing, the samples were microscopically analysed in the laboratory. Significant negative correlation of cell count of both species found with respect to temperature and turbidity. P. sol versus temperature (significant at α = 0.01, p = 0.001) and P. blanda versus temperature (significant at α = 0.05, p = 0.037); P. sol versus turbidity (at α = 0.05, p = 0.019) and P. blanda versus turbidity (at α = 0.05, p = 0.019). Significant positive correlation found with respect to DO and as correlation between the two species themselves. A model has been generated for each of the two species with temperature, turbidity and DO as predictor variables and the two species of Planktoniella as response variables. The influence of other dominant phytoplankton in the samples has also been considered with Pearson correlation computed for each set of species.

  19. Seasonal dynamics of the genus: Planktoniella Schutt in the estuarine waters of Indian Sundarbans.

    PubMed

    Sekh, Sanoyaz; Biswas, Biswajit; Mandal, Manjushree; Sarkar, Neera Sen

    2016-01-01

    The study highlights the dynamics and morphological characteristics of the Genus Planktoniella Schutt. The two available species P. sol (Wallich) Schutt. and P. blanda (Schmidt) Syvertsen and Hasle are important components of the phytoplankton assemblage in the estuarine system of Indian Sundarbans and also marine systems elsewhere. The sampling sites for the purpose of this study include four different spots along a riverine stretch in the estuarine region adjacent to the Tiger Reserve in the Indian Sundarbans flowing into the Bay of Bengal. Integrated phytoplankton samples were preserved for the purpose from composite water samples from each site. The water samples were analysed in field for determining pH, temperature, salinity, conductivity, TDS, turbidity and DO and subsequent to treatment and processing, the samples were microscopically analysed in the laboratory. Significant negative correlation of cell count of both species found with respect to temperature and turbidity. P. sol versus temperature (significant at α = 0.01, p = 0.001) and P. blanda versus temperature (significant at α = 0.05, p = 0.037); P. sol versus turbidity (at α = 0.05, p = 0.019) and P. blanda versus turbidity (at α = 0.05, p = 0.019). Significant positive correlation found with respect to DO and as correlation between the two species themselves. A model has been generated for each of the two species with temperature, turbidity and DO as predictor variables and the two species of Planktoniella as response variables. The influence of other dominant phytoplankton in the samples has also been considered with Pearson correlation computed for each set of species. PMID:27247907

  20. Power, fresh water, and food from cold, deep sea water.

    PubMed

    Othmer, D F; Roels, O A

    1973-10-12

    Many times more solar heat energy accumulates in the vast volume of warm tropic seas than that produced by all of our power plants. The looming energy crisis causes a renewal of interest in utilizing this stored solar heat to give, in addition to electric power, vast quantities of fresh water. Warm surface water, when evaporated, generates steam, to power a turbine, then fresh water when the steam is condensed by the cold water. A great increase in revenues over that from power and fresh water is shown by a substantial mariculture pilot plant. Deep sea water contains large quantities of nutrients. These feed algae which feed shellfish, ultimately shrimps and lobsters, in shallow ponds. Wastes grow seaweed of value; and combined revenues from desalination, power generation, and mariculture will give substantial profit. PMID:17777883

  1. Power, fresh water, and food from cold, deep sea water.

    PubMed

    Othmer, D F; Roels, O A

    1973-10-12

    Many times more solar heat energy accumulates in the vast volume of warm tropic seas than that produced by all of our power plants. The looming energy crisis causes a renewal of interest in utilizing this stored solar heat to give, in addition to electric power, vast quantities of fresh water. Warm surface water, when evaporated, generates steam, to power a turbine, then fresh water when the steam is condensed by the cold water. A great increase in revenues over that from power and fresh water is shown by a substantial mariculture pilot plant. Deep sea water contains large quantities of nutrients. These feed algae which feed shellfish, ultimately shrimps and lobsters, in shallow ponds. Wastes grow seaweed of value; and combined revenues from desalination, power generation, and mariculture will give substantial profit.

  2. Contamination of estuarine water, biota, and sediment by halogenated organic compounds: A field study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, W.E.; Rostad, C.E.; Chiou, C.T.; Brinton, T.I.; Barber, L.B.; Demcheck, D.K.; Demas, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    Studies conducted in the vicinity of an industrial outfall in the Calcasieu River estuary, Louisiana, have shown that water, bottom and suspended sediment, and four different species of biota are contaminated with halogenated organic compounds (HOC) including haloarenes. A "salting-out" effect in the estuary moderately enhanced the partitioning tendency of the contaminants into biota and sediments. Contaminant concentrations in water, suspended sediments, and biota were found to be far below the values predicted on the basis of the assumption of phase equilibria with respect to concentrations in bottom sediment. Relative concentration factors of HOC between biota (catfish) and bottom sediment increased with increasing octanol/estuarine water partition coefficients (Kow*), maximizing at log Kow* of about 5, although these ratios were considerably less than equilibrium values. In contrast, contaminant concentrations in water, biota, and suspended sediments were much closer to equilibrium values. Bioconcentration factors of HOC determined on the basis of lipid content for four different biotic species correlated reasonably well with equilibrium triolein/water partition coefficients (Ktw).

  3. Controls on water acidification and de-oxygenation in an estuarine waterway, eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C.; Wood, M.; Haskins, P.; Ryffel, T.; Lin, J.

    2004-09-01

    The quality of soil and water was investigated in an estuarine floodplain system, eastern Australia. The backswamp portion of the floodplain is underlain by sulfidic sediments at depths about 0.5-0.9 m below the ground surface. Actual acid sulfate soils have developed due to sulfide oxidation as a consequence of land drainage since the early 1900s. These acid sulfate soils have a high measured total actual acidity (TAA, up to 500 mmol H +/kg). However, only a very small proportion (<2%) of this TAA occurs in a water-soluble form. Water quality monitoring in the creek (Rocky Mouth Creek) draining the estuarine embayment during the period from May 1998 to July 2000 shows that acidic flows (pH<4.5) of several months occurred intermittently in the upper reach of the creek. This may be attributed to the hydrolysis of Fe 3+ after the oxidation of Fe 2+ that is exported into the creek from acid sulfate soils through an artificial drain network. It is hypothesized that Fe 2+ is being generated by biological iron reduction, which consumes H + and thereby drives the conversion of retained acids to soluble acids. This allows the release of retained acids and subsequently the translocation of acids from soils to the adjacent waterway. Monitoring results also show clear responses of pH and dissolved oxygen (DO) to heavy rainfall events during the period of alternating high (>6) pH-dominated flows. Frequently, pH and DO levels in the creek water drop during flooding. Results from field investigation and experimental simulation suggest that DO depletion associated with organic matter decomposition takes place rapidly in the floodwater inundating the soils and this DO-depleted water has a significant capacity to further de-oxygenate any receiving water. However, the consumption of DO in floodwater is not clearly related to oxidation of Fe 2+. It is not certain what other DO consumers are involved in the process and further research is needed to fill this knowledge gap.

  4. Choice chamber experiments to test the attraction of postflexion Rhabdosargus holubi larvae to water of estuarine and riverine origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Nicola C.; Cowley, Paul D.; Whitfield, Alan K.; Kaiser, Horst

    2008-03-01

    Although the recruitment of larvae and juveniles of marine fishes into estuaries has been well documented, little is known about the factors governing the immigration of estuary-associated marine fishes into estuaries. Fishes have a well-developed sense of smell and it has been suggested by several workers that olfactory cues of freshwater or estuarine origin serve as stimuli, attracting larvae and juveniles of estuary-associated species into estuaries. Attraction of postflexion Rhabdosargus holubi larvae to estuary and river water from the Kowie estuarine system, South Africa, was measured using a rectangular choice chamber. In experiments, conducted during peak recruitment periods, larvae selected estuary and river water with a significantly higher frequency than sea water. This study, the first to assess the possible role of olfaction in the recruitment process of an estuary-associated marine fish species, demonstrates that larvae are able to recognise water from different origins, probably based on odour.

  5. Respiratory drive during sudden cold water immersion.

    PubMed

    Mekjavić, I B; La Prairie, A; Burke, W; Lindborg, B

    1987-10-01

    Sudden decreases in cutaneous temperature induce an immediate ventilatory response, which has been termed the inspiratory or 'gasp' reflex. This respiratory response has been implicated as a contributing factor to cold water immersion drowning. In the present study, five subjects wearing either shorts or a variety of thermal protective apparel were immersed on separate occasions in 10 degrees C water. The observed peak mean skin temperature cooling rates (dTs/dt) for the different conditions varied from 6.9 +/- 2.1 degrees C/min for the shorts condition to 1.8 +/- 0.3 degrees C/min for a helicopter pilot suit made of cotton ventile material. During the immersion, recordings were made of respiratory drive, as indicated by the mouth occlusion pressure at 100 msec following the onset of inspiration (P0.1). The respiratory drive, an indicator of central inspiratory activity, correlated well with peak dTs/dt. The slope P0.1/(dTs/dt) was subject dependent and did not appear to be related to body composition. The substantial intersubject variability in the respiratory response is suggested to result from differences in the central integration of thermoafferent information. It is concluded that the inspiratory reflex is the result of cutaneous thermoreceptor activity. PMID:3659607

  6. Absence of Gradients and Nernstian Equilibrium Stripping (AGNES) for the determination of [Zn(2+)] in estuarine waters.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Holly B C; Galceran, Josep; Companys, Encarna; Braungardt, Charlotte; Worsfold, Paul; Puy, Jaume; Comber, Sean

    2016-03-17

    Zinc (Zn) has been classified as a "Specific Pollutant" under Annex VIII of the EU Water Framework Directive by two thirds of the EU member states. As a result, the UK Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) for Transitional and Coastal (TrAC) Waters has been reduced from 612 nM to 121 nM total dissolved Zn. It is widely accepted that the free metal ion ([Zn(2+)]) is the most bioavailable fraction, but there are few techniques available to determine its concentration in these waters. In this work, Absence of Gradients and Nernstian Equilibrium Stripping (AGNES) has been applied, for the first time, to determine [Zn(2+)] in estuarine waters. The AGNES method had a mean RSD of ±18%, a (deposition time dependent) limit of detection of 0.73 nM and a [Zn(2+)] recovery of 112 ± 19% from a certified reference material (BCR-505; Estuarine Water). AGNES results for 13 estuarine samples (salinity 0.1-31.9) compared well (P = 0.02) with Competitive Ligand Exchange Cathodic Stripping Voltammetry (CLE-AdCSV) except for one sample. AGNES requires minimal sample manipulation, is unaffected by adsorption of interfering species at the electrode surface and allows direct determination of free zinc ion concentrations. Therefore AGNES results can be used in conjunction with ecotoxicological studies and speciation modelling to set and test compliance with water quality standards. PMID:26920770

  7. Bacterial contamination in cold water samples obtained from water dispensers.

    PubMed

    Furuhata, Katsunori; Ishizaki, Naoto; Fukuyama, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    We carried out a basic study in order to evaluate the bacterial contamination in water dispensers. Water samples were obtained from water dispensers from October 2012 to November 2013, and standard plate counts (at 36˚C, 24 h) of the samples, as well as heterotrophic plate counts (at 25˚C, 7 d), were estimated with the standard methods for the examination of drinking water in Japan. Standard plate counts exceeding the water-quality standard (1.0×10(2) CFU/ml) were observed in 42 of the 140 samples (30.0%), with a maximum detected bacterial count of 2.1×10(5) CFU/ml. The rate of the standard plate counts exceeding the water quality standard tended to be higher when using a one-way type method or water dispensers with natural water. Ralstonia spp. was most commonly isolated, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated in a few cases. Some opportunistic pathogens were also isolated, suggesting that we should be more concerned about bacterial contamination in cold water supplied from water dispensers.

  8. Preliminary Evidence for the Amplification of Global Warming in Shallow, Intertidal Estuarine Waters

    PubMed Central

    Oczkowski, Autumn; McKinney, Richard; Ayvazian, Suzanne; Hanson, Alana; Wigand, Cathleen; Markham, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, mean annual water temperature in northeastern U.S. estuaries has increased by approximately 1.2°C, with most of the warming recorded in the winter and early spring. A recent survey and synthesis of data from four locations in Southern Rhode Island has led us to hypothesize that this warming may be amplified in the shallow (<1 m), nearshore portions of these estuaries. While intertidal areas are not typically selected as locations for long-term monitoring, we compiled data from published literature, theses, and reports that suggest that enhanced warming may be occurring, perhaps at rates three times higher than deeper estuarine waters. Warmer spring waters may be one of the factors influencing biota residing in intertidal regions both in general as well as at our specific sites. We observed greater abundance of fish, and size of Menidia sp., in recent (2010–2012) seine surveys compared to similar collections in 1962. While any linkages are speculative and data are preliminary, taken together they suggest that shallow intertidal portions of estuaries may be important places to look for the effects of climate change. PMID:26510009

  9. Preliminary Evidence for the Amplification of Global Warming in Shallow, Intertidal Estuarine Waters.

    PubMed

    Oczkowski, Autumn; McKinney, Richard; Ayvazian, Suzanne; Hanson, Alana; Wigand, Cathleen; Markham, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, mean annual water temperature in northeastern U.S. estuaries has increased by approximately 1.2°C, with most of the warming recorded in the winter and early spring. A recent survey and synthesis of data from four locations in Southern Rhode Island has led us to hypothesize that this warming may be amplified in the shallow (<1 m), nearshore portions of these estuaries. While intertidal areas are not typically selected as locations for long-term monitoring, we compiled data from published literature, theses, and reports that suggest that enhanced warming may be occurring, perhaps at rates three times higher than deeper estuarine waters. Warmer spring waters may be one of the factors influencing biota residing in intertidal regions both in general as well as at our specific sites. We observed greater abundance of fish, and size of Menidia sp., in recent (2010-2012) seine surveys compared to similar collections in 1962. While any linkages are speculative and data are preliminary, taken together they suggest that shallow intertidal portions of estuaries may be important places to look for the effects of climate change.

  10. Biological indicators of changes in water quality and habitats of the coastal and estuarine areas of the Greater Everglades Ecosystem; Chapter 11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wachnicka, Anna; Wingard, Georgiana L.; Entry, James A.; Gottlieb, Andrew D.; Jayachandran, Krish; Ogram, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the application of various biological indicators to studying the anthropogenic and natural changes in water quality and habitats that have occurred in the coastal and estuarine areas of the Greater Everglades ecosystem.

  11. Method 353.4 Determination of Nitrate and Nitrite in Estuarine and Coastal Waters by Gas Segmented Continuous Flow Colorimetric Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    This method provides a procedure for determining nitrate and nitrite concentrations in estuarine and coastal waters. Nitrate is reduced to nitrite by cadmium,1-3 and the resulting nitrite determined by formation of an azo dye.4-6

  12. Development and application of a shipboard method for spectrophotometric determination of trace dissolved manganese in estuarine and coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Sichao; Huang, Yongming; Yuan, Dongxing; Zhu, Yong; Zhou, Tingjin

    2015-01-01

    A shipboard method for the determination of trace dissolved manganese in estuarine and coastal waters was developed using a technique of reverse flow injection analysis, which adopted a 1-m liquid waveguide capillary cell and spectrophotometric detection of manganese derivation with 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN). The design of dual-sample-carrier speeded up the sample throughput and eliminated the Schlieren effect. The salinity of estuarine and coastal waters caused a huge increase in the blank absorption value at the maximum absorption wavelength; therefore, a less sensitive detection wavelength was selected to achieve a low blank value while the method sensitivity was not significantly decreased. Method parameters were optimized. The salinity effect from estuarine and coastal waters was carefully investigated, and interference from iron was evaluated. The proposed method had high sensitivity with a detection limit of 3.0 nmol L-1 and a wide linear range of 10-1500 nmol L-1 for dissolved manganese in seawater (S=35). The analytical results of five water samples with different salinities obtained using the proposed method showed good agreement with those using a reference ICP-MS method. The sample throughput of the proposed method was 120 h-1, which was capable of obtaining high spatial and temporal resolution data in shipboard analysis. The proposed method had the advantages of convenient application in estuarine and coastal waters with different salinities, low detection limit, as well as high sample throughput. The proposed method was successfully applied to a 24 h on-line analysis and a shipboard underway analysis of dissolved manganese in the Jiulongjiang Estuary.

  13. Water Quality Gradients across Albemarle-Pamlico Estuarine System: Seasonal Variations and Model Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.; Xie, L.; Pietrafesa, L.

    2004-12-01

    The seasonal variations of water quality parameters as nitrite plus nitrate (NO23), total phosphate (PO4), Chlorophyll a and dissolved oxygen (DO) are analyzed across the Croatan-Roanoke-Albemarle-Pamlico-Core Sounds Estuarine System (CAPES). Overall, several patterns are observed: The Chowan-Roanoke-Albemarle system is generally phosphorous limiting for phytoplankton growth, while both the Tar-Pamlico and the Neuse Rivers are generally nitrogen limiting. The largest PO4 gradients exist in the upper estuary of the Albemarle Sound and the largest NO23 gradients exist in the upper estuary of the Neuse and the Tar-Pamlico Rivers. Dissolved oxygen appears to have the strongest seasonal signal among the water quality variables with highest DO values observed during winter (within the CAPES and in the nearshore area) or spring (in the continental shelf and deeper ocean) and lowest during summer. Chlorophyll a concentrations are highest during spring (within the CAPES) or winter (offshore). In contrast, the NO23 and PO4 concentrations in both the Tar-Pamlico and Neuse River Estuaries are usually higher during the second half of the year. The time differences of the peak nutrient and chlorophyll a concentrations suggest that highest algal growth rate (and hence nutrient uptake rate) occur during spring while the consumed nutrients are released to the water column through a nutrient recycling method later in the year. A coupled three-dimensional hydrodynamic water quality model is then applied to the entire system. The general model set-up and parameter derivation of the model is presented in the paper. The basic observed water quality characteristics such as the nutrient limiting pattern and the spatial gradients across the system are reproduced in the model. The model results also suggest that nutrient fluxes, generated from the diagenesis of deposited organic matters and released from the sediment bed may be an important mechanism for nutrient recycling in the region.

  14. Performance of Passive Samplers for Monitoring Estuarine Water Column Concentrations: 1. Contaminants of Concern

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contaminants enter marine and estuarine environments and can potentially pose risk to human and ecological health. Measuring contaminants of concern (COC) in these aqueous media can be difficult due to their relatively low solubilities and tendency to associate with environmenta...

  15. A search for cold water rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheney, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    SAR imagery obtained by Seasat in the Sargasso Sea during 1978 is examined for cold ring signatures. One orbit on August 26 is thought to have imaged the edge of a cold ring, although the ring's position was not well known at the time. During another orbit on September 23, drifting buoy and expendable bathythermography data furnished conclusive evidence that the ring was centered directly in the SAR swath. Although some suggestive patterns are visible in the images, it is not clear that cold rings can be identified by SAR, even though dynamically similar features, such as the Gulf Stream and warm rings, can be accurately detected. The suggestion is made that cold rings may be imaged inadequately because of their lack of surface temperature gradient.

  16. Yeasts from Marine and Estuarine Waters with Different Levels of Pollution in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Hagler, Allen N.; Mendonça-Hagler, Leda C.

    1981-01-01

    Yeast counts were made at 24 marine and estuarine sites in the vicinity of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Mean salinities of estuarine sites ranged from 14.2 to 27.4‰, and mean temperatures ranged from 25 to 28°C. Total coliform counts varied from 80% above 100,000 colony-forming units (CFU)/100 ml at heavily polluted sites to 100% below 100 CFU/100 ml at unpolluted sites. Total yeast counts above 100 CFU/100 ml were typical of heavily and moderately polluted water but atypical of lightly polluted and unpolluted water. Mean total yeast counts were 2,880 CFU/100 ml for heavily polluted sites, 202 CFU/100 ml for moderately polluted sites, and 3 CFU/100 ml for lightly polluted and unpolluted sites. Total yeast counts had a positive response to increased pollution levels, and Candida krusei and phenotypically similar yeasts as a group were prevalent in polluted estuarine water but rare in unpolluted seawater. The 549 strains of yeasts and yeast-like organisms isolated were grouped into 67 species, of which the 21 most prevalent made up 86% of the total yeast population. The prevalent genera in the polluted estuary were Candida, Rhodotorula, Torulopsis, Hanseniaspora, Debaryomyces, and Trichosporon. PMID:16345683

  17. Hydro-environmental modelling for bathing water compliance of an estuarine basin.

    PubMed

    Kashefipour, S M; Lin, B; Harris, E; Falconer, R A

    2002-04-01

    In recent years, considerable investment has been committed to sewerage infrastructure and new sewage treatment plants in the catchment surrounding an estuarine basin along the north-west coast of England. Although this capital investment has resulted in a marked reduction in the input of bacterial loads, relatively high counts of faecal indicator organisms are still being encountered in the coastal receiving waters, and the local bathing waters continue to fail on occasions to comply with the European Community (EC) Bathing Water Directive (1976) mandatory standards. Details are given herein of a comprehensive modelling study aimed at quantifying the impact of various bacterial inputs into the estuary and surrounding coastal waters on the bathing water quality. The model domain includes the coastal area and the entire estuary (namely the Ribble) up to the tidal limits of its tributaries. Faecal coliforms have been used as the main water quality indicator organisms. The numerical model developed for this study combines a depth integrated two-dimensional coastal model and a cross-sectionally integrated one-dimensional river model, and is capable of predicting water surface elevations, velocity fields and faecal coliform concentration distributions across the entire model domain. The hydrodynamic model was calibrated using water level and velocity measurements from three surveys and then validated against measured data from three other surveys. In order to predict the faecal coliform concentration distributions, variable faecal coliform decay rates were used, i.e. different values of decay rates were applied to the coastal and riverine waters, for day- and nighttime, and for wet and dry weather conditions. The maximum and minimum decay rates used were 2.32/day and 0.71/day for the dry and wet weather surveys, respectively. The model was then applied to (i) assess the impact of previous discharge strategies and investigate the effectiveness of future capital

  18. Mercury concentrations in red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus, from estuarine and offshore waters of Florida.

    PubMed

    Adams, Douglas H; Onorato, Gregory V

    2005-03-01

    Dorsal muscle tissue from 712 red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus, from Florida waters were analyzed for total mercury content. Mercury levels detected in these red drum varied but in most study areas were usually lower than regulatory threshold guidelines. Total mercury levels in individual fish from all study areas ranged from 0.020 to 3.6 ppm (wet weight). Total mercury levels detected in red drum from the Florida Keys-Florida Bay area were often higher than those in fish from all other estuarine study areas. Positive relationships between total mercury levels and fish size (length and weight) and fish age were observed in most Florida study areas, indicating that mercury levels tend to increase over time as red drum grow. The majority of large, mature red drum examined contained mercury levels greater than the 0.5-ppm threshold level set by the Florida Department of Health (DOH). Approximately 94% of all adult red drum from offshore waters adjacent to Tampa Bay contained mercury levels greater than or equal to the 0.5-ppm threshold level, and 64% contained levels greater than or equal to the DOH 1.5-ppm "no consumption" level. All fish from this area with mercury levels greater than 1.5 ppm were large individuals (670 mm SL). Eight percent of legal-size red drum from Florida waters contained total mercury levels greater than or equal to the 0.5-ppm threshold level. The majority (52%) of these legal-size fish greater than or equal to 0.5 ppm were from the Florida Keys-Florida Bay area. In the Florida recreational fishery, the current maximum size limit for this species is an effective filter that prevents humans from consuming those red drum with the greatest likelihood of containing high mercury levels. PMID:15757692

  19. Cold Water Fatalities: An Overview of Physiological Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernhartsen, J. C.; Schlenker, Richard

    1981-01-01

    Cold water fatalities are described and defined, including drownings, trauma, hydrocution and hypothermia. The levels of hypothermia are outlined, and symptoms and steps to stop and reverse hypothermia are described. (DS)

  20. Changes in Landing Mechanics after Cold-Water Immersion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, He; Toner, Michael M.; Lemonda, Thomas J.; Zohar, Mor

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of cold-water immersion on kinematics and kinetics during a drop-landing task. On four separate occasions, 9 men performed drop-landings from a 0.6-m platform to a force platform following 30-min immersion to the hip-joint in thermoneutral water (control; 34 [degrees]C) and in cold water…

  1. Report of ad hoc OTEC cold water pipe committee

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, R.; Giannotti, J.; Deuchler, W.; Scotti, R.; Stadter, J.; Walsh, J. P.; Weiss, R.

    1980-02-01

    Now that the design work on the pilot plant is scheduled to start in the near future, DOE has considered it essential that an overall look be taken at the cold water pipe design process. The VSE Corporation, in its role as a support contractor to DOE, was tasked to organize a small study group to answer the question, Where do we stand on the verification of the computer models of the cold water pipe response by experimental measurements. The committee has studied all the available results of the cold water pipe development program. This report summarizes those results. The development and present capabilities of the computer programs used to calculate the response of a cold water pipe attached to a platform under known at-sea conditions are discussed. The various cold water pipe designs that have been done using the computer programs are summarized. The experiments that have been conducted up to the present time to measure the response of cold water pipes at-sea and in experimental tanks are described. The results of these experiments are presented. The experimental results are compared with the predictions made with the analytical computer programs. Conclusions drawn as a result of this analysis are presented and some recommendations are made. (WHK)

  2. Anomalous Cold Water Detected along Mid-Atlantic Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Donglian; Liu, Zhong; Chiu, Long; Yang, Ruixin; Singh, Ramesh P.; Kafatos, Menas

    2004-04-01

    In July 2003, anomalous cold water along the mid-Atlantic coast affected local tourism and fishing. The cold water interfered with tuna fishing, and for 2 to 3 weeks, rockfish generally found during the fall were present in the area. Satellite data, buoy observations, and weather maps were analyzed to investigate the cause of this cold water event. The results show that the increasing westerly and southerly winds that resulted from approaching cold fronts may have induced upwelling away from and along the mid-Atlantic coast. This, combined with the southward advection of cold sea water from the North Atlantic Ocean, might have caused the anomalous cold water along the coast. The sea surface temperature (SST) observations made by buoy 44014 (0.6 m below sea level) (http://www.ndbc.noaa.gov/) near Virginia Beach (36.61°N, 74.84° W) for the month of July 2003 show a 4°C decrease in SST from 3 to 5 July 2003. A smaller drop of 2-3°C is also found for 24-25 July 2003 (Figure 1a). The east-west (u) and south-north (v) wind components (Figure 1a) observed by buoy 44014 shows a relationship with the observed SST. In general, wind speeds during July 2003 were found to be stronger than those of July 2002.

  3. Imtechella halotolerans gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from estuarine water.

    PubMed

    Surendra, Vikram; Bhawana, Pant; Suresh, Korpole; Srinivas, T N R; Kumar, Pinnaka Anil

    2012-11-01

    A novel Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile, non-sporulating bacterium, designated strain K1(T), was isolated from an estuarine water sample collected from Kochi, Kerala, India. Colonies on marine agar were circular, 2.0-2.5 mm in diameter, shiny, yellow, translucent and convex with entire margins. Strain K1(T) was negative for ornithine decarboxylase, lysine decarboxylase, nitrate reduction and H(2)S production. The fatty acids were dominated by iso-branched components with a high abundance of iso-C(15:0), iso-C(15:1) G and iso-C(17:0) 3-OH; MK-6 (64%) and MK-7 (34%) were found as major respiratory quinones; and phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified aminolipids, four unidentified phospholipids and two unidentified lipids were major polar lipids. The DNA G+C content of strain K1(T) was 46.1 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain K1(T) was related most closely to the type strain of Zhouia amylolytica (pairwise sequence similarity of 93.0%). Phylogenetic analysis showed that strain K1(T) formed a distinct branch within the family Flavobacteriaceae and clustered with the clade comprising species of the genera Zhouia, Coenonia and Capnocytophaga, being phylogenetically most closely related to the type strain of Zhouia amylolytica at a distance of 9.2% (90.8% similarity). Other species of the genera within the same clade were related to strain K1(T) at distances of 15.0-23.1%. Based on phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics and on phylogenetic inference, strain K1(T) is considered to represent a novel species of a new genus in the family Flavobacteriaceae, for which the name Imtechella halotolerans gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Imtechella halotolerans is K1(T) (=MTCC 11055(T)=JCM 17677(T)).

  4. Delineation of estuarine fronts in the German Bight using airborne laser-induced water Raman backscatter and fluorescence of water column constituents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.; Swift, R. N.

    1982-01-01

    The acquisition and application of airborne laser induced emission spectra from German Bight water during the 1979 MARSEN experiment is detailed for the synoptic location of estuarine fronts. The NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) was operated in the fluorosensing mode. A nitrogen laser transmitter at 337.1 nm was used to stimulate the water column to obtain Gelbstoff or organic material fluorescence spectra together with water Raman backscatter. Maps showing the location and relative strength of estuarine fronts are presented. The distribution of the fronts indicates that mixing within the German Bight takes place across a relatively large area. Reasonable agreement between the patterns observed by the AOL and published results are obtained. The limitations and constraints of this technique are indicated and improvements to the AOL fluorosensor are discussed with respect to future ocean mapping applications.

  5. Increased caloric intake soon after exercise in cold water.

    PubMed

    White, Lesley J; Dressendorfer, Rudolph H; Holland, Eric; McCoy, Sean C; Ferguson, Michael A

    2005-02-01

    We examined the acute effect of cold-water temperature on post-exercise energy intake (EI) for 1 h. In a randomized, crossover design, 11 men (25.6 +/- 5 y) exercised for 45 min on a submersed cycle ergometer at 60 +/- 2% VO2max in 33 degrees C (neutral) and 20 degrees (cold) water temperatures, and also rested for 45 min (control). Energy expenditure (EE) was determined using indirect calorimetry before, during, and after each condition. Following exercise or rest, subjects had free access to a standard assortment of food items of known caloric value. EE was similar for the cold and neutral water conditions, averaging 505 +/- 22 (+/- standard deviation) and 517 +/- 42 kcal, respectively (P = NS). EI after the cold condition averaged 877 +/- 457 kcal, 44% and 41% higher (P < 0.05) than for the neutral and resting conditions, respectively. Cold-water temperature thus stimulated post-exercise EI. Water temperature warrants consideration in aquatic programs designed for weight loss. PMID:15902988

  6. Cold Water Vapor in the Barnard 5 Molecular Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wirstrom, E. S.; Charnley, S. B.; Persson, C. M.; Buckle, J. V.; Cordiner, M. A.; Takakuwa, S.

    2014-01-01

    After more than 30 yr of investigations, the nature of gas-grain interactions at low temperatures remains an unresolved issue in astrochemistry. Water ice is the dominant ice found in cold molecular clouds; however, there is only one region where cold ((is) approximately 10 K) water vapor has been detected-L1544. This study aims to shed light on ice desorption mechanisms under cold cloud conditions by expanding the sample. The clumpy distribution of methanol in dark clouds testifies to transient desorption processes at work-likely to also disrupt water ice mantles. Therefore, the Herschel HIFI instrument was used to search for cold water in a small sample of prominent methanol emission peaks. We report detections of the ground-state transition of o-H2O (J = 110-101) at 556.9360 GHz toward two positions in the cold molecular cloud, Barnard 5. The relative abundances of methanol and water gas support a desorption mechanism which disrupts the outer ice mantle layers, rather than causing complete mantle removal.

  7. COLD WATER VAPOR IN THE BARNARD 5 MOLECULAR CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Wirström, E. S.; Persson, C. M.; Charnley, S. B.; Cordiner, M. A.; Buckle, J. V.; Takakuwa, S.

    2014-06-20

    After more than 30 yr of investigations, the nature of gas-grain interactions at low temperatures remains an unresolved issue in astrochemistry. Water ice is the dominant ice found in cold molecular clouds; however, there is only one region where cold (∼10 K) water vapor has been detected—L1544. This study aims to shed light on ice desorption mechanisms under cold cloud conditions by expanding the sample. The clumpy distribution of methanol in dark clouds testifies to transient desorption processes at work—likely to also disrupt water ice mantles. Therefore, the Herschel HIFI instrument was used to search for cold water in a small sample of prominent methanol emission peaks. We report detections of the ground-state transition of o-H{sub 2}O (J = 1{sub 10}-1{sub 01}) at 556.9360 GHz toward two positions in the cold molecular cloud, Barnard 5. The relative abundances of methanol and water gas support a desorption mechanism which disrupts the outer ice mantle layers, rather than causing complete mantle removal.

  8. Field measurement of nitrate in marine and estuarine waters with a flow analysis system utilizing on-line zinc reduction.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Peter S; Shabani, Ali Mohammad Haji; Gentle, Brady S; McKelvie, Ian D

    2011-03-15

    A sensitive reagent-injection flow analysis method for the spectrophotometric determination of nitrate in marine, estuarine and fresh water samples is described. The method is based on the reduction of nitrate in a micro column containing zinc granules at pH 6.5. The nitrite formed is reacted with sulfanilamide and N-(1-naphthyl)ethylene diamine (Griess reagent), and the resulting azo compound is quantified spectrophotometrically at 520 nm. Water samples in the range of 3-700 μg L(-1) NO(3)(-)-N can be processed with a throughput of up to 40 samples per hour, a detection limit of 1.3 μg L(-1) and reproducibility of 1.2% RSD (50 μg L(-1) NO(3)(-)-N, n=10). The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of nitrate in estuarine waters and the reliability was assessed by the analyses of certified reference materials and recovery experiments. The method is suitable for waters with a wide range of salinities, and was successfully used for more than 3200 underway nitrate measurements aboard SV Pelican1 in the "Two Bays" cruise in January 2010. PMID:21315904

  9. [Effects of water stress on photosynthetic parameters of Phragmites australis in estuarine wetland of Yellow River Delta].

    PubMed

    Xie, Tao; Yang, Zhi-feng

    2009-03-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of soil water content on the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), water use efficiency (WUE), and light use efficiency (LUE) of fresh water swamp Phragmites australis from estuarine wetland of Yellow River Delta, with the appropriate soil water condition approached. The results showed that the Pn, LUE, Tr, and WUE of fresh water swamp P. australis had obvious response thresholds on the alteration of soil water content. Waterlogged status was not the optimal water condition for fresh water swamp P. australis. To maintain the normal growth of fresh water swamp P. australis during its fast growth period, soil volumetric water content (Wv) should be above 25.7% (i.e., relative water content Wr > 66.6%), optimal Wv should be 36.9% (i.e., Wr = 95.6%), and the most deficient degree of Wv should be about 21.5% (i.e., Wr = 55.7%). Stomatal limitation was the main tolerance mechanism of fresh water swamp P. australis under water deficit. Under drought condition, the maximum net photosynthetic rate (P(n max)) and apparent quantum yield (AQY) of fresh water swamp P. australis declined obviously. In the meanwhile, fresh water swamp P. australis could reduce its dark respiration (Rd) to decrease the consumption of photosynthetic products, and improve its water use efficiency (WUE) to keep high photosynthetic rate.

  10. Europe-wide estuarine export and surface water concentrations of PFOS and PFOA.

    PubMed

    Lindim, C; van Gils, J; Cousins, I T

    2016-10-15

    The STREAM-EU model was used to predict the water concentrations, estuarine export and retention of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in the eleven most populated European river catchments to provide a European-wide perspective on the contamination by these substances. Emissions of PFOS and PFOA to those catchments were calculated based on population, wealth and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) coverage and efficiency using a previously published method and used as model input. Our estimated emissions showed the lowest values for the Thames catchment (PFOS: 0.4 ton/y; PFOA: 0.2 ton/y) and the highest values for the Rhine for PFOS (1.6 ton/y) and for the Dnieper for PFOA (1.7 ton/y). The model predicted concentrations agreed reasonable well with the existing range of measurements, apart from for PFOA in the River Po, where there is a known historical industrial contamination, and PFOS in the Rhone River, where results were much higher than the few measurements available. It was concerning that the model predicted that the surface water EQS for PFOS (0.65 ng/L) was exceeded by a wide margin in all the eleven studied European river catchments. The total calculated riverine export to the seas from the eleven catchments was 4.5 ton/y of PFOS and 3.7 ton/y of PFOA with highest exported quantities from the Rhine (PFOS: 1.0 ton/y; PFOA: 1.0 ton/y) and Danube estuaries (PFOS: 0.9 ton/y; PFOA: 0.7 ton/y). For the seas where the rivers discharge, riverine discharge of PFOS was estimated to be 2.5-30 times more important as an input than atmospheric deposition, whereas for PFOA the opposite was true (atmospheric deposition was 2-10 times more important) except for very small seas. PMID:27448037

  11. Canadian water quality guidelines. Appendix 22: Interim marine and estuarine water quality guidelines for general variables

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This document has been prepared in response to the need for marine water quality guidelines for general water quality variables. It presents interim guidelines, summaries of existing guidelines if any, the rationale for the guidelines, and variable-specific background information, and notes gaps in data, for the following variables: Debris, including floating or submerged litter, and settleable matter; dissolved oxygen; pH; salinity; temperature; and suspended solids and turbidity. For the purpose of this document, the marine environment includes shorelines, estuaries up to the freshwater limit, and nearshore and offshore waters.

  12. Cold water aquifer storage. [air conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddell, D. L.; Davison, R. R.; Harris, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    A working prototype system is described in which water is pumped from an aquifer at 70 F in the winter time, chilled to a temperature of less than 50 F, injected into a ground-water aquifer, stored for a period of several months, pumped back to the surface in the summer time. A total of 8.1 million gallons of chilled water at an average temperature of 48 F were injected. This was followed by a storage period of 100 days. The recovery cycle was completed a year later with a total of 8.1 million gallons recovered. Approximately 20 percent of the chill energy was recovered.

  13. Assessment of the Water Quality Components in Turbid Estuarine Waters Based on Radiative Transfer Approximations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bio-geo-optical data collected in the Neuse River Estuary, North Carolina, USA were used to develop a semi-empirical optical algorithm for assessing inherent optical properties associated with water quality components (WQCs). Three wavelengths (560, 665 and 709 nm) were explored ...

  14. Response of Vibrio parahaemolyticus 03:K6 to a hot water/cold shock pasteurization process.

    PubMed

    Andrews, L S; DeBlanc, S; Veal, C D; Park, D L

    2003-04-01

    Vibrio vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus are natural inhabitants of estuarine environments world wide. Pathogenic strains of these bacteria are often transmitted to humans through consumption of raw oysters, which flourish in the same estuaries. Previous studies reported the effective use of hot water pasteurization followed by cold shock to eliminate from raw oysters naturally and artificially incurred environmental strains of V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus common to the Gulf of Mexico. The present study focused on the use of the same pasteurization method to reduce a highly process resistant Vibrio strain, V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 to non-detectable levels. Oysters were artificially contaminated with 10(4) and 10(6) V. parahaemolyticus 03:K6 cfu g(-1) oyster meat. Contaminated oysters were pasteurized between 50 and 52 degrees C for up to 22 min. Samples of processed oysters were enumerated for V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 at 2-min intervals beginning after the 'come-up time' to achieve an oyster internal temperature of at least 50 degrees C. The D value (D(52)deg C) was 1.3-1.6 min. V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 proved more process resistant than non-pathogenic environmental strains found in Gulf of Mexico waters. A total processing time of at least 22 min at 52 degrees C was recommended to reduce this bacterium to non-detectable levels (< 3 g(-1) oyster meat).

  15. Hydrocarbons identified in extracts from estuarine water accommodated no. 2 fuel oil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, B. W.; Walker, A. L.; Bieri, R. H.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented on a computerized gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer analysis of methylene chloride and n-heptane extracts of a No. 2 fuel oil accommodated estuarine water sample. The analytical method is briefly described, and the limitations on the identifications are categorized. Some attempt was made to determine major and trace constituents in the water accommodate. Altogether 66 hydrocarbon compounds were identified specifically, and 75 compounds were partially identified. Seven compounds could be recognized as major constituents of the water accommodated oil and ten were present only as traces. The aromatic compounds found were alkyl benzenes, naphthalene, tetralin, indane, biphenyl, fluorene, anthracene, and some of their alkyl substituted isomers in the range of carbon numbers C7 to C15. Four n-alkanes, C10 to C13, were found along with four other assorted hydrocarbons.

  16. Investigation of the Mid-Atlantic coast sudden cold water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, D.; Kafatos, M.; Liu, Z.; Chiu, L.

    2003-12-01

    In the midsummer of this year, it was reported that there was a tremendous change in ocean temperature along the Mid-Atlantic coast, dropping as much as 10 degrees overnight. This sudden sea surface temperature drop affected local tourism and fishing, keep the tourists out of water at this vacation time, caused local tuna fishing hasn't been as good this year, but the cold water lured chill-loving striped bass close to shore, and has two to three weeks of great rockfish, which fishermen could normally get till fall. This article investigates this event by using satellite observations, numerical model outputs, and surface weather analysis. It is found that the North Atlantic cold current, combined with the coastal upwelling driven by the weather influence might cause this sudden cold SST event.

  17. Cold anticyclonic eddies formed from cold pool water in the southern Middle Atlantic Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flagg, Charles N.; Wallace, Douglas; Kolber, Zbigniew

    1997-12-01

    AVHRR satellite imagery of the southern Mid-Atlantic Bight during May 1993 revealed a large area of cold water over the shelf break and slope that appeared to spin up into a series of southward propagating anticyclonic eddies. The eddies had diameters of 35-45 km at the surface and moved southward at about 20 cm/sec. A radial TOYO CTD (to 50m) and ADCP velocity (to 400m) transect was conducted across the southern-most of these eddies. The upper 50 meters had minimum temperatures of less than 7°C and salinities of about 33 pss, characteristics similar to cold pool waters usually found over the continental shelf. ADCP velocity data from one of the eddies revealed anticyclonic flow extending to a depth of about 250m. The transport of cold pool water by the eddies was estimated to be 0.1 to 0.2 Sv which is of the same order as the annual mean alongshore transport of shelf water in this region. The origin of the deeper water within the eddy is unlikely to be the continental shelf because the shelf break is less than 100 m. The depth and velocity profiles along the TOYO transect were consistent with the constant potential vorticity eddy model of Flierl (1979) although the source of the eddy kinetic energy is uncertain. The cause for the exodus of cold pool water from the shelf, which extended northward to at least 38°N, is unclear but must involve the establishment of an alongshore baroclinic pressure gradient against the usual southwestward shelf flow. It is possible that the intrusion of Gulf Stream waters onto the shelf near Cape Hatteras was a precursor of this off shelf transport. The southern-most eddy was marked by high biological productivity and very high oxygen supersaturation. The phytoplankton bloom detected within the exported cold pool water, located over the continental slope, suggests a mechanism whereby production fueled by nutrients derived from the shelf can be locally exported into deep water.

  18. Unorthodox bubbles when boiling in cold water.

    PubMed

    Parker, Scott; Granick, Steve

    2014-01-01

    High-speed movies are taken when bubbles grow at gold surfaces heated spotwise with a near-infrared laser beam heating water below the boiling point (60-70 °C) with heating powers spanning the range from very low to so high that water fails to rewet the surface after bubbles detach. Roughly half the bubbles are conventional: They grow symmetrically through evaporation until buoyancy lifts them away. Others have unorthodox shapes and appear to contribute disproportionately to heat transfer efficiency: mushroom cloud shapes, violently explosive bubbles, and cavitation events, probably stimulated by a combination of superheating, convection, turbulence, and surface dewetting during the initial bubble growth. Moreover, bubbles often follow one another in complex sequences, often beginning with an unorthodox bubble that stirs the water, followed by several conventional bubbles. This large dataset is analyzed and discussed with emphasis on how explosive phenomena such as cavitation induce discrepancies from classical expectations about boiling.

  19. NORTH PORTAL - DOMESTIC COLD WATER CALCULATION - CHANGE HOUSE FACILITY #5008

    SciTech Connect

    S. Mastilovic

    2000-03-02

    The purpose of this design analysis and calculation is to determine the demand for domestic cold water and to size the supply main piping for the Change House Facility No.5008 in accordance with the Uniform Plumbing Code (Section 4.4.1) and US Department of Energy Order 6430.1A-1540 (Section 4.4.2).

  20. Pore water distributions of dissolved copper and copper-complexing ligands in estuarine and coastal marine sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Skrabal, S.A.; Donat, J.R.; Burdige, D.J.

    2000-06-01

    The distributions and seasonal variability of total dissolved Cu (TDCu) and Cu-complexing ligands in sediment pore waters have been investigated at two contrasting sites in the Chesapeake Bay. Two ligand classes, which differ on the basis of the conditional stability constants (K{prime}{sub cond}) of their Cu complexes, were detected at all depths at both sites. For comparison, one pore water profile from a slope station off of the Chesapeake Bay also showed the presence of two ligand classes. Virtually all TDCu fluxing from these sediments is complexed during sediment-water exchange. A relatively small fraction of the TDCu is exchanged as inorganic species, which are widely regarded as the most bioavailable form of Cu. Total ligand concentrations are 15 to >100 times higher in the upper intervals of the pore waters relative to ligand concentrations in the bottom waters of the Chesapeake Bay (30--60 nM), consistent with previous observations of fluxes of these ligands from the sediments to overlying waters. These results suggest that sediments are potentially significant sources of Cu-complexing ligands to the overlying waters of the Chesapeake Bay, and perhaps, other shallow water estuarine and coastal environments. Copper-complexing ligands released from sediment pore waters may play an important role in influencing Cu speciation in overlying waters.

  1. Water chemistry and nutrient release during the resuspension of FeS-rich sediments in a eutrophic estuarine system.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Bree; Rate, Andrew W; Burton, Edward D

    2012-08-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of resuspending FeS-rich benthic sediment on estuarine water chemistry. To address this objective, we conducted (1) a series of laboratory-based sediment resuspension experiments and (2) also monitored changes in surface water composition during field-based sediment resuspension events that were caused by dredging activities in the Peel-Harvey Estuary, Western Australia. Our laboratory resuspension experiments showed that the resuspension of FeS-rich sediments rapidly deoxygenated estuarine water. In contrast, dredging activities in the field did not noticeably lower O(2) concentrations in adjacent surface water. Additionally, while FeS oxidation in the laboratory resuspensions caused measurable decreases in pH, the field pH was unaffected by the dredging event and dissolved trace metal concentrations remained very low throughout the monitoring period. Dissolved ammonium (NH(4)(+)) and inorganic phosphorus (PO(4)-P) were released into the water column during the resuspension of sediments in both the field and laboratory. Following its initial release, PO(4)-P was rapidly removed from solution in the laboratory-based (<1h) and field-based (<100 m from sediment disposal point) investigations. In comparison to PO(4)-P, NH(4)(+) release was observed to be more prolonged over the 2-week period of the laboratory resuspension experiments. However, our field-based observations revealed that elevated NH(4)(+) concentrations were localised to <100 m from the sediment disposal point. This study demonstrates that alongside the emphasis on acidification, deoxygenation and metal release during FeS resuspension, it is important to consider the possibility of nutrient release from disturbed sediments in eutrophic estuaries.

  2. Occurrence and persistence of water level/salinity states and the ecological impacts for St Lucia estuarine lake, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrie, Robynne A.; Stretch, Derek D.

    2011-11-01

    The St Lucia estuarine lake in South Africa forms part of a World Heritage Site and is an important local source of biodiversity. Like many estuarine systems worldwide, St Lucia has experienced significant anthropogenic impacts over the past century. Abstractions have decreased fresh water inflows from the lake catchments by about 20%. Furthermore the Mfolozi river, which previously shared a common inlet with St Lucia and contributed additional fresh water during droughts, was diverted from the system in 1952 because of its high silt loads. The separated St Lucia mouth was subsequently kept artificially open until the onset of a dry period in 2002 when the mouth was left to close naturally. These changes and the current drought have placed the system under severe stress with unprecedented hypersaline conditions coupled with desiccation of large portions of the lake. Long-term simulations of the water and salt balance were used to estimate the occurrence and persistence of water levels and salinities for different management scenarios. The risks of desiccation and hyper-salinity were assessed for each case. The results show that the configuration of the Mfolozi/St Lucia inlets plays a key role in the physicochemical environment of the system. Without the Mfolozi link desiccation (of about 50% of the lake area) would occur for 32% of the time for an average duration of 15 months. Artificially maintaining an open mouth would decrease the chance of desiccation but salinities would exceed 65 about 17% of the time. Restoring the Mfolozi link would reduce the occurrence of both desiccation and hypersaline conditions and a mostly open mouth state would occur naturally. Integrating these modeled scenarios with observed biological responses due to changes in salinity and water depth suggests that large long-term changes in the biological structure can be expected in the different management scenarios.

  3. PBF Cooling Tower under construction. Cold water basin is five ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Cooling Tower under construction. Cold water basin is five feet deep. Foundation and basin walls are reinforced concrete. Camera facing west. Pipe openings through wall in front are outlets for return flow of cool water to reactor building. Photographer: John Capek. Date: September 4, 1968. INEEL negative no. 68-3473 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. Nucleic acid extraction from polluted estuarine water for detection of viruses and bacteria by PCR and RT-PCR analysis.

    PubMed

    Petit, F; Craquelin, S; Guespin-Michel, J; Buffet-Janvresse, C

    1999-03-01

    We describe an extraction protocol for genomic DNA and RNA of both viruses and bacteria from polluted estuary water. This procedure was adapted to the molecular study of microflora of estuarine water where bacteria and viruses are found free, forming low-density biofilms, or intimately associated with organo-mineral particles. The sensitivity of the method was determined with seeded samples for RT-PCR and PCR analysis of viruses (10 virions/mL), and bacteria (1 colony-forming unit mL). We report an example of molecular detection of both poliovirus and Salmonella in the Seine estuary (France) and an approach to studying their association with organo-mineral particles.

  5. The application of laser-Raman light scattering to the determination of sulfate in sea and estuarine waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandy, A. R.

    1973-01-01

    Laser-Raman light scattering is a technique for determining sulfate concentrations in sea and estuarine waters with apparently none of the interferences inherent in the gravimetric and titrametric methods. The Raman measurement involved the ratioing of the peak heights of an unknown sulfate concentration and a nitrate internal standard. This ratio was used to calculate the unknown sulfate concentration from a standard curve. The standard curve was derived from the Raman data on prepared nitrate-sulfate solutions. At the 99.7% confidence level, the accuracy of the Raman technique was 7 to 8.6 percent over the concentration range of the standard curve. The sulfate analyses of water samples collected at the mouth of the James River, Hampton, Virginia, demonstrated that in most cases sulfate had a constant concentration relative to salinity in this area.

  6. Cold vacuum drying residual free water test description

    SciTech Connect

    Pajunen, A.L.

    1997-12-23

    Residual free water expected to remain in a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) after processing in the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility is investigated based on three alternative models of fuel crevices. Tests and operating conditions for the CVD process are defined based on the analysis of these models. The models consider water pockets constrained by cladding defects, water constrained in a pore or crack by flow through a porous bed, and water constrained in pores by diffusion. An analysis of comparative reaction rate constraints is also presented indicating that a pressure rise test can be used to show MCO`s will be thermally stable at operating temperatures up to 75 C.

  7. Lessons: Science: "Sinkholes." Students Observe What Happens When Ice-Cold Water Mingles with Warm Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanCleave, Janice

    2000-01-01

    This intermediate-level science activity has students observe the effect of ice-cold water mingling with warm water. Water's behavior and movement alters with shifts in temperature. Students must try to determine how temperature affects the movement of water. Necessary materials include a pencil, cup, glass jar, masking tape, warm water, ice…

  8. Modified equilibrium temperature models for cold-water streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herb, William R.; Stefan, Heinz G.

    2011-06-01

    Water temperature determines the spatial distribution of fish species, including cold-water fish such as trout, and is driven by the balance of the heat flux across the water surface and the heat flux across the sediment surface. In this study, a modified equilibrium temperature model was developed for cold-water streams that includes the effect of groundwater inflow. The modified equilibrium temperature model gives estimates of daily average stream temperature based on climate conditions, riparian shading, stream width, and groundwater input rate and temperature. For a small tributary stream with relatively uniform riparian shading, the modified equilibrium temperature was found to be a good predictor of daily average stream temperature, with a root-mean-square errors (RMSE) of 1.2°C. The modified equilibrium temperature model also gave good estimates (1.4°C RMSE) of daily average stream temperature for a larger stream when riparian shading was averaged over sufficiently long distances. A sensitivity analysis using the modified equilibrium temperature model confirmed that water temperature in cold-water streams varies strongly with riparian shading, stream width, and both groundwater inflow rate and temperature. These groundwater parameters therefore need to be taken into account when climate change impacts on stream temperature are projected. The stream temperature model developed in this study is a useful tool to characterize temperature conditions in cold-water streams with different levels of riparian shading and groundwater inputs and to assess the impact of future land use and climate change on temperature in these streams.

  9. Water-hammer in the cold leg during an SBLOCA due to cold ECCS injection

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, M.G.; Ghan, L.S.

    1991-12-01

    Water-hammer might occur in the cold leg of pressurized water reactors (PWR) during small break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCA`s), when cold emergency core cooling system (ECCS) water is injected into a pipe that may be partially filled with saturated steam. The water may mix with the steam and cause it to condense abruptly. Depending on the flow regime present, slugs of liquid may then be accelerated towards each other or against the piping structure. The possibility of this phenomenon is of concern to us because it may become a dominant phenomenon and change the character of the transient. In performing the code scaling, applicability, and uncertainty study (CSAU) on a SBLOCA scenario, we had to examine the possibility that the transient being analyzed could experience water-hammer and thus depart from the scope of the study. Two criteria for water-hammer initiation were investigated and tested using a RELAP5/MOD3 simulation of the transient. Our results indicated a very low likelihood of occurrence of the phenomenon. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Water-hammer in the cold leg during an SBLOCA due to cold ECCS injection

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, M.G.; Ghan, L.S.

    1991-01-01

    Water-hammer might occur in the cold leg of pressurized water reactors (PWR) during small break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCA's), when cold emergency core cooling system (ECCS) water is injected into a pipe that may be partially filled with saturated steam. The water may mix with the steam and cause it to condense abruptly. Depending on the flow regime present, slugs of liquid may then be accelerated towards each other or against the piping structure. The possibility of this phenomenon is of concern to us because it may become a dominant phenomenon and change the character of the transient. In performing the code scaling, applicability, and uncertainty study (CSAU) on a SBLOCA scenario, we had to examine the possibility that the transient being analyzed could experience water-hammer and thus depart from the scope of the study. Two criteria for water-hammer initiation were investigated and tested using a RELAP5/MOD3 simulation of the transient. Our results indicated a very low likelihood of occurrence of the phenomenon. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  11. [Advances in copepod resting egg ecology in estuarine and coastal waters].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Luan, Lei-lei; Chen, Liang-dong; Yang, Yu-feng

    2015-07-01

    Copepods are the key group in aquatic ecosystems, and play an important role in energy flow, the cycle of materials and information transfer. This paper summarized the distribution and composition of the copepods that spawn resting eggs in the estuarine and coastal marine areas. It also reviewed the survival time, hatching rates, abundance of resting eggs in the sediments, and the potential recruitment into the plankton population as correlated with environmental factors. The prospects of copepod resting egg ecology were also proposed in order to provide new ideas for future research.

  12. Distribution and spawning dynamics of capelin (Mallotus villosus) in Glacier Bay, Alaska: A cold water refugium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arimitsu, M.L.; Piatt, J.F.; Litzow, M.A.; Abookire, A.A.; Romano, Marc D.; Robards, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Pacific capelin (Mallotus villosus) populations declined dramatically in the Northeastern Pacific following ocean warming after the regime shift of 1977, but little is known about the cause of the decline or the functional relationships between capelin and their environment. We assessed the distribution and abundance of spawning, non-spawning adult and larval capelin in Glacier Bay, an estuarine fjord system in southeastern Alaska. We used principal components analysis to analyze midwater trawl and beach seine data collected between 1999 and 2004 with respect to oceanographic data and other measures of physical habitat including proximity to tidewater glaciers and potential spawning habitat. Both spawning and non-spawning adult Pacific capelin were more likely to occur in areas closest to tidewater glaciers, and those areas were distinguished by lower temperature, higher turbidity, higher dissolved oxygen and lower chlorophyll a levels when compared with other areas of the bay. The distribution of larval Pacific capelin was not sensitive to glacial influence. Pre-spawning females collected farther from tidewater glaciers were at a lower maturity state than those sampled closer to tidewater glaciers, and the geographic variation in the onset of spawning is likely the result of differences in the marine habitat among sub-areas of Glacier Bay. Proximity to cold water in Glacier Bay may have provided a refuge for capelin during the recent warm years in the Gulf of Alaska.

  13. SHORT-TERM METHODS FOR ESTIMATING THE CHRONIC TOXICITY OF EFFLUENTS AND RECEIVING WATERS TO WEST COAST MARINE AND ESTUARINE ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual describes six short-term (forty minutes to seven days) estuarine and marine methods for measuring the chronic toxicity of effluents and receiving waters to eight species: the topsmelt, Atherinops affinis; the mysid, Holmesimysis costata; the sea urchin, Stronglocentro...

  14. Pouring 'Cold Water' on Hot Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, A. E.

    1995-09-01

    The extensive recrystallization of type-6 OC has been interpreted as having resulted either from prograde thermal metamorphism of initially cold, unequilibrated material [1,2] or from autometamorphism due to slow cooling of material that accreted while still hot (1000-1200 K). Although the physical implausibility of hot accretion has been addressed [3], no comprehensive evaluation has been made of arguments in its favor. As shown below, these arguments are based on incomplete data, flawed experiments or improbable interpretations. Correlation between petrologic type and Ca in low-Ca pyroxene. Models of prograde metamorphism assume that, with increasing temperature, opx acquires Ca at the expense of diopside. Analyses of pyroxene in 10 H chondrites showed no correlation between Ca in pyroxene cores and increasing petrologic type [4], but more extensive data sets show such correlations [1,5,6]. A review of data for 51 OC [7] shows a progressive increase in the Wo content of low-Ca pyroxene with petrologic type: Wo 0.4-1.2 in type-3 and -4; Wo 1.2-1.6 in type-5; and Wo 1.6-2.2 in type-6. Striated opx. Undeformed striated opx were interpreted as having formed from inverted protopyroxene during slow cooling [8]; striated opx from H4 Quenggouk were found to convert into normal opx within 1 week during annealing at 1100 K [9]. Because prograde metamorphism probably lasted ~60 Ma [10], there should be no striated opx remaining in type-4 or -5 OC. However, samples of 99% twinned clinopyroxene (analogous to that in chondrules in type-3 OC) annealed for >3 weeks at <=1250 K exhibited only very minor inversion to opx [11-13]. These experiments are consistent with prograde metamorphism; it seems likely that Quenggouk pyroxene probably had a substantial proportion of opx lamellae to begin with. Spinodal decomposition textures and cooling rates. Spinodal decomposition textures in pyroxene in type 4-5 OC were observed to have the same periodicities as those in type-3 OC [14]; it

  15. Gold coast seaway smartrelease decision support system: optimising recycled water release in a sub tropical estuarine environment.

    PubMed

    Stuart, G; Hollingsworth, A; Thomsen, F; Szylkarski, S; Khan, S; Tomlinson, R; Kirkpatrick, S; Catterall, K; Capati, B

    2009-01-01

    Gold Coast Water is responsible for the management of the water, recycled water and wastewater assets of the City of the Gold Coast on Australia's east coast. Excess treated recycled water is released at the Gold Coast Seaway, a man-made channel connecting the Broadwater Estuary with the Pacific Ocean, on an outgoing tide in order for the recycled water to be dispersed before the tide changes and re-enters the Broadwater estuary. Rapid population growth has placed increasing demands on the city's recycled water release system and an investigation of the capacity of the Broadwater to assimilate a greater volume of recycled water over a longer release period was undertaken in 2007. As an outcome, Gold Coast Water was granted an extension of the existing release licence from 10.5 hours per day to 13.3 hours per day from the Coombabah wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The Seaway SmartRelease Project has been designed to optimise the release of the recycled water from the Coombabah WWTP in order to minimise the impact to the receiving estuarine water quality and maximise the cost efficiency of pumping. In order achieve this; an optimisation study that involves intensive hydrodynamic and water quality monitoring, numerical modelling and a web-based decision support system is underway. An intensive monitoring campaign provided information on water levels, currents, winds, waves, nutrients and bacterial levels within the Broadwater. This data was then used to calibrate and verify numerical models using the MIKE by DHI suite of software. The Decision Support System will then collect continually measured data such as water levels, interact with the WWTP SCADA system, run the numerical models and provide the optimal time window to release the required amount of recycled water from the WWTP within the licence specifications. PMID:19844054

  16. Gold coast seaway smartrelease decision support system: optimising recycled water release in a sub tropical estuarine environment.

    PubMed

    Stuart, G; Hollingsworth, A; Thomsen, F; Szylkarski, S; Khan, S; Tomlinson, R; Kirkpatrick, S; Catterall, K; Capati, B

    2009-01-01

    Gold Coast Water is responsible for the management of the water, recycled water and wastewater assets of the City of the Gold Coast on Australia's east coast. Excess treated recycled water is released at the Gold Coast Seaway, a man-made channel connecting the Broadwater Estuary with the Pacific Ocean, on an outgoing tide in order for the recycled water to be dispersed before the tide changes and re-enters the Broadwater estuary. Rapid population growth has placed increasing demands on the city's recycled water release system and an investigation of the capacity of the Broadwater to assimilate a greater volume of recycled water over a longer release period was undertaken in 2007. As an outcome, Gold Coast Water was granted an extension of the existing release licence from 10.5 hours per day to 13.3 hours per day from the Coombabah wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The Seaway SmartRelease Project has been designed to optimise the release of the recycled water from the Coombabah WWTP in order to minimise the impact to the receiving estuarine water quality and maximise the cost efficiency of pumping. In order achieve this; an optimisation study that involves intensive hydrodynamic and water quality monitoring, numerical modelling and a web-based decision support system is underway. An intensive monitoring campaign provided information on water levels, currents, winds, waves, nutrients and bacterial levels within the Broadwater. This data was then used to calibrate and verify numerical models using the MIKE by DHI suite of software. The Decision Support System will then collect continually measured data such as water levels, interact with the WWTP SCADA system, run the numerical models and provide the optimal time window to release the required amount of recycled water from the WWTP within the licence specifications.

  17. OTEC Cold Water Pipe-Platform Subsystem Dynamic Interaction Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Varley, Robert; Halkyard, John; Johnson, Peter; Shi, Shan; Marinho, Thiago

    2014-05-09

    A commercial floating 100-megawatt (MW) ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power plant will require a cold water pipe (CWP) with a diameter of 10-meter (m) and length of up to 1,000 m. The mass of the cold water pipe, including entrained water, can exceed the mass of the platform supporting it. The offshore industry uses software-modeling tools to develop platform and riser (pipe) designs to survive the offshore environment. These tools are typically validated by scale model tests in facilities able to replicate real at-sea meteorological and ocean (metocean) conditions to provide the understanding and confidence to proceed to final design and full-scale fabrication. However, today’s offshore platforms (similar to and usually larger than those needed for OTEC applications) incorporate risers (or pipes) with diameters well under one meter. Secondly, the preferred construction method for large diameter OTEC CWPs is the use of composite materials, primarily a form of fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP). The use of these material results in relatively low pipe stiffness and large strains compared to steel construction. These factors suggest the need for further validation of offshore industry software tools. The purpose of this project was to validate the ability to model numerically the dynamic interaction between a large cold water-filled fiberglass pipe and a floating OTEC platform excited by metocean weather conditions using measurements from a scale model tested in an ocean basin test facility.

  18. An in situ postexposure feeding assay with Carcinus maenas for estuarine sediment-overlying water toxicity evaluations.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Susana M; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Guilhermino, Lúcia; Ribeiro, Rui

    2006-01-01

    This study developed and evaluated a short-term sublethal in situ toxicity assay for estuarine sediment-overlying waters, with the crab Carcinus maenas (L.) based on postexposure feeding. It consisted of a 48-h in situ exposure period followed by a short postexposure feeding period (30 min). A precise method for quantifying feeding, using the Polychaeta Hediste (Nereis) diversicolor Müller as food source, was first developed. The sensitivity of the postexposure feeding response was verified by comparing it to that of lethality, upon cadmium exposure. The influence of environmental conditions prevailing during exposure (salinity, temperature, substrate, light regime, and food availability) on postexposure feeding was also addressed. The potential of this in situ assay was then investigated by deploying organisms at ten sites, located in reference and contaminated Portuguese estuaries. Organism recovery ranged between 90% and 100% and a significant postexposure feeding depression (16.3-72.7%) was observed at all contaminated sites relatively to references. PMID:16002194

  19. Determination of dissolved boron in fresh, estuarine, and geothermal waters by d.c. argon-plasma emission spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ball, J.W.; Thompson, J.M.; Jenne, E.A.

    1978-01-01

    A d.c. argon-plasma emission spectrometer is used to determine dissolved boron in natural (fresh and estuarine) water samples. Concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 250 mg l-1. The emission-concentration function is linear from 0.02 to 1000 mg l-1. Achievement of a relative standard deviation of ??? 3% requires frequent restandardization to offset sensitivity changes. Dilution may be necessary to overcome high and variable electron density caused by differences in alkali-metal content and to avoid quenching of the plasma by high solute concentrations of sodium and other easily ionized elements. The proposed method was tested against a reference method and found to be more sensitive, equally or more precise and accurate, less subject to interferences, with a wider linear analytical range than the carmine method. Analyses of standard reference samples yielded results in all cases within one standard deviation of the means. ?? 1978.

  20. Molecular Approach to Microbiological Examination of Water Quality in the Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (NERR) in Mississippi, USA

    PubMed Central

    Kishinhi, Stephen S.; Tchounwou, Paul B.; Farah, Ibrahim O.

    2013-01-01

    Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (NERR) is an important ecosystem in the Mississippi Gulf Coast. It serves as important nursery areas for juveniles of many species of fish. The bay is also used for fishing, crabbing, oyster togging, boating as well as recreation. Like in other aquatic environments, this bay may be contaminated by microorganisms including pathogenic bacteria. The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of water in the Grand Bay NERR and determine the levels and potential source(s) of human fecal pollution. To achieve this goal, water samples were collected aseptically every month in Bayou Heron, Bayou Cumbest, Point Aux Chenes Bay and Bangs Lake. Enterococci were concentrated from water samples by membrane filtration according to the methodology outlined in USEPA Method 1600. After incubation, DNA was extracted from bacteria colonies on the membrane filters by using QIAamp DNA extraction kit. Water samples were also tested for the presence of traditional indicator bacteria including: heterotrophic plate count, total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and Enterococcus bacteria. The marker esp gene was detected in one site of Bayou Cumbest, an area where human populations reside. Data from this study indicates higher concentrations of indicator bacteria compared to the recommended acceptable levels. Presence of esp marker and high numbers of indicator bacteria suggest a public health concern for shellfish and water contact activities. Hence, control strategies should be developed and implemented to prevent further contamination of the Grand bay NERR waters. PMID:23761974

  1. Atmospheric Cold Fronts Affecting Cold-Water Corals in the Deep Straits of Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberli, G. P.; Grasmueck, M.; Bang, I.; Mooers, C. N.; Viggiano, D.

    2007-12-01

    The Straits of Florida (SoF) are considered an ideal habitat for cold-water corals with the north flowing Florida Current (FC) providing a continuous supply of food. The FC does, however, not fill the entire Straits and deep, opposing undercurrents and coastal countercurrents occur off Florida and the Bahamas. New observational and model data document that, in addition to the well-known perturbation of upper ocean currents by atmospheric cold front passages, the near-bottom current field in the SoF is also repeatedly perturbed by atmospheric cold fronts none of which is reflected in the cold-water mound morphology. Measurements of the near-bottom flow field by an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV), cruising 40 m above sea floor at five coral mound fields ranging from 14-48 km2 in 590-875 m water in December 2005, record a complicated current pattern in space and time. Near-bottom currents are bi-directional, dominated by semi- diurnal tides, on the lower slopes of the Bahamas where mounds form kilometer long ridges as high as 120 m. Near-bottom currents flow north in the middle of Straits but generally south along the Miami Terrace. The mound morphology varies widely between sites and no obvious (i.e., direct, linear) correlation exists between current strength and mound height. The 12 to 48 h AUV observational data at each site compare well with results of the quasi-operational 3D ocean circulation model EFSIS (East Florida Shelf Information System). The Model enables the analysis of the bottom currents over extended periods and confirms that the near-bottom flow field in the SoF is highly variable on time scales ranging from 6 hours to several days, with magnitudes of +/- 0.2 to 0.6 m/s, depending upon location. During the observation period of December 2005, a recurring current variability is due to a sequence of deep cyclonic eddies that originate approximately every ten days near Cay Sal Bank and move northward on the eastern side of the FC. Offshore Bimini

  2. Water-quality trends and basin activities and characteristics for the Albemarle-Pamlico estuarine system, North Carolina and Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harned, D.A.; Davenport, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    The Albemarle-Pamlico estuarine system has a total basin area of nearly 31,000 square miles and includes the Neuse, Tar, Pamlico, Roanoke, Chowan, and Alligator Rivers, and the Albemarle, Pamlico, Currituck, Croatan, and Roanoke Sounds. Albemarle Sound receives the greatest freshwater inflow of all the sounds in the estuarine system. Inflow to this sound averages about 13,500 cubic feet per second. Inflow to Pamlico Sound from the Pamlico River averages around 5,400 cubic feet per second, and average inflow into the Neuse River estuary is about 6,100 cubic feet per second. Approximately one-half of the inflow into the system is from ground-water discharge. The Neuse River basin has had the greatest increases in wastewater discharges (650 percent since the 1950's) and had the greatesttotal wastewater discharges of any of the basins in the study area, averaging about 200 million gallons per day in 1988. Wastewater discharges into the Neuse and Tar Rivers were nearly equal to the 7-day, 10-year low flows for these rivers. Land-use data compiled in 1973 for the lower parts of the Neuse River basin and lower part of the Tar-Pamlico River basin indicate that 25 percent of the area was evergreen forest, 25 percent was forested wetlands, 20 percent was cropland and pasture, 12 percent was mixed forest, 10 percent was nonforested wetland, and 4 percent was urban. The amount of nonforested wetland in the part of the study area along the Outer Banks declined 6.5 percent from 1973 to 1983. The numbers of farms and acreage in agricultural use in the study area have declined since the 1920's. A decrease of more than 60 percentin the number of farms was shown between the early 1950's and 1982. Fertilizer sales increased through the 1970's, but declined in the 1980's. Manufacturing employment has increased in the last 30 years, while agricultural employment has decreased. Data from seven stations of the U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Quality Accounting Network were used to

  3. Nationwide review of oxygen depletion and eutrophication in estuarine and coastal waters: Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Whitledge, T.E.

    1985-09-01

    The Status and Trends Program of the Ocean Assessment Division of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) contracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory to assess the health of the estuarine and coastal environments in the US as indicated by low oxygen concentrations, eutrophication or mass mortalities of biological organisms. This intensive eutrophication or mass mortalities of biological organisms. This intensive but brief survey was accomplished through subcontracts to five regional investigators and represented the (1) Northeast, (2) Southeast, (3) Florida, (4) Gulf Coast, and (5) West Coast regions of the country. Each principal investigator was responsible for a subset of the 196 estuaries or embayments in his region. Additional information on other contaminants were also included in the reports when such information was deemed important. An exhaustive search of all literature was not possible owing to the time and money constraints; however, significant data were located for most of the estuaries. 1 fig.

  4. Remediation of aquaculture water in the estuarine wetlands using coal cinder-zeolite balls/reed wetland combination strategy.

    PubMed

    Tian, Weijun; Qiao, Kaili; Yu, Huibo; Bai, Jie; Jin, Xin; Liu, Qing; Zhao, Jing

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the modified coal cinders and zeolite powders in proportion of 2:1 were mixed with modified polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) with a ratio of 20:1 (w/v) to make a new sorbent and biological carrier-the coal cinder-zeolite balls (CCZBs). The maximum absorption capacities of ammonia nitrogen and Chemical Oxygen Demand (CODCr) on CCZBs, adsorption process were evaluated in batch experiments. And then they were combined with reed wetland for bioremediation of micro-polluted aquaculture water in estuarine wetlands. The results showed that the removal efficiencies of ammonia nitrogen and CODCr improved with the decrease in water inflow and increase in inflow concentrations. Efficiencies of 67.3% and 71.3% for ammonia nitrogen and CODCr under water flow of 10 L/h were obtained when their inflow concentrations were 1.77 and 56.0 mg/L respectively. This strategy can be served as a model system for bioremediation in situ of aquaculture water and other organic polluted or eutrophic water. PMID:27372248

  5. Remediation of aquaculture water in the estuarine wetlands using coal cinder-zeolite balls/reed wetland combination strategy.

    PubMed

    Tian, Weijun; Qiao, Kaili; Yu, Huibo; Bai, Jie; Jin, Xin; Liu, Qing; Zhao, Jing

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the modified coal cinders and zeolite powders in proportion of 2:1 were mixed with modified polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) with a ratio of 20:1 (w/v) to make a new sorbent and biological carrier-the coal cinder-zeolite balls (CCZBs). The maximum absorption capacities of ammonia nitrogen and Chemical Oxygen Demand (CODCr) on CCZBs, adsorption process were evaluated in batch experiments. And then they were combined with reed wetland for bioremediation of micro-polluted aquaculture water in estuarine wetlands. The results showed that the removal efficiencies of ammonia nitrogen and CODCr improved with the decrease in water inflow and increase in inflow concentrations. Efficiencies of 67.3% and 71.3% for ammonia nitrogen and CODCr under water flow of 10 L/h were obtained when their inflow concentrations were 1.77 and 56.0 mg/L respectively. This strategy can be served as a model system for bioremediation in situ of aquaculture water and other organic polluted or eutrophic water.

  6. Time of death of victims found in cold water environment.

    PubMed

    Karhunen, Pekka J; Goebeler, Sirkka; Winberg, Olli; Tuominen, Markku

    2008-04-01

    Limited data is available on the application of post-mortem temperature methods to non-standard conditions, especially in problematic real life cases in which the body of the victim is found in cold water environment. Here we present our experience on two cases with known post-mortem times. A 14-year-old girl (rectal temperature 15.5 degrees C) was found assaulted and drowned after a rainy cold night (+5 degrees C) in wet clothing (four layers) at the bottom of a shallow ditch, lying in non-flowing water. The post-mortem time turned out to be 15-16 h. Four days later, at the same time in the morning, after a cold (+/- 0 degrees C) night, a young man (rectal temperature 10.8 degrees C) was found drowned in a shallow cold drain (+4 degrees C) wearing similar clothing (four layers) and being exposed to almost similar environmental and weather conditions, except of flow (7.7 l/s or 0.3 m/s) in the drain. The post-mortem time was deduced to be 10-12 h. We tested the applicability of five practical methods to estimate time of death. Henssge's temperature-time of death nomogram method with correction factors was the most versatile and gave also most accurate results, although there is limited data on choosing of correction factors. In the first case, the right correction factor was close to 1.0 (recommended 1.1-1.2), suggesting that wet clothing acted like dry clothing in slowing down body cooling. In the second case, the right correction factor was between 0.3 and 0.5, similar to the recommended 0.35 for naked bodies in flowing water.

  7. Time of death of victims found in cold water environment.

    PubMed

    Karhunen, Pekka J; Goebeler, Sirkka; Winberg, Olli; Tuominen, Markku

    2008-04-01

    Limited data is available on the application of post-mortem temperature methods to non-standard conditions, especially in problematic real life cases in which the body of the victim is found in cold water environment. Here we present our experience on two cases with known post-mortem times. A 14-year-old girl (rectal temperature 15.5 degrees C) was found assaulted and drowned after a rainy cold night (+5 degrees C) in wet clothing (four layers) at the bottom of a shallow ditch, lying in non-flowing water. The post-mortem time turned out to be 15-16 h. Four days later, at the same time in the morning, after a cold (+/- 0 degrees C) night, a young man (rectal temperature 10.8 degrees C) was found drowned in a shallow cold drain (+4 degrees C) wearing similar clothing (four layers) and being exposed to almost similar environmental and weather conditions, except of flow (7.7 l/s or 0.3 m/s) in the drain. The post-mortem time was deduced to be 10-12 h. We tested the applicability of five practical methods to estimate time of death. Henssge's temperature-time of death nomogram method with correction factors was the most versatile and gave also most accurate results, although there is limited data on choosing of correction factors. In the first case, the right correction factor was close to 1.0 (recommended 1.1-1.2), suggesting that wet clothing acted like dry clothing in slowing down body cooling. In the second case, the right correction factor was between 0.3 and 0.5, similar to the recommended 0.35 for naked bodies in flowing water. PMID:17935919

  8. Salvage and recovery of the OTEC-1 cold water pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Tracy, D.E.; Vadus, J.R.

    1983-05-01

    During autumn 1982, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) was assisted by the U.S. Navy in recovering the 2,250-foot-long ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC-1) cold water pipe which was vertically moored in 4,500 feet of water 22 miles off the northwest coast of the island of Hawaii. The pipe recovery was successfully completed on October 9, 1982, in one of the Navy's deepest salvage efforts on record, and will be deployed down the slope at Keahole Point to supply cold water for the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii. The salvage and recovery of such a large flexible object almost 1/2-mile in length, weighing 50 tons in water, from a depth of 4,500 feet, was unique to the Navy's experience. This operation required extensive planning and coordination among numerous Naval and commercial units; shipyard preparation of the ocean heavy lift platform barge; utilization of the deep submersible research vehicle TURTLE; and use of various support vessels and ancillary equipment. It provided an opportunity to test new technology applicable to offshore and deep sea operations and to obtain material specimens for testing of pipe strength degradation due to long-term exposure to sea water.

  9. Human thermoregulatory responses during serial cold-water immersions.

    PubMed

    Castellani, J W; Young, A J; Sawka, M N; Pandolf, K B

    1998-07-01

    This study examined whether serial cold-water immersions over a 10-h period would lead to fatigue of shivering and vasoconstriction. Eight men were immersed (2 h) in 20 degrees C water three times (0700, 1100, and 1500) in 1 day (Repeat). This trial was compared with single immersions (Control) conducted at the same times of day. Before Repeat exposures at 1100 and 1500, rewarming was employed to standardize initial rectal temperature. The following observations were made in the Repeat relative to the Control trial: 1) rectal temperature was lower and heat debt was higher (P < 0.05) at 1100; 2) metabolic heat production was lower (P < 0.05) at 1100 and 1500; 3) subjects perceived the Repeat trial as warmer at 1100. These data suggest that repeated cold exposures may impair the ability to maintain normal body temperature because of a blunting of metabolic heat production, perhaps reflecting a fatigue mechanism. An alternative explanation is that shivering habituation develops rapidly during serially repeated cold exposures. PMID:9655776

  10. Problems and complications with cold-water rescue.

    PubMed

    Giesbrecht, Gordon G; Hayward, John S

    2006-01-01

    A case description is presented of a 9-member rowing team whose scull swamped on a small lake in Victoria, Canada, because of a sudden winter storm, which immersed them in 4 degrees C water for 50 minutes until a small rescue boat found them in darkness. Another 13 minutes of cold exposure in 6.7 degrees C air occurred during boat transport to waiting ambulance paramedics. Two rowers died, one from severe hypothermia and the other from drowning as a consequence of cold incapacitation and hypothermia. The 2 coldest rowers, who were transported 8 km to a major hospital, arrived with rectal temperatures of 23.4 degrees C and 25 degrees C; the first was asystolic and the second was unconscious and in sinus bradycardia. Analysis of all the circumstances of this incident provided an opportunity to observe a continuum of responses in a heterogeneous group of rowers at risk of severe hypothermia. Several practical lessons concerning cold-water survival, rescue, and treatment can be learned. The effects of low body mass were associated with greater cooling rate. Diminished neuromuscular performance in the periphery appeared to be independent of body mass. Rough handling during moving of patients with marked hypothermia introduces the risk of producing ventricular fibrillation or cardiac arrest. Unconscious, nonshivering hypothermia victims who are rescued and insulated from cold could have a further afterdrop of 3 degrees C to 4 degrees C. During transport to a hospital, the use of heating devices concentrating on core regions may increase the chance of successful treatment in the hospital. Cardiopulmonary bypass may be indicated for severely hypothermic patients in asystole. PMID:16538942

  11. NORTH PORTAL - DOMESTIC COLD WATER CALCULATION - CHANGE HOUSE FACILITY #5008

    SciTech Connect

    R. Blackstone

    1996-01-25

    The purpose of this design analysis and calculation is to determine the demand for domestic cold water and to size the supply main piping for the Change House Facility No.5008 in accordance with the Uniform Plumbing Code (Section 4.4.1) and U.S. Department of Energy Order 6430.1A-1540 (Section 4.4.2). The method used for the calculations is based on the Uniform Plumbing Code (UPC), Section 4.4.1. The first step is to determine the maximum pressure drop between the most remote cold water plumbing fixture and the main distribution supply. The developed length of pipe from the supply to the fixture is then determined from the plumbing drawings. The maximum pressure drop is then divided by the developed length which results in the friction loss per 100 feet of pipe. Equivalent fixture units are assigned from the UPC based on the actual fixture count which when totaled determines the water flow rate. The water flow rate and pressure drop are used to determine the pipe size based on a given velocity of flow.

  12. Effects of waves on coastal water dispersion in a small estuarine bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delpey, M. T.; Ardhuin, F.; Otheguy, P.; Jouon, A.

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional wave-current model is used to investigate wave-induced circulations in a small estuarine bay and its impact on freshwater exchanges with the inner shelf, related to stratified river plume dispersion. Modeled salinity fields exhibit a lower salinity surface layer due to river outflows, with typical depth of 1 m inside the bay. The asymmetric wave forcing on the bay circulation, related to the local bathymetry, significantly impacts the river plumes. It is found that the transport initiated in the surf zone by the longshore current can oppose and thus reduce the primary outflow of freshwater through the bay inlets. Using the model to examine a high river runoff event occurring during a high-energy wave episode, waves are found to induce a 24 h delay in freshwater evacuation. At the end of the runoff event, waves have reduced the freshwater flux to the ocean by a factor 5, and the total freshwater volume inside the bay is increased by 40%. According to the model, and for this event, the effect of the surf zone current on the bay flushing is larger than that of the wind. The freshwater balance is sensitive to incident wave conditions. Maximum freshwater retention is found for intermediate offshore wave heights 1 m < Hs < 2 m. For higher-energy waves, the increase in the longshore current reduces the retention, which is two times lower for Hs = 4 m than for Hs = 2 m.

  13. Performance of Passive Samplers for Monitoring Estuarine Water Column Concentrations 1. Contaminants of Concern

    PubMed Central

    Perron, Monique M.; Burgess, Robert M.; Suuberg, Eric M.; Cantwell, Mark G.; Pennell, Kelly G.

    2014-01-01

    Contaminants enter marine and estuarine environments and pose a risk to human and ecological health. Recently, passive sampling devices have been utilized to estimate dissolved concentrations of COCs, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In the present study, the performance of three common passive samplers was evaluated for sampling PAHs and PCBs at several stations in the temperate estuary Narragansett Bay (Rhode Island, USA). Sampler polymers included polyethylene (PE), polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coated solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers, and polyoxymethylene (POM). Dissolved concentrations of each contaminant were calculated using measured sampler concentrations adjusted for equilibrium conditions with performance reference compounds (PRCs) and chemical-specific partition coefficients derived in the laboratory. Despite differences in PE and POM sampler concentrations, calculated total dissolved concentrations ranged from 14–93 ng/L and 13–465 pg/L for PAHs and PCBs, respectively. Dissolved concentrations of PAHs were approximately three times greater based on POM compared to PE while dissolved concentrations of PCBs based on PE were approximately three times greater than POM. Concentrations in SPME were not reported due to the lack of detectable chemical in the amount of PDMS polymer deployed. Continued research is needed to improve and support PE and POM use for the routine monitoring of COCs. For example, a better understanding of the use of PRCs with POM is critically needed. PMID:23832638

  14. A record of estuarine water contamination from the Cd content of foraminiferal tests in San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    VanGeen, A.; Luoma, S.N.

    1999-01-01

    A five-year dissolved Cd time series from San Francisco Bay and adjacent coastal water shows that the composition of surface water towards the mouth of the estuary is determined largely by the effect of coastal upwelling. Cd concentrations inside and outside the estuary (0.2-1.0 nmol/kg) increase as Cd-rich deep water is advected to the surface near the coast during spring and summer. On average, the mean Cd concentrations inside San Francisco Bay (0.54 nmol/kg) during 1991-1995 was significantly higher than outside (0.35 nmol/kg), however. Surface samples collected throughout San Francisco Bay confirm an internal Cd source unrelated to river discharge. The Cd content of the test of a benthic foraminifer (Elphidiella hannai) in a dated sediment core from San Francisco Bay was measured to determine if the water column Cd enrichments in San Francisco Bay could be related to the rapid development of the watershed. The method is based on the observation that the Cd/Ca ratio of carefully cleaned tests of foraminifera is, determined by the dissolved Cd content of overlying water at the time of test formation. Pre-industrial foraminiferal Cd/Ca ratios in the sediment core average 274 ?? 15 nmol/mol (n = 19) nmol/mol. Foraminiferal Cd/Ca ratios increased to 386 ?? 33 nmol/mol (n = 19) over the past several decades indicating a 40% increase in the mean Cd content of surface water in Central San Francisco Bay. We suggest that, in addition to Cd discharges into the estuary, indirect consequences of agricultural development in the Central Valley of California could have contributed to this increase. This new method to reconstruct estuarine contamination is not affected by some of the processes that complicate the interpretation of changes in bulk sediment metal concentrations.

  15. Dynamics of mesozooplankton assemblages in subtropical coastal waters of Hong Kong: A comparative study between a eutrophic estuarine and a mesotrophic coastal site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mianrun; Chen, Bingzhang; Harrison, Paul; Liu, Hongbin

    2011-07-01

    A monthly comparative study of mesozooplankton biomass and composition between a eutrophic Pearl River estuarine site (WE) and a mesotrophic coastal-oceanic site (EO) in Hong Kong waters was conducted to examine the response of mesozooplankton to nutrient-rich riverine discharge. Although the annual average mesozooplankton biomass was higher at WE than at EO, they were not statistically significant. Variations of mesozooplankton biomass at both stations followed similar trends of Chl a concentrations, with the exception of July at WE where mesozooplankton biomass was low but total Chl a was high. This mismatch may be due to the high flushing effect of the Pearl River discharge in summer and a time lag in mesozooplankton population growth. On the other hand, the composition of mesozooplankton was significantly modified by riverine discharge and eutrophication conditions. While small copepods dominated at both sites, the eutrophic estuarine water had a high abundance of barnacle and polychaete larvae, while cladocerans, bivalve larvae, gastropod larvae and chaetognaths mainly occurred at EO. Eutrophication increased the top-down role of copepods in the grazing community, revealed by an increase in the percentage of copepods in the total metazoan mesozooplankton, especially during the period of high river discharge. Moreover, mesozooplankton diversity at the two stations was similar, and they both showed relatively higher diversity during autumn and winter and lower diversity during summer, especially at WE. These results suggest that, despite high nutrient and Chl a concentrations in estuarine waters, mesozooplankton biomass were not enhanced compared to coastal waters with no river impact, possibly due to poor food quality and increased predation in the eutrophic estuarine waters.

  16. Seasonal dynamics of bacterial community structure and composition in cold and hot drinking water derived from surface water reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Henne, Karsten; Kahlisch, Leila; Höfle, Manfred G; Brettar, Ingrid

    2013-10-01

    In temperate regions, seasonal variability of environmental factors affects the bacterial community in source water and finished drinking water. Therefore, the bacterial core community and its seasonal variability in cold and the respective hot drinking water was investigated. The bacterial core community was studied by 16S rRNA-based SSCP fingerprint analyses and band sequencing of DNA and RNA extracts of cold and hot water (60 °C). The bacterial communities of cold and hot drinking water showed a highly different structure and phylogenetic composition both for RNA and DNA extracts. For cold drinking water substantial seasonal dynamics of the bacterial community was observed related to environmental factors such as temperature and precipitation affecting source and drinking water. Phylogenetic analyses of the cold water community indicated that the majority of phylotypes were very closely affiliated with those detected in former studies of the same drinking water supply system (DWSS) in the preceding 6 years, indicating a high stability over time. The hot water community was very stable over time and seasons and highly distinct from the cold water with respect to structure and composition. The hot water community displayed a lower diversity and its phylotypes were mostly affiliated with bacteria of high temperature habitats with high growth rates indicated by their high RNA content. The conversion of the cold to the hot water bacterial community is considered as occurring within a few hours by the following two processes, i) by decay of most of the cold water bacteria due to heating, and ii) rapid growth of the high temperature adapted bacteria present in the hot water (co-heated with the cold water in the same device) using the nutrients released from the decaying cold water bacteria. The high temperature adapted bacteria originated partially from low abundant but beforehand detected members of the cold water; additionally, the rare members ("seed bank ") of the

  17. Response of bacterial metabolic activity to riverine dissolved organic carbon and exogenous viruses in estuarine and coastal waters: implications for CO2 emission.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie; Sun, Mingming; Shi, Zhen; Harrison, Paul J; Liu, Hongbin

    2014-01-01

    A cross-transplant experiment between estuarine water and seawater was conducted to examine the response of bacterial metabolic activity to riverine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) input under virus-rich and virus-free conditions, as well as to exogenous viruses. Riverine DOC input increased bacterial production significantly, but not bacterial respiration (BR) because of its high lability. The bioavailable riverine DOC influenced bulk bacterial respiration in two contrasting ways; it enhanced the bulk BR by stimulating bacterial growth, but simultaneously reduced the cell-specific BR due to its high lability. As a result, there was little stimulation of the bulk BR by riverine DOC. This might be partly responsible for lower CO2 degassing fluxes in estuaries receiving high sewage-DOC that is highly labile. Viruses restricted microbial decomposition of riverine DOC dramatically by repressing the growth of metabolically active bacteria. Bacterial carbon demand in the presence of viruses only accounted for 7-12% of that in the absence of viruses. Consequently, a large fraction of riverine DOC was likely transported offshore to the shelf. In addition, marine bacteria and estuarine bacteria responded distinctly to exogenous viruses. Marine viruses were able to infect estuarine bacteria, but not as efficiently as estuarine viruses, while estuarine viruses infected marine bacteria as efficiently as marine viruses. We speculate that the rapid changes in the viral community due to freshwater input destroyed the existing bacteria-virus relationship, which would change the bacterial community composition and affect the bacterial metabolic activity and carbon cycling in this estuary.

  18. Influence of UV-B radiation on lead speciation in the presence of natural particles of estuarine waters.

    PubMed

    Kumar, M Praveen; Mota, A M; Gonçalves, M L S

    2016-09-01

    The influence of UV-B irradiation on filtered and non-filtered water samples collected in a non-polluted area of Tagus estuary was evaluated in this study. In the laboratory, both samples were titrated with lead (Pb(+2)) followed by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV), before and after 1 and 10 days under UV-B irradiation. Metal-ligand complexing parameters were obtained based on a macromolecular heterogeneous ligand described by two distinct sites with a labile behavior, and a third small homogeneous weaker group, which concentration was determined from a potentiometric titration. Under UV-B radiation, the complexing strength decreased with time in both (filtered and non-filtered) irradiated samples, but this effect was more pronounced in the non-filtered water, which might be due to some adsorption of dissolved macromolecular ligands on the particles and/or to further degradation of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Furthermore, the presence of particles favored the break-down of the macromolecular ligand under long UV-B exposure time. These results present ecological implications for the estuarine ecosystems such as bioavailability and toxicity. PMID:27230154

  19. Miniature flow injection analyser for laboratory, shipboard and in situ monitoring of nitrate in estuarine and coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Gardolinski, Paulo C F C; David, Anthony R J; Worsfold, Paul J

    2002-12-01

    A miniature, submersible flow injection analyser, with solid-state spectrophotometric detection, for the in situ determination of nitrate is described. It utilises the standard laboratory chemistry of cadmium reduction followed by diazotisation. The detection limit was 2.8 mug l(-1) N and the linear range could be varied from 2.8 to 100 mug l(-1) N up to 100-2000 mug l(-1) N to suit local environmental conditions. The versatility of the instrument is demonstrated by results from laboratory, shipboard (North Sea IMPACT Cruise) and in situ (Tamar Estuary, UK) deployments. They show the excellent temporal and spatial resolution that can be achieved for studying dynamic processes in estuarine and coastal waters. The results acquired during the IMPACT Cruise map the transport of nitrate from the Humber Estuary into the North Sea and show that nitrate uptake was more pronounced in areas of shallow and clear waters (Dogger Bank) than in the coastal mixing zone with higher suspended solids. A key feature of the analyser is its portability and ease of deployment due to the small size and weight and low buoyancy. Accuracy was assessed by participation in an international intercomparison exercise and the results were within the assigned tolerance interval of the consensus mean (Z<2). PMID:18968836

  20. Methane emission through ebullition from a non-vegetated estuarine mudflat: The mechanics of tide-driven water level changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, L. D.; Chen, X.; Schafer, K. V.

    2015-12-01

    Ebullition is an important pathway for methane (CH4) to the atmosphere in wetlands. Water level changes have been suggested to trigger ebullition, especially in tidally flooding areas. Bubble transport in submerged sediments results from a multi-phase, dynamic interaction between gaseous and solid phases under the modulation of a liquid phase. To improve understanding of how cyclic ebbing and flooding tides trigger ebullition events, a continuous dynamic dual-chamber system was designed and installed in a non-vegetated mudflat site of an estuarine temperate marsh. Episodic sharp increases in methane concentration signaling ebullition events were primarily observed during ebbing tides (15 events of total 19 events) and occasionally during flooding tides (four events). Laboratory chamber measurements on a mud monolith from the site confirmed that the flooding tide could trigger ebullition releases of gas bubbles. We developed a conceptual sediment fracturing model associated with bubble expansion to unify these observations, arguing that decreases in water level lower the effective stress surrounding isolated gas bubbles and enable trapped bubbles to move upwards via bubble expansion and fracturing of overlying sediments. Increases in relative permittivity measured on the monolith with ground penetrating radar suggest that more water may invade macropores during the initial stage of flooding; subsequent matrix expansion under lowered effective stress then leads to fracture propagation and bubble release. Melting of the surface frozen layer during the spring thaw resulted in increases of methane concentration, comparable in strength to the ebullition fluxes which were associated with large fluctuations in water level around spring tides. Our findings demonstrate the importance of water level changes in triggering ebullition from non-vegetated mudflat areas in tidal wetlands, modulated by the mechanical properties of shallow, soft sediments.

  1. Short-term methods for estimating the chronic toxicity of effluents and receiving water to marine and estuarine organisms. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Klemm, D.J.; Morrison, G.E.; Norberg-King, T.J.; Peltier, W.H.; Heber, M.A.

    1994-07-01

    This manual describes six short-term (one hour to nine days) estuarine and marine methods for measuring the chronic toxicity of effluents and receiving waters to five species; the sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus; the inland silverside, Menidia beryllina; the mysid, Mysidopsis bahia; the sea urchin, Arbacia punctualata; and the red macroalga, Champia parvula. The methods include single and multiple concentration static renewal and static nonrenewal toxicity tests for effluents and receiving waters. Also included are guidelines on laboratory safety, quality assurance, facilities, and equipment and supplies; dilution water; effluent and receiving water sample collection, preservation, shipping, and holding; test conditions; toxicity test data analysis; report preparation; and organism culturing, holding, and handling.

  2. Effective Climate Refugia for Cold-water Fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebersole, J. L.; Morelli, T. L.; Torgersen, C.; Isaak, D.; Keenan, D.; Labiosa, R.; Fullerton, A.; Massie, J.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change threatens to create fundamental shifts in in the distributions and abundances of endothermic organisms such as cold-water salmon and trout species (salmonids). Recently published projected declines in mid-latitude salmonid distributions under future climates range from modest to severe, depending on modeling approaches, assumptions, and spatial context of analyses. Given these projected losses, increased emphasis on management for ecosystem resilience to help buffer cold-water fish populations and their habitats against climate change is emerging. Using terms such as "climate-proofing", "climate-ready", and "climate refugia", such efforts stake a claim for an adaptive, anticipatory planning response to the climate change threat. To be effective, such approaches will need to address critical uncertainties in both the physical basis for projected landscape changes in water temperature and streamflow, as well as the biological responses of organisms. Recent efforts define future potential climate refugia based on projected streamflows, air temperatures, and associated water temperature changes. These efforts reflect the relatively strong conceptual foundation for linkages between regional climate change and local hydrological responses and thermal dynamics. Yet important questions remain. Drawing on case studies throughout the Pacific Northwest, we illustrate some key uncertainties in the responses of salmonids and their habitats to altered hydro-climatic regimes currently not well addressed by physical or ecological models. Key uncertainties include biotic interactions, organismal adaptive capacity, local climate decoupling due to groundwater-surface water interactions, the influence of human engineering responses, and synergies between climatic and other stressors. These uncertainties need not delay anticipatory planning, but rather highlight the need for identification and communication of actions with high probabilities of success, and targeted

  3. Use of estuarine water column tests for detecting toxic conditions in ambient areas of the Chesapeake Bay watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.W. Jr.; Ziegenfuss, M.C.; Anderson, R.D.; Killen, W.D. Jr. )

    1995-02-01

    Various estuarine water column toxicity tests were conducted twice in nine different ambient stations in the Chesapeake Bay watershed over a 2-year period (1991 to 1993) to determine if toxic conditions existed. The following 8-d toxicity tests were conducted: larval sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) survival and growth test; larval grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) survival and growth test; and a copepod (Eurytemora affinis) life-cycle test. During the second year of testing, two 48-h coot clam (Mulinia lateralis) tests were conducted at each station during each testing period. In 1991, the toxicity tests were conducted twice at stations in the Potomac River at Morgantown and Dahlgren, and in the Patapsco River and the Wye River at the Manor House. All of the above tests were conducted during the fall of 1992 and spring of 1993 at two stations in the Wye River, Nanticoke River, and Middle River. Inorganic contaminants, organic contaminants, and water-quality conditions were measured concurrently during the toxicity testing of ambient water. In 1991, reduced growth of sheepshead minnow larvae was reported at both Potomac River stations during the first test. Significant mortality of either the copepod or sheepshead minnow larvae was also reported at the Wye River during both tests. Results from the 1992/93 testing generally showed minimal effects for three of the test species at all stations. Reduced normal shell development was reported for the coot clam at both Middle River stations during the fall and spring tests concurrently with concentrations of various trace metals that exceeded chronic marine water-quality criteria.

  4. Influence of variable water depth and turbidity on microalgae production in a shallow estuarine lake system - A modelling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirok, Katrin; Scharler, Ursula M.

    2014-06-01

    Strongly varying water levels and turbidities are typical characteristics of the large shallow estuarine lake system of St. Lucia, one of the largest on the African continent. This theoretical study investigated the combined effects of variable water depth and turbidity on seasonal pelagic and benthic microalgae production using a mathematical model, in order to ascertain productivity levels during variable and extreme conditions. Simulated pelagic and benthic net production varied between 0.3 and 180 g C m-2 year-1 and 0 and 220 g C m-2 year-1, respectively, dependent on depth, turbidity, and variability in turbidity. Although not surprising production and biomass decreased with increasing turbidity and depth. A high variability in turbidity, i.e. an alteration of calm and windy days, could reduce or enhance the seasonal pelagic and benthic production by more than 30% compared to a low variability. The day-to-day variability in wind-induced turbidity therefore influences production in the long term. On the other hand, varying water depth within a year did not significantly influence the seasonal production for turbidities representative of Lake St. Lucia. Reduced lake area and volume as observed during dry periods in Lake St. Lucia did not reduce primary production of the entire system since desiccation resulted in lower water depth and thus increased light availability. This agrees with field observations suggesting little light limitation and high areal microalgal biomass during a period with below average rainfall (2005-2011). Thus, microalgae potentially fulfil their function in the lake food-web even under extreme drought conditions. We believe that these results are of general interest to shallow aquatic ecosystems that are sensitive to drought periods due to either human or natural causes.

  5. Cold-induced Spreading of Water Drops on Hydrophobic Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakoli, Faryar; Kavehpour, Pirouz

    2013-11-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces received tremendous attention in recent years mainly due to their self-cleaning properties. Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter models for relating stable equilibrium contact angle to physical parameters of liquid and solid ignore tangible factors such as temperature and humidity. Here, we show a peculiar behavior of equilibrium contact angle on cold hydrophobic surfaces. Water drops were cooled by a peltier element to temperatures below the melting point of water and, surprisingly, substantial change in static contact angle and base diameter were observed during the cooling process. Physical variables such as substrate temperature, humidity, drop volume, and even fabrication type of hydrophobic surfaces are found to be detrimental to post-spreading shape.

  6. Light absorption properties of CDOM in the Changjiang (Yangtze) estuarine and coastal waters: An alternative approach for DOC estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiaolong; Shen, Fang; Liu, Yangyang

    2016-11-01

    Field measurements of CDOM absorption properties and DOC concentrations were collected in the Changjiang estuarine and coastal waters from 2011 to 2013. CDOM absorption coefficient at 355 nm (ag (355)) was found to be inversely correlated with salinity, with Pearson's coefficients r of -0.901 and -0.826 for summer and winter observations, respectively. Analysis results of the relationships between salinity and CDOM optical properties (i.e., absorption coefficient and spectral slope) suggested that terrigenous inputs dominated CDOM sources in the Changjiang estuary, but the proportion of terrigenous CDOM declined with increasing salinity. The level of CDOM in the Changjiang estuary was lower compared to some of the major estuaries in the world, which could be attributed to several controlling factors such as vegetation cover in the drainage basin, the origin of recharged streams and high sediment load in the Changjiang estuary. We further evaluated the relationships between CDOM and DOC and their mixing behavior among world's major estuaries. An empirical model was finally developed to estimate DOC concentration from ag (355) and spectral slope S275-295 using a non-linear regression. This empirical relationship was calibrated using the Cal dataset, and was validated with the Val dataset, resulting in an acceptable error with the R2 of 0.746, the RMSE of 20.99 μmol/L and the rMAD of 14.46%.

  7. Ban on commercial fishing in the estuarine waters of New South Wales, Australia: Community consultation and social impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Momtaz, Salim Gladstone, William

    2008-02-15

    In its effort to resolve the conflict between commercial and recreational fishers the New South Wales (NSW) government (NSW Fisheries) banned commercial fishing in the estuarine waters. The NSW Fisheries conducted a number of studies and held meetings with the affected communities including commercial fishers prior to the implementation of the ban. To investigate how community consultation played a role in the decision-making process especially as perceived by the commercial fishers and to determine actual social impacts of the ban on commercial fishers, in-depth interviews were conducted with the commercial fishers. This research reveals that despite the NSW Fisheries' consultations with commercial fishers prior to the closure, the latter were confused about various vital aspects of the decision. It further reveals that, the commercial fishers faced a number of significant changes as a result of this decision. We argue that a better decision-making process and outcome would have been possible through a meaningful consultation with the commercial fishers and a social impact assessment.

  8. Analysis of antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from the surface microlayer and underlying water of an estuarine environment.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Juliana S N; Araújo, Susana; Oliveira, Cláudia S; Correia, António; Henriques, Isabel

    2013-02-01

    We compared the prevalence of cultivable antibiotic-resistant bacteria and resistance genes in the surface microlayer (SML) and underlying waters (UW) of an estuary. Prevalence of resistant bacteria was determined in antibiotic-supplemented agar. Bacterial isolates from the UW (n=91) and SML (n=80), selected in media without antibiotic, were characterized concerning susceptibility against nine antibiotics. The presence of genes bla(TEM), bla(OXA-B), bla(SHV), bla(IMP), tet(A), tet(B), tet(E), tet(M), cat, sul1, sul2, sul3, aadA, IntI1, IntI2, and IntI3 was assessed by PCR. The variable regions of integrons were sequenced. Ampicillin- and streptomycin-resistant bacteria were significantly more prevalent in SML. Resistance levels among the bacterial collections were generally low, preventing detection of significant differences between SML and UW. The tet(E) gene was detected in two Aeromonas isolates and tet(M) was detected in a Pseudomonas isolate. Gene sul1 was amplified from three Aeromonas isolates. Prevalence of intI genes was 2.11%. Cassette arrays contained genes encoding resistance to aminoglycosides and chloramphenicol. A higher prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the SML, although only detectable when bacteria were selected in antibiotic-supplemented agar, suggests that SML conditions select for antibiotic resistance. Results also showed that antibiotic resistance was uncommon among estuarine bacteria and the resistance mechanisms are probably predominantly intrinsic.

  9. A new water level gauge for cold region application

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, H.H.; Moss, M.K.; Dixon, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    The traditional gas purging (bubbler) water level gauge has been widely sued because of its simplicity, ruggedness and ability to operate in areas of ice cover. However, its mechanically-based sensing and recording system and the need for density information to compute water level have caused inconveniences in field operations. This paper describes a new design that records and telemeters digital data and allows computation of water density directly from the pressure measurements. Major measurement error sources are also identified and quantified. The performance in water level measurement is comparable to the National Ocean Service`s standard air acoustic tide gauge. Deriving density from pressure measurements obviates the need for use of a separate conductivity/temperature/depth instrument, which can be prone to fouling. The uncertainty in density determination is less than 0.0005 g/cc in laboratory tests; in the field, it varies from 0.0015 g/cc under low wave conditions to 0.003 g/cc for high wave conditions. The instrument has been successfully deployed at several cold region sites including the Arctic and Antarctic regions.

  10. A Method to Identify Estuarine Water Quality Exceedances Associated with Ocean Conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wind driven coastal upwelling along the Pacific Northwest Coast of the US results in oceanic water that may be periodically entrained into adjacent estuaries and which possess high nutrients and low dissolved oxygen (DO). Measurement of water quality indicators during these upwe...

  11. Spatial Distribution of Triclosan in Sediments and Water of an Urbanized Estuarine Embayment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triclosan (TCS) is a broad spectrum anti-microbial compound found in many consumer and personal care products. TCS enters water bodies primarily through wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent and may also be introduced by combined sewer overflows or surface water runoff. TC...

  12. Assessment of estuarine water-quality indicators using MODIS medium-resolution bands: initial results from Tampa Bay, FL

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hu, Chuanmin; Chen, Zhiqiang; Clayton, Tonya D.; ,; Brock, John C.; Muller-Karger, Frank E.

    2004-01-01

    Using Tampa Bay, FL as an example, we explored the potential for using MODIS medium-resolution bands (250- and 500-m data at 469-, 555-, and 645-nm) for estuarine monitoring. Field surveys during 21–22 October 2003 showed that Tampa Bay has Case-II waters, in that for the salinity range of 24–32 psu, (a) chlorophyll concentration (11 to 23 mg m−3), (b) colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption coefficient at 400 nm (0.9 to 2.5 m−1), and (c) total suspended sediment concentration (TSS: 2 to 11 mg L−1) often do not co-vary. CDOM is the only constituent that showed a linear, inverse relationship with surface salinity, although the slope of the relationship changed with location within the bay. The MODIS medium-resolution bands, although designed for land use, are 4–5 times more sensitive than Landsat-7/ETM+ data and are comparable to or higher than those of CZCS. Several approaches were used to derive synoptic maps of water constituents from concurrent MODIS medium-resolution data. We found that application of various atmospheric-correction algorithms yielded no significant differences, due primarily to uncertainties in the sensor radiometric calibration and other sensor artifacts. However, where each scene could be groundtruthed, simple regressions between in situ observations of constituents and at-sensor radiances provided reasonable synoptic maps. We address the need for improvements of sensor calibration/characterization, atmospheric correction, and bio-optical algorithms to make operational and quantitative use of these medium-resolution bands.

  13. Changes in Menidia beryllina Gene Expression and In Vitro Hormone-Receptor Activation After Exposure to Estuarine Waters Near Treated Wastewater Outfalls.

    PubMed

    Cole, Bryan J; Brander, Susanne M; Jeffries, Ken M; Hasenbein, Simone; He, Guochun; Denison, Michael S; Fangue, Nann A; Connon, Richard E

    2016-08-01

    Fishes in estuarine waters are frequently exposed to treated wastewater effluent, among numerous other sources of contaminants, yet the impacts of these anthropogenic chemicals are not well understood in these dynamic and important waterways. Inland silversides (Menidia beryllina) at an early stage of development [12 days posthatch (dph)] were exposed to waters from two estuarine wastewater-treatment outfall locations in a tidal estuary, the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta (California, USA) that had varied hydrology and input volumes. The genomic response caused by endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) in these waters was determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction on a suite of hormonally regulated genes. Relative androgenic and estrogenic activities of the waters were measured using CALUX reporter bioassays. The presence of bifenthrin, a pyrethroid pesticide and known EDC, as well as caffeine and the anti-inflammatory pharmaceutical ibuprofen, which were used as markers of wastewater effluent input, were determined using instrumental analysis. Detectable levels of bifenthrin (2.89 ng L(-1)) were found on one of the sampling dates, and caffeine was found on all sampling dates, in water from the Boynton Slough. Neither compound was detected at the Carquinez Strait site, which has a much smaller effluent discharge input volume relative to the receiving water body size compared with Boynton Slough. Water samples from both sites incubated in the CALUX cell line induced estrogenic and androgenic activity in almost all instances, though the estrogenicity was relatively higher than the androgenicity. Changes in the abundance of mRNA transcripts of endocrine-responsive genes and indicators of general chemical stress were observed after a 96-h exposure to waters from both locations. The relative levels of endocrine response, changes in gene transcript abundance, and contaminant concentrations were greater in water from the Boynton Slough site despite those

  14. Total body water and water turnover rates in the estuarine diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin) during the transition from dormancy to activity.

    PubMed

    Harden, Leigh Anne; Duernberger, Kimberly Anne; Jones, T Todd; Williard, Amanda Southwood

    2014-12-15

    Water and salt concentrations in an animal's body fluids can fluctuate with changing environmental conditions, posing osmoregulatory challenges that require behavioral and physiological adjustments. The purpose of this study was to investigate body water dynamics in the estuarine diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin), a species that undergoes seasonal dormancy in salt marsh habitats. We conducted a field study to determine the total body water (%TBW), water turnover rate (WTR) and daily water flux (DWF) of female terrapins in south eastern North Carolina pre- and post-emergence from winter dormancy. Terrapins were injected with [(2)H]deuterium on two occasions and washout of the isotope was monitored by taking successive blood samples during the period of transition from dormancy to activity. The WTR and DWF of dormant terrapins were significantly lower than those of active terrapins (WTR(dormant)=49.70±15.94 ml day(-1), WTR(active)=100.20±20.36 ml day(-1), DWF(dormant)=10.52±2.92%TBW day(-1), DWF(active)=21.84±7.30%TBW day(-1)). There was no significant difference in %TBW between dormant and active terrapins (75.05±6.19% and 74.54±4.36%, respectively). The results from this field study provide insight into the terrapin's ability to maintain osmotic homeostasis while experiencing shifts in behavioral and environmental conditions. PMID:25394625

  15. NUTRIENT CRITERIA TECHNICAL GUIDANCE MANUAL - ESTUARINE AND COASTAL MARINE WATERS, OCTOBER 2001

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nutrient overenrichment is a major cause of water pollution in the United States. The purpose of this manual is to provide scientifically defensible technical guidance to assist States, authorized Tribes, and other governmental entities in developing numeric nutrient criteria fo...

  16. Anthropogenic impacts on the water and salt budgets of St Lucia estuarine lake in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrie, Robynne A.; Stretch, Derek D.

    2011-05-01

    Lake St Lucia in South Africa is part of a UNESCO World Heritage site and a Ramsar wetland of international importance. Like many coastal wetlands worldwide, anthropogenic activities including catchment land-use changes, water diversions/abstractions, and manipulation of the mouth state have significantly affected its functioning over the past century. Questions concerning its sustainability have motivated a re-evaluation of management decisions made in the past and of options for the future. A model for the water and salt budgets has therefore been used to investigate "what if" scenarios in terms of past anthropogenic interventions. In particular, simulations allow us to evaluate the effects of diverting the Mfolozi river from St Lucia on the functioning of the system and on the occurrence of various water level/salinity states that drive the biological functioning of the ecosystem. In the past, when the St Lucia estuary and the Mfolozi river had a combined inlet, the mouth was predominantly open. The lake had relatively stable water levels but variable salinities that increased during dry conditions due to evaporative losses and saltwater inflows from the sea. If the mouth closed, the Mfolozi flow was diverted into the lake which reduced salinities and maintained or increased water levels. Simulations indicate that without a link to the Mfolozi the lake system would naturally have a mainly closed inlet with lower average salinities but more variable water levels. During dry conditions water levels would reduce and result in desiccation of large areas of the lake as has recently occurred. We conclude that the artificial separation of the St Lucia and Mfolozi inlets underpins the most significant impacts on the water & salt budget of the lake and that its reversal is key to the sustainability of the system.

  17. Columnaris as a disease of cold-water fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1945-01-01

    A natural outbreak of columnaris disease among wild adult and hatchery-reared fingerling salmon in the State of Washington is described. The disease is identified by the recovery of the causative organism, Bacillus columnaris Davis, which may be readily identified by its characteristic action in forming columns on the surfaces of infected material held in a water mount on a microscope slide. The gross lesions vary in appearance according to the particular organ affected but are formed, essentially, by the progressive necrosis and disintegration of the tissues. The tissues primarily affected are skin, body musculature, and the gills. Cultivation of the causative organism in tryptone solutions is recorded. Controlled, laboratory-induced infections indicate that among the cold-water fishes, columnaris disease is of little consequence to fingerlings at water temperatures below 55° F., but becomes highly pathogenic at temperatures in excess of 70° F. Between these temperature thresholds, the degree and severity of the infection is markedly influenced by factors adverse to the host. No effective control measures have been found.

  18. Applications of MODIS Fluorescence Line Height Measurements to Monitor Water Quality Trends and Algal Bloom Activity in Coastal and Estuarine Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, A.; Ryan, J. P.; Moreno-Madriñán, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    Recent advances in satellite and airborne remote sensing, such as improvements in sensor and algorithm calibrations and atmospheric correction procedures have provided for increased coverage of remote-sensing, ocean color products for coastal regions. In particular, for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), calibration updates, improved aerosol retrievals, and new aerosol models have led to improved atmospheric correction algorithms for turbid waters and have improved the retrieval of ocean-color. This has opened the way for studying coastal ocean phenomena and processes at finer spatial scales. Human population growth and changes in coastal management practices have brought about significant changes in the concentrations of organic and inorganic, particulate and dissolved substances entering the coastal ocean. There is increasing concern that these inputs have led to declines in water quality and increases in local concentrations of phytoplankton, which could result in harmful algal blooms. In two case studies we present improved and validated MODIS coastal observations of fluorescence line height (FLH) to: (1) assess trends in water quality for Tampa Bay, Florida; and (2) illustrate seasonal and annual variability of algal bloom activity in Monterey Bay, California, as well as document estuarine/riverine plume induced red tide events. In a comprehensive analysis of long term (2003-2011) in situ monitoring data and imagery from Tampa Bay, we assess the validity of the MODIS FLH product against chlorophyll-a and a suite of water quality parameters taken in a variety of conditions throughout this large, optically complex estuarine system. A systematic analysis of sampling sites throughout the bay illustrates that the correlations between FLH and in situ chlorophyll-a are influenced by water quality parameters of total nitrogen, total phosphorous, turbidity and biological oxygen demand. Sites that correlated well with satellite imagery were in depths

  19. Oxygen-deficient waters along the Japanese coast and their effects upon the estuarine ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, T

    2001-01-01

    Development of hypoxia in Japan has been confirmed in the inner part of almost every major bay of Japan on the Pacific Coast from Tokyo southward. This paper presents multiple aspects (present condition, hydraulic mechanism, effect upon fisheries, historical progress and nutrient budget between sediment and water) using Mikawa Bay, where Japan's most serious hypoxia occurs, as an example. Although hypoxia basically results from the increase of nutrient load input from domestic and livestock sources, the intense reclamation of shallows (including tidal flats) and the large reduction in river flow due to farmland irrigation drastically accelerated dissolved oxygen deficiency. Oxygen-deficient waters in Mikawa Bay are large enough to strip the water purification capacity of the remaining shallows. Unfortunately, the shallows have turned from a purifier to a source of nutrient load. These conditions are more or less common in all bays where the dissolved oxygen-deficient waters have been reported. To break this cycle, dissolved oxygen deficiency must be contained to the extent that the purification capacity of the shallows can be restored to an efficient level. For this purpose, the first thing to do is to restore tidal flats over an extensive area and to recover sufficient water flow, which may be a more urgent imperative than reducing the nutrient load input. PMID:11285889

  20. Needs Assessment for the Use of NASA Remote Sensing Data in the Development and Implementation of Estuarine and Coastal Water Quality Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiering, Bruce; Underwood, Lauren; Ellis, Chris; Lehrter, John; Hagy, Jim; Schaeffer, Blake

    2010-01-01

    The goals of the project are to provide information from satellite remote sensing to support numeric nutrient criteria development and to determine data processing methods and data quality requirements to support nutrient criteria development and implementation. The approach is to identify water quality indicators that are used by decision makers to assess water quality and that are related to optical properties of the water; to develop remotely sensed data products based on algorithms relating remote sensing imagery to field-based observations of indicator values; to develop methods to assess estuarine water quality, including trends, spatial and temporal variability, and seasonality; and to develop tools to assist in the development and implementation of estuarine and coastal nutrient criteria. Additional slides present process, criteria development, typical data sources and analyses for criteria process, the power of remote sensing data for the process, examples from Pensacola Bay, spatial and temporal variability, pixel matchups, remote sensing validation, remote sensing in coastal waters, requirements for remotely sensed data products, and needs assessment. An additional presentation examines group engagement and information collection. Topics include needs assessment purpose and objectives, understanding water quality decision making, determining information requirements, and next steps.

  1. Hot and cold water as a supercritical solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuentevilla, Daphne Anne

    This dissertation addresses the anomalous properties of water at high temperatures near the vapor-liquid critical point and at low temperatures in the supercooled liquid region. The first part of the dissertation is concerned with the concentration dependence of the critical temperature, density, and pressure of an aqueous sodium chloride solution. Because of the practical importance of an accurate knowledge of critical parameters for industrial, geochemical, and biological applications, an empirical equation for the critical locus of aqueous sodium chloride solutions was adopted in 1999 by the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS) as a guideline. However, since this original Guideline on the Critical Locus of Aqueous Solutions of Sodium Chloride was developed, two new theoretical developments occurred, motivating the first part of this dissertation. Here, I present a theory-based formulation for the critical parameters of aqueous sodium chloride solutions as a proposed replacement for the empirical formulation currently in use. This formulation has been published in the International Journal of Thermophysics and recommended by the Executive Committee of IAPWS for adoption as a Revised Guideline on the Critical Locus of Aqueous Solutions of Sodium Chloride. The second part of the dissertation addresses a new concept, considering cold water as a supercritical solvent. Based on the idea of a second, liquid-liquid, critical point in supercooled water, we explore the possibility of supercooled water as a novel supercooled solvent through the thermodynamics of critical phenomena. In 2006, I published a Physical Review letter presenting a parametric scaled equation of state for supercooled-water. Further developments based on this work led to a phenomenological mean-field "two-state" model, clarifying the nature of the phase separation in a polyamorphic single-component liquid. In this dissertation, I modify this two-state model to

  2. Estuarine, Inland and Coastal Water Quality Monitoring Using Earth Observation Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Delu

    2013-01-01

    The quality of water is one of the top issues worldwide. The objective of this project (ID. 5351) is to adapt or develop available algorithms to the high turbid water (extremely high concentration of suspended particulate matter and plankton blooms), and to monitor the suspended matter and associated turbidity/light attenuation and plankton blooms in particular of cyanobacteria and red tides in coastal and lake waters. In this final report, we give the executive status and the achievements of our project. First, we introduce the project objectives, research methods, partners and roles in brief. Second, we give the in-situ data measurements during the period of our project. Third, we present the details of the achievements and final results of our project. Finally, the recommendations and the publications are present in the last sections.

  3. FerryMon: Using ferries as hydrochemical observatories in estuarine and coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paerl, H.; Guajardo, R.; Peierls, B.; Rossignol, K.; Braddy, J.

    2007-12-01

    Estuaries are among the most productive and resourceful aquatic ecosystems on Earth. They are strongly influenced by hydrochemical stressors, including nutrient enrichment and climatic factors such as droughts, storms and floods. Clarifying how estuaries respond to these stresses will provide an understanding of how hydrologic and chemical processes control ecological condition and change of these ecosystems. This understanding will greatly benefit from a spatially and temporally-intensive observational program, which, when coupled to modeling will help predict future responses to external anthropogenic (nutrient) and climatic (hydrologic) perturbations. North Carolina's Pamlico Sound System (PSS) is the Nation's second largest estuary. It exemplifies the impacts of human development (eutrophication) and large climatic perturbations (hurricanes). We are using 3 NC DOT ferries to conduct unattended hydrochemical monitoring of water quality, habitat and ecological condition of the PSS. This program, FerryMon (www.ferrymon.org), uses temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, and chlorophyll a sensors coupled to discrete sampling of nutrients, organics, photopigment and molecular indicators to assess water quality in a near real-time manner over a range of relevant physical, chemical and biological time scales. An autonomous vertical profiler (AVP), equipped with sensors similar to those on the ferries, provides complementary vertical profile data. This capability is timely given unprecedented human development and a period of elevated tropical storm and hurricane activity affecting coastal water quality and habitat conditions and fisheries resources. FerryMon is used to calibrate remotely sensed indicators of water quality (photopigments, turbidity), facilitating scaling up to the ecosystem level. It is integrated with complementary observational programs (LTERs, NEON, ORION, WATERS, SEACOOS), and it supports interdisciplinary research aimed at

  4. Economics of improved estuarine water quality: an NEP manual for measuring benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Caulkins, P.; Armitage, T.; Pryor, M.; Bigelow, T.

    1990-09-01

    Section 320 of the Clean Water Act provides for the development of Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plans (CCMPs) for estuaries of National significance. To ensure the greatest return on resources spent, it is often necessary to document the economic benefits associated with alternative management strategies. The purpose of the manual is to assist estuary program managers and staff in identifying, estimating, and evaluating the economic benefits of water quality improvements created by various pollution abatement options. Estimating economic benefits helps to determine that a project's benefits are reasonably commensurate with the project's costs.

  5. Stable isotopes and mercury in a model estuarine fish: multibasin comparisons with water quality, community structure, and available prey base.

    PubMed

    Adams, Douglas H; Paperno, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Stable-isotope ratios (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) and mercury in a model predator, and associated prey community assessments were used to make inferences regarding food web relationships and how these relationships are influenced by habitat variability and anthropogenic factors. Although interconnected, the three major basins of the Indian River Lagoon system on the Atlantic coast of Florida comprise noticeably different available habitat types with spatially distinct faunal communities and available prey for spotted seatrout, Cynoscion nebulosus, a model predatory fish species. Water quality, degree of urbanization, human population density, and levels of nitrogen enrichment clearly differ between these representative estuarine basins. The differences can influence feeding ecology and therefore result in different mercury concentrations and different stable-isotope signatures of spotted seatrout between basins. Mercury concentrations in spotted seatrout were greatest in Mosquito Lagoon (ML) and least in the Indian River Lagoon proper (IRL), although concentrations were low for all basins. Spotted seatrout from IRL were carbon-depleted and nitrogen-enriched compared with those from the other basins; this suggests either that the fish's primary source of carbon in IRL is an algae- or phytoplankton-based food web or that the pathway through the food web is shorter there. The δ(15)N values of IRL spotted seatrout were greater than those in the Banana River Lagoon or ML, suggesting slightly different trophic positioning of fish in these basins. The greater δ(15)N values in IRL spotted seatrout may also reflect the greater human population density and resultant anthropogenic inputs (e.g., observed higher total nitrogen levels) in IRL compared with the other more pristine basins examined. Understanding species' responses to broad-scale habitat heterogeneity in estuaries and knowing basin-specific differences in stable isotopes, mercury, prey communities, and comprehensive

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF NITROGEN LOADING-RESPONSE RELATIONSHIPS FOR ESTUARINE WATERS USING AN EMPIRICAL COMPARATIVE SYSTEMS APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is growing evidence that human activities have dramatically changed the amounts, distribution, and movement of major nutrient elements (nitrogen-N and phosphorus-P) in the landscape and have increased nutrient loading to receiving waters. Some of these changes affect use o...

  7. Toward N Criteria in Coastal Waters: Normalizing N Loading for Estuarine Volume and Local Residence Time

    EPA Science Inventory

    One approach to developing criteria for nitrogen (N) in coastal waters has been to determine quantitative relationships between N loading and ecological effects (e.g., hypoxia) in coastal estuaries. Although this approach has met with some success, data obtained from field sites ...

  8. Preliminary Evidence for the Amplification of Global Warming in Shallow, Intertidal Estuarine Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past 50 years, mean annual water temperature in northeastern U.S. estuaries has increased by approximately 1.2°C, with most of the warming recorded in the winter and early spring. We hypothesize that this warming may be amplified in the shallow (<2m), nearshore portions ...

  9. A quality assurance program for determination of herbicides in estuarine waters.

    PubMed

    Gaskill, A; Jayanty, R K

    1981-01-01

    A quality assurance program was developed for two grantee laboratories studying the herbicides atrazine and linuron in Chesapeake Bay water. Proposed methodologies were evaluated by performance and system audits. The objectives of the quality assurance program and the results of the audit program are discussed.

  10. Guiding BMP adoption to improve water quality in various estuarine ecosystems in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Keipert, N; Weaver, D; Summers, R; Clarke, M; Neville, S

    2008-01-01

    The Australian Government's Coastal Catchment Initiative (CCI) seeks to achieve targeted reductions in nutrient pollution to key coastal water quality hotspots, reducing algal blooms and fish kills. Under the CCI a Water Quality Improvement Plan (WQIP) is being prepared for targeted estuaries (Swan-Canning, near Perth, and the Vasse-Geographe, 140 km south of Perth) to address nutrient pollution issues. A range of projects are developing, testing and implementing agricultural Best Management Practices (BMPs) to reduce excessive loads of nutrients reaching the receiving waters. This work builds on progress-to-date achieved in a similar project in the Peel-Harvey Catchment (70 km south of Perth). It deals with the necessary steps of identifying the applicability of BMPs for nutrient attenuation, developing and promoting BMPs in the context of nutrient use and attenuation on farm and through catchments and estimating the degree to which BMP implementation can protect receiving waters. With a range of BMPs available with varying costs and effectiveness, a Decision Support System (DSS) to guide development of the WQIP and implementation of BMPs to protect receiving waters, is under development. As new information becomes available the DSS will be updated to ensure relevance and accuracy for decision-making and planning purposes. The DSS, calibrated for application in the catchments, will play a critical role in adaptive implementation of the WQIP by assessing the effect of land use change and management interventions on pollutant load generation and by providing a tool to guide priority setting and investment planning to achieve agreed WQIP load targets. PMID:18547926

  11. Examination of adipocere formation in a cold water environment.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Shari L; Wilson, Matthew E A; Stuart, Barbara H

    2011-09-01

    Adipocere is a late-stage postmortem decomposition product that forms from the lipids present in soft tissue. Its formation in aquatic environments is typically related to the presence of a moist, warm, anaerobic environment, and the effect of decomposer microorganisms. The ideal temperature range for adipocere formation is considered to be 21-45°C and is correlated to the optimal conditions for bacterial growth and enzymatic release. However, adipocere formation has been reported in cooler aquatic environments at considerable depths. This study aimed to investigate the chemical process of adipocere formation in a cold freshwater environment in Lake Ontario, Canada. Porcine tissue was used as a human tissue analogue and submerged at two depths (i.e., 10 and 30 feet) in the trophogenic zone of the lake. Samples were collected at monthly postmortem submersion intervals and analysed using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy to provide a qualitative profile of the lipid degradation and adipocere formation process. Early stage adipocere formation occurred rapidly in the cold water environment and proceeded to intermediate stage adipocere formation by the second month of submersion. However, further adipocere formation was inhibited in the third month of the study when temperatures approached the freezing point. The depth of submergence did not influence the chemical conversion process as similar stages of adipocere formation occurred at both depths investigated. The study demonstrated that adipocere can form rapidly, even on small amounts of soft tissue, which may be representative of dismembered or disarticulated limbs discovered in an aquatic environment. PMID:20437052

  12. Effects of waves on water dispersion in a semi-enclosed estuarine bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delpey, M. T.; Ardhuin, F.; Otheguy, P.

    2012-04-01

    The bay of Saint Jean de Luz - Ciboure is a touristic destination located in the south west of France on the Basque coast. This small bay is 1.5km wide for 1km long. It is semi-enclosed by breakwaters, so that the area is mostly protected from waves except in its eastern part, where wave breaking is regularly observed over a shallow rock shelf. In the rest of the area the currents are generally weak. The bay receives fresh water inflows from two rivers. During intense raining events, the rivers can introduce pollutants in the bay. The input of pollutants combined with the low level dynamic of the area can affect the water quality for several days. To study such a phenomenon, mechanisms of water dispersion in the bay are investigated. The present paper focuses on the effects of waves on bay dynamics. Several field experiments were conducted in the area, combining wave and current measurements from a set of ADCP and ADV, lagrangian difter experiments in the surfzone, salinity and temperature profile measurements. An analysis of this set of various data is provided. It reveals that the bay combines remarkable density stratification due to fresh water inflows and occasionally intense wave-induced currents in the surfzone. These currents have a strong influence on river plume dynamics when the sea state is energetic. Moreover, modifications of hydrodynamics in the bay passes are found to be remarkably correlated with sea state evolutions. This result suggests a significant impact of waves on the bay flushing. To further analyse these phenomena, a three dimensional numerical model of bay hydrodynamics is developed. The model aims at reproducing fresh water inflows combined with wind-, tide- and wave-induced currents and mixing. The model of the bay is implemented using the code MOHID , which has been modified to allow the three dimensional representation of wave-current interactions proposed by Ardhuin et al. [2008b] . The circulation is forced by the wave field modelled

  13. OTEC Advanced Composite Cold Water Pipe: Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Alan Miller; Matthew Ascari

    2011-09-12

    Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion can exploit natural temperature gradients in the oceans to generate usable forms of energy (for example, cost-competitive baseload electricity in tropical regions such as Hawaii) free from fossil fuel consumption and global warming emissions.The No.1 acknowledged challenge of constructing an OTEC plant is the Cold Water Pipe (CWP), which draws cold water from 1000m depths up to the surface, to serve as the coolant for the OTEC Rankine cycle. For a commercial-scale plant, the CWP is on the order of 10m in diameter.This report describes work done by LMSSC developing the CWP for LM MS2 New Ventures emerging OTEC business. The work started in early 2008 deciding on the minimum-cost CWP architecture, materials, and fabrication process. In order to eliminate what in previous OTEC work had been a very large assembly/deployment risk, we took the innovative approach of building an integral CWP directly from theOTEC platform and down into the water. During the latter half of 2008, we proceeded to a successful small-scale Proof-of-Principles validation of the new fabrication process, at the Engineering Development Lab in Sunnyvale. During 2009-10, under the Cooperative Agreement with the US Dept. of Energy, we have now successfully validated key elements of the process and apparatus at a 4m diameter scale suitable for a future OTEC Pilot Plant. The validations include: (1) Assembly of sandwich core rings from pre-pultruded hollow 'planks,' holding final dimensions accurately; (2) Machine-based dispensing of overlapping strips of thick fiberglass fabric to form the lengthwise-continuous face sheets, holding accurate overlap dimensions; (3) Initial testing of the fabric architecture, showing that the overlap splices develop adequate mechanical strength (work done under a parallel US Naval Facilities Command program); and (4) Successful resin infusion/cure of 4m diameter workpieces, obtaining full wet-out and a non-discernable knitline between

  14. Cold Vacuum Drying facility potable water system design description (SYS 26)

    SciTech Connect

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-07-02

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) potable water (PW) system. The PW system provides potable water to the CVDF for supply to sinks, water closets, urinals, showers, custodial service sinks, drinking fountains, the decontamination shower, supply water to the non-PW systems, and makeup water for the de-ionized water system.

  15. Predicting the occurrence of cold water patches at intermittent and ephemeral tributary confluences with warm rivers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Small, cold tributary streams can provide important thermal refuge habitat for cold-water fishes such as Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) residing in warm, downstream receiving waters. We investigated the potential function of small perennial and non-perennial tributary stream...

  16. Performance of Passive Samplers for Monitoring Estuarine Water Column Concentrations: 2. Emerging Contaminants

    PubMed Central

    Perron, Monique M.; Burgess, Robert M.; Suuberg, Eric M.; Cantwell, Mark G.; Pennell, Kelly G.

    2014-01-01

    Measuring dissolved concentrations of emerging contaminants, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and triclosan, can be challenging due to their physicochemical properties resulting in low aqueous solubilities and association with particles. Passive sampling methods have been applied to assess dissolved concentrations in water and sediments primarily for legacy contaminants. Although the technology is applicable to some emerging contaminants, the use of passive samplers with emerging contaminants is limited. In the present study, the performance of three common passive samplers was evaluated for sampling PBDEs and triclosan. Passive sampling polymers included low density polyethylene (PE) and polyoxymethylene (POM) sheets, and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coated solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers. Dissolved concentrations were calculated using measured sampler concentrations and laboratory derived partition coefficients. Dissolved tri-, tetra-, and pentabrominated PBDE congeners were detected at several of the study sites at very low pg/L concentrations using PE and POM. Calculated dissolved water concentrations of triclosan ranged from 1.7 to 18 ng/L for POM and 8.8 to 13 ng/L for PE using performance reference compound (PRC) equilibrium adjustments. Concentrations in SPME were not reported due to lack of detectable chemical in the PDMS polymer deployed. Although both PE and POM were found to effectively accumulate emerging contaminants from the water column, further research is needed to determine their utility as passive sampling devices for emerging contaminants. PMID:23595851

  17. ESTUARINE HABITAT RESTORATION

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, Ronald M.; Borde, Amy B.

    2015-09-01

    Restoring estuarine habitats generally means repairing damages caused by humans and natural forces. Because of the extensive human occupation, development, and use of coastal areas for centuries, the extensive estuarine habitats have been either destroyed or significantly impaired.

  18. Transfer of chemical elements from a contaminated estuarine sediment to river water. A leaching assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, Manuela; Peres, Sara; Magalhães, M. Clara F.

    2014-05-01

    Wastes of a former Portuguese steel industry were deposited during 40 years on the left bank of the Coina River, which flows into the estuary of the Tagus River near Lisbon. The aim of this study was to evaluate the release of the chemical elements from the contaminated sediment to the river water. A leaching experiment (four replicates) was performed using 1.6 kg/replicate of sediment from a landfill located in the Coina River bank, forming a lagoon subject to tidal influence. River water coming from this lagoon was collected during low tide. This water (200 mL) was added to the moist sediment, contained in cylindrical reactors, and was collected after 24 h of percolation. The leaching experiments were conducted for 77 days being leachates collected at time zero, after 28, 49 and 77 days with the sediment always moist. The sediment was characterized for: pH, electric conductivity (EC), total organic carbon (TOC), extractable phosphorus and potassium, mineral nitrogen, iron from iron oxides (crystalline and non-crystalline) and manganese oxides. Multi-elemental analysis was also made by ICP-INAA. Leachates and river water were analysed for pH, EC, hydrogencarbonate and sulfatetot by titrations, chloride by potentiometry, and multi-elemental composition by ICP-MS. The sediment presented pH=7.2, EC=18.5 dS/m, TOC=147.8 g/kg, high concentrations of extractable phosphorous (62.8 mg/kg) and potassium (1236.8 mg/kg), mineral nitrogen=11.3 mg/kg. The non-crystalline fraction of iron oxides corresponds to 99% (167.5 g Fe/kg) of the total iron oxides, and manganese from manganese oxides was low (52.7 mg/kg). Sediment is considered contaminated. It contained high concentrations (g/kg) of Zn (2.9), Pb (0.9), Cr (0.59), Cu (0.16), As (0.07), Cd (0.005), and Hg (0.001), which are above Canadian values for marine sediments quality guidelines for protection of aquatic life. River water had: pH=8.2, EC=28.6 dS/m, csulfate=1.23 g/L, and [Cl-]=251.6 mg/L. The concentrations of Cd (0

  19. Cold-water immersion in a 22-year-old service member.

    PubMed

    Harman, Kenneth R; Herndon, Thomas M

    2006-05-01

    Cold-water immersion can include aspects of both hypothermia and near drowning. We present a case of a 22-year-old active duty service member who became a victim of cold-water immersion in Alaska. His rescue by the U.S. Coast Guard and subsequent treatment in a small community emergency room are reviewed using a case management format. Care of the cold-water immersion patient with limited resources is highlighted and the potential complications of cold-water immersion are emphasized. Disturbances in acid base balance, pulmonary function, and cardiac rhythm are discussed. Changes in some of the hematological indices seen in the cold-water immersion patient are reported for the first time.

  20. COHORT STUDIES OF HEALTH EFFECTS AMONG PEOPLE EXPOSED TO ESTUARINE WATERS: NORTH CAROLINA, VIRGINIA, AND MARYLAND. (R827084)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A variety of human symptoms have been associated with exposure to the dinoflagellate
    Pfiesteria and have been grouped together into a syndrome termed "possible estuary-associated
    syndrome," Prospective cohort studies of health effects associated with exposure to estuarine w...

  1. Carbon-13 variations in the dissolved inorganic carbon in estuarine waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sackett, William M.; Netratanawong, Toedsit; Holmes, M. Elizabeth

    The stable carbon isotope composition of dissolved inorganic carbon [DIC] was measured in Tampa Bay and Florida Bay. The dependence of isotopic composition was evaluated in terms of atmospheric CO2 exchange, carbon exchange between fresh water and seawater (i.e. salinity) and DIC derived from the reaction between calcium carbonate and organically derived CO2.The extent of organic carbon oxidation and the magnitude of organic carbon loading [pollution] in an estuary have implications for variations in the δ13C of DIC and its use as an indicator of the relative amounts of land and marine derived organic and inorganic carbon in paleogeographic studies.

  2. Clean Sampling and Analysis of River and Estuarine Waters for Trace Metal Studies.

    PubMed

    Jiann, Kuo-Tung; Wen, Liang-Saw; Santschi, Peter H

    2016-01-01

    Most of the trace metal concentrations in ambient waters obtained a few decades ago have been considered unreliable owing to the lack of contamination control. Developments of some techniques aiming to reduce trace metal contamination in the last couple of decades have resulted in concentrations reported now being orders of magnitude lower than those in the past. These low concentrations often necessitate preconcentration of water samples prior to instrumental analysis of samples. Since contamination can appear in all phases of trace metal analyses, including sample collection (and during preparation of sampling containers), storage and handling, pretreatments, and instrumental analysis, specific care needs to be taken in order to reduce contamination levels at all steps. The effort to develop and utilize "clean techniques" in trace metal studies allows scientists to investigate trace metal distributions and chemical and biological behavior in greater details. This advancement also provides the required accuracy and precision of trace metal data allowing for environmental conditions to be related to trace metal concentrations in aquatic environments. This protocol that is presented here details needed materials for sample preparation, sample collection, sample pretreatment including preconcentration, and instrumental analysis. By reducing contamination throughout all phases mentioned above for trace metal analysis, much lower detection limits and thus accuracy can be achieved. The effectiveness of "clean techniques" is further demonstrated using low field blanks and good recoveries for standard reference material. The data quality that can be obtained thus enables the assessment of trace metal distributions and their relationships to environmental parameters. PMID:27404762

  3. Effects of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene on estuarine macrobenthic communities exposed via water and sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Tagatz, M.E.; Plaia, G.R.; Deans, C.H.

    1985-12-01

    Macrobenthic animal communities that colonized sand-filled aquaria were exposed to 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB), a recent replacement for polycholorinated biphenyls in the electrical industry. In one test, communities established by planktonic larvae entrained in continuously supplied unfiltered seawater for 50 days were exposed to waterborne TCB for 6 days; in the second test, the toxicant was added to the sediment before 8 weeks of colonization. Concentrations that affected community structure were usually two orders of magnitude lower for waterborne TCB than for sediment-bound TCB, but the same types of organisms were affected by each route of exposure. The lowest TCB concentrations (measured) that affected average numbers of individuals exposed via the water were 0.04 mg/liter for mollusks, 0.4 mg/liter for arthropods, and 4 mg/liter for annelids. Average number of species was significantly lower than the control at 4 mg/liter. For TCB exposures via the sediment, the lowest concentrations (nominal) that affected average numbers of individuals were 100 micrograms/g for mollusks and echinoderms, and 1000 micrograms/g for arthropods and annelids. Average number of species in experimental aquaria was significantly lower than the control at greater than or equal to 100 micrograms/g. TCB persisted in sediments, but some leached into water throughout the 8-week exposure via sediment.

  4. Clean Sampling and Analysis of River and Estuarine Waters for Trace Metal Studies.

    PubMed

    Jiann, Kuo-Tung; Wen, Liang-Saw; Santschi, Peter H

    2016-07-01

    Most of the trace metal concentrations in ambient waters obtained a few decades ago have been considered unreliable owing to the lack of contamination control. Developments of some techniques aiming to reduce trace metal contamination in the last couple of decades have resulted in concentrations reported now being orders of magnitude lower than those in the past. These low concentrations often necessitate preconcentration of water samples prior to instrumental analysis of samples. Since contamination can appear in all phases of trace metal analyses, including sample collection (and during preparation of sampling containers), storage and handling, pretreatments, and instrumental analysis, specific care needs to be taken in order to reduce contamination levels at all steps. The effort to develop and utilize "clean techniques" in trace metal studies allows scientists to investigate trace metal distributions and chemical and biological behavior in greater details. This advancement also provides the required accuracy and precision of trace metal data allowing for environmental conditions to be related to trace metal concentrations in aquatic environments. This protocol that is presented here details needed materials for sample preparation, sample collection, sample pretreatment including preconcentration, and instrumental analysis. By reducing contamination throughout all phases mentioned above for trace metal analysis, much lower detection limits and thus accuracy can be achieved. The effectiveness of "clean techniques" is further demonstrated using low field blanks and good recoveries for standard reference material. The data quality that can be obtained thus enables the assessment of trace metal distributions and their relationships to environmental parameters.

  5. Real-time redox speciation of iron in estuarine and coastal surface waters.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yongming; Yuan, Dongxing; Zhu, Yong; Feng, Sichao

    2015-03-17

    An automated, shipboard-use system was developed for real-time speciation of iron in coastal surface waters. It comprised a towed Fish underway sampler and a modified reverse flow injection analysis system with a liquid waveguide capillary flow cell-spectrophotometric detection device. The detection was based on the reaction between ferrozine and Fe(II). The detection limits of 0.3 and 0.7 nM were achieved for Fe(II) and Fe(II+III), together with their respective dynamic linear ranges of 0.5-250 and 0.9-250 nM. The system was successfully deployed and run consecutively for about 1 week during a cruise in August 2009 to the East China Sea off the Changjiang Estuary. The distribution of operationally defined field dissolvable Fe(II) and Fe(II+III) (expressed as Fea(II) and Fea(II+III)) in these areas was obtained, which showed that both Fea(II) and Fea(II+III) concentrations decreased with salinity when there were relatively high Fea(II) concentrations (up to about 120 nM) near shore. A distinct distribution of Fea(II) to Fea(II+III) ratios was also revealed, with a ratio of 0.58 in the water off Changjiang Estuary and 0.19 in the open ocean.

  6. Evaluation of a digital model for estuarine water quality simulation in waste allocation studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seaburn, G.E.; Jennings, Marshall E.; Merritt, Michael L.

    1979-01-01

    Hydrologic and water-quality data were collected on 4 estuaries in Pasco, Citrus, and Pinellas Counties, Florida, to evaluate modeling results. Current and predicted waste loading of the four estuaries was simulated by use of a two-dimensional steady-state, intertidal-condition model. Concentrations of DO, carbonaceous and nitrogenous BOD, and chloride were simulated as averages over a tidal cycle. General equations for the model are based on the law of conservation of mass. Assumption of steady-state required that water-quality data for calibration be averaged over an appropriate time cycle with respect to volume and cross-section. Diurnal DO fluctuation was determined in 2 estuaries for evaluating the influence of photosynthesis and respiration. The estuary model is best applied by calibrating it for a particular set of observed conditions, and then using this calibrated model for sensitivity analyses without attempting to verify the chosen parameter values against a second set of conditions. Sensitivity analyses included dispersion coefficient , decay rates, photosynthesis, and respiration. (Woodard-USGS)

  7. Increased rainfall remarkably freshens estuarine and coastal waters on the Pacific coast of Panama: Magnitude and likely effects on upwelling and nutrient supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valiela, Ivan; Camilli, Luis; Stone, Thomas; Giblin, Anne; Crusius, John; Fox, Sophia; Barth-Jensen, Coralie; Monteiro, Rita Oliveira; Tucker, Jane; Martinetto, Paulina; Harris, Carolynn

    2012-07-01

    Increased intensity of rainfall events during late 2010 led to a remarkable freshening of estuarine, near- and off-shore waters in coastal Pacific Panama. The increased rain intensity during the wet season of 2010 lowered salinity of estuarine and coastal waters to levels unprecedented in previous years. Fresher conditions were most marked within estuaries, but even at 6 km from shore, salinities were 8-13‰ lower during the 2010 wet season, compared to a lowering of up to 2‰ during previous wet seasons. Freshwater added to surface waters by rain had major biological, hydrodynamic, and biogeochemical consequences, increasing stream erosion, uprooting stream-edge terrestrial and mangrove trees, increasing mortality of benthic fauna, damping upwelling of denser, nutrient-rich water that was expected given the contemporaneous most intense La Niña in decades, as well as by enriching surface seawater by direct deposition and by horizontal advection of nutrients from land. It appears that wet season rainfall is slowly increasing in the region, and if the level of rainfall reported here is a harbinger of future climate change effects on land-sea couplings in tropical coastal ecosystems, the resulting freshening could significantly shift biogeochemistry and coastal food webs in the region and elsewhere.

  8. Analysis of the cold-water restraint procedure in gastric ulceration and body temperature.

    PubMed

    Landeira-Fernandez, J

    2004-10-15

    Gastric mucosal injury induced by body restraint can be enhanced when combined with cold-water immersion. Based on this fact, the present study had two main purposes: (i) to examine the contribution of each of these two forms of stress on the development of gastric ulceration and regulation of body temperature and (ii) to investigate the importance of the animal's consciousness on gastric ulceration induced by the cold-water restraint. Independent groups of animals were exposed for 3 h to one of the following stressful treatments: body restraint plus cold-water (20+1 degrees C) immersion, body restraint alone or cold-water immersion alone. Control animals were not exposed to any form of stress. Half of the animals submitted to each of the four treatments were anesthetized with thionembutal (35 mg/kg), whereas the other half was injected with saline. Results indicated that body restraint alone was not sufficient to induce gastric ulceration or changes in body temperature. On the other hand, cold-water exposure, either alone or in conjunction with body restraint, induced the same amount of stomach erosions and hypothermia. Therefore, it appears that body restraint does not play an important role on gastric ulceration induced by the cold-water restraint procedure. Present results also indicated that conscious and anesthetized animals immersed in cold water presented robust gastric ulceration and a marked drop in body temperature. However, conscious animals developed more severe gastric damage in comparison to anesthetized animals although both groups presented the same degree of hypothermia. These findings suggest that hypothermia resulting from cold-water exposure has a deleterious effect on gastric ulceration but the animal's conscious activity during the cold-water immersion increases the severity of gastric mucosal damage. It is concluded that cold-water restraint is a useful procedure for the study of the underlying mechanisms involved in stress

  9. Comparison of copper speciation in estuarine water measured using analytical voltammetry and supported liquid membrane techniques.

    PubMed

    Ndungu, Kuria; Hurst, Matthew P; Bruland, Kenneth W

    2005-05-01

    The supported liquid membrane (SLM) is a promising separation and preconcentration technique that is well-suited for trace metal speciation in natural waters. The technique is based on the selective complexation of metal ions by a hydrophobic ligand (carrier) dissolved in a water-immiscible organic solvent immobilized in a porous, inert membrane. This membrane separates two aqueous solutions: the test (or donor) solution and the strip (or acceptor) solution. The metal carrier complex is transported by diffusion across the membrane from the source to the strip solution where metal ions are back-extracted. The technique offers great potential to tune the selectivity by incorporating different complexing ligands in the membrane. A SLM was used to analyze the dissolved (<0.45 microm) copper speciation from two sites in the San Francisco Bay estuary; Dumbarton Bridge, [Cu]total approximately 27 nM, and San Bruno Shoals, [Cu]total approximately 23 nM. The sites were also characterized independently by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) using a Nafion-coated thin mercury film electrode (NCTMFE). The SLM employed 10 mM lasalocid, a naturally occurring carboxylic polyether ionophore, in nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE) asthe membrane complexing ligand, supported by a microporous, polypropylene, hydrophobic membrane. This is the first study where SLM technique has been compared with an independent speciation technique in marine waters. Results of copper speciation measurements from Dumbarton Bridge, a site in South San Francisco Bay where copper speciation has been well-characterized in previous studies using various voltammetric techniques, indicated that only about 3% (0.9 nM) of the total dissolved copper was SLM labile. The corresponding DPASV labile copper fraction was <0.4% (<0.1 nM) of total dissolved copper. The concentration of total copper binding ligands measured by the membrane technique was 471 nM as compared to 354 nM measured by DPASV, more

  10. Testing of a technique for remotely measuring water salinity in an estuarine environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomann, G. C.

    1975-01-01

    An aircraft experiment was flown on November 7, 1973 to test a technique for remote water salinity measurement. Apparent temperatures at 21 cm and 8-14 micron wavelengths were recorded on eight runs over a line along which the salinity varied from 5 to 30%. Boat measurements were used for calibration and accuracy calculations. Overall RMS accuracy over the complete range of salinities was 3.6%. Overall RMS accuracy for salinities greater than 10%, where the technique is more sensitive, was 2.6%. Much of this error is believed to be due to inability to exactly locate boat and aircraft positions. The standard deviation over the eight runs for salinities or = 10% is 1.4%; this error contains a component due to mislocation of the aircraft also. It is believed that operational use of the technique is possible with accuracies of 1-2%.

  11. Estuarine River Data for the Ten Thousand Islands Area, Florida, Water Year 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byrne, Michael J.; Patino, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected stream discharge, stage, salinity, and water-temperature data near the mouths of 11 tributaries flowing into the Ten Thousand Islands area of Florida from October 2004 to June 2005. Maximum positive discharge from Barron River and Faka Union River was 6,000 and 3,200 ft3/s, respectively; no other tributary exceeded 2,600 ft3/s. Salinity variation was greatest at Barron River and Faka Union River, ranging from 2 to 37 ppt, and from 3 to 34 ppt, respectively. Salinity maximums were greatest at Wood River and Little Wood River, each exceeding 40 ppt. All data were collected prior to the commencement of the Picayune Strand Restoration Project, which is designed to establish a more natural flow regime to the tributaries of the Ten Thousand Islands area.

  12. Modelling the fate and transport of faecal bacteria in estuarine and coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Gao, Guanghai; Falconer, Roger A; Lin, Binliang

    2015-11-15

    This paper details a numerical model developed to predict the fate and transport of faecal bacteria in receiving surface waters. The model was first validated by comparing model predicted faecal bacteria concentrations with available field measurements. The model simulations agreed well with the observation data. After calibration, the model was applied to investigate the effects of different parameters, including: tidal processes, river discharges from the upstream boundaries and bacteria inputs from the upstream boundaries, wastewater treatment works (WwTWs), rivers and combined sewer overflows (CSO), on the concentrations of faecal bacteria in the Ribble Estuary. The results revealed that the tide and upstream boundary bacteria inputs were the primary factors controlling the distribution of faecal bacteria. The bacteria inputs from the WwTWs in the model domain were generally found not to have a significant impact on distribution of faecal bacteria in the estuary.

  13. Modelling the fate and transport of faecal bacteria in estuarine and coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Gao, Guanghai; Falconer, Roger A; Lin, Binliang

    2015-11-15

    This paper details a numerical model developed to predict the fate and transport of faecal bacteria in receiving surface waters. The model was first validated by comparing model predicted faecal bacteria concentrations with available field measurements. The model simulations agreed well with the observation data. After calibration, the model was applied to investigate the effects of different parameters, including: tidal processes, river discharges from the upstream boundaries and bacteria inputs from the upstream boundaries, wastewater treatment works (WwTWs), rivers and combined sewer overflows (CSO), on the concentrations of faecal bacteria in the Ribble Estuary. The results revealed that the tide and upstream boundary bacteria inputs were the primary factors controlling the distribution of faecal bacteria. The bacteria inputs from the WwTWs in the model domain were generally found not to have a significant impact on distribution of faecal bacteria in the estuary. PMID:26384864

  14. Effect of river discharge and geometry on tides and net water transport in an estuarine network, an idealized model applied to the Yangtze Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alebregtse, N. C.; de Swart, H. E.

    2016-07-01

    Tidal propagation in, and division of net water transport over different channels in an estuarine network are analyzed using a newly developed idealized model. The water motion in this model is governed by the cross-sectionally averaged shallow water equations and is forced by tides at the seaward boundaries and by river discharge. Approximate analytical solutions are constructed by means of a harmonic truncation and a perturbation expansion in a small parameter, being the ratio of tidal amplitude and depth. The net water transport results from an imposed river discharge and from residual water transport generated by nonlinear tidal rectification. Two new drivers are identified that contribute to the net water transport in tidal estuarine networks, viz. the generation of residual water transport due to gradients in dynamic pressure and due to a coupling between the tidally averaged and quarter diurnal currents through the quadratic bottom stress. The model is applied in a case study on the Yangtze Estuary, to investigate tides and division of net water transport over its multiple channels during the wet and dry season, as well as before and after the construction of the Deepwater Navigation Channel. Model results agree fairly well with observations. Process analysis reveals that the decrease in tides from dry to wet season is due to enhanced bottom stress generated by river-tide interactions. Also, the seasonal variations in net water transport are explained. It is furthermore shown and explained that due to the Deepwater Navigation Channel tidal currents have increased and net water transport has decreased in the North Passage. These changes have profound implications for net sediment transport and salinity intrusion.

  15. Characterisation of fine particles by flow cytometry in estuarine and coastal Arctic waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira-Turcq, Patricia F.; Martin, Jean Marie

    1998-06-01

    The chemical and biological nature of suspended pico- (<2 μm) and nano- (2-10 μm) particles was studied by flow cytometry in the Lena River delta and Laptev Sea, Russia, during September 1991. Forward and wide-angle light scatter, natural fluorescence of phytoplankton, and induced fluorescence of organic molecules were used to characterise natural suspended particles. Organic and inorganic particles were identified by staining with specific fluorochromes: FITC for proteins, Con A-FITC for glucose/mannose, and PNA for galactose. Living and nonliving organic particles were distinguished by analysing simultaneously natural red fluorescence (chlorophyll) and organic staining. The upper Lena River and its delta were characterised by a high concentration of total particles (18.5±4.9×10 5 per cm 3), mostly inorganic (13.6±5.4×10 5 per cm 3). In the coastal and open waters of the Laptev Sea, organic particles dominated. Generally, the most important fraction of small organic particles were nonliving (organic detritus, TEP, and organic coatings) characterised by the presence of proteins and polysaccharides. The phytoplanktonic cells were characterised by a high fraction of picoplankton (1000-50 000 cells per cm 3) dominated by Synechococcus sp. and small picoeukaryotes.

  16. Cold-Climate Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, J.; Salasovich, J.; Hillman, T.

    2005-11-01

    The Solar Heating and Lighting Sub-program has set the key goal to reduce the cost of saved energy [Csav, defined as (total cost, $)/(total discounted savings, kWh_thermal)] for solar domestic water heaters (SDWH) by at least 50%. To determine if this goal is attainable and prioritize R&D for cold-climate SDWH, life-cycle analyses were done with hypothetical lower-cost components in glycol, drainback, and thermosiphon systems. Balance-of-system (BOS, everything but the collector) measures included replacing metal components with polymeric versions and system simplification. With all BOS measures in place, Csav could be reduced more than 50% with a low-cost, selectively-coated, glazed polymeric collector, and slightly less than 50% with either a conventional selective metal-glass or a non-selective glazed polymer collector. The largest percent reduction in Csav comes from replacing conventional pressurized solar storage tanks and metal heat exchangers with un-pressurized polymer tanks with immersed polymer heat exchangers, which could be developed with relatively low-risk R&D.

  17. Protistan parasites as mortality drivers in cold water crab fisheries.

    PubMed

    Frank Morado, J; Siddeek, M S M; Mullowney, Darrell R; Dawe, Earl G

    2012-06-01

    From a historical perspective, several protistan taxa, including the recently re-aligned Microsporidia, have been associated with or identified as causes of mortalities in crustacean populations. Depending upon the host species, associated protistan prevalences could be as low as 5% or approach 100%. It has generally been assumed that reported prevalences translated directly into significant mortalities that could impact the distribution and abundance of affected populations. However, this assumption may be incorrect especially when the dynamics of host-pathogen-environment interactions are not entirely understood. We will discuss the presumed impact of several protistan pathogens on temperate and cold water commercial crab species. By using selected examples such as a ciliate in the Dungeness crab (Cancer magister) and Hematodinium sp. infections in North Pacific crabs, we will attempt to contrast differences between prevalence and mortality, acute and chronic infections/mortalities, age or size selectivity of affected population, and geographically restricted and widespread epizootics. We will also briefly discuss the potential impact of environmental changes such as climate change and ocean acidification on both host and protistan pathogen.

  18. Use of a water effect ratio to develop an estuarine copper site-specific standard

    SciTech Connect

    Brosnan, T.

    1995-12-31

    Development of a copper site-specific standard in New York Harbor involved several steps: (1) EPA`s Indicator Species Procedure was used to develop a Water Effect Ratio (WER), which produces a biologically-based adjustment to the existing criteria. Samples from seven stations were collected during high and low river-flow conditions in 1992--93. Toxicity testing included embryo-larval development tests on two bivalves, an urchin, and a shrimp. A red algae was used for a sexual reproduction test. This testing yielded WER`s of 1.33 2.1 7, with an average of 1.49. When multiplied by the existing EPA criteria of 2.9 ug/L (total recoverable), this yielded a preliminary acute site specific standard of 4.3 ug/L (total recoverable); (2) Further analysis of these data, combined with a literature search of similar data, resulted in a recalculation of the original national acute criteria value, from 2.9 ug/L (total recoverable) to 5.3 ug/L (dissolved). Multiplying the WER by the recalculated national criteria yielded a final acute site, specific criteria of 7.9 ug/L (dissolved); (3) Finally, EPA`s original criteria indicated that achieving the acute criterion would be protective of chronic effects (i.e. the acute:chronic ratio (ACR) was 2). However, EPA, recently decided that an ACR of 2 was no longer valid, and decided to use the freshwater ACR of 2.8. This resulted in a recalculation of the national chronic criteria to 3.75 ug/L (dissolved). Combined with the WER of 1.49, this yielded a final chronic site specific standard of 5.6 ug/L. The new standard eliminated ambient violations in most of the harbor, and removed the need for wasteload allocations at 12 of NYC`s 14 sewage treatment plants.

  19. Genomics and Ecophysiology of Heterotrophic Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria Isolated from Estuarine Surface Water

    PubMed Central

    Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Severin, Ina; Hansen, Lars H.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ability to reduce atmospheric nitrogen (N2) to ammonia, known as N2 fixation, is a widely distributed trait among prokaryotes that accounts for an essential input of new N to a multitude of environments. Nitrogenase reductase gene (nifH) composition suggests that putative N2-fixing heterotrophic organisms are widespread in marine bacterioplankton, but their autecology and ecological significance are unknown. Here, we report genomic and ecophysiology data in relation to N2 fixation by three environmentally relevant heterotrophic bacteria isolated from Baltic Sea surface water: Pseudomonas stutzeri strain BAL361 and Raoultella ornithinolytica strain BAL286, which are gammaproteobacteria, and Rhodopseudomonas palustris strain BAL398, an alphaproteobacterium. Genome sequencing revealed that all were metabolically versatile and that the gene clusters encoding the N2 fixation complex varied in length and complexity between isolates. All three isolates could sustain growth by N2 fixation in the absence of reactive N, and this fixation was stimulated by low concentrations of oxygen in all three organisms (≈4 to 40 µmol O2 liter−1). P. stutzeri BAL361 did, however, fix N at up to 165 µmol O2 liter−1, presumably accommodated through aggregate formation. Glucose stimulated N2 fixation in general, and reactive N repressed N2 fixation, except that ammonium (NH4+) stimulated N2 fixation in R. palustris BAL398, indicating the use of nitrogenase as an electron sink. The lack of correlations between nitrogenase reductase gene expression and ethylene (C2H4) production indicated tight posttranscriptional-level control. The N2 fixation rates obtained suggested that, given the right conditions, these heterotrophic diazotrophs could contribute significantly to in situ rates. PMID:26152586

  20. The effect of repeated mild cold water immersions on the adaptation of the vasomotor responses.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Wijayanto, Titis; Kuroki, Hideto; Lee, Joo-Young; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2012-07-01

    There are several types of cold adaptation based on the alteration of thermoregulatory response. It has been thought that the temperature of repeated cold exposures during the adaptation period is one of the factors affecting the type of cold adaptation developed. This study tested the hypothesis that repeated mild cold immersions would induce an insulative cold adaptation but would not alter the metabolic response. Seven healthy male participants were immersed to their xiphoid process level repeatedly in 26°C water for 60 min, 3 days every week, for 4 weeks. During the first and last exposure of this cold acclimation period, the participants underwent body immersion tests measuring their thermoregulatory responses to cold. Separately, they conducted finger immersion into 5°C water for 30 min to assess their cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD) response before and after cold acclimation. During the immersion to xiphoid process, participants showed significantly lower mean skin temperature and skin blood flow in the forearm post-acclimation, while no adaptation was observed in the metabolic response. Additionally, blunted CIVD responses were observed after cold acclimation. From these results, it was considered that the participants showed an insulative-type of cold acclimation after the repeated mild cold immersions. The major finding of this study was the acceptance of the hypothesis that repeated mild cold immersion was sufficient to induce insulative cold adaptation but did not alter the metabolic response. It is suggested that the adaptation in the thermoregulatory response is specific to the response which is repeatedly stimulated during the adaptation process.

  1. Effects of Cold Water Immersion on Muscle Oxygenation During Repeated Bouts of Fatiguing Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Simon S.; Ting, Kin Hung; Hon, Maurice; Fung, Natalie Y.; Choi, Manfi M.; Cheng, Juno C.; Yeung, Ella W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Postexercise cold water immersion has been advocated to athletes as a means of accelerating recovery and improving performance. Given the effects of cold water immersion on blood flow, evaluating in vivo changes in tissue oxygenation during cold water immersion may help further our understanding of this recovery modality. This study aimed to investigate the effects of cold water immersion on muscle oxygenation and performance during repeated bouts of fatiguing exercise in a group of healthy young adults. Twenty healthy subjects performed 2 fatiguing bouts of maximal dynamic knee extension and flexion contractions both concentrically on an isokinetic dynamometer with a 10-min recovery period in between. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a cold water immersion (treatment) or passive recovery (control) group. Changes in muscle oxygenation were monitored continuously using near-infrared spectroscopy. Muscle performance was measured with isokinetic dynamometry during each fatiguing bout. Skin temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, and muscle soreness ratings were also assessed. Repeated measures ANOVA analysis was used to evaluate treatment effects. The treatment group had a significantly lower mean heart rate and lower skin temperature compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Cold water immersion attenuated a reduction in tissue oxygenation in the second fatiguing bout by 4% when compared with control. Muscle soreness was rated lower 1 day post-testing (P < 0.05). However, cold water immersion had no significant effect on muscle performance in subsequent exercise. As the results show that cold water immersion attenuated decreased tissue oxygenation in subsequent exercise performance, the metabolic response to exercise after cold water immersion is worthy of further exploration. PMID:26735552

  2. Environmental forcing of the Campeche cold-water coral province, southern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebbeln, D.; Wienberg, C.; Wintersteller, P.; Freiwald, A.; Becker, M.; Beuck, L.; Dullo, C.; Eberli, G. P.; Glogowski, S.; Matos, L.; Forster, N.; Reyes-Bonilla, H.; Taviani, M.; MSM 20-4 shipboard scientific party, the

    2013-11-01

    With an extension of >40 km2 the recently discovered Campeche cold-water coral province located at the northeastern rim of the Campeche Bank in the southern Gulf of Mexico belongs to the largest coherent cold-water coral areas discovered so far. The Campeche province consists of numerous 20 to 40 m high coral ridges that are developed in intermediate water depths of 500 to 600 m. The ridges are colonized by a vivid cold-water coral ecosystem that covers the upper flanks and summits. The rich coral community is dominated by the framework-building scleractinia Enallopsammia profunda and Lophelia pertusa while the associated benthic megafauna shows a rather scarce occurrence. The recent environmental setting is characterized by a high surface water production caused by a local upwelling center and a dynamic bottom water regime comprising vigorous bottom currents, internal waves and strong density contrasts, which all together provide optimal conditions for the growth of cold-water corals. The strong hydrodynamics - potentially supported by the diel vertical migration of zooplankton in the Campeche area - drive the delivering of food particles to the corals. The Campeche cold-water coral province is, thus, an excellent example highlighting the importance of the hydrographic setting in securing the food supply for the development of large and vivid cold-water coral ecosystems.

  3. Environmental forcing of the Campeche cold-water coral province, southern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebbeln, D.; Wienberg, C.; Wintersteller, P.; Freiwald, A.; Becker, M.; Beuck, L.; Dullo, C.; Eberli, G. P.; Glogowski, S.; Matos, L.; Forster, N.; Reyes-Bonilla, H.; Taviani, M.

    2014-04-01

    With an extension of > 40 km2 the recently discovered Campeche cold-water coral province located at the northeastern rim of the Campeche Bank in the southern Gulf of Mexico belongs to the largest coherent cold-water coral areas discovered so far. The Campeche province consists of numerous 20-40 m-high elongated coral mounds that are developed in intermediate water depths of 500 to 600 m. The mounds are colonized by a vivid cold-water coral ecosystem that covers the upper flanks and summits. The rich coral community is dominated by the framework-building Scleractinia Enallopsammia profunda and Lophelia pertusa, while the associated benthic megafauna shows a rather scarce occurrence. The recent environmental setting is characterized by a high surface water production caused by a local upwelling center and a dynamic bottom-water regime comprising vigorous bottom currents, obvious temporal variability, and strong density contrasts, which all together provide optimal conditions for the growth of cold-water corals. This setting - potentially supported by the diel vertical migration of zooplankton in the Campeche area - controls the delivering of food particles to the corals. The Campeche cold-water coral province is, thus, an excellent example highlighting the importance of the oceanographic setting in securing the food supply for the development of large and vivid cold-water coral ecosystems.

  4. Methane production correlates positively with methanogens, sulfate-reducing bacteria and pore water acetate at an estuarine brackish-marsh landscape scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, C.; She, C. X.; Jin, Y. F.; Yang, P.; Huang, J. F.

    2013-11-01

    Methane production is influenced by the abundance of methanogens and the availability of terminal substrates. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) also play an important role in the anaerobic decomposition of organic matter. However, the relationships between methane production and methanogen populations, pore water terminal substrates in estuarine brackish marshes are poorly characterized, and even to our knowledge, no published research has explored the relationship between methane production rate and abundance of SRB and pore water dimethyl sulfide (DMS) concentration. We investigated methane production rate, abundances of methanogens and SRB, concentrations of pore water terminal substrates and electron acceptors at a brackish marsh landscape dominated by Phragmites australis, Cyperus malaccensis and Spatina alterniflora marshes zones in the Min River estuary. The average rates of methane production at a soil depth of 30 cm in the three marsh zones were 0.142, 0.058 and 0.067 μg g-1 d-1, respectively. The abundance of both methanogens and SRB in the soil of the P. australis marsh with highest soil organic carbon content was higher than in the C. malaccensis and S. alterniflora marshes. The abundance of methanogens and SRB in the three soil layers was statistically indistinguishable. Mean pore water DMS concentrations at a soil depth of 30 cm under the S. alterniflora marsh were higher than those in the C. malaccensis and P. australis marshes. Methane production rate increased with the abundance of both methanogens and SRB across three marsh zones together at the landscape scale, and also increased with the concentration of pore water acetate, but did not correlate with concentrations of pore water DMS and dissolved CO2. Our results suggest that, provided that substrates are available in ample supply, methanogens can continue to produce methane regardless of whether SRB are prevalent in estuarine brackish marshes.

  5. [COLD and HOT nature of Coptis & Evodia and their prescriptions investigated with diet restriction/cold-water swimming mice models].

    PubMed

    Ren, Yong-shen; Wang, Jia-bo; Zhao, Yan-ling; Zhang, Ping; Zhao, Hai-ping; Zhang, Xue-ru; Zhou, Can-ping; Xiao, Xiao-he; Jin, Cheng

    2009-11-01

    To establish a new method to evaluate the COLD and HOT nature of Coptis & Evodia and their prescriptions Zuojinwan and Fanzuojinwan. Physical models of mice were established by diet restriction with cold-water swimming (weak model, WM) and fed with high protein animal feeds (strong model, SM). An instrument with cold and hot pads was used to investigate the variation of temperature tropism among SM and WM groups of mice affected by drugs. Meanwhile, the oxygen consumption and activity of adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) were detected, in order to investigate the mechanism of energy metabolism which might be affected by these drugs. The results showed that the drug effects gradually changed in an order of "Coptis-->Zuojinwan--> Fanzuojinwan-->Evodia". In detail, Coptis increased the remaining rate (RR) of mice on hot pad, decreased oxygen consumption and ATPase activity (n=6, P < 0.01 or P < 0.05), while Evodia performed inversely; which indicated the COLD nature of Coptis and HOT nature of Evodia, and confirmed with their traditional definition in medicinal works. In conclusion, the methods applied in this work, can objectively and directly express the nature disparity between the two herbs and predict the tendency of changes of the nature of their combination, which brings a new approach in investigation of the nature theory of traditional Chinese medicine.

  6. The inhabitants of the spring ice, under-ice water, and sediments of the white sea in the estuarine zone of the Severnaya Dvina River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sazhin, A. F.; Sapozhnikov, F. V.; Rat'kova, T. N.; Romanova, N. D.; Shevchenko, V. P.; Filippov, A. S.

    2011-04-01

    The data on the supra-ice snow, ice, under-ice water, and benthic algal flora obtained in 2007-2008 by sampling in the estuary of the Severnaya Dvina River are analyzed. The river ice and under-ice water in the estuarine zone and in the channel part of the Severnaya Dvina differed greatly in the algal flora's composition. The fresh water species never exceeded 8.6%, while the ice algae composed 90-96% of the total ice inhabitants' biomass. In the under-ice water, this value did not exceed 58-64%. The bacteria in the ice composed not more than 2.5-10% of the total biomass, while, in the under-ice water, 36-49%. The shares of ciliates (0.04%) and nematodes (0.005-1.6%) in the total biomass were negligible. In the estuarine zone, the ice was inhabited mainly by nematodes (78% of the total biomass), while, in the river, their share decreased to 9%. The contribution of bacteria was 15% in Dvina Bay and increased to 61% in the river. The importance of algae in the snow was minor: 7% of the total biomass in the marine zone and 30% in the river region. High species diversity of the algal flora in the sandy and sandy-silty littoral grounds was revealed. The values of the total biomass of the bottom algal flora (0.38 g C/m2) were only two to three times lower than the values revealed in similar habitats in the summer. The epipelithic forms (0.15 g C/m2) dominated, being represented by 46 species of algae (49%). The shares of epipsammonic (0.12 g C/m2) and planktonic (0.11 g C/m2) species were almost equal to each other: 25 and 22 species, respectively (27 and 24%).

  7. Criticality safety evaluation report for the cold vacuum drying facility's process water handling system

    SciTech Connect

    NELSON, J.V.

    1999-05-12

    This report addresses the criticality concerns associated with process water handling in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. The controls and limitations on equipment design and operations to control potential criticality occurrences are identified.

  8. Criticality Safety Evaluation Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facilities Process Water Handling System

    SciTech Connect

    KESSLER, S.F.

    2000-08-10

    This report addresses the criticality concerns associated with process water handling in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. The controls and limitations on equipment design and operations to control potential criticality occurrences are identified.

  9. View of cold water eddies in Falkland Current off southern Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A view of cold water eddies in the Falkland Current off the South Atlantic Coast of southern Argentina (47.5S, 64.0W) as seen from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. This land area (left corner) extends south along the coast from Puerto Deseado (center left border) for about 50 miles. Within the ocean, several light blue areas are visible and represent the occurrence of plankton within the Falkland Current. Over the ocean, the cold water eddies are identified by the circular cloud-free areas within the cloud street pattern and bordered by cumulus cloud buildup (white). The cloud streets indicate the wind is from the southwest and do not form over eddies because energy from the atmosphere is absorbed by the cold ocean water. On the downwind side of the eddies, cumulus clouds tend to form as the cold moist air flows over the warmer water.

  10. Imposed Cold-water Ingestion during Open Water Swimming in Internationally Ranked Swimmers.

    PubMed

    Hue, O; Monjo, R; Riera, F

    2015-11-01

    The authors explored the effects of open water swimming in a tropical environment on both core temperature (T c) and thermal perceptions of high-level swimmers during an official international 10-km race and two 5-km swimming tests. The swimmers drank neutral water (i. e., 28.0±3.0°C) ad libitum every 2,000 m during Competition, whereas the ingested volume was imposed in the 5-km tests: every 1,000 m, they drank 190 mL of cold water (CW, 1.1±0.7°C) or neutral water (NW, 28.0±3.0°C). They also self-rated their thermal comfort and sensation (TC and TS), and their T c was recorded. The study demonstrated that adequate fluid intake significantly decreased T c in swimmers swimming at race pace in hot water (i. e., 37.5±0.3°C vs. 38.3±0.4°C, in NW vs. Competition, respectively). This effect was more pronounced with cold water (i. e., 36.7±1.1°C, in CW). No significant changes were noted in mean heart rate (i. e., 145±5, 143±4 and 141±5 bpm for NW, CW and Competition, respectively). Further studies are needed to explore the effect of this cooling method on the performances of international swimmers during tropical swimming events. PMID:26258824

  11. A column-switching method for quantification of the enantiomers of omeprazole in native matrices of waste and estuarine water samples.

    PubMed

    Barreiro, Juliana Cristina; Vanzolini, Kenia Lourenço; Madureira, Tânia Vieira; Tiritan, Maria Elizabeth; Cass, Quezia Bezerra

    2010-06-30

    This work reports the use of a two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) system for quantification of the enantiomers of omeprazole in distinct native aqueous matrices. An octyl restricted-access media bovine serum albumin column (RAM-BSA C(8)) was used in the first dimension, while a polysaccharide-based chiral column was used in the second dimension with either ultraviolet (UV-vis) or ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry (IT-MS/MS) detection. An in-line configuration was employed to assess the exclusion capacity of the RAM-BSA columns to humic substances. The excluded macromolecules had a molecular mass in the order of 18 kDa. Good selectivity, extraction efficiency, accuracy, and precision were achieved employing a very small amount (500 microL or 1.00 mL) of native water sample per injection, with detection limits of 5.00 microg L(-1), using UV-vis, and 0.0250 microg L(-1), using IT-MS/MS. The total analysis time was only 35 min, with no time spent on sample preparation. The methods were successfully applied to analyze a series of waste and estuarine water samples. The enantiomers were detected in an estuarine water sample collected from the Douro River estuary (Portugal) and in an influent sample from the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) of São Carlos (Brazil). As far as we are concerned, this is the first report of the occurrence of (+)-omeprazole and (-)-omeprazole in native aqueous matrices. PMID:20685482

  12. Monthly variation and vertical distribution of parent and alkyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in estuarine water column: Role of suspended particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaowei; Yuan, Ke; Chen, Baowei; Lin, Li; Huang, Bensheng; Luan, Tiangang

    2016-09-01

    The distribution and interaction of parent and alkyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (EPA-34 PAHs) among the multiple phases were investigated in estuarine water column of Humen outlet over a 12-months period. The water column was divided into 5 vertical layers, and each layer included dissolved phase, large- and small-size suspended particular matter (SPM). Regarding to EPA-34 PAHs, alkyl homologues were abundant, especially in the dissolved phase and small-size SPM. Moreover, SPM contributed a large proportion of EPA-34 PAHs in the water column especially for the large-size SPM, which therefore play an important role for the transportation of these pollutants. The EPA-34 PAHs concentrations in water column during wet season were higher than those in the dry season due to the decreasing of KD values which were affected by TSS and salinity obviously. Generally, the EPA-34 PAHs concentrations in the water column increased with the increasing of water depth, most of the highest concentrations of EPA-34 PAHs were found in the near-bottom layer due to the rapid sinking of large-size SPM and sediment resuspension. Additionally, during the ebb-flood tide period, the EPA-34 PAHs concentrations in different phases of the water column fluctuated oppositely based on the effects of hydrodynamic conditions. PMID:27318544

  13. Draft genome sequence of Psychrobacter sp. ENNN9_III, a strain isolated from water in a polluted temperate estuarine system (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal).

    PubMed

    Gomes, Jaqueline Conceição Meireles; Azevedo, Juliana Simão Nina de; Veras, Adonney Allan de Oliveira; Alves, Jorianne Thyeska Castro; Henriques, Isabel; Correia, António; Silva, Artur Luiz da Costa da; Carneiro, Adriana Ribeiro

    2016-06-01

    The genus Psychrobacter includes Gram-negative coccobacilli that are non-pigmented, oxidase-positive, non-motile, psychrophilic or psychrotolerant, and halotolerant. Psychrobacter strain ENNN9_III was isolated from water in a polluted temperate estuarine system, contaminated with hydrocarbons and heavy metals. The genome has a G + C content of 42.7%, 2618 open reading frames (ORFs), three copies of the rRNAs operon, and 29 tRNA genes. Twenty-five sequences related to the degradation of aromatic compounds were predicted, as well as numerous genes related to resistance to metals or metal(loid)s. The genome sequence of Psychrobacter strain ENNN9_III provides the groundwork for further elucidation of the mechanisms of metal resistance and aromatic compounds degradation. Future studies are needed to confirm the usefulness of this strain for bioremediation proposes. PMID:27114904

  14. Antibiotic-resistant organisms cultured from Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting estuarine waters of Charleston, SC and Indian River Lagoon, FL.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Adam M; Goldstein, Juli D; Reif, John S; Fair, Patricia A; Bossart, Gregory D

    2009-03-01

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from estuarine waters of Indian River Lagoon, FL (IRL) and Charleston, SC (CHS) were cultured to screen for microorganism colonization and to assess antibiotic sensitivity. Swabs (n = 909) were collected from the blowhole, gastric fluid, and feces of 171 individual dolphins The most frequently cultured organisms were Plesiomonas shigelloides (n = 161), Aeromonas hydrophila (n = 144), Escherichia coli (n = 85), and Pseudomonas fluorescens (n = 82). In descending frequency, organisms demonstrated resistance to erythromycin, ampicillin, and cephalothin. Human and animal pathogens resistant to antibiotics used in human and veterinary medicine were cultured. Escherichia coli (E. coli) more often was resistant in IRL dolphins. Three cases of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were found at CHS. Emergence of antibiotic resistance is not confined to humans. Bottlenose dolphins may serve as sentinels for transfer of resistance from humans and animals or indicate that antibiotics are reaching the marine environment and causing resistance to emerge through selective pressure and genetic adaptation.

  15. Determination of water ages and flushing rates using short-lived radium isotopes in large estuarine system, the Yangtze River Estuary, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bo-Chao; Dimova, Natasha T.; Zhao, Liang; Jiang, Xue-Yan; Yu, Zhi-Gang

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the spatial and temporal distribution of naturally-occurring short-lived radium isotopes (224Ra, t1/2 = 3.6 d and 223Ra, t1/2 = 11 d) to examine coastal water mixing dynamics of the third world largest estuary, Yangtze River Estuary (YRE) during two field trips in April 2010 and May 2011. Distributions of the 224Ra/223Ra activity ratios within the YRE area were used to calculate apparent estuarine water ages. Field-derived results were then compared to hydrodynamic assessments obtained by a Lagrangian particle tracking simulation experiment performed using the Princeton Ocean Model (POM). Water ages obtained via both geotracers and particle tracking agree very well. During both field trips an anomalously "younger" water mass (low salinity and higher radium activities) was observed at about 90-170 km offshore distance from the mouth of the river, suggesting an additional terrestrial water source influenced this area. The temporal distribution of the radium isotopes indicated a semi-diurnal tidal pattern in the YRE with relatively constant isotopic composition of less than a 20% variation during our observations. An integrated water flushing rate based on our observations (excluding the additional anomalous source area) was 8.4 km day-1.

  16. Distraction effect of cold water on performance of higher-order tasks.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, W S

    1977-06-01

    Eight U.S. Navy-qualified scuba divers performed peripheral target detection and navigation problem-solving tasks continuously during 3-h exposures to moderate (15.5 degrees C) and cold (4.5 degrees C) water. Upon exiting the water, the divers did a series of arithmetic computations. Measures of physiological cold stress were periodically recorded, and estimates of changes in body heat content were calculated. Results suggest a significant distraction effect of cold water exposure on performance of high-order tasks. Hour-to-hour comparisons of task performance between the two exposures showed no significant differences except for the in-water tasks during the first hour of exposure. Furthermore, individual performance levels achieved during second and third hours of cold water exposure were significantly correlated with levels achieved in moderate water and not with individual differences in body cooling. It is recommended that the psychologically mediated effects of cold exposure be given greater attention in both research and operations.

  17. Legionella species diversity and dynamics from surface reservoir to tap water: from cold adaptation to thermophily.

    PubMed

    Lesnik, René; Brettar, Ingrid; Höfle, Manfred G

    2016-05-01

    Water samples of the Drinking Water Supply System (DWSS) of the city of Braunschweig were analysed for its Legionella species composition using genus-specific PCR amplicons and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) fingerprint analyses based on 16S rRNA genes. These analyses comprised the whole supply chain including raw water, treatment process and large-scale storage, and a seasonal study of finished drinking water sampled monthly from cold and hot tap water. Treatment of raw water had a major impact on Legionella species by reducing their diversity and abundances. The Legionella species composition of the tap water was highly distinct from that of both source waters. In cold water, 8-14 different phylotypes of Legionella (PTLs) were observed per sample with relative abundances ranging from >1% to 53%. In hot water, L. pneumophila was present during all seasons at high relative abundances (8-40%) accompanied by 5-14 other PTLs of which 6 PTLs were in common with cold water. This thermophilic Legionella community, including L. pneumophila, was able to grow in the hot water above 50 °C. Such thermophilic Legionella populations are of general relevance for drinking water management and public health, but also for the ecology and evolution of the genus Legionella. PMID:26528838

  18. Monitoring strategies for drill cutting discharge in the vicinity of cold-water coral ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Purser, Autun; Thomsen, Laurenz

    2012-11-01

    Cold-water coral reefs represent some of the most biodiverse and biomass rich ecosystems in the marine environment. Despite this, ecosystem functioning is still poorly understood and the susceptibility of key species to anthropogenic activities and pollutants is unknown. In European waters, cold-water corals are often found in greatest abundance on the continental margin, often in regions rich in hydrocarbon reserves. In this viewpoint paper we discuss some of the current strategies employed in predicting and minimizing exposure of cold-water coral reef ecosystems on the Norwegian margin to waste materials produced during offshore drilling operations by the oil and gas industry. In the light of recent in situ and experimental research conducted with the key reef species Lophelia pertusa, we present some possible improvements to these strategies which may be utilized by industry and managers to further reduce the likelihood of exposure. We further highlight important outstanding research questions in this field.

  19. Monitoring strategies for drill cutting discharge in the vicinity of cold-water coral ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Purser, Autun; Thomsen, Laurenz

    2012-11-01

    Cold-water coral reefs represent some of the most biodiverse and biomass rich ecosystems in the marine environment. Despite this, ecosystem functioning is still poorly understood and the susceptibility of key species to anthropogenic activities and pollutants is unknown. In European waters, cold-water corals are often found in greatest abundance on the continental margin, often in regions rich in hydrocarbon reserves. In this viewpoint paper we discuss some of the current strategies employed in predicting and minimizing exposure of cold-water coral reef ecosystems on the Norwegian margin to waste materials produced during offshore drilling operations by the oil and gas industry. In the light of recent in situ and experimental research conducted with the key reef species Lophelia pertusa, we present some possible improvements to these strategies which may be utilized by industry and managers to further reduce the likelihood of exposure. We further highlight important outstanding research questions in this field. PMID:22935521

  20. Severe brain hypothermia as a factor underlying behavioral immobility during cold-water forced swim.

    PubMed

    Taltavull, J F; Chefer, V I; Shippenberg, T S; Kiyatkin, E A

    2003-06-13

    Behavioral immobility during forced swim is usually considered a consequence of inescapable stress, and is used to screen antidepressant drugs. However, immobility in this test may also result from inhibition of neural functions because of brain hypothermia due to body cooling. To explore this possibility, we measured brain temperature dynamics during a 10-min forced swim in cold (25 degrees C) and warm (37 degrees C) water and correlated brain temperatures with behavioral changes. Cold water forced swim resulted in significant brain hypothermia (-6-7 degrees C) and immobility, while no immobility was observed during warm water forced swim, when brain temperature transiently increased (0.5 degrees C) then decreased below baseline in the post-swim period. These data suggest that immobility, which rapidly develops during forced swim in cold water, may result from dramatic inhibition of neural functions because of severe brain hypothermia.

  1. Tidal-Fluvial and Estuarine Processes in the Lower Columbia River: I. Along-channel Water Level Variations, Pacific Ocean to Bonneville Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Jay, D. A.; Leffler, K.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Borde, Amy B.

    2015-03-01

    This two-part paper provides comprehensive time and frequency domain analyses and models of along-channel water level variations in the 234km-long Lower Columbia River and Estuary (LCRE) and documents the response of floodplain wetlands thereto. In Part I, power spectra, continuous wavelet transforms, and harmonic analyses are used to understand the influences of tides, river flow, upwelling and downwelling, and hydropower operations ("power-peaking") on the water level regime. Estuarine water levels are influenced primarily by astronomical tides and coastal processes, and secondarily by river flow. The importance of coastal and tidal influences decreases in the landward direction, and water levels are increasingly controlled by river flow variations at periods from ≤1 day to years. Water level records are only slightly non-stationary near the ocean, but become increasingly irregular upriver. Although astronomically forced tidal constituents decrease above the estuary, tidal fortnightly and overtide variations increase for 80-200km landward, both relative to major tidal constituents and in absolute terms.

  2. [Comparative evaluation of different methods for normalizing heat state of persons exposed to cold water].

    PubMed

    Losik, T K; Afanas'eva, R F

    2004-01-01

    Decrease of deep body temperature in humans due to exposure to cold water continues after the exposure ends and carries major danger for human health and life. The article covers data characterizing human heat state parameters after rejection of cold (10 +/- 1 degree C) water environment. This rejection was proved to take place in more severely decreased "core" and "capsule" temperature vs that in air environment. Studies of heat state in 38 volunteers practicing winter swimming demonstrated comparative evaluation of various heating methods among which the most effective are immersion into warm (38 degrees C) water with simultaneous hydromassage and being in sauna at air temperature of 65 +/- 5 degrees C.

  3. Coral mucus fuels the sponge loop in warm- and cold-water coral reef ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Rix, Laura; de Goeij, Jasper M.; Mueller, Christina E.; Struck, Ulrich; Middelburg, Jack J.; van Duyl, Fleur C.; Al-Horani, Fuad A.; Wild, Christian; Naumann, Malik S.; van Oevelen, Dick

    2016-01-01

    Shallow warm-water and deep-sea cold-water corals engineer the coral reef framework and fertilize reef communities by releasing coral mucus, a source of reef dissolved organic matter (DOM). By transforming DOM into particulate detritus, sponges play a key role in transferring the energy and nutrients in DOM to higher trophic levels on Caribbean reefs via the so-called sponge loop. Coral mucus may be a major DOM source for the sponge loop, but mucus uptake by sponges has not been demonstrated. Here we used laboratory stable isotope tracer experiments to show the transfer of coral mucus into the bulk tissue and phospholipid fatty acids of the warm-water sponge Mycale fistulifera and cold-water sponge Hymedesmia coriacea, demonstrating a direct trophic link between corals and reef sponges. Furthermore, 21–40% of the mucus carbon and 32–39% of the nitrogen assimilated by the sponges was subsequently released as detritus, confirming a sponge loop on Red Sea warm-water and north Atlantic cold-water coral reefs. The presence of a sponge loop in two vastly different reef environments suggests it is a ubiquitous feature of reef ecosystems contributing to the high biogeochemical cycling that may enable coral reefs to thrive in nutrient-limited (warm-water) and energy-limited (cold-water) environments. PMID:26740019

  4. Coral mucus fuels the sponge loop in warm- and cold-water coral reef ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Rix, Laura; de Goeij, Jasper M; Mueller, Christina E; Struck, Ulrich; Middelburg, Jack J; van Duyl, Fleur C; Al-Horani, Fuad A; Wild, Christian; Naumann, Malik S; van Oevelen, Dick

    2016-01-01

    Shallow warm-water and deep-sea cold-water corals engineer the coral reef framework and fertilize reef communities by releasing coral mucus, a source of reef dissolved organic matter (DOM). By transforming DOM into particulate detritus, sponges play a key role in transferring the energy and nutrients in DOM to higher trophic levels on Caribbean reefs via the so-called sponge loop. Coral mucus may be a major DOM source for the sponge loop, but mucus uptake by sponges has not been demonstrated. Here we used laboratory stable isotope tracer experiments to show the transfer of coral mucus into the bulk tissue and phospholipid fatty acids of the warm-water sponge Mycale fistulifera and cold-water sponge Hymedesmia coriacea, demonstrating a direct trophic link between corals and reef sponges. Furthermore, 21-40% of the mucus carbon and 32-39% of the nitrogen assimilated by the sponges was subsequently released as detritus, confirming a sponge loop on Red Sea warm-water and north Atlantic cold-water coral reefs. The presence of a sponge loop in two vastly different reef environments suggests it is a ubiquitous feature of reef ecosystems contributing to the high biogeochemical cycling that may enable coral reefs to thrive in nutrient-limited (warm-water) and energy-limited (cold-water) environments. PMID:26740019

  5. Disparity in disinfection byproducts concentration between hot and cold tap water.

    PubMed

    Liu, Boning; Reckhow, David A

    2015-03-01

    The quality of water entering a distribution system may differ substantially from the quality at the point of exposure to the consumer. This study investigated temporal variations in the levels of regulated and non-regulated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in cold and hot tap water in a home on a medium-sized municipal water system. In addition, samples were collected directly from the water plant with some being held in accordance with a simulated distribution system (SDS) test protocol. The location for this work was a system in western Massachusetts, USA that uses free chlorine as a final disinfectant. Very little short term variability of DBPs at the point of entry (POE) was observed. The concentration of DBPs in the time-variable SDS test was similar to concentrations in the cold water tap. For most DBPs, the concentrations continued to increase as the cold water tap sample was held for the time-variable SDS incubation period. However, the impact of heating on DBP levels was compound specific. For example, the concentrations of trihalomethanes (THMs), dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) and chloropicrin (CP) were substantially higher in the hot water tap than in the cold water time-variable SDS samples. In contrast, the concentration of trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) was lower in the heated hot tap water, but about equal to that observed in the cold tap water. The situation was more pronounced for dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN), bromodichloroacetic acid (BDCAA), bromochloroacetic acid (BCAA) and 1,1,1-trichloropropanone (TCP), which all showed lower concentrations in the hot water then in either of the cold water samples (instantaneous or time-variable SDS). The latter was viewed as a clear indication of thermally-induced decomposition. The ratio of unknown total organic halide (UTOX) to TOX was substantially lower in the hot tap water as the THM to TOX ratio became correspondingly larger. The results of this study show that DBP exposure in the home is not well represented by

  6. Moving in extreme environments: open water swimming in cold and warm water.

    PubMed

    Tipton, Michael; Bradford, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Open water swimming (OWS), either 'wild' such as river swimming or competitive, is a fast growing pastime as well as a part of events such as triathlons. Little evidence is available on which to base high and low water temperature limits. Also, due to factors such as acclimatisation, which disassociates thermal sensation and comfort from thermal state, individuals cannot be left to monitor their own physical condition during swims. Deaths have occurred during OWS; these have been due to not only thermal responses but also cardiac problems. This paper, which is part of a series on 'Moving in Extreme Environments', briefly reviews current understanding in pertinent topics associated with OWS. Guidelines are presented for the organisation of open water events to minimise risk, and it is concluded that more information on the responses to immersion in cold and warm water, the causes of the individual variation in these responses and the precursors to the cardiac events that appear to be the primary cause of death in OWS events will help make this enjoyable sport even safer.

  7. Moving in extreme environments: open water swimming in cold and warm water

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Open water swimming (OWS), either ‘wild’ such as river swimming or competitive, is a fast growing pastime as well as a part of events such as triathlons. Little evidence is available on which to base high and low water temperature limits. Also, due to factors such as acclimatisation, which disassociates thermal sensation and comfort from thermal state, individuals cannot be left to monitor their own physical condition during swims. Deaths have occurred during OWS; these have been due to not only thermal responses but also cardiac problems. This paper, which is part of a series on ‘Moving in Extreme Environments’, briefly reviews current understanding in pertinent topics associated with OWS. Guidelines are presented for the organisation of open water events to minimise risk, and it is concluded that more information on the responses to immersion in cold and warm water, the causes of the individual variation in these responses and the precursors to the cardiac events that appear to be the primary cause of death in OWS events will help make this enjoyable sport even safer. PMID:24921042

  8. How geomorphology and groundwater level affect the spatio-temporal variability of riverine cold water patches?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wawrzyniak, Vincent; Piégay, Hervé; Allemand, Pascal; Vaudor, Lise; Goma, Régis; Grandjean, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Temperature is a key factor for river ecosystems. In summer, patches of cold water are formed in the river by groundwater seepage. These patches have strong ecological significance and extend to the surface water in a well-mixed riverine system. These patches can serve as thermal refuges for some fish species during summer. In this study, the temporal variability and spatial distribution of cold water patches were explored along a 50 km river reach (the lower Ain River, France) using thermal infrared airborne remote sensing. This study examines a new range of processes acting on cold water patches at different scales that have not previously been touched upon in the literature. Three airborne campaigns were conducted during the summers of 2010, 2011 and 2014. Based on these images, a large number of cold water patches were identified using an automated method. Four types of patches were observed: tributary plumes, cold side channels (former channels or point-bar backwater channels), side seeps (located directly in the river channel) and gravel bar seeps (occurring at the downstream end of gravel bars). Logistic regression was used to analyse the longitudinal distribution of cold water patches according to geomorphologic indicators reflecting current or past fluvial process. Side seeps were found to be related to the local geology. Cold side channels were correlated to contemporary and past lateral river mobility. Gravel bar seeps were related to the current development of bars and are more prevalent in wandering reaches than in single-bed incised and paved reaches. The logistic model was subsequently used to evaluate gravel bar seep variability in the past. The model suggests larger numbers of seeps in the mid-20th century when bar surface area was higher. Interannual variability in the occurrence and spatial extent of side seeps and gravel bar seeps appear to be related to groundwater level fluctuations. Cold side channels exhibited greater interannual stability

  9. Steady hydrodynamic loads due to vortex shedding from the OTEC cold water pipe. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, O.M.

    1982-01-13

    This report is limited in scope to consideration of the problems caused by vortex shedding from flexible, bluff cylinders in steady current flows, as these problems apply to the OTEC cold water pipe. In particular, the steady deflections caused by the amplified drag forces that accompany vortex-excited oscillations are considered. Emphasis placed upon the discussion of design methods, applications of these methods to practical problems, and comparison with available experimental data. A discussion is given of laboratory and field studies that have been conducted with model OTEC cold water pipes. Various devices that have been developed for the suppression of vortex-excited oscillations also are discussed. A comparison is made of the effectiveness of various suppresion devices and procedures, and practical approaches to implementing their application are presented. The implications of vortex-induced hydrodynamic drag and the suppression of vortex-excited oscillations in OTEC cold water pipe design are discussed briefly.

  10. Contamination of the cold water distribution system of health care facilities by Legionella pneumophila: do we know the true dimension?

    PubMed

    Arvand, M; Jungkind, K; Hack, A

    2011-04-21

    German water guidelines do not recommend routine assessment of cold water for Legionella in healthcare facilities, except if the water temperature at distal sites exceeds 25°C. This study evaluates Legionella contamination in cold and warm water supplies of healthcare facilities in Hesse, Germany, and analyses the relationship between cold water temperature and Legionella contamination. Samples were collected from four facilities, with cases of healthcare-associated Legionnaires' disease or notable contamination of their water supply. Fifty-nine samples were from central lines and 625 from distal sites, comprising 316 cold and 309 warm water samples. Legionella was isolated from central lines in two facilities and from distal sites in four facilities. 17% of all central and 32% of all distal samples were contaminated. At distal sites, cold water samples were more frequently contaminated with Legionella (40% vs 23%, p <0.001) and with higher concentrations of Legionella (≥1,000 colony-forming unit/100 ml) (16% vs 6%, p<0.001) than warm water samples. There was no clear correlation between the cold water temperature at sampling time and the contamination rate. 35% of cold water samples under 20 °C at collection were contaminated. Our data highlight the importance of assessing the cold water supply of healthcare facilities for Legionella in the context of an intensified analysis.

  11. Clumped isotope composition of cold-water corals: A role for vital effects?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spooner, Peter T.; Guo, Weifu; Robinson, Laura F.; Thiagarajan, Nivedita; Hendry, Katharine R.; Rosenheim, Brad E.; Leng, Melanie J.

    2016-04-01

    The carbonate clumped isotope thermometer is a promising tool for determining past ocean temperatures. It is based on the temperature dependence of rare isotopes 'clumping' into the same carbonate ion group in the carbonate mineral lattice. The extent of this clumping effect is independent of the isotope composition of the water from which carbonate precipitates, providing unique advantages over many other paleotemperature proxies. Existing calibrations of this thermometer in cold-water and warm-water corals suggest clumped isotope 'vital effects' are negligible in cold-water corals but may be significant in warm-water corals. Here, we test the calibration of the carbonate clumped isotope thermometer in cold-water corals with a recently collected and well characterised sample set spanning a range of coral genera (Balanophyllia, Caryophyllia, Dasmosmilia, Desmophyllum, Enallopsammia and Javania). The clumped isotope compositions (Δ47) of these corals exhibit systematic dependences on their growth temperatures, confirming the basis of the carbonate clumped isotope thermometer. However, some cold-water coral genera show Δ47 values that are higher than the expected equilibrium values by up to 0.05‰ (equivalent to underestimating temperature by ∼9 °C) similar to previous findings for some warm-water corals. This finding suggests that the vital effects affecting corals Δ47 are common to both warm- and cold-water corals. By comparison with models of the coral calcification process we suggest that the clumped isotope offsets in these genera are related to the kinetic isotope effects associated with CO2 hydration/hydroxylation reactions in the corals' calcifying fluid. Our findings complicate the use of the carbonate clumped isotope thermometer in corals, but suggest that species- or genus-specific calibrations could be useful for the future application of this paleotemperature proxy.

  12. Upwelling relaxation and estuarine plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Shivanesh; Pringle, James; Austin, Jay

    2011-09-01

    After coastal upwelling, the water properties in the nearshore coastal region close to estuaries is determined by the race between the new estuarine plume traveling along the coast and the upwelled front (a marker for the old upwelled plume and the coastal pycnocline) returning to the coast under downwelling winds. Away from an estuary, downwelling winds can return the upwelled front to the coast bringing less dense water nearshore. Near the estuary, the estuarine plume can arrive along the coast and return less dense water to the nearshore region before the upwelled front returns to the coast. Where the plume brings less dense water to the coast first, the plume keeps the upwelled front from returning to the coast. In this region, only the plume and the anthropogenic input and larvae associated with the plume waters influence the nearshore after upwelling. We quantify the extent of the region where the plume is responsible for bringing less dense water to the nearshore and keeping the upwelled front from returning to the coast after upwelling. We successfully tested our predictions against numerical experiments and field observations of the Chesapeake plume near Duck, North Carolina. We argue that this alongshore region exists for other estuaries where the time-integrated upwelling and downwelling wind stresses are comparable.

  13. Influence of the geologic and geomorphologic characteristics and of crab burrows on the interrelation between surface water and groundwater in an estuarine coastal wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carol, Eleonora S.; Kruse, Eduardo E.; Pousa, Jorge L.

    2011-06-01

    SummaryThe interrelation between surface water and groundwater in intertidal flats is often studied through mathematical models. In many cases these models need to be supported by an integral analysis of the geologic, geomorphologic, hydrologic and biological characteristics of the environment that are to be obtained from field surveys. The marshy environment of the River Ajo in the Samborombon Bay wetland, Argentina, is a typical example of an estuarine coastal zone. Geologic and geomorphologic surveys were carried out, as well as measurements of surface water and groundwater level changes as a response of the aquifer to tidal forcing. The banks of the River Ajo are either scarped with storm flats, or mildly sloped with intertidal flats and numerous crab burrows. Sediments are mainly silty-clayey with low permeability, and lie over silty-sandy layers. At the erosion scarps the tidal wave enters the aquifer as a sub-horizontal flow through the pore space of the sediments. The tidal range in the aquifer depends on the lithological characteristics of the sediments and on the side changes of their hydraulic conductivity. The rise of the water table at high water and its subsequent fall are nearly sinusoidal, with a period similar to that of the tide at the river. At the intertidal flats, instead, the tidal wave enters the aquifer mainly as a sub-vertical flow through the crab burrows. As the crab burrows are not interconnected, they are not distinct pathways for preferential flow. Therefore, the groundwater flux into the river is very slow during low water, and the recovery of the water table takes a long time. The tidal influence upon the water table on both kinds of banks affects only a narrow strip of the aquifer. Not only are the characteristics of the marshy environment of the River Ajo representative of most of the Samborombon Bay wetland; they can also be extended to other similar coastal wetlands to help preserve these invaluable environments.

  14. Linking benthic hydrodynamics and cold-water coral occurrences: A high-resolution model study at three cold-water coral provinces in the NE Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohn, Christian; Rengstorf, Anna; White, Martin; Duineveld, Gerard; Mienis, Furu; Soetaert, Karline; Grehan, Anthony

    2014-03-01

    Observations from numerous cold-water coral locations in the NE Atlantic show energetic near-bottom flow dynamics along the European continental margin at individual coral mounds and mound clusters. Dynamics are largely controlled by tide-topography interaction generating and enhancing periodic motions such as trapped waves, freely propagating internal tides and internal hydraulic jumps. In this study, linkages between key abiotic parameters and cold water coral occurrences are explored across entire cold-water coral mound provinces using an integrated modelling and observational approach. The 3-D ocean circulation model ROMS-AGRIF was applied to simulate near-bottom hydrodynamic conditions at three provinces in the NE Atlantic (Logachev mounds, Arc mounds and Belgica mounds) adopting a nested model setup with a central grid resolution of 250 m. Simulations were carried out with a focus on accurate high-resolution topography and tidal forcing. The central model bathymetry was taken from high-resolution INSS (Irish National Seabed Survey) seafloor mapping data. The model was integrated over a full one-year reference period starting from the 1st January 2010. Interannual variability was not considered. Tidal forcing was obtained from a global solution of the Oregon State University (OSU) inverse tidal model. Modelled fields of benthic currents were validated against available independent in situ observations. Coral assemblage patterns (presence and absence locations) were obtained from benthic surveys of the EU FP7 CoralFISH programme and supplemented by data from additional field surveys. Modelled near-bottom currents, temperature and salinity were analysed for a 1-month subset (15th April to 15th May 2010) corresponding to the main CoralFISH survey period. The model results show intensified near-bottom currents in areas where living corals are observed by contrast with coral absence and random background locations. Instantaneous and time-mean current speeds at

  15. Estuarine Food Webs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuaries provide habitat for abundant plants, animals and micro-organisms, ranging from microscopic plankton (bacteria, yeasts, algae, protozoa) to larger benthic and pelagic organisms (seagrass, clams, crabs, sea trout, pelicans and dolphins). Estuarine biota can be characteri...

  16. Clumped Isotope Composition of Cold-Water Corals: A Role for Vital Effects?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spooner, P.; Guo, W.; Robinson, L. F.

    2014-12-01

    Measurements on a set of cold-water corals (mainly Desmophyllum dianthus) have suggested that their clumped isotope composition could serve as a promising proxy for reconstructing paleocean temperatures. Such measurements have also offered support for certain isotope models of coral calcification. However, there are differences in the clumped isotope compositions between warm-water and cold-water corals, suggesting that different kinds of corals could have differences in their biocalcification processes. In order to understand the systematics of clumped isotope variations in cold-water corals more fully, we present clumped isotope data from a range of cold-water coral species from the tropical Atlantic and the Southern Ocean.Our samples were either collected live or recently dead (14C ages < 1,000 yrs) with associated temperature data. They include a total of 11 solitary corals and 1 colonial coral from the Atlantic, and 8 solitary corals from the Southern Ocean. The data indicate that coral clumped isotope systematics may be more complicated than previously thought. For example, for the genus Caryophyllia we observe significant variations in clumped isotope compositions for corals which grew at the same temperature with an apparent negative correlation between Δ47 and δ18O, different to patterns previously observed in Desmophyllum. These results indicate that existing isotope models of biocalcification may not apply equally well to all corals. Clumped isotope vital effects may be present in certain cold-water corals as they are in warm-water corals, complicating the use of this paleoclimate proxy.

  17. Sudden Clearing of Estuarine Waters upon Crossing the Threshold from Transport to Supply Regulation of Sediment Transport as an Erodible Sediment Pool is Depleted: San Francisco Bay, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2011-01-01

    The quantity of suspended sediment in an estuary is regulated either by transport, where energy or time needed to suspend sediment is limiting, or by supply, where the quantity of erodible sediment is limiting. This paper presents a hypothesis that suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) in estuaries can suddenly decrease when the threshold from transport to supply regulation is crossed as an erodible sediment pool is depleted. This study was motivated by a statistically significant 36% step decrease in SSC in San Francisco Bay from water years 1991-1998 to 1999-2007. A quantitative conceptual model of an estuary with an erodible sediment pool and transport or supply regulation of sediment transport is developed. Model results confirm that, if the regulation threshold was crossed in 1999, SSC would decrease rapidly after water year 1999 as observed. Estuaries with a similar history of a depositional sediment pulse followed by erosion may experience sudden clearing. ?? 2011 Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation (outside the USA).

  18. Methodology to assess the mobility of trace elements between water and contaminated estuarine sediments as a function of the site physico-chemical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Fdez-Ortiz de Vallejuelo, Silvia; Gredilla, Ainara; de Diego, Alberto; Arana, Gorka; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2014-03-01

    This work presents an innovative methodology to have a rapid diagnosis about the mobility of selected trace elements of known toxicity and biological risk (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn and Zn) present in contaminated sediments. The novel strategy presented in this work uses, therefore, the own estuarine water in contact with sediments as the extracting agent to perform the mobility tests, simulating the real situation of the estuary. This water suffers from different physico-chemical conditions (low and high tides) and gives consequently, rather better information than the one obtained by the routine sequential extraction procedures. The final step of this methodology was the use of spatial modelling by kriging method and multivariate chemometric analysis, both for a better interpretation of the results. To achieve this goal, sediment and water samples were strategically collected at eight different points (four in tributary rivers, one in a closed dock, two in the main channel and another one in the mouth) along the Nerbioi-Ibaizabal River estuary (Metropolitan Bilbao, Basque Country) approximately every three months (summer, autumn, winter and spring) during a whole year. Physico-chemical changes, such as pH, carbonate content and organic matter of the sediments, together with variations in water salinity appear to be responsible for metal mobility from the sediment to the water layer. The influence of these variables was higher in the sites located close to the sea. Moreover, the mobility of trace elements was even higher at high tide in sediments with lower metal content.

  19. The interaction of human microbial pathogens, particulate material and nutrients in estuarine environments and their impacts on recreational and shellfish waters.

    PubMed

    Malham, Shelagh K; Rajko-Nenow, Paulina; Howlett, Eleanor; Tuson, Karen E; Perkins, Tracy L; Pallett, Denise W; Wang, Hui; Jago, Colin F; Jones, Davey L; McDonald, James E

    2014-09-20

    Anthropogenic activities have increased the load of faecal bacteria, pathogenic viruses and nutrients in rivers, estuaries and coastal areas through point and diffuse sources such as sewage discharges and agricultural runoff. These areas are used by humans for both commercial and recreational activities and are therefore protected by a range of European Directives. If water quality declines in these zones, significant economic losses can occur. Identifying the sources of pollution, however, is notoriously difficult due to the ephemeral nature of discharges, their diffuse source, and uncertainties associated with transport and transformation of the pollutants through the freshwater-marine interface. Further, significant interaction between nutrients, microorganisms and particulates can occur in the water column making prediction of the fate and potential infectivity of human pathogenic organisms difficult to ascertain. This interaction is most prevalent in estuarine environments due to the formation of flocs (suspended sediment) at the marine-freshwater interface. A range of physical, chemical and biological processes can induce the co-flocculation of microorganisms, organic matter and mineral particles resulting in pathogenic organisms becoming potentially protected from a range of biotic (e.g. predation) and abiotic stresses (e.g. UV, salinity). These flocs contain and retain macro- and micro- nutrients allowing the potential survival, growth and transfer of pathogenic organisms to commercially sensitive areas (e.g. beaches, shellfish harvesting waters). The flocs can either be transported directly to the coastal environment or can become deposited in the estuary forming cohesive sediments where pathogens can survive for long periods. Especially in response to storms, these sediments can be subsequently remobilised releasing pulses of potential pathogenic organisms back into the water column leading to contamination of marine waters long after the initial

  20. Living benthic foraminiferal species as indicators of cold-warm water masses interaction and upwelling areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichler, Patrícia P. B.; Pimenta, Felipe M.; Eichler, Beatriz B.; Vital, Helenice

    2016-03-01

    The western South Atlantic continental margin, between 27° and 37°S, is dominated by four main water masses: cold-fresh Subantarctic Shelf Water (SASW), warm-salty Subtropical Shelf Water (STSW), cold upwelled South Atlantic Central Water (SACW), and fresh Plata Plume Water (PPW). Despite the large seasonal variability of PPW extension along the shelf, an intense and relatively stable temperature-salinity gradient separates the SASW and the STSW forming the Subtropical Shelf Front (STSF) around 32°S. The two dominant shelf water masses (SASW and STSW) arise from the process of mixing of oceanic waters. The SASW originates from the dilution of Subantarctic Water due to excess precipitation and continental runoff, and the STSW consists of modified warm tropical waters and South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) diluted below PPW. A previous article demonstrates distribution of Bulimina marginata, a shelf environment and deep-sea species of benthic foraminifera, is influenced by the front location and it can be used as a proxy of the STSF in sediment core analysis. Here we show three other infaunal living species inhabiting at the Continental margin: Buccella peruviana, Globocassidulina subglobosa and Uvigerina peregrina and their distribution limits show the interaction of Subantartic Shelf Water, Subtropical Shelf Water, and upwelling of SACW, in the bottom sediment of coastal studied areas.

  1. Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility tempered water and tempered water cooling system design description

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1998-11-30

    This document provides the System Design Description (SDD) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Tempered Water (TW) and Tempered Water Cooling (TWC) System . The SDD was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-002, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998), The HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-O02, 1998, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, and the CVDF Design Summary Report. The SDD contains general descriptions of the TW and TWC equipment, the system functions, requirements and interfaces. The SDD provides references for design and fabrication details, operation sequences and maintenance. This SOD has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

  2. Primer for identifying cold-water refuges to protect and restore thermal diversity in riverine landscapes

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA recently released a primer that provides guidance to Region 10 Tribes, States, and local watershed community groups to support the identification, protection, and restoration of critical cold water refuges for the protection of salmonids. This primer will assist these entiti...

  3. Direct and indirect methods for determining plasma volume during thermoneutral and cold-water immersion.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Christopher J; Fogarty, Alison L; Greenleaf, John E; Taylor, Nigel A S; Stocks, Jodie M

    2003-06-01

    Plasma volume (PV), determined indirectly from changes in haematocrit (Hct) and haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), underestimates the absolute PV change (Evans blue dye) during thermoneutral immersion. Since PV changes during cold-water immersion have only been determined indirectly, we hypothesised that a similar underestimation may occur. Therefore, we compared the indirectly-measured PV with a direct-tracer dilution method (Evans blue dye column elution) in seven healthy males, during three, 60-min exposures: air (control; 21.2 degrees C), thermoneutral immersion (34.5 degrees C) and cold-water immersion (18.6 degrees C). During thermoneutral immersion, the directly-measured PV increased by 16.2 (1.4)% (P<0.05) and the indirectly-measured by 8.5 (0.8)% (P<0.05), with the latter underestimating the former by 43 (9.1)% (P<0.05). During cold immersion, the direct PV decreased by 17.9 (3.0)% (P<0.05) and the indirect by 8.0 (1.2)% (P<0.05), with the latter representing a 52 (6.8)% (P<0.05) underestimation of the direct PV change. Directionally-equivalent underestimations of PV change occur when using the indirect method during both thermoneutral and cold-water immersion. The assumptions inherent in the indirect method (constant F-cell ratio) appear to be violated during water immersion. PMID:12712349

  4. Mixing Hot and Cold Water Streams at a T-Junction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, David; Zhang, Mingqian; Xu, Zhenghe; Ryan, Jim; Wanke, Sieghard; Afacan, Artin

    2008-01-01

    A simple mixing of a hot- and cold-water stream at a T-junction was investigated. The main objective was to use mass and energy balance equations to predict mass low rates and the temperature of the mixed stream after the T-junction, and then compare these with the measured values. Furthermore, the thermocouple location after the T-junction and…

  5. 21 CFR 890.5720 - Water circulating hot or cold pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Water circulating hot or cold pack. 890.5720 Section 890.5720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5720...

  6. 21 CFR 890.5720 - Water circulating hot or cold pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Water circulating hot or cold pack. 890.5720 Section 890.5720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5720...

  7. 21 CFR 890.5720 - Water circulating hot or cold pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water circulating hot or cold pack. 890.5720 Section 890.5720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5720...

  8. 21 CFR 890.5720 - Water circulating hot or cold pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Water circulating hot or cold pack. 890.5720 Section 890.5720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5720...

  9. 21 CFR 890.5720 - Water circulating hot or cold pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Water circulating hot or cold pack. 890.5720 Section 890.5720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5720...

  10. Modern estuarine siliceous spiculites, Tasmania, Australia: A non-polar link to Phanerozoic spiculitic cherts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, C. M.; James, N. P.; Kyser, T. K.; Barrett, N.; Hirst, A. J.

    2008-02-01

    Biosiliceous sedimentary rocks are well known from the geologicrecord and many are correctly interpreted to have formed indeep-water or cold-water environments. Shallow non-polar spiculitesare also known from the rock record, yet no modern analog hasbeen documented for such environments. Bathurst Harbour, anestuarine system in southwest Tasmania, provides this much-neededmodern analog. In this system a sharp halocline separates tannin-richlow-salinity surface waters from clear marine bottom waters.Tannins supply few nutrients and substantially reduce lightpenetration to bottom environments, resulting in a thinned photiczone and the mixing of deeper-water sub-photic biotas of softcorals, bryozoans, and sponges with other organisms more typicalof this temperate shallow-water environment. The well-definedhalocline allows a typically marine biota, including echinoderms,to live in bottom waters of this estuarine setting. The bioclasticfactory, producing both carbonate and siliceous particles, existsin marine subphotic bottom waters of incised channel and shallowrocky environments along the shoreline. Extensive organic-richsoft sediments in protected embayments generate few bioclasts,but contain allochthonous sponge spicules transported from theadjacent bioclastic factory. Trapping of organic material withinthe estuarine system lowers sediment pH and promotes dissolutionof carbonate biofragments, resulting in preferential preservationof siliceous sponge spicules. This situation implies that manybiosiliceous neritic deposits in the rock record may be theresult of similar preferential preservation.

  11. Cold-water coral growth under extreme environmental conditions, the Cape Lookout area, NW Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mienis, F.; Duineveld, G. C. A.; Davies, A. J.; Lavaleye, M. M. S.; Ross, S. W.; Seim, H.; Bane, J.; van Haren, H.; Bergman, M. J. N.; de Haas, H.; Brooke, S.; van Weering, T. C. E.

    2014-05-01

    The Cape Lookout cold-water coral area off the coast of North Carolina forms the shallowest and northernmost cold-water coral mound area on the Blake Plateau in the NW Atlantic. Cold-water coral habitats near Cape Lookout are occasionally bathed in the Gulf Stream, which is characterised by oligotrophic warm water and strong surface currents. Here, we present the first insights into the mound distribution and morphology, sedimentary environment and coral cover and near-bed environmental conditions as recorded by bottom landers from this coral area. The mounds occur between 320 and 550 m water depth and are characterised by high acoustic backscatter indicating the presence of hard structure. Three distinct mound morphologies were observed: (1) a mound with a flattened top at 320 m, (2) multi-summited mounds with a teardrop shape in the middle part of the area and (3) a single mound at 540 m water depth. Echosounder profiles show the presence of a strong reflector underneath all mound structures that forms the base of the mounds. This reflector cropped out at the downstream side of the single mound and consists of carbonate slabs. Video analysis revealed that all mounds are covered by Lophelia pertusa and that living colonies only occur close to the summits of the SSW side of the mounds, which is the side that faces the strongest currents. Off-mound areas were characterised by low backscatter and sediment ripples, indicating the presence of relatively strong bottom currents. Two bottom landers were deployed amidst the coral mounds between December 2009 and May 2010. Both landers recorded prominent events, characterised by large fluctuations in environmental conditions near the seabed as well as in the overlying water column. The period between December and April was characterised by several events of increasing temperature and salinity, coinciding with increased flow and near-bed acoustic backscatter. During these events temperature fluctuated by up to 9 °C within a

  12. Cold-water coral growth under extreme environmental conditions, the Cape Lookout area, NW Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mienis, F.; Duineveld, G.; Davies, A. J.; Lavaleye, M. J. N.; Ross, S. W.; Seim, H.; Bane, J.; van Haren, H.; Bergman, M.; de Haas, H.; Brooke, S.; van Weering, T.

    2013-12-01

    The Cape Lookout cold-water coral area off the coast of North Carolina forms the shallowest and northernmost cold-water coral mound area on the Blake Plateau in the NW Atlantic. Cold-water coral habitats near Cape Lookout are occasionally bathed in the Gulf Stream, which is characterised by oligotrophic warm water and strong surface currents. Here, we present the first insights into the mound distribution and morphology, sedimentary environment and coral cover and near-bed environmental conditions as recorded by bottom landers from this coral area. The mounds occur between 320-550 m water depth and are characterised by high acoustic backscatter indicating the presence of hard structure. Three distinct mound morphologies were observed, (1) a mound with a flattened top at 320 m, (2) multi-summited mounds with a tear drop shape in the middle part of the area and (3) a single mound at 540 m water depth. Echosounder profiles show the presence of a strong reflector underneath all mound structures that forms the base of the mounds. This reflector cropped out at the downstream side of the single mound and consists of carbonate slabs. Video analysis revealed that all mounds are covered by Lophelia pertusa and that living colonies only occur close to the summits of the SSW side of the mounds, which is the side that faces the strongest currents. Off mound areas were characterised by low backscatter and sediment ripples, indicating the presence of relatively strong bottom currents. Two bottom landers were deployed amidst the coral mounds between December 2009 and May 2010. Both landers recorded prominent features near the seabed as well as in the overlying water column. The period between December and April was characterised by several events of increasing temperature and salinity, coinciding with increased flow and near-bed acoustic backscatter. During these events temperature fluctuated by up to 9 °C within a day, which is the largest temperature variability as measured so

  13. Impact of climate and hydrology on juvenile fish recruitment towards estuarine nursery grounds in the context of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinagre, Catarina; Santos, Filipe Duarte; Cabral, Henrique Nogueira; Costa, Maria José

    2009-11-01

    Larvae of various coastal fish undergo immigration from spawning grounds towards estuarine nurseries. Several environmental factors can have an important impact on survival at this stage making it crucial for recruitment. Generalized linear models were applied in order to investigate the relation between river drainage, sea surface temperature (SST), NAO index and the North-South wind component intensity, over the two months prior to the estuarine colonization peak, and the densities of Platichthys flesus, Dicentrarchus labrax, Diplodus vulgaris and Diplodus bellottii in the nursery grounds based on a discontinuous historical dataset (from 1978 to 2006), for the Tagus estuary. The relation between SST over the 12 months prior to the estuarine colonization peak and fish densities in the nurseries was also investigated, as it integrates the periods of spawning stock maturation, spawning and larval immigration. While SST over the prior 12 months was negatively correlated with the abundance of P. flesus, it was positively correlated with the abundance of D. bellottii. Abundance of D. vulgaris was positively correlated with SST in the two months prior to the estuarine colonization peak, while the abundance of D. labrax was positively correlated with river drainage. The relations between SST and the abundance of P. flesus, a cold-water species with declining densities, and the subtropical species D. bellottii and D. vulgaris, which are increasing in abundance, are indicative of species abundance alterations related to climate warming. Dicentrarchus labrax will probably also be affected by climate change because of lowered precipitation and consequently river drainage.

  14. The Mpemba effect: When can hot water freeze faster than cold?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeng, Monwhea

    2006-06-01

    We review the Mpemba effect, where initially hot water freezes faster than initially cold water. Although the effect might appear impossible, it has been observed in numerous experiments and was discussed by Aristotle, Francis Bacon, Roger Bacon, and Descartes. It has a rich and fascinating history, including the story of the secondary school student, Erasto Mpemba, who reintroduced the effect to the twentieth century scientific community. The phenomenon is simple to describe and illustrates numerous important issues about the scientific method: the role of skepticism in scientific inquiry, the influence of theory on experiment and observation, the need for precision in the statement of a scientific hypothesis, and the nature of falsifiability. Proposed theoretical mechanisms for the Mpemba effect and the results of contemporary experiments on the phenomenon are surveyed. The observation that hot water pipes are more likely to burst than cold water pipes is also discussed.

  15. Simulation modeling of estuarine ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    A simulation model has been developed of Galveston Bay, Texas ecosystem. Secondary productivity measured by harvestable species (such as shrimp and fish) is evaluated in terms of man-related and controllable factors, such as quantity and quality of inlet fresh-water and pollutants. This simulation model used information from an existing physical parameters model as well as pertinent biological measurements obtained by conventional sampling techniques. Predicted results from the model compared favorably with those from comparable investigations. In addition, this paper will discuss remotely sensed and conventional measurements in the framework of prospective models that may be used to study estuarine processes and ecosystem productivity.

  16. Cassini detection of Enceladus's cold water-group plume ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Tokar, Robert L; Thomsen, Michelle F; Wilson, Robert J; Johnson, R E; Young, D T; Crary, F J; Coates, A J; Jones, G H; Paty, C S

    2009-01-01

    This study reports direct detection by the Cassini plasma spectrometer of freshly-produced water-group ions (O{sup +}, OH{sup +}, H{sub 2}O{sup +}, H{sub 3}O{sup +}) and heavier water dimer ions (H{sub x}O{sub 2}{sup +}) very close to Enceladus and where the plasma begins to emerge from the Enceladus plume The data wcre obtained during two close (52 and 25 km) flybys of Enceladus in 2008, and are similar to ion data in cometary comas. The ions are observed in detectors looking in the Cassini ram direction at energies consistent with the Cassini speed, indicating a nearly stagnant plasma flow in the plume. North of Enceladus the plasma slowing commences about 4 to 6 Enceladus radii away, while south of Enccladus signatures ofthe interaction are detected as far as 22 Enceladus radii away.

  17. Cassini detection of Enceladus' cold water-group plume ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokar, R. L.; Johnson, R. E.; Thomsen, M. F.; Wilson, R. J.; Young, D. T.; Crary, F. J.; Coates, A. J.; Jones, G. H.; Paty, C. S.

    2009-07-01

    This study reports direct detection by the Cassini plasma spectrometer of freshly-produced water-group ions (O+, OH+, H2O+, H3O+) and heavier water dimer ions (HxO2)+ very close to Enceladus where the plasma begins to emerge from the plume. The data were obtained during two close (52 and 25 km) flybys of Enceladus in 2008 and are similar to ion data in cometary comas. The ions are observed in detectors looking in the Cassini ram direction exhibiting energies consistent with the Cassini speed, indicative of a nearly stagnant plasma flow in the plume. North of Enceladus the plasma slowing commences about 4 to 6 Enceladus radii away, while south of Enceladus signatures of the plasma interaction with the plume are detected 22 Enceladus radii away.

  18. A flow transducer for cold water using ferrofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crainic, Monica Sabina; Schlett, Zeno

    2004-01-01

    As water is a limited, vulnerable, and regenerable natural resource, it is necessary that it should be protected and managed economically. Proper management requires, among other things, carrying out measurements in order to control water consumption. Flowmeters with characteristic equations based on the pressure drop are non-linear and the liquid measured is not proportional to the pressure drop. The flow meters most frequently used are those with local hydraulic resistance (Industrial Flow Measurement, Bucharest Technical House, Bucharest, 1988; Mesure des vitesse des fluides, Masson, Paris, New York, Barcelona, Milan, Mexico, San Paulo, 1986). Usually, the local hydraulic resistance for liquid flows can be obtained by decreasing the flowing section, as in the case of Venturi tubes. While Venturi tubes have a high reliability, they have some disadvantages which consist in difficult manufacturing, high price, and difficult replacement with another element for the flow section decrease. These drawbacks may be avoided by manufacturing an induction flow transducer with magnetic liquids for the measurement of the liquid flows. In this context, the article presents for the first time the operating principle and the "flow-voltage" characteristic curve of an inductive ferrofluids flow transducer for water in the case of a turbulent flow regime. The transducer uses the magnetic liquid properties and has no moving parts (components). It can be used in stationary flowing conditions. The device can be adapted to virtually any flow range by using a section pipe and an adequate U-tube manometer.

  19. The Validity Chlorophyll-a Estimation by Sun Induced Fluorescence in Estuarine Waters: An Analysis of Long-term (2003-2011) Water Quality Data from Tampa Bay, Florida (USA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno-Madrinan, Max Jacobo; Fischer, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Satellite observation of phytoplankton concentration or chlorophyll-a is an important characteristic, critically integral to monitoring coastal water quality. However, the optical properties of estuarine and coastal waters are highly variable and complex and pose a great challenge for accurate analysis. Constituents such as suspended solids and dissolved organic matter and the overlapping and uncorrelated absorptions in the blue region of the spectrum renders the blue-green ratio algorithms for estimating chlorophyll-a inaccurate. Measurement of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence, on the other hand, which utilizes the near infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, may provide a better estimate of phytoplankton concentrations. While modelling and laboratory studies have illustrated both the utility and limitations of satellite baseline algorithms based on the sun induced chlorophyll fluorescence signal, few have examined the empirical validity of these algorithms using a comprehensive long term in situ data set. In an unprecedented analysis of a long term (2003-2011) in situ monitoring data from Tampa Bay, Florida (USA), we assess the validity of the FLH product from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) against chlorophyll ]a and a suite of water quality parameters taken in a variety of conditions throughout a large optically complex estuarine system. A systematic analysis of sampling sites throughout the bay is undertaken to understand how the relationship between FLH and in situ chlorophyll-a responds to varying conditions within the estuary including water depth, distance from shore and structures and eight water quality parameters. From the 39 station for which data was derived, 22 stations showed significant correlations when the FLH product was matched with in situ chlorophyll-alpha data. The correlations (r2) for individual stations within Tampa Bay ranged between 0.67 (n=28, pless than 0.01) and-0.457 (n=12, p=.016), indicating that

  20. Calcification rates and the effect of ocean acidification on Mediterranean cold-water corals.

    PubMed

    Maier, C; Watremez, P; Taviani, M; Weinbauer, M G; Gattuso, J P

    2012-05-01

    Global environmental changes, including ocean acidification, have been identified as a major threat to scleractinian corals. General predictions are that ocean acidification will be detrimental to reef growth and that 40 to more than 80 per cent of present-day reefs will decline during the next 50 years. Cold-water corals (CWCs) are thought to be strongly affected by changes in ocean acidification owing to their distribution in deep and/or cold waters, which naturally exhibit a CaCO(3) saturation state lower than in shallow/warm waters. Calcification was measured in three species of Mediterranean cold-water scleractinian corals (Lophelia pertusa, Madrepora oculata and Desmophyllum dianthus) on-board research vessels and soon after collection. Incubations were performed in ambient sea water. The species M. oculata was additionally incubated in sea water reduced or enriched in CO(2). At ambient conditions, calcification rates ranged between -0.01 and 0.23% d(-1). Calcification rates of M. oculata under variable partial pressure of CO(2) (pCO(2)) were the same for ambient and elevated pCO(2) (404 and 867 µatm) with 0.06 ± 0.06% d(-1), while calcification was 0.12 ± 0.06% d(-1) when pCO(2) was reduced to its pre-industrial level (285 µatm). This suggests that present-day CWC calcification in the Mediterranean Sea has already drastically declined (by 50%) as a consequence of anthropogenic-induced ocean acidification.

  1. Argon used as dry suit insulation gas for cold-water diving

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cold-water diving requires good thermal insulation because hypothermia is a serious risk. Water conducts heat more efficiently compared to air. To stay warm during a dive, the choice of thermal protection should be based on physical activity, the temperature of the water, and the duration of exposure. A dry suit, a diving suit filled with gas, is the most common diving suit in cold water. Air is the traditional dry suit inflation gas, whereas the thermal conductivity of argon is approximately 32% lower compared to that of air. This study evaluates the benefits of argon, compared to air, as a thermal insulation gas for a dry suit during a 1-h cold-water dive by divers of the Royal Netherlands Navy. Methods Seven male Special Forces divers made (in total) 19 dives in a diving basin with water at 13°C at a depth of 3 m for 1 h in upright position. A rubber dry suit and woollen undergarment were used with either argon (n = 13) or air (n = 6) (blinded to the divers) as suit inflation gas. Core temperature was measured with a radio pill during the dive. Before, halfway, and after the dive, subjective thermal comfort was recorded using a thermal comfort score. Results No diver had to abort the test due to cold. No differences in core temperature and thermal comfort score were found between the two groups. Core temperature remained unchanged during the dives. Thermal comfort score showed a significant decrease in both groups after a 60-min dive compared to baseline. Conclusions In these tests the combination of the dry suit and undergarment was sufficient to maintain core temperature and thermal comfort for a dive of 1 h in water at 13°C. The use of argon as a suit inflation gas had no added value for thermal insulation compared to air for these dives. PMID:24438580

  2. The Validity CHLOROPHYLL-α Estimation by Sun Induced Fluorescence in Estuarine Waters: AN Analysis of Long-Term (2003-2011) Water Data from Tampa Bay, Florida (usa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno Madriñán, M. J.; Fischer, A.

    2012-12-01

    Satellite observation of phytoplankton concentration or chlorophyll-a is an important characteristic, critically integral to monitoring coastal water quality. However, the optical properties of estuarine and coastal waters are highly variable and complex and pose a great challenge for accurate analysis. Constituents such as suspended solids and dissolved organic matter and the overlapping and uncorrelated absorptions in the blue region of the spectrum renders the blue-green ratio algorithms for estimating chlorophyll-a inaccurate. Measurement of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence, on the other hand, which utilizes the near infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, may provide a better estimate of phytoplankton concentrations. While modelling and laboratory studies have illustrated both the utility and limitations of satellite baseline algorithms based on the sun induced chlorophyll fluorescence signal, few have examined the empirical validity of these algorithms using a comprehensive long term in situ data set. In an unprecedented analysis of a long term (2003-2011) in situ monitoring data from Tampa Bay, Florida (USA), we assess the validity of the FLH product from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) against chlorophyll-a and a suite of water quality parameters taken in a variety of conditions throughout a large optically complex estuarine system. A systematic analysis of sampling sites throughout the bay is undertaken to understand how the relationship between FLH and in situ chlorophyll-a responds to varying conditions within the estuary including water depth, distance from shore and structures and eight water quality parameters. From the 39 station for which data was derived, 22 stations showed significant correlations when the FLH product was matched with in situ chlorophyll-α data. The correlations (r2) for indvudual stations within Tampa Bay ranged between 0.67 (n=28, p<0.01) and -0.457 (n=12, p=.016), indicating that for some

  3. Estuarine Food for Thought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M�ller-Solger, A. B.; M�ller-Navarra, D. B.

    2002-12-01

    Recent research in animal and human nutrition has shown the importance of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) such as the n-3 LC-PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). These LC-PUFA are needed for healthy development and functioning of the nervous and vascular systems. De novo synthesis or elongation to LC-PUFA in animals is inefficient at best; thus sufficient amounts of these PUFA must be supplied by food sources. Algae, especially diatoms, dinoflagellates, and cryptophytes, are the quantitatively most important producers of EPA and DHA. These types of algae often dominate estuarine producer communities. The upper San Francisco Estuary is no exception, and we found its LC-PUFA-rich phytoplankton biomass, but not the quantitatively prevalent terrestrial plant detritus, to be highly predictive of zooplankton (Daphnia) growth. In contrast, in freshwater lakes dominated by relatively LC-PUFA-poor phytoplankton, EPA, not total phytoplankton biomass, best predicted Daphnia growth. The commonly high abundance of LC-PUFA-rich algae in estuaries may help explain the high trophic efficiencies in these systems and resulting high consumer production. Moreover, LC-PUFA-rich estuarine food resources may also provide essential nutrition and associated health and evolutionary benefits to land-dwelling consumers of such foods, including humans. Ensuring LC-PUFA-rich, uncontaminated estuarine production is thus an important goal for estuarine restoration and a convincing argument for estuarine conservation.

  4. Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility process water conditioning system design description

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1998-11-30

    This document provides the System Design Description (SDD) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Process Water Conditioning (PWC) System. The SDD was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-002, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998), the HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-O02, 1998, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, and the CVDF Design Summary Report. The SDD contains general descriptions of the PWC equipment, the system functions, requirements and interfaces. The SDD provides references for design and fabrication details, operation sequences and maintenance. This SDD has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

  5. Human thermal responses during leg-only exercise in cold water.

    PubMed Central

    Golden, F S; Tipton, M J

    1987-01-01

    1. Exercise during immersion in cold water has been reported by several authors to accelerate the rate of fall of core temperature when compared with rates seen during static immersion. The nature of the exercise performed, however, has always been whole-body in nature. 2. In the present investigation fifteen subjects performed leg exercise throughout a 40 min head-out immersion in water at 15 degrees C. The responses obtained were compared with those seen when the subjects performed an identical static immersion. 3. Aural and rectal temperatures were found to fall by greater amounts during static immersion. 4. It is concluded that 'the type of exercise performed' should be included in the list of factors which affect core temperature during cold water immersion. PMID:3443951

  6. The effect of clothing on the initial ventilatory responses during cold-water immersion.

    PubMed

    Martin, S; Diewold, R J; Cooper, K E

    1978-10-01

    The effect of clothing on ventilatory responses during cold-water immersion was studied. Subjects were immersed in water at 13.9 degrees C on two occasions wearing either a bathing suit only or clothed with jacket, shirt, pants, and sports shoes. It was found that the initial gasp and subsequent minutes of expired ventilation were significantly attenuated, whereas the changes in end-tidal PCO2 were only significantly different for the 2nd and 3rd min of the immersion. It would appear that the use of clothing may prove beneficial during the first few minutes of a cold-water immersion by decreasing the powerful drive to increased respiration. PMID:709429

  7. Habituation of the initial responses to cold water immersion in humans: a central or peripheral mechanism?

    PubMed Central

    Tipton, Michael J; Eglin, Clare M; Golden, Frank St C

    1998-01-01

    The initial respiratory and cardiac responses to cold water immersion are thought to be responsible for a significant number of open water deaths each year. Previous research has demonstrated that the magnitude of these responses can be reduced by repeated immersions in cold waterwhether the site of habituation is central or peripheral.Two groups of subjects undertook two 3 min head-out immersions in stirred water at 10 °C of the right-hand side of the body (R). Between these two immersions (3 whole days) the control group (n = 7) were not exposed to cold water, but the habituation group (n = 8) undertook a further six 3 min head-out immersions in stirred water at 10 °C of the left-hand side of the body (L).Repeated L immersions reduced (P < 0.01) the heart rate, respiratory frequency and volume responses. During the second R immersion a reduction (P < 0.05) in the magnitude of the responses evoked was seen in the habituation group but not in the control group, despite both groups having identical skin temperature profiles.It is concluded that the mechanisms involved in producing habituation of the initial responses are located more centrally than the peripheral receptors. PMID:9763650

  8. Temperature dependence of habituation of the initial responses to cold-water immersion.

    PubMed

    Tipton, M J; Golden, F S; Higenbottam, C; Mekjavic, I B; Eglin, C M

    1998-08-01

    The initial responses to cold-water immersion, evoked by stimulation of peripheral cold receptors, include tachycardia, a reflex inspiratory gasp and uncontrollable hyperventilation. When immersed naked, the maximum responses are initiated in water at 10 degrees C, with smaller responses being observed following immersion in water at 15 degrees C. Habituation of the initial responses can be achieved following repeated immersions, but the specificity of this response with regard to water temperature is not known. Thirteen healthy male volunteers were divided into a control (C) group (n = 5) and a habituation (H) group (n = 8). Each subject undertook two 3-min head-out immersions in water at 10 degrees C wearing swimming trunks. These immersions took place at a corresponding time of day with 4 days separating the two immersions. In the intervening period the C group were not exposed to cold water, while the H group undertook another six, 3-min, head-out immersions in water at 15 degrees C. Respiratory rate (fR), inspiratory minute volume (VI) and heart rate (fH) were measured continuously throughout each immersion. Following repeated immersions in water at 15 degrees C, the fR, VI and fH responses of the H group over the first 30 s of immersion were reduced (P < 0.01) from 33.3 breaths x min(-1), 50.5 l x min(-1) and 114 beats x min(-1) respectively, to 19.8 breaths x min(-1) 26.41 x min(-1) and 98 beats x min(-1), respectively. In water at 10 degrees C these responses were reduced (P < 0.01) from 47.3 breaths x min(-1), 67.61 x min(-1) and 128 beats x min(-1) to 24.0 breaths x min(-1), 29.5 l x min(-1) and 109 beats x min(-1), respectively over a corresponding period of immersion. Similar reductions were observed during the last 2.5 min of immersions. The initial responses of the C group were unchanged. It is concluded that habituation of the cold shock response can be achieved by immersion in warmer water than that for which protection is required. This suggests

  9. Cold Water Fish Gelatin Methacryloyl Hydrogel for Tissue Engineering Application

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hee Jeong; Shin, Su Ryon; Cha, Jae Min; Lee, Soo-Hong; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Do, Jeong Tae; Song, Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    Gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) is a versatile biomaterial that has been used in various biomedical fields. Thus far, however, GelMA is mostly obtained from mammalian sources, which are associated with a risk of transmission of diseases, such as mad cow disease, as well as certain religious restrictions. In this study, we synthesized GelMA using fish-derived gelatin by a conventional GelMA synthesis method, and evaluated its physical properties and cell responses. The lower melting point of fish gelatin compared to porcine gelatin allowed larger-scale synthesis of GelMA and enabled hydrogel fabrication at room temperature. The properties (mechanical strength, water swelling degree and degradation rate) of fish GelMA differed from those of porcine GelMA, and could be tuned to suit diverse applications. Cells adhered, proliferated, and formed networks with surrounding cells on fish GelMA, and maintained high initial cell viability. These data suggest that fish GelMA could be utilized in a variety of biomedical fields as a substitute for mammalian-derived materials. PMID:27723807

  10. Influence of pyridostigmine bromide on human thermoregulation during cold-water immersion

    SciTech Connect

    Cadarette, B.S.; Prusaczyk, W.K.; Sawka, M.N. )

    1991-03-11

    This study examined the effects of an oral 30 mg dose of pyridostigmine bromide (PYR) on thermoregulatory and physiological responses during cold stress. Six men were immersed in chilled stirred water for up to 180 minutes; once 2 hours following ingestion of PYR and once 2 hours following ingestion of a placebo (CON). With PYR, mean ({plus minus} SD) red blood cell cholinesterase inhibition was 33 ({plus minus}12)% at 110 minutes post-ingestion. Cholinesterase inhibition was negatively related to lean body mass. Abdominal discomfort caused termination in 3 of 6 PYR experiments ({bar X} immersion time = 117 min) but in no CON experiments ({bar X} immersion time = 142 min, p > 0.05). During immersion, metabolic rate increased significantly over pre-immersion levels, and increased with duration of immersion, but did not differ between conditions. PYR had no significant effect on rectal temperature, mean body temperature, thermal sensation, heart rate, or plasma cortisol concentration. It was concluded that a 30 mg dose of PYR does not increase susceptibility to hypothermia in humans immersed in cold-water; however, in combination with cold-stress, PYR may result in marked abdominal cramping and limit cold tolerance.

  11. Urinary thrombomodulin and catecholamine levels are interrelated in healthy volunteers immersed in cold and warm water.

    PubMed

    Pakanen, Lasse; Pääkkönen, Tiina; Ikäheimo, Tiina M; Rintamäki, Hannu; Leppäluoto, Juhani; Kaija, Helena; Kortelainen, Marja-Leena; Rautio, Arja; Porvari, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Severe hypothermia has been shown to influence the levels of catecholamines and thrombomodulin, an endothelial protein essentially involved in the regulation of haemostasis and inflammation. A link between thrombomodulin and catecholamines during cold exposure has also been previously suggested. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of short-term cold exposure without hypothermia on catecholamines and the circulating and urinary thrombomodulin levels. Seven healthy male subjects were immersed in cold water (+10°C) for 10 minutes followed by a 20-minute immersion in +28°C water. Warm water immersion was performed separately for each subject (+30°C for 30 minutes). Thrombomodulin and catecholamine concentrations were measured from pre- and post-immersion (up to 23 hours) samples. In urine, the thrombomodulin level correlated strongly with adrenaline (ρ = 0.806) and noradrenaline (ρ = 0.760) levels. There were no significant differences in thrombomodulin levels between immersion temperatures. Post-immersion urinary thrombomodulin levels were significantly lower than the pre-immersion level at both immersion temperatures. Median concentrations of plasma noradrenaline and urinary adrenaline were higher after exposure to +10°C than to +30°C. Thus, further evidence of the association between thrombomodulin and catecholamines was gained in a physiologically relevant setting in humans. Additionally, it is evident that a short-term cold exposure was not able to elicit changes in the thrombomodulin levels in a follow-up period of up to 23 hours. These findings provide further understanding of the physiological responses to cold during immersion, and of the potential influence of stress on haemostatic and inflammatory responses. PMID:27227082

  12. Phosphorus in Cold-Water Corals as a Proxy for Seawater Nutrient Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montagna, Paolo; McCulloch, Malcolm; Taviani, Marco; Mazzoli, Claudio; Vendrell, Begoña

    2006-06-01

    Phosphorus is a key macronutrient being strongly enriched in the deep ocean as a result of continuous export and remineralization of biomass from primary production. We show that phosphorus incorporated within the skeletons of the cosmopolitan cold-water coral Desmophyllum dianthus is directly proportional to the ambient seawater phosphorus concentration and thus may serve as a paleo-oceanographic proxy for variations in ocean productivity as well as changes in the residence times and sources of deep-water masses. The application of this tool to fossil specimens from the Mediterranean reveals phosphorus-enriched bottom waters at the end of the Younger Dryas period.

  13. Radon concentrations in spa water taken from hot and cold springs in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Weng, P S; Lin, C L

    1995-05-01

    Spa water samples taken from hot and cold springs throughout Taiwan were analyzed for waterborne radon concentrations using electret ion chambers. The highest radon concentration was detected at Yangmingshan National Park, where it is closed to the action level of 11.0 kBq m-3. Next comes a sea-water hot spring at Green Isle on the east coast of Taiwan. The spa water used by the nearby inhabitants may increase the indoor radon concentration by a factor of two in extreme cases.

  14. Slow climate velocities of mountain streams portend their role as refugia for cold-water biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Isaak, Daniel J; Young, Michael K; Luce, Charles H; Hostetler, Steven W; Wenger, Seth J; Peterson, Erin E; Ver Hoef, Jay M; Groce, Matthew C; Horan, Dona L; Nagel, David E

    2016-04-19

    The imminent demise of montane species is a recurrent theme in the climate change literature, particularly for aquatic species that are constrained to networks and elevational rather than latitudinal retreat as temperatures increase. Predictions of widespread species losses, however, have yet to be fulfilled despite decades of climate change, suggesting that trends are much weaker than anticipated and may be too subtle for detection given the widespread use of sparse water temperature datasets or imprecise surrogates like elevation and air temperature. Through application of large water-temperature databases evaluated for sensitivity to historical air-temperature variability and computationally interpolated to provide high-resolution thermal habitat information for a 222,000-km network, we estimate a less dire thermal plight for cold-water species within mountains of the northwestern United States. Stream warming rates and climate velocities were both relatively low for 1968-2011 (average warming rate = 0.101 °C/decade; median velocity = 1.07 km/decade) when air temperatures warmed at 0.21 °C/decade. Many cold-water vertebrate species occurred in a subset of the network characterized by low climate velocities, and three native species of conservation concern occurred in extremely cold, slow velocity environments (0.33-0.48 km/decade). Examination of aggressive warming scenarios indicated that although network climate velocities could increase, they remain low in headwaters because of strong local temperature gradients associated with topographic controls. Better information about changing hydrology and disturbance regimes is needed to complement these results, but rather than being climatic cul-de-sacs, many mountain streams appear poised to be redoubts for cold-water biodiversity this century.

  15. Slow climate velocities of mountain streams portend their role as refugia for cold-water biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Isaak, Daniel J; Young, Michael K; Luce, Charles H; Hostetler, Steven W; Wenger, Seth J; Peterson, Erin E; Ver Hoef, Jay M; Groce, Matthew C; Horan, Dona L; Nagel, David E

    2016-04-19

    The imminent demise of montane species is a recurrent theme in the climate change literature, particularly for aquatic species that are constrained to networks and elevational rather than latitudinal retreat as temperatures increase. Predictions of widespread species losses, however, have yet to be fulfilled despite decades of climate change, suggesting that trends are much weaker than anticipated and may be too subtle for detection given the widespread use of sparse water temperature datasets or imprecise surrogates like elevation and air temperature. Through application of large water-temperature databases evaluated for sensitivity to historical air-temperature variability and computationally interpolated to provide high-resolution thermal habitat information for a 222,000-km network, we estimate a less dire thermal plight for cold-water species within mountains of the northwestern United States. Stream warming rates and climate velocities were both relatively low for 1968-2011 (average warming rate = 0.101 °C/decade; median velocity = 1.07 km/decade) when air temperatures warmed at 0.21 °C/decade. Many cold-water vertebrate species occurred in a subset of the network characterized by low climate velocities, and three native species of conservation concern occurred in extremely cold, slow velocity environments (0.33-0.48 km/decade). Examination of aggressive warming scenarios indicated that although network climate velocities could increase, they remain low in headwaters because of strong local temperature gradients associated with topographic controls. Better information about changing hydrology and disturbance regimes is needed to complement these results, but rather than being climatic cul-de-sacs, many mountain streams appear poised to be redoubts for cold-water biodiversity this century. PMID:27044091

  16. Slow climate velocities of mountain streams portend their role as refugia for cold-water biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Isaak, Daniel J.; Young, Michael K.; Luce, Charles H.; Hostetler, Steven W.; Wenger, Seth J.; Peterson, Erin E.; Ver Hoef, Jay M.; Groce, Matthew C.; Horan, Dona L.; Nagel, David E.

    2016-01-01

    The imminent demise of montane species is a recurrent theme in the climate change literature, particularly for aquatic species that are constrained to networks and elevational rather than latitudinal retreat as temperatures increase. Predictions of widespread species losses, however, have yet to be fulfilled despite decades of climate change, suggesting that trends are much weaker than anticipated and may be too subtle for detection given the widespread use of sparse water temperature datasets or imprecise surrogates like elevation and air temperature. Through application of large water-temperature databases evaluated for sensitivity to historical air-temperature variability and computationally interpolated to provide high-resolution thermal habitat information for a 222,000-km network, we estimate a less dire thermal plight for cold-water species within mountains of the northwestern United States. Stream warming rates and climate velocities were both relatively low for 1968–2011 (average warming rate = 0.101 °C/decade; median velocity = 1.07 km/decade) when air temperatures warmed at 0.21 °C/decade. Many cold-water vertebrate species occurred in a subset of the network characterized by low climate velocities, and three native species of conservation concern occurred in extremely cold, slow velocity environments (0.33–0.48 km/decade). Examination of aggressive warming scenarios indicated that although network climate velocities could increase, they remain low in headwaters because of strong local temperature gradients associated with topographic controls. Better information about changing hydrology and disturbance regimes is needed to complement these results, but rather than being climatic cul-de-sacs, many mountain streams appear poised to be redoubts for cold-water biodiversity this century. PMID:27044091

  17. A Picture on the Wall: Innovative Mapping Reveals Cold-Water Coral Refuge in Submarine Canyon

    PubMed Central

    Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Tyler, Paul A.; Masson, Doug G.; Fisher, Elizabeth H.; Hauton, Chris; Hühnerbach, Veit; Le Bas, Timothy P.; Wolff, George A.

    2011-01-01

    Cold-water corals are azooxanthellate species found throughout the ocean at water depths down to 5000 m. They occur in patches, reefs or large mound structures up to 380 m high, and as ecosystem engineers create important habitats for a diverse fauna. However, the majority of these habitats are now within reach of deep-sea bottom trawling. Many have been severely damaged or are under threat, despite recent protection initiatives. Here we present a cold-water coral habitat type that so far has been overlooked – quite literally – and that has received minimal impact from human activities. Vertical and overhanging cliffs in deep-sea canyons, revealed using an innovative approach to marine habitat mapping, are shown to provide the perfect substratum for extensive cold-water coral-based communities. Typical canyon-related processes, including locally enhanced internal tides and focussed downslope organic carbon transport, provide favourable environmental conditions (current regime, food input) to sustain the communities, even outside the optimal depth and density envelopes reported elsewhere in the NE Atlantic. Our findings show that deep-sea canyons can form natural refuges for faunal communities sensitive to anthropogenic disturbance, and have the potential to fulfil the crucial role of larval sources for the recolonisation of damaged sites elsewhere on the margin. PMID:22194903

  18. A picture on the wall: innovative mapping reveals cold-water coral refuge in submarine canyon.

    PubMed

    Huvenne, Veerle A I; Tyler, Paul A; Masson, Doug G; Fisher, Elizabeth H; Hauton, Chris; Hühnerbach, Veit; Le Bas, Timothy P; Wolff, George A

    2011-01-01

    Cold-water corals are azooxanthellate species found throughout the ocean at water depths down to 5000 m. They occur in patches, reefs or large mound structures up to 380 m high, and as ecosystem engineers create important habitats for a diverse fauna. However, the majority of these habitats are now within reach of deep-sea bottom trawling. Many have been severely damaged or are under threat, despite recent protection initiatives. Here we present a cold-water coral habitat type that so far has been overlooked--quite literally--and that has received minimal impact from human activities. Vertical and overhanging cliffs in deep-sea canyons, revealed using an innovative approach to marine habitat mapping, are shown to provide the perfect substratum for extensive cold-water coral-based communities. Typical canyon-related processes, including locally enhanced internal tides and focussed downslope organic carbon transport, provide favourable environmental conditions (current regime, food input) to sustain the communities, even outside the optimal depth and density envelopes reported elsewhere in the NE Atlantic. Our findings show that deep-sea canyons can form natural refuges for faunal communities sensitive to anthropogenic disturbance, and have the potential to fulfil the crucial role of larval sources for the recolonisation of damaged sites elsewhere on the margin.

  19. A picture on the wall: innovative mapping reveals cold-water coral refuge in submarine canyon.

    PubMed

    Huvenne, Veerle A I; Tyler, Paul A; Masson, Doug G; Fisher, Elizabeth H; Hauton, Chris; Hühnerbach, Veit; Le Bas, Timothy P; Wolff, George A

    2011-01-01

    Cold-water corals are azooxanthellate species found throughout the ocean at water depths down to 5000 m. They occur in patches, reefs or large mound structures up to 380 m high, and as ecosystem engineers create important habitats for a diverse fauna. However, the majority of these habitats are now within reach of deep-sea bottom trawling. Many have been severely damaged or are under threat, despite recent protection initiatives. Here we present a cold-water coral habitat type that so far has been overlooked--quite literally--and that has received minimal impact from human activities. Vertical and overhanging cliffs in deep-sea canyons, revealed using an innovative approach to marine habitat mapping, are shown to provide the perfect substratum for extensive cold-water coral-based communities. Typical canyon-related processes, including locally enhanced internal tides and focussed downslope organic carbon transport, provide favourable environmental conditions (current regime, food input) to sustain the communities, even outside the optimal depth and density envelopes reported elsewhere in the NE Atlantic. Our findings show that deep-sea canyons can form natural refuges for faunal communities sensitive to anthropogenic disturbance, and have the potential to fulfil the crucial role of larval sources for the recolonisation of damaged sites elsewhere on the margin. PMID:22194903

  20. Interpreting the temperature of water at cold springs and the importance of gravitational potential energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manga, Michael; Kirchner, James W.

    2004-05-01

    Circulating groundwater transports heat. If groundwater flow velocities are sufficiently high, most of the subsurface heat transport can occur by advection. This is the case, for example, in the Cascades volcanic arc where much of the background geothermal heat is transported advectively and then discharged when the groundwater emerges at springs. The temperature of spring water can thus be used to infer the geothermal heat flux. If spring water temperature is many degrees warmer than the ambient temperature, as it is at hot springs, determining the heat discharged at springs is straightforward. At large-volume cold springs, however, the geothermal warming of water is small because the added heat is diluted in a large volume of water. We show that in order to interpret the temperature of cold springs we must account for three processes: (1) conversion of gravitational potential energy to heat through viscous dissipation, (2) conduction of heat to or from the Earth's surface, and (3) geothermal warming. Using spring temperature data from the central Oregon Cascades and Mount Shasta, California, we show that the warming due to surface heat exchange and dissipation of gravitational potential energy can be comparable to that due to geothermal heating. Unless these confounding sources of heating are taken into account, estimates of geothermal heat flux derived from temperatures of cold springs can be incorrect by large factors.

  1. Spatial Variability of Factors Influencing the Distribution of Triclosan in Sediments and Water of an Urbanized Estuarine Embayment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triclosan (TCS) is a broad spectrum anti-microbial compound added to many consumer and personal care products. TCS enters water bodies primarily through wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent and may be introduced by combined sewer overflows or surface water runoff. In estu...

  2. RELATIONS BETWEEN BACTERIAL NITROGEN METABOLISM AND GROWTH EFFICIENCY IN AN ESTUARINE AND AN OPEN-WATER ECOSYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bacterial uptake or release of dissolved nitrogen compounds (amino nitrogen, urea, ammonium and nitrate) were examined in 0.8 |m filtered water from an estuary (Santa Rosa Sound [SRS], northwestern Florida) and an open-water location in the Gulf of Mexico [GM]. The bacterial nutr...

  3. Water-quality data from continuously monitored sites in the Albemarle Sound estuarine system, North Carolina, 1989-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrett, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    Water-quality measurements were made at 11 sites in or near North Carolina?s Albemarle Sound. Measurements taken at 15-minute intervals included near-surface and near-bottom specific conductance; near-surface water temperature; and near-surface, mid-depth, and near-bottom dissolved-oxygen concentrations. Salinities generally ranged from less than 0.1 to about 32 parts per thousand during the period October 1989 through September 1991. Recorded water temperatures were between zero and 35 degrees Celsius during the measurement period. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations ranged from less than 1 milligram per liter to 19 milligrams per liter. Daily mean values of specific conductance; salinity; water temperature; dissolved-oxygen concentrations; and dissolved oxygen, percent saturation, are presented in tables and graphs. Five-day mean values of water temperature and dissolved-oxygen concentrations for day and night conditions are also presented in tables.

  4. Impact of water stagnation in residential cold and hot water plumbing on concentrations of trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids.

    PubMed

    Dion-Fortier, Annick; Rodriguez, Manuel J; Sérodes, Jean; Proulx, François

    2009-07-01

    This study demonstrates that levels of trihalomethanes (THMs) increase considerably when cold water stagnates in residential pipes and, more significantly, when water remains in the hot water tank. Levels of haloacetic acids (HAAs) increase as well in both cases, but less significantly in comparison to THMs. The study also demonstrates that in both the plumbing system and residential hot water tank, chlorinated and brominated DBP species do not behave in the same manner. Finally, the study shows that sustained use of water in households helps to maintain THM and HAA levels close to those found in water of the distribution system. The results are useful to identify methods of indoor water use that minimize population exposure to DBPs and improve DBP exposure assessment for epidemiological studies. PMID:19476964

  5. COLD-WATER CORALS AND HYDROCHEMISTRY - is there a unifying link?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flögel, Sascha; Rüggeberg, Andres; Mienis, Furu; Dullo, Wolf-Christian

    2010-05-01

    Physical and chemical parameters were measured in five different regions of the Northeast Atlantic with known occurrences of cold-water coral reefs and mounds and in the Mediterranean, where these corals form living carpets over existing morphologies. In this study we analyzed 282 bottom water samples regarding delta13CDIC, delta18O, and DIC. The hydrochemical data reveal characteristic patterns and differences for cold-water coral sites with living coral communities and ongoing reef and mound growth at the Irish and Norwegian sites. While the localities in the Mediterranean, in the Gulf of Cadiz, and off Mauritania show only patchy coral growth on mound-like reliefs and various substrates. The analysis of delta13C/delta18O reveals distinct clusters for the different regions and the respective bottom water masses bathing the delta18O, and especially between delta13CDIC and DIC shows that DIC is a parameter with high sensitivity to the mixing of bottom water masses. It varies distinctively between sites with living reefs/mounds and sites with restricted patchy growth or dead corals. Results suggest that DIC and delta13CDIC can provide additional insights into the mixing of bottom water masses. Prolific cold-water coral growth forming giant biogenic structures plot into a narrow geochemical window characterized by a variation of delta13CDIC between 0.45 and 0.79 per mille being associated with the water mass having a density of sigma-theta of 27.5±0.15 kg m-3.

  6. An interdisciplinary study of the estuarine and coastal oceanography of Block Island Sound and adjacent New York coastal waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The synoptic repetitive coverage of the multispectral imagery from the ERTS-1 satellite, when photographically reprocessed using the state-of-the-art techniques, has given indication of spectral differences in Block Island and adjacent New England waters which were heretofore unknown. Of particular interest was the possible detection of relatively small amounts of phytoplankton prior to the occurrence of the red tide in Massachusetts waters. Preparation of spatial and temporal hydrographic charts using ERTS-1 imagery and ground truth analysis will hopefully determine the environmental impact on New York coastal waters.

  7. Cold-Climate Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems: Cost/Benefit Analysis and Opportunities for Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, J.; Hillman, T.; Salasovich, J.

    2005-01-01

    To determine potential for reduction in the cost of saved energy (COSE) for cold-climate solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems, COSE was computed for three types of cold climate water heating systems. For each system, a series of cost-saving measures was considered: (1) balance of systems (BOS): tank, heat exchanger, and piping-valving measures; and (2) four alternative lower-cost collectors. Given all beneficial BOS measures in place, >50% reduction of COSE was achievable only with selective polymer collectors at half today's selective collector cost. In all three system types, today's metal-glass selective collector achieved the same COSE as the hypothesized non-selective polymer collector.

  8. The use of aircraft and satellite remote sensing of phytoplankton chlorophyll concentrations in case 2 estuarine waters of the Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Lawrence W., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Two projects using remote sensing of phytoplankton chlorophyll concentrations in the Chesapeake Bay estuary were proposed. The first project used aircraft remote sensing with a compact radiometer system developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), the Ocean Data Acquisition System (ODAS). ODAS includes three radiometers at 460, 490, and 520 nm, an infrared temperature sensor (PRT-5), Loran-C for navigation, and a data acquisition system using a PC and mass storage device. This instrument package can be flown in light aircraft at relatively low expense, permitting regular and frequent flights. Sixteen flights with ODAS were completed using the Virginia Institute of Marine Science's De Havilland 'Beaver'. The goal was to increase spatial and temporal resolution in assaying phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Chesapeake. At present, analysis is underway of flight data collected between March and July 1989. The second project focused on satellite data gathered with the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZSC) between late 1978 and mid 1986. The problem in using CZSC data for the Chesapeake Bay is that the optical characteristics of this (and many) coastal and estuarine waters are distinct from those of the open ocean for which algorithms for computing pigment concentrations were developed. The successful use of CZCS data for the estuary requires development of site-specific algorithms and analytical approaches. Of principal importance in developing site-specific procedures is the availability of in-situ data on pigment concentrations. A significant data set was acquired from EPA's Chesapeake Bay Program in Annapolis, Maryland, and clear satellite scenes are being analyzed for which same-day sea truth measurements of pigment were obtained. Both the University of Miami and GSFC Seapak systems are being used in this effort. The main finding to date is an expected one, i.e., the algorithms developed for oceanic waters are inadequate to compute pigment

  9. Ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus in the Pearl River and effects on the estuarine coastal waters: Nutrient management strategy in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Kedong; Harrison, Paul J.; Broom, Malcolm; Chung, C. H.

    The Pearl River is the second largest river in China, and has a 454,000 km 2 drainage basin. Excess nutrients can result in algal blooms, or even harmful algal blooms and subsequent dissolved oxygen (DO) consumption can lead to hypoxia. However, not all nutrients are equal; only one nutrient relative to other nutrients is the most limiting for algal biomass production and the other nutrients that are in excess cannot be used to produce a further increase in an algal bloom. Therefore, the strategy of nutrient pollution control is to remove the most limiting nutrient from the sewage effluent to minimize eutrophication impacts on the receiving waters. This, in turn, determines the type and level of sewage treatment. In the Pearl River, nitrogen (N) is very high and phosphorus (P) is relatively low, leading to a very high N:P ratio. The Pearl River flows into coastal waters in the South China Sea and heavily influences Hong Kong waters located to the east of the Pearl River estuary. When the Hong Kong government planned to upgrade the domestic sewage facility to biological treatment, this triggered the scientific question of which nutrient, N or P is the most limiting nutrient and the answer to this question became critical in making the management decision on the treatment facilities for removal of N or P, which bears a huge financial implication. In the past, because N is high in southern waters, it was thought that any addition of N would exceed the environmental assimilation capacity and result in algal blooms. Therefore, N has been typically considered for removal from sewage effluent. However, evidence revealed that P was the most limiting nutrient in the southern waters of Hong Kong and it actually limits phytoplankton biomass accumulation and potentially limits bacterial DO consumption. Hence, the removal of P has been suggested to receive priority over N removal, if there is a need for the future elevation of treatment levels. However, as this conclusion is

  10. The Effects of Multiple Cold Water Immersions on Indices of Muscle Damage

    PubMed Central

    Goodall, Stuart; Howatson, Glyn

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to elucidate the efficacy of repeated cold water immersions (CWI) in the recovery of exercise induced muscle damage. A randomised group consisting of eighteen males, mean ± s age, height and body mass were 24 ± 5 years, 1.82 ± 0.06 m and 85.7 ± 16.6 kg respectively, completed a bout of 100 drop jumps. Following the bout of damaging exercise, participants were randomly but equally assigned to either a 12 min CWI (15 ± 1 °C; n = 9) group who experienced immersions immediately post-exercise and every 24 h thereafter for the following 3 days, or a control group (no treatment; n = 9). Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the knee extensors, creatine kinase activity (CK), muscle soreness (DOMS), range of motion (ROM) and limb girth were measured pre-exercise and then for the following 96 h at 24 h increments. In addition MVC was also recorded immediately post-exercise. Significant time effects were seen for MVC, CK, DOMS and limb girth (p < 0.05) indicating muscle damage was evident, however there was no group effect or interaction observed showing that CWI did not attenuate any of the dependent variables (p > 0.05). These results suggest that repeated CWI do not enhance recovery from a bout of damaging eccentric contractions. Key pointsCryotherapy, particularly cold water immersions are one of the most common interventions used in order to enhance recovery post-exercise.There is little empirical evidence demonstrating benefits from cold water immersions. Research evidence is equivocal, probably due to methodological inconsistencies.Our results show that the cryotherapy administered did not attenuate any markers of EIMD or enhance the recovery of function.We conclude that repeated cold water immersions are ineffective in the recovery from heavy plyometric exercise and suggest athletes and coaches should use caution before using this intervention as a recovery strategy PMID:24149455

  11. Spatial Scales of Bacterial Diversity in Cold-Water Coral Reef Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Schöttner, Sandra; Wild, Christian; Hoffmann, Friederike; Boetius, Antje; Ramette, Alban

    2012-01-01

    Background Cold-water coral reef ecosystems are recognized as biodiversity hotspots in the deep sea, but insights into their associated bacterial communities are still limited. Deciphering principle patterns of bacterial community variation over multiple spatial scales may however prove critical for a better understanding of factors contributing to cold-water coral reef stability and functioning. Methodology/Principal Findings Bacterial community structure, as determined by Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA), was investigated with respect to (i) microbial habitat type and (ii) coral species and color, as well as the three spatial components (iii) geomorphologic reef zoning, (iv) reef boundary, and (v) reef location. Communities revealed fundamental differences between coral-generated (branch surface, mucus) and ambient microbial habitats (seawater, sediments). This habitat specificity appeared pivotal for determining bacterial community shifts over all other study levels investigated. Coral-derived surfaces showed species-specific patterns, differing significantly between Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata, but not between L. pertusa color types. Within the reef center, no community distinction corresponded to geomorphologic reef zoning for both coral-generated and ambient microbial habitats. Beyond the reef center, however, bacterial communities varied considerably from local to regional scales, with marked shifts toward the reef periphery as well as between different in- and offshore reef sites, suggesting significant biogeographic imprinting but weak microbe-host specificity. Conclusions/Significance This study presents the first multi-scale survey of bacterial diversity in cold-water coral reefs, spanning a total of five observational levels including three spatial scales. It demonstrates that bacterial communities in cold-water coral reefs are structured by multiple factors acting at different spatial scales, which has fundamental

  12. Marine and Estuarine Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reish, Donald J.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the effects of various pollutants on marine and estuarine organisms, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) effects of pesticides, dredging, dumping, sludge, and petroleum hydrocarbons; and (2) diseases and tissue abnormalities. A list of 441 references is also presented. (HM)

  13. Physiological response of the cold-water coral Desmophyllum dianthus to thermal stress and ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Gori, Andrea; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine; Hennige, Sebastian J; Murray, Fiona; Rottier, Cécile; Wicks, Laura C; Roberts, J Murray

    2016-01-01

    Rising temperatures and ocean acidification driven by anthropogenic carbon emissions threaten both tropical and temperate corals. However, the synergistic effect of these stressors on coral physiology is still poorly understood, in particular for cold-water corals. This study assessed changes in key physiological parameters (calcification, respiration and ammonium excretion) of the widespread cold-water coral Desmophyllum dianthus maintained for ∼8 months at two temperatures (ambient 12 °C and elevated 15 °C) and two pCO2 conditions (ambient 390 ppm and elevated 750 ppm). At ambient temperatures no change in instantaneous calcification, respiration or ammonium excretion rates was observed at either pCO2 levels. Conversely, elevated temperature (15 °C) significantly reduced calcification rates, and combined elevated temperature and pCO2 significantly reduced respiration rates. Changes in the ratio of respired oxygen to excreted nitrogen (O:N), which provides information on the main sources of energy being metabolized, indicated a shift from mixed use of protein and carbohydrate/lipid as metabolic substrates under control conditions, to less efficient protein-dominated catabolism under both stressors. Overall, this study shows that the physiology of D. dianthus is more sensitive to thermal than pCO2 stress, and that the predicted combination of rising temperatures and ocean acidification in the coming decades may severely impact this cold-water coral species.

  14. Physiological response of the cold-water coral Desmophyllum dianthus to thermal stress and ocean acidification

    PubMed Central

    Ferrier-Pagès, Christine; Hennige, Sebastian J.; Murray, Fiona; Rottier, Cécile; Wicks, Laura C.; Roberts, J. Murray

    2016-01-01

    Rising temperatures and ocean acidification driven by anthropogenic carbon emissions threaten both tropical and temperate corals. However, the synergistic effect of these stressors on coral physiology is still poorly understood, in particular for cold-water corals. This study assessed changes in key physiological parameters (calcification, respiration and ammonium excretion) of the widespread cold-water coral Desmophyllum dianthus maintained for ∼8 months at two temperatures (ambient 12 °C and elevated 15 °C) and two pCO2 conditions (ambient 390 ppm and elevated 750 ppm). At ambient temperatures no change in instantaneous calcification, respiration or ammonium excretion rates was observed at either pCO2 levels. Conversely, elevated temperature (15 °C) significantly reduced calcification rates, and combined elevated temperature and pCO2 significantly reduced respiration rates. Changes in the ratio of respired oxygen to excreted nitrogen (O:N), which provides information on the main sources of energy being metabolized, indicated a shift from mixed use of protein and carbohydrate/lipid as metabolic substrates under control conditions, to less efficient protein-dominated catabolism under both stressors. Overall, this study shows that the physiology of D. dianthus is more sensitive to thermal than pCO2 stress, and that the predicted combination of rising temperatures and ocean acidification in the coming decades may severely impact this cold-water coral species. PMID:26855864

  15. OTEC cold water pipe design for problems caused by vortex-excited oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, O. M.

    1980-03-14

    Vortex-excited oscillations of marine structures result in reduced fatigue life, large hydrodynamic forces and induced stresses, and sometimes lead to structural damage and to diestructive failures. The cold water pipe of an OTEC plant is nominally a bluff, flexible cylinder with a large aspect ratio (L/D = length/diameter), and is likely to be susceptible to resonant vortex-excited oscillations. The objective of this report is to survey recent results pertaining to the vortex-excited oscillations of structures in general and to consider the application of these findings to the design of the OTEC cold water pipe. Practical design calculations are given as examples throughout the various sections of the report. This report is limited in scope to the problems of vortex shedding from bluff, flexible structures in steady currents and the resulting vortex-excited oscillations. The effects of flow non-uniformities, surface roughness of the cylinder, and inclination to the incident flow are considered in addition to the case of a smooth cyliner in a uniform stream. Emphasis is placed upon design procedures, hydrodynamic coefficients applicable in practice, and the specification of structural response parameters relevant to the OTEC cold water pipe. There are important problems associated with in shedding of vortices from cylinders in waves and from the combined action of waves and currents, but these complex fluid/structure interactions are not considered in this report.

  16. Cold-water immersion alters muscle recruitment and balance of basketball players during vertical jump landing.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Christiane de Souza Guerino; Vicente, Rafael Chagas; Cesário, Mauricio Donini; Guirro, Rinaldo Roberto de Jesus

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of cold-water immersion on the electromyographic (EMG) response of the lower limb and balance during unipodal jump landing. The evaluation comprised 40 individuals (20 basketball players and 20 non-athletes). The EMG response in the lateral gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, fibular longus, rectus femoris, hamstring and gluteus medius; amplitude and mean speed of the centre of pressure, flight time and ground reaction force (GRF) were analysed. All volunteers remained for 20 min with their ankle immersed in cold-water, and were re-evaluated immediately post and after 10, 20 and 30 min of reheating. The Shapiro-Wilk test, Friedman test and Dunn's post test (P < 0.05) were used. The EMG response values decreased for the lateral gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, fibular longus and rectus femoris of both athletes and non-athletes (P < 0.05). The comparison between the groups showed that the EMG response was lower for the athletes. Lower jump flight time and GRF, greater amplitude and mean speed of centre of pressure were predominant in the athletes. Cold-water immersion decreased the EMG activity of the lower limb, flight time and GRF and increased the amplitude and mean speed of centre of pressure.

  17. Permanence of the habituation of the initial responses to cold-water immersion in humans.

    PubMed

    Tipton, M J; Mekjavic, I B; Eglin, C M

    2000-09-01

    Sudden immersion in cold water initiates an inspiratory gasp response followed by uncontrollable hyperventilation and tachycardia. It is known that this response, termed the "cold shock" response, can be attenuated following repeated immersion. In the present investigation we examined how long this habituation lasts. Twelve healthy male volunteers participated in the experiment, they were divided into a control (C) group (n = 4), and a habituation (H) group (n = 8). In October, each subject undertook two 3-min head-out seated immersions into stirred water at 10 degrees C wearing swimming trunks. These immersions took place at the same time of day, with 4 days separating the two immersions. In the intervening period, the C group were not exposed to cold water, while the H group undertook six, 3-min head-out immersions in water at 15 degrees C. Two months (December), 4 months (February), 7 months (May) and 14 months (January) after their first immersion, all subjects undertook another 3-min head-out immersion in water at 10 degrees C. The H group showed a reduction in respiratory frequency (47 to 24 breaths x min(-1)), inspiratory minute volume (72.2 to 31.3 1 x min(-1)) and heart rate (128 to 109 beats x min(-1)) during the first 30 s of immersion on day 5 compared to day 1. Seven months later these responses were still significantly reduced compared to day 1. After 14 months, heart rate remained attenuated but respiratory frequency and inspiratory minute volume had returned towards pre-habituation levels. The responses of the C group during the first 30 s of immersion were not altered. Both groups showed an attenuation in the responses during the remaining 150 s of immersion following repeated immersions. It is concluded that repeated immersions in cold water result in a longlasting (7-14 months) reduction in the magnitude of the cold shock response. Less frequent immersions produced a decrease in the duration, but not the magnitude of the response. PMID:11072768

  18. Post exercise changes in compartmental body temperature accompanying intermittent cold water cooling in the hyperthermic horse.

    PubMed

    Marlin, D J; Scott, C M; Roberts, C A; Casas, I; Holah, G; Schroter, R C

    1998-01-01

    Whereas the efficacy of cold water cooling of horses has been demonstrated by several studies, the dynamics of temperature changes within and between compartments (primarily muscle, blood [core], skin and deep core [rectal]) have not been investigated. Changes in body temperature associated with cold water cooling were investigated in the hyperthermic horse. Muscle (TMU), pulmonary artery (TPA), rectal (TREC), tail-skin (TTSK) and coat surface (TCOAT) temperatures, were monitored continuously in 5 Thoroughbred horses during and after exercise in hot humid (30 degrees C and 80% RH) conditions on a treadmill. Horses were cooled in the hot humid environment with cold water (approximately 6 degrees C) for 6 30 s periods. Between each 30 s cooling period the horses stood for 30 s. A total of 180 l of cold water was applied. Horses were monitored for a further 4 min following the final cooling period. From the end of exercise to the end of the final cooling (6.5 min), mean (+/- s.e.) rates of decrease for TTSK and TPA were similar (0.8 +/- 0.1 and 0.8 +/- 0.1 degrees C/min, respectively). The effects on TMU and TREC were less marked, with average rates of 0.2 +/- 0.1 and 0.0 +/- 0.1 degrees C/min, respectively. During the first 4 min of cooling, TPA fell during the 30 s period of water application and rose during each 30 s period of standing. When TPA fell below approximately 36.5 degrees C, these variations were suppressed and TPA rose steadily, despite continued applications; TREC and TMU continued to fall, although less rapidly than before. These observations are consistent with the onset of skin vasoconstriction at low TPA. The mechanism is mediated through a cooling of circulating blood volume providing a greater capacity for heat transfer between muscle and circulation. Intermittent application of cold water (approximately 6 degrees C) improves heat removal without apparent deleterious effects and is well tolerated. Even when hypothermia develops (based on TPA

  19. Setting the maximum ecological potential of benthic communities, to assess ecological status, in heavily morphologically-modified estuarine water bodies.

    PubMed

    Borja, Ángel; Chust, Guillem; del Campo, Andrea; González, Manuel; Hernández, Carlos

    2013-06-15

    Investigations on setting benthic macroinvertebrates reference conditions in natural waters have increased recently. Under the European Water Framework Directive, importance is given to research in morphological heavily-modified water bodies (HMWBs), which are very common in countries with high human pressure. However, research has not been undertaken on setting the maximum ecological potential (MEP), as a reference in HMWB. The objective of the present investigation is to set the MEP of two metrics (diversity and richness), used in assessing the ecological status in different benthic indices. The Oiartzun estuary (Basque Country) is used as a case study, which changed morphologically in the 19th Century, following harbour construction. Data obtained from 1874 and the present were used to model changes in currents, water residence time, salinity, volume, and intertidal area. Benthic macroinvertebrate data, from 1995 to 2011, were used to predict 19th Century and present MEP. Changes in the estuary were described: loss of all of the intertidal areas; doubling of the volume; residence time, changing from 2 to 95 days; current velocity reduced by 50%; salinity increase. All these factors have led to changes in the benthic communities and the structural variables. Predicted richness and diversity, for 1874, were lower (48-76%) than those at present. Taking into account the differences between natural and modified waters, it is proposed to utilize 75% of the natural reference conditions, as the MEP values for Basque HMWB.

  20. Water-rich basalts at mid-ocean-ridge cold spots.

    PubMed

    Ligi, Marco; Bonatti, Enrico; Cipriani, Anna; Ottolini, Luisa

    2005-03-01

    Although water is only present in trace amounts in the suboceanic upper mantle, it is thought to play a significant role in affecting mantle viscosity, melting and the generation of crust at mid-ocean ridges. The concentration of water in oceanic basalts has been observed to stay below 0.2 wt%, except for water-rich basalts sampled near hotspots and generated by 'wet' mantle plumes. Here, however, we report unusually high water content in basaltic glasses from a cold region of the mid-ocean-ridge system in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean. These basalts are sodium-rich, having been generated by low degrees of melting of the mantle, and contain unusually high ratios of light versus heavy rare-earth elements, implying the presence of garnet in the melting region. We infer that water-rich basalts from such regions of thermal minima derive from low degrees of 'wet' melting greater than 60 km deep in the mantle, with minor dilution by melts produced by shallower 'dry' melting--a view supported by numerical modelling. We therefore conclude that oceanic basalts are water-rich not only near hotspots, but also at 'cold spots'.

  1. Laboratory calibration and field testing of the Chemcatcher-Metal for trace levels of rare earth elements in estuarine waters.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Jördis; Pröfrock, Daniel; Paschke, Albrecht; Broekaert, Jose A C; Prange, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Little knowledge is available about water concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) in the marine environment. The direct measurement of REEs in coastal waters is a challenging task due to their ultra-low concentrations as well as the high salt content in the water samples. To quantify these elements at environmental concentrations (pg L(-1) to low ng L(-1)) in coastal waters, current analytical techniques are generally expensive and time consuming, and require complex chemical preconcentration procedures. Therefore, an integrative passive sampler was tested as a more economic alternative sampling approach for REE analysis. We used a Chemcatcher-Metal passive sampler consisting of a 3M Empore Chelating Disk as the receiving phase, as well as a cellulose acetate membrane as the diffusion-limiting layer. The effect of water turbulence and temperature on the uptake rates of REEs was analyzed during 14-day calibration experiments by a flow-through exposure tank system. The sampling rates were in the range of 0.42 mL h(-1) (13 °C; 0.25 m s(-1)) to 4.01 mL h(-1) (13 °C; 1 m s(-1)). Similar results were obtained for the different REEs under investigation. The water turbulence was the most important influence on uptake. The uptake rates were appropriate to ascertain time-weighted average concentrations of REEs during a field experiment in the Elbe Estuary near Cuxhaven Harbor (exposure time 4 weeks). REE concentrations were determined to be in the range 0.2 to 13.8 ng L(-1), where the highest concentrations were found for neodymium and samarium. In comparison, most of the spot samples measured along the Chemcatcher samples had REE concentrations below the limit of detection, in particular due to necessary dilution to minimize the analytical problems that arise with the high salt content in marine water samples. This study was among the first efforts to measure REE levels in the field using a passive sampling approach. Our results suggest that passive samplers could be

  2. An interdisciplinary study of the estuarine and coastal oceanography of Block Island Sound and adjacent New York coastal waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, E. F. (Principal Investigator); Hollman, R.; Alexander, J.; Nuzzi, R.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Photo-optical additive color quantitative measurements were made of ERTS-1 reprocessed positives of New York Bight and Block Island Sound. Regression of these data on almost simultaneous ship sample data of water's physical, chemical, biological, and optical properties showed that ERTS bands 5 and 6 can be used to predict the absolute value of the total number of particles and bands 4 and 5 to predict the relative extinction coefficient in New York Bight. Water masses and mixing patterns in Block Island Sound heretofore considered transient were found to be persistent phenomena requiring revision of existing mathematical and hydraulic models.

  3. Estuarine turbidity, flushing, salinity, and circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchard, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of estuarine turbidity, flushing, salinity, and circulation on the ecology of the Chesapeake Bay are discussed. The sources of fresh water, the variations in salinity, and the circulation patterns created by temperature and salinity changes are analyzed. The application of remote sensors for long term observation of water temperatures is described. The sources of sediment and the biological effects resulting from increased sediments and siltation are identified.

  4. Response of free-living marine nematodes to the southern Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass.

    PubMed

    Xu, Man; Liu, Qinghe; Zhang, Zhinan; Liu, Xiaoshou

    2016-04-15

    The Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass is a remarkable seasonal hydrographic event in the bottom water of the Yellow Sea. In order to reveal the response of free-living marine nematodes to this event, community structure and biodiversity indices of nematodes were studied in June and November 2013. The dominant species were Dorylaimopsis rabalaisi, Spilophorella sp., Daptonema sp., Sabatieria sp. and Parasphaerolaimus sp. In terms of trophic structure, epigrowth feeders were the most dominant group. Correlation analysis showed that Shannon-Wiener diversity index had significantly negative correlation with sediment silt-clay percentage, organic matter content and water content. Results of BIOENV indicated that sediment phaeophorbide content, water content, bottom water salinity and temperature were the most important factors related to nematode community. In conclusion, community structure and biodiversity indices of nematodes were consistent in the two sampling seasons. PMID:26965091

  5. Redox speciation analysis of dissolved iron in estuarine and coastal waters with on-line solid phase extraction and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yaojin; Feng, Sichao; Huang, Yongming; Yuan, Dongxing

    2015-05-01

    An automatic on-line solid phase extraction (SPE) system employing the flow injection (FI) technique directly coupled to a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (GFAAS) was established for speciation and determination of dissolved iron in estuarine and coastal waters. Fe(II) was mixed with ferrozine solution in a sample stream to form the Fe(II)-ferrozine complex which was extracted onto a C18 SPE cartridge, eluted with eluent and detected with GFAAS. In a parallel flow channel, Fe(III) was reduced to Fe(II) with ascorbic acid and then detected in the same way as Fe(II). The home-made interface between FI-SPE and GFAAS efficiently realized the sample introduction to the furnace in a semi-automated way. Parameters of the FI-SPE system and graphite furnace program were optimized based on a univariate experimental design and an orthogonal array design. The salinity effect on the method sensitivity was investigated. The proposed method provided a detection limit of 1.38 nmol L(-1) for Fe(II) and 1.87 nmol L(-1) for Fe(II+III). With variation of the sample loading volume, a broadened determination range of 2.5-200 nmol L(-1) iron could be obtained. The proposed method was successfully applied to analyze iron species in samples collected from the Jiulongjiang Estuary, Fujian, China. With the 2-cartridge FI-SPE system developed, on-line simultaneous determination of Fe species with GFAAS was achieved for the first time.

  6. Redox speciation analysis of dissolved iron in estuarine and coastal waters with on-line solid phase extraction and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yaojin; Feng, Sichao; Huang, Yongming; Yuan, Dongxing

    2015-05-01

    An automatic on-line solid phase extraction (SPE) system employing the flow injection (FI) technique directly coupled to a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (GFAAS) was established for speciation and determination of dissolved iron in estuarine and coastal waters. Fe(II) was mixed with ferrozine solution in a sample stream to form the Fe(II)-ferrozine complex which was extracted onto a C18 SPE cartridge, eluted with eluent and detected with GFAAS. In a parallel flow channel, Fe(III) was reduced to Fe(II) with ascorbic acid and then detected in the same way as Fe(II). The home-made interface between FI-SPE and GFAAS efficiently realized the sample introduction to the furnace in a semi-automated way. Parameters of the FI-SPE system and graphite furnace program were optimized based on a univariate experimental design and an orthogonal array design. The salinity effect on the method sensitivity was investigated. The proposed method provided a detection limit of 1.38 nmol L(-1) for Fe(II) and 1.87 nmol L(-1) for Fe(II+III). With variation of the sample loading volume, a broadened determination range of 2.5-200 nmol L(-1) iron could be obtained. The proposed method was successfully applied to analyze iron species in samples collected from the Jiulongjiang Estuary, Fujian, China. With the 2-cartridge FI-SPE system developed, on-line simultaneous determination of Fe species with GFAAS was achieved for the first time. PMID:25770602

  7. Continuous high-frequency monitoring of estuarine water quality as a decision support tool: a Dublin Port case study.

    PubMed

    Briciu-Burghina, Ciprian; Sullivan, Timothy; Chapman, James; Regan, Fiona

    2014-09-01

    High-frequency, continuous monitoring using in situ sensors offers a comprehensive and improved insight into the temporal and spatial variability of any water body. In this paper, we describe a 7-month exploratory monitoring programme in Dublin Port, demonstrating the value of high-frequency data in enhancing knowledge of processes, informing discrete sampling, and ultimately increasing the efficiency of port and environmental management. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used to show that shipping operating in Dublin Port has a small-medium effect on turbidity readings collected by in situ sensors. Turbidity events are largely related to vessel activity in Dublin Port, caused by re-suspension of sediments by vessel propulsion systems. The magnitudes of such events are strongly related to water level and tidal state at vessel arrival times. Crucially, measurements of Escherichia coli and enterococci contamination from discrete samples taken at key periods related to detected turbidity events were up to nine times higher after vessel arrival than prior to disturbance. Daily in situ turbidity patterns revealed time-dependent water quality "hot spots" during a 24-h period. We demonstrate conclusively that if representative environmental assessment of water quality is to be performed at such sites, sampling times, informed by continous monitoring data, should take into account these daily variations. This work outlines the potential of sensor technologies and continuous monitoring, to act as a decision support tool in both environmental and port management.

  8. MERCURY CONCENTRATIONS IN SEDIMENT, WATER AND BIOTA COLLECTED FROM NEAR-COASTAL AREAS IMPACTED BY COMMON ESTUARINE STRESSORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury concentrations in non-commercial organisms indigenous to the Gulf of Mexico are not well characterized particularly when compared to potential sources. In response to this need, mercury levels were determined in sediment, water and various biota in reference and non-refer...

  9. Climate, invasive species and land use drive population dynamics of a cold-water specialist

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kovach, Ryan P.; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Whited, Diane C.; Schmetterling, David A.; Dux, Andrew M; Muhlfeld, Clint C.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is an additional stressor in a complex suite of threats facing freshwater biodiversity, particularly for cold-water fishes. Research addressing the consequences of climate change on cold-water fish has generally focused on temperature limits defining spatial distributions, largely ignoring how climatic variation influences population dynamics in the context of other existing stressors.We used long-term data from 92 populations of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus – one of North America's most cold-adapted fishes – to quantify additive and interactive effects of climate, invasive species and land use on population dynamics (abundance, variability and growth rate).Populations were generally depressed, more variable and declining where spawning and rearing stream habitat was limited, invasive species and land use were prevalent and stream temperatures were highest. Increasing stream temperature acted additively and independently, whereas land use and invasive species had additive and interactive effects (i.e. the impact of one stressor depended on exposure to the other stressor).Most (58%–78%) of the explained variation in population dynamics was attributed to the presence of invasive species, differences in life history and management actions in foraging habitats in rivers, lakes and reservoirs. Although invasive fishes had strong negative effects on populations in foraging habitats, proactive control programmes appeared to effectively temper their negative impact.Synthesis and applications. Long-term demographic data emphasize that climate warming will exacerbate imperilment of cold-water specialists like bull trout, yet other stressors – especially invasive fishes – are immediate threats that can be addressed by proactive management actions. Therefore, climate-adaptation strategies for freshwater biodiversity should consider existing abiotic and biotic stressors, some of which provide potential and realized opportunity for conservation

  10. Measurement of liquid water content in a melting snowpack using cold calorimeter techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A.; Jones, E. B.; Howell, S.

    1980-01-01

    Liquid water in a snowpack is a quantifiable parameter of hydrological significance. It is also important in the interpretation of snowpack remote sensing data using microwave techniques. One acceptable approach to measuring liquid water content of a snowpack (by weight) is the cold calorimeter. This technique is presented from theory through application. Silicon oil was used successfully as the freezing agent. Consistent results can be obtained even when using operators with a minimum of training. Data can be obtained approximately every 15 minutes by using two calorimeters and three operators. Accuracy within one to two percent can be achieved under reasonable field conditions.

  11. Lipid-induced thermogenesis is up-regulated by the first cold-water immersions in juvenile penguins.

    PubMed

    Teulier, Loïc; Rey, Benjamin; Tornos, Jérémy; Le Coadic, Marion; Monternier, Pierre-Axel; Bourguignon, Aurore; Dolmazon, Virginie; Romestaing, Caroline; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Duchamp, Claude; Roussel, Damien

    2016-07-01

    The passage from shore to marine life is a critical step in the development of juvenile penguins and is characterized by a fuel selection towards lipid oxidation concomitant to an enhancement of lipid-induced thermogenesis. However, mechanisms of such thermogenic improvement at fledging remain undefined. We used two different groups of pre-fledging king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) to investigate the specific contribution of cold exposure during water immersion to lipid metabolism. Terrestrial penguins that had never been immersed in cold water were compared with experimentally cold-water immersed juveniles. Experimentally immersed penguins underwent ten successive immersions at approximately 9-10 °C for 5 h over 3 weeks. We evaluated adaptive thermogenesis by measuring body temperature, metabolic rate and shivering activity in fully immersed penguins exposed to water temperatures ranging from 12 to 29 °C. Both never-immersed and experimentally immersed penguins were able to maintain their homeothermy in cold water, exhibiting similar thermogenic activity. In vivo, perfusion of lipid emulsion at thermoneutrality induced a twofold larger calorigenic response in experimentally immersed than in never-immersed birds. In vitro, the respiratory rates and the oxidative phosphorylation efficiency of isolated muscle mitochondria were not improved with cold-water immersions. The present study shows that acclimation to cold water only partially reproduced the fuel selection towards lipid oxidation that characterizes penguin acclimatization to marine life. PMID:26924130

  12. Lipid-induced thermogenesis is up-regulated by the first cold-water immersions in juvenile penguins.

    PubMed

    Teulier, Loïc; Rey, Benjamin; Tornos, Jérémy; Le Coadic, Marion; Monternier, Pierre-Axel; Bourguignon, Aurore; Dolmazon, Virginie; Romestaing, Caroline; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Duchamp, Claude; Roussel, Damien

    2016-07-01

    The passage from shore to marine life is a critical step in the development of juvenile penguins and is characterized by a fuel selection towards lipid oxidation concomitant to an enhancement of lipid-induced thermogenesis. However, mechanisms of such thermogenic improvement at fledging remain undefined. We used two different groups of pre-fledging king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) to investigate the specific contribution of cold exposure during water immersion to lipid metabolism. Terrestrial penguins that had never been immersed in cold water were compared with experimentally cold-water immersed juveniles. Experimentally immersed penguins underwent ten successive immersions at approximately 9-10 °C for 5 h over 3 weeks. We evaluated adaptive thermogenesis by measuring body temperature, metabolic rate and shivering activity in fully immersed penguins exposed to water temperatures ranging from 12 to 29 °C. Both never-immersed and experimentally immersed penguins were able to maintain their homeothermy in cold water, exhibiting similar thermogenic activity. In vivo, perfusion of lipid emulsion at thermoneutrality induced a twofold larger calorigenic response in experimentally immersed than in never-immersed birds. In vitro, the respiratory rates and the oxidative phosphorylation efficiency of isolated muscle mitochondria were not improved with cold-water immersions. The present study shows that acclimation to cold water only partially reproduced the fuel selection towards lipid oxidation that characterizes penguin acclimatization to marine life.

  13. Reefs of the Deep: Moving Toward Integrated Ocean Basin-scale Study of Cold-water Coral Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, J. M.

    2007-12-01

    Scleractinian hard corals in deep, cold waters have been known since the eighteenth century but advances in deep-ocean exploration are now revealing the true scale and distribution of cold-water coral reefs. Hundreds of tropical coral species build shallow reefs, but less than ten cold-water species form deep reef frameworks. Of these the best characterised is Lophelia pertusa which dominates in the north east Atlantic. Assemblages of octocorals and hydrocorals are found in other parts of the world's oceans, such as the north Pacific. Cold-water coral skeletons provide well-preserved, high resolution palaeoclimatic archives and recent advances have been made in interpreting geochemical proxies for seawater temperature and ocean ventilation history. The reefs form long-lived, structurally complex habitats supporting many other species. This complexity makes them vulnerable to mechanical damage from deep-water bottom trawling and modelled scenarios suggest that cold-water coral reefs may be threatened by ocean acidification. Despite these threats, our understanding of many aspects of cold-water coral ecosystems remains in its infancy and studies have been geographically limited in their scope. Here I summarise recent advances and emerging research themes and discuss the importance of moving toward integrated interdisciplinary study at the scale of an ocean basin if we are to appreciate the broad scale importance and connections between these reefs of the deep.

  14. A Modeling Study of the Effect of Tide Energy Extraction on Estuarine Circulation and Its Implication on Water Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; Yang, Z.; Copping, A. E.

    2011-12-01

    The growing interest in harnessing tidal energy has raised concerns about the impact of energy extraction on water circulation, and the implication those changes can have on water quality and the marine food web. There are few direct observations of the effect of energy extraction on ecosystems; however our understanding of the magnitude and importance of these effects can be enhanced through numerical analysis at the appropriate temporal and spatial scales This paper presents a numerical modeling study to simulate in-stream tidal energy extraction and assess its effect on the circulation and mixing in a tide-dominated estuary using a three-dimensional (3D) unstructured grid finite volume coastal ocean model. A tidal turbine module is incorporated into the hydrodynamic model using a momentum source/sink approach. The tidal turbine module is applied to simulate the tidal energy extraction in an idealized tidal system. A series of numerical experiments are carried out to assess the effect of tidal energy extraction on volume flux, vertical velocity structure, and flushing time within the system. The implication of changes in physical processes due to tidal energy extraction on water quality is also discussed, including changes in dissolved oxygen, nutrients and chlorophyll.

  15. Time course of deacclimatization to cold water immersion in Korean women divers.

    PubMed

    Park, Y S; Rennie, D W; Lee, I S; Park, Y D; Paik, K S; Kang, D H; Suh, D J; Lee, S H; Hong, S Y; Hong, S K

    1983-06-01

    Seasonal basal metabolic rates (BMR), critical water temperature (Tcw), maximal body insulations (Imax), and finger blood flow during hand immersion in 6 degrees C water (Q finger) were measured periodically during the course of a 3-yr longitudinal study (1980-1982) of modern Korean diving women (ama), who have been wearing wet suits since 1977 to avoid cold stress during work. Methods and protocols were identical to previous studies of cotton-suited ama from 1961-1974. The BMR of modern ama did not undergo seasonal fluctuation (1980-1981) and was within the DuBois standard and comparable to nondivers year around Tcw of ama was still reduced by 2-3 degrees C in 1980 but increased progressively to equal that of nondivers in 1982, when compared at comparable subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT). Since modern ama and nondivers have 2.4 times thicker SFT (i.e., 4-13 mm) than in 1962 the absolute Tcw is significantly reduced. Q finger of ama was also significantly lower than controls in 1980 but in 1981-1982 was identical to controls. Imax of modern ama was identical to controls of comparable SFT in 1980-1982. The time course of cold deacclimatization thus was BMR, 3 yr; Imax, 3 yr; Q finger, 4 yr; and Tcw, 5 yr. This longitudinal study provides further evidence that acclimatization to cold did at one time exist in these diving women.

  16. Cardiac output variations in supine resting subjects during head-out cold water immersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogelaere, P.; Deklunder, G.; Lecroart, J.

    1995-03-01

    Five men, aged 31.2 years (SD 2.3), under semi-nude conditions and resting in a dorsal reclining position, were exposed to thermoneutral air for 30 min, followed immediately by a cold water (15°C) immersion for 60 min. Cardiac output was measured using a dualbeam Doppler flow meter. During immersion in cold water, cardiac frequency ( f c) showed an initial bradycardia. The lowest values were reached at about 10 min after immersion, 58.3 (SD 2.5) to 48.3 (SD 7.8) beats min-1 ( P < 0.05). By the 20th min of exposure, f c had gradually risen to 70.0 beats min-1 (SD 6.6, P < 0.05). This change could be due to the inhibition of the initial vagal reflex by increased catecholamine concentration. Stroke volume ( V s) was significantly increased ( P < 0.05) during the whole cold immersion period. Cardiac output, increased from 3.57 (SD 0.50) to 6.26 (SD 1.33)1 min-1 ( P < 0.05) and its change with time was a function of both V s and f c. On the other hand, systolic flow acceleration was unchanged during the period of immersion. The changes in the respiratory variables (ventilation, oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide output and respiratory exchange ratio) during immersion showed an initial hyperventilation followed, as immersion proceeded, by a slower metabolic increase due to shivering.

  17. Interglacial occurrence of cold-water corals off Cape Lookout (NW Atlantic): First evidence of the Gulf Stream influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matos, Lélia; Mienis, Furu; Wienberg, Claudia; Frank, Norbert; Kwiatkowski, Cornelia; Groeneveld, Jeroen; Thil, François; Abrantes, Fatima; Cunha, Marina R.; Hebbeln, Dierk

    2015-11-01

    Climatic and oceanographic changes, as occurring at a glacial-interglacial scale, may alter the environmental conditions needed for the development of prolific cold-water coral reefs and mounds. Studies constraining the temporal distribution of cold-water corals in the NE Atlantic suggested the cyclic changes of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation as the main driver for the development and dispersal of cold-water coral ecosystems. However, conclusions were hindered by lack of data from the NW Atlantic. Aiming to overcome this lack of data, the temporal occurrence of cold-water corals in the Cape Lookout area along the southeastern US margin was explored by U-series dating. Furthermore, the local influence of the regional water masses, namely the Gulf Stream, on cold-water coral proliferation and occurrence since the Last Glacial Maximum was examined. Results suggest that the occurrence of cold-water corals in the Cape Lookout area is restricted to interglacial periods, with corals being present during the last ~7 kyr and also during the Eemian (~125 ka). The reconstructed local environmental conditions suggest an offshore displacement of the Gulf Stream and increased influence from the Mid-Atlantic Bight shelf waters during the last glacial period. During the deglacial sea level rise, the Gulf Stream moved coastward providing present-day-like conditions to the surface waters. Nevertheless, present-day conditions at the ocean sea floor were not established before 7.5 cal ka BP once the ultimate demise of the Laurentide ice-sheet caused the final sea level rise and the displacement of the Gulf Stream to its present location. Occasional presence of the Gulf Stream over the site during the Mid- to Late Holocene coincides with enhanced bottom current strength and a slightly higher bottom water temperature, which are environmental conditions that are favorable for cold-water coral growth.

  18. Effects of sports massage and intermittent cold-water immersion on recovery from matches by basketball players.

    PubMed

    Delextrat, Anne; Calleja-González, Julio; Hippocrate, Audrey; Clarke, Neil David

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of intermittent cold-water immersion and massage on perceptual and performance markers of recovery by basketball players after competitive matches. Eight men (age 23 ± 3 years; stature 190.5 ± 8.9 cm; body mass 90.3 ± 9.6 kg; body fat 12.8 ± 4.8%) and eight women (age 22 ± 2 years; stature 179.0 ± 8.5 cm; body mass 77.6 ± 9.2 kg; body fat 22.5 ± 6.6%) basketball players participated. Massage, cold-water immersion or control were applied immediately after competitive matches, followed by assessments of perceptual measures of recovery and physical performance, countermovement jump and repeated-sprint ability 24 h after intervention. There was lower perception of fatigue overall and in the legs immediately after the massage and cold-water immersion condition (P < 0.001; η²(P) = 0.91). Furthermore, women had a lower perception of fatigue in cold-water immersion than massage at any testing time (P < 0.001; η²(P) = 0.37). Jump performance was greater after cold-water immersion than the control condition (P = 0.037, η²(P) = 0.37). There was no effect of any of the recovery interventions on repeated-sprint measures (P at best 0.067, η²(P) at best 0.68). The results suggest that both massage and cold-water immersion improve perceptual measures of recovery. Furthermore, cold-water immersion improves jump performance although neither such immersion nor massage had an effect on repeated-sprint ability. This suggests that, overall, cold-water immersion is more useful than massage in the recovery from basketball matches, especially in women.

  19. ‘Autonomic conflict’: a different way to die during cold water immersion?

    PubMed Central

    Shattock, Michael J; Tipton, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Cold water submersion can induce a high incidence of cardiac arrhythmias in healthy volunteers. Submersion and the release of breath holding can activate two powerful and antagonistic responses: the ‘cold shock response’ and the ‘diving response’. The former involves the activation of a sympathetically driven tachycardia while the latter promotes a parasympathetically mediated bradycardia. We propose that the strong and simultaneous activation of the two limbs of the autonomic nervous system (‘autonomic conflict’) may account for these arrhythmias and may, in some vulnerable individuals, be responsible for deaths that have previously wrongly been ascribed to drowning or hypothermia. In this review, we consider the evidence supporting this claim and also hypothesise that other environmental triggers may induce autonomic conflict and this may be more widely responsible for sudden death in individuals with other predisposing conditions. PMID:22547634

  20. In pursuit of non-phosphorus corrosion inhibitors for cold water cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wyman, D.P.

    1998-12-31

    An exploratory program was conducted to evaluate a number of polymers and carboxylic acid combinations with polymers as non-phosphorus containing, all organic corrosion inhibitors for cold water systems such as evaporative towers. The concentrations of treatment were approximately those which would obtain for current commercial formulations. There was a strong dependency of performance on the aggressiveness of the water, especially the conductivity. The polymers were adequate for non-aggressive waters, and one, polymaleic acid (as the sodium salt) performed reasonably in somewhat more corrosive systems. Certain alkenyl substituted dibasic acids were also found to perform well in the less challenging waters as did simpler dibasic materials such as maleic, fumaric and aspartic acids. A tetrabasic acid with the carboxyl groups located in proximity to each other, BTA, in combination with certain, but, not all, polymers showed considerable promise.

  1. Impacts of upstream drought and water withdrawals on the health and survival of downstream estuarine oyster populations

    PubMed Central

    Petes, Laura E; Brown, Alicia J; Knight, Carley R

    2012-01-01

    Increases in the frequency, duration, and severity of regional drought pose major threats to the health and integrity of downstream ecosystems. During 2007–2008, the U.S. southeast experienced one of the most severe droughts on record. Drought and water withdrawals in the upstream watershed led to decreased freshwater input to Apalachicola Bay, Florida, an estuary that is home to a diversity of commercially and ecologically important organisms. This study applied a combination of laboratory experiments and field observations to investigate the effects of reduced freshwater input on Apalachicola oysters. Oysters suffered significant disease-related mortality under high-salinity, drought conditions, particularly during the warm summer months. Mortality was size-specific, with large oysters of commercially harvestable size being more susceptible than small oysters. A potential salinity threshold was revealed between 17 and 25 ppt, where small oysters began to suffer mortality, and large oysters exhibited an increase in mortality. These findings have important implications for watershed management, because upstream freshwater releases could be carefully timed and allocated during stressful periods of the summer to reduce disease-related oyster mortality. Integrated, forward-looking water management is needed, particularly under future scenarios of climate change and human population growth, to sustain the valuable ecosystem services on which humans depend. PMID:22957175

  2. Rare earth element geochemistry in cold-seep pore waters of Hydrate Ridge, northeast Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Himmler, Tobias; Haley, Brian A.; Torres, Marta E.; Klinkhammer, Gary P.; Bohrmann, Gerhard; Peckmann, Jörn

    2013-07-01

    The concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs), sulphate, hydrogen sulphide, total alkalinity, calcium, magnesium and phosphate were measured in shallow (<12 cm below seafloor) pore waters from cold-seep sediments on the northern and southern summits of Hydrate Ridge, offshore Oregon. Downward-decreasing sulphate and coevally increasing sulphide concentrations reveal sulphate reduction as dominant early diagenetic process from ~2 cm depth downwards. A strong increase of total dissolved REE (∑REE) concentrations is evident immediately below the sediment-water interface, which can be related to early diagenetic release of REEs into pore water resulting from the re-mineralization of particulate organic matter. The highest pore water ∑REE concentrations were measured close to the sediment-water interface at ~2 cm depth. Distinct shale-normalized REE patterns point to particulate organic matter and iron oxides as main REE sources in the upper ~2-cm depth interval. In general, the pore waters have shale-normalized patterns reflecting heavy REE (HREE) enrichment, which suggests preferential complexation of HREEs with carbonate ions. Below ~2 cm depth, a downward decrease in ∑REE correlates with a decrease in pore water calcium concentrations. At this depth, the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled to sulphate reduction increases carbonate alkalinity through the production of bicarbonate, which results in the precipitation of carbonate minerals. It seems therefore likely that the REEs and calcium are consumed during vast AOM-induced precipitation of carbonate in shallow Hydrate Ridge sediments. The analysis of pore waters from Hydrate Ridge shed new light on early diagenetic processes at cold seeps, corroborating the great potential of REEs to identify geochemical processes and to constrain environmental conditions.

  3. Arsenic and other trace elements in thermal springs and in cold waters from drinking water wells on the Bolivian Altiplano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormachea Muñoz, Mauricio; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Sracek, Ondra; Ramos Ramos, Oswaldo; Quintanilla Aguirre, Jorge; Bundschuh, Jochen; Maity, Jyoti Prakash

    2015-07-01

    Numerous hot springs and fumaroles occur along the Andes Mountains, in the Bolivian Altiplano, where people use thermal springs for recreational purposes as pools, baths and also for consumption as drinking water and irrigation once it is mixed with natural surface waters; most of these thermal springs emerge from earth surface and flow naturally into the rivers streams which drain further into the Poopó Lake. Physicochemical characteristics of the thermal water samples showed pH from 6.3 to 8.3 with an average of 7.0, redox potential from +106 to +204 mV with an average of +172 mV, temperatures from 40 to 75 °C with an average of 56 °C and high electrical conductivity ranging from 1.8 to 75 mS/cm and averaged 13 mS/cm. Predominant major ions are Na+ and Cl- and the principal water types are 37.5% Na-Cl type and 37.5% Na-Cl-HCO3 type. Arsenic concentrations ranged from 7.8 to 65.3 μg/L and arsenic speciation indicate the predominance of As(III) species. Sediments collected from the outlets of thermal waters show high iron content, and ferric oxides and hydroxides are assumed to be principal mineral phases for arsenic attenuation by adsorption/co-precipitation processes. Arsenic concentrations in cold water samples from shallow aquifers are higher than those in thermal springs (range < 5.6-233.2 μg/L), it is likely that thermal water discharge is not the main source of high arsenic content in the shallow aquifer as they are very immature and may only have a small component corresponding to the deep geothermal reservoir. As people use both thermal waters and cold waters for consumption, there is a high risk for arsenic exposure in the area.

  4. Calcification is not the Achilles' heel of cold-water corals in an acidifying ocean.

    PubMed

    Rodolfo-Metalpa, Riccardo; Montagna, Paolo; Aliani, Stefano; Borghini, Mireno; Canese, Simonepietro; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Foggo, Andy; Milazzo, Marco; Taviani, Marco; Houlbrèque, Fanny

    2015-06-01

    Ocean acidification is thought to be a major threat to coral reefs: laboratory evidence and CO2 seep research has shown adverse effects on many coral species, although a few are resilient. There are concerns that cold-water corals are even more vulnerable as they live in areas where aragonite saturation (Ωara ) is lower than in the tropics and is falling rapidly due to CO2 emissions. Here, we provide laboratory evidence that net (gross calcification minus dissolution) and gross calcification rates of three common cold-water corals, Caryophyllia smithii, Dendrophyllia cornigera, and Desmophyllum dianthus, are not affected by pCO2 levels expected for 2100 (pCO2  1058 μatm, Ωara 1.29), and nor are the rates of skeletal dissolution in D. dianthus. We transplanted D. dianthus to 350 m depth (pHT 8.02; pCO2  448 μatm, Ωara 2.58) and to a 3 m depth CO2 seep in oligotrophic waters (pHT 7.35; pCO2  2879 μatm, Ωara 0.76) and found that the transplants calcified at the same rates regardless of the pCO2 confirming their resilience to acidification, but at significantly lower rates than corals that were fed in aquaria. Our combination of field and laboratory evidence suggests that ocean acidification will not disrupt cold-water coral calcification although falling aragonite levels may affect other organismal physiological and/or reef community processes.

  5. Cold Start of a Radiator Equipped with Titanium-Water Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Sanzi, James L.; Siamidis, John

    2008-01-01

    Radiator panels utilizing titanium-water heat pipes are being considered for lunar applications. A traditional sandwich structure is envisioned where heat pipes are embedded between two high thermal conductivity face sheets. The heat pipe evaporators are to be thermally connected to the heat source through one or more manifolds containing coolant. Initial radiator operation on the lunar surface would likely follow a cold soak where the water in the heat pipes is purposely frozen. To achieve heat pipe operation, it will be necessary to thaw the heat pipes. One option is to allow the sunlight impinging on the surface at sunrise to achieve this goal. Testing was conducted in a thermal vacuum chamber to simulate the lunar sunrise and additional modeling was conducted to identify steady-state and transient response. It was found that sunlight impinging on the radiator surface at sunrise was insufficient to solely achieve the goal of thawing the water in the heat pipes. However, starting from a frozen condition was accomplished successfully by applying power to the evaporators. Start up in this fashion was demonstrated without evaporator dryout. Concern is raised over thawing thermosyphons, vertical heat pipes operating in a gravity field, with no wick in the condenser section. This paper presents the results of the simulated cold start study and identifies future work to support radiator panels equipped with titanium-water heat pipes.

  6. Evidence for enhanced mercury reactivity in response to estuarine mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolfhus, Kristofer R.; Lamborg, Carl H.; Fitzgerald, William F.; Balcom, Prentiss H.

    2003-11-01

    Bioaccumulation of methylmercury in coastal U.S. fisheries has led to the issuance of numerous fish consumption advisories, and yet little is known about the processes that make Hg species chemically labile in coastal and estuarine systems. This study examined the role of estuarine mixing in formation of labile Hg complexes (reactive Hg) from relatively refractory Hg-organic associations in river water and characterized the behavior and distribution of Hg species in the Connecticut River estuary during three distinct collection periods. Results indicate that while total Hg partitioning and concentrations remained fairly constant with increasing salinity, the fraction present as reactive Hg concentrations increased, primarily in the particulate phase. Mixing experiments using both natural and prepared waters indicate that riverine organic ligands rapidly scavenge reactive Hg from natural waters on timescales of minutes to hours, while samples free of riverine influence remained much more "reactive." Modeling of the estuarine system suggests that elevated concentrations of chloride and dilution of the dominant organic ligand associated with estuarine mixing enhance reactive Hg and predict a bulk log formation constant for the binding ligand of approximately 21. Analysis of Hg0 production from Hg(II)-spiked, incubated estuarine samples supports the speciation data as higher reactive Hg concentrations and Hg0 production rates were observed in the more saline samples. These results suggest that estuarine mixing may exacerbate Hg methylation, evasion, and bioaccumulation in some systems by promoting the formation of Hg species that are readily labile.

  7. The comparison of cold-water immersion and cold air therapy on maximal cycling performance and recovery markers following strength exercises.

    PubMed

    Hayter, Kane J; Doma, Kenji; Schumann, Moritz; Deakin, Glen B

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of cold-water immersion (CWI) and cold air therapy (CAT) on maximal cycling performance (i.e. anaerobic power) and markers of muscle damage following a strength training session. Twenty endurance-trained but strength-untrained male (n = 10) and female (n = 10) participants were randomised into either: CWI (15 min in 14 °C water to iliac crest) or CAT (15 min in 14 °C air) immediately following strength training (i.e. 3 sets of leg press, leg extensions and leg curls at 6 repetition maximum, respectively). Creatine kinase, muscle soreness and fatigue, isometric knee extensor and flexor torque and cycling anaerobic power were measured prior to, immediately after and at 24 (T24), 48 (T48) and 72 (T72) h post-strength exercises. No significant differences were found between treatments for any of the measured variables (p > 0.05). However, trends suggested recovery was greater in CWI than CAT for cycling anaerobic power at T24 (10% ± 2%, ES = 0.90), T48 (8% ± 2%, ES = 0.64) and T72 (8% ± 7%, ES = 0.76). The findings suggest the combination of hydrostatic pressure and cold temperature may be favourable for recovery from strength training rather than cold temperature alone. PMID:27069791

  8. The comparison of cold-water immersion and cold air therapy on maximal cycling performance and recovery markers following strength exercises

    PubMed Central

    Hayter, Kane J.; Schumann, Moritz; Deakin, Glen B.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of cold-water immersion (CWI) and cold air therapy (CAT) on maximal cycling performance (i.e. anaerobic power) and markers of muscle damage following a strength training session. Twenty endurance-trained but strength-untrained male (n = 10) and female (n = 10) participants were randomised into either: CWI (15 min in 14 °C water to iliac crest) or CAT (15 min in 14 °C air) immediately following strength training (i.e. 3 sets of leg press, leg extensions and leg curls at 6 repetition maximum, respectively). Creatine kinase, muscle soreness and fatigue, isometric knee extensor and flexor torque and cycling anaerobic power were measured prior to, immediately after and at 24 (T24), 48 (T48) and 72 (T72) h post-strength exercises. No significant differences were found between treatments for any of the measured variables (p > 0.05). However, trends suggested recovery was greater in CWI than CAT for cycling anaerobic power at T24 (10% ± 2%, ES = 0.90), T48 (8% ± 2%, ES = 0.64) and T72 (8% ± 7%, ES = 0.76). The findings suggest the combination of hydrostatic pressure and cold temperature may be favourable for recovery from strength training rather than cold temperature alone. PMID:27069791

  9. Persistent Intermediate Water Warming during Cold Stadials in the SE Nordic Seas during the Last 65 Kyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, T. L.; Ezat, M.; Groeneveld, J.

    2014-12-01

    In the Nordic seas, conversion of inflowing warm Atlantic surface water to deep cold water through convection is closely linked with climate. During the last glacial period climate underwent rapid millennial-scale variability known as Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events, consisting of warm interstadials and cold stadials. Here we present the first benthic foraminiferal Mg/Ca-d18O record from the Nordic seas in order to reconstruct the ocean circulation on DO timescales. The record confirms that modern-like convection took place in the Nordic seas during interstadials with cold bottom water temperatures (BWT) close to modern temperatures. The results show gradual and pronounced BWT increases by 2-5 °C during stadials indicating a stop or near-stop in convection. The BWT peaks are followed by an abrupt drop in temperature at the onset of interstadials indicating the abrupt start of convection and renewed generation of cold deep water. The rise in BWT during stadials confirms earlier interpretations of subsurface inflow of warm Atlantic water below a halocline reaching >1.2 km water depth. The results suggest that warm Atlantic Water never ceased to flow into the Nordic seas during the glacial period with inflow at the surface during the Holocene and warm interstadials switching to subsurface and intermediate inflow during cold stadials. Our results suggest that it is the vertical shifts in the position of the warm Atlantic Water that cause the abrupt surface warmings.

  10. Culture and behavior of selected estuarine fish and shellfish in aquaria receiving effluent water from a power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, B.A.

    1981-01-01

    Sixteen species (2 molluscs, 2 crustaceans, and 12 fishes) were used as biological monitors in flow-through aquaria. The aquaria received effluent from Houston Lighting and Power Company's Cedar Bayou generating station located in Chambers County, Texas. Growth and survival of organisms were monitored in ambient and thermally regulated water (20, 25, and 30/sup 0/C). Behavior experiments were carried out with several of the monitor species, Cyprinodon variegatus, Mugil cephalus and Mugil curema. R. cuneata, C. virginica, L. xanthurus, M. undulatus, C. faber and M. cephalus were analyzed for heavy metals and pesticides and were evaluated according to current Food and Drug Administration (FDA) standards. All organisms were found to be within the established FDA tolerance levels and are therefore considered fit for human consumption. C. variegatus was tested at varius sex-ratios to determine whether a particular ratio could maximize the number of young produced. No statistically significant difference was found in the number of young produced; however, population density and sex-ratio significantly increased total adult mortality. The swimming and feeding behavior of M. cephalus and M. curema was observed and described. The number of food bites was significantly affected by the interactions of culture, species, and density. During polyculture situations there were significantly more food bites, long traverses and total traverses than in monoculture situations.

  11. Ecohydraulics and Estuarine Wetland Rehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, J. F.; Howe, A.; Saintilan, N.; Spencer, J.

    2004-12-01

    The hydraulics or water flow in wetlands is known to be a key factor influencing ecosystem development in estuarine wetland environments. The relationship is indirect, with the hydraulics of wetlands influencing a host of factors including soil salinity, waterlogging, sediment transport, sediment chemistry, vegetation dispersal and growth and nutrient availability and cycling. The relationship is also not one way, with the hydraulics of wetlands being influenced by plant and animal activity. Understanding these complex interactions is fundamental for the adequate management of estuarine wetlands. Listed as a Wetland of International Importance under the 1971 Ramsar Convention, the Hunter River estuary is regarded as the most significant site for migratory shorebirds in New South Wales, Australia. Over the past 20 years, the number of migratory shorebirds in the estuary has sharply declined from 8,000 to 4,000 approx. Alteration of bird habitat is believed to be one of the reasons for this alarming trend. In 2004 we started a three-year program to investigate the links between hydraulics, sediment, benthic invertebrates, vegetation and migratory shorebird habitat in the estuary. During the first year we have focused on a highly disturbed part of the Hunter estuary wetlands located on Ash Island. The area is one of the major roosting sites in the estuary and is characterized by a complex hydraulic regime due to a restricted tidal interchange with the Hunter River and the presence of infrastructure for the maintenance of power lines (i.e., roads, bridges, culverts). Salt marshes, mudflat and mangroves are the dominant vegetation types. The monitoring program includes measurements of water levels, salinity, discharge, velocity, turbulence, sediment transport and deposition, plant species and density, soil composition and benthic invertebrates coordinated with observations of bird habitat utilization on a number of locations throughout the wetland and for different flow

  12. Pyrite chimneys formed by the expulsion of cold brackish ground water on a tidal flat, Awarua Bay, Southland, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orpin, Alan R.

    1994-08-01

    A suite of modern estuarine pyrite-cemented chimneys and less regular edifices are present at Awarua Bay, Southland, New Zealand. The pyrite concretions have a plumbing network, a chimney representing the simplest form, and are cemented by a pervasive framboidal pyrite cement. The concretions appear to emanate from ruptures in a laterally extensive pyrite-cemented pebble horizon, around 40 cm below the surface. The cemented pebble horizon acts as a confining layer for an active ground water aquifer immediately beneath. The ground water is of ambient temperature, brackish ( salinity = 8.0‰), diluted in dissolved sulphur (TDS = 330 ppm) with respect to seawater (TDS = 884 ppm), and reduced, as indicated by the high Fe 2+ concentration (˜ 840 ppb). The pyrite concretions represent an intense aureole of bacterial reduction, induced and maintained by redox gradients around ruptures in the aquitard. The chimneys are infilled with modern shelly estuarine muddy sand, but the presence of small longitudinal tubular pores and cavities adjacent to the chimney walls suggests active fluid expulsion today.

  13. Cold injury to a diver's hand after a 90-min dive in 6 degrees C water.

    PubMed

    Laden, Gerard D M; Purdy, Gerard; O'Rielly, Gerard

    2007-05-01

    We present here a case of non-freezing cold injury (NFCI) in a sport scuba diver. There are similarities between the presenting symptoms of NFCI and decompression sickness, e.g., pain and/or altered sensation in an extremity, often reported as numbness. In both conditions patients have been known to describe their lower limbs or feet as feeling woolly. Both conditions are the result of environmental exposure. Additionally, there are no good (high sensitivity and specificity) diagnostic tests for either condition. Diagnosis is made based on patient history, clinical presentation, and examination. NFCI is most frequently seen in military personnel, explorers, and the homeless. When affecting the feet of soldiers it is often referred to as "trench foot." Historically, NFCI has been and continues to be of critical importance in infantry warfare in cold and wet environments. A high priority should be given to prevention of NFCI during military operational planning. With the advent of so-called "technical diving" characterized by going deeper for longer (often in cold water) and adventure tourism, this extremely painful condition is likely to increase in prevalence. NFCI is treated symptomatically.

  14. Molecular beam studies of HCl dissolution and dissociation in cold salty water.

    PubMed

    Brastad, Susan M; Nathanson, Gilbert M

    2011-05-14

    Gas-liquid scattering experiments are used to explore collisions and reactions of HCl and DCl with 12 mol% LiBr solutions of H(2)O and D(2)O at 208-218 K. These ∼6 M aqueous salt solutions have vapor pressures just below 0.01 Torr, requiring special consideration of the effects of gas-vapor collisions. We find that impinging HCl molecules readily equilibrate on the surface of the solution even at incident energies of 90 kJ mol(-1). Approximately 90% of the thermalized HCl molecules dissolve and dissociate for long times in the cold salty solution, while the remaining 10% desorb from the surface intact. There is no evidence for rapid, interfacial conversion of HCl into DCl, in striking contrast to previous observations of distinct submicrosecond DCl→HCl exchange in collisions of DCl with salty glycerol at 292 K. These results indicate that cold salty water efficiently captures impinging HCl molecules and suppresses interfacial proton exchange, most likely because of the long interaction times of the HCl molecules in contact with the cold surface and because of facile transport of H(+) and Cl(-) from the interfacial region into the bulk solution. PMID:21347480

  15. Human thermoregulatory responses during cold-water immersion after artificially-induced sunburn

    SciTech Connect

    Pandolf, K.B.; Gange, R.W.; Latzka, W.A.; Blank, I.H.; Young, A.J.; Sawka, M.N. Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston )

    1991-03-11

    Thermoregulatory responses during cold-water immersion (T{sub w} = 22C) were compared in 10 men prior to artificially-induced sunburn (CONB), as well as 24-h, and 1-wk after a 2 minimal erythemal dose of UV-B radiation (SUNB) which covered {approximately}85% of the body. After 10 min of rest in cold water, these men exercised for 50 min ({approximately}51% {dot V}O{sub 2}max). Esophageal (T{sub es}), rectal (T{sub re}), and mean skin ({bar T}{sub sk}) temperatures, mean heat flow ({bar h}{sub c}), and heart rate (HR) were measured. Venous blood samples were collected before and after immersion. The {bar T}{sub sk} was higher throughout the 60-min immersion both 24-h and 1-wk after SUNB compared to CONB. The {anti h}{sub c} was higher after 10 min resting immersion and during the first 10 min of exercise when 24-h SUNB waqs compared to CONB with the difference attributed to higher h{sub c} from the back and chest. While T{sub re} and HR did not differ between conditions, T{sub es} prior to and throughout the 60-min immersion was higher when 24-h SUNB was compared to CONB. Plasma volume increased after 1-wk SUNB compared to CONB while plasma protein was reduced. Post-exercise cortisol was greater 24-h SUNB compared to either CONB or 1-wk SUNB. In conclusion, sunburn impaired the ability of these men to vasoconstrict during cold-water immersion resulting in greater heat loss. These adverse effects were still present 1 wk after sunburn when the associated erythema had disappeared.

  16. High-resolution Li/Mg in cold-water coral skeletons: metabolic processes involved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouchi, Vincent; Crowley, Quentin G.

    2016-04-01

    Skeletal Li/Mg has recently been presented as a vital-effect-devoid proxy for seawater temperature in both coastal and deep-sea corals. Bulk analyses on multiple scleractinian species appear to follow an exponential law when plotted against measured seawater temperature. In situ coral wall micro-analyses of cold-water species, however display a variability that cannot be solely inferred to relate to seawater temperature and must be influenced by some other processes. High-resolution (i.e. seasonal and infra-annual) reconstruction of palaeotemperatures using Li/Mg from cold-water carbonates is therefore questionable from our current understanding of these processes. In order to address this uncertainty we present LA-ICP-MS elemental maps of Li, Mg, Sr and Li/Mg from the skeleton of the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa. Fluctuations in concentration of these elements are present in both radial and longitudinal axes of growth, implying a potential bias in absolute values measured, depending on the position of an analytical transect. Microstructures of L. pertusa skeletons can provide some insight into the potential use of elemental ratios as proxies for fluctuations in environmental conditions. Observation of growth patterns permits a micro-textural definition for calibration of geochemical fluctuations occurring over the course of a year or more. Two cycles of geochemical fluctuations are observed per year, meaning that seasonal fluctuations cannot be solely responsible for these variations. Moreover, high elemental concentrations in the coral wall correspond to large growth increments, suggesting that certain elemental incorporation is dominantly ruled by growth rates and thus kinetic processes. Growth rate fluctuations, which appear to occur twice per year, are likely caused by interaction of physiological mechanisms and local physicochemical conditions. Specifically for L. pertusa skeletons, further characterization and discreet separation of these interactions

  17. Algorithm Development and Validation of CDOM Properties for Estuarine and Continental Shelf Waters Along the Northeastern U.S. Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mannino, Antonio; Novak, Michael G.; Hooker, Stanford B.; Hyde, Kimberly; Aurin, Dick

    2014-01-01

    An extensive set of field measurements have been collected throughout the continental margin of the northeastern U.S. from 2004 to 2011 to develop and validate ocean color satellite algorithms for the retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (aCDOM) and CDOM spectral slopes for the 275:295 nm and 300:600 nm spectral range (S275:295 and S300:600). Remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) measurements computed from in-water radiometry profiles along with aCDOM() data are applied to develop several types of algorithms for the SeaWiFS and MODIS-Aqua ocean color satellite sensors, which involve least squares linear regression of aCDOM() with (1) Rrs band ratios, (2) quasi-analytical algorithm-based (QAA based) products of total absorption coefficients, (3) multiple Rrs bands within a multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis, and (4) diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd). The relative error (mean absolute percent difference; MAPD) for the MLR retrievals of aCDOM(275), aCDOM(355), aCDOM(380), aCDOM(412) and aCDOM(443) for our study region range from 20.4-23.9 for MODIS-Aqua and 27.3-30 for SeaWiFS. Because of the narrower range of CDOM spectral slope values, the MAPD for the MLR S275:295 and QAA-based S300:600 algorithms are much lower ranging from 9.9 and 8.3 for SeaWiFS, respectively, and 8.7 and 6.3 for MODIS, respectively. Seasonal and spatial MODIS-Aqua and SeaWiFS distributions of aCDOM, S275:295 and S300:600 processed with these algorithms are consistent with field measurements and the processes that impact CDOM levels along the continental shelf of the northeastern U.S. Several satellite data processing factors correlate with higher uncertainty in satellite retrievals of aCDOM, S275:295 and S300:600 within the coastal ocean, including solar zenith angle, sensor viewing angle, and atmospheric products applied for atmospheric corrections. Algorithms that include ultraviolet Rrs bands provide a better fit to field measurements than

  18. Embryogenesis and Larval Biology of the Cold-Water Coral Lophelia pertusa

    PubMed Central

    Strömberg, Susanna M.; Dahl, Mikael P.; Lundälv, Tomas; Brooke, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Cold-water coral reefs form spectacular and highly diverse ecosystems in the deep sea but little is known about reproduction, and virtually nothing about the larval biology in these corals. This study is based on data from two locations of the North East Atlantic and documents the first observations of embryogenesis and larval development in Lophelia pertusa, the most common framework-building cold-water scleractinian. Embryos developed in a more or less organized radial cleavage pattern from ∼160 µm large neutral or negatively buoyant eggs, to 120–270 µm long ciliated planulae. Embryogenesis was slow with cleavage occurring at intervals of 6–8 hours up to the 64-cell stage. Genetically characterized larvae were sexually derived, with maternal and paternal alleles present. Larvae were active swimmers (0.5 mm s−1) initially residing in the upper part of the water column, with bottom probing behavior starting 3–5 weeks after fertilization. Nematocysts had developed by day 30, coinciding with peak bottom-probing behavior, and possibly an indication that larvae are fully competent to settle at this time. Planulae survived for eight weeks under laboratory conditions, and preliminary results indicate that these planulae are planktotrophic. The late onset of competency and larval longevity suggests a high dispersal potential. Understanding larval biology and behavior is of paramount importance for biophysical modeling of larval dispersal, which forms the basis for predictions of connectivity among populations. PMID:25028936

  19. Numerical studies of cold water injection into vapor-dominated geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, C.H; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1991-01-01

    Recent reservoir pressure and steam flow rate declines at The Geysers geothermal field in California have attracted interest in studies of increased cold water injection into this system. In this paper, numerical studies of such injection into a fractured vapor-dominated reservoir are conducted using a two-dimensional radial, double-porosity model. The results obtained indicate that cold water injection into superheated (low-pressure) zones will greatly enhance the productivities of steam wells. Injection into two-phase zones with significant liquid reserves in the matrix blocks does not appear to aid in steam recovery until most of the original liquid reserves are depleted. Sensitivity studies are conducted over the range of fracture and matrix permeabilities applicable to the Geysers. The sensitivity of the grid size is also conducted, and shows very large grid effects. A fine vertical space discretization near the bottom of the reservoir is necessary to accurately predict the boiling of the injected water. 28 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) CWP (Cold Water Pipe) Laboratory Test Program. Materials Project Test Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    Fiberglass sandwich wall structures emerged as leading candidates for the OTEC cold water pipe because of their high strength to weight ratio, their flexibility in selecting directional properties, their resistance to electrochemical interaction, their ease of deployment and their relative low cost. A review of the literature established reasonable confidence that FRP laminates could meet the OTEC requirements; however, little information was available on the performance of core materials suitable for OTEC applications. Syntactic foam cores of various composition and density were developed and tested for mechanical properties and seawater absorption.

  1. Evaluation of liquid water measuring instruments in cold clouds sampled during FIRE. [First ISCCP Research Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Miloshevich, Larry M.

    1989-01-01

    Airborne liquid water content (LWC) measurements were conducted with an icing detector and a forward-scattering spectrometer probe during 10 flights into cold clouds, as part of the First ISCCP Research Experiment (FIRE). The LWC measurements thus obtained compare favorably with those from the hot-wire probes in the range where LWC is above the detection limits of the latter; the hot-wire probes have detection thresholds about one order of magnitude higher than is possible with the icing detector and spectrometer probe. FIRE experiment data indicate that LWC should be taken into consideration in cloud studies at temperatures down to at least 35 C.

  2. Evaluation of liquid water measuring instruments in cold clouds sampled during FIRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Miloshevich, Larry M.

    1989-06-01

    Airborne liquid water content (LWC) measurements were conducted with an icing detector and a forward-scattering spectrometer probe during 10 flights into cold clouds, as part of the First ISCCP Research Experiment (FIRE). The LWC measurements thus obtained compare favorably with those from the hot-wire probes in the range where LWC is above the detection limits of the latter; the hot-wire probes have detection thresholds about one order of magnitude higher than is possible with the icing detector and spectrometer probe. FIRE experiment data indicate that LWC should be taken into consideration in cloud studies at temperatures down to at least 35 C.

  3. Reprint of: The ins and outs of water dynamics in cold tolerant soil invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Holmstrup, Martin

    2015-12-01

    Many soil invertebrates have physiological characteristics in common with freshwater animals and represent an evolutionary transition from aquatic to terrestrial life forms. Their high cuticular permeability and ability to tolerate large modifications of internal osmolality are of particular importance for their cold tolerance. A number of cold region species that spend some or most of their life-time in soil are in more or less intimate contact with soil ice during overwintering. Unless such species have effective barriers against cuticular water-transport, they have only two options for survival: tolerate internal freezing or dehydrate. The risk of internal ice formation may be substantial due to inoculative freezing and many species rely on freeze-tolerance for overwintering. If freezing does not occur, the desiccating power of external ice will cause the animal to dehydrate until vapor pressure equilibrium between body fluids and external ice has been reached. This cold tolerance mechanism is termed cryoprotective dehydration (CPD) and requires that the animal must be able to tolerate substantial dehydration. Even though CPD is essentially a freeze-avoidance strategy the associated physiological traits are more or less the same as those found in freeze tolerant species. The most well-known are accumulation of compatible osmolytes and molecular chaperones reducing or protecting against the stress caused by cellular dehydration. Environmental moisture levels of the habitat are important for which type of cold tolerance is employed, not only in an evolutionary context, but also within a single population. Some species use CPD under relatively dry conditions, but freeze tolerance when soil moisture is high. PMID:26615724

  4. The ins and outs of water dynamics in cold tolerant soil invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Holmstrup, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Many soil invertebrates have physiological characteristics in common with freshwater animals and represent an evolutionary transition from aquatic to terrestrial life forms. Their high cuticular permeability and ability to tolerate large modifications of internal osmolality are of particular importance for their cold tolerance. A number of cold region species that spend some or most of their life-time in soil are in more or less intimate contact with soil ice during overwintering. Unless such species have effective barriers against cuticular water-transport, they have only two options for survival: tolerate internal freezing or dehydrate. The risk of internal ice formation may be substantial due to inoculative freezing and many species rely on freeze-tolerance for overwintering. If freezing does not occur, the desiccating power of external ice will cause the animal to dehydrate until vapor pressure equilibrium between body fluids and external ice has been reached. This cold tolerance mechanism is termed cryoprotective dehydration (CPD) and requires that the animal must be able to tolerate substantial dehydration. Even though CPD is essentially a freeze-avoidance strategy the associated physiological traits are more or less the same as those found in freeze tolerant species. The most well-known are accumulation of compatible osmolytes and molecular chaperones reducing or protecting against the stress caused by cellular dehydration. Environmental moisture levels of the habitat are important for which type of cold tolerance is employed, not only in an evolutionary context, but also within a single population. Some species use CPD under relatively dry conditions, but freeze tolerance when soil moisture is high. PMID:25436960

  5. The ins and outs of water dynamics in cold tolerant soil invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Holmstrup, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Many soil invertebrates have physiological characteristics in common with freshwater animals and represent an evolutionary transition from aquatic to terrestrial life forms. Their high cuticular permeability and ability to tolerate large modifications of internal osmolality are of particular importance for their cold tolerance. A number of cold region species that spend some or most of their life-time in soil are in more or less intimate contact with soil ice during overwintering. Unless such species have effective barriers against cuticular water-transport, they have only two options for survival: tolerate internal freezing or dehydrate. The risk of internal ice formation may be substantial due to inoculative freezing and many species rely on freeze-tolerance for overwintering. If freezing does not occur, the desiccating power of external ice will cause the animal to dehydrate until vapor pressure equilibrium between body fluids and external ice has been reached. This cold tolerance mechanism is termed cryoprotective dehydration (CPD) and requires that the animal must be able to tolerate substantial dehydration. Even though CPD is essentially a freeze-avoidance strategy the associated physiological traits are more or less the same as those found in freeze tolerant species. The most well-known are accumulation of compatible osmolytes and molecular chaperones reducing or protecting against the stress caused by cellular dehydration. Environmental moisture levels of the habitat are important for which type of cold tolerance is employed, not only in an evolutionary context, but also within a single population. Some species use CPD under relatively dry conditions, but freeze tolerance when soil moisture is high.

  6. Water in embedded low-mass protostars: cold envelopes and warm outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Lars E.; van Dishoeck, Ewine; Mottram, Joseph; Schmalzl, Markus; Visser, Ruud

    2015-08-01

    As stars form, gas from the parental cloud is transported through the molecular envelope to the protostellar disk from which planets eventually form. Water plays a crucial role in such systems: it forms the backbone of the oxygen chemistry, it is a unique probe of warm and hot gas, and it provides a unique link between the grain surface and gas-phase chemistries. The distribution of water, both as ice and gas, is a fundamental question to our understanding of how planetary systems, such as the Solar System, form.The Herschel Space Observatory observed many tens of embedded low-mass protostars in a suite of gas-phase water transitions in several programs (e.g. Water in Star-forming regions with Herschel, WISH, and the William Herschel Line Legacy Survey, WILL), and related species (e.g. CO in Protostars with HIFI, COPS-HIFI). I will summarize what Herschel has revealed about the water distribution in the cold outer molecular envelope of low-mass protostars, and the warm gas in outflows, the two components predominantly traced by Herschel observations. I will present our current understanding of where the water vapor is in protostellar systems and the underlying physical and chemical processes leading to this distribution. Through these dedicated observational surveys and complementary modeling efforts, we are now at a stage where we can quantify where the water is during the early stages of star formation.

  7. Infrared Remote Sensing of Coherent Structures in an Estuarine River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jessup, A. T.; Chickadel, C.

    2007-12-01

    Coherent structures in rivers are generated by the interaction of the flow with bathymetric and shoreline features. These coherent structures produce surface signatures that can be detected and quantified using remote sensing instruments such as infrared (IR) cameras and microwave radars. Furthermore, the existing evidence suggests a number of relationships between coherent structures and flow characteristics that have the potential to allow flow parameters to be inferred from remote measurements. The Coherent Structures in Rivers and Estuaries Experiment, or COHSTREX is a five-year, multi-institutional collaboration to determine the extent to which the remotely-sensed signatures of coherent structures can be used to initialize and constrain predictive models for river and estuarine flows. Following a brief overview of COHSTREX, we report on the use of IR imagery to characterize and quantify the flow in the Snohomish River, in Everett, WA during the 2006 COHSTREX field campaign. Applications of IR techniques include using DPIV techniques to derive surface velocity and detecting coherent structures such as vortices and boils. Here we will focus on the finding that the thermal signature of boils generated by the flow over a submerged sill can be used to detect the presence of stratification due to an estuarine salt wedge. The boils were observed to have both warm and cold surface signatures depending on the phase of the tide. In the absence of stratification, the boil signature was warm relative to the surrounding undisturbed surface. A warm signature is consistent with disruption of the cool thermal boundary layer that is typically present at the surface of natural water bodies. When stratification was present, the boil signature was cool relative to its surroundings. Comparisons with in situ temperature and salinity measurements show that a cold signature is due to deep, colder water from the salt wedge being brought to the surface. We also found that near

  8. Sr/Ca ratios in cold-water corals - a 'low-resolution' temperature archive?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rüggeberg, Andres; Riethdorf, Jan-Rainer; Raddatz, Jacek; López Correa, Matthias; Montagna, Paolo; Dullo, Wolf-Christian; Freiwald, André

    2010-05-01

    One of the basic data to understand global change and past global changes is the measurement and the reconstruction of temperature of marine water masses. E.g. seawater temperature controls the density of seawater and in combination with salinity is the major driving force for the oceans circulation system. Geochemical investigations on cold-water corals Lophelia pertusa and Desmophyllum cristagalli indicated the potential of these organisms as high-resolution archives of environmental parameters from intermediate and deeper water masses (Adkins and Boyle 1997). Some studies tried to use cold-water corals as a high-resolution archive of temperature and salinity (Smith et al. 2000, 2002; Blamart et al. 2005; Lutringer et al. 2005). However, the fractionation of stable isotopes (delta18O and delta13C) and element ratios (Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca, U/Ca) are strongly influenced by vital effects (Shirai et al. 2005; Cohen et al. 2006), and difficult to interpret. Nevertheless, ongoing studies indicate the potential of a predominant temperature dependent fractionation of distinct isotopes and elements (e.g. Li/Ca, Montagna et al. 2008; U/Ca, Mg/Ca, delta18O, Lòpez Correa et al. 2008; delta88/86Sr, Rüggeberg et al. 2008). Within the frame of DFG-Project TRISTAN and Paläo-TRISTAN (Du 129/37-2 and 37-3) we investigated live-collected specimens of cold-water coral L. pertusa from all along the European continental margin (Northern and mid Norwegian shelves, Skagerrak, Rockall and Porcupine Bank, Galicia Bank, Gulf of Cadiz, Mediterranean Sea). These coral samples grew in waters characterized by temperatures between 6°C and 14°C. Electron Microprobe investigations along the growth direction of individual coral polyps were applied to determine the relationship between the incorporation of distinct elements (Sr, Ca, Mg, S). Cohen et al. (2006) showed for L. pertusa from the Kosterfjord, Skagerrak, that ~25% of the coral's Sr/Ca ratio is related to temperature, while 75% are influenced

  9. Solid phase extraction of rare earth elements in seawater and estuarine water with 4-(2-thiazolylazo) resorcinol immobilized Chromosorb 106 for determination by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Zereen, Fahmida; Yilmaz, Vedat; Arslan, Zikri

    2013-01-01

    A solid phase preconcentration method has been developed using new chelating resin prepared by immobilization of 4-(2-thiazolylazo) resorcinol (TAR) on Chromosorb 106. The method was optimized for determination of rare earth elements (REEs) in seawater and estuarine water samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The effects of various experimental parameters, such as load pH, eluent concentration, sample and eluent flow rates were examined to find the optimum operating conditions. The REEs were quantitatively retained from saline solutions on a minicolumn Chromosorb 106-TAR resin at pH 5.0 and then eluted with 1.0 mL of 1% (v/v) HNO3. The resin possesses large sorption capacity for REEs ranging from 81.1 µmol g−1 for Lu and 108 µmol g−1 for Nd. Detection limits (3s) varied between 0.06 ng L−1 for Pr to 0.31 for Ce for preconcentration of 5.0 mL blank solutions (pH 5.0). The relative standard deviation for triplicate measurements was less than 5% at 0.1 µg L−1 level. The method was validated by analysis Nearshore seawater certified reference material (CASS–4). The elemental results were comparable with the values reported in literature. The method was verified by analysis of spiked and unspiked coastal seawater and estuarine water samples. PMID:24000264

  10. Winter cold of eastern continental boundaries induced by warm ocean waters.

    PubMed

    Kaspi, Yohai; Schneider, Tapio

    2011-03-31

    In winter, northeastern North America and northeastern Asia are both colder than other regions at similar latitudes. This has been attributed to the effects of stationary weather systems set by elevated terrain (orography), and to a lack of maritime influences from the prevailing westerly winds. However, the differences in extent and orography between the two continents suggest that further mechanisms are involved. Here we show that this anomalous winter cold can result in part from westward radiation of large-scale atmospheric waves--nearly stationary Rossby waves--generated by heating of the atmosphere over warm ocean waters. We demonstrate this mechanism using simulations with an idealized general circulation model, with which we show that the extent of the cold region is controlled by properties of Rossby waves, such as their group velocity and its dependence on the planetary rotation rate. Our results show that warm ocean waters contribute to the contrast in mid-latitude winter temperatures between eastern and western continental boundaries not only by warming western boundaries, but also by cooling eastern boundaries.

  11. Oxidation-reduction processes in ice swimmers after ice-cold water bath and aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Sutkowy, Paweł; Woźniak, Alina; Boraczyński, Tomasz; Boraczyński, Michał; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna

    2015-06-01

    The effect of an ice-cold water (ICW) bath as a recovery intervention from aerobic exercise on the oxidant-antioxidant balance in healthy ice swimmers was determined. Twenty ice swimmers aged 31.2 ± 6.3 years performed a 30-min cycloergometer exercise test at room temperature (20°C, RT), followed by recovery at RT or in a pool of ice-cold water (ICW bath, 3°C, 5 min). Blood for laboratory assays was collected from the basilic vein two times: before the exercise (baseline) and 40 min after the RT or ICW recovery. The concentrations of plasma and erythrocytic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (plTBARS and erTBARS, respectively), serum concentrations of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α, 4-hydroxynonenal and malondialdehyde, along with the erythrocytic activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as the serum level of total antioxidant capacity, were assessed. No statistically significant changes were observed. However, a statistically significant negative linear correlation between the erTBARS concentration and the SOD activity was found 40 min after the combination of exercise/RT recovery (r=-0.571, P<0.01). The baseline CAT and SOD activities were also linearly correlated (r=0.469, P<0.05). Both the 5-min ICW bath and the 30-min aerobic exercise have practically no impact on the oxidant-antioxidant balance in healthy ice swimmers.

  12. Direct nutritional link between 600-m deep cold-water corals and surface productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soetaert, Karline; Mohn, Christian; Rengstorff, Anna; Grehan, Anthony; van Oevelen, Dick

    2016-04-01

    Cold-water corals (CWC) form deep-sea reefs that are found in all of the world's oceans, with an areal extent at par with that of tropical coral reefs, and are recognised hotspots of biodiversity and metabolic activity. Yet, it remains largely enigmatic how these rich CWC reefs can thrive in a cold and dark environment that is considered to be strongly food-limited. Here, we use a novel benthic-pelagic modeling approach, which involves coupling models of hydrodynamics, biogeochemistry and habitat suitability, to unravel organic matter delivery to reef mounds at a water depth of 600 m that are capped with a thriving CWC reef community at Rockall Bank (NE Atlantic). Model simulations show that the interaction between 300-m high reef mounds and spring tidal currents induces episodic downwelling events that establish a vertical coupling between 600-m deep CWC with surface productivity. We therefore conclude that there is a positive feedback between CWC mound growth and organic matter supply. This episodic downwelling strongly enhances carbon sequestration to the deep ocean and the ubiquitous occurrence of topographic rises along the ocean margins suggests that a topographically-induced benthic-pelagic carbon pump could be of global importance.

  13. Vitamin E protection in the biochemical adaptation of marine organisms to cold-water environments.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Akio; Dunlap, Walter C; Yamamoto, Yorihiro

    2010-10-01

    Vitamin E is one of the most important lipid-soluble antioxidants to occur in plants and animals for cellular protection against lipid peroxidation. An essential adaptation to low temperature is the elaboration of high levels of unsaturated fatty acids in the composition of cellular membranes, which is necessary to maintain functional membrane fluidity. Increasing the content of lipid unsaturation, however, occurs at the expense of enhancing the vulnerability of cellular membranes to oxidative damage. First isolated from salmon eggs, cold-water marine organisms were found to produce, or acquire, a specific vitamin E homologue, named "marine-derived tocopherol" (MDT), having an unusual methylene unsaturation at its isoprenoid-chain terminus. In this overview we compare the antioxidant composition of tropical, temperate and polar fishes, present provisional evidence that MDT is produced at the primary food chain, and provide empirical confirmation that the enhanced reactivity of MDT at low temperature is attributed to its greater rate of diffusion in viscous lipids at low temperatures. This claim of biochemical adaptation is supported by a unique model of diffusion-limited reactivity that mimics changes in the ratio of the MDT/alpha-tocopherol rate constants at diminishing levels of radical flux in viscous media at low temperature. We offer in conclusion future outlooks to research on antioxidant protection in cold-water ectotherms. PMID:20427025

  14. Oxidation-reduction processes in ice swimmers after ice-cold water bath and aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Sutkowy, Paweł; Woźniak, Alina; Boraczyński, Tomasz; Boraczyński, Michał; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna

    2015-06-01

    The effect of an ice-cold water (ICW) bath as a recovery intervention from aerobic exercise on the oxidant-antioxidant balance in healthy ice swimmers was determined. Twenty ice swimmers aged 31.2 ± 6.3 years performed a 30-min cycloergometer exercise test at room temperature (20°C, RT), followed by recovery at RT or in a pool of ice-cold water (ICW bath, 3°C, 5 min). Blood for laboratory assays was collected from the basilic vein two times: before the exercise (baseline) and 40 min after the RT or ICW recovery. The concentrations of plasma and erythrocytic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (plTBARS and erTBARS, respectively), serum concentrations of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α, 4-hydroxynonenal and malondialdehyde, along with the erythrocytic activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as the serum level of total antioxidant capacity, were assessed. No statistically significant changes were observed. However, a statistically significant negative linear correlation between the erTBARS concentration and the SOD activity was found 40 min after the combination of exercise/RT recovery (r=-0.571, P<0.01). The baseline CAT and SOD activities were also linearly correlated (r=0.469, P<0.05). Both the 5-min ICW bath and the 30-min aerobic exercise have practically no impact on the oxidant-antioxidant balance in healthy ice swimmers. PMID:25910677

  15. Recycling ground water in Waushara County, Wisconsin : resource management for cold-water fish hatcheries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Novitzki, R.P.

    1976-01-01

    Other recharge-recycling schemes can also be evaluated. Estimating the recycling efficiency (of recharge ponds, trenches, spreading areas, or irrigated fields) provides a basis for predicting water-level declines, the concentration of conservative ions (conservative in the sense that no reaction other than mixing occurs to change the character of the ion being considered) in the water supply and in the regional ground-water system, and the temperature of the water supply. Hatchery development and management schemes can be chosen to optimize hatchery productivity or minimize operation costs while protecting the ground-water system.

  16. Effect of dissolved oxygen content on stress corrosion cracking of a cold worked 316L stainless steel in simulated pressurized water reactor primary water environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Litao; Wang, Jianqiu

    2014-03-01

    Stress corrosion crack growth tests of a cold worked nuclear grade 316L stainless steel were conducted in simulated pressurized water reactor (PWR) primary water environment containing various dissolved oxygen (DO) contents but no dissolved hydrogen. The crack growth rate (CGR) increased with increasing DO content in the simulated PWR primary water. The fracture surface exhibited typical intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) characteristics.

  17. Insights into Cold Water Injection Stimulation Effects through Analytical Solutions to Flow and Heat Transport

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Plummer

    2013-09-01

    Wells in traditional hydrothermal reservoirs are used to extract heat and to dispose of cooled water. In the first case, high productivity (the ratio of production flow rate to the pressure differential required to produce that rate) to is preferred in order to maximize power generation, while minimizing the parasitic energy loss of pumping. In the second case, high injectivity (the ratio of injection flow rate to the pressure differential required to produce that rate) is preferred, in order to reduce pumping costs. In order to improve productivity or injectivity, cold water is sometimes injected into the reservoir in an attempt to cool and contract the surrounding rock matrix and thereby induce dilation and/or extension of existing fractures or to generate new fractures. Though the increases in permeability associated with these changes are likely localized, by improving connectivity to more extensive high-permeability fractures they can at least temporarily provide substantially improved productivity or injectivity.

  18. Influence of cold hardening on water relations of three Eucalyptus species.

    PubMed

    Valentini, R; Mugnozza, G S; Giordano, E; Kuzminsky, E

    1990-03-01

    Water relations of three Eucalyptus species (E. x trabutii Wilm., E. viminalis Labill., E. dalrympleana Maid.), widely planted in the Mediterranean basin, were analyzed throughout an entire year in relation to natural cold hardening. Osmotic potential, both at saturation and at the turgor loss point, showed a greater reduction during hardening in the more frost-resistant E. viminalis and E. dalrympleana than in the more frost-sensitive E. x trabutii. The hardening capabilities of all species were analyzed in relation to the freezing dehydration index, FDI, a parameter derived from pressure-volume analysis which represents the water lost when cells, initially at the turgor loss point, attain thermodynamic equilibrium with extraplasmatic ice. The FDI at the killing temperature showed little variation either between frost-sensitive and frost-resistant species, or between hardened and non-hardened plants. The index may, therefore, be useful for evaluating a plant's potential for injury by freeze-induced desiccation. PMID:14972956

  19. Reduction in predicted survival times in cold water due to wind and waves.

    PubMed

    Power, Jonathan; Simões Ré, António; Barwood, Martin; Tikuisis, Peter; Tipton, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Recent marine accidents have called into question the level of protection provided by immersion suits in real (harsh) life situations. Two immersion suit studies, one dry and the other with 500 mL of water underneath the suit, were conducted in cold water with 10-12 males in each to test body heat loss under three environmental conditions: calm, as mandated for immersion suit certification, and two combinations of wind plus waves to simulate conditions typically found offshore. In both studies mean skin heat loss was higher in wind and waves vs. calm; deep body temperature and oxygen consumption were not different. Mean survival time predictions exceeded 36 h for all conditions in the first study but were markedly less in the second in both calm and wind and waves. Immersion suit protection and consequential predicted survival times under realistic environmental conditions and with leakage are reduced relative to calm conditions.

  20. Reduction in predicted survival times in cold water due to wind and waves.

    PubMed

    Power, Jonathan; Simões Ré, António; Barwood, Martin; Tikuisis, Peter; Tipton, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Recent marine accidents have called into question the level of protection provided by immersion suits in real (harsh) life situations. Two immersion suit studies, one dry and the other with 500 mL of water underneath the suit, were conducted in cold water with 10-12 males in each to test body heat loss under three environmental conditions: calm, as mandated for immersion suit certification, and two combinations of wind plus waves to simulate conditions typically found offshore. In both studies mean skin heat loss was higher in wind and waves vs. calm; deep body temperature and oxygen consumption were not different. Mean survival time predictions exceeded 36 h for all conditions in the first study but were markedly less in the second in both calm and wind and waves. Immersion suit protection and consequential predicted survival times under realistic environmental conditions and with leakage are reduced relative to calm conditions. PMID:25766418

  1. Interannual salinity variability of the Northern Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ang; Yu, Fei; Diao, Xinyuan

    2015-05-01

    This paper discusses the interannual variability of the Northern Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (NYSCWM) and the factors that influence it, based on survey data from the 1976-2006 national standard section and the Korea Oceanographic Data Center, monthly E-P flux data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, and meridional wind speed data from the International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set. The results show that: 1) the mean salinity of the NYSCWM center has a slightly decreasing trend, which is not consistent with the high salinity center; 2) both the southern salinity front and the halocline of the NYSCWM display a weakening trend, which indicates that the difference between the NYSCWM and coastal water decreases; 3) the Yellow Sea Warm Current intrusion, the E-P flux of the northern Yellow Sea, and the strength of the winter monsoon will affect the NYSCWM salinity during the following summer.

  2. The contribution of chemical fluxes across the sediment-water interface to carbon cycling in estuarine regions: A case study at the Rhône River mouth (NW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rassmann, Jens; Eitel, Eryn; Bombled, Bruno; Lansard, Bruno; Taillefert, Martial; Rabouille, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Despite their small surface compared to the global oceans, continental shelf regions play a significant role in the global carbon cycle. Whereas shelf regions are seen as a sink for atmospheric CO2, estuarine regions are seen as a source. These regions are caracterized by the export of allochthonous terrigenous organic matter (OM) and the production of autochthonous marine organic carbon. An important fraction of this OM is mineralized in the sediments close to the river mouth. As a result, high exchange fluxes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA), oxygen and nutriments cross the sediment-water interface (SWI) and cause acidification of the bottom waters. Potentially, primary production in the water column is enhanced by these fluxes. Therefore, OM mineralisation in estuarine regions plays a key role in the carbon cycle as a direct producer of DIC and as a potential control factor for primary production. This work aims to quantify chemical fluxes through the SWI at the prodelta of the Rhone River (Mediterranen). In September 2015, a benthic chamber has been deployed at several stations in the prodelta to measure directly (in situ) fluxes of DIC, TA, ammonium and dissolved calcium at the SWI. At the same stations, in situ microprofiles of oxygen and pH have been recorded and sediment cores were taken for pore water extraction and analysis (DIC, TA, NH4+ and Ca2+). The results show a strong decrease of the fluxes in offshore direction indicating a strong variation of respiration rates in this direction. From pore water profiles, diffusive fluxes have been calculated and compared with the fluxes measured by the benthic chamber. This comparison enables us to include pore water profiles from previous investigations to calculate a carbon mass budget of this region.

  3. Effect of triazolam on responses to a cold-water immersion in humans.

    PubMed

    Bourdon, L; Jacobs, I; Bell, D; Ducharme, M B

    1995-07-01

    Managing alertness of soldiers during sustained operations is a source of serious concern for military unit commanders. A frequently employed strategy is to induce sleep before an operation, especially operations requiring prolonged travel. Sleep-inducing drugs could have an action on thermoregulation through their effect on alertness and a possible direct effect on the brain. The goal of this study was therefore to evaluate the effect of a commonly prescribed triazolam (Halcion) on thermoregulatory responses to cold-water immersion. Eight subjects were immersed twice in 18 degrees C water for up to 90 min in the morning; once after ingesting 0.25 mg triazolam (TRZ) the prior evening, and again after placebo (PLB) treatment. There were no significant differences between trials for mean duration of the immersion, the change in rectal temperature and mean skin temperature. Total metabolic heat production was similar for both conditions: 767 +/- 107 vs. 781 +/- 105 kj.m-2 for TRZ and PLB, respectively. The results should be considered in light of a large variation among the subjects in sensitivity to TRZ, which was unrelated to biometrical characteristics such as surface area-to-mass ratio, lean body mass, % body fat, and physical fitness. Although not statistically significant, there was a trend for a smaller increase in plasma free fatty acid and glycerol concentrations after water immersion with TRZ. The results suggest that the ingestion of a single dose of triazolam 11 h prior to a cold-water immersion is not likely to accelerate the rate of onset of hypothermia. Individual sensitivity, however, may predispose some sensitive subjects to negative effects in this regard.

  4. Participation of NMDA receptors in the lateral hypothalamus in gastric erosion induced by cold-water restraint.

    PubMed

    Landeira-Fernandez, J

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated whether neurons in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) play a role in the occurrence of gastric ulcerations induced by cold-water restraint. The first experiment indicated that bilateral N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) lesions of the LH (20μg/1μl per side) reduced the amount of gastric ulceration induced by cold-water restraint. In the second experiment, the NMDA antagonist DL-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV; 2.5μg/0.5μl per side) or its vehicle was microinjected bilaterally into the LH prior to the cold-water restraint procedure. APV did not induce gastric ulcerations but reduced the amount of ulceration induced by cold-water restraint. These results indicate that NMDA receptors in the LH play an important role in the occurrence of gastric ulceration induced by cold-water restraint. The participation of the LH and possible neuronal circuitry involved in stress-induced ulceration are discussed.

  5. Recycling ground water in Waushara County, Wisconsin : resource management for cold-water fish hatcheries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Novitzki, R.P.

    1976-01-01

    Other recharge-recycling schemes can also be evaluated. Estimating the recycling efficiency (of recharge ponds, trenches, spreading areas, or irrigated fields) provides a basis for predicting water-level declines, the concentration of conservative ions (conservative in the sense that no reaction other than mixing occurs to change the character of the ion being considered) in the water supply and in the regional ground-water system, and the tem

  6. Cold air drainage and modeled nocturnal leaf water potential in complex forested terrain.

    PubMed

    Hubbart, Jason A; Kavanagh, Kathleen L; Pangle, Robert; Link, Tim; Schotzko, Alisa

    2007-04-01

    Spatial variation in microclimate caused by air temperature inversions plays an important role in determining the timing and rate of many physical and biophysical processes. Such phenomena are of particular interest in mountainous regions where complex physiographic terrain can greatly complicate these processes. Recent work has demonstrated that, in some plants, stomata do not close completely at night, resulting in nocturnal transpiration. The following work was undertaken to develop a better understanding of nocturnal cold air drainage and its subsequent impact on the reliability of predawn leaf water potential (Psi(pd)) as a surrogate for soil water potential (Psi(s)). Eight temperature data loggers were installed on a transect spanning a vertical distance of 155 m along a north facing slope in the Mica Creek Experimental Watershed (MCEW) in northern Idaho during July and August 2004. Results indicated strong nocturnal temperature inversions occurring from the low- to upper-mid-slope, typically spanning the lower 88 m of the vertical distance. Based on mean temperatures for both months, inversions resulted in lapse rates of 29.0, 27.0 and 25.0 degrees C km(-1) at 0000, 0400 and 2000 h, respectively. At this scale (i.e., < 1 km), the observed lapse rates resulted in highly variable nighttime vapor pressure deficits (D) over the length of the slope, with variable impacts on modeled disequilibrium between soil and leaf water potential. As a result of cold air drainage, modeled Psi(pd) became consistently more negative (up to -0.3 MPa) at higher elevations during the night based on mean temperatures. Nocturnal inversions on the lower- and mid-slopes resulted in leaf water potentials that were at least 30 and 50% more negative over the lower 88 m of the inversion layer, based on mean and maximum temperatures, respectively. However, on a cloudy night, with low D, the maximum decrease in Psi(pd) was -0.04 MPa. Our results indicate that, given persistent cold air

  7. Integrated research on the Pen Duick cold-water coral mounds: the MiCROSYSTEMS approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rooij, David; de Mol, Lies; Blamart, Dominique; Mienis, Furu; Wehrmann, Laura M.; Barbieri, Roberto; Maignien, Lois; Templer, Stefanie P.; de Haas, Henk; Henriet, Jean-Pierre

    2010-05-01

    The ESF EuroDIVERSITY MiCROSYSTEMS project aimed to turn the cold-water coral (CWC) mounds on the Pen Duick Escarpment (PDE) in the Gulf of Cadiz into a natural laboratory, exploring this highly complex biotope and to characterize its biodiversity. A common point of discussion with all other CWC mound provinces, surpassing its broad range of regional and morphological variability, concerns the driving forces regarding the initiation of these complex deep-water systems. Both oceanographic and geological processes have been proposed to play a significant role in the mound nucleation, growth and decline. During IODP Expedition 307, the importance of biogeochemical processes was already elucidated. Here, we present the preliminary results of the MD169 campaign as an integrated case study of three PDE CWC mounds: Alpha, Beta and Gamma mounds. Although cold-water corals are a common feature on the adjacent cliffs, mud volcanoes and seafloor, no actual living reef has been observed during the many ROV surveys. This multidisciplinary study aims to present a comprehensive and holistic view on the local dynamic geological and oceanographic environment. Coring data suggests (past or present) methane seepage near the Pen Duick Escarpment. Several sources and pathways are proposed, among which a stratigraphic migration through uplifted Miocene series underneath PDE. Its dominant morphology has influenced the local hydrodynamics within the course of the Pliocene, as documented by the emplacement of a sediment drift. Predominantly during post-Middle Pleistocene glacial episodes, favourable conditions were present for mound growth. An additional advantage for CWC mound nucleation near the top of PDE is offered through seepage-related carbonate crusts which might offer elevated colonization positions. Present-day seabed observations also suggested a possible important role of open coral rubble frameworks in the mound building process. These graveyards not only act as sediment trap

  8. Transport in vertical mixed convection flows and natural convection flows in cold water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, V. P.

    Computed similarity solutions are presented for thermally-driven natural convection flow adjacent to a vertical isothermal surface in cold pure or saline water. These calculations specifically explore the flow behavior at temperature conditions for which the buoyancy force reverses across the thermal transport region due to the presence of a density extremum within the region. Computed similarity solutions are given for the laminar natural convection flow adjacent to a vertical ice surface melting in saline water. The most recent transport property data and a very accurate equation of state for saline water are used to analyze the transport of momentum, salt and thermal energy in such flows. Interface motion effects are included and the interface conditions are determined from the transport. Time exposure photographs of the flow adjacent to a vertical ice surface melting in 10% saline water are presented for ambient water temperatures between 1 C and 15 C. A perturbation analysis is presented of mixed convection flow over a vertical semi infinite surface with uniform heat flux.

  9. Sr/Ca ratios in cold-water corals - a 'low-resolution' temperature archive?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rüggeberg, Andres; Riethdorf, Jan-Rainer; Raddatz, Jacek; López Correa, Matthias; Montagna, Paolo; Dullo, Wolf-Christian; Freiwald, André

    2010-05-01

    One of the basic data to understand global change and past global changes is the measurement and the reconstruction of temperature of marine water masses. E.g. seawater temperature controls the density of seawater and in combination with salinity is the major driving force for the oceans circulation system. Geochemical investigations on cold-water corals Lophelia pertusa and Desmophyllum cristagalli indicated the potential of these organisms as high-resolution archives of environmental parameters from intermediate and deeper water masses (Adkins and Boyle 1997). Some studies tried to use cold-water corals as a high-resolution archive of temperature and salinity (Smith et al. 2000, 2002; Blamart et al. 2005; Lutringer et al. 2005). However, the fractionation of stable isotopes (delta18O and delta13C) and element ratios (Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca, U/Ca) are strongly influenced by vital effects (Shirai et al. 2005; Cohen et al. 2006), and difficult to interpret. Nevertheless, ongoing studies indicate the potential of a predominant temperature dependent fractionation of distinct isotopes and elements (e.g. Li/Ca, Montagna et al. 2008; U/Ca, Mg/Ca, delta18O, Lòpez Correa et al. 2008; delta88/86Sr, Rüggeberg et al. 2008). Within the frame of DFG-Project TRISTAN and Paläo-TRISTAN (Du 129/37-2 and 37-3) we investigated live-collected specimens of cold-water coral L. pertusa from all along the European continental margin (Northern and mid Norwegian shelves, Skagerrak, Rockall and Porcupine Bank, Galicia Bank, Gulf of Cadiz, Mediterranean Sea). These coral samples grew in waters characterized by temperatures between 6°C and 14°C. Electron Microprobe investigations along the growth direction of individual coral polyps were applied to determine the relationship between the incorporation of distinct elements (Sr, Ca, Mg, S). Cohen et al. (2006) showed for L. pertusa from the Kosterfjord, Skagerrak, that ~25% of the coral's Sr/Ca ratio is related to temperature, while 75% are influenced

  10. Correcting the errors from variable sea salt retention and water of hydration in loss on ignition analysis: Implications for studies of estuarine and coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavn, Robert H.; Rick, Hans J.; Falster, Alexander V.

    2009-03-01

    The standard technique of determining the concentrations of total suspended solids (TSSs), particulate inorganic matter (PIM), and particulate organic matter (POM) by filtration with glass fiber filters is subject to an error or bias from sea salt plus water of hydration retention, when applied to saline waters. The sea salt plus water of hydration retention by the filters occurs even after washing the filter with 300 ml of deionized water, a greater volume than any wash recommended in the literature. We determined that the mass retention on a glass fiber filter, at a given salinity, is essentially constant, no matter the volume of seawater passed through the filter. We also determined that the sea salt plus water of hydration retention on glass fiber filters is directly proportional to the salinity of the seawater filtered. Sea salt plus water of hydration retention causes an overestimate of TSS; sea salt retention causes an overestimate of PIM; volatilization of water of hydration causes an overestimate of POM. Thus a correction curve is required for sea salt and water of hydration errors in the determination of TSS and PIM. Corrected POM comes from the difference between the two. Also, filter blanks (procedural control filters), run with deionized (DI) water rather than the seawater sample, are required to correct for possible filter mass loss during the analysis. We demonstrate correction curves for sea salt plus water of hydration retention for Whatman GF/F filters, 47 mm diameter, utilizing the methods of the APHA Manual, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. Application of other glass fiber filter types or an analytical technique differing significantly from that employed here requires a different correction curve for retention of sea salt and water of hydration. These methods can be used to reanalyze older data on PIM, POM, and TSS. We apply these corrections to PIM and POM data from the northern Gulf of Mexico and examine the

  11. Hypohydration effect on finger skin temperature and blood flow during cold-water finger immersion.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Catherine; Montain, Scott J

    2003-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether hypohydration (Hy) alters blood flow, skin temperature, or cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD) during peripheral cooling. Fourteen subjects sat in a thermoneutral environment (27 degrees C) during 15-min warm-water (42 degrees C) and 30-min cold-water (4 degrees C) finger immersion (FI) while euhydrated (Eu) and, again, during Hy. Hy (-4% body weight) was induced before FI by exercise-heat exposure (38 degrees C, 30% relative humidity) with no fluid replacement, whereas during Eu, fluid intake maintained body weight. Finger pad blood flow [as measured by laser-Doppler flux (LDF)] and nail bed (T(nb)), pad (T(pad)), and core (T(c)) temperatures were measured. LDF decreased similarly during Eu and Hy (32 +/- 10 and 33 +/- 13% of peak during warm-water immersion). Mean T(nb) and T(pad) were similar between Eu (7.1 +/- 1.0 and 11.5 +/- 1.6 degrees C) and Hy (7.4 +/- 1.3 and 12.6 +/- 2.1 degrees C). CIVD parameters (e.g., nadir, onset time, apex) were similar between trials, except T(pad) nadir was higher during Hy (10.4 +/- 3.8 degrees C) than during Eu (7.9 +/- 1.6 degrees C), which was attributed to higher T(c) in six subjects during Hy (37.5 +/- 0.2 degrees C), compared with during Eu (37.1 +/- 0.1 degrees C). The results of this study provide no evidence that Hy alters finger blood flow, skin temperature, or CIVD during peripheral cooling.

  12. Comparison of the susceptibility of four rainbow trout strains to cold-water disease.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Eric J; Oplinger, Randall W

    2014-09-01

    Abstract Susceptibility to cold-water disease was compared among four strains of Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss: Arlee strain from Ennis National Fish Hatchery, Montana (AL-EN), the Arlee strain from Jocko River Hatchery, Montana (AL-JR), a cold-water disease-resistant strain (WV), and the Harrison-Hofer strain (HH). Bacterial challenges were either by bath or intraperitoneal injection (50 μL of 0.65 optical density). Each strain was exposed at 75 d after hatch to either the CSF 259-93 (Idaho) or 09-104 isolate (Utah) of Flavobacterium psychrophilum. Injection controls received a phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution and bath controls were exposed to uninoculated sterile broth (tryptone yeast extract salts) mixed 1:1 with hatchery well water. For injected fish, the WV had significantly lower mortality (20.0-36.7%) than HH and AL-EN (76.7-96.7%) but did not significantly differ from AL-JR (46.7-56.7%). Injected fish had significantly higher mortality than bath-exposed fish. For bath-exposed fish, the WV had significantly lower mortality (0%) than the HH (10.0-26.7%), but both Arlee strains had intermediate mortality values (0-13.3%) that did not significantly differ from either the HH or WV strain. There were no significant differences between the two bacterial isolates, indicating similar virulence and similar resistance response of WV to another novel isolate of F. psychrophilum. Received November 5, 2013; accepted April 15, 2014.

  13. Buried cold-water coral mounds and contourite deposits in the Atlantic Moroccan Coral Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandorpe, Thomas; Hebbeln, Dierk; Wienberg, Claudia; Van den Berghe, Michèle; Van Rooij, David

    2016-04-01

    The Atlantic Moroccan Coral Province (AMCP) is situated in the southern Gulf of Cadiz roughly between 34° 50'N to 35°35'N and 6°30'W to 7°15'W. The region displays tectonic (ridges and both large transverse as well as small normal and reverse faults) as well as sedimentological features (drifts deposits and sediment waves). Eleven mud volcanoes are present in the northern part of the region as well (Vandorpe et al., in press). Besides the presence of many surfacing small cold-water coral mounds, hundreds to thousands of mounds were discovered in the subsurface through 2D seismic parasound and sparker seismic profiles. Over 90% of the mounds are situated at water depths between 600 and 1000 meters and most of them occur in clusters. The cold-water coral mounds are rather small in this region (compared to the 100 m high mounds in the Belgica Province in the Porcupine basin (Huvenne et al., 2003)). Their widths vary between 20 and 200 m with a modus around 60 m, while their heights vary between 2 and 40 m with a modus around 10 m. Moreover, ten horizons at which mound growth initiated can be distinguished, compared to the single mound growth event observed in the Porcupine Basin (Huvenne et al., 2003). This points towards rapidly changing environmental conditions in the AMCP which were sometimes favourable for initiation and growth of cold-water coral mounds. These favourable periods rapidly switched to periods when corals were not able to settle and the mounds could get buried. Mound growth initiates mostly at elevated places, e.g. tectonic ridges, outcropping bedrock or even previous cold-water coral mounds. Elevated places deflect bottom currents and increase the amount of food particles and sediments delivered to the corals, but also create sedimentological features such as contourites. The contourite deposits in the region greatly depend on the slope of the topography against which they are present (Vandorpe et al., in press). When mounds were able to reach a

  14. The capacity to maintain ion and water homeostasis underlies interspecific variation in Drosophila cold tolerance

    PubMed Central

    MacMillan, Heath A.; Andersen, Jonas L.; Davies, Shireen A.; Overgaard, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Many insects, including Drosophila, succumb to the physiological effects of chilling at temperatures well above those causing freezing. Low temperature causes a loss of extracellular ion and water homeostasis in such insects, and chill injuries accumulate. Using an integrative and comparative approach, we examined the role of ion and water balance in insect chilling susceptibility/ tolerance. The Malpighian tubules (MT), of chill susceptible Drosophila species lost [Na+] and [K+] selectivity at low temperatures, which contributed to a loss of Na+ and water balance and a deleterious increase in extracellular [K+]. By contrast, the tubules of chill tolerant Drosophila species maintained their MT ion selectivity, maintained stable extracellular ion concentrations, and thereby avoided injury. The most tolerant species were able to modulate ion balance while in a cold-induced coma and this ongoing physiological acclimation process allowed some individuals of the tolerant species to recover from chill coma during low temperature exposure. Accordingly, differences in the ability to maintain homeostatic control of water and ion balance at low temperature may explain large parts of the wide intra- and interspecific variation in insect chilling tolerance. PMID:26678786

  15. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Vacuum Purge System Chilled Water System Design Description (SYS 47-4)

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    2000-06-13

    This system design description (SDD) addresses the Vacuum Purge System Chilled Water (VPSCHW) system. The discussion that follows is limited to the VPSCHW system and its interfaces with associated systems. The reader's attention is directed to Drawings H-1-82162, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Process Equipment Skid P&ID Vacuum System, and H-1-82224, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Mechanical Utilities Process Chilled Water P&ID. Figure 1-1 shows the location and equipment arrangement for the VPSCHW system. The VPSCHW system provides chilled water to the Vacuum Purge System (VPS). The chilled water provides the ability to condense water from the multi-canister overpack (MCO) outlet gases during the MCO vacuum and purge cycles. By condensing water from the MCO purge gas, the VPS can assist in drying the contents of the MCO.

  16. Investigating the Mpemba Effect: When Hot Water Freezes Faster than Cold Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibekwe, R. T.; Cullerne, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    Under certain conditions a body of hot liquid may cool faster and freeze before a body of colder liquid, a phenomenon known as the Mpemba Effect. An initial difference in temperature of 3.2 °C enabled warmer water to reach 0 °C in 14% less time than colder water. Convection currents in the liquid generate a temperature gradient that causes more…

  17. New insight into Biomineralisation Mechanisms of Colonial Cold-Water Scleractinians based on Species Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppelt, Alexandra; Rocha, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    The scleractinian cold-water coral species Lophelia pertusa has been subject of many biomineralisation reconstruction attempts in order to decipher environmental signals potentially recorded within its skeletal structures. Even though understanding the mechanisms of carbonate precipitation is a prerequisite to interpret variations in geochemical signals along coral growth axis and evaluate the effects of potential kinetic fractionation, results of research into this area are still largely inconclusive. A close look at similar calcification patterns in microstructure and in the geochemistry of Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata coral branches along the contact with polychaete tubes provides in our view additional information that may be relevant to understanding the biomineralisation mechanisms of colonial corals. Our analysis suggests a common precipitation mechanism and its origin is most likely found in the aspect of the extracytoplasmic calcifying medium. Based on prior research and own results we suggest mucus as part of, or even the main medium controlling calcification mechanics

  18. Intermittent cold water swim stress increases immobility and interferes with escape performance in rat.

    PubMed

    Christianson, John P; Drugan, Robert C

    2005-11-30

    The behavioral consequences of intermittent, 5 s cold-water swims (15 degrees C) or confinement were assessed 24 h after stress in a 5 min forced swim test or an instrumental swim escape test (SET). The SET was conducted with temporal and instrumental parameters similar to the shock-motivated shuttle escape test. The tests detected significantly increased immobility in the forced swim test and increased latency to escape in the SET. These results extend previous findings with intermittent swim stress and provide evidence that intermittent swim stress produces behavioral deficits similar to other stress models. This new model may be a useful tool for exploring the physiological mechanisms underlying the stress response.

  19. Mapping cold seeps with high-resolution deep water multibeam echosounders in the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wintersteller, P.; dos Santos Ferreira, C.; Klaucke, I.; Ivanov, M.; Sahling, H.; Bohrmann, G.

    2011-12-01

    Cold seeps are locations at the seafloor where gas and/or fluids are emitting. In contrast to mud volcanoes, which distinctly change the seafloor morphology, cold seeps often lack significant relief. However, in comparison with surrounding sediments seep locations on the sea floor are often characterized by high acoustic backscatter intensity. This was documented during several investigations with deep towed side-scan sonar (SSS) systems in recent years. Authigenic carbonates, free gas and gas hydrates, as evidenced by ground truthing, are responsible for the high backscatter values. Last year's upgrade of the 1°x2° KONGSBERG deep water echosounder EM120 to EM122 on RV Meteor enhanced the system to almost 4 times the previous resolution due to multi-ping and high density signal processing. Based on the physics of sound propagation in the water column, multibeam echosounders (MBES) for deep water use relatively low frequencies of about 12-15 kHz. Apparently highly water-saturated sediments are penetrated by these signals and can cause artificial offsets in bottom detection in comparison to high-frequency echosounders. Nevertheless the effect of the slightly penetrating signal has a useful side effect on the backscatter. Investigations on several seep sites in the Black Sea, carried out with both EM122 and EM710 during Meteror cruise M84-2, resulted in maps of remarkable bathymetric resolution but also showed multibeam backscatter information of a 12 kHz signal to be an excellent tool to map seep-influenced seafloor areas. New seep locations have been mapped in regions of the western Turkish continental margin close to Eregli and of the eastern Turkish margin off Samsun. In both areas high backscatter patches were mapped with nearly comparable resolution as achieved by deep-tow SSS systems. At Eregli the new data is compared with data from a deep-towed EdgeTech SSS system recorded with a frequency of 75 kHz. At Samsun the results are compared with data from a MAK-1

  20. Physiological performance of the cold-water coral Dendrophyllia cornigera reveals its preference for temperate environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gori, Andrea; Reynaud, Stephanie; Orejas, Covadonga; Gili, Josep-Maria; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine

    2014-09-01

    Cold-water corals (CWCs) are key ecosystem engineers in deep-sea benthic communities around the world. Their distribution patterns are related to several abiotic and biotic factors, of which seawater temperature is arguably one of the most important due to its role in coral physiological processes. The CWC Dendrophyllia cornigera has the particular ability to thrive in several locations in which temperatures range from 11 to 17 °C, but to be apparently absent from most CWC reefs at temperatures constantly below 11 °C. This study thus aimed to assess the thermal tolerance of this CWC species, collected in the Mediterranean Sea at 12 °C, and grown at the three relevant temperatures of 8, 12, and 16 °C. This species displayed thermal tolerance to the large range of seawater temperatures investigated, but growth, calcification, respiration, and total organic carbon (TOC) fluxes severely decreased at 8 °C compared to the in situ temperature of 12 °C. Conversely, no significant differences in calcification, respiration, and TOC fluxes were observed between corals maintained at 12 and 16 °C, suggesting that the fitness of this CWC is higher in temperate rather than cold environments. The capacity to maintain physiological functions between 12 and 16 °C allows D. cornigera to be the most abundant CWC species in deep-sea ecosystems where temperatures are too warm for other CWC species (e.g., Canary Islands). This study also shows that not all CWC species occurring in the Mediterranean Sea (at deep-water temperatures of 12-14 °C) are currently living at their upper thermal tolerance limit.

  1. The Effects of Cold Water Immersion after Rugby Training on Muscle Power and Biochemical Markers

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Masaki; Sato, Takashi; Hasegawa, Tatsushi; Shintaku, Hiroto; Kato, Hisashi; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiko; Radak, Zsolt

    2014-01-01

    During rugby game, or intensive rugby training there are many high intensity explosive exercises and eccentric muscle contractions, therefore adequate recovery is very important to rugby players. In the present study we have tested the effects of cold water immersion (CWI) after game-simulated (80 min.) rugby training on muscle power recovery and blood markers of muscle damage. Twenty well-trained collegiate male rugby players (age: 20.3 ± 0.6 years old, body height: 1.74 ± 0.05 m, body weight: 85.4 ± 2.0 kg, body fat: 18.2 ± 1.4 %) volunteered for this study. This study was conducted as a cross-over design; i.e., the subjects were randomly assigned either to CWI (n = 10) or passive rest condition (n = 10) for the 1st trial and 1 week later the subjects were switched conditions for the 2nd trial. After the simulated rugby training, including tackles and body contacts, muscle functional ability and blood markers of muscle damage were tested immediately, after CWI or passive rest, and again 24 hours later. Statistical analysis of all muscle functional tests (10 m dash, counter movement jump, reaction time, side steps) except for 10 seconds maximal pedaling power and blood makers of muscle damage (aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and creatinine) revealed significant main effects for time (p < 0.05). However, no statistically significant interactions were found in any of the muscle functional tests and blood markers between groups and time courses. Our results suggest that a rugby game induces muscle damage and reduces muscle function. However, CWI has no significant restorative effect after an 80-minute rugby game in terms of muscle damage. Key Points Cold water immersion study for the recovery of rugby players Muscle strength and muscle power were mainly evaluated as well as muscle enzymes of muscle break down Subjects were highly trained rugby players with control group PMID:25177190

  2. Global habitat suitability for framework-forming cold-water corals.

    PubMed

    Davies, Andrew J; Guinotte, John M

    2011-01-01

    Predictive habitat models are increasingly being used by conservationists, researchers and governmental bodies to identify vulnerable ecosystems and species' distributions in areas that have not been sampled. However, in the deep sea, several limitations have restricted the widespread utilisation of this approach. These range from issues with the accuracy of species presences, the lack of reliable absence data and the limited spatial resolution of environmental factors known or thought to control deep-sea species' distributions. To address these problems, global habitat suitability models have been generated for five species of framework-forming scleractinian corals by taking the best available data and using a novel approach to generate high resolution maps of seafloor conditions. High-resolution global bathymetry was used to resample gridded data from sources such as World Ocean Atlas to produce continuous 30-arc second (∼1 km(2)) global grids for environmental, chemical and physical data of the world's oceans. The increased area and resolution of the environmental variables resulted in a greater number of coral presence records being incorporated into habitat models and higher accuracy of model predictions. The most important factors in determining cold-water coral habitat suitability were depth, temperature, aragonite saturation state and salinity. Model outputs indicated the majority of suitable coral habitat is likely to occur on the continental shelves and slopes of the Atlantic, South Pacific and Indian Oceans. The North Pacific has very little suitable scleractinian coral habitat. Numerous small scale features (i.e., seamounts), which have not been sampled or identified as having a high probability of supporting cold-water coral habitat were identified in all ocean basins. Field validation of newly identified areas is needed to determine the accuracy of model results, assess the utility of modelling efforts to identify vulnerable marine ecosystems for

  3. Global habitat suitability for framework-forming cold-water corals.

    PubMed

    Davies, Andrew J; Guinotte, John M

    2011-04-15

    Predictive habitat models are increasingly being used by conservationists, researchers and governmental bodies to identify vulnerable ecosystems and species' distributions in areas that have not been sampled. However, in the deep sea, several limitations have restricted the widespread utilisation of this approach. These range from issues with the accuracy of species presences, the lack of reliable absence data and the limited spatial resolution of environmental factors known or thought to control deep-sea species' distributions. To address these problems, global habitat suitability models have been generated for five species of framework-forming scleractinian corals by taking the best available data and using a novel approach to generate high resolution maps of seafloor conditions. High-resolution global bathymetry was used to resample gridded data from sources such as World Ocean Atlas to produce continuous 30-arc second (∼1 km(2)) global grids for environmental, chemical and physical data of the world's oceans. The increased area and resolution of the environmental variables resulted in a greater number of coral presence records being incorporated into habitat models and higher accuracy of model predictions. The most important factors in determining cold-water coral habitat suitability were depth, temperature, aragonite saturation state and salinity. Model outputs indicated the majority of suitable coral habitat is likely to occur on the continental shelves and slopes of the Atlantic, South Pacific and Indian Oceans. The North Pacific has very little suitable scleractinian coral habitat. Numerous small scale features (i.e., seamounts), which have not been sampled or identified as having a high probability of supporting cold-water coral habitat were identified in all ocean basins. Field validation of newly identified areas is needed to determine the accuracy of model results, assess the utility of modelling efforts to identify vulnerable marine ecosystems for

  4. Consecutive days of cold water immersion: effects on cycling performance and heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Jamie; Peake, Jonathan M; Buchheit, Martin

    2013-02-01

    We investigated performance and heart rate (HR) variability (HRV) over consecutive days of cycling with post-exercise cold water immersion (CWI) or passive recovery (PAS). In a crossover design, 11 cyclists completed two separate 3-day training blocks (120 min cycling per day, 66 maximal sprints, 9 min time trialling [TT]), followed by 2 days of recovery-based training. The cyclists recovered from each training session by standing in cold water (10 °C) or at room temperature (27 °C) for 5 min. Mean power for sprints, total TT work and HR were assessed during each session. Resting vagal-HRV (natural logarithm of square-root of mean squared differences of successive R-R intervals; ln rMSSD) was assessed after exercise, after the recovery intervention, during sleep and upon waking. CWI allowed better maintenance of mean sprint power (between-trial difference [90 % confidence limits] +12.4 % [5.9; 18.9]), cadence (+2.0 % [0.6; 3.5]), and mean HR during exercise (+1.6 % [0.0; 3.2]) compared with PAS. ln rMSSD immediately following CWI was higher (+144 % [92; 211]) compared with PAS. There was no difference between the trials in TT performance (-0.2 % [-3.5; 3.0]) or waking ln rMSSD (-1.2 % [-5.9; 3.4]). CWI helps to maintain sprint performance during consecutive days of training, whereas its effects on vagal-HRV vary over time and depend on prior exercise intensity.

  5. Creation and tidal advection of a cold salinity front in Storfjorden: 2. Supercooling induced by turbulent mixing of cold water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhee, Miles G.; Skogseth, Ragnheid; Nilsen, Frank; Smedsrud, Lars H.

    2013-08-01

    Measurements near the edge of fast ice in Freemansundet, Svalbard, reveal mixing processes associated with tidal advection of a sharp front in salinity, including possible supercooling induced by double diffusion in a fully turbulent water column. The front translated back and forth with the semidiurnal tide between an area of mobile (drifting) ice in Storfjorden proper, and the narrow sound covered by fast ice. Water on each side of the front was near its salinity-determined freezing temperature. Instruments deployed about 400 m into the sound from the fast ice edge measured current, temperature, conductivity, and turbulence quantities through several tidal cycles. Turbulence data illustrate that as the steep horizontal salinity (density) gradient advected past the measurement site, vertical shear near the fast-ice base induced marked flood/ebb asymmetry in turbulent mixing. As fresher water entered the sound on the flood phase, inward transport of denser water near the upper boundary was retarded, leading to statically unstable conditions and enhanced turbulence. The opposite occurred during ebb tide, as denser water underran lighter. Transient episodes of supercooling accompanied frontal passage on both flood and ebb phases. The most likely explanation for a zone of supercooled water within the strongly mixed frontal region is that during mixing of fresher, slightly warmer (but still at freezing) water from outside with saltier, colder water in the sound, the former constituent lost heat faster than gaining salt. This interpretation (differing turbulent diffusivities for heat and salt) challenges strict application of Reynolds analogy for highly turbulent shear flow.

  6. Hydrodynamic controls on cold-water coral growth in the Gulf of Mexico: Long term in situ seabed lander observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mienis, Furu; Duineveld, Gerard; Davies, Andrew J.; van Weering, Tjeerd C. E.; Ross, Steve W.; Roberts, Murray; Seim, Harvey E.; Bane, John M.

    2010-05-01

    Cold-water coral reefs and mounds are a common feature on the continental slopes of the North East Atlantic Ocean. On the European continental margin mound structures that are many kilometers long and wide have been discovered, often colonized by a thriving coral community. Similar structures have been found in the West Atlantic on the continental slope between 300-800 m water depth, along the slope from North Carolina to Florida. Presently detailed studies on the environmental constraints in cold-water coral areas are limited to cold-water coral areas in the North East Atlantic. This is the first study showing long term environmental variability in a cold-water coral habitat in the Gulf of Mexico, West Atlantic and the data highlight novel observations of short term environmental variability in a cold-water coral habitat. In the Gulf of Mexico Lophelia pertusa occurrences are scattered and form less dense communities than those situated on the Atlantic margins. The Viosca Knoll (VK826) area is the most extensive cold-water coral area presently known in the Gulf of Mexico, with Lophelia pertusa being the most common coral species. Broadly two characteristic coral habitats can be described on Viosca Knoll. Firstly, a dense coral cover that resembles a biogenic reef and secondly authigenic carbonate blocks with sparse coral coverage. Two benthic landers were deployed for over a year in the vicinity of the corals to measure the local environmental conditions. Both landers measured the current velocity and direction, temperature, salinity, fluorescence, optical backscatter and were equipped with a sediment trap. Furthermore CTD transects were made across the cold-water coral area. Transects showed no fluorescence signal below 150 m water depth and an oxygen minimum zone at the depth of the corals. A prominent intermediate nepheloid layer was present at 300-400 m water depth. Long term deployments of benthic landers of a period over 12 months revealed intra annual

  7. Advances in Estuarine Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccready, Parker; Geyer, W. Rockwell

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in our understanding of estuarine circulation and salinity structure are reviewed. We focus on well- and partially mixed systems that are long relative to the tidal excursion. Dynamics of the coupled system of width- and tidally averaged momentum and salt equations are now better understood owing to the development of simple numerical solution techniques. These have led to a greater appreciation of the key role played by the time dependency of the length of the salt intrusion. Improved realism in simplified tidally averaged physics has been driven by simultaneous advances in our understanding of the detailed dynamics within the tidal cycle and across irregular channel cross-sections. The complex interactions of turbulence, stratification, and advection are now understood well enough to motivate a new generation of physically plausible mixing parameterizations for the tidally averaged equations.

  8. Cold-Active, Heterotrophic Bacteria from the Highly Oligotrophic Waters of Lake Vanda, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Vander Schaaf, Nicole A; Cunningham, Anna M G; Cluff, Brandon P; Kraemer, CodyJo K; Reeves, Chelsea L; Riester, Carli J; Slater, Lauren K; Madigan, Michael T; Sattley, W Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The permanently ice-covered lakes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica are distinctive ecosystems that consist strictly of microbial communities. In this study, water samples were collected from Lake Vanda, a stratified Dry Valley lake whose upper waters (from just below the ice cover to nearly 60 m) are highly oligotrophic, and used to establish enrichment cultures. Six strains of psychrotolerant, heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from lake water samples from a depth of 50 or 55 m. Phylogenetic analyses showed the Lake Vanda strains to be species of Nocardiaceae, Caulobacteraceae, Sphingomonadaceae, and Bradyrhizobiaceae. All Lake Vanda strains grew at temperatures near or below 0 °C, but optimal growth occurred from 18 to 24 °C. Some strains showed significant halotolerance, but no strains required NaCl for growth. The isolates described herein include cold-active species not previously reported from Dry Valley lakes, and their physiological and phylogenetic characterization broadens our understanding of these limnologically unique lakes. PMID:27682095

  9. Cold-Active, Heterotrophic Bacteria from the Highly Oligotrophic Waters of Lake Vanda, Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Vander Schaaf, Nicole A.; Cunningham, Anna M. G.; Cluff, Brandon P.; Kraemer, CodyJo K.; Reeves, Chelsea L.; Riester, Carli J.; Slater, Lauren K.; Madigan, Michael T.; Sattley, W. Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The permanently ice-covered lakes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica are distinctive ecosystems that consist strictly of microbial communities. In this study, water samples were collected from Lake Vanda, a stratified Dry Valley lake whose upper waters (from just below the ice cover to nearly 60 m) are highly oligotrophic, and used to establish enrichment cultures. Six strains of psychrotolerant, heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from lake water samples from a depth of 50 or 55 m. Phylogenetic analyses showed the Lake Vanda strains to be species of Nocardiaceae, Caulobacteraceae, Sphingomonadaceae, and Bradyrhizobiaceae. All Lake Vanda strains grew at temperatures near or below 0 °C, but optimal growth occurred from 18 to 24 °C. Some strains showed significant halotolerance, but no strains required NaCl for growth. The isolates described herein include cold-active species not previously reported from Dry Valley lakes, and their physiological and phylogenetic characterization broadens our understanding of these limnologically unique lakes. PMID:27682095

  10. Cold-Active, Heterotrophic Bacteria from the Highly Oligotrophic Waters of Lake Vanda, Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Vander Schaaf, Nicole A.; Cunningham, Anna M. G.; Cluff, Brandon P.; Kraemer, CodyJo K.; Reeves, Chelsea L.; Riester, Carli J.; Slater, Lauren K.; Madigan, Michael T.; Sattley, W. Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The permanently ice-covered lakes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica are distinctive ecosystems that consist strictly of microbial communities. In this study, water samples were collected from Lake Vanda, a stratified Dry Valley lake whose upper waters (from just below the ice cover to nearly 60 m) are highly oligotrophic, and used to establish enrichment cultures. Six strains of psychrotolerant, heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from lake water samples from a depth of 50 or 55 m. Phylogenetic analyses showed the Lake Vanda strains to be species of Nocardiaceae, Caulobacteraceae, Sphingomonadaceae, and Bradyrhizobiaceae. All Lake Vanda strains grew at temperatures near or below 0 °C, but optimal growth occurred from 18 to 24 °C. Some strains showed significant halotolerance, but no strains required NaCl for growth. The isolates described herein include cold-active species not previously reported from Dry Valley lakes, and their physiological and phylogenetic characterization broadens our understanding of these limnologically unique lakes.

  11. Indicators for microbiologically induced corrosion of copper pipes in a cold-water plumbing system.

    PubMed

    Arens, P; Tuschewitzki, G J; Wollmann, M; Follner, H; Jacobi, H

    1995-01-01

    Corrosion damage in the copper cold-water plumbing system of a large building was investigated. An unusual combination of corrosion patterns was found on the inner copper pipe surfaces that were in contact with water. Damage was in the form of shallow cavities, a surface cover or pinprick-like pits. The corrosion system was influenced by thermal treatment and also by cefoxitin dosing. The latter fact in particular is a clear indication of microbiological involvement in this corrosive action. Different parameters, to be measured in standing water (24-h stagnation), are considered typical for this type of corrosion: the detection of Sphingomonas spec. and other species in whose cell wall regions copper can accumulate, a copper content of more than 2 mg/l, oxygen consumption of more than 4 mg/l and an increase in pH. With the help of these indicators, it is possible to recognize microbiologically induced corrosion in copper plumbing systems before pipe perforation occur. PMID:7727024

  12. Effectiveness of the Space Shuttle anti-exposure system in a cold water environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagian, James P.; Kaufman, Jonathan W.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the NASA Space Shuttle launch entry suit (LES) and raft for 24 h of protection against cold water immersion. Two configurations, the LES and the LES with raft (LES/r) were evaluated for antiexposure protection. Conditions were selected to simulate worst-case water and air temperatures along projected Space Shuttle ground tracks; i.e., water temperatures = 4.4 C, air temperature = 5.6 C, 1-foot waves (chop), and constant spray. Four males 31-44 years of age and one 32-year-old female were studied once in each configuration. Trials with and without a raft were scheduled for up to 24 and 6 h, respectively. Mean LES trial durations were 150 + or - 9 min and final rectal temperature (FRT) = 36.5 + or - 0.3 C. Mean LES/r trial durations were 398 + or - 126 min and FRT = 35.6 + or - 0.4 C. LES and LES/r trials were terminated for reaching FRT = 35.0 C or subject-requested termination due to discomfort. The longest LES and LES/r trials were terminated due to subject discomfort. Although not achieving the desired durations, the LES and LES/r did prove capable of protecting individuals, respectively, for up to 3 and 13.5 h. Since the longest runs were terminated due to subjective tolerance, actual survival times greater than 3 and 13.5 h could be expected.

  13. Water supplement by silica diagenesis in cold subduction zone: an implication for the Japan Trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hina, S.; Hamada, Y.; Kameda, J.; Yamaguchi, A.; Kimura, G.

    2011-12-01

    The fluid existing at plate interfaces in subduction zone makes a strong effect on seismicity and fault slip of the plate boundary megathrusts. As a source of the fluid, pore fluid included in subducting sedimentsand dehydration reaction of clay minerals have been discussed in detail, however, dewatering from siliceous sediments such as diatom and radiolarian ooze are poorly investigated in spite of their major occurrence in old oceanic plate. Silica in the siliceous sediment is transformed from amorphous silica into quartz via cristobalite phase (Opal A → Opal CT → Quartz) releasing structured water. In this study, we evaluate the amount of dehydration from siliceous sediment in subducting plate. Silica diagenesis and dehydration are calculated quantitatively introducing reaction kinetics (Mizutani, 1970) and temperature profile models of the Japan Trench, a cold type subduction zone where the siliceous sediments subduct in (Peacock and Wang, 1999; Wang and Suyehiro, 1999; Wada and Wang, 2009; Kimura et al., submitted). As a result, through this diagenetic conversion, structured water of silica minerals is released as much as 140g/m^2/year at shallow plate boundary (~13km depth below the sea floor), where the temperature is about ~100 -~120°C. This water should generate an excess pore pressure which drops effective stress and rock strength along the décollement. Dehydration of silica can play an important role in slip propagation to shallow portion of plate boundary as the Grate Tohoku Earthquake (9 March 2011).

  14. How cold-water coral mounds modify their physical environment and therefore influence reef development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mienis, F.; Duineveld, G.; Lavaleye, M.; van Haren, H.; Mohn, C.; Cyr, F.

    2015-12-01

    Cold-water coral framework acts as a sediment trap and as a result kilometres long and up to 360m high mound structures have formed on the SE Rockall Bank. Earlier observations showed that most of the mounds have their summits around 550 m water depth and summits have been reported as being covered with living coral. Pelagia cruises in 2012 and 2013 revealed completely new insights in mound development. Video transects across mounds with different morphology showed that summits of the highest and largest mounds are presently not covered by living coral as opposed to smaller and lower mounds which are covered with a thriving living coral framework. Measurements in the water column with CTD and near-bottom with benthic landers and thermistor string showed that turbulence is likely the most important factor influencing nutrient and food supply and thus coral growth. It seems that the large mounds have outgrown themselves and that their relatively large size and flat summits are limiting turbulence, thereby limiting oxygen, nutrient and food replenishment. Redistribution of nutrients, oxygen and food is vital for ecosystem functioning and reef development. The presence of a healthy coral cover on the summits of the small mounds was also shown by the vertical mound growth rate measured in sediment cores. These showed fourfold higher sedimentation rates during the Holocene on small mounds compared to highest mounds.

  15. On the subduction of oxygenated surface water in submesoscale cold filaments off Peru.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, Soeren; Kanzow, Torsten; Colas, Francois; Echevin, Vincent; Krahmann, Gerd

    2015-04-01

    The Peruvian upwelling regime is characterized by pronounced submesoscale variability including filaments and sharp density fronts. Submesoscale frontal processes can drive large vertical velocities and enhance vertical tracer fluxes in the upper ocean. The associated high temporal and spatial variability poses a large challenge to observational approaches targeting submesoscale processes. In this study the role of submesoscale processes for both the ventilation of the near-coastal oxygen minimum zone off Peru and the physical-biogeochemical coupling at these scales is investigated. For our study we use satellite based sea surface temperature measurements in combination with multiple high-resolution glider observations of temperature, salinity, oxygen and chlorophyll fluorescence carried out in January and February 2013 off Peru near 14°S during active upwelling. Additionally, high-resolution regional ocean circulation model outputs (ROMS) are analysed. At the beginning of our observations a previously upwelled, productive and highly oxygenated body of water is found within the mixed layer. Subsequently, a cold filament forms and the waters are moved offshore. After the decay of the filament and the relaxation of the upwelling front, the oxygen enriched surface water is found within the previously less oxygenated thermocline suggesting the occurrence of frontal subduction. A numerical model simulation is used to analyse the evolution of passive tracers and Lagrangian floats within several upwelling filaments, whose vertical structure and hydrographic properties agree well with the observations. The simulated temporal evolution of the tracers and floats support our interpretation that the subduction of previously upwelled water indeed occurs within cold filaments off Peru. Filaments are common features within eastern boundary upwelling systems, which all encompass large oxygen minimum zones. However, most state of-the-art large and regional scale physical

  16. Solute transport modelling in a coupled water and heat flow system applied to cold regions hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frampton, Andrew; Destouni, Georgia

    2016-04-01

    In cold regions, flow in the unsaturated zone is highly dynamic with seasonal variability and changes in temperature, moisture, and heat and water fluxes, all of which affect ground freeze-thaw processes and influence transport of inert and reactive waterborne substances. In arctic permafrost environments, near-surface groundwater flow is further restricted to a relatively shallow and seasonally variable active layer, confined by perennially frozen ground below. The active layer is typically partially saturated with ice, liquid water and air, and is strongly dependent on seasonal temperature fluctuations, thermal forcing and infiltration patterns. Here there is a need for improved understanding of the mechanisms controlling subsurface solute transport in the partially saturated active layer zone. Studying solute transport in cold regions is relevant to improve the understanding of how natural and anthropogenic pollution may change as activities in arctic and sub-arctic regions increase. It is also particularly relevant for understanding how dissolved carbon is transported in coupled surface and subsurface hydrological systems under climate change, in order to better understand the permafrost-hydrological-carbon climate feedback. In this contribution subsurface solute transport under surface warming and degrading permafrost conditions is studied using a physically based model of coupled cryotic and hydrogeological flow processes combined with a particle tracking method. Changes in subsurface water flows and solute transport travel times are analysed for different modelled geological configurations during a 100-year warming period. Results show that for all simulated cases, the minimum and mean travel times increase non-linearly with warming irrespective of geological configuration and heterogeneity structure. The travel time changes are shown to depend on combined warming effects of increase in pathway length due to deepening of the active layer, reduced transport

  17. Minimal incorporation of Deepwater Horizon oil by estuarine filter feeders.

    PubMed

    Fry, Brian; Anderson, Laurie C

    2014-03-15

    Natural abundance carbon isotope analyses are sensitive tracers for fates and use of oil in aquatic environments. Use of oil carbon in estuarine food webs should lead to isotope values approaching those of oil itself, -27‰ for stable carbon isotopes reflecting oil origins and -1000‰ for carbon-14 reflecting oil age. To test for transfer of oil from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill into estuarine food webs, filter-feeding barnacles (Balanus sp.) and marsh mussels (Geukensia demissa) were collected from Louisiana estuaries near the site of the oil spill. Carbon-14 analyses of these animals from open waters and oiled marshes showed that oil use was <1% and near detection limits estimated at 0.3% oil incorporation. Respiration studies showed no evidence for enhanced microbial activity in bay waters. Results are consistent with low dietary impacts of oil for filter feeders and little overall impact on respiration in the productive Louisiana estuarine systems.

  18. End of the century pCO₂ levels do not impact calcification in Mediterranean cold-water corals.

    PubMed

    Maier, Cornelia; Schubert, Alexander; Berzunza Sànchez, Maria M; Weinbauer, Markus G; Watremez, Pierre; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification caused by anthropogenic uptake of CO₂ is perceived to be a major threat to calcifying organisms. Cold-water corals were thought to be strongly affected by a decrease in ocean pH due to their abundance in deep and cold waters which, in contrast to tropical coral reef waters, will soon become corrosive to calcium carbonate. Calcification rates of two Mediterranean cold-water coral species, Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata, were measured under variable partial pressure of CO₂ (pCO₂) that ranged between 380 µatm for present-day conditions and 930 µatm for the end of the century. The present study addressed both short- and long-term responses by repeatedly determining calcification rates on the same specimens over a period of 9 months. Besides studying the direct, short-term response to elevated pCO₂ levels, the study aimed to elucidate the potential for acclimation of calcification of cold-water corals to ocean acidification. Net calcification of both species was unaffected by the levels of pCO₂ investigated and revealed no short-term shock and, therefore, no long-term acclimation in calcification to changes in the carbonate chemistry. There was an effect of time during repeated experiments with increasing net calcification rates for both species, however, as this pattern was found in all treatments, there is no indication that acclimation of calcification to ocean acidification occurred. The use of controls (initial and ambient net calcification rates) indicated that this increase was not caused by acclimation in calcification response to higher pCO₂. An extrapolation of these data suggests that calcification of these two cold-water corals will not be affected by the pCO₂ level projected at the end of the century.

  19. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphism markers associated with bacterial cold water disease resistance and spleen size in rainbow trout

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) is one of the frequent causes of elevated mortality in salmonid aquaculture. Previously, we identified and validated microsatellites associated with QTL (quantitative trait loci) for BCWD resistance and spleen size in rainbow trout. The objective of this study was...

  20. QTL for bacterial cold water disease resistance and spleen size are located on rainbow trout chromosome Omy19

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selective breeding of aquatic animals for improved disease resistance has become a major focus in aquaculture, although little is known about underlying QTL or correlated traits. At the National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture (NCCCWA), we have pursued a selective breeding program with t...

  1. Reduction of rainbow trout spleen size by splenectomy does not alter resistance against bacterial cold water disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In lower vertebrates, the contribution of the spleen to anti-bacterial immunity is poorly understood. Researchers have previously reported a phenotypic and genetic correlation between resistance to Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the causative agent of bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) and spleen so...

  2. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphism markers associated with bacterial cold water disease resistance and spleen size in rainbow trout

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) is one of the frequent causes of elevated mortality in salmonid aquaculture. Previously, we identified and validated microsatellite markers associated with QTL (quantitative trait loci) for BCWD resistance and spleen size in rainbow trout. The objective of this st...

  3. Validation of linked QTL for bacterial cold water disease resistance and spleen size on rainbow trout chromosome Omy19

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) is caused by infection with Flavobacterium psychrophilum, and results in significant economic losses in salmonid aquaculture. Previously, we identified a major QTL for BCWD resistance and a QTL for spleen size (SPLW = spleen weight and SPLI = spleen index) in naï...

  4. Recirculating systems for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) at the USDA ARS National Cold Water Marine Aquaculture Center (Franklin, Maine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Northeastern U.S has the ideal location and unique opportunity to be a leader in cold-water marine finfish aquaculture. However, problems and regulations on environmental issues, mandatory stocking of 100 percent native North American salmon, and disease have impacted economic viability of the U...

  5. Integration of selective breeding and vaccination to improve disease resistance in aquaculture: Application to control bacterial cold water disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) is a frequent cause of elevated mortality in rainbow trout and the development of effective control strategies is a priority within the U.S. A goal of the NCCCWA breeding program is to produce germplasm with superior growth and survival following exposure to infe...

  6. Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) resistance to columnaris disease is heritable and favorably correlated with bacterial cold water disease resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Columnaris disease (CD) is an emerging disease affecting rainbow trout aquaculture. Objectives were to estimate heritability of CD resistance in a line (ARS-Fp-R) selected 4 generations for improved bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) resistance; estimate genetic correlations among CD resistance, BC...

  7. Ontogenetic changes in tracheal structure facilitate deep dives and cold water foraging in adult leatherback sea turtles.

    PubMed

    Davenport, John; Fraher, John; Fitzgerald, Ed; McLaughlin, Patrick; Doyle, Tom; Harman, Luke; Cuffe, Tracy; Dockery, Peter

    2009-11-01

    Adult leatherbacks are large animals (300-500 kg), overlapping in size with marine pinniped and cetacean species. Unlike marine mammals, they start their aquatic life as 40-50 g hatchlings, so undergo a 10,000-fold increase in body mass during independent existence. Hatchlings are limited to the tropics and near-surface water. Adults, obligate predators on gelatinous plankton, encounter cold water at depth (<1280 m) or high latitude and are gigantotherms that maintain elevated core body temperatures in cold water. This study shows that there are great ontogenetic changes in tracheal structure related to diving and exposure to cold. Hatchling leatherbacks have a conventional reptilian tracheal structure with circular cartilaginous rings interspersed with extensive connective tissue. The adult trachea is an almost continuous ellipsoidal cartilaginous tube composed of interlocking plates, and will collapse easily in the upper part of the water column during dives, thus avoiding pressure-related structural and physiological problems. It is lined with an extensive, dense erectile vascular plexus that will warm and humidify cold inspired air and possibly retain heat on expiration. A sub-luminal lymphatic plexus is also present. Mammals and birds have independently evolved nasal turbinates to fulfil such a respiratory thermocontrol function; for them, turbinates are regarded as diagnostic of endothermy. This is the first demonstration of a turbinate equivalent in a living reptile.

  8. Population-level thermal performance of a cold-water ectotherm is linked to ontogeny and local environmental heterogeneity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hossack, Blake R.; Corn, P. Stephen; , Winsor H. Lowe; , Molly A. H. Webb; , Mariah J. Talbott; , Kevin M. Kappenman

    2013-01-01

    5. Our experiments with a cold-water species show that population-level performance varies across small geographic scales and is linked to local environmental heterogeneity. This variation could influence the rate and mode of species-level responses to climate change, both by facilitating local persistence in the face of change

  9. Ultraviolet-B radiation induced crosslinking improves physical properties of cold- and warm-water fish gelatin gels and films

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cold- and warm-water fish gelatin granules were exposed to ultraviolet-B radiation for doses up to 29.7 J/cm2. Solutions and films were prepared from the granules. Gel electrophoresis and refractive index were used to examine changes in molecular weight of the samples. Also, the gel strength and rhe...

  10. Ontogenetic changes in tracheal structure facilitate deep dives and cold water foraging in adult leatherback sea turtles.

    PubMed

    Davenport, John; Fraher, John; Fitzgerald, Ed; McLaughlin, Patrick; Doyle, Tom; Harman, Luke; Cuffe, Tracy; Dockery, Peter

    2009-11-01

    Adult leatherbacks are large animals (300-500 kg), overlapping in size with marine pinniped and cetacean species. Unlike marine mammals, they start their aquatic life as 40-50 g hatchlings, so undergo a 10,000-fold increase in body mass during independent existence. Hatchlings are limited to the tropics and near-surface water. Adults, obligate predators on gelatinous plankton, encounter cold water at depth (<1280 m) or high latitude and are gigantotherms that maintain elevated core body temperatures in cold water. This study shows that there are great ontogenetic changes in tracheal structure related to diving and exposure to cold. Hatchling leatherbacks have a conventional reptilian tracheal structure with circular cartilaginous rings interspersed with extensive connective tissue. The adult trachea is an almost continuous ellipsoidal cartilaginous tube composed of interlocking plates, and will collapse easily in the upper part of the water column during dives, thus avoiding pressure-related structural and physiological problems. It is lined with an extensive, dense erectile vascular plexus that will warm and humidify cold inspired air and possibly retain heat on expiration. A sub-luminal lymphatic plexus is also present. Mammals and birds have independently evolved nasal turbinates to fulfil such a respiratory thermocontrol function; for them, turbinates are regarded as diagnostic of endothermy. This is the first demonstration of a turbinate equivalent in a living reptile. PMID:19837885

  11. Water and complex organic chemistry in the cold dark cloud Barnard 5: Observations and Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirström, Eva; Charnley, Steven B.; Taquet, Vianney; Persson, Carina M.

    2015-08-01

    Studies of complex organic molecule (COM) formation have traditionally been focused on hot cores in regions of massive star formation, where chemistry is driven by the elevated temperatures - evaporating ices and allowing for endothermic reactions in the gas-phase. As more sensitive instruments have become available, the types of objects known to harbour COMs like acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), dimethyl ether (CH3OCH3), methyl formate (CH3OCHO), and ketene (CH2CO) have expanded to include low mass protostars and, recently, even pre-stellar cores. We here report on the first in a new category of objects harbouring COMs: the cold dark cloud Barnard 5 where non-thermal ice desorption induce complex organic chemistry entirely unrelated to local star-formation.Methanol, which only forms efficiently on the surfaces of dust grains, provide evidence of efficient non-thermal desorption of ices in the form of prominent emission peaks offset from protostellar activity and high density tracers in cold molecular clouds. A study with Herschel targeting such methanol emission peaks resulted in the first ever detection of gas-phase water offset from protostellar activity in a dark cloud, at the so called methanol hotspot in Barnard 5.To model the effect a transient injection of ices into the gas-phase has on the chemistry of a cold, dark cloud we have included gas-grain interactions in an existing gas-phase chemical model and connected it to a chemical reaction network updated and expanded to include the formation and destruction paths of the most common COMs. Results from this model will be presented.Ground-based follow-up studies toward the methanol hotspot in B5 have resulted in the detection of a number of COMs, including CH2CO, CH3CHO, CH3OCH3, and CH3OCHO, as well as deuterated methanol (CH2DOH). Observations have also confirmed that COM emission is extended and not localised to a core structure. The implications of these observational and theoretical studies of B5 will be discussed

  12. [Cold water immersion test for diagnosis of vibration diseases. Comparison between water at 5 degrees C and 10 degrees C].

    PubMed

    Sakakibara, H; Miyao, M; Kanada, S; Kobayashi, F; Nakagawa, T; Yamada, S

    1982-11-01

    5 degrees C-water 10-minute immersion test, generally used in Japan, is useful to diagnose vibration diseases. But severe pains during the immersion is troublesome. We studied the availability of 10 degrees C-water 10-minute immersion test to reduce the pain during the test. Subjects were forty-nine chainsaw operators, nineteen patients with vibration disease, and twelve controls. The same subject underwent both 5 degrees C and 10 degrees C immersion tests. The following results were obtained. 1) Skin temperatures in the highest score group after the immersion tests both at 5 degrees C and 10 degrees C was lower than that in the control group. Mean skin temperatures for the last five minutes during the immersion and the recovery activity in both the immersion tests showed a similar trend among subjects groups. Skin temperatures in patients under medical treatment (R'group) did not differ from those in the control group. 2) Hyperemia time by nail press test in the R'group and in the high score group after both immersion tests was longer than that in the control group. But this difference between chainsaw operators and the control group after 5 degrees C immersion test was more marked than that after 10 degrees C immersion test. 3) Vibratory sense as well as pain sense in the R'group and in the high score group after both immersion tests were less sharp than those in the control group. 4) Skin temperatures, nail press test, vibratory sense, and pain sense after 5 degrees C immersion test and those after 10 degrees C immersion test showed statistically significant positive correlation. 5) 10 degrees C immersion test is as effective as 5 degrees C immersion test in finding nervous disorders, but 5 degrees C immersion test is more effective than 10 degrees C immersion test in finding circulatory disorders. However patients with Raynaud's phenomena or moderate circulatory disorders can also be found even by 10 degrees C immersion test. 6) Cold water immersion test

  13. Neuropeptide FF and related peptides attenuates warm-, but not cold-water swim stress-induced analgesia in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Han, Zheng-lan; Fang, Quan; Wang, Zi-long; Tang, Hong-zhu; Ren, Hui; Wang, Rui

    2012-08-01

    Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) belongs to a neuropeptide family including two receptors (NPFF(1) and NPFF(2)). NPFF system has been reported to play important roles in pain transmission. The aim of the present study was to investigate the roles of NPFF related peptides and their receptors in swim stress-induced analgesia (SIA). Nociceptive test was performed in mice stressed by forced swimming in water at 15 °C (cold water swimming) or 32 °C (warm water swimming). Warm water swimming produced a naloxone-mediated antinociceptive effect. This warm water swim SIA was dose-dependently antagonized by i.c.v. injection of NPFF and two related peptides (3-30 nmol), NPVF and dNPA, which exhibited the highest selectivities for NPFF(1) and NPFF(2) receptors, respectively. Moreover, the selective NPFF receptor antagonist RF9 (30 nmol) was inactive by itself, but prevented the effects of NPFF and related peptides. Cold-water swimming produced a wilder analgesic effect that was blocked by MK-801, but not naloxone. However, NPFF system failed to modify the cold water swim stress-induced analgesia. These findings demonstrated that NPFF and related peptides attenuated opioid-mediated form of SIA via NPFF receptors in the brain, but not non-opioid swim stress-induced analgesia. These data further support an anti-opioid character of NPFF system.

  14. Isotope Biogeochemistry of Sulfur in a Cold-Water Carbonate Mound (IODP Site 1317)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferdelman, T. G.; Boettcher, M. E.

    2007-12-01

    To establish a depositional model for cold-water carbonate mounds, Challenger Mound and adjacent continental slope sites were drilled during IODP Expedition 307 in May 2005. Although a role for methane seepage and subsequent anaerobic oxidation was discounted both as a hard-round substrate for mound initiation and as a principal source of carbonate within the mound succession, interstitial water profiles of sulfate, alkalinity, Mg, and Sr indicated a tight coupling between carbonate diagenesis and mircrobial sulfate reduction. The reaction of sulfide with siliciclastic iron-bearing minerals to form pyrite was proposed to account for enhanced diagenetic carbonate precipitation (Ferdelman et al., 2006; Proc. IODP, vol. 307; doi:10.2204/iodp.proc.307.2006). To characterize these geomicrobial sulfur transformations in the carbonate mound sediments, the inorganic and stable isotope geochemical compositions of pore water sulfate and solid phase reduced sulfur compounds were performed. Acid-volatile sulfur (AVS) and pyrite del 34S compositions were usually similar and exhibited an increasing trend of from -40 per mil near surface to -20 per mil at the mound base at 132 mbsf. However, several excursions to more 34S sulfur enriched pyrite to values >0 per mil were observed in the deeper sections of the mound sequence. These excursions may be linked transitory changes in the depth of the methane-sulfate transition zone during mound build-up. The oxygen isotopic composition of residual dissolved sulfate indicates intracellular isotope exchange processes within the cells of SRBs, leading to increasing equilibration between extracellular pore water and sulfate.

  15. Coldex-86: Fluid and electrolyte changes during prolonged cold water immersion. Technical report May 86-Aug 87

    SciTech Connect

    Deuster, P.A.; Smith, D.J.; Smoak, B.L.; Montgomery, L.C.; Doubt, T.J.

    1990-12-01

    Dehydration and hypothermia are major inhibitors of diver performance in cold water. To characterize the dehydration that accompanies cold water immersion, 16 U.S. Navy divers participated in two 5-day air saturation dives (ASD) at a depth of 6.1 meters sea water (msw). During each ASD, divers completed two immersions in 5 C water: one began at 1000 h (AM) and the other at 2200 h (PM); a period of 54 h separated the immersions. Divers wore dry suits for thermal protection, and full face masks during immersions that lasted 3-6 h. All divers consumed identical diets. Blood samples were collected before and after each immersion, and urine was collected for 24 h in three separate periods on immersion days: for 12 h prior to immersion, during immersion, and after immersion until the end of the 24 h period. Plasma volume decreased significantly by approximately 17% during both AM and PM immersions.

  16. Effects of ingestion of cold and hot water on the course of thermal changes in the stomach and intestine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batinkov, Y. L.

    1979-01-01

    With the use of a thermocouple and mirror galvanometer, calibrated before the experiment and after each test, it was found that the normal temperature in the esophagus is 0.1-0.4 C higher than in the oral cavity, the temperature in the duodenum is somewhat less than in the stomach, but higher with cholecystitis, duodenitis or gastritis, the temperature in the normal stomach equals or is somewhat higher than in the esophagus, and that the temperature of distended stomachs frequently is lower than in the esophagus. It was found that hot water is retained in the stomach longer than cold water, and that both hot and cold water are allowed to pass into the duodenum when the water temperature becomes approximately equal to that of the surrounding organs.

  17. Hot-gas cold-dust pumping for water masers associated with H II regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deguchi, S.

    1981-01-01

    A collisional pump with an internal sink is proposed for the water masers associated with H II regions, where the population inversion occurs due to the absorption by cold ice-mantle grains in a highly dusty cloud of the far-infrared line radiation of hot water vapor. A new escape probability method is developed to calculate the transfer of line radiation in dusty medium. The pump mechanism explains the power of usual maser sources associated with H II regions and the enormous power of the sources associated with W49 N and external galaxies. Models of maser clouds have a radius of 5 x 10 to the 15th-10 to the 16th cm, an H2 number density of 4 x 10 to the 9th/cu cm, an expansion velocity of 10-30 km/s, a kinetic temperature of 350 K, and a grain temperature of 100 K. Giant maser sources require grains of the size about 1 micron. The apparent size of the emission spots (approximately 10 to the 13th cm) observed by VLBI is interpreted as due to a fluctuation in the cloud, and the assembly of the spots is spread within a size of 10 to the 16th cm. The temperature difference between the dust and gas is due to a relaxation process after an infrared burst accompanying protostar formation.

  18. Keeping warm with fur in cold water: entrainment of air in hairy surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasto, Alice; Regli, Marianne; Brun, Pierre-Thomas; Clanet, Christophe; Hosoi, Anette

    2015-11-01

    Instead of relying on a thick layer of body fat for insulation as many aquatic mammals do, fur seals and otters trap air in their dense fur for insulation in cold water. Using a combination of model experiments and theory, we rationalize this mechanism of air trapping underwater for thermoregulation. For the model experiments, hairy surfaces are fabricated using laser cut molds and casting samples with PDMS. Modeling the hairy texture as a network of capillary tubes, the imbibition speed of water into the hairs is obtained through a balance of hydrostatic pressure and viscous stress. In this scenario, the bending of the hairs and capillary forces are negligible. The maximum diving depth that can be achieved before the hairs are wetted to the roots is predicted from a comparison of the diving speed and imbibition speed. The amount of air that is entrained in hairy surfaces is greater than what is expected for classic Landau-Levich-Derjaguin plate plunging. A phase diagram with the parameters from experiments and biological data allows a comparison of the model system and animals.

  19. Water Purification Characteristic of the Actual Constructed Wetland with Carex dispalata in a Cold Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Morio; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Hiratsuka, Akira; Tsukada, Hiroko

    Carex dispalata, a native plant species applied in cold districts for water purification in constructed wetlands, has useful characteristics for landscape creation and maintenance. In this study, seasonal differences in purification ability were verified, along with comparison of frozen and non-frozen periods' performance. A wetland area was constructed using a “hydroponics method” and a “coir fiber based method”. Results show that the removal rates of BOD, SS, and Chl-a were high. On this constructed wetland reduces organic pollution, mainly phytoplankton, but the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus was insufficient. The respective mean values of influent and treated water during three years were 26.6 mg/L and 12.2 mg/L for BOD, and 27.9 mg/L and 7.5 mg/L for SS. The mean value of the BOD removal rate for the non-frozen period was 2.99 g/m2/d that for the frozen period was 1.86 g/m2/d. The removal rate followed the rise of the BOD load rate. The removal rate limits were about 4 g/m2/d during the frozen period and 15 g/m2/d during the non-frozen period. For operations, energy was unnecessary. The required working hours were about 20 h annually for all maintenance and management during operations.

  20. Cold temperature decreases bacterial species richness in nitrogen-removing bioreactors treating inorganic mine waters.

    PubMed

    Karkman, A; Mattila, K; Tamminen, M; Virta, M

    2011-12-01

    Explosives used in mining, such as ammonium nitrate fuel oil (ANFO), can cause eutrophication of the surrounding environment by leakage of ammonium and nitrate from undetonated material that is not properly treated. Cold temperatures in mines affect nitrogen removal from water when such nutrients are treated with bioreactors in situ. In this study we identified bacteria in the bioreactors and studied the effect of temperature on the bacterial community. The bioreactors consisted of sequential nitrification and denitrification units running at either 5 or 10°C. One nitrification bioreactor running at 5°C was fed with salt spiked water. From the nitrification bioreactors, sequences from both ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria were identified, but the species were distinct at different temperatures. The main nitrifiers in the lower temperature were closely related to the genera Nitrosospira and Candidatus Nitrotoga. 16S rRNA gene sequences closely related to halotolerant Nitrosomonas eutropha were found only from the salt spiked nitrification bioreactor. At 10°C the genera Nitrosomonas and Nitrospira were the abundant nitrifiers. The results showed that bacterial species richness estimates were low, <150 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), in all bioreactor clone libraries, when sequences were assigned to operational taxonomic units at an evolutionary distance of 0.03. The only exception was the nitrification bioreactor running at 10°C where species richness was higher, >300 OTUs. Species richness was lower in bioreactors running at 5°C compared to those operating at 10°C.

  1. Mammal-like muscles power swimming in a cold-water shark.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Diego; Donley, Jeanine M; Shadwick, Robert E; Syme, Douglas A

    2005-10-27

    Effects of temperature on muscle contraction and powering movement are profound, outwardly obvious, and of great consequence to survival. To cope with the effects of environmental temperature fluctuations, endothermic birds and mammals maintain a relatively warm and constant body temperature, whereas most fishes and other vertebrates are ectothermic and conform to their thermal niche, compromising performance at colder temperatures. However, within the fishes the tunas and lamnid sharks deviate from the ectothermic strategy, maintaining elevated core body temperatures that presumably confer physiological advantages for their roles as fast and continuously swimming pelagic predators. Here we show that the salmon shark, a lamnid inhabiting cold, north Pacific waters, has become so specialized for endothermy that its red, aerobic, locomotor muscles, which power continuous swimming, seem mammal-like, functioning only within a markedly elevated temperature range (20-30 degrees C). These muscles are ineffectual if exposed to the cool water temperatures, and when warmed even 10 degrees C above ambient they still produce only 25-50% of the power produced at 26 degrees C. In contrast, the white muscles, powering burst swimming, do not show such a marked thermal dependence and work well across a wide range of temperatures. PMID:16251963

  2. Review of operation of urban drainage systems in cold weather: water quality considerations.

    PubMed

    Marsalek, J; Oberts, G; Exall, K; Viklander, M

    2003-01-01

    Cold climate imposes special requirements on urban drainage systems, arising from extended storage of precipitation and pollutants in the catchment snowpack, processes occurring in the snowpack, and changes in catchment surface and transport network by snow and ice. Consequently, the resulting catchment response and runoff quantity differ from those experienced in snow- and ice-free seasons. Sources of pollutants entering urban snowpacks include airborne fallout, pavement and roadside deposits, and applications of de-icing and anti-skid agents. In the snowpack, snow, water and chemicals are subject to various processes, which affect their movement through the pack and eventual release during the melting process. Soluble constituents are flushed from the snowpack early during the melt; hydrophobic substances generally stay in the pack until the very end of melt and coarse solids with adsorbed pollutants stay on the ground after the melt is finished. The impacts of snowmelt on receiving waters have been measured mostly by the snowmelt chemical composition and inferences about its environmental significance. Recently, snowmelt has been tested by standard bioassays and often found toxic. Toxicity was attributed mostly to chloride and trace metals, and contributed to reduced diversity of benthic and plant communities. Thus, snowmelt and winter runoff discharged from urban drainage threaten aquatic ecosystems in many locations and require further studies with respect to advancing their understanding and development of best management practices. PMID:14703135

  3. The effects of a cold-water stimulus on butorphanol effects in males and females.

    PubMed

    Zacny, James P; Beckman, Nancy J

    2004-08-01

    Using a crossover, randomized, double-blind, cumulative-dosing procedure, we examined whether a painful stimulus modulated subjective and psychomotor effects of butorphanol in eight male and eight female volunteers. During each session, volunteers received four intravenous injections of either butorphanol (0, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/70 kg) or saline (placebo) at hourly intervals. Saline and butorphanol were tested in two conditions, forearm immersion 30 min after each injection into either 2 or 37 degrees C water. During the 180-s immersion, volunteers completed a visual analog scale (VAS), psychomotor test, and pain ratings. VAS ratings of "Coasting ('spaced out')", "heavy or sluggish feeling," and "sleepy" were lower in the 2 degrees C than in the 37 degrees C condition during butorphanol administration, but only in females. Modulation by a painful stimulus of sleepy ratings was confined to the third immersion (i.e., a dose effect). The cold-water stimulus significantly decreased butorphanol-induced impairment during the third immersion for males, and females showed a similar trend. Overall, pain ratings were higher in females, and although not significant, males reported a greater degree of analgesia. The differences in pain ratings and degree of analgesia between the sexes are discussed as a possible mechanism for the sex differences in modulatory effects. PMID:15301918

  4. Technology development plan: Geotechnical survey systems for OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) cold water pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valent, Philip J.; Riggins, Michael

    1989-04-01

    An overview is given of current and developing technologies and techniques for performing geotechnical investigations for siting and designing Cold Water Pipes (CWP) for shelf-resting Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) power plants. The geotechnical in situ tools used to measure the required parameters and the equipment/systems used to deploy these tools are identified. The capabilities of these geotechnical tools and deployment systems are compared to the data requirements for the CWP foundation/anchor design, and shortfalls are identified. For the last phase of geotechnical data gathering for design, a drillship will be required to perform soil boring work, to obtain required high quality sediment samples for laboratory dynamic testing, and to perform deep penetration in situ tests. To remedy shortfalls and to reduce the future OTEC CWP geotechnical survey costs, it is recommended that a seafloor resting machine be developed to advance the friction cone penetrometer, and also probably a pressuremeter, to provide geotechnical parameters to shallow subseafloor penetrations on slopes of 35 deg and in water depths to 1300 m.

  5. Rainbow trout resistance to bacterial cold-water disease is moderately heritable and is not adversely correlated with growth.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, J T; Vallejo, R L; Palti, Y; Leeds, T D; Rexroad, C E; Welch, T J; Wiens, G D; Ducrocq, V

    2009-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the heritabilities for and genetic correlations among resistance to bacterial cold-water disease and growth traits in a population of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Bacterial cold-water disease, a chronic disease of rainbow trout, is caused by Flavobacterium psychrophilum. This bacterium also causes acute losses in young fish, known as rainbow trout fry syndrome. Selective breeding for increased disease resistance is a promising strategy that has not been widely used in aquaculture. At the same time, improving growth performance is critical for efficient production. At the National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture, reducing the negative impact of diseases on rainbow trout culture and improving growth performance are primary objectives. In 2005, when fish averaged 2.4 g, 71 full-sib families were challenged with F. psychrophilum and evaluated for 21 d. Overall survival was 29.3% and family rates of survival varied from 1.5 to 72.5%. Heritability of postchallenge survival, an indicator of disease resistance, was estimated to be 0.35 +/- 0.09. Body weights at 9 and 12 mo posthatch and growth rate from 9 to 12 mo were evaluated on siblings of the fish in the disease challenge study. Growth traits were moderately heritable, from 0.32 for growth rate to 0.61 for 12-mo BW. Genetic and phenotypic correlations between growth traits and resistance to bacterial cold-water disease were not different from zero. These results suggest that genetic improvement can be made simultaneously for growth and bacterial cold-water disease resistance in rainbow trout by using selective breeding.

  6. Method 366.0 Determination of Dissolved Silicate in Estuarine and Coastal Watersby Gas Segmented Continuous Flow Colorimetric Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    This method provides a procedure for the determination of dissolved silicate concentration in estuarine and coastal waters. The dissolved silicate is mainly in the form of silicic acid, H SiO , in estuarine and 4 4 coastal waters. All soluble silicate, including colloidal silici...

  7. Effect of pullulan on the water distribution, microstructure and textural properties of rice starch gels during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Long; Tian, Yaoqi; Tong, Qunyi; Zhang, Zipei; Jin, Zhengyu

    2017-01-01

    The effects of pullulan on the water distribution, microstructure and textural properties of rice starch gels during cold storage were investigated by low field-nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and texture profile analysis (TPA). The addition of pullulan reduced the transversal relaxation time of rice starch gels during cold storage. The microstructure of rice starch gel with 0.5% pullulan was denser and more uniform compared with that of rice starch without pullulan in each period of storage time. With regard to textural properties, 0.01% pullulan addition did not significantly change the texture of rice starch gels, while 0.5% pullulan addition appeared to reduce the hardness and retain the springiness of rice starch gels (P⩽0.05). The restriction effects of pullulan on water mobility and starch retrogradation were hypothesized to be mainly responsible for the water retention, gel structure maintenance, and modification of the textural attributes of rice starch gels.

  8. Linking Grain Boundary Microstructure to Stress Corrosion Cracking of Cold Rolled Alloy 690 in PWR Primary Water

    SciTech Connect

    Bruemmer, Stephen M.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Thomas, Larry E.

    2012-10-01

    Grain boundary microstructures and microchemistries are examined in cold-rolled alloy 690 tubing and plate materials and comparisons are made to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) behavior in PWR primary water. Chromium carbide precipitation is found to be a key aspect for materials in both the mill annealed and thermally treated conditions. Cold rolling to high levels of reduction was discovered to produce small IG voids and cracked carbides in alloys with a high density of grain boundary carbides. The degree of permanent grain boundary damage from cold rolling was found to depend directly on the initial IG carbide distribution. For the same degree of cold rolling, alloys with few IG precipitates exhibited much less permanent damage. Although this difference in grain boundary damage appears to correlate with measured SCC growth rates, crack tip examinations reveal that cracked carbides appeared to blunt propagation of IGSCC cracks in many cases. Preliminary results suggest that the localized grain boundary strains and stresses produced during cold rolling promote IGSCC susceptibility and not the cracked carbides and voids.

  9. Relationships between Host Phylogeny, Host Type and Bacterial Community Diversity in Cold-Water Coral Reef Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Schöttner, Sandra; Hoffmann, Friederike; Cárdenas, Paco; Rapp, Hans Tore; Boetius, Antje; Ramette, Alban

    2013-01-01

    Cold-water coral reefs are known to locally enhance the diversity of deep-sea fauna as well as of microbes. Sponges are among the most diverse faunal groups in these ecosystems, and many of them host large abundances of microbes in their tissues. In this study, twelve sponge species from three cold-water coral reefs off Norway were investigated for the relationship between sponge phylogenetic classification (species and family level), as well as sponge type (high versus low microbial abundance), and the diversity of sponge-associated bacterial communities, taking also geographic location and water depth into account. Community analysis by Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA) showed that as many as 345 (79%) of the 437 different bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) detected in the dataset were shared between sponges and sediments, while only 70 (16%) appeared purely sponge-associated. Furthermore, changes in bacterial community structure were significantly related to sponge species (63% of explained community variation), sponge family (52%) or sponge type (30%), whereas mesoscale geographic distances and water depth showed comparatively small effects (<5% each). In addition, a highly significant, positive relationship between bacterial community dissimilarity and sponge phylogenetic distance was observed within the ancient family of the Geodiidae. Overall, the high diversity of sponges in cold-water coral reefs, combined with the observed sponge-related variation in bacterial community structure, support the idea that sponges represent heterogeneous, yet structured microbial habitats that contribute significantly to enhancing bacterial diversity in deep-sea ecosystems. PMID:23393586

  10. Comparison of Cold Water Sponging and Acetaminophen in Control of Fever Among Children Attending a Tertiary Hospital in South Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Aluka, Tony M.; Gyuse, Abraham N.; Udonwa, Ndifreke E.; Asibong, Udeme E.; Meremikwu, Martin M.; Oyo-Ita, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Background: A wide range of childhood illnesses are accompanied by fever, leading to varied attempts at treatment by caregivers at home before coming to a hospital. Common modalities of treatment include use of antipyretics and physical methods such as cold water sponging, fanning and removal of clothing. These treatment modalities have been received with varied attitudes among physicians and the scientific community. This study was to assess the efficacy of both modalities in first-line management of fever in our area. Objectives: The main aim of the study is to compare the effectiveness of cold water sponging with that of oral paracetamol in the treatment of fever in children attending the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar. Subjects and Methods: This is a randomized clinical trial. Eighty-eight children aged 12-120 months who presented to the Children Outpatient Clinic (CHOP) and the Children Emergency Room (CHER) of University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, with acute febrile illness and axillary temperatures spanning ≥ 38.0-40.0°C. All children within the age limit whose caregivers gave consent were recruited into the study and were randomized to receive either cold water sponging or oral paracetamol. Axillary temperature, pulse rate, respiratory rate and assessment of discomforts (crying, shivering, goose pimples and convulsions) were recorded every 30 min for 2 h. The results were analyzed using the SPSS statistical software and have been presented in the tables. Results: Cold water sponging was very effective in temperature reduction within the first 30 min, with 29 (70.73%) having their temperature reduced to within normal limits. This declined to 12 (29.26%) at 60 min and 4 (10.53%) at 120 min, with the mean temperature differences from the baseline value following the same trends (1.63°C by 30 min, 0.91°C by 60 min and 0.39°C by 120 min). When compared with paracetamol, cold water sponging was more effective in temperature

  11. High thermal tolerance of two Mediterranean cold-water coral species maintained in aquaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumann, M. S.; Orejas, C.; Ferrier-Pagès, C.

    2013-09-01

    In the Mediterranean deep-sea, scleractinian cold-water corals (CWC) are observed to survive at the uppermost end of their presumed thermal distribution range (4-13 °C). Here, we show that 2 common CWC species (i.e. Dendrophyllia cornigera and Desmophyllum dianthus) maintained in aquaria can indeed tolerate considerably elevated seawater temperatures (17.5 ± 0.1 °C), while growing at similar ( D. dianthus) or significantly higher ( D. cornigera) rates than conspecifics cultured in parallel for 87 days at ambient Mediterranean deep-sea temperature (12.5 ± 0.1 °C). Neither differences in coral appearance nor mortality were evident for both species at either temperature. D. dianthus grew significantly faster (0.23 ± 0.08 % day-1) than D. cornigera (0.05 ± 0.01 % day-1) under ambient thermal conditions. Growth of D. cornigera increased significantly (0.14 ± 0.07 % day-1) at elevated temperature, while Desmophyllum dianthus growth showed no significant difference under both conditions. These findings suggest that D. dianthus and D. cornigera may be capable of surviving in warmer environments than previously reported, and thus challenge temperature as the paramount limiting environmental factor for the occurrence of some CWC species.

  12. Characterization of culturable bacteria isolated from the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galkiewicz, Julia P.; Pratte, Zoe A.; Gray, Michael A.; Kellogg, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with corals are hypothesized to contribute to the function of the host animal by cycling nutrients, breaking down carbon sources, fixing nitrogen, and producing antibiotics. This is the first study to culture and characterize bacteria from Lophelia pertusa, a cold-water coral found in the deep sea, in an effort to understand the roles that the microorganisms play in the coral microbial community. Two sites in the northern Gulf of Mexico were sampled over 2 years. Bacteria were cultured from coral tissue, skeleton, and mucus, identified by 16S rRNA genes, and subjected to biochemical testing. Most isolates were members of the Gammaproteobacteria, although there was one isolate each from the Betaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria. Phylogenetic results showed that both sampling sites shared closely related isolates (e.g. Pseudoalteromonas spp.), indicating possible temporally and geographically stable bacterial-coral associations. The Kirby-Bauer antibiotic susceptibility test was used to separate bacteria to the strain level, with the results showing that isolates that were phylogenetically tightly grouped had varying responses to antibiotics. These results support the conclusion that phylogenetic placement cannot predict strain-level differences and further highlight the need for culture-based experiments to supplement culture-independent studies.

  13. Discovery of symbiotic nitrogen fixation and chemoautotrophy in cold-water corals.

    PubMed

    Middelburg, Jack J; Mueller, Christina E; Veuger, Bart; Larsson, Ann I; Form, Armin; van Oevelen, Dick

    2015-12-08

    Cold-water corals (CWC) are widely distributed around the world forming extensive reefs at par with tropical coral reefs. They are hotspots of biodiversity and organic matter processing in the world's deep oceans. Living in the dark they lack photosynthetic symbionts and are therefore considered to depend entirely on the limited flux of organic resources from the surface ocean. While symbiotic relations in tropical corals are known to be key to their survival in oligotrophic conditions, the full metabolic capacity of CWC has yet to be revealed. Here we report isotope tracer evidence for efficient nitrogen recycling, including nitrogen assimilation, regeneration, nitrification and denitrification. Moreover, we also discovered chemoautotrophy and nitrogen fixation in CWC and transfer of fixed nitrogen and inorganic carbon into bulk coral tissue and tissue compounds (fatty acids and amino acids). This unrecognized yet versatile metabolic machinery of CWC conserves precious limiting resources and provides access to new nitrogen and organic carbon resources that may be essential for CWC to survive in the resource-depleted dark ocean.

  14. How does the cold stenothermal gadoid Lota lota survive high water temperatures during summer?

    PubMed

    Hardewig, I; Pörtner, H O; van Dijk, P

    2004-03-01

    The cold-stenothermal freshwater gadid Lota lota inhabiting the potamic regions of lowland rivers in central Europe, is exposed to summer temperatures up to 25 degrees C, which is far above the thermal preferendum of this species. Oxygen consumption rates, determined in field catches sampled at different times of the year, revealed that the basal metabolic rate is depressed during summer when water temperatures are high (152+/-16 micromol O2 100 g(-1) h(-1)at 22 degrees C in July compared to 250+/-33 micromol O2 100 g(-1) h(-1) at 6 degrees C in November). This observation led us to investigate whether the observed depression of the metabolic rate is caused by oxygen limitation due to thermal impairment of the ventilatory system, as has been observed in other species. Determination of anaerobic end products (lactate and succinate) in the liver tissue of fish caught at different sampling dates did not show an accumulation of anaerobic end products during the summer, indicating no oxygen limitation. Measurements of enzyme activities in the white musculature and liver suggest that enzymes involved in aerobic metabolism were down-regulated during summer, which may have contributed to the observed reduction of metabolic rate.

  15. Cardiorespiratory responses and reduced apneic time to cold-water face immersion after high intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Konstantinidou, Sylvia; Soultanakis, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Apnea after exercise may evoke a neurally mediated conflict that may affect apneic time and create a cardiovascular strain. The physiological responses, induced by apnea with face immersion in cold water (10 °C), after a 3-min exercise bout, at 85% of VO2max,were examined in 10 swimmers. A pre-selected 40-s apnea, completed after rest (AAR), could not be met after exercise (AAE), and was terminated with an agonal gasp reflex, and a reduction of apneic time, by 75%. Bradycardia was evident with immersion after both, 40-s of AAR and after AAE (P<0.05). The dramatic elevation of, systolic pressure and pulse pressure, after AAE, were indicative of cardiovascular stress. Blood pressure after exercise without apnea was not equally elevated. The activation of neurally opposing functions as those elicited by the diving reflex after high intensity exercise may create an autonomic conflict possibly related to oxygen-conserving reflexes stimulated by the trigeminal nerve, and those elicited by exercise. PMID:26343750

  16. Opportunistic feeding on various organic food sources by the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, C. E.; Larsson, A. I.; Veuger, B.; Middelburg, J. J.; van Oevelen, D.

    2014-01-01

    The ability of the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa to exploit different food sources was investigated under standardized conditions in a flume. The tested food sources, dissolved organic matter (DOM, added as dissolved free amino acids), bacteria, algae, and zooplankton (Artemia) were deliberately enriched in 13C and 15N. The incorporation of 13C and 15N was traced into bulk tissue, fatty acids, hydrolysable amino acids, and the skeleton (13C only) of L. pertusa. Incorporation rates of carbon (ranging from 0.8-2.4 μg C g-1 DW d-1) and nitrogen (0.2-0.8 μg N g-1 DW d-1) into coral tissue did not differ significantly among food sources indicating an opportunistic feeding strategy. Although total food assimilation was comparable among sources, subsequent food processing was dependent on the type of food source ingested and recovery of assimilated C in tissue compounds ranged from 17% (algae) to 35% (Artemia). De novo synthesis of individual fatty acids by L. pertusa occurred in all treatments as indicated by the 13C enrichment of individual phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFAs) in the coral that were absent in the added food sources. This indicates that the coral might be less dependent on its diet as a source of specific fatty acids than expected, with direct consequences for the interpretation of in situ observations on coral nutrition based on lipid profiles.

  17. Opportunistic feeding on various organic food sources by the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, C. E.; Larsson, A. I.; Veuger, B.; Middelburg, J. J.; van Oevelen, D.

    2013-07-01

    The ability of the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa to exploit different food sources was investigated under standardized conditions in a flume. All tested food sources, dissolved organic matter (DOM, added as dissolved free amino acids), bacteria, algae, and zooplankton (Artemia) were deliberately enriched in 13C and 15N. The incorporation of 13C and 15N was traced into bulk tissue, fatty acids, hydrolysable amino acids, and the skeleton (13C only) of L. pertusa. Incorporation rates of carbon (ranging from 0.8-2.4 µg C g-1 DW d-1) and nitrogen (0.2-0.8 µg N g-1 DW d-1) into coral tissue did not differ significantly among food sources indicating an opportunistic feeding strategy. Although total food assimilation was comparable among sources, subsequent food processing was dependent on the type of food source ingested and recovery of assimilated C in tissue compounds ranged from 17% (algae) to 35% (Artemia). De novo synthesis of individual fatty acids by L. pertusa occurred in all treatments as indicated by the 13C enrichment of individual phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFAs) in the coral that were absent in the added food sources. This indicates that the coral might be less dependent on its diet as a source of specific fatty acids than expected, with direct consequences for the interpretation of in situ observations on coral nutrition based on lipid profiles.

  18. Discovery of symbiotic nitrogen fixation and chemoautotrophy in cold-water corals.

    PubMed

    Middelburg, Jack J; Mueller, Christina E; Veuger, Bart; Larsson, Ann I; Form, Armin; van Oevelen, Dick

    2015-01-01

    Cold-water corals (CWC) are widely distributed around the world forming extensive reefs at par with tropical coral reefs. They are hotspots of biodiversity and organic matter processing in the world's deep oceans. Living in the dark they lack photosynthetic symbionts and are therefore considered to depend entirely on the limited flux of organic resources from the surface ocean. While symbiotic relations in tropical corals are known to be key to their survival in oligotrophic conditions, the full metabolic capacity of CWC has yet to be revealed. Here we report isotope tracer evidence for efficient nitrogen recycling, including nitrogen assimilation, regeneration, nitrification and denitrification. Moreover, we also discovered chemoautotrophy and nitrogen fixation in CWC and transfer of fixed nitrogen and inorganic carbon into bulk coral tissue and tissue compounds (fatty acids and amino acids). This unrecognized yet versatile metabolic machinery of CWC conserves precious limiting resources and provides access to new nitrogen and organic carbon resources that may be essential for CWC to survive in the resource-depleted dark ocean. PMID:26644069

  19. Cardiorespiratory responses and reduced apneic time to cold-water face immersion after high intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Konstantinidou, Sylvia; Soultanakis, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Apnea after exercise may evoke a neurally mediated conflict that may affect apneic time and create a cardiovascular strain. The physiological responses, induced by apnea with face immersion in cold water (10 °C), after a 3-min exercise bout, at 85% of VO2max,were examined in 10 swimmers. A pre-selected 40-s apnea, completed after rest (AAR), could not be met after exercise (AAE), and was terminated with an agonal gasp reflex, and a reduction of apneic time, by 75%. Bradycardia was evident with immersion after both, 40-s of AAR and after AAE (P<0.05). The dramatic elevation of, systolic pressure and pulse pressure, after AAE, were indicative of cardiovascular stress. Blood pressure after exercise without apnea was not equally elevated. The activation of neurally opposing functions as those elicited by the diving reflex after high intensity exercise may create an autonomic conflict possibly related to oxygen-conserving reflexes stimulated by the trigeminal nerve, and those elicited by exercise.

  20. Discovery of symbiotic nitrogen fixation and chemoautotrophy in cold-water corals

    PubMed Central

    Middelburg, Jack J.; Mueller, Christina E.; Veuger, Bart; Larsson, Ann I.; Form, Armin; Oevelen, Dick van

    2015-01-01

    Cold-water corals (CWC) are widely distributed around the world forming extensive reefs at par with tropical coral reefs. They are hotspots of biodiversity and organic matter processing in the world’s deep oceans. Living in the dark they lack photosynthetic symbionts and are therefore considered to depend entirely on the limited flux of organic resources from the surface ocean. While symbiotic relations in tropical corals are known to be key to their survival in oligotrophic conditions, the full metabolic capacity of CWC has yet to be revealed. Here we report isotope tracer evidence for efficient nitrogen recycling, including nitrogen assimilation, regeneration, nitrification and denitrification. Moreover, we also discovered chemoautotrophy and nitrogen fixation in CWC and transfer of fixed nitrogen and inorganic carbon into bulk coral tissue and tissue compounds (fatty acids and amino acids). This unrecognized yet versatile metabolic machinery of CWC conserves precious limiting resources and provides access to new nitrogen and organic carbon resources that may be essential for CWC to survive in the resource-depleted dark ocean. PMID:26644069

  1. Present and past Gulf Stream variability in a cold-water coral area off Cape Lookout, West Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mienis, F.; Pedersen, A.; Duineveld, G.; Seidenkrantz, M.; Fischel, A.; Matos, L.; Bane, J. M.; Frank, N.; Hebbeln, D.; Ross, S.

    2012-12-01

    Cold-water coral mounds are common on the SE slope of the US from Florida to Cape Hatteras between depths of 400-600 m. All coral areas lie in the vicinity of the Gulf Stream, which is characterized by strong currents transporting relatively warm water northwards. Thus far little is known about the recent and past environmental conditions inside the cold-water coral habitats on the SE US slope and particularly the effect of changing patterns of the Gulf Stream. Near Cape Lookout, which is the northern most cold-water coral area on the SE US slope, cold-water corals have formed mounds up to 60 m high with a tear drop shape, which are oriented in a SSW-NNE direction. Past explorations of major reef sites of N Carolina using remote and manned submersibles have shown living Lophelia pertusa colonies on the current facing side of the mound structures and a high biodiversity of associated fauna, especially fish. Two autonomous benthic landers were deployed amidst Lophelia reefs off Cape Lookout (NC) for a period of 6 months to define oceanographic patterns that are relevant for the development and persistence of cold-water coral ecosystems. Furthermore, a 3.6 m long piston core was collected in 2010 during a cruise with the R.V. Pelagia. This pistoncore was used to determine the changes of current strength through time, using foraminiferal counts, stable oxygen and carbon isotopes on foraminifera, XRF and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Cold-water coral fragments were dated with U/Th and foraminifera from the same depth interval were dated with C14. Bottom landers have recorded a number of events that are characterized by of peaks in temperature and salinity, coinciding with increased flow and turbidity. The current during these events was directed to the NNE. During some of these events temperature rose up to 9 degrees in one day. The temporary replacement of the colder bottom water by warm (and saline) water in combination with the strong currents to the NNE

  2. Design, loading, and water quality in recirculating systems for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) at the USDA ARS National Cold Water Marine Aquaculture Center (Franklin, ME)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Northeastern U.S has the ideal location and unique opportunity to be a leader in cold-water marine finfish aquaculture. However, problems and regulations on environmental issues, mandatory stocking of 100 percent native North American salmon, and disease have impacted economic viability of the U...

  3. Post-exercise cold water immersion attenuates acute anabolic signalling and long-term adaptations in muscle to strength training

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Llion A; Raastad, Truls; Markworth, James F; Figueiredo, Vandre C; Egner, Ingrid M; Shield, Anthony; Cameron-Smith, David; Coombes, Jeff S; Peake, Jonathan M

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We investigated functional, morphological and molecular adaptations to strength training exercise and cold water immersion (CWI) through two separate studies. In one study, 21 physically active men strength trained for 12 weeks (2 days per week), with either 10 min of CWI or active recovery (ACT) after each training session. Strength and muscle mass increased more in the ACT group than in the CWI group (P < 0.05). Isokinetic work (19%), type II muscle fibre cross-sectional area (17%) and the number of myonuclei per fibre (26%) increased in the ACT group (all P < 0.05), but not the CWI group. In another study, nine active men performed a bout of single-leg strength exercises on separate days, followed by CWI or ACT. Muscle biopsies were collected before and 2, 24 and 48 h after exercise. The number of satellite cells expressing neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) (10−30%) and paired box protein (Pax7) (20−50%) increased 24–48 h after exercise with ACT. The number of NCAM+ satellite cells increased 48 h after exercise with CWI. NCAM+- and Pax7+-positive satellite cell numbers were greater after ACT than after CWI (P < 0.05). Phosphorylation of p70S6 kinaseThr421/Ser424 increased after exercise in both conditions but was greater after ACT (P < 0.05). These data suggest that CWI attenuates the acute changes in satellite cell numbers and activity of kinases that regulate muscle hypertrophy, which may translate to smaller long-term training gains in muscle strength and hypertrophy. The use of CWI as a regular post-exercise recovery strategy should be reconsidered. Key points Cold water immersion is a popular strategy to recover from exercise. However, whether regular cold water immersion influences muscle adaptations to strength training is not well understood. We compared the effects of cold water immersion and active recovery on changes in muscle mass and strength after 12 weeks of strength training. We also examined the effects of these

  4. Differential response of two Mediterranean cold-water coral species to ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Movilla, Juancho; Orejas, Covadonga; Calvo, Eva; Gori, Andrea; López-Sanz, Àngel; Grinyó, Jordi; Domínguez-Carrió, Carlos; Pelejero, Carles

    2014-09-01

    Cold-water coral (CWC) reefs constitute one of the most complex deep-sea habitats harboring a vast diversity of associated species. Like other tropical or temperate framework builders, these systems are facing an uncertain future due to several threats, such as global warming and ocean acidification. In the case of Mediterranean CWC communities, the effect may be exacerbated due to the greater capacity of these waters to absorb atmospheric CO2 compared to the global ocean. Calcification in these organisms is an energy-demanding process, and it is expected that energy requirements will be greater as seawater pH and the availability of carbonate ions decrease. Therefore, studies assessing the effect of a pH decrease in skeletal growth, and metabolic balance are critical to fully understand the potential responses of these organisms under a changing scenario. In this context, the present work aims to investigate the medium- to long-term effect of a low pH scenario on calcification and the biochemical composition of two CWCs from the Mediterranean, Dendrophyllia cornigera and Desmophyllum dianthus. After 314 d of exposure to acidified conditions, a significant decrease of 70 % was observed in Desmophyllum dianthus skeletal growth rate, while Dendrophyllia cornigera showed no differences between treatments. Instead, only subtle differences between treatments were observed in the organic matter amount, lipid content, skeletal microdensity, or porosity in both species, although due to the high variability of the results, these differences were not statistically significant. Our results also confirmed a heterogeneous effect of low pH on the skeletal growth rate of the organisms depending on their initial weight, suggesting that those specimens with high calcification rates may be the most susceptible to the negative effects of acidification.

  5. Elasticity of superhydrous phase B, seismic anomalies in cold slabs and implications for deep water transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, Angelika D.; Sanchez-Valle, Carmen; Wang, Jingyun; Saikia, Ashima

    2015-06-01

    Seismic anomalies in the vicinity of cold slabs, including low velocity zones and enhanced seismic shear wave splitting have been commonly attributed to the presence of hydrated slab material. The dense hydrous magnesium silicate (DHMS) superhydrous phase B (ShyB, Mg10Si3H4O18) is considered an important water carrier to transition zone depth due to its large pressure stability and abundance (up to 20 vol.%) in hydrous peridotites. To interpret the observed seismic anomalies in terms of hydration and to assess the role of ShyB in deep water recycling, we have investigated the sound velocities and single-crystal elasticity of ShyB to pressures of 17.5 GPa at ambient temperature by Brillouin scattering spectroscopy in diamond anvil cells. The Voigt-Reuss-Hill averages for the adiabatic bulk moduli KS, shear moduli μ and their pressure derivatives yield KS = 150(2) GPa, μ = 99(1) GPa, (∂KS/∂P) = 4.7(2) and (∂μ/∂P) = 1.44(5). The aggregate compressional and shear wave velocities of ShyB at transition zone pressures are comparable to those of hydrous iron-bearing ringwoodite but are significantly lower than anhydrous phases in peridotites. The calculated velocity contrast between dry and ShyB-bearing hydrous peridotite (containing 1.2 wt.% of water) indicate that 17 vol.% of ShyB decreases both compressional VP and shear VS wave velocities by at most 2.5% at transition zone depths. Our results, combined with data for the deformation mechanisms of ShyB, indicate that ShyB aggregates develop strong textures under down-dip compression regime and yield a maximum shear wave splitting of 1.1% in the plane perpendicular to the compression axis at 17.5 GPa. Although ShyB in hydrous subducted peridotite would reduce its seismic velocities, the splitting geometry VSV > VSH generated by ShyB fabrics in peridotite is incompatible with the pattern observed in Tonga and Sangihe, and would require the contribution of other phases to be explained. Textured phase D is a

  6. 75 FR 4349 - National Estuarine Reserve System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... solicitation period for the National Estuarine research Reserve Land Acquisition and Construction Program FY10... notice to re-open the solicitation period for the National Estuarine Research Reserve Land Acquisition and Construction Program FY10 to provide National Estuarine Research Reserve lead State agencies...

  7. Chronic Cold-Water-Induced Hypothermia Impairs Memory Retrieval and Nepeta menthoides as a Traditional "Hot" Herb Reverses the Impairment.

    PubMed

    Ahmadian-Attar, Mohammad Mahdi; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Dargahi, Leila; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM) describes a kind of dementia with similar signs and symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It explains the pathology of dementia with cold intemperament of the brain, which means that the brain is colder than its healthy form. ITM strategy for treatment of dementia is to heat the brain up by medical "hot" herbs. Nepeta menthoides (NM) is one of these "hot" herbs. To evaluate the veracity of ITM concept about dementia and its treatment, we first try to examine if coldness of brain can make memory impairment. If so, can NM reverse memory impairment? Rats in cold-water-induced hypothermic (CWH) groups were immersed up to the neck in 3.5 °C water, for 5 min during 14 consecutive days. As a control, rats were forced to swim in warm water at the same conditions. To eliminate the impact of forced swimming stress, a group of intact rats was also added. After last swimming in day 14, some groups received drug (100 or 500 mg/ Kg aqueous extract of NM) or vehicle via i.p. injection. Learning and memory were assessed by Morris water maze, and tau hyperphosphorylation was measured by western blotting. The results showed that CWH impairs learning and memory and induces tau hyperphosphorylation. 100 mg/Kg of NM reversed memory impairment as well as tau hyperphosphorylation. ITM theory about the relationship between brain hypothermia and dementia is in accordance with our findings.

  8. Chronic Cold-Water-Induced Hypothermia Impairs Memory Retrieval and Nepeta menthoides as a Traditional "Hot" Herb Reverses the Impairment.

    PubMed

    Ahmadian-Attar, Mohammad Mahdi; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Dargahi, Leila; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM) describes a kind of dementia with similar signs and symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It explains the pathology of dementia with cold intemperament of the brain, which means that the brain is colder than its healthy form. ITM strategy for treatment of dementia is to heat the brain up by medical "hot" herbs. Nepeta menthoides (NM) is one of these "hot" herbs. To evaluate the veracity of ITM concept about dementia and its treatment, we first try to examine if coldness of brain can make memory impairment. If so, can NM reverse memory impairment? Rats in cold-water-induced hypothermic (CWH) groups were immersed up to the neck in 3.5 °C water, for 5 min during 14 consecutive days. As a control, rats were forced to swim in warm water at the same conditions. To eliminate the impact of forced swimming stress, a group of intact rats was also added. After last swimming in day 14, some groups received drug (100 or 500 mg/ Kg aqueous extract of NM) or vehicle via i.p. injection. Learning and memory were assessed by Morris water maze, and tau hyperphosphorylation was measured by western blotting. The results showed that CWH impairs learning and memory and induces tau hyperphosphorylation. 100 mg/Kg of NM reversed memory impairment as well as tau hyperphosphorylation. ITM theory about the relationship between brain hypothermia and dementia is in accordance with our findings. PMID:24711845

  9. Fine-scale spatial genetic structure and clonal distribution of the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl, M. P.; Pereyra, R. T.; Lundälv, T.; André, C.

    2012-12-01

    Determining the spatial genetic structure within and among cold-water coral populations is crucial to understanding population dynamics, assessing the resilience of cold-water coral communities and estimating genetic effects of habitat fragmentation for conservation. The spatial distribution of genetic diversity in natural populations depends on the species' mode of reproduction, and coral species often have a mixed strategy of sexual and asexual reproduction. We describe the clonal architecture of a cold-water coral reef and the fine-scale population genetic structure (<35 km) of five reef localities in the NE Skagerrak. This study represents the first of this type of analysis from deep waters. We used thirteen microsatellite loci to estimate gene flow and genotypic diversity and to describe the fine-scale spatial distribution of clonal individuals of Lophelia pertusa. Within-population genetic diversity was high in four of the five reef localities. These four reefs constitute a genetic cluster with asymmetric gene flow that indicates metapopulation dynamics. One locality, the Säcken reef, was genetically isolated and depauperate. Asexual reproduction was found to be a highly important mode of reproduction for L. pertusa: 35 genetic individuals were found on the largest reef, with the largest clone covering an area of nearly 300 m2.

  10. Anti-fungal activity of cold and hot water extracts of spices against fungal pathogens of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) in vitro.

    PubMed

    Touba, Eslaminejad Parizi; Zakaria, Maziah; Tahereh, Eslaminejad

    2012-02-01

    Crude extracts of seven spices, viz. cardamom, chilli, coriander, onion, garlic, ginger, and galangale were made using cold water and hot water extraction and they were tested for their anti-fungal effects against the three Roselle pathogens i.e. Phoma exigua, Fusarium nygamai and Rhizoctonia solani using the 'poisoned food technique'. All seven spices studied showed significant anti-fungal activity at three concentrations (10, 20 and 30% of the crude extract) in-vitro. The cold water extract of garlic exhibited good anti-fungal activity against all three tested fungi. In the case of the hot water extracts, garlic and ginger showed the best anti-fungal activity. Of the two extraction methods, cold water extraction was generally more effective than hot water extraction in controlling the pathogens. Against P. exigua, the 10% cold water extracts of galangale, ginger, coriander and cardamom achieved total (100%) inhibition of pathogen mycelial growth. Total inhibition of F. nygamai mycelial growth was similarly achieved with the 10% cold water extracts garlic. Against R. solani, the 10% cold water extract of galangale was effective in imposing 100% inhibition. Accordingly, the 10% galangale extract effectively controlled both P. exigua and R. solani in vitro. None of the hot water extracts of the spices succeeded in achieving 100% inhibition of the pathogen mycelial growth. PMID:22138549

  11. Cold-Water Immersion for Hyperthermic Humans Wearing American Football Uniforms

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kevin C.; Swartz, Erik E.; Long, Blaine C.

    2015-01-01

    Context Current treatment recommendations for American football players with exertional heatstroke are to remove clothing and equipment and immerse the body in cold water. It is unknown if wearing a full American football uniform during cold-water immersion (CWI) impairs rectal temperature (Trec) cooling or exacerbates hypothermic afterdrop. Objective To determine the time to cool Trec from 39.5°C to 38.0°C while participants wore a full American football uniform or control uniform during CWI and to determine the uniform's effect on Trec recovery postimmersion. Design Crossover study. Setting Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants A total of 18 hydrated, physically active, unacclimated men (age = 22 ± 3 years, height = 178.8 ± 6.8 cm, mass = 82.3 ± 12.6 kg, body fat = 13% ± 4%, body surface area = 2.0 ± 0.2 m2). Intervention(s) Participants wore the control uniform (undergarments, shorts, crew socks, tennis shoes) or full uniform (control plus T-shirt; tennis shoes; jersey; game pants; padding over knees, thighs, and tailbone; helmet; and shoulder pads). They exercised (temperature approximately 40°C, relative humidity approximately 35%) until Trec reached 39.5°C. They removed their T-shirts and shoes and were then immersed in water (approximately 10°C) while wearing each uniform configuration; time to cool Trec to 38.0°C (in minutes) was recorded. We measured Trec (°C) every 5 minutes for 30 minutes after immersion. Main Outcome Measure(s) Time to cool from 39.5°C to 38.0°C and Trec. Results The Trec cooled to 38.0°C in 6.19 ± 2.02 minutes in full uniform and 8.49 ± 4.78 minutes in control uniform (t17 = −2.1, P = .03; effect size = 0.48) corresponding to cooling rates of 0.28°C·min−1 ± 0.12°C·min−1 in full uniform and 0.23°C·min−1 ± 0.11°C·min−1 in control uniform (t17 = 1.6, P = .07, effect size = 0.44). The Trec postimmersion recovery did not differ between conditions over time (F1,17 = 0.6, P = .59). Conclusions We

  12. Developing a salinity-based approach for the evaluation of DIN removal rate in estuarine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yiguo; Wang, Shuailong; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Wu, Jiapeng; Liu, Ling; Yue, Weizhong; Wu, Meilin; Wang, Youshao

    2015-10-01

    Estuaries play an important role in the removal of overloading nitrogen to relieve the eutrophic pressure of coastal seawater. However, the exact amount of nitrogen removed in estuarine ecosystems is difficult to be estimated because of the complex dynamic mixing process between riverine water and coastal seawater. In this study, a new method was developed to calculate the removal rate of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) in estuarine waters attributed to the mixing process and was based on the assumption that relative salinity can serve as an indicator of the degree of mixing. This assumption was supported by the experimental results that demonstrated a linear regression relationship between DIN decline and salinity increase Thus, the decreased amount of DIN in mixing waters attributed to the dilution effect could be determined with the salinity as an index. With this model, the DIN removal rate in both Chesapeake Bay and Pearl River Estuary were defined. As predicted, our analysis demonstrated that the DIN removal rate increased gradually from upstream to downstream in both studied estuaries with obvious seasonable variation pattern: high in warm seasons and low in cold seasons. The practical application of this method might be affected by multiple factors, including the geographic landform of estuaries, initial estuaries DIN concentration, the DIN concentration in seawater, DIN importing from tributaries, sewage discharge and hydrodynamic mixing. Therefore, the results supported the hypothesis that estuaries have a strong capability to remove the nitrogen inputted from human activities, especially in warm season and therefore should play an important role in regulating the balance of global nitrogen biogeochemical cycle. PMID:25957975

  13. Developing a salinity-based approach for the evaluation of DIN removal rate in estuarine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yiguo; Wang, Shuailong; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Wu, Jiapeng; Liu, Ling; Yue, Weizhong; Wu, Meilin; Wang, Youshao

    2015-10-01

    Estuaries play an important role in the removal of overloading nitrogen to relieve the eutrophic pressure of coastal seawater. However, the exact amount of nitrogen removed in estuarine ecosystems is difficult to be estimated because of the complex dynamic mixing process between riverine water and coastal seawater. In this study, a new method was developed to calculate the removal rate of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) in estuarine waters attributed to the mixing process and was based on the assumption that relative salinity can serve as an indicator of the degree of mixing. This assumption was supported by the experimental results that demonstrated a linear regression relationship between DIN decline and salinity increase Thus, the decreased amount of DIN in mixing waters attributed to the dilution effect could be determined with the salinity as an index. With this model, the DIN removal rate in both Chesapeake Bay and Pearl River Estuary were defined. As predicted, our analysis demonstrated that the DIN removal rate increased gradually from upstream to downstream in both studied estuaries with obvious seasonable variation pattern: high in warm seasons and low in cold seasons. The practical application of this method might be affected by multiple factors, including the geographic landform of estuaries, initial estuaries DIN concentration, the DIN concentration in seawater, DIN importing from tributaries, sewage discharge and hydrodynamic mixing. Therefore, the results supported the hypothesis that estuaries have a strong capability to remove the nitrogen inputted from human activities, especially in warm season and therefore should play an important role in regulating the balance of global nitrogen biogeochemical cycle.

  14. Postexercise Impact of Ice-Cold Water Bath on the Oxidant-Antioxidant Balance in Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Boraczyński, Tomasz; Boraczyński, Michał

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of a 5 min head-out ice-cold water bath on the oxidant-antioxidant balance in response to exercise. The crossover study included the subjects (n = 24; aged 28.7 ± 7.3 years) who performed two identical stationary cycling bouts for 30 min and recovered for 10 min at room temperature (RT = 20°C; session 1) or in a pool with ice-cold water (ICW = 3°C, 5 min immersion; session 2). The concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in blood plasma (TBARSpl) and erythrocytes (TBARSer) and the erythrocytic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured three times during each of the two study sessions: before the exercise (baseline) and 20 and 40 min after the appropriate recovery session. Lower concentration of TBARSpl 40 min after postexercise recovery in ICW was revealed as compared with that after recovery at RT (P < 0.05). Moreover, a statistically significant postexercise increase in the TBARSpl and TBARSer concentrations was found (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, resp.). A short-term ice-cold water bath decreases postexercise lipid peroxidation. PMID:25866803

  15. USGS cold-water coral geographic database-Gulf of Mexico and western North Atlantic Ocean, version 1.0

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scanlon, K.M.; Waller, R.G.; Sirotek, A.R.; Knisel, J.M.; O'Malley, J.J.; Alesandrini, Stian

    2010-01-01

    The USGS Cold-Water Coral Geographic Database (CoWCoG) provides a tool for researchers and managers interested in studying, protecting, and/or utilizing cold-water coral habitats in the Gulf of Mexico and western North Atlantic Ocean. The database makes information about the locations and taxonomy of cold-water corals available to the public in an easy-to-access form while preserving the scientific integrity of the data. The database includes over 1700 entries, mostly from published scientific literature, museum collections, and other databases. The CoWCoG database is easy to search in a variety of ways, and data can be quickly displayed in table form and on a map by using only the software included with this publication. Subsets of the database can be selected on the basis of geographic location, taxonomy, or other criteria and exported to one of several available file formats. Future versions of the database are being planned to cover a larger geographic area and additional taxa.

  16. Anticipated Consequences of Increasing Temperature and Ocean Acidification on Cold-Water Coral Reefs and Options for Managing Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinotte, J. M.; Thresher, R.; Matear, R.; Hobday, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    The deep sea hosts some of the world's largest, oldest, and most sensitive ecosystems. Climate change and ocean acidification are likely to have severe implications for many deep-sea ecosystems and communities, but what, if anything, can be done to mitigate these threats is poorly understood. This presentation will focus on: the climate related threats cold-water coral reef ecosystems face in the coming decades, the current state of knowledge regarding reef-forming cold water coral species responses to increasing temperature and ocean acidification, and conclusions reached by an expert panel tasked with prioritizing management options for legislatively protected cold-water coral reefs off southeast Australia that are likely to be severely degraded within decades due to climate change. The panel explored seventeen possible options spanning biological, engineering and regulatory domains that differed widely in perceived costs, benefits, time to implementation, and risks. In the short term, the highest priority identified was the need to urgently locate and protect sites globally that are, or will become, refugia areas for the coral and its associated community as climate change progresses.

  17. Uptake of dissolved free amino acids by four cold-water coral species from the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gori, Andrea; Grover, Renaud; Orejas, Covadonga; Sikorski, Séverine; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter, which contains many compounds such as lipids, sugars and amino acids, is an important source of carbon and nitrogen for several symbiotic and asymbiotic tropical coral species. However, there is still no information on its possible uptake by cold-water coral species. In this study, we demonstrated that dissolved organic matter, in the form of dissolved free amino acids (DFAA), is actively absorbed by four cold-water coral species from the Mediterranean Sea. Although the uptake rates observed with 3 μM DFAA concentration were one order of magnitude lower than those observed in tropical species, they corresponded to 12-50% of the daily excreted-nitrogen, and 16-89% of the daily respired-carbon of the cold-water corals. Consequently, DFAA, even at in situ concentrations lower than those tested in this study, can supply a significant amount of carbon and nitrogen to the corals, especially during periods when particulate food is scarce.

  18. Postexercise impact of ice-cold water bath on the oxidant-antioxidant balance in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Sutkowy, Paweł; Woźniak, Alina; Boraczyński, Tomasz; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Boraczyński, Michał

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of a 5 min head-out ice-cold water bath on the oxidant-antioxidant balance in response to exercise. The crossover study included the subjects (n = 24; aged 28.7 ± 7.3 years) who performed two identical stationary cycling bouts for 30 min and recovered for 10 min at room temperature (RT = 20°C; session 1) or in a pool with ice-cold water (ICW = 3°C, 5 min immersion; session 2). The concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in blood plasma (TBARSpl) and erythrocytes (TBARSer) and the erythrocytic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured three times during each of the two study sessions: before the exercise (baseline) and 20 and 40 min after the appropriate recovery session. Lower concentration of TBARSpl 40 min after postexercise recovery in ICW was revealed as compared with that after recovery at RT (P < 0.05). Moreover, a statistically significant postexercise increase in the TBARSpl and TBARSer concentrations was found (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, resp.). A short-term ice-cold water bath decreases postexercise lipid peroxidation. PMID:25866803

  19. Carbon, water, and energy fluxes in a semiarid cold desert grassland during and following multiyear drought

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowling, David R.; Bethers-Marchetti, S.; Lunch, C.K.; Grote, E.E.; Belnap, J.

    2010-01-01

    The net exchanges of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy were examined in a perennial Colorado Plateau grassland for 5 years. The study began within a multiyear drought and continued as the drought ended. The grassland is located near the northern boundary of the influence of the North American monsoon, a major climatic feature bringing summer rain. Following rain, evapotranspiration peaked above 8 mm d-1 but was usually much smaller (2-4 mm d-1). Net productivity of the grassland was low compared to other ecosystems, with peak hourly net CO2 uptake in the spring of 4 (mu or u)mol m-2 s-1 and springtime carbon gain in the range of 42 + or - 11 g C m-2 (based on fluxes) to 72 + or - 55 g C m-2 (based on carbon stocks; annual carbon gain was not quantified). Drought decreased gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) and total ecosystem respiration, with a much larger GEP decrease. Monsoon rains led to respiratory pulses, lasting a few days at most, and only rarely resulted in net CO2 gain, despite the fact that C4 grasses dominated plant cover. Minor CO2 uptake was observed in fall following rain. Spring CO2 uptake was regulated by deep soil moisture, which depended on precipitation in the prior fall and winter. The lack of CO2 uptake during the monsoon and the dependence of GEP on deep soil moisture are in contrast with arid grasslands of the warm deserts. Cold desert grasslands are most likely to be impacted by future changes in winter and not summer precipitation.

  20. Cold-Water Corals and Anthropogenic Impacts in La Fonera Submarine Canyon Head, Northwestern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Lastras, Galderic; Canals, Miquel; Ballesteros, Enric; Gili, Josep-Maria; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna

    2016-01-01

    We assess the occurrence and extent of cold-water coral (CWC) species Madrepora oculata and Dendrophyllia cornigera, as well as gorgonian red coral Corallium rubrum, in La Fonera canyon head (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea), as well as human impacts taking place in their habitats. Occurrence is assessed based on Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) video imaging. Terrain classification techniques are applied to high-resolution swath bathymetric data to obtain semi-automatic interpretative maps to identify the relationship between coral distribution patterns and canyon environments. A total of 21 ROV immersions were carried out in different canyon environments at depths ranging between 79 and 401 m. Large, healthy colonies of M. oculata occur on abrupt, protected, often overhanging, rocky sections of the canyon walls, especially in Illa Negra branch. D. cornigera is sparser and evenly distributed at depth, on relatively low sloping areas, in rocky but also partially sedimented areas. C. rubrum is most frequent between 100 and 160 m on highly sloping rocky areas. The probable extent of CWC habitats is quantified by applying a maximum entropy model to predict habitat suitability: 0.36 km2 yield M. oculata occurrence probabilities over 70%. Similar predictive models have been produced for D. cornigera and C. rubrum. All ROV transects document either the presence of litter on the seafloor or pervasive trawling marks. Nets and longlines are imaged entangled on coral colonies. Coral rubble is observed at the foot of impacted colonies. Some colonies are partially covered by sediment that could be the result of the resuspension generated by bottom trawling on neighbouring fishing grounds, which has been demonstrated to be responsible of daily increases in sediment fluxes within the canyon. The characteristics of the CWC community in La Fonera canyon are indicative that it withstands high environmental stress of both natural and human origin. PMID:27182776

  1. Fish communities associated with cold-water corals vary with depth and substratum type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milligan, Rosanna J.; Spence, Gemma; Roberts, J. Murray; Bailey, David M.

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the processes that drive the distribution patterns of organisms and the scales over which these processes operate are vital when considering the effective management of species with high commercial or conservation value. In the deep sea, the importance of scleractinian cold-water corals (CWCs) to fish has been the focus of several studies but their role remains unclear. We propose this may be due to the confounding effects of multiple drivers operating over multiple spatial scales. The aims of this study were to investigate the role of CWCs in shaping fish community structure and individual species-habitat associations across four spatial scales in the NE Atlantic ranging from "regions" (separated by >500 km) to "substratum types" (contiguous). Demersal fish and substratum types were quantified from three regions: Logachev Mounds, Rockall Bank and Hebrides Terrace Seamount (HTS). PERMANOVA analyses showed significant differences in community composition between all regions which were most likely caused by differences in depths. Within regions, significant variation in community composition was recorded at scales of c. 20-3500 m. CWCs supported significantly different fish communities to non-CWC substrata at Rockall Bank, Logachev and the HTS. Single-species analyses using generalised linear mixed models showed that Sebastes sp. was strongly associated with CWCs at Rockall Bank and that Neocyttus helgae was more likely to occur in CWCs at the HTS. Depth had a significant effect on several other fish species. The results of this study suggest that the importance of CWCs to fish is species-specific and depends on the broader spatial context in which the substratum is found. The precautionary approach would be to assume that CWCs are important for associated fish, but must acknowledge that CWCs in different depths will not provide redundancy or replication within spatially-managed conservation networks.

  2. Cold-water coral distributions in the drake passage area from towed camera observations - Initial interpretations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, R.G.; Scanlon, K.M.; Robinson, L.F.

    2011-01-01

    Seamounts are unique deep-sea features that create habitats thought to have high levels of endemic fauna, productive fisheries and benthic communities vulnerable to anthropogenic impacts. Many seamounts are isolated features, occurring in the high seas, where access is limited and thus biological data scarce. There are numerous seamounts within the Drake Passage (Southern Ocean), yet high winds, frequent storms and strong currents make seafloor sampling particularly difficult. As a result, few attempts to collect biological data have been made, leading to a paucity of information on benthic habitats or fauna in this area, particularly those on primarily hard-bottom seamounts and ridges. During a research cruise in 2008 six locations were examined (two on the Antarctic margin, one on the Shackleton Fracture Zone, and three on seamounts within the Drake Passage), using a towed camera with onboard instruments to measure conductivity, temperature, depth and turbidity. Dominant fauna and bottom type were categorized from 200 randomized photos from each location. Coldwater corals were present in high numbers in habitats both on the Antarctic margin and on the current swept seamounts of the Drake Passage, though the diversity of orders varied. Though the Scleractinia (hard corals) were abundant on the sedimented margin, they were poorly represented in the primarily hard-bottom areas of the central Drake Passage. The two seamount sites and the Shackleton Fracture Zone showed high numbers of stylasterid (lace) and alcyonacean (soft) corals, as well as large numbers of sponges. Though data are preliminary, the geological and environmental variability (particularly in temperature) between sample sites may be influencing cold-water coral biogeography in this region. Each area observed also showed little similarity in faunal diversity with other sites examined for this study within all phyla counted. This manuscript highlights how little is understood of these isolated features

  3. Cold-Water Corals and Anthropogenic Impacts in La Fonera Submarine Canyon Head, Northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Canals, Miquel; Ballesteros, Enric; Gili, Josep-Maria; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna

    2016-01-01

    We assess the occurrence and extent of cold-water coral (CWC) species Madrepora oculata and Dendrophyllia cornigera, as well as gorgonian red coral Corallium rubrum, in La Fonera canyon head (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea), as well as human impacts taking place in their habitats. Occurrence is assessed based on Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) video imaging. Terrain classification techniques are applied to high-resolution swath bathymetric data to obtain semi-automatic interpretative maps to identify the relationship between coral distribution patterns and canyon environments. A total of 21 ROV immersions were carried out in different canyon environments at depths ranging between 79 and 401 m. Large, healthy colonies of M. oculata occur on abrupt, protected, often overhanging, rocky sections of the canyon walls, especially in Illa Negra branch. D. cornigera is sparser and evenly distributed at depth, on relatively low sloping areas, in rocky but also partially sedimented areas. C. rubrum is most frequent between 100 and 160 m on highly sloping rocky areas. The probable extent of CWC habitats is quantified by applying a maximum entropy model to predict habitat suitability: 0.36 km2 yield M. oculata occurrence probabilities over 70%. Similar predictive models have been produced for D. cornigera and C. rubrum. All ROV transects document either the presence of litter on the seafloor or pervasive trawling marks. Nets and longlines are imaged entangled on coral colonies. Coral rubble is observed at the foot of impacted colonies. Some colonies are partially covered by sediment that could be the result of the resuspension generated by bottom trawling on neighbouring fishing grounds, which has been demonstrated to be responsible of daily increases in sediment fluxes within the canyon. The characteristics of the CWC community in La Fonera canyon are indicative that it withstands high environmental stress of both natural and human origin. PMID:27182776

  4. Response of Mediterranean temperate and cold-water corals to ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, Eva; Movilla, Juancho; Pelejero, Carles

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric CO2 in coming centuries is likely to reach levels last seen millions of years ago with significant impacts on climate and ecosystems. One of the main global stressors threatening today's oceans is ocean acidification, which occurs due to the absorption of this greenhouse gas in seawater and has already acidified the oceans by about 0.1 pH units since preindustrial times. The Mediterranean Sea has certain characteristics that make it especially sensitive and vulnerable to changes in atmospheric CO2 and this gradual acidification. A first estimation of seawater acidification identified a pH decrease of up to 0.14 units since preindustrial times in the western Mediterranean Sea, which is of higher magnitude than the global surface ocean decrease. This progressive transition has the potential to affect marine ecosystems in many ways, and it is generally agreed that calcifying organisms will have more difficulties to grow. To better understand the magnitude of this problematic it is important to know the ranges of variability of pH and other related parameters in seawater at different time scales. This knowledge is crucial, for instance, to establish levels of pH tolerance for marine organisms. In this talk, we will first briefly review the different reconstructions of paleo-pH that have been produced so far in the global oceans, obtained by studying suitable archives of paleoclimatic information, such as corals. We will then move to show the results from mid- to long-term manipulative experiments in which several species of Mediterranean temperate and cold-water corals were exposed at pH values expected for the year 2100 at the purpose designed experimental aquarium facilities of Institut de Ciències del Mar.

  5. A phylogenetic perspective on diversity of Galatheoidea (Munida, Munidopsis) from cold-water coral and cold seep communities in the western North Atlantic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coykendall, Dolly K.; Nizinski, Martha S.; Morrison, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    Squat lobsters (Galatheoidea and Chirostyloidea), a diverse group of decapod crustaceans, are ubiquitous members of the deep-sea fauna. Within Galatheoidea, the genera Munida and Munidopsis are the most diverse, but accurate estimates of biodiversity are difficult due to morphological complexity and cryptic diversity. Four species of Munida and nine species of Munidopsis from cold-water coral (CWC) and cold seep communities in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean (NWA) and the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) were collected over eleven years and fifteen research cruises in order to assess faunal associations and estimate squat lobster biodiversity. Identification of the majority of specimens was determined morphologically. Mitochondrial COI sequence data, obtained from material collected during these research cruises, was supplemented with published sequences of congeners from other regions. The phylogenetic analysis of Munida supports three of the four NWA and GOM species (M. microphthalma, M. sanctipauli, and M. valida) as closely related taxa. The fourth species, Munida iris, is basal to most other species of Munida, and is closely related to M. rutllanti, a species found in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean (NEA). The majority of the nine species of Munidopsis included in our analyses were collected from chemosynthetic cold seep sites from the GOM. While seep taxa were scattered throughout the phylogenetic tree, four of these species (Munidopsis livida, M. similis, M. bermudezi, and M. species A) from the NWA and the GOM were part of a large eighteen-species clade that included species collected from Pacific Ocean chemosynthetic habitats, such as hydrothermal vents and whale falls. Shinkaia crosnieri was the sister taxon to the chemosynthetic clade, and M. livida was the most basal member of this clade. Munidopsis sp. B, an undescribed species with representative individuals collected from two GOM chemosynthetic sites, exhibited the largest genetic distance from other northern

  6. Hot, Cold, and Really Cold.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Describes a physics experiment investigating temperature prediction and the relationship between the physical properties of heat units, melting, dissolving, states of matter, and energy loss. Details the experimental setup, which requires hot and cold water, a thermometer, and ice. Notes that the experiment employs a deliberate counter-intuitive…

  7. An integrated numerical framework for water quality modelling in cold-region rivers: A case of the lower Athabasca River.

    PubMed

    Shakibaeinia, Ahmad; Kashyap, Shalini; Dibike, Yonas B; Prowse, Terry D

    2016-11-01

    There is a great deal of interest to determine the state and variations of water quality parameters in the lower Athabasca River (LAR) ecosystem, northern Alberta, Canada, due to industrial developments in the region. As a cold region river, the annual cycle of ice cover formation and breakup play a key role in water quality transformation and transportation processes. An integrated deterministic numerical modelling framework is developed and applied for long-term and detailed simulation of the state and variation (spatial and temporal) of major water quality constituents both in open-water and ice covered conditions in the lower Athabasca River (LAR). The framework is based on the a 1D and a 2D hydrodynamic and water quality models externally coupled with the 1D river ice process models to account for the cold season effects. The models are calibrated/validated using available measured data and applied for simulation of dissolved oxygen (DO) and nutrients (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus). The results show the effect of winter ice cover on reducing the DO concentration, and a fluctuating temporal trend for DO and nutrients during summer periods with substantial differences in concentration between the main channel and flood plains. This numerical frame work can be the basis for future water quality scenario-based studies in the LAR.

  8. The climate influence on the mid-depth Northeast Atlantic gyres viewed by cold-water corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montero-Serrano, Jean-Carlos; Frank, Norbert; Colin, Christophe; Wienberg, Claudia; Eisele, Markus

    2011-10-01

    The neodymium (Nd) isotopic composition (expressed in epsilon units, $\\varepsilon$Nd) of reef framework-forming cold-water corals provides unique measures of water mass provenance and mixing within the Northeast Atlantic today and in the past. A reconstruction of near thermocline water $\\varepsilon$Nd from cold-water corals of the Gulf of Cádiz and Porcupine Seabight spanning over the past 300,000 years, now revealed that climate cooling during Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 7.2 and MIS 8/9 led to a retraction of the mid-depth Subpolar Gyre (mSPG) to the west. Conversely, Northern Hemisphere warming and increasing fresh water fluxes to the northwest (Labrador Sea) favor a stronger eastward extension of the mSPG blocking the northward flow of temperate Atlantic water as observed during the early MIS 1 and the early stage MIS 5.5. These changes are likely the result of large-scale south-north displacement of the westerlies similar to present-day observations that the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is linked with mid-depth ocean circulation. Based on these observations, we hypothesize that further climate warming will also strengthen the mSPG leading to a salt and temperature decrease in the Northeast Atlantic whereas salinity and temperature will increase in the temperate Atlantic. However, the amplitude of such changes on North Atlantic overturning remains to be tested.

  9. An integrated numerical framework for water quality modelling in cold-region rivers: A case of the lower Athabasca River.

    PubMed

    Shakibaeinia, Ahmad; Kashyap, Shalini; Dibike, Yonas B; Prowse, Terry D

    2016-11-01

    There is a great deal of interest to determine the state and variations of water quality parameters in the lower Athabasca River (LAR) ecosystem, northern Alberta, Canada, due to industrial developments in the region. As a cold region river, the annual cycle of ice cover formation and breakup play a key role in water quality transformation and transportation processes. An integrated deterministic numerical modelling framework is developed and applied for long-term and detailed simulation of the state and variation (spatial and temporal) of major water quality constituents both in open-water and ice covered conditions in the lower Athabasca River (LAR). The framework is based on the a 1D and a 2D hydrodynamic and water quality models externally coupled with the 1D river ice process models to account for the cold season effects. The models are calibrated/validated using available measured data and applied for simulation of dissolved oxygen (DO) and nutrients (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus). The results show the effect of winter ice cover on reducing the DO concentration, and a fluctuating temporal trend for DO and nutrients during summer periods with substantial differences in concentration between the main channel and flood plains. This numerical frame work can be the basis for future water quality scenario-based studies in the LAR. PMID:27376919

  10. Protozoan Bacterivory in the Ice and the Water Column of a Cold Temperate Lagoon.

    PubMed

    Sime-Ngando; Demers; Juniper

    1999-02-01

    > Abstract Bacterial abundance and bacterivorous protist abundance and activity were examined in ice-brine and water column communities of a cold temperate Japanese lagoon (Saroma-Ko Lagoon, Hokkaido, 44 degreesN, 144 degreesE), during the late winter phase of ice community development (February-March 1992). Bacterial abundance averaged 6 and 1 x 10(5) cells ml-1 in the ice-brine and plankton samples, respectively, and generally decreased during the sampling period. Bacterivorous protists, identified based on direct observation of short-term (<1 h) ingested fluorescently labeled bacteria (FLB) in their food vacuoles, were largely dominated by flagellates, mainly cryothecomonad-type and chrysomonad-like cells and small dinoflagellates of the genus Gymnodinium. Bacterivorous ciliates included mainly the prostomatid Urotricha sp., the scuticociliates Uronema and Cyclidium, the choreotrichs Lohmaniella oviformis and Strobilidium, and the hypotrich Euplotes sp. Protist abundance averaged 4 x 10(3) and 8.1 cells ml-1 in the ice-brine and 0.3 x 10(3) and 1.2 cells ml-1 in the plankton, for flagellates and ciliates, respectively. In contrast to bacteria, the abundance of protists generally increased throughout the sampling period, indicating predator-prey interactions. Protistan bacterivory, measured from the rate of FLB disappearance over 24 h, averaged 36% (ice) and 24% (plankton) of bacterial standing stock and exhibited the same seasonal pattern as for protist abundance. The calculated specific clearance (range, 2-67 nl protozoa-1 h-1) and ingestion (<1-26 particles protozoa-1 h-1) rates were likely to be minimal estimates and grazing impact may have been higher on occasion. Indications for the dependence of "bacterivorous protists" on nonbacterial food items were also provided. Although alternative sources of bacterial loss are likely to be of importance, this study provides evidence for the potential of protozoan assemblages as bacterial grazers in both sea ice

  11. Temporal changes in euphausiid distribution and abundance in North Atlantic cold-core rings in relation to the surrounding waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Yoshinari; Wiebe, Peter H.

    2007-02-01

    The species composition of euphausiids was investigated in relationship to the hydrographic conditions in the North Atlantic cold-core rings (CCR) and adjacent waters to elucidate species succession in evolving water masses. Using data, dating back to the 1970s, from as many CCRs as possible and selecting typical cases where no major physical perturbations occurred, a general pattern of euphausiid succession and change in vertical distribution in rings with time was obtained. This pattern was related to the general distribution of euphausiids in the northwestern North Atlantic Ocean, aiming at providing basic information on probable response of North Atlantic marine ecosystem to global warming. Of the 34 euphausiid species identified, 5 were cold-water species, 17 were warm-water species, 6 were wide-ranging warm-water species, 1 was transitional, 4 were cosmopolitan and the remaining was Thysanoessa parva. Among cold-water species, Euphausia krohni and Nematoscelis megalops were dominant in CCRs. E. krohni became rare in rings older than 6 months, whereas N. megalops survived longer, being abundant in some rings of 9 months or older, by staying within its preferred temperature range as the CCR elevated isotherms sank to depths where they are normally found in the Sargasso Sea and because it is an omnivore-carnivore. Among warm-water species, epipelagic species appeared first in rings, corresponding to the physical change occurring most rapidly in the surface layers. Mesopelagic species appeared later. Cold-water species made up 65-85% of the total euphausiid population in number in younger rings (1-5 months old), while warm-water species contributed only 2-7%. Wide-ranging warm-water species made up about up to one fourth of the total in rings 5 and 7 months old. Warm-water species, mainly E. brevis, increased in older rings (9 months old or older) and made up 50% of the total in the oldest ring. The contribution of cold-water species decreased to 14% in older

  12. Impact of frontal systems on estuarine sediment and pollutant dynamics.

    PubMed

    Duck, R W; Wewetzer, S F

    2001-02-01

    In this paper, a brief description of frontal systems, their modes of occurrence and impact on the estuarine environment, is presented. Previous studies of estuarine fronts have largely focused on the water surface and within the water column. New observations in the Tay Estuary, Scotland have shown that the presence of fronts within the water column may be marked, not only by surface foam bands, but also by abrupt (i.e. non-gradational) changes in the underlying bedform morphology and/or sediment facies, as detected using side-scan sonar. This preliminary evidence suggests that fronts may exert a control, not only on the surface and intra-water column sediment and pollutant partitioning, but also on the distribution and persistence of bedload transport pathways.

  13. Challenging paradigms in estuarine ecology and management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, M.; Whitfield, A. K.

    2011-10-01

    For many years, estuarine science has been the 'poor relation' in aquatic research - freshwater scientists ignored estuaries as they tended to get confused by salt and tides, and marine scientists were more preoccupied by large open systems. Estuaries were merely regarded by each group as either river mouths or sea inlets respectively. For the past four decades, however, estuaries (and other transitional waters) have been regarded as being ecosystems in their own right. Although often not termed as such, this has led to paradigms being generated to summarise estuarine structure and functioning and which relate to both the natural science and management of these systems. This paper defines, details and affirms these paradigms that can be grouped into those covering firstly the science (definitions, scales, linkages, productivity, tolerances and variability) and secondly the management (pressures, valuation, health and services) of estuaries. The more 'science' orientated paradigms incorporate the development and types of ecotones, the nature of stressed and variable systems (with specific reference to resilience and redundancy), the relationship between generalists and specialists produced by environmental tolerance, the relevance of scale in relation to functioning and connectivity, the sources of production and degree of productivity, the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning and the stress-subsidy debates. The more 'management' targeted paradigms include the development and effects of exogenic unmanaged pressures and endogenic managed pressures, the perception of health and the ability to manage estuaries (related to internal and external influences), and the influence of all of these on the production of ecosystem services and societal benefits.

  14. Physical properties of pregelatinized and granular cold water swelling maize starches at different pH values.

    PubMed

    Hedayati, Sara; Shahidi, Fakhri; Koocheki, Arash; Farahnaky, Asgar; Majzoobi, Mahsa

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of pH changes (3, 5, 7 and 9) on physical properties of pregelatinized (PG) and granular cold water swelling (GCWS) maize starches. In acidic pH, PG starches were fragmented; however, GCWS starches mainly reserved their granular integrity but were shriveled. For both modified starches the water absorption, cold water viscosity, textural parameters, turbidity and freeze-thaw stability of the samples decreased whereas water solubility increased at pH 3 and 5. On the other hand, alkaline pH did not bring about evident changes on morphology of PG starch but the surface of GCWS starch became smoother. Water absorption, solubility, rheological and mechanical properties, freeze-thaw stability and turbidity of the starch pastes increased at high pH values. Overall, both starches were more stable at alkaline pH compared to acidic pH values and GCWS starch was more resistance to pH changes than PG starch.

  15. Detection and validation of QTL affecting bacterial cold water disease resistance in rainbow trout using restriction-site associated DNA sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) causes significant economic loss in salmonid aquaculture. Using microsatellites genome scan we have previously detected significant and suggestive QTL with major effects on the phenotypic variation of survival following challenge with Flavobacterium psychrophilum...

  16. Large-scale cold water dispersant effectiveness experiments with Alaskan crude oils and Corexit 9500 and 9527 dispersants.

    PubMed

    Belore, Randy C; Trudel, Ken; Mullin, Joseph V; Guarino, Alan

    2009-01-01

    There continues to be reluctance in some jurisdictions to use chemical dispersants as a viable countermeasure for accidental oil spills. One argument used by some opponents to dispersant use is that "chemical dispersants do not work effectively in cold water". To address this issue, the U.S. Minerals Management Service (MMS) funded and conducted two series of large-scale dispersant experiments in very cold water at Ohmsett - The National Oil Spill Response Test Facility, located in Leonardo, New Jersey in February-March 2006 and January-March 2007. Alaska North Slope, Endicott, Northstar and Pt. McIntyre crude oils and Corexit 9500 and Corexit 9527 dispersants were used in the two test series. The crude oils were tested both when fresh and after weathering. Results demonstrated that both Corexit 9500 and Corexit 9527 dispersants were 85-99% effective in dispersing the fresh and weathered crude oils tested at cold temperatures. The MMS expects that results from these test series will assist government regulators and responders in making science based decisions on the use of dispersants as a response tool for oil spills in the Arctic. PMID:19007943

  17. Large-scale cold water dispersant effectiveness experiments with Alaskan crude oils and Corexit 9500 and 9527 dispersants.

    PubMed

    Belore, Randy C; Trudel, Ken; Mullin, Joseph V; Guarino, Alan

    2009-01-01

    There continues to be reluctance in some jurisdictions to use chemical dispersants as a viable countermeasure for accidental oil spills. One argument used by some opponents to dispersant use is that "chemical dispersants do not work effectively in cold water". To address this issue, the U.S. Minerals Management Service (MMS) funded and conducted two series of large-scale dispersant experiments in very cold water at Ohmsett - The National Oil Spill Response Test Facility, located in Leonardo, New Jersey in February-March 2006 and January-March 2007. Alaska North Slope, Endicott, Northstar and Pt. McIntyre crude oils and Corexit 9500 and Corexit 9527 dispersants were used in the two test series. The crude oils were tested both when fresh and after weathering. Results demonstrated that both Corexit 9500 and Corexit 9527 dispersants were 85-99% effective in dispersing the fresh and weathered crude oils tested at cold temperatures. The MMS expects that results from these test series will assist government regulators and responders in making science based decisions on the use of dispersants as a response tool for oil spills in the Arctic.

  18. Norovirus Distribution within an Estuarine Environment▿

    PubMed Central

    Gentry, Jennifer; Vinjé, Jan; Guadagnoli, Dominic; Lipp, Erin K.

    2009-01-01

    Human norovirus (NoV) has been studied extensively as an important cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. While oysters are a primary vehicle for infection, few studies have examined the wider distribution of NoV in the estuarine environment. Active shellfish-harvesting areas in Georgia were examined for the prevalence, genotype diversity, and concentrations of NoV in a variety of estuarine sample types over the course of 1 year. Of the 225 samples (9 oyster, 72 water, 72 63- to 200-μm plankton, and 72 >200-μm plankton) collected from 12 stations across two estuaries, 21 samples (9.3%) tested positive for NoV. By sample type, 55.0% (5/9) of oysters, 8.3% (6/72) of water samples, 11.1% (8/72) of 63- to 200-μm plankton samples, and 2.8% (2/72) of >200-μm plankton samples were positive for human NoV. The two NoV-positive >200-μm plankton samples, which contained mainly zooplankton, had the greatest quantity of NoV genomes (3.5 × 1013 and 1.7 × 1015 genomes g−1) of any sample tested. The majority, 90.5% (19/21), of the samples tested positive for genogroup I NoV, and only 9.5% (2/21) of the samples tested positive for genogroup II. The high concentrations of NoV in plankton samples compared to water and oyster samples were unexpected and provide new insights into the presence and distribution of human NoV in the water environment. PMID:19581478

  19. The Structure of Ice Nanoclusters and Thin-films of Water Ice: Implications for Icy Grains in Cold Molecular Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delzeit, Lance; Blake, David; Uffindell, Christine; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The cubic to hexagonal phase transformation in water ice (I(sub c) yields I(sub h)) is used to measure the extent to which surface structure and impurities control bulk properties. In pure crystalline (I(sub c)) water ice nanoclusters and in thin-films of impure water ice, I(sub c) yields I(sub h) occurs at lower temperatures than in thin-films of pure water ice. The disordered surface of the 20 nm diameter nanoclusters promotes transformations or reactions which would otherwise be kinetically hindered. Likewise, impurities such as methanol introduce defects into the ice network, thereby allowing sluggish structural transitions to proceed. Such surface-related phenomena play an important role in promoting chemical reactions on interstellar ice grains within cold molecular clouds, where the first organic compounds are formed.

  20. Is the strategy for cold hardiness in insects determined by their water balance? A study on two closely related families of beetles: Cerambycidae and Chrysomelidae.

    PubMed

    Zachariassen, K E; Li, N G; Laugsand, A E; Kristiansen, E; Pedersen, S A

    2008-11-01

    The strategy for cold-hardiness and water balance features of two closely related families of Coleoptera, Cerambycidae and Chrysomelidae, were investigated. Cerambycids were freeze-avoiding with low supercooling points, whereas chrysomelids froze at high temperatures and were tolerant to freezing. Hence, the two families have adopted different strategies for cold-hardiness. Due to their low trans-cuticular water permeability, the cerambycids have low rates of evaporative water loss. Chrysomelids have much higher trans-cuticular water permeability, but freezing brings their body fluids in vapour pressure equilibrium with ice and prevents evaporative water loss. The differences in cold-hardiness strategies and rates of water loss are likely to reflect the water content of the diets of the two families. Cerambycids feed on dry wood with low water content, causing a restrictive water balance. Chrysomelids feed on leaves with high water content and may use evaporation through the cuticle as a route of water excretion. Haemolymph ice nucleators help chrysomelids to freeze at a high temperature and thus to maximize the period they spend in the water saving frozen state. The diet-related differences in water balance may be the reason why the two families have developed different strategies for cold-hardiness.

  1. Benthic infaunal community structuring in an acidified tropical estuarine system

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that increasing ocean acidification (OA) should have strong direct and indirect influences on marine invertebrates. While most theory and application for OA is based on relatively physically-stable oceanic ecological systems, less is known about the effects of acidification on nearshore and estuarine systems. Here, we investigated the structuring of a benthic infaunal community in a tropical estuarine system, along a steep salinity and pH gradient, arising largely from acid-sulphate groundwater inflows (Sungai Brunei Estuary, Borneo, July 2011- June 2012). Results Preliminary data indicate that sediment pore-water salinity (range: 8.07 - 29.6 psu) declined towards the mainland in correspondence with the above-sediment estuarine water salinity (range: 3.58 – 31.2 psu), whereas the pore-water pH (range: 6.47- 7.72) was generally lower and less variable than the estuarine water pH (range: 5.78- 8.3), along the estuary. Of the thirty six species (taxa) recorded, the polychaetes Neanthes sp., Onuphis conchylega, Nereididae sp. and the amphipod Corophiidae sp., were numerically dominant. Calcified microcrustaceans (e.g., Cyclopoida sp. and Corophiidae sp.) were abundant at all stations and there was no clear distinction in distribution pattern along the estuarine between calcified and non-calcified groups. Species richness increased seawards, though abundance (density) showed no distinct directional trend. Diversity indices were generally positively correlated (Spearman’s rank correlation) with salinity and pH (p <0.05) and negatively with clay and organic matter, except for evenness values (p >0.05). Three faunistic assemblages were distinguished: (1) nereid-cyclopoid-sabellid, (2) corophiid-capitellid and (3) onuphid- nereid-capitellid. These respectively associated with lower salinity/pH and a muddy bottom, low salinity/pH and a sandy bottom, and high salinity/pH and a sandy bottom. However, CCA suggested that species distribution

  2. Modelling and Analysis of Hydrodynamics and Water Quality for Rivers in the Northern Cold Region of China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Gula; Zhu, Yunqiang; Wu, Guozheng; Li, Jing; Li, Zhao-Liang; Sun, Jiulin

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the Mudan River, which is the most typical river in the northern cold region of China was selected as the research object; Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) was adopted to construct a new two-dimensional water quality model for the urban sections of the Mudan River, and concentrations of COD(Cr) and NH₃N during ice-covered and open-water periods were simulated and analyzed. Results indicated that roughness coefficient and comprehensive pollutant decay rate were significantly different in those periods. To be specific, the roughness coefficient in the ice-covered period was larger than that of the open-water period, while the decay rate within the former period was smaller than that in the latter. In addition, according to the analysis of the simulated results, the main reasons for the decay rate reduction during the ice-covered period are temperature drop, upstream inflow decrease and ice layer cover; among them, ice sheet is the major contributor of roughness increase. These aspects were discussed in more detail in this work. The model could be generalized to hydrodynamic water quality process simulation researches on rivers in other cold regions as well. PMID:27070631

  3. Modelling and Analysis of Hydrodynamics and Water Quality for Rivers in the Northern Cold Region of China

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Gula; Zhu, Yunqiang; Wu, Guozheng; Li, Jing; Li, Zhao-Liang; Sun, Jiulin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the Mudan River, which is the most typical river in the northern cold region of China was selected as the research object; Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) was adopted to construct a new two-dimensional water quality model for the urban sections of the Mudan River, and concentrations of CODCr and NH3N during ice-covered and open-water periods were simulated and analyzed. Results indicated that roughness coefficient and comprehensive pollutant decay rate were significantly different in those periods. To be specific, the roughness coefficient in the ice-covered period was larger than that of the open-water period, while the decay rate within the former period was smaller than that in the latter. In addition, according to the analysis of the simulated results, the main reasons for the decay rate reduction during the ice-covered period are temperature drop, upstream inflow decrease and ice layer cover; among them, ice sheet is the major contributor of roughness increase. These aspects were discussed in more detail in this work. The model could be generalized to hydrodynamic water quality process simulation researches on rivers in other cold regions as well. PMID:27070631

  4. Laterally spreading iron, humic-like dissolved organic matter and nutrients in cold, dense subsurface water of the Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Hioki, Nanako; Kuma, Kenshi; Morita, Yuichirou; Sasayama, Ryouhei; Ooki, Atsushi; Kondo, Yoshiko; Obata, Hajime; Nishioka, Jun; Yamashita, Youhei; Nishino, Shigeto; Kikuchi, Takashi; Aoyama, Michio

    2014-10-27

    The location and magnitude of oceanic iron sources remain uncertain owing to a scarcity of data, particularly in the Arctic Ocean. The formation of cold, dense water in the subsurface layer of the western Arctic Ocean is a key process in the lateral transport of iron, macronutrients, and other chemical constituents. Here, we present iron, humic-like fluorescent dissolved organic matter, and nutrient concentration data in waters above the continental slope and shelf and along two transects across the shelf-basin interface in the western Arctic Ocean. We detected high concentrations in shelf bottom waters and in a plume that extended in the subsurface cold dense water of the halocline layer in slope and basin regions. At σθ = 26.5, dissolved Fe, humic-like fluorescence intensity, and nutrient maxima coincided with N* minima (large negative values of N* indicate significant denitrification within shelf sediments). These results suggest that these constituents are supplied from the shelf sediments and then transported laterally to basin regions. Humic dissolved organic matter probably plays the most important role in the subsurface maxima and lateral transport of dissolved Fe in the halocline layer as natural Fe-binding organic ligand.

  5. Microfossils, a Key to Unravel Cold-Water Carbonate Mound Evolution through Time: Evidence from the Eastern Alboran Sea

    PubMed Central

    Stalder, Claudio; Vertino, Agostina; Rosso, Antonietta; Rüggeberg, Andres; Pirkenseer, Claudius; Spangenberg, Jorge E.; Spezzaferri, Silvia; Camozzi, Osvaldo; Rappo, Sacha; Hajdas, Irka

    2015-01-01

    Cold-water coral (CWC) ecosystems occur worldwide and play a major role in the ocean's carbonate budget and atmospheric CO2 balance since the Danian (~65 m.y. ago). However their temporal and spatial evolution against climatic and oceanographic variability is still unclear. For the first time, we combine the main macrofaunal components of a sediment core from a CWC mound of the Melilla Mounds Field in the Eastern Alboran Sea with the associated microfauna and we highlight the importance of foraminifera and ostracods as indicators of CWC mound evolution in the paleorecord. Abundances of macrofauna along the core reveal alternating periods dominated by distinct CWC taxa (mostly Lophelia pertusa, Madrepora oculata) that correspond to major shifts in foraminiferal and ostracod assemblages. The period dominated by M. oculata coincides with a period characterized by increased export of refractory organic matter to the seafloor and rather unstable oceanographic conditions at the benthic boundary layer with periodically decreased water energy and oxygenation, variable bottom water temperature/density and increased sediment flow. The microfaunal and geochemical data strongly suggest that M. oculata and in particular Dendrophylliidae show a higher tolerance to environmental changes than L. pertusa. Finally, we show evidence for sustained CWC growth during the Alleröd-Younger-Dryas in the Eastern Alboran Sea and that this period corresponds to stable benthic conditions with cold/dense and well oxygenated bottom waters, high fluxes of labile organic matter and relatively strong bottom currents PMID:26447699

  6. Microfossils, a Key to Unravel Cold-Water Carbonate Mound Evolution through Time: Evidence from the Eastern Alboran Sea.

    PubMed

    Stalder, Claudio; Vertino, Agostina; Rosso, Antonietta; Rüggeberg, Andres; Pirkenseer, Claudius; Spangenberg, Jorge E; Spezzaferri, Silvia; Camozzi, Osvaldo; Rappo, Sacha; Hajdas, Irka

    2015-01-01

    Cold-water coral (CWC) ecosystems occur worldwide and play a major role in the ocean's carbonate budget and atmospheric CO2 balance since the Danian (~65 m.y. ago). However their temporal and spatial evolution against climatic and oceanographic variability is still unclear. For the first time, we combine the main macrofaunal components of a sediment core from a CWC mound of the Melilla Mounds Field in the Eastern Alboran Sea with the associated microfauna and we highlight the importance of foraminifera and ostracods as indicators of CWC mound evolution in the paleorecord. Abundances of macrofauna along the core reveal alternating periods dominated by distinct CWC taxa (mostly Lophelia pertusa, Madrepora oculata) that correspond to major shifts in foraminiferal and ostracod assemblages. The period dominated by M. oculata coincides with a period characterized by increased export of refractory organic matter to the seafloor and rather unstable oceanographic conditions at the benthic boundary layer with periodically decreased water energy and oxygenation, variable bottom water temperature/density and increased sediment flow. The microfaunal and geochemical data strongly suggest that M. oculata and in particular Dendrophylliidae show a higher tolerance to environmental changes than L. pertusa. Finally, we show evidence for sustained CWC growth during the Alleröd-Younger-Dryas in the Eastern Alboran Sea and that this period corresponds to stable benthic conditions with cold/dense and well oxygenated bottom waters, high fluxes of labile organic matter and relatively strong bottom currents.

  7. Laterally spreading iron, humic-like dissolved organic matter and nutrients in cold, dense subsurface water of the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hioki, Nanako; Kuma, Kenshi; Morita, Yuichirou; Sasayama, Ryouhei; Ooki, Atsushi; Kondo, Yoshiko; Obata, Hajime; Nishi