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Sample records for cold filling pipe

  1. INTERIOR VIEW WITH LADLE FILLING A PONT A MOUSSON PIPE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW WITH LADLE FILLING A PONT A MOUSSON PIPE CASTING MACHINE (EITHER NO. 2 OR NO. 3) FOR PRODUCTION OF AN 8 INCH FASTTITE PIPE USED FOR GAS AND WATER TRANSMISSION. THIS FRENCH-MADE CASTING MACHINE MAKES 4, 6, 8, 10, AND 12 INCH PIPE. THE MACHINE CAN MAKE 48 EIGHT INCH PIPE AN HOUR AND UP TO 60 FOUR INCH PIPE PER HOUR. - American Cast Iron Pipe Company, Mixer Building, 1501 Thirty-first Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  2. OTEC Cold Water Pipe-Platform Subsystem Dynamic Interaction Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Varley, Robert; Halkyard, John; Johnson, Peter; Shi, Shan; Marinho, Thiago

    2014-05-09

    A commercial floating 100-megawatt (MW) ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power plant will require a cold water pipe (CWP) with a diameter of 10-meter (m) and length of up to 1,000 m. The mass of the cold water pipe, including entrained water, can exceed the mass of the platform supporting it. The offshore industry uses software-modeling tools to develop platform and riser (pipe) designs to survive the offshore environment. These tools are typically validated by scale model tests in facilities able to replicate real at-sea meteorological and ocean (metocean) conditions to provide the understanding and confidence to proceed to final design and full-scale fabrication. However, today’s offshore platforms (similar to and usually larger than those needed for OTEC applications) incorporate risers (or pipes) with diameters well under one meter. Secondly, the preferred construction method for large diameter OTEC CWPs is the use of composite materials, primarily a form of fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP). The use of these material results in relatively low pipe stiffness and large strains compared to steel construction. These factors suggest the need for further validation of offshore industry software tools. The purpose of this project was to validate the ability to model numerically the dynamic interaction between a large cold water-filled fiberglass pipe and a floating OTEC platform excited by metocean weather conditions using measurements from a scale model tested in an ocean basin test facility.

  3. EVALUATION OF THE COLD PIPE PRECHARGER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article gives results of an evaluation of the performance of the cold pipe precharger, taking a more rigorous approach than had been previously taken. The approach required detailed descriptions of electrical characteristics, electro-hydrodynamics, and charging theory. The co...

  4. EVALUATION OF THE COLD PIPE PRECHARGER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article gives results of an evaluation of the performance of the cold pipe precharger, taking a more rigorous approach than had been previously taken. The approach required detailed descriptions of electrical characteristics, electro-hydrodynamics, and charging theory. The co...

  5. Acoustic imaging in a water filled metallic pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbe, W. F.; Turko, B. T.; Leskovar, B.

    1984-04-01

    A method is described for imaging the interior of a water filled metallic pipe using acoustical techniques. The apparatus consists of an array of 20 acoustic transducers mounted circumferentially around the pipe. Each transducer is pulsed in sequence, and the echos resulting from bubbles in the interior are digitized and processed by a computer to generate an image. The electronic control and digitizing system and the software processing of the echo signals are described. The performance of the apparatus is illustrated by the imaging of simulated bubbles consisting of thin walled glass spheres suspended in the pipe.

  6. Acoustic imaging in a water filled metallic pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Kolbe, W.F.; Turko, B.T.; Leskovar, B.

    1984-04-01

    A method is described for the imaging of the interior of a water filled metallic pipe using acoustical techniques. The apparatus consists of an array of 20 acoustic transducers mounted circumferentially around the pipe. Each transducer is pulsed in sequence, and the echos resulting from bubbles in the interior are digitized and processed by a computer to generate an image. The electronic control and digitizing system and the software processing of the echo signals are described. The performance of the apparatus is illustrated by the imaging of simulated bubbles consisting of thin walled glass spheres suspended in the pipe.

  7. Development of diamond powder filled carbon fibre pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glitza, K. W.; Mättig, P.; Sanny, B.; Schmitt, U.; Siegfanz, A.; Srinivasan, M.

    2017-08-01

    For the High Luminosity (HL) phase of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) pixel detectors have to meet new and unprecedented challenges for electronics, read-out band widths and also mechanical support and cooling. Traditionally the mechanical support structures (staves) are built from carbon based materials, embedding a metallic cooling pipe through which the cooling liquid, typically CO2, is circulated. In this paper the development and use of a carbon pipe is discussed. Compared to the metallic pipes carbon pipes have potentially advantages like lightness, low radio activation and no CTE mismatch. Their disadvantage of lower transversal thermal conductivity can be mitigated by filling the fabric with diamond powder (DP). The paper reports about the production process of carbon pipes with DP filled epoxy and cyanate ester resin. It discusses that this process leads with reasonable efficiency to pipes that meet the requirements of pressure stability up to 200 bars and leak tightness of 10-6mbarLs-1 for use in HL-LHC staves. The remaining problems and an outlook on potential improvements and further work are presented.

  8. 46 CFR 98.25-50 - Filling and discharge pipes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Filling and discharge pipes. 98.25-50 Section 98.25-50 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk...

  9. 46 CFR 98.25-50 - Filling and discharge pipes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Filling and discharge pipes. 98.25-50 Section 98.25-50 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk...

  10. 46 CFR 98.25-50 - Filling and discharge pipes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Filling and discharge pipes. 98.25-50 Section 98.25-50 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk...

  11. 46 CFR 98.25-50 - Filling and discharge pipes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filling and discharge pipes. 98.25-50 Section 98.25-50 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk...

  12. 46 CFR 98.25-50 - Filling and discharge pipes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Filling and discharge pipes. 98.25-50 Section 98.25-50 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk...

  13. 46 CFR 182.445 - Fill and sounding pipes for fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... fill pipe section is necessary, suitable flexible tubing or hose having high resistance to salt water... nonconductor of electricity, the metallic sections of the fill pipe separated thereby must be joined by...

  14. 46 CFR 182.445 - Fill and sounding pipes for fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... fill pipe section is necessary, suitable flexible tubing or hose having high resistance to salt water... nonconductor of electricity, the metallic sections of the fill pipe separated thereby must be joined by...

  15. 46 CFR 182.445 - Fill and sounding pipes for fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fill and sounding pipes for fuel tanks. 182.445 Section 182.445 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 182.445 Fill and sounding pipes for fuel tanks. (a) Fill pipes for fuel...

  16. 46 CFR 182.445 - Fill and sounding pipes for fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fill and sounding pipes for fuel tanks. 182.445 Section 182.445 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 182.445 Fill and sounding pipes for fuel tanks. (a) Fill pipes for fuel...

  17. Fast ultrasonic imaging in a liquid filled pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbe, W. F.; Turko, B. T.; Leskovar, B.

    1985-10-01

    A new method is described for the imaging of the interior of a liquid filled metallic pipe using acoustical techniques. The experimental system incorporates an array of 20 acoustical transducers and is capable of capturing the images of moving bubbles at a frame rate in excess of 300/s. The transducers are mounted circumferentially around the pipe. Each transducer is pulsed in sequence, and the echoes reflected from vapor bubbles in the interior are detected, digitized and processed by a computer to generate an image. The high rate of speed was achieved by the use of newly developed software and electronic circuitry. This approach has eliminated most of the spurious echo signals which degraded the performance of previous imaging systems. The capability of the method is illustrated by imaging actual vapor bubbles in rapid sequence in the pipe.

  18. 2. CATCH BASIN, INFLOW PIPES AT CENTER, COLD FLOW LABORATORY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. CATCH BASIN, INFLOW PIPES AT CENTER, COLD FLOW LABORATORY AT LEFT, VIEW TOWARDS NORTHWEST. - Glenn L. Martin Company, Titan Missile Test Facilities, Catch Basin, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  19. Report of ad hoc OTEC cold water pipe committee

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, R.; Giannotti, J.; Deuchler, W.; Scotti, R.; Stadter, J.; Walsh, J. P.; Weiss, R.

    1980-02-01

    Now that the design work on the pilot plant is scheduled to start in the near future, DOE has considered it essential that an overall look be taken at the cold water pipe design process. The VSE Corporation, in its role as a support contractor to DOE, was tasked to organize a small study group to answer the question, Where do we stand on the verification of the computer models of the cold water pipe response by experimental measurements. The committee has studied all the available results of the cold water pipe development program. This report summarizes those results. The development and present capabilities of the computer programs used to calculate the response of a cold water pipe attached to a platform under known at-sea conditions are discussed. The various cold water pipe designs that have been done using the computer programs are summarized. The experiments that have been conducted up to the present time to measure the response of cold water pipes at-sea and in experimental tanks are described. The results of these experiments are presented. The experimental results are compared with the predictions made with the analytical computer programs. Conclusions drawn as a result of this analysis are presented and some recommendations are made. (WHK)

  20. Acoustic Propagation in a Water-Filled Cylindrical Pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, E J; Candy, J V

    2003-06-01

    This study was concerned with the physics of the propagation of a tone burst of high frequency sound in a steel water-filled pipe. The choice of the pulse was rather arbitrary, so that this work in no way can be considered as recommending a particular pulse form. However, the MATLAB computer codes developed in this study are general enough to carry out studies of pulses of various forms. Also, it should be pointed out that the codes as written are quite time consuming. A computation of the complete field, including all 5995 modes, requires several hours on a desktop computer. The time required by such computations as these is a direct consequence of the bandwidths, frequencies and sample rates employed. No attempt was made to optimize these codes, and it is assumed that much can be done in this regard.

  1. Prediction of sulphide build-up in filled sewer pipes.

    PubMed

    Alani, Amir M; Faramarzi, Asaad; Mahmoodian, Mojtaba; Tee, Kong Fah

    2014-08-01

    Millions of dollars are being spent worldwide on the repair and maintenance of sewer networks and wastewater treatment plants. The production and emission of hydrogen sulphide has been identified as a major cause of corrosion and odour problems in sewer networks. Accurate prediction of sulphide build-up in a sewer system helps engineers and asset managers to appropriately formulate strategies for optimal sewer management and reliability analysis. This paper presents a novel methodology to model and predict the sulphide build-up for steady state condition in filled sewer pipes. The proposed model is developed using a novel data-driven technique called evolutionary polynomial regression (EPR) and it involves the most effective parameters in the sulphide build-up problem. EPR is a hybrid technique, combining genetic algorithm and least square. It is shown that the proposed model can provide a better prediction for the sulphide build-up as compared with conventional models.

  2. 46 CFR 38.10-5 - Filling and discharge pipes-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filling and discharge pipes-TB/ALL. 38.10-5 Section 38.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Piping, Valves, Fittings, and Accessory Equipment § 38.10-5 Filling and discharge pipes—TB/ALL....

  3. Lightweight concrete OTEC cold water pipe tests, phase 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oconnor, J. S.

    1981-03-01

    A one third scale model of a cold water pipe (CWP) for a 40 MW/sub ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plantship was constructed of reinforced lightweight concrete and tested to destruction. Failure occurred at approximately 138 percent of the design load for the once in 100 year storm condition in the Atlantic-1 siting area. The concept of using Neoprene bearing pads to provide flexibility of the joint between pipe segments was also verified. Measured deflections and stresses generally agreed with computer generated predictions and validated the design methods used. It is indicated that a light weight concrete CWP can be built with conventional material, and processes.

  4. Coupling analysis of fluid-structure interaction in fluid-filled elbow pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, W. W.; Wu, D. Z.; Wang, L. Q.

    2012-11-01

    Fluid in the ship pipeline, due to power equipment components (such as impellers, plungers, etc.) and valves, will induce turbulence, cavitations, which generate high-frequency vibration excitation lines. The measurements results show that fluid-induced vibration of the pipeline is not only confined to the pipeline, but also have an impact on the hull structure. Pipe vibration due to transient flow is very common in marine pipe system Thus fluid-structure interaction problems in shipping lines is being paid more and more attention. In this paper, the fluid-filled elbow pipe is simulated considering fluid-structure interaction (FSI) by the software ADINA. And the simulation results are validated through comparison with results obtained by other numerical solution. The results show that FSI affects the pipe-filled-water modal frequencies seriously, but have little effects on pipe vibration shapes, and the free vibration frequency of the fluid-filled pipe is lower than that of empty pipe. The pipe vibration amplitude and effective stress caused by fluid increase as the fluid velocity increase. Pipe continues vibrating after fluid velocity is steady, and the vibration is dispersing as time increase. The protection against vibration near the elbow is important because the maximum pipe deformation caused by fluid near the elbow. The maximum effective stress increases from 0 to 1.4MPa due to the fluid velocity increases from 0 to 20m/s in 5 seconds. So it is necessary to consider the FSI for fluid-filled pipe.

  5. Three-dimensional analytical solution for transient guided wave propagation in liquid-filled pipe systems.

    PubMed

    Tang, Liguo; Wu, Zhaojun; Liu, Shengxing; Yang, Wuyi

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the three-dimensional (3-D) analytical solution for transient guided wave propagation in liquid-filled pipe systems using the eigenfunction expansion method (EEM). The eigenfunctions corresponding to finite liquid-filled pipe systems with a traction-free lateral boundary and rigid smooth end boundaries are obtained. Additionally, the orthogonality of the eigenfunctions is proved in detail. Subsequently, the exact 3-D analytical transient response of finite liquid-filled pipe systems to external body forces is constructed using the EEM, based on which, the approximate 3-D analytical transient response of the systems to external surface forces is derived. Furthermore, the analytical solution for transient guided wave propagation in finite liquid-filled pipe systems is extended explicitly and concisely to infinite liquid-filled pipe systems. Several numerical examples are given to illustrate the analysis of the spatial and frequency distributions of the radial and axial displacement amplitudes of various guided wave modes; the numerical examples also simulate the transient displacement of the pipe wall and the transient pressure of the internal liquid from the present solution. The present solution can provide some theoretical guidelines for the guided wave nondestructive evaluation of liquid-filled pipes and the guided wave technique for downhole data transfer.

  6. Effect on mechanical properties of glass reinforced epoxy (GRE) pipe filled with different geopolymer filler molarity for piping application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, M. F. Abu; Abdullah, M. M. A.; Ghazali, C. M. R.; Hussin, K.; Binhussain, M.

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the use of a novel white clay geopolymer as a filler to produce high strength glass reinforced epoxy pipe. It was found that using white clay geopolymer as filler gives better compressive strength to the glass reinforced epoxy pipe. The disadvantages of current glass reinforced epoxy pipes such low compressive strength which can be replaced by the composite pipes. Geopolymerization is an innovative technology that can transform several aluminosilicate materials into useful products called geopolymers or inorganic polymers. A series of glass reinforced epoxy pipe and glass reinforced epoxy pipe filled with 10 - 40 weight percentages white clay geopolymer filler with 4 Molarity and 8 Molarity were prepared. Morphology of white clay geopolymer filler surface was indicates using scanning electron microscopy. The additions of white clay geopolymer filler for both 4 Molarity and 8 Molarity show higher compressive strength than glass reinforced epoxy pipe without any geopolymer filler. The compressive test of these epoxy geopolymer pipe samples was determined using Instron Universal Testing under compression mode. Nonetheless, the compressive strength of glass reinforced epoxy pipe with white clay geopolymer filler continues to drop when added to 40 wt% of the geopolymer filler loading for both 4 Molarity and 8 Molarity. These outcomes showed that the mixing of geopolymer materials in epoxy system can be attained in this research.

  7. Salvage and recovery of the OTEC-1 cold water pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Tracy, D.E.; Vadus, J.R.

    1983-05-01

    During autumn 1982, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) was assisted by the U.S. Navy in recovering the 2,250-foot-long ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC-1) cold water pipe which was vertically moored in 4,500 feet of water 22 miles off the northwest coast of the island of Hawaii. The pipe recovery was successfully completed on October 9, 1982, in one of the Navy's deepest salvage efforts on record, and will be deployed down the slope at Keahole Point to supply cold water for the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii. The salvage and recovery of such a large flexible object almost 1/2-mile in length, weighing 50 tons in water, from a depth of 4,500 feet, was unique to the Navy's experience. This operation required extensive planning and coordination among numerous Naval and commercial units; shipyard preparation of the ocean heavy lift platform barge; utilization of the deep submersible research vehicle TURTLE; and use of various support vessels and ancillary equipment. It provided an opportunity to test new technology applicable to offshore and deep sea operations and to obtain material specimens for testing of pipe strength degradation due to long-term exposure to sea water.

  8. 46 CFR 119.445 - Fill and sounding pipes for fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., suitable flexible tubing or hose having high resistance to salt water, petroleum oils, heat and vibration... of the fill pipe as practicable. When the flexible section is a nonconductor of electricity,...

  9. 46 CFR 182.445 - Fill and sounding pipes for fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 182.445 Fill and sounding..., petroleum oils, heat and vibration, may be used. Such hose must overlap metallic pipe ends at the least 11/2...

  10. PBF Reactor Building (PER620). Piping in basement fills space. Secondary ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Reactor Building (PER-620). Piping in basement fills space. Secondary coolant flowed through carbon steel pipe; primary coolant, through stainless steel. Photographer: Larry Page. Date: April 30, 1970. INEEL negative no. 70-2080 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. 46 CFR 98.30-10 - Pipe connections, and filling and discharge openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pipe connections, and filling and discharge openings. 98.30-10 Section 98.30-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Portable Tanks § 98.30-10 Pipe...

  12. 46 CFR 98.30-10 - Pipe connections, and filling and discharge openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe connections, and filling and discharge openings. 98.30-10 Section 98.30-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Portable Tanks § 98.30-10 Pipe...

  13. 46 CFR 98.30-10 - Pipe connections, and filling and discharge openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pipe connections, and filling and discharge openings. 98.30-10 Section 98.30-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Portable Tanks § 98.30-10 Pipe...

  14. 46 CFR 98.30-10 - Pipe connections, and filling and discharge openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pipe connections, and filling and discharge openings. 98.30-10 Section 98.30-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Portable Tanks § 98.30-10 Pipe...

  15. OTEC Cold Water Pipe Design for Problems Caused by Vortex-Excited Oscillations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    to structural damage and to destructive failures. The cold water pipe of an OTEC plant is nominally a bluff, flexible cylinder with a large aspect... OTEC cold water pipe. Practical design calculations are given as examples throughout the various sections of the report. This report is limited in...structural response parameters relevant to the OTEC cold water pipe. There are important problems associated with the shedding of vortices from cylinders in

  16. Experimental investigations on sodium-filled heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorner, S.; Reiss, F.; Schretzmann, K.

    1977-01-01

    The possibilities of producing heat pipes and, especially, the necessary capillary structures are discussed. Several types of heat pipes were made from stainless steel and tested at temperatures between 400 and 1055 deg C. The thermal power was determined by a calorimeter. Results indicate: bubble-free evaporation of sodium from rectangular open chennels is possible with a heat flux of more than 1,940 W/sq cm at 1055 C. The temperature drop along the tube could be measured only at low temperatures. A subdivided heat pipe worked against the gravitational field. A heat pipe with a capillary structure made of a rolled screen was supported by rings and bars operated at 250 W/sq cm heat flux in the evaporating region.

  17. Influence of filling ratio and working fluid thermal properties on starting up and heat transferring performance of closed loop plate oscillating heat pipe with parallel channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Weixiu; Pan, Lisheng

    2017-02-01

    Using ethanol or acetone as the working fluid, the performance of starting up and heat transfer of closed-loop plate oscillating heat pipe with parallel channels (POHP-PC) were experimentally investigated by varying filling ratio, inclination, working fluids and heating power. The performance of the tested pulsating heat pipe was mainly evaluated by thermal resistance and wall temperature. Heating copper block and cold water bath were adopted in the experimental investigations. It was found that oscillating heat pipe with filling ratio of 50% started up earlier than that with 70% when heating input was 159.4 W, however, it has similar starting up performance with filling ratio of 50% as compared to 70% on the condition of heat input of 205.4 W. And heat pipe with filling ratio of 10% could not start up but directly transit to dry burning. A reasonable filling ratio range of 35%‒70% was needed in order to achieve better performance, and there are different optimal filling ratios with different heating inputs - the more heating input, the higher optimal filling ratio, and vice versa. However, the dry burning appeared easily with low filling ratio, especially at very low filling ratio, such as 10%. And higher filling ratio, such as 70%, resulted in higher heat transfer ( dry burning ) limit. With filling ratio of 70% and inclination of 75°, oscillating heat pipe with acetone started up with heating input of just 24W, but for ethanol, it needed to be achieved 68 W, Furthermore, the start time with acetone was similar as compared to that with ethanol. For steady operating state, the heating input with acetone was about 80 W, but it transited to dry burning state when heating input was greater than 160 W. However, for ethanol, the heating input was in vicinity of 160 W. Furthermore, thermal resistance with acetone was lower than that with ethanol at the same heating input of 120 W.

  18. Fluid-structure interaction in water-filled thin pipes of anisotropic composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Jeong Ho; Inaba, K.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of elastic anisotropy in piping materials on fluid-structure interaction are studied for water-filled carbon-fiber reinforced thin plastic pipes. When an impact is introduced to water in a pipe, there are two waves traveling at different speeds. A primary wave corresponding to a breathing mode of pipe travels slowly and a precursor wave corresponding to a longitudinal mode of pipe travels fast. An anisotropic stress-strain relationship of piping materials has been taken into account to describe the propagation of primary and precursor waves in the carbon-fiber reinforced thin plastic pipes. The wave speeds and strains in the axial and hoop directions are calculated as a function of carbon-fiber winding angles and compared with the experimental data. As the winding angle increases, the primary wave speed increases due to the increased stiffness in the hoop direction, while the precursor wave speed decreases. The magnitudes of precursor waves are much smaller than those of primary waves so that the effect of precursor waves on the deformation of pipe is not significant. The primary wave generates the hoop strain accompanying the opposite-signed axial strain through the coupling compliance of pipe. The magnitude of hoop strain induced by the primary waves decreases with increasing the winding angle due to the increased hoop stiffness of pipe. The magnitude of axial strain is small at low and high winding angles where the coupling compliance is small.

  19. Water-filled heat pipe useful at moderate temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mc Kinney, B. G.

    1970-01-01

    Heat pipe is used in the primary heat exchanger for nuclear power plants, as a heat sink for high-power electronic devices, and in a closed-cycle heat rejection mechanism for cryogenic storage tanks. It serves simultaneously as a heat transfer device and as a structural member.

  20. NASTRAN analysis of heat-transfer fluid fill pipe failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    An example that shows the difficulties of failure analyses and the advantage of the finite element method (NASTRAN) in assisting in determining the true cause of a failure is presented. In this example, cracks were developing along a pipe weld. After discarding several possible causes for the failures, it was finally determined that the problem was due to stress corrosion cracking associated with a rather unusual and novel environmental condition.

  1. Simplified dispersion relationships for fluid-dominated axisymmetric wave motion in buried fluid-filled pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yan; Sui, Fusheng; Muggleton, Jennifer M.; Yang, Jun

    2016-08-01

    The dispersion characteristics of axisymmetric (n=0) waves offer a way to gain physical insight into the low-frequency vibrational behaviour of underground pipe systems. Whilst these can be found in the literature, they are generally calculated numerically. Coupled equations of motion for the n=0 waves that propagate in a buried fluid-filled pipe are presented in this paper and, from this, an analytical solution is developed for the fluid-dominated (s=1) wavenumber. The effect of the frictional stress at the pipe-soil interface on the dispersion behaviour of the s=1 wave is characterised by adopting a soil loading matrix. Overall, the fluid loading has a greater effect on the propagation wavespeed compared with the soil loading: for metal pipes, the effect of soil loading is negligible; for plastic pipes, however, simply neglecting the effect of soil loading can lead to a considerable underestimation in the calculation of the wavespeed. The wave attenuation increases significantly at higher frequencies regardless of pipe material resulting from the added damping due to radiation into the soil. Theoretical predictions of the s=1 wavenumber are compared with experimental data measured on an MDPE water pipe. The degree of agreement between prediction and experiment makes clear that, although the wavespeed is only slightly affected by the presence of the frictional stress, the frictional stress at the pipe-soil interface needs to be appropriately taken into account for attenuation predictions.

  2. Sound radiation from a water-filled pipe, radiation into light fluid.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bilong; Pan, Jie; Li, Xiaodong; Tian, Jing

    2002-12-01

    This paper is concerned with the sound radiation from a water-filled exhaust pipe. The pipe opening and a plate attached to it form a vibrating surface for this radiation. Fluid-structural coupling between the pipe and enclosed fluid is included in the system modeling, but light fluid assumption is used for sound radiation into the space above the vibrating surface. In this paper, a numerical study on the n = 0 mode in the pipe shows that the wave types associated with this mode have different characteristics in two regions of the nondimensional frequency omega. In the first region of 0pipe is governed by the resonance of each wave type. The fluid and structural waves are strongly coupled in the second region (0.5pipe response and uncoupled mode distributions does not exist. Significant contribution of multiple wave-types to the model energy is evident. The ultimate goal of our system modeling is to illustrate the contribution of all wave types (structural-borne and water-borne waves of the system) to sound radiation from the pipe opening and the attached plate. This paper also demonstrates the effect of these waves and their coupling in the water-filled pipe and across the plate and pipe boundary on the radiated sound pressure. Experimental results obtained in a semi-anechoic room are used to partially validate the theoretical and numerical predictions.

  3. Concrete filled steel pipe inspection using electro magnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Won-Bae; Kundu, Tribikram; Ryu, Yeon-Sun; Kim, Jeong-Tae

    2005-05-01

    Concrete-filled steel pipes are usually exposed in hostile environments such as seawater and deicing materials. The outside corrosion of the steel pipe can reduce the wall thickness and the corrosion-induced delamination of internal concrete can increase internal volume or pressure. In addition, the void that can possibly exist in the pipe reduces the bending resistance. To avoid structural failure due to this type of deterioration, appropriate inspection and repair techniques are to be developed. Guided wave techniques have strong potentials for this kind of inspection because of long-distance inspection capability. Among different transducer-coupling mechanism, electro-magnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) give relatively consistent results in comparison to piezoelectric transducers since they do not need any couplant. In this study EMATs are used for transmitting and receiving cylindrical guided waves through concrete-filled steel pipes. Through time history curves and wavelet transform, it is shown that EMAT-generated cylindrical guided wave techniques have good potential for the interface inspection of concrete-filled steel pipes.

  4. Performance Study of Solar Heat Pipe with Different Working Fluids and Fill Ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harikrishnan, S. S.; Kotebavi, Vinod

    2016-09-01

    This paper elaborates on the testing of solar heat pipes using different working fluids, fill ratios and tilt angles. Methanol, Acetone and water are used as working fluids, with fill ratios 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%. Experiments were carried out at 600 and 350 inclinations. Heat pipe condenser section is placed inside a water basin containing 200ml of water. The evaporator section is exposed to sunlight where the working fluid gets heated and it becomes vapour and moves towards the condenser section. In the condenser section the heat is given to the water in the basin and the vapour becomes liquid and comes back to the evaporator section due to gravitational force. Two modes of experiments are carried out: 1) using a parabolic collector and 2) using heat pipe with evacuated tubes. On comparative study, optimum fill ratio is been found to be 25% in every case and acetone exhibited slightly more efficiency than methanol and water. As far as the heat pipe orientation is concerned, 600 inclination of the heat pipe showed better performance than 350

  5. 46 CFR 98.30-13 - Pipe connections, and filling and discharge openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pipe connections, and filling and discharge openings. 98.30-13 Section 98.30-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Portable Tanks and Intermediate...

  6. 46 CFR 119.445 - Fill and sounding pipes for fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fill and sounding pipes for fuel tanks. 119.445 Section 119.445 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements §...

  7. 46 CFR 119.445 - Fill and sounding pipes for fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fill and sounding pipes for fuel tanks. 119.445 Section 119.445 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements §...

  8. 46 CFR 119.445 - Fill and sounding pipes for fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fill and sounding pipes for fuel tanks. 119.445 Section 119.445 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements §...

  9. 46 CFR 119.445 - Fill and sounding pipes for fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fill and sounding pipes for fuel tanks. 119.445 Section 119.445 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements §...

  10. Flexible retractable cold water pipe for an ocean thermal energy conversion system

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, J.G.; Trimble, L.C.

    1985-02-05

    A cold water pipe for an ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) system comprises a tubular membrane made of a fabric such as a canvas, which is substantially impervious to flowing water. A proximal end of the pipe is secured to a surface structure such as a ship, and a distal end of the pipe is extendible from the surface structure to a selected ocean depth. The pipe functions as a conduit through which cold water from the selected ocean depth can be drawn to the surface structure for use in a thermodynamic process of the OTEC system. The distal end of the pipe can be quickly retracted to the surface structure when it becomes desirable to move the surface structure.

  11. OTEC Advanced Composite Cold Water Pipe: Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Alan Miller; Matthew Ascari

    2011-09-12

    Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion can exploit natural temperature gradients in the oceans to generate usable forms of energy (for example, cost-competitive baseload electricity in tropical regions such as Hawaii) free from fossil fuel consumption and global warming emissions.The No.1 acknowledged challenge of constructing an OTEC plant is the Cold Water Pipe (CWP), which draws cold water from 1000m depths up to the surface, to serve as the coolant for the OTEC Rankine cycle. For a commercial-scale plant, the CWP is on the order of 10m in diameter.This report describes work done by LMSSC developing the CWP for LM MS2 New Ventures emerging OTEC business. The work started in early 2008 deciding on the minimum-cost CWP architecture, materials, and fabrication process. In order to eliminate what in previous OTEC work had been a very large assembly/deployment risk, we took the innovative approach of building an integral CWP directly from theOTEC platform and down into the water. During the latter half of 2008, we proceeded to a successful small-scale Proof-of-Principles validation of the new fabrication process, at the Engineering Development Lab in Sunnyvale. During 2009-10, under the Cooperative Agreement with the US Dept. of Energy, we have now successfully validated key elements of the process and apparatus at a 4m diameter scale suitable for a future OTEC Pilot Plant. The validations include: (1) Assembly of sandwich core rings from pre-pultruded hollow 'planks,' holding final dimensions accurately; (2) Machine-based dispensing of overlapping strips of thick fiberglass fabric to form the lengthwise-continuous face sheets, holding accurate overlap dimensions; (3) Initial testing of the fabric architecture, showing that the overlap splices develop adequate mechanical strength (work done under a parallel US Naval Facilities Command program); and (4) Successful resin infusion/cure of 4m diameter workpieces, obtaining full wet-out and a non-discernable knitline between

  12. Investigation of Loop Heat Pipe Survival and Restart After Extreme Cold Environment Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golliher, Eric; Ku, Jentung; Licari, Anthony; Sanzi, James

    2010-01-01

    NASA plans human exploration near the South Pole of the Moon, and other locations where the environment is extremely cold. This paper reports on the heat transfer performance of a loop heat pipe (LHP) exposed to extreme cold under the simulated reduced gravitational environment of the Moon. A common method of spacecraft thermal control is to use a LHP with ammonia working fluid. Typically, a small amount of heat is provided either by electrical heaters or by environmental design, such that the LHP condenser temperature never drops below the freezing point of ammonia. The concern is that a liquid-filled, frozen condenser would not restart, or that a thawing condenser would damage the tubing due to the expansion of ammonia upon thawing. This paper reports the results of an experimental investigation of a novel approach to avoid these problems. The LHP compensation chamber (CC) is conditioned such that all the ammonia liquid is removed from the condenser and the LHP is nonoperating. The condenser temperature is then reduced to below that of the ammonia freezing point. The LHP is then successfully restarted.

  13. Cold Start of a Radiator Equipped with Titanium-Water Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Sanzi, James L.; Siamidis, John

    2008-01-01

    Radiator panels utilizing titanium-water heat pipes are being considered for lunar applications. A traditional sandwich structure is envisioned where heat pipes are embedded between two high thermal conductivity face sheets. The heat pipe evaporators are to be thermally connected to the heat source through one or more manifolds containing coolant. Initial radiator operation on the lunar surface would likely follow a cold soak where the water in the heat pipes is purposely frozen. To achieve heat pipe operation, it will be necessary to thaw the heat pipes. One option is to allow the sunlight impinging on the surface at sunrise to achieve this goal. Testing was conducted in a thermal vacuum chamber to simulate the lunar sunrise and additional modeling was conducted to identify steady-state and transient response. It was found that sunlight impinging on the radiator surface at sunrise was insufficient to solely achieve the goal of thawing the water in the heat pipes. However, starting from a frozen condition was accomplished successfully by applying power to the evaporators. Start up in this fashion was demonstrated without evaporator dryout. Concern is raised over thawing thermosyphons, vertical heat pipes operating in a gravity field, with no wick in the condenser section. This paper presents the results of the simulated cold start study and identifies future work to support radiator panels equipped with titanium-water heat pipes.

  14. Numerical study of cold filling and tube deformation in the molten salt receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Tingting; Zhang, Gongchen; Peniguel, Christophe; Liao, Zhirong; Li, Xin; Lu, Jiahui; Wang, Zhifeng

    2017-06-01

    Molten salt tube cold filling is one way to accelerate the startup of molten salt Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plant. This practical operation may induce salt solidification and large thermal stress due to tube's large temperature difference. This paper presents the cold filling study and the induced thermal stress quantitatively through simulation approaches. Physical mechanisms and safe working criteria are identified under certain conditions.

  15. Analysis of the Velocity Distribution in Partially-Filled Circular Pipe Employing the Principle of Maximum Entropy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yulin; Li, Bin; Chen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The flow velocity distribution in partially-filled circular pipe was investigated in this paper. The velocity profile is different from full-filled pipe flow, since the flow is driven by gravity, not by pressure. The research findings show that the position of maximum flow is below the water surface, and varies with the water depth. In the region of near tube wall, the fluid velocity is mainly influenced by the friction of the wall and the pipe bottom slope, and the variation of velocity is similar to full-filled pipe. But near the free water surface, the velocity distribution is mainly affected by the contractive tube wall and the secondary flow, and the variation of the velocity is relatively small. Literature retrieval results show relatively less research has been shown on the practical expression to describe the velocity distribution of partially-filled circular pipe. An expression of two-dimensional (2D) velocity distribution in partially-filled circular pipe flow was derived based on the principle of maximum entropy (POME). Different entropies were compared according to fluid knowledge, and non-extensive entropy was chosen. A new cumulative distribution function (CDF) of partially-filled circular pipe velocity in terms of flow depth was hypothesized. Combined with the CDF hypothesis, the 2D velocity distribution was derived, and the position of maximum velocity distribution was analyzed. The experimental results show that the estimated velocity values based on the principle of maximum Tsallis wavelet entropy are in good agreement with measured values.

  16. Effect of pressurization on helical guided wave energy velocity in fluid-filled pipes.

    PubMed

    Dubuc, Brennan; Ebrahimkhanlou, Arvin; Salamone, Salvatore

    2017-03-01

    The effect of pressurization stresses on helical guided waves in a thin-walled fluid-filled pipe is studied by modeling leaky Lamb waves in a stressed plate bordered by fluid. Fluid pressurization produces hoop and longitudinal stresses in a thin-walled pipe, which corresponds to biaxial in-plane stress in a plate waveguide model. The effect of stress on guided wave propagation is accounted for through nonlinear elasticity and finite deformation theory. Emphasis is placed on the stress dependence of the energy velocity of the guided wave modes. For this purpose, an expression for the energy velocity of leaky Lamb waves in a stressed plate is derived. Theoretical results are presented for the mode, frequency, and directional dependent variations in energy velocity with respect to stress. An experimental setup is designed for measuring variations in helical wave energy velocity in a thin-walled water-filled steel pipe at different levels of pressure. Good agreement is achieved between the experimental variations in energy velocity for the helical guided waves and the theoretical leaky Lamb wave solutions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Steady hydrodynamic loads due to vortex shedding from the OTEC cold water pipe. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, O.M.

    1982-01-13

    This report is limited in scope to consideration of the problems caused by vortex shedding from flexible, bluff cylinders in steady current flows, as these problems apply to the OTEC cold water pipe. In particular, the steady deflections caused by the amplified drag forces that accompany vortex-excited oscillations are considered. Emphasis placed upon the discussion of design methods, applications of these methods to practical problems, and comparison with available experimental data. A discussion is given of laboratory and field studies that have been conducted with model OTEC cold water pipes. Various devices that have been developed for the suppression of vortex-excited oscillations also are discussed. A comparison is made of the effectiveness of various suppresion devices and procedures, and practical approaches to implementing their application are presented. The implications of vortex-induced hydrodynamic drag and the suppression of vortex-excited oscillations in OTEC cold water pipe design are discussed briefly.

  18. Wavenumber prediction and measurement of axisymmetric waves in buried fluid-filled pipes: Inclusion of shear coupling at a lubricated pipe/soil interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muggleton, J. M.; Yan, J.

    2013-03-01

    Acoustic methods have been widely used to detect water leaks in buried fluid-filled pipes, and these technologies also have the potential to locate buried pipes and cables. Relatively predictable for metal pipes, there is considerably more uncertainty with plastic pipes, as the wave propagation behaviour becomes highly coupled between the pipe wall, the contained fluid and surrounding medium. Based on the fully three-dimensional effect of the surrounding soil, pipe equations for n=0 axisymmetric wave motion are derived for a buried, fluid-filled pipe. The characteristics of propagation and attenuation are analysed for two n=0 waves, the s=1 wave and s=2 wave, which correspond to a predominantly fluid-borne wave and a compressional wave predominantly in the shell, respectively. At the pipe/soil interface, two extreme cases may be considered in order to investigate the effects of shear coupling: the "slip" condition representing lubricated contact; and the "no slip" condition representing compact contact. Here, the "slip" case is considered, for which, at low frequencies, analytical expressions can be derived for the two wavenumbers, corresponding to the s=1 and s=2 waves. These are both then compared with the situations in which there is no surrounding soil and in which the pipe is surrounded by fluid only, which cannot support shear. It is found that the predominant effect of shear at the pipe/soil interface is to add stiffness along with damping due to radiation. For the fluid-dominated wave, this causes the wavespeed to increase and increases the wave attenuation. For the shell-dominated wave there is little effect on the wavespeed but a marked increase in wave attenuation. Comparison with experimental measurements confirms the theoretical findings.

  19. Filled Cold-Curing Acrylic Resin as a Splinting Material.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    polymethylmethacrylate plus sufficient methyl methacrylate monomer to form a dough. This filled acrylic resin composition is useful in dental splinting...methods. Also disclosed is a dental splinting method employing this filled acrylic resin composition in combination with interproximal pins and an elastic connector.

  20. A method for pressure-pulse suppression in fluid-filled piping

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Y.W.; Bielick, E.F. ); Wiedermann, A.H. ); Ockert, C.E. )

    1989-01-01

    A simple, nondestructive method to suppress pressure pulses in fluid-filled piping was proposed and theoretically analyzed earlier. In this paper, the proposed method is verified experimentally. The results of experiments performed for the range of parameters of practical importance indicated that the attenuation of pressure pulses was in accordance with the theoretical predictions. This paper describes the experimental setup and the test models of the proposed pulse suppression devices and discusses the experimental results. In particular, the measured attenuation factors are presented and compared with the theoretical predictions. 8 ref., 17 fig., 2 tab.

  1. Experimental and Simulation Studies on Cold Welding Sealing Process of Heat Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Chen, Shengle; Huang, Jinlong; Yan, Yuying; Zeng, Zhixin

    2017-03-01

    Sealing quality strongly affects heat pipe performance, but few studies focus on the process of heat pipe sealing. Cold welding sealing technology based on a stamping process is applied for heat pipe sealing. The bonding mechanism of the cold welding sealing process (CWSP) is investigated and compared with the experimental results obtained from the bonding interface analysis. An orthogonal experiment is conducted to observe the effects of various parameters, including the sealing gap, sealing length, sealing diameter, and sealing velocity on bonding strength. A method with the utilization of saturated vapor pressure inside a copper tube is proposed to evaluate bonding strength. A corresponding finite element model is developed to investigate the effects of sealing gap and sealing velocity on plastic deformation during the cold welding process. Effects of various parameters on the bonding strength are determined and it is found that the sealing gap is the most critical factor and that the sealing velocity contributes the least effect. The best parameter combination (A 1 B 3 C 1 D 3, with a 0.5 mm sealing gap, 6 mm sealing length, 3.8 mm sealing diameter, and 50 mm/s sealing velocity) is derived within the experimental parameters. Plastic deformation results derived from the finite element model are consistent with those from the experiment. The instruction for the CWSP of heat pipes and the design of sealing dies of heat pipes are provided.

  2. Experimental and Simulation Studies on Cold Welding Sealing Process of Heat Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Chen, Shengle; Huang, Jinlong; Yan, Yuying; Zeng, Zhixin

    2017-03-01

    Sealing quality strongly affects heat pipe performance, but few studies focus on the process of heat pipe sealing. Cold welding sealing technology based on a stamping process is applied for heat pipe sealing. The bonding mechanism of the cold welding sealing process (CWSP) is investigated and compared with the experimental results obtained from the bonding interface analysis. An orthogonal experiment is conducted to observe the effects of various parameters, including the sealing gap, sealing length, sealing diameter, and sealing velocity on bonding strength. A method with the utilization of saturated vapor pressure inside a copper tube is proposed to evaluate bonding strength. A corresponding finite element model is developed to investigate the effects of sealing gap and sealing velocity on plastic deformation during the cold welding process. Effects of various parameters on the bonding strength are determined and it is found that the sealing gap is the most critical factor and that the sealing velocity contributes the least effect. The best parameter combination ( A 1 B 3 C 1 D 3, with a 0.5 mm sealing gap, 6 mm sealing length, 3.8 mm sealing diameter, and 50 mm/s sealing velocity) is derived within the experimental parameters. Plastic deformation results derived from the finite element model are consistent with those from the experiment. The instruction for the CWSP of heat pipes and the design of sealing dies of heat pipes are provided.

  3. High power cold shock phenomena in Loop Heat Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitkin, Michael N.; Bienert, Walter B.

    2001-02-01

    DCI's most recent experiments with a wide range of the LHP configurations (from kilowatt systems with parallel condensers for deployable radiators to miniature few-watts-LHPs for cooling electronics) have discovered a new, interesting phenomenon that we called the ``cold shock.'' Initially, the cold shock behavior was discovered during routine acceptance tests of large LHPs with large-volume condensers. Traditional power-up steps appeared to lead to unexplainable temperature instabilities and significant temperature overshoots when the condenser was initially very cold. After the occurrence of these anomalies we performed hundreds of experiments on dozens of typical LHPs, trying to understand the overshoots and find ways to avoid them. .

  4. Results of molten salt panel and component experiments for solar central receivers: Cold fill, freeze/thaw, thermal cycling and shock, and instrumentation tests

    SciTech Connect

    Pacheco, J.E.; Ralph, M.E.; Chavez, J.M.; Dunkin, S.R.; Rush, E.E.; Ghanbari, C.M.; Matthews, M.W.

    1995-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted with a molten salt loop at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, NM to resolve issues associated with the operation of the 10MW{sub e} Solar Two Central Receiver Power Plant located near Barstow, CA. The salt loop contained two receiver panels, components such as flanges and a check valve, vortex shedding and ultrasonic flow meters, and an impedance pressure transducer. Tests were conducted on procedures for filling and thawing a panel, and assessing components and instrumentation in a molten salt environment. Four categories of experiments were conducted: (1) cold filling procedures, (2) freeze/thaw procedures, (3) component tests, and (4) instrumentation tests. Cold-panel and -piping fill experiments are described, in which the panels and piping were preheated to temperatures below the salt freezing point prior to initiating flow, to determine the feasibility of cold filling the receiver and piping. The transient thermal response was measured, and heat transfer coefficients and transient stresses were calculated from the data. Freeze/thaw experiments were conducted with the panels, in which the salt was intentionally allowed to freeze in the receiver tubes, then thawed with heliostat beams. Slow thermal cycling tests were conducted to measure both how well various designs of flanges (e.g., tapered flanges or clamp type flanges) hold a seal under thermal conditions typical of nightly shut down, and the practicality of using these flanges on high maintenance components. In addition, the flanges were thermally shocked to simulate cold starting the system. Instrumentation such as vortex shedding and ultrasonic flow meters were tested alongside each other, and compared with flow measurements from calibration tanks in the flow loop.

  5. OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) Cold Water Pipe At-Sea Test Program. Phase 2: Suspended pipe test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHale, F. A.

    1984-08-01

    An important step in the development of technology for Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) cold water pipes (CWP) is the at-sea testing and subsequent evaluation of a large diameter fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) pipe. Focus was on the CWP since it is the most critical element in any OTEC design. The results of the second phase of the CWP At-Sea Test Program are given. During this phase an 8 foot diameter, 400 foot long sandwich wall FRP syntactic foam configuration CWP test article was developed, constructed, deployed and used for data acquisition in the open ocean near Honolulu, Hawaii. This instrumented CWP as suspended from a moored platform for a three week experiment in April-May, 1983. The CWP represented a scaled version of a 40 megawatt size structure, nominally 30 feet in diameter and 3000 feet long.

  6. Analysis of the Velocity Distribution in Partially-Filled Circular Pipe Employing the Principle of Maximum Entropy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The flow velocity distribution in partially-filled circular pipe was investigated in this paper. The velocity profile is different from full-filled pipe flow, since the flow is driven by gravity, not by pressure. The research findings show that the position of maximum flow is below the water surface, and varies with the water depth. In the region of near tube wall, the fluid velocity is mainly influenced by the friction of the wall and the pipe bottom slope, and the variation of velocity is similar to full-filled pipe. But near the free water surface, the velocity distribution is mainly affected by the contractive tube wall and the secondary flow, and the variation of the velocity is relatively small. Literature retrieval results show relatively less research has been shown on the practical expression to describe the velocity distribution of partially-filled circular pipe. An expression of two-dimensional (2D) velocity distribution in partially-filled circular pipe flow was derived based on the principle of maximum entropy (POME). Different entropies were compared according to fluid knowledge, and non-extensive entropy was chosen. A new cumulative distribution function (CDF) of partially-filled circular pipe velocity in terms of flow depth was hypothesized. Combined with the CDF hypothesis, the 2D velocity distribution was derived, and the position of maximum velocity distribution was analyzed. The experimental results show that the estimated velocity values based on the principle of maximum Tsallis wavelet entropy are in good agreement with measured values. PMID:26986064

  7. Experimental investigation of transport of discrete solids with surge flows in a 10.0 cm diameter partially filled pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, B. M.

    1982-01-01

    The transport of discrete solids with surge flows in a partially filled slightly pitched horizontal pipe was investigated. The experimental apparatus, instrumentation, and procedures are described. The experiments were conducted using a cylindrical solid in a 10.0 cm (4 in) diameter pipe. The water surge flows were obtained by discharging different volumes of water into the pipe from a falling head open container which simulated a water closet. Flow induced solid velocities and stream depth histories at various locations along the length of the pipe were measured. The effects of water volume used, pipe slope, and size of the solid on the solid velocities were examined. Solid velocities were compared with the maximum water velocities estimated from the stream depth histories. Also, the distance traversed by the solids in the pipe were measured for those cases in which the solids did not clear the pipe. The solid velocity increased with an increase in water volume used, a decrease in the size of the solid, and an increase in the pipe slope. The solid velocity in the initial reach of the pipe was less than the maximum water velocity; and the solid velocity approaches the maximum water velocity as the solid traveled downstream, except for some experiments with small water volumes.

  8. Catheter probe endoscopic ultrasonography by using cold lubricating jelly-filled method for esophageal subepithelial tumors.

    PubMed

    Ahn, H J; Lee, S J; Park, J K; Jun, B G; Seo, H I; Han, K H; Kim, Y D; Jeong, W J; Cheon, G J

    2017-08-01

    Catheter probe endoscopic ultrasonography (C-EUS) by ultrasonographic jelly-filled method has been used to evaluate esophageal subepithelial tumors (SETs). Ultrasonographic jelly is safe on the skin, but its internal safety has not been demonstrated. The jelly stored at room temperature is easily injected into the esophagus through the instrument channel of the endoscope. However, using jelly stored at room temperature remains problematic because the jelly is drained rapidly. We used cold lubricating jelly and an intravenous extension tube to resolve these problems. In this study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of cold lubricating jelly-filled method. The medical records of patients who underwent C-EUS by using water or cold lubricating jelly-filled method for esophageal SETs from March 2013 to September 2016 in Gangneung Asan hospital were reviewed. Clinical characteristics and EUS findings were evaluated retrospectively. Image quality and procedure time between water and cold lubricating jelly-filled method were compared retrospectively. This study included 138 patients (74 males, 64 females) with esophageal SET with a mean age of 57.1 ± 11.1 years. Thirty-four patients had lesions in the upper esophagus, 58 patients had lesions in the middle esophagus, and 46 patients had lesions in the lower esophagus. The EUS diagnoses were leiomyoma (82.6%), hemangioma (4.3%), extrinsic compressive lesion (3.6%), granulosa cell tumor (2.9%), ectopic calcification (1.4%), cyst (1.4%), lipoma (0.7%), varix (0.7%), and inconclusive lesion (2.2%). The mean image score in the cold lubricating jelly filled-method group was higher than that in the water-filled method group (3.2 ± 0.7 vs. 2.8 ± 0.7, P = 0.002). The procedure time in the cold lubricating jelly filled-method group was shorter than that in the water-filled method group (10 minutes 27 seconds ± 4 minutes 22 seconds versus 13 minutes 20 seconds ± 6 minutes 20 seconds, P = 0.045). No procedure

  9. Long term performance of polyethylene pipe under high fill. Part 1. Technical report, June 1989-November 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, N.H.; Selig, E.T.

    1994-12-01

    The aim of this study is to improve the knowledge base for the design of non-pressure high density polyethylene (HDPE) pipes under high earth loads. Laboratory tests were performed on HDPE pipe sections to obtain property information. The tests involved the diametrical compression (ring bending) of pipe sections both at various deformation rates to evaluate the effect on pipe stiffness, and also at fixed vertical deflection to evaluate the load relaxation with time. The performance of an HDPE pipe under high fill was monitored during fill construction and for three years after completion of construction. No wall crushing, structural buckling or excess deflection occurred. However, circumferential cracking of the unlined sections at the couplings, and buckling of the liner in the lined sections were observed. Laboratory studies of these two effects will be described in a subsequent technical report. Finite element analysis of the field installation was carried out. The analysis showed that the pipe can sustain circumferential stresses that are much higher than those proposed by current design (1992) procedures.

  10. Drop Weight Impact Behavior of Al-Si-Cu Alloy Foam-Filled Thin-Walled Steel Pipe Fabricated by Friction Stir Back Extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hangai, Yoshihiko; Nakano, Yukiko; Utsunomiya, Takao; Kuwazuru, Osamu; Yoshikawa, Nobuhiro

    2017-02-01

    In this study, Al-Si-Cu alloy ADC12 foam-filled thin-walled stainless steel pipes, which exhibit metal bonding between the ADC12 foam and steel pipe, were fabricated by friction stir back extrusion. Drop weight impact tests were conducted to investigate the deformation behavior and mechanical properties of the foam-filled pipes during dynamic compression tests, which were compared with the results of static compression tests. From x-ray computed tomography observation, it was confirmed that the fabricated foam-filled pipes had almost uniform porosity and pore size distributions. It was found that no scattering of the fragments of collapsed ADC12 foam occurred for the foam-filled pipes owing to the existence of the pipe surrounding the ADC12 foam. Preventing the scattering of the ADC12 foam decreases the drop in stress during dynamic compression tests and therefore improves the energy absorption properties of the foam.

  11. OTEC cold water pipe design for problems caused by vortex-excited oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, O. M.

    1980-03-14

    Vortex-excited oscillations of marine structures result in reduced fatigue life, large hydrodynamic forces and induced stresses, and sometimes lead to structural damage and to diestructive failures. The cold water pipe of an OTEC plant is nominally a bluff, flexible cylinder with a large aspect ratio (L/D = length/diameter), and is likely to be susceptible to resonant vortex-excited oscillations. The objective of this report is to survey recent results pertaining to the vortex-excited oscillations of structures in general and to consider the application of these findings to the design of the OTEC cold water pipe. Practical design calculations are given as examples throughout the various sections of the report. This report is limited in scope to the problems of vortex shedding from bluff, flexible structures in steady currents and the resulting vortex-excited oscillations. The effects of flow non-uniformities, surface roughness of the cylinder, and inclination to the incident flow are considered in addition to the case of a smooth cyliner in a uniform stream. Emphasis is placed upon design procedures, hydrodynamic coefficients applicable in practice, and the specification of structural response parameters relevant to the OTEC cold water pipe. There are important problems associated with in shedding of vortices from cylinders in waves and from the combined action of waves and currents, but these complex fluid/structure interactions are not considered in this report.

  12. OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) Cold Water Pipe At-Sea Test Program Data Analysis Project: Pipe, platform and environmental parameters data reduction and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega, L. A.; Nilhous, G. C.

    1985-08-01

    An assessment of computer models developed to analyze the structural response of cold water pipes (CWPs) is discussed. The principal aim of the data interpretation phase of the study was to determine the causal relationship between the environment and the barge/CWP response to provide the information required to assess the CWP computer models.

  13. Substructuring including interface reduction for the efficient vibro-acoustic simulation of fluid-filled piping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Jan; Maess, Matthias; Gaul, Lothar

    2010-01-01

    The operation of pumps and valves leads to strong acoustic excitation in fluid-filled piping systems. Efficient substructuring and model order reduction strategies are required for the sound prediction in piping systems, and in order to reduce the sound transmission to attached components, such as the floor panel in vehicles, for example. This research presents a finite element based automatic substructuring and component mode synthesis technique, which is a combination of an extended Craig-Bampton method for fluid-structure coupled piping systems and a novel, consecutive interface reduction. Hereby, the remaining interface degrees of freedom between different substructures are further reduced using appropriate Ritz vectors. The proposed model order reduction strategy accelerates the computation of transfer functions in fluid-filled extended piping systems. In order to validate the simulation results, experimental results are obtained by a hydraulic test bench for dynamic measurements, where fluid pulsation is induced by piezo-driven transducers. The observed fluid-structure interaction phenomena correspond to the predictions by the proposed computation approach.

  14. Fate of Pathogenic Bacteria Associated with Production of Pickled Sausage by Using a Cold Fill Process.

    PubMed

    Gaydos, Nelson J; Cutter, Catherine N; Campbell, Jonathan A

    2016-10-01

    Preservation by pickling has been used for many years to extend the shelf life of various types of food products. By storing meat products in a brine solution containing an organic acid, salt, spices, as well as other preservatives, the pH of the product is reduced, thus increasing the safety and shelf life of the product. Pickling may involve the use of heated brines to further add to the safety of the food product. When precooked, ready-to-eat (RTE) sausages are pickled with a heated brine solution, the process is referred to as hot filling. However, hot filling has been shown to affect the clarity of the brine, making the product cloudy and unappealing to consumers. Because of the potential quality defects caused by higher temperatures associated with hot fill pickling, cold fill pickling, which uses room temperature brine, is preferred by some pickled sausage manufacturers. Because little information exists on the safety of cold fill, pickled sausages, a challenge study was designed using a brine solution (5% acetic acid and 5% salt at 25°C) to pickle precooked, RTE sausages inoculated with a pathogen cocktail consisting of Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Senftenberg, Salmonella Montevideo, Listeria monocytogenes , and Staphylococcus aureus . All pathogens were reduced ~6.80 log CFU/g in 72 h when enumerated on nonselective media. On selective media, Salmonella and L. monocytogenes decreased 6.33 and 6.35 log CFU/g in 12 h, respectively whereas S. aureus was reduced 6.80 log CFU/g in 24 h. Sausages experienced significant (P ≤ 0.05) decreases in pH over the 28 days of storage, whereas no significant differences were observed in water activity (P =0.1291) or salt concentration of the sausages (P =0.1445) or brine (P =0.3180). The results of this experiment demonstrate that cold fill pickling can effectively reduce and inhibit bacterial pathogens.

  15. OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) CWP (Cold Water Pipe) Laboratory Test Program. Materials Project Test Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    Fiberglass sandwich wall structures emerged as leading candidates for the OTEC cold water pipe because of their high strength to weight ratio, their flexibility in selecting directional properties, their resistance to electrochemical interaction, their ease of deployment and their relative low cost. A review of the literature established reasonable confidence that FRP laminates could meet the OTEC requirements; however, little information was available on the performance of core materials suitable for OTEC applications. Syntactic foam cores of various composition and density were developed and tested for mechanical properties and seawater absorption.

  16. Acoustic attenuation, phase and group velocities in liquid-filled pipes II: simulation for Spallation Neutron Sources and planetary exploration.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jian; Baik, Kyungmin; Leighton, Timothy G

    2011-08-01

    This paper uses a finite element method (FEM) to compare predictions of the attenuation and sound speeds of acoustic modes in a fluid-filled pipe with those of the analytical model presented in the first paper in this series. It explains why, when the predictions of the earlier paper were compared with experimental data from a water-filled PMMA pipe, the uncertainties and agreement for attenuation data were worse than those for sound speed data. Having validated the FEM approach in this way, the versatility of FEM is thereafter demonstrated by modeling two practical applications which are beyond the analysis of the earlier paper. These applications model propagation in the mercury-filled steel pipework of the Spallation Neutron Source at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Tennessee), and in a long-standing design for acoustic sensors for use on planetary probes. The results show that strong coupling between the fluid and the solid walls means that erroneous interpretations are made of the data if they assume that the sound speed and attenuation in the fluid in the pipe are the same as those that would be measured in an infinite volume of identical fluid, assumptions which are common when such data have previously been interpreted.

  17. Acoustic attenuation, phase and group velocities in liquid-filled pipes: Theory, experiment, and examples of water and mercury.

    PubMed

    Baik, Kyungmin; Jiang, Jian; Leighton, Timothy G

    2010-11-01

    Del Grosso's [Acustica 24, 299-311 (1971)] formulation, which predicts the phase speed of propagating axisymmetric modes inside a liquid-filled tube, is here extended to the complex domain in order to predict the attenuation, as well as the sound speed, of the modes as a function of frequency. Measurements of the sound speeds and the attenuations of the modes were performed in a water-filled Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) tube of internal radius, b=4.445 cm, in the range of the wavenumber-radius product, k(1)b, from 2 to 10. Parts of three or four modes were investigated and the measured sound speeds and the damping of the modes were compared with the theoretical predictions. The theory was then used to estimate the modal sound speeds and attenuations in a stainless-steel pipe filled with mercury having the same dimensions as are used in the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee.

  18. Fatique testing of OTEC (ocean thermal energy conversion) cold water pipe glass-reinforced plastic materials. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Sirian, C.R.; Conn, A.F.

    1983-09-01

    Specimens of a GFRP (glass fiber reinforced plastic) composite laminate - a candidate material for use in an OTEC cold water pipe (CWP) - were subjected to cyclic bending while immersed in a synthetic sea water solution. The loss of stiffness, i.e., decrease in bending modulus, for this GFRP was determined as a function of cycles of loading.

  19. 46 CFR 38.10-5 - Filling and discharge pipes-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...(i) and with a positive acting remote controlled quick-closing valve. The remote controlled quick... the piping enters the tank. For pressure vessel type tanks operating at low pressure and with service temperature near the cargo atmospheric boiling point, the Commandant may approve individual installations...

  20. 46 CFR 38.10-5 - Filling and discharge pipes-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...(i) and with a positive acting remote controlled quick-closing valve. The remote controlled quick... the piping enters the tank. For pressure vessel type tanks operating at low pressure and with service temperature near the cargo atmospheric boiling point, the Commandant may approve individual installations...

  1. 46 CFR 38.10-5 - Filling and discharge pipes-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...(i) and with a positive acting remote controlled quick-closing valve. The remote controlled quick... the piping enters the tank. For pressure vessel type tanks operating at low pressure and with service temperature near the cargo atmospheric boiling point, the Commandant may approve individual installations...

  2. 46 CFR 38.10-5 - Filling and discharge pipes-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...(i) and with a positive acting remote controlled quick-closing valve. The remote controlled quick... the piping enters the tank. For pressure vessel type tanks operating at low pressure and with service temperature near the cargo atmospheric boiling point, the Commandant may approve individual installations...

  3. Effect of filling ratio and orientation on the thermal performance of closed loop pulsating heat pipe using ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Md. Lutfor; Chowdhury, Mehrin; Islam, Nawshad Arslan; Mufti, Sayed Muhammad; Ali, Mohammad

    2016-07-01

    Pulsating heat pipe (PHP) is a new, promising yet ambiguous technology for effective heat transfer of microelectronic devices where heat is carried by the vapor plugs and liquid slugs of the working fluid. The aim of this research paper is to better understand the operation of PHP through experimental investigations and obtain comparative results for different parameters. A series of experiments are conducted on a closed loop PHP (CLPHP) with 8 loops made of copper capillary tube of 2 mm inner diameter. Ethanol is taken as the working fluid. The operating characteristics are studied for the variation of heat input, filling ratio (FR) and orientation. The filling ratios are 40%, 50%, 60% and 70% based on its total volume. The orientations are 0° (vertical), 30°, 45° and 60°. The results clearly demonstrate the effect of filling ratio and inclination angle on the performance, operational stability and heat transfer capability of ethanol as working fluid of CLPHP. Important insight of the operational characteristics of CLPHP is obtained and optimum performance of CLPHP using ethanol is thus identified. Ethanol works best at 50-60%FR at wide range of heat inputs. At very low heat inputs, 40%FR can be used for attaining a good performance. Filling ratio below 40%FR is not suitable for using in CLPHP as it gives a low performance. The optimum performance of the device can be obtained at vertical position.

  4. Numerical simulation of filling a magnetic flux tube with a cold plasma: Anomalous plasma effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Nagendra; Leung, W. C.

    1995-01-01

    Large-scale models of plasmaspheric refilling have revealed that during the early stage of the refilling counterstreaming ion beams are a common feature. However, the instability of such ion beams and its effect on refilling remain unexplored. In order to learn the basic effects of ion beam instabilities on refilling, we have performed numerical simulations of the refilling of an artificial magnetic flux tube. (The shape and size of the tube are assumed so that the essential features of the refilling problem are kept in the simulation and at the same time the small scale processes driven by the ion beams are sufficiently resolved.) We have also studied the effect of commonly found equatorially trapped warm and/or hot plasma on the filling of a flux tube with a cold plasma. Three types of simulation runs have been performed.

  5. Technology development plan: Geotechnical survey systems for OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) cold water pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valent, Philip J.; Riggins, Michael

    1989-04-01

    An overview is given of current and developing technologies and techniques for performing geotechnical investigations for siting and designing Cold Water Pipes (CWP) for shelf-resting Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) power plants. The geotechnical in situ tools used to measure the required parameters and the equipment/systems used to deploy these tools are identified. The capabilities of these geotechnical tools and deployment systems are compared to the data requirements for the CWP foundation/anchor design, and shortfalls are identified. For the last phase of geotechnical data gathering for design, a drillship will be required to perform soil boring work, to obtain required high quality sediment samples for laboratory dynamic testing, and to perform deep penetration in situ tests. To remedy shortfalls and to reduce the future OTEC CWP geotechnical survey costs, it is recommended that a seafloor resting machine be developed to advance the friction cone penetrometer, and also probably a pressuremeter, to provide geotechnical parameters to shallow subseafloor penetrations on slopes of 35 deg and in water depths to 1300 m.

  6. New equation for the computation of flow velocity in partially filled pipes arranged in parallel.

    PubMed

    Zeghadnia, Lotfi; Djemili, Lakhdar; Houichi, Larbi; Rezgui, Nouredin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach for the computation of flow velocity in pipes arranged in parallel based on an analytic development. The estimation of the flow parameters using existing methods requires trial and error procedures. The assessment of flow velocity is of great importance in flow measurement methods and in the design of drainage networks, among others. In drainage network design, the flow is mostly of free surface type. A new method is developed to eliminate the need for trial methods, where the computation of the flow velocity becomes easy, simple, and direct with zero deviation compared to Manning equation results and other approaches such as that have been considered as the best existing solutions. This research work shows that these approaches lack accuracy and do not cover the entire range of flow surface angles: 0° ≤ θ ≤ 360°.

  7. At-birth immunisation against hepatitis B using a novel pre-filled immunisation device stored outside the cold chain.

    PubMed

    Otto, B F; Suarnawa, I M; Stewart, T; Nelson, C; Ruff, T A; Widjaya, A; Maynard, J E

    1999-10-14

    We evaluated the immunogenicity of hepatitis B (HB) vaccine in UniJect, a pre-filled, non-reusable injection device, stored at tropical temperatures for up to one month and used to give the first dose of HB vaccine to newborns. Infants in Tabanan district, Bali, Indonesia, were given their first dose of HB vaccine with UniJect stored out of the cold chain, UniJect stored in the cold chain; or standard syringe, needle and multidose vial stored in the cold chain. Subsequent doses were given by usual means and blood samples drawn 4-6 weeks after the third dose. No significant differences were found in seroconversion rates or geometric mean titres of HB surface antibody between the three groups.

  8. Effect of using acetone and distilled water on the performance of open loop pulsating heat pipe (OLPHP) with different filling ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Md. Lutfor; Afrose, Tonima; Tahmina, Halima Khatun; Rinky, Rumana Parvin; Ali, Mohammad

    2016-07-01

    Pulsating heat pipe (PHP) is a new innovation in the modern era of miniaturizes thermal management system for its higher heating and cooling capacity. The objective of this experiment is to observe the performance of open loop pulsating heat pipe using two fluids at different filling ratios. This OLPHP is a copper capillary tube of 2.5mm outer diameter and 2mm inner diameter. It consists of 8 loops where the evaporative section is 50mm, adiabatic section is 120mm and condensation section is 80mm. The experiment is conducted with distilled water and acetone at 40%, 50%, 60%, and 70% filling ratios where 0° (vertical) is considered as definite angle of inclination. Distilled water and acetone are selected as working fluids considering their different latent heat of vaporization and surface tension. It is found that acetone shows lower thermal resistance than water at all heat inputs. Best performance of acetone is attained at 70% filling ratio. Water displays better heat transfer capability at 50% filling ratio.

  9. A COMPARISON OF RESIDENTIAL COPPER PIPES CARRYING HOT AND COLD WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Each year, the U.S. EPA examines numerous lead, iron, and copper pipes pulled from active use in homes and drinking water distribution systems throughout the United States. The intent of the work is to better understand factors that influence the release of metals into drinking ...

  10. De novo transcriptome profiling of cold-stressed siliques during pod filling stages in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Somya; Raxwal, Vivek K.; Joshi, Bharat; Jagannath, Arun; Katiyar-Agarwal, Surekha; Goel, Shailendra; Kumar, Amar; Agarwal, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Low temperature is a major abiotic stress that impedes plant growth and development. Brassica juncea is an economically important oil seed crop and is sensitive to freezing stress during pod filling subsequently leading to abortion of seeds. To understand the cold stress mediated global perturbations in gene expression, whole transcriptome of B. juncea siliques that were exposed to sub-optimal temperature was sequenced. Manually self-pollinated siliques at different stages of development were subjected to either short (6 h) or long (12 h) durations of chilling stress followed by construction of RNA-seq libraries and deep sequencing using Illumina's NGS platform. De-novo assembly of B. juncea transcriptome resulted in 133,641 transcripts, whose combined length was 117 Mb and N50 value was 1428 bp. We identified 13,342 differentially regulated transcripts by pair-wise comparison of 18 transcriptome libraries. Hierarchical clustering along with Spearman correlation analysis identified that the differentially expressed genes segregated in two major clusters representing early (5–15 DAP) and late stages (20–30 DAP) of silique development. Further analysis led to the discovery of sub-clusters having similar patterns of gene expression. Two of the sub-clusters (one each from the early and late stages) comprised of genes that were inducible by both the durations of cold stress. Comparison of transcripts from these clusters led to identification of 283 transcripts that were commonly induced by cold stress, and were referred to as “core cold-inducible” transcripts. Additionally, we found that 689 and 100 transcripts were specifically up-regulated by cold stress in early and late stages, respectively. We further explored the expression patterns of gene families encoding for transcription factors (TFs), transcription regulators (TRs) and kinases, and found that cold stress induced protein kinases only during early silique development. We validated the digital gene

  11. De novo transcriptome profiling of cold-stressed siliques during pod filling stages in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.).

    PubMed

    Sinha, Somya; Raxwal, Vivek K; Joshi, Bharat; Jagannath, Arun; Katiyar-Agarwal, Surekha; Goel, Shailendra; Kumar, Amar; Agarwal, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Low temperature is a major abiotic stress that impedes plant growth and development. Brassica juncea is an economically important oil seed crop and is sensitive to freezing stress during pod filling subsequently leading to abortion of seeds. To understand the cold stress mediated global perturbations in gene expression, whole transcriptome of B. juncea siliques that were exposed to sub-optimal temperature was sequenced. Manually self-pollinated siliques at different stages of development were subjected to either short (6 h) or long (12 h) durations of chilling stress followed by construction of RNA-seq libraries and deep sequencing using Illumina's NGS platform. De-novo assembly of B. juncea transcriptome resulted in 133,641 transcripts, whose combined length was 117 Mb and N50 value was 1428 bp. We identified 13,342 differentially regulated transcripts by pair-wise comparison of 18 transcriptome libraries. Hierarchical clustering along with Spearman correlation analysis identified that the differentially expressed genes segregated in two major clusters representing early (5-15 DAP) and late stages (20-30 DAP) of silique development. Further analysis led to the discovery of sub-clusters having similar patterns of gene expression. Two of the sub-clusters (one each from the early and late stages) comprised of genes that were inducible by both the durations of cold stress. Comparison of transcripts from these clusters led to identification of 283 transcripts that were commonly induced by cold stress, and were referred to as "core cold-inducible" transcripts. Additionally, we found that 689 and 100 transcripts were specifically up-regulated by cold stress in early and late stages, respectively. We further explored the expression patterns of gene families encoding for transcription factors (TFs), transcription regulators (TRs) and kinases, and found that cold stress induced protein kinases only during early silique development. We validated the digital gene expression

  12. Effect of using ethanol and methanol on thermal performance of a closed loop pulsating heat pipe (CLPHP) with different filling ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Md. Lutfor; Salsabil, Zaimaa; Yasmin, Nusrat; Nourin, Farah Nazifa; Ali, Mohammad

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of a closed loop Pulsating Heat Pipe (CLPHP) as the demand of smaller and effective heat transfer devices is increasing day by day. PHP is a two phase heat transfer device suited for heat transfer applications, especially suited for handling moderate to high heat fluxes in different applications. A copper made Pulsating Heat Pipe (PHP) of 250 mm length is used in this experimental work with 2 mm ID and 3 mm OD, closed end-to-end in 8 looped, evacuated and then partially filled with working fluids. The evaporation section is 50 mm, adiabatic section is 120 mm and condensation section is 80 mm. The performance characterization is done for two working fluids at Vertical (0°) orientations. The working fluids are Methanol and Ethanol and the filling ratios are 40%, 50%, 60% & 70% based on total volume, respectively. The results show that the influence of various parameters, the heat input flux, and different filling ratios on a heat transfer performance of CLPHP. Methanol shows better performance as working fluid in PHP than ethanol at present orientation for a wide range of heat inputs and can be used at high heat input conditions. Ethanol is better choice to be used in low heat input conditions.

  13. Theoretical and experimental validation study on automotive air-conditioning based on heat pipe and LNG cold energy for LNG-fueled heavy vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Dong; Cheng, Jiang-ping; Zhang, Sheng-chang; Ge, Fang-gen

    2017-08-01

    As a clean fuel, LNG has been used in heavy vehicles widely in China. Before reaching the engine for combustion, LNG store in a high vacuum multi-layer thermal insulation tank and need to be evaporated from its cryogenic state to natural gas. During the evaporation, the available cold energy of LNG has been calculated. The concept has been proposed that the separated type heat pipe technology is employed to utilize the available cold energy for automotive air-conditioning. The experiment has been conducted to validate the proposal. It is found that it is feasible to use the separated type heat pipe to convey the cold energy from LNG to automotive air-conditioning. And the cooling capacity of the automotive air-conditioning increase with the LNG consumption and air flow rate increasing.

  14. Theoretical and experimental validation study on automotive air-conditioning based on heat pipe and LNG cold energy for LNG-fueled heavy vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Dong; Cheng, Jiang-ping; Zhang, Sheng-chang; Ge, Fang-gen

    2017-03-01

    As a clean fuel, LNG has been used in heavy vehicles widely in China. Before reaching the engine for combustion, LNG store in a high vacuum multi-layer thermal insulation tank and need to be evaporated from its cryogenic state to natural gas. During the evaporation, the available cold energy of LNG has been calculated. The concept has been proposed that the separated type heat pipe technology is employed to utilize the available cold energy for automotive air-conditioning. The experiment has been conducted to validate the proposal. It is found that it is feasible to use the separated type heat pipe to convey the cold energy from LNG to automotive air-conditioning. And the cooling capacity of the automotive air-conditioning increase with the LNG consumption and air flow rate increasing.

  15. Frequency-dependent damping model for the hydroacoustic finite element analysis of fluid-filled pipes with diameter changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Jan; Koreck, Jürgen; Maess, Matthias; Gaul, Lothar; von Estorff, Otto

    2011-04-01

    The integration of a model for longitudinal hydroacoustic fluid damping in thin hydraulic pipes in 3D finite element models is presented in this paper. In order to perform quantitative prediction of the vibroacoustic behavior and resulting noise levels of such fluid-structure coupled system due to hydraulic excitation, an accurate frequency-dependent fluid damping model including friction effects near the pipe wall is required. This step is achieved by matching complex wave numbers from analytical derivation into a parameterized damped wave equation and consecutive translation into finite element modeling. Since the friction effect close to the pipe wall changes locally with the inner pipe radius, the fluid damping model is applied segment-wise in order to model the influence of cross-sectional discontinuity, such as orifices, on the oscillating pressure pulsations. A component synthesis approach, which uses pipe segments as substructures, allows a simple model generation and fast computation times. The numerical harmonic results are compared to experimental frequency response functions, which are performed on a hydraulic test bench driven by a dynamic pressure source in the kHz-range.

  16. Development of Flow and Heat Transfer During Filling a Pipeline with Water at the Pipe Wall Temperature Below the Freezing Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitanin, É. L.; Smirnov, Yu. A.; Lebedev, M. E.

    2016-07-01

    The paper presents the technique of computing flow and heat transfer of water in a pipeline whose initial temperature is lower than the freezing point of water. A feature of the method is the possibility of calculating the process from the moment of pouring water into a pipe on the inner surface of whose wall a layer of ice is being formed. The system of equations describing the process involves nonstationary energy equations for the water flow, ice layer, and for the pipe wall. It is solved for each section of the pipeline passed by water in a small time interval in the process of filling the pipe and further flow. The Beginning computer program has been created and implemented in the Visual Basic language for numerical analysis of the process. The calculations made with the aid of this program allow one to estimate the possibility of appearance of an ice plug in the pipeline at the given temperature, water flow rate, pipeline diameter, and conditions of external heat transfer of water flow in the pipeline.

  17. Fluid flow and heat transfer in polygonal micro heat pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Sai; Wong, Harris

    2015-11-01

    Micro heat pipes have been used to cool microelectronic devices, but their heat transfer coefficients are low compared with those of conventional heat pipes. We model heat and mass transfer in triangular, square, hexagonal, and rectangular micro heat pipes under small imposed temperature differences. A micro heat pipe is a closed microchannel filled with a wetting liquid and a long vapor bubble. When a temperature difference is applied across a micro heat pipe, the equilibrium vapor pressure at the hot end is higher than that at the cold end, and the difference drives a vapor flow. As the vapor moves, the vapor pressure at the hot end drops below the saturation pressure. This pressure drop induces continuous evaporation from the interface. Two dimensionless numbers emerge from the momentum and energy equations: the heat-pipe number H, and the evaporation exponent S. When H >> 1 and S >> 1, vapor-flow heat transfer dominates and a thermal boundary layer appears at the hot end, the thickness of which scales as L/S, where L is the half-length of the pipe. A similar boundary layer exists at the cold end. Outside the boundary layers, the temperature is uniform. We also find a dimensionless optimal pipe length Sm =Sm(H) for maximum evaporative heat transfer. Thus, our model suggests that micro heat pipes should be designed with H >> 1 and S =Sm. We calculate H and S for four published micro-heat-pipe experiments, and find encouraging support for our design criterion.

  18. Experimental investigation on thermal performance of a closed loop pulsating heat pipe (CLPHP) using methanol and distilled water at different filling ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Md. Lutfor; Swarna, Anindita Dhar; Ahmed, Syed Nasif Uddin; Perven, Sanjida; Ali, Mohammad

    2016-07-01

    Pulsating Heat Pipes, the new two-phase heat transfer devices, with no counter current flow between liquid and vapor have become a modern topic for research in the field of thermal management. This paper focuses on the performance of methanol and distilled water as working fluid in a closed loop pulsating heat pipe (CLPHP). This performances are compared in terms of thermal resistance, heat transfer co-efficient, and evaporator and condenser wall temperature with variable heat inputs. Methanol and Distilled water are selected for their lower surface tension, dynamic viscosity and sensible heat. A closed loop PHP made of copper with 2mm ID and 2.5mm OD having total 8 loops are supplied with power input varied from 10W to 60W. During the experiment the PHP is kept vertical, while the filling ratio (FR) is increased gradually from 40% to 70% with 10% increment. The optimum filling ratio for a minimum thermal resistance is found to be 60% and 40% for distilled water and methanol respectively and methanol is found to be the better working fluid compared to distilled water in terms of its lower thermal resistance and higher heat transfer coefficient.

  19. Development of a 69kV high-pressure gas-filled pipe-type cable system for an Arctic environment

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, D.A.; Seman, G.W.; Buckweitz, M.D.; Walker, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    A high-pressure gas-filled (HPGF) pipe-type cable system rated 69kV has been developed for operation at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, which is at the North Slope above the Arctic Circle. A minimum ground ambient of -10/sup 0/C is applicable to the major portion of the circuit which is buried. The cables installed in pipes across a 46 m (150 foot) long bridge, the terminal riser cables and the cable terminals experience a minimum air ambient of -48/sup 0/C. The cable design for each of these ambient temperatures required special consideration with regard to the insulation structure and impregnant to be employed for the paper insulation. This paper describes the investigation of materials, cable models and prototype cables to achieve the physical and electrical properties required for the application. For the buried cable, a polybutene impregnant having a viscosity lower than normally employed for HPGF cable was used. For the cables exposed to the lower ambient air temperature, a phenylmethyl polysiloxane silicone fluid was selected as the impregnant. A transition joint between the polybutene and silicone impregnated cables was developed. Standard gas-filled terminals were modified for service at the low ambient air temperature. The successful completion of this R and D project has provided a rugged, reliable high voltage cable system suitable for transmitting power in an arctic environment.

  20. Assessment of US shipbuilding current capability to build a commercial OTEC platform and a cold water pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Komelasky, M. C.

    1980-03-01

    Lowry and Hoffman Associates Inc. (LHA) performed for ORI an analysis of the shipbuilding requirements for constructing an OTEC plant, and the available shipyard assets which could fulfill these requirements. In addition, several shipyards were queried concerning their attitudes towards OTEC. In assessing the shipbuilding requirements for an OTEC plant, four different platform configurations were studied and four different designs of the cold water pipe (CWP) were examined. The platforms were: a concrete ship design proposed by Lockheed; concrete spar designs with internal heat exchangers (IHE) (Rosenblatt) and external heat exchangers (XHE) (Lockheed); and a steel ship design proposed by Gibbs and Cox. The types of materials examined for CWP construction were: steel, fiber reinforced plastic (FPR), elastomer, and concrete. The report is organized io three major discussion areas. All the construction requirements are synthesized for the four platforms and CWPs, and general comments are made concerning their availability in the US. Specific shipbuilders facilities are reviewed for their applicability to building an OTEC plant, an assessment of the shipyards general interest in the OTEC program is presented providing an insight into their nearterm commercial outlook. The method of determining this interest will depend largely on a risk analysis of the OTEC system. Also included are factors which may comprise this analysis, and a methodology to ascertain the risk. In the appendices, various shipyard specifications are presented, shipyard assessment matrices are given, graphs of various shipyard economic outlooks are provided, and definitions of the risk factors are listed. (WHK)

  1. Technology Development Plan: Geotechnical survey systems for OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) cold water pipes: Final subcontract report

    SciTech Connect

    Valent, P.J.; Riggins, M.

    1989-04-01

    This report provides an overview of current and developing technologies and techniques for performing geotechnical investigations for siting and designing Cold Water Pipes (CWP) for shelf-resting Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) power plants. The geotechnical in situ tools used to measure the required parameters and the equipment/systems used to deploy these tools are identified. The capabilities of these geotechnical tools and deployment systems are compared to the data requirements for the CWP foundation/anchor design, and shortfalls are identified. For the last phase of geotechnical data gathering for design, a drillship will be required to perform soil boring work, to obtain required high-quality sediment samples for laboratory dynamic testing, and to perform deep-penetration in situ tests. To remedy shortfalls and to reduce the future OTEC CWP geotechnical survey costs, it is recommended that a seafloor-resting machine be developed to advance the friction cone penetrometer, and also probably a pressuremeter, to provide geotechnical parameters to shallow subseafloor penetrations on slopes of 35/degree/ and in water depths to 1300 m. 74 refs., 19 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust

    DOEpatents

    Polcyn, Adam D.

    2010-12-28

    An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.

  3. Contemporary formulation and distribution practices for cold-filled acid products: Australian industry survey and modeling of published pathogen inactivation data.

    PubMed

    Chapman, B; Scurrah, K J; Ross, T

    2010-05-01

    A survey of 12 Australian manufacturers indicated that mild-tasting acids and preservatives are used to partially replace acetic acid in cold-filled acid dressings and sauces. In contrast to traditional ambient temperature distribution practices, some manufacturers indicated that they supply the food service sector with cold-filled acid products prechilled for incorporation into ready-to-eat foods. The Comité des Industries des Mayonnaises et Sauces Condimentaires de la Communauté Economique Européenne (CIMSCEE) Code, a formulation guideline used by the industry to predict the safety of cold-filled acid formulations with respect to Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli, does not extend to the use of acids and preservatives other than acetic acid nor does it consider the effects of chill distribution. We found insufficient data in the published literature to comprehensively model the response of S. enterica and E. coli to all of the predictor variables (i.e., pH, acetic acid, NaCl, sugars, other acids, preservatives, and storage temperature) of relevance for contemporary cold-filled acid products in Australia. In particular, we noted a lack of inactivation data for S. enterica at aqueous-phase NaCl concentrations of >3% (wt/wt). However, our simple models clearly identified pH and 1/absolute temperature of storage as the most important variables generally determining inactivation. To develop robust models to predict the effect of contemporary formulation and storage variables on product safety, additional empirical data are required. Until such models are available, our results support challenge testing of cold-filled acid products to ascertain their safety, as suggested by the CIMSCEE, but suggest consideration of challenging with both E. coli and S. enterica at incubation temperatures relevant to intended product distribution temperatures.

  4. Modeling yeast spoilage in cold-filled ready-to-drink beverages with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, and Candida lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Battey, Alyce Stiles; Duffy, Siobain; Schaffner, Donald W

    2002-04-01

    Mathematical models were developed to predict the probability of yeast spoilage of cold-filled ready-to-drink beverages as a function of beverage formulation. A Box-Behnken experimental design included five variables, each at three levels: pH (2.8, 3.3, and 3.8), titratable acidity (0.20, 0.40, and 0.60%), sugar content (8.0, 12.0, and 16.0 degrees Brix), sodium benzoate concentration (100, 225, and 350 ppm), and potassium sorbate concentration (100, 225, and 350 ppm). Duplicate samples were inoculated with a yeast cocktail (100 microl/50 ml) consisting of equal proportions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, and Candida lipolytica (approximately 5.0 x 10(4) CFU/ml each). The inoculated samples were plated on malt extract agar after 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks. Logistic regression was used to create the predictive models. The pH and sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate concentrations were found to be significant factors controlling the probability of yeast growth. Interaction terms for pH and each preservative were also significant in the predictive model. Neither the titratable acidity nor the sugar content of the model beverages was a significant predictor of yeast growth in the ranges tested.

  5. Study on the rheological properties and volatile release of cold-set emulsion-filled protein gels.

    PubMed

    Mao, Like; Roos, Yrjö H; Miao, Song

    2014-11-26

    Emulsion-filled protein gels (EFP gels) were prepared through a cold-set gelation process, and they were used to deliver volatile compounds. An increase in the whey protein isolate (WPI) content from 4 to 6% w/w did not show significant effect on the gelation time, whereas an increase in the oil content from 5 to 20% w/w resulted in an earlier onset of gelation. Gels with a higher WPI content had a higher storage modulus and water-holding capacity (WHC), and they presented a higher force and strain at breaking, indicating that a more compact gel network was formed. An increase in the oil content contributed to gels with a higher storage modulus and force at breaking; however, this increase did not affect the WHC of the gels, and gels with a higher oil content became more brittle, resulting in a decreased strain at breaking. GC headspace analysis showed that volatiles released at lower rates and had lower air-gel partition coefficients in EFP gels than those in ungelled counterparts. Gels with a higher WPI content had lower release rates and partition coefficients of the volatiles. A change in the oil content significantly modified the partition of volatiles at equilibrium, but it produced a minor effect on the release rate of the volatiles. The findings indicated that EFP gels could be potentially used to modulate volatile release by varying the rheological properties of the gel.

  6. Modeling Yeast Spoilage in Cold-Filled Ready-To-Drink Beverages with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, and Candida lipolytica

    PubMed Central

    Battey, Alyce Stiles; Duffy, Siobain; Schaffner, Donald W.

    2002-01-01

    Mathematical models were developed to predict the probability of yeast spoilage of cold-filled ready-to-drink beverages as a function of beverage formulation. A Box-Behnken experimental design included five variables, each at three levels: pH (2.8, 3.3, and 3.8), titratable acidity (0.20, 0.40, and 0.60%), sugar content (8.0, 12.0, and 16.0 °Brix), sodium benzoate concentration (100, 225, and 350 ppm), and potassium sorbate concentration (100, 225, and 350 ppm). Duplicate samples were inoculated with a yeast cocktail (100 μl/50 ml) consisting of equal proportions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, and Candida lipolytica (∼5.0 × 104 CFU/ml each). The inoculated samples were plated on malt extract agar after 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks. Logistic regression was used to create the predictive models. The pH and sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate concentrations were found to be significant factors controlling the probability of yeast growth. Interaction terms for pH and each preservative were also significant in the predictive model. Neither the titratable acidity nor the sugar content of the model beverages was a significant predictor of yeast growth in the ranges tested. PMID:11916710

  7. Environmental design criteria for the 1/3 scale OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) cold water pipe At-Sea Test Site off Honolulu, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    A fully instrumented At-Sea Test of a 1/3 scale OTEC cold water pipe (CWP) will be carried out. The future prototype for this 1/3 scale model is envisioned to be the OTEC Pilot Plant design in the 10 to 40 megawatt-electric size range with an estimated CWP diameter of about 30 ft and an overall vertical length of about 3000 ft. Thus the 1/3 scale CWP consists of a pipe about 10 ft in diameter and 1000 ft long. The selected At-Sea Test site is located at 21/sup 0/15.5'N latitude and 157/sup 0/54.6'W longitude off Honolulu, Hawaii. In order to expedite development of the design of the 1/3 scale At-Sea Test CWP/Platform/Mooring System the report provides environmental design criteria data at the proposed At-Sea Test site evaluated from available historic data.

  8. Water hammer phenomena occurring in nuclear power installations while filling horizontal pipe containing saturated steam with liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Selivanov, Y.F.; Kirillov, P.L.; Yefanov, A.D.

    1995-09-01

    The potentiality of the water hammer occurrence in nuclear reactor loop components has been considered under the conditions of filling a steam-containing pipeline leg involving horizontal and vertical sections with liquid subcooled to the saturation temperature. As a result of free discharging from the tank, the liquid enters the horizontal pipeline. When the liquid slug formation in the pipeline is fulfilled. The pressure drop being occurred in steam flowing along the pipelines causes the liquid slug to move to the pipeline inlet. When the liquid slug decelerates, a water hammer occurs. This mechanism of water hammer occurrence is tested by experiments. The regimes of the occurrence of multiple considerable water hammers were identified.

  9. Inflation of the early cold Universe filled with a nonlinear scalar field and a nonideal relativistic Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashitskii, E. A.; Pentegov, V. I.

    2017-03-01

    We consider a possible scenario for the evolution of the early cold Universe born from a fairly large quantum fluctuation in a vacuum with a size a 0 ≫ l P (where l P is the Planck length) and filled with both a nonlinear scalar field φ, whose potential energy density U(φ) determines the vacuum energy density λ, and a nonideal Fermi gas with short-range repulsion between particles, whose equation of state is characterized by the ratio of pressure P( n F ) to energy density ɛ( n F ) dependent on the number density of fermions n F . As the early Universe expands, the dimensionless quantity ν( n F ) = P( n F )/ɛ( n F ) decreases with decreasing n F from its maximum value νmax = 1 for n F → ∞ to zero for n F → 0. The interaction of the scalar and gravitational fields, which is characterized by a dimensionless constant ξ, is proportional to the scalar curvature of four-dimensional space R = κ[3 P( n F )-ɛ( n F )-4λ] (where κ is Einstein's gravitational constant), and contains terms both quadratic and linear in φ. As a result, the expanding early Universe reaches the point of first-order phase transition in a finite time interval at critical values of the scalar curvature R = R c =-μ2/ξ and radius a c ≫ a 0. Thereafter, the early closed Universe "rolls down" from the flat inflection point of the potential U(φ) to the zero potential minimum in a finite time. The release of the total potential energy of the scalar field in the entire volume of the expanding Universe as it "rolls down" must be accompanied by the production of a large number of massive particles and antiparticles of various kinds, whose annihilation plays the role of the Big Bang. We also discuss the fundamental nature of Newton' gravitational constant G N .

  10. OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) Cold Water Pipe At-Sea Test Program Data Analysis Project: Users guide for the NOAA/ROTECF and NOAA/TRW computer models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega, L. A.; Nihous, G. C.

    1985-06-01

    Additional guidelines for the use of the Cold-Water-Pipe computer models NOAA/TRW and NOAA/ROTECF are provided. The primary intent is to correct and upgrade the user manuals with errata sheets and to provide an updated listing of the source codes. It is recommended that users be familiar with the hydrodynamic and structural aspects of floating vessels and the representation of ocean thermal energy conversion pipes as beams of equivalent structural properties.

  11. Flexible ocean upwelling pipe

    DOEpatents

    Person, Abraham

    1980-01-01

    In an ocean thermal energy conversion facility, a cold water riser pipe is releasably supported at its upper end by the hull of the floating facility. The pipe is substantially vertical and has its lower end far below the hull above the ocean floor. The pipe is defined essentially entirely of a material which has a modulus of elasticity substantially less than that of steel, e.g., high density polyethylene, so that the pipe is flexible and compliant to rather than resistant to applied bending moments. The position of the lower end of the pipe relative to the hull is stabilized by a weight suspended below the lower end of the pipe on a flexible line. The pipe, apart from the weight, is positively buoyant. If support of the upper end of the pipe is released, the pipe sinks to the ocean floor, but is not damaged as the length of the line between the pipe and the weight is sufficient to allow the buoyant pipe to come to a stop within the line length after the weight contacts the ocean floor, and thereafter to float submerged above the ocean floor while moored to the ocean floor by the weight. The upper end of the pipe, while supported by the hull, communicates to a sump in the hull in which the water level is maintained below the ambient water level. The sump volume is sufficient to keep the pipe full during heaving of the hull, thereby preventing collapse of the pipe.

  12. A simple computational method for predicting magnetic field in the vicinity of a three-phase underground cable with a fluid-filled steel-pipe enclosure

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, X.B.; Yang, X.M.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents a simple computational method for predicting the magnetic field above ground, generated by an underground three-phase pipe-type cable. In the computation, an approximation is made to simplify the problem a Fourier series technique and an iterative procedure are employed to handle the nonlinear B-H characteristic of the steel pipe. To validate the computational method, measurements were made and the numerical results are compared with the measurement data. Also, data of magnetic fields generated by the pipe type cable are compared with those due to the cable in absence of the pipe. The advantages and disadvantages of this simple method are discussed.

  13. A simple computational method for predicting magnetic field in the vicinity of a three-phase underground cable with a fluid-filled steel-pipe enclosure

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, X.B.; Yang, X.M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a simple computational method for predicting the magnetic field above ground, generated by an underground three-phase pipe-type cable. In the computation, an approximation is made to simplify the problem, a Fourier series technique and an iterative procedure are employed to handle the nonlinear B-H characteristic of the steel pipe. To validate the computational method, measurements were made and the numerical results are compared with the measurement data. Also, data of magnetic fields generated by the pipe type cable are compared with those due to the cable in absence of the pipe. The advantages and disadvantages of this simple method are discussed.

  14. Heat Pipe Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, William B.; Simon, Justin I.; Webb, A. Alexander G.

    2014-01-01

    When volcanism dominates heat transport, a terrestrial body enters a heat-pipe mode, in which hot magma moves through the lithosphere in narrow channels. Even at high heat flow, a heat-pipe planet develops a thick, cold, downwards-advecting lithosphere dominated by (ultra-)mafic flows and contractional deformation at the surface. Heat-pipes are an important feature of terrestrial planets at high heat flow, as illustrated by Io. Evidence for their operation early in Earth's history suggests that all terrestrial bodies should experience an episode of heat-pipe cooling early in their histories.

  15. External artery heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor); Ernst, Donald M. (Inventor); Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An improved heat pipe with an external artery. The longitudinal slot in the heat pipe wall which interconnects the heat pipe vapor space with the external artery is completely filled with sintered wick material and the wall of the external artery is also covered with sintered wick material. This added wick structure assures that the external artery will continue to feed liquid to the heat pipe evaporator even if a vapor bubble forms within and would otherwise block the liquid transport function of the external artery.

  16. Insulating Cryogenic Pipes With Frost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephenson, J. G.; Bova, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Crystallized water vapor fills voids in pipe insulation. Small, carefully controlled amount of water vapor introduced into dry nitrogen gas before it enters aft fuselage. Vapor freezes on pipes, filling cracks in insulation. Ice prevents gaseous nitrogen from condensing on pipes and dripping on structure, in addition to helping to insulate all parts. Industrial applications include large refrigeration plants or facilities that use cryogenic liquids.

  17. Design of a Hydrogen Pulsating Heat Pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yumeng; Deng, Haoren; Pfotenhauer, John; Gan, Zhihua

    In order to enhance the application of a cryocooler that provides cooling capacity at the cold head location, and effectively spread that cooling over an extended region, one requires an efficient heat transfer method. The pulsating heat pipe affords a highly effective heat transfer component that has been extensively researched at room temperature, but is recently being investigated for cryogenic applications. This paper describes the design. The experimental setup is designed to characterize the thermal performance of the PHP as a function of the applied heat, number of turns, filling ratio, inclination angle, and length of adiabatic section.

  18. NOAA OTEC CWP (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Cold Water Pipe) at-sea test. Volume 3: Additional tabulation of the power spectra, part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-12-01

    Data collected during the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Cold Water Pipe At Sea Test are analyzed. Also included are the following ittems: (1) sensor factors and offsets, and the data processing algorithms used to convert the recorded sensor measurements from electrical to engineering units; (2) plots of the power spectra estimates obtained from a fast fourier transform (FFT) analysis of selected channels; (3) plots of selected sensor measurements as a function of time; and (4) plots of bending strain along the pipe using statistics and values presented.

  19. NOAA OTEC CWP (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Cold Water Pipe) at-sea test. Volume 3, part 1: Tabulation of the power spectra for selected channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-11-01

    Data collected during the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Cold Water Pipe At-Sea Test was analyzed. Data presented included: (1)sensor factors and off sets and the data processing algorithms used to convert the recorded sensor measurements from electrical units to engineering units; (2) plots of the power spectra estimates obtained from a fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis of selected channels; (3) plots of selected sensor measurements as a function of time; and (4) plots of bending strain along the pipe. The mean, root-mean-square (RMS) maximum, and minimum values at each depth are shown in each plot.

  20. A regression model for the temporal development of soil pipes and associated gullies in the alluvial-fill valley of the Rio Puerco, central New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condit, C. D.; Elston, W. E.

    1984-01-01

    On Mars, the association of gullied escarpments and chaotic terrain is evidence for failure and scarp retreat of poorly consolidated materials. Some martian gullies have no surface outlets and may have drained through subterranean channels. Similar features, though on a much smaller scale, can be seen in alluvium along terrestrial river banks in semiarid regions, such as the Rio Puerco Valley of central New Mexico. Many of the escarpments along the Rio Puerco are developing through formation of collapse gullies, which drain through soil pipes. Gully development can be monitored on aerial photographs taken in 1935, 1962, and 1980. A regression model was developed to quantify gully evolution over a known time span. Soil pipes and their associated collapse gullies make recognizable signatures on the air photos. The areal extent of this signature can be normalized to the scarp length of each pipe-gully system, which makes comparisons between systems possible.

  1. Heat-Transfer Coupling For Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesmith, Bill J.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed welded heat-transfer coupling joins set of heat pipes to thermoelectric converter. Design avoids difficult brazing operation. Includes pair of mating flanged cups. Upper cup integral part of housing of thermoelectric converter, while lower cup integral part of plate supporting filled heat pipes. Heat pipes prefilled. Heat of welding applied around periphery of coupling, far enough from heat pipes so it would not degrade working fluid or create excessive vapor pressure in the pipes.

  2. Electrohydrodynamic heat pipes.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. B.

    1973-01-01

    An electrohydrodynamic heat pipe of radical design is proposed which substitutes polarization electrohydrodynamic force effects for capillarity in collecting, guiding, and pumping a condensate liquid phase. The discussed device is restricted to the use of dielectric liquids as working fluids. Because of the relatively poor thermal transport properties of these liquids, capillary heat pipes using these liquids have not been high performance devices. The employment of the electrohydrodynamic concept should enhance this performance and help fill the performance gap that exists in the temperature range from 250 F to 750 F for 'conventional' capillary heat pipes.

  3. NASA Glenn Steady-State Heat Pipe Code Users Manual, DOS Input. Version 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tower, Leonard K.

    2000-01-01

    The heat pipe code LERCHP has been revised, corrected, and extended. New features include provisions for pipes with curvature and bends in "G" fields. Heat pipe limits are examined in detail and limit envelopes are shown for some sodium and lithium-filled heat pipes. Refluxing heat pipes and gas-loaded or variable conductance heat pipes were not considered.

  4. OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) cold water pipe at-sea test program data analysis project. Comparisons between measured and predicted barge and pipe response: Evaluation of the NOAA/ROTECF and NOAA/TRW computer models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega, L. A.; Nihous, G. C.

    1985-10-01

    The simulation of the at-sea test conditions with computer models is considered. The NOAA/ROTECF model simulates a coupled barge/pipe system driven by waves and currents in the frequency domain (standard-deviation parameters are considered). The NOAA/TRW model simulates a pipe driven by user-specified barge motions, waves, and currents in the time domain (parameters as a function of time are considered).

  5. Heat Pipe Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The heat pipe was developed to alternately cool and heat without using energy or any moving parts. It enables non-rotating spacecraft to maintain a constant temperature when the surface exposed to the Sun is excessively hot and the non Sun-facing side is very cold. Several organizations, such as Tropic-Kool Engineering Corporation, joined NASA in a subsequent program to refine and commercialize the technology. Heat pipes have been installed in fast food restaurants in areas where humid conditions cause materials to deteriorate quickly. Moisture removal was increased by 30 percent in a Clearwater, FL Burger King after heat pipes were installed. Relative humidity and power consumption were also reduced significantly. Similar results were recorded by Taco Bell, which now specifies heat pipe systems in new restaurants in the Southeast.

  6. Pipe support

    DOEpatents

    Pollono, Louis P.

    1979-01-01

    A pipe support for high temperature, thin-walled piping runs such as those used in nuclear systems. A section of the pipe to be supported is encircled by a tubular inner member comprised of two walls with an annular space therebetween. Compacted load-bearing thermal insulation is encapsulated within the annular space, and the inner member is clamped to the pipe by a constant clamping force split-ring clamp. The clamp may be connected to pipe hangers which provide desired support for the pipe.

  7. Heat transfer in pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burbach, T.

    1985-01-01

    The heat transfer from hot water to a cold copper pipe in laminar and turbulent flow condition is determined. The mean flow through velocity in the pipe, relative test length and initial temperature in the vessel were varied extensively during tests. Measurements confirm Nusselt's theory for large test lengths in laminar range. A new equation is derived for heat transfer for large starting lengths which agrees satisfactorily with measurements for large starting lengths. Test results are compared with the new Prandtl equation for heat transfer and correlated well. Test material for 200- and to 400-diameter test length is represented at four different vessel temperatures.

  8. Heat Pipes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, J.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the construction, function, and applications of heat pipes. Suggests using the heat pipe to teach principles related to heat transfer and gives sources for obtaining instructional kits for this purpose. (GS)

  9. Pipe Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milshtein, Amy

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the importance of attention to plumbing in college facilities, offering examples from various campuses. Addresses preventive maintenance, technology, and piping materials, including the debate between cast iron and PVC for drain pipes. (EV)

  10. Pipe Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milshtein, Amy

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the importance of attention to plumbing in college facilities, offering examples from various campuses. Addresses preventive maintenance, technology, and piping materials, including the debate between cast iron and PVC for drain pipes. (EV)

  11. Main Design Principles of the Cold Beam Pipe in the FastRamped Superconducting Accelerator Magnets for Heavy Ion Synchrotron SIS100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mierau, A.; Schnizer, P.; Fischer, E.; Macavei, J.; Wilfert, S.; Koch, S.; Weiland, T.; Kurnishov, R.; Shcherbakov, P.

    SIS100, the world second large scale heavy ion synchrotron using fast ramped superconducting magnets, is to be built at FAIR. Its high current operation of intermediate charge state ions requires stable vacuum pressures < 10-12 mbar under dynamic machine conditions which are only achievable when the whole beam pipe is used as an huge cryopump. In order to find technological feasible design solutions, three opposite requirements have to be met: minimum magnetic field distortion caused by AC losses, mechanical stability and low and stable wall temperatures of the beam pipe. We present the possible design versions of the beam pipe for the high current curved dipole. The pros and cons of these proposed designs were studied using simplified analytical models, FEM calculations and tests on models.

  12. Heat-pipe Earth.

    PubMed

    Moore, William B; Webb, A Alexander G

    2013-09-26

    The heat transport and lithospheric dynamics of early Earth are currently explained by plate tectonic and vertical tectonic models, but these do not offer a global synthesis consistent with the geologic record. Here we use numerical simulations and comparison with the geologic record to explore a heat-pipe model in which volcanism dominates surface heat transport. These simulations indicate that a cold and thick lithosphere developed as a result of frequent volcanic eruptions that advected surface materials downwards. Declining heat sources over time led to an abrupt transition to plate tectonics. Consistent with model predictions, the geologic record shows rapid volcanic resurfacing, contractional deformation, a low geothermal gradient across the bulk of the lithosphere and a rapid decrease in heat-pipe volcanism after initiation of plate tectonics. The heat-pipe Earth model therefore offers a coherent geodynamic framework in which to explore the evolution of our planet before the onset of plate tectonics.

  13. System and Method for Traversing Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azimi, Shaun (Inventor); Magruder, Darby (Inventor); Ridley, Justin (Inventor); Lapp, Anthony (Inventor); Graf, Jodi (Inventor); Pettinger, Ross (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A system and method is provided for traversing inside one or more pipes. In an embodiment, a fluid is injected into the one or more pipes thereby promoting a fluid flow. An inspection device is deployed into the one or more pipes at least partially filled with a flowing fluid. The inspection device comprises a housing wherein the housing is designed to exploit the hydrokinetic effects associated with a fluid flow in one or more pipes as well as maneuver past a variety of pipe configurations. The inspection device may contain one or more sensors capable of performing a variety of inspection tasks.

  14. Light pipe - design for efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Hockey, S.N.

    1985-08-01

    The high cost and availability of materials which are clear enough to transmit light without absorption has limited the idea of piping large-scale quantities of light. The light pipe uses the principle of Total Internal Reflection, with the light guided by very accurate prisms. The transmission of light directed into the end of a Light Pipe at an angle of less than 27.6 degrees is theoretically 100% efficient. The author describes its uses and advantages for lighting offices, cold storage areas, difficult access and hazardous areas, and for solar lighting. Future directions will be to improve the economics and accuracy of the technology. 4 references, 2 figures.

  15. Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Phoenix Refrigeration Systems, Inc.'s heat pipe addition to the Phoenix 2000, a supermarket rooftop refrigeration/air conditioning system, resulted from the company's participation in a field test of heat pipes. Originally developed by NASA to control temperatures in space electronic systems, the heat pipe is a simple, effective, heat transfer system. It has been used successfully in candy storage facilities where it has provided significant energy savings. Additional data is expected to fully quantify the impact of the heat pipes on supermarket air conditioning systems.

  16. Computational model of miniature pulsating heat pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, Mario J.; Givler, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    The modeling work described herein represents Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) portion of a collaborative three-year project with Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems (NGES) and the University of Missouri to develop an advanced, thermal ground-plane (TGP), which is a device, of planar configuration, that delivers heat from a source to an ambient environment with high efficiency. Work at all three institutions was funded by DARPA/MTO; Sandia was funded under DARPA/MTO project number 015070924. This is the final report on this project for SNL. This report presents a numerical model of a pulsating heat pipe, a device employing a two phase (liquid and its vapor) working fluid confined in a closed loop channel etched/milled into a serpentine configuration in a solid metal plate. The device delivers heat from an evaporator (hot zone) to a condenser (cold zone). This new model includes key physical processes important to the operation of flat plate pulsating heat pipes (e.g. dynamic bubble nucleation, evaporation and condensation), together with conjugate heat transfer with the solid portion of the device. The model qualitatively and quantitatively predicts performance characteristics and metrics, which was demonstrated by favorable comparisons with experimental results on similar configurations. Application of the model also corroborated many previous performance observations with respect to key parameters such as heat load, fill ratio and orientation.

  17. Large-bore pipe decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of 1200 buildings within the US Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Complex will require the disposition of miles of pipe. The disposition of large-bore pipe, in particular, presents difficulties in the area of decontamination and characterization. The pipe is potentially contaminated internally as well as externally. This situation requires a system capable of decontaminating and characterizing both the inside and outside of the pipe. Current decontamination and characterization systems are not designed for application to this geometry, making the direct disposal of piping systems necessary in many cases. The pipe often creates voids in the disposal cell, which requires the pipe to be cut in half or filled with a grout material. These methods are labor intensive and costly to perform on large volumes of pipe. Direct disposal does not take advantage of recycling, which could provide monetary dividends. To facilitate the decontamination and characterization of large-bore piping and thereby reduce the volume of piping required for disposal, a detailed analysis will be conducted to document the pipe remediation problem set; determine potential technologies to solve this remediation problem set; design and laboratory test potential decontamination and characterization technologies; fabricate a prototype system; provide a cost-benefit analysis of the proposed system; and transfer the technology to industry. This report summarizes the activities performed during fiscal year 1997 and describes the planned activities for fiscal year 1998. Accomplishments for FY97 include the development of the applicable and relevant and appropriate regulations, the screening of decontamination and characterization technologies, and the selection and initial design of the decontamination system.

  18. Emplacement temperatures of pyroclastic and volcaniclastic deposits in kimberlite pipes in southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, Giovanni; Mac Niocaill, Conall; Brown, Richard J.; Sparks, R. Stephen J.; Field, Matthew

    2011-10-01

    Palaeomagnetic techniques for estimating the emplacement temperatures of volcanic deposits have been applied to pyroclastic and volcaniclastic deposits in kimberlite pipes in southern Africa. Lithic clasts were sampled from a variety of lithofacies from three pipes for which the internal geology is well constrained (the Cretaceous A/K1 pipe, Orapa Mine, Botswana, and the Cambrian K1 and K2 pipes, Venetia Mine, South Africa). The sampled deposits included massive and layered vent-filling breccias with varying abundances of lithic inclusions, layered crater-filling pyroclastic deposits, talus breccias and volcaniclastic breccias. Basalt lithic clasts in the layered and massive vent-filling pyroclastic deposits in the A/K1 pipe at Orapa were emplaced at >570°C, in the pyroclastic crater-filling deposits at 200-440°C and in crater-filling talus breccias and volcaniclastic breccias at <180°C. The results from the K1 and K2 pipes at Venetia suggest emplacement temperatures for the vent-filling breccias of 260°C to >560°C, although the interpretation of these results is hampered by the presence of Mesozoic magnetic overprints. These temperatures are comparable to the estimated emplacement temperatures of other kimberlite deposits and fall within the proposed stability field for common interstitial matrix mineral assemblages within vent-filling volcaniclastic kimberlites. The temperatures are also comparable to those obtained for pyroclastic deposits in other, silicic, volcanic systems. Because the lithic content of the studied deposits is 10-30%, the initial bulk temperature of the pyroclastic mixture of cold lithic clasts and juvenile kimberlite magma could have been 300-400°C hotter than the palaeomagnetic estimates. Together with the discovery of welded and agglutinated juvenile pyroclasts in some pyroclastic kimberlites, the palaeomagnetic results indicate that there are examples of kimberlites where phreatomagmatism did not play a major role in the generation

  19. Pipe connector

    DOEpatents

    Sullivan, Thomas E.; Pardini, John A.

    1978-01-01

    A safety test facility for testing sodium-cooled nuclear reactor components includes a reactor vessel and a heat exchanger submerged in sodium in the tank. The reactor vessel and heat exchanger are connected by an expansion/deflection pipe coupling comprising a pair of coaxially and slidably engaged tubular elements having radially enlarged opposed end portions of which at least a part is of spherical contour adapted to engage conical sockets in the ends of pipes leading out of the reactor vessel and in to the heat exchanger. A spring surrounding the pipe coupling urges the end portions apart and into engagement with the spherical sockets. Since the pipe coupling is submerged in liquid a limited amount of leakage of sodium from the pipe can be tolerated.

  20. Flow conditions of fresh mortar and concrete in different pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, Stefan; Haugan, Lars; Hammer, Tor Arne; Kalogiannidis, Evangelos

    2009-11-15

    The variation in fresh concrete flow rate over the pipe cross section was investigated on differently coloured and highly flowable concrete mixes flowing through pipes of different materials (rubber, steel, acryl). First, uncoloured (gray) concrete was poured through the pipe and the pipe blocked. Similar but coloured (black) concrete was then poured into the pipe filled with gray concrete, flowing after the gray concrete for a while before being blocked and hardened. The advance of the colouring along the pipe wall (showing boundary flow rate) was observed on the moulded concrete surface appearing after removing the pipe from the hardened concrete. The shapes of the interfaces between uncoloured and coloured concrete (showing variation of flow rate over the pipe cross section) were observed on sawn surfaces of concrete half cylinders cut along the length axes of the concrete-filled pipe. Flow profiles over the pipe cross section were clearly seen with maximum flow rates near the centre of the pipe and low flow rate at the pipe wall (typically rubber pipe with reference concrete without silica fume and/or stabilizers). More plug-shaped profiles, with long slip layers and less variation of flow rate over the cross section, were also seen (typically in smooth acrylic pipes). Flow rate, amount of concrete sticking to the wall after flow and SEM-images of pipe surface roughness were observed, illustrating the problem of testing full scale pumping.

  1. Superfluid Helium Heat Pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gully, P.

    This paper reports on the development and the thermal tests of three superfluid helium heat pipes. Two of them are designed to provide a large transport capacity (4 mW at 1.7 K). They feature a copper braid located inside a 6 mm outer diameter stainless tube fitted with copper ends for mechanical anchoring. The other heat pipe has no copper braid and is designed to get much smaller heat transport capacity (0.5 mW) and to explore lower temperature (0.7 - 1 K). The copper braid and the tube wall is the support of the Rollin superfluid helium film in which the heat is transferred. The low filling pressure makes the technology very simple with the possibility to easily bend the tube. We present the design and discuss the thermal performance of the heat pipes tested in the 0.7 to 2.0 K temperature range. The long heat pipe (1.2 m with copper braid) and the short one (0.25 m with copper braid) have similar thermal performance in the range 0.7 - 2.0 K. At 1.7 K the long heat pipe, 120 g in weight, reaches a heat transfer capacity of 6.2 mW and a thermal conductance of 600 mW/K for 4 mW transferred power. Due to the pressure drop of the vapor flow and Kapitza thermal resistance, the conductance of the third heat pipe dramatically decreases when the temperature decreases. A 3.8 mW/K is obtained at 0.7 K for 0.5 mW transferred power.

  2. Heat-pipe planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, William B.; Simon, Justin I.; Webb, A. Alexander G.

    2017-09-01

    Observations of the surfaces of all terrestrial bodies other than Earth reveal remarkable but unexplained similarities: endogenic resurfacing is dominated by plains-forming volcanism with few identifiable centers, magma compositions are highly magnesian (mafic to ultra-mafic), tectonic structures are dominantly contractional, and ancient topographic and gravity anomalies are preserved to the present. Here we show that cooling via volcanic heat pipes may explain these observations and provide a universal model of the way terrestrial bodies transition from a magma-ocean state into subsequent single-plate, stagnant-lid convection or plate tectonic phases. In the heat-pipe cooling mode, magma moves from a high melt-fraction asthenosphere through the lithosphere to erupt and cool at the surface via narrow channels. Despite high surface heat flow, the rapid volcanic resurfacing produces a thick, cold, and strong lithosphere which undergoes contractional strain forced by downward advection of the surface toward smaller radii. We hypothesize that heat-pipe cooling is the last significant endogenic resurfacing process experienced by most terrestrial bodies in the solar system, because subsequent stagnant-lid convection produces only weak tectonic deformation. Terrestrial exoplanets appreciably larger than Earth may remain in heat-pipe mode for much of the lifespan of a Sun-like star.

  3. Development and test of a cryogenic pulsating heat pipe and a pre-cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet, Fabien; Gully, Philippe; Nikolayev, Vadim

    2012-06-01

    The needs of thermal links in cryogenic applications are increasing, especially because of the use of cryocoolers which offer a reduced size cold finger. The Pulsating Heat Pipe (PHP) is a passive two-phase high performance thermal link. Like the conventional heat pipe, it features a closed tube filled with a two-phase fluid able to transfer heat from its hot part (evaporator) to the cold part (condenser). A general problem for any two-phase cryogenic thermal link is the pre-cooling of the evaporator to ensure the presence of liquid inside the evaporator to start the flow motion. In conventional heat pipes, this problem is by passed by the wick but in the case of PHPs it has to be specially addressed. We have designed, manufactured and tested a helium PHP associated to a novel pre-cooling system. The cool down time of the PHP evaporator is reduced significantly. The maximum transferred power of the PHP is 145 mW with a cold source at 4.2 K.

  4. Piping Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Burns & McDonnell provide architectural and engineering services in planning, design and construction of a wide range of projects all over the world. In design analysis, company regularly uses COSMIC computer programs. In computer testing piping design of a power plant, company uses Pipe Flexibility Analysis Program (MEL-21) to analyze stresses due to weight, temperature, and pressure found in proposed piping systems. Individual flow rates are put into the computer, then computer calculates the pressure drop existing across each component; if needed, design corrections or adjustments can be made and rechecked.

  5. Piping Flexibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A NASA computer program aids Hudson Engineering Corporation, Houston, Texas, in the design and construction of huge petrochemical processing plants like the one shown, which is located at Ju'aymah, Saudi Arabia. The pipes handling the flow of chemicals are subject to a variety of stresses, such as weight and variations in pressure and temperature. Hudson Engineering uses a COSMIC piping flexibility analysis computer program to analyze stresses and unsure the necessary strength and flexibility of the pipes. This program helps the company realize substantial savings in reduced engineering time.

  6. Fabrication and evaluation of chemically vapor deposited tungsten heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacigalupi, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    A network of lithium-filled tungsten heat pipes is considered as a method of heat extraction from high temperature nuclear reactors. The need for material purity and shape versatility in these applications dictates the use of chemically vapor deposited (CVD) tungsten. Adaptability of CVD tungsten to complex heat pipe designs is shown. Deposition and welding techniques are described. Operation of two lithium-filled CVD tungsten heat pipes above 1800 K is discussed.

  7. Cold gas filling a cosmic `Spiderweb' of proto-galaxies: witnessing the in-situ birth of a giant cluster elliptical?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emonts, Bjorn; Sadler, Elaine; Norris, Ray; Ekers, Ron; de Breuck, Carlos; Miley, George; Mao, Minnie; Carilli, Chris; Dannerbauer, Helmut; Rottgering, Huub; van Moorsel, Gustaaf; Villar martin, Montse; Lehnert, Matthew; Seymour, Nick

    2014-10-01

    The largest galaxies in the Universe are giant ellipticals in the cores of galaxy clusters. They contain giant, diffuse stellar halos, whose formation history is uncertain. Simulations predict that their early evolutionary stages (in proto-clusters at z>1) are dominated by rapid gas cooling that triggers "in-situ" star-formation. Using ATCA, we may have obtained the first tantalizing observational evidence for this scenario, by detecting and resolving an extended (40 kpc) reservoir of cold molecular CO(1-0) gas in the spectacular `Spiderweb' radio galaxy at z=2.2. The Spiderweb Galaxy is one of the most massive galaxies in formation and likely the progenitor of a central-cluster elliptical. HST imaging showed that it is a highly clumped system in the core of a rich proto-cluster, with merging proto-galaxies and a diffuse UV-emitting halo that harbors widespread star formation across the IGM. We may now -for the first time- be in the process of identifying the fuel reservoir that can sustain such widespread star formation. We propose complementary high-resolution ATCA observations to establish to what extent the detected CO is diffuse or clumpy and to probe its kinematics. This will help elucidate the origin of the cold gas, and its potential role in star formation, cooling flows, gas-stripping and AGN-feedback. Our project will reveal new insights into the formation history of the largest galaxies in the Universe.

  8. Evaluation of a rinsing-based cleaning process for pipes.

    PubMed

    Prosek, Mirko; Krizman, Mitja; Kovac, Miso

    2005-07-01

    Pipes of various designs were constructed. Pipes were filled with a model solution resembling a dermal solution product. After the removal of the model solution, pipes were rinsed several times with ethanol and rinsing solutions of each step analyzed by gas chromatography. The results gave the information about the dependency between the configuration of the pipe and the efficiency of the cleaning operation. From concentrations measured in the reactor, expected concentrations in rinsing solutions from pipes were predicted. The obtained results confirm that the amount of residues per surface area increases when a pipe includes bends and valves. In terms of extra contamination, each bend was equal to 25 cm, while each valve was equal to 100 cm of pipe length when pipes of 1.8 cm in diameter were used. It was proven that the contributions of individual valves and bends in the pipe are additive in the calculation. The validity of the proposed model was confirmed by experimental data.

  9. Apparatus and method for detecting leaks in piping

    DOEpatents

    Trapp, D.J.

    1994-12-27

    A method and device are disclosed for detecting the location of leaks along a wall or piping system, preferably in double-walled piping. The apparatus comprises a sniffer probe, a rigid cord such as a length of tube attached to the probe on one end and extending out of the piping with the other end, a source of pressurized air and a source of helium. The method comprises guiding the sniffer probe into the inner pipe to its distal end, purging the inner pipe with pressurized air, filling the annulus defined between the inner and outer pipe with helium, and then detecting the presence of helium within the inner pipe with the probe as is pulled back through the inner pipe. The length of the tube at the point where a leak is detected determines the location of the leak in the pipe. 2 figures.

  10. Apparatus and method for detecting leaks in piping

    DOEpatents

    Trapp, Donald J.

    1994-01-01

    A method and device for detecting the location of leaks along a wall or piping system, preferably in double-walled piping. The apparatus comprises a sniffer probe, a rigid cord such as a length of tube attached to the probe on one end and extending out of the piping with the other end, a source of pressurized air and a source of helium. The method comprises guiding the sniffer probe into the inner pipe to its distal end, purging the inner pipe with pressurized air, filling the annulus defined between the inner and outer pipe with helium, and then detecting the presence of helium within the inner pipe with the probe as is pulled back through the inner pipe. The length of the tube at the point where a leak is detected determines the location of the leak in the pipe.

  11. Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Bobs Candies, Inc. produces some 24 million pounds of candy a year, much of it 'Christmas candy.' To meet Christmas demand, it must produce year-round. Thousands of cases of candy must be stored a good part of the year in two huge warehouses. The candy is very sensitive to temperature. The warehouses must be maintained at temperatures of 78-80 degrees Fahrenheit with relative humidities of 38- 42 percent. Such precise climate control of enormous buildings can be very expensive. In 1985, energy costs for the single warehouse ran to more than $57,000 for the year. NASA and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) were adapting heat pipe technology to control humidity in building environments. The heat pipes handle the jobs of precooling and reheating without using energy. The company contacted a FSEC systems engineer and from that contact eventually emerged a cooperative test project to install a heat pipe system at Bobs' warehouses, operate it for a period of time to determine accurately the cost benefits, and gather data applicable to development of future heat pipe systems. Installation was completed in mid-1987 and data collection is still in progress. In 1989, total energy cost for two warehouses, with the heat pipes complementing the air conditioning system was $28,706, and that figures out to a cost reduction.

  12. Heat Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-01-01

    Bobs Candies, Inc. produces some 24 million pounds of candy a year, much of it 'Christmas candy.' To meet Christmas demand, it must produce year-round. Thousands of cases of candy must be stored a good part of the year in two huge warehouses. The candy is very sensitive to temperature. The warehouses must be maintained at temperatures of 78-80 degrees Fahrenheit with relative humidities of 38- 42 percent. Such precise climate control of enormous buildings can be very expensive. In 1985, energy costs for the single warehouse ran to more than 57,000 for the year. NASA and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) were adapting heat pipe technology to control humidity in building environments. The heat pipes handle the jobs of precooling and reheating without using energy. The company contacted a FSEC systems engineer and from that contact eventually emerged a cooperative test project to install a heat pipe system at Bobs' warehouses, operate it for a period of time to determine accurately the cost benefits, and gather data applicable to development of future heat pipe systems. Installation was completed in mid-1987 and data collection is still in progress. In 1989, total energy cost for two warehouses, with the heat pipes complementing the air conditioning system was 28,706, and that figures out to a cost reduction.

  13. Heat pipe thermal conditioning panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saaski, E. W.; Loose, J. D.; Mccoy, K. E.

    1974-01-01

    Thermal control of electronic hardware and experiments on future space vehicles is critical to proper functioning and long life. Thermal conditioning panels (cold plates) are a baseline control technique in current conceptual studies. Heat generating components mounted on the panels are typically cooled by fluid flowing through integral channels within the panel. However, replacing the pumped fluid coolant loop within the panel with heat pipes offers attractive advantages in weight, reliability, and installation. This report describes the development and fabrication of two large 0.76 x 0.76 m heat pipe thermal conditioning panels to verify performance and establish the design concept.

  14. Design, Development, Pre-Testing and Preparation for Full Scale Cold Testing of a System for Field Remediation of Vertical Pipe Units at the Hanford Site 618-10 Burial Grounds -12495

    SciTech Connect

    Halliwell, Stephen

    2012-07-01

    At the Hanford site, in the 1950's and 60's, radioactive waste materials, including Transuranic (TRU) wastes from a number of laboratories were stored in vertical pipe units (VPUs) in what are now the 618-10 and 618-11 burial grounds. Although the current physical condition of the VPUs is unknown, initial R and D studies had shown that in-ground size reduction and stabilization of VPU contents was feasible. This paper describes the R and D work and testing activities to validate the concept of in-ground size reduction and stabilization of VPU contents, and the design and pre-testing of major plant items and augering systems on full size simulated VPUs. The paper also describes the full size prototype equipment which will be used in full size cold testing of simulated VPUs off the Hanford site, to prove the equipment, develop operating procedures, and train operators prior to deployment on site. Safe and effective field remediation, removal and disposal of the VPUs in the 600 area are critical to the success of the River Corridor Closure Contract at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Safe and effective field remediation, removal and disposal of the VPUs in the 600 area are critical to the success of the River Corridor Closure Contract at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. (authors)

  15. Piping Connector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    A complex of high pressure piping at Stennis Space Center carries rocket propellants and other fluids/gases through the Center's Component Test Facility. Conventional clamped connectors tend to leak when propellant lines are chilled to extremely low temperatures. Reflange, Inc. customized an existing piping connector to include a secondary seal more tolerant of severe thermal gradients for Stennis. The T-Con connector solved the problem, and the company is now marketing a commercial version that permits testing, monitoring or collecting any emissions that may escape the primary seal during severe thermal transition.

  16. Pipe gripper

    DOEpatents

    Moyers, S.M.

    1975-12-16

    A device for gripping the exterior surface of a pipe or rod is described which has a plurality of wedges, each having a concave face which engages the outer surface of the pipe and each having a smooth face opposing the concave face. The wedges are seated on and their grooved concave faces are maintained in circular alignment by tapered axial segments of an opening extending through a wedge-seating member. The wedges are allowed to slide across the tapered axial segments so that such a sliding movement acts to vary the diameter of the circular alignment.

  17. Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Heat Pipes were originally developed by NASA and the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory during the 1960s to dissipate excessive heat build- up in critical areas of spacecraft and maintain even temperatures of satellites. Heat pipes are tubular devices where a working fluid alternately evaporates and condenses, transferring heat from one region of the tube to another. KONA Corporation refined and applied the same technology to solve complex heating requirements of hot runner systems in injection molds. KONA Hot Runner Systems are used throughout the plastics industry for products ranging in size from tiny medical devices to large single cavity automobile bumpers and instrument panels.

  18. The Effect of Filler-Polymer Interactions on Cold-Crystallization Kinetics in Crosslinked, Silica Filled PDMS/PDPS Copolymer Melts.

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, A; DeTeresa, S; Thompson, L; Cohenour, R; Balazs, B; Maxwell, R S

    2006-04-21

    Crystallization in a series of variable crosslink density poly(dimethyl-diphenyl) siloxanes random block copolymers reinforced through a mixture of precipitated and fumed silica fillers has been studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The silicone composite studied was composed of 94.6 mol% Dimethoylsiloxane, 5.1 mol% diphenylsiloxane, and 0.3 mol% methyl-vinyl siloxane (which formed crosslinking after a peroxide cure). The polymer was filled with a mixture of 21.6 wt. % fumed silica and 4.0 wt. % precipitated silica previously treated with 6.8 wt. % ethoxy-endblocked siloxane processing aid. The base composite was characterized by a molecular weight between crosslinks in the polymer network of {approx}24 kDa and an overall molecular weight (including the influence of the silica fillers) between crosslinks of {approx}11 kDa. Molecular weight between crosslinks and filler-polymer interaction strength were then modified by exposure to {gamma}-irradiation in either air or vacuum. The unirradiated material exhibited crystallization at -80 C as measured by DSC with a 16% crystallization as measured by XRD. Isothermal DMA experiments illustrated that crystallization at -85 C occurred over a 1.8 hour period in silica-filled systems and 2.2-2.6 hours in unfilled systems. The onset of crystallization typically occurred after a 30-minute incubation/nucleation period. The crystallization kinetics were dependent on crosslink density. Changes in molecular weight of a factor of two did not, however, change the amount of crystallization. Irradiation in vacuum resulted in faster overall crystallization rates compared to air irradiation for the same crosslink density, likely due to a reduction in the interaction between the polymer chains and the silica filler surface. Modulated differential scanning calorimetry contrasted the crystallization and melting behavior of pure PDMS versus the PDMS/PDPS base

  19. Stratification transients in steam transporting pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, Z.N.

    1996-12-01

    Thermal stratification may occur in horizontal piping segments due to temperature difference and lack of mixing between fluid layers. This results in nonuniform temperature transient profiles across the pipe sections that escalates the low cycle fatigue degradation of the concerned piping system. In the specific case of steam transporting pipes, the incipient warmup after a prolonged cold shutdown would result in steam condensation on the pipe walls. The temperature of accumulated condensate at the bottom of horizontal pipe segments is initially cooler than that of incoming hot steam flowing above it. In addition, the saturated steam high heat flux transfer, as it condenses on the upper portions of the pipe wall, is at least two orders of magnitude higher than the heat flux at the condensate-covered wetted bottom wall of the pipe. This condition generates stratified temperature transient profiles across the horizontal pipe sections. In this paper, the complex phenomenon of the thermal stratification in steam transporting pipes is parametrically investigated. The severity of the thermal stratification transients depends upon parameters such as pressure, steam quality, drainage efficiency, pipe size, material, and routing. The author used simplified finite difference heat transfer models to investigate the influences of these parameters. The resulting maximum linear, nonlinear, and average top to bottom temperature distributions are presented. The associated decay level at 1,000 seconds is also presented. In this paper, basic formulations used in the simplified finite difference heat transfer thermal stratification modeling are introduced. The parametric investigations are intended to provide the piping design engineers with load estimates resulting from the thermal stratification in steam transporting pipes.

  20. Steam bubble collapse induced water hammer in draining pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, P.; Silva, R.J.

    1991-08-01

    When hot steam replaces cold condensate in a horizontal or almost horizontal pipe, a steam bubble collapse induced water hammer often results. The effect of condensate drainage velocity and pipe declination on the incidence of steam bubble collapse induced water hammer is investigated experimentally. Declining the pipe more than 2.4{degrees} allows drainage velocities up to 3 ft/sec (1m/s) in a two inch (5 cm) pipe without water hammer. A semi-empirical theory allows extrapolation to other pressures, pipe sizes and inclinations. 4 refs.

  1. Water-hammer in the cold leg during an SBLOCA due to cold ECCS injection

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, M.G.; Ghan, L.S.

    1991-12-01

    Water-hammer might occur in the cold leg of pressurized water reactors (PWR) during small break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCA`s), when cold emergency core cooling system (ECCS) water is injected into a pipe that may be partially filled with saturated steam. The water may mix with the steam and cause it to condense abruptly. Depending on the flow regime present, slugs of liquid may then be accelerated towards each other or against the piping structure. The possibility of this phenomenon is of concern to us because it may become a dominant phenomenon and change the character of the transient. In performing the code scaling, applicability, and uncertainty study (CSAU) on a SBLOCA scenario, we had to examine the possibility that the transient being analyzed could experience water-hammer and thus depart from the scope of the study. Two criteria for water-hammer initiation were investigated and tested using a RELAP5/MOD3 simulation of the transient. Our results indicated a very low likelihood of occurrence of the phenomenon. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Water-hammer in the cold leg during an SBLOCA due to cold ECCS injection

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, M.G.; Ghan, L.S.

    1991-01-01

    Water-hammer might occur in the cold leg of pressurized water reactors (PWR) during small break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCA's), when cold emergency core cooling system (ECCS) water is injected into a pipe that may be partially filled with saturated steam. The water may mix with the steam and cause it to condense abruptly. Depending on the flow regime present, slugs of liquid may then be accelerated towards each other or against the piping structure. The possibility of this phenomenon is of concern to us because it may become a dominant phenomenon and change the character of the transient. In performing the code scaling, applicability, and uncertainty study (CSAU) on a SBLOCA scenario, we had to examine the possibility that the transient being analyzed could experience water-hammer and thus depart from the scope of the study. Two criteria for water-hammer initiation were investigated and tested using a RELAP5/MOD3 simulation of the transient. Our results indicated a very low likelihood of occurrence of the phenomenon. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Experimental investigation of free convective heat transfer along inclined pipes in high-pressure cryogenic storage tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langebach, Robin; Haberstroh, Christoph

    2012-06-01

    The minimization of heat intake is one of the main challenges in the design process of cryogenic storage tanks. Previous investigations, mostly based on numerical calculations, have shown that connection pipes can increase the heat intake significantly. Under certain geometric conditions a free convective flow field builds up which is able to enhance the heat transfer from the warm end to the cold end of the pipe in a dramatic way. However, this effect is mainly an issue for high-pressure cryogenic storage tanks. In order to investigate the transferred heat experimentally, a test cryostat was designed and manufactured. It is pivot-mounted and can be positioned at any angle of inclination. Inside the cryostat vessel a thermally isolated test pipe with a maximum length of 1 m and a maximum fluid pressure of 200 bar can be placed. This paper gives a closer look at the cryostat design and the measuring principle. First measurement results for a helium filled 20x2x100 mm test pipe under various pressure levels are discussed. The measured heat transfer has a more dramatic maximum than anticipated and can achieve about 33.5 Watts at an inclination angle of γ = 15° for the test pipe under consideration.

  4. High temperature heat pipe research at NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tower, L. K.; Kaufman, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    In the course of studies of thermionic power plants for space applications, high-temperature refractory metal heat pipes have been designed and built for alkali metal working fluids. Fabrication of tungsten wire-reinforced tantalum pipes by chemical vapor deposition is discussed; the development of reinforced pipes with integral arteries produced by chemical vapor deposition is also mentioned. The feasibility of using lithium, sodium, potassium, cesium or mercury as the working fluid in the heat pipes is also reviewed. Operation of a lithium-filled heat pipe of about 3-kW capacity for several thousand hours is reported.

  5. Improved Method Of Bending Concentric Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, James E.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed method for bending two concentric pipes simultaneously while maintaining void between them replaces present tedious, messy, and labor-intensive method. Array of rubber tubes inserted in gap between concentric pipes. Tubes then inflated with relatively incompressible liquid to fill gap. Enables bending to be done faster and more cleanly, and amenable to automation of significant portion of bending process on computer numerically controlled (CNC) tube-bending machinery.

  6. COLD TRAPS

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, W.I.

    1958-09-30

    A cold trap is presented for removing a condensable component from a gas mixture by cooling. It consists of a shell, the exterior surface of which is chilled by a refrigerant, and conductive fins welded inside the shell to condense the gas, and distribute the condensate evenly throughout the length of the trap, so that the trap may function until it becomes completely filled with the condensed solid. The contents may then be removed as either a gas or as a liquid by heating the trap. This device has particuinr use as a means for removing uranium hexafluoride from the gaseous diffusion separation process during equipment breakdown and repair periods.

  7. Heat pipe technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A bibliography of heat pipe technology to provide a summary of research projects conducted on heat pipes is presented. The subjects duscussed are: (1) heat pipe applications, (2) heat pipe theory, (3) design and fabrication, (4) testing and operation, (5) subject and author index, and (6) heat pipe related patents.

  8. GPR characterization of buried tanks and pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, X.; McMechan, G.A.

    1997-05-01

    Ray-based numerical simulations of monostatic and bistatic GPR responses for several tank and pipe configurations reveal the potential for noninvasive diagnostic evaluations. Examples include discrimination of the material from which a tank is constructed, its size, contents, fluid levels, and shape changes. Ambiguities occur when different configurations give similar responses, and evaluations become less reliable as noise increases. Simulations are able to reproduce the salient features of field GPR data recorded over a metal pipe, and over plastic pipes filled with air, fresh water, and salt water.

  9. Moving-Gradient Furnace With Constant-Temperature Cold Zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J.; Shaubach, Robert M.

    1993-01-01

    Outer heat pipe helps in controlling temperature of cold zone of furnace. Part of heat-pipe furnace that includes cold zone surrounded by another heat pipe equipped with heater at one end and water cooling coil at other end. Temperature of heat pipe maintained at desired constant value by controlling water cooling. Serves as constant-temperature heat source or heat sink, as needed, for gradient of temperature as gradient region moved along furnace. Proposed moving-gradient heat-pipe furnace used in terrestrial or spaceborne experiments on directional solidification in growth of crystals.

  10. Moving-Gradient Furnace With Constant-Temperature Cold Zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J.; Shaubach, Robert M.

    1993-01-01

    Outer heat pipe helps in controlling temperature of cold zone of furnace. Part of heat-pipe furnace that includes cold zone surrounded by another heat pipe equipped with heater at one end and water cooling coil at other end. Temperature of heat pipe maintained at desired constant value by controlling water cooling. Serves as constant-temperature heat source or heat sink, as needed, for gradient of temperature as gradient region moved along furnace. Proposed moving-gradient heat-pipe furnace used in terrestrial or spaceborne experiments on directional solidification in growth of crystals.

  11. Heat pipe technology for advanced rocket thrust chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousar, D. C.

    1971-01-01

    The application of heat pipe technology to the design of rocket engine thrust chambers is discussed. Subjects presented are: (1) evaporator wick development, (2) specific heat pipe designs and test results, (3) injector design, fabrication, and cold flow testing, and (4) preliminary thrust chamber design.

  12. Sink or swim pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, B.C.; Rhines, J.A.

    1985-07-01

    The development of a six-inch ID flexible pipe system for use as a rapidly deployable offshore fuel delivery system is described. Pipe design data, pipe construction, and advantages of the offshore petroleum delivery system are discussed.

  13. 20. INTERIOR VIEW WITH IRON POURERS FILLING COMPLETED MOLDS ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. INTERIOR VIEW WITH IRON POURERS FILLING COMPLETED MOLDS ON GREY IRON UNIT NO. 1 MOLD CONVEYOR. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  14. 19. INTERIOR VIEW WITH IRON POURERS FILLING COMPLETED MOLDS ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. INTERIOR VIEW WITH IRON POURERS FILLING COMPLETED MOLDS ON GREY IRON UNIT NO. 1 MOLD CONVEYOR. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  15. 23. CORE WORKER OPERATING A COREBLOWER THAT PNEUMATICALLY FILLED CORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. CORE WORKER OPERATING A CORE-BLOWER THAT PNEUMATICALLY FILLED CORE BOXES WITH RESIGN IMPREGNATED SAND AND CREATED A CORE THAT THEN REQUIRED BAKING, CA. 1950. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  16. Filled Craters

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-05-11

    This MOC image shows adjacent impact craters located north-northwest of the Acheron Fossae region of Mars. The two craters are of similar size and formed by meteor impacts. However, one is much more filled than the other, indicating that it is older

  17. Space shuttle orbiter heat pipe applications. Volume 1: Synopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alario, J. P.; Prager, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was made to formulate and evaluate heat pipe applications for the space shuttle orbiter. Of the twenty-seven specific applications which were identified, a joint evaluation resulted in the selection of five of the most promising ones for prototype development. The formulation process is described, along with the applications which evolved. The bulk of the discussion deals with the top five applications: (1) heat pipe augmented cold rail; (2) avionics heat pipe circuit; (3) heat pipe/phase change material modular sink; (4) air-to-heat-pipe heat exchanger; and (5) heat pipe radiator for compartment temperature control. The philosophy, physical design details, and performance data are presented for each concept along with a comparison to the baseline design where applicable. A sixth application, heat pipe space radiator for waste heat rejection, was also recommended for prototype development.

  18. Seismic pressure surges in liquid-filled pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Hatfield, F.J.; Wiggert, D.C. )

    1990-08-01

    Observed damage and analytic studies indicate that earthquakes may cause destructive pressure surges in liquid-filled piping. Most studies have concerned buried piping that could be assumed to move with the ground. However, pressure surges also would be expected in above-ground piping, where they would affect the displacement response and, hence, the amplitude of flexural stress in the piping. Current aseismic design practice is to simplify this effect by treating the contained liquid as incompressible mass. This paper describes a technique for computing pressure and relative displacement that incorporates elasticity of both the piping and the liquid. Seismic responses of an example pipeline are predicted. It was found that assuming the piping to be rigid produced an upper-bound estimate of pressure, but assuming the liquid to be incompressible resulted in underestimating displacement of the piping.

  19. 9. VIEW OF DAM FROM LEFT SIDE. PUMPCRETE PIPE LINES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF DAM FROM LEFT SIDE. PUMPCRETE PIPE LINES ARE CARRIED ON WALKWAY. UPSTREAM PARTS OF BUTTRESSES ARE FOG-SPRAYED TO PERMIT PROMPT FILLING OF CONTRACTION JOINTS. July 30, 1938 - Bartlett Dam, Verde River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  20. Cold Spray Technology for DOD Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    Distribution Unlimited Mechanical Mixing at Interface • .. Sm-in ,, aluminum Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Cold Spray vs...of Corrosion Damage on Fielded Parts and Subsequent to Cold Spray Repair Before After 15 Cold Spray HP- Aluminum Fill...Unlimited Development and Implementation of Commercially Pure (CP) Aluminum and 6061 Aluminum Alloy Cold Spray Coatings for the Repair of Magnesium

  1. Working fluid flow visualization in gravity heat pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Patrik; Malcho, Milan

    2016-03-01

    Heat pipe is device working with phase changes of working fluid inside hermetically closed pipe at specific pressure. The phase changes of working fluid from fluid to vapour and vice versa help heat pipe to transport high heat flux. The article deal about gravity heat pipe construction and processes casing inside during heat pipe operation. Experiment working fluid flow visualization is performed with two glass heat pipes with different inner diameter (13 mm and 22 mm) and filled with water. The working fluid flow visualization explains the phenomena as a working fluid boiling, nucleation of bubbles, and vapour condensation on the wall, vapour and condensate flow interaction, flow down condensate film thickness on the wall occurred during the heat pipe operation.

  2. Effects of entrapped air in a closed soil pipe on the soil pipe flow during a rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasaki, T.; Imoto, H.; Hamamoto, S.; Nishimura, T.

    2016-12-01

    Soil pipes, continuous macropores parallel to the slope, are considered to have an important role in hillslope hydrological processes. However, knowledge of water flow in the closed soil pipe is still limited due to the lack of the nondestructive observations. The objective of this study is to clarify water flow dynamics in the closed soil pipe directly by the laboratory experiment using a soil box with an artificial soil pipe. An acrylic plastic pipe, 7 mm inner diameter, 10 mm outer diameter, and 40 cm long, was used as an artificial soil pipe. Drain holes were evenly opened on the pipe wall and covered by nylon mesh. Soil pipe was connected to a pressure transducer to measure air pressure in the pipe. Two-needle electrodes were set inside the pipe to detect a pipe flow. Acrylic rectangular box, 60 cm long, 4 cm wide and 35 cm high, was filled with Toyoura sand with 3 % mass water content to a thickness of 30 cm. Drainage holes were opened at the downward outlet of the box. Artificial soil pipe was buried at center of soil box and 2.5 cm high from the base of the box. After packing the sand, soil box was inclined, and then artificial rainfall, 40-250 mm h-1, was applied. During the experiments, outflow rate and soil water pressure were measured. In the slope of 10°, soil pipe flow was not observed under either rainfall intensities, though groundwater table rose above the soil pipe. Increase in air pressure in the soil pipe started prior to the water saturation of soil around the soil pipe. This suggested that entrapped air in the soil pipe prevented water intrusion into the soil pipe. In the slope of 20°, soil pipe flow started when soil around the lower end of the soil pipe was saturated, but steady-state groundwater table was similar to that under no pipe condition. Release of the air in the soil pipe greatly decreased the groundwater level, indicating that even after the soil pipe flow started, entrapped air restricted the drainage through the soil pipe.

  3. Chemical laser exhaust pipe design research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yunqiang; Huang, Zhilong; Chen, Zhiqiang; Ren, Zebin; Guo, Longde

    2016-10-01

    In order to weaken the chemical laser exhaust gas influence of the optical transmission, a vent pipe is advised to emissions gas to the outside of the optical transmission area. Based on a variety of exhaust pipe design, a flow field characteristic of the pipe is carried out by numerical simulation and analysis in detail. The research results show that for uniform deflating exhaust pipe, although the pipeline structure is cyclical and convenient for engineering implementation, but there is a phenomenon of air reflows at the pipeline entrance slit which can be deduced from the numerical simulation results. So, this type of pipeline structure does not guarantee seal. For the design scheme of putting the pipeline contract part at the end of the exhaust pipe, or using the method of local area or tail contraction, numerical simulation results show that backflow phenomenon still exists at the pipeline entrance slit. Preliminary analysis indicates that the contraction of pipe would result in higher static pressure near the wall for the low speed flow field, so as to produce counter pressure gradient at the entrance slit. In order to eliminate backflow phenomenon at the pipe entrance slit, concerned with the pipeline type of radial size increase gradually along the flow, flow field property in the pipe is analyzed in detail by numerical simulation methods. Numerical simulation results indicate that there is not reflow phenomenon at entrance slit of the dilated duct. However the cold air inhaled in the slit which makes the temperature of the channel wall is lower than the center temperature. Therefore, this kind of pipeline structure can not only prevent the leak of the gas, but also reduce the wall temperature. In addition, compared with the straight pipe connection way, dilated pipe structure also has periodic structure, which can facilitate system integration installation.

  4. Ultrasonic pipe assessment

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Graham H.; Morrow, Valerie L.; Levie, Harold; Kane, Ronald J.; Brown, Albert E.

    2003-12-23

    An ultrasonic pipe or other structure assessment system includes an ultrasonic transducer positioned proximate the pipe or other structure. A fluid connection between the ultrasonic transducer and the pipe or other structure is produced. The ultrasonic transducer is moved relative to the pipe or other structure.

  5. The Sacred Calf Pipe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simms, Thomas E.

    1987-01-01

    Tells how the author learned of and recorded the list of Sioux tribe members who have kept the White Buffalo Calf Pipe. Reviews the legend surrounding the origin of the pipe and describes the succession of pipe-keepers and how they inherit the pipe. (Author/AEM)

  6. Shield For Flexible Pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponton, Michael K.; Williford, Clifford B.; Lagen, Nicholas T.

    1995-01-01

    Cylindrical shield designed to fit around flexible pipe to protect nearby workers from injury and equipment from damage if pipe ruptures. Designed as pressure-relief device. Absorbs impact of debris ejected radially from broken flexible pipe. Also redirects flow of pressurized fluid escaping from broken pipe onto flow path allowing for relief of pressure while minimizing potential for harm.

  7. Experimental investigations and applications of cryogenic heat pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Enguang; Yang, Fan; Mu, YongBin; Wu, Yinong

    2016-05-01

    In the infrared system, in order to decrease the background radiation and maximize the sensitivity, cooling down the aft-optic components' temperature is a better choice. Some two-phase devices such as grooved heat pipe or loop heat pipe (LHP) were used to link the cold sink and IR aft-optic components. This paper presented the testing results of cryogenic grooved heat pipes which were used in some infrared test systems in the temperature range of 160~210K with different heat load conditions. Also, some experimental results of cryogenic loop heat pipe were introduced in this paper.

  8. Cold Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COLD STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Workers who ... cold environments may be at risk of cold stress. Extreme cold weather is a dangerous situation that ...

  9. A pipe cleaning machine: ERIP recommendation No. 571

    SciTech Connect

    Bratcher, H. Jr.; Hinick, M.B.; Balsam, J.W.

    1992-06-12

    The subject invention, ``A Pipe Cleaning Machine,`` known as ``Buffy,`` is a device that strips pipeline of its coating down to the metal. The apparatus consists of a series of motor-driven metal brushes mounted on a ring structure that fits the around the pipe`s circumference. Once stripped, the pipeline may or may not be abrasive-blasted, but is then coated and wrapped, and the trench is back-filled. Present models of the Buffy can be used on pipe up to 36`` in diameter. One of the device`s unique features is its ability to operate while the pipeline remains in service.

  10. On the formation, growth, and shapes of solution pipes - insights from numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymczak, Piotr; Tredak, Hanna; Upadhyay, Virat; Kondratiuk, Paweł; Ladd, Anthony J. C.

    2015-04-01

    Cylindrical, vertical structures called solution pipes are a characteristic feature of epikarst, encountered in different parts of the world, both in relatively cold areas such as England and Poland (where their formation is linked to glacial processes) [1] and in coastal areas in tropical or subtropical climate (Bermuda, Australia, South Africa, Caribbean, Mediterranean) [2,3]. They are invariably associated with weakly cemented, porous limestones and relatively high groundwater fluxes. Many of them develop under the colluvial sandy cover and contain the fill of clayey silt. Although it is widely accepted that they are solutional in origin, the exact mechanism by which the flow becomes focused is still under debate. The hypotheses include the concentration of acidified water around stems and roots of plants, or the presence of pre-existing fractures or steeply dipping bedding planes, which would determine the points of entry for the focused groundwater flows. However, there are field sites where neither of this mechanisms was apparently at play and yet the pipes are formed in large quantities [1]. In this communication we show that the systems of solution pipes can develop spontaneously in nearly uniform matrix due to the reactive-infiltration instability: a homogeneous porous matrix is unstable with respect to small variations in local permeability; regions of high permeability dissolve faster because of enhanced transport of reactants, which leads to increased rippling of the front. This leads to the formation of a system of solution pipes which then advance into the matrix. We study this process numerically, by a combination of 2d- and 3d-simulations, solving the coupled flow and transport equations at the Darcy scale. The relative simplicity of this system (pipes developing in a uniform porous matrix, without any pre-existing structure) makes it very attractive from the modeling standpoint. We quantify the factors which control the pipe diameters and the

  11. Analytical and Experimental Investigations of Sodium Heat Pipes and Thermal Energy Storage Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    evaporator length was 1.25 in. in length with the condenser 5 in. in length. The heat pipe wick consisted of a double wrap of 60 mesh nickel screen spot welded ...the heat pipes . Four Inconel sheathed Chromel-Alumel thermocouples were attached by resistance spot welding Inconel tabs to the heat pipe outside...accumulated. After this processing the heat pipes were closed using an electrode fusion weld to crimp and weld the filled tubes. The cleaning procedures

  12. Micro heat pipe panels and method for producing same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camarda, Charles J. (Inventor); Peterson, George P. (Inventor); Rummler, Donald R. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    Flat or curved micro heat pipe panels are fabricated by arranging essentially parallel filaments in the shape of the desired panel. The configuration of the filaments corresponds to the desired configuration of the tubes that will constitute the heat pipes. A thermally conductive material is then deposited on and around the filaments to fill in the desired shape of the panel. The filaments are then removed, leaving tubular passageways of the desired configuration and surface texture in the material. The tubes are then filled with a working fluid and sealed. Composite micro heat pipe laminates are formed by layering individual micro heat pipe panels and bonding them to each other to form a single structure. The layering sequence of the micro heat pipe panels can be tailored to transport heat preferentially in specific directions as desired for a particular application.

  13. Mitigation of whistling in vertical corrugated pipes by liquid addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Eckeveld, A. C.; Westerweel, J.; Poelma, C.

    2017-09-01

    When a corrugated pipe is subject to a dry gas flow, high amplitude sound can be produced (so-called `whistling'). It was shown previously that liquid addition to corrugated pipe flow has the ability to reduce sound production. Small amounts of liquid are sufficient to mitigate whistling entirely. One of the mitigation mechanisms, cavity filling, is studied experimentally. Acoustic measurements are combined with a planar laser-induced fluorescence technique to measure the liquid accumulation in the cavities of a corrugated pipe. Using this technique, it is shown that the amount of filling of the cavities with liquid increases with increasing liquid injection rate and with reducing gas flow rate. The reduction in whistling amplitude caused by the liquid injection is closely related to the cavity filling. This indicates that the geometric alteration of the pipe wall, caused by the accumulation of liquid inside the cavities, is an important factor in the reduction in whistling amplitude.

  14. Effect of Geopolymer filler in Glass Reinforced Epoxy (GRE) Pipe for Piping Application: Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firdaus Abu Hashim, Mohammad; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al; Mohd Ruzaidi Ghazali, Che; Hussin, Kamarudin; Binhussain, Mohammed

    2016-06-01

    The present work is aimed to carry out the effect of geopolymer material which is fly ash as filler in the glass reinforced epoxy pipe on the micro structure of fly ash geopolymer, compression properties, and bulk density using the filament winding method. Conventional glass reinforced epoxy pipes has its own disadvantages such as high corrosion resistance at acidic environment and low strength which can be replaced by the composite pipes. Geopolymer is a type of amorphous alumino-silicate and can be synthesized by geopolymerization process. A series of glass reinforced epoxy pipe and glass reinforced epoxy pipe filled with 10 - 40 weight percentage geopolymer filler which is fly ash with 4 Molarity were prepared. Morphology of the raw material fly ash and fly ash based-geopolymer surface was characterized using scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the additions of fly ash at the beginning with 10 wt% are showing higher compressive strength than glass reinforced epoxy pipe without fly ash geopolymer filler. The compressive test of these series of samples was determined using Instron Universal Testing under compression mode. It was found that compressive strength for samples fly ash based-geopolymer filler are higher as compared to glass reinforced epoxy pipe without geopolymer filler. However, the compressive strength of glass reinforced epoxy pipe with fly ash geopolymer filler continues to decline when added to 20 wt% - 40 wt% of geopolymer filler loading. The results showed that the mixing of geopolymer materials in epoxy system can be obtained in this study.

  15. Reusable pipe flange covers

    DOEpatents

    Holden, James Elliott; Perez, Julieta

    2001-01-01

    A molded, flexible pipe flange cover for temporarily covering a pipe flange and a pipe opening includes a substantially round center portion having a peripheral skirt portion depending from the center portion, the center portion adapted to engage a front side of the pipe flange and to seal the pipe opening. The peripheral skirt portion is formed to include a plurality of circumferentially spaced tabs, wherein free ends of the flexible tabs are formed with respective through passages adapted to receive a drawstring for pulling the tabs together on a back side of the pipe flange.

  16. Impact of working fluids on gravitational heat pipe performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jobb, Marián; Kosa, Ľuboš; Nosek, Radovan; Malcho, Milan

    2016-06-01

    Performance heat pipes depends on several parameters. This article deals with the performance of heat pipes, depending on the working fluid and operating temperature. There is described the essential function of the heat pipe manufacturing process. Stainless heat pipes were made of material AISI 304 and filled with a distilled water and solution of distilled water with silver nitrate, up to 20% of the heat pipe inner volume. Measurements were carried at an operating temperature of 40 °C to 90 °C. The performance was measured on the experimental device. Presented results show the progress of individual measurements and the effect of operating parameters and working fluid on the performance of heat pipes.

  17. Visualization of heat transport in heat pipes using thermocamera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Patrik; Čaja, Alexander; Lenhard, Richard

    2010-10-01

    Heat pipes, as passive elements show a high level of reliability when taking heat away and they can take away heat flows having a significantly higher density than systems with forced convection. A heat pipe is a hermetically closed duct, filled with working fluid. Transport of heat in heat pipes is procured by the change of state of the working fluid from liquid state to steam and vice versa and depends on the hydrodynamic and heat processes in the pipe. This study have been focused on observing the impact these processes have on the heat process, the transport of heat within the heat pipe with the help of thermovision. The experiment is oriented at scanning the changes in the surface temperatures of the basic structural types of capillary heat pipes in vertical position.

  18. 76 FR 76939 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube From Turkey: Notice of Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... or cold-rolled mechanical tubing, pipe and tube hollows for redraws, finished scaffolding, and... International Trade Administration Certain Welded Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube From Turkey: Notice of Final... welded carbon steel pipe and tube from Turkey. The administrative review covers the Borusan Group \\1\\...

  19. Pipe selection guide

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, R.D.

    1982-04-01

    Four parameters are used to define a particular pipe: inside diameter, wall thickness, material, and ends. The factors influencing pipe selection are limited to fluid pressure, temperature, chemistry, flow rate, and cost. Other pipe parameters and factors that influence pipe selection and design are mentioned, and, where appropriate, the user is warned that at some stage in the project these factors must be dealt with. It is assumed that the objective is the direct application of geothermal water at temperatures lower than 200/sup 0/F and with 12-in. or smaller pipe. When considering friction losses for sizing purposes, only straight pipe is considered. A discussion of the characteristics and attributes of readily available pipe is included to aid in making a preliminary selection. Energy loss from buried pipe is considered.

  20. Cooled electronic system with liquid-cooled cold plate and thermal spreader coupled to electronic component

    DOEpatents

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Graybill, David P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J.; Schmidt, Roger R.; Steinke, Mark E.

    2016-04-05

    Apparatus and method are provided for facilitating cooling of an electronic component. The apparatus includes a liquid-cooled cold plate and a thermal spreader associated with the cold plate. The cold plate includes multiple coolant-carrying channel sections extending within the cold plate, and a thermal conduction surface with a larger surface area than a surface area of the component to be cooled. The thermal spreader includes one or more heat pipes including multiple heat pipe sections. One or more heat pipe sections are partially aligned to a first region of the cold plate, that is, where aligned to the surface to be cooled, and partially aligned to a second region of the cold plate, which is outside the first region. The one or more heat pipes facilitate distribution of heat from the electronic component to coolant-carrying channel sections of the cold plate located in the second region of the cold plate.

  1. Cooled electronic system with liquid-cooled cold plate and thermal spreader coupled to electronic component

    DOEpatents

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Graybill, David P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J.; Schmidt, Roger R.; Steinke, Mark E.

    2016-08-09

    Apparatus and method are provided for facilitating cooling of an electronic component. The apparatus includes a liquid-cooled cold plate and a thermal spreader associated with the cold plate. The cold plate includes multiple coolant-carrying channel sections extending within the cold plate, and a thermal conduction surface with a larger surface area than a surface area of the component to be cooled. The thermal spreader includes one or more heat pipes including multiple heat pipe sections. One or more heat pipe sections are partially aligned to a first region of the cold plate, that is, where aligned to the surface to be cooled, and partially aligned to a second region of the cold plate, which is outside the first region. The one or more heat pipes facilitate distribution of heat from the electronic component to coolant-carrying channel sections of the cold plate located in the second region of the cold plate.

  2. Reconfigurable manufacturing execution system for pipe cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Y. H.; Xie, J. Y.

    2011-08-01

    This article presents a reconfigurable manufacturing execution system (RMES) filling the gap between enterprise resource planning and resource layer for pipe-cutting production with mass customisation and rapid adaptation to dynamic market, which consists of planning and scheduling layer and executive control layer. Starting from customer's task and process requirements, the cutting trajectories are planned under generalised mathematical model able to reconfigure in accordance with various intersecting types' joint, and all tasks are scheduled by nesting algorithm to maximise the utilisation rate of rough material. This RMES for pipe cutting has been effectively implemented in more than 100 companies.

  3. Microstructural characterization of pipe bomb fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, Otto; Oxley, Jimmie; Smith, James; Platek, Michael; Ghonem, Hamouda; Bernier, Evan; Downey, Markus; Cumminskey, Christopher

    2010-03-15

    Recovered pipe bomb fragments, exploded under controlled conditions, have been characterized using scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy and microhardness. Specifically, this paper examines the microstructural changes in plain carbon-steel fragments collected after the controlled explosion of galvanized, schedule 40, continuously welded, steel pipes filled with various smokeless powders. A number of microstructural changes were observed in the recovered pipe fragments: deformation of the soft alpha-ferrite grains, deformation of pearlite colonies, twin formation, bands of distorted pearlite colonies, slip bands, and cross-slip bands. These microstructural changes were correlated with the relative energy of the smokeless powder fillers. The energy of the smokeless powder was reflected in a reduction in thickness of the pipe fragments (due to plastic strain prior to fracture) and an increase in microhardness. Moreover, within fragments from a single pipe, there was a radial variation in microhardness, with the microhardness at the outer wall being greater than that at the inner wall. These findings were consistent with the premise that, with the high energy fillers, extensive plastic deformation and wall thinning occurred prior to pipe fracture. Ultimately, the information collected from this investigation will be used to develop a database, where the fragment microstructure and microhardness will be correlated with type of explosive filler and bomb design. Some analyses, specifically wall thinning and microhardness, may aid in field characterization of explosive devices.

  4. Pipe-to-pipe impact program

    SciTech Connect

    Alzheimer, J.M.; Bampton, M.C.C.; Friley, J.R.; Simonen, F.A.

    1984-06-01

    This report documents the tests and analyses performed as part of the Pipe-to-Pipe Impact (PTPI) Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This work was performed to assist the NRC in making licensing decisions regarding pipe-to-pipe impact events following postulated breaks in high energy fluid system piping. The report scope encompasses work conducted from the program's start through the completion of the initial hot oil tests. The test equipment, procedures, and results are described, as are analytic studies of failure potential and data correlation. Because the PTPI Program is only partially completed, the total significance of the current test results cannot yet be accurately assessed. Therefore, although trends in the data are discussed, final conclusions and recommendations will be possible only after the completion of the program, which is scheduled to end in FY 1984.

  5. Heat pipes. [technology utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The development and use of heat pipes are described, including space requirements and contributions. Controllable heat pipes, and designs for automatically maintaining a selected constant temperature, are discussed which would add to the versatility and usefulness of heat pipes in industrial processing, manufacture of integrated circuits, and in temperature stabilization of electronics.

  6. Pipe protection bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Guy, N.G.

    1987-01-01

    Pipes and pipelines are being used for an ever widening range of materials, for increasing flows and in harsher applications. There is also more legal and social pressure to reduce the hazards associated with handling materials in pipes. All of this increases the demand for improved pipe reliability. Two of the major preventable causes of pipe failure are corrosion and wear. These may result from the pipe surroundings, or from the material which is carried and it is often impossible to prevent failure by the choice of pipe materials and design. However, additional pipe protection measures are available and it is these measures which are considered in this bibliography. The most common pipe protection methods are the application of coatings and the use of cathodic protection. Accordingly, much of this bibliography is devoted to these techniques. Articles dealing with other means of protecting pipes have also been included. The bibliography covers the protection of oil pipes, (both offshore and on land); water supply systems; gas distribution systems; sewer pipes; pipes for hydraulic and pneumatic transport of solids; power plant pipework; process plant pipework.

  7. Singing Corrugated Pipes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Frank S.

    1974-01-01

    Presents theoretical and experimental observations made with a musical toy called Hummer consisting of a corrugated flexible plastic tube about three-feet long and one-inch diam open at both ends. Included are descriptions of three new instruments: the Water Pipe, the Gas-Pipe Corrugahorn Bugle, and the Gas-Pipe Blues Corrugahorn. (CC)

  8. Specific acoustic impedance measurements of an air-filled thermoacoustic prime mover

    SciTech Connect

    Arnott, W.P.; Bass, H.E.; Raspet, R. )

    1992-12-01

    Thermoacoustic heat engines can be used to produce sound from heat and to transport heat using sound. The air-filled prime mover studied is a quarter wavelength resonator that produces sound at nominally 115 Hz for a temperature difference of [Delta]T = 176 K. Specific acoustic impedance at the mouth of the prime mover was measured as a function of the temperature difference between the hot and cold heat exchangers. The real part of the impedance changes sign for sufficiently large temperature differences, indicating the possibility of sound production. The theoretically predicted radiation impedance of an open pipe was compared to the measured impedance curves. The operating point was confirmed from the intersection of these experimental and theoretical impedance curves. These measurements allow for analysis of the prime mover as a sound source as discussed in a recent theoretical paper [T. B. Gabrielson, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 90, 2628-2636 (1991)]. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  9. 75 FR 64250 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube From Turkey: Notice of Final Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... this order, except for line pipe, oil country tubular goods, boiler tubing, cold- drawn or cold-rolled... International Trade Administration Certain Welded Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube From Turkey: Notice of Final... the preliminary results of the antidumping duty administrative review of certain welded carbon...

  10. Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest Drinking ...

  11. Cold Urticaria

    MedlinePlus

    ... throat when consuming cold food or drink Severe reactions may include: A whole-body response (anaphylaxis), which ... to cold water. The majority of cold urticaria reactions occur when skin is exposed to temperatures lower ...

  12. Pipe Line Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The array of tanks, pipes and valves in the photo below is a petroleum tank farm in Georgia, part of a petrochemical pipe line system that moves refined petroleum products from Texas and Louisiana to the mid-Eastern seaboard. The same pipes handle a number of different products, such as gasoline, kerosene, jet fuel or fuel oil. The fluids are temporarily stored in tanks, pumped into the pipes in turn and routed to other way stations along the pipe line. The complex job of controlling, measuring and monitoring fuel flow is accomplished automatically by a computerized control and communications system which incorporates multiple space technologies.

  13. Self-rewetting carbon nanofluid as working fluid for space and terrestrial heat pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Paola, R.; Savino, R.; Mirabile Gattia, D.; Marazzi, R.; Vittori Antisari, M.

    2011-11-01

    Thermal management is very important in modern electronic systems. Recent researches have been dedicated to the study of the heat transfer performances of binary heat transfer fluids with peculiar surface tension properties and in particular to that of "self-rewetting fluids", i.e., liquids with a surface tension increasing with temperature and concentration. Since in the course of liquid/vapor-phase change, self-rewetting fluids behavior induces a rather strong liquid inflow (caused by both temperature and concentration gradients) from the cold region (where liquid condensates) to the hot evaporator region, this fluids have been proposed and investigated as new heat transfer fluids for advanced heat transfer devices, e.g., heat pipes or heat spreaders for terrestrial and space applications (Savino et al. in Space Technol 25(1):59-61, 2009). The present work is dedicated to the study of the thermophysical properties of a new class of heat transfer fluids based on water/alcohol solutions with suspended carbon nanostructures, in particular single-wall carbon nanohorns (SWNH), synthesized by a homemade apparatus with an AC arc discharge in open air (Mirabile Gattia et al. in Nanotechnology 18:255604, 2007). SWNHs are cone-shaped nanoparticles with diameters between 1 and 5 nm and lengths in the range of 20-100 nm. SWNHs could be found in the form of quite-spherical aggregates with diameters ranging from 20 to 100 nm. The paper also discusses the results of these investigations and laboratory characterization tests of different heat pipes, including reference ordinary heat pipes and innovative pipes filled with self-rewetting fluids and self-rewetting nanofluids. The potential interest of the proposed studies stems from the large number of possible industrial applications, including space technologies and terrestrial applications, such as cooling of electronic components.

  14. Forming method of micro heat pipe with compound structure of sintered wick on grooved substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xibing; Li, Mingjian; Li, Ming; Wu, Ruchen; Wan, Yingsi; Cheng, Tian

    2016-03-01

    Micro heat pipes (MHPs) with excellent heat transfer performance have been the ideal radiating components to meet increasingly higher requirements posed by high heat-flux products. Based on MHPs' working principle, this study deduced capillary limit of a novel MHP with compound structure of sintered wick on grooved substrate, and probed into its forming mechanism: first, high-speed oil-filled spinning was applied to fabricating micro grooves, with optimal spinning and drawing speeds determined; then a mini-type vibration machine was used to help fill copper powders fast and uniformly, with appropriate sintering temperature and time fixed; the manufacturing method that integrates vacuum-pumping-cold-welding with secondary-degassing-cold-welding to increase vacuumizing efficiency. The results of experiments on its heat transfer performance show that the MHPs with sintered-wick-on-grooved-substrate structure fabricated through the proposed forming method can not only acquire much better heat transfer performance, but have advantages such as higher productivity and lower cost.

  15. Thermal behavior of a cryogenic loop heat pipe for space application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gully, Philippe; Mo, Qing; Yan, Tao; Seyfert, Peter; Guillemet, Laurent; Thibault, Pierre; Liang, Jingtao

    2011-08-01

    This paper discusses a prototype of cryogenic loop heat pipe (CLHP) working around 80 K with nitrogen as the coolant, developed at CEA-SBT in collaboration with the CAS/TIPC and tested in laboratory conditions. In addition to the main loop it features a pressure reduction reservoir and a secondary circuit which allow cooling down the loop from the room temperature conditions to the nitrogen liquid temperature and transferring the evaporator heat leaks and radiation heat loads towards the condenser. The general design, the instrumentation and the experimental results of the thermal response of the CLHP are presented, analyzed and discussed both in the transient phase of cooling from room temperature (i) and in stationary conditions (ii). During phase (i), even in a severe radiation environment, the secondary circuit helped to condense the fluid and was very efficient to chill the primary evaporator. During phase (ii), we studied the effects of transferred power, filling pressure and radiation heat load for two basic configurations of cold reservoir of the secondary circuit. A maximum cold power of 19 W with a corresponding limited temperature difference of 5 K was achieved across a 0.5 m distance. We evidenced the importance of the filling pressure to optimize the thermal response. A small heating power (0.1 W) applied on the shunted cold reservoir allows to maintain a constant subcooling (1 K). The CLHP behaves as a capillary pumped loop (CPL) in such a configuration, with the cold reservoir being the compensation chamber of the thermal link. The radiation heat loads may affect significantly the thermal response of the system due to boiling process of liquid and large mass transfer towards the pressure reduction reservoir.

  16. Cold adaptations.

    PubMed

    Launay, Jean-Claude; Savourey, Gustave

    2009-07-01

    Nowdays, occupational and recreational activities in cold environments are common. Exposure to cold induces thermoregulatory responses like changes of behaviour and physiological adjustments to maintain thermal balance either by increasing metabolic heat production by shivering and/or by decreasing heat losses consecutive to peripheral cutaneous vasoconstriction. Those physiological responses present a great variability among individuals and depend mainly on biometrical characteristics, age, and general cold adaptation. During severe cold exposure, medical disorders may occur such as accidental hypothermia and/or freezing or non-freezing cold injuries. General cold adaptations have been qualitatively classified by Hammel and quantitatively by Savourey. This last classification takes into account the quantitative changes of the main cold reactions: higher or lower metabolic heat production, higher or lesser heat losses and finally the level of the core temperature observed at the end of a standardized exposure to cold. General cold adaptations observed previously in natives could also be developed in laboratory conditions by continuous or intermittent cold exposures. Beside general cold adaptation, local cold adaptation exists and is characterized by a lesser decrease of skin temperature, a more pronounced cold induced vasodilation, less pain and a higher manual dexterity. Adaptations to cold may reduce the occurrence of accidents and improve human performance as surviving in the cold. The present review describes both general and local cold adaptations in humans and how they are of interest for cold workers.

  17. 65. FIRE SUPPRESSION PIPES BEHIND FLAME BUCKET. PIPES TO UMBILICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. FIRE SUPPRESSION PIPES BEHIND FLAME BUCKET. PIPES TO UMBILICAL MAST IN LOWER LEFT CORNER; PIPES TO LAUNCHER IN UPPER LEFT CORNER; PIPES TO FLAME BUCKET IN LOWER RIGHT CORNER OF PHOTOGRAPH. POTABLE WATER PIPING IN UPPER RIGHT CORNER OF PHOTO. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  18. Computer Program For Variable-Conductance Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoniuk, D.

    1992-01-01

    VCHPDA provides accurate mathematical models of transient as well as steady-state performance of variable-conductance heat pipes over wide range of operating conditions. Applies to heat pipes with either cold, wicked or hot, nonwicked gas reservoirs and uses ideal-gas law and "flat-front" (negligible vapor diffusion) gas theory. Calculates length of gas-blocked region and temperature of vapor in active portion of heat pipe by solving set of nonlinear equations for conservation of energy and mass. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  19. Computer Program For Variable-Conductance Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoniuk, D.

    1992-01-01

    VCHPDA provides accurate mathematical models of transient as well as steady-state performance of variable-conductance heat pipes over wide range of operating conditions. Applies to heat pipes with either cold, wicked or hot, nonwicked gas reservoirs and uses ideal-gas law and "flat-front" (negligible vapor diffusion) gas theory. Calculates length of gas-blocked region and temperature of vapor in active portion of heat pipe by solving set of nonlinear equations for conservation of energy and mass. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  20. Long and high conductance helium heat pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gully, Philippe

    2014-11-01

    This paper reports on the development and the thermal tests of two superfluid helium heat pipes. They feature a copper braid located inside a 6 mm outer diameter stainless tube fitted with copper ends for mechanical anchoring. The copper braid is the support of the Rollin superfluid helium film which is essential in the heat transfer. The extremely low thickness of the liquid film allows for a low filling pressure, making the technology very simple without the need for any external hot reservoir and with the possibility to easily bend the tube. We present the design and discuss the thermal performance of two heat pipes tested for several filling pressures, adverse tilt angles and in 1.4-2.0 K temperature range. A minimum filling pressure (0.6 MPa) is needed to get significant transport capacity. A 12 mW transport capacity is achieved for 3.0 MPa filling pressure. It is shown that the long heat pipe (1.2 m) and the short one (0.25 m) have similar thermal performance in adverse tilt. At 1.7 K the long heat pipe, 120 g in weight, reaches a transport capacity of 5.7 mW/4.2 mW for a tilt angle of 0 / 60° and a thermal conductance of 600 mW/K for 4 mW transferred power. When the condenser reaches the super-fluid transition temperature, the Rollin film accelerates the cool down of the evaporator down to 1.7 K with a heating power applied to the evaporator.

  1. Polyvinylchloride (PVC) pipe hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    PVC pipe should be used only for low pressure liquid systems where the liquid is at or near ambient temperature. PVC pipe, because of its brittle nature, should be used only in unmanned areas or where it is isolated from personnel. It should be otherwise protected so that it is not subjected to ultraviolet light, temperature cycling or damage after installation. Heat (particularly welding and cutting) should be avoided in the immediate vicinity of the piping. PVC pipe should not be used where it would be subject to vibration. The effects of certain chemicals on PVC should be carefully considered, both where the pipe is a carrying medium for the chemical and where the pipe may be exposed to the chemicals externally.

  2. Deployable Heat Pipe Radiator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelstein, F.

    1975-01-01

    A 1.2- by 1.8-m variable conductance heat pipe radiator was designed, built, and tested. The radiator has deployment capability and can passively control Freon-21 fluid loop temperatures under varying loads and environments. It consists of six grooved variable conductance heat pipes attached to a 0.032-in. aluminum panel. Heat is supplied to the radiator via a fluid header or a single-fluid flexible heat pipe header. The heat pipe header is an artery design that has a flexible section capable of bending up to 90 degrees. Radiator loads as high as 850 watts were successfully tested. Over a load variation of 200 watts, the outlet temperature of the Freon-21 fluid varied by 7 F. An alternate control system was also investigated which used a variable conductance heat pipe header attached to the heat pipe radiator panel.

  3. Piping inspection instrument carriage

    SciTech Connect

    Zollinger, W.T.; Treanor, R.C.

    1993-09-20

    This invention is comprised of a pipe inspection instrument carriage for use with a pipe crawler or other locomotion means for performing internal inspections of piping surfaces. The carriage has a front leg assembly, a rear leg assembly and a central support connecting the two assemblies and for mounting an instrument arm having inspection instruments. The instrument arm has means mounted distally thereon for axially aligning the inspection instrumentation and means for extending the inspection instruments radially outward to operably position the inspection instruments on the piping interior. Also, the carriage has means for rotating the central support and the front leg assembly with respect to the rear leg assembly so that the inspection instruments azimuthally scan the piping interior. The instrument carriage allows performance of all piping inspection operations with a minimum of moving parts, thus decreasing the likelihood of performance failure.

  4. Miniature Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Small Business Innovation Research contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center to Thermacore Inc. have fostered the company work on devices tagged "heat pipes" for space application. To control the extreme temperature ranges in space, heat pipes are important to spacecraft. The problem was to maintain an 8-watt central processing unit (CPU) at less than 90 C in a notebook computer using no power, with very little space available and without using forced convection. Thermacore's answer was in the design of a powder metal wick that transfers CPU heat from a tightly confined spot to an area near available air flow. The heat pipe technology permits a notebook computer to be operated in any position without loss of performance. Miniature heat pipe technology has successfully been applied, such as in Pentium Processor notebook computers. The company expects its heat pipes to accommodate desktop computers as well. Cellular phones, camcorders, and other hand-held electronics are forsible applications for heat pipes.

  5. DETAIL OF CONNECTION PIPES AND PIPE SUPPORT ROLLERS, LOOKING EAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF CONNECTION PIPES AND PIPE SUPPORT ROLLERS, LOOKING EAST. PIPES AND CRANKS IN BACKGROUND ARE FOR TURNOUTS (L-R) 25, 29, AND 27. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Z Tower, State Route 46, Keyser, Mineral County, WV

  6. Abrasion resistant heat pipe

    DOEpatents

    Ernst, D.M.

    1984-10-23

    A specially constructed heat pipe is described for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

  7. Dehumidifying Heat Pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khattar, Mukesh K.

    1993-01-01

    U-shaped heat pipe partly dehumidifies air leaving air conditioner. Fits readily in air-handling unit of conditioner. Evaporator and condenser sections of heat pipe consist of finned tubes in comb pattern. Each tube sealed at one end and joined to manifold at other. Sections connected by single pipe carrying vapor to condenser manifold and liquid to evaporator manifold. Simple on/off or proportional valve used to control flow of working fluid. Valve actuated by temperature/humidity sensor.

  8. Abrasion resistant heat pipe

    DOEpatents

    Ernst, Donald M.

    1984-10-23

    A specially constructed heat pipe for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

  9. Surface Changes in Well Casing Pipe Exposed to High Concentrations of Organics in Aqueous Solution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    IIC FILE COPY Surface Changes in Well Casing Pipe Exposed to High Concentrations of Organics in Aqueous Solution Susan Taylor and Louise Parker March...Engineers Cold Regions Research & Engineering Laboratory Surface Changes in Well Casing Pipe Exposed to High Concentrations of Organics in Aqueous Solution...14 iii Surface Changes in Well Casing Pipe Exposed to High Concentrations of Organics in Aqueous Solution SUSAN TAYLOR AND LOUISE

  10. Introduction to Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung

    2015-01-01

    This is the presentation file for the short course Introduction to Heat Pipes, to be conducted at the 2015 Thermal Fluids and Analysis Workshop, August 3-7, 2015, Silver Spring, Maryland. NCTS 21070-15. Course Description: This course will present operating principles of the heat pipe with emphases on the underlying physical processes and requirements of pressure and energy balance. Performance characterizations and design considerations of the heat pipe will be highlighted. Guidelines for thermal engineers in the selection of heat pipes as part of the spacecraft thermal control system, testing methodology, and analytical modeling will also be discussed.

  11. Heat Pipe Materials Compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eninger, J. E.; Fleischman, G. L.; Luedke, E. E.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental program to evaluate noncondensable gas generation in ammonia heat pipes was completed. A total of 37 heat pipes made of aluminum, stainless steel and combinations of these materials were processed by various techniques, operated at different temperatures and tested at low temperature to quantitatively determine gas generation rates. In order of increasing stability are aluminum/stainless combination, all aluminum and all stainless heat pipes. One interesting result is the identification of intentionally introduced water in the ammonia during a reflux step as a means of surface passivation to reduce gas generation in stainless-steel/aluminum heat pipes.

  12. Pipe crawler apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hovis, Gregory L.; Erickson, Scott A.; Blackmon, Bruce L.

    2002-01-01

    A pipe crawler apparatus particularly useful for 3-inch and 4-inch diameter pipes is provided. The pipe crawler apparatus uses a gripping apparatus in which a free end of a piston rod is modified with a bearing retaining groove. Bearings, placed within the groove, are directed against a camming surface of three respective pivoting support members. The non-pivoting ends of the support members carry a foot-like gripping member that, upon pivoting of the support member, engages the interior wall of the pipe.

  13. Heat pipe investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshburn, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    The OAO-C spacecraft has three circular heat pipes, each of a different internal design, located in the space between the spacecraft structural tube and the experiment tube, which are designed to isothermalize the structure. Two of the pipes are used to transport high heat loads, and the third is for low heat loads. The test problems deal with the charging of the pipes, modifications, the mobile tilt table, the position indicator, and the heat input mechanisms. The final results showed that the techniques used were adequate for thermal-vacuum testing of heat pipes.

  14. Internal pipe attachment mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Bast, R.M.; Chesnut, D.A.; Henning, C.D.; Lennon, J.P.; Pastrnak, J.W.; Smith, J.A.

    1994-12-13

    An attachment mechanism is described for repairing or extending fluid carrying pipes, casings, conduits, etc. utilizing one-way motion of spring tempered fingers to provide a mechanical connection between the attachment mechanism and the pipe. The spring tempered fingers flex to permit insertion into a pipe to a desired insertion depth. The mechanical connection is accomplished by reversing the insertion motion and the mechanical leverage in the fingers forces them outwardly against the inner wall of the pipe. A seal is generated by crushing a sealing assembly by the action of setting the mechanical connection. 6 figures.

  15. Internal pipe attachment mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Bast, Richard M.; Chesnut, Dwayne A.; Henning, Carl D.; Lennon, Joseph P.; Pastrnak, John W.; Smith, Joseph A.

    1994-01-01

    An attachment mechanism for repairing or extending fluid carrying pipes, casings, conduits, etc. utilizing one-way motion of spring tempered fingers to provide a mechanical connection between the attachment mechanism and the pipe. The spring tempered fingers flex to permit insertion into a pipe to a desired insertion depth. The mechanical connection is accomplished by reversing the insertion motion and the mechanical leverage in the fingers forces them outwardly against the inner wall of the pipe. A seal is generated by crushing a sealing assembly by the action of setting the mechanical connection.

  16. A very light and thin liquid hydrogen/deuterium heat pipe target for COSY experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Bary, M.; Abdel-Samad, S.; Kilian, K.

    2005-07-01

    A liquid hydrogen/deuterium heat pipe (HP) target is used at the COSY external experiments TOF, GEM and MOMO. The target liquid is produced at a cooled condenser and guided through a central tube assisted by gravitation into the target cell. An aluminum condenser is used instead of copper, which requires less material, improves conductivities and provides shorter cooling down time. Residual condenser temperature fluctuations in the order of ≈0.4 K are reduced by using thermal resistances between the cooling machine and the condenser of the heat pipe combined with a controlled heating power. A new design with only a 7-mm-diameter HP has been developed. The diameter of the condenser part remains at 16 mm to provide enough condensation area. The small amount of material ensures short cooling down times. A cold gas deuterium HP target has been designed and developed which allows protons with energy ⩽1 MeV to be measured. A 7-mm-diameter HP is used to fill a cooling jacket around the D 2 gas cell with LH 2. The D 2 gas is stabilized at 200 mbar to allow for thin windows. Its density is increased by factor 15 compared to room temperature.

  17. Fast reactor power plant design having heat pipe heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Huebotter, Paul R.; McLennan, George A.

    1985-01-01

    The invention relates to a pool-type fission reactor power plant design having a reactor vessel containing a primary coolant (such as liquid sodium), and a steam expansion device powered by a pressurized water/steam coolant system. Heat pipe means are disposed between the primary and water coolants to complete the heat transfer therebetween. The heat pipes are vertically oriented, penetrating the reactor deck and being directly submerged in the primary coolant. A U-tube or line passes through each heat pipe, extended over most of the length of the heat pipe and having its walls spaced from but closely proximate to and generally facing the surrounding walls of the heat pipe. The water/steam coolant loop includes each U-tube and the steam expansion device. A heat transfer medium (such as mercury) fills each of the heat pipes. The thermal energy from the primary coolant is transferred to the water coolant by isothermal evaporation-condensation of the heat transfer medium between the heat pipe and U-tube walls, the heat transfer medium moving within the heat pipe primarily transversely between these walls.

  18. Fast reactor power plant design having heat pipe heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Huebotter, P.R.; McLennan, G.A.

    1984-08-30

    The invention relates to a pool-type fission reactor power plant design having a reactor vessel containing a primary coolant (such as liquid sodium), and a steam expansion device powered by a pressurized water/steam coolant system. Heat pipe means are disposed between the primary and water coolants to complete the heat transfer therebetween. The heat pipes are vertically oriented, penetrating the reactor deck and being directly submerged in the primary coolant. A U-tube or line passes through each heat pipe, extended over most of the length of the heat pipe and having its walls spaced from but closely proximate to and generally facing the surrounding walls of the heat pipe. The water/steam coolant loop includes each U-tube and the steam expansion device. A heat transfer medium (such as mercury) fills each of the heat pipes. The thermal energy from the primary coolant is transferred to the water coolant by isothermal evaporation-condensation of the heat transfer medium between the heat pipe and U-tube walls, the heat transfer medium moving within the heat pipe primarily transversely between these walls.

  19. Common cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000678.htm Common cold To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The common cold most often causes a runny nose, nasal congestion, ...

  20. Finned Carbon-Carbon Heat Pipe with Potassium Working Fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.

    2010-01-01

    This elemental space radiator heat pipe is designed to operate in the 700 to 875 K temperature range. It consists of a C-C (carbon-carbon) shell made from poly-acrylonitride fibers that are woven in an angle interlock pattern and densified with pitch at high process temperature with integrally woven fins. The fins are 2.5 cm long and 1 mm thick, and provide an extended radiating surface at the colder condenser section of the heat pipe. The weave pattern features a continuous fiber bath from the inner tube surface to the outside edges of the fins to maximize the thermal conductance, and to thus minimize the temperature drop at the condenser end. The heat pipe and radiator element together are less than one-third the mass of conventional heat pipes of the same heat rejection surface area. To prevent the molten potassium working fluid from eroding the C C heat pipe wall, the shell is lined with a thin-walled, metallic tube liner (Nb-1 wt.% Zr), which is an integral part of a hermetic metal subassembly which is furnace-brazed to the inner surface of the C-C tube. The hermetic metal liner subassembly includes end caps and fill tubes fabricated from the same Nb-1Zr alloy. A combination of laser and electron beam methods is used to weld the end caps and fill tubes. A tungsten/inert gas weld seals the fill tubes after cleaning and charging the heat pipes with potassium. The external section of this liner, which was formed by a "Uniscan" rolling process, transitions to a larger wall thickness. This section, which protrudes beyond the C-C shell, constitutes the "evaporator" part of the heat pipe, while the section inside the shell constitutes the condenser of the heat pipe (see figure).

  1. These Pipes Are "Happening"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skophammer, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The author is blessed with having the water pipes for the school system in her office. In this article, the author describes how the breaking of the pipes had led to a very worthwhile art experience for her students. They practiced contour and shaded drawing techniques, reviewed patterns and color theory, and used their reasoning skills--all while…

  2. These Pipes Are "Happening"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skophammer, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The author is blessed with having the water pipes for the school system in her office. In this article, the author describes how the breaking of the pipes had led to a very worthwhile art experience for her students. They practiced contour and shaded drawing techniques, reviewed patterns and color theory, and used their reasoning skills--all while…

  3. Heat pipe methanator

    DOEpatents

    Ranken, William A.; Kemme, Joseph E.

    1976-07-27

    A heat pipe methanator for converting coal gas to methane. Gravity return heat pipes are employed to remove the heat of reaction from the methanation promoting catalyst, transmitting a portion of this heat to an incoming gas pre-heat section and delivering the remainder to a steam generating heat exchanger.

  4. Unstable heat pipes

    SciTech Connect

    McGuinness, M.J.; Pruess, K.

    1987-10-01

    Heat pipes are an important feature of models of vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs. Numerical experiments reveal that a vapor-dominated heat pipe is unstable if pressure is controlled at shallow levels. This instability is discussed in physical terms, and some implications for geothermal reservoirs are considered. 9 refs., 10 figs.

  5. Splayed mirror light pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, P.D.

    2010-02-15

    An expression is given for the transmission of the rectangular-section mirror light pipe. The expression is used to model throughputs for simulated solar conditions over a calender year. It is found that the splaying of a mirror light pipe results in a significant increase in throughputs particularly in winter months. (author)

  6. Cold Sore

    MedlinePlus

    ... genitals. Most people who are infected with the virus that causes cold sores never develop signs and symptoms. Cold sores ... an infection — test positive for evidence of the virus that causes cold sores. People who have weakened immune systems are ...

  7. The monster sound pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Michael J.; Perkins, James

    2017-03-01

    Producing a deep bass tone by striking a large 3 m (10 ft) flexible corrugated drainage pipe immediately grabs student attention. The fundamental pitch of the corrugated tube is found to be a semitone lower than a non-corrugated smooth pipe of the same length. A video (https://youtu.be/FU7a9d7N60Y) of the demonstration is included, which illustrates how an Internet keyboard can be used to estimate the fundamental pitches of each pipe. Since both pipes have similar end corrections, the pitch discrepancy between the smooth pipe and drainage tube is due to the corrugations, which lower the speed of sound inside the flexible tube, dropping its pitch a semitone.

  8. Extendable pipe crawler

    DOEpatents

    Hapstack, M.

    1991-05-28

    A pipe crawler is described having a front leg assembly and a back leg assembly connected together by two air cylinders, each leg assembly having four extendable legs and a pair of actuators for sliding the extendable legs radially outward to increase the range of the legs when the pipe crawler enters a section of a pipe having a larger diameter. The crawler crawls by inchworm'-like motion, the front leg assembly and back leg assembly alternately engaging and disengaging the wall of the pipe to hold the pipe crawler as the air cylinders alternately advance the front leg assembly and bring up the rear leg assembly. The pair of actuators of each leg assembly are parallel, adjacent and opposing acting so that each slides two adjacent extendable legs radially outward. 5 figures.

  9. Extendable pipe crawler

    DOEpatents

    Hapstack, Mark

    1991-01-01

    A pipe crawler having a front leg assembly and a back leg assembly connected together by two air cylinders, each leg assembly having four extendable legs and a pair of actuators for sliding the extendable legs radially outward to increase the range of the legs when the pipe crawler enters a section of a pipe having a larger diameter. The crawler crawls by "inchworm"-like motion, the front leg assembly and back leg assembly alternately engaging and disengaging the wall of the pipe to hold the pipe crawler as the air cylinders alternately advance the front leg assembly and bring up the rear leg assembly. The pair of actuators of each leg assembly are parallel, adjacent and opposing acting so that each slides two adjacent extendable legs radially outward.

  10. 75 FR 9163 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ...) in outside diameter, regardless of wall-thickness, manufacturing process (e.g., hot-finished or cold... (other than stainless steel) pipe or ``hollow profiles'' suitable for cold finishing operations, such as cold drawing, to meet the American Society for Testing and Materials (``ASTM'') or American Petroleum...

  11. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Plumbing. Course: Supply Piping Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arneson, R.; And Others

    One of three individualized courses included in a plumbing curriculum, this course covers installing, servicing, and repairing supply lines and fixtures commonly found in residential/commercial structures. The course is comprised of four units: (1) Pipe and Fittings, (2) Cold Water Supply, (3) Hot Water Supply, and (4) Fixtures. Each unit begins…

  12. Modelling the mass migration phenomena in partially frozen heat pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Keddy, M.D.; Merrigan, M.A.; Critchley, E.

    1993-11-01

    Liquid metal heat pipes operated at power throughputs well below their design point and with sink temperatures below the freezing temperature of the working fluid may fail as a result of the working fluid migrating to a cold region within the pipe, freezing there, and not returning to the evaporator section. Eventually, sufficient working fluid inventory may be lost to the cold region to cause a local dry-out condition in the evaporator. A joint experimental and analytical effort by the Air Force Phillips Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory is underway to investigate this phenomena. This paper presents an analytical model developed to describes this phenomena. The model provides for analytic determination of heat pipe temperature profiles, freeze-front locations and mass migration rates.

  13. Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jenkins, C.F.; Howard, B.D.

    1994-01-01

    Pipe crawlers, pipe inspection {open_quotes}rabbits{close_quotes} and similar vehicles are widely used for inspecting the interior surfaces of piping systems, storage tanks and process vessels for damaged or flawed structural features. This paper describes the design of a flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus.

  14. Experimenting with a "Pipe" Whistle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stafford, Olga

    2012-01-01

    A simple pipe whistle can be made using pieces of PVC pipe. The whistle can be used to measure the resonant frequencies of open or closed pipes. A slightly modified version of the device can be used to also investigate the interesting dependence of the sound frequencies produced on the orifice-to-edge distance. The pipe whistle described here…

  15. Experimenting with a "Pipe" Whistle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stafford, Olga

    2012-01-01

    A simple pipe whistle can be made using pieces of PVC pipe. The whistle can be used to measure the resonant frequencies of open or closed pipes. A slightly modified version of the device can be used to also investigate the interesting dependence of the sound frequencies produced on the orifice-to-edge distance. The pipe whistle described here…

  16. 46 CFR 153.282 - Cargo filling lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo filling lines. 153.282 Section 153.282 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Piping Systems...

  17. 18. INTERIOR VIEW WITH IRON POURERS FILLING COMPLETED MOLDS ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. INTERIOR VIEW WITH IRON POURERS FILLING COMPLETED MOLDS ON GREY IRON UNIT NO. 1 MOLD CONVEYOR WITH MOLTEN IRON FROM MOBILE LADLES AS THEY STAND ON WHAT USED TO BE A PLATFORM MOVING AT THE SAME RATE OF SPEED AS THE CONVEYOR. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  18. MOBILE LADLES, ATTACHED TO OVERHEAD RAILS, ARE FILLED AT EITHER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MOBILE LADLES, ATTACHED TO OVERHEAD RAILS, ARE FILLED AT EITHER THE MALLEABLE FOUNDRY BULL LADLE OR ELECTRIC FURNACE BEFORE THEY TRANSPORT MOLTEN IRON TO MOLDS PREPARED BY DISAMATIC MOLDMAKING MACHINE OR ON ONE OF THE CONVEYORS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Malleable Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  19. 17. CUPOLA TENDERS FILLED THE LARGE LADLES WORKERS USED TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. CUPOLA TENDERS FILLED THE LARGE LADLES WORKERS USED TO POUR MOLDS ON THE CONVEYORS FROM BULL LADLES THAT WERE USED TO STORE BATCH QUANTITIES OF IRON TAPPED FROM THE CUPOLA, CA. 1950. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  20. Gas pipe explorer robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A gas pipe explorer formed of a plurality of connecting elements, and an articulation element between the connected elements. The connected elements include drive capabilities, and the articulation element allows the connected elements to traverse gas pipes of arbitrary shapes and sizes. A sensor may sends the characteristics of the gas pipe, and the communication element may send back those sends characteristics. The communication can be wired, over a tether connecting the device to a remote end. Alternatively, the connection can be wireless, driven by either a generator or a battery.

  1. An electrohydrodynamic heat pipe.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. B.

    1972-01-01

    A heat pipe of new design, using an electrode structure to orient and guide the dielectric liquid phase flow, is proposed. Analysis indicates that the operation of the electrohydrodynamic heat pipe is in direct analogy to capillary devices, with the polarization force acting in place of capillarity. Advantages of these new heat pipes include greatly reduced liquid friction, electrohydrodynamically enhanced evaporation and condensation heat transfer, and a possible voltage-controlled on/off feature. Preliminary calculations indicate that relatively high performance devices are possible.

  2. An electrohydrodynamic heat pipe.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. B.

    1972-01-01

    A heat pipe of new design, using an electrode structure to orient and guide the dielectric liquid phase flow, is proposed. Analysis indicates that the operation of the electrohydrodynamic heat pipe is in direct analogy to capillary devices, with the polarization force acting in place of capillarity. Advantages of these new heat pipes include greatly reduced liquid friction, electrohydrodynamically enhanced evaporation and condensation heat transfer, and a possible voltage-controlled on/off feature. Preliminary calculations indicate that relatively high performance devices are possible.

  3. Improved Thin, Flexible Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfeld, John H.; Gernert, Nelson J.; Sarraf, David B.; Wollen, Peter J.; Surina, Frank C.; Fale, John E.

    2004-01-01

    Flexible heat pipes of an improved type are fabricated as layers of different materials laminated together into vacuum- tight sheets or tapes. In comparison with prior flexible heat pipes, these flexible heat pipes are less susceptible to leakage. Other advantages of these flexible heat pipes, relative to prior flexible heat pipes, include high reliability and greater ease and lower cost of fabrication. Because these heat pipes are very thin, they are highly flexible. When coated on outside surfaces with adhesives, these flexible heat pipes can be applied, like common adhesive tapes, to the surfaces of heat sinks and objects to be cooled, even if those surfaces are curved.

  4. AutoPIPE Extract Program

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, Barbara E.

    1993-07-02

    The AutoPIPE Extract Program (APEX) provides an interface between CADAM (Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing) Release 21 drafting software and the AutoPIPE, Version 4.4, piping analysis program. APEX produces the AutoPIPE batch input file that corresponds to the piping shown in a CADAM model. The card image file contains header cards, material cards, and pipe cross section cards as well as tee, bend, valve, and flange cards. Node numbers are automatically generated. APEX processes straight pipe, branch lines and ring geometries.

  5. Establishing low-power operating limits for liquid metal heat pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Secary, J.; Merrigan, M.A.; Keddy, M.D.

    1992-05-01

    Liquid metal heat pipes operated at power throughputs well below their design point for long durations may fail as a result of the working fluid migrating to a cold region within the pipe, freezing there, and hot returning to the evaporator section. Eventually sufficient working fluid inventory may be lost to the cold region to cause a local dry-out condition in the evaporator. A joint experimental and analytical effort between the Air Force Phillips Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory is underway to investigate the phenomena. Experiments include both high temperature liquid metal and low temperature organic heat pipes. To date, a low temperature working fluid has been selected and its performance in a heat pipe validated. Additionally, a low-temperature heat pipe has been fabricated and is presently being tested.

  6. Carbon-Carbon Heat Pipe Testing and Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Rovang, Richard D.

    1994-01-01

    This report discusses development and proof-of-concept testing of a new lightweight carbon-carbon (C-C) space radiator heat pipe developed under the NASA Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) High Capacity Power Program. The heat pipe was filled with potassium working fluid and tested for 11 hours including startup from ambient temperature with the working fluid initially in the frozen state to near 700 K condenser temperature. Steady-state heat pipe input power during testing was facility limited to about 300 watts, representing about 50 percent of the design input power. Post test inspection showed the heat pipe to be in excellent condition after eight thermal cycles from ambient to steady-state operating temperature. Potential applications, ranging from small spacecraft heat rejection to aircraft and terrestrial uses, are discussed.

  7. Thermal performance of heat pipe with suspended nano-particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, K. N.; Solomon, A. Brusly; Pillai, B. C.; Ruba Singh, B. Jacob; Saravana Kumar, S.

    2012-11-01

    Nanofluids are employed as the working medium for a conventional cylindrical heat pipe. A cylindrical copper heat pipe of 19.5 mm outer diameter and 400 mm length was fabricated and tested with two different working fluids. The working fluids used in this study are DI-water and Nano-particles suspension (mixture of copper nano particle and DI-water). The overall heat transfer coefficient of the heat pipe was calculated based on the lumped thermal resistance network and compared with the heat transfer coefficient of base fluid filled heat pipe. There is a quantitative improvement in the heat transfer coefficient using nano-particles suspension as the working medium. A heat transfer correlation was also developed based on multiple regression least square method and the results were compared with that obtained by the experiment.

  8. Heat pipe manufacturing study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelstein, F.

    1974-01-01

    Heat pipe manufacturing methods are examined with the goal of establishing cost effective procedures that will ultimately result in cheaper more reliable heat pipes. Those methods which are commonly used by all heat pipe manufacturers have been considered, including: (1) envelope and wick cleaning, (2) end closure and welding, (3) mechanical verification, (4) evacuation and charging, (5) working fluid purity, and (6) charge tube pinch off. The study is limited to moderate temperature aluminum and stainless steel heat pipes with ammonia, Freon-21 and methanol working fluids. Review and evaluation of available manufacturers techniques and procedures together with the results of specific manufacturing oriented tests have yielded a set of recommended cost-effective specifications which can be used by all manufacturers.

  9. Heat pipe development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bienart, W. B.

    1973-01-01

    The objective of this program was to investigate analytically and experimentally the performance of heat pipes with composite wicks--specifically, those having pedestal arteries and screwthread circumferential grooves. An analytical model was developed to describe the effects of screwthreads and screen secondary wicks on the transport capability of the artery. The model describes the hydrodynamics of the circumferential flow in triangular grooves with azimuthally varying capillary menisci and liquid cross-sections. Normalized results were obtained which give the influence of evaporator heat flux on the axial heat transport capability of the arterial wick. In order to evaluate the priming behavior of composite wicks under actual load conditions, an 'inverted' glass heat pipe was designed and constructed. The results obtained from the analysis and from the tests with the glass heat pipe were applied to the OAO-C Level 5 heat pipe, and an improved correlation between predicted and measured evaporator and transport performance were obtained.

  10. Miniature pipe crawler tractor

    DOEpatents

    McKay, Mark D.; Anderson, Matthew O.; Ferrante, Todd A.; Willis, W. David

    2000-01-01

    A pipe crawler tractor may comprise a half tractor assembly having a first base drive wheel, a second base drive wheel, and a top drive wheel. The drive wheels are mounted in spaced-apart relation so that the top drive wheel is positioned between the first and second base drive wheels. The mounting arrangement is also such that the first and second base drive wheels contact the inside surface of the pipe at respective first and second positions and so that the top drive wheel contacts the inside surface of the pipe at a third position, the third position being substantially diametrically opposed to the first and second positions. A control system connected to the half tractor assembly controls the rotation of the first base wheel, the second base wheel, and the top drive wheel to move the half tractor assembly within the pipe.

  11. The pipes of pan.

    PubMed

    Chalif, David J

    2004-12-01

    The pipes of pan is the crowning achievement of Pablo Picasso's neoclassical period of the 1920s. This monumental canvas depicts a mythological Mediterranean scene in which two sculpted classical giants stare out, seemingly across the centuries, toward a distant and lost Arcadia. Picasso was influenced by Greco-Roman art during his travels in Italy, and his neoclassical works typically portray massive, immobile, and pensive figures. Pan and his pipes are taken directly from Greek mythological lore by Picasso and placed directly into 20th century art. He frequently turned to various mythological figures throughout his metamorphosing periods. The Pipes of Pan was also influenced by the painter's infatuation with the beautiful American expatriate Sara Murphy, and the finished masterpiece represents a revision of a previously conceived neoclassical work. The Pipes of Pan now hangs in the Musee Picasso in Paris.

  12. An electrohydrodynamic heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. B.

    1972-01-01

    Dielectric liquid for transfer of heat provides liquid flow from the condenser section to the evaporator section in conventional heat pipes. Working fluid is guided or pumped by an array of wire electrodes connected to a high-voltage source.

  13. CORROSION OF BURIED PIPES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    in excellent condition. Extreme care was necessary during installation to prevent cuts or nicks in the tape. The black steel pipes protected by bituminous coating, cured gilsonite , and uncured gilsonite had deteriorated badly.

  14. Liquid Explosive in Pipes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    ETH - ethanolamine, ED - ethylenediamine, HMT - hexamethylenetetramine , MOR - morpholine. NM - nitromethane, PYR - pyridine, TETA...ror a detonable mixture in 16-mm ID pipe: diethylamine, diethylenetetramine, ethanolamine, ethylenediamine, hexamethylenetetramine , morpholine

  15. Getting a prescription filled

    MedlinePlus

    ... are located inside of a grocery or large "chain" store. It is best to fill all prescriptions ... be used for long-term medicines and medical supplies. The website should have clear directions for filling ...

  16. Slurry fired heater cold-flow modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Moujaes, S.F.

    1983-07-01

    This report summarizes the experimental and theoretical work leading to the scale-up of the SRC-I Demonstration Plant slurry fired heater. The scale-up involved a theoretical model using empirical relations in the derivation, and employed variables such as flow conditions, liquid viscosity, and slug frequency. Such variables have been shown to affect the heat transfer characteristics ofthe system. The model assumes that, if all other variables remain constant, the heat transfer coefficient can be scaled up proportional to D/sup -2/3/ (D = inside diameter of the fired heater tube). All flow conditions, liquid viscosities, and pipe inclinations relevant to the demonstration plant have indicated a slug flow regime in the slurry fired heater. The annular and stratified flow regimes should be avoided to minimize the potential for excessive pipe erosion and to decrease temperature gradients along the pipe cross section leading to coking and thermal stresses, respectively. Cold-flow studies in 3- and 6.75-in.-inside-diameter (ID) pipes were conducted to determine the effect of scale-up on flow regime, slug frequency, and slug dimensions. The developed model assumes that conduction heat transfer occurs through the liquid film surrounding the gas slug and laminar convective heat transfer to the liquid slug. A weighted average of these two heat transfer mechanisms gives a value for the average pipe heat transfer coefficient. The cold-flow work showed a decrease in the observed slug frequency between the 3- and 6.75-ID pipes. Data on the ratio of gas to liquid slug length in the 6.75-in. pipe are not yet complete, but are expected to yield generally lower values than those obtained in the 3-in. pipe; this will probably affect the scale-up to demonstration plant conditions. 5 references, 15 figures, 7 tables.

  17. Arrangement for connecting a fiber-reinforced plastic pipe to a stainless steel flange

    DOEpatents

    Allais, Arnaud; Hoffmann, Ernst

    2008-02-05

    Arrangement for connecting a fiber-reinforced plastic pipe (18) to a stainless steel flange (12, 16), in which the end of the fiber-reinforced plastic pipe (18) is accommodated in a ring-shaped groove (12a, 16a) in the flange (12, 16), the groove conforming to the dimensions of the fiber-reinforced plastic pipe (18), where the gap remaining between the end of the fiber-reinforced plastic pipe (18) and the ring-shaped groove (12a, 16a) is filled with a sealant (19).

  18. Methane cryogenic heat pipe for space use with a liquid trap for on-off switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepeda-Rizo, Juan; Rodriguez, Jose Israel; Bugby, David

    2012-06-01

    A methane cryogenic heat pipe with a liquid trap for on-off actuation was developed by ATK for use on Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Space Interferometer Mission Lite (SIM Lite) pre-Phase A hardware technology demonstration tests. The cryogenic heat pipe coupled to a cold radiator at 160K provides cooling to the Charged Coupled Device camera focal planes. The heat pipe was designed for a transport capacity of 15 W across a 1.5 m span through a near room-temperature spacecraft environment. A key and driving requirement for the heat pipe was the need for switching the heat pipe on and off needed to support low power decontamination cycles to near room temperature of the cryogenic focal planes. The cryogenic heat pipe is turned off by removing the methane working fluid from the heat pipe and storing in the liquid trap. The heat pipe is turned-on by simply reintroducing the working fluid from the liquid trap. This on-off switching capability is a key requirement for cryogenic heat pipes used with passive or active cryocoolers for cooling focal planes or optics. This switching capability provides a means to decouple a cold focal plane or optics from a redundant stand-by cryocooler or a passive cooler when in need for a decontamination cycle.

  19. Silicon Heat Pipe Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, Karl Y.; Ganapathi, Gani B.; Sunada, Eric T.; Bae, Youngsam; Miller, Jennifer R.; Beinsford, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    Improved methods of heat dissipation are required for modern, high-power density electronic systems. As increased functionality is progressively compacted into decreasing volumes, this need will be exacerbated. High-performance chip power is predicted to increase monotonically and rapidly with time. Systems utilizing these chips are currently reliant upon decades of old cooling technology. Heat pipes offer a solution to this problem. Heat pipes are passive, self-contained, two-phase heat dissipation devices. Heat conducted into the device through a wick structure converts the working fluid into a vapor, which then releases the heat via condensation after being transported away from the heat source. Heat pipes have high thermal conductivities, are inexpensive, and have been utilized in previous space missions. However, the cylindrical geometry of commercial heat pipes is a poor fit to the planar geometries of microelectronic assemblies, the copper that commercial heat pipes are typically constructed of is a poor CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion) match to the semiconductor die utilized in these assemblies, and the functionality and reliability of heat pipes in general is strongly dependent on the orientation of the assembly with respect to the gravity vector. What is needed is a planar, semiconductor-based heat pipe array that can be used for cooling of generic MCM (multichip module) assemblies that can also function in all orientations. Such a structure would not only have applications in the cooling of space electronics, but would have commercial applications as well (e.g. cooling of microprocessors and high-power laser diodes). This technology is an improvement over existing heat pipe designs due to the finer porosity of the wick, which enhances capillary pumping pressure, resulting in greater effective thermal conductivity and performance in any orientation with respect to the gravity vector. In addition, it is constructed of silicon, and thus is better

  20. The Monster Sound Pipe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Michael J.; Perkins, James

    2017-01-01

    Producing a deep bass tone by striking a large 3 m (10 ft) flexible corrugated drainage pipe immediately grabs student attention. The fundamental pitch of the corrugated tube is found to be a semitone lower than a non-corrugated smooth pipe of the same length. A video (https://youtu.be/FU7a9d7N60Y) of the demonstration is included, which…

  1. Freezable heat pipe

    DOEpatents

    Ernst, Donald M.; Sanzi, James L.

    1981-02-03

    A heat pipe whose fluid can be repeatedly frozen and thawed without damage to the casing. An additional part is added to a conventional heat pipe. This addition is a simple porous structure, such as a cylinder, self-supporting and free standing, which is dimensioned with its diameter not spanning the inside transverse dimension of the casing, and with its length surpassing the depth of maximum liquid.

  2. Modeling of the Edwards pipe experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Tiselj, I.; Petelin, S.

    1995-12-31

    The Edwards pipe experiment is used as one of the basic benchmarks for the two-phase flow codes due to its simple geometry and the wide range of phenomena that it covers. Edwards and O`Brien filled 4-m-long pipe with liquid water at 7 MPa and 502 K and ruptured one end of the tube. They measured pressure and void fraction during the blowdown. Important phenomena observed were pressure rarefaction wave, flashing onset, critical two-phase flow, and void fraction wave. Experimental data were used to analyze the capabilities of the RELAP5/MOD3.1 six-equation two-phase flow model and to examine two different numerical schemes: one from the RELAP5/MOD3.1 code and one from our own code, which was based on characteristic upwind discretization.

  3. Heat pipe dynamic behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Issacci, F.; Roche, G. L.; Klein, D. B.; Catton, I.

    1988-01-01

    The vapor flow in a heat pipe was mathematically modeled and the equations governing the transient behavior of the core were solved numerically. The modeled vapor flow is transient, axisymmetric (or two-dimensional) compressible viscous flow in a closed chamber. The two methods of solution are described. The more promising method failed (a mixed Galerkin finite difference method) whereas a more common finite difference method was successful. Preliminary results are presented showing that multi-dimensional flows need to be treated. A model of the liquid phase of a high temperature heat pipe was developed. The model is intended to be coupled to a vapor phase model for the complete solution of the heat pipe problem. The mathematical equations are formulated consistent with physical processes while allowing a computationally efficient solution. The model simulates time dependent characteristics of concern to the liquid phase including input phase change, output heat fluxes, liquid temperatures, container temperatures, liquid velocities, and liquid pressure. Preliminary results were obtained for two heat pipe startup cases. The heat pipe studied used lithium as the working fluid and an annular wick configuration. Recommendations for implementation based on the results obtained are presented. Experimental studies were initiated using a rectangular heat pipe. Both twin beam laser holography and laser Doppler anemometry were investigated. Preliminary experiments were completed and results are reported.

  4. Heat Pipe Integrated Microsystems

    SciTech Connect

    Gass, K.; Robertson, P.J.; Shul, R.; Tigges, C.

    1999-03-30

    The trend in commercial electronics packaging to deliver ever smaller component packaging has enabled the development of new highly integrated modules meeting the demands of the next generation nano satellites. At under ten kilograms, these nano satellites will require both a greater density electronics and a melding of satellite structure and function. Better techniques must be developed to remove the subsequent heat generated by the active components required to-meet future computing requirements. Integration of commercially available electronics must be achieved without the increased costs normally associated with current generation multi chip modules. In this paper we present a method of component integration that uses silicon heat pipe technology and advanced flexible laminate circuit board technology to achieve thermal control and satellite structure. The' electronics/heat pipe stack then becomes an integral component of the spacecraft structure. Thermal management on satellites has always been a problem. The shrinking size of electronics and voltage requirements and the accompanying reduction in power dissipation has helped the situation somewhat. Nevertheless, the demands for increased onboard processing power have resulted in an ever increasing power density within the satellite body. With the introduction of nano satellites, small satellites under ten kilograms and under 1000 cubic inches, the area available on which to place hot components for proper heat dissipation has dwindled dramatically. The resulting satellite has become nearly a solid mass of electronics with nowhere to dissipate heat to space. The silicon heat pipe is attached to an aluminum frame using a thermally conductive epoxy or solder preform. The frame serves three purposes. First, the aluminum frame provides a heat conduction path from the edge of the heat pipe to radiators on the surface of the satellite. Secondly, it serves as an attachment point for extended structures attached to

  5. Fuel and cladding nano-technologies based solutions for long life heat-pipe based reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Popa-Simil, L.

    2012-07-01

    A novel nuclear reactor concept, unifying the fuel pipe with fuel tube functionality has been developed. The structure is a quasi-spherical modular reactor, designed for a very long life. The reactor module unifies the fuel tube with the heat pipe and a graphite beryllium reflector. It also uses a micro-hetero-structure that allows the fission products to be removed in the heat pipe flow and deposited in a getter area in the cold zone of the heat pipe, but outside the neutron flux. The reactor operates as a breed and burn reactor - it contains the fuel pipe with a variable enrichment, starting from the hot-end of the pipe, meant to assure the initial criticality, and reactor start-up followed by area with depleted uranium or thorium that get enriched during the consumption of the first part of the enriched uranium. (authors)

  6. Heat pipes for low-humidity applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khattar, Mukesh K.

    1989-01-01

    A novel application of an air-to-air heat pipe heat exchanger (HPHX) in a cooling and dehumidification process of an air-conditioning system is described which provides significant energy savings in applications requiring reheat of cold supply air to maintain low humidity. The efficiency of the system has been demonstrated in an application requiring a humidity of 40 percent. The use of the HPHX and fine tuning of the air-conditioning system and controls has resulted in significant energy savings. The technology can be advantageously used in many low-humidity applications commonly encountered in high-tech and aerospace facilities.

  7. Cold injuries.

    PubMed

    Kruse, R J

    1995-01-01

    There are two categories of cold injury. The first is hypothermia, which is a systemic injury to cold, and the second is frostbite, which is a local injury. Throughout history, entire armies, from George Washington to the Germans on the Russian Front in World War II, have fallen prey to prolonged cold exposure. Cold injury is common and can occur in all seasons if ambient temperature is lower than the core body temperature. In the 1985 Boston Marathon, even though it was 76 degrees and sunny, there were 75 runners treated for hypothermia. In general, humans adapt poorly to cold exposure. Children are at particular risk because of their relatively greater surface area/body mass ratio, causing them to cool even more rapidly than adults. Because of this, the human's best defense against cold injury is to limit his/her exposure to cold and to dress appropriately. If cold injury has occurred and is mild, often simple passive rewarming such as dry blankets and a warm room are sufficient treatment.

  8. Heat pipe heat rejection system. [for electrical batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroliczek, E. J.

    1976-01-01

    A prototype of a battery heat rejection system was developed which uses heat pipes for more efficient heat removal and for temperature control of the cells. The package consists of five thermal mock-ups of 100 amp-hr prismatic cells. Highly conductive spacers fabricated from honeycomb panels into which heat pipes are embedded transport the heat generated by the cells to the edge of the battery. From there it can be either rejected directly to a cold plate or the heat flow can be controlled by means of two variable conductance heat pipes. The thermal resistance between the interior of the cells and the directly attached cold plate was measured to be 0.08 F/Watt for the 5-cell battery. Compared to a conductive aluminum spacer of equal weight the honeycomb/heat pipe spacer has approximately one-fifth of the thermal resistance. In addition, the honeycomb/heat pipe spacer virtually eliminates temperature gradients along the cells.

  9. Experimental investigation on a pulsating heat pipe with hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, H. R.; Liu, Y. M.; Ma, R. F.; Han, D. Y.; Gan, Z. H.; Pfotenhauer, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    The pulsating heat pipe (PHP) has been increasingly studied in cryogenic application, for its high transfer coefficient and quick response. Compared with Nb3Sn and NbTi, MgB2 whose critical transformation temperature is 39 K, is expected to replace some high-temperature superconducting materials at 25 K. In order to cool MgB2, this paper designs a Hydrogen Pulsating Heat Pipe, which allows a study of applied heat, filling ratio, turn number, inclination angle and length of adiabatic section on the thermal performance of the PHP. The thermal performance of the hydrogen PHP is investigated for filling ratios of 35%, 51%, 70% at different heat inputs, and provides information regarding the starting process is received at three filling ratios.

  10. Liquid metal micro heat pipes for space radiator applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerner, F. M.; Henderson, H. T.

    1995-01-01

    Micromachining is a chemical means of etching three-dimensional structures, typically in single-crystalline silicon. These techniques are leading toward what is coming to be referred to as MEMS (micro electro mechanical systems), where in addition to the ordinary two dimensional (planar) microelectronics, it is possible to build three-dimensional micromotors, electrically-actuated microvalves, hydraulic systems, and much more on the same microchip. These techniques become possible because of differential etching rates of various crystallographic planes and materials used for semiconductor microfabrication. The University of Cincinnati group in collaboration with NASA Lewis formed micro heat pipes in silicon by the above techniques. Work is ongoing at a modest level, but several essential bonding and packaging techniques have been recently developed. Currently, we have constructed and filled water/silicon micro heat pipes. Preliminary thermal tests of arrays of 125 micro heat pipes etched in a 1 inch x 1 inch x 250 micron silicon wafer have been completed. These pipes are instrumented with extremely small P-N junctions to measure their effective conductivity and their maximum operating power. A relatively simple one-dimensional model has been developed in order to predict micro heat pipes' operating characteristics. This information can be used to optimize micro heat pipe design with respect to length, hydraulic diameter, and number of pipes. Work is progressing on the fabrication of liquid-metal micro heat pipes. In order to be compatible with liquid metal (sodium or potassium), the inside of the micro heat pipes will be coated with a refractory metal (such as tungsten, molybdenum, or titanium).

  11. Sodium Based Heat Pipe Modules for Space Reactor Concepts: Stainless Steel SAFE-100 Core

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, James J.; Reid, Robert S.

    2004-07-01

    A heat pipe cooled reactor is one of several candidate reactor cores being considered for advanced space power and propulsion systems to support future space exploration applications. Long life heat pipe modules, with designs verified through a combination of theoretical analysis and experimental lifetime evaluations, would be necessary to establish the viability of any of these candidates, including the heat pipe reactor option. A hardware-based program was initiated to establish the infrastructure necessary to build heat pipe modules. This effort, initiated by Los Alamos National Laboratory and referred to as the Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) project, set out to fabricate and perform non-nuclear testing on a modular heat pipe reactor prototype that can provide 100-kWt from the core to an energy conversion system at 700 deg. C. Prototypic heat pipe hardware was designed, fabricated, filled, closed-out and acceptance tested. (authors)

  12. Sodium Based Heat Pipe Modules for Space Reactor Concepts: Stainless Steel SAFE-100 Core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, James J.; Reid, Robert S.

    2004-01-01

    A heat pipe cooled reactor is one of several candidate reactor cores being considered for advanced space power and propulsion systems to support future space exploration applications. Long life heat pipe modules, with designs verified through a combination of theoretical analysis and experimental lifetime evaluations, would be necessary to establish the viability of any of these candidates, including the heat pipe reactor option. A hardware-based program was initiated to establish the infrastructure necessary to build heat pipe modules. This effort, initiated by Los Alamos National Laboratory and referred to as the Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) project, set out to fabricate and perform non-nuclear testing on a modular heat pipe reactor prototype that can provide 100 kilowatt from the core to an energy conversion system at 700 C. Prototypic heat pipe hardware was designed, fabricated, filled, closed-out and acceptance tested.

  13. Development of guided wave ultrasonic techniques for detection of corrosion under insulation in metal pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, A.V.; Corley, C.J.; Fischer, R.B.; Rose, J.L.; Quarry, M.J.

    1998-12-31

    A unique capability has been developed in the application of guided wave (GW) ultrasonic techniques for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of insulated pipe. Many guided wave modes are established in pipe walls when excited by ultrasonic waves. Some of these modes leak energy into the liquid filling the pipe or into the insulation covering the pipe, while others stay largely in the pipe wall and interact with flaws, including corrosion-induced defects. The success of the guided wave method as a viable NDE method for this application is critically dependent upon the ability to preferentially select the modes most sensitive to defects and exploit them for the information they carry about the existence, location, and geometry of corrosion-induced flaws. The feasibility of the guided wave approach for inspection of insulated pipe has been successfully demonstrated, and current work is aimed toward developing methods and systems capable of field inspection.

  14. Loop heat pipe radiator

    SciTech Connect

    Sarraf, D.B.; Gernert, N.J.

    1996-03-01

    This paper describes the design and testing of a Loop Heat Pipe Radiator (LHPR) which was developed as an alternative to state-of-the-art axially-grooved heat pipes for space-based heat rejection which would be usable with tubing made of aluminum foil covered with a carbon-epoxy composite. The LHPR had an aluminum envelope and a polymer wick, and used ammonia as a working fluid. It was 4 meters long with a mass of 1.4 kg. The LHPR transported 500 watts at a 2.3 meter adverse inclination and 1500 watts when horizontal. This non-optimized LHPR had a 3000 watt-meter capability, which is four times greater than an axially-grooved heat pipe of similar power-handling capability and mass. In addition to a higher power handling capability, the LHPR has a much higher capillary margin than axially-grooved pipes. That high capillary margin simplifies ground testing in a 1-g environment by reducing the need for the careful levelling and vibration reduction required by axially-grooved pipes. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Remotely operated pipe connector

    DOEpatents

    Josefiak, Leonard J.; Cramer, Charles E.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely assembling and disassembling a Graylock type coctor between a pipe and a closure for the pipe includes a base and a receptacle on the base for the closure. The pipe is moved into position vertically above the closure by a suitable positioning device such that the flange on the pipe is immediately adjacent and concentric with the flange on the closure. A moving device then moves two semicircular collars from a position free of the closure to a position such that the interior cam groove of each collar contacts the two flanges. Finally, a tensioning device automatically allows remote tightening and loosening of a nut and bolt assembly on each side of the collar to cause a seal ring located between the flanges to be compressed and to seal the closure. Release of the pipe and the connector is accomplished in the reverse order. Preferably, the nut and bolt assembly includes an elongate shaft portion on which a removable sleeve is located.

  16. Wedgethread pipe connection

    DOEpatents

    Watts, John D.

    2003-06-17

    Several embodiments of a wedgethread pipe connection are disclosed that have improved makeup, sealing, and non-loosening characteristics. In one embodiment, an open wedgethread is disclosed that has an included angle measured in the gap between the stab flank and the load flank to be not less than zero, so as to prevent premature wedging between mating flanks before the position of full makeup is reached, as does occur between trapped wedgethreads wherein the included angle is less than zero. The invention may be used for pipe threads large or small, as a flush joint, with collars, screwed into plates or it may even be used to reversibly connect such as solid posts to base members where a wide makeup torque range is desired. This Open wedgethread, as opposed to trapped wedgethreads, provides a threaded pipe connection that: is more cost-effective; can seal high pressure gas; can provide selectively a connection strength as high as the pipe strength; assures easy makeup to the desired position of full makeup within a wide torque range; may have a torque strength as high as the pipe torque strength; is easier to manufacture; is easier to gage; and is less subject to handling damage.

  17. Development of a high capacity variable conductance heat pipe.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosson, R.; Hembach, R.; Edelstein, F.; Loose, J.

    1973-01-01

    The high-capacity, pressure-primed, tunnel-artery wick concept was used in a gas-controlled variable conductance heat pipe. A variety of techniques were employed to control the size of gas/vapor bubbles trapped within the artery. Successful operation was attained with a nominal 6-foot long, 1-inch diameter cold reservoir VCHP using ammonia working fluid and nitrogen control gas. The pipe contained a heat exchanger to subcool the liquid in the artery. Maximum transport capacity with a 46-inch effective length was 1200 watts level (more than 50,000 watt-inches) and 800 watts at 0.5-inch adverse tilt.

  18. Cold Regions Environmental Test of Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Decontamination Equipment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    6502, Engine, Cold-starting and Warmup Tests. (2) Decontaminant mixing/filling. Evaluate ease of filling and mixing decontaminants at low temperatures...2. TOP 2-2-650, Engine Cold-Starting and Warmup Tests, 18 July 1980. 3. TOP 8-4-015, Cold Regions Logistics, Supportability Testing of Chemical

  19. Apparatus for moving a pipe inspection probe through piping

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W. Thor; Appel, D. Keith; Lewis, Gregory W.

    1995-01-01

    A method and apparatus for controllably moving devices for cleaning or inspection through piping systems, including piping systems with numerous piping bends therein, by using hydrostatic pressure of a working fluid introduced into the piping system. The apparatus comprises a reservoir or other source for supplying the working fluid to the piping system, a launch tube for admitting the device into the launcher and a reversible, positive displacement pump for controlling the direction and flow rate of the working fluid. The device introduced into the piping system moves with the flow of the working fluid through the piping system. The launcher attaches to the valved ends of a piping system so that fluids in the piping system can recirculate in a closed loop. The method comprises attaching the launcher to the piping system, supplying the launcher with working fluid, admitting the device into the launcher, pumping the working fluid in the direction and at the rate desired so that the device moves through the piping system for pipe cleaning or inspection, removing the device from the launcher, and collecting the working fluid contained in the launcher.

  20. Apparatus for moving a pipe inspection probe through piping

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W.T.; Appel, D.K.; Lewis, G.W.

    1995-07-18

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for controllably moving devices for cleaning or inspection through piping systems, including piping systems with numerous piping bends therein, by using hydrostatic pressure of a working fluid introduced into the piping system. The apparatus comprises a reservoir or other source for supplying the working fluid to the piping system, a launch tube for admitting the device into the launcher and a reversible, positive displacement pump for controlling the direction and flow rate of the working fluid. The device introduced into the piping system moves with the flow of the working fluid through the piping system. The launcher attaches to the valved ends of a piping system so that fluids in the piping system can recirculate in a closed loop. The method comprises attaching the launcher to the piping system, supplying the launcher with working fluid, admitting the device into the launcher, pumping the working fluid in the direction and at the rate desired so that the device moves through the piping system for pipe cleaning or inspection, removing the device from the launcher, and collecting the working fluid contained in the launcher. 8 figs.

  1. Deployment, release and recovery of ocean riser pipes

    DOEpatents

    Person, Abraham; Wetmore, Sherman B.; McNary, James F.

    1980-11-18

    An ocean thermal energy conversion facility includes a long pipe assembly which is supported at its upper end by the hull of the floating facility. Cold water flows to the facility from deep in the ocean. The pipe assembly comprises an elongate pipe construction and a weight connected to the lower end of the construction by a line of selected length. A floatation collar is connected to the construction at its upper end to cause the construction to have positive buoyancy and a center of buoyancy closer to the upper end of the construction than its center of mass. The weight renders the entire pipe assembly negatively buoyant. In the event that support of the pipe assembly should be lost, as by release of the assembly from the facility hull in an emergency, the assembly sinks to the ocean floor where it is moored by the weight. The pipe construction floats submerged above the ocean floor in a substantially vertical attitude which facilitates recovery of the assembly.

  2. Heat Pipe Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-01-01

    The heat pipe, a sealed chamber whose walls are lined with a "wick," a thin capillary network containing a working fluid in liquid form was developed for a heat distribution system for non-rotating satellites. Use of the heat pipe provides a continuous heat transfer mechanism. "Heat tubes" that improve temperature control in plastics manufacturing equipment incorporated the heat pipe technology. James M. Stewart, an independent consultant, patented the heat tubes he developed and granted a license to Kona Corporation. The Kona Nozzle for heaterless injection molding gets heat for its operation from an external source and has no internal heating bands, reducing machine maintenance and also eliminating electrical hazards associated with heater bands. The nozzles are used by Eastman Kodak, Bic Pen Corporation, Polaroid, Tupperware, Ford Motor Company, RCA, and Western Electric in the molding of their products.

  3. Composite drill pipe

    DOEpatents

    Leslie, James C [Fountain Valley, CA; Leslie, II, James C.; Heard, James [Huntington Beach, CA; Truong, Liem , Josephson; Marvin, Neubert [Huntington Beach, CA; Hans, [Anaheim, CA

    2008-12-02

    A composite pipe segment is formed to include tapered in wall thickness ends that are each defined by opposed frustoconical surfaces conformed for self centering receipt and intimate bonding contact within an annular space between corresponding surfaces of a coaxially nested set of metal end pieces. The distal peripheries of the nested end pieces are then welded to each other and the sandwiched and bonded portions are radially pinned. The composite segment may include imbedded conductive leads and the axial end portions of the end pieces are shaped to form a threaded joint with the next pipe assembly that includes a contact ring in one pipe assembly pierced by a pointed contact in the other to connect the corresponding leads across the joint.

  4. Apparatus for inspecting piping

    DOEpatents

    Zollingger, W.T.; Appel, D.K.; Park, L.R.

    1995-03-21

    An inspection rabbit is described for inspecting piping systems having severe bends therein. The rabbit consists of a flexible, modular body containing a miniaturized eddy current inspection probe, a self-contained power supply for proper operation of the rabbit, an outer surface that allows ease of movement through piping systems and means for transmitting data generated by the inspection device. The body is preferably made of flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing or, alternatively, silicone rubber with a shrink wrapping of polytetrafluoroethylene (TEFLON{trademark}). The body is formed to contain the power supply, preferably a plurality of batteries, and a spool of communication wire that connects to a data processing computer external to the piping system. 6 figures.

  5. Apparatus for inspecting piping

    DOEpatents

    Zollingger, W. Thor; Appel, D. Keith; Park, Larry R.

    1995-01-01

    An inspection rabbit for inspecting piping systems having severe bends therein. The rabbit consists of a flexible, modular body containing a miniaturized eddy current inspection probe, a self-contained power supply for proper operation of the rabbit, an outer surface that allows ease of movement through piping systems and means for transmitting data generated by the inspection device. The body is preferably made of flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing or, alternatively, silicone rubber with a shrink wrapping of polytetrafluoroethylene (TEFLON.RTM.). The body is formed to contain the power supply, preferably a plurality of batteries, and a spool of communication wire that connects to a data processing computer external to the piping system.

  6. Heat Pipe Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The heat pipe, a sealed chamber whose walls are lined with a "wick," a thin capillary network containing a working fluid in liquid form was developed for a heat distribution system for non-rotating satellites. Use of the heat pipe provides a continuous heat transfer mechanism. "Heat tubes" that improve temperature control in plastics manufacturing equipment incorporated the heat pipe technology. James M. Stewart, an independent consultant, patented the heat tubes he developed and granted a license to Kona Corporation. The Kona Nozzle for heaterless injection molding gets heat for its operation from an external source and has no internal heating bands, reducing machine maintenance and also eliminating electrical hazards associated with heater bands. The nozzles are used by Eastman Kodak, Bic Pen Corporation, Polaroid, Tupperware, Ford Motor Company, RCA, and Western Electric in the molding of their products.

  7. Heat pipe array heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, Robert C.

    1987-08-25

    A heat pipe arrangement for exchanging heat between two different temperature fluids. The heat pipe arrangement is in a ounterflow relationship to increase the efficiency of the coupling of the heat from a heat source to a heat sink.

  8. Filling carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugarte, D.; Stöckli, T.; Bonard, J. M.; Châtelain, A.; de Heer, W. A.

    Filling hollow carbon nanotubes with chosen materials opens new possibilities of generating nearly one-dimensional nanostrutures. One simple approach to fill nanotubes is to use capillarity forces. Here, we have studied the wetting and capillarity by metal salts. First, nanotubes were opened by oxidation in air; subsequently, nanotubes were immersed in molten salts. We have observed a size-dependence filling indicating a lowering of the cavity-salt interface energy with decreasing diameter. By expressing the wetting conditions as a function of polarizabilities, it is possible to predict the threshold diameter for capillary filling of different materials.

  9. Heat Pipe With Interrupted Slot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Richard F.; Kosson, Robert L.; Edelstein, Fred

    1994-01-01

    Newer version of heat pipe slot interrupted by plug or, if heat pipe is cast, by bridge of heat-pipe material cast integrally across groove. Small barrier assists in priming heat pipe. Vapor and noncondensible gas still accumulates in liquid channel at evaporator before or during startup, but barrier keeps liquid out of small part of slot at bubble. Dry part of slot allows bubble to escape into vapor channel, making room for liquid to move in during startup.

  10. Cold intolerance

    MedlinePlus

    Some causes of cold intolerance are: Anemia Anorexia nervosa Blood vessel problems, such as Raynaud phenomenon Chronic severe illness General poor health Underactive thyroid ( hypothyroidism ) Problem with the hypothalamus (a part ...

  11. Test of 50-kw heat-pipe radiator.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kikin, G. M.; Peelgren, M. L.

    1971-01-01

    A heat pipe radiator consisting of 100 sodium-filled, 1.91-cm OD, stainless steel heat pipes has been tested at temperatures up to 760 C. This radiator was initially designed to have a heat pipe temperature of 740 C with a central coolant channel temperature of 771 C. The as-fabricated radiator heat pipe temperatures varied from 605 C to 700 C when the central coolant channel average temperature was 740 C. The heat pipes operated at 25 C to 110 C lower-than-expected temperatures, resulting in a 43 kW heat rejection capability vs the 50 kW design goal and the 65 kW ultimate capability of the radiator. The 43 kW heat rejection yields a mass/heat rejection ratio of 0.182 kg/kWt which is good for this early state-of-the-art heat pipe radiator. An end-of-mission life specific weight of 0.154 kg/kW is apparently achievable with improvements in radiator fabrication and brazing techniques.

  12. Methodology for Life Testing of Refractory Metal / Sodium Heat Pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, James J.; Reid, Robert S.

    2006-07-01

    This work establishes an approach to generate carefully controlled data to find heat pipe operating life with material-fluid combinations capable of extended operation. To accomplish this goal acceleration is required to compress 10 years of operational life into 3 years of laboratory testing through a combination of increased temperature and mass fluence. Specific test series have been identified, based on American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) specifications, to investigate long-term corrosion rates. The refractory metal selected for demonstration purposes is a molybdenum-44.5% rhenium alloy formed by powder metallurgy. The heat pipes each have an annular crescent wick formed by hot isostatic pressing of molybdenum-rhenium wire mesh. The heat pipes are filled by vacuum distillation with purity sampling of the completed assembly. Round-the-clock heat pipe tests with 6-month destructive and non-destructive inspection intervals are conducted to identify the onset and level of corrosion. Non-contact techniques are employed to provide power to the evaporator (radio frequency induction heating at 1 to 5 kW per heat pipe) and calorimetry at the condenser (static gas gap coupled water cooled calorimeter). The planned operating temperature range extends from 1123 to 1323 K. Accomplishments before project cancellation included successful development of the heat pipe wick fabrication technique, establishment of all engineering designs, baseline operational test requirements, and procurement/assembly of supporting test hardware systems. (authors)

  13. A study of morphological change of seabed around Bali marine outfall pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, S. E.; Gwo-shyn, S.

    2016-12-01

    Bali marine outfall pipe is located off the coast of Bali. It discharges a household and industrial sewage of Taipei area to the sea. Before the outfall pipe was built, the construction unit dug a ditch in the seabed in order to place the outfall pipe. Though there were attempts to use stones to fill the ditch, there was still a large segment of the ditch filled incomplete at the far shore.This segment of the ditch affected by later natural deposition, gradually filled Tamsui offshore marine sediments, while changing sediment distribution and geomorphology of the seabed around the outfall pipe. The purpose of this study is to investigate what kind of marine sediments had covered the surrounding seabed of the outfall pipe, and what did these marine sediments affect the appearance of the seabed. This study uses the data collected by side scan sonar system from AD 1997 to 2013 year to investigate the surrounding seabed landform and sediment distribution of the outfall pipe, and uses the data collected by multibeam sounding system from AD 2008 to 2013 year to investigate the surrounding seabed topography. Finally, the difference between annual data will be compared. Through the combination of two kinds of data, we wish to analysis the backfill process of the ditch and appearance changes of the surrounding seabed since the completion of the outfall pipe.

  14. Apparatus for handling well pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Boyadjieff, G.I.

    1988-08-23

    This patent describes a well pipe handling machine for use in a rig having a string of pipe extending vertically along an axis of a well, comprising: a movable support; pipe holding means carried by the support for movement therewith and adapted to hold a section of pipe in vertical condition; means for moving the support carrying the pipe holding means and a pipe section held thereby between a first position in which the pipe holding means hold the pipe section in vertical condition in alignment with the axis of the well and a second position in which the pipe holding means locate the pipe section in vertical condition at a storage location offset from the axis; a control station for holding an operator and which is carried by the support for movement therewith between the first and second positions of the support; a torque wrench for making or breaking a connection between a vertical pipe section and the pipe string and which is carried by the support at essentially the lower end of the control station and for movement with the support between the first and second positions thereof.

  15. The cleaning method selected for new PEX pipe installation can affect short-term drinking water quality.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Keven M; Stenson, Alexandra C; Cooley, Racheal; Dey, Rajarashi; Whelton, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    The influence of four different cleaning methods used for newly installed polyethylene (PEX) pipes on chemical and odor quality was determined. Bench-scale testing of two PEX (type b) pipe brands showed that the California Plumbing Code PEX installation method does not maximize total organic carbon (TOC) removal. TOC concentration and threshold odor number values significantly varied between two pipe brands. Different cleaning methods impacted carbon release, odor, as well the level of drinking water odorant ethyl tert-butyl ether. Both pipes caused odor values up to eight times greater than the US federal drinking water odor limit. Unique to this project was that organic chemicals released by PEX pipe were affected by pipe brand, fill/empty cycle frequency, and the pipe cleaning method selected by the installer.

  16. Reusable high-temperature heat pipes and heat pipe panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camarda, Charles J. (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A reusable, durable heat pipe which is capable of operating at temperatures up to about 3000 F in an oxidizing environment and at temperatures above 3000 F in an inert or vacuum environment is produced by embedding a refractory metal pipe within a carbon-carbon composite structure. A reusable, durable heat pipe panel is made from an array of refractory-metal pipes spaced from each other. The reusable, durable, heat-pipe is employed to fabricate a hypersonic vehicle leading edge and nose cap.

  17. The influences of soil and nearby structures on dispersion characteristics of wave propagating along buried plastic pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuyong; Jiang, J.; Parr, Nicola

    2016-09-01

    Water loss in distribution systems is a global problem for the water industry and governments. According to the international water supply association (IWSA), as a result of leaks from distribution pipes, 20% to 30% of water is lost while in transit from treatment plants to consumers. Although governments have tried to push the water industry to reduce the water leaks, a lot of experts have pointed out that a wide use of plastic pipes instead of metal pipes in recent years has caused difficulties in the detection of leaks using current acoustic technology. Leaks from plastic pipes are much quieter than traditional metal pipes and comparing to metal pipes the plastic pipes have very different coupling characteristics with soil, water and surrounding structures, such as other pipes, road surface and building foundations. The dispersion characteristics of wave propagating along buried plastic pipes are investigated in this paper using finite element and boundary element based models. Both empty and water- filled pipes were considered. Influences from nearby pipes and building foundations were carefully studied. The results showed that soil condition and nearby structures have significant influences on the dispersion characteristics of wave propagating along buried plastic pipes.

  18. Use of Dilute Flowable Backfill for Corrosion Mitigation of Buried Pipe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    Research Laboratory Dilute Flowable Backfill Properties Controlled Low Strength Material (CLSM) • Flowable Fill – pulverized aggregate, Portland cement...in flowable fill and native soil cement mixtures • Laboratory Analysis at ERDC-CERL – To provide comparative performance results – Evaluate several...Requirements: • Steel pipe segments to be embedded in a flowable fill and a soil-cement at Ft. Hood, TX • Periodic Linear Polarization Resistance (LPR

  19. Explosive Welding of Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drennov, Oleg; Drennov, Andrey; Burtseva, Olga

    2013-06-01

    For connection by welding it is suggested to use the explosive welding method. This method is rather new. Nevertheless, it has become commonly used among the technological developments. This method can be advantageous (saving material and physical resources) comparing to its statical analogs (electron-beam welding, argon-arc welding, plasma welding, gas welding, etc.), in particular, in hard-to-reach areas due to their geographic and climatic conditions. Explosive welding of cylindrical surfaces is performed by launching of welded layer along longitudinal axis of construction. During this procedure, it is required to provide reliable resistance against radial convergent strains. The traditional method is application of fillers of pipe cavity, which are dense cylindrical objects having special designs. However, when connecting pipes consecutively in pipelines by explosive welding, removal of the fillers becomes difficult and sometimes impossible. The suggestion is to use water as filler. The principle of non-compressibility of liquid under quasi-dynamic loading is used. In one-dimensional gasdynamic and elastic-plastic calculations we determined non-deformed mass of water (perturbations, which are moving in the axial direction with sound velocity, should not reach the layer end boundaries for 5-7 circulations of shock waves in the radial direction). Linear dimension of the water layer from the zone of pipe coupling along axis in each direction is >= 2R, where R is the internal radius of pipe.

  20. Acme jumper pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Medved, P.; Thomas, H.

    1995-09-01

    Acme Steel had operated the larry car with an attached jumper pipe since 1977. Acme had been able to meet the State Implementation Plan. With the advent of the Clean Air Act, Acme did not feel it could meet these new standards without some modifications to the jumper pipe system. Several drop sleeve modifications and numerous boot seal materials and configurations were tested that resulted in limited success in improving the boot seal life. After these modifications, Acme`s testing revealed it could meet the Clean Air Act standards, but it would be cost prohibitive to continue to operate in this manner. Following extensive investigation, Acme decided to install an off-car jumper pipe system which uses a traveling U-tube for connecting to the assist oven through an additional hole in each oven roof. Temperature related failures of drop sleeve seals were eliminated. The off-car jumper pipe is a more efficient gas connection to the assist oven and enables Acme to meet the Clean Air Act charging requirements in a cost effective manner.

  1. Find optimum pipe size

    SciTech Connect

    Fastenakels, M.; Campana, H.

    1984-09-01

    For decades, chemical engineers have used various rules of thumb for selecting the size of pipe in continuousprocess plants. Often these methods result in sizes that are not the correct selection for the operating conditions. This causes the plant to be less efficient to operate or more costly to erect. The optimum size is controlled by one of three modes of selection: the least annual cost (energy external source), the pressure drop available or the velocity allowable (often is two-phase flow)./sup 3/ Pressure drop available applies when a pressure loss may be (or must be) absorbed by the pipe. The optimum size then becomes the smallest and the least expensive that permits the flow to take place with no undesirable side effects. Except for very special cases, this would not be used in conjunction with a pumped or compressed fluid. This mode requires at least an approximation of the length of the pipe and the quantity and nature of the fittings in the system before the selection can be made. It can also apply under some conditions to the suction piping for pumps or compressors, to the lines conducting steam to and from reciprocating pumps and to heating equipment.

  2. Heat pipe investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshburn, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    Techniques associated with thermal-vacuum and bench testing, along with flight testing of the OAO-C spacecraft heat pipes are outlined, to show that the processes used in heat transfer design and testing are adequate for good performance evaluations.

  3. Life Test Approach for Refractory Metal/Sodium Heat Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, James J.; Reid, Robert S.

    2006-01-01

    Heat pipe life tests described in the literature have seldom been conducted on a systematic basis. Typically one or more heat pipes are built and tested for an extended period at a single temperature with simple condenser loading. The objective of this work was to establish an approach to generate carefully controlled data that can conclusively establish heat pipe operating life with material-fluid combinations capable of extended operation. Approximately 10 years of operational life might be compressed into 3 years of laboratory testing through a combination of increased temperature and mass fluence. To accomplish this goal test series have been identified, based on American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) specifications, to investigate long term corrosion rates. The heat pipes selected for demonstration purposes are fabricated from a Molybdenum-44.5%Rhenium refractory metal alloy and include an internal crescent annular wick design formed by hot isostatic pressing. A processing methodology has been devised that incorporates vacuum distillation filling with an integrated purity sampling technique for the sodium working fluid. Energy is supplied by radio frequency induction coils coupled to the heat pipe evaporator with an input range of 1 to 5 kW per unit while a static gas gap coupled water calorimeter provides condenser cooling for heat pipe temperatures ranging from 1123 to 1323 K. The test chamber's atmosphere would require active purification to maintain low oxygen concentrations at an operating pressure of approximately 75 torr. The test is designed to operate round-the-clock with 6-month non-destructive inspection intervals to identify the onset and level of corrosion. At longer intervals specific heat pipes are destructively evaluated to verify the non-destructive observations. Accomplishments prior to project cancellation included successful demonstration of the heat pipe wick fabrication technique, establishment of all engineering designs

  4. 21 CFR 880.6085 - Hot/cold water bottle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hot/cold water bottle. 880.6085 Section 880.6085... Devices § 880.6085 Hot/cold water bottle. (a) Identification. A hot/cold water bottle is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with hot or cold...

  5. 21 CFR 880.6085 - Hot/cold water bottle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hot/cold water bottle. 880.6085 Section 880.6085... Devices § 880.6085 Hot/cold water bottle. (a) Identification. A hot/cold water bottle is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with hot or cold...

  6. 21 CFR 880.6085 - Hot/cold water bottle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hot/cold water bottle. 880.6085 Section 880.6085... Devices § 880.6085 Hot/cold water bottle. (a) Identification. A hot/cold water bottle is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with hot or cold...

  7. 21 CFR 880.6085 - Hot/cold water bottle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hot/cold water bottle. 880.6085 Section 880.6085... Devices § 880.6085 Hot/cold water bottle. (a) Identification. A hot/cold water bottle is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with hot or cold...

  8. Heat pipes for terrestrial applications in dehumidification systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khattar, Mukesh K.

    1988-01-01

    A novel application of heat pipes which greatly enhances dehumidification performance of air-conditioning systems is presented. When an air-to-air heat pipe heat exchanger is placed between the warm return air and cold supply air streams of an air conditioner, heat is efficiently transferred from the return air to the supply air. As the warm return air precools during this process, it moves closer to its dew-point temperature. Therefore, the cooling system works less to remove moisture. This paper discusses the concept, its benefits, the challenges of incorporating heat pipes in an air-conditioning system, and the preliminary results from a field demonstration of an industrial application.

  9. Cold injuries.

    PubMed

    Long, William B; Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to cold can produce a variety of injuries that occur as a result of man's inability to adapt to cold. These injuries can be divided into localized injury to a body part, systemic hypothermia, or a combination of both. Body temperature may fall as a result of heat loss by radiation, evaporation, conduction, and convection. Hypothermia or systemic cold injury occurs when the core body temperature has decreased to 35 degrees C (95 degrees F) or less. The causes of hypothermia are either primary or secondary. Primary, or accidental, hypothermia occurs in healthy individuals inadequately clothed and exposed to severe cooling. In secondary hypothermia, another illness predisposes the individual to accidental hypothermia. Hypothermia affects multiple organs with symptoms of hypothermia that vary according to the severity of cold injury. The diagnosis of hypothermia is easy if the patient is a mountaineer who is stranded in cold weather. However, it may be more difficult in an elderly patient who has been exposed to a cold environment. In either case, the rectal temperature should be checked with a low-reading thermometer. The general principals of prehospital management are to (1) prevent further heat loss, (2) rewarm the body core temperature in advance of the shell, and (3) avoid precipitating ventricular fibrillation. There are two general techniques of rewarming--passive and active. The mechanisms of peripheral cold injury can be divided into phenomena that affect cells and extracellular fluids (direct effects) and those that disrupt the function of the organized tissue and the integrity of the circulation (indirect effects). Generally, no serious damage is seen until tissue freezing occurs. The mildest form of peripheral cold injury is frostnip. Chilblains represent a more severe form of cold injury than frostnip and occur after exposure to nonfreezing temperatures and damp conditions. Immersion (trench) foot, a disease of the sympathetic nerves and blood

  10. Cold urticaria.

    PubMed

    Claudy, A

    2001-11-01

    Cold urticaria is one form of urticaria that may be associated with other forms of physical urticarias. Frequency is generally estimated at two or three per 100. The triggering effect of cold is found at history taking in most of the cases. The urticaria is usually superficial, and more rarely associated with deep and/or mucosal urticaria. The diagnosis is based on history taking and the ice cube test. An exhaustive search for an etiologic factor is often unfruitful, and the presence of a cryopathy should lead to a complete work-up. Therapy of cold urticaria may prove to be difficult. In patients with secondary cold urticaria, underlying disease must be treated in order to resolve the skin symptoms. H1-antihistamines can be used but the clinical responses are highly variable. Short-time treatment with low concentration corticosteroids suppresses the symptoms only partially and temporarily. In patients who do not respond to previous treatments, induction of cold tolerance may be proposed but the procedure is difficult to carry out in daily life over an extended period. Key word: cryoglobulins.

  11. Lifetest investigations with stainless steel/water heat pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muenzel, W. D.; Kraehling, H.

    Life tests were conducted on water heat pipes, made from four different alloys of stainless steel, at operation temperatures of 120, 160, 220, and 320 C in a reflux boiler mode for more than 20,000 hr. Other parameters varied during the tests included capillary structure, pretreatment and cleaning of the components, additional oxidation of the inner surface, filling procedures, amoung of liquid change, the number of ventings, and the duration of the reaction runs. The best results were obtained with pipes containing stainless steels with molybdenum alloy additions and with carbon contents of greater than 0.03%; with components which formed a protective surface layer; with the use of double-distilled water that had been ultrasonically degassed; with repeated ventings during the initial reaction run of 500 hr minimum duration; and with the addition of gaseous oxygen into the heat pipe during the reaction run with subsequent venting.

  12. COLD TRAP

    DOEpatents

    Milleron, N.

    1963-03-12

    An improved linear-flow cold trap is designed for highvacuum applications such as mitigating back migration of diffusion pump oil moiecules. A central pot of liquid nitrogen is nested within and supported by a surrounding, vertical, helical coil of metai sheet, all enveloped by a larger, upright, cylindrical, vacuum vessel. The vertical interstices between successive turns of the coil afford lineal, axial, high-vacuum passages between open mouths at top and bottom of said vessel, while the coil, being cold by virtue of thermal contact of its innermost turn with the nitrogen pot, affords expansive proximate condensation surfaces. (AEC)

  13. Heat-Pipe Array for Large-Area Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelstein, F.; Brown, R. F.

    1986-01-01

    High rates of heat transfer anticipated. Prototype evaporative cold plate gathers waste heat from equipment mounted on it. Plate made by welding together flanges of several sections of heat pipe. Since plate separates liquid and vapor phases at inlet and outlet ports, eliminates complexities and uncertainties of two-phase flow in zero gravity. On earth, inlet valve enables plate to operate at relatively-large height differences with other plates in same system.

  14. Factors influencing lead and iron release from some Egyptian drinking water pipes.

    PubMed

    Lasheen, M R; Sharaby, C M; El-Kholy, N G; Elsherif, I Y; El-Wakeel, S T

    2008-12-30

    The major objective of this study is to assess the effect of stagnation time, pipe age, pipes material and water quality parameters such as pH, alkalinity and chloride to sulfate mass ratio on lead and iron release from different types of water pipes used in Egypt namely polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polypropylene (PP) and galvanized iron (GI), by using fill and dump method. Low pH increased lead and iron release from pipes. Lead and iron release decreased as pH and alkalinity increased. Lead and iron release increased with increasing chloride to sulfate mass ratio in all pipes. EDTA was used as an example of natural organic matter which may be influence metals release. It is found that lead and iron release increased then this release decreased with time. In general, GI pipes showed to be the most effected by water quality parameters tested and the highest iron release. PVC pipes are the most lead releasing pipes while PP pipes are the least releasing.

  15. 77 FR 56809 - Certain Small Diameter Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ... process (hot-finished or cold-drawn), end finish (plain end, beveled end, upset end, threaded, or threaded... common because all pipes meeting the stringent A-106 specification necessarily meet the API 5L and ASTM A... pressure applications. Finally, also excluded from the order are redraw hollows for cold-drawing when used...

  16. 77 FR 46385 - Certain Small Diameter Seamless Carbon and Alloy Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Germany...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... thickness, manufacturing process (hot-finished or cold-drawn), end finish (plain end, beveled end, upset end... common because all pipes meeting the stringent A-106 specification necessarily meet the API 5L and ASTM A... pressure applications. Finally, also excluded from the order are redraw hollows for cold-drawing when used...

  17. 3 users abandon plastic rooftop-sprinkler systems: say sun warps and cracks pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Galvin, C.

    1982-05-03

    Cold temperature and exposure to the sun have cracked and warped plastic piping used for rooftop sprinklers and caused some users to remove the systems they hoped would reduce cooling costs. Manufacturers of the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe, however, claim the cracking was due to improper draining. Copper tubing can be used, but at a 20 to 50% increase in cost. Chemical treatment to repel ultraviolet rays must be used on PVC piping to withstand sunlight. Several users report their experiences with rooftop sprinkling systems. (DCK)

  18. Drill pipe protector development

    SciTech Connect

    Thomerson, C.; Kenne, R.; Wemple, R.P.

    1996-03-01

    The Geothermal Drilling Organization (GDO), formed in the early 1980s by the geothermal industry and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Geothermal Division, sponsors specific development projects to advance the technologies used in geothermal exploration, drilling, and production phases. Individual GDO member companies can choose to participate in specific projects that are most beneficial to their industry segment. Sandia National Laboratories is the technical interface and contracting office for the DOE in these projects. Typical projects sponsored in the past have included a high temperature borehole televiewer, drill bits, muds/polymers, rotary head seals, and this project for drill pipe protectors. This report documents the development work of Regal International for high temperature geothermal pipe protectors.

  19. Filling a Conical Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nye, Kyle; Eslam-Panah, Azar

    2016-11-01

    Root canal treatment involves the removal of infected tissue inside the tooth's canal system and filling the space with a dense sealing agent to prevent further infection. A good root canal treatment happens when the canals are filled homogeneously and tightly down to the root apex. Such a tooth is able to provide valuable service for an entire lifetime. However, there are some examples of poorly performed root canals where the anterior and posterior routes are not filled completely. Small packets of air can be trapped in narrow access cavities when restoring with resin composites. Such teeth can cause trouble even after many years and lead the conditions like acute bone infection or abscesses. In this study, the filling of dead-end conical cavities with various liquids is reported. The first case studies included conical cavity models with different angles and lengths to visualize the filling process. In this investigation, the rate and completeness at which a variety of liquids fill the cavity were observed to find ideal conditions for the process. Then, a 3D printed model of the scaled representation of a molar with prepared post spaces was used to simulate the root canal treatment. The results of this study can be used to gain a better understanding of the restoration for endodontically treated teeth.

  20. Cold Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes oral herpes, or cold sores. Type 1 herpes virus infects more than half of the U.S. population by the time they reach their 20s. Type 2 usually affects the genital area Some people have no symptoms from the ...

  1. Cold Hands

    MedlinePlus

    ... you have a problem with the nerves or blood circulation or a problem with tissue damage in your hands or fingers. ... of causes. Having cold hands could signal a problem with your blood circulation or the blood vessels in your hands. Make ...

  2. Project COLD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazanjian, Wendy C.

    1982-01-01

    Describes Project COLD (Climate, Ocean, Land, Discovery) a scientific study of the Polar Regions, a collection of 35 modules used within the framework of existing subjects: oceanography, biology, geology, meterology, geography, social science. Includes a partial list of topics and one activity (geodesic dome) from a module. (Author/SK)

  3. Heat Pipe Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Solar Fundamentals, Inc.'s hot water system employs space-derived heat pipe technology. It is used by a meat packing plant to heat water for cleaning processing machinery. Unit is complete system with water heater, hot water storage, electrical controls and auxiliary components. Other than fans and a circulating pump, there are no moving parts. System's unique design eliminates problems of balancing, leaking, corroding, and freezing.

  4. Underground pipeline laying using the pipe-in-pipe system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antropova, N.; Krets, V.; Pavlov, M.

    2016-09-01

    The problems of resource saving and environmental safety during the installation and operation of the underwater crossings are always relevant. The paper describes the existing methods of trenchless pipeline technology, the structure of multi-channel pipelines, the types of supporting and guiding systems. The rational design is suggested for the pipe-in-pipe system. The finite element model is presented for the most dangerous sections of the inner pipes, the optimum distance is detected between the roller supports.

  5. Radiative heat transfer estimation in pipes with various wall emissivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, Langebach; Christoph, Haberstroh

    2017-02-01

    Radiative heat transfer is usually of substantial importance in cryogenics when systems are designed and thermal budgeting is carried out. However, the contribution of pipes is commonly assumed to be comparably low since the warm and cold ends as well as their cross section are fairly small. Nevertheless, for a first assessment of each pipe rough estimates are always appreciated. In order to estimate the radiative heat transfer with traditional “paper and pencil“ methods there is only one analytical case available in literature - the case of plane-parallel plates. This case can only be used to calculate the theoretical lower and the upper asymptotic values of the radiative heat transfer, since pipe wall radiation properties are not taken into account. For this paper we investigated the radiative heat transfer estimation in pipes with various wall emissivities with the help of numerical simulations. Out of a number of calculation series we could gain an empirical extension for the used approach of plane-parallel plates. The model equation can be used to carry out enhanced paper and pencil estimations for the radiative heat transfer through pipes without demanding numerical simulations.

  6. Wavenumber Prediction of Waves in Buried Pipes for Water Leak Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MUGGLETON, J. M.; BRENNAN, M. J.; PINNINGTON, R. J.

    2002-01-01

    Water leaks are a topic of great concern in Britain and many other countries, because of decreasing water supplies and the deterioration of old pipework. Correlation techniques are widely used in leak detection, but for these to be effective, the propagation wavespeeds and wave attenuation must be known. Relatively predictable for metal pipes, these are largely unknown for the newer plastic pipes, being highly dependent on the pipe wall properties and the surrounding medium. In this paper, pipe equations for n=0 axisymmetric wave motion are derived for a fluid-filled pipe, surrounded by an infinite elastic medium which can support both longitudinal and shear waves. These equations are solved for two wave types,s =1,2, which correspond to a fluid dominated wave and an axial shell wave, and expressions for a complex wavenumber for each wave are given.

  7. Dynamics of large-diameter water pipes in hydroelectric power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavić, G.; Chevillotte, F.; Heraud, J.

    2017-04-01

    An outline is made of physical behaviour of water - filled large pipes. The fluid-wall coupling, the key factor governing the pipe dynamics, is discussed in some detail. Different circumferential pipe modes and the associated cut-on frequencies are addressed from a theoretical as well as practical point of view. Major attention is paid to the breathing mode in view of its importance regarding main dynamic phenomena, such as water hammer. Selected measurement results done at EDF are presented to demonstrate how an external, non-intrusive sensor can detect pressure pulsations of the breathing mode in a pressure pipe. Differences in the pressure measurement using intrusive and non-intrusive sensors reveal the full complexity of large-diameter pipe dynamics.

  8. New technique for installing screen wicking into Inconel 718 heat pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giriunas, Julius A.; Watson, Gordon K.; Tower, Leonard K.

    1993-01-01

    The creep behavior of superalloys, including Inconel 718, in the presence of liquid sodium is not yet known. To study this problem, the NASA Lewis Research Center has initiated a program with the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC) of Rockwell International Corporation to fill with sodium and creep-test three small cylindrical heat pipes of Inconel 718 for a period of 1000 hours each. This report documents the design and the construction methods that were used at NASA Lewis to fabricate these heat pipes. Of particular importance in the heat pipe construction was the installation of the screen wicking by using an expandable mandrel and differential thermal expansion. This installation technique differs from anything known to have been reported in the heat pipe literature and may be of interest to other workers in the heat pipe field.

  9. New technique for installing screen wicking into Inconel 718 heat pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Giriunas, J.A.; Watson, G.K. ); Tower, L.K. )

    1993-01-10

    The creep behavior of superalloys, including Inconel 718, in the presence of liquid sodium is not yet known. To study this problem, the NASA Lewis Research Center has initiated a program with the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC) of Rockwell International Corporation to fill with sodium and creep-test three small cylindrical heat pipes of Inconel 718 for a period of 1000 hours each. This report documents the design and the construction methods that were used at NASA Lewis to fabricate these heat pipes. Of particular importance in the heat pipe construction was the installation of the screen wicking by using an expandable mandrel and differential thermal expansion. This installation technique differs from anything known to have been reported in the heat pipe literature and may be of interest to other workers in the heat pipe field.

  10. High thermal power density heat transfer apparatus providing electrical isolation at high temperature using heat pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, J. F.

    1985-03-01

    This invention is directed to transferring heat from an extremely high temperature source to an electrically isolated lower temperature receiver. The invention is particularly concerned with supplying thermal power to a thermionic converter from a nuclear reactor with electric isolation. Heat from a high temperature heat pipe is transferred through a vacuum or a gap filled with electrically nonconducting gas to a cooler heat pipe. If the receiver requires gratr thermal power density, geometries are used with larger heat pipe areas for transmitting and receiving energy than the area for conducting the heat to the thermionic converter. In this way the heat pipe capability for increasing thermal power densities compensates for the comparative low thermal power densities through the electrically nonconducting gap between the two heat pipes.

  11. High thermal power density heat transfer apparatus providing electrical isolation at high temperature using heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, J. F. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    This invention is directed to transferring heat from an extremely high temperature source to an electrically isolated lower temperature receiver. The invention is particularly concerned with supplying thermal power to a thermionic converter from a nuclear reactor with electric isolation. Heat from a high temperature heat pipe is transferred through a vacuum or a gap filled with electrically nonconducting gas to a cooler heat pipe. If the receiver requires gratr thermal power density, geometries are used with larger heat pipe areas for transmitting and receiving energy than the area for conducting the heat to the thermionic converter. In this way the heat pipe capability for increasing thermal power densities compensates for the comparative low thermal power densities through the electrically nonconducting gap between the two heat pipes.

  12. Guidable pipe plug

    DOEpatents

    Glassell, Richard L.; Babcock, Scott M.; Lewis, Benjamin E.

    2001-01-01

    A plugging device for closing an opening defined by an end of a pipe with sealant comprises a cap, an extension, an inner seal, a guide, and at least one stop. The cap has an inner surface which defines a chamber adapted for retaining the sealant. The chamber is dimensioned slightly larger than the end so as to receive the end. The chamber and end define a gap therebetween. The extension has a distal end and is attached to the inner surface opposite the distal end. The inner seal is attached to the extension and sized larger than the opening. The guide is positioned forward of the inner seal and attached to the distal end. The guide is also dimensioned to be inserted into the opening. The stop is attached to the extender, and when the stop is disposed in the pipe, the stop is movable with respect to the conduit in one direction and also prevents misalignment of the cap with the pipe. A handle can also be included to allow the cap to be positioned robotically.

  13. Heat pipe technology: A bibliography with abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The annual supplement on heat pipe technology for 1971 is presented. The document contains 101 references with abstracts and 47 patents. The subjects discussed are: (1) heat pipe applications, (2) heat pipe theory, (3) design, development, and fabrication of heat pipes, (4) testing and operation, (5) subject and author index, and (6) heat pipe related patents.

  14. Space shuttle heat pipe thermal control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alario, J.

    1973-01-01

    Heat pipe (HP) thermal control systems designed for possible space shuttle applications were built and tested under this program. They are: (1) a HP augmented cold rail, (2) a HP/phase change material (PCM) modular heat sink and (3) a HP radiating panel for compartment temperature control. The HP augmented cold rail is similar to a standard two-passage fluid cold rail except that it contains an integral, centrally located HP throughout its length. The central HP core helps to increase the local power density capability by spreading concentrated heat inputs over the entire rail. The HP/PCM modular heat sink system consists of a diode HP connected in series to a standard HP that has a PCM canister attached to its mid-section. It is designed to connect a heat source to a structural heat sink during normal operation, and to automatically decouple from it and sink to the PCM whenever structural temperatures are too high. The HP radiating panel is designed to conductively couple the panel feeder HPs directly to a fluid line that serves as a source of waste heat. It is a simple strap-on type of system that requires no internal or external line modifications to distribute the heat to a large radiating area.

  15. Experimenting with a ``Pipe'' Whistle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafford, Olga

    2012-04-01

    A simple pipe whistle can be made using pieces of PVC pipe. The whistle can be used to measure the resonant frequencies of open or closed pipes. A slightly modified version of the device can be used to also investigate the interesting dependence of the sound frequencies produced on the orifice-to-edge distance. The pipe whistle described here allows students in a physics of music or introductory physics course to study an example of an "edge tone" device that produces discrete sound frequencies. From their textbooks, students likely know about standing waves produced by pipes or strings, as well as the resonant frequencies for open and closed pipes. To go a bit further, they can also learn how the frequency of the sound wave depends on the orifice-to-edge distance of the wind instrument.

  16. Uranium-bearing breccia pipes of northwestern Arizona - an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Chenoweth, W.L.

    1986-08-01

    During the 1950s and 1960s, the uranium deposits in breccia pipes of the Grand Canyon region were regarded as geologic curiosities. Today this area is the site of numerous exploration projects for ore-bearing pipes. The classic example of the older mines is the Orphan Lode, a patented claim within Grand Canyon National Park. Between 1956 and 1969, this deposit produced 4.26 million lb U/sub 3/O/sub 8/. Exploration since the mid-1970s has developed numerous new deposits in the Grand Canyon region. The Hack 1, 2, and 3, Pigeon, Kanab North, Canyon, and Pinenut deposits are, or will be, mined. The pipes are circular and originated by dissolution of the Mississippian Redwall Limestone and collapse of the overlying strata. Uraninite ore occurs in both the pipe fill and in association with the peripheral shear zone. The principal host rocks are the Coconino Sandstone, Hermit Shale, and Esplanade Sandstone. Although small (3 to 5 million lb U/sub 3/O/sub 8/), the high grade (60 to 70% U/sub 3/O/sub 8/) of the deposits makes the pipes attractive exploration targets.

  17. Effect of disinfectants on pseudomonads colonized on the interior surface of PVC pipes.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, R L; Holland, B W; Carr, J K; Bond, W W; Favero, M S

    1990-01-01

    We investigated the effect of disinfectants on microbial contamination present on the interior surface of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes filled with 600 ml of water contaminated with Pseudomonas pickettii and P. aeruginosa. After eight weeks, water was removed, and the test pipes exposed to various types of aqueous disinfectants. Disinfectant samples were removed, neutralized, and examined for recovery of microorganisms by membrane filtration. After seven-days exposure, disinfectant solutions were removed and pipes filled with sterile distilled water. Water was examined by membrane filtration at seven-day intervals to determine whether the organisms had survived in the pipes. Colonization of PVC surfaces were examined during each study phase by scanning electron-microscopy (SEM). P. aeruginosa was isolated directly from iodophor disinfectant, phenolic germicide, and iodophor antiseptic solutions. After addition of sterile water, P. aeruginosa was recovered from PVC pipes previously exposed to chlorine, phenolic, quaternary-ammonium, and iodophor disinfectants; P. pickettii was recovered from water in pipes treated with iodophor disinfectant, chlorine, and ethanol. The existence of glycocalyx-like cellular masses on the interior wall of PVC pipes most likely protected embedded organisms from the microbicidal action of some of the disinfectants tested and served as the reservoir for continuous contamination. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:2293797

  18. Radiation crosslinked plasticized PVC - pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hell, Z.; Ravlić, M.; Bogdanović, Lj.; Maleš, J.; Dvornik, I.; Ranogajec, F.; Ranogajec, M.; Tudorić-Ghemo, J.

    The efficiency of polyfunctional monomers triallyl cyanurate, allyl methacrylate, diallyl phtalate, 2-ethyl-2(hydroxy-methyl)-propanediol-(1,3) trimethacrylate, divinyl benzene and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate in radiation crosslinking of PVC was investigated. Patterns of pipes were produced and irradiated with gamma rays. The resistance to internal pressure of crosslinked PVC pipes was measured at 80°C and compared with resistance of unirradiated PVC pipes.

  19. Hot, Cold, and Really Cold.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Describes a physics experiment investigating temperature prediction and the relationship between the physical properties of heat units, melting, dissolving, states of matter, and energy loss. Details the experimental setup, which requires hot and cold water, a thermometer, and ice. Notes that the experiment employs a deliberate counter-intuitive…

  20. Hot, Cold, and Really Cold.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Describes a physics experiment investigating temperature prediction and the relationship between the physical properties of heat units, melting, dissolving, states of matter, and energy loss. Details the experimental setup, which requires hot and cold water, a thermometer, and ice. Notes that the experiment employs a deliberate counter-intuitive…

  1. Cryogenic Heat Pipe Experiment (CRYOHP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintosh, Roy

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the CRYOHP experiment is to conduct a shuttle experiment that demonstrates the reliable operation of two oxygen heat pipes in microgravity. The experiment will perform the following tasks: (1) demonstrate startup of the pipes from the supercritical state; (2) measure the heat transport capacity of the pipes; (3) measure evaporator and condenser film coefficients; and (4) work shuttle safety issues. The approach for the experiment is as follows: (1) fly two axially grooved oxygen heat pipes attached to mechanical stirling cycle tactical coolers; (2) integrate experiment in hitch-hiker canister; and (3) fly on shuttle and control from ground.

  2. Thermostructural applications of heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peeples, M. E.; Reeder, J. C.; Sontag, K. E.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of integrating heat pipes in high temperature structure to reduce local hot spot temperature was evaluated for a variety of hypersonic aerospace vehicles. From an initial list of twenty-two potential applications, the single stage to orbit wing leading edge showed the greatest promise and was selected for preliminary design of an integrated heat pipe thermostructural system. The design consisted of a Hastelloy X assembly with sodium heat pipe passages aligned normal to the wing leading edge. A d-shaped heat pipe cross section was determined to be optimum from the standpoint of structural weight.

  3. 46 CFR 76.33-15 - Piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... System, Details § 76.33-15 Piping. (a) Individual pipes shall be not less than 3/4-inch standard pipe... with as easy bends as practicable, and shall be installed to grade to low points for drainage. (e...

  4. 46 CFR 76.33-15 - Piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... System, Details § 76.33-15 Piping. (a) Individual pipes shall be not less than 3/4-inch standard pipe... with as easy bends as practicable, and shall be installed to grade to low points for drainage. (e...

  5. 46 CFR 76.33-15 - Piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... System, Details § 76.33-15 Piping. (a) Individual pipes shall be not less than 3/4-inch standard pipe... with as easy bends as practicable, and shall be installed to grade to low points for drainage. (e...

  6. The multistage heat pipe radiator - An advancement in passive cooling technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, D. E.; Wright, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    Mathematical models were developed for one-, two-, and three-stage radiator systems to determine optimum stage areas and system performance as a function of such parameters as insulation effectiveness, cold stage temperature, and heat load to the cold and intermediate stages. This study shows that multistage radiator systems can be optimized on the basis of weight or projected area, and that cold stage temperatures as low as 15 K are theoretically possible with present technology levels for insulation emittance. For the baseline design, analyses were performed to determine optimum radiator fin geometry and heat pipe spacing as a function of temperature, material properties, and heat pipe weight. In addition, a ground test system was designed for the baseline design with heat rejection requirements of 10 MW at 35 K on the cold stage and 100 MW at the second stage.

  7. Updated pipe break analysis for Advanced Neutron Source Reactor conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Wendel, M.W.; Chen, N.C.J.; Yoder, G.L.

    1994-04-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source Reactor (ANSR) is a research reactor to be built at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory that will supply the highest continuous neutron flux levels of any reactor in the world. It uses plate-type fuel with high-mass-flux and highly subcooled heavy water as the primary coolant. The Conceptual Safety Analysis for the ANSR was completed in June 1992. The thermal-hydraulic pipe-break safety analysis (performed with a specialized version of RELAP5/MOD3) focused primarily on double-ended guillotine breaks of the primary piping and some core-damage mitigation options for such an event. Smaller, instantaneous pipe breaks in the cold- and hot-leg piping were also analyzed to a limited extent. Since the initial analysis for the conceptual design was completed, several important changes to the RELAP5 input model have been made reflecting improvements in the fuel grading and changes in the elevation of the primary coolant pumps. Also, a new philosophy for pipe-break safety analysis (similar to that adopted for the New Production Reactor) accentuates instantaneous, limited flow area pipe-break accidents in addition to finite-opening-time, double-ended guillotine breaks of the major coolant piping. This paper discloses the results of the most recent instantaneous pipe-break calculations.

  8. Modeling of pulsating heat pipes.

    SciTech Connect

    Givler, Richard C.; Martinez, Mario J.

    2009-08-01

    This report summarizes the results of a computer model that describes the behavior of pulsating heat pipes (PHP). The purpose of the project was to develop a highly efficient (as compared to the heat transfer capability of solid copper) thermal groundplane (TGP) using silicon carbide (SiC) as the substrate material and water as the working fluid. The objective of this project is to develop a multi-physics model for this complex phenomenon to assist with an understanding of how PHPs operate and to be able to understand how various parameters (geometry, fill ratio, materials, working fluid, etc.) affect its performance. The physical processes describing a PHP are highly coupled. Understanding its operation is further complicated by the non-equilibrium nature of the interplay between evaporation/condensation, bubble growth and collapse or coalescence, and the coupled response of the multiphase fluid dynamics among the different channels. A comprehensive theory of operation and design tools for PHPs is still an unrealized task. In the following we first analyze, in some detail, a simple model that has been proposed to describe PHP behavior. Although it includes fundamental features of a PHP, it also makes some assumptions to keep the model tractable. In an effort to improve on current modeling practice, we constructed a model for a PHP using some unique features available in FLOW-3D, version 9.2-3 (Flow Science, 2007). We believe that this flow modeling software retains more of the salient features of a PHP and thus, provides a closer representation of its behavior.

  9. Loose-fill insulations

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    Whether you are increasing the insulation levels in your current home or selecting insulation for a new home, choosing the right insulation material can be challenging. Fibrous loose-fill insulations such as cellulose, fiberglass, and rock wool are options you may wish to consider. This publication will introduce you to these materials--what they are, how they are applied, how they compare with each other, and other considerations regarding their use--so that you can decide whether loose fills are right for your home.

  10. Cold Vacuum Drying facility sanitary sewage collection system design description (SYS 27)

    SciTech Connect

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-07-02

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) sanitary sewage collection system. The sanitary sewage collection system provides collection and storage of effluents and raw sewage from the CVDF to support the cold vacuum drying process. This system is comprised of a sanitary sewage holding tank and pipes for collection and transport of effluents to the sanitary sewage holding tank.

  11. Deployable Pipe-Z

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawidzki, Machi

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a concept of deployable Pipe-Z (dPZ): a modular structural system which takes advantage of the robustness of rigid-panel mechanism and allows to create free-form links which are also reconfigurable and deployable. The concept presented can be applied for building habitats and infrastructures for human exploration of oceans and outer space. dPZ structures can adapt to changing requirements e.g. mission objectives, crew condition and technological developments. Furthermore, such lightweight and adaptable structural concept can assist in sustainable exploration development. After brief introduction, the concept of Pipe-Z (PZ) is presented. Next, the reconfigurability of PZ is explained and illustrated with continuous and collision-free transition from a PZ forming a Trefoil knot to a Figure-eight knot. The following sections introduce, explain and illustrate the folding mechanism of a single foldable Pipe-Z module (fPZM) and entire dPZ structure. The latter is illustrated with asynchronous (delayed) unfolding of a relatively complex Unknot. Several applications of PZ are suggested, namely for underwater and deep-space and surface habitats, for permanent, but in particular, temporary or emergency passages. As an example, a scenario of a failure of one of the modules of the International Space Station is presented where a rigid structure of 40 fPZMs bypasses the ;dead link;. A low-fidelity prototype of a 6-module octagonal dPZ is presented; several folding schemes including concentric toric rings are demonstrated. Practical issues of pressurization and packing are briefly discussed.

  12. Heat pipe applications for the space shuttle.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tawil, M.; Alario, J.; Prager, R.; Bullock, R.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of six specific applications for heat pipe (HP) devices on the space shuttle. These applications were chosen from 27 concepts formulated as part of a study to evaluate the potential benefits associated with HP use. The formulation process is briefly described along with the applications which evolved. The bulk of the discussion deals with the 'top' six - namely, HP radiators for waste heat rejection, an HP augmented cold rail, an HP circuit for electronic equipment cooling, modular heat sink for control of remote packages, an HP temperature control for compartments, and air-cooled equipment racks. The philosophy, physical design details, and performance data are presented for each concept along with a comparison with the baseline design where applicable.

  13. Polymeric heat pipe wick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidenberg, Benjamin

    1988-08-01

    A wick for use in a capillary loop pump heat pipe is described. The wick material is an essentially uniformly porous, permeable, open-cell, polyethylene thermoplastic foam having an ultrahigh average molecular weight of from approximately 1 to 5 million, and an average pore size of about 10 to 12 microns. A representative material having these characteristics is POREX UF, which has an average molecular weight of about 3 million. This material is fully compatible with the FREONs and anhydrous ammonia and allows for the use of these very efficient working fluids in capillary loops.

  14. Ceramic heat pipe wick

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidenberg, Benjamin (Inventor); Swanson, Theodore (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A wick for use in a capillary loop pump heat pipe is disclosed. The wick material is an essentially uniformly porous, permeable, open-cell, silicon dioxide/aluminum oxide inorganic ceramic foam having a silica fiber ratio, by weight, of about 78 to 22, respectively, a density of 6 lbs/cu ft, and an average pore size of less than 5 microns. A representative material having these characteristics is Lockheed Missile and Space Company, Inc.'s HTP 6-22. This material is fully compatible with the freons and anhydrous ammonia and allows for the use of these very efficient working fluids, and others, in capillary loops.

  15. Analysis, Verification, and Application of Equations and Procedures for Design of Exhaust-Pipe Shrouds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1947-12-01

    exhaust fromthe mhmst frcunthe exhaust fromthe exhaust *8 to theeklxmstpipe gasto theexhmst pipe p@e to thecoolingaiz l)y w w yipeto theshroudby thermal...thesimplificationf thefinalresults. Equations for designtemperatures.- hot gasto a cold@s canbe re~esented where ii mean ;-mean heat~tranefer Q . b“S... gasto theexhaustpipebyIthermalrqdlation.If flapsor “ ejectorpumpsqreused,andthe pooling-airexitpressureis thw decreasedfromatmospheti.c,theapplicationof

  16. Composite heat pipe development status: Development of lightweight prototype carbon-carbon heat pipe with integral fins and metal foil liner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Rovang, Richard D.

    1995-01-01

    This report discusses development and proof-of-concept testing of a new lightweight carbon-carbon (C-C) space radiator heat pipe, carried out under the NASA Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) High Capacity Power Program. The prototype heat pipe, equipped with a niobium-zirconium foil liner, was filled with potassium working fluid and tested for 11 hours, including startup from ambient temperature with the working fluid initially in the frozen state to near 700 K condenser temperature. Steady-state heat pipe input power during testing was facility limited to about 300 watts. Post test inspection showed the heat pipe to be in excellent condition after eight thermal cycles from ambient to steady-state operating temperature. Utilization of other liner materials and working fluids would greatly extend the spectrum of service temperatures for this technology, with potential applications ranging from small spacecraft heat rejection to aircraft and terrestrial uses.

  17. 27. LAEMPE AUTOMATED COLD BOX CORE MAKING MACHINES IN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. LAEMPE AUTOMATED COLD BOX CORE MAKING MACHINES IN THE GREY IRON FOUNDRY USED PRESSURE TO SET RESINS IN CORE SAND. THE ONLY EFFORT REQUIRED OF WORKERS IS TO CHANGE CORE BOXES AND REMOVE HARDENED CORE. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  18. Combining geomorphological mapping and near surface geophysics (GPR and ERT) to study piping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernatek-Jakiel, Anita; Kondracka, Marta

    2016-12-01

    This paper aims to provide a more comprehensive characterization of piping systems in mountainous areas under a temperate climate using geomorphological mapping and geophysical methods (electrical resistivity tomography - ERT and ground penetrating radar - GPR). The significance of piping in gully formation and hillslope hydrology has been discussed for many years, and most of the studies are based on surface investigations. However, it seems that most surface investigations underestimate this subsurface process. Therefore, our purpose was to estimate the scale of piping activity based on both surface and subsurface investigations. We used geophysical methods to detect the boundary of lateral water movement fostering pipe development and recognize the internal structure of the underlying materials. The survey was carried out in the Bereźnica Wyżna catchment, in the Bieszczady Mountains. (Eastern Carpathians, Poland), where pipes develop in Cambisols at a mean depth of about 0.7-0.8 m. The geophysical techniques that were used are shown to be successful in identifying pipes. GPR data suggest that the density of piping systems is much larger than that detectible from surface observations alone. Pipe length can be > 6.5-9.2% (maximum = 49%) higher than what surface mapping suggests. Thus, the significance of piping in hillslope hydrology and gully formation can be greater than previously assumed. These results also draw attention to the scale of piping activity in the Carpathians, where this process has been neglected for many years. The ERT profiles reveal areas affected by piping as places of higher resistivity values, which are an effect of a higher content of air-filled pores (due to higher soil porosity, intense biological activity, and well-developed soil structure). In addition, the ERT profiles show that the pipes in the study area develop at the soil-bedrock interface, probably above the layers of shales or mudstones which create a water restrictive layer

  19. Influence of pipe material and surfaces on sulfide related odor and corrosion in sewers.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Vollertsen, Jes; Jensen, Henriette Stokbro; Wium-Andersen, Tove; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2008-09-01

    Hydrogen sulfide oxidation on sewer pipe surfaces was investigated in a pilot scale experimental setup. The experiments were aimed at replicating conditions in a gravity sewer located immediately downstream of a force main where sulfide related concrete corrosion and odor is often observed. During the experiments, hydrogen sulfide gas was injected intermittently into the headspace of partially filled concrete and plastic (PVC and HDPE) sewer pipes in concentrations of approximately 1,000 ppm(v). Between each injection, the hydrogen sulfide concentration was monitored while it decreased because of adsorption and subsequent oxidation on the pipe surfaces. The experiments showed that the rate of hydrogen sulfide oxidation was approximately two orders of magnitude faster on the concrete pipe surfaces than on the plastic pipe surfaces. Removal of the layer of reaction (corrosion) products from the concrete pipes was found to reduce the rate of hydrogen sulfide oxidation significantly. However, the rate of sulfide oxidation was restored to its background level within 10-20 days. A similar treatment had no observable effect on hydrogen sulfide removal in the plastic pipe reactors. The experimental results were used to model hydrogen sulfide oxidation under field conditions. This showed that the gas-phase hydrogen sulfide concentration in concrete sewers would typically amount to a few percent of the equilibrium concentration calculated from Henry's law. In the plastic pipe sewers, significantly higher concentrations were predicted because of the slower adsorption and oxidation kinetics on such surfaces.

  20. Pipe crawler with stabilizing midsection

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W.T.; Treanor, R.C.

    1994-12-27

    A pipe crawler is described having a midsection that provides the stability and flexibility to allow the pipe crawler to negotiate curved and uneven segments of piping while traveling through piping systems. The pipe crawler comprises a front leg assembly, a rear leg assembly, a midsection with a gimbal at each end for connecting the midsection to the front and rear leg assemblies in a flexible manner, and an air cylinder for changing the distance between the front and rear leg assemblies. The pipe crawler moves in ''inch worm'' fashion with the front and rear leg assemblies alternating between an extended and a retracted position as the air cylinder moves the retracted leg assembly forward. The midsection has a plurality of legs extending radially for holding the midsection within a maximum displacement from the piping axis so that the gimbals are not pivoted to extreme angles where they might lock up or seize. When the midsection is displaced sufficiently, its legs with wheels on each end engage the interior surface of the piping and prevent further displacement. Using two gimbals divides the angle between the planes defined by the front and rear leg assemblies which also helps to prevent excessive gimbal pivoting. 5 figures.

  1. Pipe crawler with stabilizing midsection

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, William T.; Treanor, Richard C.

    1994-01-01

    A pipe crawler having a midsection that provides the stability and flexibty to allow the pipe crawler to negotiate curved and uneven segments of piping while traveling through piping systems. The pipe crawler comprises a front leg assembly, a rear leg assembly, a midsection with a gimbal at each end for connecting the midsection to the front and rear leg assemblies in a flexible manner, and an air cylinder for changing the distance between the front and rear leg assemblies. The pipe crawler moves in "inch worm" fashion with the front and rear leg assemblies alternating between an extended and a retracted position as the air cylinder moves the retracted leg assembly forward. The midsection has a plurality of legs extending radially for holding the midsection within a maximum displacement from the piping axis so that the gimbals are not pivoted to extreme angles where they might lock up or seize. When the midsection is displaced sufficiently, its legs with wheels on each end engage the interior surface of the piping and prevent further displacement. Using two gimbals divides the angle between the planes defined by the front and rear leg assemblies which also helps to prevent excessive gimbal pivoting.

  2. Heat Pipe Blocks Return Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eninger, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Metal-foil reed valve in conventional slab-wick heat pipe limits heat flow to one direction only. With sink warmer than source, reed is forced closed and fluid returns to source side through annular transfer wick. When this occurs, wick slab on sink side of valve dries out and heat pipe ceases to conduct heat.

  3. Demonstrating Sound Impulses in Pipes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymer, M. G.; Micklavzina, Stan

    1995-01-01

    Describes a simple, direct method to demonstrate the effects of the boundary conditions on sound impulse reflections in pipes. A graphical display of the results can be made using a pipe, cork, small hammer, microphone, and fast recording electronics. Explains the principles involved. (LZ)

  4. Building a Copper Pipe "Xylophone."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, David R.

    2003-01-01

    Explains how to use the equation for frequency of vibration of a transversely oscillating bar or pipe with both ends free to vibrate to build a simple and inexpensive xylophone from a 3-meter section of copper pipe. The instrument produces a full major scale and can be used to investigate various musical intervals. (Author/NB)

  5. Heat Pipe Thermal Conditioning Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saaski, E. W.

    1973-01-01

    The development, fabrication, and evaluation of heat pipe thermal conditioning panels are discussed. The panels were designed and fabricated to be compatible with several planned NASA space vehicles, in terms of panel size, capacity, temperature gradients, and integration with various heat exchangers and electronic components. It was satisfactorily demonstrated that the heat pipe thermal conditioning panel meets the thermal efficiency and heat transport requirements.

  6. Water flows from slotted pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D.A.

    1981-04-01

    Results of experiments and analyses that determine jet flow distribution from slotted pipes of dimensions typical for OC-OTEC evaporators or condensers are described. For a pipe with a 6.3-cm inside diameter and 0.64-cm wide slot, the measured and predicted jet flow was low and nearly parallel to the pipe at the entrance, and high and perpendicular to the pipe only near the closed end. Slot lengths ranged from 1.5 m to 4.6 m, and inlet flow rates varied from 6 kg/s to 17 kg/s. Friction reduces the pressure in the entrance and intermediate portions of the pipe, while the rapidly decelerating flow produces high pressure recovery as it approaches the closed end. In the region of high flow next to the closed end, the ratio of slot area (slot length times width) to pipe cross-sectional area is less than two. To use a slotted pipe for generating falling jets in an OC-OTEC plant, the slot length should be 1 m or less (for a pipe with a 6.3-cm inside diameter and a 0.64-cm wide slot).

  7. Building a Copper Pipe "Xylophone."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, David R.

    2003-01-01

    Explains how to use the equation for frequency of vibration of a transversely oscillating bar or pipe with both ends free to vibrate to build a simple and inexpensive xylophone from a 3-meter section of copper pipe. The instrument produces a full major scale and can be used to investigate various musical intervals. (Author/NB)

  8. Demonstrating Sound Impulses in Pipes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymer, M. G.; Micklavzina, Stan

    1995-01-01

    Describes a simple, direct method to demonstrate the effects of the boundary conditions on sound impulse reflections in pipes. A graphical display of the results can be made using a pipe, cork, small hammer, microphone, and fast recording electronics. Explains the principles involved. (LZ)

  9. High temperature loop heat pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, W.G.; Bland, J.J.; Fershtater, Y.; Goncharov, K.A.; Nikitkin, M.; Juhasz, A.

    1995-12-31

    Advantages of loop heat pipes over conventional heat pipes include self-priming during start-up, improved tolerance for noncondensible gas, and ability for ground testing in any orientation. The applications for high temperature, alkali-metal working fluid loop heat pipes include space radiators, and bimodal systems. A high temperature loop heat pipe was fabricated and tested at 850 K, using cesium as the working fluid. Previous loop heat pipes were tested with ambient temperature working fluids at temperatures below about 450 K. The loop heat pipe had a titanium envelope, and a titanium aluminide wick. The maximum cesium loop heat pipe power was only about 600 watts, which was lower the predicted 1,000 W power. The power limitation may be due to a wettability problem with the cesium not completely wetting the titanium aluminide wick. This would reduce the pumping capability of the wick, and the maximum power that the heat pipe could carry. This problem could be solved by using a refractory metal powder wick, since the alkali metals are known to wet refractory metal wicks.

  10. Alternate high capacity heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voss, F. E.

    1986-01-01

    The performance predictions for a fifty foot heat pipe (4 foot evaporator - 46 foot condensor) are discussed. These performance predictions are supported by experimental data for a four foot heat pipe. Both heat pipes have evaporators with axial groove wick structures and condensers with powder metal external artery wick structures. The predicted performance of a rectangular axial groove/external artery heat pipe operating in space is given. Heat transport versus groove width is plotted for 100, 200 and 300 grooves in the evaporator. The curves show that maximum power is achieved for groove widths from 0.040 to 0.053 as the number of grooves varies from 300 to 100. The corresponding range of maximum power is 3150 to 2400 watts. The relationships between groove width and heat pipe evaporate diameter for 100, 200 and 300 grooves in the evaporator are given. A four foot heat pipe having a three foot condenser and one foot evaporator was built and tested. The evaporator wick structure used axial grooves with rectangular cross sections, and the condenser wick structure used powder metal with an external artery configuration. Fabrication drawings are enclosed. The predicted and measured performance for this heat pipe is shown. The agreement between predicted and measured performance is good and therefore substantiates the predicted performance for a fifty foot heat pipe.

  11. New technology needed for tomorrow's pipe lines

    SciTech Connect

    Sivry, B.

    1982-09-01

    An expert's view of innovative concepts that will be required for future offshore construction/operations is presented. Topics include pipe protection, deep water repair, and operation of the line. It predicts that new steels (corrosion resistant, hooped, double wall) will make it possible to avoid corrosion, abrasion, and pressure drop. It concludes that sensitive sensors and intelligent ''pigs'' will have to grasp all phenomena of the pipeline's life without disturbing its operation. Pipeline will have to be laid and operated in increasingly deep and difficult waters, from the extreme weather conditions of the northern part of the North Sea to the deep basins of the Mediterranean Sea, including the iceberg-filled waters of Arctic regions.

  12. Vapor spill pipe monitor

    DOEpatents

    Bianchini, G.M.; McRae, T.G.

    1983-06-23

    The invention is a method and apparatus for continually monitoring the composition of liquefied natural gas flowing from a spill pipe during a spill test by continually removing a sample of the LNG by means of a probe, gasifying the LNG in the probe, and sending the vaporized LNG to a remote ir gas detector for analysis. The probe comprises three spaced concentric tubes surrounded by a water jacket which communicates with a flow channel defined between the inner and middle, and middle and outer tubes. The inner tube is connected to a pump for providing suction, and the probe is positioned in the LNG flow below the spill pipe with the tip oriented partly downward so that LNG is continuously drawn into the inner tube through a small orifice. The probe is made of a high thermal conductivity metal. Hot water is flowed through the water jacket and through the flow channel between the three tubes to provide the necessary heat transfer to flash vaporize the LNG passing through the inner channel of the probe. The gasified LNG is transported through a connected hose or tubing extending from the probe to a remote ir sensor which measures the gas composition.

  13. Vapor spill pipe monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchini, G. M.; McRae, T. G.

    1983-06-01

    The invention is a method and apparatus for continually monitoring the composition of liquefied natural gas flowing from a spill pipe during a spill test by continually removing a sample of the LNG by means of a probe, gasifying the LNG in the probe, and sending the vaporized LNG to a remote IR gas detector for analysis. The probe comprises three spaced concentric tubes surrounded by a water jacket which communicates with a flow channel defined between the inner and middle, and middle and outer tubes. The inner tube is connected to a pump for providing suction, and the probe is positioned in the LNG flow below the spill pipe with the tip oriented partly downward so that LNG is continuously drawn into the inner tube through a small orifice. The probe is made of a high thermal conductivity metal. Hot water is flowed through the water jacket and through the flow channel between the three tubes to provide the necessary heat transfer to flash vaporize the LNG passing through the inner channel of the probe. The gasified LNG is transported through a connected hose or tubing extending from the probe to a remote IR sensor which measures the gas composition.

  14. Prometheus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Gribik, Anastasia M.; DiLorenzo, Peter A.

    2007-01-30

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept.

  15. Promethus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    SciTech Connect

    AM Girbik; PA Dilorenzo

    2006-01-24

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept.

  16. Geothermal district piping - A primer

    SciTech Connect

    Rafferty, K.

    1989-11-01

    Transmission and distribution piping constitutes approximately 40 -60% of the capital costs of typical geothermal district heating systems. Selections of economical piping suitable for the fluid chemistry is critical. Presently, most piping (56%) in geothermal systems is of asbestos cement construction. Some fiberglass (19%) and steel (19%) is also in use. Identification of an economical material to replace asbestos cement is important to future project development. By providing information on relative costs, purchase considerations, existing material performance and new products, this report seeks to provide a background of information to the potential pipe purchaser. A brief discussion of the use of uninsulated piping in geothermal district heating systems is also provided. 5 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Prometheus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribik, Anastasia M.; DiLorenzo, Peter A.

    2007-01-01

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept.

  18. Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jenkins, Charles F.; Howard, Boyd D.

    1998-01-01

    A flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus, comprising a flexible, hollow shaft that carries a plurality of modules, including at least one rotatable ultrasonic transducer, a motor/gear unit, and a position/signal encoder. The modules are connected by flexible knuckle joints that allow each module of the apparatus to change its relative orientation with respect to a neighboring module, while the shaft protects electrical wiring from kinking or buckling while the apparatus moves around a tight corner. The apparatus is moved through a pipe by any suitable means, including a tether or drawstring attached to the nose or tail, differential hydraulic pressure, or a pipe pig. The rotational speed of the ultrasonic transducer and the forward velocity of the apparatus are coordinated so that the beam sweeps out the entire interior surface of the pipe, enabling the operator to accurately assess the condition of the pipe wall and determine whether or not leak-prone corrosion damage is present.

  19. Thermal study of interface between the Orbiter cold plate and typical Shuttle spacecraft payload flight electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwangbo, H.; Coyle, M. J.

    1979-01-01

    Spacelab provides a set of Freon line plumbing and cold plates for experiment equipments which are located in the Shuttle pallet and which need active thermal control. The reported study deals with the thermal problem of attaching a Command and Data Handling module with various electronic boxes whose combined footprints on the baseplate are much larger than the cold plate. A description of two modules and the cold plate assembly in the pallet is presented and a thermal model description is provided. The method employed in modeling heat pipes-honey-comb matrix is based upon an effective conductance between the heat pipe vapor and the walls of the heat pipe. The considered thermal models and a computer program are used to perform steady-state thermal analyses. The temperature gradients in the large module baseplate attached to the small cold plate are predicted as a function of the interface plate thickness.

  20. Thermal study of interface between the Orbiter cold plate and typical Shuttle spacecraft payload flight electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwangbo, H.; Coyle, M. J.

    1979-01-01

    Spacelab provides a set of Freon line plumbing and cold plates for experiment equipments which are located in the Shuttle pallet and which need active thermal control. The reported study deals with the thermal problem of attaching a Command and Data Handling module with various electronic boxes whose combined footprints on the baseplate are much larger than the cold plate. A description of two modules and the cold plate assembly in the pallet is presented and a thermal model description is provided. The method employed in modeling heat pipes-honey-comb matrix is based upon an effective conductance between the heat pipe vapor and the walls of the heat pipe. The considered thermal models and a computer program are used to perform steady-state thermal analyses. The temperature gradients in the large module baseplate attached to the small cold plate are predicted as a function of the interface plate thickness.

  1. Palaeomagnetic Emplacement Temperature Determinations of Pyroclastic and Volcaniclastic Deposits in Southern African Kimberlite Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, G.; Mac Niocaill, C.; Brown, R.; Sparks, R. S.; Matthew, F.; Gernon, T. M.

    2009-12-01

    Kimberlites are complex, ultramafic and diamond-bearing volcanic rocks preserved in volcanic pipes, dykes and craters. The formation of kimberlite pipes is a strongly debated issue and two principal theories have been proposed to explain pipe formation: (1) the explosive degassing of magma, and (2) the interaction of rising magma with groundwater (phreatomagmatism). Progressive thermal demagnetization studies are a powerful tool for determining the emplacement temperatures of ancient volcanic deposits and we present the first application of such techniques to kimberlite deposits. Lithic clasts were sampled from a variety of lithofacies, from three pipes for which the internal geology is well constrained (A/K1 pipe, Orapa Mine, Botswana and the K1 and K2 pipes, Venetia Mine, South Africa). The sampled deposits included massive and layered vent-filling breccias with varying abundances of lithic inclusions and layered crater-filling pyroclastic deposits, talus breccias and volcaniclastic breccias. Lithic clasts sampled from layered and massive vent-filling pyroclastic deposits in A/K1 were emplaced at >590° C. Results from K1 and K2 provide a maximum emplacement temperature limit for vent-filling breccias of 420-460° C; and constrain equilibrium deposit temperatures at 300-340° C. Crater-filling volcaniclastic kimberlite breccias and talus deposits from A/K1 were emplaced at ambient temperatures, consistent with infilling of the pipe by post-eruption epiclastic processes. Identified within the epiclastic crater-fill succession is a laterally extensive 15-20 metre thick kimberlite pyroclastic flow deposit emplaced at temperatures of 220-440° C. It overlies the post-eruption epiclastic units and is considered an extraneous pyroclastic kimberlite deposit erupted from another kimberlite vent. The results provide important constraints on kimberlite emplacement mechanisms and eruption dynamics. Emplacement temperatures of >590°C for pipe-filling pyroclastic deposits

  2. Cold Urticaria

    PubMed Central

    Wasserman, Stephen I.; Soter, Nicholas A.; Center, David M.; Austen, K. Frank

    1977-01-01

    Sera were obtained from the venous effluents of cold-challenged arms of patients with idiopathic cold urticaria without plasma or serum cryoproteins; these sera exhibited increased neutrophil chemotactic activity without alterations of the complement system. A two- to fourfold augmentation of the base-line neutrophil chemotactic activity of serum from the immersed extremity began within 1 min, peaked at 2 min, and returned to base-line levels within 15 min, whereas there was no change in the serum chemotactic activity in the control arm. The augmented chemotactic activity in the serum specimens from the challenged arm of each patient appeared in a high molecular-weight region, as assessed by the difference in activity recovered after Sephadex G-200 gel filtration of the paired lesional and control specimens. Sequential purification of this high molecular-weight activity by anion- and cation-exchange chromatography revealed a single peak of activity at both steps. The partially purified material continued to exhibit a high molecular weight, being excluded on Sepharose 4B, and had a neutral isoelectric point. The partially purified material showed a preferential chemotactic activity for neutrophilic polymorphonuclear leukocytes, required a gradient for expression of this function, and exhibited a capacity to deactivate this cell type. This active principle, termed high molecular-weight neutrophil chemotactic factor, exhibited a time-course of release that could be superimposed upon that of histamine and the low molecular-weight eosinophil chemotactic factor and may represent another mast cell-derived mediator. PMID:874083

  3. Experimental Analysis of the Effects of Inclination Angle and Working Fluid Amount on the Performance of a Heat Pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdavi, Mahboobe; Tiari, Saeed; Qiu, Songgang

    2016-11-01

    Heat pipes are two-phase heat transfer devices, which operate based on evaporation and condensation of a working fluid inside a sealed container. In the current work, an experimental study was conducted to investigate the performance of a copper-water heat pipe. The performance was evaluated by calculating the corresponding thermal resistance as the ratio of temperature difference between evaporator and condenser to heat input. The effects of inclination angle and the amount of working fluid were studied on the equivalent thermal resistance. The results showed that if the heat pipe is under-filled with the working fluid, energy transferring capacity of the heat pipe decreases dramatically. However, overfilling heat pipe causes over flood and degrades heat pipe performance. The minimum thermal resistances were obtained for the case that 30% of the heat pipe volume was filled with working fluid. It was also found that in gravity-assisted orientations, the inclination angle does not have significant effect on the performance of the heat pipe. However, for gravity-opposed orientations, as the inclination angle increases, the temperature difference between the evaporator and condensation increases and higher thermal resistances are obtained. Authors appreciate the financial support by a research Grant from Temple University.

  4. Investigation of guided waves propagation in pipe buried in sand

    SciTech Connect

    Leinov, Eli; Cawley, Peter; Lowe, Michael J.S.

    2014-02-18

    The inspection of pipelines by guided wave testing is a well-established method for the detection of corrosion defects in pipelines, and is currently used routinely in a variety of industries, e.g. petrochemical and energy. When the method is applied to pipes buried in soil, test ranges tend to be significantly compromised because of attenuation of the waves caused by energy radiating into the soil. Moreover, the variability of soil conditions dictates different attenuation characteristics, which in-turn results in different, unpredictable, test ranges. We investigate experimentally the propagation and attenuation characteristics of guided waves in pipes buried in fine sand using a well characterized full scale experimental apparatus. The apparatus consists of an 8 inch-diameter, 5.6-meters long steel pipe embedded over 3 meters of its length in a rectangular container filled with fine sand, and an air-bladder for the application of overburden pressure. Longitudinal and torsional guided waves are excited in the pipe and recorded using a transducer ring (Guided Ultrasonics Ltd). Acoustic properties of the sand are measured independently in-situ and used to make model predictions of wave behavior in the buried pipe. We present the methodology and the systematic measurements of the guided waves under a range of conditions, including loose and compacted sand. It is found that the application of overburden pressure modifies the compaction of the sand and increases the attenuation, and that the measurement of the acoustic properties of sand allows model prediction of the attenuation of guided waves in buried pipes with a high level of confidence.

  5. Gas filled panel insulation

    DOEpatents

    Griffith, Brent T.; Arasteh, Dariush K.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    1993-01-01

    A structural or flexible highly insulative panel which may be translucent, is formed from multi-layer polymeric material in the form of an envelope surrounding a baffle. The baffle is designed so as to minimize heat transfer across the panel, by using material which forms substantially closed spaces to suppress convection of the low conductivity gas fill. At least a portion of the baffle carries a low emissivity surface for suppression of infrared radiation.

  6. Gas filled panel insulation

    DOEpatents

    Griffith, B.T.; Arasteh, D.K.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    1993-12-14

    A structural or flexible highly insulative panel which may be translucent, is formed from multi-layer polymeric material in the form of an envelope surrounding a baffle. The baffle is designed so as to minimize heat transfer across the panel, by using material which forms substantially closed spaces to suppress convection of the low conductivity gas fill. At least a portion of the baffle carries a low emissivity surface for suppression of infrared radiation. 18 figures.

  7. A bubble detection system for propellant filling pipeline.

    PubMed

    Wen, Wen; Zong, Guanghua; Bi, Shusheng

    2014-06-01

    This paper proposes a bubble detection system based on the ultrasound transmission method, mainly for probing high-speed bubbles in the satellite propellant filling pipeline. First, three common ultrasonic detection methods are compared and the ultrasound transmission method is used in this paper. Then, the ultrasound beam in a vertical pipe is investigated, suggesting that the width of the beam used for detection is usually smaller than the internal diameter of the pipe, which means that when bubbles move close to the pipe wall, they may escape from being detected. A special device is designed to solve this problem. It can generate the spiral flow to force all the bubbles to ascend along the central line of the pipe. In the end, experiments are implemented to evaluate the performance of this system. Bubbles of five different sizes are generated and detected. Experiment results show that the sizes and quantity of bubbles can be estimated by this system. Also, the bubbles of different radii can be distinguished from each other. The numerical relationship between the ultrasound attenuation and the bubble radius is acquired and it can be utilized for estimating the unknown bubble size and measuring the total bubble volume.

  8. A bubble detection system for propellant filling pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Wen; Zong, Guanghua; Bi, Shusheng

    2014-06-15

    This paper proposes a bubble detection system based on the ultrasound transmission method, mainly for probing high-speed bubbles in the satellite propellant filling pipeline. First, three common ultrasonic detection methods are compared and the ultrasound transmission method is used in this paper. Then, the ultrasound beam in a vertical pipe is investigated, suggesting that the width of the beam used for detection is usually smaller than the internal diameter of the pipe, which means that when bubbles move close to the pipe wall, they may escape from being detected. A special device is designed to solve this problem. It can generate the spiral flow to force all the bubbles to ascend along the central line of the pipe. In the end, experiments are implemented to evaluate the performance of this system. Bubbles of five different sizes are generated and detected. Experiment results show that the sizes and quantity of bubbles can be estimated by this system. Also, the bubbles of different radii can be distinguished from each other. The numerical relationship between the ultrasound attenuation and the bubble radius is acquired and it can be utilized for estimating the unknown bubble size and measuring the total bubble volume.

  9. Plastic pipe insertion

    SciTech Connect

    Diskin, J.

    1987-05-01

    In March 1987 KPL changed all that when the utility inserted 1,000 ft of 16-in. SDR 15.5 Phillips Driscopipe 8000 pipe with a wall thickness of 1.032-in., into an abandoned 24-in. cast-iron line in downtown Kansas City. This is believed to be the largest diameter insert removal job ever done for gas distribution in the U.S. For KPL it was a natural progression from the smaller sizes used earlier. The procedure is the same, and the operation was quick and comparatively simple. Lower construction costs were the bottom line because with insert renewal there is no need to cut up the streets, a major expense in any urban pipeline work. There are other significant costs savings as well because the insert renewal construction process is faster than other techniques.

  10. Mixing in Helical Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratton, Michael B.; Bernoff, Andrew J.

    2001-11-01

    We consider advection and diffusion of a passive scalar in a helical pipe. By assuming that the curvature and torsion are small (equivalent to small Dean number) and the Reynolds number is moderate, we can use a closed form approximation, due to Dean (1927) and Germano (1982), for the induced recirculation. We investigate the problem numerically using a split-step particle method for a variety of localized initial conditions. The problem is governed by two parameters: a nondimensional diffusion constant D (typically small), and the scaled ratio of torsion to curvature λ. At small times, the longitudinal width of the particle distribution, σ, is governed by diffusive effects (σ ∝ √Dt). At large times, Taylor diffusion dominates (σ ∝ √t/D). However, at intermediate times, a ballistic region exists where the width spreads linearly, as postulated by Mezic & Wiggins (1994). We also discuss how these various behaviors scale with the parameters D and λ.

  11. Radiant heating tests of several liquid metal heat-pipe sandwich panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camarda, C. J.; Basiulis, A.

    1983-01-01

    Integral heat pipe sandwich panels, which synergistically combine the thermal efficiency of heat pipes and the structural efficiency of honeycomb sandwich construction, were conceived as a means of alleviating thermal stress problems in the Langley Scramjet Engine. Test panels which utilized two different wickable honeycomb cores, facesheets with screen mesh sintered to the internal surfaces, and a liquid metal working fluid (either sodium or potassium) were tested by radiant heating at various heat load levels. The heat pipe panels reduced maximum temperature differences by 31 percent with sodium working fluid and 45 percent with potassium working fluid. Results indicate that a heat pipe sandwich panel is a potential, simple solution to the engine thermal stress problem. Other interesting applications of the concept include: cold plates for electronic component and circuit card cooling, radiators for large space platforms, low distortion large area structures (e.g., space antennas) and laser mirrors.

  12. Radiant heating tests of several liquid metal heat-pipe sandwich panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camarda, C. J.; Basiulis, A.

    1983-01-01

    Integral heat-pipe sandwich panels, which synergistically combine the thermal efficiency of heat pipes and the structural efficiency of honeycomb sandwich construction, were conceived as a means of alleviating thermal stress problems in the Langley Scramjet Engine. Test panels which utilized two different wickable honeycomb cores, facesheets with screen mesh sintered to the internal surfaces, and a liquid metal working fluid (either sodium or potassium) were tested by radiant heating at various heat-load levels. The heat-pipe panels reduced maximum temperature differences by 31 percent with sodium working fluid and 45 percent with potassium working fluid. Results indicate that a heat-pipe sandwich panel is a potential, simple solution to the engine thermal stress problem. Other interesting applications of the concept include: cold plates for electronic component and circuit card cooling, radiators for large space platforms, low-distortion large area structures (e.g., space antennas) and laser mirrors.

  13. Radiant heating tests of several liquid metal heat-pipe sandwich panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camarda, C. J.; Basiulis, A.

    1983-01-01

    Integral heat-pipe sandwich panels, which synergistically combine the thermal efficiency of heat pipes and the structural efficiency of honeycomb sandwich construction, were conceived as a means of alleviating thermal stress problems in the Langley Scramjet Engine. Test panels which utilized two different wickable honeycomb cores, facesheets with screen mesh sintered to the internal surfaces, and a liquid metal working fluid (either sodium or potassium) were tested by radiant heating at various heat-load levels. The heat-pipe panels reduced maximum temperature differences by 31 percent with sodium working fluid and 45 percent with potassium working fluid. Results indicate that a heat-pipe sandwich panel is a potential, simple solution to the engine thermal stress problem. Other interesting applications of the concept include: cold plates for electronic component and circuit card cooling, radiators for large space platforms, low-distortion large area structures (e.g., space antennas) and laser mirrors.

  14. Radiant heating tests of several liquid metal heat-pipe sandwich panels

    SciTech Connect

    Camarda, C.J.; Basiulis, A.

    1983-08-01

    Integral heat pipe sandwich panels, which synergistically combine the thermal efficiency of heat pipes and the structural efficiency of honeycomb sandwich construction, were conceived as a means of alleviating thermal stress problems in the Langley Scramjet Engine. Test panels which utilized two different wickable honeycomb cores, facesheets with screen mesh sintered to the internal surfaces, and a liquid metal working fluid (either sodium or potassium) were tested by radiant heating at various heat load levels. The heat pipe panels reduced maximum temperature differences by 31 percent with sodium working fluid and 45 percent with potassium working fluid. Results indicate that a heat pipe sandwich panel is a potential, simple solution to the engine thermal stress problem. Other interesting applications of the concept include: cold plates for electronic component and circuit card cooling, radiators for large space platforms, low distortion large area structures (e.g., space antennas) and laser mirrors.

  15. 49 CFR 192.281 - Plastic pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plastic pipe. 192.281 Section 192.281... Plastic pipe. (a) General. A plastic pipe joint that is joined by solvent cement, adhesive, or heat fusion may not be disturbed until it has properly set. Plastic pipe may not be joined by a threaded joint or...

  16. 49 CFR 192.59 - Plastic pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Plastic pipe. 192.59 Section 192.59 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.59 Plastic pipe. (a) New plastic pipe... specification; and (2) It is resistant to chemicals with which contact may be anticipated. (b) Used plastic pipe...

  17. 49 CFR 192.59 - Plastic pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plastic pipe. 192.59 Section 192.59 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.59 Plastic pipe. (a) New plastic pipe... specification; and (2) It is resistant to chemicals with which contact may be anticipated. (b) Used plastic pipe...

  18. 49 CFR 192.281 - Plastic pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Plastic pipe. 192.281 Section 192.281... Plastic pipe. (a) General. A plastic pipe joint that is joined by solvent cement, adhesive, or heat fusion may not be disturbed until it has properly set. Plastic pipe may not be joined by a threaded joint or...

  19. 49 CFR 192.59 - Plastic pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Plastic pipe. 192.59 Section 192.59 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.59 Plastic pipe. (a) New plastic pipe... specification; and (2) It is resistant to chemicals with which contact may be anticipated. (b) Used plastic pipe...

  20. 49 CFR 192.59 - Plastic pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Plastic pipe. 192.59 Section 192.59 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.59 Plastic pipe. (a) New plastic pipe... specification; and (2) It is resistant to chemicals with which contact may be anticipated. (b) Used plastic pipe...

  1. 49 CFR 192.281 - Plastic pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Plastic pipe. 192.281 Section 192.281... Plastic pipe. (a) General. A plastic pipe joint that is joined by solvent cement, adhesive, or heat fusion may not be disturbed until it has properly set. Plastic pipe may not be joined by a threaded joint or...

  2. 49 CFR 192.281 - Plastic pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Plastic pipe. 192.281 Section 192.281... Plastic pipe. (a) General. A plastic pipe joint that is joined by solvent cement, adhesive, or heat fusion may not be disturbed until it has properly set. Plastic pipe may not be joined by a threaded joint or...

  3. 49 CFR 192.59 - Plastic pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Plastic pipe. 192.59 Section 192.59 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.59 Plastic pipe. (a) New plastic pipe... specification; and (2) It is resistant to chemicals with which contact may be anticipated. (b) Used plastic pipe...

  4. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for...

  5. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for...

  6. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for...

  7. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for...

  8. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for...

  9. 49 CFR 192.279 - Copper pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Copper pipe. 192.279 Section 192.279 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Copper pipe. Copper pipe may not be threaded except that copper pipe used for joining screw fittings...

  10. 46 CFR 76.23-20 - Piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... System, Details § 76.23-20 Piping. (a) All piping, valves, and fittings shall meet the applicable requirements of subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter. (b) All piping, valves, and fittings of... the Commandant. (c) All piping, valves, fittings, and sprinkler heads shall be securely supported,...

  11. Determination of Secondary Encasement Pipe Design Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    TEDESCHI, A.R.

    2000-10-26

    This document published results of iterative calculations for maximum tank farm transfer secondary pipe (encasement) pressure upon failure of the primary pipe. The maximum pressure was calculated from a primary pipe guillotine break. Results show encasement pipeline design or testing pressures can be significantly lower than primary pipe pressure criteria.

  12. Heat pipe technology: A biblography with abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A bibliography of heat pipe research and development projects conducted during April through June 1972, is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) general information, (2) heat pipe applications, (3) heat pipe theory, (4) design and fabrication, (5) test and operation, (6) subject and author index, and (7) heat pipe related patents.

  13. Leachate storage transport tanker loadout piping

    SciTech Connect

    Whitlock, R.W.

    1994-11-18

    This report shows the modifications to the W-025 Trench No. 31 leachate loadout discharge piping, and also the steps involved in installing the discharge piping, including dimensions and welding information. The installation of the discharge pipe should be done in accordance to current pipe installation standards. Trench No. 31 is a radioactive mixed waste land disposal facility.

  14. 46 CFR 45.133 - Air pipes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air pipes. 45.133 Section 45.133 Shipping COAST GUARD....133 Air pipes. (a) Where an air pipe to any tank extends above the freeboard or superstructure deck— (1) The exposed part of the air pipe must be made of steel and of sufficient thickness to...

  15. 46 CFR 45.133 - Air pipes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air pipes. 45.133 Section 45.133 Shipping COAST GUARD....133 Air pipes. (a) Where an air pipe to any tank extends above the freeboard or superstructure deck— (1) The exposed part of the air pipe must be made of steel and of sufficient thickness to...

  16. 46 CFR 45.133 - Air pipes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air pipes. 45.133 Section 45.133 Shipping COAST GUARD....133 Air pipes. (a) Where an air pipe to any tank extends above the freeboard or superstructure deck— (1) The exposed part of the air pipe must be made of steel and of sufficient thickness to...

  17. 46 CFR 45.133 - Air pipes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air pipes. 45.133 Section 45.133 Shipping COAST GUARD....133 Air pipes. (a) Where an air pipe to any tank extends above the freeboard or superstructure deck— (1) The exposed part of the air pipe must be made of steel and of sufficient thickness to...

  18. 46 CFR 45.133 - Air pipes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air pipes. 45.133 Section 45.133 Shipping COAST GUARD....133 Air pipes. (a) Where an air pipe to any tank extends above the freeboard or superstructure deck— (1) The exposed part of the air pipe must be made of steel and of sufficient thickness to...

  19. 46 CFR 154.660 - Pipe welding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... § 154.660 Pipe welding. (a) Pipe welding must meet Part 57 of this chapter. (b) Longitudinal butt welds... butt welds must meet the following: (1) Butt welds of pipes made from carbon, carbon manganese, or low... treatment. (2) Except for piping inside an independent cargo tank type A, B, or C, butt welds must be 100...

  20. 46 CFR 154.660 - Pipe welding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... § 154.660 Pipe welding. (a) Pipe welding must meet part 57 of this chapter. (b) Longitudinal butt welds... butt welds must meet the following: (1) Butt welds of pipes made from carbon, carbon manganese, or low... treatment. (2) Except for piping inside an independent cargo tank type A, B, or C, butt welds must be 100...

  1. 46 CFR 154.660 - Pipe welding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... § 154.660 Pipe welding. (a) Pipe welding must meet part 57 of this chapter. (b) Longitudinal butt welds... butt welds must meet the following: (1) Butt welds of pipes made from carbon, carbon manganese, or low... treatment. (2) Except for piping inside an independent cargo tank type A, B, or C, butt welds must be 100...

  2. 46 CFR 154.660 - Pipe welding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... § 154.660 Pipe welding. (a) Pipe welding must meet part 57 of this chapter. (b) Longitudinal butt welds... butt welds must meet the following: (1) Butt welds of pipes made from carbon, carbon manganese, or low... treatment. (2) Except for piping inside an independent cargo tank type A, B, or C, butt welds must be 100...

  3. The Sacred Pipe in American Indian Religions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinmetz, Paul B.

    1984-01-01

    A bibliographic essay covers all significant literature on the Sacred Pipe among the North American tribes. Organizes over 130 references dating from 1843 to 1980 under topics such as American Indian attitudes toward the pipe, sacramental and ceremonial uses of the pipe, and the pipe as symbolic man. (JHZ)

  4. Heat pipe technology: A bibliography with abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A cumulative bibliography on heat pipe research and development projects is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) general information, (2) heat pipe applications, (3) heat pipe theory, (4) design and fabrication, (5) testing and operation, (6) subject and author index, and (7) heat pipe related patents.

  5. Fossil Fumarolic Pipes in the Tshirege Member of the Bandelier Tuff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caporuscio, F. A.; Gardner, J. N.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Lewis, C. J.; Kelley, R. E.; Greene, M. K.

    2008-12-01

    The geology exposed on the walls (3000 m2) of a large pit in the Bandelier Tuff gives unparalled 3-D exposures of many structures that develop in thick deposits of pyroclastic flows. Subunits of the Tshirege Member of the Bandelier Tuff, erupted at 1.25 Ma, exhibit distinct rubble-filled fissures, or pipes, that range in width from centimeters to meters. The fissures exhibit zones of fines depletion, indurated wall structures, upward flaring geometry to the top of the host unit, and fissure-filling blocks of the host unit as well as rubble derived from overlying pyroclastic units. In the units directly overlying the fissures are intensely fractured in- place rubble zones. Additionally, the fissures appear to be regularly spaced at about 4.5 or 7.5 meters apart. All these field characteristics are indicative of fumarolic activity. Petrographic, XRD, and XRF studies of distinct pipes were done to investigate the physical changes imparted to the tuff by the fumarolic activity. Petrography indicates that the pipe wall and pipe centers are enriched in tridymite and potassium feldspar. These minerals fill the void spaces in pumice and groundmass void spaces of the pipe wall rocks, imparting the indurated nature. Other mineralogic indicators of late stage fumarolic gas phase deposition are optically continuous, feathery overgrowths on sanidine phenocrysts and scapolite in pipe centers. Also, clinopyroxenes in the overlying rubble zones have oxidized rims indicative of highly oxidizing gases emanating from the fumarolic pipes below. XRD analyses of rubble zones above the pipes show decreased cristobalite (4 wt. %) and feldspar (9 wt. %), and increased clay contents (12 to 26 wt. %). This change from feldspar and cristobalite to clay suggests an acidic nature of fumarolic gases. XRF analyses show trends in bulk chemistry consistent with fumarolic data from other tuffs. The data indicate that there have been systematic changes in the geochemistry of the fissures readily

  6. Heat pipe transient response approximation.

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, R. S.

    2001-01-01

    A simple and concise routine that approximates the response of an alkali metal heat pipe to changes in evaporator heat transfer rate is described. This analytically based routine is compared with data from a cylindrical heat pipe with a crescent-annular wick that undergoes gradual (quasi-steady) transitions through the viscous and condenser boundary heat transfer limits. The sonic heat transfer limit can also be incorporated into this routine for heat pipes with more closely coupled condensers. The advantages and obvious limitations of this approach are discussed. For reference, a source code listing for the approximation appears at the end of this paper.

  7. Variable conductance heat pipe technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcus, B. D.; Edwards, D. K.; Anderson, W. T.

    1973-01-01

    Research and development programs in variable conductance heat pipe technology were conducted. The treatment has been comprehensive, involving theoretical and/or experimental studies in hydrostatics, hydrodynamics, heat transfer into and out of the pipe, fluid selection, and materials compatibility, in addition to the principal subject of variable conductance control techniques. Efforts were not limited to analytical work and laboratory experimentation, but extended to the development, fabrication and test of spacecraft hardware, culminating in the successful flight of the Ames Heat Pipe Experiment on the OAO-C spacecraft.

  8. Hydrological connectivity of soil pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, J.

    2003-04-01

    Natural soil pipes are common in many parts of the world and particularly in blanket peat uplands yet there are problems in finding and defining soil pipe networks which are often located deep within the peat. Pipeflow can contribute a large proportion of runoff to the river systems in these upland environments and may significantly influence catchment sediment and solute yield. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) technology has recently been developed for non-destructive identification and mapping of soil pipes in peat catchments. While GPR can identify subsurface cavities, it cannot alone determine hydrological connectivity between one cavity and another. This poster presents results from an experiment to test the ability of GPR to establish hydrological connectivity between pipes through use of a tracer solution. Tracers such as sodium chloride were injected at a constant rate into an open pipe cavity. The GPR was moved across the test area downslope. The resultant radargrams were analysed and significantly increased reflectance was observed from a selection of cavities downslope. It was thus possible to determine hydrological connectivity of soil pipes within a dense pipe network across a hillslope without ground disturbance. In addition, tracers were added to the peat surface upslope of known pipe networks. It was possible to then trace the movement of water across and through the hillslope by using GPR to establish the connectivity of a range of flowpaths. Often pipe networks were supplied with water from overland flow entering through cracks and openings where the soil pipe was near the peat surface. Downslope, pipeflow contributed not only directly to streamflow but also to overland flow and near-surface throughflow on the hillslope. The same water that was within a pipe network at four metres depth could become near-surface throughflow outside of the pipe network a few metres down slope. These data allow the first three-dimensional picture of subsurface

  9. Asymmetric Collapse of LOS Pipe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-26

    models that were used to simulate a LOS pipe . Still, the jet was eliminated in a Pinex model with a helical ribbon of polyolefin on the inside surface of...Target from the Pinex Model 71 with Poly Spiral in Experiment LS-3 .41 b l [ SECTION 1 *. INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND Line-of-sight (LOS) pipes are...distance. 3.5.7 Simulation of Pinex Pipe . As shown in the photo- graphs provided in Figures 37 and 38, the Pinex-Standard Model and Pinex-Polyolefin Spiral

  10. Plastic pipe at road crossings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    This article reports how a North Carolina company is using high-density polyethylene pipe at state road crossings as an insulator to keep the outer casing pipe from touching the inner gas carrier pipeline. This prevents static charges that can cause corrosion, gas leaks and other problems on the pipeline. It enables the company to meet requirements of the North Carolina Department of Transportation that large-diameter steel gas pipelines crossing beneath state highways be enclosed in another steel pipe for protection against damage.

  11. Abrasion protection in process piping

    SciTech Connect

    Accetta, J.

    1996-07-01

    Process piping often is subjected to failure from abrasion or a combination of abrasion and corrosion. Abrasion is a complex phenomenon, with many factors involved to varying degrees. Hard, mineral based alumina ceramic and basalt materials are used to provide protection against abrasion in many piping systems. Successful life extension examples are presented from many different industries. Lined piping components require special attention with regard to operating conditions as well as design and engineering considerations. Economic justification involves direct cost comparisons and avoided costs.

  12. Loop Heat Pipe Startup Behaviors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung

    2016-01-01

    A loop heat pipe must start successfully before it can commence its service. The startup transient represents one of the most complex phenomena in the loop heat pipe operation. This paper discusses various aspects of loop heat pipe startup behaviors. Topics include the four startup scenarios, the initial fluid distribution between the evaporator and reservoir that determines the startup scenario, factors that affect the fluid distribution between the evaporator and reservoir, difficulties encountered during the low power startup, and methods to enhance the startup success. Also addressed are the pressure spike and pressure surge during the startup transient, and repeated cycles of loop startup and shutdown under certain conditions.

  13. Heat pipe life and processing study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoniuk, D.; Luedke, E. E.

    1979-01-01

    The merit of adding water to the reflux charge in chemically and solvent cleaned aluminum/slab wick/ammonia heat pipes was evaluated. The effect of gas in the performance of three heat pipe thermal control systems was found significant in simple heat pipes, less significant in a modified simple heat pipe model with a short wickless pipe section. Use of gas data for the worst and best heat pipes of the matrix in a variable conductance heat pipe model showed a 3 C increase in the source temperature at full on condition after 20 and 246 years, respectively.

  14. Simultaneous fog formation and thermophoretic droplet deposition in a turbulent pipe flow

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, M.; Hauser, G.M. )

    1991-02-01

    Simultaneous aerosol formation by equilibrium condensation and the migration of the resulting droplets to the cold surface by thermophoresis is studied theoretically for a turbulent pipe flow. The problem is one in which a mixture of a vapor and noncondensable gas flows into a section of pipe where the pipe wall is cooled to below the dew point of the vapor. Because the temperature gradient at the pipe wall decays to zero once the gas travels far enough into the pipe, only some fraction of the droplets formed will deposit on the pipe wall. The equations of energy and diffusion suggest that turbulence leads to a discontinuity in the aerosol (fog) concentration at the boundary between the fog and clear regions. Numerical solutions are obtained for CsOH fog formation and deposition in steam flow, a particular case of current practical interest in water reactor safety. The axial and radial variations of the aerosol and vapor concentrations are displayed graphically, as are the location of the fog boundary as a function of axial distance and the efficiency of deposition as a function of the pipe wall temperature.

  15. Heat transfer intensification by increasing vapor flow rate in flat heat pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprinceana, Silviu; Mihai, Ioan; Beniuga, Marius; Suciu, Cornel

    2015-02-01

    Flat heat pipes have various technical applications, one of the most important being the cooling of electronic components[9]. Their continuous development is due to the fact that these devices permit heat transfer without external energetic contribution. The practical exploitation of flat heat pipes however is limited by the fact that dissipated power can only reach a few hundred watts. The present paper aims to advance a new method for the intensification of convective heat transfer. A centrifugal mini impeller, driven by a turntable which incorporates four permanent magnets was designed. These magnets are put in motion by another rotor, which in its turn includes two permanent magnets and is driven by a mini electrical motor. Rotation of the centrifugal blades generates speed and pressure increase of the cooling agent brought to vapor state within the flat micro heat pipe. It's well known that the liquid suffers biphasic transformations during heat transfer inside the heat pipe. Over the hotspot (the heat source being the electronic component) generated at one end of the heat pipe, convective heat transfer occurs, leading to sudden vaporization of the liquid. Pressures generated by newly formed vapors push them towards the opposite end of the flat heat pipe, where a finned mini heat sink is usually placed. The mini-heat exchanger is air-cooled, thus creating a cold spot, where vapors condensate. The proposed method contributes to vapor flow intensification by increasing their transport speed and thus leading to more intense cooling of the heat pipe.

  16. Reactor Lithium Heat Pipes for HP-STMCs Space Reactor Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tournier, Jean-Michel; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2004-02-01

    Design and performance analysis of the nuclear reactor's lithium heat pipes for a 110-kWe Heat Pipes-Segmented Thermoelectric Module Converters (HP-STMCs) Space Reactor Power system (SRPS) are presented. The evaporator length of the heat pipes is the same as the active core height (0.45 m) and the C-C finned condenser is of the same length as the STMC panels (1.5 m). The C-C finned condenser section is radiatively coupled to the collector shoes of the STMCs placed on both sides. The lengths of the adiabatic section, the values of the power throughput and the evaporator wall temperature depend on the radial location of the heat pipe in the reactor core and the number and dimensions of the potassium heat pipes in the heat rejection radiator. The reactor heat pipes have a total length that varies from 7.57 to 7.73 m, and a 0.2 mm thick Mo-14%Re wick with an average pore radius of 12 μm. The wick is separated from the Mo-14%Re wall by a 0.5 mm annulus filled with liquid lithium, to raise the prevailing capillary limit. The nominal evaporator (or reactor) temperature varies from 1513 to 1591 K and the thermal power of the reactor is 1.6 MW, which averages 12.7 kW for each of the 126 reactor heat pipes. The power throughput per heat pipe increase to a nominal 15.24 kW at the location of the peak power in the core and to 20.31 kW when an adjacent heat pipe fails. The prevailing capillary limit of the reactor heat pipes is 28.3 kW, providing a design margin >= 28%.

  17. Reactor Lithium Heat Pipes for HP-STMCs Space Reactor Power System

    SciTech Connect

    Tournier, Jean-Michel; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2004-02-04

    Design and performance analysis of the nuclear reactor's lithium heat pipes for a 110-kWe Heat Pipes-Segmented Thermoelectric Module Converters (HP-STMCs) Space Reactor Power system (SRPS) are presented. The evaporator length of the heat pipes is the same as the active core height (0.45 m) and the C-C finned condenser is of the same length as the STMC panels (1.5 m). The C-C finned condenser section is radiatively coupled to the collector shoes of the STMCs placed on both sides. The lengths of the adiabatic section, the values of the power throughput and the evaporator wall temperature depend on the radial location of the heat pipe in the reactor core and the number and dimensions of the potassium heat pipes in the heat rejection radiator. The reactor heat pipes have a total length that varies from 7.57 to 7.73 m, and a 0.2 mm thick Mo-14%Re wick with an average pore radius of 12 {mu}m. The wick is separated from the Mo-14%Re wall by a 0.5 mm annulus filled with liquid lithium, to raise the prevailing capillary limit. The nominal evaporator (or reactor) temperature varies from 1513 to 1591 K and the thermal power of the reactor is 1.6 MW, which averages 12.7 kW for each of the 126 reactor heat pipes. The power throughput per heat pipe increase to a nominal 15.24 kW at the location of the peak power in the core and to 20.31 kW when an adjacent heat pipe fails. The prevailing capillary limit of the reactor heat pipes is 28.3 kW, providing a design margin {>=} 28%.

  18. Experimental study on heat transfer performance of pulsating heat pipe with refrigerants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xingyu; Jia, Li

    2016-10-01

    The effects of different refrigerants on heat transfer performance of pulsating heat pipe (PHP) are investigated experimentally. The working temperature of pulsating heat pipe is kept in the range of 20°C-50°C. The startup time of the pulsating heat pipe with refrigerants can be shorter than 4 min, when heating power is in the range of 10W?100W. The startup time decreases with heating power. Thermal resistances of PHP with filling ratio 20.55% were obviously larger than those with other filling ratios. Thermal resistance of the PHP with R134a is much smaller than that with R404A and R600a. It indicates that the heat transfer ability of R134a is better. In addition, a correlation to predict thermal resistance of PHP with refrigerants was suggested.

  19. Impact of the amount of working fluid in loop heat pipe to remove waste heat from electronic component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smitka, Martin; Kolková, Z.; Nemec, Patrik; Malcho, M.

    2014-03-01

    One of the options on how to remove waste heat from electronic components is using loop heat pipe. The loop heat pipe (LHP) is a two-phase device with high effective thermal conductivity that utilizes change phase to transport heat. It was invented in Russia in the early 1980's. The main parts of LHP are an evaporator, a condenser, a compensation chamber and a vapor and liquid lines. Only the evaporator and part of the compensation chamber are equipped with a wick structure. Inside loop heat pipe is working fluid. As a working fluid can be used distilled water, acetone, ammonia, methanol etc. Amount of filling is important for the operation and performance of LHP. This work deals with the design of loop heat pipe and impact of filling ratio of working fluid to remove waste heat from insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT).

  20. Numerical Modeling for Impact-resistant Pipes Buried at Shallow Depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ching-Jong; Hsu, Jung-Fu

    2010-05-01

    The plastic pipes buried at shallow depth are popular for underground telecommunication lines. To assess their impact-worthiness under loads from heavy traffics, the study establishes a numerical model to correlate with field data. Field impact tests were carried out where a 50-kg mass free-falling at 2.2 m height was dropped onto the soil backfill directly above a buried pipe. A contact-impact model incorporating finite elements of disjoined material regions is developed to simulate the phenomena of mass-soil-pipe interaction and soil dent. Plastic soil deformations are accounted for. Also implemented is a new erosion scheme for dealing with numerical instability caused by crumpled elements during heavy impact. Reasonable agreements can be observed between the analyzed and measured soil dent. This model is versatile in making design evaluations for buried pipes to withstand impact loads. It has potential applications to cemented soil fills and blast loads.

  1. Intermediate Temperature Water Heat Pipe Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devarakonda, Angirasa; Xiong, Daxi; Beach, Duane E.

    2004-01-01

    Heat pipes are among the most promising technologies for space radiator systems. Water heat pipes are explored in the intermediate temperature range of 400 to above 500 K. The thermodynamic and thermo-physical properties of water are reviewed in this temperature range. Test Data are reported for a copper-water heat pipe. The heat pipe was tested under different orientations. Water heat pipes show promise in this temperature range.Fabrication and testing issues are being addressed.

  2. Intermediate Temperature Water Heat Pipe Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devarakonda, Angirasa; Xiong, Da-Xi; Beach, Duane E.

    2005-01-01

    Heat pipes are among the most promising technologies for space radiator systems. Water heat pipes are explored in the intermediate temperature range of 400 to above 500 K. The thermodynamic and thermo-physical properties of water are reviewed in this temperature range. Test data are reported for a copper-water heat pipe. The heat pipe was tested under different orientations. Water heat pipes show promise in this temperature range. Fabrication and testing issues are being addressed.

  3. B Plant process piping replacement feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Howden, G.F.

    1996-02-07

    Reports on the feasibility of replacing existing embedded process piping with new more corrosion resistant piping between cells and between cells and a hot pipe trench of a Hanford Site style canyon facility. Provides concepts for replacement piping installation, and use of robotics to replace the use of the canyon crane as the primary means of performing/supporting facility modifications (eg, cell lining, pipe replacement, equipment reinstallation) and operational maintenenace.

  4. Fiberglass Reinforced Piping for Shipboard Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-07-01

    B16.5 far flanges. Piping is gal- vanized. Thickness corresponds to standard weight. Diameters are 8" and 10”. Joininq. The piping system is welded ...critical, standard elbows are used in place of bends. Supports. Pipe hangers are made of U-bolts through angle iron supports welded directly to the ship...and 30" . Joining. The piping system is welded wherever possible, including at bulkhead penetrations. Spuds are welded into the pipe to form tee

  5. 46 CFR 56.10-5 - Pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pipe. 56.10-5 Section 56.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Components § 56.10-5 Pipe. (a) General. Pipe and tubing shall be selected as described in table 56.60-1(a). (b) Ferrous pipe. ASTM Specification A 53 ...

  6. Thermostructural applications of heat pipes for cooling leading edges of high-speed aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camarda, Charles J.; Glass, David E.

    1992-01-01

    Heat pipes have been considered for use on wing leading edge for over 20 years. Early concepts envisioned metal heat pipes cooling a metallic leading edge. Several superalloy/sodium heat pipes were fabricated and successfully tested for wing leading edge cooling. Results of radiant heat and aerothermal testing indicate the feasibility of using heat pipes to cool the stagnation region of shuttle-type space transportation systems. The test model withstood a total seven radiant heating tests, eight aerothermal tests, and twenty-seven supplemental radiant heating tests. Cold-wall heating rates ranged from 21 to 57 Btu/sq ft-s and maximum operating temperatures ranged from 1090 to 1520 F. Follow-on studies investigated the application of heat pipes to cool the stagnation regions of single-stage-to-orbit and advanced shuttle vehicles. Results of those studies indicate that a 'D-shaped' structural design can reduce the mass of the heat-pipe concept by over 44 percent compared to a circular heat-pipe geometry. Simple analytical models for heat-pipe startup from the frozen state (working fluid initially frozen) were adequate to approximate transient, startup, and steady-state heat-pipe performance. Improvement in analysis methods has resulted in the development of a finite-element analysis technique to predict heat-pipe startup from the frozen state. However, current requirements of light-weight design and reliability suggest that metallic heat pipes embedded in a refractory composite material should be used. This concept is the concept presently being evaluated for NASP. A refractory-composite/heat-pipe-cooled wing leading edge is currently being considered for the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP). This concept uses high-temperature refractory-metal/lithium heat pipes embedded within a refractory-composite structure and is significantly lighter than an actively cooled wing leading edge because it eliminates the need for active cooling during ascent and descent. Since the

  7. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth > For Teens > Cough & Cold ... tos y el resfriado Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ...

  8. Cold symptoms (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Colds are caused by a virus and can occur year-round. The common cold generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing. Other symptoms include sore throat, cough, and headache. A cold usually lasts ...

  9. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth > For Teens > Cough & Cold ... Someone Quit? Avoiding DXM Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ...

  10. Dye filled security seal

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Dennis C. W.

    1982-04-27

    A security seal for providing an indication of unauthorized access to a sealed object includes an elongate member to be entwined in the object such that access is denied unless the member is removed. The elongate member has a hollow, pressurizable chamber extending throughout its length that is filled with a permanent dye under greater than atmospheric pressure. Attempts to cut the member and weld it together are revealed when dye flows through a rupture in the chamber wall and stains the outside surface of the member.

  11. Filled Crater and Scallops

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-01-28

    In this observation from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter made for a study of ancient craters, we see the craters filled with smooth material that has subsequently degraded into scallops. These formations might be possibly due to ground ice sublimation. High resolution can help to estimate any differences in roughness on the smoother main mantle and in the eroded hollows. With the enhanced color swath, we might be able to view composition variations of the material. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19288

  12. Loop Heat Pipe Startup Behaviors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung

    2014-01-01

    A loop heat pipe must start successfully before it can commence its service. The start-up transient represents one of the most complex phenomena in the loop heat pipe operation. This paper discusses various aspects of loop heat pipe start-up behaviors. Topics include the four start-up scenarios, the initial fluid distribution between the evaporator and reservoir that determines the start-up scenario, factors that affect the fluid distribution between the evaporator and reservoir, difficulties encountered during the low power start-up, and methods to enhance the start-up success. Also addressed are the thermodynamic constraint between the evaporator and reservoir in the loop heat pipe operation, the superheat requirement for nucleate boiling, pressure spike and pressure surge during the start-up transient, and repeated cycles of loop start-up andshutdown under certain conditions.

  13. Heat pipe radiators for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    Analysis of the data heat pipe radiator systems tested in both vacuum and ambient environments was continued. The systems included (1) a feasibility VCHP header heat-pipe panel, (2) the same panel reworked to eliminate the VCHP feature and referred to as the feasibility fluid header panel, and (3) an optimized flight-weight fluid header panel termed the 'prototype.' A description of freeze-thaw thermal vacuum tests conducted on the feasibility VCHP was included. In addition, the results of ambient tests made on the feasibility fluid header are presented, including a comparison with analytical results. A thermal model of a fluid header heat pipe radiator was constructed and a computer program written. The program was used to make a comparison of the VCHP and fluid-header concepts for both single and multiple panel applications. The computer program was also employed for a parametric study, including optimum feeder heat pipe spacing, of the prototype fluid header.

  14. Method for casting polyethylene pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elam, R. M., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Short lengths of 7-cm ID polyethylene pipe are cast in a mold which has a core made of room-temperature-vulcanizable (RTV) silicone. Core expands during casting and shrinks on cooling to allow for contraction of the polyethylene.

  15. Light pipes for LED measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Floyd, S. R.; Thomas, E. F., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Light pipe directly couples LED optical output to single detector. Small area detector measures total optical output of diode. Technique eliminates thermal measurement problems and channels optical output to remote detector.

  16. Corrugated pipe adhesive applicator apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Shirey, R.A.

    1983-06-14

    Apparatus for coating selected portions of the troughs of a corrugated pipe with an adhesive includes a support disposed within the pipe with a reservoir containing the adhesive disposed on the support. A pump, including a spout, is utilized for supplying the adhesive from the reservoir to a trough of the pipe. A rotatable applicator is supported on the support and contacts the trough of the pipe. The applicator itself is sized so as to fit within the trough, and contacts the adhesive in the trough and spreads the adhesive in the trough upon rotation. A trough shield, supported by the support and disposed in the path of rotation of the applicator, is utilized to prevent the applicator from contacting selected portions of the trough. A locator head is also disposed on the support and provides a way for aligning the spout, the applicator, and the trough shield with the trough. 4 figs.

  17. Corrugated pipe adhesive applicator apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Shirey, Ray A.

    1983-06-14

    Apparatus for coating selected portions of the troughs of a corrugated pipe within an adhesive includes a support disposed within the pipe with a reservoir containing the adhesive disposed on the support. A pump, including a spout, is utilized for supplying the adhesive from the reservoir to a trough of the pipe. A rotatable applicator is supported on the support and contacts the trough of the pipe. The applicator itself is sized so as to fit within the trough, and contacts the adhesive in the trough and spreads the adhesive in the trough upon rotation. A trough shield, supported by the support and disposed in the path of rotation of the applicator, is utilized to prevent the applicator from contacting selected portions of the trough. A locator head is also disposed on the support and provides a way for aligning the spout, the applicator, and the trough shield with the trough.

  18. Physics of heat pipe rewetting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, S. H.

    1994-01-01

    This is the final report which summarizes the research accomplishments under the project entitled 'Physics of Heat Pipe Rewetting' under NASA Grant No. NAG 9-525, Basic, during the period of April 1, 1991 to January 31, 1994. The objective of the research project was to investigate both analytically and experimentally the rewetting characteristics of the heated, grooved plate. The grooved plate is to simulate the inner surface of the vapor channel in monogroove heat pipes for space station design. In such designs, the inner surface of the vapor channel is threaded with monogrooves. When the heat pipe is thermally overloaded, dryout of the monogroove surface occurs. Such a dryout surface should be promptly rewetted to prevent the failure of the heat pipe operation in the thermal radiator of the space station.

  19. Light pipes for LED measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Floyd, S. R.; Thomas, E. F., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Light pipe directly couples LED optical output to single detector. Small area detector measures total optical output of diode. Technique eliminates thermal measurement problems and channels optical output to remote detector.

  20. Field Verification of Structural Performance of Thermoplastic Pipe Under Deep Backfill Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargand, S.

    2002-05-01

    This report provides information regarding the structural performance of thermoplastic pipes under relatively deep soil cover conditions. The eighteen (12 HDPE, 6 PVC) thermoplastic pipes, with diameter ranging from 30 to 60 in., were instrumented with sensors, embedded with granular backfill in shallow trenches, and subjected to 20-ft or 40-ft high soil fill for about 10 months. Their installation plans involved two types of backfill soil, three relative compactions, and varying bedding thickness to study the effects of these installation parameters on the pipe performance. Once the field performance of each test pipe was presented and discussed, comparative cross examinations of the entire field data were made to identify the effects of various installation parameters on the pipe deformations/deflections and soil pressure against pipe. A comprehensive set of soil testing was performed in the laboratory to characterize each of the three soil types that existed in the field. Results from the shear strength tests were analyzed further to obtain hyperbolic model parameter values for these soils. Three analytical methods (modified Iowa formula, elastic solutions, and finite element) were applied to evaluate their abilities to predict the field performance of the thermoplastic pipes under relatively deep soil cover. In their applications, material properties measured in the laboratory were utilized as much as possible.

  1. Dispersion of circumferential waves in cylindrically anisotropic layered pipes in plane strain.

    PubMed

    Vasudeva, R Y; Sudheer, G; Vema, Anu Radha

    2008-06-01

    Dispersion spectra of circumferential waves along the periphery of circular pipes made of layered anisotropic materials do not seem to be available in literature. This note attempts to partially fill this gap by providing the dispersion spectra in two and three layered cylindrically anisotropic pipes in plane strain motion. The spectra for pipes executing time harmonic vibrations in plane strain condition are obtained as roots of a numerical characteristic equation derived extending a weighted residual method of solution of the governing equations for a single layer pipe [Towfighi et al., J. Appl. Mech. 69, 283-291 (2002)] to a general N layered pipe. The anisotropic elastic coefficients are considered to be independent of position coordinates and the bond condition at interfaces of the layers is assumed to be perfect. Numerical illustrations are presented for two and three layered pipes with anisotropy directions differing in adjacent layers. Increase in curvature of the pipe and inclination of the fiber orientation in the outermost layers to propagation direction are factors that seem to influence the mode number and pattern within the limited examples worked out.

  2. Experimental Investigation of Thermal Performance of Miniature Heat Pipe Using SiO2-Water Nanofluids.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yan-Fang; Zhao, Wei-Lin; Gong, Yu-Ying

    2015-04-01

    The four miniature heat pipes filled with DI water and SiO2-water nanofluids containing different volume concentrations (0.2%, 0.6% and 1.0%) are experimentally measured on the condition of air and water cooling. The wall temperature and the thermal resistance are investigated for three inclination angles. At the same of inlet heat water temperature in the heat system, it is observed that the total wall temperatures on the evaporator section are almost retaining constant by air cooling and the wall temperatures at the front end of the evaporator section are slightly reduced by water cooling. However, the wall temperatures at the condenser section using SiO2-water nanofluids are all higher than that for DI water on the two cooling conditions. As compared with the heat pipe using DI water, the decreasing of the thermal resistance in heat pipe using nanofluids is about 43.10%-74.46% by air cooling and 51.43%-72.22% by water cooling. These indicate that the utilization of SiO2-water nanofluids as working fluids enhances the performance of the miniature heat pipe. When the four miniature heat pipes are cut to examine at the end of the experiment, a thin coating on the surface of the screen mesh of the heat pipe using SiO2-water nanofluids is found. This may be one reason for reinforcing the heat transfer performance of the miniature heat pipe.

  3. Random walk approach for dispersive transport in pipe networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sämann, Robert; Graf, Thomas; Neuweiler, Insa

    2016-04-01

    Keywords: particle transport, random walk, pipe, network, HYSTEM-EXTAN, OpenGeoSys After heavy pluvial events in urban areas the available drainage system may be undersized at peak flows (Fuchs, 2013). Consequently, rainwater in the pipe network is likely to spill out through manholes. The presence of hazardous contaminants in the pipe drainage system represents a potential risk to humans especially when the contaminated drainage water reaches the land surface. Real-time forecasting of contaminants in the drainage system needs a quick calculation. Numerical models to predict the fate of contaminants are usually based on finite volume methods. Those are not applicable here because of their volume averaging elements. Thus, a more efficient method is preferable, which is independent from spatial discretization. In the present study, a particle-based method is chosen to calculate transport paths and spatial distribution of contaminants within a pipe network. A random walk method for particles in turbulent flow in partially filled pipes has been developed. Different approaches for in-pipe-mixing and node-mixing with respect to the geometry in a drainage network are shown. A comparison of dispersive behavior and calculation time is given to find the fastest model. The HYSTEM-EXTRAN (itwh, 2002) model is used to provide hydrodynamic conditions in the pipe network according to surface runoff scenarios in order to real-time predict contaminant transport in an urban pipe network system. The newly developed particle-based model will later be coupled to the subsurface flow model OpenGeoSys (Kolditz et al., 2012). References: Fuchs, L. (2013). Gefährdungsanalyse zur Überflutungsvorsorge kommunaler Entwässerungssysteme. Sanierung und Anpassung von Entwässerungssystemen-Alternde Infrastruktur und Klimawandel, Österreichischer Wasser-und Abfallwirtschaftsverband, Wien, ISBN, 978-3. itwh (2002). Modellbeschreibung, Institut für technisch-wissenschaftliche Hydrologie Gmb

  4. Fluid Dynamics of Bottle Filling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGough, Patrick; Gao, Haijing; Appathurai, Santosh; Basaran, Osman

    2011-11-01

    Filling of bottles is a widely practiced operation in a large number of industries. Well known examples include filling of ``large'' bottles with shampoos and cleaners in the household products and beauty care industries and filling of ``small'' bottles in the pharmaceutical industry. Some bottle filling operations have recently drawn much attention from the fluid mechanics community because of the occurrence of a multitude of complex flow regimes, transitions, and instabilities such as mounding and coiling that occur as a bottle is filled with a fluid. In this talk, we present a primarily computational study of the fluid dynamical challenges that can arise during the rapid filling of bottles. Given the diversity of fluids used in filling applications, we consider four representative classes of fluids that exhibit Newtonian, shear-thinning, viscoelastic, and yield-stress rheologies. The equations governing the dynamics of bottle filling are solved either in their full 3D but axisymmetric form or using the slender-jet approximation.

  5. Mapping Temperatures On Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunnerson, Fred S.; Thorncroft, Glen E.

    1993-01-01

    Paints containing thermochromic liquid crystals (TLC's) used to map temperatures on heat pipes and thermosyphons. Color of thermally sensitive TLC coat changes reversibly upon heating or cooling. Each distinct color indicates particular temperature. Transient and steady-state isotherms become visible as colored bands. Positions and movements of bands yield information about startup transients, steady-state operation, cooler regions containing noncondensible gas, and other phenomena relevant to performance of heat pipe.

  6. Heat Pipe Thermal Conditioning Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saaski, E. W.

    1973-01-01

    The technology involved in designing and fabricating a heat pipe thermal conditioning panel to satisfy a broad range of thermal control system requirements on NASA spacecraft is discussed. The design specifications were developed for a 30 by 30 inch heat pipe panel. The fundamental constraint was a maximum of 15 gradient from source to sink at 300 watts input and a flux density of 2 watts per square inch. The results of the performance tests conducted on the panel are analyzed.

  7. Piping Inelastic Fracture Mechanics Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-30

    DOCUMENTATION PAGE BEFORE COMPLETING FORM I. REPORT NUMBER 12. GOVT ACCESSION NO. S. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER NUREG /CR 1119 4259 NRL Memorandum Report _4259...Steel Piping of Boiling Water Reactor Plants," US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, NUREG -75/067, October, 1975. 2. "Investigation and Evaluation of...Stress-Corrosion Cracking in Piping of Light-Water Reactor Plants," US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, NUREG -0531, February, 1979. 3. F.J. Witt, W.H

  8. Feeder pipes - Expression of the uppermost plumbing system in Oligocene methane-seep deposits, Washington State, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwicker, Jennifer; Smrzka, Daniel; Gier, Susanne; Goedert, James; Peckmann, Jörn

    2015-04-01

    Plumbing systems of methane seeps are complex pathways along which hydrocarbon-rich fluids migrate upward through the marine sedimentary column. Seeps commonly maintain fluid flow over long periods of time, providing a steady supply of methane to shallow sediments and the water column. At greater sediment depths, fluid transport is facilitated by faults and conduits, which enable migration of fluids sourced from deep hydrocarbon reservoirs. In the shallow subsurface, plumbing systems may become successively filled by authigenic carbonates, whose precipitation is partly triggered by sulfate-dependent anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). To expand our knowledge on the uppermost plumbing network of ancient seeps, this work investigates fluid conduits that were mineralized by a distinct succession of authigenic mineral phases. These mineralized conduits, which occur below an Oligocene seep deposit from the Lincoln Creek Formation in Washington State, are referred to as feeder pipes here. The concentrically-zoned feeder pipes are 2 to 3 cm in diameter. The mineral phase that formed first is matrix micrite, making up the outer part of pipes. Toward the center, pipes are filled by clear, banded and botryoidal aragonite cement, which is intercalated with yellow aragonite cement. The innermost portions of the pipes are filled by either pipe-filling micrite, microspar, or brownish calcite. The observed paragenetic sequences archive successions of various biogeochemical processes. Clear and yellow aragonite cements are distinctly depleted in 13C, revealing that their formation was favored by AOM. In contrast, later phases including brownish calcite and microspar are enriched in 13C, pointing to precipitation from fluids affected by methanogenesis. Their size and morphology indicate that the pipes were initially produced by seep-dwelling, burrowing organisms. The burrows subsequently acted as preferred fluid pathways. Possible producers of the burrows include various bivalves

  9. LARGE-BORE PIPE DECONTAMINATION

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian

    1999-01-01

    The decontamination and characterization of large-bore pipe is difficult because of the various geometries and diameters of pipe and its different material types. A robust decontamination system must be capable of adapting to different pipe diameters (project scope is 6 inches to 24 inches), cleaning surfaces with various surface conditions and material types (i.e., painted, rusted, carbon steel, or stainless steel), and be cost-effective to operate and maintain. The characterization system must be capable of handling the different pipe parameters and detecting contamination on the inside and outside surfaces. It must also operate in a cost-effective manner. Current technology options do not provide a robust system to meet these objectives. The purpose of this project is to verify the need for this technology through determining quantities of pipe available for decontamination (completed FY97), perform a technology screening process to select technologies for decontamination (completed FY97) and characterization (completed FY98), perform treatability studies to collect required performance data (completed FY97), and design and fabricate a prototype system to decontaminate and characterize the internal and external surfaces of large-bore pipe. A field mobile system capable of performing decontamination and characterization operations will be the main deliverable for this project. A summary of activities completed during FY97 is provided to understand the project development and implementation process.

  10. Heat pipe turbine vane cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Langston, L.; Faghri, A.

    1995-10-01

    The applicability of using heat pipe principles to cool gas turbine vanes is addressed in this beginning program. This innovative concept involves fitting out the vane interior as a heat pipe and extending the vane into an adjacent heat sink, thus transferring the vane incident heat transfer through the heat pipe to heat sink. This design provides an extremely high heat transfer rate and an uniform temperature along the vane due to the internal change of phase of the heat pipe working fluid. Furthermore, this technology can also eliminate hot spots at the vane leading and trailing edges and increase the vane life by preventing thermal fatigue cracking. There is also the possibility of requiring no bleed air from the compressor, and therefore eliminating engine performance losses resulting from the diversion of compressor discharge air. Significant improvement in gas turbine performance can be achieved by using heat pipe technology in place of conventional air cooled vanes. A detailed numerical analysis of a heat pipe vane will be made and an experimental model will be designed in the first year of this new program.

  11. Heat pipe turbine vane cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Langston, L.; Faghri, A.

    1995-12-31

    The applicability of using heat pipe principles to cool gas turbine vanes is addressed in this beginning program. This innovative concept involves fitting out the vane interior as a heat pipe and extending the vane into an adjacent heat sink, thus transferring the vane incident heat transfer through the heat pipe to heat sink. This design provides an extremely high heat transfer rate and a uniform temperature along the vane due to the internal change of phase of the heat pipe working fluid. Furthermore, this technology can also eliminate hot spots at the vane leading and trailing edges and increase the vane life by preventing thermal fatigue cracking. There is also the possibility of requiring no bleed air from the compressor, and therefore eliminating engine performance losses resulting from the diversion of compressor discharge air. Significant improvement in gas turbine performance can be achieved by using heat pipe technology in place of conventional air cooled vanes. A detailed numerical analysis of a heat pipe vane will be made and an experimental model will be designed in the first year of this new program.

  12. Automated internal pipe cutting device

    DOEpatents

    Godlewski, William J.; Haffke, Gary S.; Purvis, Dale; Bashar, Ronald W.; Jones, Stewart D.; Moretti, Jr., Henry; Pimentel, James

    2003-01-21

    The invention is a remotely controlled internal pipe cutting device primarily used for cutting pipes where the outside of the pipe is inaccessible at the line where the cut is to be made. The device includes an axial ram within a rotational cylinder which is enclosed in a housing. The housing is adapted for attachment to an open end of the pipe and for supporting the ram and cylinder in cantilever fashion within the pipe. A radially movable cutter, preferably a plasma arc torch, is attached to the distal end of the ram. A drive mechanism, containing motors and mechanical hardware for operating the ram and cylinder, is attached to the proximal end of the housing. The ram and cylinder provide for moving the cutter axially and circumferentially, and a cable assembly attached to a remote motor provide for the movement of the cutter radially, within the pipe. The control system can be adjusted and operated remotely to control the position and movement of the cutter to obtain the desired cut. The control system can also provide automatic standoff control for a plasma arc torch.

  13. Pipe weld crown removal device

    SciTech Connect

    Sword, C.K.; Sette, P.J.

    1992-11-24

    A device is provided for grinding down the crown of a pipe weld joining aligned pipe sections so that the weld is substantially flush with the pipe sections joined by the weld. The device includes a cage assembly comprising a pair of spaced cage rings adapted to be mounted for rotation on the respective pipe sections on opposite sides of the weld, a plurality of grinding wheels, supported by the cage assembly for grinding down the crown of the weld, and a plurality of support shafts, each extending longitudinally along the joined pipe sections, parallel thereto, for individually mounting respective grinding wheels. Each end of the support shafts is mounted for rotation in a bearing assembly housed within a radially directed opening in a corresponding one of the cage rings so as to provide radial movement of the associated shaft, and thus of the associated grinding wheel, towards and away from the weld. A first drive sprocket provides rotation of the cage assembly around the pipe sections while a second drive unit, driven by a common motor, provides rotation of the grinding wheels. 2 figs.

  14. Pipe weld crown removal device

    SciTech Connect

    Sword, C.K.; Sette, P.J.

    1991-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a device that provides for grinding down the crown of a pipe weld joining aligned pipe sections so that the weld is substantially flush with the pipe sections joined by the weld. The device includes a cage assembly comprising a pair of spaced cage rings adapted to be mounted for rotation on the respective pipe sections on opposite sides of the weld, a plurality of grinding wheels, supported by the cage assembly for grinding down the crown of the weld, and a plurality of support shafts, each extending longitudinally along the joined pipe sections, parallel thereto, for individually mounting respective grinding wheels. Each end of the support shafts is mounted for rotation in a bearing assembly housed within a radially directed opening in a corresponding one of the cage rings so as to provide radial movement of the associated shaft, and thus of the associated grinding wheel, towards and away from the weld. A first drive sprocket provides rotation of the cage assembly around the pipe sections while a second drive unit, driven by a common motor, provides rotation of the grinding wheels.

  15. Pipe weld crown removal device

    DOEpatents

    Sword, Charles K.; Sette, Primo J.

    1992-01-01

    A device is provided for grinding down the crown of a pipe weld joining aligned pipe sections so that the weld is substantially flush with the pipe sections joined by the weld. The device includes a cage assembly comprising a pair of spaced cage rings adapted to be mounted for rotation on the respective pipe sections on opposite sides of the weld, a plurality of grinding wheels, supported by the cage assembly for grinding down the crown of the weld, and a plurality of support shafts, each extending longitudinally along the joined pipe sections, parallel thereto, for individually mounting respective grinding wheels. Each end of the support shafts is mounted for rotation in a bearing assembly housed within a radially directed opening in a corresponding one of the cage rings so as to provide radial movement of the associated shaft, and thus of the associated grinding wheel, towards and away from the weld. A first drive sprocket provides rotation of the cage assembly around the pipe sections while a second drive unit, driven by a common motor, provides rotation of the grinding wheels.

  16. Heat pipe cooled power magnetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chester, M. S.

    1979-01-01

    A high frequency, high power, low specific weight (0.57 kg/kW) transformer developed for space use was redesigned with heat pipe cooling allowing both a reduction in weight and a lower internal temperature rise. The specific weight of the heat pipe cooled transformer was reduced to 0.4 kg/kW and the highest winding temperature rise was reduced from 40 C to 20 C in spite of 10 watts additional loss. The design loss/weight tradeoff was 18 W/kg. Additionally, allowing the same 40 C winding temperature rise as in the original design, the KVA rating is increased to 4.2 KVA, demonstrating a specific weight of 0.28 kg/kW with the internal loss increased by 50W. This space environment tested heat pipe cooled design performed as well electrically as the original conventional design, thus demonstrating the advantages of heat pipes integrated into a high power, high voltage magnetic. Another heat pipe cooled magnetic, a 3.7 kW, 20A input filter inductor was designed, developed, built, tested, and described. The heat pipe cooled magnetics are designed to be Earth operated in any orientation.

  17. The genesis of solution pipes: Evidence from the Middle-Late Pleistocene Bridgewater Formation calcarenite, southeastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipar, Matej; Webb, John A.; White, Susan Q.; Grimes, Ken G.

    2015-10-01

    Solution pipes are abundant in Late Pleistocene aeolian calcarenites at Cape Bridgewater in southwestern Victoria, and were studied using field work, morphometric analysis, thin sections, mineralogical and chemical analyses, and OSL dating. The solution pipes are vertical tubes formed in aeolian limestone with matrix porosity. They are typically 0.1-1 m wide and 1-5 m deep, with rounded terminations and cemented rims up to 10 cm thick. They are overlain by palaeosols and filled mostly with palaeosol material; rhizoliths are commonly present in the solution pipe fills and the surrounding calcarenite. The solution pipes have formed by focused dissolution of aeolianite, relatively quickly after the sand deposition, and concurrently filled with soil as they developed. They most likely formed beneath trees (as a result of focused infiltration due to stemflow) or due to fingered flow (unstable wetting front that breaks into fingers as it moves downwards). Solution pipe formation was strongly dependent on climate; periods of solution pipe formation followed the deposition of aeolianites at the end of interglacials MIS 7, 9 and 11, when the dunes were stabilised by vegetation and there was sufficient rainfall for substantial subsoil dissolution. The cemented rims formed in the following drier glacial climates. Solution pipes are most abundant in the youngest aeolianite, probably reflecting the wetter climate at the end of MIS 7 that allowed a dense forest to cover the dunes. From MIS 5 to MIS 2 no deposition of calcareous sand occurred on Cape Bridgewater, and combined with a very wet interglacial period MIS 5e, resulted in additional karstification, allowing the pipes in the MIS 7 aeolianite to extend deeper and drill down into the underlying member. A well-developed calcrete layer drapes over these solution pipes, and probably formed during the dry, windy climate of the Last Glacial Maximum.

  18. Hydrogen Filling Station

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    future. Project partners also conducted a workshop on hydrogen safety and permitting. This provided an opportunity for the various permitting agencies and end users to gather to share experiences and knowledge. As a result of this workshop, the permitting process for the hydrogen filling station on the Las Vegas Valley Water District’s land was done more efficiently and those who would be responsible for the operation were better educated on the safety and reliability of hydrogen production and storage. The lessons learned in permitting the filling station and conducting this workshop provided a basis for future hydrogen projects in the region. Continuing efforts to increase the working pressure of electrolysis and efficiency have been pursued. Research was also performed on improving the cost, efficiency and durability of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) hydrogen technology. Research elements focused upon PEM membranes, electrodes/catalysts, membrane-electrode assemblies, seals, bipolar plates, utilization of renewable power, reliability issues, scale, and advanced conversion topics. Additionally, direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion research to demonstrate stable and efficient photoelectrochemistry (PEC) hydrogen production systems based on a number of optional concepts was performed. Candidate PEC concepts included technical obstacles such as inefficient photocatalysis, inadequate photocurrent due to non-optimal material band gap energies, rapid electron-hole recombination, reduced hole mobility and diminished operational lifetimes of surface materials exposed to electrolytes. Project Objective 1: Design, build, operate hydrogen filling station Project Objective 2: Perform research and development for utilizing solar technologies on the hydrogen filling station and convert two utility vehicles for use by the station operators Project Objective 3: Increase capacity of hydrogen filling station; add additional vehicle; conduct safety workshop; develop a roadmap for

  19. Cold confusion

    SciTech Connect

    Chapline, G.

    1989-07-01

    On March 23 two chemists, Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons startled the world with a press conference at the University of Utah where they announced that they had achieved nuclear fusion at room temperatures. As evidence they cited the production of ''excess'' amounts of heat in an electrochemical apparatus and observation of neutron production. While the production of heat in a chemical apparatus is not in itself unusual the observation of neutrons is certainly extraordinary. As it turned out, though, careful measurements of the neutron production in electrochemical apparatus similar to that used by Fleischmann and Pons carried out at dozens of other laboratories has shown that the neutron production fails by many orders of magnitude to support the assertion by Fleischmann and Pons that their discovery represents a new and cheap source of fusion power. In particular, independent measurements of the neutron production rate suggest that the actual rate of fusion energy production probably does not exceed 1 trillionth of a watt. This paper discusses the feasibility that cold fusion is actually being achieved. 7 refs.

  20. Liquid Hydrogen Fill

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-03

    Inside a control building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, Adam Swinger, cryogenic research engineer in the Exploration Research and Technology Directorate, communicates with team members during a test of the Ground Operations Demo Unit for liquid hydrogen. The system includes a 33,000 gallon liquid hydrogen storage tank with an internal cold heat exchanger supplied from a cryogenic refrigerator. The primary goal of the testing is to achieve a liquid hydrogen zero boil-off capability. The system was designed, installed and tested by a team of civil servants and contractors from the center's Cryogenic Test Laboratory, with support from engineers at NASA's Glenn Research Center in Cleveland and Stennis Space Center in Mississippi. It may be applicable for use by the Ground Systems Development and Operations Program at Launch Pad 39B.