Science.gov

Sample records for cold regions impacts

  1. European cold wave during February 2012 and impacts in wine growing regions of Moldavia (Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planchon, Olivier; Quénol, Hervé; Irimia, Liviu; Patriche, Cristi

    2015-05-01

    A severe cold wave hits a large part of Europe between late January and mid-February 2012 and caused damages in the vineyard of Moldavia in Northeastern Romania. During the cold wave, the daily minimum temperature fell near -30 °C at some weather stations in Moldavia, but the hilly terrain caused strong temperature differences at small scales: up to 10 °C in a few kilometres. Three main cold spells with very low minimum temperatures were identified in association with the succession of three circulation types (according to the Hess-Brezowsky classification): Fennoscandian high anticyclonic (HFA, January 29-February 4), Central European ridge (BM, February 5-7) and northeast anticyclonic NEA (NEA, February 8-11). A multi-scale agroclimatic analysis in the vineyard of Cotnari (Moldavia, Romania) was carried out in the particular meteorological context of the early 2012 European cold wave. The results especially pointed out the local-scale (topoclimatic) effects on the high spatial variability of temperature and consequently a contrasting spatial distribution of damage on grape vine. The analysis of data recorded from temperature loggers installed in several test sites in the vineyard of Cotnari, depending on its topographical features, and of the observations of frost damage on grape vines (on vine buds, vine canes and even vine arms and trunks) pointed out a significant correlation between the topographic position and the grape vine variety.

  2. Cold regions hydrology and hydraulics

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, W.L. ); Crissman, R.D. )

    1990-01-01

    This monograph addresses a narrow aspect of cold regions engineering, namely the effects of cold weather on the traditional civil engineering disciplines of hydrology and hydraulics. Hydrologic and hydraulic considerations in the design, construction, and operation of civil works are very important. Many of the problems encountered in the design and construction of buildings, transportation systems, water supply facilities, waste treatment facilities, and hazardous waste disposal facilities, for example are closely tied to the characteristics of the site hydrology.

  3. Hydrologic Assessment of Remotely Sensed High Resolution Precipitation Products over Cold-Mountainous Regions, and Analysis of the GPM Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrangi, A.; Andreadis, K.; Fisher, J. B.; Turk, F. J.; Painter, T. H.; Granger, S. L.; Das, N. N.; Stephens, G. L.

    2014-12-01

    Remote sensing of precipitation in mountainous and snow-fed basins is challenging, but critical for hydrometeorological applications and water resources management. This study is part of the ongoing effort to develop a Regional Hydrological Extremes Assessment System (RHEAS). Five commonly used satellite-based high-resolution precipitation products (HRPPs) over several basins in the mountainous western United States are investigated. The products (TRMM 3B42, TRMM 3B42-RT, CMORPH, PERSIANN, and PERSIANN-CCS) are analyzed using ground gauge and gauge-adjusted radar precipitation data. In order to diagnose the sources of errors, level 2 products are also explored (AMSR, AMSU, TRMM TMI, TRMM PR, and CloudSat). CloudSat provided useful insight on light rain and snowfall and was used as an additional resource to improve the analysis. For hydrologic assessment, the skill of HRPPs and the resulting streamflow simulations from the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrological model is cross-compared. It was found that over the mountainous west US basins, HRPPs often capture major precipitation events, but seldom capture the observed magnitude of precipitation, especially during winter when snowfall is dominant. Bias adjustment is found to be effective in enhancing the HRPPs and resulting streamflow simulations. The results using collocated AMSR-E, CloudSat, and AMSU suggest that current limitations in retrieving snowfall, precipitation from systems that lack frozen hydrometeors, and systems over frozen land contribute largely to the observed errors transferred to HRPPs. In light of the operation of the GPM mission, further opportunities for enhancing snowfall retrieval and hydrology of cold and mountainous regions are becoming available. We provide some initial assessment of the latest GPM observations and discuss about the impact of GPM over cold-mountainous basins.

  4. Cold dust in hot regions

    SciTech Connect

    Sreenilayam, Gopika; Fich, Michel; Ade, Peter; Bintley, Dan; Chapin, Ed; Chrysostomou, Antonio; Jenness, Tim; Dunlop, James S.; Holland, Wayne S.; Ivison, Rob; Gibb, Andy; Halpern, Mark; Scott, Douglas; Greaves, Jane S.; Robson, Ian

    2014-03-01

    We mapped five massive star-forming regions with the SCUBA-2 camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. Temperature and column density maps are obtained from the SCUBA-2 450 and 850 μm images. Most of the dense clumps we find have central temperatures below 20 K, with some as cold as 8 K, suggesting that they have no internal heating due to the presence of embedded protostars. This is surprising, because at the high densities inferred from these images and at these low temperatures such clumps should be unstable, collapsing to form stars and generating internal heating. The column densities at the clump centers exceed 10{sup 23} cm{sup –2}, and the derived peak visual extinction values are from 25 to 500 mag for β = 1.5-2.5, indicating highly opaque centers. The observed cloud gas masses range from ∼10 to 10{sup 3} M {sub ☉}. The outer regions of the clumps follow an r {sup –2.36±0.35} density distribution, and this power-law structure is observed outside of typically 10{sup 4} AU. All these findings suggest that these clumps are high-mass starless clumps and most likely contain high-mass starless cores.

  5. The Impact of the Atlantic Cold Tongue on West African Monsoon Onset in Regional Model Simulations for 1998-2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Druyan, Leonard M.; Fulakeza, Matthew B.

    2014-01-01

    The Atlantic cold tongue (ACT) develops during spring and early summer near the Equator in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Guinea. The hypothesis that the ACT accelerates the timing of West African monsoon (WAM) onset is tested by comparing two regional climate model (RM3) simulation ensembles. Observed sea surface temperatures (SST) that include the ACT are used to force a control ensemble. An idealized, warm SST perturbation is designed to represent lower boundary forcing without the ACT for the experiment ensemble. Summer simulations forced by observed SST and reanalysis boundary conditions for each of five consecutive years are compared to five parallel runs forced by SST with the warm perturbation. The article summarizes the sequence of events leading to the onset of the WAM in the Sahel region. The representation of WAM onset in RM3 simulations is examined and compared to Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and reanalysis data. The study evaluates the sensitivity of WAM onset indicators to the presence of the ACT by analysing the differences between the two simulation ensembles. Results show that the timing of major rainfall events and therefore theWAM onset in the Sahel are not sensitive to the presence of the ACT. However, the warm SST perturbation does increase downstream rainfall rates over West Africa as a consequence of enhanced specific humidity and enhanced northward moisture flux in the lower troposphere.

  6. Inflammation in cold complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dirckx, M; Stronks, D L; van Bodegraven-Hof, E A M; Wesseldijk, F; Groeneweg, J G; Huygen, F J P M

    2015-07-01

    In patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), the temperature of the affected side often differs from that of the contralateral side. In the acute phase, the affected side is usually warmer than the contralateral side, the so-called 'warm' CRPS. This thermal asymmetry can develop into a colder affected side, the so-called 'cold' CRPS. In contrast to cold CRPS, in warm CRPS, inflammation is generally assumed to be present. However, there are reports of cold CRPS patients, successfully treated with vasodilatation therapy, who subsequently displayed warm CRPS. It seems that inflammation could be 'hidden' behind vasomotor disturbance. This study was designed to test this hypothesis. A retrospective analysis was made of patients in our CRPS database. We defined three types of CRPS: cold CRPS, neither cold nor warm (intermediate) CRPS, and warm CRPS. Of these patients, the difference between the level of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 (Δ IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (Δ TNF-α) in the affected extremity and that in the contralateral extremity was determined. The bilateral difference of the level of these cytokines did not differ among patients with cold CRPS, intermediate CRPS, or those with warm CRPS. Inflammation may be involved in cold CRPS. © 2015 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Assessment of climate change impacts on watershed in cold-arid region: an integrated multi-GCM-based stochastic weather generator and stepwise cluster analysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, X. W.; Li, Y. P.; Huang, G. H.; Liu, J.

    2016-07-01

    An integrated multi-GCM-based stochastic weather generator and stepwise cluster analysis (MGCM-SWG-SCA) method is developed, through incorporating multiple global climate models (MGCM), stochastic weather generator (SWG), and stepwise-clustered hydrological model (SCHM) within a general framework. MGCM-SWG-SCA can investigate uncertainties of projected climate changes as well as create watershed-scale climate projections from large-scale variables. It can also assess climate change impacts on hydrological processes and capture nonlinear relationship between input variables and outputs in watershed systems. MGCM-SWG-SCA is then applied to the Kaidu watershed with cold-arid characteristics in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of northwest China, for demonstrating its efficiency. Results reveal that the variability of streamflow is mainly affected by (1) temperature change during spring, (2) precipitation change during winter, and (3) both temperature and precipitation changes in summer and autumn. Results also disclose that: (1) the projected minimum and maximum temperatures and precipitation from MGCM change with seasons in different ways; (2) various climate change projections can reproduce the seasonal variability of watershed-scale climate series; (3) SCHM can simulate daily streamflow with a satisfactory degree, and a significant increasing trend of streamflow is indicated from future (2015-2035) to validation (2006-2011) periods; (4) the streamflow can vary under different climate change projections. The findings can be explained that, for the Kaidu watershed located in the cold-arid region, glacier melt is mainly related to temperature changes and precipitation changes can directly cause the variability of streamflow.

  8. Impact of Hight Velocity Cold Spray Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Dykhuizen, R.C.; Gilmore, D.L.; Jiang, X.; Neiser, R.A.; Sampath, S.; Smith, M.F.

    1998-12-01

    This paper presents experimental data and an computational model of the cold spray solid particle impact process. Copper particles impacting onto a polished stainless steel substrate are examined. The high velocity impact causes significant plastic deformation of both the particle and the sub- strate, but no melting is observed. The plastic deformation exposes clean surfaces that, under the high impact pressures, result in significant bond strengths between the particle and substrate. Experimental measurements of the splat and crater sizes compare well with the numerical calculations. It is shown that the crater depth is significant and increases with impact velocity. However, the splat diameter is much less sensitive to the impact velocity. It is also shown that the geometric lengths of the splat and crater scale linearly with the diameter of the impacting particle. It is hoped that the results presented will allow better understanding of the bonding process during cold spray.

  9. Cold Regions - Environmental Testing of Individual Soldier Clothing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-17

    This Test Operations Procedure (TOP) provides testing guidelines for individual Soldier cold weather clothing and footwear in a cold regions...Cold weather clothing test Cold weather footwear test Environmental clothing test Environmental footwear test 16...1983; TOP 10-3-512 Cold Regions Environmental Test of Boot and Similar Footwear , dated 9 May 1980; and TOP 10-4-005 Arctic Environmental Test of

  10. Cold Regions Test of Tracked and Wheeled Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-11

    specific and general procedures for testing tracked and wheeled vehicles in a Cold Regions environment. The common characteristics of a cold region...Operations Procedure (TOP) provides specific and general procedures for testing tracked and wheeled vehicles in a cold regions environment. The common ...Seals. a. Fluid seeps and minor leaks are common when first operating these systems in the cold . Exposure to extreme temperature changes can

  11. Cold Memories: An Examination of U.S. Army Doctrine for Combat in Cold Regions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-14

    enormous loss of combat. power due to cold injuries caused a massive study by the Surgeon General’s office before the invasion of Italy, and the immediate...dense cold air. and the trapping of the cold air by temperature inversions. These cause local concentrations of extremely low ambient. air...temperatures. Thus. short days can cause the subarctic regions of Siberia, Alaska, and Canada to produce the coldest temperatures on Earth’. CoM Rl•iimx Pbemwena

  12. Accumulation, Characterization, and Stabilization of Sludges for Cold Regions Lagoons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    aide If necesary and Identify by block number) Cold regions Lagoons Sanitary engineering Sewage Sludge 20 ASTIACT’ (CVtha sm etam aM N rnemind i...regions sludge accumulates during cold winter months but digests sufficiently during the warmer summer months to maintain the desired balance ...benthic sludge accumulation zone for only 2 to 4 months per year. If excess sludge in sewage lagoons is accumulating, then sludge volume and

  13. The impact of cold spells on mortality and effect modification by cold spell characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lijun; Liu, Tao; Hu, Mengjue; Zeng, Weilin; Zhang, Yonghui; Rutherford, Shannon; Lin, Hualiang; Xiao, Jianpeng; Yin, Peng; Liu, Jiangmei; Chu, Cordia; Tong, Shilu; Ma, Wenjun; Zhou, Maigeng

    2016-01-01

    In China, the health impact of cold weather has received little attention, which limits our understanding of the health impacts of climate change. We collected daily mortality and meteorological data in 66 communities across China from 2006 to 2011. Within each community, we estimated the effect of cold spell exposure on mortality using a Distributed Lag Nonlinear Model (DLNM). We also examined the modification effect of cold spell characteristics (intensity, duration, and timing) and individual-specific factors (causes of death, age, gender and education). Meta-analysis method was finally used to estimate the overall effects. The overall cumulative excess risk (CER) of non-accidental mortality during cold spell days was 28.2% (95% CI: 21.4%, 35.3%) compared with non-cold spell days. There was a significant increase in mortality when the cold spell duration and intensity increased or occurred earlier in the season. Cold spell effects and effect modification by cold spell characteristics were more pronounced in south China. The elderly, people with low education level and those with respiratory diseases were generally more vulnerable to cold spells. Cold spells statistically significantly increase mortality risk in China, with greater effects in southern China. This effect is modified by cold spell characteristics and individual-level factors. PMID:27922084

  14. The impact of cold spells on mortality and effect modification by cold spell characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lijun; Liu, Tao; Hu, Mengjue; Zeng, Weilin; Zhang, Yonghui; Rutherford, Shannon; Lin, Hualiang; Xiao, Jianpeng; Yin, Peng; Liu, Jiangmei; Chu, Cordia; Tong, Shilu; Ma, Wenjun; Zhou, Maigeng

    2016-12-01

    In China, the health impact of cold weather has received little attention, which limits our understanding of the health impacts of climate change. We collected daily mortality and meteorological data in 66 communities across China from 2006 to 2011. Within each community, we estimated the effect of cold spell exposure on mortality using a Distributed Lag Nonlinear Model (DLNM). We also examined the modification effect of cold spell characteristics (intensity, duration, and timing) and individual-specific factors (causes of death, age, gender and education). Meta-analysis method was finally used to estimate the overall effects. The overall cumulative excess risk (CER) of non-accidental mortality during cold spell days was 28.2% (95% CI: 21.4%, 35.3%) compared with non-cold spell days. There was a significant increase in mortality when the cold spell duration and intensity increased or occurred earlier in the season. Cold spell effects and effect modification by cold spell characteristics were more pronounced in south China. The elderly, people with low education level and those with respiratory diseases were generally more vulnerable to cold spells. Cold spells statistically significantly increase mortality risk in China, with greater effects in southern China. This effect is modified by cold spell characteristics and individual-level factors.

  15. The impact of cold spells on mortality and effect modification by cold spell characteristics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lijun; Liu, Tao; Hu, Mengjue; Zeng, Weilin; Zhang, Yonghui; Rutherford, Shannon; Lin, Hualiang; Xiao, Jianpeng; Yin, Peng; Liu, Jiangmei; Chu, Cordia; Tong, Shilu; Ma, Wenjun; Zhou, Maigeng

    2016-12-06

    In China, the health impact of cold weather has received little attention, which limits our understanding of the health impacts of climate change. We collected daily mortality and meteorological data in 66 communities across China from 2006 to 2011. Within each community, we estimated the effect of cold spell exposure on mortality using a Distributed Lag Nonlinear Model (DLNM). We also examined the modification effect of cold spell characteristics (intensity, duration, and timing) and individual-specific factors (causes of death, age, gender and education). Meta-analysis method was finally used to estimate the overall effects. The overall cumulative excess risk (CER) of non-accidental mortality during cold spell days was 28.2% (95% CI: 21.4%, 35.3%) compared with non-cold spell days. There was a significant increase in mortality when the cold spell duration and intensity increased or occurred earlier in the season. Cold spell effects and effect modification by cold spell characteristics were more pronounced in south China. The elderly, people with low education level and those with respiratory diseases were generally more vulnerable to cold spells. Cold spells statistically significantly increase mortality risk in China, with greater effects in southern China. This effect is modified by cold spell characteristics and individual-level factors.

  16. Observations of cold ion heating inside the magnetospheric separatrix region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo Redondo, Sergio; Andre, Mats; Vaivads, Andris; Khotyaintsev, Yuri; Lavraud, Benoit; Graham, Daniel; Divin, Andrey; Aunai, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    Several studies have shown that cold ions (energies up to tens of eV) of ionospheric origin can be found in different regions of the magnetosphere, including the dayside magnetopause. They can be very abundant, up to ~100 cc, e.g. plasmaspheric plumes, and become the dominant population of the magnetosphere. Cold ions, when present, participate in magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause, mass loading the magnetospheric side and adding a new length-scale into the system owing to their smaller gyroradius. At the same time, reconnection accelerates and heats the cold ions. Based on multi-spacecraft observations, we report observations of cold ion heating inside the separatrix region when reconnection is ongoing and study the mechanisms that energize the cold ions. The heating is not always observed and our observations indicate that cold ion heating is more effective next to the X-line. We find that large electric field gradients and wave-particle interactions are consistent with the heating observed.

  17. The impacts of repeated cold exposure on insects.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Katie E; Sinclair, Brent J

    2012-05-15

    Insects experience repeated cold exposure (RCE) on multiple time scales in natural environments, yet the majority of studies of the effects of cold on insects involve only a single exposure. Three broad groups of experimental designs have been employed to examine the effects of RCE on insect physiology and fitness, defined by the control treatments: 'RCE vs cold', which compares RCE with constant cold conditions; 'RCE vs warm', which compares RCE with constant warm conditions; and 'RCE vs matched cold' which compares RCE with a prolonged period of cold matched by time to the RCE condition. RCE are generally beneficial to immediate survival, and increase cold hardiness relative to insects receiving a single prolonged cold exposure. However, the effects of RCE depend on the study design, and RCE vs warm studies cannot differentiate between the effects of cold exposure in general vs RCE in particular. Recent studies of gene transcription, immune function, feeding and reproductive output show that the responses of insects to RCE are distinct from the responses to single cold exposures. We suggest that future research should attempt to elucidate the mechanistic link between physiological responses and fitness parameters. We also recommend that future RCE experiments match the time spent at the stressful low temperature in all experimental groups, include age controls where appropriate, incorporate a pilot study to determine time and intensity of exposure, and measure sub-lethal impacts on fitness.

  18. Diviner lunar radiometer observations of cold traps in the moon's south polar region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paige, D.A.; Siegler, M.A.; Zhang, J.A.; Hayne, P.O.; Foote, E.J.; Bennett, K.A.; Vasavada, A.R.; Greenhagen, B.T.; Schofield, J.T.; McCleese, D.J.; Foote, M.C.; DeJong, E.; Bills, B.G.; Hartford, W.; Murray, B.C.; Allen, C.C.; Snook, K.; Soderblom, L.A.; Calcutt, S.; Taylor, F.W.; Bowles, N.E.; Bandfield, J.L.; Elphic, R.; Ghent, R.; Glotch, T.D.; Wyatt, M.B.; Lucey, P.G.

    2010-01-01

    Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment surface-temperature maps reveal the existence of widespread surface and near-surface cryogenic regions that extend beyond the boundaries of persistent shadow. The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) struck one of the coldest of these regions, where subsurface temperatures are estimated to be 38 kelvin. Large areas of the lunar polar regions are currently cold enough to cold-trap water ice as well as a range of both more volatile and less volatile species. The diverse mixture of water and high-volatility compounds detected in the LCROSS ejecta plume is strong evidence for the impact delivery and cold-trapping of volatiles derived from primitive outer solar system bodies.

  19. Diviner Lunar Radiometer observations of cold traps in the Moon's south polar region.

    PubMed

    Paige, David A; Siegler, Matthew A; Zhang, Jo Ann; Hayne, Paul O; Foote, Emily J; Bennett, Kristen A; Vasavada, Ashwin R; Greenhagen, Benjamin T; Schofield, John T; McCleese, Daniel J; Foote, Marc C; DeJong, Eric; Bills, Bruce G; Hartford, Wayne; Murray, Bruce C; Allen, Carlton C; Snook, Kelly; Soderblom, Laurence A; Calcutt, Simon; Taylor, Fredric W; Bowles, Neil E; Bandfield, Joshua L; Elphic, Richard; Ghent, Rebecca; Glotch, Timothy D; Wyatt, Michael B; Lucey, Paul G

    2010-10-22

    Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment surface-temperature maps reveal the existence of widespread surface and near-surface cryogenic regions that extend beyond the boundaries of persistent shadow. The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) struck one of the coldest of these regions, where subsurface temperatures are estimated to be 38 kelvin. Large areas of the lunar polar regions are currently cold enough to cold-trap water ice as well as a range of both more volatile and less volatile species. The diverse mixture of water and high-volatility compounds detected in the LCROSS ejecta plume is strong evidence for the impact delivery and cold-trapping of volatiles derived from primitive outer solar system bodies.

  20. What caused the 2009 cold event in the Atlantic cold tongue region?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burmeister, Kristin; Brandt, Peter; Lübbecke, Joke F.

    2016-04-01

    The tropical Atlantic (TA) exhibits sea surface temperature (SST) variability on seasonal to inter-annual time scales. This variability is associated with changes of atmospheric dynamics, linking it to severe flooding or droughts in South America and West Africa. This study investigates processes in the TA that might have caused the extreme cold event in the Atlantic cold tongue (ACT) region in 2009. During boreal spring, a strong negative Atlantic meridional mode event developed in the TA associated with northwesterly wind anomalies along the equator. Contrary to what would be expected from ENSO-like dynamics, these wind anomalies did not lead to a warming in the eastern equatorial Atlantic in boreal summer. Instead, from May to August 2009, an abrupt cooling took place in the ACT region resulting in the coldest August ACT SST on record. In the literature, two processes - equatorial wave reflection and meridional advection of subsurface temperatures - are discussed as potential causes of such an event. Whereas previous studies are mainly based on satellite data, reanalysis products and model output, we here use in situ measurements (data from Argo floats, PIRATA buoys, and TACE moorings, as well as CTD data of various ship cruises) in addition to satellite and reanalysis products to investigate the contribution of both processes to the strong surface cooling in the ACT region in 2009. Results based on the Argo float data confirm previous findings that equatorial wave reflection contributed to the cold event in the ACT region in 2009. They further indicate that higher baroclinic mode waves played an important role. The analysis of in situ and reanalysis temperature and velocity data does not suggest a significant contribution of meridional advection of subsurface temperatures for the onset of the 2009 cold event. The results indicate an asymmetry in the importance of meridional advection for non-ENSO-like cold and warm events with warm events more strongly affected

  1. HOT AND COLD DUST NEAR H II REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Sreenilayam, Gopika; Fich, Michel

    2011-07-15

    We estimate the mass, temperature, and luminosity of the hot ({>=}100 K), cool (20-40 K), and cold ({<=}20 K) dust in the environs of Galactic H II regions using Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) and Submillimeter Common User Bolometric Array (SCUBA) data. A total of 83 clouds have been examined using IRAS data. A two-component model spectral energy distribution (SED) of hot and cool dust is used to fit the IRAS data. All of the SEDs use a graphite/silicate mix of grains in an MRN distribution. A three-component model SED is fitted to combined SCUBA and IRAS data for 15 clouds near H II regions to measure the cold dust component. Surprisingly, the ratio of the bolometric luminosity of the cool dust to the hot dust appears to be the same (2.8) in virtually all objects. The cool dust has typically four-five orders of magnitude greater mass than the hot dust. However, the mass in cold dust is much greater than the mass in cool and hot dust. We also find some evidence for a relationship between the cool and cold dust masses. These results may prove useful for using IR observations for estimating gas masses in extragalactic systems with active high-mass star formation.

  2. Cold Roller-Compacted Concrete for Roads and Hardstands on Army Installations in Cold Regions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Barna, and Charles Smith Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center 72 Lyme Road Hanover...plant. While typical RCC mixes incorporate supplemental cementitious material (SCM), or waste by-products to offset the quantity of cement used...staff in charge of roads and grounds maintenance. This was supplemented by a visit to the field site by one of the authors approximately 100 days

  3. Simulating cold-region hydrology in an intensively drained agricultural watershed in Manitoba, Canada, using the Cold Regions Hydrological Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordeiro, Marcos R. C.; Wilson, Henry F.; Vanrobaeys, Jason; Pomeroy, John W.; Fang, Xing; The Red-Assiniboine Project Biophysical Modelling Team

    2017-07-01

    Etrophication and flooding are perennial problems in agricultural watersheds of the northern Great Plains. A high proportion of annual runoff and nutrient transport occurs with snowmelt in this region. Extensive surface drainage modification, frozen soils, and frequent backwater or ice-damming impacts on flow measurement represent unique challenges to accurately modelling watershed-scale hydrological processes. A physically based, non-calibrated model created using the Cold Regions Hydrological Modelling platform (CRHM) was parameterized to simulate hydrological processes within a low slope, clay soil, and intensively surface drained agricultural watershed. These characteristics are common to most tributaries of the Red River of the north. Analysis of the observed water level records for the study watershed (La Salle River) indicates that ice cover and backwater issues at time of peak flow may impact the accuracy of both modelled and measured streamflows, highlighting the value of evaluating a non-calibrated model in this environment. Simulations best matched the streamflow record in years when peak and annual discharges were equal to or above the medians of 6.7 m3 s-1 and 1.25 × 107 m3, respectively, with an average Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) of 0.76. Simulation of low-flow years (below the medians) was more challenging (average NSE < 0), with simulated discharge overestimated by 90 % on average. This result indicates the need for improved understanding of hydrological response in the watershed under drier conditions. Simulation during dry years was improved when infiltration was allowed prior to soil thaw, indicating the potential importance of preferential flow. Representation of in-channel dynamics and travel time under the flooded or ice-jam conditions should also receive attention in further model development efforts. Despite the complexities of the study watershed, simulations of flow for average to high-flow years and other components of the water

  4. The Impact of the February 2012 Cold Spell on Health in Italy Using Surveillance Data

    PubMed Central

    de'Donato, Francesca K.; Leone, Michela; Noce, Damia; Davoli, Marina; Michelozzi, Paola

    2013-01-01

    In February 2012 Italy was hit by an exceptional cold spell with extremely low temperatures and heavy snowfall. The aim of this work is to estimate the impact of the cold spell on health in the Italian cities using data from the rapid surveillance systems. In Italy, a national mortality surveillance system has been operational since 2004 in 34 cities for the rapid monitoring of daily mortality. Data from this system were used to evaluate the impact of the February 2012 cold spell on mortality shortly after the occurrence of the event. Furthermore, a cause-specific analysis was conducted in Roma using the Regional Mortality Registry and the emergency visits (ER) surveillance system. Cold spell episodes were defined as days when mean temperatures were below the 10th percentile of February distribution for more than three days. To estimate the impact of the cold spell, excess mortality was calculated as the difference between observed and daily expected values. An overall 1578 (+25%) excess deaths among the 75+ age group was recorded in the 14 cities that registered a cold spell in February 2012. A statistically significant excess in mortality was observed in several cities ranging from +22% in Bologna to +58% in Torino. Cause-specific analysis conducted in Roma showed a statistically significant excess in mortality among the 75+ age group for respiratory disease (+64%), COPD (+57%), cardiovascular disease +20% ischemic heart disease (14%) and other heart disease (+33%). Similar results were observed for ER visits. Surveillance systems need to become are a key component of prevention plans as they can help improve public health response and are a valid data source to rapidly quantify the impact on health. Cold-related mortality is still an important issue and should not be underestimated by public health Authorities. PMID:23637892

  5. The impact of the February 2012 cold spell on health in Italy using surveillance data.

    PubMed

    de'Donato, Francesca K; Leone, Michela; Noce, Damia; Davoli, Marina; Michelozzi, Paola

    2013-01-01

    In February 2012 Italy was hit by an exceptional cold spell with extremely low temperatures and heavy snowfall. The aim of this work is to estimate the impact of the cold spell on health in the Italian cities using data from the rapid surveillance systems. In Italy, a national mortality surveillance system has been operational since 2004 in 34 cities for the rapid monitoring of daily mortality. Data from this system were used to evaluate the impact of the February 2012 cold spell on mortality shortly after the occurrence of the event. Furthermore, a cause-specific analysis was conducted in Roma using the Regional Mortality Registry and the emergency visits (ER) surveillance system. Cold spell episodes were defined as days when mean temperatures were below the 10(th) percentile of February distribution for more than three days. To estimate the impact of the cold spell, excess mortality was calculated as the difference between observed and daily expected values. An overall 1578 (+25%) excess deaths among the 75+ age group was recorded in the 14 cities that registered a cold spell in February 2012. A statistically significant excess in mortality was observed in several cities ranging from +22% in Bologna to +58% in Torino. Cause-specific analysis conducted in Roma showed a statistically significant excess in mortality among the 75+ age group for respiratory disease (+64%), COPD (+57%), cardiovascular disease +20% ischemic heart disease (14%) and other heart disease (+33%). Similar results were observed for ER visits. Surveillance systems need to become are a key component of prevention plans as they can help improve public health response and are a valid data source to rapidly quantify the impact on health. Cold-related mortality is still an important issue and should not be underestimated by public health Authorities.

  6. Sensitization to domestic mites in a cold temperate region.

    PubMed

    Wickman, M; Nordvall, S L; Pershagen, G; Korsgaard, J; Johansen, N

    1993-07-01

    Factors favoring sensitization to house dust mites (HDM) were studied in a cold, temperate climate in northern Sweden. Sixty-five children previously found to react positively to a skin prick test (SPT) to HDM were included. The SPT to HDM was repeated, and serum IgE antibodies to D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae were determined. HDM, Euroglyphus maynei, Tarsonemus, or storage mites occurred in mattress dust samples from 23 of the 65 homes, and in 10 homes more than 100 HDM/g of mattress dust were found. Mites were more prevalent in mattress dust from the basement and ground levels than from the upper floors. Sensitization to HDM was strongly with the presence of domestic mites in mattress and floor dust. Previous longer stays in southern Sweden or Europe were also associated with present sensitization to HDM, and this was independent of occurrence of mites in the residence. The results indicate that HDM growth and potential for sensitization in cold, temperate regions is highly dependent on the microhabitat, and that sensitization to HDM should be possible to prevent in such climatic regions.

  7. Cold Regions Environmental Test of Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Decontamination Equipment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    6502, Engine, Cold-starting and Warmup Tests. (2) Decontaminant mixing/filling. Evaluate ease of filling and mixing decontaminants at low temperatures...2. TOP 2-2-650, Engine Cold-Starting and Warmup Tests, 18 July 1980. 3. TOP 8-4-015, Cold Regions Logistics, Supportability Testing of Chemical

  8. Conventional Middle East arms control: Impact of the end of the cold war. Study project report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.L.; Johnsen, W.T.

    1993-03-31

    The end of the Gulf War brought to the forefront concern for dangers posed by unrestrained militarization of the Middle East. In response, on 29 May 1991 President Bush unveiled a comprehensive Middle East arms control policy in a speech at the U.S. Air Force Academy. A key element of the policy banned the sale of the most dangerous conventional weapons to the region. Although the major arms suppliers (which also happen to be the five permanent members of the U.N. Security Council) have held a series of high level meetings to discuss options for restricting sales to the region, all continue conventional arms transfers to the Middle East and are likely to continue to do so. This paper contends that the end of the Cold War put additional economic pressure on the major suppliers to export arms to the Middle East; and, their interests are so compelling that the suppliers are unlikely to support President Bush's proposal. This position is supported by analyzing the interests that influence major arms suppliers to sell arms abroad. The format for this analysis includes an assessment of: each country's interest in selling arms during the Cold War; the impact of the Cold War's end on those interests; and whether the post Cold War interests conflict with President Bush's conventional arms control proposal. The paper concludes with recommendations for US policy in the region.

  9. Fuel cell power source for a cold region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, B. K.; Velayutham, G.; Goud, A. Prasad

    operation. Based on the results of these experiments, the design of the fuel cell power source for cold region application has been finalised. The paper deals with the design criteria and design factors to be considered for the fuel cell power source for cold region application and details of tests and test results that led to the final design concept for such an application. The paper also deals with a proposed hybrid power plant taking into account the exploitation of wind energy with a fuel cell and generation of hydrogen by an electrolyser and provision of hydrogen storage.

  10. Regional collaborative research on cold tolerance of exotic biofuel grasses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cold tolerance is a selectable trait for many exotic grasses, even those of tropical or subtropical origin. We are conducting cold tolerance assessments on an array of perennial biofuel grasses at Booneville, AR. In study one (published), we reported that two sugarcane clones (US84-1028 and US84-1...

  11. Warming effects on the urban hydrology in cold climate regions.

    PubMed

    Järvi, L; Grimmond, C S B; McFadden, J P; Christen, A; Strachan, I B; Taka, M; Warsta, L; Heimann, M

    2017-07-19

    While approximately 338 million people in the Northern hemisphere live in regions that are regularly snow covered in winter, there is little hydro-climatologic knowledge in the cities impacted by snow. Using observations and modelling we have evaluated the energy and water exchanges of four cities that are exposed to wintertime snow. We show that the presence of snow critically changes the impact that city design has on the local-scale hydrology and climate. After snow melt, the cities return to being strongly controlled by the proportion of built and vegetated surfaces. However in winter, the presence of snow masks the influence of the built and vegetated fractions. We show how inter-year variability of wintertime temperature can modify this effect of snow. With increasing temperatures, these cities could be pushed towards very different partitioning between runoff and evapotranspiration. We derive the dependency of wintertime runoff on this warming effect in combination with the effect of urban densification.

  12. Three-scale structure of diffusion region in the presence of cold ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divin, A.; Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Vaivads, A.; André, M.; Toledo-Redondo, S.; Markidis, S.; Lapenta, G.

    2016-12-01

    Kinetic simulations and spacecraft observations typically display the two-scale structure of collisionless diffusion region (DR), with electron and ion demagnetization scales governing the spatial extent of the DR. Recent in situ observations of the nightside magnetosphere, as well as investigation of magnetic reconnection events at the Earth's magnetopause, discovered the presence of a population of cold (tens of eV) ions of ionospheric origin. We present two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of collisionless magnetic reconnection in multicomponent plasma with ions consisting of hot and cold populations. We show that a new cold ion diffusion region scale is introduced in between that of hot ions and electrons. Demagnetization scale of cold ion population is several times (˜4-8) larger than the initial cold ion gyroradius. Cold ions are accelerated and thermalized during magnetic reconnection and form ion beams moving with velocities close to the Alfvén velocity.

  13. The impact of the 2008 cold spell on mortality in Shanghai, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Wenjuan; Yang, Chunxue; Chu, Chen; Li, Tiantian; Tan, Jianguo; Kan, Haidong

    2013-01-01

    No prior studies in China have investigated the health impact of cold spell. In Shanghai, we defined the cold spell as a period of at least seven consecutive days with daily temperature below the third percentile during the study period (2001-2009). Between January 2001 and December 2009, we identified a cold spell between January 27 and February 3, 2008 in Shanghai. We investigated the impact of cold spell on mortality of the residents living in the nine urban districts of Shanghai. We calculated the excess deaths and rate ratios (RRs) during the cold spell and compared these data with a winter reference period (January 6-9, and February 28 to March 2). The number of excess deaths during the cold spell period was 153 in our study population. The cold spell caused a short-term increase in total mortality of 13 % (95 % CI: 7-19 %). The impact was statistically significant for cardiovascular mortality (RR = 1.21, 95 % CI: 1.12-1.31), but not for respiratory mortality (RR = 1.14, 95 % CI: 0.98-1.32). For total mortality, gender did not make a statistically significant difference for the cold spell impact. Cold spell had a significant impact on mortality in elderly people (over 65 years), but not in other age groups. Conclusively, our analysis showed that the 2008 cold spell had a substantial effect on mortality in Shanghai. Public health programs should be tailored to prevent cold-spell-related health problems in the city.

  14. Overview of the Impact Region

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-29

    On April 30th, this region of Mercury's surface will have a new crater! Traveling at 3.91 kilometers per second (over 8,700 miles per hour), the MESSENGER spacecraft will collide with Mercury's surface, creating a crater estimated to be 16 meters (52 feet) in diameter. The large, 400-kilometer-diameter (250-mile-diameter), impact basin Shakespeare occupies the bottom left quarter of this image. Shakespeare is filled with smooth plains material, likely due to extensive lava flooding the basin in the past. As of 24 hours before the impact, the current best estimates predict that the spacecraft will strike a ridge slightly to the northeast of Shakespeare. View this image to see more details of the predicted impact site and time. Instrument: Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) and Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) Latitude Range: 49°-59° N Longitude Range: 204°-217° E Topography: Exaggerated by a factor of 5.5. Colors: Coded by topography. The tallest regions are colored red and are roughly 3 kilometers (1.9 miles) higher than low-lying areas such as the floors of impact craters, colored blue. Scale: The large crater on the left side of the image is Janacek, with a diameter of 48 kilometers (30 miles) http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19444

  15. Cold Regions Environmental Test of CB Protective Masks.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-01

    Question 23: a. When you put your mask on and cleared it, did the mask lenses become foggy? (Note: fog means moisture on the inside or outside of the...have any frost form on the lenses ? (note: frost means moisture /ice.) Yes No b. If yes, what was the problem and under what circumstances did you...cold-wet uniform is designed to afford maximum protection against the hazards of changing temperatures, rain, wet snow, mud, and slush of a cold-wet

  16. Definition of initial conditions and soil profile depth for Hydrological Land Surface Models in Cold Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapriza-Azuri, G.; Gamazo, P. A.; Razavi, S.; Wheater, H. S.

    2016-12-01

    Earth system models are essential for the evaluation of the impact of climate change. At global and regional scales, General Circulation Models (GCM) and Regional Climate Models (RCM) are used to simulate climate change evolution. Hydrological Land Surface Models (HLSM) are used along with GCMs and RCMs (coupled or offline) to have a better representation of the hydrological cycle. All these models typically have a common implementation of the energy and water balance in the soil, known as the Land Surface Model (LSM). In general, a standard soil configuration with a depth of no more than 4 meters is used in all LSMs that are commonly implemented in GCMs, RCMs and HLSMs. For moderate climate conditions, this depth is sufficient to capture the intra-annual variability in the energy and water balance. However, for cold regions and for long-term simulations, deeper subsurface layers are needed in order to allow the heat signal to propagate through the soil to deeper layers and hence to avoid erroneous near-surface states and fluxes. Deeper soil/rock configurations create longer system memories, and as such, particular care should be taken to define the initial conditions for the subsurface system. In this work we perform a sensitivity analysis of the main factors that affect the subsurface energy and water balance for LSMs in cold regions - depth of soil, soil parameters, initial conditions and climate conditions for a warm-up period. We implement a 1D model using the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS) LSM for a study area in northern Canada where measurements of soil temperature profiles are available. Results suggest that an adequate representation of the heat propagation process in the soil requires the simulation of a soil depth of greater than 25 meters. As for initial conditions we recommend to spin-up over a cycle of an average climate year and then use reconstructed climate time series with a length of more than 300 years.

  17. Bibliography on Cold Regions Science and Technology. Volume 42

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    growth, lee forasatloa. Water flow. 42-1708 Frceslag fracture of water pipes la low temperature. Salto , H., et al. International Symposium on Cold...Edited by K.C. Cheng, V.J. Lunardini and N. Seki, New York, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1987, p.183-187, 8 refs. Inaba, H., Salto , H...undetectable in the bulk of the ice. However, at the junctions where three grains met ( triple -junctions), lulphur was found in concentrations

  18. Cold Regions Environmental Test of CB Protective Masks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-28

    become foggy? (Note: fog means moisture on the inside or outside of the lenses ) Yes No b. If yes, how much time went by before the fogging disappeared? 6...the weather like and what were you doing? Question 24: a. Did you ever have any frost form on the lenses ? (note: frost means moisture /ice.) Yes No b...basis, some degree of flexibility in uniform requirements is necessary. The cold-wet uniform is designed to afford maximum protection against the hazards

  19. Technological methods in research for icy meteorites on cold region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fodor, F.

    2008-09-01

    Amongst the less known cosmic origin matters, which are showering our planet Earth are these of icy meteorites, which due to their height temperature on impact largely and completely melt in any zonal temperatures, exception being the two polar zones hence their findings and gathering is only possible these in Antarctica these cosmic sending in bedded in the frozen ice rivers, glaciers are however there and detectable. It is imperative to use an up to date technology for the detection, finding and investigation of these objects as being found preserved in their state of arrivals and embedded in the glaciers. The radioactive isotope content of these so called dirty ice balls and their possible content of organic chemicals could in some way enrich and modify of our concept from the formation of environment of our planet Earth. The same technology could also be used for the mapping of crevices of the two polar regions of the Moon. Our observations obtained from the Hungaria One and Two small planets, shows that there surface beehive as if they were two hinge sizes of ice meteorites.

  20. Effects of modeling decisions on cold region hydrological model performance: snow, soil and streamflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musselman, Keith; Clark, Martyn; Endalamaw, Abraham; Bolton, W. Robert; Nijssen, Bart; Arnold, Jeffrey

    2017-04-01

    Cold regions are characterized by intense spatial gradients in climate, vegetation and soil properties that determine the complex spatiotemporal patterns of snowpack evolution, frozen soil dynamics, catchment connectivity, and streamflow. These spatial gradients pose unique challenges for hydrological models, including: 1) how the spatial variability of the physical processes are best represented across a hierarchy of scales, and 2) what algorithms and parameter sets best describe the biophysical and hydrological processes at the spatial scale of interest. To address these topics, we apply the Structure for Unifying Multiple Modeling Alternatives (SUMMA) to simulate hydrological processes at the Caribou - Poker Creeks Research Watershed in the Alaskan sub-arctic Boreal forest. The site is characterized by numerous gauged headwater catchments ranging in size from 5 sq. km to 106 sq. km with varying extents (3% to 53%) of discontinuous permafrost that permits a multi-scale paired watershed analysis of the hydrological impacts of frozen soils. We evaluate the effects of model decisions on the skill of SUMMA to simulate observed snow and soil dynamics, and the spatial integration of these processes as catchment streamflow. Decisions such as the number of soil layers, total soil column depth, and vertical soil discretization are shown to have profound impacts on the simulation of seasonal active layer dynamics. Decisions on the spatial organization (lateral connectivity, representation of riparian response units, and the spatial discretization of the hydrological landscape) are shown to be as important as accurate snowpack and soil process representation in the simulation of streamflow. The work serves to better inform hydrological model decisions for cold region hydrologic evaluation and to improve predictive capacity for water resource planning.

  1. A new benchmark of Thermo-Hydraulic codes for cold regions hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenier, Christophe; Roux, Nicolas; Costard, François

    2013-04-01

    Large focus was put recently on the impact of climate changes in boreal regions due to the large amplitudes expected. Large portions of these regions, corresponding to permafrost areas, are covered by water bodies (lakes, rivers) with very specific evolution and water budget. These water bodies generate taliks (unfrozen zones below) that may play a key role in the context of climate change. Recent studies and modeling exercises showed that a fully coupled 2D or 3D Thermo-Hydraulic (TH) approach is required to understand and model the evolution of rivers and lakes in a changing climate. However, 3D studies are still scarce while all numerical approaches can only be validated against analytical solutions for a purely thermic equation with phase change (e.g. Neumann, Lunardini). When it comes to the coupled TH system (coupling two highly non-linear equations), the only possible approach is to compare different codes on provided test cases and/or to have controlled experiments for validation and propel discussions to try and improve the code performances. We propose here a benchmark exercise, detail some of its planned test cases and invite other research groups to join. The benchmark will consist of some test cases inspired by existing literature (e.g. Mc Kenzie et al., 2007) as well as new ones. Some experimental cases in cold room will complement the validation approach. The benchmark is open as well to new or alternative cases reflecting a numerical or a process oriented interest or answering a more general concern among the cold region community. A further purpose of the benchmark exercise is to propel discussions for the optimization of codes and numerical approaches in order to develop validated and optimized simulation tools allowing in the end for 3D realistic applications. A web site hosted by LSCE is under construction to allow easy interaction or downloading. Future prospects will be envisioned including organization of specific meetings or conference

  2. INTERFROST: a benchmark of Thermo-Hydraulic codes for cold regions hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenier, Christophe; Roux, Nicolas; Costard, François; Pessel, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Large focus was put recently on the impact of climate changes in boreal regions due to the large temperature amplitudes expected. Large portions of these regions, corresponding to permafrost areas, are covered by water bodies (lakes, rivers) with very specific evolution and water budget. These water bodies generate taliks (unfrozen zones below) that may play a key role in the context of climate change. Recent studies and modeling exercises showed that a fully coupled 2D or 3D Thermo-Hydraulic (TH) approach is a minimal requirement to model and understand the evolution of the river and lake - soil continuum in a changing climate (e.g. Mc Kenzie et al., 2007; Bense et al 2009, Rowland et al 2011; Painter 2011; Grenier et al 2012; Painter et al 2012 and others from the 2012 special issue Hydrogeology Journal: "Hydrogeology of cold regions"). However, 3D studies are still scarce while numerical approaches can only be validated against analytical solutions for the purely thermal equation with conduction and phase change (e.g. Neumann, Lunardini). When it comes to the coupled TH system (coupling two highly non-linear equations), the only possible approach is to compare different codes on provided test cases and/or to have controlled experiments for validation. We propose here to join the INTERFROST benchmark exercise addressing these issues. We give an overview of some of its test cases (phase I) as well as provide the present stand of the exercise and invite other research groups to join. This initial phase of the benchmark consists of some test cases inspired by existing literature (e.g. Mc Kenzie et al., 2007) as well as new ones. Some experimental cases in cold room complement the validation approach. In view of a Phase II, the project is open as well to other test cases reflecting a numerical or a process oriented interest or answering a more general concern among the cold region community. A further purpose of the benchmark exercise is to propel discussions for the

  3. INTERFROST: a benchmark of Thermo-Hydraulic codes for cold regions hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenier, C. F.; Roux, N.; Costard, F.; Pessel, M.

    2013-12-01

    Large focus was put recently on the impact of climate changes in boreal regions due to the large temperature amplitudes expected. Large portions of these regions, corresponding to permafrost areas, are covered by water bodies (lakes, rivers) with very specific evolution and water budget. These water bodies generate taliks (unfrozen zones below) that may play a key role in the context of climate change. Recent studies and modeling exercises showed that a fully coupled 2D or 3D Thermo-Hydraulic (TH) approach is a minimal requirement to model and understand the evolution of the river and lake - soil continuum in a changing climate (e.g. Mc Kenzie et al., 2007; Bense et al 2009, Rowland et al 2011; Painter 2011; Grenier et al 2012; Painter et al 2012 and others from the 2012 special issue Hydrogeology Journal: 'Hydrogeology of cold regions'). However, 3D studies are still scarce while numerical approaches can only be validated against analytical solutions for the purely thermal equation with conduction and phase change (e.g. Neumann, Lunardini). When it comes to the coupled TH system (coupling two highly non-linear equations), the only possible approach is to compare different codes on provided test cases and/or to have controlled experiments for validation. We propose here to initiate a benchmark exercise, detail some of its planned test cases (phase I) and invite other research groups to join. This initial phase of the benchmark will consist of some test cases inspired by existing literature (e.g. Mc Kenzie et al., 2007) as well as new ones. Some experimental cases in cold room will complement the validation approach. In view of a Phase II, the project is open as well to other test cases reflecting a numerical or a process oriented interest or answering a more general concern among the cold region community. A further purpose of the benchmark exercise is to propel discussions for the optimization of codes and numerical approaches in order to develop validated and

  4. THE COLD SHOULDER: EMISSION MEASURE DISTRIBUTIONS OF ACTIVE REGION CORES

    SciTech Connect

    Schmelz, J. T.; Pathak, S.

    2012-09-10

    The coronal heating mechanism for active region core loops is difficult to determine because these loops are often not resolved and cannot be studied individually. Rather, we concentrate on the 'inter-moss' areas between loop footpoints. We use observations from the Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer and the X-Ray Telescope to calculate the emission measure distributions of eight inter-moss areas in five different active regions. The combined data sets provide both high- and low-temperature constraints and ensure complete coverage in the temperature range appropriate for active regions. For AR 11113, the emission can be modeled with heating events that occur on timescales less than the cooling time. The loops in the core regions appear to be close to equilibrium and are consistent with steady heating. The other regions studied, however, appear to be dominated by nanoflare heating. Our results are consistent with the idea that active region age is an important parameter in determining whether steady or nanoflare heating is primarily responsible for the core emission, that is, older regions are more likely to be dominated by steady heating, while younger regions show more evidence of nanoflares.

  5. Effects of Land Management Practices on Cold Region Hydrological Processes in an Agricultural Prairie Basin (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, T. H.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Wheater, H. S.; Baulch, H. M.

    2013-12-01

    Conservation tillage including zero and reduced tillage, crop rotation and upstream reservoirs are commonly implemented as beneficial management practices (BMPs) in the Canadian Prairies. However, their effects are strongly dependent on interactions with cold region hydrological processes, such as wind redistribution of snow, snowmelt, infiltration to frozen soils and evaporation, due to strong coupling between land surface characteristics and hydrology. These interactions are poorly understood and few studies have investigated them using a physically-based modeling framework. In this study, we deploy a physically-based, semi-distributed cold regions hydrological model (CRHM) to investigate the impacts of land management practices in the South Tobacco Creek Basin (STC) which forms part of the Red River Basin in southern Manitoba, Canada. The STC (~73 km2) is set in a gently rolling landscape of low relief (~200 m). Detailed field data such as crop type, tillage practices, crop residue and planting and harvesting dates are available from 1995 and are used to parameterize the model. While the majority of parameters are specified a priori, we have manually calibrated roughness and initial soil water storage parameters to compare the simulations with runoff observations at multiple scales (upstream catchment, mid-basin gauge and outlet gauge) and snow observations during 2000-2001 water year. The calibrated model based on the 2000-2001 period is further evaluated over the 2001-2011 period, which includes high inter-annual variability. The results suggest good agreement between observations and simulations and provide insight into hydrological controls. Snowmelt runoff is a major contributor to streamflow while the contribution of summer rainfall runoff is highly variable. The evaporative fraction is high during dry years (2002-2004) indicating a vertical flux controlled mass balance while the runoff fraction dominates during wet years (2005-2011), suggesting overland

  6. Impact of climate change on cold hardiness of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii): Environmental and genetic considerations

    Treesearch

    Sheel Bansal; Bradley J. St. Clair; Constance A. Harrington; Peter J. Gould

    2015-01-01

    The success of conifers over much of the world’s terrestrial surface is largely attributable to their tolerance to cold stress (i.e., cold hardiness). Due to an increase in climate variability, climate change may reduce conifer cold hardiness, which in turn could impact ecosystem functioning and productivity in conifer-dominated forests. The expression of cold...

  7. Identifying key hydrological and biochemical processes for predicting field scale nitrate and ammonia export in agricultural cold regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, D.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Wheater, H. S.

    2016-12-01

    Nutrient runoff from agricultural cold regions such as the Canadian Prairies is impairing the ecological function of regional lakes and contributing to massive algal blooms such as found in Lake Winnipeg. Improving catchment model predictions of nutrient export in cold regions requires a better understanding and representation of the main processes controlling nutrient exports at multiple scales. Popular state-of-the-art models often have deficient representation of processes at smaller scales and lack the temporal resolution required to capture important solute transport phenomena, such as preferential elution of ions from the melting snowpack, solute infiltration to frozen soils, and transport during rain-on-snow events. Important processes in the Canadian Prairies that are often neglected are wind redistributed snowpacks and the impacts of their heterogeneous snowcover depletion on nutrient transport. In this research, physical evidence from high frequency field measurements were used to develop a process-based nutrient model for field-scale prediction of nitrate-nitrite (NO3-NO2) and ammonia (NH3) concentrations in both spring snowmelt and summer rainfall driven runoff. The process-based, modular Cold Regions Hydrological Model (CRHM) was used to simulate the main hydrological drivers such as snow redistribution, snowmelt, infiltration into frozen and unfrozen soils, evapotranspiration and subsurface and surface runoff generation. Field observations and a model application to the South Tobacco Creek sub-basin of the Red River in Manitoba, Canada, suggests that the transport of nutrients can be divided in five phases of dominant transport mechanisms due to the available nutrient sources progressively changing from the snowpack to the thawing frozen soil during melt. The vertical distribution of nutrient in the snowpack also varies due to ion exclusion processes at the snow crystal-air interface. Such findings are an important step towards more accurate and

  8. Arctic atmospheric circulation patterns responsible for dry and cold air inflows to the Baltic Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, Piia; Sepp, Mait

    2015-04-01

    Essential changes have taken place in atmospheric circulation over the Northern Atlantic in winter and spring during the second half of the 20th century. The winter temperature rise in Europe is frequently attributed to the intensification of zonal flow on the Northern Atlantic region and the same is valid for the Baltic Sea region. Intensification of zonal circulation and its expression through NAO and AO indices have been thoroughly studied, but less is known about mechanisms causing declination from the zonality of flow. Extremely cold weather in winter and spring in Baltic Sea region is related to the radiative cooling or advection of cold air masses. In both cases, the typical western flow is blocked and the region is directly influenced by atmospheric circulation conditions in the Arctic through the cold air advection events. Our aim is to study which large scale atmospheric circulation patterns are responsible for this kind of cold air advection to the Baltic Sea region in winter and spring (from December to May). The second task is to identify if this kind of circulation has become less frequent in the region under research beginning from the last half of the 20th century till now. Describing the atmospheric circulation patterns we use several classifications of atmospheric circulation on daily level. The domain of the classifications covers Atlantic-European sector of the Arctic, including area between Greenland and Novaya Zemlya archipelago. Manual classifications by Vangengeim-Girs and Dzerdzejevski are used, but also several newly calculated ones, that apply different classification methods from cost733class software. For the latter ones geopotential height fields at 500 hPa level from NCEP-NCAR reanalysis are classified for the period 1948-2013. The cold air advection events are determined by daily temperature drops by at least 3°C during 24 hours. The circulation types that bring advection of cold Arctic air to the Baltic Sea region are analysed in

  9. Using an Emergency Department Syndromic Surveillance System to investigate the impact of extreme cold weather events.

    PubMed

    Hughes, H E; Morbey, R; Hughes, T C; Locker, T E; Shannon, T; Carmichael, C; Murray, V; Ibbotson, S; Catchpole, M; McCloskey, B; Smith, G; Elliot, A J

    2014-07-01

    This report describes the development of novel syndromic cold weather public health surveillance indicators for use in monitoring the impact of extreme cold weather on attendances at EDs, using data from the 2010-11 and 2011-12 winters. A number of new surveillance indicators were created specifically for the identification and monitoring of cold weather related ED attendances, using the diagnosis codes provided for each attendance in the Emergency Department Syndromic Surveillance System (EDSSS), the first national syndromic surveillance system of its kind in the UK. Using daily weather data for the local area, a time series analysis to test the sensitivity of each indicator to cold weather was undertaken. Diagnosis codes relating to a health outcome with a potential direct link to cold weather were identified and assigned to a number of 'cold weather surveillance indicators'. The time series analyses indicated strong correlations between low temperatures and cold indicators in nearly every case. The strongest fit with temperature was cold related fractures in females, and that of snowfall was cold related fractures in both sexes. Though currently limited to a small number of sentinel EDs, the EDSSS has the ability to give near real-time detail on the magnitude of the impact of weather events. EDSSS cold weather surveillance fits well with the aims of the Cold Weather Plan for England, providing information on those particularly vulnerable to cold related health outcomes severe enough to require emergency care. This timely information aids those responding to and managing the effects on human health, both within the EDs themselves and in the community as a whole.

  10. Overview of Modular Design Strategy of the Shipping Container Architecture in Cold Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zexin; Mei, Hongyuan; Ni, Ruixian

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, the shipping container architecture, as an emerging green building mode, has grown in popularity. In this article, we analyse the advantages of applying shipping container architecture in cold regions, such as shortening the construction cycle, saving construction materials, reducing energy consumption and adapting to diverse sites. Then we analyze the modular design strategy and the modular design strategy in architecture. In the end we introduce the modular design strategy of shipping container architecture in cold regions with the technology roadmap, classification and combination.

  11. Linking glacial, periglacial and paraglacial processes: the challenge of cold regions geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spagnolo, M. S.; Gärtner-Roer, I. G.-R.; Lukas, S. L.

    2012-04-01

    High latitude and high altitude areas, here collectively called "cold regions", are the theatre of several geomorphological processes that lead to the formation of a variety of landforms. Classically, in Geomorphology, these processes are studied in three separate disciplines: glacial, periglacial and paraglacial geomorphology. However, the more these fields have evolved, the more it becomes evident that it is only from the integration of them into a common interdisciplinary approach that the geomorphology of cold regions can be fully understood. The overlaps between glacial, periglacial and paraglacial processes is evident both in time and space. Temporally, these processes overlap when, for instance, an active valley glacier could be found next to a rock glacier developing from a tributary valley and slope movements of previously-deposited lateral moraines could also be occurring along the flank of the same main valley. Spatially, glacial, periglacial and paraglacial geomorphology tend to affect the same regions (the cold regions of above). Moreover, their spatial overlap could be such that they link to each other. For instance, this would happen when an advancing glacier might override and somewhat incorporate a rock glacier. Or when paraglacial movements of previously deposited glacial sediments might feed a now-lowered valley glacier, thus determining an "anomalous" increase of glacier sediment discharge at the valley glacier margin. In this paper we advocate a more integrated, interdisciplinary approach to the study of cold regions by presenting examples from the recent literature that show the importance of such an approach.

  12. Optimization of Domestic-Size Renewable Energy System Designs Suitable for Cold Climate Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akpan, Itoro Etim; Sasaki, Masafumi; Endoh, Noboru

    Five different kinds of domestic-size renewable energy system configurations for very cold climate regions were investigated. From detailed numerical modeling and system simulations, it was found that the consumption of fuel oil for the auxiliary boiler in residential-type households can almost be eliminated with a renewable energy system that incorporates photovoltaic panel arrays for electricity generation and two storage tanks: a well-insulated electric water storage tank that services the hot water loads, and a compact boiler/geothermal heat pump tank for room heating during very cold seasons. A reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GHG) of about 28% was achieved for this system compared to an equivalent conventional system. The near elimination of the use of fuel oil in this system makes it very promising for very cold climate regions in terms of energy savings because the running cost is not so dependent on the unstable nature of global oil prices.

  13. Regional Climate Tutorial: Assessing Regional Climate Change and Its Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, E.; Fisher, A.

    2002-05-01

    Recent scientific progress now enables credible projections of global changes in climate over long time periods. But people will experience global climate change where they live and work, and have difficulty thinking of a future beyond their grandchildren's lifetime. Although the task of projecting climate change and its impacts is far more challenging for regional and relatively near-term time scales, these are the scales at which actions most easily can be taken to moderate negative impacts. This tutorial will summarize what is known about projecting changes in regional climate, and about assessing the impacts for sectors such as forests, agriculture, fresh water quantity and quality, coastal zones, human health, and ecosystems. The Mid-Atlantic Regional Assessment (MARA) is used to provide context and illustrate how adaptation within the region and feedback from other regions influence the impacts that might be experienced.

  14. Solute transport modelling in a coupled water and heat flow system applied to cold regions hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frampton, Andrew; Destouni, Georgia

    2016-04-01

    In cold regions, flow in the unsaturated zone is highly dynamic with seasonal variability and changes in temperature, moisture, and heat and water fluxes, all of which affect ground freeze-thaw processes and influence transport of inert and reactive waterborne substances. In arctic permafrost environments, near-surface groundwater flow is further restricted to a relatively shallow and seasonally variable active layer, confined by perennially frozen ground below. The active layer is typically partially saturated with ice, liquid water and air, and is strongly dependent on seasonal temperature fluctuations, thermal forcing and infiltration patterns. Here there is a need for improved understanding of the mechanisms controlling subsurface solute transport in the partially saturated active layer zone. Studying solute transport in cold regions is relevant to improve the understanding of how natural and anthropogenic pollution may change as activities in arctic and sub-arctic regions increase. It is also particularly relevant for understanding how dissolved carbon is transported in coupled surface and subsurface hydrological systems under climate change, in order to better understand the permafrost-hydrological-carbon climate feedback. In this contribution subsurface solute transport under surface warming and degrading permafrost conditions is studied using a physically based model of coupled cryotic and hydrogeological flow processes combined with a particle tracking method. Changes in subsurface water flows and solute transport travel times are analysed for different modelled geological configurations during a 100-year warming period. Results show that for all simulated cases, the minimum and mean travel times increase non-linearly with warming irrespective of geological configuration and heterogeneity structure. The travel time changes are shown to depend on combined warming effects of increase in pathway length due to deepening of the active layer, reduced transport

  15. Impacts of cold weather on all-cause and cause-specific mortality in Texas, 1990-2011.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tsun-Hsuan; Li, Xiao; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Kai

    2017-06-01

    Cold weather was estimated to account for more than half of weather-related deaths in the U.S. during 2006-2010. Studies have shown that cold-related excessive mortality is especially relevant with decreasing latitude or in regions with mild winter. However, only limited studies have been conducted in the southern U.S. The purpose of our study is to examine impacts of cold weather on mortality in 12 major Texas Metropolitan Areas (MSAs) for the 22-year period, 1990-2011. Our study used a two-stage approach to examine the cold-mortality association. We first applied distributed lag non-linear models (DLNM) to 12 major MSAs to estimate cold effects for each area. A random effects meta-analysis was then used to estimate pooled effects. Age-stratified and cause-specific mortalities were modeled separately for each MSA. Most of the MSAs were associated with an increased risk in mortality ranging from 0.1% to 5.0% with a 1 °C decrease in temperature below the cold thresholds. Higher increased mortality risks were generally observed in MSAs with higher average daily mean temperatures and lower latitudes. Pooled effect estimate was 1.58% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) [0.81, 2.37]) increase in all-cause mortality risk with a 1 °C decrease in temperature. Cold wave effects in Texas were also examined, and several MSAs along the Texas Gulf Coast showed statistically significant cold wave-mortality associations. Effects of cold on all-cause mortality were highest among people over 75 years old (1.86%, 95% CI [1.09, 2.63]). Pooled estimates for cause-specific mortality were strongest in myocardial infarction (4.30%, 95% CI [1.18, 7.51]), followed by respiratory diseases (3.17%, 95% CI [0.26, 6.17]) and ischemic heart diseases (2.54%, 95% CI [1.08, 4.02]). In conclusion, cold weather generally increases mortality risk significantly in Texas, and the cold effects vary with MSAs, age groups, and cause-specific deaths. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Insect capa neuropeptides impact desiccation and cold tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Terhzaz, Selim; Teets, Nicholas M.; Cabrero, Pablo; Henderson, Louise; Ritchie, Michael G.; Nachman, Ronald J.; Dow, Julian A. T.; Denlinger, David L.; Davies, Shireen-A.

    2015-01-01

    The success of insects is linked to their impressive tolerance to environmental stress, but little is known about how such responses are mediated by the neuroendocrine system. Here we show that the capability (capa) neuropeptide gene is a desiccation- and cold stress-responsive gene in diverse dipteran species. Using targeted in vivo gene silencing, physiological manipulations, stress-tolerance assays, and rationally designed neuropeptide analogs, we demonstrate that the Drosophila melanogaster capa neuropeptide gene and its encoded peptides alter desiccation and cold tolerance. Knockdown of the capa gene increases desiccation tolerance but lengthens chill coma recovery time, and injection of capa peptide analogs can reverse both phenotypes. Immunohistochemical staining suggests that capa accumulates in the capa-expressing Va neurons during desiccation and nonlethal cold stress but is not released until recovery from each stress. Our results also suggest that regulation of cellular ion and water homeostasis mediated by capa peptide signaling in the insect Malpighian (renal) tubules is a key physiological mechanism during recovery from desiccation and cold stress. This work augments our understanding of how stress tolerance is mediated by neuroendocrine signaling and illustrates the use of rationally designed peptide analogs as agents for disrupting protective stress tolerance. PMID:25730885

  17. Insect capa neuropeptides impact desiccation and cold tolerance.

    PubMed

    Terhzaz, Selim; Teets, Nicholas M; Cabrero, Pablo; Henderson, Louise; Ritchie, Michael G; Nachman, Ronald J; Dow, Julian A T; Denlinger, David L; Davies, Shireen-A

    2015-03-03

    The success of insects is linked to their impressive tolerance to environmental stress, but little is known about how such responses are mediated by the neuroendocrine system. Here we show that the capability (capa) neuropeptide gene is a desiccation- and cold stress-responsive gene in diverse dipteran species. Using targeted in vivo gene silencing, physiological manipulations, stress-tolerance assays, and rationally designed neuropeptide analogs, we demonstrate that the Drosophila melanogaster capa neuropeptide gene and its encoded peptides alter desiccation and cold tolerance. Knockdown of the capa gene increases desiccation tolerance but lengthens chill coma recovery time, and injection of capa peptide analogs can reverse both phenotypes. Immunohistochemical staining suggests that capa accumulates in the capa-expressing Va neurons during desiccation and nonlethal cold stress but is not released until recovery from each stress. Our results also suggest that regulation of cellular ion and water homeostasis mediated by capa peptide signaling in the insect Malpighian (renal) tubules is a key physiological mechanism during recovery from desiccation and cold stress. This work augments our understanding of how stress tolerance is mediated by neuroendocrine signaling and illustrates the use of rationally designed peptide analogs as agents for disrupting protective stress tolerance.

  18. The role of cold season processes on soil erosion in the Great Lakes Region

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effect of cold season processes on soil erosion is becoming increasingly important for sustainable management of soil resources, especially in regions where agricultural land use is dominant. Few tools exist that can help quantify this effect at scales relevant for resource management and enviro...

  19. Utilization of Sewage Sludge for Terrain Stabilization in Cold Regions. Part 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-11-01

    terrain stabilization in cold regions. In 13 of the 14 plots the variables studied were nutrient source ( fertilizer , sludge and primary wastewater...and vegetation (three grasses and to legumes). The control plot was left bare of seed, fertilizer and erosion control material for comparison. A 20,000

  20. Glacial Isostatic Adjustment - a hot topic in cold regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehouse, Pippa

    2016-04-01

    Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) modelling tackles the classic geodynamical problem of determining the solid Earth response to surface load changes by ice and ocean water whilst at the same time solving for the gravitationally-consistent redistribution of ice sheet meltwater across the global ocean. Understanding this process is important for quantifying both present-day ice mass balance and the response of ice sheets to past and future climatic change. The two fundamental unknowns in this problem are (i) the rheology of the solid Earth, and (ii) the history of global ice sheet change. In this talk I will discuss the myriad of approaches that are used to constrain these two components. In particular, I will focus on Antarctica, where the presence of a continuously-evolving ice sheet, situated on top of one of the most rheologically-diverse regions of the planet, provides us with a challenge that can only be resolved by drawing on knowledge from across the fields of geodynamics, glaciology, geology, geodesy and seismology.

  1. CLIMATE IMPACTS ON REGIONAL WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The New England region (including the 6 New England
    states plus upstate New York) offers a very diverse geography,
    matched by an equally diverse economy and human
    population. Livelihoods throughout the region are based
    on service industries that depend heavily on comm...

  2. CLIMATE IMPACTS ON REGIONAL WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The New England region (including the 6 New England
    states plus upstate New York) offers a very diverse geography,
    matched by an equally diverse economy and human
    population. Livelihoods throughout the region are based
    on service industries that depend heavily on comm...

  3. Comparison of the impacts of hot and cold spells on mortality in individual seasons and population groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plavcova, E.; Kysely, J.; Kyncl, J.; Kriz, B.

    2010-09-01

    Extreme temperature events influence human society in many ways, including impacts on morbidity and mortality. While the effects of hot summer periods are relatively direct in mid-latitudinal regions, much less is known and little consensus has been achieved about possible consequences of positive and negative temperature extremes in the other parts of year. The study examines links between hot and cold temperature anomalies and daily all-cause mortality in the population of the Czech Republic in individual seasons (DJF, MAM, JJA, SON) over 1986-2006. Hot (cold) spells are defined as periods of at least 2 days with anomalies of average daily temperature from the mean annual cycle above (below) the 95% (5%) quantile of their empirical distribution in a given part of year. Excess daily mortality is calculated as deviations of the observed number of deaths and the expected number of deaths, the latter taking into account effects of the long-term changes in mortality and the annual cycle. Periods when mortality is affected by influenza and acute respiratory infection outbreaks are identified and excluded from the datasets before the analysis. We focus on differences in the mortality impacts between individual seasons and population groups (males/females; the elderly/younger population). The analysis reveals that - the largest effects of either hot or cold spells are observed for hot spells in JJA; - much smaller but still significant effects are associated with hot spells in MAM; - the impacts of hot spells are more direct than those of cold spells, with shorter lags; - females are much more vulnerable to high temperatures than males; - cold spells are associated with excess mortality in DJF and to lesser extent in SON and MAM; - the lag with the largest impacts of cold spells in DJF is longer in the elderly (70+ yrs; around 10 days) than younger population (0-69 yrs; 4 days), which likely points to different prevailing physiological effects; - disproportionately large

  4. Characteristic Analysis of Continuous Hailfall in the context of Cold Vortex in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Chen

    2016-04-01

    Cold vortex is firstly defined. Using weather maps from April to September during 2000-2011,the temporal-spatial distribution and life characteristics of cold vortex are studied. Disaster weather data from 176 stations in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region from April to September during 2000-2011 and NCEP 1°1°reanalysis data are used to analyze the temporal-spatial distribution characteristics of continuous hailfall of Beijing, Tianjin,Hebei region and its relation with cold vortex. The results showed that: The number of cold vortex mainly occurred from Northeast China to the east of Lake Baikal, and long-lived cold vortex accounted for 70%; It was long-lived vortex that caused continuous haifall in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and Continuous hail in the context of cold vortex exhibited significant diurnal variation .and occurred more in mountainous area than on the plains, more in north area than the south area; Continuous hail mainly occurred to the south of vortex center, and could occur in any period of cold vortex; . The distance between Continuous hail and cold vortex was about 200-1200km .The continuous hailfall were mainly affected by t the cold vortex and its rear transverse trough; Continuous hail occurred in different positionCorresponding to cold vortex with different speed. Keywords: cold vortex; continuous hail; statistics; storm-relative composites

  5. Impact of the High Flux Isotope Reactor HEU to LEU Fuel Conversion on Cold Source Nuclear Heat Generation Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, David

    2014-03-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration, staff members at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been conducting studies to determine whether the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) can be converted from high enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. As part of these ongoing studies, an assessment of the impact that the HEU to LEU fuel conversion has on the nuclear heat generation rates in regions of the HFIR cold source system and its moderator vessel was performed and is documented in this report. Silicon production rates in the cold source aluminum regions and few-group neutron fluxes in the cold source moderator were also estimated. Neutronics calculations were performed with the Monte Carlo N-Particle code to determine the nuclear heat generation rates in regions of the HFIR cold source and its vessel for the HEU core operating at a full reactor power (FP) of 85 MW(t) and the reference LEU core operating at an FP of 100 MW(t). Calculations were performed with beginning-of-cycle (BOC) and end-of-cycle (EOC) conditions to bound typical irradiation conditions. Average specific BOC heat generation rates of 12.76 and 12.92 W/g, respectively, were calculated for the hemispherical region of the cold source liquid hydrogen (LH2) for the HEU and LEU cores, and EOC heat generation rates of 13.25 and 12.86 W/g, respectively, were calculated for the HEU and LEU cores. Thus, the greatest heat generation rates were calculated for the EOC HEU core, and it is concluded that the conversion from HEU to LEU fuel and the resulting increase of FP from 85 MW to 100 MW will not impact the ability of the heat removal equipment to remove the heat deposited in the cold source system. Silicon production rates in the cold source aluminum regions are estimated to be about 12.0% greater at BOC and 2.7% greater at EOC for the LEU core in comparison to the HEU core. Silicon is aluminum s major transmutation product and

  6. Storms or cold fronts: what is really responsible for the extreme waves regime in the Colombian Caribbean coastal region?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, L. J.; Ortiz-Royero, J. C.; Ruiz-Merchan, J. K.; Higgins, A. E.; Henriquez, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the contribution and importance of cold fronts and storms to extreme waves in different areas of the Colombian Caribbean in an attempt to determine the extent of the threat posed by the flood processes to which these coastal populations are exposed. Furthermore, the study wishes to establish the actions to which coastal engineering constructions should be subject. In the calculation of maritime constructions, the most important parameter is the height of the wave. For this reason, it is necessary to establish the design wave height to which a coastal engineering structure should be resistant. This wave height varies according to the return period considered. The significant height values for the areas focused on in the study were calculated in accordance with Gumbel's extreme value methodology. The methodology was evaluated using data from the reanalysis of the spectral National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) WAVEWATCH III® (WW3) model for 15 points along the 1600 km of the Colombian Caribbean coastline (continental and insular) between the years 1979 and 2009. The results demonstrated that the extreme waves caused by tropical cyclones and those caused by cold fronts have different effects along the Colombian Caribbean coast. Storms and hurricanes are of greater importance in the Guajira Peninsula (Alta Guajira). In the central area (consisting of Baja Guajira, and the cities of Santa Marta, Barranquilla, and Cartagena), the strong impact of cold fronts on extreme waves is evident. However, in the southern region of the Colombian Caribbean coast (ranging from the Gulf of Morrosquillo to the Gulf of Urabá), the extreme values of wave heights are lower than in the previously mentioned regions, despite being dominated mainly by the passage of cold fronts. Extreme waves in the San Andrés and Providencia insular region present a different dynamic from

  7. Simulating cold regions hydrological processes using a modular model in the west of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jian; Pomeroy, John W.; Zhang, Wei; Cheng, Guodong; Wang, Genxu; Chen, Chong

    2014-02-01

    The Cold Regions Hydrological Model platform (CRHM), a flexible object-oriented modeling system, was devised to simulate cold regions hydrological processes and predict streamflow by its capability to compile cold regions process modules into purpose-built models. In this study, the cold regions hydrological processes of two basins in western China were evaluated using CRHM models: Binggou basin, a high alpine basin where runoff is mainly caused by snowmelt, and Zuomaokong basin, a steppe basin where the runoff is strongly affected by soil freezing/thawing. The flexibility and modular structure of CRHM permitted model structural intercomparison and process falsification within the same model framework to evaluate the importance of snow energy balance, blowing snow and frozen soil infiltration processes to successful modeling in the cold regions of western China. Snow accumulation and ablation processes were evaluated at Binggou basin by testing and comparing similar models that contained different levels of complexity of snow redistribution and ablation modules. The comparison of simulated snow water equivalent with observations shows that the snow accumulation/ablation processes were simulated much better using an uncalibrated, physically based energy balance snowmelt model rather than with a calibrated temperature index snowmelt model. Simulated seasonal snow sublimation loss was 138 mm water equivalent in the alpine region of Binggou basin, which accounts for 47 % of 291 mm water equivalent of snowfall, and half of this sublimation loss is attributed to 70 mm water equivalent of sublimation from blowing snow particles. Further comparison of simulated results through falsification of different snow processes reveals that estimating blowing snow transport processes and sublimation loss is vital for accurate snowmelt runoff calculations in this region. The model structure with the energy balance snowmelt and blowing snow components performed well in reproducing the

  8. Mechanisms for the formation of Northeast China cold vortex and its activities and impacts: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Yi; Shen, Baizhu; Li, Shangfeng; Liu, Gang; Yang, Xu

    2016-12-01

    In the mid 20th century, great efforts were made to investigate the formation process of high-latitude cold vortex, which is regarded as a major weather system in the atmospheric circulation. In the late 1970s, Chinese researchers noticed that the Northeast China cold vortex (NECV) is an active and frequently occurring weather system over Northeast Asia, which is generated under specific conditions of topography and land-sea thermal contrast on the local and regional scales. Thereby, the NECV study was broadened to include synoptic situations, mesoscale and dynamic features, the heavy rain process, etc. Since the 21st century, in the context of the global warming, more attention has been paid to studies of the mechanisms that cause the NECV variations during spring and early summer as well as the climatic impacts of the NECV system. Note that the NECV activity, frequent or not, not only affects local temperature and precipitation anomalies, but also regulates the amount of precipitation over northern China, the Huai River basin, and the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River. The NECV influence can even reach the Guangdong-Guangxi region. However, compared to the achievements for the blocking system study, theoretical studies with regard to the NECV system are still insufficient. Research activities regarding the mechanisms for the NECV formation, particularly theoretical studies using linear or weak nonlinear methods need to be strengthened in the future. Meanwhile, great efforts should be made to deepen our understanding of the relations of the NECV system to the oceanic thermal forcing, the low-frequency atmospheric variations over mid-high latitudes, and the global warming.

  9. Regional Climate Change Impacts in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayhoe, K.; Burkett, V.; Grimm, N.; McCarthy, J.; Miles, E.; Overpeck, J.; Shea, E.; Wuebbles, D.

    2009-05-01

    Climate change will affect one region differently from another. For that reason, the U.S. Unified Synthesis Product "Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States" broke down its assessment of climate change impacts on the country into 8 regions. Key highlights include: In the Northeast, agricultural production, including dairy, fruit, and maple syrup, will be increasingly affected as favorable climates shift northward. In the Southeast, accelerated sea-level rise and increased hurricane intensity will have serious impacts. In the Midwest, under higher emissions scenarios, significant reductions in Great Lakes water levels will impact shipping, infrastructure, beaches, and ecosystems. In the Great Plains, projected increases in temperature, evaporation, and drought frequency exacerbate concerns regarding the region's declining water resources. In the Southwest, water supplies will become increasingly scarce, calling for trade-offs among competing uses, and potentially leading to conflict. In the Northwest, salmon and other cold-water species will experience additional stresses as a result of rising water temperatures and declining summer streamflows. In Alaska, thawing permafrost damages roads, runways, water and sewer systems, and other infrastructure. And in the U.S. islands in the Caribbean and Pacific, climate changes affecting coastal and marine ecosystems will have major implications for tourism and fisheries. In addition, significant sea-level rise and storm surge will affect coastal cities and ecosystems around the nation; low-lying and subsiding areas are most vulnerable.

  10. Bibliography on Cold Regions Science and Technology. Volume 41. Part 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    numbers under which the report was prepared. 11. Contract/Grant Number. Insert contract or grant number under which report was prepared. 12. Sponsoring...ice model assumes a con- stant ice thickness and considers only the variations of ice com- pactness under the effect of the atmospheric and oceanic...Brittleness of reinforced concrete structures under arctic conditions. Kivtklls. L., et al, U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, May

  11. Utilization of Sewage Sludge for Terrain Stabilization in Cold Regions. Part II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    sludge, commercial fertilizer and cultivation techniques for Terrain stabilization in cold regions. Twenty-seven test plots on a 16 degrees west-facing... fertilizer ), (3) mulching agent (wood fiber mulch or peat moss), and (4) tacking agent (terra Tack III or Curasol). The plots were seeded in either the...from 3580 to 5073 lb/acre. Fertilizer treated plots had slightly less average soil loss than those treated with sludge (1.79 vs 2.21 tons/acre). The

  12. Lower stratospheric temperature differences between meteorological analyses in two cold Arctic winters and their impact on polar processing studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manney, Gloria L.; Sabutis, Joseph L.; Pawson, Steven; Santee, Michelle L.; Naujokat, Barbara; Swinbank, Richard; Gelman, Melvyn E.; Ebisuzaki, Wesley

    2003-03-01

    A quantitative comparison of six meteorological analyses is presented for the cold 1999/2000 and 1995/1996 Arctic winters. Using different analyzed data sets to obtain temperatures and temperature histories can have significant consequences. The area with temperatures below a polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) formation threshold commonly varies by ˜25% between the analyses, with some differences over 50%. Biases between analyses vary from year to year; in January 2000, Met Office analyses were coldest and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) analyses were warmest, while NCEP analyses were usually coldest in 1995/1996 and NCEP/National Center for Atmospheric Research Reanalysis (REAN) were usually warmest. Freie Universität Berlin analyses are often colder than others at T ≲ 205 K. European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) temperatures agreed better with other analyses in 1999/2000, after improvements in the assimilation system, than in 1995/1996. Temperature history case studies show substantial differences using Met Office, NCEP, REAN, ECMWF, and NASA Data Assimilation Office (DAO) analyses. In January 2000 (when a large cold region was centered in the polar vortex), all analyses gave qualitatively similar results. However, in February 2000 (a much warmer period) and in January and February 1996 (comparably cold to January 2000 but with the cold region near the polar vortex edge), distributions of "potential PSC lifetimes" and total time spent below a PSC formation threshold varied significantly between the analyses. Largest peaks in "PSC lifetime" distributions in January 2000 were at 4-6 and 11-14 days, while in 1996 they were at 1-3 days. Different meteorological conditions in comparably cold winters have a large impact on expectations for PSC formation and on the effects of discrepancies between different meteorological analyses. Met Office, NCEP, REAN, ECMWF, and DAO analyses are commonly used in modeling polar processes

  13. Impact of wildfires on regional air pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examine the impact of wildfires and agricultural/prescribed burning on regional air pollution and Air Quality Index (AQI) between 2006 and 2013. We define daily regional air pollution using monitoring sites for ozone (n=1595), PM2.5 collected by Federal Reference Method (n=10...

  14. Impact of wildfires on regional air pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examine the impact of wildfires and agricultural/prescribed burning on regional air pollution and Air Quality Index (AQI) between 2006 and 2013. We define daily regional air pollution using monitoring sites for ozone (n=1595), PM2.5 collected by Federal Reference Method (n=10...

  15. Wolf Creek Research Basin Cold REgion Process Studies - 1992-2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janowicz, R.; Hedstrom, N.; Pomeroy, J.; Granger, R.; Carey, S.

    2004-12-01

    The development of hydrological models in northern regions are complicated by cold region processes. Sparse vegetation influences snowpack accumulation, redistribution and melt, frozen ground effects infiltration and runoff and cold soils in the summer effect evapotranspiration rates. Situated in the upper Yukon River watershed, the 195 km2 Wolf Creek Research Basin was instrumented in 1992 to calibrate hydrologic flow models, and has since evolved into a comprehensive study of cold region processes and linkages, contributing significantly to hydrological and climate change modelling. Studies include those of precipitation distribution, snowpack accumulation and redistribution, energy balance, snowmelt infiltration, and water balance. Studies of the spatial variability of hydrometeorological data demonstrate the importance of physical parameters on their distribution and control on runoff processes. Many studies have also identified the complex interaction of several of the physical parameters, including topography, vegetation and frozen ground (seasonal or permafrost) as important. They also show that there is a fundamental, underlying spatial structure to the watershed that must be adequately represented in parameterization schemes for scaling and watershed modelling. The specific results of numerous studies are presented.

  16. Isolated cold plasma regions: Observations and their relation to possible production mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, N. C.; Chen, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Regions of enhanced cold plasma, isolated from the main plasmasphere along the Explorer 45 orbit on the equatorial plane, are reported using the sheath induced potentials seen by the electric field experiment. The occurrence of these regions has a strong correlation with negative enhancements of Dst, and their locations are primarily in the noon-dusk quadrant. The data support the concept that changes in large scale convection play a dominant role in the formation of these regions. Plasmatails that are predicted from enhancements of large scale convection electric fields in general define where these regions may be found. More localized processes are necessary to account for the exact configuration and structure seen in these regions and may eventually result in detachment from the main plasmasphere.

  17. Isolated cold plasma regions - Observations and their relation to possible production mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, N. C.; Chen, A. J.

    1975-01-01

    Regions of enhanced cold plasma, isolated from the main plasmasphere along the Explorer 45 (53-A) orbit in the equatorial plane, have been detected by using the sheath-induced potentials seen by the electric field experiment. The occurrence of these regions has a strong correlation with negative enhancements of Dst, and their locations are primarily in the noon-dusk quadrant. The data support the concept that changes in large-scale convection play a dominant role in the formation of these regions. Plasma tails that are predicted from enhancements of large-scale convection electric fields in general define where these regions may be found. More localized processes are necessary to account for the exact configuration and structure seen in these regions and may eventually result in detachment from the main plasmasphere.

  18. Impact Testing of Stainless Steel Material at Cold Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer D. Snow; D. Keith Morton; Robert K. Blandford

    2008-07-01

    Stainless steels are used for the construction of numerous spent nuclear fuel or radioactive material containers that may be subjected to high strains and moderate strain rates during accidental drop events. Mechanical characteristics of these base materials and their welds under dynamic loads in the strain rate range of concern are not well documented. However, a previous paper [1] reported on impact testing and analysis results performed at the Idaho National Laboratory using 304/304L and 316/316L stainless steel base material specimens at room and elevated temperatures. The goal of the work presented herein is to add recently completed impact tensile testing results at -20 degrees F conditions for dual-marked 304/304L and 316/316L stainless steel material specimens (hereafter referred to as 304L and 316L, respectively). Recently completed welded material impact testing at -20 degrees F, room, 300 degrees F, and 600 degrees F is also reported. Utilizing a drop-weight impact test machine and 1/4-inch to 1/2-inch thick dog-bone shaped test specimens, the impact tests achieved strain rates in the 4 to 40 per second range, depending upon the material temperature. Elevated true stress-strain curves for these materials reflecting varying strain rates and temperatures are presented herein.

  19. Ices on Mercury: Chemistry of volatiles in permanently cold areas of Mercury's north polar region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delitsky, M. L.; Paige, D. A.; Siegler, M. A.; Harju, E. R.; Schriver, D.; Johnson, R. E.; Travnicek, P.

    2017-01-01

    Observations by the MESSENGER spacecraft during its flyby and orbital observations of Mercury in 2008-2015 indicated the presence of cold icy materials hiding in permanently-shadowed craters in Mercury's north polar region. These icy condensed volatiles are thought to be composed of water ice and frozen organics that can persist over long geologic timescales and evolve under the influence of the Mercury space environment. Polar ices never see solar photons because at such high latitudes, sunlight cannot reach over the crater rims. The craters maintain a permanently cold environment for the ices to persist. However, the magnetosphere will supply a beam of ions and electrons that can reach the frozen volatiles and induce ice chemistry. Mercury's magnetic field contains magnetic cusps, areas of focused field lines containing trapped magnetospheric charged particles that will be funneled onto the Mercury surface at very high latitudes. This magnetic highway will act to direct energetic protons, ions and electrons directly onto the polar ices. The radiation processing of the ices could convert them into higher-order organics and dark refractory materials whose spectral characteristics are consistent with low-albedo materials observed by MESSENGER Laser Altimeter (MLA) and RADAR instruments. Galactic cosmic rays (GCR), scattered UV light and solar energetic particles (SEP) also supply energy for ice processing. Cometary impacts will deposit H2O, CH4, CO2 and NH3 raw materials onto Mercury's surface which will migrate to the poles and be converted to more complex Csbnd Hsbnd Nsbnd Osbnd S-containing molecules such as aldehydes, amines, alcohols, cyanates, ketones, hydroxides, carbon oxides and suboxides, organic acids and others. Based on lab experiments in the literature, possible specific compounds produced may be: H2CO, HCOOH, CH3OH, HCO, H2CO3, CH3C(O)CH3, C2O, CxO, C3O2, CxOy, CH3CHO, CH3OCH2CH2OCH3, C2H6, CxHy, NO2, HNO2, HNO3, NH2OH, HNO, N2H2, N3, HCN, Na2O, Na

  20. Cold Spots in the Martian Polar Regions: Evidence of Carbon Dioxide Depletion?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, Benjamin P.; Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    2000-01-01

    Regions of very low, rapidly varying brightness temperatures have been observed near the martian winter poles by several spacecraft. One possibility is that the CO2 condensation temperature is lowered by depletion of CO2 in the air at the surface. We estimate the rate at which this low-molecular-weight air would disperse into the high-molecular-weight air above and show that it is generally faster than the rate of supply. This dispersal could be prevented if there is a strong temperature inversion (warm air above colder air) near the surface. Without an inversion, the entire atmospheric column could become depleted. However, depleted columns take a long time to form, and they are inconsistent with the rapid fluctuations in the cold spot locations and temperatures. Because low-altitude temperature inversions cannot be ruled out by existing observations, CO2 depletion is still a viable explanation for the martian cold spots.

  1. Climate impacts of regional SO2 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamarque, J. F.; Fiore, A. M.; Shindell, D. T.

    2015-12-01

    Climate impacts of regional SO2 emissions J.-F. Lamarque, A. M. Fiore and D. Shindell In this talk, we present the analysis of constant -forcing present-day simulations pertaining to the perturbation of SO2 emissions over the United States and China. Using 3 chemistry-climate models (CESM, GFDL and GISS), we show that the removal of SO2 anthropogenic emissions over each region leads to significant (at the 95% or above; significance is also assessed relative to internal variability as determined from a 200-year control simulation with perpetual year 2000 conditions) perturbations in temperature over multiple regions of the Northern Hemisphere. While more limited, significant perturbations in regional precipitation are also found. While the overall (global and zonal means) forcing from Chinese emissions is similar to the US case, we found that the regional response to the emissions has different regional distributions.

  2. Regionalizing land use impacts on farmland birds.

    PubMed

    Glemnitz, Michael; Zander, Peter; Stachow, Ulrich

    2015-06-01

    The environmental impacts of land use vary regionally. Differences in geomorphology, climate, landscape structure, and biotope inventories are regarded as the main causes of this variation. We present a methodological approach for identifying regional responses in land use type to large-scale changes and the implications for the provision of habitat for farmland birds. The methodological innovations of this approach are (i) the coupling of impact assessments with economic models, (ii) the linking of cropping techniques at the plot scale with the regional distribution of land use, and (iii) the integration of statistical or monitoring data on recent states. This approach allows for the regional differentiation of farmers' responses to changing external conditions and for matching the ecological impacts of land use changes with regional environmental sensitivities. An exemplary scenario analysis was applied for a case study of an area in Germany, assessing the impacts of increased irrigation and the promotion of energy cropping on farmland birds, evaluated as a core indicator for farmland biodiversity. The potential effects on farmland birds were analyzed based on the intrinsic habitat values of the crops and cropping techniques. The results revealed that the strongest decrease in habitat availability for farmland birds occurred in regions with medium-to-low agricultural yields. As a result of the limited cropping alternatives, the increase in maize production was highest in marginal regions for both examined scenarios. Maize production replaced many crops with good-to-medium habitat suitability for birds. The declines in habitat quality were strongest in regions that are not in focus for conservation efforts for farmland birds.

  3. Modeling Impacts for Cold-Gas Dynamic Spray

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    modified equation 5 for the noneroding rod penetrator case (u = v) and added a term that accounts for unsteady motion (8, 10): Yp = kt ρt v2 + Rt + k1 ρt...strength difference between RHA and stainless steel might account for some of the difference. If the value of 7.6 × 109 Pa is used for Rt, then equation 16... account such effects as the pressure dependence of the yield strength and strain hardening. It predicts impact pressures up to 5 GPa for this calculation

  4. Feasibility of Steel Fiber-Reinforced Rubberized Concrete in Cold Regions for High Volume Intersections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abou Eid, Mahear A.

    There are many challenges faced with the use of Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) in cold regions, but with the inclusion of new technologies such as steel fibers and recycled tire crumb rubber efficient construction may be possible. Research was conducted on a modified concrete material that included both steel fibers and crumb rubber. The composite material was called Steel Fiber-Reinforced Rubberized Concrete (SFRRC). The objective of this investigation was to provide evidence showing that SFRRC can reduce tire rutting compared to asphaltic pavement. In addition, the research showed that the SFRRC could withstand freeze-thaw cycles and increase service life of roadways. Several tests were performed to determine the characteristics of the material. Freeze-thaw testing was performed to determine compressive strength loss and visual deterioration of the material. Wheel tracker rut testing was performed both with the standard steel wheel and with a modified studded rubber tire to determine plastic deformation and rut resistance. An experimental test slab was cast in place on a public approach to observe the construction procedures, the effects of studded tire wear and the frost actions in cold region conditions. Based on freeze-thaw and wheel tracker test results and observations of the experimental test slab, the SFRRC material shows viability in cold regions for resisting freeze-thaw actions. The freeze-thaw testing resulted in increased compressive strength after 300 freeze-thaw cycles and very low deterioration of material compared to standard PCC. The wheel tracker testing resulted in very low plastic deformation and minor material rutting with use of the studded rubber tire. The test slab showed very minor surface wear, no freeze-thaw cracking and no rutting after one winter of use. It is recommended that further testing of the material be conducted by means of a large-scale trial section. This would provide information with respect to cost analysis and

  5. Automated algorithm for mapping regions of cold-air pooling in complex terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, Jessica D.; Pepin, Nicholas; Rochford, Caitlin

    2008-11-01

    In complex terrain, air in contact with the ground becomes cooled from radiative energy loss on a calm clear night and, being denser than the free atmosphere at the same elevation, sinks to valley bottoms. Cold-air pooling (CAP) occurs where this cooled air collects on the landscape. This article focuses on identifying locations on a landscape subject to considerably lower minimum temperatures than the regional average during conditions of clear skies and weak synoptic-scale winds, providing a simple automated method to map locations where cold air is likely to pool. Digital elevation models of regions of complex terrain were used to derive surfaces of local slope, curvature, and percentile elevation relative to surrounding terrain. Each pixel was classified as prone to CAP, not prone to CAP, or exhibiting no signal, based on the criterion that CAP occurs in regions with flat slopes in local depressions or valleys (negative curvature and low percentile). Along-valley changes in the topographic amplification factor (TAF) were then calculated to determine whether the cold air in the valley was likely to drain or pool. Results were checked against distributed temperature measurements in Loch Vale, Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado; in the Eastern Pyrenees, France; and in Yosemite National Park, Sierra Nevada, California. Using CAP classification to interpolate temperatures across complex terrain resulted in improvements in root-mean-square errors compared to more basic interpolation techniques at most sites within the three areas examined, with average error reductions of up to 3°C at individual sites and about 1°C averaged over all sites in the study areas.

  6. Impacts of hot and cold spells differ for acute and chronic ischaemic heart diseases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many studies have reported associations between temperature extremes and cardiovascular mortality but little has been understood about differences in the effects on acute and chronic diseases. The present study examines hot and cold spell effects on ischaemic heart disease (IHD) mortality in the Czech Republic during 1994–2009, with emphasis upon differences in the effects on acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and chronic IHD. Methods We use analogous definitions for hot and cold spells based on quantiles of daily average temperature anomalies, thus allowing for comparison of results for summer hot spells and winter cold spells. Daily mortality data were standardised to account for the long-term trend and the seasonal and weekly cycles. Periods when the data were affected by epidemics of influenza and other acute respiratory infections were removed from the analysis. Results Both hot and cold spells were associated with excess IHD mortality. For hot spells, chronic IHD was responsible for most IHD excess deaths in both male and female populations, and the impacts were much more pronounced in the 65+ years age group. The excess mortality from AMI was much lower compared to chronic IHD mortality during hot spells. For cold spells, by contrast, the relative excess IHD mortality was most pronounced in the younger age group (0–64 years), and we found different pattern for chronic IHD and AMI, with larger effects on AMI. Conclusions The findings show that while excess deaths due to IHD during hot spells are mainly of persons with chronic diseases whose health had already been compromised, cardiovascular changes induced by cold stress may result in deaths from acute coronary events rather than chronic IHD, and this effect is important also in the younger population. This suggests that the most vulnerable population groups as well as the most affected cardiovascular diseases differ between hot and cold spells, which needs to be taken into account when

  7. Hypomethylation of cytosine residues in cold-sensitive regions of Cestrum strigilatum (Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Guarido, Paula Carolina Paes; de Paula, Adriano Alves; da Silva, Carlos Roberto Maximiano; Rodriguez, Carmen; Vanzela, André Luís Laforga

    2012-04-01

    Heterochromatin comprises a fraction of the genome usually with highly repeated DNA sequences and lacks of functional genes. This region can be revealed by using Giemsa C-banding, fluorochrome staining and cytomolecular tools. Some plant species are of particular interest through having a special type of heterochromatin denominated the cold-sensitive region (CSR). Independent of other chromosomal regions, when biological materials are subjected to low temperatures (about 0 °C), CSRs appear slightly stained and decondensed. In this study, we used Cestrum strigilatum (Solanaceae) to understand some aspects of CSR condensation associated with cytosine methylation levels, and to compare the behavior of different heterochromatin types of this species, when subjected to low temperatures.

  8. Hypomethylation of cytosine residues in cold-sensitive regions of Cestrum strigilatum (Solanaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Guarido, Paula Carolina Paes; de Paula, Adriano Alves; da Silva, Carlos Roberto Maximiano; Rodriguez, Carmen; Vanzela, André Luís Laforga

    2012-01-01

    Heterochromatin comprises a fraction of the genome usually with highly repeated DNA sequences and lacks of functional genes. This region can be revealed by using Giemsa C-banding, fluorochrome staining and cytomolecular tools. Some plant species are of particular interest through having a special type of heterochromatin denominated the cold-sensitive region (CSR). Independent of other chromosomal regions, when biological materials are subjected to low temperatures (about 0 °C), CSRs appear slightly stained and decondensed. In this study, we used Cestrum strigilatum (Solanaceae) to understand some aspects of CSR condensation associated with cytosine methylation levels, and to compare the behavior of different heterochromatin types of this species, when subjected to low temperatures. PMID:22888295

  9. Lower Stratospheric Temperature Differences Between Meteorological Analyses in two cold Arctic Winters and their Impact on Polar Processing Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manney, Gloria L.; Sabutis, Joseph L.; Pawson, Steven; Santee, Michelle L.; Naujokat, Barbara; Swinbank, Richard; Gelman, Melvyn E.; Ebisuzaki, Wesley; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A quantitative intercomparison of six meteorological analyses is presented for the cold 1999-2000 and 1995-1996 Arctic winters. The impacts of using different analyzed temperatures in calculations of polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) formation potential, and of different winds in idealized trajectory-based temperature histories, are substantial. The area with temperatures below a PSC formation threshold commonly varies by approximately 25% among the analyses, with differences of over 50% at some times/locations. Freie University at Berlin analyses are often colder than others at T is less than or approximately 205 K. Biases between analyses vary from year to year; in January 2000. U.K. Met Office analyses were coldest and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) analyses warmest. while NCEP analyses were usually coldest in 1995-1996 and Met Office or NCEP[National Center for Atmospheric Research Reanalysis (REAN) warmest. European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) temperatures agreed better with other analyses in 1999-2000, after improvements in the assimilation model. than in 1995-1996. Case-studies of temperature histories show substantial differences using Met Office, NCEP, REAN and NASA Data Assimilation Office (DAO) analyses. In January 2000 (when a large cold region was centered in the polar vortex), qualitatively similar results were obtained for all analyses. However, in February 2000 (a much warmer period) and in January and February 1996 (comparably cold to January 2000 but with large cold regions near the polar vortex edge), distributions of "potential PSC lifetimes" and total time spent below a PSC formation threshold varied significantly among the analyses. Largest peaks in "PSC lifetime" distributions in January 2000 were at 4-6 and 11-14 days. while in the 1996 periods, they were at 1-3 days. Thus different meteorological conditions in comparably cold winters had a large impact on expectations for PSC formation and on the

  10. Trends of Future Heavy Snowfall and Accumulated Freezing Indexes in Japanese Snowy Cold Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Y.; Matsuzawa, M.

    2015-12-01

    To achieve sufficient, effective winter road maintenance, it is important that long-term snow and ice hazard mitigation plans be examined and formulated by taking into consideration the influence of climate change. In this study, we have developed a method of predicting more accurately the indexes of heavy snowfall events that occur over short periods of time and future projections of winter temperatures based on the relationship of observed data to the climate model predicted values. The indexes for heavy snowfall were the maximum 24-hour snowfall and the frequency of 10-cm or more snowfall within a maximum 6-hour period. Indexes for cold weather were the accumulated freezing index in winter and the number of days of freeze-thaw days. Subsequently, we have applied this methodology for Japanese snowy cold regions, in order to clarify the trends for near future and century-end future period changes. The results indicate that current measures to mitigate the effects of extremely heavy snowfall in inland areas of Hokkaido may require enhancement of operational procedures. In addition, the possibility of pavement and concrete damage in the colder regions is expected to increase due to the increment in the number of freeze-thaw days. Based upon the results of this study, we will identify the road management issues associated with climate change using the recent trends and predictions for the near future and century-end future climate periods.

  11. An Experimental and Finite Element Study of Cold Spray Copper Impact onto Two Aluminum Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Peter C.; Bae, Gyuyeol; Zahiri, Saden H.; Jahedi, Mahnaz; Lee, Changhee

    2010-03-01

    The effect of cold spray temperature and substrate hardness on particle deformation and adhesion has been studied, with particular emphasis on adiabatic shearing leading to melting. Copper particles were cold sprayed onto commercial purity (CP) aluminum and alloy 7050-T7451, with stagnation temperatures 200, 400, and 600 °C. Deposition efficiency, assisted by particle embedding, increased with temperature and was higher on the softer CP substrate. Crater surfaces, adhered particles, and interfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, focused ion beam, and transmission electron microscopy. For comparison, the impact of 15 μm Cu particles was simulated using finite element modeling. A thin layer of material on the substrate-side of the interface was predicted to reach melting point on both substrates at higher impact velocities. Formation of a molten layer was found experimentally. At 600 °C, the effect of substrate heating by the gas jet could not be ignored.

  12. Assessing the Regional Disparities in Geoengineering impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, P. J.; Ridgwell, A. J.; Lunt, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    SRM geoengineering may ameliorate many of the impacts of greenhouse-induced global warming but also has the potential to drive regional climates outside the envelope of greenhouse-gas induced warming, creating ‘novel’ conditions, and could affect precipitation in some regions disproportionably. We use HadCM3L [Cox et al., 2000] a fully coupled climate model to analyse the regional impacts of different levels of a sunshade SRM intervention on a world with 4 times the pre-industrial CO2 level. We employ a number of new methods to analyse these results, looking at: the regional responses, global aggregation of ‘recipients’ of climate impacts and classifying ‘novel’ climate conditions [Irvine et al., 2010]. We find that the precipitation impacts of SRM differ strongly between regions, with most regions drying but with others becoming wetter with increased levels of SRM. We show that the ‘optimal’ level of SRM for each region would differ, for example in our simulations the USA becomes drier at higher levels of SRM, with pre-industrial precipitation conditions restored at ~50% SRM, whereas Australia starts much drier at 4xCO2 and gets wetter with increasing SRM, returning to pre-industrial precipitation conditions at 100% SRM. ‘Novel’ precipitation conditions, such as the drier-than-pre-industrial conditions in the USA, are experienced across a large fraction of the Earth for all but the lowest levels of SRM, whereas ‘novel’ (cooler) temperature conditions only occur at the highest levels of geoengineering in tropical regions [Govindasamy et al., 2003]. This work shows that the impacts of SRM differ strongly between regions and that a large fraction of the world would have to contend with a regional climate that is ‘novel’ in some way, i.e. with more extreme changes than due to global warming alone. However, we find that it may be possible to identify a level of SRM geoengineering capable of meeting multiple mitigation targets, such as

  13. Regional projection of climate impact indices over the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casanueva, Ana; Frías, M.; Dolores; Herrera, Sixto; Bedia, Joaquín; San Martín, Daniel; Gutiérrez, José Manuel; Zaninovic, Ksenija

    2014-05-01

    Climate Impact Indices (CIIs) are being increasingly used in different socioeconomic sectors to transfer information about climate change impacts and risks to stakeholders. CIIs are typically based on different weather variables such as temperature, wind speed, precipitation or humidity and comprise, in a single index, the relevant meteorological information for the particular impact sector (in this study wildfires and tourism). This dependence on several climate variables poses important limitations to the application of statistical downscaling techniques, since physical consistency among variables is required in most cases to obtain reliable local projections. The present study assesses the suitability of the "direct" downscaling approach, in which the downscaling method is directly applied to the CII. In particular, for illustrative purposes, we consider two popular indices used in the wildfire and tourism sectors, the Fire Weather Index (FWI) and the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET), respectively. As an example, two case studies are analysed over two representative Mediterranean regions of interest for the EU CLIM-RUN project: continental Spain for the FWI and Croatia for the PET. Results obtained with this "direct" downscaling approach are similar to those found from the application of the statistical downscaling to the individual meteorological drivers prior to the index calculation ("component" downscaling) thus, a wider range of statistical downscaling methods could be used. As an illustration, future changes in both indices are projected by applying two direct statistical downscaling methods, analogs and linear regression, to the ECHAM5 model. Larger differences were found between the two direct statistical downscaling approaches than between the direct and the component approaches with a single downscaling method. While these examples focus on particular indices and Mediterranean regions of interest for CLIM-RUN stakeholders, the same study

  14. The regional environmental impact of biomass production

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.L.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a broad overview of the potential environmental impacts of biomass energy from energy crops. The subject is complex because the environmental impact of using biomass for energy must be considered in the context of alternative energy options while the environmental impact of producing biomass from energy crops must be considered in the context of the alternative land-uses. Using biomass-derived energy can reduce greenhouse gas emissions or increase them; growing biomass energy crops can enhance soil fertility or degrade it. Without knowing the context of the biomass energy, one can say little about its specific environmental impacts. The primary focus of this paper is an evaluation of the environmental impacts of growing energy crops. I present an approach for quantitatively evaluating the potential environmental impact of growing energy crops at a regional scale that accounts for the environmental and economic context of the crops. However, to set the stage for this discussion, I begin by comparing the environmental advantages and disadvantages of biomass-derived energy relative to other energy alternatives such as coal, hydropower, nuclear power, oil/gasoline, natural gas and photovoltaics.

  15. Venus - Impact Crater in Eastern Navka Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This Magellan image, which is 50 kilometers (31 miles) in width and 80 kilometers (50 miles) in length, is centered at 11.9 degrees latitude, 352 degrees longitude in the eastern Navka Region of Venus. The crater, which is approximately 8 kilometers (5 miles) in diameter, displays a butterfly symmetry pattern. The ejecta pattern most likely results from an oblique impact, where the impactor came from the south and ejected material to the north.

  16. Venus - Impact Crater in Eastern Navka Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This Magellan image, which is 50 kilometers (31 miles) in width and 80 kilometers (50 miles) in length, is centered at 11.9 degrees latitude, 352 degrees longitude in the eastern Navka Region of Venus. The crater, which is approximately 8 kilometers (5 miles) in diameter, displays a butterfly symmetry pattern. The ejecta pattern most likely results from an oblique impact, where the impactor came from the south and ejected material to the north.

  17. Impact of cough and common cold on productivity, absenteeism, and daily life in the United States: ACHOO Survey.

    PubMed

    Dicpinigaitis, Peter V; Eccles, Ron; Blaiss, Michael S; Wingertzahn, Mark A

    2015-08-01

    Although the common cold is among the most frequent ailments encountered in clinical practice, little is known about its impact on productivity, absenteeism, and daily life. The United States Attitudes of Consumers Toward Health, Cough, and Cold (ACHOO) survey was developed to inform healthcare providers on patients' experience of cough/cold. This analysis focuses on the impact of cough/cold on daily activity, productivity, and absenteeism; other results are reported elsewhere. ACHOO was a 36-question online survey. US adult Internet/mobile device users (N = 3333) were recruited in October 2012. Response quotas modeled on 2010 US Census data ensured a demographically representative sample; 75% of completed surveys were randomized as the primary analysis pool. Demographics and impact of cough/cold were reported using means, frequencies, and percentages. Weighted least squares regression or weighted paired t-test were used to identify factors associated with greater impact. The analysis pool (N = 2505) included 1342 (53.6%) women and 1163 (46.4%) men (mean ages, 46.7 and 45.9 years). A majority (84.7%) had ≥1 cold in the past year. Fifty-two percent said cough/cold impacted daily life a fair amount to a lot. Productivity decreased by a mean 26.4%, and 44.5% of respondents reported work/school absenteeism (usually 1-2 days) during a cold. Overall, 93% of survey participants reported sleep difficulty (slight to extreme) during a cough/cold. Among all respondents, 57% reported cough or nasal congestion as the symptoms making sleep difficult. Higher frequency of colds, more cold symptoms, difficulty sleeping, and worse overall health status correlated with greater impact on productivity, absenteeism, and daily life. Study limitations include the potential for recall bias given the retrospective nature of the self-reports. Furthermore, no attempt was made to distinguish treatment effects, if any, from those of the underlying cough/cold. To our knowledge, this is

  18. Cold-Air Pools and Regional Warming in the Lake Tahoe Region, Central Sierra Nevada of California—Observations and Considerations regarding the Future of Climate-Change Refugia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dettinger, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Naturally occurring climate refugia, specifically in the form of cold-air pools (CAPs) in mountain basins, are increasingly discussed as potential safe havens against some impacts of global warming on western ecosystems and cold-adapted species. A key concern in these discussions should be: How will CAPs react to regional warming? Several broad possibilities exist: CAPs may "resist" regional warming, remaining as cool as ever despite warming of their surroundings. CAPs may "reflect" regional warming, experiencing temperature increases that are roughly equal to the warming of their surroundings but that leave the CAP as cool relative to their surroundings as ever. Or CAPs might "disintegrate" in the face of regional warming, losing their special cool status relative to surroundings and in the process warming much more than their surroundings. An evaluation of historical observations of wintertime cold-air pooling in the Lake Tahoe basin and adjacent Truckee drainage offers examples of CAPs that have resisted regional warming (Tahoe) and that have reflected regional warming (Truckee). These two CAP responses to warming suggest that no single fate awaits all CAPs in the Sierra Nevada. Rather, different CAPs will likely evolve in different ways, depending on their topographic configurations (e.g., closed vs draining basins), topographic depths, CAP areas, and even (in the case of the Tahoe basin) thermal conditions at the base of the CAP. These CAP examples also suggest a need for research on the possibility of equivalent future responses by other, non-CAP climate refugia in a warming world.

  19. Assessment of Cold Welding Between Separable Contact Surfaces Due to Impact and Fretting under Vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merstallinger, A.; Sales, M.; Semerad, E.; Dunn, B. D.

    2009-11-01

    A common failure mode seen during the testing and operation of spacecraft is termed "cold welding". European laboratories refer to this as "adhesion", "sticking" or "stiction". This publication is intended to provide the space community with the most recent understanding of the phenomenon of "cold welding" in relation to spacecraft mechanisms with separable contact surfaces. It presents some basic theory and describes a test method and the required equipment. Cold welding between two contacting surfaces can occur under conditions of impact or fretting. These surfaces may be bare metals, or inorganically or organically coated metals and their alloys. Standard procedures for quantifying the propensity of material surface pairs to cold weld to each other are proposed. Of particular interest will be the contact data of different materials, which are presented in numerical form and as tables summarising contacts between materials that can be either recommended or considered unsuitable for use under vacuum. The data have been compiled in a database that can be accessed online.

  20. Effects of ice and floods on vegetation in streams in cold regions: implications for climate change.

    PubMed

    Lind, Lovisa; Nilsson, Christer; Weber, Christine

    2014-11-01

    Riparian zones support some of the most dynamic and species-rich plant communities in cold regions. A common conception among plant ecologists is that flooding during the season when plants are dormant generally has little effect on the survival and production of riparian vegetation. We show that winter floods may also be of fundamental importance for the composition of riverine vegetation. We investigated the effects of ice formation on riparian and in-stream vegetation in northern Sweden using a combination of experiments and observations in 25 reaches, spanning a gradient from ice-free to ice-rich reaches. The ice-rich reaches were characterized by high production of frazil and anchor ice. In a couple of experiments, we exposed riparian vegetation to experimentally induced winter flooding, which reduced the dominant dwarf-shrub cover and led to colonization of a species-rich forb-dominated vegetation. In another experiment, natural winter floods caused by anchor-ice formation removed plant mimics both in the in-stream and in the riparian zone, further supporting the result that anchor ice maintains dynamic plant communities. With a warmer winter climate, ice-induced winter floods may first increase in frequency because of more frequent shifts between freezing and thawing during winter, but further warming and shortening of the winter might make them less common than today. If ice-induced winter floods become reduced in number because of a warming climate, an important disturbance agent for riparian and in-stream vegetation will be removed, leading to reduced species richness in streams and rivers in cold regions. Given that such regions are expected to have more plant species in the future because of immigration from the south, the distribution of species richness among habitats can be expected to show novel patterns.

  1. Effects of ice and floods on vegetation in streams in cold regions: implications for climate change

    PubMed Central

    Lind, Lovisa; Nilsson, Christer; Weber, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Riparian zones support some of the most dynamic and species-rich plant communities in cold regions. A common conception among plant ecologists is that flooding during the season when plants are dormant generally has little effect on the survival and production of riparian vegetation. We show that winter floods may also be of fundamental importance for the composition of riverine vegetation. We investigated the effects of ice formation on riparian and in-stream vegetation in northern Sweden using a combination of experiments and observations in 25 reaches, spanning a gradient from ice-free to ice-rich reaches. The ice-rich reaches were characterized by high production of frazil and anchor ice. In a couple of experiments, we exposed riparian vegetation to experimentally induced winter flooding, which reduced the dominant dwarf-shrub cover and led to colonization of a species-rich forb-dominated vegetation. In another experiment, natural winter floods caused by anchor-ice formation removed plant mimics both in the in-stream and in the riparian zone, further supporting the result that anchor ice maintains dynamic plant communities. With a warmer winter climate, ice-induced winter floods may first increase in frequency because of more frequent shifts between freezing and thawing during winter, but further warming and shortening of the winter might make them less common than today. If ice-induced winter floods become reduced in number because of a warming climate, an important disturbance agent for riparian and in-stream vegetation will be removed, leading to reduced species richness in streams and rivers in cold regions. Given that such regions are expected to have more plant species in the future because of immigration from the south, the distribution of species richness among habitats can be expected to show novel patterns. PMID:25505542

  2. Improving Snow Measurement Technology to Better Parameterise Cold Regions Hydrometeorology Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomeroy, J.; Debeer, C.; Ellis, C.; Essery, R.; Helgason, W.; Kinar, N.; Link, T.; MacDonald, J.

    2008-12-01

    Marmot Creek Research Basin, in the Rocky Mountains of Alberta, Canada constitutes a long term cold regions hydrometeorological observatory with over 45 years of intensive observations in alpine and forested zones. Recently, novel combinations of measurement technology to snow have been deployed in Marmot Creek to advance the understanding of snow processes and to improve hydrometeorological models of streamflow and atmospheric variables. One advance has been the development and application of portable acoustic reflectometry to measure the density and structure of seasonal snowpacks using an audible sound wave. This has permitted the non-invasive measurement of snow water equivalent for both stationary and snow survey applications. Another advance has been the use of oblique time-lapse digital photography which is corrected for elevation and view angle from a LiDAR DEM to produce daily orthogonal snow covered area images of the alpine zone. These images are used to calculate snowcovered area and to develop and test improved snowcover melt and depletion algorithms. Deployment of 3-axis ultrasonic anemometers and fast hygrometers with collection of 10 Hz data and full correction for non-stationarity, axis rotation and other effects has shown that horizontal turbulence is often advected into mountain clearings and causes failure of traditional bulk transfer calculations of latent and sensible heat. For forest snow a hanging, weighed spruce tree and hanging, weighed sub-canopy troughs are used to capture intercepted snow load and unloaded snow fluxes respectively. These quantities provide the information needed to test detailed models of the snow interception and unloading processes. To quantify variations in sub-canopy energy for snowmelt, infrared imaging radiometers and narrow beam radiometers are used to measure thermal radiation exitance from needles, stems and trunks in forests of varying structure. These measurements are being used to develop improved models of

  3. Low modulus polymer packaged optical fiber sensor for macrocrack monitoring in ice structures of cold regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Peng; Zhou, Zhi

    2014-09-01

    Ice structures provide load-bearing capability for energy exploitation and transportation in cold regions. Meanwhile, staff and facilities take a risk due to large amounts of distributed macrocracks in ice roads, ice bridges, and ice platforms. It is critical to monitor macrocracks for detecting and understanding the fracture process under such a harsh environment. Aiming to obtain real-time, long-term, and quantitative crack opening information for ice structures, this paper presents a feasibility study on monitoring macrocracks with a low modulus polymer packaged optical fiber sensor. Brillouin optical time-domain analysis-based sensing technology is utilized for the distributed strain measurement. According to in situ monitoring requirements, a type of silicone rubber material with appropriate mechanical properties is selected to fabricate the sensor. On this basis, a strain transfer analysis on the packaged and embedded sensor is carried out to derive the relation between the optical measurement and the increment of the crack width. The prototypes have been evaluated by demonstration tests on a tensile device and an ice road model. The experimental results show the sensor can survive in a cold environment and under the large strain resulting from the macrocrack opening. These measured data agree well with the linear calibration. The macrocracks opening in large-scale ice structures can be characterized based on the optical sensor.

  4. Climate impacts on northern Canada: regional background.

    PubMed

    Prowse, Terry D; Furgal, Chris; Bonsal, Barrie R; Peters, Daniel L

    2009-07-01

    Understanding the implications of climate change on northern Canada requires a background about the size and diversity of its human and biogeophysical systems. Occupying an area of almost 40% of Canada, with one-third of this contained in Arctic islands, Canada's northern territories consist of a diversity of physical environments unrivaled around the circumpolar north. Major ecozones composed of a range of landforms, climate, vegetation, and wildlife include: Arctic, boreal and taiga cordillera; boreal and taiga plains; taiga shield; and northern and southern Arctic. Although generally characterized by a cold climate, there is an enormous range in air temperature with mean annual values being as high as -5 degrees C in the south to as low as -20 degrees C in the high Arctic islands. A similar contrast characterizes precipitation, which can be > 700 mm y(-1) in some southern alpine regions to as low as 50 mm y(-1) over islands of the high Arctic. Major freshwater resources are found within most northern ecozones, varying from large glaciers or ice caps and lakes to extensive wetlands and peat lands. Most of the North's renewable water, however, is found within its major river networks and originates in more southerly headwaters. Ice covers characterize the freshwater systems for multiple months of the year while permafrost prevails in various forms, dominating the terrestrial landscape. The marine environment, which envelops the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, is dominated by seasonal to multiyear sea ice often several meters thick that plays a key role in the regional climate. Almost two-thirds of northern Canadian communities are located along coastlines with the entire population being just over 100 000. Most recent population growth has been dominated by an expansion of nonaboriginals, primarily the result of resource development and the growth of public administration. The economies of northern communities, however, remain quite mixed with traditional land

  5. The impact of temperature on mortality in a subtropical city: effects of cold, heat, and heat waves in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Son, Ji-Young; Gouveia, Nelson; Bravo, Mercedes A; de Freitas, Clarice Umbelino; Bell, Michelle L

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how weather impacts health is critical, especially under a changing climate; however, relatively few studies have investigated subtropical regions. We examined how mortality in São Paulo, Brazil, is affected by cold, heat, and heat waves over 14.5 years (1996-2010). We used over-dispersed generalized linear modeling to estimate heat- and cold-related mortality, and Bayesian hierarchical modeling to estimate overall effects and modification by heat wave characteristics (intensity, duration, and timing in season). Stratified analyses were performed by cause of death and individual characteristics (sex, age, education, marital status, and place of death). Cold effects on mortality appeared higher than heat effects in this subtropical city with moderate climatic conditions. Heat was associated with respiratory mortality and cold with cardiovascular mortality. Risk of total mortality was 6.1% (95% confidence interval 4.7, 7.6%) higher at the 99th percentile of temperature than the 90th percentile (heat effect) and 8.6% (6.2, 11.1%) higher at the 1st compared to the 10th percentile (cold effect). Risks were higher for females and those with no education for heat effect, and males for cold effect. Older persons, widows, and non-hospital deaths had higher mortality risks for heat and cold. Mortality during heat waves was higher than on non-heat wave days for total, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality. Our findings indicate that mortality in São Paulo is associated with both cold and heat and that some subpopulations are more vulnerable.

  6. The impact of temperature on mortality in a subtropical city: effects of cold, heat, and heat waves in São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Ji-Young; Gouveia, Nelson; Bravo, Mercedes A.; de Freitas, Clarice Umbelino; Bell, Michelle L.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how weather impacts health is critical, especially under a changing climate; however, relatively few studies have investigated subtropical regions. We examined how mortality in São Paulo, Brazil, is affected by cold, heat, and heat waves over 14.5 years (1996-2010). We used over-dispersed generalized linear modeling to estimate heat- and cold-related mortality, and Bayesian hierarchical modeling to estimate overall effects and modification by heat wave characteristics (intensity, duration, and timing in season). Stratified analyses were performed by cause of death and individual characteristics (sex, age, education, marital status, and place of death). Cold effects on mortality appeared higher than heat effects in this subtropical city with moderate climatic conditions. Heat was associated with respiratory mortality and cold with cardiovascular mortality. Risk of total mortality was 6.1 % (95 % confidence interval 4.7, 7.6 %) higher at the 99th percentile of temperature than the 90th percentile (heat effect) and 8.6 % (6.2, 11.1 %) higher at the 1st compared to the 10th percentile (cold effect). Risks were higher for females and those with no education for heat effect, and males for cold effect. Older persons, widows, and non-hospital deaths had higher mortality risks for heat and cold. Mortality during heat waves was higher than on non-heat wave days for total, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality. Our findings indicate that mortality in São Paulo is associated with both cold and heat and that some subpopulations are more vulnerable.

  7. The Impact of Proposed Changes in Liver Allocation Policy on Cold Ischemia Times and Organ Transportation Costs

    PubMed Central

    DuBay, D. A.; MacLennan, P. A.; Reed, R. D.; Fouad, M.; Martin, M.; Meeks, C. B.; Taylor, G.; Kilgore, M. L.; Tankersley, M.; Gray, S. H.; White, J. A.; Eckhoff, D. E.; Locke, J. E.

    2015-01-01

    Changes to the liver allocation system have been proposed to decrease regional variation in access to liver transplant. It is unclear what impact these changes will have on cold ischemia times (CITs) and donor transportation costs. Therefore, we performed a retrospective single center study (2008–2012) measuring liver procurement CIT and transportation costs. Four groups were defined: Local-within driving distance (Local-D, n = 262), Local-flight (Local-F, n = 105), Regional-flight <3 h (Regional <3h, n = 61) and Regional-Flight >3 h (Regional >3h, n = 53). The median travel distance increased in each group, varying from zero miles (Local-D), 196 miles (Local-F), 384 miles (Regional <3 h), to 1647 miles (Regional >3 h). Increasing travel distances did not significantly increase CIT until the flight time was >3 h. The average CIT ranged from 5.0 to 6.0 h for Local-D, Local-F and Regional <3h, but increased to 10 h for Regional >3h (p < 0.0001). Transportation costs increased with greater distance traveled: Local-D $101, Local-F $1993, Regional <3h $8324 and Regional >3 h $27 810 (p < 0.0001). With proposed redistricting, local financial modeling suggests that the average liver donor procurement transportation variable direct costs will increase from $2415 to $7547/liver donor, an increase of 313%. These findings suggest that further discussion among transplant centers and insurance providers is needed prior to policy implementation. PMID:25612501

  8. The impact of proposed changes in liver allocation policy on cold ischemia times and organ transportation costs.

    PubMed

    DuBay, D A; MacLennan, P A; Reed, R D; Fouad, M; Martin, M; Meeks, C B; Taylor, G; Kilgore, M L; Tankersley, M; Gray, S H; White, J A; Eckhoff, D E; Locke, J E

    2015-02-01

    Changes to the liver allocation system have been proposed to decrease regional variation in access to liver transplant. It is unclear what impact these changes will have on cold ischemia times (CITs) and donor transportation costs. Therefore, we performed a retrospective single center study (2008-2012) measuring liver procurement CIT and transportation costs. Four groups were defined: Local-within driving distance (Local-D, n = 262), Local-flight (Local-F, n = 105), Regional-flight <3 h (Regional <3 h, n = 61) and Regional-Flight >3 h (Regional >3 h, n = 53). The median travel distance increased in each group, varying from zero miles (Local-D), 196 miles (Local-F), 384 miles (Regional <3 h), to 1647 miles (Regional >3 h). Increasing travel distances did not significantly increase CIT until the flight time was >3 h. The average CIT ranged from 5.0 to 6.0 h for Local-D, Local-F and Regional <3 h, but increased to 10 h for Regional >3 h (p < 0.0001). Transportation costs increased with greater distance traveled: Local-D $101, Local-F $1993, Regional <3 h $8324 and Regional >3 h $27 810 (p < 0.0001). With proposed redistricting, local financial modeling suggests that the average liver donor procurement transportation variable direct costs will increase from $2415 to $7547/liver donor, an increase of 313%. These findings suggest that further discussion among transplant centers and insurance providers is needed prior to policy implementation.

  9. Impact of cold plasma on Citrobacter freundii in apple juice: inactivation kinetics and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Surowsky, Björn; Fröhling, Antje; Gottschalk, Nathalie; Schlüter, Oliver; Knorr, Dietrich

    2014-03-17

    Various studies have shown that cold plasma is capable of inactivating microorganisms located on a variety of food surfaces, food packaging materials and process equipment under atmospheric pressure conditions; however, less attention has been paid to the impact of cold plasma on microorganisms in liquid foodstuffs. The present study investigates cold plasma's ability to inactivate Citrobacter freundii in apple juice. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and temperature measurements were performed to characterise the plasma source. The plasma-related impact on microbial loads was evaluated by traditional plate count methods, while morphological changes were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Physiological property changes were obtained through flow cytometric measurements (membrane integrity, esterase activity and membrane potential). In addition, mathematical modelling was performed in order to achieve a reliable prediction of microbial inactivation and to establish the basis for possible industrial implementation. C. freundii loads in apple juice were reduced by about 5 log cycles after a plasma exposure of 480s using argon and 0.1% oxygen plus a subsequent storage time of 24h. The results indicate that a direct contact between bacterial cells and plasma is not necessary for achieving successful inactivation. The plasma-generated compounds in the liquid, such as H2O2 and most likely hydroperoxy radicals, are particularly responsible for microbial inactivation.

  10. Impact Assessment of Watershed in Desert Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhava Rao, V.; Hermon, R. R.; Kesava Rao, P.; Phanindra Kumar, T.

    2012-07-01

    Change detection from different temporal images usually based on reflectance on natural and human activity impact, using integrated GIS, Remote Sensing and image processing technologies enable impact assessment of watershed in desert region. A time series analysis of seasonal NDVI have been used to estimate net primary productivity, phonological characteristic of vegetative surface, length of growing season and dry drown periods (Ramsey et al., 1995). The study is designed to achieve the objectives to Study the changes in vegetation for selected watershed in a desert districts of Bhilwara, Barmer & Jaisalmer in Rajastan State of India, to identify the changes in density of vegetation, to assess the temporal changes and to assess the impact of the watershed, with an objective to conserve the soil erosion and harvest the rainwater in order to increase the ground water table, to improve the socio economic condition of the people and to stop the migration of the people from the villages in search of livelihood. These activities will have a direct impact on the crop production. The Changes in density of vegetation indicates the quantity of crop production and the growth of vegetation apart from crops and the conservation of land with out scrub/barren land to land with scrub. This gives an picture about the impact of watershed programme in increasing the vegetative cover. The temporal changes help in understanding the changes taken place in the watershed, and facilitate understand the positive as well as negative impacts of any decisions taken in the implementation. The extent and density and type of vegetation for the years, 2000,2004,2005,2007 and 2008, was studied and vegetation growth was analysed using GIS and Digital Image Processing techniques.

  11. Agriculture Impacts of Regional Nuclear Conflict

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Lili; Robock, Alan; Mills, Michael; Toon, Owen Brian

    2013-04-01

    One of the major consequences of nuclear war would be climate change due to massive smoke injection into the atmosphere. Smoke from burning cities can be lofted into the stratosphere where it will have an e-folding lifetime more than 5 years. The climate changes include significant cooling, reduction of solar radiation, and reduction of precipitation. Each of these changes can affect agricultural productivity. To investigate the response from a regional nuclear war between India and Pakistan, we used the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer agricultural simulation model. We first evaluated the model by forcing it with daily weather data and management practices in China and the USA for rice, maize, wheat, and soybeans. Then we perturbed observed weather data using monthly climate anomalies for a 10-year period due to a simulated 5 Tg soot injection that could result from a regional nuclear war between India and Pakistan, using a total of 100 15 kt atomic bombs, much less than 1% of the current global nuclear arsenal. We computed anomalies using the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE and NCAR's Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM). We perturbed each year of the observations with anomalies from each year of the 10-year nuclear war simulations. We found that different regions respond differently to a regional nuclear war; southern regions show slight increases of crop yields while in northern regions crop yields drop significantly. Sensitivity tests show that temperature changes due to nuclear war are more important than precipitation and solar radiation changes in affecting crop yields in the regions we studied. In total, crop production in China and the USA would decrease 15-50% averaged over the 10 years using both models' output. Simulations forced by ModelE output show smaller impacts than simulations forced by WACCM output at the end of the 10 year period because of the different temperature responses in the two models.

  12. Alternative EHC heating patterns and their impact on cold-start emissions performance

    SciTech Connect

    Kubsh, J.E.

    1994-10-01

    Electrically heated catalytic converter (EHC) heating patterns which utilize zones covering less than the available face cross-sectional area have been evaluated for cold start FTP performance. In this work a closer look is given to the concept of partial cross-sectional heating of the EHC as a means of reducing EHC energy demands. A specially designed EHC prototype that includes provisions for electrically heating various extents of the EHC cross-section has been evaluated in both low-mileage and simulated high-mileage conditions using the FTP driving cycle. The impact of various `zoned` EHC heating patterns on cold-start emission performance is presented and discussed. 12 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Health impact of the 2008 cold spell on mortality in subtropical China: the climate and health impact national assessment study (CHINAs)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many studies have investigated heat wave related mortality, but less attention has been given to the health effects of cold spells in the context of global warming. The 2008 cold spell in China provided a unique opportunity to estimate the effects of the 2008 cold spell on mortality in subtropical regions, spatial heterogeneity of the effects, stratification effect and added effects caused by sustained cold days. Methods Thirty-six study communities were selected from 15 provinces in subtropical China. Daily mortality and meteorological data were collected for each community from 2006 to 2010. A distributed lag linear non-linear model (DLNM) with a lag structure of up to 27 days was used to analyze the association between the 2008 cold spell and mortality. Multivariate meta-analyses were used to combine the cold effects across each community. Results The 2008 cold spell increased mortality by 43.8% (95% CI: 34.8% ~ 53.4%) compared to non-cold spell days with the highest effects in southern and central China. The effects were more pronounced for respiratory mortality (RESP) than for cardiovascular (CVD) or cerebrovascular mortality (CBD), for females more than for males, and for the elderly aged ≥75 years old more than for younger people. Overall, 148,279 excess deaths were attributable to the 2008 cold spell. The cold effect was mainly from extreme low temperatures rather than sustained cold days during this 2008 cold spell. Conclusions The 2008 cold spell increased mortality in subtropical China, which was mainly attributable to the low temperature rather than the sustained duration of the cold spell. The cold effects were spatially heterogeneous and modified by individual-specific characteristics such as gender and age. PMID:25060645

  14. Cold sprayed copper coating: numerical study of particle impact and coating characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mebdoua, Yamina; Fizi, Yazid; Bouhelal, Nadjet

    2016-05-01

    Cold spraying technique is a promising process fabricating high quality metallic coatings. This work concerns both numerical and experimental investigations of cold sprayed copper coating taking into account impact conditions including, particle velocities and temperature, gas pressure and material nature. The conducted numerical study is an examination of the deformation behavior of Cu particles sprayed onto steel substrate using Abaqus/explicit software, allowing a good understanding of the deposition characteristics of copper particles and the effect of particle velocity on the coating microstructure. The numerical results show that particle impact velocity has a significant effect on its morphology; Lagrangian method exhibits an excessive distortion of the elements in the case of high impact velocity and fine meshing size, whereas simulation of particle impact using arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method is close to the experimental observations. Contribution to the topical issue "Materials for Energy Harvesting, Conversion and Storage (ICOME 2015) - Elected submissions", edited by Jean-Michel Nunzi, Rachid Bennacer and Mohammed El Ganaoui

  15. Venus - Impact Crater in Eastern Navka Region

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-11-20

    This Magellan image, which is 50 kilometers (31 miles) in width and 80 kilometers (50 miles) in length, is centered at 11.9 degrees latitude, 352 degrees longitude in the eastern Navka Region of Venus. The crater, which is approximately 8 kilometers (5 miles) in diameter, displays a butterfly symmetry pattern. The ejecta pattern most likely results from an oblique impact, where the impactor came from the south and ejected material to the north. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00474

  16. Thermal environment analysis and energy conservation research of rural residence in cold regions of China based on BIM platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, J. Y.; Cheng, W.; Ma, C. P.; Xin, L. S.; Tan, Y. T.

    2017-06-01

    In order to study the issue of rural residential energy consumption in cold regions of China, modeled an architecture prototype based on BIM platform according to the affecting factors of rural residential thermal environment, and imported the virtual model which contains building information into energy analysis tools and chose the appropriate building orientation. By analyzing the energy consumption of the residential buildings with different enclosure structure forms, we designed the optimal energy-saving residence form. There is a certain application value of this method for researching the energy consumption and energy-saving design for the rural residence in cold regions of China.

  17. Assessing the regional disparities in geoengineering impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, Peter J.; Ridgwell, Andy; Lunt, Daniel J.

    2010-09-01

    Solar Radiation Management (SRM) Geoengineering may ameliorate many consequences of global warming but also has the potential to drive regional climates outside the envelope of greenhouse-gas induced warming, creating ‘novel’ conditions, and could affect precipitation in some regions disproportionably. Here, using a fully coupled climate model we explore some new methodologies for assessing regional disparities in geoengineering impacts. Taking a 4 × CO2 climate and an idealized ‘sunshade’ SRM strategy, we consider different fractions of the maximum theoretical, 4 × CO2-cancelling global mean cooling. Whilst regional predictions in particularly relatively low resolution global climate models must be treated with caution, our simulations indicate that it might be possible to identify a level of SRM geoengineering capable of meeting multiple targets, such as maintaining a stable mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet and cooling global climate, but without reducing global precipitation below pre-industrial or exposing significant fractions of the Earth to ‘novel’ climate conditions.

  18. Impact of climate change on cold hardiness of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii): environmental and genetic considerations.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Sheel; St Clair, J Bradley; Harrington, Constance A; Gould, Peter J

    2015-10-01

    The success of conifers over much of the world's terrestrial surface is largely attributable to their tolerance to cold stress (i.e., cold hardiness). Due to an increase in climate variability, climate change may reduce conifer cold hardiness, which in turn could impact ecosystem functioning and productivity in conifer-dominated forests. The expression of cold hardiness is a product of environmental cues (E), genetic differentiation (G), and their interaction (G × E), although few studies have considered all components together. To better understand and manage for the impacts of climate change on conifer cold hardiness, we conducted a common garden experiment replicated in three test environments (cool, moderate, and warm) using 35 populations of coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) to test the hypotheses: (i) cool-temperature cues in fall are necessary to trigger cold hardening, (ii) there is large genetic variation among populations in cold hardiness that can be predicted from seed-source climate variables, (iii) observed differences among populations in cold hardiness in situ are dependent on effective environmental cues, and (iv) movement of seed sources from warmer to cooler climates will increase risk to cold injury. During fall 2012, we visually assessed cold damage of bud, needle, and stem tissues following artificial freeze tests. Cool-temperature cues (e.g., degree hours below 2 °C) at the test sites were associated with cold hardening, which were minimal at the moderate test site owing to mild fall temperatures. Populations differed 3-fold in cold hardiness, with winter minimum temperatures and fall frost dates as strong seed-source climate predictors of cold hardiness, and with summer temperatures and aridity as secondary predictors. Seed-source movement resulted in only modest increases in cold damage. Our findings indicate that increased fall temperatures delay cold hardening, warmer/drier summers confer a degree of cold

  19. Modeling Regional Economic Impacts of Natural Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boissonnade, A.; Hallegate, S.; Muir-Wood, R.; Schlumberger, M.; Onur, T.

    2007-05-01

    Common features of natural disasters are intense regional impacts and the need for assessing their economic impacts on the construction sectors. The years 2004 and 2005 were record-setting time for natural disasters with major disasters or catastrophic (Cat) events all around the world with dramatic consequences in human lives and economic losses around the world, affecting developed and developing countries. Although there is a large body of literature on assessing the impact of cat events, there is little available research on the quantification and modeling of the regional economic impact of such events on the cost and length of reconstruction. Current available econometric models have serious limitations because they need detailed information for modeling the complex interactions between the different stakeholders of the economy at a regional level that is generally not available. Also, very little research was performed for quantifying the demand surge, defined as the sudden increase in the cost of repairs due to amplified payments, following a hurricane or a series of hurricane events or other natural disasters. Demand surge is an important component of the overall economic impact of cat events and there is a need to better quantify it. This paper presents results of a research program that started after the 2004 and 2005 U.S. hurricane seasons. A large data set of economic and observed losses resulting from the hurricanes that affected Florida and the Gulf states in the US was collected at county level. This provided us with the basis for assessing the change in repair costs before and after these historical events, to quantify the demand surge (after removing the underlying baseline trends) at several dozens of locations across the areas affected, and to provide information on how the changes in demand surge vary spatially and temporally in affected areas for which the amount of structure losses were reported. A parallel research effort was undertaken for

  20. [Spatial and temporal variations of hydrological characteristic on the landscape zone scale in alpine cold region].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong-Gang; Hu, Jin-Fei; Xiao, Hong-Lang; Zou, Song-Bing; Yin, Zhen-Liang

    2013-10-01

    There are few studies on the hydrological characteristics on the landscape zone scale in alpine cold region at present. This paper aimed to identify the spatial and temporal variations in the origin and composition of the runoff, and to reveal the hydrological characteristics in each zone, based on the isotopic analysis of glacier, snow, frozen soil, groundwater, etc. The results showed that during the wet season, heavy precipitation and high temperature in the Mafengou River basin caused secondary evaporation which led to isotope fractionation effects. Therefore, the isotope values remained high. Temperature effects were significant. During the dry season, the temperature was low. Precipitation was in the solid state during the cold season and the evaporation was weak. Water vapor came from the evaporation of local water bodies. Therefore, less secondary evaporation and water vapor exchange occurred, leading to negative values of delta18O and deltaD. delta18O and deltaD values of precipitation and various water bodies exhibited strong seasonal variations. Precipitation exhibited altitude effects, delta18O = -0. 005 2H - 8. 951, deltaD = -0.018 5H - 34. 873. Other water bodies did not show altitude effects in the wet season and dry season, because the runoff was not only recharged by precipitation, but also influenced by the freezing and thawing process of the glacier, snow and frozen soil. The mutual transformation of precipitation, melt water, surface water and groundwater led to variations in isotopic composition. Therefore, homogenization and evaporation effect are the main control factors of isotope variations.

  1. Sustainable regional development and natural hazard impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, Elena; Svetlosanov, Vladimir; Kudin, Valery

    2016-04-01

    During the last decades, natural hazard impacts on social and economic development in many countries were increasing due to the expansion of human activities into the areas prone to natural risks as well as to increasing in number and severity of natural hazardous events caused by climate changes and other natural phenomena. The escalation of severe disasters (such as Tohoku earthquake and tsunami in Japan 2011) triggered by natural hazards and related natural-technological and environmental events is increasingly threatening sustainable development at different levels from regional to global scale. In our study, we develop a model of ecological, economic and social sustainable development for the European part of Russia and the Republic of Belarus. The model consists of six blocks including 1) population, 2) environment, 3) mineral resources, 4) geographic space, 5) investments, and 6) food production and import. These blocks were created based on the analysis of the main processes at the regional level; all the blocks are closely interrelated between each other. Reaching the limit values of block parameters corresponds to a sharp deterioration of the system; as a result, the system can lose its stability. Aggravation of natural and natural-technological risk impacts on each block and should be taken into account in the model of regional development. Natural hazards can cause both strong influences and small but permanent perturbations. In both cases, a system can become unstable. The criterion for sustainable development is proposed. The Russian Foundation for Humanities and Belorussian Republican Foundation for Fundamental Research supported the study (project 15-22-01008).

  2. Predicting the Effects of Powder Feeding Rates on Particle Impact Conditions and Cold Spray Deposited Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozdemir, Ozan C.; Widener, Christian A.; Carter, Michael J.; Johnson, Kyle W.

    2017-08-01

    As the industrial application of the cold spray technology grows, the need to optimize both the cost and the quality of the process grows with it. Parameter selection techniques available today require the use of a coupled system of equations to be solved to involve the losses due to particle loading in the gas stream. Such analyses cause a significant increase in the computational time in comparison with calculations with isentropic flow assumptions. In cold spray operations, engineers and operators may, therefore, neglect the effects of particle loading to simplify the multiparameter optimization process. In this study, two-way coupled (particle-fluid) quasi-one-dimensional fluid dynamics simulations are used to test the particle loading effects under many potential cold spray scenarios. Output of the simulations is statistically analyzed to build regression models that estimate the changes in particle impact velocity and temperature due to particle loading. This approach eases particle loading optimization for more complete analysis on deposition cost and time. The model was validated both numerically and experimentally. Further numerical analyses were completed to test the particle loading capacity and limitations of a nozzle with a commonly used throat size. Additional experimentation helped document the physical limitations to high-rate deposition.

  3. Predicting the Effects of Powder Feeding Rates on Particle Impact Conditions and Cold Spray Deposited Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozdemir, Ozan C.; Widener, Christian A.; Carter, Michael J.; Johnson, Kyle W.

    2017-10-01

    As the industrial application of the cold spray technology grows, the need to optimize both the cost and the quality of the process grows with it. Parameter selection techniques available today require the use of a coupled system of equations to be solved to involve the losses due to particle loading in the gas stream. Such analyses cause a significant increase in the computational time in comparison with calculations with isentropic flow assumptions. In cold spray operations, engineers and operators may, therefore, neglect the effects of particle loading to simplify the multiparameter optimization process. In this study, two-way coupled (particle-fluid) quasi-one-dimensional fluid dynamics simulations are used to test the particle loading effects under many potential cold spray scenarios. Output of the simulations is statistically analyzed to build regression models that estimate the changes in particle impact velocity and temperature due to particle loading. This approach eases particle loading optimization for more complete analysis on deposition cost and time. The model was validated both numerically and experimentally. Further numerical analyses were completed to test the particle loading capacity and limitations of a nozzle with a commonly used throat size. Additional experimentation helped document the physical limitations to high-rate deposition.

  4. Numerical analysis of single particle impact in the context of Cold Spray: a new adhesion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Profizi, P.; Combescure, A.; Ogawa, K.

    2016-03-01

    A new adhesion model for numerical simulation of single particle impact in the context of Cold Spray is introduced. As in other studies, cohesive forces are put between the particle and substrate to account for adhesion. In this study however, the forces are put only when a local physical criterion is met. The physical phenomenon most often attributed to Cold Spray adhesion is a shear stress instability. The Johnson-Cook material law is used with a shear damage softening law to enable strong localization at the interface without the need for an extremely fine mesh. This localization is then detected as a drop in local yield stress value by the algorithm, which then implements a local cohesive force. The evolution of this cohesive force is defined by an energy dissipative cohesive model, using a surface adhesion energy as a material parameter. Each cohesive link is broken once all its associated surface energy is dissipated. A criterion on the damage value is also used to break a cohesive bond prematurely, to account for the effect of erosion at higher speeds. This model is found to reproduce the Cold Spray-like adhesion behavior with observed critical and maximum speeds.

  5. Hot-gas cold-dust pumping for water masers associated with H II regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deguchi, S.

    1981-01-01

    A collisional pump with an internal sink is proposed for the water masers associated with H II regions, where the population inversion occurs due to the absorption by cold ice-mantle grains in a highly dusty cloud of the far-infrared line radiation of hot water vapor. A new escape probability method is developed to calculate the transfer of line radiation in dusty medium. The pump mechanism explains the power of usual maser sources associated with H II regions and the enormous power of the sources associated with W49 N and external galaxies. Models of maser clouds have a radius of 5 x 10 to the 15th-10 to the 16th cm, an H2 number density of 4 x 10 to the 9th/cu cm, an expansion velocity of 10-30 km/s, a kinetic temperature of 350 K, and a grain temperature of 100 K. Giant maser sources require grains of the size about 1 micron. The apparent size of the emission spots (approximately 10 to the 13th cm) observed by VLBI is interpreted as due to a fluctuation in the cloud, and the assembly of the spots is spread within a size of 10 to the 16th cm. The temperature difference between the dust and gas is due to a relaxation process after an infrared burst accompanying protostar formation.

  6. Hot-gas cold-dust pumping for water masers associated with H II regions

    SciTech Connect

    Deguchi, S.

    1981-10-01

    A collisional pump with an internal sink is proposed for the water masers associated with H II regions, where the population inversion occurs due to the absorption by cold ice-mantle grains in a highly dusty cloud of the far-infrared line radiation of hot water vapor. A new escape probability method is developed to calculate the transfer of line radiation in dusty medium. The pump mechanism explains the power of usual maser sources associated with H II regions and the enormous power of the sources associated with W49 N and external galaxies. Models of maser clouds have a radius of 5 x 10/sup 15/--10/sup 16/ cm, an H/sub 2/ number density of 4 x 10/sup 9/ cm/sup -3/, an expansion velocity of 10--30 km s/sup -1/, a kinetic temperature of 350 K, and a grain temperature of 100 K. Giant maser sources require grains of the size about 1 ..mu..m. The apparent size of the emission spots (approx.10/sup 13/ cm) observed by VLBI is interpreted as due to fluctuation in the cloud, and the assembly of the spots is spread within a size of 10/sup 16/ cm. The temperature difference between the dust and gas is due to a relaxation process after an infrared burst accompanying protostar formation.

  7. Cryo-Pedotransfer Functions for Estimating Hydraulic Properties of Soils in Cold Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, D.; Mailapalli, D. R.; Thompson, A.

    2013-12-01

    One of the arduous tasks in engineering hydrology of cold regions is estimating the soil hydraulic properties such as soil freezing characteristics and hydraulic conductivity, which are important when studying transport process during freeze-thaw processes. Expensive data collection methods and existing isothermal models are limitations in understanding soil water dynamics in frozen soils. Pedotransfer functions (PTFs) have been effectively used in the earth and environmental related sciences to estimate soil physical and chemical properties easily, routinely, or cheaply for a specific non-frozen geographical region. Based on similarity between wetting and freezing processes in soil, we present a new approach to derive soil freezing characteristics from soil water characteristics of non-frozen soils using existing PTFs. We refer to these as the Cryo-PTFs. We consider a conventional soil water characteristic model and existing PTFs for determining the relationships; unfrozen water content vs. subzero temperature, and hydraulic conductivity vs. subzero temperature using Clapeyron equation. The proposed approach successfully simulated unfrozen water content and hydraulic conductivity for different soils including peat when compared with those reported in the literature. Furthermore, effect of soil bulk density and organic matter content on unfrozen water content and hydraulic conductivity at different subzero temperatures was analyzed for a range of soils.

  8. Impact of hot and cold exposure on human skeletal muscle gene expression.

    PubMed

    Zak, Roksana B; Shute, Robert J; Heesch, Matthew W S; La Salle, D Taylor; Bubak, Matthew P; Dinan, Nicholas E; Laursen, Terence L; Slivka, Dustin R

    2017-03-01

    Many human diseases lead to a loss of skeletal muscle metabolic function and mass. Local and environmental temperature can modulate the exercise-stimulated response of several genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and skeletal muscle function in a human model. However, the impact of environmental temperature, independent of exercise, has not been addressed in a human model. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of exposure to hot, cold, and room temperature conditions on skeletal muscle gene expression related to mitochondrial biogenesis and muscle mass. Recreationally trained male subjects (n = 12) had muscle biopsies taken from the vastus lateralis before and after 3 h of exposure to hot (33 °C), cold (7 °C), or room temperature (20 °C) conditions. Temperature had no effect on most of the genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis, myogenesis, or proteolysis (p > 0.05). Core temperature was significantly higher in hot and cold environments compared with room temperature (37.2 ± 0.1 °C, p = 0.001; 37.1 ± 0.1 °C, p = 0.013; 36.9 ± 0.1 °C, respectively). Whole-body oxygen consumption was also significantly higher in hot and cold compared with room temperature (0.38 ± 0.01 L·min(-1), p < 0.001; 0.52 ± 0.03 L·min(-1), p < 0.001; 0.35 ± 0.01 L·min(-1), respectively). In conclusion, these data show that acute temperature exposure alone does not elicit significant changes in skeletal muscle gene expression. When considered in conjunction with previous research, exercise appears to be a necessary component to observe gene expression alterations between different environmental temperatures in humans.

  9. Impact of Hot and Cold Exposure on Human Skeletal Muscle Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Zak, Roksana B.; Shute, Robert J.; Heesch, Matthew W.S.; La Salle, D. Taylor; Bubak, Matthew P.; Dinan, Nicholas E.; Laursen, Terence L.; Slivka, Dustin R.

    2017-01-01

    Many human diseases lead to a loss of skeletal muscle metabolic function and mass. Local and environmental temperature can modulate the exercise-stimulated response of several genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and skeletal muscle function in a human model. However, the impact of environmental temperature, independent of exercise, has not been addressed in a human model. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of exposure to hot, cold, and room temperature conditions on skeletal muscle gene expression related to mitochondrial biogenesis and muscle mass. METHODS Recreationally trained male subjects (n=12) had muscle biopsies taken from the vastus lateralis before and after 3 h exposure to hot (33 °C), cold (7 °C), or room temperature (20 °C) conditions. RESULTS Temperature had no effect on most of the genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis, myogenesis, or proteolysis (p > 0.05). Core temperature was significantly higher in hot and cold environments compared to room temperature (37.2 ± 0.1 °C, p = 0.001; 37.1 ± 0.1 °C, p = 0.013; 36.9 ± 0.1 °C, respectively). Whole body oxygen consumption was also significantly higher in hot and cold compared to room temperature (0.38 ± 0.01 L·min−1, p < 0.001; 0.52 ± 0.03 L·min−1, p < 0.001; 0.35 ± 0.01 L·min−1, respectively). CONCLUSIONS These data show that acute temperature exposure alone does not elicit significant changes in skeletal muscle gene expression. When considered in conjunction with previous research, exercise appears to be a necessary component to observe gene expression alterations between different environmental temperatures in humans. PMID:28177744

  10. Cold Regions: Instrumentation Operation and Use. Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 1-1-004

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-10

    In general, synthetic fluids and lubricants are less affected by cold temperatures than petroleum -based fluids and lubricants. Chemical reactions...for cold conditions, cables and connectors are more susceptible to damage if overly flexed or strained, and radios or microwave telemetry systems...cold. Color films may also exhibit a color shift as one emulsion layer slows down more than another. c. The following considerations apply to

  11. Cold episodes in the Peruvian Central Andes: Composites, Types, and their Impacts over South America (1958-2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulca, J. C.; Vuille, M. F.; Roundy, P. E.; Trasmonte, G.; Silva, Y.; Takahashi, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Mantaro basin (MB) is located in the central Peruvian Andes. Occasionally, cold episodes are observed during austral summer (January-March), that strongly damage crops. However, little is known about the causes and impacts of such cold episodes. The main goal of this study is thus to characterize cold episodes in the MB and assess their large-scale circulation and teleconnections over South America (SA) during austral summer. To identify cold events in the MB daily minimum temperature (Tmin) for the period 1958-2014 from Huayao station, located within the MB was used. A cold episode is defined when daily minimum temperature drops below its 10-percentile for at least one day. Additionally, to study the sensitivity between physical mechanisms associated with cold episodes and temperature, cold episodes are classified in three groups: Weak cold episodes (7.5 ≤ Tmin ≤ 10 percentile), strong cold episodes (Tmin ≤ 2.5 percentile), but excluding the 9 coldest events (Tmin ≤ 0 ͦ C), henceforth referred to as extraordinary cold episodes. Several gridded reanalysis were used to characterize the large-scale circulation, cloud cover and rainfall over SA associated with these events. Weak and strong cold episodes in the MB are mainly associated with a weakening of the Bolivian High-Nordeste Low system by tropical-extratropical interactions. Both types of cold episodes are associated with westerly wind anomalies at mid- and upper-tropospheric levels aloft the Peruvian Central Andes, which inhibit the influx of humid air masses from the lowlands to the east and hence limit the development of cloud cover (e.g., positive OLR anomalies over MB). The resulting clear sky conditions cause nighttime temperatures to drop, leading to cold extremes below 10-percentile. Simultaneously, northeastern Brazil (NEB) registers negative OLR anomalies, strong convection and enhanced cloud cover because displacement of the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ) toward the northeast of

  12. The Antarctic yeast Candida sake: Understanding cold metabolism impact on wine.

    PubMed

    Ballester-Tomás, Lidia; Prieto, Jose A; Gil, Jose V; Baeza, Marcelo; Randez-Gil, Francisca

    2017-03-20

    Current winemaking trends include low-temperature fermentations and using non-Saccharomyces yeasts as the most promising tools to produce lower alcohol and increased aromatic complexity wines. Here we explored the oenological attributes of a C. sake strain, H14Cs, isolated in the sub-Antarctic region. As expected, the cold sea water yeast strain showed greater cold growth, Na(+)-toxicity resistance and freeze tolerance than the S. cerevisiae QA23 strain, which we used as a commercial wine yeast control. C. sake H14Cs was found to be more sensitive to ethanol. The fermentation trials of low-sugar content must demonstrated that C. sake H14Cs allowed the cold-induced lag phase of growth to be eliminated and also notably reduced the ethanol (-30%) and glycerol (-50%) content in wine. Instead C. sake produced sorbitol as a compatible osmolyte. Finally, the inspection of the main wine volatile compounds revealed that C. sake produced more higher alcohols than S. cerevisiae. In conclusion, our work evidences that using the Antarctic C. sake H14Cs yeast improves low-temperature must fermentations and has the potential to provide a wine with less ethanol and also particular attributes.

  13. An approach for modelling snowcover ablation and snowmelt runoff in cold region environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dornes, Pablo Fernando

    Reliable hydrological model simulations are the result of numerous complex interactions among hydrological inputs, landscape properties, and initial conditions. Determination of the effects of these factors is one of the main challenges in hydrological modelling. This situation becomes even more difficult in cold regions due to the ungauged nature of subarctic and arctic environments. This research work is an attempt to apply a new approach for modelling snowcover ablation and snowmelt runoff in complex subarctic environments with limited data while retaining integrity in the process representations. The modelling strategy is based on the incorporation of both detailed process understanding and inputs along with information gained from observations of basin-wide streamflow phenomenon; essentially a combination of deductive and inductive approaches. The study was conducted in the Wolf Creek Research Basin, Yukon Territory, using three models, a small-scale physically based hydrological model, a land surface scheme, and a land surface hydrological model. The spatial representation was based on previous research studies and observations, and was accomplished by incorporating landscape units, defined according to topography and vegetation, as the spatial model elements. Comparisons between distributed and aggregated modelling approaches showed that simulations incorporating distributed initial snowcover and corrected solar radiation were able to properly simulate snowcover ablation and snowmelt runoff whereas the aggregated modelling approaches were unable to represent the differential snowmelt rates and complex snowmelt runoff dynamics. Similarly, the inclusion of spatially distributed information in a land surface scheme clearly improved simulations of snowcover ablation. Application of the same modelling approach at a larger scale using the same landscape based parameterisation showed satisfactory results in simulating snowcover ablation and snowmelt runoff with

  14. Terrestrial cold-desert analogs: Antarctic landforms and implications for regional glaciation on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, J. W.; Marchant, D. R.; Dickson, J. L.; Baker, D. M.; Mackay, S.; Lamp, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Antarctic Dry Valleys (ADV) are generally classified as a hyper-arid, cold-polar desert. The region has long been considered an important terrestrial analog for Mars because of its cold and dry climate and because it contains a suite of landforms at macro-, meso-, and microscales that closely resemble those occurring on the martian surface. The extreme hyperaridity of both Mars and the ADV has focused attention on the importance of salts and brines on soil development, phase transitions from liquid water to ice, and ultimately, on process geomorphology and landscape evolution at a range of scales on both planets. The ADV can be subdivided into three microclimate zones: a coastal thaw zone, an inland mixed zone, and a stable upland zone; zones are defined on the basis of summertime measurements of atmospheric temperature, soil moisture, and relative humidity. Subtle variations in these climate parameters result in considerable differences in the distribution and morphology of: (1) macroscale features (e.g., slopes and gullies); (2) mesoscale features (e.g., polygons, including ice-wedge, sand-wedge, and sublimation-type polygons, as well as viscous-flow features, including solifluction lobes, gelifluction lobes, and debris-covered glaciers); and (3) microscale features (e.g., rock-weathering processes/features, including salt weathering, wind erosion, and surface pitting). Equilibrium landforms are those features that formed in balance with environmental conditions within fixed microclimate zones. We report on our multi-year field and instrument analysis of four important ADV landforms: 1) sublimation polygons and relation to buried ice, 2) gullies and the environmental controls responsible for their episodic activity, 3) slope streaks, the role of water and brines in their formation and the timing of their activity, and 4) debris-covered glaciers and their three-dimensional geometry, mode and rates of formation. The relative geomorphic and climate stability for

  15. Anisotropic Impact Cratering on the Moon Observed in the Lunar Cold Spot Crater Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, J. P.; Bandfield, J.; Ghent, R. R.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Paige, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    Observations of nighttime regolith temperatures of the Moon by the Diviner Lunar Radiometer aboard LRO reveal anomalously cold surface temperatures correlated with recently formed impact craters indicating the impacts modified the thermal properties of the surrounding regolith to distances of 10-100 crater radii [1]. These "cold spots" appear to be common to all recent impacts and thus provide a way to identify the population of the most recent craters. A survey of the over 2000 craters associated with a cold spot using LROC images yields a size-frequency distribution of crater diameters that is consistent with the Neukum crater production function [2] with an inferred model retention-age 200,000 years. The density of craters is enhanced at longitudes corresponding to the apex of motion by a factor of 2 relative to longitudes centered at the antapex with an approximately sinusoidal decrease in crater density with angular distance from the apex. This distribution is likely the result of the systematic difference in impactor encounter velocities between the leading and trailing hemispheres of the Moon in synchronous rotation [3, 4] and is similarly observed in the population of bright rayed craters at larger sizes [5]. Contrary to this distribution, the largest cold spot craters (diameters > 800 m) appear to cluster on the far side of the trailing hemisphere between longitudes 110° to 180° E. Statistical analysis using the Rayleigh z test [6] indicates strong unimodal longitudinal directionality in the distribution with a 4% chance it occurred randomly. This may indicate the Moon was struck by a cluster of 100 m-scale impactors within the last 200 ka. [1] Bandfield, J., et al. (2011) JGR 116, E00H02. [2] Neukum, G., et al. (2001) SSR 96, 55-86. [3] Zahnle K et al. (2001) Icarus 153, 111-129. [4] Le Fleuvre, M., and Wieczorek, M. A. (2011) Icarus 214, 1-20. [5] Morota, T. and Furumoto, M. (2003) EPSL 206, 315-323. [6] Fisher, N. I. (1993) Statistical analysis of

  16. Modeling study of the impacts of inertial gravity wave forcing in middle atmosphere polar region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, B.; Liu, H.; Chu, X.

    2012-12-01

    The 'cold pole' problem refers to the cold bias of polar stratosphere temperature in the Southern Hemisphere in most general circulation models (GCMs) and chemistry climate models (CCMs) during the winter and spring. Accompanying the 'cold pole' is the excessively strong jet in the stratosphere and late vortex breaking. It is a long-standing problem in most models, implying the lack of wave forcing in the southern stratosphere. In current study we investigate the feasibility of using parameterized inertial gravity wave forcing to reduce the cold bias. The NCAR Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM 4.0) is used for this study. A new scheme that parameterizes inertial gravity waves is included in the WACCM. Although the inertial gravity waves are likely to break in the stratosphere and impact the middle atmosphere circulation, they are not well resolved by the model nor properly parameterized. Using the new gravity wave scheme, the simulated wintertime temperature is ~20 K warmer in the southern polar region while the simulated wintertime zonal wind jet is about 10 to 30 m/s slower than the originals. Also, the polar vortex in the Southern Hemisphere breaks earlier and the wind reversal level during spring is lower. All these changes make the WACCM simulations closer to ERA-40, suggesting that additional gravity waves are able to reduce the 'cold pole' bias.

  17. Remote sensing hydrology experiment in cold regions of the Heihe watershed allied telemetry experimental research (HiWATER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Tao; Li, Hongyi; Jin, Rui; Li, Xin; Liu, Shaomin; Ma, Mingguo; Wang, Weizhen; Huang, Chunlin; Kang, Jiang

    2017-04-01

    This presenation reports an integrated hydrological experiment which has the core objective to address the improvement of observations, utilities of remote sensing data, and modeling and assimilation of hydrological processes in cold regions. The distributed automatic meteorological stations (AMS), wireless sensors network (WSN), and runoff (including isotope) measurements were established to obtain the distribution and heterogeneity of near surface meteorological and hydrological variables in spatial and temporal. A snow observation superstation was set up to obtain the snow accumulation and ablation process in typical mountain region, while a frozen ground observation superstation was set up to obtain the water and heat balance in a typical seasonal frozen ground region. A large number of field measurements are designed to develop and validate the remote sensing data products, in particular the snow cover area (SCA) and snow cover fraction (SCF) and soil temperature and soil moisture. The integrated experiment will support the interdisciplinary research in cold regions.

  18. Flavor of cold-hardy grapes: impact of berry maturity and environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Pedneault, Karine; Dorais, Martine; Angers, Paul

    2013-11-06

    Since the arrival on the market of high-quality cold-hardy grape varieties, northern winemaking has been developing tremendously in countries traditionally unsuited for grape and wine production. Cold-hardy grapes are mainly interspecific hybrids of Vitis vinifera with Vitis labrusca and Vitis riparia , making their chemical composition distinct from that of V. vinifera varieties traditionally used for winemaking and therefore limiting the use of current knowledge about V. vinifera varieties in the assessment of grape maturity. Consequently, to evaluate the flavor development of cold-hardy grapes in the province of Quebec, Canada, the ripening of Frontenac and Marquette berries in two vineyards located in the southwest (SW) and northeast (NE) areas of the province, starting at the beginning of veraison, was studied. Quality attributes, phenolic compounds, and aroma profiles showed significant changes during maturation. Although full maturity was reached for both Frontenac and Marquette in the SW vineyard (1380 accumulated growing degree days, based on 10 °C), the accumulation of 1035 growing degree days was not sufficient to fully ripen Frontenac and Marquette in the NE vineyard. Principal component analysis showed different ripening patterns for the two studied locations. The longer veraison in the SW vineyard resulted in higher quality attributes and higher flavor development for both Frontenac and Marquette. Under the colder conditions in the NE vineyard, metabolite accumulation was driven primarily by berry growth, and flavor development was limited. Besides growing degree days and technological parameters (total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity), which provide significant guidelines for maturity assessment in cold climate, phenolic maturity may be followed by the accumulation of hydroxycinnamic esters and flavonoids, although the impact of these compound classes on quality remains to be determined in cold-climate wines. In both Frontenac and Marquette

  19. Correlation and causation in tree-ring-based reconstruction of paleohydrology in cold semiarid regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elshorbagy, Amin; Wagener, Thorsten; Razavi, Saman; Sauchyn, David

    2016-09-01

    This paper discusses ways in which the tree-ring-based reconstruction of paleohydrology can be better understood and better utilized to support water resource management, especially in cold semiarid regions. The relationships between tree growth as represented by tree ring chronologies (TRCs), runoff (Q), precipitation (P), and evapotranspiration (ET) are discussed and analyzed within both statistical and hydrological contexts. Data from the Oldman River Basin (OMRB), Alberta, Canada, are used to demonstrate the relevant issues. Instrumental records of Q and P data were available while actual ET was estimated using a lumped conceptual hydrological model developed in this study. Correlation analysis was conducted to explore the relationships between TRCs and each of Q, P, and ET over the entire historical record (globally) as well as locally in time within the wet and dry subperiods. Global and local correlation strengths and linear relationships appear to be substantially different. This outcome particularly affects tree-ring-based inferences about the hydrology of wet and dry episodes when reconstructions are made using regression models. Important findings include (i) reconstruction of paleo-runoff may not be as credible as paleo-precipitation and paleo-evapotranspiration; (ii) a moving average window of P and ET larger than 1 year might be necessary for reconstruction of these variables; and (iii) the long-term mean of reconstructed P, Q, and ET leads us to conclude that there is uncertainty about the past climate. Finally, we suggest using the topographic index to prejudge side suitability for dendrohydrological analysis.

  20. Optimum soil frost depth to alleviate climate change effects in cold region agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanai, Yosuke; Iwata, Yukiyoshi; Hirota, Tomoyoshi

    2017-03-01

    On-farm soil frost control has been used for the management of volunteer potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.), a serious weed problem caused by climate change, in northern Japan. Deep soil frost penetration is necessary for the effective eradication of unharvested small potato tubers; however, this process can delay soil thaw and increase soil wetting in spring, thereby delaying agricultural activity initiation and increasing nitrous oxide emissions from soil. Conversely, shallow soil frost development helps over-wintering of unharvested potato tubers and nitrate leaching from surface soil owing to the periodic infiltration of snowmelt water. In this study, we synthesised on-farm snow cover manipulation experiments to determine the optimum soil frost depth that can eradicate unharvested potato tubers without affecting agricultural activity initiation while minimising N pollution from agricultural soil. The optimum soil frost depth was estimated to be 0.28–0.33 m on the basis of the annual maximum soil frost depth. Soil frost control is a promising practice to alleviate climate change effects on agriculture in cold regions, which was initiated by local farmers and further promoted by national and local research institutes.

  1. Optimum soil frost depth to alleviate climate change effects in cold region agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Yanai, Yosuke; Iwata, Yukiyoshi; Hirota, Tomoyoshi

    2017-01-01

    On-farm soil frost control has been used for the management of volunteer potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.), a serious weed problem caused by climate change, in northern Japan. Deep soil frost penetration is necessary for the effective eradication of unharvested small potato tubers; however, this process can delay soil thaw and increase soil wetting in spring, thereby delaying agricultural activity initiation and increasing nitrous oxide emissions from soil. Conversely, shallow soil frost development helps over-wintering of unharvested potato tubers and nitrate leaching from surface soil owing to the periodic infiltration of snowmelt water. In this study, we synthesised on-farm snow cover manipulation experiments to determine the optimum soil frost depth that can eradicate unharvested potato tubers without affecting agricultural activity initiation while minimising N pollution from agricultural soil. The optimum soil frost depth was estimated to be 0.28–0.33 m on the basis of the annual maximum soil frost depth. Soil frost control is a promising practice to alleviate climate change effects on agriculture in cold regions, which was initiated by local farmers and further promoted by national and local research institutes. PMID:28322258

  2. Improving the understanding and diagnosis of Earth system changes in cold regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    I review key hydrological state variables and fluxes relevant to cold regions, specifically snow, permafrost and seasonally frozen soils, lakes, and wetlands, and comment on the ability of current models to represent the associated processes, and the quality of the data sets upon which model development and diagnosis efforts rest. Although snow processes are relatively well represented in current generation land surface models, at least at large scales for deep mountain snowpacks, the representation of high latitude snow processes remain complicated by the role of snow redistribution, and of sublimation during the shoulder (especially spring) season. Most credible land surface models now include representations of permafrost, some of which perform well when forced with local climate data; however their performance over large areas is limited by spatial variability of key processes, including soil thermal characteristics. Likewise, many land surface models now represent the hydrology and energetics of lakes, which cover a substantial portion of the landscape in many high latitude environs. However, accurate representation of lakes requires knowledge of certain characteristics of their bathymetry and hydrological connectivity, information which is not always available. Likewise, the representation of wetlands in models, although improved in many cases, is limited by topography (and the role of microtopography, even at large scales). Nonetheless, increased attention to high latitude hydrological processes has demonstrably improved the fidelity of land surface representations over the last decade or so.

  3. The Relationship Between Walkability and Environment Characteristics in Cold Region Cities: Case Study in Harbin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Yang; Fei, Teng; Mei, Hongyuan

    2017-05-01

    This study attempts to comprehensively and objectively understand whether the physical characteristic of urban space affect the walkability of Harbin city center. Besides, due to Harbin is located in the cold region, the temperature change a lot between winter and summer, this study also tried to find out whether the physical environment characteristics effect on walkability is different in winter and summer. Spatial feature and traffic management have been thought as the main determinate of walkability of urban space, however physical features and urban design details have been rarely mentioned. Yet, does physical quality deterioration of space decrease the walkability of urban center, does specific physical feature influence walkability differently in different season? To answer these question, users’ perception toward the physical features of mix-used streets, have been examined in this study. 14 physical characteristic problems have been identified in the studied area based on the understanding of pervious researches. Through observations and questionnaire surveys, the physical characteristics of each case study were evaluated and the physical problems were discovered. Additionally, users’ perception on the identified problems and their effects on walkability of the studied areas were found and defined, in both winter and summer.

  4. Changes in cold region flood regimes inferred from long-record reference gauging stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burn, Donald H.; Whitfield, Paul H.

    2017-04-01

    Variability and nonstationarity in flood regimes of cold regions are examined using data from hydrometric reference streamflow gauging stations from 27 natural watersheds in Canada and adjacent areas of the United States. Choosing stations from reference networks with nearly 100 years of data allows for the investigation of changes that span several phases of some of the atmospheric drivers that may influence flood behavior. The reference hydrologic networks include only stations considered to have good quality data and were screened to avoid the influences of regulation, diversions, or land use change. Changes and variations in flood regimes are complex and require a multifaceted approach to properly characterize the types of changes that have occurred and are likely to occur in the future. Peaks over threshold (POT) data are extracted from daily flow data for each watershed, and changes to the magnitude, timing, frequency, volume, and duration of threshold exceedences are investigated. Seasonal statistics are used to explore changes in the nature of the flood regime based on changes in the timing of flood threshold exceedences. A variety of measures are developed to infer flood regime shifts including from a nival regime to a mixed regime and a mixed regime to a more pluvial-dominated regime. The flood regime at many of the watersheds demonstrates increased prominence of rainfall floods and decreased prevalence of snowmelt contributions to flood responses. While some individual stations show a relationship between flood variables and climate indices, these relationships are generally weak.

  5. Assessing the performance of a cold region evapotranspiration landfill cover using lysimetry and electrical resistivity tomography.

    PubMed

    Schnabel, William E; Munk, Jens; Abichou, Tarek; Barnes, David; Lee, William; Pape, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    In order to test the efficacy ofa cold-region evapotranspiration (ET) landfill cover against a conventional compacted clay (CCL) landfill cover, two pilot scale covers were constructed in side-by-side basin lysimeters (20m x 10m x 2m) at a site in Anchorage, Alaska. The primary basis of comparison between the two lysimeters was the percolation of moisture from the bottom of each lysimeter. Between 30 April 2005 and 16 May 2006, 51.5 mm of water percolated from the ET lysimeter, compared to 50.6 mm for the the CCL lysimeter. This difference was not found to be significant at the 95% confidence level. As part of the project, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was utilized to measure and map soil moisture in ET lysimeter cross sections. The ERT-generated cross sections were found to accurately predict the onset and duration of lysimeter percolation. Moreover, ERT-generated soil moisture values demonstrated a strong linear relationship to lysimeter percolation rates (R-Squared = 0.92). Consequently, ERT is proposed as a reliable tool for assessing the function of field scale ET covers in the absence of drainage measurement devices.

  6. Optimum soil frost depth to alleviate climate change effects in cold region agriculture.

    PubMed

    Yanai, Yosuke; Iwata, Yukiyoshi; Hirota, Tomoyoshi

    2017-03-21

    On-farm soil frost control has been used for the management of volunteer potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.), a serious weed problem caused by climate change, in northern Japan. Deep soil frost penetration is necessary for the effective eradication of unharvested small potato tubers; however, this process can delay soil thaw and increase soil wetting in spring, thereby delaying agricultural activity initiation and increasing nitrous oxide emissions from soil. Conversely, shallow soil frost development helps over-wintering of unharvested potato tubers and nitrate leaching from surface soil owing to the periodic infiltration of snowmelt water. In this study, we synthesised on-farm snow cover manipulation experiments to determine the optimum soil frost depth that can eradicate unharvested potato tubers without affecting agricultural activity initiation while minimising N pollution from agricultural soil. The optimum soil frost depth was estimated to be 0.28-0.33 m on the basis of the annual maximum soil frost depth. Soil frost control is a promising practice to alleviate climate change effects on agriculture in cold regions, which was initiated by local farmers and further promoted by national and local research institutes.

  7. Processing of analogues of plume fallout in cold regions of Enceladus by energetic electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergantini, A.; Pilling, S.; Nair, B. G.; Mason, N. J.; Fraser, H. J.

    2014-10-01

    Context. Enceladus, a small icy moon of Saturn, is one of the most remarkable bodies in the solar system. This moon is a geologically active object, and despite the lower temperatures on most of its surface, the geothermally heated south polar region presents geysers that spouts a plume made of water (~90%), carbon dioxide, methane, ammonia, and methanol, among other molecules. Most of the upward-moving particles do not have the velocity to escape from the gravitational influence of the moon and fall back to the surface. The molecules in the ice are continuously exposed to ionizing radiation, such as UV and X-rays photons, cosmic rays, and electrons. Over time, the ionizing radiation promotes molecular bond rupture, destroying and also forming molecules, radicals, and fragments. Aims: We analyse the processing of an ice mixture analogue to the Enceladus fallout ice in cold resurfaced areas (north pole) by 1 keV electrons. The main goal is to search for complex species that have not yet been detected in this moon, and to determine relevant physico-chemical parameters, such as destruction and formation cross-sections and the half-life of the studied molecules in the ice. Methods: The experiment consisted of the electron irradiation of an Enceladus-like ice mixture (H2O:CO2:CH4:NH3:CH3OH) in an ultra-high vacuum chamber at 20 K. The analysis was made by infrared spectrometry in the mid-infrared region (4000-800 cm-1 or 2.5-12.5 μm). Results: The absolute dissociation cross-sections of the parent molecules, the formation cross-section of daughter species, and the half-life of the parental species in a simulated Enceladus irradiation scenario were determined. Among the produced species, CO (carbon monoxide), OCN- (cyanate anion), HCONH2 (formamide), and H2CO (formaldehyde) were tentatively detected.

  8. Assessing Oil Spill Impacts to Cold-Water Corals of the Deep Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLeo, D. M.; Lengyel, S. D.; Cordes, E. E.

    2016-02-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster and subsequent cleanup efforts resulted in the release of an unprecedented amount of oil and chemical dispersants in the deep waters of the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). Over the years, numerous detrimental effects have been documented including impacts to cold-water coral ecosystems. Assessing and quantifying these effects is crucial to understanding the long-term consequences to affected coral populations as well as their resilience. We conducted live exposure experiments to investigate the toxicity of oil and dispersants on two deep-sea corals, Callogorgia delta and Paramuricea type B3. For both species, the treatments containing dispersants had a more pronounced effect than oil treatments alone. In addition, RNA from unexposed and DWH spill-impacted Paramuricea biscaya was extracted and sequenced using Illumina technology. A de novo reference transcriptome was produced and used to explore stress-induced variations in gene expression. Current findings show overexpression of genes coding for Cytochrome p450 (CYP1A1), Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factors (TRAFs), Peroxidasin and additional genes involved in innate immunity and apoptotic pathways. CYP1A1 is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics and has been previously used as a diagnostic tool for aquatic pollution. TRAFs are responsible for regulating pathways involved in immune and inflammatory responses and were likewise overexpressed in thermally stressed shallow-water corals. Ribosomal proteins were also significantly underexpressed. These genes among others found in our expression data serve as useful biomarker candidates for assessing and monitoring future spill impacts as resource extraction continues in the deep waters of the GoM. Our results also provide insights into the responses of deep-sea corals to toxin exposure, implications of applying dispersants to oil spills and a novel reference assembly for a relatively under-studied group of cold-water corals.

  9. Impacts of hot and cold temperature extremes on hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davídkovová, H.; Kyselý, J.; Kříž, B.

    2010-09-01

    Elevated mortality associated with high ambient temperatures in summer represents one of the main impacts of weather extremes on human society. Increases in mortality during heat waves were examined in many European countries; much less is known about the effects of heat waves on morbidity, measured for example by the number of hospital admissions. Relatively less understood is also cold-related mortality and morbidity in winter, when the relationships between weather and human health are more complex, less direct, and confounded by other factors such as epidemics of influenza/acute respiratory infections. The present study examines links between hot and cold temperature extremes and daily hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases in the population of the Czech Republic over 1994-2007. We make use of a recently completed database of all admissions for cardiovascular diseases to hospitals in the area of the Czech Republic since 1994, with a detailed classification of diseases and detailed information concerning each patient (in total 1,467,675 hospital admissions over 1994-2007). The main goals of the study are (i) to identify excess/deficit morbidity during and after periods of heat waves in summer and cold spells in winter, (ii) to compare the links for individual diseases (e.g. acute myocardial infarction, I21; angina pectoris, I20; cerebral infarction, I63; brain ischemia, I64) and to identify those diagnoses that are most closely linked to weather, (iii) to identify population groups most vulnerable to temperature extremes, and (iv) to compare the links to temperature extremes for morbidity and mortality. Periods when morbidity data were affected by epidemics of influenza and acute respiratory infections in winter were excluded from the analysis.

  10. Common garden experiments to characterize cold acclimation responses in plants from different climatic regions.

    PubMed

    Malyshev, Andrey V; Henry, Hugh A L; Kreyling, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Cold acclimation is a crucial factor to consider in the context of ongoing climate change. Maladaptation with regard to frost damage and use of the growing season may occur depending on cold acclimation cues. Importance of photoperiod and preceding temperatures as cues needs therefore to be evaluated within (ecotypes) and among species. Common garden designs, in particular the (1) establishment of multiple common gardens along latitudinal/altitudinal gradients, (2) with in situ additional climate manipulations and (3) with manipulations in climate chambers are proposed as tools for the detection of local adaptations and relative importance of temperature and photoperiod as cues for cold adaptation. Here, we discuss issues in species and ecotype selection, establishment of common gardens including manipulations of temperature and photoperiod, and quantification of cold adaptation.

  11. A review of research in ``cold fusion`` and its impact on energy conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Hurtak, J.J.; Bailey, P.G.

    1995-12-31

    During the past six years, cold fusion enhancement through a variety of research techniques has grown at a rapid rate to the point where it now can be regarded as a major field of endeavor, a second generation heat transfer technology. Observations have been made of deuteron-deuteron (d-d) fusion at room temperature during low voltage electrolytic infusion of deuterons into metallic titanium or palladium electrodes. Neutrons with and energy of approximately 2.5 MeV were with a sensitive neutron spectrometer at a rate of 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} n/s, which cannot be accounted for by ambient-neutron background variations. These reactions have been known to yield an excited helium nucleus ({sup 4} He) with approximately 23.8 MeV excess energy, where d+d= {sup 4}He + energy. In most successful experiments, 1% to 50% more heat than the input of electric power into the electrolytic cells has been recorded. These experiments are being successfully repeated on an international basis. Some of these results and various theories proposed to explain this phenomena are presented. Possible applications of ``cold fusion`` technology are given, and its impact on energy conservation is discussed.

  12. On the Potential Impact of Daytime Surface Sensible Heat Flux on the Dissipation of Martian Cold Air Outbreaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segal, M.; Arritt, R. W.; Tillman, J. E.

    1997-01-01

    The Martian daytime soil surface temperature is governed primarily by the net irradiance balance and surface soil heat flux. Thus the outbreak of a cold air mass generates increased sensible heat flux that is conducive to daytime dissipation of the cold air mass thermal characteristics. Conceptual and scaling evaluations of this dissipation are provided while comparison is made with similar situations on Earth. It is estimated that sensible heat flux contribution to the dissipation of the original thermal structure of the cold air could be three times larger than the corresponding situation on Earth. Illustrative numerical model simulations provide scaling of the potential impact on the dissipation of cold air masses for various combinations of background wind speed and latitudes.

  13. Utilization of Titanium Particle Impact Location to Validate a 3D Multicomponent Model for Cold Spray Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faizan-Ur-Rab, M.; Zahiri, S. H.; King, P. C.; Busch, C.; Masood, S. H.; Jahedi, M.; Nagarajah, R.; Gulizia, S.

    2017-09-01

    Cold spray is a solid-state rapid deposition technology in which metal powder is accelerated to supersonic speeds within a de Laval nozzle and then impacts onto the surface of a substrate. It is possible for cold spray to build thick structures, thus providing an opportunity for melt-less additive manufacturing. Image analysis of particle impact location and focused ion beam dissection of individual particles were utilized to validate a 3D multicomponent model of cold spray. Impact locations obtained using the 3D model were found to be in close agreement with the empirical data. Moreover, the 3D model revealed the particles' velocity and temperature just before impact—parameters which are paramount for developing a full understanding of the deposition process. Further, it was found that the temperature and velocity variations in large-size particles before impact were far less than for the small-size particles. Therefore, an optimal particle temperature and velocity were identified, which gave the highest deformation after impact. The trajectory of the particles from the injection point to the moment of deposition in relation to propellant gas is visualized. This detailed information is expected to assist with the optimization of the deposition process, contributing to improved mechanical properties for additively manufactured cold spray titanium parts.

  14. Theoretical and Experimental Analyses of Molten Droplet Impact on Cold Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadeh-Birjandi, Elaheh; Kavehpour, H. Pirouz

    2016-11-01

    Spreading of liquid drop on cold solid substrates is a complicated problem that involves heat transfer, fluid dynamics, and phase change physics with the combination of complex wetting behavior of contact line. Many researchers are trying to obtain the final shape of the droplet or in other words the contact angle and radius of the drop after the solidification is complete. Understanding the physics behind the non-isothermal spreading of droplet is of utmost importance owing to its broad applications in diverse areas of industry. This work mainly focuses on obtaining important physical parameters involved in the process of spreading of molten droplets as well as controlling the post-solidification geometry of droplets. A complete set of experimental study is performed that shows the final radius in the case of free fall of droplet under high impact velocity is independent of the initial condition of the impact including the impact velocity and temperature gradients. The analytical modeling of the problem also verifies the accuracy of these results.

  15. Future Indonesia-East Timor Relations: An Analysis of the Regional Security Practices in the Cold War and After

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    Indonesia In the fourteenth century, long before the arrival of Dutch and Portuguese colonizers, the era of Majapahit rule the old Javanese Hindu...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. FUTURE INDONESIA -EAST TIMOR...from... to) ("DD MON YYYY") Title and Subtitle FUTURE INDONESIA -EAST TIMOR RELATIONS: AN ANALYSIS OF THE REGIONAL SECURITY PRACTICES IN THE COLD WAR

  16. Nursery culture impacts cold hardiness in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) seedlings

    Treesearch

    Anthony S. Davis; Amy L. Ross-Davis; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2011-01-01

    Success in restoring longleaf pine ecosystems depends on outplanting high-quality longleaf pine seedlings. One important and relatively understudied attribute of seedling quality is cold hardiness. A suite of trials was conducted to investigate the influence of common nursery cultural practices on longleaf pine cold hardiness. Cold hardiness was increased with higher...

  17. On improving cold region hydrological processes in the Canadian Land Surface Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganji, Arman; Sushama, Laxmi; Verseghy, Diana; Harvey, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Regional and global climate model simulated streamflows for high-latitude regions show systematic biases, particularly in the timing and magnitude of spring peak flows. Though these biases could be related to the snow water equivalent and spring temperature biases in models, a good part of these biases is due to the unaccounted effects of non-uniform infiltration capacity of the frozen ground and other related processes. In this paper, the treatment of frozen water in the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS), which is used in the Canadian regional and global climate models, is modified to include fractional permeable area, supercooled liquid water and a new formulation for hydraulic conductivity. The impact of these modifications on the regional hydrology, particularly streamflow, is assessed by comparing three simulations performed with the original and two modified versions of CLASS, driven by atmospheric forcing data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) reanalysis (ERA-Interim) for the 1990-2001 period over a northeast Canadian domain. The two modified versions of CLASS differ in the soil hydraulic conductivity and matric potential formulations, with one version being based on formulations from a previous study and the other one is newly proposed. Results suggest statistically significant decreases in infiltration and therefore soil moisture during the snowmelt season for the simulation with the new hydraulic conductivity and matric potential formulations and fractional permeable area concept compared to the original version of CLASS, which is also reflected in the increased spring surface runoff and streamflows in this simulation with modified CLASS over most of the study domain. The simulated spring peaks and their timing in this simulation are also in better agreement to those observed. This study thus demonstrates the importance of treatment of frozen water for realistic simulation of streamflows.

  18. Asphalt Concrete for Cold Regions, A Comparative Laboratory Study and Analysis of Mixtures Containing Soft and Hard Grades of Asphalt Cement,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    ilto n aggregate ................................................................................................. ... 4 4 . B razil test eq u ipm en...t .................................................................................................... 5 5. D iagram o f B razil test...80 B J1 DEMPSEY, J INGERSOLL, T CJOHNSON UNCLAS7SIFIED CRREL-80-5 N ’~EVEL. Asphalt concrete tor cold regions Cold DTIC o , ELECTE i i L MAR 2 5 1980

  19. Evaluating the impact of cold focal plane temperature on Aqua MODIS thermal emissive band calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yonghong; Wu, Aisheng; Wenny, Brian; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2015-09-01

    Aqua MODIS, the second MODIS instrument of the NASA Earth Observation System, has operated for over thirteen years since launch in 2002. MODIS has sixteen thermal emissive bands (TEB) located on two separate cold focal plane assemblies (CFPA). The TEB are calibrated using onboard blackbody and space view observations. MODIS CFPA temperature is controlled by a radiative cooler and heaters in order to maintain detector gain stability. Beginning in 2006, the CFPA temperature gradually varies from its designed operating temperature with increasing orbital and seasonal fluctuations, with the largest observed impacts on the TEB photoconductive (PC) bands. In Aqua Collection 6 (C6), a correction to the detector gain due to the CFPA temperature variation is applied for data after mid-2012. This paper evaluates the impact of the CFPA temperature variation on the TEB PC band calibration through comparisons with simultaneous nadir overpasses (SNO) measurements from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) and Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). Our analysis shows that the current L1B product from mid-2011 to mid-2012 is affected by the CFPA temperature fluctuation. The MODIS-IASI comparison results show that no drift is observed in PC bands over the CFPA temperature variation range. Similarly, in the MODIS-AIRS comparison, bands 31-34 show nearly no trend over the range of CFPA temperature while a slight drift in bands 35-36 are seen from the comparison results.

  20. Impact of changing trend in cold ischaemic time on operating times in renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Seow, Ying-Ying; Riad, Hany; Dyer, Philip

    2006-11-01

    The European Working Time Directive (EWTD) is calling for reduction in the working hours of doctors. Renal transplantation is well-recognised as an out-of-hours specialty. Our study looks at whether our renal transplant centre's attempt to reduce cold ischaemic time (CIT) has impacted on the pattern of operating times since this may have implications on the surgeons' working hours. We studied 883 adult cadaver kidney transplants performed between 1 January 1992 and 31 December 2002. CIT and time of surgery was obtained from a local audit database () and that held by UK Transplant. Time of surgery was divided into 07:30-17:59 (day),18:00-23:59 (evening) and 00:00-07:29 (night). CIT has decreased since 1992, with a significant reduction after 1998 (P = 0.0001). There was, however, no difference in the percentage of operations performed during the three time periods before and after 1998. Between 1999-2002, 51.4% of transplants took place out of hours (i.e. 18:00-07:29). Reduction in CIT does not appear to have impacted on our operating times. The large amount of out-of-hours work is, however, not compliant with EWTD requirements.

  1. Impact of cold on the immune system of burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides (Coleoptera: Silphidae).

    PubMed

    Urbański, Arkadiusz; Czarniewska, Elżbieta; Baraniak, Edward; Rosiński, Grzegorz

    2017-06-01

    Insect overwintering is one of the most astonishing phases of the insect life cycle. Despite vast amounts of knowledge available about the physiological mechanisms of this phenomenon, the impact of stress factors on insect immune system functioning during the winter is still unknown. The aim of this study is to analyze how low temperatures influence the immune system of the beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides. The results show that the beetle's immune system is differently modulated by cold induced in laboratory settings than that which occurs in natural conditions. Among beetles cultured in conditions similar to summer, low temperatures, did not influence the number of circulating haemocytes, phenoloxidase activity, haemocytes morphology, and percentage ratio of haemocyte types. In these beetles, differences were noted only in the ability of haemocytes to perform phagocytosis. Individuals acclimated in natural conditions in autumn had a higher level of humoral response and a different percentage ratio of haemocyte types. During the winter period, the number of haemocytes in the beetles decreased, but the percentage ratio of phagocytic haemocytes increased. Furthermore, we noted an increase of phenoloxidase activity. Our study also showed mitotic divisions of haemocytes in haemolymph collected from burying beetles after cold exposure and from burying beetles collected from natural conditions during autumn and winter. Differences in response to low temperatures in laboratory conditions and the natural environment suggest that the simultaneous presence of other stress factors during winter such as desiccation and starvation have a significant influence on the activity of burying beetle's immune system. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  2. The impact of heat, cold, and heat waves on hospital admissions in eight cities in Korea.

    PubMed

    Son, Ji-Young; Bell, Michelle L; Lee, Jong-Tae

    2014-11-01

    Although the impact of temperature on mortality is well documented, relatively fewer studies have evaluated the associations of temperature with morbidity outcomes such as hospital admissions, and most studies were conducted in North America or Europe. We evaluated weather and hospital admissions including specific causes (allergic disease, asthma, selected respiratory disease, and cardiovascular disease) in eight major cities in Korea from 2003 to 2008. We also explored potential effect modification by individual characteristics such as sex and age. We used hierarchical modeling to first estimate city-specific associations between heat, cold, or heat waves and hospitalizations, and then estimated overall effects. Stratified analyses were performed by cause of hospitalization, sex, and age (0-14, 15-64, 65-74, and ≥75 years). Cardiovascular hospitalizations were significantly associated with high temperature, whereas hospitalizations for allergic disease, asthma, and selected respiratory disease were significantly associated with low temperature. The overall heat effect for cardiovascular hospitalization was a 4.5% (95% confidence interval 0.7, 8.5%) increase in risk comparing hospitalizations at 25 to 15 °C. For cold effect, the overall increase in risk of hospitalizations comparing 2 with 15 °C was 50.5 (13.7, 99.2%), 43.6 (8.9, 89.5%), and 53.6% (9.8, 114.9%) for allergic disease, asthma, and selected respiratory disease, respectively. We did not find statistically significant effects of heat waves compared with nonheat wave days. Our results suggest susceptible populations such as women and younger persons. Our findings provide suggestive evidence that both high and low ambient temperatures are associated with the risk of hospital admissions, particularly in women or younger person, in Korea.

  3. The impact of pediatric labeling changes on prescribing patterns of cough and cold medications.

    PubMed

    Mazer-Amirshahi, Maryann; Rasooly, Irit; Brooks, Gill; Pines, Jesse; May, Larissa; van den Anker, John

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the impact of initiatives created by the pharmaceutical industry and the Food and Drug Administration to limit the use of over-the-counter (OTC) cough and cold medications (CCMs) in young children in emergency departments (EDs) and ambulatory clinics. Analysis of the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey was performed comparing 2005-2006 and 2009-2010 in children aged ≤ 12 years with a reason for visit consistent with cough or cold-related symptoms. Data were stratified by age (<2 years, 2-6 years, and 6-12 years). Descriptive frequencies and survey-weighted χ(2) tests were used to assess OTC and prescription CCM prescription rates in ED and ambulatory clinic settings. Comparing 2005-2006 and 2009-2010 revealed no changes in ED use of OTC CCMs; however, the use of prescription CCMs decreased, from 6.7% to 2.9% (P = .001). In ambulatory clinics, the overall rate of OTC CCM use increased from 6.3% to 11.1% (P = .001); however, use by children aged <2 years was unchanged. Prescription CCM use in EDs declined in all age groups, but in ambulatory clinics, decreases were significant only in patients aged <2 years. Implementation of pharmaceutical industry and Food and Drug Administration initiatives did not decrease the use of OTC CCMs in children aged <2 years in EDs or ambulatory clinics. The use of prescription CCMs was decreased in both settings, however. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Numerical Simulations of the High-Velocity Impact of a Single Polymer Particle During Cold-Spray Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Sagar; Lee, Jonghyun; Rothstein, Jonathan P.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, deposition of polymer powders was studied numerically for the cold-spray deposition technique. In cold spray, a solid particle is impacted on a substrate at high velocity. The deformation and heating upon impact have been shown to be enough to result in particle deposition and adhesion even without melting the particle. Here, a systematic analysis of a single high-density polyethylene particle impacting a semi-infinite high-density polyethylene substrate was carried out for initial velocities ranging between 150 and 250 m/s using the finite element analysis software ABAQUS Explicit. A series of numerical simulations were performed to study the effect of a number of key parameters on the particle impact dynamics. These key parameters include particle impact velocity, particle temperature, particle diameter, composition of the polyethylene particle, surface composition and the thickness of a polyethylene film on a hard metal substrate. The effect of these parameter variations on the particle impact dynamics were quantified by tracking the particle temperature, deformation, plastic strain and rebound kinetic energy. The trends observed through variation of these parameters provided physical insight into the experimentally observed window of deposition where cold-sprayed particles are mostly likely to adhere to a substrate.

  5. Impacts of wildfire smoke plumes on regional air quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Recent trends in increased frequency and severity of large fires necessitate an improved understanding of smoke plume impacts on regional-scale air quality and public health. Objective: We examine the impact of fire smoke on regional air quality between 2006 and 2013 ...

  6. Impacts of wildfire smoke plumes on regional air quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Recent trends in increased frequency and severity of large fires necessitate an improved understanding of smoke plume impacts on regional-scale air quality and public health. Objective: We examine the impact of fire smoke on regional air quality between 2006 and 2013 ...

  7. Characterization of cold hardiness in quince: potential pear rootstock candidates for northern pear production regions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The US pear industry lacks a size-controlling, precocious rootstock for pear production. Commercially available selections of quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) have been reported to possess insufficient cold tolerance for northern latitude sites. Fifty in-situ clonal quince accessions with diverse orig...

  8. Large Scale Observatories for Changing Cold Regions - Recent Progress and Future Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheater, H. S.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Carey, S. K.; DeBeer, C. M.

    2016-12-01

    Observatories are at the core of hydrological science and a critical resource for the detection and analysis of environmental change. The combination of multiple pressures on the water environment and new scientific opportunities provides a context where a broader vision is urgently needed. Human activities are increasingly affecting land and water management at multiple scales, so our observatories now need to more fully include the human dimensions of water, including their integration across jurisdictional boundaries and at large basin scales. And large scales are also needed to diagnose and predict impacts of climate change at regional and continental scales, and to address land-water-atmosphere interactions and feedbacks. We argue the need to build on the notable past successes of the World Climate Research Programme and move forward to a new era of globally-distributed large scale observatories. This paper introduces 2 such observatories in rapidly warming western Canada - the 405,000 km2 Saskatchewan and the 1.8 million km2 Mackenzie river basins. We review progress in these multi-scale observatories, including the use of point and small basin-scale observatory sites to observe and diagnose complex regional patterns of hydrological change. And building on new opportunities for observational systems and data assimilation, we present a vision for a pan-Canadian observing system to support the science needed for the management of future societal risk from extreme events and environmental change.

  9. Precise Landslide Displacement Time Series from Continuous GPS Observations in Tectonically Active and Cold Regions: A Case Study in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuddus, Y.; Wang, G.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past 15 years, Global Positioning System (GPS) has been frequently used as a scientific tool to detect potential earth mass movements and to track creeping landslides. In this study, we investigated four-years of continuous GPS data (September 2006-July 2010) recorded at a landslide site in Alaska. This GPS station (AC55) was installed on an un-identified creeping site by the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) project, which was funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation. The landslide moves with a steady horizontal velocity of 5.5 cm/year toward NEE, and had a subsidence rate of 2.6 cm/year. There was a considerable correlation between annual snow loading and melting cycles and seasonal variations of the landslide displacements. The seasonal movements vary year to year with an average peak-to-peak amplitude of 1.5 cm and 1.0 cm in horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. This study addresses three challenging issues in applying GPS for landslide monitoring in tectonically active and cold regions. The three challenges include (1) detecting GPS-derived positions that could be contaminated by the snow and ice accumulated on GPS antennas during cold seasons, (2) establishing a precise local reference frame and assessing its accuracy, and (3) excluding local seasonal ground motions from GPS-derived landslide displacements. The methods introduced in this study will be useful for GPS landslide monitoring in other tectonically active and/or cold regions.

  10. Widespread and rapid thermokarst development in a region of very cold continuous permafrost in the Canadian High Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farquharson, L. M.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Cable, W.; Walker, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    Climate warming in regions of ice-rich permafrost can result in widespread thermokarst development which can have drastic impacts on ecosystem processes and human infrastructure. Numerous studies have demonstrated that local permafrost degradation is occurring in areas of relatively "warm" permafrost, yet few have acknowledged nor documented the vulnerability of cold permafrost to degradation. In this study we present the first dataset coupling observations of ice-wedge degradation and thermokarst development with on-site continuous ground temperature data. We show evidence of widespread permafrost degradation at three monitoring sites underlain by continuous permafrost, in the Canadian High Arctic (73 to 79°N). Across all sites, the lack of a substantial organic protective layer makes the permafrost vulnerable to increases in summer temperature. At the start of our ground observation period, ice wedges at each site showed little to no evidence of degradation, suggesting that this recent disturbance is unprecedented during the Holocene. During the last decade, at all sites, we observed a warming trend for climate and ground temperature, leading to an increase in active layer depth, ice-wedge melting, and subsequent ground subsidence. Between 2005 and 2013, active layer depth increased at Isachsen, Mould Bay and Green Cabin by up to 20, 30, and 40 cm respectively. This lead to trough deepening at Green Cabin and new development followed by further deepening of troughs at Mould Bay and Isachsen. To measure elevation changes caused by thermokarst development, and establish a baseline for future monitoring, we used structure from motion (SfM) photogrammetry to derive a high spatial resolution digital terrain model at each site. Local distribution of thermokarst landforms were quantified using high-resolution spectral satellite imagery at an annual resolution between 2010 and 2015 and indicate that ice-wedge trough development is widespread within at least a 1 km

  11. Impact of cold O+ ions on the generation and evolution of EMIC waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omidi, N.; Bortnik, J.; Thorne, R.; Chen, L.

    2013-01-01

    We explore the effect of cool O+ ions (~11 eV) on the generation and nonlinear evolution of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in the magnetosphere, using hybrid (kinetic ions, fluid electrons) simulations with a dipolar magnetic field. The instability is driven by the temperature anisotropy of the hot (keV), ring current protons whose density is a few percent of the background plasma consisting of cold (eV) protons and O+ ions with concentrations varying between 0 and 30% of the cold protons. The results show that for O+ ion concentration of 7% or less, the properties of the EMIC waves are similar to those in the absence of O+ ions where waves are generated at low latitudes and propagate all the way to the ionospheric boundary. Further increases in O+ density (~15%) result in waves being confined in latitude due to processes explored in this paper. At O+ densities of 30% and higher, the growth of EMIC waves is weak or non-existent due to cyclotron resonant damping by the O+ ions. Comparing the results of the runs with no and 15% O+ ions shows that the propagation properties of the EMIC waves change dramatically in the presence of O+ ions. Specifically, they show that waves are propagating parallel and anti-parallel to the magnetic field in both hemispheres due to reflection at points that move to higher latitudes with time. This in turn results in the nonlinear generation of field aligned electrostatic waves with large perturbations in the density of the cold protons and O+ ions and also local heating of these ions. Examination of the wave properties also shows that EMIC waves are only present in regions of space where the density of the hot protons is larger than 1% of the background level. In other words, the propagation properties of the EMIC waves are controlled by the density of the hot protons. This finding is further confirmed by performing a test hybrid simulation in which hot protons reaching latitude of 22° are removed from the run resulting in

  12. [IMPACT OF LONG-TERM ADAPTATION TO COLD ON THE STATE OF CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM].

    PubMed

    Maslov, L N; Naryzhnaia, N V

    2015-05-01

    The inhabitancy in Far North increases a probability of development of coronary heart disease, acute myocardial infarction and arterial hypertension. Catecholamines and NO deficiency play a substantial role in the development of cold hypertension but are not involved in acclimatization cardiac hypertrophy. Data of in vivo experiments indicate in favor of an involvement of α-adrenergic receptors (ARs) in the mechanism of an appearance of cold hypertension. Cold acclimatization promotes an elevation of β3-AR density and decrease in β1-AR and β2-AR quantity on sarcolemma of cardiomyocytes. Experimental data indicate about the important role of aldosterone and angiotensin-II in the development of acclimatization hypertension. Catecholamines, aldosterone and angiotensin-II are not involved in cold hypertrophy of heart. Experimental data say on the important role of endothelin ETA-receptor in the formation of cold hypertrophy of heart and cardiofibrosis. Thyroid hormones play substantial role in the development of cold hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy.

  13. Blasting and Blast Effects in Cold Regions. Part 3. Explosions in Ground Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    Laboratory. The work was done under DA Project 4A762730AT42, Design, Construction, and Operations Technology for Cold Re,-ions; Task Area CS, Combat...strength. This can affect the economics of a large- the limited data for frozen materials have to be in- scale mining operation that is efficient...rocks and soils. dinary blasting operations for excavation and con- In this report, explosion effects in solid ground struction. materials are

  14. A reassessment of surface friction model for maximum cold fusion reactions in superheavy mass region

    SciTech Connect

    Fukushima, A.; Wada, T.; Ohta, M.; Nasirov, A.; Aritomo, Y.

    2007-02-26

    We have made a study on the capture process of 40,48Ca+ 208Pb systems with a dynamical approach based on the surface friction model. The deformation of the nuclei due to the mutual excitation is taken into account. We have calculated the capture cross sections for several values of the friction coefficients. It was shown that, in the cold fusion reactions, the friction parameters of the surface friction model needs to be reexamined.

  15. Bibliography on Cold Regions Science and Technology. Volume 40, Part 1, 1986

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    by the large stature of the plants, because of increased annual productivity of aenal parts, and by the deep green color of the leaves resulting...Wave propaga- tion. 40-335 Arctic hydro-climatic measurements and database— associate to the hydro-power Investigations In Green - land. Andersen...Simulated physical effects uf shallow soil heat extrac - tion. Lundin, L.-C, Cold rtgions science and tcchnulogy. July 1985, 11(1), p.45-61, 21 refs Soil

  16. Regional economic impacts of Grand Canyon river runners.

    PubMed

    Hjerpe, Evan E; Kim, Yeon-Su

    2007-10-01

    Economic impact analysis (EIA) of outdoor recreation can provide critical social information concerning the utilization of natural resources. Outdoor recreation and other non-consumptive uses of resources are viewed as environmentally friendly alternatives to extractive-type industries. While outdoor recreation can be an appropriate use of resources, it generates both beneficial and adverse socioeconomic impacts on rural communities. The authors used EIA to assess the regional economic impacts of rafting in Grand Canyon National Park. The Grand Canyon region of northern Arizona represents a rural US economy that is highly dependent upon tourism and recreational expenditures. The purpose of this research is twofold. The first is to ascertain the previously unknown regional economic impacts of Grand Canyon river runners. The second purpose is to examine attributes of these economic impacts in terms of regional multipliers, leakage, and types of employment created. Most of the literature on economic impacts of outdoor recreation has focused strictly on the positive economic impacts, failing to illuminate the coinciding adverse and constraining economic impacts. Examining the attributes of economic impacts can highlight deficiencies and constraints that limit the economic benefits of recreation and tourism. Regional expenditure information was obtained by surveying non-commercial boaters and commercial outfitters. The authors used IMPLAN input-output modeling to assess direct, indirect, and induced effects of Grand Canyon river runners. Multipliers were calculated for output, employment, and income. Over 22,000 people rafted on the Colorado River through Grand Canyon National Park in 2001, resulting in an estimated $21,100,000 of regional expenditures to the greater Grand Canyon economy. However, over 50% of all rafting-related expenditures were not captured by the regional economy and many of the jobs created by the rafting industry are lower-wage and seasonal. Policy

  17. QUANTITATIVE CHANGES IN REGIONAL CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW INDUCED BY COLD, HEAT AND ISCHEMIC PAIN: A CONTINUOUS ARTERIAL SPIN LABELING STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Frölich, Michael A.; Deshpande, Hrishikesh; Ness, Timothy; Deutsch, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Background The development of arterial spin labeling methods, has allowed measuring regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) quantitatively and to show the pattern of cerebral activity associated with any state such as a sustained pain state or changes due to a neurotropic drug. Methods We studied the differential effects of three pain conditions in ten healthy subjects on a 3T scanner during resting baseline, heat, cold and ischemic pain using continuous arterial spin labeling. Results Cold pain showed the greatest absolute rCBF increases in left anterior cingulate cortex, left amygdala, left angular gyrus, and Brodmann Area 6, and a significant rCBF decrease in the cerebellum. Changes in rCBF were characteristic of the type of pain condition: cold and heat pain showed increases, while the ischemic condition showed a reduction in mean absolute gray matter flow compared to rest. An association of subjects’ pain tolerance and cerebral blood flow was noted. Conclusions The observation that quantitative rCBF changes are characteristic of the pain task employed and that there is a consistent rCBF change in Brodman area 6, an area responsible for the integration of a motor response to pain, should provide extremely useful information in the quest to develop an imaging biomarker of pain. Conceivably, response in BA6 may serve as an objective measure of analgesic efficacy. PMID:22913924

  18. Regional, Rural Home ABE Program Spells Impact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vachon, Claude

    Maine's State Division of Adult Education began setting up a regionalized Adult Basic Education (ABE) program in rural Franklin county in 1974 to serve the area's functional illiterates. Located in the building housing the Franklin County Community Action Program (CAP), linkages were developed with a large number of agencies; initially the 10 CAP…

  19. Cold-Water Corals and Anthropogenic Impacts in La Fonera Submarine Canyon Head, Northwestern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Lastras, Galderic; Canals, Miquel; Ballesteros, Enric; Gili, Josep-Maria; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna

    2016-01-01

    We assess the occurrence and extent of cold-water coral (CWC) species Madrepora oculata and Dendrophyllia cornigera, as well as gorgonian red coral Corallium rubrum, in La Fonera canyon head (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea), as well as human impacts taking place in their habitats. Occurrence is assessed based on Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) video imaging. Terrain classification techniques are applied to high-resolution swath bathymetric data to obtain semi-automatic interpretative maps to identify the relationship between coral distribution patterns and canyon environments. A total of 21 ROV immersions were carried out in different canyon environments at depths ranging between 79 and 401 m. Large, healthy colonies of M. oculata occur on abrupt, protected, often overhanging, rocky sections of the canyon walls, especially in Illa Negra branch. D. cornigera is sparser and evenly distributed at depth, on relatively low sloping areas, in rocky but also partially sedimented areas. C. rubrum is most frequent between 100 and 160 m on highly sloping rocky areas. The probable extent of CWC habitats is quantified by applying a maximum entropy model to predict habitat suitability: 0.36 km2 yield M. oculata occurrence probabilities over 70%. Similar predictive models have been produced for D. cornigera and C. rubrum. All ROV transects document either the presence of litter on the seafloor or pervasive trawling marks. Nets and longlines are imaged entangled on coral colonies. Coral rubble is observed at the foot of impacted colonies. Some colonies are partially covered by sediment that could be the result of the resuspension generated by bottom trawling on neighbouring fishing grounds, which has been demonstrated to be responsible of daily increases in sediment fluxes within the canyon. The characteristics of the CWC community in La Fonera canyon are indicative that it withstands high environmental stress of both natural and human origin.

  20. Cold-Water Corals and Anthropogenic Impacts in La Fonera Submarine Canyon Head, Northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Canals, Miquel; Ballesteros, Enric; Gili, Josep-Maria; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna

    2016-01-01

    We assess the occurrence and extent of cold-water coral (CWC) species Madrepora oculata and Dendrophyllia cornigera, as well as gorgonian red coral Corallium rubrum, in La Fonera canyon head (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea), as well as human impacts taking place in their habitats. Occurrence is assessed based on Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) video imaging. Terrain classification techniques are applied to high-resolution swath bathymetric data to obtain semi-automatic interpretative maps to identify the relationship between coral distribution patterns and canyon environments. A total of 21 ROV immersions were carried out in different canyon environments at depths ranging between 79 and 401 m. Large, healthy colonies of M. oculata occur on abrupt, protected, often overhanging, rocky sections of the canyon walls, especially in Illa Negra branch. D. cornigera is sparser and evenly distributed at depth, on relatively low sloping areas, in rocky but also partially sedimented areas. C. rubrum is most frequent between 100 and 160 m on highly sloping rocky areas. The probable extent of CWC habitats is quantified by applying a maximum entropy model to predict habitat suitability: 0.36 km2 yield M. oculata occurrence probabilities over 70%. Similar predictive models have been produced for D. cornigera and C. rubrum. All ROV transects document either the presence of litter on the seafloor or pervasive trawling marks. Nets and longlines are imaged entangled on coral colonies. Coral rubble is observed at the foot of impacted colonies. Some colonies are partially covered by sediment that could be the result of the resuspension generated by bottom trawling on neighbouring fishing grounds, which has been demonstrated to be responsible of daily increases in sediment fluxes within the canyon. The characteristics of the CWC community in La Fonera canyon are indicative that it withstands high environmental stress of both natural and human origin. PMID:27182776

  1. [Acute impact of cold spells on mortality during 2001-2011 in Jiang'an district of Wuhan, China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y Q; Zhong, P R; Wu, R; Ye, B; Tian, X J; Zhu, C H; Ma, L

    2016-07-06

    .08-1.41). Cold spells were not significantly associated with respiratory mortality and people under 65 years of age; however, during the 2008 cold spell RR increased to 1.96 (95% CI: 1.62-2.37) and 1.67 (95% CI: 1.43-1.95) for cardiovascular mortality and older adults (≥65 years old), respectively; both males and females had high mortality risk, with RRs of 1.60 (95%CI:1.33-1.92) and 1.50 (95% CI: 1.23-1.84), respectively. The association between cold spells and mortality remained nearly unchanged with and without adjustment for ambient pollutants (PM10, SO2, and NO2) in the DLNMs. In Wuhan, both the 2008 cold spell and cold spells in other years were significantly associated with increased nonaccidental mortality. People with cardiovascular disease and elderly adults may be more susceptible to the impact of cold spells on mortality.

  2. The impact of winter cold weather on acute myocardial infarctions in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, João; Freire, Elisabete; Almendra, Ricardo; Silva, Giovani L; Santana, Paula

    2013-12-01

    Mortality due to cardiovascular diseases shows a seasonal trend that can be associated with cold weather. Portugal is the European country with the highest excess winter mortality, but nevertheless, the relationship between cold weather and health is yet to be assessed. The main aim of this study is to identify the contribution of cold weather to cardiovascular diseases within Portugal. Poisson regression analysis based on generalized additive models was applied to estimate the influence of a human-biometeorological index (PET) on daily hospitalizations for myocardial infarction. The main results revealed a negative effect of cold weather on acute myocardial infarctions in Portugal. For every degree fall in PET during winter, there was an increase of up to 2.2% (95% CI = 0.9%; 3.3%) in daily hospital admissions. This paper shows the need for public policies that will help minimize or, indeed, prevent exposure to cold.

  3. Impacts on regional climate of Amazon deforestation

    SciTech Connect

    Dickinson, R.E.; Kennedy, P. NCAR, Boulder, CO )

    1992-10-01

    A simulation of the climate response to Amazon deforestation has been carried out. Precipitation is decreased on the average by 25 percent or 1.4 mm/day, with ET and runoff both decreasing by 0.7 mm/day. Modifications of surface energy balance through change of albedo and roughness are complicated by cloud feedbacks. The initial decrease of the absorption of solar radiation by higher surface albedos is largely cancelled by a reduction in cloud cover, but consequent reduction in downward longwave has a substantial impact on surface energy balance. Smoke aerosols might have an effect comparable to deforestation during burning season. 8 refs.

  4. Bibliography on Cold Regions Science and Technology. Volume 52. Part 2,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-12-01

    tunnel model studies of roof snow loads resulting basin [1997, eng] 52-5537 52-5657 from multiple snowstorms [1997, eag] 52-318 Mitro France Michell , FL...P.FJ. Vachon ,P.W. Palaeolithic landscapes of Europe and environs, 150,000- Comment on "On the magnitude of transport out of the Satellite...Dependence of surface albedo in the Arctic on surface charae- [1997,eng] 52-1575 Plan now for cold-weather operation of cooling towers. Michell , teristics

  5. Impacts of extraordinary warm and cold late-winter temperatures on observed and modelled plant phenology in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutishauser, This; Stöckli, Reto

    2010-05-01

    The impact of gradual change in the climate system during the second half of the 20th century left a strong imprint on the timing of seasonal events in biotic and biotic systems such as e.g. plant development stages and the greenness of the Earth's surface. Temporal trends in seasonal events largely correspond to the effects expected from the increases in temperature. The impact of extraordinary temperature and precipitation events on plant phenology in spring is less understood. For example a strong early-spring frost event in the USA in April 2007 lead to reduced greenness and freeze damage to leaves and fruits of natural and horticultural species whereas a winter warming event in northern Scandinavia in December 2007 caused considerable damage to sub-Arctic dwarf shrub vegetation and reduced vegetation activity (26% reduced maximum Normalized Difference Vegetation Index NDVI relative to the previous year) in the following summer. In Germany and Switzerland, the effects of the extraordinary warm temperature anomalies of autumn 2006, winter 2006/2007 and spring 2007 showed strong impacts on selected plant phenological phases back to 1951 and 1702. Common hazel and snowdrop flowered up to 35 days earlier in Germany and beech and fruits tree were two weeks earlier in Switzerland. This contribution presents empirical evidence of extraordinary warm and cold late-winter temperatures on species-specific plant phenology and modelled landscape-scale phenology in Switzerland in the period 1958-2008. Species-specific observations were extracted from the Swiss Plant Phenological Network of MeteoSwiss for 23 low-altitude stations and 12 stations that report to the Global Climate Observation System (GCOS). Observations cover all climate regions and altitudes. For each GCOS station we also estimated daily Leaf Area Index with a prognostic phenology model. The model's empirical parameter space was constrained by assimilated Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation

  6. Potential Impacts of Climate Change in the Great Lakes Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change is projected to have substantial impacts in the Great Lakes region of the United States. One intent of this presentation is to introduce the Great Lakes Integrated Sciences and Assessments Center (GLISA), a recently-funded NOAA RISA center. The goals and unique organizational structure of GLISA will be described along with core activities that support impact and assessment studies in the region. Additionally, observed trends in temperature, precipitation including lake effect snowfall, and lake temperatures and ice cover will be summarized for the Great Lakes region, and vulnerabilities to, and potential impacts of, climate change will be surveyed for critical natural and human systems. These include forest ecosystems, water resources, traditional and specialized agriculture, and tourism/recreation. Impacts and vulnerabilities unique to the Great Lakes region are emphasized.

  7. Impact of cold ischemia on mitochondrial function in porcine hearts and blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, Dominik; Schachner, Thomas; Bonaros, Nikolaos; Dorn, Melissa; Andreas, Martin; Kocher, Alfred; Kuznetsov, Andrey V

    2013-11-07

    The effects of cold storage using Custodiol® (Histidine-Tryptophan-Ketoglutarate, HTK) or isotonic saline solution on mitochondrial function in hearts (left and rights ventricles) and various blood vessels of pigs were investigated. Hearts, saphenous veins, internal-mammary-arteries and aortas of male landrace pigs were harvested and exposed to cold ischemia in either saline or Custodiol-HTK solution. Mitochondrial function was measured in situ in permeabilized fibers by high-resolution respirometry. Mitochondrial respiratory capacities (maximal respiration rates) were similar in the right and left ventricle in controls and after 14 h of cold storage were significantly better preserved in Custodiol-HTK than in saline solution. Mitochondrial respiration rates in various blood vessels including aorta, arteries and veins were less than 5% of myocardium rates. In contrast to the pig heart, in some blood vessels, like veins, mitochondrial function remained stable even after 24 h of cold ischemia. HTK-Custodiol protection of mitochondrial function after prolonged cold ischemia was observed in the myocardium but not in blood vessels. HTK-Custodiol solution thus offers significant protection of myocardial mitochondria against cold ischemic injury and can be used as efficient preservation solution in organ transplantation but probably has no benefit for blood vessels preservation. Analysis of mitochondrial function can be used as a valuable approach for the assessment of cold ischemic injury in various tissues including pig heart and various blood vessels.

  8. Impact of Cold Ischemia on Mitochondrial Function in Porcine Hearts and Blood Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Wiedemann, Dominik; Schachner, Thomas; Bonaros, Nikolaos; Dorn, Melissa; Andreas, Martin; Kocher, Alfred; Kuznetsov, Andrey V.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of cold storage using Custodiol® (Histidine-Tryptophan-Ketoglutarate, HTK) or isotonic saline solution on mitochondrial function in hearts (left and rights ventricles) and various blood vessels of pigs were investigated. Hearts, saphenous veins, internal-mammary-arteries and aortas of male landrace pigs were harvested and exposed to cold ischemia in either saline or Custodiol-HTK solution. Mitochondrial function was measured in situ in permeabilized fibers by high-resolution respirometry. Mitochondrial respiratory capacities (maximal respiration rates) were similar in the right and left ventricle in controls and after 14 h of cold storage were significantly better preserved in Custodiol-HTK than in saline solution. Mitochondrial respiration rates in various blood vessels including aorta, arteries and veins were less than 5% of myocardium rates. In contrast to the pig heart, in some blood vessels, like veins, mitochondrial function remained stable even after 24 h of cold ischemia. HTK-Custodiol protection of mitochondrial function after prolonged cold ischemia was observed in the myocardium but not in blood vessels. HTK-Custodiol solution thus offers significant protection of myocardial mitochondria against cold ischemic injury and can be used as efficient preservation solution in organ transplantation but probably has no benefit for blood vessels preservation. Analysis of mitochondrial function can be used as a valuable approach for the assessment of cold ischemic injury in various tissues including pig heart and various blood vessels. PMID:24213604

  9. Improvement through low cost biofilm carrier in anaerobic tubular digestion in cold climate regions.

    PubMed

    Martí-Herrero, J; Alvarez, R; Rojas, M R; Aliaga, L; Céspedes, R; Carbonell, J

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this research is to evaluate the increase of biogas production with low cost tubular digesters in cold climates using PET rings inside the reactor. Two similar digesters have been operated and monitored in cold weather conditions and have been fed with cow manure. Digester 1 was filled with PET - rings as a biofilm carrier, Digester 2 was kept as a reference. Through the PET - rings the functional surface could be increased by a factor 4.2. The results show that 44% more biogas per Kg SV has been produced with the biofilm carrier in use (0.33 m(3)/kg SV) (reference digester -0.23 m(3)/kg SV), at an organic load rate of 0.26 kg SV/m(3)/d. The thermal performance shows that with an adaptation of the low cost tubular digester the slurry temperature can be raised up to 16.6°C (average) by surrounding temperature of 6.1°C (average) without using any active heating system.

  10. Impact of anaerobic oxidation of methane on the geochemical cycle of redox-sensitive elements at cold-seep sites of the northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yu; Feng, Dong; Liang, Qianyong; Xia, Zhen; Chen, Linying; Chen, Duofu

    2015-12-01

    Cold hydrocarbon seepage is a frequently observed phenomenon along continental margins worldwide. However, little is known about the impact of seeping fluids on the geochemical cycle of redox-sensitive elements. Pore waters from four gravity cores (D-8, D-5, D-7, and D-F) collected from cold-seep sites of the northern South China Sea were analyzed for SO42-, Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), δ13CDIC, dissolved Fe, Mn, and trace elements (e.g. Mo, U). The sulfate concentration-depth profiles, δ13CDIC values and (ΔDIC+ΔCa2++ΔMg2+)/ΔSO42- ratios suggest that organoclastic sulfate reduction (OSR) is the dominant process in D-8 core. Besides OSR, anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is partially responsible for depletion of sulfate at D-5 and D-7 cores. The sulfate consumption at D-F core is predominantly caused by AOM. The depth of sulfate-methane interface (SMI) and methane diffusive flux of D-F core are calculated to be ~7 m and 0.035 mol m-2 yr-1, respectively. The relatively shallow SMI and high methane flux at D-F core suggest the activity of gas seepage in this region. The concentrations of dissolved uranium (U) were inferred to decrease significantly within the iron reduction zone. It seems that AOM has limited influence on the U geochemical cycling. In contrast, a good correlation between the consumption of sulfate and the removal of molybdenum (Mo) suggests that AOM has a significantly influence on the geochemical cycle of Mo at cold seeps. Accordingly, cold seep environments may serve as an important potential sink in the marine geochemical cycle of Mo.

  11. Modelling and Analysis of Hydrodynamics and Water Quality for Rivers in the Northern Cold Region of China

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Gula; Zhu, Yunqiang; Wu, Guozheng; Li, Jing; Li, Zhao-Liang; Sun, Jiulin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the Mudan River, which is the most typical river in the northern cold region of China was selected as the research object; Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) was adopted to construct a new two-dimensional water quality model for the urban sections of the Mudan River, and concentrations of CODCr and NH3N during ice-covered and open-water periods were simulated and analyzed. Results indicated that roughness coefficient and comprehensive pollutant decay rate were significantly different in those periods. To be specific, the roughness coefficient in the ice-covered period was larger than that of the open-water period, while the decay rate within the former period was smaller than that in the latter. In addition, according to the analysis of the simulated results, the main reasons for the decay rate reduction during the ice-covered period are temperature drop, upstream inflow decrease and ice layer cover; among them, ice sheet is the major contributor of roughness increase. These aspects were discussed in more detail in this work. The model could be generalized to hydrodynamic water quality process simulation researches on rivers in other cold regions as well. PMID:27070631

  12. Modelling and Analysis of Hydrodynamics and Water Quality for Rivers in the Northern Cold Region of China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Gula; Zhu, Yunqiang; Wu, Guozheng; Li, Jing; Li, Zhao-Liang; Sun, Jiulin

    2016-04-08

    In this study, the Mudan River, which is the most typical river in the northern cold region of China was selected as the research object; Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) was adopted to construct a new two-dimensional water quality model for the urban sections of the Mudan River, and concentrations of COD(Cr) and NH₃N during ice-covered and open-water periods were simulated and analyzed. Results indicated that roughness coefficient and comprehensive pollutant decay rate were significantly different in those periods. To be specific, the roughness coefficient in the ice-covered period was larger than that of the open-water period, while the decay rate within the former period was smaller than that in the latter. In addition, according to the analysis of the simulated results, the main reasons for the decay rate reduction during the ice-covered period are temperature drop, upstream inflow decrease and ice layer cover; among them, ice sheet is the major contributor of roughness increase. These aspects were discussed in more detail in this work. The model could be generalized to hydrodynamic water quality process simulation researches on rivers in other cold regions as well.

  13. An integrated numerical framework for water quality modelling in cold-region rivers: A case of the lower Athabasca River.

    PubMed

    Shakibaeinia, Ahmad; Kashyap, Shalini; Dibike, Yonas B; Prowse, Terry D

    2016-11-01

    There is a great deal of interest to determine the state and variations of water quality parameters in the lower Athabasca River (LAR) ecosystem, northern Alberta, Canada, due to industrial developments in the region. As a cold region river, the annual cycle of ice cover formation and breakup play a key role in water quality transformation and transportation processes. An integrated deterministic numerical modelling framework is developed and applied for long-term and detailed simulation of the state and variation (spatial and temporal) of major water quality constituents both in open-water and ice covered conditions in the lower Athabasca River (LAR). The framework is based on the a 1D and a 2D hydrodynamic and water quality models externally coupled with the 1D river ice process models to account for the cold season effects. The models are calibrated/validated using available measured data and applied for simulation of dissolved oxygen (DO) and nutrients (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus). The results show the effect of winter ice cover on reducing the DO concentration, and a fluctuating temporal trend for DO and nutrients during summer periods with substantial differences in concentration between the main channel and flood plains. This numerical frame work can be the basis for future water quality scenario-based studies in the LAR.

  14. Bibliography on Cold Regions Science and Technology. Volume 51, Part 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    dam to be built in permafrost on the Mamakan River [1996, eng] 51-2984 Ageta,Y. Basic studies for assessing the impacts of the global warm- ing...from Sverdrup Island (Kara Sea) [1997, eng] 51-5007 Andreishkina,N.I. Caterpillar vehicle impact on tundra vegetation [1997, eng] 51-3391...eng] 51-2574 Environmental impact assessment for the Baydaratskaya Bay crossing of the Yamal-Wcst Europe gas pipeline system [1997, eng] 51-5693

  15. Impact of food model (micro)structure on the microbial inactivation efficacy of cold atmospheric plasma.

    PubMed

    Smet, C; Noriega, E; Rosier, F; Walsh, J L; Valdramidis, V P; Van Impe, J F

    2017-01-02

    The large potential of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) for food decontamination has recently been recognized. Room-temperature gas plasmas can decontaminate foods without causing undesired changes. This innovative technology is a promising alternative for treating fresh produce. However, more fundamental studies are needed before its application in the food industry. The impact of the food structure on CAP decontamination efficacy of Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes was studied. Cells were grown planktonically or as surface colonies in/on model systems. Both microorganisms were grown in lab culture media in petri dishes at 20°C until cells reached the stationary phase. Before CAP treatment, cells were deposited in a liquid carrier, on a solid(like) surface or on a filter. A dielectric barrier discharge reactor generated helium-oxygen plasma, which was used to treat samples up to 10min. Although L. monocytogenes is more resistant to CAP treatment, similar trends in inactivation behavior as for S. Typhimurium are observed, with log reductions in the range [1.0-2.9] for S. Typhimurium and [0.2-2.2] for L. monocytogenes. For both microorganisms, cells grown planktonically are easily inactivated, as compared to surface colonies. More stressing growth conditions, due to cell immobilization, result in more resistant cells during CAP treatment. The main difference between the inactivation support systems is the absence or presence of a shoulder phase. For experiments in the liquid carrier, which exhibit a long shoulder, the plasma components need to diffuse and penetrate through the medium. This explains the higher efficacies of CAP treatment on cells deposited on a solid(like) surface or on a filter. This research demonstrates that the food structure influences the cell inactivation behavior and efficacy of CAP, and indicates that food intrinsic factors need to be accounted when designing plasma treatment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Impact of bioenergy on regionalized nitrogen balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häußermann, Uwe; Klement, Laura; Bach, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Results of regionalized and overall net-N-balances are used to fulfil different reporting obligations, as well as input data for nitrate leaching modelling (Bach et al. 2014). For Germany, these regionalized net-N-balances are calculated for 402 administrative units on the NUTS-III-level (Landkreise and kreisfreie Städte in Germany), 16 administrative units on the NUTS-I-level (Bundesländer in Germany) and the whole country for every year from 1995 to 2015. The so far existing net-N-balancing method includes nitrogen inputs and outputs of crop production and animal husbandry, however, not the utilization of crops and farmyard manure for energy production (Bach et al. 2014). Due to the introduction of guaranteed feed in tariffs for electricity production from biomass by the German renewable energy law in 2000 and the introduction of more favourable conditions for electricity production from biogas in 2004 (EEG 2000, EEG 2004) in the frame of the German policy of energy transition towards renewable energies („Energiewende"), the electric capacity of biogas plants had a steep increase in the years afterwards, the installed electric capacity increased from 149 MW in 2004 to 5080 MW in 2015 (BMWi and AGEE Stat 2016). The cropping area for the production of energy cops for biogas production increased as well from 0.4 Mio ha in 2007 to 1.393 Mio ha in 2015 (Statista 2017). We introduced a method to calculate the nitrogen input via energy crops, farmyard manure and organic waste, output via biogas digestates and gaseous nitrogen losses via NH3, N2O, NOx and N2 during the anaerobic digestion, digestate storage and spreading on the field, the emission factors for these nitrogen species are obtained from the report on methods and data for the agricultural part of the German national greenhouse gas inventory and informative inventory report (Haenel et al. 2016). To obtain highly resolved information on the distribution and capacity of biogas plants on NUTS-III-level, we

  17. A comprehensive evaluation of high friction overlay systems on bridge decks in cold climate regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostick, Robert D.

    In recent history the Minnesota Department of Transportation has looked to improve the safety of bridge decks by installing high friction overlays (HFO). A comprehensive study researched four different proprietary HFO systems placed on fourteen bridge decks throughout Minnesota. Research was split into three separate tasks: (1) laboratory testing of aggregate properties, (2) field observations and testing, and (3) a comprehensive analysis of crash data investigated crash rates on bridges with HFO systems. Field observations and testing revealed that the use of snowplows quickly abrades HFO systems. Abrasion, among other factors, causes a reduction in surface friction values, and reduces the life of HFO systems. Furthermore, improving crash rate trends cannot be directly correlated to the installation of HFO systems. Research concludes that HFO systems should not be used in Minnesota. Other cold climate transportation agencies should conduct research emulated after this study to assess HFO systems in their jurisdiction.

  18. Bibliography on Cold Regions Science and Technology, Volume 45, Part 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    94 , enM 45-2653 On the use of brine and high-density immiscible liquis fo Lynch, DL acay D sryice removal (19,p.575-581, cog] liquis6fo 2-13 micron...parameters in a forced air stream [ 199 1, pt.383-393, eng] 45-9% Cold temperature properties of polymer-modified asphalt p. 1009-1017, eng] 45-3022 Palm ...and 1989 t1 99 1, 78p., nor3 45-3856 water (1 9 9 1, p.681 6 - 68 2 6, eng] 45.2776 1989. Data report E1 99 0 , 122p., eng3 451 Ost-eng, W. Palms , T

  19. The Changing Cold Regions Network: Atmospheric, Cryospheric, Ecological and Hydrological Change in the Saskatchewan and Mackenzie River Basins, Canada (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheater, H. S.; DeBeer, C.

    2013-12-01

    The cold interior of Northwestern Canada has one of the world's most extreme and varied climates and, as with other regions across the Arctic, is experiencing rapid environmental change. The Changing Cold Regions Network (CCRN) is a new Canadian research network devoted to addressing key challenges and globally-important issues facing the Arctic by improving the understanding of past and ongoing changes in climate, land, vegetation, and water, and predicting their future integrated responses, with a geographic focus on the Saskatchewan and Mackenzie River Basins. The network is funded for 5 years (2013-18) by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, and combines the unique expertise of 36 Canadian scientists representing 8 universities and 4 Federal government agencies, as well as 15 international researchers from the United States, China, Australia, the UK, France, and Germany. The network will also involve the World Climate Research Programme, NASA, the Canadian Space Agency, and the National Center for Atmospheric Research. CCRN will integrate existing and new experimental data with modelling and remote sensing products to understand, diagnose and predict changing land, water and climate, and their interactions and feedbacks, for Northwestern Canada's cold interior. It will use a network of world class observatories to study the detailed connections among changing climate, ecosystems and water in the permafrost regions of the Sub-arctic, the Boreal Forest, the Western Cordillera, and the Prairies. Specifically, the network will: 1. Document and evaluate observed Earth system change, including hydrological, ecological, cryospheric and atmospheric components over a range of scales from local observatories to biome and regional scales; 2. Improve understanding and diagnosis of local-scale change by developing new and integrative knowledge of Earth system processes, incorporating these processes into a suite of process-based integrative

  20. The impact of Atlas Mountain cold-pool events on the position and intensity of the summertime West African heat low

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Robert; Fink, Andreas H.; Knippertz, Peter; Marsham, John H.; Parker, Douglas J.; Flamant, Cyrille

    2014-05-01

    Recently discovered fluctuations of the summertime West African heat low on different time scales are still not fully understood, but of major importance for an improved prediction of the West African Monsoon system in weather and climate models. It has recently been demonstrated that the cold-pool outflows from convection form a significant component of the West African monsoon and that in a global model the failure to represent these adequately is a major cause of thermodynamic model-bias in the monsoon-ventilated heat-low region. Here we focus on the extratropical flank of the heat low, which often reaches to the Saharan foothills of the Atlas Mountains in Morocco and Algeria during the summer months. Strong, often orographically triggered convective events over the Atlas Mountains and at their southern flanks are a regularly observed feature during this time. Such events are often associated with evaporatively driven cold-pools, resulting in haboob dust storms in the Saharan Desert. The leading edge of these density currents can reach lengths of several hundreds to a thousand kilometres; its movement is visible on satellite images for up to twelve hours and affects the core region of the heat low. Significant amounts of moisture are transported into the desert this way and can lead to the production of new convective systems there. We use the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model driven by the operational analysis of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) to investigate the impact of these events on the positions and strength of the heat low in convection-permitting simulations. The aim is to improve the understanding of the involved processes and to quantify the errors that are expected in models that are not able to generate cold pools effectively due to their parametrisations of moist convection. The cases used for this study have been selected based on station measurements and on infrared as well as microwave satellite data

  1. Regional Economic Development Impact Model: Phase I Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-01

    A multiregional variable input-output (MRVIO) model is introduced to investigate the impact of a change in transportation costs on regional development and trade flows. The MRVIO model is a theoretically well-founded, practically useful, and policy sensitive model. The regional technical coefficients and the trade coefficients are endogenous variables to the MRVIO model. These coefficients are sensitive to the transportation costs as...transportation cost stimulates the regional development . However, its sensitivity differs among industries. (Author)

  2. Comparison of effects of cold-region soil/snow processes and the uncertainties from model forcing data on permafrost physical characteristics

    DOE PAGES

    Barman, Rahul; Jain, Atul K.

    2016-03-28

    Here, we used a land surface model to (1) evaluate the influence of recent improvements in modeling cold-region soil/snow physics on near-surface permafrost physical characteristics (within 0–3 m soil column) in the northern high latitudes (NHL) and (2) compare them with uncertainties from climate and land-cover data sets. Specifically, four soil/snow processes are investigated: deep soil energetics, soil organic carbon (SOC) effects on soil properties, wind compaction of snow, and depth hoar formation. In the model, together they increased the contemporary NHL permafrost area by 9.2 × 106 km2 (from 2.9 to 12.3—without and with these processes, respectively) and reducedmore » historical degradation rates. In comparison, permafrost area using different climate data sets (with annual air temperature difference of ~0.5°C) differed by up to 2.3 × 106 km2, with minimal contribution of up to 0.7 × 106 km2 from substantial land-cover differences. Individually, the strongest role in permafrost increase was from deep soil energetics, followed by contributions from SOC and wind compaction, while depth hoar decreased permafrost. The respective contribution on 0–3 m permafrost stability also followed a similar pattern. However, soil temperature and moisture within vegetation root zone (~0–1 m), which strongly influence soil biogeochemistry, were only affected by the latter three processes. The ecosystem energy and water fluxes were impacted the least due to these soil/snow processes. While it is evident that simulated permafrost physical characteristics benefit from detailed treatment of cold-region biogeophysical processes, we argue that these should also lead to integrated improvements in modeling of biogeochemistry.« less

  3. Comparison of effects of cold-region soil/snow processes and the uncertainties from model forcing data on permafrost physical characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barman, Rahul; Jain, Atul K.

    2016-03-01

    We used a land surface model to (1) evaluate the influence of recent improvements in modeling cold-region soil/snow physics on near-surface permafrost physical characteristics (within 0-3 m soil column) in the northern high latitudes (NHL) and (2) compare them with uncertainties from climate and land-cover data sets. Specifically, four soil/snow processes are investigated: deep soil energetics, soil organic carbon (SOC) effects on soil properties, wind compaction of snow, and depth hoar formation. In the model, together they increased the contemporary NHL permafrost area by 9.2 × 106 km2 (from 2.9 to 12.3—without and with these processes, respectively) and reduced historical degradation rates. In comparison, permafrost area using different climate data sets (with annual air temperature difference of ˜0.5°C) differed by up to 2.3 × 106 km2, with minimal contribution of up to 0.7 × 106 km2 from substantial land-cover differences. Individually, the strongest role in permafrost increase was from deep soil energetics, followed by contributions from SOC and wind compaction, while depth hoar decreased permafrost. The respective contribution on 0-3 m permafrost stability also followed a similar pattern. However, soil temperature and moisture within vegetation root zone (˜0-1 m), which strongly influence soil biogeochemistry, were only affected by the latter three processes. The ecosystem energy and water fluxes were impacted the least due to these soil/snow processes. While it is evident that simulated permafrost physical characteristics benefit from detailed treatment of cold-region biogeophysical processes, we argue that these should also lead to integrated improvements in modeling of biogeochemistry.

  4. The InterFrost benchmark of Thermo-Hydraulic codes for cold regions hydrology - first inter-comparison phase results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenier, Christophe; Rühaak, Wolfram

    2016-04-01

    Climate change impacts in permafrost regions have received considerable attention recently due to the pronounced warming trends experienced in recent decades and which have been projected into the future. Large portions of these permafrost regions are characterized by surface water bodies (lakes, rivers) that interact with the surrounding permafrost often generating taliks (unfrozen zones) within the permafrost that allow for hydrologic interactions between the surface water bodies and underlying aquifers and thus influence the hydrologic response of a landscape to climate change. Recent field studies and modeling exercises indicate that a fully coupled 2D or 3D Thermo-Hydraulic (TH) approach is required to understand and model past and future evolution such units (Kurylyk et al. 2014). However, there is presently a paucity of 3D numerical studies of permafrost thaw and associated hydrological changes, which can be partly attributed to the difficulty in verifying multi-dimensional results produced by numerical models. A benchmark exercise was initialized at the end of 2014. Participants convened from USA, Canada, Europe, representing 13 simulation codes. The benchmark exercises consist of several test cases inspired by existing literature (e.g. McKenzie et al., 2007) as well as new ones (Kurylyk et al. 2014; Grenier et al. in prep.; Rühaak et al. 2015). They range from simpler, purely thermal 1D cases to more complex, coupled 2D TH cases (benchmarks TH1, TH2, and TH3). Some experimental cases conducted in a cold room complement the validation approach. A web site hosted by LSCE (Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement) is an interaction platform for the participants and hosts the test case databases at the following address: https://wiki.lsce.ipsl.fr/interfrost. The results of the first stage of the benchmark exercise will be presented. We will mainly focus on the inter-comparison of participant results for the coupled cases TH2 & TH3. Both cases

  5. The InterFrost benchmark of Thermo-Hydraulic codes for cold regions hydrology - first inter-comparison results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenier, Christophe; Roux, Nicolas; Anbergen, Hauke; Collier, Nathaniel; Costard, Francois; Ferrry, Michel; Frampton, Andrew; Frederick, Jennifer; Holmen, Johan; Jost, Anne; Kokh, Samuel; Kurylyk, Barret; McKenzie, Jeffrey; Molson, John; Orgogozo, Laurent; Rivière, Agnès; Rühaak, Wolfram; Selroos, Jan-Olof; Therrien, René; Vidstrand, Patrik

    2015-04-01

    The impacts of climate change in boreal regions has received considerable attention recently due to the warming trends that have been experienced in recent decades and are expected to intensify in the future. Large portions of these regions, corresponding to permafrost areas, are covered by water bodies (lakes, rivers) that interact with the surrounding permafrost. For example, the thermal state of the surrounding soil influences the energy and water budget of the surface water bodies. Also, these water bodies generate taliks (unfrozen zones below) that disturb the thermal regimes of permafrost and may play a key role in the context of climate change. Recent field studies and modeling exercises indicate that a fully coupled 2D or 3D Thermo-Hydraulic (TH) approach is required to understand and model the past and future evolution of landscapes, rivers, lakes and associated groundwater systems in a changing climate. However, there is presently a paucity of 3D numerical studies of permafrost thaw and associated hydrological changes, and the lack of study can be partly attributed to the difficulty in verifying multi-dimensional results produced by numerical models. Numerical approaches can only be validated against analytical solutions for a purely thermic 1D equation with phase change (e.g. Neumann, Lunardini). When it comes to the coupled TH system (coupling two highly non-linear equations), the only possible approach is to compare the results from different codes to provided test cases and/or to have controlled experiments for validation. Such inter-code comparisons can propel discussions to try to improve code performances. A benchmark exercise was initialized in 2014 with a kick-off meeting in Paris in November. Participants from USA, Canada, Germany, Sweden and France convened, representing altogether 13 simulation codes. The benchmark exercises consist of several test cases inspired by existing literature (e.g. McKenzie et al., 2007) as well as new ones. They

  6. Intercomparison of Global Reanalyses and Regional Simulations of Cold Season Water Budgets in the Western United States

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Lai R.; Qian, Yun; Han, Jongil; Roads, John O.

    2003-12-01

    Estimating water budgets of river basins in the western U.S. is a challenge because of the effects of complex terrain and lack of comprehensive observational datasets. This study aims at understanding the uncertainty in estimating water budgets of the Columbia River (CRB) and Sacramento-San Joaquin (SSJ) River basins. An intercomparison was performed based on the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis I (NRA1), NCEP/DOE Reanalysis II (NRA2), ECMWF reanalyses (ERA), regional climate simulations produced by the Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5) and NCEP Regional Spectral Model (RSM), and two precipitation datasets gridded at 2.5 and 1/8 degree for seven years between 1986 and 1993 to study the effects of spatial resolutions, model configurations and parameterizations, and large-scale conditions on basin-scale water budgets. Results showed that overall, the regional simulations were superior in terms of simulating the spatial distributions of mean precipitation and precipitation anomalies compared to the global reanalyses. However, cold season precipitation was generally amplified through downscaling using the regional models such that basin mean precipitations were typically higher than the observed, while the opposite was true for the reanalyses. The amplification was the largest in the RSM simulation driven by NRA2, which showed the biggest difference between the large-scale and regional-scale basin mean precipitations. ERA and the MM5 simulation driven by ERA provided the best basin mean precipitation estimates when compared to the 1/8o observational dataset.

  7. Restriction to large-scale gene flow vs. regional panmixia among cold seep Escarpia spp. (Polychaeta, Siboglinidae).

    PubMed

    Cowart, Dominique A; Huang, Chunya; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie; Carney, Susan L; Fisher, Charles R; Schaeffer, Stephen W

    2013-08-01

    The history of colonization and dispersal in fauna distributed among deep-sea chemosynthetic ecosystems remains enigmatic and poorly understood because of an inability to mark and track individuals. A combination of molecular, morphological and environmental data improves understanding of spatial and temporal scales at which panmixia, disruption of gene flow or even speciation may occur. Vestimentiferan tubeworms of the genus Escarpia are important components of deep -sea cold seep ecosystems, as they provide long-term habitat for many other taxa. Three species of Escarpia, Escarpia spicata [Gulf of California (GoC)], Escarpia laminata [Gulf of Mexico (GoM)] and Escarpia southwardae (West African Cold Seeps), have been described based on morphology, but are not discriminated through the use of mitochondrial markers (cytochrome oxidase subunit 1; large ribosomal subunit rDNA, 16S; cytochrome b). Here, we also sequenced the exon-primed intron-crossing Haemoglobin subunit B2 intron and genotyped 28 microsatellites to (i) determine the level of genetic differentiation, if any, among the three geographically separated entities and (ii) identify possible population structure at the regional scale within the GoM and West Africa. Results at the global scale support the occurrence of three genetically distinct groups. At the regional scale among eight sampling sites of E. laminata (n = 129) and among three sampling sites of E. southwardae (n = 80), no population structure was detected. These findings suggest that despite the patchiness and isolation of seep habitats, connectivity is high on regional scales.

  8. Tree-Ring Proxies of Hydroclimate Variability in the Great Lakes Region during Cold Excursions Back to 15ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panyushkina, I. P.; Leavitt, S. W.

    2014-12-01

    A decade-long investigation of subfossil wood buried in glacio-fluvial, fluvial and lacustrine deposits from the U.S. Great Lakes region has resulted in a Great Lakes tree-ring network (GLTRN) comprising 47 sites dated from ca. 15 ka to 3ka. The GLTRN provides high-resolution proxies for exploration of local and regional responses to hydroclimate change at inter-annual scales during the transition from the Late Pleistocene to the Holocene. Classification of radiometric ages of GLTRN wood with relative cumulative-probability function delineates intervals and importance of hydrological changes in time and space. The overwhelming majority of wood burial events correlate with generally cold climate excursions. Forest-stand deterioration and tree mortality events at the studied sites are demonstrated to result from flooding, via river aggradation (identifying occurrence of extreme hydrologic events), rise of water table, or lake inundation. To better evaluate the special patterns of hydrological change back to 15ka, we developed four floating d13C chronologies from spruce tree rings. The length of these tree-ring proxy series that capture high-frequency moisture variability of the Great Lakes area ranges from 120 to 250 years. Our data indicate progressive wet intervals during the cold excursions precisely dated with 14C tree-ring wiggles at 13.7ka, 12.1ka, and 11.3ka that fall in the Bølling-Allerød and Pre-Boreal Interstadials, and Younger Dryas Stadial. The inter-annual and decadal variability of tree-ring moisture proxies are similar across the studied locations and time intervals. Such coherence of respective proxies may result from both local ecological stability of spruce communities or regional response to a common source of moisture at the studied time intervals and locations. This study demonstrates a potential of GLTRN proxies for modeling hydroclimatic changes at the North American continent back 15 ka.

  9. Distal Ejecta from Lunar Impacts: Extensive Regions of Rocky Deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandfield, Joshua L.; Cahill, Joshua T. S.; Carter, Lynn M.; Neish, Catherine D.; Patterson, G. Wesley; Williams, Jean-Pierre; Paige, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Diviner Radiometer, Mini-RF, and LRO Camera data were used to identify and characterize rocky lunar deposits that appear well separated from any potential source crater. Two regions are described: 1) A approximate 18,000 sq km area with elevated rock abundance and extensive melt ponds and veneers near the antipode of Tycho crater (167.5 deg E, 42.5 deg N). This region has been identified previously, using radar and aging data. 2) A much larger and more diffuse region, covering approximately 730,000 sq km, centered near 310 deg E, 35 deg S, containing elevated rock abundance and numerous granular flow deposits on crater walls. The rock distributions in both regions favor certain slope azimuths over others, indicating a directional component to the formation of these deposits. The spatial distribution of rocks is consistent with the arrival of ejecta from the west and northwest at low angles (approximately 10-30 deg) above the horizon in both regions. The derived age and slope orientations of the deposits indicate that the deposits likely originated as ejecta from the Tycho impact event. Despite their similar origin, the deposits in the two regions show significant differences in the datasets. The Tycho crater antipode deposit covers a smaller area, but the deposits are pervasive and appear to be dominated by impact melts. By contrast, the nearside deposits cover a much larger area and numerous granular flows were triggered. However, the features in this region are less prominent with no evidence for the presence of impact melts. The two regions appear to be surface expressions of a distant impact event that can modify surfaces across wide regions, resulting in a variety of surface morphologies. The Tycho impact event may only be the most recent manifestation of these processes, which likely have played a role in the development of the regolith throughout lunar history

  10. Distal ejecta from lunar impacts: Extensive regions of rocky deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandfield, Joshua L.; Cahill, Joshua T. S.; Carter, Lynn M.; Neish, Catherine D.; Patterson, G. Wesley; Williams, Jean-Pierre; Paige, David A.

    2017-02-01

    Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Diviner Radiometer, Mini-RF, and LRO Camera data were used to identify and characterize rocky lunar deposits that appear well separated from any potential source crater. Two regions are described: 1) A ∼18,000 km2 area with elevated rock abundance and extensive melt ponds and veneers near the antipode of Tycho crater (167.5°E, 42.5°N). This region has been identified previously, using radar and imaging data. 2) A much larger and more diffuse region, covering ∼730,000 km2, centered near 310°E, 35°S, containing elevated rock abundance and numerous granular flow deposits on crater walls. The rock distributions in both regions favor certain slope azimuths over others, indicating a directional component to the formation of these deposits. The spatial distribution of rocks is consistent with the arrival of ejecta from the west and northwest at low angles (∼10-30°) above the horizon in both regions. The derived age and slope orientations of the deposits indicate that the deposits likely originated as ejecta from the Tycho impact event. Despite their similar origin, the deposits in the two regions show significant differences in the datasets. The Tycho crater antipode deposit covers a smaller area, but the deposits are pervasive and appear to be dominated by impact melts. By contrast, the nearside deposits cover a much larger area and numerous granular flows were triggered. However, the features in this region are less prominent with no evidence for the presence of impact melts. The two regions appear to be surface expressions of a distant impact event that can modify surfaces across wide regions, resulting in a variety of surface morphologies. The Tycho impact event may only be the most recent manifestation of these processes, which likely have played a role in the development of the regolith throughout lunar history.

  11. Sulfur biogeochemistry of cold seeps in the Green Canyon region of the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formolo, Michael J.; Lyons, Timothy W.

    2013-10-01

    Cold seeps in the Gulf of Mexico provide a natural laboratory to study biogeochemical cycling of sulfur, carbon, and oxygen at hydrate- and hydrocarbon-rich deep marine settings with obvious additional relevance to studies of diverse modern and ancient seeps. Of particular interest are the sulfur isotope signatures of microbial sulfate reduction coupled to anaerobic oxidation of methane and other non-methane liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons. Whereas most of the published sulfur isotope data from cold seep systems pertain to pore-water species, our study integrates both solid and dissolved sulfur: acid-volatile sulfides (SAVS), pyrite (Spy), elemental sulfur (S°), dissolved sulfate and ΣH2S. Modeled and 35SO42- reduction rates and δ13C and δ18O data for authigenic carbonates are integrated within this sulfur framework. Our results indicate extreme variability over narrow spatial and temporal scales within short distances (meters) from active seeps. High rates of microbial sulfate reduction can lead to complete consumption of the sulfate within the upper few centimeters of burial, while meters away the sulfate profile shows little depletion. Such small-scale variability must reflect the structure and temporal dynamics of hydrocarbon migration in the presence of low amounts of background organic matter. Our past work demonstrated that electron donors other than methane drive significant levels of microbial activity at these seeps, and very recent work has demonstrated that oxidation of higher chain volatile hydrocarbons can contribute to the high levels of microbial activity. These findings are consistent with our new results. Elevated concentrations of pyrite and diagenetic carbonate relative to background sediments are diagnostic of active seepage, yet the S isotopes tell more complex stories. Low levels of the transient, 'instantaneous' products of S cycling-AVS and S°-show high δ34S values that increase with depth. Most of the pyrite formation, however, seems

  12. The evolution of high summit metabolism and cold tolerance in birds and its impact on present-day distributions.

    PubMed

    Swanson, David L; Garland, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    Summit metabolic rate (M(sum), maximum cold-induced metabolic rate) is positively correlated with cold tolerance in birds, suggesting that high M(sum) is important for residency in cold climates. However, the phylogenetic distribution of high M(sum) among birds and the impact of its evolution on current distributions are not well understood. Two potential adaptive hypotheses might explain the phylogenetic distribution of high M(sum) among birds. The cold adaptation hypothesis contends that species wintering in cold climates should have higher M(sum) than species wintering in warmer climates. The flight adaptation hypothesis suggests that volant birds might be capable of generating high M(sum) as a byproduct of their muscular capacity for flight; thus, variation in M(sum) should be associated with capacity for sustained flight, one indicator of which is migration. We collected M(sum) data from the literature for 44 bird species and conducted both conventional and phylogenetically informed statistical analyses to examine the predictors of M(sum) variation. Significant phylogenetic signal was present for log body mass, log mass-adjusted M(sum), and average temperature in the winter range. In multiple regression models, log body mass, winter temperature, and clade were significant predictors of log M(sum). These results are consistent with a role for climate in determining M(sum) in birds, but also indicate that phylogenetic signal remains even after accounting for associations indicative of adaptation to winter temperature. Migratory strategy was never a significant predictor of log M(sum) in multiple regressions, a result that is not consistent with the flight adaptation hypothesis.

  13. MODELING THE STAR-FORMING UNIVERSE AT z = 2: IMPACT OF COLD ACCRETION FLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Khochfar, Sadegh; Silk, Joseph

    2009-07-20

    We present results of a semianalytic model (SAM) that includes cold accretion and a porosity-based prescription for star formation. We can recover the puzzling observational results of low V/{sigma} seen in various massive disk or disk-like galaxies, if we allow 18% of the accretion energy from cold flows to drive turbulence in gaseous disks at z = 2. The increase of gas mass through cold flows is by itself not sufficient to increase the star formation rate sufficiently to recover the number density of M-dot{sub *}>120 M{sub odot} yr{sup -1} galaxies in our model. In addition, it is necessary to increase the star formation efficiency. This can be achieved naturally in the porosity model, where star formation efficiency scales {proportional_to}{sigma}, which scales as cloud velocity dispersion. As cold accretion is the main driver for gas velocity dispersion in our model, star formation efficiency parallels cold accretion rates and allows fast conversion into stars. At z {approx} 2, we find a space density 10{sup -4} Mpc{sup -3} in star-forming galaxies with M-dot{sub *}>120 M{sub odot} yr{sup -1}, in better agreement than earlier estimates from SAMs. However, the fundamental relation between M-dot{sub *} and M {sub *} is still offset from the observed relation, indicating the need for possibly more efficient star formation at high-z perhaps associated with a role for active galactic nucleus (AGN) triggering.

  14. Mass Balance of Stok Glacier in the Cold Arid Ladakh Region of Trans-Himalaya Using Temperature Index Model, and It's Reconstruction Since 1991-2016.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soheb, M.

    2016-12-01

    Glaciers in Ladakh region are very small yet they carry a lot of significance as they have a direct impact on the human society. Because of the arid climate, the glaciers and snow melt water is the only source for domestic and irrigation water use in the region. Ironically no study has been carried out in this region in terms of glacier mass balance and melt estimation so far. In 2015, mass balance study was started on Stok glacier located in Chhabe Nama basin of Zanskar Range, western Himalayas India. The glacier is a winter accumulation type glacier. It is the second largest glacier in the catchment and reserves around 20 % (0.023 Gt.) of ice where the ice reserve in the whole Stok village catchment is around 0.088 Gt. Sub-seasonal mass balance over entire ablation zone have been investigated for a period of over two months using direct glaciological method. During this period the ablation zone experienced a negative mass balance of -0.26 ± 0.40 m w.e. Temperature index model was used to reconstruct annual mass balance since 1999-2016. The model captured a negative glacier-wide mass balance over the entire period. The annual mass balances varied from -0.02 to -0.2 m w.e. with a cumulative mass balance of -0.94 and -1.38 m w.e. for 1991-99 and 2003-2016, respectively. The data scarcity is one of the major problem in this region, therefore temperature and precipitation data used is based on REMO model. The region is also losing mass despite of being in a cold and high altitude region, which can be attributed to the very low amount of annual precipitation (10 cm). However, the loss is comparatively lower than other glaciers in the southern part of western Himalayas. The study also reveals that ablation period in this region ends around a month earlier than other glaciers in the western Himalayas where ablation generally ends during early October. The retreat was different for each year but the retreat rate remained almost similar since 1991-2016. The retreat rate

  15. Project COLD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazanjian, Wendy C.

    1982-01-01

    Describes Project COLD (Climate, Ocean, Land, Discovery) a scientific study of the Polar Regions, a collection of 35 modules used within the framework of existing subjects: oceanography, biology, geology, meterology, geography, social science. Includes a partial list of topics and one activity (geodesic dome) from a module. (Author/SK)

  16. Arctic Oscillation impact on thermal regime of the Baltic region Eastern part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gecaite, Indre; Pogoreltsev, Aleksandr; Ugryumov, Aleksandr

    2016-04-01

    Statistical estimations of Arctic Oscillation (AO) impact on air temperature regime in the Eastern part of Baltic region are presented. The region is characterized by high inter-annual and inter-seasonal variabilities. It is important to note that in the region of global warming extremely low winter temperatures can be observed on the European territory of Russia. AO is one of large-scale global structures of atmospheric circulation closely associated with weather variability in Northern Europe. AO anomalies occur in the upper atmosphere (stratosphere) and only then transferred to tropospheric lower layers. The anomalies can be preserved during long period up to two months, so they can be predictors in long-range weather forecast. In turn, changes in stratospheric polar vortex and sudden stratospheric warmings can be related to the geomagnetic activity. Perhaps, the geomagnetic activity influences the meridional temperature gradient and then changes in the structure of the stratospheric zonal wind. In turn, the changes have an impact on the tropospheric circulation. The stratosphere-troposphere connection occurs during winter months. Therefore, the paper presents the analysis of extremely cold winter anomalies in the Eastern part of Baltic Sea region. At the same time, we considered atmospheric circulation peculiarities related to AO phase change. The analyzable time interval covers 1951-2014.

  17. Arctic Oscillation impact on thermal regime of the Baltic region Eastern part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gecaite, Indre; Pogoreltsev, Aleksandr; Ugryumov, Aleksandr

    2016-04-01

    Statistical estimations of Arctic Oscillation (AO) impact on air temperature regime in the Eastern part of Baltic region are presented. The region is characterized by high inter-annual and inter-seasonal variabilities. It is important to note that in the region of global warming extremely low winter temperatures can be observed on the European territory of Russia. AO is one of large-scale global structures of atmospheric circulation closely associated with weather variability in Northern Europe. AO anomalies occur in the upper atmosphere (stratosphere) and only then transferred to tropospheric lower layers. The anomalies can be preserved during long period up to two months, so they can be predictors in long-range weather forecast. In turn, changes in stratospheric polar vortex and sudden stratospheric warmings can be related to the geomagnetic activity. Perhaps, the geomagnetic activity influences the meridional temperature gradient and then changes in the structure of the stratospheric zonal wind. In turn, the changes have an impact on the tropospheric circulation. The stratosphere-troposphere connection occurs during winter months. Therefore, the paper presents the analysis of extremely cold winter anomalies in the Eastern part of Baltic Sea region. At the same time, we considered atmospheric circulation peculiarities related to AO phase change. The analyzable time interval covers 1951-2014.

  18. Tropical Storm Kyle (2002) and cold-air damming: their interactions and impacts on heavy rainfall in the Carolinas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Rivera, Jose M.; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Rastigejev, Yevgenii

    2016-06-01

    The interactions between an Appalachian cold-air damming event and the near passage of Tropical Storm Kyle (2002) along the coastal Carolinas are assessed by using a numerical weather prediction model. As the storm moved along the coastline, it began extra-tropical transition, bringing heavy rains to both the coastal region and inland towards the Piedmont of North Carolina. Our goal is to quantify the effects of both interacting weather systems on heavy precipitation to improve the dynamical understanding of such effects, as well as precipitation forecasts in the study region. A series of sensitivity tests were performed to isolate and quantify the effects of both systems on the total accumulated precipitation. It was found that (a) for this type of along-coast track, the pre-existing cold-air damming played only a minor role on the total accumulated precipitation, (b) the outer circulation of Kyle weakened the cold-air damming due to a redirection of the mean flow away from the east side of the Appalachian Mountains, and (c) the combination of Kyle with a shortwave mid- to upper-level trough and a surface coastal front were responsible for the heavy precipitation experienced in the study area through the advection of moisture, vorticity, and the forcing of upward motion.

  19. Simplifications of Simulation on Energy Balances and Estimations of a Hybrid Renewable Energy System for Use in Cold Climate Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akpan, Itoro Etim; Sasaki, Masafumi; Endoh, Noboru

    A simplified double grade meteorological data model for the simulation of the annual performance of a domestic-size renewable energy system is proposed. With the model, only two representative days (clearest and cloudiest) during each season of the year are necessary to estimate annual energy balances, carbon emissions and the running costs. The model was chosen in preference to other simplified models based on the error distributions from the results of the continuous simulations in a test period. Detailed numerical simulation studies show that the carbon emissions from the renewable energy system are about 16%of a comparable conventional system. The thermal energy produced by a solar collector during the winter season, however, is insufficient to meet all the loads so that frequent heat pump operations and the auxiliary boiler are necessary in cold climate regions.

  20. Cold War and the environment: the role of Finland in international environmental politics in the Baltic Sea region.

    PubMed

    Räsänen, Tuomas; Laakkonen, Simo

    2007-04-01

    The Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area signed in 1974 in Helsinki is probably the most important environmental agreement consummated in the Baltic Sea region. This article is the first study that explores the history of this agreement, also known as the Helsinki Convention, by using primary archival sources. The principal sources are the archives of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland. We examine the role of Finland in the process that led to the signing of the Helsinki Convention from the perspective of international politics. The study focuses primarily on Finnish, Swedish, and Soviet state-level parties from the end of the 1960s to 1974. We show that Cold War politics affected in several ways negotiations and contents of the Helsinki Convention. We also argue that the Soviet Union used the emerging international environmental issues as a new tool of power politics.

  1. Can constructed wetlands reduce the diffuse phosphorus loads to eutrophic water in cold temperate regions?

    PubMed

    Braskerud, B C; Tonderski, K S; Wedding, B; Bakke, R; Blankenberg, A-G B; Ulén, B; Koskiaho, J

    2005-01-01

    Construction of wetlands is a possible supplement to best management practices (BMP) at the field level to mitigate phosphorus (P) pollution from agricultural areas. In this paper, annual results from 17 intensively studied wetlands in the cold temperate or boreal climatic zone are reported and analyzed. Surface areas varied from 0.007 to 8.7% of the catchment area. The average total phosphorus (TP) retention varied from 1 to 88%, and the dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) retention from -19 to 89%. Retention varied substantially from site to site, indicating the existence of site-specific factors in the catchment and wetlands that influenced the P removal. Factors important for P retention in wetlands were evaluated through multiple statistical analyses by dividing P into two fractions: particulate phosphorus (PP) and DRP. Both relative (%) PP and DRP retention increased with wetland surface area. However, PP retention was not as sensitive as DRP in terms of wetland size and retention: specific PP retention (gram P retention per m(2) and year) decreased as wetland area (A(w)) increased, suggesting the existence of a site-specific optimal wetland to catchment area (A(c)) ratio. Particulate P retention decreased with increasing DRP to TP ratio, while the opposite was found for DRP. Dissolved reactive P retention was higher in new than in old wetlands, while increasing age did not influence PP retention negatively. Effective BMP in the catchment is important to keep the P loss low, because the outlet concentration of P from wetlands is often positively correlated to the input concentration. However, wetlands act as the last buffer in a catchment, since the retention often increases as the P concentration in streams increases.

  2. Separation of the lapse rate and the cold point tropopauses in the tropics and the resulting impact on cloud top-tropopause relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munchak, Leigh A.; Pan, Laura L.

    2014-07-01

    Four years of temperature profiles from Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate GPS satellite retrievals are used to examine the difference between the World Meteorological Organization lapse rate definition and the cold point definition of the tropopause in the tropics. The separation between the cold point tropopause (CPT) and lapse rate tropopause (LRT) heights is quantified in seasonal averages and with the frequency of occurrence. In seasonal averages, small separations, <0.5 km, are found in the deep tropics, increasing to ~1 km toward higher latitudes and maximizing at ~1.5 km near the jet streams. The seasonal average separations show significant longitudinal structures in the December-January-February (DJF) and June-July-August (JJA) seasons. Case studies indicate that breaking Rossby waves and their effects extending into the equatorial region are responsible for the longitudinal structure in the DJF season. The seasonal average CPT-LRT separation therefore identifies the regions of the tropical upper troposphere-lower stratosphere that are controlled by extratropical forcing. Examination of individual profiles shows that a small yet significant fraction (~12%) of temperature profiles has CPT-LRT separations of 1 km or larger in the region of small seasonal average separation. These large separations are produced by wave perturbations of the upper tropospheric temperature structure. The impact of tropopause separation on the cloud top-tropopause relationship is examined using colocated CALIPSO cloud top data. We find that the frequency of clouds above the tropopause is reduced by approximately 50% if the CPT is used instead of LRT. The occurrence of clouds above the CPT is nevertheless significant, especially over the western Pacific in the DJF season and over the Asian monsoon region in the JJA season.

  3. Impacts of climate change on mangrove ecosystems: A region by region overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, Raymond D.; Friess, Daniel A.; Day, Richard H.; MacKenzie, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Inter-related and spatially variable climate change factors including sea level rise, increased storminess, altered precipitation regime and increasing temperature are impacting mangroves at regional scales. This review highlights extreme regional variation in climate change threats and impacts, and how these factors impact the structure of mangrove communities, their biodiversity and geomorphological setting. All these factors interplay to determine spatially variable resiliency to climate change impacts, and because mangroves are varied in type and geographical location, these systems are good models for understanding such interactions at different scales. Sea level rise is likely to influence mangroves in all regions although local impacts are likely to be more varied. Changes in the frequency and intensity of storminess are likely to have a greater impact on N and Central America, Asia, Australia, and East Africa than West Africa and S. America. This review also highlights the numerous geographical knowledge gaps of climate change impacts, with some regions particularly understudied (e.g., Africa and the Middle East). While there has been a recent drive to address these knowledge gaps especially in South America and Asia, further research is required to allow researchers to tease apart the processes that influence both vulnerability and resilience to climate change. A more globally representative view of mangroves would allow us to better understand the importance of mangrove type and landscape setting in determining system resiliency to future climate change.

  4. Impact of the pathogen Pyrenophora semeniperda on Bromus tectorum seedbank dynamics in North American cold deserts

    Treesearch

    S. E. Meyer; D. Quinney; D. L. Nelson; J. Weaver

    2007-01-01

    Bromus tectorum is a dominant winter annual weed in cold deserts of western North America. We followed patterns of seed carry-over and abundance of the pathogen Pyrenophora semeniperda over 5 years at B. tectorum-dominated shadscale (Atriplex confertifolia) and sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) sites in southern Idaho. We hypothesised that more seeds could potentially...

  5. Geomembrane applications for controlling diffusive migration of petroleum hydrocarbons in cold region environments.

    PubMed

    McWatters, Rebecca S; Rutter, Allison; Rowe, R Kerry

    2016-10-01

    Laboratory permeation tests examine the migration of aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX)) at 2, 7 and 14 °C through three different types of geomembrane (high density polyethylene (HDPE), linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)). Tests on both virgin and exhumed field samples provide permeation parameters (partitioning (Sgf), diffusion (Dg), and permeation (Pg) coefficients) for the three geomembranes. These results are combined with published values for the same geomembranes at 23 °C to establish an Arrhenius relationship that can be used to estimate diffusion parameters at temperatures other than those for which tests were conducted. Tests on an HDPE geomembrane sample exhumed after 3 years from a landfill site in the Canadian Arctic showed no significant difference in diffusion characteristics compared to an otherwise similar unaged and unexposed HDPE geomembrane. Contaminant transport modeling for benzene through HDPE, LLPDE and PVC in a simulated landfill cover show that for the conditions examined the presence of any of the three geomembranes below the 2 m thick soil cover substantially reduced the contaminant flux compared to the soils alone for realistic degrees of saturation in the cover soil. For these same realistic cold climate cases, of the three geomembranes examined, the HDPE geomembrane was the most effective at controlling the contaminant flux out of the landfill. An increase in soil cover and liner temperature by 2 °C (from potential climate change effects) above those currently measured at an Arctic landfill showed an increase in contaminant transport through the cover system for all geomembranes due to the increase surface temperature (especially in the summer months). Modeling of the addition of an extra 0.5 m of soil cover, as a mitigation measure for the effects of climate change, indicates that the main benefit of adding this unsaturated soil was to reduce the

  6. Controlling Factors of the Surface Energy and Water Balances in cities located in cold climate regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Järvi, L.; Grimmond, S. B.; Christen, A.; McFadden, J. P.; Strachan, I. B.

    2016-12-01

    Urban effects on climate are often pronounced in winter due to large anthropogenic heat releases and differences in snow cover between urban and surrounding rural areas. In this study, we simulate energy and water balances in cities characterized by cold winter climates with snow. Eleven urban sites from Helsinki (Finland), Basel (Switzerland), Montreal (Canada) and Minneapolis (USA) are analysed. The sites were selected based on the availability of either measured turbulent fluxes (from eddy covariance) or surface runoff to be used for model evaluation. The sites vary with respect to land cover fractions, irrigation habits and population densities. For example, the plan area fraction of impervious surface varies from 5% in Minneapolis to 84% in Basel. To simulate urban energy and water balances, we use the Surface Urban Energy and Water balance Scheme (SUEWS) model, which has been designed to minimize the number of required input variables and model parameters. For each site, the model is run in an offline mode using measured hourly meteorological data with a time step of 5-min. As the modelled time periods range from one (Basel) to 7.5 years (Helsinki), a wide range of meteorological conditions occur. Our results show how both evaporation and surface runoff are highly dependent on the fraction of impervious surface cover (r > |0.8|) during snow-free periods. However, high year-to-year variability in simulated evaporation and runoff indicates that climatological factors are also important. In winter, the amount and duration of snow cover become import controlling factor in determining the two components of water balance. The shorter the snow cover period is, the larger the cumulative runoff tends to be. Thus, our results suggest that warmer winters with less snow will increase the stress on drainage systems and modify the urban ecosystem via changes in evaporation and Bowen ratio. Also, our results indicate that simply using the fraction of impervious or pervious

  7. Investigations of the impact of natural dust aerosol on cold cloud formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehler, K. A.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Demott, P. J.; Petters, M. D.; Prenni, A. J.; Möhler, O.

    2010-08-01

    Dust particles represent a dominant source of particulate matter (by mass) to the atmosphere, and their emission from some source regions has been shown to be transported on regional and hemispherical scales. Dust particles' potential to interact with water vapor in the atmosphere can lead to important radiative impacts on the climate system, both direct and indirect. We have investigated this interaction for several types of dust aerosol, collected from the Southwestern United States and the Saharan region. A continuous flow diffusion chamber was operated to measure the ice nucleation ability of the dust particles in the temperature range of relevance to cirrus and mixed-phase clouds (-65

  8. Spacecraft attitude impacts on COLD-SAT non-vacuum jacketed LH2 supply tank thermal performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arif, Hugh

    1990-01-01

    The Cryogenic On-Orbit Liquid Depot - Storage, Acquisition and Transfer (COLD-SAT) spacecraft will be launched into low earth orbit to perform fluid management experiments on the behavior of subcritical liquid hydrogen (LH2). For determining the optimum on-orbit attitude for the COLD-SAT satellite, a comparative analytical study was performed to determine the thermal impacts of spacecraft attitude on the performance of the COLD-SAT non-vacuum jacketed LH2 supply tank. Tank thermal performance was quantitied by total conductive and radiative heat leakage into the pressure vessel due to the absorbed solar, earth albedo and infra-red on-orbit fluxes, and also by the uniformity of the variation of this leakage on the vessel surface area. Geometric and thermal analysis math models were developed for the spacecraft and the tank as part of this analysis, based on their individual thermal/structural designs. Two quasi-inertial spacecraft attitudes were investigated and their effects on the tank performance compared. The results are one of the criteria by which the spacecraft orientation in orbit was selected for the in-house NASA Lewis Research Center design.

  9. Spacecraft attitude impacts on COLD-SAT non-vacuum jacketed LH2 supply tank thermal performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arif, Hugh

    1990-01-01

    The Cryogenic On-Orbit Liquid Depot - Storage, Acquisition and Transfer (COLD-SAT) spacecraft will be launched into low earth orbit to perform fluid management experiments on the behavior of subcritical liquid hydrogen (LH2). For determining the optimum on-orbit attitude for the COLD-SAT satellite, a comparative analytical study was performed to determine the thermal impacts of spacecraft attitude on the performance of the COLD-SAT non-vacuum jacketed LH2 supply tank. Tank thermal performance was quantified by total conductive and radiative heat leakage into the pressure vessel due to the absorbed solar, earth albedo and infra-red on-orbit fluxes, and also by the uniformity of the variation of this leakage on the vessel surface area. Geometric and thermal analysis math models were developed for the spacecraft and the tank as part of this analysis, based on their individual thermal/structural designs. Two quasi-inertial spacecraft attitudes were investigated and their effects on the tank performance compared. The results are one of the criteria by which the spacecraft orientation in orbit was selected for the in-house NASA Lewis Research Center design.

  10. EXPERIENCE IN REDUCING ELECTRON CLOUD AND DYNAMIC PRESSURE RISE IN WARM AND COLD REGIONS IN RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG, S.Y.; AHRENS,L.; ALLESI, J.; BAI, M.; BLASKIEWICZ, M.; CAMERON, P.; CONNOLLY, R.; DREES, A.; FISCHER, W.; GULLOTTA, J.; HE, P.; HSEUH, H.C.; HUANG, H.; LEE, R.; LITVINENKO, V.; MACKAY, W.W.; MONTAG, C.; NICOLETTI, A.; OERTER, B.; PILAT, F.; PTITSYN, V.; ROSER, T.; SATOGATA, T.; SMART, L.; SYNDSTRUP, L.; TEPIKIAN, S.; THIEBERGER, P.; TRBOJEVIC, D.; WEI, J.; ZENO, K.

    2006-06-23

    The large scale application of non-evaporable getter coating in RHIC has been effective in reducing the electron cloud. Since beams with higher intensity and smaller bunch spacing became possible in operation, the emittance growth is of concern. Study results are reported together with experiences of machine improvements: saturated NEG coatings, anti-grazing ridges in warm sections, and the pre-pumping in cryogenic regions.

  11. Regional Scale Analyses of Climate Change Impacts on Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, D. W.; Hayhoe, K.

    2006-12-01

    New statistically downscaled climate modeling techniques provide an opportunity for improved regional analysis of climate change impacts on agriculture. Climate modeling outputs can often simultaneously meet the needs of those studying impacts on natural as well as managed ecosystems. Climate outputs can be used to drive existing forest or crop models, or livestock models (e.g., temperature-humidity index model predicting dairy milk production) for improved information on regional impact. High spatial resolution climate forecasts, combined with knowledge of seasonal temperatures or rainfall constraining species ranges, can be used to predict shifts in suitable habitat for invasive weeds, insects, and pathogens, as well as cash crops. Examples of climate thresholds affecting species range and species composition include: minimum winter temperature, duration of winter chilling (vernalization) hours (e.g., hours below 7.2 C), frost-free period, and frequency of high temperature stress days in summer. High resolution climate outputs can also be used to drive existing integrated pest management models predicting crop insect and disease pressure. Collectively, these analyses can be used to test hypotheses or provide insight into the impact of future climate change scenarios on species range shifts and threat from invasives, shifts in crop production zones, and timing and regional variation in economic impacts.

  12. Minerals Strategic Impact on Regional Stability in Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-30

    explores the potential impact that gold, diamonds, and columbite - tantalite (coltan) has on regional stability in Africa. Recent studies indicate...market. The Importance/Attractiveness of Coltan The Democratic Republic of Congo holds 80% of the world’s reserve of colombo- tantalite ore, or coltan

  13. Impact of Geological Changes on Regional and Global Economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatiana, Skufina; Peter, Skuf'in; Vera, Samarina; Taisiya, Shatalova; Baranov, Sergey

    2017-04-01

    Periods of geological changes such as super continent cycle (300-500 million years), Wilson's cycles (300-900 million years), magmatic-tectonic cycle (150-200 million years), and cycles with smaller periods (22, 100, 1000 years) lead to a basic contradiction preventing forming methodology of the study of impact of geological changes on the global and regional economies. The reason of this contradiction is the differences of theoretical and methodological aspects of the Earth science and economics such as different time scales and accuracy of geological changes. At the present the geological models cannot provide accurate estimation of time and place where geological changes (strong earthquakes, volcanos) are expected. Places of feature (not next) catastrophic events are the only thing we have known. Thus, it is impossible to use the periodicity to estimate both geological changes and their consequences. Taking into accounts these factors we suggested a collection of concepts for estimating impact of possible geological changes on regional and global economies. We illustrated our approach by example of estimating impact of Tohoku earthquake and tsunami of March 2011 on regional and global economies. Based on this example we concluded that globalization processes increase an impact of geological changes on regional and global levels. The research is supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Projects No. 16-06-00056, 16-32-00019, 16-05-00263A).

  14. How global extinctions impact regional biodiversity in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shan; Davies, T. Jonathan; Gittleman, John L.

    2012-01-01

    Phylogenetic diversity (PD) represents the evolutionary history of a species assemblage and is a valuable measure of biodiversity because it captures not only species richness but potentially also genetic and functional diversity. Preserving PD could be critical for maintaining the functional integrity of the world's ecosystems, and species extinction will have a large impact on ecosystems in areas where the ecosystem cost per species extinction is high. Here, we show that impacts from global extinctions are linked to spatial location. Using a phylogeny of all mammals, we compare regional losses of PD against a model of random extinction. At regional scales, losses differ dramatically: several biodiversity hotspots in southern Asia and Amazonia will lose an unexpectedly large proportion of PD. Global analyses may therefore underestimate the impacts of extinction on ecosystem processes and function because they occur at finer spatial scales within the context of natural biogeography. PMID:21957091

  15. Emission metrics for quantifying regional climate impacts of aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, Marianne T.; Aamaas, Borgar; Berntsen, Terje; Bock, Lisa; Burkhardt, Ulrike; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Shine, Keith P.

    2017-07-01

    This study examines the impacts of emissions from aviation in six source regions on global and regional temperatures. We consider the NOx-induced impacts on ozone and methane, aerosols and contrail-cirrus formation and calculate the global and regional emission metrics global warming potential (GWP), global temperature change potential (GTP) and absolute regional temperature change potential (ARTP). The GWPs and GTPs vary by a factor of 2-4 between source regions. We find the highest aviation aerosol metric values for South Asian emissions, while contrail-cirrus metrics are higher for Europe and North America, where contrail formation is prevalent, and South America plus Africa, where the optical depth is large once contrails form. The ARTP illustrate important differences in the latitudinal patterns of radiative forcing (RF) and temperature response: the temperature response in a given latitude band can be considerably stronger than suggested by the RF in that band, also emphasizing the importance of large-scale circulation impacts. To place our metrics in context, we quantify temperature change in four broad latitude bands following 1 year of emissions from present-day aviation, including CO2. Aviation over North America and Europe causes the largest net warming impact in all latitude bands, reflecting the higher air traffic activity in these regions. Contrail cirrus gives the largest warming contribution in the short term, but remain important at about 15 % of the CO2 impact in several regions even after 100 years. Our results also illustrate both the short- and long-term impacts of CO2: while CO2 becomes dominant on longer timescales, it also gives a notable warming contribution already 20 years after the emission. Our emission metrics can be further used to estimate regional temperature change under alternative aviation emission scenarios. A first evaluation of the ARTP in the context of aviation suggests that further work to account for vertical sensitivities

  16. Characteristics of organic soil in black spruce forests: Implications for the application of land surface and ecosystem models in cold regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yi, S.; Manies, K.; Harden, J.; McGuire, A.D.

    2009-01-01

    Soil organic layers (OL) play an important role in landatmosphere exchanges of water, energy and carbon in cold environments. The proper implementation of OL in land surface and ecosystem models is important for predicting dynamic responses to climate warming. Based on the analysis of OL samples of black spruce (Picea mariana), we recommend that implementation of OL for cold regions modeling: (1) use three general organic horizon types (live, fibrous, and amorphous) to represent vertical soil heterogeneity; (2) implement dynamics of OL over the course of disturbance, as there are significant differences of OL thickness between young and mature stands; and (3) use two broad drainage classes to characterize spatial heterogeneity, as there are significant differences in OL thickness between dry and wet sites. Implementation of these suggestions into models has the potential to substantially improve how OL dynamics influence variability in surface temperature and soil moisture in cold regions. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophys.ical Union.

  17. Arctic-North Pacific Coupled Impacts on the Late Autumn Cold in North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sung, Mi-Kyung; Kim, Baek-Min; Baik, Eun-Hyuk; Lim, Young-Kwon; Kim, Seong-Joong

    2016-01-01

    The Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) is known to bring an anomalously cold (warm) period to southeastern (northwestern) North America during the cold season of its positive phase through a Rossby wave linkage. This study provides evidence that the remote connection between the North Pacific and the downstream temperature over central North America is strengthened by the warm arctic conditions over the Chukchi and East Siberian Sea, especially in the late autumn season. The modulation effect of the Arctic manifests itself as an altered Rossby wave response to a transient vorticity forcing that results from an equatorward storm track shift, which is induced collaboratively by the PDO and the warm Arctic. This observational finding is supported by two independent modeling experiments: 1) an idealized coupled GCM experiment being nudged toward the warm arctic surface condition and 2) a simple stationary wave model (SWM) experiment forced by transient eddy forcing.

  18. Diversity and cold adaptation of culturable endophytic fungi from bryophytes in the Fildes Region, King George Island, maritime Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Liu, Hong-Yu; Wei, Yu-Zhen; Li, Hai-Long; Su, Jing; Zhao, Li-Xun; Yu, Li-Yan

    2013-04-01

    Endophytic fungi associated with three bryophyte species in the Fildes Region, King George Island, maritime Antarctica, that is, the liverwort Barbilophozia hatcheri, the mosses Chorisodontium aciphyllum and Sanionia uncinata, were studied by culture-dependent method. A total of 128 endophytic fungi were isolated from 1329 tissue segments of 14 samples. The colonization rate of endophytic fungi in three bryophytes species were 12.3%, 12.1%, and 8.7%, respectively. These isolates were identified to 21 taxa, with 15 Ascomycota, 5 Basidiomycota, and 1 unidentified fungus, based on morphological characteristics and sequence analyses of ITS region and D1/D2 domain. The dominant fungal endophyte was Hyaloscyphaceae sp. in B. hatcheri, Rhizoscyphus sp. in C. aciphyllum, and one unidentified fungus in S. uncinata; and their relative frequencies were 33.3%, 32.1%, and 80.0%, respectively. Furthermore, different Shannon-Weiner diversity indices (0.91-1.99) for endophytic fungi and low endophytic fungal composition similarities (0.19-0.40) were found in three bryophyte species. Growth temperature tests indicated that 21 taxa belong to psychrophiles (9), psychrotrophs (11), and mesophile (1). The results herein demonstrate that the Antarctic bryophytes are an interesting source of fungal endophytes and the endophytic fungal composition is different among the bryophyte species, and suggest that these fungal endophytes are adapted to cold stress in Antarctica.

  19. Lidar Temperature Measurements During the SOLVE Campaign and the Absence of PSCs from Regions of Very Cold Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burris, John; McGee, Thomas; Hoegy, Walt; Newman, Paul; Lait, Leslie; Twigg, Laurence; Sumnicht, Grant; Heaps, William; Hostetler, Chris; Neuber, Roland; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Airborne Raman Ozone, Temperature and Aerosol Lidar (AROTEL) measured extremely cold temperatures during all three deployments (December 1-16, 1999, January 14-29, 2000 and February 27-March 15, 2000) of the Sage III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE). Temperatures were significantly below values observed in previous years with large regions regularly below 191 K and frequent temperature retrievals yielding values at or below 187 K. Temperatures well below the saturation point of type I polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) were regularly encountered but their presence was not well correlated with PSCs observed by the NASA Langley Research Center's Aerosol Lidar co-located with AROTEL. Temperature measurements by meteorological sondes launched within areas traversed by the DC-8 showed minimum temperatures consistent in time and vertical extent with those derived from AROTEL data. Calculations to establish whether PSCs could exist at measured AROTEL temperatures and observed mixing ratios of nitric acid and water vapor showed large regions favorable to PSC formation. On several occasions measured AROTEL temperatures up to 10 K below the NAT saturation temperature were insufficient to produce PSCs even though measured values of nitric acid and water were sufficient for their formation.

  20. Transboundary impacts on regional ground water modeling in Texas.

    PubMed

    Rainwater, Ken; Stovall, Jeff; Frailey, Scott; Urban, Lloyd

    2005-01-01

    Recent legislation required regional grassroots water resources planning across the entire state of Texas. The Texas Water Development Board (TWDB), the state's primary water resource planning agency, divided the state into 16 planning regions. Each planning group developed plans to manage both ground water and surface water sources and to meet future demands of various combinations of domestic, agricultural, municipal, and industrial water consumers. This presentation describes the challenges in developing a ground water model for the Llano Estacado Regional Water Planning Group (LERWPG), whose region includes 21 counties in the Southern High Plains of Texas. While surface water is supplied to several cities in this region, the vast majority of the regional water use comes from the High Plains aquifer system, often locally referred to as the Ogallala Aquifer. Over 95% of the ground water demand is for irrigated agriculture. The LERWPG had to predict the impact of future TWDB-projected water demands, as provided by the TWDB, on the aquifer for the period 2000 to 2050. If detrimental impacts were noted, alternative management strategies must be proposed. While much effort was spent on evaluating the current status of the ground water reserves, an appropriate numerical model of the aquifer system was necessary to demonstrate future impacts of the predicted withdrawals as well as the effects of the alternative strategies. The modeling effort was completed in the summer of 2000. This presentation concentrates on the political, scientific, and nontechnical issues in this planning process that complicated the modeling effort. Uncertainties in data, most significantly in distribution and intensity of recharge and withdrawals, significantly impacted the calibration and predictive modeling efforts. Four predictive scenarios, including baseline projections, recurrence of the drought of record, precipitation enhancement, and reduced irrigation demand, were simulated to

  1. Transboundary impacts on regional ground water modeling in Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rainwater, K.; Stovall, J.; Frailey, S.; Urban, L.

    2005-01-01

    Recent legislation required regional grassroots water resources planning across the entire state of Texas. The Texas Water Development Board (TWDB), the state's primary water resource planning agency, divided the state into 16 planning regions. Each planning group developed plans to manage both ground water and surface water sources and to meet future demands of various combinations of domestic, agricultural, municipal, and industrial water consumers. This presentation describes the challenges in developing a ground water model for the Llano Estacado Regional Water Planning Group (LERWPG), whose region includes 21 counties in the Southern High Plains of Texas. While surface water is supplied to several cities in this region, the vast majority of the regional water use comes from the High Plains aquifer system, often locally referred to as the Ogallala Aquifer. Over 95% of the ground water demand is for irrigated agriculture. The LERWPG had to predict the impact of future TWDB-projected water demands, as provided by the TWDB, on the aquifer for the period 2000 to 2050. If detrimental impacts were noted, alternative management strategies must be proposed. While much effort was spent on evaluating the current status of the ground water reserves, an appropriate numerical model of the aquifer system was necessary to demonstrate future impacts of the predicted withdrawals as well as the effects of the alternative strategies. The modeling effort was completed in the summer of 2000. This presentation concentrates on the political, scientific, and nontechnical issues in this planning process that complicated the modeling effort. Uncertainties in data, most significantly in distribution and intensity of recharge and withdrawals, significantly impacted the calibration and predictive modeling efforts. Four predictive scenarios, including baseline projections, recurrence of the drought of record, precipitation enhancement, and reduced irrigation demand, were simulated to

  2. Metabolic quenching of Corynebacterium glutamicum: efficiency of methods and impact of cold shock.

    PubMed

    Wellerdiek, Max; Winterhoff, Dajana; Reule, Waldemar; Brandner, Jürgen; Oldiges, Marco

    2009-08-01

    Representative and valid cytoplasmic concentrations are essential for ensuring the significance of results in the field of metabolome analysis. One of the most crucial points in this respect is the sampling itself. A rapid and sudden stopping of the metabolism on a timescale that is much faster than the conversion rates of investigated metabolites is worthwhile. This can be achieved by applying of cold methanol quenching combined with reproducible, fast, and automated sampling. Unfortunately, quenching the metabolism by a sharp temperature shift leads to what is known as cold shock or the cell-leakage effect. In the present work, we applied a microstructure heat exchanger to analyze the cold shock effect using Corynebacterium glutamicum as a model microorganism. Using this apparatus together with a silicon pipe, it was possible to assay the leakage effect on a timescale starting at 1 s after cooling cell suspension. The high turnover rates not only require a rapid quenching technique, but also the correct application. Moreover, we succeeded in showing that even when the required appropriate setup of methanol quenching is not used, the metabolism is not stopped within the required timescale. By applying robust techniques like rapid sampling in combination with reproducible sample processing, we ensured fast and reliable metabolic inactivation during all steps.

  3. Laboratory investigations of the impact of mineral dust aerosol on cold cloud formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehler, K. A.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Demott, P. J.; Petters, M. D.; Prenni, A. J.; Möhler, O.

    2010-12-01

    Dust particles represent a dominant source of particulate matter (by mass) to the atmosphere, and their emission from some source regions has been shown to be transported on regional and hemispherical scales. Dust particles' potential to interact with water vapor in the atmosphere can lead to important radiative impacts on the climate system, both direct and indirect. We have investigated this interaction for several types of dust aerosol, collected from the Southwestern United States and the Saharan region. A continuous flow diffusion chamber was operated to measure the ice nucleation ability of the dust particles in the temperature range of relevance to cirrus and mixed-phase clouds (-65

  4. Impact of Asia Dust Aerosols on Regional Environment and Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.

    2015-12-01

    East Asia is a major dust source in the world and has great impacts on regional climate in Asia, where the large arid and semi-arid regions are. In this study, the typical transport paths of East Asia dust, which affect regional and global climates, are demonstrated and numerous effects of dust aerosols on clouds and precipitation primarily over East Asian arid and semi-arid regions are discussed. Compared with the dust aerosols of Saharan, those of East Asian are more absorptive of solar radiation, and can influence the cloud properties not only by acting as cloud condensation nuclei and ice nuclei but also through changing the relative humidity and stability of the atmosphere (via semi-direct effect). Converting visible light to thermal energy, dust aerosols can burn clouds to produce a warming effect on climate, which is opposite to the first and second indirect effects of aerosols. Over Asia arid and semi-arid regions, the positive feedback in the aerosol-cloud-precipitation interaction may aggravate drought in its inner land. Impact of Asia dust on regional environment, especially on haze weather, are also presented in this talk.

  5. Cold Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COLD STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Workers who ... cold environments may be at risk of cold stress. Extreme cold weather is a dangerous situation that ...

  6. Effect of Impact Angle on Ceramic Deposition Behavior in Composite Cold Spray: A Finite-Element Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarty, Rohan; Song, Jun

    2017-10-01

    During the cold spraying of particle-reinforced metal matrix composite coatings (ceramic and metal particles mixture) on metal substrates, ceramic particles may either get embedded in the substrate/deposited coating or may rebound from the substrate surface. In this study, the dependence of the ceramic rebounding phenomenon on the spray angle and its effect on substrate erosion have been analyzed using finite-element analysis. From the numerical simulations, it was found that the ceramic particle density and substrate material strength played the major roles in determining the embedding and ceramic retention behavior. Substrate material erosion also influenced the ceramic retention, and the material loss increased as the impact angles decreased from normal. In general, the results concluded that decreasing the impact angle promoted the retention possibility of ceramics in the substrate. This study provides new theoretical insights into the effect of spray angles on the ceramic retention and suggests a new route toward optimizing the spraying process to increase the ceramic retention in composite coatings cold spray.

  7. Effect of Impact Angle on Ceramic Deposition Behavior in Composite Cold Spray: A Finite-Element Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarty, Rohan; Song, Jun

    2017-07-01

    During the cold spraying of particle-reinforced metal matrix composite coatings (ceramic and metal particles mixture) on metal substrates, ceramic particles may either get embedded in the substrate/deposited coating or may rebound from the substrate surface. In this study, the dependence of the ceramic rebounding phenomenon on the spray angle and its effect on substrate erosion have been analyzed using finite-element analysis. From the numerical simulations, it was found that the ceramic particle density and substrate material strength played the major roles in determining the embedding and ceramic retention behavior. Substrate material erosion also influenced the ceramic retention, and the material loss increased as the impact angles decreased from normal. In general, the results concluded that decreasing the impact angle promoted the retention possibility of ceramics in the substrate. This study provides new theoretical insights into the effect of spray angles on the ceramic retention and suggests a new route toward optimizing the spraying process to increase the ceramic retention in composite coatings cold spray.

  8. Coupling of the simultaneous heat and water model with a distributed hydrological model and evaluation of the combined model in a cold region watershed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To represent the effects of frozen soil on hydrology in cold regions, a new physically based distributed hydrological model has been developed by coupling the simultaneous heat and water model (SHAW) with the geomorphology based distributed hydrological model (GBHM), under the framework of the water...

  9. Element concentrations in cold-water gorgonians and black coral from Azores region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimundo, Joana; Vale, Carlos; Caetano, Miguel; Anes, Bárbara; Carreiro-Silva, Marina; Martins, Inês; Matos, Valentina de; Porteiro, Filipe M.

    2013-12-01

    Seamounts are thought to support high biodiversity and special biological communities, including corals. Corals incorporate minor and trace elements and have been suggested as possible bioindicators of their availability in the environment. Forty specimens of five gorgonian species (Alcyonacea) and a black coral (Antipatharia) were collected in 12 sites in the Azores region. Concentrations of Ca, Mg, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Cd and Pb were determined in skeleton and attached tissue of each individual from each species. Leiopathes sp. had higher Cr, Ni, Se and Pb concentrations than the gorgonians. Enhanced Cu and Cd values were registered in Leiopathes and Acanthogorgia hirsuta. Specimens of A. hirsuta also presented elevated concentrations of Zn and Co. Linear relationships between Cd and Cu, Zn and Se point to response mechanisms in corals, possibly related to the induction of proteins enlarging the capacity to incorporate further quantities of essential elements. Results obtained in this study suggest the existence of an additional source of Cd in waters off Azores Islands associated with natural hydrothermal activities.

  10. Impacts of Amazon deforestation on regional weather and climate extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvigy, D.; Walko, R. L.; Avissar, R.

    2010-12-01

    Recent deforestation projections estimate that 40% of the Amazon rainforest will be deforested by 2050. Many modeling studies have indicated that deforestation will reduce average rainfall in the Amazon. However, very few studies have investigated the potential for deforestation to change the frequency and intensity of extreme climate and weather events. To fill this gap in our understanding, we use a variable-resolution GCM to investigate how precipitation and temperature extremes throughout South America respond to deforestation. The model’s grid mesh is set up to cover South America and nearby oceans at mesoscale (25 km) resolution, and then to gradually coarsen and cover the rest of the world at 200 km resolution. This approach differs from the two most common current approaches: (1) to use a GCM with too coarse of a resolution to evaluate regional climate extremes, or (2) to use a regional atmospheric model that requires lateral boundary conditions from a GCM or reanalysis. We find that deforestation induces large changes in winter (June-July-August) climate throughout much of South America. Extreme cold events become much more common along the eastern slopes of the Andes. The largest changes were in the western Amazon and, surprisingly, in Argentina, far from the actual deforested area. We also find shifts in precipitation extremes, especially in September-October-November. Such changes in temperature and precipitation extremes have important consequences for agriculture, natural ecosystems, and human society.

  11. Impact of heat and cold events on the energetic metabolism of the C3 halophyte Halimione portulacoides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, B.; Santos, D.; Marques, J. C.; Caçador, I.

    2015-12-01

    scavenging mechanism. According to our data, heat and cold treatment events can have serious impacts on H. portulacoides photobiology reducing its primary productivity. At the ecosystem level, these climatic events could pose a serious threat to the survival of this species in the new climatic reality that our planet is facing.

  12. Development of An Enthalpy-based Frozen Soil Model and Its Validation in A Cold Region in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, H.

    2015-12-01

    A physically-based frozen soil model was developed based on the Water and Energy Budget-based Distributed Hydrological model (WEB-DHM) for the simulation of water and energy transfer in cold regions. In order to simulate the soil freezing/thawing processes stably and efficiently, a two-step algorithm is applied to solve the non-linear energy governing equations: 1) the thermal diffusion equation is used to simulate the heat fluxes between soil layers without considering liquid-ice phase change; 2) a freezing/thawing scheme is used to derive soil temperature, liquid water content and ice content from enthalpy conservation, mass conservation, and freezing point depression equations. In the algorithm, a parameterization set is adopted to update hydraulic and thermal properties by considering the presence of ice and low soil temperatures. The performance of the frozen soil model was validated at point scale in a typical mountainous permafrost region of Binggou Watershed, Heihe Basin, Northwest China. Results show that the model can achieve a convergent solution at a typical time step (hourly) and layer sizes (centimeters) of current land process models. It is able to reproduce the observed soil freezing/thawing processes and hydrological processes. The simulated profiles of soil temperature, liquid water content, ice content and thawing front depth are in good agreement with the observations and the characteristics of permafrost. The freeze-thaw cycle in frozen soil evolution was continuously represented by the contour map of soil temperature and ice content of all soil layers. Therefore, this model can be coupled with hydrological, ecological and climate models to deepen our physical understanding in permafrost regions.

  13. Advances in RUC LSM snow component to address cold biases in snow-covered regions in RAP and HRRR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, T. G.; Benjamin, S.; Brown, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    RUC Land-Surface Model (LSM), a Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) LSM option, is used as a land surface component in the operational Rapid Refresh (RAP) over North America domain and in the High-Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) over CONUS domain. It was also added to the land-surface model suite available in NASA Land Information System (LIS), and work has been started to implement it in the Next Generation Global Prediction System (NGGPS) as part of the RAP/HRRR physics suite. The RUC LSM performance has been evaluated for almost two decades within the real-time operational weather prediction systems focused on storm-scale predictions for severe weather and safer aviation. And in the recent couple of years it has been more and more extensively utilized by the WRF community in different parts of the world, including Arctic regions, and for different applications. Valuable feedback from the National Weather Prediction forecast offices and the WRF community has motivated further advances towards better representation of processes in snow-covered regions. The new treatment has been implemented for grid cells partially covered with snow. It considers snow-covered and non-snow-covered portions of a grid cell independently, and independently determined surface fluxes are aggregated to feed back into the surface-layer scheme at the end of each time step. This new "mosaic" approach removes the constraint of keeping skin temperature of partially covered with snow grid cells at or below the freezing point, and helps to reduce cold biases in these regions. Comparison results from experiments with the new and old approaches will be presented at the meeting. Also, techniques impemented in RAP/HRRR for optimal initialization of snow cover on the ground will be presented.

  14. Maturity group classification and maturity locus genotyping of early-maturing soybean varieties from high-latitude cold regions.

    PubMed

    Jia, Hongchang; Jiang, Bingjun; Wu, Cunxiang; Lu, Wencheng; Hou, Wensheng; Sun, Shi; Yan, Hongrui; Han, Tianfu

    2014-01-01

    With the migration of human beings, advances of agricultural sciences, evolution of planting patterns and global warming, soybeans have expanded to both tropical and high-latitude cold regions (HCRs). Unlike other regions, HCRs have much more significant and diverse photoperiods and temperature conditions over seasons or across latitudes, and HCR soybeans released there show rich diversity in maturity traits. However, HCR soybeans have not been as well classified into maturity groups (MGs) as other places. Therefore, it is necessary to identify MGs in HCRs and to genotype the maturity loci. Local varieties were collected from the northern part of Northeast China and the far-eastern region of Russia. Maturity group reference (MGR) soybeans of MGs MG000, MG00, and MG0 were used as references during field experiments. Both local varieties and MGR soybeans were planted for two years (2010-2011) in Heihe (N 50°15', E 127°27', H 168.5 m), China. The days to VE (emergence), R1 (beginning bloom) and R7 (beginning maturity) were recorded and statistically analyzed. Furthermore, some varieties were further genotyped at four molecularly-identified maturity loci E1, E2, E3 and E4. The HCR varieties were classified into MG0 or even more early-maturing. In Heihe, some varieties matured much earlier than MG000, which is the most early-maturing known MG, and clustered into a separate group. We designated the group as MG0000, following the convention of MGs. HCR soybeans had relatively stable days to beginning bloom from emergence. The HCR varieties diversified into genotypes of E1, E2, E3 and E4. These loci had different effects on maturity. HCRs diversify early-maturing MGs of soybean. MG0000, a new MG that matures much earlier than known MGs, was developed. HCR soybean breeding should focus more on shortening post-flowering reproductive growth. E1, E2, E3, and E4 function differentially.

  15. Potential climatic impacts of vegetation change: A regional modeling study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Copeland, J.H.; Pielke, R.A.; Kittel, T.G.F.

    1996-01-01

    The human species has been modifying the landscape long before the development of modern agrarian techniques. Much of the land area of the conterminous United States is currently used for agricultural production. In certain regions this change in vegetative cover from its natural state may have led to local climatic change. A regional climate version of the Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modeling System was used to assess the impact of a natural versus current vegetation distribution on the weather and climate of July 1989. The results indicate that coherent regions of substantial changes, of both positive and negative sign, in screen height temperature, humidity, wind speed, and precipitation are a possible consequence of land use change throughout the United States. The simulated changes in the screen height quantities were closely related to changes in the vegetation parameters of albedo, roughness length, leaf area index, and fractional coverage. Copyright 1996 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Impacts of Groundwater Pumping on Regional and Global Water Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wada, Yoshihide

    2016-01-01

    Except frozen water in ice and glaciers (68%), groundwater is the world's largest distributed store of freshwater (30%), and has strategic importance to global food and water security. In this chapter, the most recent advances assessing human impact on regional and global groundwater resources are reviewed. This chapter critically evaluates the recently advanced modeling approaches quantifying the effect of groundwater pumping in regional and global groundwater resources and the evidence of feedback to the Earth system including sea-level rise associated with groundwater use. At last, critical challenges and opportunities are identified in the use of groundwater to adapt to growing food demand and uncertain climate.

  17. Impacts of Groundwater Pumping on Regional and Global Water Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wada, Yoshihide

    2016-01-01

    Except frozen water in ice and glaciers (68%), groundwater is the world's largest distributed store of freshwater (30%), and has strategic importance to global food and water security. In this chapter, the most recent advances assessing human impact on regional and global groundwater resources are reviewed. This chapter critically evaluates the recently advanced modeling approaches quantifying the effect of groundwater pumping in regional and global groundwater resources and the evidence of feedback to the Earth system including sea-level rise associated with groundwater use. At last, critical challenges and opportunities are identified in the use of groundwater to adapt to growing food demand and uncertain climate.

  18. Improving plot- and regional-scale crop models for simulating impacts of climate variability and extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, F.; Rötter, R.

    2013-12-01

    Many studies on global climate report that climate variability is increasing with more frequent and intense extreme events1. There are quite large uncertainties from both the plot- and regional-scale models in simulating impacts of climate variability and extremes on crop development, growth and productivity2,3. One key to reducing the uncertainties is better exploitation of experimental data to eliminate crop model deficiencies and develop better algorithms that more adequately capture the impacts of extreme events, such as high temperature and drought, on crop performance4,5. In the present study, in a first step, the inter-annual variability in wheat yield and climate from 1971 to 2012 in Finland was investigated. Using statistical approaches the impacts of climate variability and extremes on wheat growth and productivity were quantified. In a second step, a plot-scale model, WOFOST6, and a regional-scale crop model, MCWLA7, were calibrated and validated, and applied to simulate wheat growth and yield variability from 1971-2012. Next, the estimated impacts of high temperature stress, cold damage, and drought stress on crop growth and productivity based on the statistical approaches, and on crop simulation models WOFOST and MCWLA were compared. Then, the impact mechanisms of climate extremes on crop growth and productivity in the WOFOST model and MCWLA model were identified, and subsequently, the various algorithm and impact functions were fitted against the long-term crop trial data. Finally, the impact mechanisms, algorithms and functions in WOFOST model and MCWLA model were improved to better simulate the impacts of climate variability and extremes, particularly high temperature stress, cold damage and drought stress for location-specific and large area climate impact assessments. Our studies provide a good example of how to improve, in parallel, the plot- and regional-scale models for simulating impacts of climate variability and extremes, as needed for

  19. Regional climate impacts of a possible future grand solar minimum

    PubMed Central

    Ineson, Sarah; Maycock, Amanda C.; Gray, Lesley J.; Scaife, Adam A.; Dunstone, Nick J.; Harder, Jerald W.; Knight, Jeff R.; Lockwood, Mike; Manners, James C.; Wood, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Any reduction in global mean near-surface temperature due to a future decline in solar activity is likely to be a small fraction of projected anthropogenic warming. However, variability in ultraviolet solar irradiance is linked to modulation of the Arctic and North Atlantic Oscillations, suggesting the potential for larger regional surface climate effects. Here, we explore possible impacts through two experiments designed to bracket uncertainty in ultraviolet irradiance in a scenario in which future solar activity decreases to Maunder Minimum-like conditions by 2050. Both experiments show regional structure in the wintertime response, resembling the North Atlantic Oscillation, with enhanced relative cooling over northern Eurasia and the eastern United States. For a high-end decline in solar ultraviolet irradiance, the impact on winter northern European surface temperatures over the late twenty-first century could be a significant fraction of the difference in climate change between plausible AR5 scenarios of greenhouse gas concentrations. PMID:26102364

  20. Regional climate impacts of a possible future grand solar minimum.

    PubMed

    Ineson, Sarah; Maycock, Amanda C; Gray, Lesley J; Scaife, Adam A; Dunstone, Nick J; Harder, Jerald W; Knight, Jeff R; Lockwood, Mike; Manners, James C; Wood, Richard A

    2015-06-23

    Any reduction in global mean near-surface temperature due to a future decline in solar activity is likely to be a small fraction of projected anthropogenic warming. However, variability in ultraviolet solar irradiance is linked to modulation of the Arctic and North Atlantic Oscillations, suggesting the potential for larger regional surface climate effects. Here, we explore possible impacts through two experiments designed to bracket uncertainty in ultraviolet irradiance in a scenario in which future solar activity decreases to Maunder Minimum-like conditions by 2050. Both experiments show regional structure in the wintertime response, resembling the North Atlantic Oscillation, with enhanced relative cooling over northern Eurasia and the eastern United States. For a high-end decline in solar ultraviolet irradiance, the impact on winter northern European surface temperatures over the late twenty-first century could be a significant fraction of the difference in climate change between plausible AR5 scenarios of greenhouse gas concentrations.

  1. Local and Regional Impacts of Large Scale Wind Energy Deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalakes, J.; Hammond, S.; Lundquist, J. K.; Moriarty, P.; Robinson, M.

    2010-12-01

    The U.S. is currently on a path to produce 20% of its electricity from wind energy by 2030, almost a 10-fold increase over present levels of electricity generated from wind. Such high-penetration wind energy deployment will entail extracting elevated energy levels from the planetary boundary layer and preliminary studies indicate that this will have significant but uncertain impacts on the local and regional environment. State and federal regulators have raised serious concerns regarding potential agricultural impacts from large farms deployed throughout the Midwest where agriculture is the basis of the local economy. The effects of large wind farms have been proposed to be both beneficial (drying crops to reduce occurrences of fungal diseases, avoiding late spring freezes, enhancing pollen viability, reducing dew duration) and detrimental (accelerating moisture loss during drought) with no conclusive investigations thus far. As both wind and solar technologies are deployed at scales required to replace conventional technologies, there must be reasonable certainty that the potential environmental impacts at the micro, macro, regional and global scale do not exceed those anticipated from carbon emissions. Largely because of computational limits, the role of large wind farms in affecting regional-scale weather patterns has only been investigated in coarse simulations and modeling tools do not yet exist which are capable of assessing the downwind affects of large wind farms may have on microclimatology. In this presentation, we will outline the vision for and discuss technical and scientific challenges in developing a multi-model high-performance simulation capability covering the range of mesoscale to sub-millimeter scales appropriate for assessing local, regional, and ultimately global environmental impacts and quantifying uncertainties of large scale wind energy deployment scenarios. Such a system will allow continuous downscaling of atmospheric processes on wind

  2. Regional Risk Assessment for climate change impacts on coastal aquifers.

    PubMed

    Iyalomhe, F; Rizzi, J; Pasini, S; Torresan, S; Critto, A; Marcomini, A

    2015-12-15

    Coastal aquifers have been identified as particularly vulnerable to impacts on water quantity and quality due to the high density of socio-economic activities and human assets in coastal regions and to the projected rising sea levels, contributing to the process of saltwater intrusion. This paper proposes a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology integrated with a chain of numerical models to evaluate potential climate change-related impacts on coastal aquifers and linked natural and human systems (i.e., wells, river, agricultural areas, lakes, forests and semi-natural environments). The RRA methodology employs Multi Criteria Decision Analysis methods and Geographic Information Systems functionalities to integrate heterogeneous spatial data on hazard, susceptibility and risk for saltwater intrusion and groundwater level variation. The proposed approach was applied on the Esino River basin (Italy) using future climate hazard scenarios based on a chain of climate, hydrological, hydraulic and groundwater system models running at different spatial scales. Models were forced with the IPCC SRES A1B emission scenario for the period 2071-2100 over four seasons (i.e., winter, spring, summer and autumn). Results indicate that in future seasons, climate change will cause few impacts on the lower Esino River valley. Groundwater level decrease will have limited effects: agricultural areas, forests and semi-natural environments will be at risk only in a region close to the coastline which covers less than 5% of the total surface of the considered receptors; less than 3.5% of the wells will be exposed in the worst scenario. Saltwater intrusion impact in future scenarios will be restricted to a narrow region close to the coastline (only few hundred meters), and thus it is expected to have very limited effects on the Esino coastal aquifer with no consequences on the considered natural and human systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of an enthalpy-based frozen soil model and its validation in a cold region in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Huiyi; Koike, Toshio; Yang, Kun; Wang, Lei; Shrestha, Maheswor; Lawford, Peter

    2016-05-01

    An enthalpy-based frozen soil model was developed for the simulation of water and energy transfer in cold regions. To simulate the soil freezing/thawing processes stably and efficiently, a three-step algorithm was applied to solve the nonlinear governing equations: (1) a thermal diffusion equation was implemented to simulate the heat conduction between soil layers; (2) a freezing/thawing scheme used a critical temperature criterion to judge the phase status and introduced enthalpy and total water mass into freezing depression equation to represent ice formation/melt and corresponding latent heat release/absorption; and (3) a water flow scheme was employed to describe the liquid movement within frozen soil. In addition, a parameterization set of hydraulic and thermal properties was updated by considering the frozen soil effect. The performance of the frozen soil model was validated at point scale in a typical mountainous permafrost basin of China. An ice profile initialization method is proposed for permafrost modeling. Results show that the model can achieve a convergent solution at a time step of hourly and a surface layer thickness of centimeters that are typically used in current land surface models. The simulated profiles of soil temperature, liquid water content, ice content and thawing front depth are in good agreement with the observations and the characteristics of permafrost. The model is capable of continuously reproducing the diurnal and seasonal freeze-thaw cycle and simulating frozen soil hydrological processes.

  4. Impact of wildfires on regional air pollution | Science Inventory ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    We examine the impact of wildfires and agricultural/prescribed burning on regional air pollution and Air Quality Index (AQI) between 2006 and 2013. We define daily regional air pollution using monitoring sites for ozone (n=1595), PM2.5 collected by Federal Reference Method (n=1058), and constituents of PM2.5 from the Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environment (IMPROVE) network (n=264) and use satellite image analysis from the NOAA Hazard Mapping System (HMS) to determine days on which visible smoke plumes are detected in the vertical column of the monitoring site. To examine the impact of smoke from these fires on regional air pollution we use a two stage approach, accounting for within site (1st stage) and between site (2nd stage) variations. At the first stage we estimate a monitor-specific plume day effect describing the relative change in pollutant concentrations on the days impacted by smoke plume while accounting for confounding effects of season and temperature_. At the second stage we combine monitor-specific plume day effects with a Bayesian hierarchical model and estimate a pooled nationally-averaged effect. HMS visible smoke plumes were detected on 6% of ozone, 8% of PM2.5 and 6% of IMPROVE network monitoring days. Our preliminary results indicate that the long range transport of air pollutants from wildfires and prescribed burns increase ozone concentration by 11% and PM2.5 mass by 34%. On all of the days where monitoring sites were AQI

  5. Global, regional and local health impacts of civil aviation emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, Steve H. L.; Lee, Gideon L.; Lee, In Hwan; Allroggen, Florian; Ashok, Akshay; Caiazzo, Fabio; Eastham, Sebastian D.; Malina, Robert; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2015-03-01

    Aviation emissions impact surface air quality at multiple scales—from near-airport pollution peaks associated with airport landing and take off (LTO) emissions, to intercontinental pollution attributable to aircraft cruise emissions. Previous studies have quantified aviation’s air quality impacts around a specific airport, in a specific region, or at the global scale. However, no study has assessed the air quality and human health impacts of aviation, capturing effects on all aforementioned scales. This study uses a multi-scale modeling approach to quantify and monetize the air quality impact of civil aviation emissions, approximating effects of aircraft plume dynamics-related local dispersion (˜1 km), near-airport dispersion (˜10 km), regional (˜1000 km) and global (˜10 000 km) scale chemistry and transport. We use concentration-response functions to estimate premature deaths due to population exposure to aviation-attributable PM2.5 and ozone, finding that aviation emissions cause ˜16 000 (90% CI: 8300-24 000) premature deaths per year. Of these, LTO emissions contribute a quarter. Our estimate shows that premature deaths due to long-term exposure to aviation-attributable PM2.5 and O3 lead to costs of ˜21 bn per year. We compare these costs to other societal costs of aviation and find that they are on the same order of magnitude as global aviation-attributable climate costs, and one order of magnitude larger than aviation-attributable accident and noise costs.

  6. Transient effects in ice nucleation of a water drop impacting onto a cold substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schremb, Markus; Roisman, Ilia V.; Tropea, Cameron

    2017-02-01

    The impact of water drops onto a solid surface at subfreezing temperatures has been experimentally studied. Drop nucleation has been observed using a high-speed video system. The statistics of nucleation allows the estimation of the average number of nucleation sites per unit area of the wetted part of the substrate. We have discovered that the nucleation rate in the impacting drop is not constant. The observed significant increase of the nucleation rate at small times after impact t <50 ms can be explained by the generation of nanobubbles at early times of drop impact. These bubbles serve as additional nucleation sites and enhance the nucleation rate.

  7. Vernalization Requirement and the Chromosomal VRN1-Region can Affect Freezing Tolerance and Expression of Cold-Regulated Genes in Festuca pratensis

    PubMed Central

    Ergon, Åshild; Melby, Tone I.; Höglind, Mats; Rognli, Odd A.

    2016-01-01

    Plants adapted to cold winters go through annual cycles of gain followed by loss of freezing tolerance (cold acclimation and deacclimation). Warm spells during winter and early spring can cause deacclimation, and if temperatures drop, freezing damage may occur. Many plants are vernalized during winter, a process making them competent to flower in the following summer. In winter cereals, a coincidence in the timing of vernalization saturation, deacclimation, downregulation of cold-induced genes, and reduced ability to reacclimate, occurs under long photoperiods and is under control of the main regulator of vernalization requirement in cereals, VRN1, and/or closely linked gene(s). Thus, the probability of freezing damage after a warm spell may depend on both vernalization saturation and photoperiod. We investigated the role of vernalization and the VRN1-region on freezing tolerance of meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.), a perennial grass species. Two F2 populations, divergently selected for high and low vernalization requirement, were studied. Each genotype was characterized for the copy number of one of the four parental haplotypes of the VRN1-region. Clonal plants were cold acclimated for 2 weeks or vernalized/cold acclimated for a total of 9 weeks, after which the F2 populations reached different levels of vernalization saturation. Vernalized and cold acclimated plants were deacclimated for 1 week and then reacclimated for 2 weeks. All treatments were given at 8 h photoperiod. Flowering response, freezing tolerance and expression of the cold-induced genes VRN1, MADS3, CBF6, COR14B, CR7 (BLT14), LOS2, and IRI1 was measured. We found that some genotypes can lose some freezing tolerance after vernalization and a deacclimation–reacclimation cycle. The relationship between vernalization and freezing tolerance was complex. We found effects of the VRN1-region on freezing tolerance in plants cold acclimated for 2 weeks, timing of heading after 9 weeks of

  8. Ensemble-based Regional Climate Prediction: Political Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miguel, E.; Dykema, J.; Satyanath, S.; Anderson, J. G.

    2008-12-01

    Accurate forecasts of regional climate, including temperature and precipitation, have significant implications for human activities, not just economically but socially. Sub Saharan Africa is a region that has displayed an exceptional propensity for devastating civil wars. Recent research in political economy has revealed a strong statistical relationship between year to year fluctuations in precipitation and civil conflict in this region in the 1980s and 1990s. To investigate how climate change may modify the regional risk of civil conflict in the future requires a probabilistic regional forecast that explicitly accounts for the community's uncertainty in the evolution of rainfall under anthropogenic forcing. We approach the regional climate prediction aspect of this question through the application of a recently demonstrated method called generalized scalar prediction (Leroy et al. 2009), which predicts arbitrary scalar quantities of the climate system. This prediction method can predict change in any variable or linear combination of variables of the climate system averaged over a wide range spatial scales, from regional to hemispheric to global. Generalized scalar prediction utilizes an ensemble of model predictions to represent the community's uncertainty range in climate modeling in combination with a timeseries of any type of observational data that exhibits sensitivity to the scalar of interest. It is not necessary to prioritize models in deriving with the final prediction. We present the results of the application of generalized scalar prediction for regional forecasts of temperature and precipitation and Sub Saharan Africa. We utilize the climate predictions along with the established statistical relationship between year-to-year rainfall variability in Sub Saharan Africa to investigate the potential impact of climate change on civil conflict within that region.

  9. Determining long-term regional erosion rates using impact craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hergarten, Stefan; Kenkmann, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    More than 300,000 impact craters have been found on Mars, while the surface of Moon's highlands is even saturated with craters. In contrast, only 184 impact craters have been confirmed on Earth so far with only 125 of them exposed at the surface. The spatial distribution of these impact craters is highly inhomogeneous. Beside the large variation in the age of the crust, consumption of craters by erosion and burial by sediments are the main actors being responsible for the quite small and inhomogeneous crater record. In this study we present a novel approach to infer long-term average erosion rates at regional scales from the terrestrial crater inventory. The basic idea behind this approach is a dynamic equilibrium between the production of new craters and their consumption by erosion. It is assumed that each crater remains detectable until the total erosion after the impact exceeds a characteristic depth depending on the crater's diameter. Combining this model with the terrestrial crater production rate, i.e., the number of craters per unit area and time as a function of their diameter, allows for a prediction of the expected number of craters in a given region as a function of the erosion rate. Using the real crater inventory, this relationship can be inverted to determine the regional long-term erosion rate and its statistical uncertainty. A limitation by the finite age of the crust can also be taken into account. Applying the method to the Colorado Plateau and the Deccan Traps, both being regions with a distinct geological history, yields erosion rates in excellent agreement with those obtained by other, more laborious methods. However, these rates are formally exposed to large statistical uncertainties due to the small number of impact craters. As higher crater densities are related to lower erosion rates, smaller statistical errors can be expected when large regions in old parts of the crust are considered. Very low long-term erosion rates of less than 4

  10. Regional hydro-climatic impacts of contemporary Amazonian deforestation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanna, Jaya

    More than 17% of the Amazon rainforest has been cleared in the past three decades triggering important climatological and societal impacts. This thesis is devoted to identifying and explaining the regional hydroclimatic impacts of this change employing multidecadal satellite observations and numerical simulations providing an integrated perspective on this topic. The climatological nature of this study motivated the implementation and application of a cloud detection technique to a new geostationary satellite dataset. The resulting sub daily, high spatial resolution, multidecadal time series facilitated the detection of trends and variability in deforestation triggered cloud cover changes. The analysis was complemented by satellite precipitation, reanalysis and ground based datasets and attribution with the variable resolution Ocean-Land-Atmosphere-Model. Contemporary Amazonian deforestation affects spatial scales of hundreds of kilometers. But, unlike the well-studied impacts of a few kilometers scale deforestation, the climatic response to contemporary, large scale deforestation is neither well observed nor well understood. Employing satellite datasets, this thesis shows a transition in the regional hydroclimate accompanying increasing scales of deforestation, with downwind deforested regions receiving 25% more and upwind deforested regions receiving 25% less precipitation from the deforested area mean. Simulations robustly reproduce these shifts when forced with increasing deforestation alone, suggesting a negligible role of large-scale decadal climate variability in causing the shifts. Furthermore, deforestation-induced surface roughness variations are found necessary to reproduce the observed spatial patterns in recent times illustrating the strong scale-sensitivity of the climatic response to Amazonian deforestation. This phenomenon, inconsequential during the wet season, is found to substantially affect the regional hydroclimate in the local dry and parts of

  11. Earth Impact Effects Program: Estimating the Regional Environmental Consequences of Impacts On Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, G. S.; Melosh, H. J.; Marcus, R. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Earth Impact Effects Program (www.lpl.arizona.edu/impacteffects) is a popular web-based calculator for estimating the regional environmental consequences of a comet or asteroid impact on Earth. It is widely used, both by inquisitive members of the public as an educational device and by scientists as a simple research tool. It applies a variety of scaling laws, based on theory, nuclear explosion test data, observations from terrestrial and extraterrestrial craters and the results of small-scale impact experiments and numerical modelling, to quantify the principal hazards that might affect the people, buildings and landscape in the vicinity of an impact. The program requires six inputs: impactor diameter, impactor density, impact velocity prior to atmospheric entry, impact angle, and the target type (sedimentary rock, crystalline rock, or a water layer above rock), as well as the distance from the impact at which the environmental effects are to be calculated. The program includes simple algorithms for estimating the fate of the impactor during atmospheric traverse, the thermal radiation emitted by the impact plume (fireball) and the intensity of seismic shaking. The program also approximates various dimensions of the impact crater and ejecta deposit, as well as estimating the severity of the air blast in both crater-forming and airburst impacts. We illustrate the strengths and limitations of the program by comparing its predictions (where possible) against known impacts, such as Carancas, Peru (2007); Tunguska, Siberia (1908); Barringer (Meteor) crater, Arizona (ca 49 ka). These tests demonstrate that, while adequate for large impactors, the simple approximation of atmospheric entry in the original program does not properly account for the disruption and dispersal of small impactors as they traverse Earth's atmosphere. We describe recent improvements to the calculator to better describe atmospheric entry of small meteors; the consequences of oceanic impacts; and

  12. Impact of cold and dilute sewage on pre-fermentation--a case study.

    PubMed

    Bixio, D; van Hauwermeiren, P; Thoeye, C; Ockier, P

    2001-01-01

    The municipal sewage treatment plant (STP) of the city of Ghent (Belgium) has to be retrofitted to a 43%-increase in the nitrogen treatment capacity and to phosphorus removal. Cold weather, dilute sewage and a critical COD over N ratio make the retrofit a challenge for full biological nutrient removal. The potential for fermentation of primary sludge to alter those critical feed sewage characteristics was experimentally evaluated. The idea was that the pinpoint introduction of fermentate could optimise the available reactors by achieving high-rate denitrification and enhanced biological phosphorus removal. The fermentation process was evaluated with a bench scale apparatus. At 20 degrees C (heated process), the hydrolysis yield--expressed in terms of soluble COD--varied from 11% to 24% of the total sludge COD. The fermentation yield expressed in VFA COD varied from 8% to 13% of the total sludge COD. The efficiency of heated fermentation of primary sludge was lower during cold and wet weather, due to the different sewage characteristics, as a result of extended dilution periods and low temperature. The raw sewage, the primary effluent and the fermentate were fractionated according to the requirements for the IAWQ Activated Sludge Model No. 2d. The results clearly show that fermentation in the sewer played an important role and temperature was the driving parameter for the characteristics of the dissolved COD. Instead, the weather flow conditions were the driving parameter for the characteristics of the suspended COD. The results of the detailed fractionation were used as background for process evaluation. The final scenario choice for the retrofit depends on a cost-efficiency calculation.

  13. Has dry/cold weather an impact on the skin condition of cleanroom workers?

    PubMed

    Weistenhöfer, Wobbeke; Uter, Wolfgang; Drexler, Hans

    2016-01-01

    In previous epidemiological studies irritant skin changes were reported significantly more frequently under dry/cold ambient air conditions. The aim of this study was to assess whether a similar effect might be observed in cleanroom workers, occupationally exposed to strictly controlled ambient conditions. This investigation examined 690 employees of a semiconductor production company in Germany, one half in winter (n = 358) and the other half in spring (n = 332). In both waves, both cleanroom workers, who used occlusive gloves predominantly during the entire shift, and employees in the administration, serving as the control group, were included. Ambient outdoor temperature and relative humidity (RH) were measured and absolute humidity (AH) was calculated. Hands were dermatologically examined with quantitative clinical skin score HEROS, supplemented by transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and stratum corneum hydration measurements. Temperature ranged from -5.41 to 6.51°C in winter (RH 71.04-92.38%; AH 2.85-6.7 g/m(3)) and from 6.35 to 10.26°C in spring (RH 76.17-82.79%; AH 5.66-7.92 g/m(3)). Regarding HEROS, TEWL, and corneometry, no marked consistent pattern regarding an enhanced or decreased risk of irritant skin changes was found. Work in a strictly controlled environment with prolonged wearing of occlusive gloves, with clean hands and without exposure to additional hazardous substances, did not seem to negatively affect the skin. In this particular setting, meteorological conditions also did not appear to adversely affect the skin. It is conceivable that wearing of gloves and air conditioning in the plant protect skin of the hands from adverse effects due to dry and cold air encountered when not working.

  14. Cold Regions Environmental Considerations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-03

    Vegetation types in the subarctic are primarily forest-tundra, taiga , and open woodlands. The northern edge of the Subarctic MOE (the boundary between the...continuous discontinuous Soils (sediments, loess, dust) very limited limited abundant Vegetation (boreal forest, taiga ) not present not present present...you can hear and see exceptionally well over open snow-covered terrain. However, in a deep snow-covered forest ( taiga ), it becomes extremely dark

  15. Urban, Regional and Global Impacts of Biomass Burning Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artaxo, P.; Ferreira De Brito, J.; Barbosa, H. M.; Rizzo, L. V.; Setzer, A.; Cirino, G.

    2013-05-01

    Biomass burning is a major regional and global driver for atmospheric composition. Its effects in regional and global climate are very significant, but still difficult to assess. Even in large urban areas in Latin America such as Mexico City, Sao Paulo and Santiago, and in developed areas such as Paris and Californian cities it is possible to observe significant biomass burning effects air quality. The wood burning components as well as inner city and vicinities burning if agricultural residues impact heavily the concentration of organic aerosol, carbon monoxide and ozone in urban areas. Regionally, regions such as Amazonia and Central America show large plumes of smoke that extend their impact over continental areas, with changes in the radiation balance, air quality and climate. The deforestation rate in Amazonia have dropped strongly from 27,000 Km2 in 2004 to 6,200 Km2 in 2011, a very significant reduction, but this reduction was not observed in Africa and Southeast Asia. Health effects of biomass burning emissions are very significant, and observed in several key regions. Remote sensing techniques for fire detection have progressed significantly and long time series (10-15 years) are now feasible. The black carbon associated with biomass burning has important impacts in formation and development of clouds in Amazonia and other regions. The organic component of biomass burning emissions scatter light and increase diffuse radiation that alters carbon uptake in large regions of Amazonia and certainly other forested areas. Increase of up to 30% in carbon uptake associated with biomass burning emissions was observed in Amazonia, as part of the LBA Experiment. New analytical methods that quantify the absorption angstrom exponent of biomass burning and fossil fuel black carbon (BC) can differentiate BC from different burning sources. In addition, the hygroscopic properties of particles with a core shell of BC coated with organic compounds can be measured and shows

  16. Evaluating an impact origin for Mercury's high-magnesium region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Elizabeth A.; Potter, Ross W. K.; Abramov, Oleg; James, Peter B.; Klima, Rachel L.; Mojzsis, Stephen J.; Nittler, Larry R.

    2017-03-01

    During its four years in orbit around Mercury, the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft's X-ray Spectrometer revealed a large geochemical terrane in the northern hemisphere that hosts the highest Mg/Si, S/Si, Ca/Si, and Fe/Si and lowest Al/Si ratios on the planet. Correlations with low topography, thin crust, and a sharp northern topographic boundary led to the proposal that this high-Mg region is the remnant of an ancient, highly degraded impact basin. Here we use a numerical modeling approach to explore the feasibility of this hypothesis and evaluate the results against multiple mission-wide data sets and resulting maps from MESSENGER. We find that an 3000 km diameter impact basin easily exhumes Mg-rich mantle material but that the amount of subsequent modification required to hide basin structure is incompatible with the strength of the geochemical anomaly, which is also present in maps of Gamma Ray and Neutron Spectrometer data. Consequently, the high-Mg region is more likely to be the product of high-temperature volcanism sourced from a chemically heterogeneous mantle than the remains of a large impact event.Plain Language SummaryDuring its four years in orbit around Mercury, chemical measurements from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft revealed a large <span class="hlt">region</span> of unusual composition relative to the rest of the planet. Its elevated magnesium abundance, in particular, led to the name of the "high-magnesium <span class="hlt">region</span>" (HMR). High magnesium abundance in rock can be an indicator of its origin, such as high-temperature volcanism. Although the HMR covers approximately 15% of Mercury's surface, its origin is not obvious. It does roughly correspond to a depression with thin crust, which previously led to the hypothesis that it is an ancient <span class="hlt">impact</span> crater that was large enough to excavate mantle material, which, in rocky planets</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3989213','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3989213"><span>Maturity Group Classification and Maturity Locus Genotyping of Early-Maturing Soybean Varieties from High-Latitude <span class="hlt">Cold</span> <span class="hlt">Regions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lu, Wencheng; Hou, Wensheng; Sun, Shi; Yan, Hongrui; Han, Tianfu</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background With the migration of human beings, advances of agricultural sciences, evolution of planting patterns and global warming, soybeans have expanded to both tropical and high-latitude <span class="hlt">cold</span> <span class="hlt">regions</span> (HCRs). Unlike other <span class="hlt">regions</span>, HCRs have much more significant and diverse photoperiods and temperature conditions over seasons or across latitudes, and HCR soybeans released there show rich diversity in maturity traits. However, HCR soybeans have not been as well classified into maturity groups (MGs) as other places. Therefore, it is necessary to identify MGs in HCRs and to genotype the maturity loci. Methods Local varieties were collected from the northern part of Northeast China and the far-eastern <span class="hlt">region</span> of Russia. Maturity group reference (MGR) soybeans of MGs MG000, MG00, and MG0 were used as references during field experiments. Both local varieties and MGR soybeans were planted for two years (2010-2011) in Heihe (N 50°15′, E 127°27′, H 168.5 m), China. The days to VE (emergence), R1 (beginning bloom) and R7 (beginning maturity) were recorded and statistically analyzed. Furthermore, some varieties were further genotyped at four molecularly-identified maturity loci E1, E2, E3 and E4. Results The HCR varieties were classified into MG0 or even more early-maturing. In Heihe, some varieties matured much earlier than MG000, which is the most early-maturing known MG, and clustered into a separate group. We designated the group as MG0000, following the convention of MGs. HCR soybeans had relatively stable days to beginning bloom from emergence. The HCR varieties diversified into genotypes of E1, E2, E3 and E4. These loci had different effects on maturity. Conclusion HCRs diversify early-maturing MGs of soybean. MG0000, a new MG that matures much earlier than known MGs, was developed. HCR soybean breeding should focus more on shortening post-flowering reproductive growth. E1, E2, E3, and E4 function differentially. PMID:24740097</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27421771','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27421771"><span>Negative <span class="hlt">impact</span> of prolonged <span class="hlt">cold</span> storage time before machine perfusion preservation in donation after circulatory death kidney transplantation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Paloyo, Siegfredo; Sageshima, Junichiro; Gaynor, Jeffrey J; Chen, Linda; Ciancio, Gaetano; Burke, George W</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Kidney grafts are often preserved initially in static <span class="hlt">cold</span> storage (CS) and subsequently on hypothermic machine perfusion (MP). However, the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of CS/MP time on transplant outcome remains unclear. We evaluated the effect of prolonged CS/MP time in a single-center retrospective cohort of 59 donation after circulatory death (DCD) and 177 matched donation after brain death (DBD) kidney-alone transplant recipients. With mean overall CS/MP times of 6.0 h/30.0 h, overall incidence of delayed graft function (DGF) was higher in DCD transplants (30.5%) than DBD transplants (7.3%, P < 0.0001). In logistic regression, DCD recipient (P < 0.0001), longer CS time (P = 0.0002), male recipient (P = 0.02), and longer MP time (P = 0.08) were associated with higher DGF incidence. In evaluating the joint effects of donor type (DBD vs. DCD), CS time (<6 vs. ≥6 h), and MP time (<36 vs. ≥36 h) on DGF incidence, one clearly sees an unfavorable effect of MP time ≥36 h (P = 0.003) across each donor type and CS time stratum, whereas the unfavorable effect of CS time ≥6 h (P = 0.01) is primarily seen among DCD recipients. Prolonged <span class="hlt">cold</span> ischemia time had no unfavorable effect on renal function or graft survival at 12mo post-transplant. Long CS/MP time detrimentally affects early DCD/DBD kidney transplant outcome when grafts were mainly preserved by MP; prolonged CS time before MP has a particularly negative <span class="hlt">impact</span> in DCD kidney transplantation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10178755','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10178755"><span>Renewable biomass energy: Understanding <span class="hlt">regional</span> scale environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Graham, R.L.; Downing, M.</p> <p>1993-12-31</p> <p>If biomass energy is to become a significant component of the US energy sector, millions of acres of farmland must be converted to energy crops. The environmental implications of this change in land use must be quantitatively evaluated. The land use changes will be largely driven by economic considerations. Farmers will grow energy crops when it is profitable to do so. Thus, models which purport to predict environmental changes induced by energy crop production must take into account those economic features which will influence land use change. In this paper, we present an approach for projecting the probable environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of growing energy crops at the <span class="hlt">regional</span> scale. The approach takes into account both economic and environmental factors. We demonstrate the approach by analyzing, at a county-level the probable <span class="hlt">impact</span> of switchgrass production on erosion, evapotranspiration, nitrate in runoff, and phosphorous fertilizer use in multi-county subregions within the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) <span class="hlt">region</span>. Our results show that the adoption of switchgrass production will have different <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in each subregion as a result of differences in the initial land use and soil conditions in the subregions. Erosion, evapotranspiration, and nitrate in runoff are projected to decrease in both subregions as switchgrass displaces the current crops. Phosphorous fertilizer applications are likely to increase in one subregion and decrease in the other due to initial differences in the types of conventional crops grown in each subregion. Overall these changes portend an improvement in water quality in the subregions with the increasing adoption of switchgrass.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1915883L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1915883L"><span><span class="hlt">Regional</span> aerosol emissions and temperature response: Local and remote climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of <span class="hlt">regional</span> aerosol forcing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lewinschal, Anna; Ekman, Annica; Hansson, Hans-Christen</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p> (RTP) coefficients, which directly link <span class="hlt">regional</span> aerosol or aerosol precursor emissions to the temperature response in different <span class="hlt">regions</span>. These RTP coefficients can provide a simplified way to perform an initial evaluation of climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of e.g. different emission policy pathways and pollution abatement strategies.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC41F1142C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC41F1142C"><span>Salinity <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> on Agriculture and Groundwater in Delta <span class="hlt">Regions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Clarke, D.; Salehin, M.; Jairuddin, M.; Saleh, A. F. M.; Rahman, M. M.; Parks, K. E.; Haque, M. A.; Lázár, A. N.; Payo, A.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Delta <span class="hlt">regions</span> are attractive for high intensity agriculture due to the availability of rich sedimentary soils and of fresh water. Many of the world's tropical deltas support high population densities which are reliant on irrigated agriculture. However environmental changes such as sea level rise, tidal inundation and reduced river flows have reduced the quantity and quality of water available for successful agriculture. Additionally, anthropogenic influences such as the over abstraction of ground water and the increased use of low quality water from river inlets has resulted in the accumulation of salts in the soils which diminishes crop productivity. Communities based in these <span class="hlt">regions</span> are usually reliant on the same water for drinking and cooking because surface water is frequently contaminated by commercial and urban pollution. The expansion of shallow tube well systems for drinking water and agricultural use over the last few decades has resulted in mobilisation of salinity in the coastal and estuarine fringes. Sustainable development in delta <span class="hlt">regions</span> is becoming constrained by water salinity. However salinity is often studied as an independent issue by specialists working in the fields of agriculture, community water supply and groundwater. The lack of interaction between these disciplines often results in corrective actions being applied to one sector without fully assessing the effects of these actions on other sectors. This paper describes a framework for indentifying the causes and <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of salinity in delta <span class="hlt">regions</span> based on the source-pathway-receptor framework. It uses examples and scenarios from the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta in Bangladesh together with field measurements and observations made in vulnerable coastal communities. The paper demonstrates the importance of creating an holistic understanding of the development and management of water resources to reduce the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of salinity in fresh water in delta <span class="hlt">regions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15836493','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15836493"><span>Comparison of three methods of DNA extraction from <span class="hlt">cold</span>-smoked salmon and <span class="hlt">impact</span> of physical treatments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Giacomazzi, S; Leroi, F; Joffraud, J-J</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>To compare three bacterial DNA extraction procedures on <span class="hlt">cold</span>-smoked salmon (CSS) and assess the <span class="hlt">impact</span> on their efficiency of two physical treatments of the food matrix, ionizing irradiation and freezing. As molecular methods for bacterial detection have become an important analytical tool, we compared bacterial DNA extraction procedures on CSS. Working with frozen and irradiated CSS, we obtained negative responses from samples known to be highly contaminated. Thus, we decided to study the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of these two physical treatments on bacterial DNA extraction procedures. The efficiency of bacterial DNA extraction directly from the fish matrix suspension was measured by an rpoB PCR-based reaction. The results demonstrated that the DNeasy tissue extraction kit (Qiagen, Courtaboeuf, France) was the most efficient and reproducible method. We also showed that freezing and ionizing irradiation have a negative <span class="hlt">impact</span> on DNA extraction. This was found probably not to be due to inhibition as the PCR reaction remained negative after adding BSA to the PCR mix reaction. The extraction kit was the most efficient method. Physical treatments were shown to hamper bacterial DNA extraction. Attention must be paid to molecular bacterial detection on food products subject to freezing or to ionizing irradiation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70031907','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70031907"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> effects and <span class="hlt">regional</span> tectonic insights: Backstripping the Chesapeake Bay <span class="hlt">impact</span> structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hayden, T.; Kominz, M.; Powars, D.S.; Edwards, L.E.; Miller, K.G.; Browning, J.V.; Kulpecz, A.A.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The Chesapeake Bay <span class="hlt">impact</span> structure is a ca. 35.4 Ma crater located on the eastern seaboard of North America. Deposition returned to normal shortly after <span class="hlt">impact</span>, resulting in a unique record of both <span class="hlt">impact</span>-related and subsequent passive margin sedimentation. We use backstripping to show that the <span class="hlt">impact</span> strongly affected sedimentation for 7 m.y. through <span class="hlt">impact</span>-derived crustal-scale tectonics, dominated by the effects of sediment compaction and the introduction and subsequent removal of a negative thermal anomaly instead of the expected positive thermal anomaly. After this, the area was dominated by passive margin thermal subsidence overprinted by periods of <span class="hlt">regional</span>-scale vertical tectonic events, on the order of tens of meters. Loading due to prograding sediment bodies may have generated these events. ?? 2008 The Geological Society of America.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714640Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714640Z"><span>The <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Environmental <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Atmospheric Aerosols over Egypt</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zakey, Ashraf; Ibrahim, Alaa</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Identifying the origin (natural versus anthropogenic) and the dynamics of aerosols over Egypt at varying temporal and spatial scales provide valuable knowledge on the <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of aerosols and their ultimate connections to the Earth's <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate system at the MENA <span class="hlt">region</span>. At <span class="hlt">regional</span> scale, Egypt is exposed to air pollution with levels exceeding typical air-quality standards. This is particularly true for the Nile Delta <span class="hlt">region</span>, being at the crossroads of different aerosol species originating from local urban-industrial and biomass-burning activities, <span class="hlt">regional</span> dust sources, and European pollution from the north. The Environmental Climate Model (EnvClimA) is used to investigate both of the biogenic and anthropogenic aerosols over Egypt. The dominant natural aerosols over Egypt are due to the sand and dust storms, which frequently occur during the transitional seasons (spring and autumn). In winter, the maximum frequency reaches 2 to 3 per day in the north, which decreases gradually southward with a frequency of 0.5-1 per day. Monitoring one of the most basic aerosol parameters, the aerosol optical depth (AOD), is a main experimental and modeling task in aerosol studies. We used the aerosol optical depth to quantify the amount and variability of aerosol loading in the atmospheric column over a certain areas. The aerosols optical depth from the model is higher in spring season due to the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of dust activity over Egypt as results of the westerly wind, which carries more dust particles from the Libyan Desert. The model result shows that the mass load of fine aerosols has a longer life-time than the coarse aerosols. In autumn season, the modelled aerosol optical depth tends to increase due to the biomass burning in the delta of Egypt. Natural aerosol from the model tends to scatter the solar radiation while most of the anthropogenic aerosols tend to absorb the longwave solar radiation. The overall results indicate that the AOD is lowest in winter</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC31B1031P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC31B1031P"><span>Examining <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Global warming on the summer monsoon system using <span class="hlt">regional</span> Climate Model (PRECIS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Patwardhan, S. K.; Kundeti, K.; Krishna Kumar, K.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Every year, southwest monsoon arrives over Indian <span class="hlt">region</span> with remarkable regularity. It hits the southern state of Kerala first by the end of May or the early June. More than 70% of the annual precipitation is received during the four monsoon months viz. June to September. This monsoon rainfall is vital for the agriculture as well as for the yearly needs of Indian population. The performance of the monsoon depends on the timely onset over southern tip of India and its progress along the entire country. This northward progression of monsoon to cover the entire Indian landmass, many times, is associated with the formation of synoptic scale system in the Bay of Bengal <span class="hlt">region</span> and their movement along the monsoon trough <span class="hlt">region</span>. The analysis of the observed cyclonic disturbances show that their frequency has reduced in recent decades. It is, therefore, necessary to assess the effect of global warming on the monsoon climate of India. A state-of-art <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate modelling system, known as PRECIS (Providing <span class="hlt">REgional</span> Climates for <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> Studies) developed by the Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, U.K. is applied over the South Asian domain to investigate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of global warming on the cyclonic disturbances. The PRECIS simulations at 50 km x 50 km horizontal resolution are made for two time slices, present (1961-1990) and the future (2071-2100), for two socio-economic scenarios A2 and B2. The model skills are evaluated using observed precipitation and surface air temperature. The model has shown reasonably good skill in simulating seasonal monsoon rainfall, whereas <span class="hlt">cold</span> bias is seen in surface air temperature especially in post-monsoon months. The typical monsoon features like monsoon trough, precipitation maxima over west coast and northeast India are well simulated by the model. The model simulations under the scenarios of increasing greenhouse gas concentrations and sulphate aerosols are analysed to study the likely changes in the quasi</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6347Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6347Z"><span><span class="hlt">Regional</span> and Global <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Megacity Air Pollution in China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Renyi</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Air quality has deteriorated in many megacities of China because of their rapid economic developments. For example, as the world's second largest economy, China has experienced severe air pollution, with aerosols or fine particulate matter less than 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5) reaching unprecedented high levels across many cities in recent winters. In addition to the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of aerosols on air chemistry, visibility, and human health, intense aerosol pollution is believed to exert profound <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on the <span class="hlt">regional</span> and global atmosphere and climate. In the first part of the talk, perspectives are provided on formation and transformation of haze in China. In the second part the long-term <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of aerosols on precipitation and lightning over a megacity area in China will be presented, on the basis of atmospheric observations and simulations using a cloud-resolving WRF model. Our results reveal that elevated aerosol loading suppresses light and moderate precipitation, but enhances heavy precipitation. Also, we demonstrate climatically modulated mid-latitude cyclones by Asian pollution over past three decades, using a novel hierarchical modeling approach and observational analysis. Our results unambiguously reveal a large <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the Asian pollutant outflows on the global general circulation and climate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00466&hterms=starfish&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dstarfish','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00466&hterms=starfish&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dstarfish"><span>Venus - Large <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Crater in the Eistla <span class="hlt">Region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>This Magellan image shows an <span class="hlt">impact</span> crater in the central Eistla <span class="hlt">Region</span> of the equatorial highlands of Venus. It is centered at 15 degrees north latitude and 5 degrees east longitude. The image is 76.8 kilometers (48 miles) wide. The crater is slightly irregular in planform and approximately 6 kilometers (4 miles) in diameter. The walls appear terraced. Five or six lobes of radar-bright ejecta radiate up to 13.2 kilometers (8 miles) from the crater rim. These lobes are up to 3.5 kilometers (2 miles) in width and form a 'starfish' pattern against the underlying radar-dark plains. The asymmetric pattern of the ejecta suggests the angle of <span class="hlt">impact</span> was oblique. The alignment of two of the ejecta lobes along fractures in the underlying plains is apparently coincidental.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5264585','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5264585"><span>Mechanistic insights into the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of <span class="hlt">Cold</span> Atmospheric Pressure Plasma on human epithelial cell lines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dezest, Marlène; Chavatte, Laurent; Bourdens, Marion; Quinton, Damien; Camus, Mylène; Garrigues, Luc; Descargues, Pascal; Arbault, Stéphane; Burlet-Schiltz, Odile; Casteilla, Louis; Clément, Franck; Planat, Valérie; Bulteau, Anne-Laure</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Compelling evidence suggests that <span class="hlt">Cold</span> Atmospheric Pressure Plasma (CAPP) has potential as a new cancer therapy. However, knowledge about cellular signaling events and toxicity subsequent to plasma treatment is still poorly documented. The aim of this study was to focus on the interaction between 3 different types of plasma (He, He-O2, He-N2) and human epithelial cell lines to gain better insight into plasma-cell interaction. We provide evidence that reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) are inducing cell death by apoptosis and that the proteasome, a major intracellular proteolytic system which is important for tumor cell growth and survival, is a target of (He or He-N2) CAPP. However, RONS are not the only actors involved in cell death; electric field and charged particles could play a significant role especially for He-O2 CAPP. By differential label-free quantitative proteomic analysis we found that CAPP triggers antioxidant and cellular defense but is also affecting extracellular matrix in keratinocytes. Moreover, we found that malignant cells are more resistant to CAPP treatment than normal cells. Taken together, our findings provide insight into potential mechanisms of CAPP-induced proteasome inactivation and the cellular consequences of these events. PMID:28120925</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatSR...741163D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatSR...741163D"><span>Mechanistic insights into the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of <span class="hlt">Cold</span> Atmospheric Pressure Plasma on human epithelial cell lines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dezest, Marlène; Chavatte, Laurent; Bourdens, Marion; Quinton, Damien; Camus, Mylène; Garrigues, Luc; Descargues, Pascal; Arbault, Stéphane; Burlet-Schiltz, Odile; Casteilla, Louis; Clément, Franck; Planat, Valérie; Bulteau, Anne-Laure</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Compelling evidence suggests that <span class="hlt">Cold</span> Atmospheric Pressure Plasma (CAPP) has potential as a new cancer therapy. However, knowledge about cellular signaling events and toxicity subsequent to plasma treatment is still poorly documented. The aim of this study was to focus on the interaction between 3 different types of plasma (He, He-O2, He-N2) and human epithelial cell lines to gain better insight into plasma-cell interaction. We provide evidence that reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) are inducing cell death by apoptosis and that the proteasome, a major intracellular proteolytic system which is important for tumor cell growth and survival, is a target of (He or He-N2) CAPP. However, RONS are not the only actors involved in cell death; electric field and charged particles could play a significant role especially for He-O2 CAPP. By differential label-free quantitative proteomic analysis we found that CAPP triggers antioxidant and cellular defense but is also affecting extracellular matrix in keratinocytes. Moreover, we found that malignant cells are more resistant to CAPP treatment than normal cells. Taken together, our findings provide insight into potential mechanisms of CAPP-induced proteasome inactivation and the cellular consequences of these events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/commoncold.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/commoncold.html"><span>Common <span class="hlt">Cold</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common <span class="hlt">cold</span>. It is probably the most common illness. In ... avoid <span class="hlt">colds</span>. There is no cure for the common <span class="hlt">cold</span>. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest Drinking ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cold-urticaria/basics/definition/CON-20034524?p=1','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cold-urticaria/basics/definition/CON-20034524?p=1"><span><span class="hlt">Cold</span> Urticaria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... throat when consuming <span class="hlt">cold</span> food or drink Severe reactions may include: A whole-body response (anaphylaxis), which ... to <span class="hlt">cold</span> water. The majority of <span class="hlt">cold</span> urticaria reactions occur when skin is exposed to temperatures lower ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.A21G0190Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.A21G0190Y"><span>Forecasting energy security <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of biofuels using <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, X.; Campbell, E.; Snyder, M. A.; Sloan, L.; Kueppers, L. M.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Production of biofuels in the U.S. is growing rapidly, with corn providing the dominant feedstock for current production and corn stover potentially providing a critical feedstock source for future cellulosic ethanol production. While production of domestic biofuels is thought to improve energy security, future changes in climate may <span class="hlt">impact</span> crop yield variability and erode the energy security benefits of biofuels. Here we examine future yield variability for corn and soy using RegCM <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate data from NARCAPP, historical agronomic data, and statistical models of yield variability. Our simulations of historical yield anomalies using monthly temperature and precipitation data from RegCM show robust relationships to observed yield anomalies. Simulations of future yield anomalies show increased yield variability relative to historical yield variability in the <span class="hlt">region</span> of high corn production. Since variability in energy supply is a critical concern for energy security we suggest that the climate-induced yield variability on critical biofuels feedstocks be explored more widely.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.C33B0817B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.C33B0817B"><span>Remotely sensing a <span class="hlt">cold</span> <span class="hlt">region</span> dune field using airborne LiDAR and high resolution aerial photography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baughman, C. A.; Jones, B. M.; Babcock, E.; Bodony, K. L.; Mann, D. H.; Larson, C. F.; Smith, J.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Sand dunes and sheets respond to global and <span class="hlt">regional</span> climatic changes, ecological succession, and disturbance events. Approximately 100,000 km2 of active and stable sand sheets occur in the Arctic and Subarctic today. These <span class="hlt">cold</span> <span class="hlt">regions</span> dunes are also subject to changes in permafrost conditions. Permafrost can influence soil moisture and vegetation, which then influences sand availability and transport. This study describes the morphometry and dynamics of the Nogahabara Dunes of interior Alaska's discontinuous permafrost zone and local permafrost conditions using 2015 airborne LiDAR, historic aerial photography, ground penetrating radar, and historical climate data. Average active dune height is 10 meters, with a maximum dune height of 28 meters. Dune spacing is approximately 130 meters. Where dunes are irregularly shaped and have variable orientation, dune spacing ranges from 40 to 200+ meters. Average dune migration between 1952 and 2015 is 63cm yr-1. Dune migration direction was variable; however, the predominant direction of movement was to the southeast. This agrees with historical wind records. Despite substantial within-field movement, the overall extent of the active dune field has not changed in 60 years. Small blow-out features were observed in the aftermath of fires that occurred in the vegetated portion of the dune field in 2015. Inferred reflectors in GPR data show that permafrost is present within the active dune field 2-4 meters below ground surface, but there does not appear to be any morphometric features directly related to permafrost. Depth-to-permafrost is shallower within the inactive dunes adjacent to the active dune field due to surface stability and cover by vegetation and insulating soil organics. Recent fire on the inactive dunes has the potential to reactivate dormant dunes through the degradation of underlying permafrost however long term monitoring will be required to validate this scenario. Acquisition of contemporary airborne Li</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009GeoRL..3621806G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009GeoRL..3621806G"><span>Potential <span class="hlt">impact</span> of U.S. biofuels on <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Georgescu, M.; Lobell, D. B.; Field, C. B.</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>Recent work has shown that current bio-energy policy directives may have harmful, indirect consequences, affecting both food security and the global climate system. An additional unintended but direct effect of large-scale biofuel production is the <span class="hlt">impact</span> on local and <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate resulting from changes in the energy and moisture balance of the surface upon conversion to biofuel crops. Using the latest version of the WRF modeling system we conducted twenty-four, midsummer, continental-wide, sensitivity experiments by imposing realistic biophysical parameter limits appropriate for bio-energy crops in the Corn Belt of the United States. In the absence of strain/crop-specific parameterizations, a primary goal of this work was to isolate the maximum <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate <span class="hlt">impact</span>, for a trio of individual July months, due to land-use change resulting from bio-energy crops and to identify the relative importance of each biophysical parameter in terms of its individual effect. Maximum, local changes in 2 m temperature of the order of 1°C occur for the full breadth of albedo (ALB), minimum canopy resistance (RCMIN), and rooting depth (ROOT) specifications, while the <span class="hlt">regionally</span> (105°W-75°W and 35°N-50°N) and monthly averaged response of 2 m temperature was most pronounced for the ALB and RCMIN experiments, exceeding 0.2°C. The full range of albedo variability associated with biofuel crops may be sufficient to drive <span class="hlt">regional</span> changes in summertime rainfall. Individual parameter effects on 2 m temperature are additive, highlight the cooling contribution of higher leaf area index (LAI) and ROOT for perennial grasses (e.g., Miscanthus) versus annual crops (e.g., maize), and underscore the necessity of improving location- and vegetation-specific representation of RCMIN and ALB.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoRL..40.1217A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoRL..40.1217A"><span><span class="hlt">Regional</span> climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of a biofuels policy projection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Anderson, Christopher J.; Anex, Robert P.; Arritt, Raymond W.; Gelder, Brian K.; Khanal, Sami; Herzmann, Daryl E.; Gassman, Phillip W.</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>The potential for <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate change arising from adoption of policies to increase production of biofuel feedstock is explored using a <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate model. Two simulations are performed using the same atmospheric forcing data for the period 1979-2004, one with present-day land use and monthly phenology and the other with land use specified from an agro-economic prediction of energy crop distribution and monthly phenology consistent with this land use change. In Kansas and Oklahoma, where the agro-economic model predicts 15-30% conversion to switchgrass, the <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate model simulates locally lower temperature (especially in spring), slightly higher relative humidity in spring and slightly lower relative humidity in summer, and summer depletion of soil moisture. This shows the potential for climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of biofuel policies and raises the question of whether soil water depletion may limit biomass crop productivity in agricultural areas that are responsive to the policies. We recommend the use of agronomic models to evaluate the possibility that soil moisture depletion could reduce productivity of biomass crops in this <span class="hlt">region</span>. We conclude, therefore, that agro-economic and climate models should be used iteratively to examine an ensemble of agricultural land use and climate scenarios, thereby reducing the possibility of unforeseen consequences from rapid changes in agricultural production systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002P%26SS...50...41M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002P%26SS...50...41M"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> hot spots on the <span class="hlt">cold</span> surface of the early Earth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mukhin, L. M.; Pimenov, K. Yu.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The cooling rates for a thin upper layer of <span class="hlt">impact</span>-melted material on the surface of the growing Earth were calculated using the experimental data for convective heat transfer coefficient. The presence of an atmosphere on the Earth embryo leads to very high cooling rates of the surface layer of <span class="hlt">impact</span> crater. We find that during Safronov's type of accretion more than 90% of the Earth's surface was below the freezing point of water and the blanketing effect of greenhouse gases was unable to maintain a global magma ocean on Earth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E2057W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E2057W"><span>The Atlantic Multi-Decadal Oscillation <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Werner, Rolf; Valev, Dimitar; Atanassov, Atanas; Danov, Dimitar; Guineva, Veneta; Kirillov, Andrey S.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The Atlantic multi-decadal oscillation (AMO) shows a period of about 60-70 years. Over the time span from 1860 up to 2014 the AMO has had a strong climate <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the Northern Hemisphere. The AMO is considered to be related to the Atlantic overturning circulation, but the origin of the oscillation is not fully understood up till now. To study the AMO <span class="hlt">impact</span> on climate, the Hadcrut4, Crut4 and HadSST3 temperature data sets have been employed in the current study. The influence of the AMO on the zonal and meridional temperature distribution has been investigated in detail. The strongest zonal AMO <span class="hlt">impact</span> was obtained in the Arctic <span class="hlt">region</span>. The results indicated that the AMO influence on temperature at Southern latitudes was opposite in phase compared to the temperature influence in the Northern Hemisphere, in agreement with the well known heat transfer phenomenon from South to North Atlantic. In the Northern Hemisphere the strongest AMO temperature <span class="hlt">impact</span> was found over the Atlantic and America. In the West from American continent, over the Pacific, the AMO <span class="hlt">impact</span> was the lowest obtained over the whole Northern Hemisphere. The Rocky Mountains and Sierra Madre, connected with it southwards, built up an atmospheric circulation barrier preventing a strong propagation of the AMO temperature signal westerly. The amplitude of the AMO index itself was greater during summer-fall. However stronger AMO influence on the Northern Hemisphere temperatures was found during the fall-winter season, when the differences between the Northern Hemisphere temperatures and the temperatures in the tropics were the greatest.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1366531-influence-site-soil-properties-drift-spectra-northern-cold-region-soils-influence-site-soil-properties-mid-infrared-spectra-northern-cold-region-soils','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1366531-influence-site-soil-properties-drift-spectra-northern-cold-region-soils-influence-site-soil-properties-mid-infrared-spectra-northern-cold-region-soils"><span>Influence of site and soil properties on the DRIFT spectra of northern <span class="hlt">cold-region</span> soils [Influence of site and soil properties on the mid-infrared spectra of northern <span class="hlt">cold-region</span> soils</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Matamala, Roser; Calderon, Francisco J.; Jastrow, Julie D.; ...</p> <p>2017-06-05</p> <p> information contained in MidIR spectra of bulk soil integrates the quantity and chemical composition of soil organic matter with soil forming factors and highlights the potential for using this information to assess the degradation state of organic matter stored in northern <span class="hlt">cold-region</span> soils.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25320270','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25320270"><span><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of extreme climatic events on the energetics of long-lived vertebrates: the case of the greater flamingo facing <span class="hlt">cold</span> spells in the Camargue.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Deville, Anne-Sophie; Labaude, Sophie; Robin, Jean-Patrice; Béchet, Arnaud; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Porter, Warren; Fitzpatrick, Megan; Mathewson, Paul; Grémillet, David</p> <p>2014-10-15</p> <p>Most studies analyzing the effects of global warming on wild populations focus on gradual temperature changes, yet it is also important to understand the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of extreme climatic events. Here we studied the effect of two <span class="hlt">cold</span> spells (January 1985 and February 2012) on the energetics of greater flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus) in the Camargue (southern France). To understand the cause of observed flamingo mass mortalities, we first assessed the energy stores of flamingos found dead in February 2012, and compared them with those found in other bird species exposed to <span class="hlt">cold</span> spells and/or fasting. Second, we evaluated the monthly energy requirements of flamingos across 1980-2012 using the mechanistic model Niche Mapper. Our results show that the body lipids of flamingos found dead in 2012 corresponded to 2.6±0.3% of total body mass, which is close to results found in woodcocks (Scolopax rusticola) that died from starvation during a <span class="hlt">cold</span> spell (1.7±0.1%), and much lower than in woodcocks which were fed throughout this same <span class="hlt">cold</span> spell (13.0±2%). Further, Niche Mapper predicted that flamingo energy requirements were highest (+6-7%) during the 1985 and 2012 <span class="hlt">cold</span> spells compared with 'normal' winters. This increase was primarily driven by <span class="hlt">cold</span> air temperatures. Overall, our findings strongly suggest that flamingos starved to death during both <span class="hlt">cold</span> spells. This study demonstrates the relevance of using mechanistic energetics modelling and body condition analyses to understand and predict the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of extreme climatic events on animal energy balance and winter survival probabilities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ExFl...56..133L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ExFl...56..133L"><span>Influence of solidification on the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of supercooled water drops onto <span class="hlt">cold</span> surfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Hai; Roisman, Ilia V.; Tropea, Cameron</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>This study presents an experimental investigation of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of a supercooled drop onto hydrophilic and superhydrophobic substrates. The aim is to better understand the process of airframe icing caused by supercooled large droplets, which has been recently identified as a severe hazard in aviation. The Weber number and Reynolds number of the impinging drop ranged from 200 to 300 and from 2600 to 5800, respectively. Drop <span class="hlt">impact</span>, spreading, and rebound were observed using a high-speed video system. The maximum spreading diameter of an <span class="hlt">impacting</span> drop on hydrophilic surfaces was measured. The temperature effect on this parameter was only minor for a wide range of the drop and substrate temperatures. However, ice/water mixtures emerged when both the drop and substrate temperatures were below 0 °C. Similarly, drop rebound on superhydrophobic substrates was significantly hindered by solidification when supercooled drop <span class="hlt">impacted</span> onto substrates below the freezing point. The minimum receding diameter and the speed of ice accretion on the substrate were measured for various wall temperatures. Both parameters increased almost linearly with decreasing wall temperature, but eventually leveled off beyond a certain substrate temperature. The rate of ice formation on the substrate was significantly higher than the growth rate of free ice dendrites, implying that multiple nucleation sites were present.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A12D..06C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A12D..06C"><span>Ocean-Atmosphere Environments of Antarctic-<span class="hlt">Region</span> <span class="hlt">Cold</span>-Air Mesocyclones: Evaluation of Reanalyses for Contrasting Adjacent 10-Day Periods ("Macro-Weather") in Winter.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carleton, A. M.; Auger, J.; Birkel, S. D.; Maasch, K. A.; Mayewski, P. A.; Claud, C.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Mesoscale cyclones in <span class="hlt">cold</span>-air outbreaks (mesocyclones) feature in the weather and climate of the Antarctic (e.g., Ross Sea) and sub-antarctic (Drake Passage). They adversely <span class="hlt">impact</span> field operations, and influence snowfall, the ice-sheet mass balance, and sea-air energy fluxes. Although individual mesocyclones are poorly represented on reanalyses, these datasets robustly depict the upper-ocean and troposphere environments in which multiple mesocyclones typically form. A spatial metric of mesocyclone activity—the Meso-Cyclogenesis Potential (MCP)—used ERA-40 anomaly fields of: sea surface temperature (SST) minus marine air temperature (MAT), near-surface winds, 500 hPa air temperature, and the sea-ice edge location. MCP maps composited by teleconnection phases for 1979-2001, broadly correspond to short-period satellite "climatologies" of mesocyclones. Here, we assess 3 reanalysis datasets (CFSR, ERA-I and MERRA) for their reliably to depict MCP patterns on weekly to sub-monthly periods marked by strong <span class="hlt">regional</span> shifts in mesocyclone activity (frequencies, track densities) occurring during a La Niña winter: June 21-30, 1999 (SE Indian Ocean) and September 1-10, 1999 (Ross Sea sector). All reanalyses depict the marked variations in upper ocean and atmosphere variables between adjacent 10-day periods. Slight differences may owe to model resolution or internal components (land surface, coupled ocean models), and/or how the observations are assimilated. For June 21-30, positive SST-MAT, southerly winds, proximity to the ice edge, and negative T500, accompany increased meso-cyclogenesis. However, for September 1-10, surface forcing does not explain frequent comma cloud "polar lows" north-east of the Ross Sea. Inclusion of the upper-level diffluence (e.g., from Z300 field) in the MCP metric, better depicts the observed mesocyclone activity. MCP patterns on these "macro-weather" time scales appear relatively insensitive to the choice of reanalysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24817142','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24817142"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of warm versus <span class="hlt">cold</span> ischemia on renal function following partial nephrectomy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Eggener, Scott E; Clark, Melanie A; Shikanov, Sergey; Smith, Benjamin; Kaag, Matthew; Russo, Paul; Wheat, Jeffrey C; Wolf, J Stuart; Matin, Surena F; Huang, William C; Harel, Miriam; Cambio, Joseph; Shalhav, Arieh L; Raman, Jay D</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>We evaluated renal function following partial nephrectomy with <span class="hlt">cold</span> ischemia (CI) versus warm ischemia (WI). Data were collected from 1,396 patients at six institutions who underwent partial nephrectomy for a renal mass with normal contralateral kidney to evaluate percent change in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) at 3-18 months. A multivariate linear regression model tested the association of percent change GFR with clinical, operative, and pathologic factors. A total of 874 patients (63 %) underwent PN with CI and 522 (37 %) with WI. All patients undergoing laparoscopic and robotic-assisted partial nephrectomy (n = 443) had WI, whereas 92 % of open partial nephrectomy patients (n = 953) had CI. The CI group had a lower mean baseline GFR (72 vs. 80 ml/min/1.73 m(2)), longer median ischemia time (33 vs. 29 min), and larger mean tumor size (3.2 vs. 2.9 cm) with more advanced pathologic stage (T1b-T3: 25 vs. 16 %) (all p values <0.001). Patients with CI and WI demonstrated 12.3 and 10.1 % reductions in renal function from baseline, respectively (p = 0.067). Increasing age, female gender, and increasing tumor size were associated with reduction in renal function (all p values <0.001). Neither renal hypothermia nor operative technique independently predicted reduced renal function. Sensitivity analyses limited to ischemia time >30 min, baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2), or tumors >4 cm did not significantly alter the findings. Increasing age, female gender, and larger tumor size independently predict a decrease in renal function following partial nephrectomy with a normal contralateral kidney. Within the limitations of a non-randomized comparison, including lack of parenchymal preservation percentage, neither surgical approach (open or laparoscopic) nor presence of hypothermia appears to be associated with long-term renal function.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/470950','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/470950"><span>Global extreme events and their <span class="hlt">regional</span> economic <span class="hlt">impact</span>: 1996 update</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shen, S.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>The meaning of global warming and its relevance to everyday life is explained. Simple thermodynamics is used to predict an oscillatory nature of the change in climate due to global warming. The <span class="hlt">regional</span> economic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of global extreme events are what mankind needs to focus on in government and private sector policy and planning. The economic <span class="hlt">impact</span> of global warming has been tracked by the Extreme Event Index (EEI) established by the Global Warming International Center (GWIC). This review will update the overall trend and the components of the EEI from 1960 to 1996. The <span class="hlt">regional</span> components of the global EEI have provided an excellent gauge for measuring the statistical vulnerability of any geographical locality in climate related economic disasters. The author further explains why we no longer fully understand the nature and magnitudes of common phenomena such as storms and wind speeds because of these extreme events, precipitation and temperature oscillations, atmospheric thermal unrest, as well as the further stratification of clouds, and changes in the absorptive properties of clouds. Hurricane strength winds are increasingly common even in continental areas. The author links the increase in duration of the El Nino to global warming, and further predicts a high public health risk as a result of the earth`s transition to another equilibrium state in its young history.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoRL..41.1051M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoRL..41.1051M"><span>Structure and <span class="hlt">impact</span> of atmospheric blocking over the Euro-Atlantic <span class="hlt">region</span> in present-day and future simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Masato, G.; Woollings, T.; Hoskins, B. J.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>The spatial structure of winter atmospheric blocking and its <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the surface temperatures are analyzed for the current climate and a strong CO2 emission scenario over the Euro-Atlantic sector, using four different global circulation models. The models perform very well in describing the spatial pattern of meteorological fields associated with blocking, despite the well-known negative bias associated with the European blocking frequency. While a slight increase in the frequency of the Atlantic blocking is observed for the future climate, the European blocking frequency remains unchanged, with a net eastward shift apparent for the European warm blocking events. Under enhanced CO2 forcing, Atlantic blocking is associated with reduced amplitudes for positive and negative anomalies both in the geopotential height at 500 hPa and in the surface temperature, in particular for the latter. The anomalies associated with the occurrence of the two types of European blocking (those dominated by warm and <span class="hlt">cold</span> air masses) exhibit changed shapes and locations in both the geopotential height and surface temperature fields, with only the <span class="hlt">cold</span> cases leading to severe <span class="hlt">cold</span> weather conditions over Europe and most of the polar <span class="hlt">region</span>. Moreover, the eastward shift and amplification of the anticyclone associated with the warm events in the future is found to generate strong positive surface temperature anomalies over the entire polar cap. As a whole, the results show a marked increase in the sensitivity of Arctic temperatures to blocking in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4823715','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4823715"><span>Dynamics of 2013 Sudden Stratospheric Warming event and its <span class="hlt">impact</span> on <span class="hlt">cold</span> weather over Eurasia: Role of planetary wave reflection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nath, Debashis; Chen, Wen; Zelin, Cai; Pogoreltsev, Alexander Ivanovich; Wei, Ke</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In the present study, we investigate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of stratospheric planetary wave reflection on tropospheric weather over Central Eurasia during the 2013 Sudden Stratospheric Warming (SSW) event. We analyze EP fluxes and Plumb wave activity fluxes to study the two and three dimensional aspects of wave propagation, respectively. The 2013 SSW event is excited by the combined influence of wavenumber 1 (WN1) and wavenumber 2 (WN2) planetary waves, which makes the event an unusual one and seems to have significant <span class="hlt">impact</span> on tropospheric weather regime. We observe an extraordinary development of a ridge over the Siberian Tundra and the North Pacific during first development stage (last week of December 2012) and later from the North Atlantic in the second development stage (first week of January 2013), and these waves appear to be responsible for the excitation of the WN2 pattern during the SSW. The wave packets propagated upward and were then reflected back down to central Eurasia due to strong negative wind shear in the upper stratospheric polar jet, caused by the SSW event. Waves that propagated downward led to the formation of a deep trough over Eurasia and brought extreme <span class="hlt">cold</span> weather over Kazakhstan, the Southern part of Russia and the Northwestern part of China during mid-January 2013. PMID:27051997</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...624174N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...624174N"><span>Dynamics of 2013 Sudden Stratospheric Warming event and its <span class="hlt">impact</span> on <span class="hlt">cold</span> weather over Eurasia: Role of planetary wave reflection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nath, Debashis; Chen, Wen; Zelin, Cai; Pogoreltsev, Alexander Ivanovich; Wei, Ke</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In the present study, we investigate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of stratospheric planetary wave reflection on tropospheric weather over Central Eurasia during the 2013 Sudden Stratospheric Warming (SSW) event. We analyze EP fluxes and Plumb wave activity fluxes to study the two and three dimensional aspects of wave propagation, respectively. The 2013 SSW event is excited by the combined influence of wavenumber 1 (WN1) and wavenumber 2 (WN2) planetary waves, which makes the event an unusual one and seems to have significant <span class="hlt">impact</span> on tropospheric weather regime. We observe an extraordinary development of a ridge over the Siberian Tundra and the North Pacific during first development stage (last week of December 2012) and later from the North Atlantic in the second development stage (first week of January 2013), and these waves appear to be responsible for the excitation of the WN2 pattern during the SSW. The wave packets propagated upward and were then reflected back down to central Eurasia due to strong negative wind shear in the upper stratospheric polar jet, caused by the SSW event. Waves that propagated downward led to the formation of a deep trough over Eurasia and brought extreme <span class="hlt">cold</span> weather over Kazakhstan, the Southern part of Russia and the Northwestern part of China during mid-January 2013.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27051997','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27051997"><span>Dynamics of 2013 Sudden Stratospheric Warming event and its <span class="hlt">impact</span> on <span class="hlt">cold</span> weather over Eurasia: Role of planetary wave reflection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nath, Debashis; Chen, Wen; Zelin, Cai; Pogoreltsev, Alexander Ivanovich; Wei, Ke</p> <p>2016-04-07</p> <p>In the present study, we investigate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of stratospheric planetary wave reflection on tropospheric weather over Central Eurasia during the 2013 Sudden Stratospheric Warming (SSW) event. We analyze EP fluxes and Plumb wave activity fluxes to study the two and three dimensional aspects of wave propagation, respectively. The 2013 SSW event is excited by the combined influence of wavenumber 1 (WN1) and wavenumber 2 (WN2) planetary waves, which makes the event an unusual one and seems to have significant <span class="hlt">impact</span> on tropospheric weather regime. We observe an extraordinary development of a ridge over the Siberian Tundra and the North Pacific during first development stage (last week of December 2012) and later from the North Atlantic in the second development stage (first week of January 2013), and these waves appear to be responsible for the excitation of the WN2 pattern during the SSW. The wave packets propagated upward and were then reflected back down to central Eurasia due to strong negative wind shear in the upper stratospheric polar jet, caused by the SSW event. Waves that propagated downward led to the formation of a deep trough over Eurasia and brought extreme <span class="hlt">cold</span> weather over Kazakhstan, the Southern part of Russia and the Northwestern part of China during mid-January 2013.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AUGGM..67...63M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AUGGM..67...63M"><span>The hydrological consequences of human <span class="hlt">impact</span> in the Lublin <span class="hlt">Region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Michalczyk, Zdzisław; Mięsiak-Wójcik, Katarzyna; Sposób, Joanna; Turczyński, Marek</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The Lublin <span class="hlt">Region</span> is an area where local transformations in the natural environment, including the hydrosphere, occur. They result from the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of agriculture, industry as well as water supply and sewage disposal. These activities lead to changes in the water network resulting from land improvement works, channel straightening and water runoff acceleration, as well as to the formation of local, both point and diffuse sources, of water pollution. The consequences of human <span class="hlt">impact</span> are manifested in local transformations of the quality or quantity of water resources. As a result of intense groundwater draw-off, hydrogeological conditions are transformed, which is reflected in the persistence of depression cones of varied size and depth, noticeable in the vicinity of water intakes for Lublin, Chełm, Zamość and Kraśnik. The lowering of the first-level groundwater table also occurs as a consequence of the drainage of chalk and marl mine workings in Chełm and Rejowiec, whereas in the area of the hard coal mine both shallow and deep groundwater was transformed. It is important to indicate the consequences of human <span class="hlt">impact</span> changes of water conditions as the hydrosphere resources should be used according to the principles of sustainable development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19531907','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19531907"><span><span class="hlt">Cold</span> adaptations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Launay, Jean-Claude; Savourey, Gustave</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p>Nowdays, occupational and recreational activities in <span class="hlt">cold</span> environments are common. Exposure to <span class="hlt">cold</span> induces thermoregulatory responses like changes of behaviour and physiological adjustments to maintain thermal balance either by increasing metabolic heat production by shivering and/or by decreasing heat losses consecutive to peripheral cutaneous vasoconstriction. Those physiological responses present a great variability among individuals and depend mainly on biometrical characteristics, age, and general <span class="hlt">cold</span> adaptation. During severe <span class="hlt">cold</span> exposure, medical disorders may occur such as accidental hypothermia and/or freezing or non-freezing <span class="hlt">cold</span> injuries. General <span class="hlt">cold</span> adaptations have been qualitatively classified by Hammel and quantitatively by Savourey. This last classification takes into account the quantitative changes of the main <span class="hlt">cold</span> reactions: higher or lower metabolic heat production, higher or lesser heat losses and finally the level of the core temperature observed at the end of a standardized exposure to <span class="hlt">cold</span>. General <span class="hlt">cold</span> adaptations observed previously in natives could also be developed in laboratory conditions by continuous or intermittent <span class="hlt">cold</span> exposures. Beside general <span class="hlt">cold</span> adaptation, local <span class="hlt">cold</span> adaptation exists and is characterized by a lesser decrease of skin temperature, a more pronounced <span class="hlt">cold</span> induced vasodilation, less pain and a higher manual dexterity. Adaptations to <span class="hlt">cold</span> may reduce the occurrence of accidents and improve human performance as surviving in the <span class="hlt">cold</span>. The present review describes both general and local <span class="hlt">cold</span> adaptations in humans and how they are of interest for <span class="hlt">cold</span> workers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGD....11.1909H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGD....11.1909H"><span>Physical processes mediating climate change <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on <span class="hlt">regional</span> sea ecosystems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Holt, J.; Schrum, C.; Cannaby, H.; Daewel, U.; Allen, I.; Artioli, Y.; Bopp, L.; Butenschon, M.; Fach, B. A.; Harle, J.; Pushpadas, D.; Salihoglu, B.; Wakelin, S.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Regional</span> seas are exceptionally vulnerable to climate change, yet are the most directly societally important <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the marine environment. The combination of widely varying conditions of mixing, forcing, geography (coastline and bathymetry) and exposure to the open-ocean makes these seas subject to a wide range of physical processes that mediates how large scale climate change <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on these seas' ecosystems. In this paper we explore these physical processes and their biophysical interactions, and the effects of atmospheric, oceanic and terrestrial change on them. Our aim is to elucidate the controlling dynamical processes and how these vary between and within <span class="hlt">regional</span> seas. We focus on primary production and consider the potential climatic <span class="hlt">impacts</span>: on long term changes in elemental budgets, on seasonal and mesoscale processes that control phytoplankton's exposure to light and nutrients, and briefly on direct temperature response. We draw examples from the MEECE FP7 project and five <span class="hlt">regional</span> models systems using ECOSMO, POLCOMS-ERSEM and BIMS_ECO. These cover the Barents Sea, Black Sea, Baltic Sea, North Sea, Celtic Seas, and a <span class="hlt">region</span> of the Northeast Atlantic, using a common global ocean-atmosphere model as forcing. We consider a common analysis approach, and a more detailed analysis of the POLCOMS-ERSEM model. Comparing projections for the end of the 21st century with mean present day conditions, these simulations generally show an increase in seasonal and permanent stratification (where present). However, the first order (low- and mid-latitude) effect in the open ocean projections of increased permanent stratification leading to reduced nutrient levels, and so to reduced primary production, is largely absent, except in the NE Atlantic. Instead, results show a highly heterogeneous picture of positive and negative change arising from the varying mixing and circulation conditions. Even in the two highly stratified, deep water seas (Black and Baltic Seas) the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28706980','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28706980"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">Cold</span> Ischemia Time in Kidney Transplants From Donation After Circulatory Death Donors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kayler, Liise; Yu, Xia; Cortes, Carlos; Lubetzky, Michelle; Friedmann, Patricia</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>Deceased-donor kidneys are exposed to ischemic events from donor instability during the process of donation after circulatory death (DCD). Clinicians may be reluctant to transplant DCD kidneys with prolonged <span class="hlt">cold</span> ischemia time (CIT) for fear of an additional deleterious effect. We performed a retrospective cohort study examining US registry data between 1998 and 2013 of adult first-time kidney-only recipients of paired kidneys (derived from the same donor transplanted into different recipients) from DCD donors. On multivariable analysis, death-censored graft survival (DCGS) was comparable between recipients of kidneys with higher CIT relative to paired donor recipients with lower CIT when the CIT difference was 1 hour or longer (adjusted hazard ratio, [aHR], 1.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.88-1.17; n = 6276), 5 hours or longer (aHR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.80-1.19; n = 3130), 10 hours or longer (aHR, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.82-1.60; n = 1124) or 15 hours (aHR, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.66-1.99; n = 498). There was a higher rate of primary non function in the long CIT groups for delta 1 hour or longer (0.89% vs 1.63%; P = 0.006), 5 hours (1.09% vs 1.67%, P = 0.13); 10 hours (0.53% vs 1.78%; P = 0.03), and 15 hours (0.40% vs 1.61%; P = 0.18), respectively. Between each of the 4 delta CIT levels of shorter and longer CIT, there was a significantly and incrementally higher rate of delayed graft function in the long CIT groups for delta 1 hour or longer (37.3% vs 41.7%; P < 0.001), 5 hours (35.9% vs 42.7%; P < 0.001), 10 hours (29.4% vs 44.2%, P < 0.001), and 15 hours (29.6% vs 46.1%, P < 0.001), respectively. Overall patient survival was comparable with delta CITs of 1 hour or longer (aHR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.84-1.08), 5 hours (aHR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.85-1.20), and 15 hours (aHR, 1.27; 95% CI, 0.79-2.06) but not 10 hours (aHR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.09-1.98). These results suggest that in the setting of a prior ischemic donor event, prolonged CIT has limited bearing on long-term outcomes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5498018','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5498018"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">Cold</span> Ischemia Time in Kidney Transplants From Donation After Circulatory Death Donors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kayler, Liise; Yu, Xia; Cortes, Carlos; Lubetzky, Michelle; Friedmann, Patricia</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Background Deceased-donor kidneys are exposed to ischemic events from donor instability during the process of donation after circulatory death (DCD). Clinicians may be reluctant to transplant DCD kidneys with prolonged <span class="hlt">cold</span> ischemia time (CIT) for fear of an additional deleterious effect. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study examining US registry data between 1998 and 2013 of adult first-time kidney-only recipients of paired kidneys (derived from the same donor transplanted into different recipients) from DCD donors. Results On multivariable analysis, death-censored graft survival (DCGS) was comparable between recipients of kidneys with higher CIT relative to paired donor recipients with lower CIT when the CIT difference was 1 hour or longer (adjusted hazard ratio, [aHR], 1.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.88-1.17; n = 6276), 5 hours or longer (aHR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.80-1.19; n = 3130), 10 hours or longer (aHR, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.82-1.60; n = 1124) or 15 hours (aHR, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.66-1.99; n = 498). There was a higher rate of primary non function in the long CIT groups for delta 1 hour or longer (0.89% vs 1.63%; P = 0.006), 5 hours (1.09% vs 1.67%, P = 0.13); 10 hours (0.53% vs 1.78%; P = 0.03), and 15 hours (0.40% vs 1.61%; P = 0.18), respectively. Between each of the 4 delta CIT levels of shorter and longer CIT, there was a significantly and incrementally higher rate of delayed graft function in the long CIT groups for delta 1 hour or longer (37.3% vs 41.7%; P < 0.001), 5 hours (35.9% vs 42.7%; P < 0.001), 10 hours (29.4% vs 44.2%, P < 0.001), and 15 hours (29.6% vs 46.1%, P < 0.001), respectively. Overall patient survival was comparable with delta CITs of 1 hour or longer (aHR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.84-1.08), 5 hours (aHR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.85-1.20), and 15 hours (aHR, 1.27; 95% CI, 0.79-2.06) but not 10 hours (aHR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.09-1.98). Conclusions These results suggest that in the setting of a prior ischemic donor event, prolonged CIT has limited</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70046999','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70046999"><span>Scenarios of bioenergy development <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on <span class="hlt">regional</span> groundwater withdrawals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Uden, Daniel R.; Allen, Craig R.; Mitchell, Rob B.; Guan, Qingfeng; McCoy, Tim D.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Irrigation increases agricultural productivity, but it also stresses water resources (Huffaker and Hamilton 2007). Drought and the potential for drier conditions resulting from climate change could strain water supplies in landscapes where human populations rely on finite groundwater resources for drinking, agriculture, energy, and industry (IPCC 2007). For instance, in the North American Great Plains, rowcrops are utilized for livestock feed, food, and bioenergy production (Cassman and Liska 2007), and a large portion is irrigated with groundwater from the High Plains aquifer system (McGuire 2011). Under projected future climatic conditions, greater crop water use requirements and diminished groundwater recharge rates could make rowcrop irrigation less feasible in some areas (Rosenberg et al. 1999; Sophocleous 2005). The Rainwater Basin <span class="hlt">region</span> of south central Nebraska, United States, is an intensively farmed and irrigated Great Plains landscape dominated by corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) production (Bishop and Vrtiska 2008). Ten starch-based ethanol plants currently service the <span class="hlt">region</span>, producing ethanol from corn grain (figure 1). In this study, we explore the potential of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a drought-tolerant alternative bioenergy feedstock, to <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">regional</span> annual groundwater withdrawals for irrigation under warmer and drier future conditions. Although our research context is specific to the Rainwater Basin and surrounding North American Great Plains, we believe the broader research question is internationally pertinent and hope that this study simulates similar research in other areas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27973401','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27973401"><span>Heat or <span class="hlt">Cold</span>: Which One Exerts Greater Deleterious Effects on Health in a Basin Climate City? <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Ambient Temperature on Mortality in Chengdu, China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cui, Yan; Yin, Fei; Deng, Ying; Volinn, Ernest; Chen, Fei; Ji, Kui; Zeng, Jing; Zhao, Xing; Li, Xiaosong</p> <p>2016-12-10</p> <p>Background: Although studies from many countries have estimated the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of ambient temperature on mortality, few have compared the relative <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of heat and <span class="hlt">cold</span> on health, especially in basin climate cities. We aimed to quantify the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of ambient temperature on mortality, and to compare the contributions of heat and <span class="hlt">cold</span> in a large basin climate city, i.e., Chengdu (Sichuan Province, China); Methods: We estimated the temperature-mortality association with a distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) with a maximum lag-time of 21 days while controlling for long time trends and day of week. We calculated the mortality risk attributable to heat and <span class="hlt">cold</span>, which were defined as temperatures above and below an "optimum temperature" that corresponded to the point of minimum mortality. In addition, we explored effects of individual characteristics; Results: The analysis provides estimates of the overall mortality burden attributable to temperature, and then computes the components attributable to heat and <span class="hlt">cold</span>. Overall, the total fraction of deaths caused by both heat and <span class="hlt">cold</span> was 10.93% (95%CI: 7.99%-13.65%). Taken separately, <span class="hlt">cold</span> was responsible for most of the burden (estimate 9.96%, 95%CI: 6.90%-12.81%), while the fraction attributable to heat was relatively small (estimate 0.97%, 95%CI: 0.46%-2.35%). The attributable risk (AR) of respiratory diseases was higher (19.69%, 95%CI: 14.45%-24.24%) than that of cardiovascular diseases (11.40%, 95%CI: 6.29%-16.01%); Conclusions: In Chengdu, temperature was responsible for a substantial fraction of deaths, with <span class="hlt">cold</span> responsible for a higher proportion of deaths than heat. Respiratory diseases exert a larger effect on death than other diseases especially on <span class="hlt">cold</span> days. There is potential to reduce respiratory-associated mortality especially among the aged population in basin climate cities when the temperature deviates beneath the optimum. The result may help to comprehensively assess the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of ambient temperature</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5201366','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5201366"><span>Heat or <span class="hlt">Cold</span>: Which One Exerts Greater Deleterious Effects on Health in a Basin Climate City? <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Ambient Temperature on Mortality in Chengdu, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cui, Yan; Yin, Fei; Deng, Ying; Volinn, Ernest; Chen, Fei; Ji, Kui; Zeng, Jing; Zhao, Xing; Li, Xiaosong</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background: Although studies from many countries have estimated the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of ambient temperature on mortality, few have compared the relative <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of heat and <span class="hlt">cold</span> on health, especially in basin climate cities. We aimed to quantify the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of ambient temperature on mortality, and to compare the contributions of heat and <span class="hlt">cold</span> in a large basin climate city, i.e., Chengdu (Sichuan Province, China); Methods: We estimated the temperature-mortality association with a distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) with a maximum lag-time of 21 days while controlling for long time trends and day of week. We calculated the mortality risk attributable to heat and <span class="hlt">cold</span>, which were defined as temperatures above and below an “optimum temperature” that corresponded to the point of minimum mortality. In addition, we explored effects of individual characteristics; Results: The analysis provides estimates of the overall mortality burden attributable to temperature, and then computes the components attributable to heat and <span class="hlt">cold</span>. Overall, the total fraction of deaths caused by both heat and <span class="hlt">cold</span> was 10.93% (95%CI: 7.99%–13.65%). Taken separately, <span class="hlt">cold</span> was responsible for most of the burden (estimate 9.96%, 95%CI: 6.90%–12.81%), while the fraction attributable to heat was relatively small (estimate 0.97%, 95%CI: 0.46%–2.35%). The attributable risk (AR) of respiratory diseases was higher (19.69%, 95%CI: 14.45%–24.24%) than that of cardiovascular diseases (11.40%, 95%CI: 6.29%–16.01%); Conclusions: In Chengdu, temperature was responsible for a substantial fraction of deaths, with <span class="hlt">cold</span> responsible for a higher proportion of deaths than heat. Respiratory diseases exert a larger effect on death than other diseases especially on <span class="hlt">cold</span> days. There is potential to reduce respiratory-associated mortality especially among the aged population in basin climate cities when the temperature deviates beneath the optimum. The result may help to comprehensively assess the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of ambient</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PApGe.170.2369V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PApGe.170.2369V"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of South China Sea <span class="hlt">Cold</span> Surges and Typhoon Peipah on Initiating Cyclone Sidr in the Bay of Bengal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vissa, Naresh Krishna; Satyanarayana, A. N. V.; Kumar, B. Prasad</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>In the present study, an attempt was made to understand the role of South China Sea (SCS) convection associated with northerly <span class="hlt">cold</span> surges and Typhoon Peipah in initiating Cyclone Sidr in the Bay of Bengal (BoB). The variation of air sea fluxes during the entire history of Cyclone Sidr tracking before its landfall over Bangladesh was also studied. The presence of <span class="hlt">cold</span> surges in the north SCS associated with heavy rainfall episodes has been noticed at the southern Gulf of Tonkin coast prior to the formation of Typhoon Peipah. Subsequently, these surges migrated south, which resulted in intensification of a deep convection on reaching the Vietnamese coast. During the same period in the western Pacific, Typhoon Peipah developed, propagating in the westward direction and entering the SCS. Analysis of geostationary water vapour images, mean sea level pressure, and surface wind maps clearly depicted the transport of convective cloud clusters, moisture, and westward momentum from Typhoon Peipah to the deep convection cells over the SCS. Consequently, the existing deep convection over the Vietnamese coast resulted in a westward direction and entered the Gulf of Thailand and Andaman Sea. The availability of higher latent heat fluxes, warmer sea surface temperatures, and suitable atmospheric conditions over this <span class="hlt">region</span> favoured the formation of a tropical depression in the Andaman Sea. This depression further intensified in the southeast BoB, resulting in the formation of Cyclone Sidr. NCEP/NCAR wind fields and air-sea fluxes revealed left asymmetry surface winds and higher latent heat flux on the left side of the track during the intensification phase of Sidr.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1510705N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1510705N"><span>Climate<span class="hlt">Impacts</span>Online: A web platform for <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nocke, Thomas</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Climate change is widely known but there is often uncertainty about the specific effects. One of the key tasks is - beyond discussing climate change and its <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in specialist groups - to present these to a wider audience. In that respect, decision-makers in the public sector as well as directly affected professional groups require to obtain easy-to-understand information. These groups are not made up of specialist scientists. This gives rise to two challenges: (1) the complex information must be presented such that it is commonly understood, and (2) access to the information must be easy. Interested parties do not have time to familiarize themselves over a lengthy period, but rather want to immediately work with the information. Beside providing climate information globally, <span class="hlt">regional</span> information become of increasing interest for local decision making regarding awareness building and adaptation options. In addition, current web portals mainly focus on climate information, considering climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on different sectors only implicitly. As solution, Potsdam Institute for Climate <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Research and WetterOnline have jointly developed an Internet portal that is easy to use, groups together interesting information about climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and offers it in a directly usable form. This new web portal Climate<span class="hlt">Impacts</span>Online.com provides detailed information, combining multiple sectors for the test case of Germany. For this <span class="hlt">region</span>, numerous individual studies on climate change have been prepared by various institutions. These studies differ in terms of their aim, <span class="hlt">region</span> and time period of interest. Thus, the goal of Climate<span class="hlt">Impacts</span>Online.com is to present a synthesized view on <span class="hlt">regional</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of global climate change on hydrology, agriculture, forest, energy, tourism and health sector. The climate and <span class="hlt">impact</span> variables are available on a decadal time resolution for the period from 1901-2100, combining observed data and future projections. Detailed information are presented</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.1743A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.1743A"><span>A Multihazard <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Level <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Assessment for South Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Amarnath, Giriraj; Alahacoon, Niranga; Aggarwal, Pramod; Smakhtin, Vladimir</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>To prioritize climate adaptation strategies, there is a need for quantitative and systematic <span class="hlt">regional</span>-level assessments which are comparable across multiple climatic hazard regimes. Assessing which countries in a <span class="hlt">region</span> are most vulnerable to climate change requires analysis of multiple climatic hazards including: droughts, floods, extreme temperature as well as rainfall and sea-level rise. These five climatic hazards, along with population densities were modelled using GIS which enabled a summary of associated human exposure and agriculture losses. A combined index based on hazard, exposure and adaptive capacity is introduced to identify areas of extreme risks. The analysis results in population climate hazard exposure defined as the relative likelihood that a person in a given location was exposed to a given climate-hazard event in a given period of time. The study presents a detailed and coherent approach to fine-scale climate hazard mapping and identification of risks areas for the <span class="hlt">regions</span> of South Asia that, for the first time, combines the following unique features: (a) methodological consistency across different climate-related hazards, (b) assessment of total exposure on population and agricultural losses, (c) <span class="hlt">regional</span>-level spatial coverage, and (d) development of customized tools using ArcGIS toolbox that allow assessment of changes in exposure over time and easy replacement of existing datasets with a newly released or superior datasets. The resulting maps enable comparison of the most vulnerable <span class="hlt">regions</span> in South Asia to climate-related hazards and is among the most urgent of policy needs. Subnational areas (<span class="hlt">regions</span>/districts/provinces) most vulnerable to climate change <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in South Asia are documented. The approach involves overlaying climate hazard maps, sensitivity maps, and adaptive capacity maps following the vulnerability assessment framework of the United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The study used data on the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=239512','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=239512"><span>Variable <span class="hlt">regions</span> in Flavobacterium psychrophilum strains identified by comparative genomics: application to selective breeding for <span class="hlt">cold</span> water disease resistance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Bacterial <span class="hlt">cold</span> water disease is one of the most frequent causes of elevated loss in juvenile salmonids, and the development of effective control strategies is a high priority to aquaculturists, management agencies, and conservationists. Since 2005, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) have been bred ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A43I..02B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A43I..02B"><span><span class="hlt">Regional</span> <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Carbonaceous Aerosols, 1850-2100</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bauer, S. E.; Bausch, A.; Nazarenko, L. S.; Tsigaridis, K.; McConnell, J. R.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in ice cores allow us to study historical atmospheric compositions. These datasets in combination with climate models are of great value when examining the role of anthropogenic emissions of carbonaceous aerosols and their role in past and future climates. In this presentation we analyze four transient climate simulations performed with the GISS-modelE climate model. Simulations differ in ocean couplings and aerosol schemes. One aerosol scheme, MATRIX, resolves aerosol microphysics and tracks mass-, number concentrations and aerosol mixing state information. The second scheme is a mass based scheme, but includes a secondary organic aerosol model. The two oceans are ocean A, which uses prescribed sea surface temperatures, and ocean C, a fully coupled dynamical ocean model. <span class="hlt">Regional</span> analysis for past and future (1850-2100) simulations will focus on Greenland, the Himalayas and the Antarctic. Each <span class="hlt">region</span> has its specific characteristic; Greenland's historic atmospheric chemistry is strongly influenced by pre-industrial land clearing, whereas its future seems to be dominated by cloud feedbacks; the Antarctic is a good indicator for remote background conditions here differences in aging and removal between the different schemes can be detected; the Himalayas show the most complicated feedbacks, due to its complex terrain, several distinctive different air-mass types influence the <span class="hlt">region</span> as well as dynamical systems. The two different ocean schemes show a shift in the ITCZ, <span class="hlt">impacting</span> the distribution of carbonaceous aerosols. In the end, future climate projections of the focus <span class="hlt">regions</span> along CMIP5s four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) will be presented.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSM52C..04G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSM52C..04G"><span><span class="hlt">Regional</span> United States electric field and GIC hazard <span class="hlt">impacts</span> (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gannon, J. L.; Balch, C. C.; Trichtchenko, L.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GICs) are primarily driven by impulsive geomagnetic disturbances created by the interaction between the Earth's magnetosphere and sharp velocity, density, and magnetic field enhancements in the solar wind. However, the magnitude of the induced electric field response at the ground level, and therefore the resulting hazard to the bulk power system, is determined not only by magnetic drivers, but also by the underlying geology. Convolution techniques are used to calculate surface electric fields beginning from the spectral characteristics of magnetic field drivers and the frequency response of the local geology. Using these techniques, we describe historical scenarios for <span class="hlt">regions</span> across the United States, and the potential <span class="hlt">impact</span> of large events on electric power infrastructure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA00466.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA00466.html"><span>Venus - Large <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Crater in the Eistla <span class="hlt">Region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1996-09-26</p> <p>This image from NASA Magellan spacecraft shows the central Eistla <span class="hlt">Region</span> of the equatorial highlands of Venus. It is centered at 15 degrees north latitude and 5 degrees east longitude. The image is 76.8 kilometers (48 miles) wide. The crater is slightly irregular in platform and approximately 6 kilometers (4 miles) in diameter. The walls appear terraced. Five or six lobes of radar-bright ejecta radiate up to 13.2 kilometers (8 miles) from the crater rim. These lobes are up to 3.5 kilometers (2 miles) in width and form a "starfish" pattern against the underlying radar-dark plains. The asymmetric pattern of the ejecta suggests the angle of <span class="hlt">impact</span> was oblique. The alignment of two of the ejecta lobes along fractures in the underlying plains is apparently coincidental. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00466</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100032963','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100032963"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of High Resolution SST Data on <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Weather Forecasts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jedlovec, Gary J.; Case, Jonathon; LaFontaine, Frank; Vazquez, Jorge; Mattocks, Craig</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Past studies have shown that the use of coarse resolution SST products such as from the real-time global (RTG) SST analysis[1] or other coarse resolution once-a-day products do not properly portray the diurnal variability of fluxes of heat and moisture from the ocean that drive the formation of low level clouds and precipitation over the ocean. For example, the use of high resolution MODIS SST composite [2] to initialize the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) (ARW) [3] has been shown to improve the prediction of sensible weather parameters in coastal <span class="hlt">regions</span> [4][5}. In an extend study, [6] compared the MODIS SST composite product to the RTG SST analysis and evaluated forecast differences for a 6 month period from March through August 2007 over the Florida coastal <span class="hlt">regions</span>. In a comparison to buoy data, they found that that the MODIS SST composites reduced the bias and standard deviation over that of the RTG data. These improvements led to significant changes in the initial and forecasted heat fluxes and the resulting surface temperature fields, wind patterns, and cloud distributions. They also showed that the MODIS composite SST product, produced for the Terra and Aqua satellite overpass times, captured a component of the diurnal cycle in SSTs not represented in the RTG or other one-a-day SST analyses. Failure to properly incorporate these effects in the WRF initialization cycle led to temperature biases in the resulting short term forecasts. The forecast <span class="hlt">impact</span> was limited in some situations however, due to composite product inaccuracies brought about by data latency during periods of long-term cloud cover. This paper focuses on the forecast <span class="hlt">impact</span> of an enhanced MODIS/AMSR-E composite SST product designed to reduce inaccuracies due data latency in the MODIS only composite product.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9404829','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9404829"><span>Raynaud's phenomenon in vibration syndrome: the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of <span class="hlt">cold</span> feet on skin temperature and vasomotion of the hand after immersion in <span class="hlt">cold</span> water.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Falkenbach, A; Watanabe, I; Hartmann, B; Agishi, Y</p> <p>1997-12-01</p> <p>Patients with vibration syndrome, suffering from Raynaud's phenomenon, are sensitive to <span class="hlt">cold</span>. Rewarming time, after local cooling, is delayed. The present study evaluated whether rewarming of the hand after cooling is influenced by the temperature of the feet. In five Japanese patients (former forest workers) with vibration syndrome, suffering from Raynaud's phenomenon, and in five healthy controls, temperature changes of the hand after cooling were registered under the two test situations (on different days) with the feet immersed in water of 35 degrees C or 20 degrees C, respectively. In both patients and controls (in both groups, in four of five cases) rewarming of the hand after cooling was faster when the feet were immersed in <span class="hlt">cold</span> water, compared with when the feet were immersed in warm water. In this test situation, the systemic thermoregulative counterreaction appears to be more important for rewarming of the hand after cooling than a possible synchronous passive reaction accompanying warming of the feet. A deliberate training of the systemic counterreaction may prove beneficial for patients with Raynaud's phenomenon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.9298G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.9298G"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of climate change on surface wind regime over the Peru-Chile upwelling <span class="hlt">region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goubanova, K.; Echevin, V.; Dewitte, B.; Garreaud, R.; Terray, P.; Vrac, M.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>The ocean <span class="hlt">region</span> off the Chile-Peru coast is characterized by upwelling of <span class="hlt">cold</span>, nutrient-rich waters, which drives an exceptionally high biological productivity. This upwelling is induced by the persistent southerly winds along the coast that exhibit a coastal jet structure at intraseasonal scales. Recent climate change studies based on the coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCM) show a strengthening of the large-scale southerlies along the subtropical coast that could lead to an increase in coastal upwelling. However the coastal jet events which represent a considerable source of the synoptic variability of the alongshore winds are characterized by horizontal scale comparable to a AOGCM grid cell size, and cannot be therefore explicitly resolved by the AOGCMs. In order to provide a <span class="hlt">regional</span> estimate of the winds as predicted by the coarse-resolution AOGCMs, a statistical downscaling method based on multiple linear regression is proposed. Large-scale wind at 10 m and sea level pressure are chosen as the predictor variables for <span class="hlt">regional</span> 10 m wind. The validation is performed in two steps. First, QuikSCAT and ERS satellite products and NCEP reanalysis for the period 1992-2006 are used to build and validate the statistical model for the present climate. Second, the model is validated under a warmer climate: it is applied to large-scale predictors extracted from HadCM3 AOGCM simulations for the A2 and B2 SRES scenarios (2071-2100); the downscaled wind is then compared with outputs of the PRECIS <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate model, forced at its boundaries by the same HadCM3 scenarios. To assess climate change <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the along-shore wind, the statistical downscaling is applied to two contrasted SRES scenarios, namely the so-called preindustrial and CO2 quadrupling. The outputs of the IPSL-CM4 AOGCM are used as predictors. Evolution of the along-shore wind regime with a focus on the change of the coastal jet characteristics is discussed. For this particular</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3193359','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3193359"><span>Outreach <span class="hlt">impact</span> study: the case of the Greater Midwest <span class="hlt">Region</span>*</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Huber, Jeffrey T; Kean, Emily B; Fitzgerald, Philip D; Altman, Trina A; Young, Zach G; Dupin, Katherine M; Leskovec, Jacqueline; Holst, Ruth</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Objectives: The purpose of the study was to assess the <span class="hlt">impact</span> that funding from the National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NN/LM), Greater Midwest <span class="hlt">Region</span> (GMR), has on member institutions' ability to conduct outreach on behalf of NN/LM. Methods: The study employed both content analysis and survey methodologies. The final reports from select GMR-funded outreach projects (n = 20) were analyzed based on a set of evaluation criteria. Project principal investigators (n = 13) were then surveyed using the same evaluation criteria. Results: Results indicated that outreach projects supported by GMR funding improved access to biomedical information for professionals and the general public. Barriers to conducting outreach projects included time constraints or commitments, staffing, scheduling and absenteeism, inadequate space, and issues associated with technology (e.g., hardware and software, Internet connectivity and firewall issues, and creation and use of new technologies). Conclusions: The majority of project principal investigators indicated that their attempts to conduct outreach were successful. Moreover, most noted that outreach had a positive <span class="hlt">impact</span> on professionals as well as the general public. In general, it seems that negative outcomes, as with most barriers to conducting outreach, can be mitigated by more thorough planning. PMID:22022223</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4364950','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4364950"><span>Octarepeat <span class="hlt">region</span> flexibility <span class="hlt">impacts</span> prion function, endoproteolysis and disease manifestation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lau, Agnes; McDonald, Alex; Daude, Nathalie; Mays, Charles E; Walter, Eric D; Aglietti, Robin; Mercer, Robert CC; Wohlgemuth, Serene; van der Merwe, Jacques; Yang, Jing; Gapeshina, Hristina; Kim, Chae; Grams, Jennifer; Shi, Beipei; Wille, Holger; Balachandran, Aru; Schmitt-Ulms, Gerold; Safar, Jiri G; Millhauser, Glenn L; Westaway, David</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The cellular prion protein (PrPC) comprises a natively unstructured N-terminal domain, including a metal-binding octarepeat <span class="hlt">region</span> (OR) and a linker, followed by a C-terminal domain that misfolds to form PrPSc in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. PrPC β-endoproteolysis to the C2 fragment allows PrPSc formation, while α-endoproteolysis blocks production. To examine the OR, we used structure-directed design to make novel alleles, ‘S1’ and ‘S3’, locking this <span class="hlt">region</span> in extended or compact conformations, respectively. S1 and S3 PrP resembled WT PrP in supporting peripheral nerve myelination. Prion-infected S1 and S3 transgenic mice both accumulated similar low levels of PrPSc and infectious prion particles, but differed in their clinical presentation. Unexpectedly, S3 PrP overproduced C2 fragment in the brain by a mechanism distinct from metal-catalysed hydrolysis reported previously. OR flexibility is concluded to <span class="hlt">impact</span> diverse biological endpoints; it is a salient variable in infectious disease paradigms and modulates how the levels of PrPSc and infectivity can either uncouple or engage to drive the onset of clinical disease. PMID:25661904</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26011606','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26011606"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Threat Level, Task Instruction, and Individual Characteristics on <span class="hlt">Cold</span> Pressor Pain and Fear among Children and Their Parents.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Boerner, Katelynn E; Noel, Melanie; Birnie, Kathryn A; Caes, Line; Petter, Mark; Chambers, Christine T</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">cold</span> pressor task (CPT) is increasingly used to induce experimental pain in children, but the specific methodology of the CPT is quite variable across pediatric studies. This study examined how subtle variations in CPT methodology (eg. provision of low- or high-threat information regarding the task; provision or omission of maximum immersion time) may influence children's and parents' perceptions of the pain experience. Forty-eight children (8 to 14 years) and their parents were randomly assigned to receive information about the CPT that varied on 2 dimensions, prior to completing the task: (i) threat level: high-threat (task described as very painful, high pain expressions depicted) or low-threat (standard CPT instructions provided, low pain expressions depicted); (ii) ceiling: informed (provided maximum immersion time) or uninformed (information about maximum immersion time omitted). Parents and children in the high-threat condition expected greater child pain, and these children reported higher perceived threat of pain and state pain catastrophizing. For children in the low-threat condition, an informed ceiling was associated with less state pain catastrophizing during the CPT. Pain intensity, tolerance, and fear during the CPT did not differ by experimental group, but were predicted by child characteristics. Findings suggest that provision of threatening information may <span class="hlt">impact</span> anticipatory outcomes, but experienced pain was better explained by individual child variables. © 2015 World Institute of Pain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5005816','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5005816"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">cold</span> atmospheric pressure argon plasma on antibiotic sensitivity of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains in vitro</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lührmann, Anne; Matthes, Rutger; Kramer, Axel</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Aim: The antimicrobial activity of <span class="hlt">cold</span> atmospheric pressure plasma (CAP), also called tissue tolerable plasma (TTP), could be a promising option to eradicate methicillin-sensitive as well as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains, which often colonize chronic wounds. Currently, the influence of CAP on the susceptibility of S. aureus to antibiotics is scarcely known, but could be important for treatment of wounds. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether CAP has an <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the susceptibility of different S. aureus strains to different antibiotics. Method: For assessment, the agar diffusion test with different antibiotic test disks (cefuroxime, gentamicin, oxacillin, vancomycin, ciprofloxacin, co-trimoxazole, clindamycin, erythromycin) was used. Test strains were spread on agar plates and CAP treated before the antibiotic disks were placed. After 24 hours cultivation, the inhibited growth zones were measured and differences statistically evaluated. Results: In most cases, CAP had a negligible influence on the susceptibility to antibiotics. For two strains, the susceptibility significantly decreased to β-lactam antibiotics. Conclusion: Because CAP can influence the antibiotic susceptibility of S. aureus, before conducting combined treatment with local plasma application on wounds and systemic antibiotics, their interaction must be analysed in vitro to exclude unwanted combination effects. PMID:27610332</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090033059','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090033059"><span>Pulling Marbles from a Bag: Deducing the <span class="hlt">Regional</span> <span class="hlt">Impact</span> History of the SPA Basin from <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Melt Rocks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cohen, Barbara A.; Coker, R. F.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin is an important target for absolute age-dating. Vertical and lateral <span class="hlt">impact</span> mixing ensures that regolith within SPA will contain rock fragments from SPA itself, local <span class="hlt">impact</span> craters, and faraway giant basins. About 20% of the regolith at any given site is foreign [1, 2], but much of this material will be <span class="hlt">cold</span> ejecta, not <span class="hlt">impact</span> melt. We calculated the fraction of contributed <span class="hlt">impact</span> melt using scaling laws to estimate the amount and provenance of <span class="hlt">impact</span> melt, demonstrating that SPA melt is the dominant <span class="hlt">impact</span> melt rock (>70%) likely to be present. We also constructed a statistical model to illustrate how many randomly-selected <span class="hlt">impact</span>-melt fragments would need to be dated, and with what accuracy, to confidently reproduce the <span class="hlt">impact</span> history of a site. A detailed <span class="hlt">impact</span> history becomes recognizable after a few hundred to a thousand randomly-selected marbles, however, it will be useful to have more information (e.g. compositional, mineralogical, remote sensing) to group fragments. These exercises show that SPA melt has a high probability of being present in a scoop sample and that dating of a few hundred to a thousand <span class="hlt">impact</span>-melt fragments will yield the <span class="hlt">impact</span> history of the SPA basin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28851154','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28851154"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of tropical cyclone track change on <span class="hlt">regional</span> air quality.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lam, Yun Fat; Cheung, Hung Ming; Ying, Chi Cheong</p> <p>2017-08-25</p> <p>There has been an increase in tropical cyclones (TCs) in the western North Pacific (WNP) that traverse with a northward recurving track towards East Asia and a decrease in TC tracks entering the South China Sea (SCS) in the past few decades. To investigate the potential <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the prevailing TC track change on Hong Kong air quality, an analysis has been carried out based on historical data (1991 to 2010) of TC tracks and air quality. Compared to TCs in other <span class="hlt">regions</span>, TCs in the vicinity of Taiwan (<span class="hlt">Region</span> 2, R2) have the greatest <span class="hlt">impact</span> on Hong Kong air quality due to <span class="hlt">regional</span> transport of air pollutants from the highly industrialized Pearl River Delta (PRD). In the last twenty years, the number of days with TCs in R2 (May to October) has increased by 45% from 111days in the period 1991-2000 to 161days in 2001-2010, during which there was an increase in yearly TC-related pollution episodes of approximately 3 episodes per year in Hong Kong. The enhancement of mean O3 concentration due to TCs in R2 is reported as 82% (~50.8μg/m(3) at a rural station) and 58% (~16.8μg/m(3) at an urban station) higher than the summer averages. A similar enhancement is also observed for PM10 (called RSP) and SO2 with an average of 70% (i.e., 22.2μg/m(3)) and 100% (i.e., 15.2μg/m(3)) increases, respectively. Overall, the 20years of historical data show that the O3 concentrations on the TC-affected days are increasing at the estimated rates of 0.5μg/m(3) and 2.6μg/m(3) per year, respectively, in the urban and remote areas, which are significantly higher than the increase of 0.3μg/m(3) and 0.4μg/m(3) per year in the average summer concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....1532B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....1532B"><span><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of climate change on infrastructure in permafrost <span class="hlt">regions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Beloloutskaia, M.; Anisimov, O.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>There is a growing evidence of enhanced warming over the permafrost <span class="hlt">regions</span>, and significant <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on natural and human systems are expected. Changes in the temperature, distribution, and depth of seasonal thawing of permafrost will have direct and immediate implications for the infrastructure built upon it. The mechanical strength of permafrost decreases with warming, resulting in damage to and possible failure of buildings, pipelines, and transportation facilities. Extensive infrastructure was developed in the Arctic largely in association with the extraction and transportation industries. Several large cities in Russia with few hundred thousand population are of particular concern since many buildings there have already been affected by the changes in permafrost properties. Detrimental changes in permafrost conditions are often not abrupt. Instead, they evolve gradually and can be predicted and monitored, allowing avoidance of catastrophic events and mitigation of negative consequences. Climate-induced threats to infrastructure in permafrost <span class="hlt">regions</span> may be evaluated using a numerical "settlement" index, Iset, which allows to classify modern permafrost with respect to its potential for thermokarst development: Iset = dZ * W, where dZ is the relative change in the depth of seasonal thawing predicted by permafrost model for the conditions of the future climate and W is the volumetric proportion of near surface soil occupied by ground ice. Permafrost model of intermediate complexity (Koudriavtcev's model) was used with selected GCM-based scenarios of climate change to construct predictive maps of "settlement" index for the mid-21st century. Circumpolar permafrost area was partitioned into zones of high, moderate, and low hazard potential. Despite discrepancies in details, all scenarios yield a zone in the high-risk category distributed discontinuously around the margins of the Arctic Ocean, indicating high potential for coastal erosion. Several population centers</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.P53A1830M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.P53A1830M"><span>A New Map of the Tyre <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Region</span> of Europa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Meyer, H. M.; Prockter, L. M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Images of the Tyre feature obtained by the Galileo spacecraft's Solid State Imager (SSI) at ~170 m/pixel show concentric graben and multiple secondary craters surrounding a central rough-textured circular <span class="hlt">region</span>, indicating an <span class="hlt">impact</span> origin. Only crosscut by two double ridges and a large fracture, the crater is young relative to the surrounding terrain. The crater and its surroundings were mapped by Kadel et al. (2000), who also interpreted the geological history of the <span class="hlt">region</span>. We have remapped the Tyre area for the specific purpose of creating a product that can be used for detailed comparison with 6 km/pixel Galileo Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) data. The combined SSI and NIMS product will be used to determine variations in composition among different units using linear mixture modeling employing cryogenic laboratory reference spectra, a technique that has been successfully implemented elsewhere on Europa by e.g., Shirley et al. (2010). The major difference between our mapping results and those of Kadel et al. is that we subdivide some of the units, in order to better compare them with NIMS pixels in the next (future) phase of the study. We use an orthographic projection centered at 34 N, 146 W, and construct a geologic map that extends from 25 N to 42 N and 153 W to 133 W. We identify a number of units, subunits and structural features on the basis of relative albedo and morphology. The units are grouped into six categories: Crater materials, chaos, ridges, bands, pre-<span class="hlt">impact</span> background terrains, and indeterminate features. Many of these units are consistent with those found in the Kadel et al. study, but we find a number of bands and chaos-related materials in the background ridged plains, that have not been mapped elsewhere. These are of a sufficient size to be relevant to our future compositional analysis. We find three types of chaos (compared to two from the previous study), which are primarily concentrated in the south of the study <span class="hlt">region</span>. Type</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7165984','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7165984"><span>Superfund Record of Decision (EPA <span class="hlt">Region</span> 2): Marathon Battery, <span class="hlt">Cold</span> Spring, NY. (Third remedial action), September 1989. Final report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1989-09-29</p> <p>The Marathon Battery site is a former battery-manufacturing plant in <span class="hlt">Cold</span> Spring, Putnam County, New York. The site is composed of three study areas: Area I, which consists of East Foundry Cove Marsh and Constitution Marsh; Area II, which encompasses the former plant, presently a book-storage warehouse, the surrounding grounds, and a vault with cadmium contaminated sediment dredged from East Foundry Cove; and Area III, which includes East Foundry Cove (48 acres), West Foundry Cove and the Hudson River in the vicinity of <span class="hlt">Cold</span> Spring pier and a sewer outfall. Contamination in Area III emanates from plant waste water that was discharged via the city sewer system into the Hudson River at <span class="hlt">Cold</span> Spring Pier or, in some instances, through a storm sewer into East Foundry Cove. A Record of Decision (ROD) was signed for Area I in September 1986 with cleanup activities to include dredging the East Foundry Cove Marsh. The second ROD for the site was signed in September 1988 and included decontamination of the battery plant and soil excavation in Area II. The 1989 ROD represents the third and final operable unit for the site and addresses sediment contamination in Area III. The primary contaminants of concern affecting sediment at the site are metals, including cadmium and nickel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010BGeo....7.1043G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010BGeo....7.1043G"><span><span class="hlt">Regional</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of iron-light colimitation in a global biogeochemical model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Galbraith, E. D.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Dunne, J. P.; Hiscock, M. R.</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>Laboratory and field studies have revealed that iron has multiple roles in phytoplankton physiology, with particular importance for light-harvesting cellular machinery. However, although iron-limitation is explicitly included in numerous biogeochemical/ecosystem models, its implementation varies, and its effect on the efficiency of light harvesting is often ignored. Given the complexity of the ocean environment, it is difficult to predict the consequences of applying different iron limitation schemes. Here we explore the interaction of iron and nutrient cycles in an ocean general circulation model using a new, streamlined model of ocean biogeochemistry. Building on previously published parameterizations of photoadaptation and export production, the Biogeochemistry with Light Iron Nutrients and Gasses (BLING) model is constructed with only four explicit tracers but including macronutrient and micronutrient limitation, light limitation, and an implicit treatment of community structure. The structural simplicity of this computationally-inexpensive model allows us to clearly isolate the global effect that iron availability has on maximum light-saturated photosynthesis rates vs. the effect iron has on photosynthetic efficiency. We find that the effect on light-saturated photosynthesis rates is dominant, negating the importance of photosynthetic efficiency in most <span class="hlt">regions</span>, especially the <span class="hlt">cold</span> waters of the Southern Ocean. The primary exceptions to this occur in iron-rich <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the Northern Hemisphere, where high light-saturated photosynthesis rates allow photosynthetic efficiency to play a more important role. In other words, the ability to efficiently harvest photons has little effect in <span class="hlt">regions</span> where light-saturated growth rates are low. Additionally, we speculate that the phytoplankton cells dominating iron-limited <span class="hlt">regions</span> tend to have relatively high photosynthetic efficiency, due to reduced packaging effects. If this speculation is correct, it would imply that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=372357','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=372357"><span><span class="hlt">Cold</span> Urticaria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wasserman, Stephen I.; Soter, Nicholas A.; Center, David M.; Austen, K. Frank</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Sera were obtained from the venous effluents of <span class="hlt">cold</span>-challenged arms of patients with idiopathic <span class="hlt">cold</span> urticaria without plasma or serum cryoproteins; these sera exhibited increased neutrophil chemotactic activity without alterations of the complement system. A two- to fourfold augmentation of the base-line neutrophil chemotactic activity of serum from the immersed extremity began within 1 min, peaked at 2 min, and returned to base-line levels within 15 min, whereas there was no change in the serum chemotactic activity in the control arm. The augmented chemotactic activity in the serum specimens from the challenged arm of each patient appeared in a high molecular-weight <span class="hlt">region</span>, as assessed by the difference in activity recovered after Sephadex G-200 gel filtration of the paired lesional and control specimens. Sequential purification of this high molecular-weight activity by anion- and cation-exchange chromatography revealed a single peak of activity at both steps. The partially purified material continued to exhibit a high molecular weight, being excluded on Sepharose 4B, and had a neutral isoelectric point. The partially purified material showed a preferential chemotactic activity for neutrophilic polymorphonuclear leukocytes, required a gradient for expression of this function, and exhibited a capacity to deactivate this cell type. This active principle, termed high molecular-weight neutrophil chemotactic factor, exhibited a time-course of release that could be superimposed upon that of histamine and the low molecular-weight eosinophil chemotactic factor and may represent another mast cell-derived mediator. PMID:874083</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MNRAS.466..749M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MNRAS.466..749M"><span>The emission-line <span class="hlt">regions</span> in the nucleus of NGC 1313 probed with GMOS-IFU: a supergiant/hypergiant candidate and a kinematically <span class="hlt">cold</span> nucleus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Menezes, R. B.; Steiner, J. E.</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>NGC 1313 is a bulgeless nearby galaxy, classified as SB(s)d. Its proximity allows high spatial resolution observations. We performed the first detailed analysis of the emission-line properties in the nuclear <span class="hlt">region</span> of NGC 1313, using an optical data cube obtained with the Gemini Multi-object Spectrograph. We detected four main emitting areas, three of them (<span class="hlt">regions</span> 1, 2 and 3) having spectra typical of H II <span class="hlt">regions</span>. <span class="hlt">Region</span> 1 is located very close to the stellar nucleus and shows broad spectral features characteristic of Wolf-Rayet stars. Our analysis revealed the presence of one or two WC4-5 stars in this <span class="hlt">region</span>, which is compatible with results obtained by previous studies. <span class="hlt">Region</span> 4 shows spectral features (as a strong Hα emission line, with a broad component) typical of a massive emission-line star, such as a luminous blue variable, a B[e] supergiant or a B hypergiant. The radial velocity map of the ionized gas shows a pattern consistent with rotation. A significant drop in the values of the gas velocity dispersion was detected very close to <span class="hlt">region</span> 1, which suggests that the young stars there were formed from this <span class="hlt">cold</span> gas, possibly keeping low values of velocity dispersion. Therefore, although detailed measurements of the stellar kinematics were not possible (due to the weak stellar absorption spectrum of this galaxy), we predict that NGC 1313 may also show a drop in the values of the stellar velocity dispersion in its nuclear <span class="hlt">region</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7748932','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7748932"><span>Interaction of the main <span class="hlt">cold</span> shock protein CS7.4 (CspA) of Escherichia coli with the promoter <span class="hlt">region</span> of hns.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brandi, A; Pon, C L; Gualerzi, C O</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Escherichia coli protein CS7.4 (CspA), homologous to the class of eukaryotic Y-box DNA-binding proteins, is a <span class="hlt">cold</span> shock transcriptional activator of at least two genes, hns and gyrA. It was demonstrated that all or nearly all the elements necessary for the stimulation of hns transcription by CS7.4 protein are located in the proximal 110 bp DNA fragment of this gene with no additional elements being present in a longer fragment (660 bp) extending further upstream from the hns promoter. Protein CS7.4 bound strongly to the 110 bp segment of the hns promoter in crude extracts of <span class="hlt">cold</span> shocked cells, but the purified protein displayed a weak interaction with the same DNA fragment. Purified CS7.4 protein also caused increased or decreased accessibility to DNase I at different sites of the 110 bp fragment of hns but the majority of these effects was seen only in the presence of RNA polymerase. Since gel shift experiments showed that protein CS7.4 stimulated the binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter of hns and since it is known that there are similarities between CS7.4 and ssDNA-binding proteins, we suggest that formation of the open complex by the RNA polymerase or protein-protein contacts between CS7.4 and the RNA polymerase are prerequisites for and/or the effects of the interaction of CS7.4 with its DNA target. The presence of a conserved CCAAT element in the hns promoter <span class="hlt">region</span>, on the other hand, was found not to be stringently required for <span class="hlt">cold</span> shock activation since expression of E coli of an hns-cat fusion containing the Proteus vulgaris hns promoter lacking a CCAAT box increased over four-fold after <span class="hlt">cold</span> shock.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.1824R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.1824R"><span>Climatic Consequences and Agricultural <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Nuclear Conflict</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Robock, Alan; Mills, Michael; Toon, Owen Brian; Xia, Lili</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>A nuclear war between India and Pakistan, with each country using 50 Hiroshima-sized atom bombs as airbursts on urban areas, would inject smoke from the resulting fires into the stratosphere. This could produce climate change unprecedented in recorded human history and global-scale ozone depletion, with enhanced ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching the surface. Simulations with the NCAR Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM), run at higher vertical and horizontal resolution than a previous simulation with the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE, and incorporating ozone chemistry for the first time, show a longer stratospheric residence time for smoke and hence a longer-lasting climate response, with global average surface air temperatures still 1.1 K below normal and global average precipitation 4% below normal after a decade. The erythemal dose from the enhanced UV radiation would greatly increase, in spite of enhanced absorption by the remaining smoke, with the UV index more than 3 units higher in the summer midlatitudes, even after a decade. Scenarios of changes in temperature, precipitation, and downward shortwave radiation from the ModelE and WACCM simulations, applied to the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer crop model for winter wheat, rice, soybeans, and maize by perturbing observed time series with anomalies from the <span class="hlt">regional</span> nuclear war simulations, produce decreases of 10-50% in yield averaged over a decade, with larger decreases in the first several years, over several <span class="hlt">regions</span> in the midlatitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the nuclear war simulated here, using much less than 1% of the global nuclear arsenal, would be devastating to world agricultural production and trade, possibly sentencing a billion people now living marginal existences to starvation. The continued environmental threat of the use of even a small number of nuclear weapons must be considered in nuclear policy deliberations in Russia</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4819867','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4819867"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Opioid Treatment on <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Gastrointestinal Transit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Poulsen, Jakob L; Nilsson, Matias; Brock, Christina; Sandberg, Thomas H; Krogh, Klaus; Drewes, Asbjørn M</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background/Aims To employ an experimental model of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction in healthy human volunteers, and evaluate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of opioid treatment compared to placebo on gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and motility assessed by questionnaires and <span class="hlt">regional</span> GI transit times using the 3-dimensional (3D)-Transit system. Methods Twenty-five healthy males were randomly assigned to oxycodone or placebo for 5 days in a double blind, crossover design. Adverse GI effects were measured with the bowel function index, gastrointestinal symptom rating scale, patient assessment of constipation symptom questionnaire, and Bristol stool form scale. <span class="hlt">Regional</span> GI transit times were determined using the 3D-Transit system, and segmental transit times in the colon were determined using a custom Matlab® graphical user interface. Results GI symptom scores increased significantly across all applied GI questionnaires during opioid treatment. Oxycodone increased median total GI transit time from 22.2 to 43.9 hours (P < 0.001), segmental transit times in the cecum and ascending colon from 5.7 to 9.9 hours (P = 0.012), rectosigmoid colon transit from 2.7 to 9.0 hours (P = 0.044), and colorectal transit time from 18.6 to 38.6 hours (P = 0.001). No associations between questionnaire scores and segmental transit times were detected. Conclusions Self-assessed GI adverse effects and increased GI transit times in different segments were induced during oxycodone treatment. This detailed information about segmental changes in motility has great potential for future interventional head-to-head trials of different laxative regimes for prevention and treatment of constipation. PMID:26811503</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26811503','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26811503"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Opioid Treatment on <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Gastrointestinal Transit.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Poulsen, Jakob L; Nilsson, Matias; Brock, Christina; Sandberg, Thomas H; Krogh, Klaus; Drewes, Asbjørn M</p> <p>2016-04-30</p> <p>To employ an experimental model of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction in healthy human volunteers, and evaluate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> ofopioid treatment compared to placebo on gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and motility assessed by questionnaires and <span class="hlt">regional</span> GItransit times using the 3-dimensional (3D)-Transit system. Twenty-five healthy males were randomly assigned to oxycodone or placebo for 5 days in a double blind, crossover design. AdverseGI effects were measured with the bowel function index, gastrointestinal symptom rating scale, patient assessment of constipationsymptom questionnaire, and Bristol stool form scale. <span class="hlt">Regional</span> GI transit times were determined using the 3D-Transit system, and segmental transit times in the colon were determined using a custom Matlab(®) graphical user interface. GI symptom scores increased significantly across all applied GI questionnaires during opioid treatment. Oxycodone increased median total GI transit time from 22.2 to 43.9 hours (P < 0.001), segmental transit times in the cecum and ascending colon from 5.7 to 9.9 hours (P = 0.012), rectosigmoid colon transit from 2.7 to 9.0 hours (P = 0.044), and colorectal transit time from 18.6 to 38.6 hours (P= 0.001). No associations between questionnaire scores and segmental transit times were detected. Self-assessed GI adverse effects and increased GI transit times in different segments were induced during oxycodone treatment. This detailed information about segmental changes in motility has great potential for future interventional head-to-head trials of different laxative regimes for prevention and treatment of constipation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B31D0043D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B31D0043D"><span>The Changing <span class="hlt">Cold</span> <span class="hlt">Regions</span> Network: Improving the Understanding and Prediction of Changing Land, Water, and Climate in the Mackenzie and Saskatchewan River Basins, Canada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>DeBeer, C. M.; Wheater, H. S.; Chun, K. P.; Shook, K.; Whitfield, P. H.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Within the <span class="hlt">cold</span> interior of western and northern Canada, rapid and widespread environmental changes are taking place, which are of serious concern for society and have a range of implications from local to <span class="hlt">regional</span> and global scales. From a scientific standpoint there is an urgent need to understand the changes and develop improved diagnostic and predictive modelling tools to deal with the uncertainty faced in the future. The Changing <span class="hlt">Cold</span> <span class="hlt">Regions</span> Network (CCRN) is a research consortium of over 50 Canadian university and government scientists and international researchers aimed at addressing these issues within the geographic domain of the Mackenzie and Saskatchewan River Basins. CCRN's primary focus is to integrate existing and new experimental data with modelling and remote sensing products to understand, diagnose and predict changing land, water and climate, and their interactions and feedbacks. To support these activities, the network utilizes a suite of 14 world-class water, ecosystem, cryosphere and climate (WECC) observatories across this <span class="hlt">region</span> that provide exceptional opportunities to observe change, investigate processes and their dynamics, and develop and test environmental models. This talk will briefly describe the CCRN thematic components and WECC observatories, and will then describe some of the observed environmental changes and their linkages across the northern and mountainous parts of the network study domain. In particular, this will include changes in permafrost, terrestrial vegetation, snowcover, glaciers, and river discharge in relation to observed climatic changes across the <span class="hlt">region</span>. The observations draw on a wide range of literature sources and statistical analyses of federal and provincial <span class="hlt">regional</span> monitoring network data, while more detailed observations at some of the WECC observatories help to show how these <span class="hlt">regional</span> changes are manifested at local scales and vice versa. A coordinated special observation and analysis period across all</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000678.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000678.htm"><span>Common <span class="hlt">cold</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000678.htm Common <span class="hlt">cold</span> To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The common <span class="hlt">cold</span> most often causes a runny nose, nasal congestion, ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24633499','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24633499"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of acclimatization on thermophysiological strain for contrasting <span class="hlt">regional</span> climates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>de Freitas, C R; Grigorieva, E A</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>During acclimatization to heat and <span class="hlt">cold</span>, the body experiences additional thermally induced physiological strain. The first signs show up in the respiratory organs because respiration is a continuous heat exchange process in which the body is in closest contact with the ambient air. There are no behavioral or other adjustments to prevent the ambient air from entering into the body's core area through the respiratory tract. The Acclimatization Thermal Strain Index (ATSI) describes the acclimatization thermal loading (ATL) on respiratory organs until full adaptation is achieved. The aim here is to further assess the ATSI scheme using a range of actual but contrasting bioclimatic conditions. To simulate ATL, scenarios of the consequences of acclimatization due to movement to or from five contrasting climates are used. The results show that adjusting to <span class="hlt">cold</span> comes with greater physiological strain than adjusting to heat, the biggest <span class="hlt">impact</span> occurring for a change of location from hot-humid to <span class="hlt">cold</span>-dry climatic conditions. The approach can be used to assess risks due to increases in short-term thermal variability in weather conditions such as encountered during heat waves and <span class="hlt">cold</span> snaps. The information could also be useful for assessing the need for public health services and measures that might be used to help mitigate <span class="hlt">impacts</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/climate-change-water-sector/regional-actions-address-climate-change-impacts-water','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/climate-change-water-sector/regional-actions-address-climate-change-impacts-water"><span><span class="hlt">Regional</span> Actions to Address Climate Change <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> on Water</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>EPA's ten <span class="hlt">regions</span> work to address climate change on a local level, implementing <span class="hlt">regionally</span> important solutions and working with stakeholders on the ground. Many <span class="hlt">regional</span> partners work closely with EPA to better implement climate solutions</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007EOSTr..88Q.559S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007EOSTr..88Q.559S"><span>In Brief: U.S. <span class="hlt">regional</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Showstack, Randy</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>On 4 December, the Pew Center on Global Climate Change released a report that assesses climate vulnerabilities in four different areas of the United States. ``<span class="hlt">Regional</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate change: Four case studies in the United States'' notes that midwestern cities are likely to experience more frequent, longer, and hotter heat waves; that wildfires are likely to increase in the U.S. West; that sustaining fragile Gulf Coast wetlands ecosystems will be increasingly difficult due to climate change; and that the Chesapeake Bay may respond to climate change with more frequent and larger hypoxia events. The report indicates that adaptation measures need to be a critical component of any long-term U.S. climate strategy. ``The degree to which we can adapt to the consequences of climate change will be determined in large part by the policies and management practices we put in place today,'' said Pew Center president Eileen Claussen. For more information, visit the Web site: http://www.pewclimate.org.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21152089','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21152089"><span>Diving of great shearwaters (Puffinus gravis) in <span class="hlt">cold</span> and warm water <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the South Atlantic Ocean.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ronconi, Robert A; Ryan, Peter G; Ropert-Coudert, Yan</p> <p>2010-11-30</p> <p>Among the most widespread seabirds in the world, shearwaters of the genus Puffinus are also some of the deepest diving members of the Procellariiformes. Maximum diving depths are known for several Puffinus species, but dive depths or diving behaviour have never been recorded for great shearwaters (P. gravis), the largest member of this genus. This study reports the first high sampling rate (2 s) of depth and diving behaviour for Puffinus shearwaters. Time-depth recorders (TDRs) were deployed on two female great shearwaters nesting on Inaccessible Island in the South Atlantic Ocean, recording 10 consecutive days of diving activity. Remote sensing imagery and movement patterns of 8 males tracked by satellite telemetry over the same period were used to identify probable foraging areas used by TDR-equipped females. The deepest and longest dive was to 18.9 m and lasted 40 s, but most (>50%) dives were <2 m deep. Diving was most frequent near dawn and dusk, with <0.5% of dives occurring at night. The two individuals foraged in contrasting oceanographic conditions, one in <span class="hlt">cold</span> (8 to 10°C) water of the Sub-Antarctic Front, likely 1000 km south of the breeding colony, and the other in warmer (10 to 16°C) water of the Sub-tropical Frontal Zone, at the same latitude as the colony, possibly on the Patagonian Shelf, 4000 km away. The <span class="hlt">cold</span> water bird spent fewer days commuting, conducted four times as many dives as the warm water bird, dived deeper on average, and had a greater proportion of bottom time during dives. General patterns of diving activity were consistent with those of other shearwaters foraging in <span class="hlt">cold</span> and warm water habitats. Great shearwaters are likely adapted to forage in a wide range of oceanographic conditions, foraging mostly with shallow dives but capable of deep diving.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2994869','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2994869"><span>Diving of Great Shearwaters (Puffinus gravis) in <span class="hlt">Cold</span> and Warm Water <span class="hlt">Regions</span> of the South Atlantic Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ronconi, Robert A.; Ryan, Peter G.; Ropert-Coudert, Yan</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Background Among the most widespread seabirds in the world, shearwaters of the genus Puffinus are also some of the deepest diving members of the Procellariiformes. Maximum diving depths are known for several Puffinus species, but dive depths or diving behaviour have never been recorded for great shearwaters (P. gravis), the largest member of this genus. This study reports the first high sampling rate (2 s) of depth and diving behaviour for Puffinus shearwaters. Methodology/Principal Findings Time-depth recorders (TDRs) were deployed on two female great shearwaters nesting on Inaccessible Island in the South Atlantic Ocean, recording 10 consecutive days of diving activity. Remote sensing imagery and movement patterns of 8 males tracked by satellite telemetry over the same period were used to identify probable foraging areas used by TDR-equipped females. The deepest and longest dive was to 18.9 m and lasted 40 s, but most (>50%) dives were <2 m deep. Diving was most frequent near dawn and dusk, with <0.5% of dives occurring at night. The two individuals foraged in contrasting oceanographic conditions, one in <span class="hlt">cold</span> (8 to 10°C) water of the Sub-Antarctic Front, likely 1000 km south of the breeding colony, and the other in warmer (10 to 16°C) water of the Sub-tropical Frontal Zone, at the same latitude as the colony, possibly on the Patagonian Shelf, 4000 km away. The <span class="hlt">cold</span> water bird spent fewer days commuting, conducted four times as many dives as the warm water bird, dived deeper on average, and had a greater proportion of bottom time during dives. Conclusions/Significance General patterns of diving activity were consistent with those of other shearwaters foraging in <span class="hlt">cold</span> and warm water habitats. Great shearwaters are likely adapted to forage in a wide range of oceanographic conditions, foraging mostly with shallow dives but capable of deep diving. PMID:21152089</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMGC23B..07M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMGC23B..07M"><span>U.S. Global Climate Change <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> Report, Alaska <span class="hlt">Region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McGuire, D.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The assessment of the Global Climate Change <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> in the United States includes analyses of the potential climate change <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in Alaska. The resulting findings are discussed in this presentation, with the effects on water resources discussed separately. Major findings include: Summers are getting hotter and drier, with increasing evaporation outpacing increased precipitation. Climate changes are already affecting water, energy, transportation, agriculture, ecosystems, and health. These <span class="hlt">impacts</span> are different from <span class="hlt">region</span> to <span class="hlt">region</span> and will grow under projected climate change. Wildfires and insect problems are increasing. Climate plays a key role in determining the extent and severity of insect outbreaks and wildfire. The area burned in North America’s northern forest that spans Alaska and Canada tripled from the 1960s to the 1990s. During the 1990s, south-central Alaska experienced the largest outbreak of spruce bark beetles in the world because of warmer weather in all seasons of the year. Under changing climate conditions, the average area burned per year in Alaska is projected to double by the middle of this century10. By the end of this century, area burned by fire is projected to triple under a moderate greenhouse gas emissions scenario and to quadruple under a higher emissions scenario. Close-bodied lakes are declining in area. A continued decline in the area of surface water would present challenges for the management of natural resources and ecosystems on National Wildlife Refuges in Alaska. These refuges, which cover over 77 million acres (21 percent of Alaska) and comprise 81 percent of the U.S. National Wildlife Refuge System, provide a breeding habitat for millions of waterfowl and shorebirds that winter in the lower 48 states. Permafrost thawing will damage public and private infrastructure. Land subsidence (sinking) associated with the thawing of permafrost presents substantial challenges to engineers attempting to preserve infrastructure in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/10787','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/10787"><span><span class="hlt">Regional</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of technical change: the case of structural particleboard in the United States.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Zhi Xu; David N. Bengston; Hans M. Gregersen; Allen L. Lundgren</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Analyzes the <span class="hlt">regional</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of research benefits in the United States due to the introduction of structural particleboard. The distribution of consumer benefits, producer benefits, direct employment <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, and changes in wood requirements are analyzed for the four census <span class="hlt">regions</span>. The distribution of benefits is found to differ widely between <span class="hlt">regions</span>, indicating...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-09-28/pdf/2012-23830.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-09-28/pdf/2012-23830.pdf"><span>77 FR 59703 - Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Statement; Taos <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Airport, Taos, NM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-09-28</p> <p>... Federal Aviation Administration Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Statement; Taos <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Airport, Taos, NM AGENCY...) for the ``Taos <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Airport, Airport Layout Plan Improvements'' Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Statement (EIS). The Town of Taos, owner and operator of Taos <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Airport located in Taos, New Mexico,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cold-sore/basics/definition/CON-20021310?p=1','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cold-sore/basics/definition/CON-20021310?p=1"><span><span class="hlt">Cold</span> Sore</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... genitals. Most people who are infected with the virus that causes <span class="hlt">cold</span> sores never develop signs and symptoms. <span class="hlt">Cold</span> sores ... an infection — test positive for evidence of the virus that causes <span class="hlt">cold</span> sores. People who have weakened immune systems are ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3859068','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3859068"><span>Digital Sequences and a Time Reversal-Based <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Region</span> Imaging and Localization Method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Qiu, Lei; Yuan, Shenfang; Mei, Hanfei; Qian, Weifeng</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>To reduce time and cost of damage inspection, on-line <span class="hlt">impact</span> monitoring of aircraft composite structures is needed. A digital monitor based on an array of piezoelectric transducers (PZTs) is developed to record the <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">region</span> of <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on-line. It is small in size, lightweight and has low power consumption, but there are two problems with the <span class="hlt">impact</span> alarm <span class="hlt">region</span> localization method of the digital monitor at the current stage. The first one is that the accuracy rate of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> alarm <span class="hlt">region</span> localization is low, especially on complex composite structures. The second problem is that the area of <span class="hlt">impact</span> alarm <span class="hlt">region</span> is large when a large scale structure is monitored and the number of PZTs is limited which increases the time and cost of damage inspections. To solve the two problems, an <span class="hlt">impact</span> alarm <span class="hlt">region</span> imaging and localization method based on digital sequences and time reversal is proposed. In this method, the frequency band of <span class="hlt">impact</span> response signals is estimated based on the digital sequences first. Then, characteristic signals of <span class="hlt">impact</span> response signals are constructed by sinusoidal modulation signals. Finally, the phase synthesis time reversal <span class="hlt">impact</span> imaging method is adopted to obtain the <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">region</span> image. Depending on the image, an error ellipse is generated to give out the final <span class="hlt">impact</span> alarm <span class="hlt">region</span>. A validation experiment is implemented on a complex composite wing box of a real aircraft. The validation results show that the accuracy rate of <span class="hlt">impact</span> alarm <span class="hlt">region</span> localization is approximately 100%. The area of <span class="hlt">impact</span> alarm <span class="hlt">region</span> can be reduced and the number of PZTs needed to cover the same <span class="hlt">impact</span> monitoring <span class="hlt">region</span> is reduced by more than a half. PMID:24084123</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24084123','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24084123"><span>Digital sequences and a time reversal-based <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">region</span> imaging and localization method.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Qiu, Lei; Yuan, Shenfang; Mei, Hanfei; Qian, Weifeng</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>To reduce time and cost of damage inspection, on-line <span class="hlt">impact</span> monitoring of aircraft composite structures is needed. A digital monitor based on an array of piezoelectric transducers (PZTs) is developed to record the <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">region</span> of <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on-line. It is small in size, lightweight and has low power consumption, but there are two problems with the <span class="hlt">impact</span> alarm <span class="hlt">region</span> localization method of the digital monitor at the current stage. The first one is that the accuracy rate of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> alarm <span class="hlt">region</span> localization is low, especially on complex composite structures. The second problem is that the area of <span class="hlt">impact</span> alarm <span class="hlt">region</span> is large when a large scale structure is monitored and the number of PZTs is limited which increases the time and cost of damage inspections. To solve the two problems, an <span class="hlt">impact</span> alarm <span class="hlt">region</span> imaging and localization method based on digital sequences and time reversal is proposed. In this method, the frequency band of <span class="hlt">impact</span> response signals is estimated based on the digital sequences first. Then, characteristic signals of <span class="hlt">impact</span> response signals are constructed by sinusoidal modulation signals. Finally, the phase synthesis time reversal <span class="hlt">impact</span> imaging method is adopted to obtain the <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">region</span> image. Depending on the image, an error ellipse is generated to give out the final <span class="hlt">impact</span> alarm <span class="hlt">region</span>. A validation experiment is implemented on a complex composite wing box of a real aircraft. The validation results show that the accuracy rate of <span class="hlt">impact</span> alarm <span class="hlt">region</span> localization is approximately 100%. The area of <span class="hlt">impact</span> alarm <span class="hlt">region</span> can be reduced and the number of PZTs needed to cover the same <span class="hlt">impact</span> monitoring <span class="hlt">region</span> is reduced by more than a half.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUSMGC11A..04B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUSMGC11A..04B"><span><span class="hlt">Regional</span> <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Climate Change in the Caribou Chilcotin <span class="hlt">Region</span>, Fraser River Basin, BC, Canada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bennett, K. E.; Werner, A. T.; Salathé, E. P.; Schnorbus, M.; Nelitz, M.; David, R. R.</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>The terrain and climate of British Columbia (BC) is some of the most complex in the country, and is likely going to face unprecedented changes in hydrology due to the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate change. The Pacific Climate <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> Consortium (PCIC) was formed in 2005 to produce tools to determine how water resources in BC and its surrounding provinces, territories and states are being affected by climate change. PCIC's first large-scale watershed modelling project implemented, in collaboration with the River Forecast Centre and the University of Washington, the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model in several major BC watersheds. Future scenarios were developed to analyse the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate change on snowpack, streamflow and soil moisture in these basins. The current study focuses on the methods to develop future scenarios and the results of the hydrologic modelling. Six different GCM emissions scenarios were selected for BC from the AR4 scenarios. A modified bias correction and statistical downscaling (BCSD) technique created at the University of Washington was used to downscale GCM results to the scale of gridded historical forcings data to generate transient-daily time step, <span class="hlt">regional</span>-scale projections of future climate change. These forcings were then used to drive the VIC macro-scale hydrologic model. A comparison of forcings for the historical period (1961-1990) from the downscaled GCM data to the forcings created from the observed records on the monthly-timescale demonstrated that the downscaled data captured the range of variability present in the 1961-1990 period in large and medium sized basins quite well. Accurately downscaling data for application in small basins was more difficult. Daily results created with the original BCSD technique were unrealistic in places and problematic for application in hydrologic models, such as VIC that depend on an accurate daily temperature range to model evaporation and snowpack. Results for the Fraser Basin study include</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24944030','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24944030"><span>Thermoregulatory modeling for <span class="hlt">cold</span> stress.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xu, Xiaojiang; Tikuisis, Peter</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Modeling for <span class="hlt">cold</span> stress has generated a rich history of innovation, has exerted a catalytic influence on <span class="hlt">cold</span> physiology research, and continues to <span class="hlt">impact</span> human activity in <span class="hlt">cold</span> environments. This overview begins with a brief summation of <span class="hlt">cold</span> thermoregulatory model development followed by key principles that will continue to guide current and future model development. Different representations of the human body are discussed relative to the level of detail and prediction accuracy required. In addition to predictions of shivering and vasomotor responses to <span class="hlt">cold</span> exposure, algorithms are presented for thermoregulatory mechanisms. Various avenues of heat exchange between the human body and a <span class="hlt">cold</span> environment are reviewed. Applications of <span class="hlt">cold</span> thermoregulatory modeling range from investigative interpretation of physiological observations to forecasting skin freezing times and hypothermia survival times. While these advances have been remarkable, the future of <span class="hlt">cold</span> stress modeling is still faced with significant challenges that are summarized at the end of this overview.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030111298&hterms=Pascal&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DPascal','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030111298&hterms=Pascal&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DPascal"><span>Mars: Always <span class="hlt">Cold</span>, Sometimes Wet?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Pascal; McKay, Christoper P.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>A synthesis of a diverse suite of observations of H2O-related landforms that are possible Mars analogs from terrestrial polar <span class="hlt">regions</span> (Devon Island in the Arctic; the Dry Valleys of Antarctica) put into question any requirement for extended episode(s) of warm and wet climate in Mars past. Geologically transient episodes of localized H2O cycling, forced by exogenic <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, enhanced endogenic heat flow, and/or orbit-driven short-term local environmental change under an otherwise <span class="hlt">cold</span>, low pressure (=10(exp 2) mbar) global climate, may be sufficient to account for the martian surface's exposed record of aqueous activity. A Mars that was only sometimes locally warm and wet while remaining climatically <span class="hlt">cold</span> throughout its history is consistent with results (difficulties) encountered in modeling efforts attempting to support warm martian climate hypotheses. Possible analogs from terrestrial <span class="hlt">cold</span> climate <span class="hlt">regions</span> for the recent gully features on Mars also illustrate how transient localized aqueous activity might, under specific circumstances, also occur on Mars under the present frigid global climatic regime.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.3077H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.3077H"><span>Understanding and Representing Stable Boundary Layer Over <span class="hlt">Cold</span> <span class="hlt">Regions</span> Based on Observations and A New Diagnostic Turbulence Scheme in CanAm4 Climate Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>He, Yanping; McFarlane, Norman; Monahan, Adam; Scinocca, John</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>A new semi-empirical diagnostic turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) scheme is used in combination with observational analysis to understand and to represent stable boundary layers (SBL) over <span class="hlt">cold</span> <span class="hlt">regions</span>. Five year observations from Cabauw, Netherlands, demonstrate multiple regimes of turbulence, winds, and stratification under nighttime clear-sky conditions. Among observed SBL depth, approximately 10% are very shallow (<= 40m), and around 70% are 200m or deeper. This 10/70 fraction and the sharp regime transition of near-surface temperature inversions are common features in all seasons. The new TKE scheme is capable of reproducing the observed clear-sky S-shape relationship between near surface wind speed and stratification, and it reproduces a more realistic fraction of very shallow SBL than that of the operational one in the CanAM4 climate models. However, the number of weak SBL that are deeper than 200m is significantly underestimated over <span class="hlt">cold</span> <span class="hlt">regions</span> in both operational and new schemes. The key physical mechanism supporting the regime transition and the occurrence of deep SBLs will be summarized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714780H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714780H"><span><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of anthropogenic forcing on <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate simulation for CORDEX-East Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hong, Song Yee; Kang, Hyun Suk; Hyun, Yu Kyung</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of greenhouse gas and aerosol on climate change are crucial, so that it is trivial for CMIP models to consider anthropogenic forcing for current climate simulations and future projection as well. Meanwhile, for <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate models, it is still ambiguous if those forcings are duplicated or not, since the large-scale information is provided from the GCM models through the lateral boundary condition. To answer this question, four experiments using the HadGEM3-RA were conducted within the CORDEX framework for the East Asia domain, which are defined as FIXF (Fixed forcing experiment), GHGS (Greenhouse gases forcing only on the FIXF), AERO (Aerosol forcing only on the FIXF), and ALL (Both forcings on the FIXF) experiments. All experiments were driven by the same GCM forcing, i.e., HadGEM2-AO. Simulation results for the current (27 years for 1979-2005) and future (30 years for 2071-2100) climate were analyzed. FIXF experiment simulated significant <span class="hlt">cold</span> biases near the northwestern China and Mongolia. Compared to results from the FIXF, those from the ALL and AERO were better, particularly for the temperature in northwestern China and for the precipitation in southern China, Indonesia and northwestern Pacific. Reduced <span class="hlt">cold</span> bias in northwestern China is highly associated with the aerosol forcing, and marginally associated with the greenhouse gases forcing. As a result, temperature simulated by ALL experiment shows less bias than any other experiments. In the future, surface air temperature was projected stronger in ALL than FIXF experiment in late 21st century. Especially, based on the future projection from the ALL experiment, increase in domain-averaged surface air temperature is about 3.0oC (4.2oC) under the RCP 4.5 (RCP8.5) scenario. In future change of precipitation, regardless of forcing experiments, annual mean precipitation over maritime continent and northwestern Pacific are expected to increase. And percent change in annual mean precipitation of ALL</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://familydoctor.org/symptom/cold-and-flu/?adfree=true','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://familydoctor.org/symptom/cold-and-flu/?adfree=true"><span><span class="hlt">Cold</span> and Flu</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... 400;font-style:normal;font-size:14px;}h1,.<span class="hlt">impact-text,.impact</span>-text-large{font-family:"Source Sans Pro";line- ... Acute Chest Pain, Chronic <span class="hlt">Cold</span> and Flu Cough Diarrhea Ear Problems Elimination Problems Elimination Problems in Infants ...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.B23A0583C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.B23A0583C"><span>Using <span class="hlt">Cold</span>-water Coral Mini-mounds as Analogue for Giant Mound Growth: Assessment of Environmental Drivers and Anthropogenic <span class="hlt">Impact</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Collart, T.; Stewart, H. A.; Howell, K.; Bourillet, J. F.; Llave, E.; Blamart, D.; Mienis, F.; Van Rooij, D.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Cold</span>-water coral (CWC) reefs are formed by framework building scleratinians Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata that baffle sediment and over time, have the potential to develop into large coral mounds of up to 300m high (e.g. Belgica Mound Province). The detailed mechanisms of initiation and build-up of such large CWC mounds are however not yet fully understood. It is therefore essential to study smaller mounds (often termed "mini-mounds") that can be interpreted as earlier growth stages that haven't had the time to coalesce and develop into larger mounds. The FWO Minimound project (2013-2017) aims to investigate CWC mini-mounds within the Bay of Biscay (European Margin) in order to determine the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of: (1) palaeoceanographic changes related to glacial-interglacial climate change in the last 15 ka, (2) hydrocarbon seepage processes and (3) anthropogenic fishing activities on CWC habitats. The project targets three minimound provinces: the Ferrol Canyon (Cantabrian Margin), the Guilvinec Canyon (Armorican Margin) and the Explorer and Dangeard Canyons (Celtic Margin). These mini-mounds are fossil and occur at relative shallow depths on the interface between the Eastern North Atlantic Central Water (ENACW) and the Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW). Contrastingly, most living CWC reefs in this <span class="hlt">region</span> of the Atlantic, dwell in the deeper MOW depth range, relying on the density and dynamics of this water mass for their food supply. In order to investigate the initiation, growth and demise of CWC mini-mounds, 35m of USBL guided sediment cores were retrieved from the Explorer and Dangeard Interfluves. We present data of sedimentological, geochemical and palaeoceanographic analyses throughout the cores, coupled with high-resolution geophysical data. Preliminary results indicate that the mound base is associated with a strong shift in sedimentation regime potentially linked to climate driven palaeoceanographic changes of the MOW-ENACW interface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSM.U52A..02T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSM.U52A..02T"><span>Climatic Consequences and Agricultural <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Nuclear Conflict</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Toon, O. B.; Robock, A.; Mills, M. J.; Xia, L.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>A nuclear war between India and Pakistan, with each country using 50 Hiroshima-sized atom bombs as airbursts on urban areas, would inject smoke from the resulting fires into the stratosphere.This could produce climate change unprecedented in recorded human history and global-scale ozone depletion, with enhanced ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching the surface.Simulations with the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM), run at higher vertical and horizontal resolution than a previous simulation with the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE, and incorporating ozone chemistry for the first time, show a longer stratospheric residence time for smoke and hence a longer-lasting climate response, with global average surface air temperatures still 1.1 K below normal and global average precipitation 4% below normal after a decade.The erythemal dose from the enhanced UV radiation would greatly increase, in spite of enhanced absorption by the remaining smoke, with the UV index more than 3 units higher in the summer midlatitudes, even after a decade. Scenarios of changes in temperature, precipitation, and downward shortwave radiation from the ModelE and WACCM simulations, applied to the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer crop model for winter wheat, rice, soybeans, and maize by perturbing observed time series with anomalies from the <span class="hlt">regional</span> nuclear war simulations, produce decreases of 10-50% in yield averaged over a decade, with larger decreases in the first several years, over the midlatitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the nuclear war simulated here, using much less than 1% of the global nuclear arsenal, would be devastating to world agricultural production and trade, possibly sentencing a billion people now living marginal existences to starvation.The continued environmental threat of the use of even a small number of nuclear weapons must be considered in nuclear policy deliberations in Russia, the U.S., and the rest of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017DyAtO..78...26D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017DyAtO..78...26D"><span>Interannual spring Wyrtki jet variability and its <span class="hlt">regional</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Deshpande, Aditi; Gnanaseelan, C.; Chowdary, J. S.; Rahul, S.</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>The role of spring Wyrtki jets in modulating the equatorial Indian Ocean and the <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate is an unexplored problem. The source of interannual variability in the spring Wyrtki jets is explored in this study. The relationship between intraseasonal and interannual variability from 1958 to 2008 and its relation with Indian Summer Monsoon is further addressed. Analysis reveals that the interannual variability in spring Wyrtki jets is controlled significantly by their intraseasonal variations. These are mostly defined by a single intraseasonal event of duration 20 days or more which either strengthens or weakens the seasonal mean jet depending on its phase. The strong spring jets are driven by such intraseasonal westerly wind bursts lasting for 20-days or more, whereas the weak jets are driven by weaker intraseasonal westerlies. During the years of strong jets, the conventional westward phase propagation of Wyrtki jets is absent and instead there is an eastward phase propagation indicating the possible role of Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) in strengthening the spring Wyrtki jets. These strong intraseasonal westerly wind bursts with eastward phase propagation during strong years are observed mainly in late spring and have implications on June precipitation over the Indian and adjoining land mass. Anomalously strong eastward jets accumulate warm water in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean (EIO), leading to anomalous positive upper ocean heat content and supporting more local convection in the east. This induces subsidence over the Indian landmass and alters monsoon rainfall by modulating monsoon Hadley circulation. In case of weak current years such warm anomalies are absent over the eastern EIO. Variations in the jet strength are found to have strong <span class="hlt">impact</span> on sea level anomalies, heat content, salinity and sea surface temperature over the equatorial and north Indian Ocean making it a potentially important player in the north Indian Ocean climate variability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006ClDy...27..553R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006ClDy...27..553R"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of carbonaceous aerosol emissions on <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Roeckner, E.; Stier, P.; Feichter, J.; Kloster, S.; Esch, M.; Fischer-Bruns, I.</p> <p>2006-11-01</p> <p>The past and future evolution of atmospheric composition and climate has been simulated with a version of the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM). The system consists of the atmosphere, including a detailed representation of tropospheric aerosols, the land surface, and the ocean, including a model of the marine biogeochemistry which interacts with the atmosphere via the dust and sulfur cycles. In addition to the prescribed concentrations of carbon dioxide, ozone and other greenhouse gases, the model is driven by natural forcings (solar irradiance and volcanic aerosol), and by emissions of mineral dust, sea salt, sulfur, black carbon (BC) and particulate organic matter (POM). Transient climate simulations were performed for the twentieth century and extended into the twenty-first century, according to SRES scenario A1B, with two different assumptions on future emissions of carbonaceous aerosols (BC, POM). In the first experiment, BC and POM emissions decrease over Europe and China but increase at lower latitudes (central and South America, Africa, Middle East, India, Southeast Asia). In the second experiment, the BC and POM emissions are frozen at their levels of year 2000. According to these experiments the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of projected changes in carbonaceaous aerosols on the global mean temperature is negligible, but significant changes are found at low latitudes. This includes a cooling of the surface, enhanced precipitation and runoff, and a wetter surface. These <span class="hlt">regional</span> changes in surface climate are caused primarily by the atmospheric absorption of sunlight by increasing BC levels and, subsequently, by thermally driven circulations which favour the transport of moisture from the adjacent oceans. The vertical redistribution of solar energy is particularly large during the dry season in central Africa when the anomalous atmospheric heating of up to 60 W m-2 and a corresponding decrease in surface solar radiation leads to a marked surface cooling, reduced</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.3445M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.3445M"><span>The Study of <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Water Transferring From Wet <span class="hlt">Regions</span> To Dry <span class="hlt">Regions</span> In Iran</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Motiee-Homayoun, Dr.; Ghomashchi, Dr.</p> <p></p> <p>Iran, with a very diverse ecology and different climate has been classified as a dry- semidry <span class="hlt">region</span>. Iran's annual average of rain-fall is about 250 mm, while this figure is more than 1000 mm in north and less than 100 mm in the south of the country. Overall, Iran's water resources are low. Rapid population growth, economic growth together with significant urban development, in recent decades, has led to underestimate high demands for water. Therefore, water shortage has been considered more obviously. Such an important scare is rather serious in central and eastern <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the country. This problem has been determined as a serious challenge for Iran's government and national water authorities, in particular. Although, drinking water supply is only 6 percent of total water resources, due to direct socio-political <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, drinking water supply, in both quality and quantity, is more serious and important than agricultural water demands. Accordingly, for the following reasons: 1) Desperation and diversity of geographical conditions of urban areas 2) Low access to underground water 3) Inadequate quality surface water supply Difficulties and the costs of supplying urban water in Iran have been sharply increased. Presently, due to unconstrained consuming underground water and negative balance in most under ground resources of the country, more specifically in central and eastern <span class="hlt">regions</span>, water supply from groundwater resources is very risky and misleading. Furthermore, other reason such as rapid urban population growth and changes in people's every day life and their consumption patterns increase both water consumption and waste water in the circumstances of inadequate sewage systems, make a vast source of pollution for water resources. Due to the influence of extended See (Salty) water, in southern provinces, near to Persian Gulf, accessibility to fresh water is rather difficult and in many cases only after tens of kilometers far from the see, fresh water could be</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7148055','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7148055"><span>Health assessment for Marathon Battery, <span class="hlt">Cold</span> Springs, New York, <span class="hlt">Region</span> 2. CERCLIS No. NYD001959757. Preliminary report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1987-07-16</p> <p>The 11-acre Marathon Battery Site (MBS) Plant is located in Putnam County, <span class="hlt">Cold</span> Springs, New York. The site is bordered to the east by a wooded area and to the south by a junkyard and Foundary Cove. Foundary Cove is a wetland marsh connected by several channels to the Hudson River. Various heavy metals have been identified on-site. They include arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, lead, nickel, and zinc. In addition, a previous ATSDR memorandum reports the results of a ground-water sample containing high concentrations of trichloroethylene. Based on the preliminary information reviewed concerning on-site and off-site contamination, MBS represents a potential public health threat to area residents.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JTST...19.1155Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JTST...19.1155Y"><span>Numerical Study on the Effect of Substrate Angle on Particle <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Velocity and Normal Velocity Component in <span class="hlt">Cold</span> Gas Dynamic Spraying Based on CFD</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yin, Shuo; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Li, Wen-Ya; Xu, Bao-Peng</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Numerical study was conducted to investigate the effect of substrate angle on particle <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocity and normal velocity component in <span class="hlt">cold</span> gas dynamic spraying by using three-dimensional models based on computational fluid dynamics. It was found that the substrate angle has significant effect on particle <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocity and normal velocity component. With increasing the substrate angle, the bow shock strength becomes increasingly weak, which results in a gradual rise in particle <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocity. The distribution of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocity presents a linearly increase along the substrate centerline due to the existence of the substrate angle and the growth rate rises gradually with increasing the substrate angle. Furthermore, the normal velocity component reduces steeply with the increase in substrate angle, which may result in a sharp decrease in deposition efficiency. In addition, the study on the influence of procedure parameters showed that gas pressure, temperature, type, and particle size also play an important role in particle acceleration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/305769','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/305769"><span>Estimation of greenhouse <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of continuous <span class="hlt">regional</span> emissions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sinisalo, J.</p> <p>1998-03-27</p> <p>In this thesis, a method to calculate the greenhouse <span class="hlt">impact</span> of continuous, time-dependent, non-global greenhouse gas emissions is used to estimate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of estimated anthropogenic pre-1990 and future (post 1990) emissions of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O of Finland and Nordic countries. Estimates for the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of Finnish CFCs and their substitutes and the significance of Finnnish forests as carbon sink are also calculated. The method is also used to compare several different wood and peat energy production schemes with fossil fuel use, in terms of caused greenhouse <span class="hlt">impact</span>. The uncertainty of the results is examined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4581827','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4581827"><span>Economic <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Dengue: Multicenter Study across Four Brazilian <span class="hlt">Regions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Martelli, Celina Maria Turchi; Siqueira, Joao Bosco; Parente, Mirian Perpetua Palha Dias; Zara, Ana Laura de Sene Amancio; Oliveira, Consuelo Silva; Braga, Cynthia; Pimenta, Fabiano Geraldo; Cortes, Fanny; Lopez, Juan Guillermo; Bahia, Luciana Ribeiro; Mendes, Marcia Costa Ooteman; da Rosa, Michelle Quarti Machado; de Siqueira Filha, Noemia Teixeira; Constenla, Dagna; de Souza, Wayner Vieira</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background Dengue is an increasing public health concern in Brazil. There is a need for an updated evaluation of the economic <span class="hlt">impact</span> of dengue within the country. We undertook this multicenter study to evaluate the economic burden of dengue in Brazil. Methods We estimated the economic burden of dengue in Brazil for the years 2009 to 2013 and for the epidemic season of August 2012- September 2013. We conducted a multicenter cohort study across four endemic <span class="hlt">regions</span>: Midwest, Goiania; Southeast, Belo Horizonte and Rio de Janeiro; Northeast: Teresina and Recife; and the North, Belem. Ambulatory or hospitalized cases with suspected or laboratory-confirmed dengue treated in both the private and public sectors were recruited. Interviews were scheduled for the convalescent period to ascertain characteristics of the dengue episode, date of first symptoms/signs and recovery, use of medical services, work/school absence, household spending (out-of-pocket expense) and income lost using a questionnaire developed for a previous cost study. We also extracted data from the patients’ medical records for hospitalized cases. Overall costs per case and cumulative costs were calculated from the public payer and societal perspectives. National cost estimations took into account cases reported in the official notification system (SINAN) with adjustment for underreporting of cases. We applied a probabilistic sensitivity analysis using Monte Carlo simulations with 90% certainty levels (CL). Results We screened 2,223 cases, of which 2,035 (91.5%) symptomatic dengue cases were included in our study. The estimated cost for dengue for the epidemic season (2012–2013) in the societal perspective was US$ 468 million (90% CL: 349–590) or US$ 1,212 million (90% CL: 904–1,526) after adjusting for under-reporting. Considering the time series of dengue (2009–2013) the estimated cost of dengue varied from US$ 371 million (2009) to US$ 1,228 million (2013). Conclusions The economic burden</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1213325W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1213325W"><span>Tracking <span class="hlt">cold</span> bottom water in the Gargano Peninsula and Bari Canyon <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the Adriatic using seismic oceanography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wood, Warren; Book, Jeffrey; Carniel, Sandro; Lindwall, Dennis; Bortoluzzi, Giovanni; Hobbs, Richard</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Tracking <span class="hlt">cold</span>, dense bottom water from conventional ship sampling is difficult - equipment safety concerns result in incomplete sampling near the seafloor, and lateral variability can be significant. Mooring time series are poor at mapping dense water vein spatial extents and can even completely miss sampling narrow veins. The relatively new technique of seismic oceanography (SO) could potentially provide a new way of identifying and characterizing these bottom waters that is not as subject to the constraints and difficulties of present methods. Furthermore, combining SO with conventional sampling is particularly appealing for better characterization of the quick and small scales of dense water cascades and bottom trapped phenomenon.. There is a relationship between oceanic temperatures and the seismic data such that seismic images can be made to represent a quantitative measure of vertical temperature gradient through much of the water column and even very near the seafloor. The SO technique involves towing a low frequency, broadband (20-250 Hz) sound source (such as an air gun array) and a long, 600-1200 m, array of hydrophones. SO uses much lower frequencies than conventional Acoustical Oceanography (AO) techniques, and is affected by the acoustic impedance (product of sound speed and density) directly, not via proxy such as impurities or biota in the water. The sound pulses reflect off the (mostly temperature) contrasts in the water, and are recorded on the hydrophone array, creating an image of temperature gradient. Because the reflection coefficients are small, signal-enhancing techniques such as synthetic aperture (common midpoint binning) processing is required. The images generated using SO allow for the tracking of very thin (less than 10 m thick) bottom currents provided that the temperature contrast between the bottom, and overlying water is strong enough (0.3 to 1.2 degrees C, depending on acoustic noise levels) and abrupt enough (10-15 meters). The</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25223030','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25223030"><span>[Effect of tillage patterns on the structure of weed communities in oat fields in the <span class="hlt">cold</span> and arid <span class="hlt">region</span> of North China].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Li; Zhang, Li; Wu, Dong-Xia; Zhang, Jun-Jun</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>In order to clarify the effects of tillage patterns on farmland weed community structure and crop production characteristics, based on 10 years location experiment with no-tillage, subsoiling and conventional tillage in the <span class="hlt">cold</span> and arid <span class="hlt">region</span> of North China, and supplementary experiment of plowing after 10 years no-tillage and subsoiling, oat was planted in 2 soils under different tillage patterns, and field weed total density, dominant weed types, weed diversity index, field weed biomass and oats yield were measured. The results showed that the <span class="hlt">regional</span> weed community was dominated by foxtail weed (Setaira viridis); the weed density under long-term no-tillage was 2.20-5.14 times of tillage at different growing stages of oat, but there were no significant differences between conditional tillage and plowing after long-term no-tillage and subsoiling. Field weed Shannon diversity indices were 0.429 and 0.531, respectively, for sandy chestnut soil and loamy meadow soil under no-tillage conditions, and field weed biomass values were 1.35 and 2.26 times of plowing treatment, while the oat biomass values were only 2807.4 kg x hm(-2) and 4053.9 kg x hm(-2), decreased by 22.3% and 46.2%, respectively. The results showed that the weed community characteristics were affected by both tillage patterns and soil types. Long-term no-tillage farmland in the <span class="hlt">cold</span> and arid <span class="hlt">region</span> of North China could promote the natural evolution of plant communities by keeping more perennial weeds, and the plowing pattern lowered the annual weed density, eliminated perennial weeds with shallow roots, and stimulated perennial weeds with deep roots.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA150318','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA150318"><span><span class="hlt">Regional</span> Development <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> Multi-<span class="hlt">Regional</span> - Multi-Industry Model (MRMI) Users Manual,</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1982-09-01</p> <p>the model’s data base. Considerations regarding consistency between estimated direct <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and MRMI’s internal data conventions are also raised. The...estimates are based upon rigid conventions imposed upon the data. In formulating scenarios, it is the users responsibility for providing direct <span class="hlt">impacts</span>...by the <span class="hlt">impact</span> before forecasting the following year’s economic activity. <span class="hlt">Impact</span> data must therefore be consistent with definitional conventions in the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=80179&keyword=hawaii&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=80179&keyword=hawaii&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>CLIMATE <span class="hlt">IMPACTS</span> ON NUTRIENT FLUXES IN STREAM FLOW IN THE MID-ATLANTIC <span class="hlt">REGION</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>As part of a national assessment process, researchers of the Mid-Atlantic <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Assessment (MARA) are studying the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate variation and change on the natural and social systems of the Mid-Atlantic <span class="hlt">Region</span>. This poster presents research investigating climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=80179&keyword=hawaii+AND+climate+AND+change&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89769893&CFTOKEN=29051674','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=80179&keyword=hawaii+AND+climate+AND+change&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89769893&CFTOKEN=29051674"><span>CLIMATE <span class="hlt">IMPACTS</span> ON NUTRIENT FLUXES IN STREAM FLOW IN THE MID-ATLANTIC <span class="hlt">REGION</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>As part of a national assessment process, researchers of the Mid-Atlantic <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Assessment (MARA) are studying the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate variation and change on the natural and social systems of the Mid-Atlantic <span class="hlt">Region</span>. This poster presents research investigating climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.C23A0729L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.C23A0729L"><span>The Implement of a Multi-layer Frozen Soil Scheme into SSiB3 and its Evaluation over <span class="hlt">Cold</span> <span class="hlt">Regions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Q.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The SSiB3 is a biophysics-based model of land-atmosphere interactions and is designed for global and <span class="hlt">regional</span> studies. It has three soil layers, three snow layers, as well as one vegetation layer. Soil moisture of the three soil layers, interception water store for the canopy, subsurface soil temperature, ground temperature, canopy temperature and snow water equivalent are all predicted based on the water and energy balance at canopy, soil and snow. SSiB3 substantially enhances the model's capability for <span class="hlt">cold</span> season studies and produces reasonable results compared with observations. However, frozen soil processes are ignored in the SSiB3 and may have effects on the interannual variability of soil temperature and deep soil memory. A multi-layer comprehensive frozen soil scheme (FSM), which is developed for climate study has been implemented into the SSiB3 to describe soil heat transfer and water flow affected by frozen processed in soil. In the coupled SSiB3-FSM, both liquid water and ice content have been taken into account in the frozen soil hydrologic and thermal property parameterization. The maximum soil layer depth could reach 10 meters thick depending on land conditions. To better evaluate the models' performance, the coupled offline SSiB3-FSM and SSiB3 have been driven from 1948 to 1958 by the Princeton global meteorological data set, respectively. For the 10yrs run, the coupled SSiB3-FSM almost captures the features over different <span class="hlt">regions</span>, especially <span class="hlt">cold</span> <span class="hlt">regions</span>. In order to analysis and compare the differences of SSIB3-FSM and SSIB3 in detail, monthly mean surface temperature for different <span class="hlt">regions</span> are compared with CAMS data. The statistical results of surface skin temperature show that high latitude <span class="hlt">regions</span>, Africa, Eastern Australia, and North American monsoon <span class="hlt">regions</span> have been greatly improved in SSIB3-FSM. For the global statistics, the RMSE of the surface temperature simulated by SSiB3-FSM can be improved about 0.6K compared to SSiB3. In this study</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1114878','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1114878"><span>Potential Economic <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> from Offshore Wind in the Mid-Atlantic <span class="hlt">Region</span> (Fact Sheet)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Keyser, D.; Tegen, S.; Flores, F.; Zammit, D.; Kraemer, M.; Miles, J.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Offshore wind is a clean, renewable source of energy and can be an economic driver in the United States. To better understand the employment opportunities and other potential <span class="hlt">regional</span> economic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> from offshore wind development, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded research that focuses on four <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the country. The studies use multiple scenarios with various local job and domestic manufacturing content assumptions. Each <span class="hlt">regional</span> study uses the new offshore wind Jobs and Economic Development <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> (JEDI) model, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This fact sheet summarizes the potential economic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> for the Mid-Atlantic <span class="hlt">region</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1114880','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1114880"><span>Potential Economic <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> from Offshore Wind in the Gulf of Mexico <span class="hlt">Region</span> (Fact Sheet)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Flores, F.; Keyser, D.; Tegen, S.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Offshore wind is a clean, renewable source of energy and can be an economic driver in the United States. To better understand the employment opportunities and other potential <span class="hlt">regional</span> economic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> from offshore wind development, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded research that focuses on four <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the country. The studies use multiple scenarios with various local job and domestic manufacturing content assumptions. Each <span class="hlt">regional</span> study uses the new offshore wind Jobs and Economic Development <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> (JEDI) model, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This fact sheet summarizes the potential economic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> for the Gulf of Mexico <span class="hlt">region</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1117053','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1117053"><span>Potential Economic <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> from Offshore Wind in the Great Lakes <span class="hlt">Region</span> (Fact Sheet)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tegen, S.; Keyser, D.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Offshore wind is a clean, renewable source of energy and can be an economic driver in the United States. To better understand the employment opportunities and other potential <span class="hlt">regional</span> economic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> from offshore wind development, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded research that focuses on four <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the country. The studies use multiple scenarios with various local job and domestic manufacturing content assumptions. Each <span class="hlt">regional</span> study uses the new offshore wind Jobs and Economic Development <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> (JEDI) model, developed by DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This fact sheet summarizes the potential economic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> identified by the study for the Great Lakes <span class="hlt">region</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020045763&hterms=geology&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dgeology','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020045763&hterms=geology&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dgeology"><span>Apollo 14 <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Glasses and Clementine Data: Implications for <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Geology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zellner, N. E. B.; Spudis, P. D.; Delano, J. W.; Whittet, D. C. B.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Clementine color image data and analyses of 778 lunar <span class="hlt">impact</span> glasses have been used together to suggest that the highlands of the Fra Mauro <span class="hlt">region</span> consist of a KREEP-rich regolith overlying a feldspathic terrain. Low-KREEP <span class="hlt">impact</span> glasses may possess a memory of <span class="hlt">impacts</span> prior to 3.9 Ga ago. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020045763&hterms=Geology&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DGeology','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020045763&hterms=Geology&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DGeology"><span>Apollo 14 <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Glasses and Clementine Data: Implications for <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Geology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zellner, N. E. B.; Spudis, P. D.; Delano, J. W.; Whittet, D. C. B.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Clementine color image data and analyses of 778 lunar <span class="hlt">impact</span> glasses have been used together to suggest that the highlands of the Fra Mauro <span class="hlt">region</span> consist of a KREEP-rich regolith overlying a feldspathic terrain. Low-KREEP <span class="hlt">impact</span> glasses may possess a memory of <span class="hlt">impacts</span> prior to 3.9 Ga ago. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4861193','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4861193"><span>Human whole body <span class="hlt">cold</span> adaptation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Daanen, Hein A.M.; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>ABSTRACT Reviews on whole body human <span class="hlt">cold</span> adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the <span class="hlt">cold</span> and poor <span class="hlt">cold</span> induced vasodilation in fingers and toes compared to Caucasians and Inuit. About 40,000 y after humans left Africa, natives in <span class="hlt">cold</span> terrestrial areas seems to have developed not only behavioral adaptations, but also physiological adaptations to <span class="hlt">cold</span>. Dedicated studies show that repeated whole body exposure of individual volunteers, mainly Caucasians, to severe <span class="hlt">cold</span> results in reduced <span class="hlt">cold</span> sensation but no major physiological changes. Repeated <span class="hlt">cold</span> water immersion seems to slightly reduce metabolic heat production, while repeated exposure to milder <span class="hlt">cold</span> conditions shows some increase in metabolic heat production, in particular non-shivering thermogenesis. In conclusion, human <span class="hlt">cold</span> adaptation in the form of increased metabolism and insulation seems to have occurred during recent evolution in populations, but cannot be developed during a lifetime in <span class="hlt">cold</span> conditions as encountered in temperate and arctic <span class="hlt">regions</span>. Therefore, we mainly depend on our behavioral skills to live in and survive the <span class="hlt">cold</span>. PMID:27227100</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AdWR...70..172K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AdWR...70..172K"><span>Analytical solutions for benchmarking <span class="hlt">cold</span> <span class="hlt">regions</span> subsurface water flow and energy transport models: One-dimensional soil thaw with conduction and advection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kurylyk, Barret L.; McKenzie, Jeffrey M.; MacQuarrie, Kerry T. B.; Voss, Clifford I.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Numerous <span class="hlt">cold</span> <span class="hlt">regions</span> water flow and energy transport models have emerged in recent years. Dissimilarities often exist in their mathematical formulations and/or numerical solution techniques, but few analytical solutions exist for benchmarking flow and energy transport models that include pore water phase change. This paper presents a detailed derivation of the Lunardini solution, an approximate analytical solution for predicting soil thawing subject to conduction, advection, and phase change. Fifteen thawing scenarios are examined by considering differences in porosity, surface temperature, Darcy velocity, and initial temperature. The accuracy of the Lunardini solution is shown to be proportional to the Stefan number. The analytical solution results obtained for soil thawing scenarios with water flow and advection are compared to those obtained from the finite element model SUTRA. Three problems, two involving the Lunardini solution and one involving the classic Neumann solution, are recommended as standard benchmarks for future model development and testing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0309170814000992','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0309170814000992"><span>Analytical solutions for benchmarking <span class="hlt">cold</span> <span class="hlt">regions</span> subsurface water flow and energy transport models: one-dimensional soil thaw with conduction and advection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Kurylyk, Barret L.; McKenzie, Jeffrey M; MacQuarrie, Kerry T. B.; Voss, Clifford I.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Numerous <span class="hlt">cold</span> <span class="hlt">regions</span> water flow and energy transport models have emerged in recent years. Dissimilarities often exist in their mathematical formulations and/or numerical solution techniques, but few analytical solutions exist for benchmarking flow and energy transport models that include pore water phase change. This paper presents a detailed derivation of the Lunardini solution, an approximate analytical solution for predicting soil thawing subject to conduction, advection, and phase change. Fifteen thawing scenarios are examined by considering differences in porosity, surface temperature, Darcy velocity, and initial temperature. The accuracy of the Lunardini solution is shown to be proportional to the Stefan number. The analytical solution results obtained for soil thawing scenarios with water flow and advection are compared to those obtained from the finite element model SUTRA. Three problems, two involving the Lunardini solution and one involving the classic Neumann solution, are recommended as standard benchmarks for future model development and testing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20857729','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20857729"><span>Potential <span class="hlt">impact</span> of differential production of the Cry2Ab and Cry1Ac proteins in transgenic cotton in response to <span class="hlt">cold</span> stress.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Addison, Stewart J; Rogers, D John</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>Transgenic Bollgard II cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., expresses Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab proteins that provide control of lepidopteran larvae, including Helicoverpa and Heliothis species (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) worldwide. Experiments conducted at Katherine, Northern Territory, Australia evaluated the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of night minimum temperatures on Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab protein levels in Bollgard II cotton. In both 2003 and 2004, potted plants were either grown outside continuously or protected from <span class="hlt">cold</span> in a glasshouse each night. In 2003, bulked samples of leaves were taken after two periods of low minimum temperature and used to determine a <span class="hlt">cold</span>-stress threshold and critical period. In 2004, replicated samples were taken on 10 dates spanning five periods of low minimum temperature, allowing analysis of seasonal variation in Cry protein levels. The protein level was markedly higher for Cry2Ab than for Cry1Ac. Cry1Ac protein level peaked midseason and was not adversely affected by minimum temperatures down to 2.6 degrees C. The Cry2Ab protein level remained approximately constant but was reduced by low minimum temperatures (threshold, approximately 14 degrees C) for up to 6 d after each chill. The rate of Cry2Ab protein loss was 1.15 and 1.01% per chilling day-degree below threshold in 2003 and 2004, respectively. <span class="hlt">Impact</span> would seem to be negligible on both the overall efficacy against lepidopteran larvae in-crop and on the current pyramided genes/high-dose/refuge Bt resistance-management strategies because the <span class="hlt">cold</span>-stress effect is transient, a high level of Cry2Ab protein is still expressed, and there is no <span class="hlt">impact</span> of chilling on Cry1Ac protein level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23646133','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23646133"><span>End of the century pCO₂ levels do not <span class="hlt">impact</span> calcification in Mediterranean <span class="hlt">cold</span>-water corals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Maier, Cornelia; Schubert, Alexander; Berzunza Sànchez, Maria M; Weinbauer, Markus G; Watremez, Pierre; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Ocean acidification caused by anthropogenic uptake of CO₂ is perceived to be a major threat to calcifying organisms. <span class="hlt">Cold</span>-water corals were thought to be strongly affected by a decrease in ocean pH due to their abundance in deep and <span class="hlt">cold</span> waters which, in contrast to tropical coral reef waters, will soon become corrosive to calcium carbonate. Calcification rates of two Mediterranean <span class="hlt">cold</span>-water coral species, Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata, were measured under variable partial pressure of CO₂ (pCO₂) that ranged between 380 µatm for present-day conditions and 930 µatm for the end of the century. The present study addressed both short- and long-term responses by repeatedly determining calcification rates on the same specimens over a period of 9 months. Besides studying the direct, short-term response to elevated pCO₂ levels, the study aimed to elucidate the potential for acclimation of calcification of <span class="hlt">cold</span>-water corals to ocean acidification. Net calcification of both species was unaffected by the levels of pCO₂ investigated and revealed no short-term shock and, therefore, no long-term acclimation in calcification to changes in the carbonate chemistry. There was an effect of time during repeated experiments with increasing net calcification rates for both species, however, as this pattern was found in all treatments, there is no indication that acclimation of calcification to ocean acidification occurred. The use of controls (initial and ambient net calcification rates) indicated that this increase was not caused by acclimation in calcification response to higher pCO₂. An extrapolation of these data suggests that calcification of these two <span class="hlt">cold</span>-water corals will not be affected by the pCO₂ level projected at the end of the century.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3640017','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3640017"><span>End of the Century pCO2 Levels Do Not <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Calcification in Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Cold</span>-Water Corals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Maier, Cornelia; Schubert, Alexander; Berzunza Sànchez, Maria M.; Weinbauer, Markus G.; Watremez, Pierre; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Ocean acidification caused by anthropogenic uptake of CO2 is perceived to be a major threat to calcifying organisms. <span class="hlt">Cold</span>-water corals were thought to be strongly affected by a decrease in ocean pH due to their abundance in deep and <span class="hlt">cold</span> waters which, in contrast to tropical coral reef waters, will soon become corrosive to calcium carbonate. Calcification rates of two Mediterranean <span class="hlt">cold</span>-water coral species, Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata, were measured under variable partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) that ranged between 380 µatm for present-day conditions and 930 µatm for the end of the century. The present study addressed both short- and long-term responses by repeatedly determining calcification rates on the same specimens over a period of 9 months. Besides studying the direct, short-term response to elevated pCO2 levels, the study aimed to elucidate the potential for acclimation of calcification of <span class="hlt">cold</span>-water corals to ocean acidification. Net calcification of both species was unaffected by the levels of pCO2 investigated and revealed no short-term shock and, therefore, no long-term acclimation in calcification to changes in the carbonate chemistry. There was an effect of time during repeated experiments with increasing net calcification rates for both species, however, as this pattern was found in all treatments, there is no indication that acclimation of calcification to ocean acidification occurred. The use of controls (initial and ambient net calcification rates) indicated that this increase was not caused by acclimation in calcification response to higher pCO2. An extrapolation of these data suggests that calcification of these two <span class="hlt">cold</span>-water corals will not be affected by the pCO2 level projected at the end of the century. PMID:23646133</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20579236','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20579236"><span>Beyond the <span class="hlt">cold</span> hit: measuring the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the national DNA data bank on public safety at the city and county level.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gabriel, Matthew; Boland, Cherisse; Holt, Cydne</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Over the past decade, the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) has increased solvability of violent crimes by linking evidence DNA profiles to known offenders. At present, an in-depth analysis of the United States National DNA Data Bank effort has not assessed the success of this national public safety endeavor. Critics of this effort often focus on laboratory and police investigators unable to provide timely investigative support as a root cause(s) of CODIS' failure to increase public safety. By studying a group of nearly 200 DNA <span class="hlt">cold</span> hits obtained in SFPD criminal investigations from 2001-2006, three key performance metrics (Significance of <span class="hlt">Cold</span> Hits, Case Progression & Judicial Resolution, and Potential Reduction of Future Criminal Activity) provide a proper context in which to define the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of CODIS at the City and County level. Further, the analysis of a recidivist group of <span class="hlt">cold</span> hit offenders and their past interaction with law enforcement established five noteworthy criminal case resolution trends; these trends signify challenges to CODIS in achieving meaningful case resolutions. CODIS' effectiveness and critical activities to support case resolutions are the responsibility of all criminal justice partners in order to achieve long-lasting public safety within the United States.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/149802','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/149802"><span>Nuclear wastes in the arctic: An analysis of arctic and other <span class="hlt">regional</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> from Soviet nuclear contamination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-09-01</p> <p>One of the lasting legacies of the <span class="hlt">Cold</span> War, and the buildup in nuclear weaponry and military over the past 50 years, is nuclear waste and its threat to human health and the environment. Notable examples of waste dumped into the open environment have caused people and nations to demand information about what was done and what health risks may result. In 1993, disclosures about Russian dumping of submarine reactors, nuclear fuel, and other wastes into the Arctic and North Pacific Oceans brought this <span class="hlt">region</span> and its problems into the world spotlight. This report examines the environmental and human health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> from wastes dumped into the Arctic and North Pacific <span class="hlt">regions</span>, from nuclear contaminants discharged into these environments, and from radioactive releases from both past and future nuclear activities in the <span class="hlt">region</span>. The report presents what is known and unknown about this waste and contamination and how it may affect public health. It also stresses the need for a stable and enduring institutional framework and international cooperation for long-term observation and monitoring.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17630517','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17630517"><span><span class="hlt">Cold</span> injuries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kruse, R J</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>There are two categories of <span class="hlt">cold</span> injury. The first is hypothermia, which is a systemic injury to <span class="hlt">cold</span>, and the second is frostbite, which is a local injury. Throughout history, entire armies, from George Washington to the Germans on the Russian Front in World War II, have fallen prey to prolonged <span class="hlt">cold</span> exposure. <span class="hlt">Cold</span> injury is common and can occur in all seasons if ambient temperature is lower than the core body temperature. In the 1985 Boston Marathon, even though it was 76 degrees and sunny, there were 75 runners treated for hypothermia. In general, humans adapt poorly to <span class="hlt">cold</span> exposure. Children are at particular risk because of their relatively greater surface area/body mass ratio, causing them to cool even more rapidly than adults. Because of this, the human's best defense against <span class="hlt">cold</span> injury is to limit his/her exposure to <span class="hlt">cold</span> and to dress appropriately. If <span class="hlt">cold</span> injury has occurred and is mild, often simple passive rewarming such as dry blankets and a warm room are sufficient treatment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4264620','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4264620"><span>Genome-Wide Linkage and <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Association Study of Blood Pressure Response to the <span class="hlt">Cold</span> Pressor Test in Han Chinese: The GenSalt Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yang, Xueli; Gu, Dongfeng; He, Jiang; Hixson, James E.; Rao, Dabeeru C.; Lu, Fanghong; Mu, Jianjun; Jaquish, Cashell E.; Chen, Jing; Huang, Jianfeng; Shimmin, Lawrence C.; Rice, Treva K.; Chen, Jichun; Wu, Xigui; Liu, Depei; Kelly, Tanika N.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background Blood pressure (BP) response to <span class="hlt">cold</span> pressor test (CPT) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We performed a genome-wide linkage scan and <span class="hlt">regional</span> association analysis to identify genetic determinants of BP response to CPT. Methods and Results A total of 1,961 Chinese participants completed the CPT. Multipoint quantitative trait linkage analysis was performed, followed by single-marker and gene-based analyses of variants in promising linkage <span class="hlt">regions</span> (logarithm of odds, LOD ≥ 2). A suggestive linkage signal was identified for systolic BP (SBP) response to CPT at 20p13-20p12.3, with a maximum multipoint LOD score of 2.37. Based on <span class="hlt">regional</span> association analysis with 1,351 SNPs in the linkage <span class="hlt">region</span>, we found that marker rs2326373 at 20p13 was significantly associated with mean arterial pressure (MAP) responses to CPT (P = 8.8×10−6) after FDR adjustment for multiple comparisons. A similar trend was also observed for SBP response (P = 0.03) and DBP response (P = 4.6×10−5). Results of gene-based analyses showed that variants in genes MCM8 and SLC23A2 were associated with SBP response to CPT (P = 4.0×10−5 and 2.7×10−4, respectively), and variants in genes MCM8 and STK35 were associated with MAP response to CPT (P = 1.5×10−5 and 5.0×10−5, respectively). Conclusions Within a suggestive linkage <span class="hlt">region</span> on chromosome 20, we identified a novel variant associated with BP responses to CPT. We also found gene-based associations of MCM8, SLC23A2 and STK35 in this <span class="hlt">region</span>. Further work is warranted to confirm these findings. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT00721721. PMID:25028485</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A32E..08A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A32E..08A"><span><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Irrigation Development on <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Rainfall in Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alter, R. E.; IM, E. S.; Eltahir, E. A. B.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Potential modification of <span class="hlt">regional</span> rainfall by large-scale cropland irrigation has been investigated in several <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the world. In particular, <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate simulations over West Africa indicate that hypothetical large-scale irrigation schemes reduce rainfall over the irrigated areas but enhance rainfall remotely. However, these theoretical results cannot be substantiated without direct comparison to observations. We therefore conducted two complementary analyses over an actual, large-scale irrigation scheme in Africa: numerical simulations using a <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate model, and observational analyses using several surface-based and satellite-derived datasets. For the observational analyses, we analyzed spatial and temporal patterns of both rainfall and air temperature in and around the irrigated area. For the numerical simulations, we examined multiple variables that contribute to an improved understanding of the mechanistic pathway between irrigation and rainfall modification. The results of both the simulations and observational analysis will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A32E..08A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A32E..08A"><span><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Irrigation Development on <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Rainfall in Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alter, R. E.; IM, E. S.; Eltahir, E. A. B.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Potential modification of <span class="hlt">regional</span> rainfall by large-scale cropland irrigation has been investigated in several <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the world. In particular, <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate simulations over West Africa indicate that hypothetical large-scale irrigation schemes reduce rainfall over the irrigated areas but enhance rainfall remotely. However, these theoretical results cannot be substantiated without direct comparison to observations. We therefore conducted two complementary analyses over an actual, large-scale irrigation scheme in Africa: numerical simulations using a <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate model, and observational analyses using several surface-based and satellite-derived datasets. For the observational analyses, we analyzed spatial and temporal patterns of both rainfall and air temperature in and around the irrigated area. For the numerical simulations, we examined multiple variables that contribute to an improved understanding of the mechanistic pathway between irrigation and rainfall modification. The results of both the simulations and observational analysis will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=295040','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=295040"><span>Bioenergy feedstock development scenarios & potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on <span class="hlt">regional</span> groundwater withdrawals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Availability of ample groundwater supplies for irrigation can increase the productive potential of agricultural landscapes; however, excessive withdrawals threaten sustainable use, and shortages could be exacerbated by drier future conditions in some <span class="hlt">regions</span>. Throughout the North American Great Pla...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ThApC.111..437Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ThApC.111..437Z"><span>Volcanoes and ENSO in millennium simulations: global <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and <span class="hlt">regional</span> reconstructions in East Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Dan; Blender, Richard; Fraedrich, Klaus</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and cooperative effects of volcanic eruptions and ENSO (El Niño/Southern Oscillation) are analyzed in a millennium simulation for 800-2005 AD using the earth system model (ESM) ECHAM5/MPIOM/JSBACH subject to anthropogenic and natural forcings. The simulation comprises two ensembles, a first with weak (E1, five members) and a second with strong (E2, three members) variability total solar irradiance. In the analysis, the 21 most intense eruptions are selected in each ensemble member. Volcanoes with neutral ENSO states during two preceding winters cause a global cooling in the year after eruptions up to -2.5°C. The nonsignificant positive values in the tropical Pacific Ocean indicate an El Niño-like warming. In the winter after an eruption, warming is mainly found in the Arctic Ocean and the Bering Sea in E2 warming extends to Siberia and central Asia. The recovery times for the volcano-induced cooling (average for 31 eruptions) vary globally between 1 and 12 years. There is no significant increase of El Niño events after volcanic eruptions in both ensembles. The simulated temperature and the drought indices are compared with corresponding reconstructions in East Asia. Volcanoes cause a dramatic cooling in west China (-2°C) and a drought in East China during the year after the eruption. The reconstructions show similar cooling patterns with smaller magnitudes and confirm the dryness in East China. Without volcanoes, El Niño events reduce summer precipitation in the North, while South China becomes wetter; La Niña events cause opposite effects. El Niño events in the winters after eruptions compensate the cooling caused by volcanoes in most <span class="hlt">regions</span> of China (consistent with reconstructions), while La Niña events intensify the cooling (up to -2.5°C). The simulated and reconstructed drought indices show tripole patterns which are altered by El Niño events. The simulated <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the Tambora eruption in 1815, which caused the "year without summer</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19564989','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19564989"><span>Economic <span class="hlt">impact</span> of pharmacy graduates on a <span class="hlt">regional</span> economy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Friesner, Dan; Rosenman, Robert; Bozman, Carl S</p> <p>2009-05-27</p> <p>To analyze the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of recent pharmacy graduates on a local economy. Input-output analysis was applied to data from Spokane County, Washington, in 2006 and the findings were reviewed and conclusions were drawn. The local college of pharmacy added nearly $1 million (in 2006) directly to the local economy. New pharmacists added nearly $400,000 in direct value. However, because the graduates alleviated a shortage of pharmacists in the area, thereby avoiding both the tangible and intangible (eg, human health) economic costs of a continued shortage, the true economic <span class="hlt">impact</span> may have been even greater. Doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) graduates entering the workforce add substantial value, both to the local retail pharmacy industry specifically and the local economy in general. Thus, the economic <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the pharmacy practice program training these students is also substantial.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2701241','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2701241"><span>Economic <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Pharmacy Graduates on a <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Economy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rosenman, Robert; Bozman, Carl S.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Objectives To analyze the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of recent pharmacy graduates on a local economy. Methods Input-output analysis was applied to data from Spokane County, Washington, in 2006 and the findings were reviewed and conclusions were drawn. Results The local college of pharmacy added nearly $1 million (in 2006) directly to the local economy. New pharmacists added nearly $400,000 in direct value. However, because the graduates alleviated a shortage of pharmacists in the area, thereby avoiding both the tangible and intangible (eg, human health) economic costs of a continued shortage, the true economic <span class="hlt">impact</span> may have been even greater. Conclusions Doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) graduates entering the workforce add substantial value, both to the local retail pharmacy industry specifically and the local economy in general. Thus, the economic <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the pharmacy practice program training these students is also substantial. PMID:19564989</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=343795','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=343795"><span>From chemicals to <span class="hlt">cold</span> plasma: Non-thermal food processing technologies research at the USDA's Eastern <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Research Center</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Foodborne pathogens cause millions of illnesses every year. At the US Department of Agriculture’s Eastern <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Research Center, scientists and engineers have focused on developing new ways to improve food safety and shelf life while retaining quality and nutritional value. A variety of technolog...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT........71H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT........71H"><span>Investigating the performance and energy saving potential of Chinese commercial building benchmark models for the hot humid and severe <span class="hlt">cold</span> climate <span class="hlt">regions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Herrmann, Lesley Anne</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The demand for energy in China is growing at an alarming rate. Buildings have become a significant component of the energy-demand mix accounting for nearly one-quarter of the country's total primary energy consumption. This study compares the building code standards for office and hotel buildings in the hot humid and severe <span class="hlt">cold</span> climate <span class="hlt">regions</span> of China and the United States. Benchmark office and hotel building models have been developed for Guangzhou and Harbin, China that meets China's minimum national and <span class="hlt">regional</span> building energy codes with the integration of common design and construction practices for each <span class="hlt">region</span>. These models are compared to the ASHRAE standard based US reference building models for Houston, Texas and Duluth, Minnesota which have similar climate conditions. The research further uses a building energy optimization tool to optimize the Chinese benchmarks using existing US products to identify the primary areas for potential energy savings. In the case of the Harbin models, an economic analysis has also been performed to determine the economic feasibility of alternative building designs. The most significant energy-saving options are then presented as recommendations for potential improvements to current China building energy codes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJCMS...450002K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJCMS...450002K"><span>Two-dimensional finite difference model to study temperature distribution in SST <span class="hlt">regions</span> of human limbs immediately after physical exercise in <span class="hlt">cold</span> climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kumari, Babita; Adlakha, Neeru</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Thermoregulation is a complex mechanism regulating heat production within the body (chemical thermoregulation) and heat exchange between the body and the environment (physical thermoregulation) in such a way that the heat exchange is balanced and deep body temperatures are relatively stable. The external heat transfer mechanisms are radiation, conduction, convection and evaporation. The physical activity causes thermal stress and poses challenges for this thermoregulation. In this paper, a model has been developed to study temperature distribution in SST <span class="hlt">regions</span> of human limbs immediately after physical exercise under <span class="hlt">cold</span> climate. It is assumed that the subject is doing exercise initially and comes to rest at time t = 0. The human limb is assumed to be of cylindrical shape. The peripheral <span class="hlt">region</span> of limb is divided into three natural components namely epidermis, dermis and subdermal tissues (SST). Appropriate boundary conditions have been framed based on the physical conditions of the problem. Finite difference has been employed for time, radial and angular variables. The numerical results have been used to obtain temperature profiles in the SST <span class="hlt">region</span> immediately after continuous exercise for a two-dimensional unsteady state case. The results have been used to analyze the thermal stress in relation to light, moderate and vigorous intensity exercise.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5496480','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5496480"><span>Global characteristics of the <span class="hlt">cold</span> plasma in the equatorial plasmapause <span class="hlt">region</span> as deduced from the geos 1 mutual impedance probe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Decreu, P.M.E.; Beghin, C.; Parrot, M.</p> <p>1982-02-01</p> <p>Thermal plasma parameters derived by the muntal impedance experiment on GEOS are described. The experiment is well suited to the measurement of the electron density and temperature of the outer plasmasphere (when kT/sub e//N/sub e/<1.6 eV/cm/sup 3/). This investigation of the whole set of data supplied by GEOS 1 (4<L<8, 0000--2400 MLT) covers three main <span class="hlt">regions</span>: the plasmasphere, an intermediate <span class="hlt">region</span> of ionospheric refilling, and the plasma trough. In the plasmasphere, we observe profiles with N/sub e/proportionalL/sup -4/, while T/sub e/ stands around 10,000 /sup 0/K or less. The intermediate <span class="hlt">region</span>, situated next to the plasmasphere and above it, is always present in the day sector, where the ionospheric source plays a leading part. In that zone, the plasma parameters, poorly known up to now, exhibit N/sub e/ values approx.2 to 20 cm/sup -3/, together with T/sub e/ values of 20,000 /sup 0/K on the average, dispersed over a 5,000 to 100,000 /sup 0/K range during disturbances. In the night sector, the intermediate <span class="hlt">region</span> is seen only during the recovery phase. The <span class="hlt">region</span> of depleted density is observed at the higher L values in the night and morning MTL sectors. There, plasmas out of Maxwellian equilibrium are seen under disturbed conditions. The dynamic response of the thermal plasma parameters to temporal variations of the a/sub m/ index of magnetic activity follows a known scenario as concerns N/sub e/, making apparent a night-to-day, MTL dependent time delay. As concerns T/sub e/, the dynamical study reveals striking features, such as the persistance of the T/sub e/ modifications into the dusk sector, the interpretation of which remains to be clarified.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A11F0156L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A11F0156L"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Low-level Jet on <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Ozone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, F.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>During spring and summer seasons, the frequent occurrences of nocturnal low-level jet (LLJ) over Great Plains <span class="hlt">region</span> of the United States are widely recognized. As an important element of the low-level atmospheric circulation this LLJ effectively transports water vapor from the Gulf of Mexico, which in turn affects the development of server weather over the central United States. The LLJ has long been known to be conducive to summer rainfall and widespread flooding over the Great Plains of North America. The LLJ transports more than just moisture. Ozone episodes occur mainly during summer and are influenced by <span class="hlt">regional</span> transport. Little is known, however,about the interrelation between the Great Plains LLJ and <span class="hlt">regional</span> ozone transport. In this study, analysis of observational data during 1993-2006 has shown strong influence of the Great Plains LLJ on local and <span class="hlt">regional</span> ozone distributions. Hourly ozone measurements from Air Quality System (AQS) are compared with wind fields at 850 hPa from the NCEP North American <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Reanalysis (NARR). It is demonstrated that the low ozone concentrations over Texas in late spring and summer are identified with large LLJ transport of clean marine air mass from the Gulf of Mexico. Significant negative correlations exist between daily ozone concentration and LLJ index (Figure 1), suggesting that lower ozone over Texas is associated with stronger LLJ. On the other hand, positive correlations occur in the Midwest and Northeast, indicating the important role of <span class="hlt">regional</span> transport of ozone and precursors along the pathway by the wind circulation accompanying the LLJ. In addition, the LLJ is significantly correlated with northerly flows in the eastern Pacific Ocean and the adjacent coast. This relationship explains the coexistence of low ozone concentrations in Texas and southwestern U.S during summer, both attributed to the inland transport of clean marine air. These observed ozone-LLJ patterns are well simulated by the <span class="hlt">regional</span> CMM5</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=301085','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=301085"><span>Winter cover crops <span class="hlt">impact</span> on corn production in semiarid <span class="hlt">regions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Cover crops have been proposed as a technique to increase soil health. This study examined the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of winter brassica cover crop cocktails grown after wheat (Triticum aestivum) on corn yields; corn yield losses due to water and N stress; soil bacteria to fungi ratios; mycorrhizal markers; and ge...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18200932','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18200932"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of underestimating the effects of <span class="hlt">cold</span> temperature on motor vehicle start emissions of air toxics in the United States.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cook, Richard; Touma, Jawad S; Fernandez, Antonio; Brzezinski, David; Bailey, Chad; Scarbro, Carl; Thurman, James; Strum, Madeleine; Ensley, Darrell; Baldauf, Richard</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Analyses of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certification data, California Air Resources Board surveillance testing data, and EPA research testing data indicated that EPA's MOBILE6.2 emission factor model substantially underestimates emissions of gaseous air toxics occurring during vehicle starts at <span class="hlt">cold</span> temperatures for light-duty vehicles and trucks meeting EPA Tier 1 and later standards. An unofficial version of the MOBILE6.2 model was created to account for these underestimates. When this unofficial version of the model was used to project emissions into the future, emissions increased by almost 100% by calendar year 2030, and estimated modeled ambient air toxics concentrations increased by 6-84%, depending on the pollutant. To address these elevated emissions, EPA recently finalized standards requiring reductions of emissions when engines start at <span class="hlt">cold</span> temperatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730002577','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730002577"><span>Artic and subarctic environmental analyses utilizing ERTS-1 imagery. <span class="hlt">Cold</span> <span class="hlt">regions</span> environmental analysis based on ERTS-1 imagery (preprint)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Anderson, D. M. (Principal Investigator); Haugen, R. K.; Gatto, L. W.; Slaughter, C. W.; Marlar, T. L.; Mckim, H. L.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>There are no author-identified significant results in this report. An overriding problem in arctic and subarctic environmental research has been the absence of long-term observational data and the sparseness of geographical coverage of existing data. A first look report is presented on the use of ERTS-1 imagery as a major tool in two large area environmental studies: (1) investigation of sedimentation and other nearshore marine processes in Cook Inlet, Alaska; and (2) a <span class="hlt">regional</span> study of permafrost regimes in the discontinuous permafrost zone of Alaska. These studies incorporate ground truth acquisition techniques that are probably similar to most ERTS investigations. Studies of oceanographic processes in Cook Inlet will be focused on seasonal changes in nearshore bathymetry, tidal and major current circulation patterns, and coastal sedimentation processes, applicable to navigation, construction, and maintenance of harbors. Analyses will be made of the <span class="hlt">regional</span> permafrost distribution and regimes in the Upper Koyukuk-Kobuk River area located in NW Alaska.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.B22B..07G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.B22B..07G"><span>Anticipated Consequences of Increasing Temperature and Ocean Acidification on <span class="hlt">Cold</span>-Water Coral Reefs and Options for Managing <span class="hlt">Impacts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guinotte, J. M.; Thresher, R.; Matear, R.; Hobday, A. J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The deep sea hosts some of the world's largest, oldest, and most sensitive ecosystems. Climate change and ocean acidification are likely to have severe implications for many deep-sea ecosystems and communities, but what, if anything, can be done to mitigate these threats is poorly understood. This presentation will focus on: the climate related threats <span class="hlt">cold</span>-water coral reef ecosystems face in the coming decades, the current state of knowledge regarding reef-forming <span class="hlt">cold</span> water coral species responses to increasing temperature and ocean acidification, and conclusions reached by an expert panel tasked with prioritizing management options for legislatively protected <span class="hlt">cold</span>-water coral reefs off southeast Australia that are likely to be severely degraded within decades due to climate change. The panel explored seventeen possible options spanning biological, engineering and regulatory domains that differed widely in perceived costs, benefits, time to implementation, and risks. In the short term, the highest priority identified was the need to urgently locate and protect sites globally that are, or will become, refugia areas for the coral and its associated community as climate change progresses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4383303','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4383303"><span>Postexercise <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Ice-<span class="hlt">Cold</span> Water Bath on the Oxidant-Antioxidant Balance in Healthy Men</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Boraczyński, Tomasz; Boraczyński, Michał</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The aim of the study was to determine the effect of a 5 min head-out ice-<span class="hlt">cold</span> water bath on the oxidant-antioxidant balance in response to exercise. The crossover study included the subjects (n = 24; aged 28.7 ± 7.3 years) who performed two identical stationary cycling bouts for 30 min and recovered for 10 min at room temperature (RT = 20°C; session 1) or in a pool with ice-<span class="hlt">cold</span> water (ICW = 3°C, 5 min immersion; session 2). The concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in blood plasma (TBARSpl) and erythrocytes (TBARSer) and the erythrocytic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured three times during each of the two study sessions: before the exercise (baseline) and 20 and 40 min after the appropriate recovery session. Lower concentration of TBARSpl 40 min after postexercise recovery in ICW was revealed as compared with that after recovery at RT (P < 0.05). Moreover, a statistically significant postexercise increase in the TBARSpl and TBARSer concentrations was found (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, resp.). A short-term ice-<span class="hlt">cold</span> water bath decreases postexercise lipid peroxidation. PMID:25866803</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25236191','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25236191"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of <span class="hlt">cold</span> storage and ethylene on volatile ester production and aroma perception in 'Hort16A' kiwifruit.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Günther, Catrin S; Marsh, Ken B; Winz, Robert A; Harker, Roger F; Wohlers, Mark W; White, Anne; Goddard, Matthew R</p> <p>2015-02-15</p> <p>Fruit esters are regarded as key volatiles for fruit aroma. In this study, the effects of <span class="hlt">cold</span> storage on volatile ester levels of 'Hort16A' (Actinidia chinensis Planch. var chinensis) kiwifruit were examined and the changes in aroma perception investigated. <span class="hlt">Cold</span> storage (1.5°C) for two or four months of fruit matched for firmness and soluble solids concentration resulted in a significant reduction in aroma-related esters such as methyl/ethyl propanoate, methyl/ethyl butanoate and methyl/ethyl hexanoate. Levels of these esters, however, were restored by ethylene treatment (100ppm, 24h) before ripening. A sensory panel found that "tropical" and "fruit candy" aroma was stronger and "green" odour notes less intensively perceived in kiwifruit which were ethylene-treated after <span class="hlt">cold</span> storage compared to untreated fruit. The key findings presented in this study may lead to further work on the ethylene pathway, and innovative storage and marketing solutions for current and novel fruit cultivars.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1910983C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1910983C"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of lateral boundary conditions on <span class="hlt">regional</span> analyses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chikhar, Kamel; Gauthier, Pierre</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Regional</span> and global climate models are usually validated by comparison to derived observations or reanalyses. Using a model in data assimilation results in a direct comparison to observations to produce its own analyses that may reveal systematic errors. In this study, <span class="hlt">regional</span> analyses over North America are produced based on the fifth-generation Canadian <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Climate Model (CRCM5) combined with the variational data assimilation system of the Meteorological Service of Canada (MSC). CRCM5 is driven at its boundaries by global analyses from ERA-interim or produced with the global configuration of the CRCM5. Assimilation cycles for the months of January and July 2011 revealed systematic errors in winter through large values in the mean analysis increments. This bias is attributed to the coupling of the lateral boundary conditions of the <span class="hlt">regional</span> model with the driving data particularly over the northern boundary where a rapidly changing large scale circulation created significant cross-boundary flows. Increasing the time frequency of the lateral driving and applying a large-scale spectral nudging improved significantly the circulation through the lateral boundaries which translated in a much better agreement with observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24013092','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24013092"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of <span class="hlt">cold</span> acclimation and hibernation on antioxidant defenses in the ground squirrel (Spermophilus citellus): an update.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vucetic, Milica; Stancic, Ana; Otasevic, Vesna; Jankovic, Aleksandra; Korac, Aleksandra; Markelic, Milica; Velickovic, Ksenija; Golic, Igor; Buzadzic, Biljana; Storey, Kenneth B; Korac, Bato</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Any alteration in oxidative metabolism is coupled with a corresponding response by an antioxidant defense (AD) in appropriate subcellular compartments. Seasonal hibernators pass through circannual metabolic adaptations that allow them to either maintain euthermy (<span class="hlt">cold</span> acclimation) or enter winter torpor with body temperature falling to low values. The present study aimed to investigate the corresponding pattern of AD enzyme protein expressions associated with these strategies in the main tissues involved in whole animal energy homeostasis: brown and white adipose tissues (BAT and WAT, respectively), liver, and skeletal muscle. European ground squirrels (Spermophilus citellus) were exposed to low temperature (4 ± 1 °C) and then divided into two groups: (1) animals fell into torpor (hibernating group) and (2) animals stayed active and euthermic for 1, 3, 7, 12, or 21 days (<span class="hlt">cold</span>-exposed group). We examined the effects of <span class="hlt">cold</span> acclimation and hibernation on the tissue-dependent protein expression of four enzymes which catalyze the two-step detoxification of superoxide to water: superoxide dismutase 1 and 2 (SOD 1 and 2), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). The results showed that hibernation induced an increase of AD enzyme protein expressions in BAT and skeletal muscle. However, AD enzyme contents in liver were largely unaffected during torpor. Under these conditions, different WAT depots responded by elevating the amounts of specific enzymes, as follows: SOD 1 in retroperitoneal WAT, GSH-Px in gonadal WAT, and CAT in subcutaneous WAT. Similar perturbations of AD enzymes contents were seen in all tissues during <span class="hlt">cold</span> acclimation, often in a time-dependent manner. It can be concluded that BAT and muscle AD capacity undergo the most dramatic changes during both <span class="hlt">cold</span> acclimation and hibernation, while liver is relatively unaffected by either condition. Additionally, this study provides a basis for further metabolic study that will illuminate the causes</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SSEle.125..133L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SSEle.125..133L"><span>EDMOS in ultrathin FDSOI: <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of the drift <span class="hlt">region</span> properties</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Litty, Antoine; Ortolland, Sylvie; Golanski, Dominique; Dutto, Christian; Cristoloveanu, Sorin</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The development of high-voltage MOSFET (HVMOS) is necessary for including power management or radiofrequency functionalities in CMOS technology. In this paper, we investigate the fabrication and optimization of an Extended Drain MOSFET (EDMOS) directly integrated in the ultra-thin SOI film (7 nm) of the 28 nm FDSOI CMOS technology node. Thanks to TCAD simulations, we analyse in detail the device behaviour as a function of the doping level and length of the drift <span class="hlt">region</span>. The influence of the back-plane doping type and of the back-biasing schemes is discussed. DC measurements of fabricated EDMOS samples reveal promising performances in particular in terms of specific on-resistance versus breakdown voltage trade-off. The experimental results indicate that, even in an ultrathin film, the engineering of the drift <span class="hlt">region</span> could be a lever to obtain integrated HVMOS (3.3-5 V).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A33D0187B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A33D0187B"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of mineral dust on <span class="hlt">regional</span> tropical circulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bangalath, H.; Stenchikov, G. L.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Dust aerosols from the West Asian and African subtropical deserts likely play an important role in <span class="hlt">regional</span> low-latitude circulation patterns. These aerosols both absorb solar and terrestrial radiation and reflect solar radiation and therefore both cool the surface and warm the lower troposphere. Since the distribution of dust is spatially non-uniform, its cooling/heating effect could significantly disturb <span class="hlt">regional</span> temperature and pressure fields and affect tropical circulation patterns, including the Hadley and Walker Cells, as well as the Monsoon Circulation. Here, we investigate the direct radiative effect of desert dust on the circulation over the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and South Asia <span class="hlt">regions</span> using the high-resolution atmospheric general circulation model (HiRAM) developed at the NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory. We conducted simulations with and without dust aerosols with a spatial resolution of 25 km globally, which allowed investigation of the <span class="hlt">regional</span> features of the tropical circulations and their interactions with global-scale processes. Our analysis of the 200 hPa velocity potential indicated that mineral dust increased the strength of the Hadley Cell. In general, the Hadley, Walker, and Monsoon circulations over the African continent and East Atlantic were intensified by the dust effect, whereas we observed the opposite response over the Pacific. An anomalous strengthening of the wind convergence at the northern border of the Hadley cell over the African continent and in the East Atlantic, especially in the summer, became evident from our simulations. We found that dust aerosols play an important role in the formation of the climate and circulation regimes over MENA and South Asia, suggesting that they should be accounted for in future climate projections.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A51G3117F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A51G3117F"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Variable-Resolution Meshes on <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Climate Simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fowler, L. D.; Skamarock, W. C.; Bruyere, C. L.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS) is currently being used for seasonal-scale simulations on globally-uniform and <span class="hlt">regionally</span>-refined meshes. Our ongoing research aims at analyzing simulations of tropical convective activity and tropical cyclone development during one hurricane season over the North Atlantic Ocean, contrasting statistics obtained with a variable-resolution mesh against those obtained with a quasi-uniform mesh. Analyses focus on the spatial distribution, frequency, and intensity of convective and grid-scale precipitations, and their relative contributions to the total precipitation as a function of the horizontal scale. Multi-month simulations initialized on May 1st 2005 using ERA-Interim re-analyses indicate that MPAS performs satisfactorily as a <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate model for different combinations of horizontal resolutions and transitions between the coarse and refined meshes. Results highlight seamless transitions for convection, cloud microphysics, radiation, and land-surface processes between the quasi-uniform and locally- refined meshes, despite the fact that the physics parameterizations were not developed for variable resolution meshes. Our goal of analyzing the performance of MPAS is twofold. First, we want to establish that MPAS can be successfully used as a <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate model, bypassing the need for nesting and nudging techniques at the edges of the computational domain as done in traditional <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate modeling. Second, we want to assess the performance of our convective and cloud microphysics parameterizations as the horizontal resolution varies between the lower-resolution quasi-uniform and higher-resolution locally-refined areas of the global domain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A42D..05F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A42D..05F"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Variable-Resolution Meshes on <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Climate Simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fowler, L. D.; Skamarock, W. C.; Bruyere, C. L.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS) is currently being used for seasonal-scale simulations on globally-uniform and <span class="hlt">regionally</span>-refined meshes. Our ongoing research aims at analyzing simulations of tropical convective activity and tropical cyclone development during one hurricane season over the North Atlantic Ocean, contrasting statistics obtained with a variable-resolution mesh against those obtained with a quasi-uniform mesh. Analyses focus on the spatial distribution, frequency, and intensity of convective and grid-scale precipitations, and their relative contributions to the total precipitation as a function of the horizontal scale. Multi-month simulations initialized on May 1st 2005 using NCEP/NCAR re-analyses indicate that MPAS performs satisfactorily as a <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate model for different combinations of horizontal resolutions and transitions between the coarse and refined meshes. Results highlight seamless transitions for convection, cloud microphysics, radiation, and land-surface processes between the quasi-uniform and locally-refined meshes, despite the fact that the physics parameterizations were not developed for variable resolution meshes. Our goal of analyzing the performance of MPAS is twofold. First, we want to establish that MPAS can be successfully used as a <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate model, bypassing the need for nesting and nudging techniques at the edges of the computational domain as done in traditional <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate modeling. Second, we want to assess the performance of our convective and cloud microphysics parameterizations as the horizontal resolution varies between the lower-resolution quasi-uniform and higher-resolution locally-refined areas of the global domain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA589026','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA589026"><span>Sino-Myanmar Nexus: <span class="hlt">Regional</span> <span class="hlt">Impact</span> and US Strategy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Chinese influence over Myanmar and the <span class="hlt">region</span>. The concern of the US over Myanmar’s military cooperation with North Korea for acquiring missile and nuclear ...transgressions, and unpredictability on a range of significant challenges including North Korea , Iran , Afghanistan, the South China Sea, and freedom of...military cooperation with North Korea , and arms and drug trafficking as bargaining chips prior to implementing any decision that benefits Myanmar</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110004366','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110004366"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of AIRS Thermodynamic Profile on <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Weather Forecast</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chou, Shih-Hung; Zavodsky, Brad; Jedlovee, Gary</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Prudent assimilation of AIRS thermodynamic profiles and quality indicators can improve initial conditions for <span class="hlt">regional</span> weather models. AIRS-enhanced analysis has warmer and moister PBL. Forecasts with AIRS profiles are generally closer to NAM analyses than CNTL. Assimilation of AIRS leads to an overall QPF improvement in 6-h accumulated precipitation forecasts. Including AIRS profiles in assimilation process enhances the moist instability and produces stronger updrafts and a better precipitation forecast than the CNTL run.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26597577','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26597577"><span>Effectiveness of <span class="hlt">cold</span> therapy in reducing pain, trismus, and oedema after <span class="hlt">impacted</span> mandibular third molar surgery: a randomized, self-controlled, observer-blind, split-mouth clinical trial.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zandi, M; Amini, P; Keshavarz, A</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Cold</span> therapy is a conventional and widely used modality for reducing pain, trismus, and oedema after dentoalveolar surgeries. However, information reported in the literature on its effectiveness is insufficient and controversial. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of local <span class="hlt">cold</span> application in reducing pain, trismus, and swelling after <span class="hlt">impacted</span> mandibular third molar surgery. Thirty patients (seven males and 23 females) with bilateral symmetrical mandibular <span class="hlt">impacted</span> third molars were enrolled in this randomized, self-controlled, observer-blind clinical trial. The patients were aged between 18 and 30 years. After surgical removal of the tooth on one side (intervention), ice pack therapy was given for 24h after surgery; for the other side (control), no <span class="hlt">cold</span> therapy was given. The time interval between the two surgeries was at least 4 weeks. The amount of pain, trismus, and facial swelling was measured on days 2 and 7 postoperative, and patient satisfaction with the <span class="hlt">cold</span> therapy vs. no <span class="hlt">cold</span> therapy was assessed. The amount of pain, trismus, and facial swelling, and the extent of patient satisfaction were not significantly different between the intervention and control sides. <span class="hlt">Cold</span> therapy had no beneficial effects on postoperative sequelae after <span class="hlt">impacted</span> mandibular third molar surgery.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017APJAS..53...51K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017APJAS..53...51K"><span>Multiple aspects of northern hemispheric wintertime <span class="hlt">cold</span> extremes as revealed by Markov chain analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Hye-Sil; Choi, Yong-Sang; Kim, Joo-Hong; Kim, WonMoo</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>High-<span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">cold</span> extremes have continued to bring devastating socioeconomic losses in recent years. In order to explain the exposure to <span class="hlt">cold</span> extremes more comprehensively, this study investigates multiple aspects of boreal winter <span class="hlt">cold</span> extremes, i.e., frequency, persistence, and entropy (Markovian descriptors). <span class="hlt">Cold</span> extremes are defined by the bottom 10th percentile of daily minimum temperatures during 1950-2014 over the northern hemisphere. The spatial and temporal distributions of Markovian descriptors during 65 years are examined. Climatological mean fields show the spatial coincidence of higher frequency, shorter persistence, and higher entropy of <span class="hlt">cold</span> extremes, and vice versa. In regard to the temporal variations over six representative <span class="hlt">regions</span> of North America, Europe, and Asia, all <span class="hlt">regions</span> share a decreasing tendency of frequency with the increases in <span class="hlt">regional</span> winter mean temperature. By contrast, persistence and entropy show their intrinsic decadal variability depending on <span class="hlt">regions</span> irrespective of the <span class="hlt">regional</span> temperature variability, which give different information from frequency. Therefore, the exposure to <span class="hlt">cold</span> extremes would not simply decrease with <span class="hlt">regional</span> warming. Rather these results indicate that the descriptors with multiple aspects of the extremes would be needed to embrace the topical features as well as the holistic nature of <span class="hlt">cold</span> extremes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005Natur.438..310P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005Natur.438..310P"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate change on human health</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Patz, Jonathan A.; Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Holloway, Tracey; Foley, Jonathan A.</p> <p>2005-11-01</p> <p>The World Health Organisation estimates that the warming and precipitation trends due to anthropogenic climate change of the past 30years already claim over 150,000 lives annually. Many prevalent human diseases are linked to climate fluctuations, from cardiovascular mortality and respiratory illnesses due to heatwaves, to altered transmission of infectious diseases and malnutrition from crop failures. Uncertainty remains in attributing the expansion or resurgence of diseases to climate change, owing to lack of long-term, high-quality data sets as well as the large influence of socio-economic factors and changes in immunity and drug resistance. Here we review the growing evidence that climate-health relationships pose increasing health risks under future projections of climate change and that the warming trend over recent decades has already contributed to increased morbidity and mortality in many <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the world. Potentially vulnerable <span class="hlt">regions</span> include the temperate latitudes, which are projected to warm disproportionately, the <span class="hlt">regions</span> around the Pacific and Indian oceans that are currently subjected to large rainfall variability due to the El Niño/Southern Oscillation sub-Saharan Africa and sprawling cities where the urban heat island effect could intensify extreme climatic events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16292302','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16292302"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate change on human health.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Patz, Jonathan A; Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Holloway, Tracey; Foley, Jonathan A</p> <p>2005-11-17</p> <p>The World Health Organisation estimates that the warming and precipitation trends due to anthropogenic climate change of the past 30 years already claim over 150,000 lives annually. Many prevalent human diseases are linked to climate fluctuations, from cardiovascular mortality and respiratory illnesses due to heatwaves, to altered transmission of infectious diseases and malnutrition from crop failures. Uncertainty remains in attributing the expansion or resurgence of diseases to climate change, owing to lack of long-term, high-quality data sets as well as the large influence of socio-economic factors and changes in immunity and drug resistance. Here we review the growing evidence that climate-health relationships pose increasing health risks under future projections of climate change and that the warming trend over recent decades has already contributed to increased morbidity and mortality in many <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the world. Potentially vulnerable <span class="hlt">regions</span> include the temperate latitudes, which are projected to warm disproportionately, the <span class="hlt">regions</span> around the Pacific and Indian oceans that are currently subjected to large rainfall variability due to the El Niño/Southern Oscillation sub-Saharan Africa and sprawling cities where the urban heat island effect could intensify extreme climatic events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940007689&hterms=smit&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAuthor-Name%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dsmit','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940007689&hterms=smit&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAuthor-Name%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dsmit"><span>KT boundary <span class="hlt">impact</span> glasses from the Gulf of Mexico <span class="hlt">region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Claeys, Philippe; Alvarez, Walter; Smit, Jan; Hildebrand, A. R.; Montanari, Alessandro</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (KTB) tektite glasses occur at several sites around the Gulf of Mexico. Contrary to rumor among KTB workers, glass fragments have been found by several researchers in the base of the spherule bed at Arroyo el Mimbral in NE Mexico. The presence of green, red, and transparent glass fragments at Mimbral only, demonstrates that the Mimbral glass is not a laboratory contamination by Beloc glass. The chemistry and ages of the glass are consistent with an origin from the Chixculub <span class="hlt">impact</span> crater in Yucatan. No evidence supports a volcanic origin for the KTB glasses. A discussion of tektite glass from the KT boundary is presented.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940007689&hterms=glass+evidence&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dglass%2Bevidence','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940007689&hterms=glass+evidence&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dglass%2Bevidence"><span>KT boundary <span class="hlt">impact</span> glasses from the Gulf of Mexico <span class="hlt">region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Claeys, Philippe; Alvarez, Walter; Smit, Jan; Hildebrand, A. R.; Montanari, Alessandro</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (KTB) tektite glasses occur at several sites around the Gulf of Mexico. Contrary to rumor among KTB workers, glass fragments have been found by several researchers in the base of the spherule bed at Arroyo el Mimbral in NE Mexico. The presence of green, red, and transparent glass fragments at Mimbral only, demonstrates that the Mimbral glass is not a laboratory contamination by Beloc glass. The chemistry and ages of the glass are consistent with an origin from the Chixculub <span class="hlt">impact</span> crater in Yucatan. No evidence supports a volcanic origin for the KTB glasses. A discussion of tektite glass from the KT boundary is presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17286184','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17286184"><span>Environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment of industrial structure change in a rural <span class="hlt">region</span> of China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peng, Jian; Wang, Yanglin; Ye, Minting; Wu, Jiansheng; Zhang, Yuan</p> <p>2007-09-01</p> <p>As the embodiment of human activities, the change of <span class="hlt">regional</span> industrial structure is an essential driving factor of global environmental change. Consequently, the research on the change of <span class="hlt">regional</span> industrial structure and associated effects on the environment is one of the key issues of researches on sustainable development, human-environment relationship, and <span class="hlt">regional</span> response to global environment change. However, compared to the flourish of researches on environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment of industrial departments, few studies have been conducted to assess the environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> of <span class="hlt">regional</span> industrial structure. In this study, based on a synthetic analysis of environmental disturbances of different industrial departments, the environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> coefficient of industrial department associated with the index of environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> of industrial structure was constructed, so as to make a quantitative assessment of environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the change of <span class="hlt">regional</span> industrial structure. And the results of the case study in Lijiang City, a rural <span class="hlt">region</span> of China, have showed that there are two obvious changes of industrial structure in the study area from 1992 to 2003, associated with a continuous decreasing of the index of environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> of industrial structure, which indicated a positive environmental effects of the change of <span class="hlt">regional</span> industrial structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003095.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003095.htm"><span><span class="hlt">Cold</span> intolerance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Some causes of <span class="hlt">cold</span> intolerance are: Anemia Anorexia nervosa Blood vessel problems, such as Raynaud phenomenon Chronic severe illness General poor health Underactive thyroid ( hypothyroidism ) Problem with the hypothalamus (a part ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24578369','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24578369"><span>A <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Public Health Field Placement Program: making an <span class="hlt">IMPACT</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McCormick, Lisa C; Hites, Lisle; Jenkins, Crystal; Chauvin, Sheila W; Rucks, Andrew C; Ginter, Peter M</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Beginning in 2010, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, made provisions in its Public Health Training Center cooperative agreements for field placements. This article describes best practices and lessons learned establishing and managing the South Central Public Health Partnership's Interns and Mentors Program for ACTion (<span class="hlt">IMPACT</span>) Field Placement Program, which was initially funded through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Centers for Public Health Preparedness Cooperative agreement in 2002. The <span class="hlt">IMPACT</span> program is based on a six-step process that has been developed and refined over its 10-year history: (a) identifying field placement opportunities, (b) marketing field experience opportunities to students, (c) selecting students seeking field experience opportunities, (d) placing students with practice partners, students with practice partners, (e) evaluating student progress toward field experience objectives, and (f) evaluating the program. This article describes the program's structure and processes, delineates the roles of its academic and practice partners, discusses evidence of its effectiveness, and describes lessons learned from its decade-long history. Hopefully, this information will facilitate the establishment, management and evaluation of internship and field placement programs in other Public Health Training Centers and academic public health programs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NHESS..16.2247P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NHESS..16.2247P"><span>Local and <span class="hlt">regional</span> smoke <span class="hlt">impacts</span> from prescribed fires</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Price, Owen F.; Horsey, Bronwyn; Jiang, Ningbo</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Smoke from wildfires poses a significant threat to affected communities. Prescribed burning is conducted to reduce the extent and potential damage of wildfires, but produces its own smoke threat. Planners of prescribed fires model the likely dispersion of smoke to help manage the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on local communities. Significant uncertainty remains about the actual smoke <span class="hlt">impact</span> from prescribed fires, especially near the fire, and the accuracy of smoke dispersal models. To address this uncertainty, a detailed study of smoke dispersal was conducted for one small (52 ha) and one large (700 ha) prescribed fire near Appin in New South Wales, Australia, through the use of stationary and handheld pollution monitors, visual observations and rain radar data, and by comparing observations to predictions from an atmospheric dispersion model. The 52 ha fire produced a smoke plume about 800 m high and 9 km long. Particle concentrations (PM2.5) reached very high peak values (> 400 µg m-3) and high 24 h average values (> 100 µg m-3) at several locations next to or within ˜ 500 m downwind from the fire, but low levels elsewhere. The 700 ha fire produced a much larger plume, peaking at ˜ 2000 m altitude and affecting downwind areas up to 14 km away. Both peak and 24 h average PM2.5 values near the fire were lower than for the 52 ha fire, but this may be because the monitoring locations were further away from the fire. Some lofted smoke spread north against the ground-level wind direction. Smoke from this fire collapsed to the ground during the night at different times in different locations. Although it is hard to attribute particle concentrations definitively to smoke, it seems that the collapsed plume affected a huge area including the towns of Wollongong, Bargo, Oakdale, Camden and Campbelltown (˜ 1200 km2). PM2.5 concentrations up to 169 µg m-3 were recorded on the morning following the fire. The atmospheric dispersion model</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHyd..541..285C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHyd..541..285C"><span>Assessing the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of climate-change scenarios on landslide occurrence in Umbria <span class="hlt">Region</span>, Italy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ciabatta, L.; Camici, S.; Brocca, L.; Ponziani, F.; Stelluti, M.; Berni, N.; Moramarco, T.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Landslides are frequent and widespread geomorphological phenomena causing loss of human life and damage to property. The main tool for assessing landslide risk relies on rainfall thresholds and thus, many countries established early warning systems aimed to landslide hazard assessment. The Umbria <span class="hlt">Region</span> Civil Protection Centre developed an operational early warning system for landslide risk assessment, named PRESSCA, based on the soil saturation conditions to identify rainfall thresholds. These thresholds, currently used by the Civil Protection operators for the day-by-day landslide hazard assessment, provided satisfactory results with more than 86% of the landslides events correctly identified during the period 1990-2013. In this study, the PRESSCA system was employed for the assessment of climate change <span class="hlt">impact</span> on landslide hazard in Central Italy. The outputs of five different Global Circulation Models (GCMs) were downscaled and weather generators were used for obtaining hourly rainfall and temperature time series from daily GCMs projection. Then, PRESSCA system was employed to estimate the number of landslide occurrence per year. By comparing results obtained for three different periods (1990-2013 (baseline), 2040-2069 and 2070-2099), for the Umbria territory a general increase in events occurrence was expected (up to more than 40%) in the future period, mainly during the winter season. The results also revealed that the effect of climate change on landslides was not straightforward to identify and the close interaction between rainfall magnitude/intensity, temperature and soil moisture should be analysed in depth. Overall, soil moisture was projected to decrease throughout the year but during the wet season the variations with respect to the present period were very small. Specifically, it was found that during the warm-dry season, due to the strong decrease of soil moisture, even for a sensible increase in rainfall intensity, the landslide occurrence was</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMGC51E1225L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMGC51E1225L"><span><span class="hlt">Regional</span> Modeling of Biomass-Burning Aerosol <span class="hlt">Impacts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lonsdale, C. R.; Brodowski, C. M.; Alvarado, M. J.; Henderson, J.; Pierce, J. R.; Lin, J. C.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Aerosol freshly emitted from biomass-burning events are a complex mixture of organic species, black carbon, and inorganic salts with their size, number, and chemical composition dependent on the type of vegetation that is burning, the size and combustion efficiency of the fire event, and the ambient conditions. These particles evolve quickly in the atmosphere, both physically and chemically, due to coagulation, primary organic aerosol evaporation, and secondary organic aerosol formation. Understanding and simulating the complex evolution of these aerosols is critical to understanding the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of biomass-burning plumes on air quality and climate. We present results from two biomass-burning <span class="hlt">impact</span> studies using a new Lagrangian aerosol modeling tool, STILT-ASP. This modeling tool is comprised of the Stochastic Time Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model with an integrated Aerosol Simulation Program (ASP). STILT allows for the identification of air parcels that were influenced by fire emissions during their transport to a model receptor (i.e. an urban monitoring site). STILT-ASP then determines the contribution of primary emission (of PM2.5) and secondary chemical formation (both O3 and PM2.5) from the fires to the pollutants in the parcel, and then sums these fire contributions across all parcels to determine the influence that the fire had on the receptor. We also discuss the preliminary integration of the System for Atmospheric Modeling (SAM) with ASP (SAM-ASP), which will model plume-scale biomass-burning chemistry and dispersion in order to capture the evolution of aerosol size and number concentrations within the plume. The goal of this model is to ultimately better represent the near-source biomass-burning plume evolution for use in aerosol microphysics and climate models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JQSRT.174...88B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JQSRT.174...88B"><span>Measurements and modeling of <span class="hlt">cold</span> 13CH4 spectra in the 3750-4700 cm-1 <span class="hlt">region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brown, L. R.; Nikitin, A. V.; Sung, K.; Rey, M.; Tashkun, S. A.; Tyuterev, Vl. G.; Crawford, T. J.; Smith, M. A. H.; Mantz, A. W.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>A new study of 13CH4 line intensities and positions was performed in the Octad <span class="hlt">region</span> between 3750 and 4700 cm-1. Using 13C-enriched samples, spectra were recorded with both the McMath-Pierce FTS at Kitt Peak Observatory in Arizona and the Bruker IFS-125HR at JPL. Sample temperatures ranged between 80 and 296 K. Line positions and intensities of ~15,000 features were retrieved at different temperatures by non-linear least squares curve-fitting procedures. Intensities were used to estimate the lower state energies for 60% of the features in order to determine quantum assignments up to J=10. A preliminary analysis was performed using the effective Hamiltonian and the effective dipole transition moment expressed in terms of irreducible tensor operators adapted to spherical top molecules. Selected assignments were made up to J=10 for all 24 sub-vibrational states of the Octad; these were modeled for 4752 experimental line positions and 3301 selected line intensities fitted with RMS standard deviations of 0.004 cm-1 and 6.9%, respectively. Integrated intensities of the eight Octad bands are compared to ab initio variational calculations. A prediction of the 13CH4 is given, but further analysis to improve the calculation will be reported in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.2859P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.2859P"><span>Biogeomorphic and pedogenic <span class="hlt">impact</span> of trees in three soil <span class="hlt">regions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pawlik, Łukasz; Šamonil, Pavel</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Vegetation is an important factor of soil formation which together with topography, geology, climate and time modulates chemical and physical soil characteristics. Tree/soils/regolith interaction was recognized in recently uprooted trees and relict treethrow mounds and pits. In our present study we focus on effects of individual standing trees in pedogenesis and biogeomorphic processes. Constant pressure of tree root systems, changing hydric and temperature regime, together with rhizospheric microbes and root mycorrhizal associations may cause multiscale alterations to regolith and soils. We hypothesize different soil chemical properties under old tree stumps compared to unaffected control pedon resulted from affected pedogenetical pathways at the analyzed microsites. The present project highlights changes in soil properties under tree stumps in three different soil <span class="hlt">regions</span>: Haplic Cambisols (Turbacz Reserve, Gorce Mts., Poland, hereafter HC), Entic Podzols (Zofin Reserve, Novohradske Mts., the Czech Republic, hereafter EP), Albic Podzols (Upper Peninsula, Michigan, USA, hereafter AP). These three <span class="hlt">regions</span> represent different degrees of soil weathering and leaching. Pedons under fir, beech and hemlock stumps, as well as unaffected control pedons were sampled and laboratory analyzed for several chemical properties; active and exchangeable soil reaction, oxidized carbon, total nitrogen, and various forms of Fe, Al, Mn and Si. At the same time we studied age of the sampled tree stumps, as well as age of their death using radiocarbon technique and dendrochronology. While no effects of the soil-trees interactions can be visible on hillslope surface, we found important evidence of biomechanical activities of tree roots (e.g. root channels) and biochemical changes which add to the discussion about biogeomorphic and pedogenic significance of trees and tree roots as drivers of biomechanical weathering and soil processes in the decadal and centennial time scales. Preliminary</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1166654','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1166654"><span>Offshore Wind Jobs and Economic Development <span class="hlt">Impact</span>: Four <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Scenarios (Presentation)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tegen, S.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>NREL's Jobs and Economic Development <span class="hlt">Impact</span> (JEDI) Model for Offshore Wind, is a computer tool for studying the economic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of fixed-bottom offshore wind projects in the United States. This presentation provides the results of an analysis of four offshore wind development scenarios in the Southeast Atlantic, Great Lakes, Mid-Atlantic, and Gulf of Mexico <span class="hlt">regions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1060603','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1060603"><span><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Electricity Prices and Building Type on the Economics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ong, S.; Campbell, C.; Clark, N.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>To identify the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of <span class="hlt">regional</span> electricity prices and building type on the economics of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, 207 rate structures across 77 locations and 16 commercial building types were evaluated. Results for expected solar value are reported for each location and building type. Aggregated results are also reported, showing general trends across various <span class="hlt">impact</span> categories.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=85826&keyword=urban+AND+regional+AND+planning&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=85826&keyword=urban+AND+regional+AND+planning&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>OVERVIEW OF THE CLIMATE <span class="hlt">IMPACT</span> ON <span class="hlt">REGIONAL</span> AIR QUALITY (CIRAQ) PROJECT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The Climate <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> on <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Air Quality (CIRAQ) project will develop model-estimated <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of global climate changes on ozone and particulate matter (PM) in direct support of the USEPA Global Change Research Program's (GCRP) national air quality assessment. EPA's urban/reg...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23687049','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23687049"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of shale gas development on <span class="hlt">regional</span> water quality.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vidic, R D; Brantley, S L; Vandenbossche, J M; Yoxtheimer, D; Abad, J D</p> <p>2013-05-17</p> <p>Unconventional natural gas resources offer an opportunity to access a relatively clean fossil fuel that could potentially lead to energy independence for some countries. Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing make the extraction of tightly bound natural gas from shale formations economically feasible. These technologies are not free from environmental risks, however, especially those related to <span class="hlt">regional</span> water quality, such as gas migration, contaminant transport through induced and natural fractures, wastewater discharge, and accidental spills. We review the current understanding of environmental issues associated with unconventional gas extraction. Improved understanding of the fate and transport of contaminants of concern and increased long-term monitoring and data dissemination will help manage these water-quality risks today and in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3160301','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3160301"><span>Working Memory Training Using Mental Calculation <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Gray Matter of the Frontal and Parietal <span class="hlt">Regions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sassa, Yuko; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Fukushima, Ai; Kawashima, Ryuta</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Training working memory (WM) improves performance on untrained cognitive tasks and alters functional activity. However, WM training's effects on gray matter morphology and a wide range of cognitive tasks are still unknown. We investigated this issue using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), various psychological measures, such as non-trained WM tasks and a creativity task, and intensive adaptive training of WM using mental calculations (IATWMMC), all of which are typical WM tasks. IATWMMC was associated with reduced <span class="hlt">regional</span> gray matter volume in the bilateral fronto-parietal <span class="hlt">regions</span> and the left superior temporal gyrus. It improved verbal letter span and complex arithmetic ability, but deteriorated creativity. These results confirm the training-induced plasticity in psychological mechanisms and the plasticity of gray matter structures in <span class="hlt">regions</span> that have been assumed to be under strong genetic control. PMID:21886781</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21886781','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21886781"><span>Working memory training using mental calculation <span class="hlt">impacts</span> <span class="hlt">regional</span> gray matter of the frontal and parietal <span class="hlt">regions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sassa, Yuko; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Fukushima, Ai; Kawashima, Ryuta</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Training working memory (WM) improves performance on untrained cognitive tasks and alters functional activity. However, WM training's effects on gray matter morphology and a wide range of cognitive tasks are still unknown. We investigated this issue using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), various psychological measures, such as non-trained WM tasks and a creativity task, and intensive adaptive training of WM using mental calculations (IATWMMC), all of which are typical WM tasks. IATWMMC was associated with reduced <span class="hlt">regional</span> gray matter volume in the bilateral fronto-parietal <span class="hlt">regions</span> and the left superior temporal gyrus. It improved verbal letter span and complex arithmetic ability, but deteriorated creativity. These results confirm the training-induced plasticity in psychological mechanisms and the plasticity of gray matter structures in <span class="hlt">regions</span> that have been assumed to be under strong genetic control.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002mbns.conf...10C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002mbns.conf...10C"><span>Modeling the Stability of Volatile Deposits in Lunar <span class="hlt">Cold</span> Traps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Crider, D. H.; Vondrak, R. R.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>There are several mechanisms acting at the <span class="hlt">cold</span> traps that can alter the inventory of volatiles there. Primarily, the lunar surface is bombarded by meteoroids which <span class="hlt">impact</span>, melt, process, and redistribute the regolith. Further, solar wind and magnetospheric ion fluxes are allowed limited access onto the <span class="hlt">regions</span> in permanent shadow. Also, although <span class="hlt">cold</span> traps are in the permanent shadow of the Sun, there is a small flux of radiation incident on the <span class="hlt">regions</span> from interstellar sources. We investigate the effects of these space weathering processes on a deposit of volatiles in a lunar <span class="hlt">cold</span> trap through simulations. We simulate the development of a column of material near the surface of the Moon resulting from space weathering. This simulation treats a column of material at a lunar <span class="hlt">cold</span> trap and focuses on the hydrogen content of the column. We model space weathering processes on several time and spatial scales to simulate the constant rain of micrometeoroids as well as sporadic larger impactors occurring near the <span class="hlt">cold</span> traps to determine the retention efficiency of the <span class="hlt">cold</span> traps. We perform the Monte Carlo simulation over many columns of material to determine the expectation value for hydrogen content of the top few meters of soil for comparison with Lunar Prospector neutron data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H21H0815P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H21H0815P"><span>Environmental and human <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on Bangalore's <span class="hlt">regional</span> water scarcity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Penny, G.; Srinivasan, V.; Thompson, S. E.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The Arkavathy River Basin adjacent to Bangalore, India, faces a multitude of challenges driven by water demands from urbanization and intensification of agriculture. In the Arkavathy Basin, the two major reservoirs that historically supplied water to Bangalore now receive little to no inflow. Recent research has resulted in multiple plausible hypotheses attributing streamflow reductions in the Arkavathy to (1) increased evapotranspiration due to a boom in eucalyptus plantations and irrigated agriculture, and (2) increased deep drainage from surface soils due to long-term, excessive groundwater extraction. Current knowledge of Bangalore's water scarcity is largely based on anecdotal evidence and the sparse environmental data for this <span class="hlt">region</span> is insufficient to definitively test these hypotheses. To bridge the gap between provincial and academic knowledge and better understand the nature of <span class="hlt">regional</span> water resource depletion, we utilize a range of methods to integrate information across spatial and temporal scales. We use the full history of Landsat satellite imagery to approximate post-monsoon water storage in tanks and construct a spatially-explicit, historical record of surface water. We combine stable isotope mixing models, traditional field methods, and kite photography to build a deeper understanding of rainfall-runoff processes. Remote-sensing results confirm reductions of surface water in many of the tanks in the upper reaches of the watershed. We also observe an increase in surface water availability downstream of Bangalore, where imported water results in large waste flows. Field methods reveal considerable contributions of Hortonian overland flow due to soils with low hydraulic conductivity, mitigating changes in the subsurface water balance. We conclude that surface water availability is strongly related to spatial patterns of urban and agricultural water demand overlaid on a template defined by topography, soil, and climate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4627032','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4627032"><span>Climate Change Effects on Heat- and <span class="hlt">Cold</span>-Related Mortality in the Netherlands: A Scenario-Based Integrated Environmental Health <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Huynen, Maud M. T. E.; Martens, Pim</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Although people will most likely adjust to warmer temperatures, it is still difficult to assess what this adaptation will look like. This scenario-based integrated health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> assessment explores baseline (1981–2010) and future (2050) population attributable fractions (PAF) of mortality due to heat (PAFheat) and <span class="hlt">cold</span> (PAFcold), by combining observed temperature–mortality relationships with the Dutch KNMI’14 climate scenarios and three adaptation scenarios. The 2050 model results without adaptation reveal a decrease in PAFcold (8.90% at baseline; 6.56%–7.85% in 2050) that outweighs the increase in PAFheat (1.15% at baseline; 1.66%–2.52% in 2050). When the 2050 model runs applying the different adaptation scenarios are considered as well, however, the PAFheat ranges between 0.94% and 2.52% and the PAFcold between 6.56% and 9.85%. Hence, PAFheat and PAFcold can decrease as well as increase in view of climate change (depending on the adaptation scenario). The associated annual mortality burdens in 2050—accounting for both the increasing temperatures and mortality trend—show that heat-related deaths will range between 1879 and 5061 (1511 at baseline) and <span class="hlt">cold</span>-related deaths between 13,149 and 19,753 (11,727 at baseline). Our results clearly illustrate that model outcomes are not only highly dependent on climate scenarios, but also on adaptation assumptions. Hence, a better understanding of (the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of various) plausible adaptation scenarios is required to advance future integrated health <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessments. PMID:26512680</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26512680','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26512680"><span>Climate Change Effects on Heat- and <span class="hlt">Cold</span>-Related Mortality in the Netherlands: A Scenario-Based Integrated Environmental Health <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Assessment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huynen, Maud M T E; Martens, Pim</p> <p>2015-10-23</p> <p>Although people will most likely adjust to warmer temperatures, it is still difficult to assess what this adaptation will look like. This scenario-based integrated health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> assessment explores baseline (1981-2010) and future (2050) population attributable fractions (PAF) of mortality due to heat (PAFheat) and <span class="hlt">cold</span> (PAFcold), by combining observed temperature-mortality relationships with the Dutch KNMI'14 climate scenarios and three adaptation scenarios. The 2050 model results without adaptation reveal a decrease in PAFcold (8.90% at baseline; 6.56%-7.85% in 2050) that outweighs the increase in PAFheat (1.15% at baseline; 1.66%-2.52% in 2050). When the 2050 model runs applying the different adaptation scenarios are considered as well, however, the PAFheat ranges between 0.94% and 2.52% and the PAFcold between 6.56% and 9.85%. Hence, PAFheat and PAFcold can decrease as well as increase in view of climate change (depending on the adaptation scenario). The associated annual mortality burdens in 2050-accounting for both the increasing temperatures and mortality trend-show that heat-related deaths will range between 1879 and 5061 (1511 at baseline) and <span class="hlt">cold</span>-related deaths between 13,149 and 19,753 (11,727 at baseline). Our results clearly illustrate that model outcomes are not only highly dependent on climate scenarios, but also on adaptation assumptions. Hence, a better understanding of (the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of various) plausible adaptation scenarios is required to advance future integrated health <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2826836','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2826836"><span>Cardiovascular responses to <span class="hlt">cold</span> exposure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sun, Zhongjie</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The prevalence of hypertension is increased in winter and in <span class="hlt">cold</span> <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the world. <span class="hlt">Cold</span> temperatures make hypertension worse and trigger cardiovascular complications (stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure, etc.). Chronic or intermittent exposure to <span class="hlt">cold</span> causes hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy in animals. The purpose of this review is to provide the recent advances in the mechanistic investigation of <span class="hlt">cold</span>-induced hypertension (CIH). <span class="hlt">Cold</span> temperatures increase the activities of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). The SNS initiates CIH via the RAS. <span class="hlt">Cold</span> exposure suppresses the expression of eNOS and formation of NO, increases the production of endothelin-1 (ET-1), up-regulates ETA receptors, but down-regulates ETB receptors. The roles of these factors and their relations in CIH will be reviewed. PMID:20036896</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20036896','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20036896"><span>Cardiovascular responses to <span class="hlt">cold</span> exposure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sun, Zhongjie</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The prevalence of hypertension is increased in winter and in <span class="hlt">cold</span> <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the world. <span class="hlt">Cold</span> temperatures make hypertension worse and trigger cardiovascular complications (stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure, etc.). Chronic or intermittent exposure to <span class="hlt">cold</span> causes hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy in animals. The purpose of this review is to provide the recent advances in the mechanistic investigation of <span class="hlt">cold</span>-induced hypertension (CIH). <span class="hlt">Cold</span> temperatures increase the activities of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). The SNS initiates CIH via the RAS. <span class="hlt">Cold</span> exposure suppresses the expression of eNOS and formation of NO, increases the production of endothelin-1 (ET-1), up-regulates ETA receptors, but down-regulates ETB receptors. The roles of these factors and their relations in CIH will be reviewed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/287437','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/287437"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of commuter-rail services in Toronto <span class="hlt">region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wells, S.S.; Hutchinson, B.G.</p> <p>1996-07-01</p> <p>Ridership of the commuter-rail system that was implemented in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) in 1967 increased at an annual, average compound rate of 11.4% until 1989. Demand has leveled substantially during 1990--94 and has averaged only 2.1% per year, which probably reflects the suburbanization of employment. Urban economic theory is used to explain the way in which central-business-district (CBD) employees respond differently to suburban commuter-rail services and rapid transit services, mainly serving the inner intermediate suburbs. Travel data collected in 1986 and 1991 confirmed the effects suggested by the theory. Commuter-rail passengers are drawn from the larger suburban households, living principally in single-family houses, and commuter-rail passengers are more sensitive to access and egress distances than subway passengers. Policies that improve the quality of access and egress components of commuting trips from the suburbs stimulate passenger demand. Also, land-use policies that promote high-density, residential development at suburban commuter-rail stations are unlikely to contribute significantly to commuter-rail demand, and the lakeshore commuter-rail line that has been in service since 1967 has not had a significant <span class="hlt">impact</span> on residential sorting and on the generation of additional demands.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15715518','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15715518"><span><span class="hlt">Cold</span> injuries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Long, William B; Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Exposure to <span class="hlt">cold</span> can produce a variety of injuries that occur as a result of man's inability to adapt to <span class="hlt">cold</span>. These injuries can be divided into localized injury to a body part, systemic hypothermia, or a combination of both. Body temperature may fall as a result of heat loss by radiation, evaporation, conduction, and convection. Hypothermia or systemic <span class="hlt">cold</span> injury occurs when the core body temperature has decreased to 35 degrees C (95 degrees F) or less. The causes of hypothermia are either primary or secondary. Primary, or accidental, hypothermia occurs in healthy individuals inadequately clothed and exposed to severe cooling. In secondary hypothermia, another illness predisposes the individual to accidental hypothermia. Hypothermia affects multiple organs with symptoms of hypothermia that vary according to the severity of <span class="hlt">cold</span> injury. The diagnosis of hypothermia is easy if the patient is a mountaineer who is stranded in <span class="hlt">cold</span> weather. However, it may be more difficult in an elderly patient who has been exposed to a <span class="hlt">cold</span> environment. In either case, the rectal temperature should be checked with a low-reading thermometer. The general principals of prehospital management are to (1) prevent further heat loss, (2) rewarm the body core temperature in advance of the shell, and (3) avoid precipitating ventricular fibrillation. There are two general techniques of rewarming--passive and active. The mechanisms of peripheral <span class="hlt">cold</span> injury can be divided into phenomena that affect cells and extracellular fluids (direct effects) and those that disrupt the function of the organized tissue and the integrity of the circulation (indirect effects). Generally, no serious damage is seen until tissue freezing occurs. The mildest form of peripheral <span class="hlt">cold</span> injury is frostnip. Chilblains represent a more severe form of <span class="hlt">cold</span> injury than frostnip and occur after exposure to nonfreezing temperatures and damp conditions. Immersion (trench) foot, a disease of the sympathetic nerves and blood</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6348G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6348G"><span><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of peatland forestation on <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate conditions in Finland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gao, Yao; Markkanen, Tiina; Backman, Leif; Henttonen, Helena M.; Pietikäinen, Joni-Pekka; Laaksonen, Ari</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Climate response to anthropogenic land cover change happens more locally and occurs on a shorter time scale than the global warming due to increased GHGs. Over the second half of last Century, peatlands were vastly drained in Finland to stimulate forest growth for timber production. In this study, we investigate the biophysical effects of peatland forestation on near-surface climate conditions in Finland. For this, the <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate model REMO, developed in Max Plank Institute (currently in Climate Service Center, Germany), provides an effective way. Two sets of 15-year climate simulations were done by REMO, using the historic (1920s; The 1st Finnish National Forest Inventory) and present-day (2000s; the 10th Finnish National Forest Inventory) land cover maps, respectively. The simulated surface air temperature and precipitation were then analyzed. In the most intensive peatland forestation area in Finland, the differences in monthly averaged daily mean surface air temperature show a warming effect around 0.2 to 0.3 K in February and March and reach to 0.5 K in April, whereas a slight cooling effect, less than 0.2 K, is found from May till October. Consequently, the selected snow clearance dates in model gridboxes over that area are advanced 0.5 to 4 days in the mean of 15 years. The monthly averaged precipitation only shows small differences, less than 10 mm/month, in a varied pattern in Finland from April to September. Furthermore, a more detailed analysis was conducted on the peatland forestation area with a 23% decrease in peatland and a 15% increase in forest types. 11 day running means of simulated temperature and energy balance terms, as well as snow depth were averaged over 15 years. Results show a positive feedback induced by peatland forestation between the surface air temperature and snow depth in snow melting period. This is because the warmer temperature caused by lower surface albedo due to more forest in snow cover period leads to a quicker and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=support+AND+structures&pg=6&id=EJ1090998','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=support+AND+structures&pg=6&id=EJ1090998"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Higher Education Spaces on the Security of International Students</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Forbes-Mewett, Helen</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The security of international students in <span class="hlt">regional</span> higher education spaces in Australia has been overlooked. Contingency theory provides the framework for this case study to explore the organisational structure and support services relevant to a <span class="hlt">regional</span> higher education space and how this <span class="hlt">impacts</span> the security of international students. In-depth…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=64533&keyword=floods&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=64533&keyword=floods&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>THE POTENTIAL <span class="hlt">IMPACTS</span> OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON THE MID-ATLANTIC COASTAL <span class="hlt">REGION</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This paper assesses the potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate change on the mid-Atlantic coastal (MAC) <span class="hlt">region</span> of the United States. In order of increasing uncertainty, it is projected that sea level, temperature and streamflow will increase in the MAC <span class="hlt">region</span> in response to higher levels o...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=238766','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=238766"><span>Climate change <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on terrestrial ecosystems in the multi-state <span class="hlt">region</span> centered on Chicago</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This paper describes the potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of warming temperatures and changing precipitation on plants wildlife, invasive species, pests and agricultural ecosystems across the multistate <span class="hlt">region</span> centered on Chicago, Illinois. We define the <span class="hlt">region</span> broadly to include several hundred kilometers. We c...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/44461','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/44461"><span>Mapping and assessing the environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of border tactical infrastructure in the Sky Island <span class="hlt">Region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Caroline Patrick-Birdwell; Sergio Avila-Villegas; Jenny Neeley; Louise Misztal</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In this project we mapped the different types of border barriers, identified <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of border infrastructure on public and private lands and conducted spatial analyses within the approximately 200 miles of international border in the Sky Island <span class="hlt">region</span>. The Sky Island <span class="hlt">region</span>, bisected by the U.S.-Mexico border, is critically important for its biodiversity and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=culture&pg=2&id=EJ1137057','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=culture&pg=2&id=EJ1137057"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of a Learning Culture on Organisational Change in <span class="hlt">Regional</span> SMEs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bamberry, Goff; Sabri-Matanagh, Saeed; Duncan, Glen</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This paper explores the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of a learning culture on organisational change in small to medium-sized <span class="hlt">regional</span> manufacturing enterprises following a review of the related literature, and a qualitative study of 10 manufacturing SMEs in the Riverina <span class="hlt">region</span> of New South Wales. The research confirmed that key learning culture factors as identified in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=A.+AND+P+AND+French&pg=2&id=EJ839211','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=A.+AND+P+AND+French&pg=2&id=EJ839211"><span>Behavioral and Electrophysiological Evidence for the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Variation on Phoneme Perception</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brunelliere, Angele; Dufour, Sophie; Nguyen, Noel; Frauenfelder, Ulrich Hans</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This event-related potential (ERP) study examined the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of phonological variation resulting from a vowel merger on phoneme perception. The perception of the /e/-/[epsilon]/ contrast which does not exist in Southern French-speaking <span class="hlt">regions</span>, and which is in the process of merging in Northern French-speaking <span class="hlt">regions</span>, was compared to the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=space&pg=3&id=EJ1090998','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=space&pg=3&id=EJ1090998"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Higher Education Spaces on the Security of International Students</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Forbes-Mewett, Helen</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The security of international students in <span class="hlt">regional</span> higher education spaces in Australia has been overlooked. Contingency theory provides the framework for this case study to explore the organisational structure and support services relevant to a <span class="hlt">regional</span> higher education space and how this <span class="hlt">impacts</span> the security of international students. In-depth…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=exports&pg=3&id=ED536616','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=exports&pg=3&id=ED536616"><span>Making an Economic <span class="hlt">Impact</span>: Higher Education and the English <span class="hlt">Regions</span>. Research Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kelly, Ursula; McLellan, Donald; McNicoll, Iain</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This is the first published study of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the higher education sector on the English <span class="hlt">regions</span>. This study presents key economic features of UK higher education in the academic year 2007/08 and those aspects of its contribution to the nine English <span class="hlt">regions</span> that can be readily measured. The sector is analysed as a conventional industry,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=export&pg=4&id=ED536616','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=export&pg=4&id=ED536616"><span>Making an Economic <span class="hlt">Impact</span>: Higher Education and the English <span class="hlt">Regions</span>. Research Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kelly, Ursula; McLellan, Donald; McNicoll, Iain</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This is the first published study of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the higher education sector on the English <span class="hlt">regions</span>. This study presents key economic features of UK higher education in the academic year 2007/08 and those aspects of its contribution to the nine English <span class="hlt">regions</span> that can be readily measured. The sector is analysed as a conventional industry,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=64533&keyword=floods&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78729013&CFTOKEN=36566999','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=64533&keyword=floods&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78729013&CFTOKEN=36566999"><span>THE POTENTIAL <span class="hlt">IMPACTS</span> OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON THE MID-ATLANTIC COASTAL <span class="hlt">REGION</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This paper assesses the potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate change on the mid-Atlantic coastal (MAC) <span class="hlt">region</span> of the United States. In order of increasing uncertainty, it is projected that sea level, temperature and streamflow will increase in the MAC <span class="hlt">region</span> in response to higher levels o...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-02-03/pdf/2011-2426.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-02-03/pdf/2011-2426.pdf"><span>76 FR 6153 - Supplemental Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Statement for the Proposed Campo <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Landfill Project on...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-02-03</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Statement for the Proposed Campo <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Landfill Project on the Campo Indian Reservation, San... the proposed Campo <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Landfill Project (Proposed Action) to be located on the Campo Indian... Landfill Project (Proposed Action). There is no Federal action of amended lease and amended...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11764302','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11764302"><span><span class="hlt">Cold</span> urticaria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Claudy, A</p> <p>2001-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Cold</span> urticaria is one form of urticaria that may be associated with other forms of physical urticarias. Frequency is generally estimated at two or three per 100. The triggering effect of <span class="hlt">cold</span> is found at history taking in most of the cases. The urticaria is usually superficial, and more rarely associated with deep and/or mucosal urticaria. The diagnosis is based on history taking and the ice cube test. An exhaustive search for an etiologic factor is often unfruitful, and the presence of a cryopathy should lead to a complete work-up. Therapy of <span class="hlt">cold</span> urticaria may prove to be difficult. In patients with secondary <span class="hlt">cold</span> urticaria, underlying disease must be treated in order to resolve the skin symptoms. H1-antihistamines can be used but the clinical responses are highly variable. Short-time treatment with low concentration corticosteroids suppresses the symptoms only partially and temporarily. In patients who do not respond to previous treatments, induction of <span class="hlt">cold</span> tolerance may be proposed but the procedure is difficult to carry out in daily life over an extended period. Key word: cryoglobulins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28178740','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28178740"><span>[<span class="hlt">Impact</span> of the Overlap <span class="hlt">Region</span> Between Acoustic and Electric Stimulation].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baumann, Uwe; Mocka, Moritz</p> <p>2017-02-08</p> <p>Patients with residual hearing in the low frequencies and ski-slope hearing loss with partial deafness at medium and high frequencies receive a cochlear implant treatment with electric-acoustic stimulation (EAS, "hybrid" stimulation). In the border <span class="hlt">region</span> between electric and acoustic stimulation a superposition of the 2 types of stimulation is expected. The area of overlap is determined by the insertion depth of the stimulating electrode and the lower starting point of signal transmission provided by the CI speech processor. The study examined the influence of the variation of the electric-acoustic overlap area on speech perception in noise, whereby the width of the "transmission gap" between the 2 different stimulus modalities was varied by 2 different methods. The results derived from 9 experienced users of the MED-EL Duet 2 speech processor show that the electric-acoustic overlapping area and with it the crossover frequency between the acoustic part and the CI should be adjusted individually. Overall, speech reception thresholds (SRT) showed a wide variation of results in between subjects. Further studies shall investigate whether generalized procedures about the setting of the overlap between electric and acoustic stimulation are reasonable, whereby an increased number of subjects and a longer period of acclimatization prior to the conduction of hearing tests deemed necessary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4233949','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4233949"><span>Blastopathies and microcephaly in a Chornobyl <span class="hlt">impacted</span> <span class="hlt">region</span> of Ukraine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wertelecki, Wladimir; Yevtushok, Lyubov; Zymak-Zakutnia, Natalia; Wang, Bin; Sosyniuk, Zoriana; Lapchenko, Serhiy; Hobart, Holly H</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This population-based descriptive epidemiology study demonstrates that rates of conjoined twins, teratomas, neural tube defects, microcephaly, and microphthalmia in the Rivne province of Ukraine are among the highest in Europe. The province is 200 km distant from the Chornobyl site and its northern half, a <span class="hlt">region</span> known as Polissia, is significantly polluted by ionizing radiation. The rates of neural tube defects, microcephaly and microphthalmia in Polissia are statistically significantly higher than in the rest of the province. A survey of at-birth head size showed that values were statistically smaller in males and females born in one Polissia county than among neonates born in the capital city. These observations provide clues for confirmatory and cause-effect prospective investigations. The strength of this study stems from a reliance on international standards prevalent in Europe and a decade-long population-based surveillance of congenital malformations in two distinct large populations. The limitations of this study, as those of other descriptive epidemiology investigations, is that identified cause-effect associations require further assessment by specific prospective investigations designed to address specific teratogenic factors. PMID:24666273</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11687023','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11687023"><span>Antivirals for the common <span class="hlt">cold</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jefferson, T O; Tyrrell, D</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The common <span class="hlt">cold</span> is a ubiquitous short and usually mild illness for which preventive and treatment interventions have been under development since the mid-40s. As our understanding of the disease has increased, more experimental antivirals have been developed. This review attempts to draw together experimental evidence of the effects of these compounds. To identify, assemble, evaluate and (if possible) synthesise the results of published and unpublished randomised controlled trials of the effects of antivirals to prevent or minimise the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the common <span class="hlt">cold</span>. We searched electronic databases, corresponded with researchers and handsearched the archives of the MRC's Common <span class="hlt">Cold</span> Unit (CCU). We included original reports of randomised and quasi-randomised trials assessing the effects of antivirals on volunteers artificially infected and in individuals exposed to <span class="hlt">colds</span> in the community. We included 241 studies assessing the effects of Interferons, interferon-inducers and other antivirals on experimental and naturally occurring common <span class="hlt">colds</span>, contained in 230 reports. We structured our comparisons by experimental or community setting. Although intranasal interferons have high preventive efficacy against experimental <span class="hlt">colds</span> (protective efficacy 46%, 37% to 54%) and to a lesser extent against natural <span class="hlt">colds</span> (protective efficacy 24%, 21% to 27%) and are also significantly more effective than placebo in attenuating the course of experimental <span class="hlt">colds</span> (WMD 15.90, 13.42 to 18.38), their safety profile makes compliance with their use difficult. For example, prolonged prevention of community <span class="hlt">colds</span> with interferons causes blood-tinged nasal discharge (OR 4.52, 3.78 to 5.41). Dipyridamole (protective efficacy against natural <span class="hlt">colds</span> 49%, 30% to 62%), ICI 130, 685 (protective efficacy against experimental <span class="hlt">colds</span> 58%, 35% to 74% ), Impulsin (palmitate) (protective efficacy against natural <span class="hlt">colds</span> 44%, CI 35% to 52% ) and Pleconaril (protective efficacy against experimental <span class="hlt">colds</span> 71%, 15% to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20307976','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20307976"><span>DSC studies to evaluate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of bio-oil on <span class="hlt">cold</span> flow properties and oxidation stability of bio-diesel.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Garcia-Perez, Manuel; Adams, Thomas T; Goodrum, John W; Das, K C; Geller, Daniel P</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>This paper describes the use of Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) to evaluate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of varying mix ratios of bio-oil (pyrolysis oil) and bio-diesel on the oxidation stability and on some <span class="hlt">cold</span> flow properties of resulting blends. The bio-oils employed were produced from the semi-continuous Auger pyrolysis of pine pellets and the batch pyrolysis of pine chips. The bio-diesel studied was obtained from poultry fat. The conditions used to prepare the bio-oil/bio-diesel blends as well as some of the fuel properties of these blends are reported. The experimental results suggest that the addition of bio-oil improves the oxidation stability of the resulting blends and modifies the crystallization behavior of unsaturated compounds. Upon the addition of bio-oil an increase in the oxidation onset temperature, as determined by DSC, was observed. The increase in bio-diesel oxidation stability is likely to be due to the presence of hindered phenols abundant in bio-oils. A relatively small reduction in DSC characteristic temperatures which are associated with <span class="hlt">cold</span> flow properties was also observed but can likely be explained by a dilution effect.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1130265','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1130265"><span><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of seasonal and <span class="hlt">regional</span> variability in biogenic VOC emissions on surface ozone in the Pearl River Delta <span class="hlt">region</span>, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Situ, S.; Guenther, Alex B.; Wang, X. J.; Jiang, X.; Turnipseed, A.; Wu, Z.; Bai, J.; Wang, X.</p> <p>2013-12-05</p> <p>In this study, the BVOC emissions in November 2010 over the Pearl River Delta (PRD) <span class="hlt">region</span> in southern China have been estimated by the latest version of a Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC) emission model (MEGAN v2.1). The evaluation of MEGAN performance at a representative forest site within this <span class="hlt">region</span> indicates MEGAN can estimate BVOC emissions reasonably well in this <span class="hlt">region</span> except overestimating isoprene emission in autumn for reasons that are discussed in this manuscript. Along with the output from MEGAN, the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to estimate the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of BVOC emissions on surface ozone in the PRD <span class="hlt">region</span>. The results show BVOC emissions increase the daytime ozone peak by *3 ppb on average, and the max hourly <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of BVOC emissions on the daytime ozone peak is 24.8 ppb. Surface ozone mixing ratios in the central area of Guangzhou- Foshan and the western Jiangmen are most sensitive to BVOC emissions BVOCs from outside and central PRD influence the central area of Guangzhou-Foshan and the western Jiangmen significantly while BVOCs from rural PRD mainly influence the western Jiangmen. The <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of BVOC emissions on surface ozone differ in different PRD cities, and the <span class="hlt">impact</span> varies in different seasons. Foshan and Jiangmen being most affected in autumn, result in 6.0 ppb and 5.5 ppb increases in surface ozone concentrations, while Guangzhou and Huizhou become more affected in summer. Three additional experiments concerning the sensitivity of surface ozone to MEGAN input variables show that surface ozone is more sensitive to landcover change, followed by emission factors and meteorology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.A33G0327G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.A33G0327G"><span>Dust <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on Circulation Patterns and <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Climate of Monsoon <span class="hlt">Regions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gu, Y.; Liou, K. N.; Jiang, J. H.; Fu, R.; Su, H.; Xue, Y.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The interactions between dust and other physical processes have been found to play an important role in the dust-induced climate change. However, there are large uncertainties regarding whether, where, and how the dust modifies the circulation and influence the cloud and precipitation processes. The effect of dust on circulation and <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate, such as surface temperature and precipitation, has been examined for two major monsoon <span class="hlt">regions</span>: North Africa/tropical North Atlantic and South/East Asia. It is found that surface temperature decreases over both <span class="hlt">regions</span> due to the scattering and absorption of solar radiation by dust particles. However, precipitation responses are different in these two <span class="hlt">regions</span>. Over the Northwest Africa where dust particles are mainly located to the north of rainfall band, heating of the air column by dust particles forces a stronger ascent motion over dust layers, which induces an anomalous subsidence and suppressed cyclonic circulation to its south where precipitation reduces. The changes in circulation also show strengthened/weakened southward flow at 550 hPa/200 hPa, which would in turn enhance/weaken the African easterly jet (AEJ)/tropical easterly jet, respectively, consistent with the climate feature in the Sahel dry years. The stronger AEJ is associated with the heating to its north by the dust particles, which would result in a southward shift of its location favoring more precipitation over the Guinea Coast <span class="hlt">region</span> and less precipitation over the Sahel. Over the South/East Asia where monsoon system is much stronger, dust heating occurs in the upper atmosphere where the Tibetan Plateau is located. Increased upward air movement is broadly found, which induces convergence in the lower atmosphere and draws more low-level moist air from the ocean into the land, leading to a convergence of moisture flux and increased precipitation, in agreement with the elevated heat pump theory (Lau et al. 2006). Therefore, whether the dust effect</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6282923','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6282923"><span>Estimating the economic and demographic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of solar technology commercialization on US <span class="hlt">regions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kort, J.R.</p> <p>1980-12-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study is to develop a framework through which these <span class="hlt">regional</span> economic and demographic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of solar technology commercialization can be analyzed. Two models comprise the basis of this framework - a national input/output model and an interregional econometric model, the National-<span class="hlt">Regional</span> <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Evaluation System (NRIES). These models are used to convert projected sales of solar energy systems to gross output concepts, and to evaluate the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> associated with these sales. Analysis is provided for the nine census <span class="hlt">regions</span> and 50 states and the District of Columbia for the years 1980 through 1990. <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> on major economic aggregates such as output, employment, income, and population are described. The methodology used in this study is described. The economic and demographic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of solar technology commercialization on US <span class="hlt">regions</span> and states are presented. The major conclusions of the study are summarized, and direction is provided for further research. Detailed tables of <span class="hlt">regional</span> and state solar energy expenditures and their <span class="hlt">impacts</span> appear in the Appendix.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=147538','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=147538"><span>Involvement of the 5'-untranslated <span class="hlt">region</span> in <span class="hlt">cold</span>-regulated expression of the rbpA1 gene in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis M3.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sato, N; Nakamura, A</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Transcript of the rbpA1 gene in Anabaena variabilis accumulates significantly at low growth temperatures below 28 degreesC. This accumulation was maximal at 16 degreesC. Accumulation of the rbpA1 transcript was completely abolished by rifampicin, but not by chloramphenicol. Photosynthesis was not required for this <span class="hlt">cold</span>-induced accumulation. This accumulation of transcript was partly accounted for by increased stability of the rbpA1 transcript at low temperature. Expression of chimeric genes containing 3'-deleted rbpA1 sequences fused to the lacZ gene was regulated by low temperature when almost the entire 5'-untranslated <span class="hlt">region</span> (5'-UTR) remained undeleted. Further deletion resulted in constitutive expression of the chimeric gene. The 5'-UTR sequence formed two types of complexes in vitro with protein extract from cells grown at 38 degreesC, but not with extract from the 22 degreesC grown cells. Affinity purification identified polypeptides of 75 and 32 kDa in Complex 1 and a 72 kDa polypeptide in Complex 2. These results are compatible with a model in which expression of the rbpA1 gene is regulated by transcriptional derepression at low temperature, although additional mechanisms, such as regulation of mRNA stability, might also contribute to temperature-dependent regulation. PMID:9547280</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25757304','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25757304"><span>[Effects of different organic matter mulching on water content, temperature, and available nutrients of apple orchard soil in a <span class="hlt">cold</span> <span class="hlt">region</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhou, Jiang-Tao; Lü, De-Guo; Qin, Si-Jun</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>The effects of different organic matter covers on soil physical-chemical properties were investigated in a 'Hanfu' apple orchard located in a <span class="hlt">cold</span> <span class="hlt">region</span>. Four treatments were applied (weed mulching, rice straw mulching, corn straw mulching, and crushed branches mulching), and physical-chemical properties, including orchard soil moisture and nutrient contents, were compared among treatment groups and between organic matter-treated and untreated plots. The results showed that soil water content increased in the plots treated with organic matter mulching, especially in the arid season. Cover with organic matter mulch slowed the rate of soil temperature increase in spring, which was harmful to the early growth of fruit trees. Organic matter mulching treatments decreased the peak temperature of orchard soil in the summer and increased the minimum soil temperature in the fall. pH was increased in soils treated with organic matter mulching, especially in the corn straw mulching treatment, which occurred as a response to alleviating soil acidification to achieve near-neutral soil conditions. The soil organic matter increased to varying extents among treatment groups, with the highest increase observed in the weed mulching treatment. Overall, mulching increased alkali