Science.gov

Sample records for cold regions research

  1. Regional collaborative research on cold tolerance of exotic biofuel grasses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cold tolerance is a selectable trait for many exotic grasses, even those of tropical or subtropical origin. We are conducting cold tolerance assessments on an array of perennial biofuel grasses at Booneville, AR. In study one (published), we reported that two sugarcane clones (US84-1028 and US84-1...

  2. Technological methods in research for icy meteorites on cold region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fodor, F.

    2008-09-01

    Amongst the less known cosmic origin matters, which are showering our planet Earth are these of icy meteorites, which due to their height temperature on impact largely and completely melt in any zonal temperatures, exception being the two polar zones hence their findings and gathering is only possible these in Antarctica these cosmic sending in bedded in the frozen ice rivers, glaciers are however there and detectable. It is imperative to use an up to date technology for the detection, finding and investigation of these objects as being found preserved in their state of arrivals and embedded in the glaciers. The radioactive isotope content of these so called dirty ice balls and their possible content of organic chemicals could in some way enrich and modify of our concept from the formation of environment of our planet Earth. The same technology could also be used for the mapping of crevices of the two polar regions of the Moon. Our observations obtained from the Hungaria One and Two small planets, shows that there surface beehive as if they were two hinge sizes of ice meteorites.

  3. Wolf Creek Research Basin Cold REgion Process Studies - 1992-2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janowicz, R.; Hedstrom, N.; Pomeroy, J.; Granger, R.; Carey, S.

    2004-12-01

    The development of hydrological models in northern regions are complicated by cold region processes. Sparse vegetation influences snowpack accumulation, redistribution and melt, frozen ground effects infiltration and runoff and cold soils in the summer effect evapotranspiration rates. Situated in the upper Yukon River watershed, the 195 km2 Wolf Creek Research Basin was instrumented in 1992 to calibrate hydrologic flow models, and has since evolved into a comprehensive study of cold region processes and linkages, contributing significantly to hydrological and climate change modelling. Studies include those of precipitation distribution, snowpack accumulation and redistribution, energy balance, snowmelt infiltration, and water balance. Studies of the spatial variability of hydrometeorological data demonstrate the importance of physical parameters on their distribution and control on runoff processes. Many studies have also identified the complex interaction of several of the physical parameters, including topography, vegetation and frozen ground (seasonal or permafrost) as important. They also show that there is a fundamental, underlying spatial structure to the watershed that must be adequately represented in parameterization schemes for scaling and watershed modelling. The specific results of numerous studies are presented.

  4. Thermal environment analysis and energy conservation research of rural residence in cold regions of China based on BIM platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, J. Y.; Cheng, W.; Ma, C. P.; Xin, L. S.; Tan, Y. T.

    2017-06-01

    In order to study the issue of rural residential energy consumption in cold regions of China, modeled an architecture prototype based on BIM platform according to the affecting factors of rural residential thermal environment, and imported the virtual model which contains building information into energy analysis tools and chose the appropriate building orientation. By analyzing the energy consumption of the residential buildings with different enclosure structure forms, we designed the optimal energy-saving residence form. There is a certain application value of this method for researching the energy consumption and energy-saving design for the rural residence in cold regions of China.

  5. Remote sensing hydrology experiment in cold regions of the Heihe watershed allied telemetry experimental research (HiWATER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Tao; Li, Hongyi; Jin, Rui; Li, Xin; Liu, Shaomin; Ma, Mingguo; Wang, Weizhen; Huang, Chunlin; Kang, Jiang

    2017-04-01

    This presenation reports an integrated hydrological experiment which has the core objective to address the improvement of observations, utilities of remote sensing data, and modeling and assimilation of hydrological processes in cold regions. The distributed automatic meteorological stations (AMS), wireless sensors network (WSN), and runoff (including isotope) measurements were established to obtain the distribution and heterogeneity of near surface meteorological and hydrological variables in spatial and temporal. A snow observation superstation was set up to obtain the snow accumulation and ablation process in typical mountain region, while a frozen ground observation superstation was set up to obtain the water and heat balance in a typical seasonal frozen ground region. A large number of field measurements are designed to develop and validate the remote sensing data products, in particular the snow cover area (SCA) and snow cover fraction (SCF) and soil temperature and soil moisture. The integrated experiment will support the interdisciplinary research in cold regions.

  6. Cold regions hydrology and hydraulics

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, W.L. ); Crissman, R.D. )

    1990-01-01

    This monograph addresses a narrow aspect of cold regions engineering, namely the effects of cold weather on the traditional civil engineering disciplines of hydrology and hydraulics. Hydrologic and hydraulic considerations in the design, construction, and operation of civil works are very important. Many of the problems encountered in the design and construction of buildings, transportation systems, water supply facilities, waste treatment facilities, and hazardous waste disposal facilities, for example are closely tied to the characteristics of the site hydrology.

  7. From chemicals to cold plasma: Non-thermal food processing technologies research at the USDA's Eastern Regional Research Center

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Foodborne pathogens cause millions of illnesses every year. At the US Department of Agriculture’s Eastern Regional Research Center, scientists and engineers have focused on developing new ways to improve food safety and shelf life while retaining quality and nutritional value. A variety of technolog...

  8. Cold fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    1989-11-01

    I am pleased to forward to you the Final Report of the Cold Fusion Panel. This report reviews the current status of cold fusion and includes major chapters on Calorimetry and Excess Heat, Fusion Products and Materials Characterization. In addition, the report makes a number of conclusions and recommendations, as requested by the Secretary of Energy.

  9. Remedial Investigation Report Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, Hanover, New Hampshire

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-01

    centimeters thick) and a summer layer of lami- nated fine -grained sand and silt (greater than 30 centimeters thick) (Larsen 1987). In some areas, the...consist of a 30- to 50-foot section of varved silts with few clay layers overlying very fine - to fine -grained sands and silty sands up to 150 feet in...Protection Agency EPIC Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center FERF Frost Effects Research Facility FSP Field Sampling Plan GC/MS Gas Chromatography

  10. Cold dust in hot regions

    SciTech Connect

    Sreenilayam, Gopika; Fich, Michel; Ade, Peter; Bintley, Dan; Chapin, Ed; Chrysostomou, Antonio; Jenness, Tim; Dunlop, James S.; Holland, Wayne S.; Ivison, Rob; Gibb, Andy; Halpern, Mark; Scott, Douglas; Greaves, Jane S.; Robson, Ian

    2014-03-01

    We mapped five massive star-forming regions with the SCUBA-2 camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. Temperature and column density maps are obtained from the SCUBA-2 450 and 850 μm images. Most of the dense clumps we find have central temperatures below 20 K, with some as cold as 8 K, suggesting that they have no internal heating due to the presence of embedded protostars. This is surprising, because at the high densities inferred from these images and at these low temperatures such clumps should be unstable, collapsing to form stars and generating internal heating. The column densities at the clump centers exceed 10{sup 23} cm{sup –2}, and the derived peak visual extinction values are from 25 to 500 mag for β = 1.5-2.5, indicating highly opaque centers. The observed cloud gas masses range from ∼10 to 10{sup 3} M {sub ☉}. The outer regions of the clumps follow an r {sup –2.36±0.35} density distribution, and this power-law structure is observed outside of typically 10{sup 4} AU. All these findings suggest that these clumps are high-mass starless clumps and most likely contain high-mass starless cores.

  11. Assessment of cold-climate environmental research priorities

    SciTech Connect

    States, J.B.

    1983-04-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has consistently recognized that cold regions pose unique environmental problems. This report sets forth the conceptual framework and research plans for several high priority research areas. It provides the fundamental basis for implementation of the EPA Cold-Climate Environmental Research Program. This three- to five-year program encompasses both short- and long-term research of high relevance to the EPA and to the cold regions that it serves.

  12. Inflammation in cold complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dirckx, M; Stronks, D L; van Bodegraven-Hof, E A M; Wesseldijk, F; Groeneweg, J G; Huygen, F J P M

    2015-07-01

    In patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), the temperature of the affected side often differs from that of the contralateral side. In the acute phase, the affected side is usually warmer than the contralateral side, the so-called 'warm' CRPS. This thermal asymmetry can develop into a colder affected side, the so-called 'cold' CRPS. In contrast to cold CRPS, in warm CRPS, inflammation is generally assumed to be present. However, there are reports of cold CRPS patients, successfully treated with vasodilatation therapy, who subsequently displayed warm CRPS. It seems that inflammation could be 'hidden' behind vasomotor disturbance. This study was designed to test this hypothesis. A retrospective analysis was made of patients in our CRPS database. We defined three types of CRPS: cold CRPS, neither cold nor warm (intermediate) CRPS, and warm CRPS. Of these patients, the difference between the level of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 (Δ IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (Δ TNF-α) in the affected extremity and that in the contralateral extremity was determined. The bilateral difference of the level of these cytokines did not differ among patients with cold CRPS, intermediate CRPS, or those with warm CRPS. Inflammation may be involved in cold CRPS. © 2015 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Cold Regions - Environmental Testing of Individual Soldier Clothing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-17

    This Test Operations Procedure (TOP) provides testing guidelines for individual Soldier cold weather clothing and footwear in a cold regions...Cold weather clothing test Cold weather footwear test Environmental clothing test Environmental footwear test 16...1983; TOP 10-3-512 Cold Regions Environmental Test of Boot and Similar Footwear , dated 9 May 1980; and TOP 10-4-005 Arctic Environmental Test of

  14. Cold Roller-Compacted Concrete for Roads and Hardstands on Army Installations in Cold Regions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Barna, and Charles Smith Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center 72 Lyme Road Hanover...plant. While typical RCC mixes incorporate supplemental cementitious material (SCM), or waste by-products to offset the quantity of cement used...staff in charge of roads and grounds maintenance. This was supplemented by a visit to the field site by one of the authors approximately 100 days

  15. Cold Regions Test of Tracked and Wheeled Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-11

    specific and general procedures for testing tracked and wheeled vehicles in a Cold Regions environment. The common characteristics of a cold region...Operations Procedure (TOP) provides specific and general procedures for testing tracked and wheeled vehicles in a cold regions environment. The common ...Seals. a. Fluid seeps and minor leaks are common when first operating these systems in the cold . Exposure to extreme temperature changes can

  16. Cold Memories: An Examination of U.S. Army Doctrine for Combat in Cold Regions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-14

    enormous loss of combat. power due to cold injuries caused a massive study by the Surgeon General’s office before the invasion of Italy, and the immediate...dense cold air. and the trapping of the cold air by temperature inversions. These cause local concentrations of extremely low ambient. air...temperatures. Thus. short days can cause the subarctic regions of Siberia, Alaska, and Canada to produce the coldest temperatures on Earth’. CoM Rl•iimx Pbemwena

  17. Accumulation, Characterization, and Stabilization of Sludges for Cold Regions Lagoons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    aide If necesary and Identify by block number) Cold regions Lagoons Sanitary engineering Sewage Sludge 20 ASTIACT’ (CVtha sm etam aM N rnemind i...regions sludge accumulates during cold winter months but digests sufficiently during the warmer summer months to maintain the desired balance ...benthic sludge accumulation zone for only 2 to 4 months per year. If excess sludge in sewage lagoons is accumulating, then sludge volume and

  18. Observations of cold ion heating inside the magnetospheric separatrix region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo Redondo, Sergio; Andre, Mats; Vaivads, Andris; Khotyaintsev, Yuri; Lavraud, Benoit; Graham, Daniel; Divin, Andrey; Aunai, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    Several studies have shown that cold ions (energies up to tens of eV) of ionospheric origin can be found in different regions of the magnetosphere, including the dayside magnetopause. They can be very abundant, up to ~100 cc, e.g. plasmaspheric plumes, and become the dominant population of the magnetosphere. Cold ions, when present, participate in magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause, mass loading the magnetospheric side and adding a new length-scale into the system owing to their smaller gyroradius. At the same time, reconnection accelerates and heats the cold ions. Based on multi-spacecraft observations, we report observations of cold ion heating inside the separatrix region when reconnection is ongoing and study the mechanisms that energize the cold ions. The heating is not always observed and our observations indicate that cold ion heating is more effective next to the X-line. We find that large electric field gradients and wave-particle interactions are consistent with the heating observed.

  19. The Temporary Environment - Cold Regions Habitability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-10-01

    not arrive at a final state of prcsentation for this report. Future research is neces- sary to determin~ e the matrix arrangement of synonurphs and the...34Why do a behavior setting survey ?" "Aren’t there msany easier ways to do such research ’?" For example, the set of questionnaires tecommended by...for tie ordinary designer or researcher to include all of the possible responses in his search for answers. Therd.fore. the behj- vior setting survey

  20. Assessment of cold-climate environmental research priorities. Appendixes A, B

    SciTech Connect

    States, J.B.

    1983-04-01

    These appendices present research plans in the areas of air pollution, water contamination/consumption, habitat modification and waste management that are relevant to the EPA's cold regions program. (ACR)

  1. Fuel cell power source for a cold region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, B. K.; Velayutham, G.; Goud, A. Prasad

    operation. Based on the results of these experiments, the design of the fuel cell power source for cold region application has been finalised. The paper deals with the design criteria and design factors to be considered for the fuel cell power source for cold region application and details of tests and test results that led to the final design concept for such an application. The paper also deals with a proposed hybrid power plant taking into account the exploitation of wind energy with a fuel cell and generation of hydrogen by an electrolyser and provision of hydrogen storage.

  2. What caused the 2009 cold event in the Atlantic cold tongue region?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burmeister, Kristin; Brandt, Peter; Lübbecke, Joke F.

    2016-04-01

    The tropical Atlantic (TA) exhibits sea surface temperature (SST) variability on seasonal to inter-annual time scales. This variability is associated with changes of atmospheric dynamics, linking it to severe flooding or droughts in South America and West Africa. This study investigates processes in the TA that might have caused the extreme cold event in the Atlantic cold tongue (ACT) region in 2009. During boreal spring, a strong negative Atlantic meridional mode event developed in the TA associated with northwesterly wind anomalies along the equator. Contrary to what would be expected from ENSO-like dynamics, these wind anomalies did not lead to a warming in the eastern equatorial Atlantic in boreal summer. Instead, from May to August 2009, an abrupt cooling took place in the ACT region resulting in the coldest August ACT SST on record. In the literature, two processes - equatorial wave reflection and meridional advection of subsurface temperatures - are discussed as potential causes of such an event. Whereas previous studies are mainly based on satellite data, reanalysis products and model output, we here use in situ measurements (data from Argo floats, PIRATA buoys, and TACE moorings, as well as CTD data of various ship cruises) in addition to satellite and reanalysis products to investigate the contribution of both processes to the strong surface cooling in the ACT region in 2009. Results based on the Argo float data confirm previous findings that equatorial wave reflection contributed to the cold event in the ACT region in 2009. They further indicate that higher baroclinic mode waves played an important role. The analysis of in situ and reanalysis temperature and velocity data does not suggest a significant contribution of meridional advection of subsurface temperatures for the onset of the 2009 cold event. The results indicate an asymmetry in the importance of meridional advection for non-ENSO-like cold and warm events with warm events more strongly affected

  3. HOT AND COLD DUST NEAR H II REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Sreenilayam, Gopika; Fich, Michel

    2011-07-15

    We estimate the mass, temperature, and luminosity of the hot ({>=}100 K), cool (20-40 K), and cold ({<=}20 K) dust in the environs of Galactic H II regions using Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) and Submillimeter Common User Bolometric Array (SCUBA) data. A total of 83 clouds have been examined using IRAS data. A two-component model spectral energy distribution (SED) of hot and cool dust is used to fit the IRAS data. All of the SEDs use a graphite/silicate mix of grains in an MRN distribution. A three-component model SED is fitted to combined SCUBA and IRAS data for 15 clouds near H II regions to measure the cold dust component. Surprisingly, the ratio of the bolometric luminosity of the cool dust to the hot dust appears to be the same (2.8) in virtually all objects. The cool dust has typically four-five orders of magnitude greater mass than the hot dust. However, the mass in cold dust is much greater than the mass in cool and hot dust. We also find some evidence for a relationship between the cool and cold dust masses. These results may prove useful for using IR observations for estimating gas masses in extragalactic systems with active high-mass star formation.

  4. Arctic atmospheric circulation patterns responsible for dry and cold air inflows to the Baltic Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, Piia; Sepp, Mait

    2015-04-01

    Essential changes have taken place in atmospheric circulation over the Northern Atlantic in winter and spring during the second half of the 20th century. The winter temperature rise in Europe is frequently attributed to the intensification of zonal flow on the Northern Atlantic region and the same is valid for the Baltic Sea region. Intensification of zonal circulation and its expression through NAO and AO indices have been thoroughly studied, but less is known about mechanisms causing declination from the zonality of flow. Extremely cold weather in winter and spring in Baltic Sea region is related to the radiative cooling or advection of cold air masses. In both cases, the typical western flow is blocked and the region is directly influenced by atmospheric circulation conditions in the Arctic through the cold air advection events. Our aim is to study which large scale atmospheric circulation patterns are responsible for this kind of cold air advection to the Baltic Sea region in winter and spring (from December to May). The second task is to identify if this kind of circulation has become less frequent in the region under research beginning from the last half of the 20th century till now. Describing the atmospheric circulation patterns we use several classifications of atmospheric circulation on daily level. The domain of the classifications covers Atlantic-European sector of the Arctic, including area between Greenland and Novaya Zemlya archipelago. Manual classifications by Vangengeim-Girs and Dzerdzejevski are used, but also several newly calculated ones, that apply different classification methods from cost733class software. For the latter ones geopotential height fields at 500 hPa level from NCEP-NCAR reanalysis are classified for the period 1948-2013. The cold air advection events are determined by daily temperature drops by at least 3°C during 24 hours. The circulation types that bring advection of cold Arctic air to the Baltic Sea region are analysed in

  5. Sensitization to domestic mites in a cold temperate region.

    PubMed

    Wickman, M; Nordvall, S L; Pershagen, G; Korsgaard, J; Johansen, N

    1993-07-01

    Factors favoring sensitization to house dust mites (HDM) were studied in a cold, temperate climate in northern Sweden. Sixty-five children previously found to react positively to a skin prick test (SPT) to HDM were included. The SPT to HDM was repeated, and serum IgE antibodies to D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae were determined. HDM, Euroglyphus maynei, Tarsonemus, or storage mites occurred in mattress dust samples from 23 of the 65 homes, and in 10 homes more than 100 HDM/g of mattress dust were found. Mites were more prevalent in mattress dust from the basement and ground levels than from the upper floors. Sensitization to HDM was strongly with the presence of domestic mites in mattress and floor dust. Previous longer stays in southern Sweden or Europe were also associated with present sensitization to HDM, and this was independent of occurrence of mites in the residence. The results indicate that HDM growth and potential for sensitization in cold, temperate regions is highly dependent on the microhabitat, and that sensitization to HDM should be possible to prevent in such climatic regions.

  6. Bibliography on Cold Regions Science and Technology. Volume 41. Part 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    numbers under which the report was prepared. 11. Contract/Grant Number. Insert contract or grant number under which report was prepared. 12. Sponsoring...ice model assumes a con- stant ice thickness and considers only the variations of ice com- pactness under the effect of the atmospheric and oceanic...Brittleness of reinforced concrete structures under arctic conditions. Kivtklls. L., et al, U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, May

  7. [Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils by cold-adapted microorganisms: research advance].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shi-jie; Wang, Xiang; Lu, Gui-lan; Wang, Qun-hui; Li, Fa-sheng; Guo, Guan-lin

    2011-04-01

    Cold-adapted microorganisms such as psychrotrophs and psychrophiles widely exist in the soils of sub-Arctic, Arctic, Antarctic, alpine, and high mountains, being the important microbial resources for the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons at low temperature. Using the unique advantage of cold-adapted microorganisms to the bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in low temperature region has become a research hotspot. This paper summarized the category and cold-adaptation mechanisms of the microorganisms able to degrade petroleum hydrocarbon at low temperature, biodegradation characteristics and mechanisms of different petroleum fractions under the action of cold-adapted microorganisms, bio-stimulation techniques for improving biodegradation efficiency, e. g., inoculating petroleum-degrading microorganisms and adding nutrients or bio-surfactants, and the present status of applying molecular biotechnology in this research field, aimed to provide references to the development of bioremediation techniques for petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils.

  8. Cold Regions Environmental Test of Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Decontamination Equipment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    6502, Engine, Cold-starting and Warmup Tests. (2) Decontaminant mixing/filling. Evaluate ease of filling and mixing decontaminants at low temperatures...2. TOP 2-2-650, Engine Cold-Starting and Warmup Tests, 18 July 1980. 3. TOP 8-4-015, Cold Regions Logistics, Supportability Testing of Chemical

  9. Tumor Cold Ischemia - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    In a recently published manuscript in the journal of Molecular and Cellular Proteomics, researchers from the National Cancer Institutes (NCI) Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) investigated the effect of cold ischemia on the proteome of fresh frozen tumors.

  10. Tumor Cold Ischemia | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    In a recently published manuscript in the journal of Molecular and Cellular Proteomics, researchers from the National Cancer Institutes (NCI) Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) investigated the effect of cold ischemia on the proteome of fresh frozen tumors.

  11. Biomembranes research using thermal and cold neutrons.

    PubMed

    Heberle, F A; Myles, D A A; Katsaras, J

    2015-11-01

    In 1932 James Chadwick discovered the neutron using a polonium source and a beryllium target (Chadwick, 1932). In a letter to Niels Bohr dated February 24, 1932, Chadwick wrote: "whatever the radiation from Be may be, it has most remarkable properties." Where it concerns hydrogen-rich biological materials, the "most remarkable" property is the neutron's differential sensitivity for hydrogen and its isotope deuterium. Such differential sensitivity is unique to neutron scattering, which unlike X-ray scattering, arises from nuclear forces. Consequently, the coherent neutron scattering length can experience a dramatic change in magnitude and phase as a result of resonance scattering, imparting sensitivity to both light and heavy atoms, and in favorable cases to their isotopic variants. This article describes recent biomembranes research using a variety of neutron scattering techniques.

  12. Biomembranes research using thermal and cold neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Heberle, Frederick A.; Myles, Dean A. A.; Katsaras, John

    2015-08-01

    In 1932 James Chadwick discovered the neutron using a polonium source and a beryllium target (Chadwick, 1932). In a letter to Niels Bohr dated February 24, 1932, Chadwick wrote: “whatever the radiation from Be may be, it has most remarkable properties.” Where it concerns hydrogen-rich biological materials, the “most remarkable” property is the neutron’s differential sensitivity for hydrogen and its isotope deuterium. Such differential sensitivity is unique to neutron scattering, which unlike X-ray scattering, arises from nuclear forces. Consequently, the coherent neutron scattering length can experience a dramatic change in magnitude and phase as a result of resonance scattering, imparting sensitivity to both light and heavy atoms, and in favorable cases to their isotopic variants. Furthermore, this article describes recent biomembranes research using a variety of neutron scattering techniques.

  13. Biomembranes research using thermal and cold neutrons

    DOE PAGES

    Heberle, Frederick A.; Myles, Dean A. A.; Katsaras, John

    2015-08-01

    In 1932 James Chadwick discovered the neutron using a polonium source and a beryllium target (Chadwick, 1932). In a letter to Niels Bohr dated February 24, 1932, Chadwick wrote: “whatever the radiation from Be may be, it has most remarkable properties.” Where it concerns hydrogen-rich biological materials, the “most remarkable” property is the neutron’s differential sensitivity for hydrogen and its isotope deuterium. Such differential sensitivity is unique to neutron scattering, which unlike X-ray scattering, arises from nuclear forces. Consequently, the coherent neutron scattering length can experience a dramatic change in magnitude and phase as a result of resonance scattering, impartingmore » sensitivity to both light and heavy atoms, and in favorable cases to their isotopic variants. Furthermore, this article describes recent biomembranes research using a variety of neutron scattering techniques.« less

  14. Facilities for Fundamental Neutron Physics Research at the NIST Cold Neutron Research Facility

    PubMed Central

    Arif, M.; Dewey, M. S.; Greene, G. L.; Snow, W. M.

    1993-01-01

    The features of two fundamental neutron physics research stations at the NIST cold neutron research facility are described in some detail. A list of proposed initial experimental programs for these two stations is also given. PMID:28053463

  15. Regional Discrimination Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    regional phase amplitudes across southern Russia from earthquake sources in the Pamir Mountain region and Baikal area ....... .................. ... 11 7...and Southern Asia from explosions in east Kazakh .......... . 11. Comparison of peak L and maximum P amplitude measuremenZs for events in I. the...U.S.S.R. recorded outside the country ....... ................... ... 18 12. Comparison of peak amplitudes before and after Sn and in the Pn and Lg windows

  16. Three-scale structure of diffusion region in the presence of cold ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divin, A.; Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Vaivads, A.; André, M.; Toledo-Redondo, S.; Markidis, S.; Lapenta, G.

    2016-12-01

    Kinetic simulations and spacecraft observations typically display the two-scale structure of collisionless diffusion region (DR), with electron and ion demagnetization scales governing the spatial extent of the DR. Recent in situ observations of the nightside magnetosphere, as well as investigation of magnetic reconnection events at the Earth's magnetopause, discovered the presence of a population of cold (tens of eV) ions of ionospheric origin. We present two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of collisionless magnetic reconnection in multicomponent plasma with ions consisting of hot and cold populations. We show that a new cold ion diffusion region scale is introduced in between that of hot ions and electrons. Demagnetization scale of cold ion population is several times (˜4-8) larger than the initial cold ion gyroradius. Cold ions are accelerated and thermalized during magnetic reconnection and form ion beams moving with velocities close to the Alfvén velocity.

  17. Feasibility of Steel Fiber-Reinforced Rubberized Concrete in Cold Regions for High Volume Intersections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abou Eid, Mahear A.

    There are many challenges faced with the use of Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) in cold regions, but with the inclusion of new technologies such as steel fibers and recycled tire crumb rubber efficient construction may be possible. Research was conducted on a modified concrete material that included both steel fibers and crumb rubber. The composite material was called Steel Fiber-Reinforced Rubberized Concrete (SFRRC). The objective of this investigation was to provide evidence showing that SFRRC can reduce tire rutting compared to asphaltic pavement. In addition, the research showed that the SFRRC could withstand freeze-thaw cycles and increase service life of roadways. Several tests were performed to determine the characteristics of the material. Freeze-thaw testing was performed to determine compressive strength loss and visual deterioration of the material. Wheel tracker rut testing was performed both with the standard steel wheel and with a modified studded rubber tire to determine plastic deformation and rut resistance. An experimental test slab was cast in place on a public approach to observe the construction procedures, the effects of studded tire wear and the frost actions in cold region conditions. Based on freeze-thaw and wheel tracker test results and observations of the experimental test slab, the SFRRC material shows viability in cold regions for resisting freeze-thaw actions. The freeze-thaw testing resulted in increased compressive strength after 300 freeze-thaw cycles and very low deterioration of material compared to standard PCC. The wheel tracker testing resulted in very low plastic deformation and minor material rutting with use of the studded rubber tire. The test slab showed very minor surface wear, no freeze-thaw cracking and no rutting after one winter of use. It is recommended that further testing of the material be conducted by means of a large-scale trial section. This would provide information with respect to cost analysis and

  18. Cold Regions Environmental Test of CB Protective Masks.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-01

    Question 23: a. When you put your mask on and cleared it, did the mask lenses become foggy? (Note: fog means moisture on the inside or outside of the...have any frost form on the lenses ? (note: frost means moisture /ice.) Yes No b. If yes, what was the problem and under what circumstances did you...cold-wet uniform is designed to afford maximum protection against the hazards of changing temperatures, rain, wet snow, mud, and slush of a cold-wet

  19. The NIST NBSR and Cold Neutron Research Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Rush, J.J.

    1994-12-31

    The 20 MW Neutron Beam Split-Core Reactor (NBSR) has nine radial thermal beam tubes, and a large, highly accessible (35cm) cold source serving an extensive network of eight guide tubes. In operation or under construction are twenty-five neutron beam instruments (20 for neutron scattering) and about a dozen other facilities for neutron trace analysis, dosimetry and irradiation. The 6 x 15cm cold neutron guides are coated with {sup 58}Ni, and the last three being installed this fall are coated top and bottom with supermirrors for further increases in intensity. The new semi-spherical liquid hydrogen source will be described, along with the eight scattering instruments (reflectometry, SANS and high-resolution spectroscopy) which have, or will have, an extensive use in biological research. These instruments will likely provide the best overall capability in the U.S. for the next decade for a number of applications in biomolecular structure and dynamics.

  20. Simulating cold-region hydrology in an intensively drained agricultural watershed in Manitoba, Canada, using the Cold Regions Hydrological Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordeiro, Marcos R. C.; Wilson, Henry F.; Vanrobaeys, Jason; Pomeroy, John W.; Fang, Xing; The Red-Assiniboine Project Biophysical Modelling Team

    2017-07-01

    Etrophication and flooding are perennial problems in agricultural watersheds of the northern Great Plains. A high proportion of annual runoff and nutrient transport occurs with snowmelt in this region. Extensive surface drainage modification, frozen soils, and frequent backwater or ice-damming impacts on flow measurement represent unique challenges to accurately modelling watershed-scale hydrological processes. A physically based, non-calibrated model created using the Cold Regions Hydrological Modelling platform (CRHM) was parameterized to simulate hydrological processes within a low slope, clay soil, and intensively surface drained agricultural watershed. These characteristics are common to most tributaries of the Red River of the north. Analysis of the observed water level records for the study watershed (La Salle River) indicates that ice cover and backwater issues at time of peak flow may impact the accuracy of both modelled and measured streamflows, highlighting the value of evaluating a non-calibrated model in this environment. Simulations best matched the streamflow record in years when peak and annual discharges were equal to or above the medians of 6.7 m3 s-1 and 1.25 × 107 m3, respectively, with an average Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) of 0.76. Simulation of low-flow years (below the medians) was more challenging (average NSE < 0), with simulated discharge overestimated by 90 % on average. This result indicates the need for improved understanding of hydrological response in the watershed under drier conditions. Simulation during dry years was improved when infiltration was allowed prior to soil thaw, indicating the potential importance of preferential flow. Representation of in-channel dynamics and travel time under the flooded or ice-jam conditions should also receive attention in further model development efforts. Despite the complexities of the study watershed, simulations of flow for average to high-flow years and other components of the water

  1. Bibliography on Cold Regions Science and Technology. Volume 42

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    growth, lee forasatloa. Water flow. 42-1708 Frceslag fracture of water pipes la low temperature. Salto , H., et al. International Symposium on Cold...Edited by K.C. Cheng, V.J. Lunardini and N. Seki, New York, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1987, p.183-187, 8 refs. Inaba, H., Salto , H...undetectable in the bulk of the ice. However, at the junctions where three grains met ( triple -junctions), lulphur was found in concentrations

  2. Cold Regions Environmental Test of CB Protective Masks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-28

    become foggy? (Note: fog means moisture on the inside or outside of the lenses ) Yes No b. If yes, how much time went by before the fogging disappeared? 6...the weather like and what were you doing? Question 24: a. Did you ever have any frost form on the lenses ? (note: frost means moisture /ice.) Yes No b...basis, some degree of flexibility in uniform requirements is necessary. The cold-wet uniform is designed to afford maximum protection against the hazards

  3. Cold plasma as an antimicrobial intervention for fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables: an ERRC research update

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Contamination of fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables by foodborne pathogens has prompted research at the Eastern Regional Research Center into novel interventions. Cold plasma is a nonthermal food processing technology which uses energetic, reactive gases to inactivate contaminating microbes. ...

  4. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Florida Solar Energy Center; IBACOS; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-08-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in Cold Climates on a cost-neutral basis.

  5. INTERFROST: a benchmark of Thermo-Hydraulic codes for cold regions hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenier, Christophe; Roux, Nicolas; Costard, François; Pessel, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Large focus was put recently on the impact of climate changes in boreal regions due to the large temperature amplitudes expected. Large portions of these regions, corresponding to permafrost areas, are covered by water bodies (lakes, rivers) with very specific evolution and water budget. These water bodies generate taliks (unfrozen zones below) that may play a key role in the context of climate change. Recent studies and modeling exercises showed that a fully coupled 2D or 3D Thermo-Hydraulic (TH) approach is a minimal requirement to model and understand the evolution of the river and lake - soil continuum in a changing climate (e.g. Mc Kenzie et al., 2007; Bense et al 2009, Rowland et al 2011; Painter 2011; Grenier et al 2012; Painter et al 2012 and others from the 2012 special issue Hydrogeology Journal: "Hydrogeology of cold regions"). However, 3D studies are still scarce while numerical approaches can only be validated against analytical solutions for the purely thermal equation with conduction and phase change (e.g. Neumann, Lunardini). When it comes to the coupled TH system (coupling two highly non-linear equations), the only possible approach is to compare different codes on provided test cases and/or to have controlled experiments for validation. We propose here to join the INTERFROST benchmark exercise addressing these issues. We give an overview of some of its test cases (phase I) as well as provide the present stand of the exercise and invite other research groups to join. This initial phase of the benchmark consists of some test cases inspired by existing literature (e.g. Mc Kenzie et al., 2007) as well as new ones. Some experimental cases in cold room complement the validation approach. In view of a Phase II, the project is open as well to other test cases reflecting a numerical or a process oriented interest or answering a more general concern among the cold region community. A further purpose of the benchmark exercise is to propel discussions for the

  6. INTERFROST: a benchmark of Thermo-Hydraulic codes for cold regions hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenier, C. F.; Roux, N.; Costard, F.; Pessel, M.

    2013-12-01

    Large focus was put recently on the impact of climate changes in boreal regions due to the large temperature amplitudes expected. Large portions of these regions, corresponding to permafrost areas, are covered by water bodies (lakes, rivers) with very specific evolution and water budget. These water bodies generate taliks (unfrozen zones below) that may play a key role in the context of climate change. Recent studies and modeling exercises showed that a fully coupled 2D or 3D Thermo-Hydraulic (TH) approach is a minimal requirement to model and understand the evolution of the river and lake - soil continuum in a changing climate (e.g. Mc Kenzie et al., 2007; Bense et al 2009, Rowland et al 2011; Painter 2011; Grenier et al 2012; Painter et al 2012 and others from the 2012 special issue Hydrogeology Journal: 'Hydrogeology of cold regions'). However, 3D studies are still scarce while numerical approaches can only be validated against analytical solutions for the purely thermal equation with conduction and phase change (e.g. Neumann, Lunardini). When it comes to the coupled TH system (coupling two highly non-linear equations), the only possible approach is to compare different codes on provided test cases and/or to have controlled experiments for validation. We propose here to initiate a benchmark exercise, detail some of its planned test cases (phase I) and invite other research groups to join. This initial phase of the benchmark will consist of some test cases inspired by existing literature (e.g. Mc Kenzie et al., 2007) as well as new ones. Some experimental cases in cold room will complement the validation approach. In view of a Phase II, the project is open as well to other test cases reflecting a numerical or a process oriented interest or answering a more general concern among the cold region community. A further purpose of the benchmark exercise is to propel discussions for the optimization of codes and numerical approaches in order to develop validated and

  7. Revising the history of Cold War research ethics.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Jonathan D; Lederer, Susan E

    1996-09-01

    President Clinton's charge to the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments included the identification of ethical and legal standards for evaluating government-sponsored radiation experiments conducted during the Cold War. In this paper, we review the traditional account of the history of American research ethics, and then highlight and explain the significance of a number of the Committee's historical findings as they relate to this account. These findings include both the national defense establishment's struggles with legal and insurance issues concerning human experiments, and the medical profession's perspective on human experimentation in the years following the Nuremberg Medical Trials. We conclude that the Committee's work both enriches the traditional view of the history of research ethics and opens important new areas for study.

  8. LLNL's Regional Seismic Discrimination Research

    SciTech Connect

    Hanley, W; Mayeda, K; Myers, S; Pasyanos, M; Rodgers, A; Sicherman, A; Walter, W

    1999-07-23

    As part of the Department of Energy's research and development effort to improve the monitoring capability of the planned Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty international monitoring system, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLNL) is testing and calibrating regional seismic discrimination algorithms in the Middle East, North Africa and Western Former Soviet Union. The calibration process consists of a number of steps: (1) populating the database with independently identified regional events; (2) developing regional boundaries and pre-identifying severe regional phase blockage zones; (3) measuring and calibrating coda based magnitude scales; (4a) measuring regional amplitudes and making magnitude and distance amplitude corrections (MDAC); (4b) applying the DOE modified kriging methodology to MDAC results using the regionalized background model; (5) determining the thresholds of detectability of regional phases as a function of phase type and frequency; (6) evaluating regional phase discriminant performance both singly and in combination; (7) combining steps 1-6 to create a calibrated discrimination surface for each stations; (8) assessing progress and iterating. We have now developed this calibration procedure to the point where it is fairly straightforward to apply earthquake-explosion discrimination in regions with ample empirical data. Several of the steps outlined above are discussed in greater detail in other DOE papers in this volume or in recent publications. Here we emphasize the results of the above process: station correction surfaces and their improvement to discrimination results compared with simpler calibration methods. Some of the outstanding discrimination research issues involve cases in which there is little or no empirical data. For example in many cases there is no regional nuclear explosion data at IMS stations or nearby surrogates. We have taken two approaches to this problem, first finding and using mining explosion data when available, and

  9. A new benchmark of Thermo-Hydraulic codes for cold regions hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenier, Christophe; Roux, Nicolas; Costard, François

    2013-04-01

    Large focus was put recently on the impact of climate changes in boreal regions due to the large amplitudes expected. Large portions of these regions, corresponding to permafrost areas, are covered by water bodies (lakes, rivers) with very specific evolution and water budget. These water bodies generate taliks (unfrozen zones below) that may play a key role in the context of climate change. Recent studies and modeling exercises showed that a fully coupled 2D or 3D Thermo-Hydraulic (TH) approach is required to understand and model the evolution of rivers and lakes in a changing climate. However, 3D studies are still scarce while all numerical approaches can only be validated against analytical solutions for a purely thermic equation with phase change (e.g. Neumann, Lunardini). When it comes to the coupled TH system (coupling two highly non-linear equations), the only possible approach is to compare different codes on provided test cases and/or to have controlled experiments for validation and propel discussions to try and improve the code performances. We propose here a benchmark exercise, detail some of its planned test cases and invite other research groups to join. The benchmark will consist of some test cases inspired by existing literature (e.g. Mc Kenzie et al., 2007) as well as new ones. Some experimental cases in cold room will complement the validation approach. The benchmark is open as well to new or alternative cases reflecting a numerical or a process oriented interest or answering a more general concern among the cold region community. A further purpose of the benchmark exercise is to propel discussions for the optimization of codes and numerical approaches in order to develop validated and optimized simulation tools allowing in the end for 3D realistic applications. A web site hosted by LSCE is under construction to allow easy interaction or downloading. Future prospects will be envisioned including organization of specific meetings or conference

  10. THE COLD SHOULDER: EMISSION MEASURE DISTRIBUTIONS OF ACTIVE REGION CORES

    SciTech Connect

    Schmelz, J. T.; Pathak, S.

    2012-09-10

    The coronal heating mechanism for active region core loops is difficult to determine because these loops are often not resolved and cannot be studied individually. Rather, we concentrate on the 'inter-moss' areas between loop footpoints. We use observations from the Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer and the X-Ray Telescope to calculate the emission measure distributions of eight inter-moss areas in five different active regions. The combined data sets provide both high- and low-temperature constraints and ensure complete coverage in the temperature range appropriate for active regions. For AR 11113, the emission can be modeled with heating events that occur on timescales less than the cooling time. The loops in the core regions appear to be close to equilibrium and are consistent with steady heating. The other regions studied, however, appear to be dominated by nanoflare heating. Our results are consistent with the idea that active region age is an important parameter in determining whether steady or nanoflare heating is primarily responsible for the core emission, that is, older regions are more likely to be dominated by steady heating, while younger regions show more evidence of nanoflares.

  11. Improving Snow Measurement Technology to Better Parameterise Cold Regions Hydrometeorology Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomeroy, J.; Debeer, C.; Ellis, C.; Essery, R.; Helgason, W.; Kinar, N.; Link, T.; MacDonald, J.

    2008-12-01

    Marmot Creek Research Basin, in the Rocky Mountains of Alberta, Canada constitutes a long term cold regions hydrometeorological observatory with over 45 years of intensive observations in alpine and forested zones. Recently, novel combinations of measurement technology to snow have been deployed in Marmot Creek to advance the understanding of snow processes and to improve hydrometeorological models of streamflow and atmospheric variables. One advance has been the development and application of portable acoustic reflectometry to measure the density and structure of seasonal snowpacks using an audible sound wave. This has permitted the non-invasive measurement of snow water equivalent for both stationary and snow survey applications. Another advance has been the use of oblique time-lapse digital photography which is corrected for elevation and view angle from a LiDAR DEM to produce daily orthogonal snow covered area images of the alpine zone. These images are used to calculate snowcovered area and to develop and test improved snowcover melt and depletion algorithms. Deployment of 3-axis ultrasonic anemometers and fast hygrometers with collection of 10 Hz data and full correction for non-stationarity, axis rotation and other effects has shown that horizontal turbulence is often advected into mountain clearings and causes failure of traditional bulk transfer calculations of latent and sensible heat. For forest snow a hanging, weighed spruce tree and hanging, weighed sub-canopy troughs are used to capture intercepted snow load and unloaded snow fluxes respectively. These quantities provide the information needed to test detailed models of the snow interception and unloading processes. To quantify variations in sub-canopy energy for snowmelt, infrared imaging radiometers and narrow beam radiometers are used to measure thermal radiation exitance from needles, stems and trunks in forests of varying structure. These measurements are being used to develop improved models of

  12. Diviner lunar radiometer observations of cold traps in the moon's south polar region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paige, D.A.; Siegler, M.A.; Zhang, J.A.; Hayne, P.O.; Foote, E.J.; Bennett, K.A.; Vasavada, A.R.; Greenhagen, B.T.; Schofield, J.T.; McCleese, D.J.; Foote, M.C.; DeJong, E.; Bills, B.G.; Hartford, W.; Murray, B.C.; Allen, C.C.; Snook, K.; Soderblom, L.A.; Calcutt, S.; Taylor, F.W.; Bowles, N.E.; Bandfield, J.L.; Elphic, R.; Ghent, R.; Glotch, T.D.; Wyatt, M.B.; Lucey, P.G.

    2010-01-01

    Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment surface-temperature maps reveal the existence of widespread surface and near-surface cryogenic regions that extend beyond the boundaries of persistent shadow. The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) struck one of the coldest of these regions, where subsurface temperatures are estimated to be 38 kelvin. Large areas of the lunar polar regions are currently cold enough to cold-trap water ice as well as a range of both more volatile and less volatile species. The diverse mixture of water and high-volatility compounds detected in the LCROSS ejecta plume is strong evidence for the impact delivery and cold-trapping of volatiles derived from primitive outer solar system bodies.

  13. Diviner Lunar Radiometer observations of cold traps in the Moon's south polar region.

    PubMed

    Paige, David A; Siegler, Matthew A; Zhang, Jo Ann; Hayne, Paul O; Foote, Emily J; Bennett, Kristen A; Vasavada, Ashwin R; Greenhagen, Benjamin T; Schofield, John T; McCleese, Daniel J; Foote, Marc C; DeJong, Eric; Bills, Bruce G; Hartford, Wayne; Murray, Bruce C; Allen, Carlton C; Snook, Kelly; Soderblom, Laurence A; Calcutt, Simon; Taylor, Fredric W; Bowles, Neil E; Bandfield, Joshua L; Elphic, Richard; Ghent, Rebecca; Glotch, Timothy D; Wyatt, Michael B; Lucey, Paul G

    2010-10-22

    Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment surface-temperature maps reveal the existence of widespread surface and near-surface cryogenic regions that extend beyond the boundaries of persistent shadow. The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) struck one of the coldest of these regions, where subsurface temperatures are estimated to be 38 kelvin. Large areas of the lunar polar regions are currently cold enough to cold-trap water ice as well as a range of both more volatile and less volatile species. The diverse mixture of water and high-volatility compounds detected in the LCROSS ejecta plume is strong evidence for the impact delivery and cold-trapping of volatiles derived from primitive outer solar system bodies.

  14. Effects of modeling decisions on cold region hydrological model performance: snow, soil and streamflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musselman, Keith; Clark, Martyn; Endalamaw, Abraham; Bolton, W. Robert; Nijssen, Bart; Arnold, Jeffrey

    2017-04-01

    Cold regions are characterized by intense spatial gradients in climate, vegetation and soil properties that determine the complex spatiotemporal patterns of snowpack evolution, frozen soil dynamics, catchment connectivity, and streamflow. These spatial gradients pose unique challenges for hydrological models, including: 1) how the spatial variability of the physical processes are best represented across a hierarchy of scales, and 2) what algorithms and parameter sets best describe the biophysical and hydrological processes at the spatial scale of interest. To address these topics, we apply the Structure for Unifying Multiple Modeling Alternatives (SUMMA) to simulate hydrological processes at the Caribou - Poker Creeks Research Watershed in the Alaskan sub-arctic Boreal forest. The site is characterized by numerous gauged headwater catchments ranging in size from 5 sq. km to 106 sq. km with varying extents (3% to 53%) of discontinuous permafrost that permits a multi-scale paired watershed analysis of the hydrological impacts of frozen soils. We evaluate the effects of model decisions on the skill of SUMMA to simulate observed snow and soil dynamics, and the spatial integration of these processes as catchment streamflow. Decisions such as the number of soil layers, total soil column depth, and vertical soil discretization are shown to have profound impacts on the simulation of seasonal active layer dynamics. Decisions on the spatial organization (lateral connectivity, representation of riparian response units, and the spatial discretization of the hydrological landscape) are shown to be as important as accurate snowpack and soil process representation in the simulation of streamflow. The work serves to better inform hydrological model decisions for cold region hydrologic evaluation and to improve predictive capacity for water resource planning.

  15. Overview of Modular Design Strategy of the Shipping Container Architecture in Cold Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zexin; Mei, Hongyuan; Ni, Ruixian

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, the shipping container architecture, as an emerging green building mode, has grown in popularity. In this article, we analyse the advantages of applying shipping container architecture in cold regions, such as shortening the construction cycle, saving construction materials, reducing energy consumption and adapting to diverse sites. Then we analyze the modular design strategy and the modular design strategy in architecture. In the end we introduce the modular design strategy of shipping container architecture in cold regions with the technology roadmap, classification and combination.

  16. Identifying key hydrological and biochemical processes for predicting field scale nitrate and ammonia export in agricultural cold regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, D.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Wheater, H. S.

    2016-12-01

    Nutrient runoff from agricultural cold regions such as the Canadian Prairies is impairing the ecological function of regional lakes and contributing to massive algal blooms such as found in Lake Winnipeg. Improving catchment model predictions of nutrient export in cold regions requires a better understanding and representation of the main processes controlling nutrient exports at multiple scales. Popular state-of-the-art models often have deficient representation of processes at smaller scales and lack the temporal resolution required to capture important solute transport phenomena, such as preferential elution of ions from the melting snowpack, solute infiltration to frozen soils, and transport during rain-on-snow events. Important processes in the Canadian Prairies that are often neglected are wind redistributed snowpacks and the impacts of their heterogeneous snowcover depletion on nutrient transport. In this research, physical evidence from high frequency field measurements were used to develop a process-based nutrient model for field-scale prediction of nitrate-nitrite (NO3-NO2) and ammonia (NH3) concentrations in both spring snowmelt and summer rainfall driven runoff. The process-based, modular Cold Regions Hydrological Model (CRHM) was used to simulate the main hydrological drivers such as snow redistribution, snowmelt, infiltration into frozen and unfrozen soils, evapotranspiration and subsurface and surface runoff generation. Field observations and a model application to the South Tobacco Creek sub-basin of the Red River in Manitoba, Canada, suggests that the transport of nutrients can be divided in five phases of dominant transport mechanisms due to the available nutrient sources progressively changing from the snowpack to the thawing frozen soil during melt. The vertical distribution of nutrient in the snowpack also varies due to ion exclusion processes at the snow crystal-air interface. Such findings are an important step towards more accurate and

  17. Linking glacial, periglacial and paraglacial processes: the challenge of cold regions geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spagnolo, M. S.; Gärtner-Roer, I. G.-R.; Lukas, S. L.

    2012-04-01

    High latitude and high altitude areas, here collectively called "cold regions", are the theatre of several geomorphological processes that lead to the formation of a variety of landforms. Classically, in Geomorphology, these processes are studied in three separate disciplines: glacial, periglacial and paraglacial geomorphology. However, the more these fields have evolved, the more it becomes evident that it is only from the integration of them into a common interdisciplinary approach that the geomorphology of cold regions can be fully understood. The overlaps between glacial, periglacial and paraglacial processes is evident both in time and space. Temporally, these processes overlap when, for instance, an active valley glacier could be found next to a rock glacier developing from a tributary valley and slope movements of previously-deposited lateral moraines could also be occurring along the flank of the same main valley. Spatially, glacial, periglacial and paraglacial geomorphology tend to affect the same regions (the cold regions of above). Moreover, their spatial overlap could be such that they link to each other. For instance, this would happen when an advancing glacier might override and somewhat incorporate a rock glacier. Or when paraglacial movements of previously deposited glacial sediments might feed a now-lowered valley glacier, thus determining an "anomalous" increase of glacier sediment discharge at the valley glacier margin. In this paper we advocate a more integrated, interdisciplinary approach to the study of cold regions by presenting examples from the recent literature that show the importance of such an approach.

  18. Optimization of Domestic-Size Renewable Energy System Designs Suitable for Cold Climate Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akpan, Itoro Etim; Sasaki, Masafumi; Endoh, Noboru

    Five different kinds of domestic-size renewable energy system configurations for very cold climate regions were investigated. From detailed numerical modeling and system simulations, it was found that the consumption of fuel oil for the auxiliary boiler in residential-type households can almost be eliminated with a renewable energy system that incorporates photovoltaic panel arrays for electricity generation and two storage tanks: a well-insulated electric water storage tank that services the hot water loads, and a compact boiler/geothermal heat pump tank for room heating during very cold seasons. A reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GHG) of about 28% was achieved for this system compared to an equivalent conventional system. The near elimination of the use of fuel oil in this system makes it very promising for very cold climate regions in terms of energy savings because the running cost is not so dependent on the unstable nature of global oil prices.

  19. Warming effects on the urban hydrology in cold climate regions.

    PubMed

    Järvi, L; Grimmond, C S B; McFadden, J P; Christen, A; Strachan, I B; Taka, M; Warsta, L; Heimann, M

    2017-07-19

    While approximately 338 million people in the Northern hemisphere live in regions that are regularly snow covered in winter, there is little hydro-climatologic knowledge in the cities impacted by snow. Using observations and modelling we have evaluated the energy and water exchanges of four cities that are exposed to wintertime snow. We show that the presence of snow critically changes the impact that city design has on the local-scale hydrology and climate. After snow melt, the cities return to being strongly controlled by the proportion of built and vegetated surfaces. However in winter, the presence of snow masks the influence of the built and vegetated fractions. We show how inter-year variability of wintertime temperature can modify this effect of snow. With increasing temperatures, these cities could be pushed towards very different partitioning between runoff and evapotranspiration. We derive the dependency of wintertime runoff on this warming effect in combination with the effect of urban densification.

  20. An approach for modelling snowcover ablation and snowmelt runoff in cold region environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dornes, Pablo Fernando

    Reliable hydrological model simulations are the result of numerous complex interactions among hydrological inputs, landscape properties, and initial conditions. Determination of the effects of these factors is one of the main challenges in hydrological modelling. This situation becomes even more difficult in cold regions due to the ungauged nature of subarctic and arctic environments. This research work is an attempt to apply a new approach for modelling snowcover ablation and snowmelt runoff in complex subarctic environments with limited data while retaining integrity in the process representations. The modelling strategy is based on the incorporation of both detailed process understanding and inputs along with information gained from observations of basin-wide streamflow phenomenon; essentially a combination of deductive and inductive approaches. The study was conducted in the Wolf Creek Research Basin, Yukon Territory, using three models, a small-scale physically based hydrological model, a land surface scheme, and a land surface hydrological model. The spatial representation was based on previous research studies and observations, and was accomplished by incorporating landscape units, defined according to topography and vegetation, as the spatial model elements. Comparisons between distributed and aggregated modelling approaches showed that simulations incorporating distributed initial snowcover and corrected solar radiation were able to properly simulate snowcover ablation and snowmelt runoff whereas the aggregated modelling approaches were unable to represent the differential snowmelt rates and complex snowmelt runoff dynamics. Similarly, the inclusion of spatially distributed information in a land surface scheme clearly improved simulations of snowcover ablation. Application of the same modelling approach at a larger scale using the same landscape based parameterisation showed satisfactory results in simulating snowcover ablation and snowmelt runoff with

  1. The role of cold season processes on soil erosion in the Great Lakes Region

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effect of cold season processes on soil erosion is becoming increasingly important for sustainable management of soil resources, especially in regions where agricultural land use is dominant. Few tools exist that can help quantify this effect at scales relevant for resource management and enviro...

  2. Utilization of Sewage Sludge for Terrain Stabilization in Cold Regions. Part 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-11-01

    terrain stabilization in cold regions. In 13 of the 14 plots the variables studied were nutrient source ( fertilizer , sludge and primary wastewater...and vegetation (three grasses and to legumes). The control plot was left bare of seed, fertilizer and erosion control material for comparison. A 20,000

  3. Glacial Isostatic Adjustment - a hot topic in cold regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehouse, Pippa

    2016-04-01

    Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) modelling tackles the classic geodynamical problem of determining the solid Earth response to surface load changes by ice and ocean water whilst at the same time solving for the gravitationally-consistent redistribution of ice sheet meltwater across the global ocean. Understanding this process is important for quantifying both present-day ice mass balance and the response of ice sheets to past and future climatic change. The two fundamental unknowns in this problem are (i) the rheology of the solid Earth, and (ii) the history of global ice sheet change. In this talk I will discuss the myriad of approaches that are used to constrain these two components. In particular, I will focus on Antarctica, where the presence of a continuously-evolving ice sheet, situated on top of one of the most rheologically-diverse regions of the planet, provides us with a challenge that can only be resolved by drawing on knowledge from across the fields of geodynamics, glaciology, geology, geodesy and seismology.

  4. Characteristic Analysis of Continuous Hailfall in the context of Cold Vortex in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Chen

    2016-04-01

    Cold vortex is firstly defined. Using weather maps from April to September during 2000-2011,the temporal-spatial distribution and life characteristics of cold vortex are studied. Disaster weather data from 176 stations in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region from April to September during 2000-2011 and NCEP 1°1°reanalysis data are used to analyze the temporal-spatial distribution characteristics of continuous hailfall of Beijing, Tianjin,Hebei region and its relation with cold vortex. The results showed that: The number of cold vortex mainly occurred from Northeast China to the east of Lake Baikal, and long-lived cold vortex accounted for 70%; It was long-lived vortex that caused continuous haifall in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and Continuous hail in the context of cold vortex exhibited significant diurnal variation .and occurred more in mountainous area than on the plains, more in north area than the south area; Continuous hail mainly occurred to the south of vortex center, and could occur in any period of cold vortex; . The distance between Continuous hail and cold vortex was about 200-1200km .The continuous hailfall were mainly affected by t the cold vortex and its rear transverse trough; Continuous hail occurred in different positionCorresponding to cold vortex with different speed. Keywords: cold vortex; continuous hail; statistics; storm-relative composites

  5. Simulating cold regions hydrological processes using a modular model in the west of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jian; Pomeroy, John W.; Zhang, Wei; Cheng, Guodong; Wang, Genxu; Chen, Chong

    2014-02-01

    The Cold Regions Hydrological Model platform (CRHM), a flexible object-oriented modeling system, was devised to simulate cold regions hydrological processes and predict streamflow by its capability to compile cold regions process modules into purpose-built models. In this study, the cold regions hydrological processes of two basins in western China were evaluated using CRHM models: Binggou basin, a high alpine basin where runoff is mainly caused by snowmelt, and Zuomaokong basin, a steppe basin where the runoff is strongly affected by soil freezing/thawing. The flexibility and modular structure of CRHM permitted model structural intercomparison and process falsification within the same model framework to evaluate the importance of snow energy balance, blowing snow and frozen soil infiltration processes to successful modeling in the cold regions of western China. Snow accumulation and ablation processes were evaluated at Binggou basin by testing and comparing similar models that contained different levels of complexity of snow redistribution and ablation modules. The comparison of simulated snow water equivalent with observations shows that the snow accumulation/ablation processes were simulated much better using an uncalibrated, physically based energy balance snowmelt model rather than with a calibrated temperature index snowmelt model. Simulated seasonal snow sublimation loss was 138 mm water equivalent in the alpine region of Binggou basin, which accounts for 47 % of 291 mm water equivalent of snowfall, and half of this sublimation loss is attributed to 70 mm water equivalent of sublimation from blowing snow particles. Further comparison of simulated results through falsification of different snow processes reveals that estimating blowing snow transport processes and sublimation loss is vital for accurate snowmelt runoff calculations in this region. The model structure with the energy balance snowmelt and blowing snow components performed well in reproducing the

  6. Optimum soil frost depth to alleviate climate change effects in cold region agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanai, Yosuke; Iwata, Yukiyoshi; Hirota, Tomoyoshi

    2017-03-01

    On-farm soil frost control has been used for the management of volunteer potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.), a serious weed problem caused by climate change, in northern Japan. Deep soil frost penetration is necessary for the effective eradication of unharvested small potato tubers; however, this process can delay soil thaw and increase soil wetting in spring, thereby delaying agricultural activity initiation and increasing nitrous oxide emissions from soil. Conversely, shallow soil frost development helps over-wintering of unharvested potato tubers and nitrate leaching from surface soil owing to the periodic infiltration of snowmelt water. In this study, we synthesised on-farm snow cover manipulation experiments to determine the optimum soil frost depth that can eradicate unharvested potato tubers without affecting agricultural activity initiation while minimising N pollution from agricultural soil. The optimum soil frost depth was estimated to be 0.28–0.33 m on the basis of the annual maximum soil frost depth. Soil frost control is a promising practice to alleviate climate change effects on agriculture in cold regions, which was initiated by local farmers and further promoted by national and local research institutes.

  7. Optimum soil frost depth to alleviate climate change effects in cold region agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Yanai, Yosuke; Iwata, Yukiyoshi; Hirota, Tomoyoshi

    2017-01-01

    On-farm soil frost control has been used for the management of volunteer potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.), a serious weed problem caused by climate change, in northern Japan. Deep soil frost penetration is necessary for the effective eradication of unharvested small potato tubers; however, this process can delay soil thaw and increase soil wetting in spring, thereby delaying agricultural activity initiation and increasing nitrous oxide emissions from soil. Conversely, shallow soil frost development helps over-wintering of unharvested potato tubers and nitrate leaching from surface soil owing to the periodic infiltration of snowmelt water. In this study, we synthesised on-farm snow cover manipulation experiments to determine the optimum soil frost depth that can eradicate unharvested potato tubers without affecting agricultural activity initiation while minimising N pollution from agricultural soil. The optimum soil frost depth was estimated to be 0.28–0.33 m on the basis of the annual maximum soil frost depth. Soil frost control is a promising practice to alleviate climate change effects on agriculture in cold regions, which was initiated by local farmers and further promoted by national and local research institutes. PMID:28322258

  8. The Relationship Between Walkability and Environment Characteristics in Cold Region Cities: Case Study in Harbin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Yang; Fei, Teng; Mei, Hongyuan

    2017-05-01

    This study attempts to comprehensively and objectively understand whether the physical characteristic of urban space affect the walkability of Harbin city center. Besides, due to Harbin is located in the cold region, the temperature change a lot between winter and summer, this study also tried to find out whether the physical environment characteristics effect on walkability is different in winter and summer. Spatial feature and traffic management have been thought as the main determinate of walkability of urban space, however physical features and urban design details have been rarely mentioned. Yet, does physical quality deterioration of space decrease the walkability of urban center, does specific physical feature influence walkability differently in different season? To answer these question, users’ perception toward the physical features of mix-used streets, have been examined in this study. 14 physical characteristic problems have been identified in the studied area based on the understanding of pervious researches. Through observations and questionnaire surveys, the physical characteristics of each case study were evaluated and the physical problems were discovered. Additionally, users’ perception on the identified problems and their effects on walkability of the studied areas were found and defined, in both winter and summer.

  9. Optimum soil frost depth to alleviate climate change effects in cold region agriculture.

    PubMed

    Yanai, Yosuke; Iwata, Yukiyoshi; Hirota, Tomoyoshi

    2017-03-21

    On-farm soil frost control has been used for the management of volunteer potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.), a serious weed problem caused by climate change, in northern Japan. Deep soil frost penetration is necessary for the effective eradication of unharvested small potato tubers; however, this process can delay soil thaw and increase soil wetting in spring, thereby delaying agricultural activity initiation and increasing nitrous oxide emissions from soil. Conversely, shallow soil frost development helps over-wintering of unharvested potato tubers and nitrate leaching from surface soil owing to the periodic infiltration of snowmelt water. In this study, we synthesised on-farm snow cover manipulation experiments to determine the optimum soil frost depth that can eradicate unharvested potato tubers without affecting agricultural activity initiation while minimising N pollution from agricultural soil. The optimum soil frost depth was estimated to be 0.28-0.33 m on the basis of the annual maximum soil frost depth. Soil frost control is a promising practice to alleviate climate change effects on agriculture in cold regions, which was initiated by local farmers and further promoted by national and local research institutes.

  10. Ionospheric research. [E region, F region, D region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported in the following areas: D-region theory; E and F-region; wave propagation; mass spectrometer measurements; and atmospheric reactions. Various supporting operations are included: design and construction of instrumentation; and programming.

  11. Utilization of Sewage Sludge for Terrain Stabilization in Cold Regions. Part II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    sludge, commercial fertilizer and cultivation techniques for Terrain stabilization in cold regions. Twenty-seven test plots on a 16 degrees west-facing... fertilizer ), (3) mulching agent (wood fiber mulch or peat moss), and (4) tacking agent (terra Tack III or Curasol). The plots were seeded in either the...from 3580 to 5073 lb/acre. Fertilizer treated plots had slightly less average soil loss than those treated with sludge (1.79 vs 2.21 tons/acre). The

  12. Isolated cold plasma regions: Observations and their relation to possible production mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, N. C.; Chen, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Regions of enhanced cold plasma, isolated from the main plasmasphere along the Explorer 45 orbit on the equatorial plane, are reported using the sheath induced potentials seen by the electric field experiment. The occurrence of these regions has a strong correlation with negative enhancements of Dst, and their locations are primarily in the noon-dusk quadrant. The data support the concept that changes in large scale convection play a dominant role in the formation of these regions. Plasmatails that are predicted from enhancements of large scale convection electric fields in general define where these regions may be found. More localized processes are necessary to account for the exact configuration and structure seen in these regions and may eventually result in detachment from the main plasmasphere.

  13. Isolated cold plasma regions - Observations and their relation to possible production mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, N. C.; Chen, A. J.

    1975-01-01

    Regions of enhanced cold plasma, isolated from the main plasmasphere along the Explorer 45 (53-A) orbit in the equatorial plane, have been detected by using the sheath-induced potentials seen by the electric field experiment. The occurrence of these regions has a strong correlation with negative enhancements of Dst, and their locations are primarily in the noon-dusk quadrant. The data support the concept that changes in large-scale convection play a dominant role in the formation of these regions. Plasma tails that are predicted from enhancements of large-scale convection electric fields in general define where these regions may be found. More localized processes are necessary to account for the exact configuration and structure seen in these regions and may eventually result in detachment from the main plasmasphere.

  14. The Changing Cold Regions Network: Atmospheric, Cryospheric, Ecological and Hydrological Change in the Saskatchewan and Mackenzie River Basins, Canada (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheater, H. S.; DeBeer, C.

    2013-12-01

    The cold interior of Northwestern Canada has one of the world's most extreme and varied climates and, as with other regions across the Arctic, is experiencing rapid environmental change. The Changing Cold Regions Network (CCRN) is a new Canadian research network devoted to addressing key challenges and globally-important issues facing the Arctic by improving the understanding of past and ongoing changes in climate, land, vegetation, and water, and predicting their future integrated responses, with a geographic focus on the Saskatchewan and Mackenzie River Basins. The network is funded for 5 years (2013-18) by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, and combines the unique expertise of 36 Canadian scientists representing 8 universities and 4 Federal government agencies, as well as 15 international researchers from the United States, China, Australia, the UK, France, and Germany. The network will also involve the World Climate Research Programme, NASA, the Canadian Space Agency, and the National Center for Atmospheric Research. CCRN will integrate existing and new experimental data with modelling and remote sensing products to understand, diagnose and predict changing land, water and climate, and their interactions and feedbacks, for Northwestern Canada's cold interior. It will use a network of world class observatories to study the detailed connections among changing climate, ecosystems and water in the permafrost regions of the Sub-arctic, the Boreal Forest, the Western Cordillera, and the Prairies. Specifically, the network will: 1. Document and evaluate observed Earth system change, including hydrological, ecological, cryospheric and atmospheric components over a range of scales from local observatories to biome and regional scales; 2. Improve understanding and diagnosis of local-scale change by developing new and integrative knowledge of Earth system processes, incorporating these processes into a suite of process-based integrative

  15. Modelling and Analysis of Hydrodynamics and Water Quality for Rivers in the Northern Cold Region of China

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Gula; Zhu, Yunqiang; Wu, Guozheng; Li, Jing; Li, Zhao-Liang; Sun, Jiulin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the Mudan River, which is the most typical river in the northern cold region of China was selected as the research object; Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) was adopted to construct a new two-dimensional water quality model for the urban sections of the Mudan River, and concentrations of CODCr and NH3N during ice-covered and open-water periods were simulated and analyzed. Results indicated that roughness coefficient and comprehensive pollutant decay rate were significantly different in those periods. To be specific, the roughness coefficient in the ice-covered period was larger than that of the open-water period, while the decay rate within the former period was smaller than that in the latter. In addition, according to the analysis of the simulated results, the main reasons for the decay rate reduction during the ice-covered period are temperature drop, upstream inflow decrease and ice layer cover; among them, ice sheet is the major contributor of roughness increase. These aspects were discussed in more detail in this work. The model could be generalized to hydrodynamic water quality process simulation researches on rivers in other cold regions as well. PMID:27070631

  16. Modelling and Analysis of Hydrodynamics and Water Quality for Rivers in the Northern Cold Region of China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Gula; Zhu, Yunqiang; Wu, Guozheng; Li, Jing; Li, Zhao-Liang; Sun, Jiulin

    2016-04-08

    In this study, the Mudan River, which is the most typical river in the northern cold region of China was selected as the research object; Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) was adopted to construct a new two-dimensional water quality model for the urban sections of the Mudan River, and concentrations of COD(Cr) and NH₃N during ice-covered and open-water periods were simulated and analyzed. Results indicated that roughness coefficient and comprehensive pollutant decay rate were significantly different in those periods. To be specific, the roughness coefficient in the ice-covered period was larger than that of the open-water period, while the decay rate within the former period was smaller than that in the latter. In addition, according to the analysis of the simulated results, the main reasons for the decay rate reduction during the ice-covered period are temperature drop, upstream inflow decrease and ice layer cover; among them, ice sheet is the major contributor of roughness increase. These aspects were discussed in more detail in this work. The model could be generalized to hydrodynamic water quality process simulation researches on rivers in other cold regions as well.

  17. Perspective Research Progress in Cold Responses of Capsella bursa-pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Noman, Ali; Kanwal, Hina; Khalid, Noreen; Sanaullah, Tayyaba; Tufail, Aasma; Masood, Atifa; Sabir, Sabeeh-ur-Rasool; Aqeel, Muhammad; He, Shuilin

    2017-01-01

    Plants respond to cold stress by modulating biochemical pathways and array of molecular events. Plant morphology is also affected by the onset of cold conditions culminating at repression in growth as well as yield reduction. As a preventive measure, cascades of complex signal transduction pathways are employed that permit plants to endure freezing or chilling periods. The signaling pathways and related events are regulated by the plant hormonal activity. Recent investigations have provided a prospective understanding about plant response to cold stress by means of developmental pathways e.g., moderate growth involved in cold tolerance. Cold acclimation assays and bioinformatics analyses have revealed the role of potential transcription factors and expression of genes like CBF, COR in response to low temperature stress. Capsella bursa-pastoris is a considerable model plant system for evolutionary and developmental studies. On different occasions it has been proved that C. bursa-pastoris is more capable of tolerating cold than A. thaliana. But, the mechanism for enhanced low or freezing temperature tolerance is still not clear and demands intensive research. Additionally, identification and validation of cold responsive genes in this candidate plant species is imperative for plant stress physiology and molecular breeding studies to improve cold tolerance in crops. We have analyzed the role of different genes and hormones in regulating plant cold resistance with special reference to C. bursa-pastoris. Review of collected data displays potential ability of Capsella as model plant for improvement in cold stress regulation. Information is summarized on cold stress signaling by hormonal control which highlights the substantial achievements and designate gaps that still happen in our understanding. PMID:28855910

  18. Cold Spots in the Martian Polar Regions: Evidence of Carbon Dioxide Depletion?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, Benjamin P.; Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    2000-01-01

    Regions of very low, rapidly varying brightness temperatures have been observed near the martian winter poles by several spacecraft. One possibility is that the CO2 condensation temperature is lowered by depletion of CO2 in the air at the surface. We estimate the rate at which this low-molecular-weight air would disperse into the high-molecular-weight air above and show that it is generally faster than the rate of supply. This dispersal could be prevented if there is a strong temperature inversion (warm air above colder air) near the surface. Without an inversion, the entire atmospheric column could become depleted. However, depleted columns take a long time to form, and they are inconsistent with the rapid fluctuations in the cold spot locations and temperatures. Because low-altitude temperature inversions cannot be ruled out by existing observations, CO2 depletion is still a viable explanation for the martian cold spots.

  19. Design of Cold Neutron Imaging Facility at China Advanced Research Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Songbai; Wu, Meimei; Wang, Hongli; Hao, Lijie; Wei, Guohai; He, Linfeng; Wang, Yu; Liu, Yuntao; Chen, Dongfeng

    The radiography imaging with cold neutrons is being planned at China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR). The 60MW CARR at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) has got full power in March, 2012. It is a tank-in-pool type reactor using a D2O reflector for inverse neutron trap, and the expected optimal undisturbed thermal neutron flux is 8 × 1014 n/cm2rad s. Cold neutron imaging facility will be built at the guide hall. At present, its conceptional and physical designs have been finished. The cold neutron imaging facilities will provide an efficient and versatile tool for basic scientific and industrial non-destructive investigation.

  20. A survey of current international ``cold fusion`` research

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, H.; Bailey, P.

    1995-12-31

    A new energy producing technology has been found in several so-called ``cold fusion`` experiments. In years past, these effects have been difficult to reproduce, but are now being replicated internationally. Energy production has been achieved in reactors using heavy water (D{sub 2}O) and palladium cathodes. Excess energy has also been produced using light water (H{sub 2}O) and nickel cathodes. Significant results have been reported by SRI, International at the 1994 IECEC. In several types of experimental reactors, more thermal energy is produced than input by electrical energy. This ``excess heat`` has now been replicated in 30 countries and significant amounts of nuclear by-products have also been measured. Whether all of the observed excess thermal heat is the result of nuclear reactions is still being investigated. A key to the process is the purity and quality of the cathode metals used. In addition, some of the reactors are strongly sensitive to hydrogen or deuterium loading. Many papers have now been published reporting on excess thermal heat and on some nuclear by-products. This paper summarizes the results of six years of collecting and reviewing over 2,000 technical papers on cold fusion. Successful experimental papers are tabulated by country and year. Continuing experimental efforts are cited and the various types of experimental evidence are reviewed.

  1. LLNL (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) research on cold fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Thomassen, K I; Holzrichter, J F

    1989-09-14

    With the appearance of reports on Cold Fusion,'' scientists at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) began a series of increasingly sophisticated experiments and calculations to explain these phenomena. These experiments can be categorized as follows: (a) simple experiments to replicate the Utah results, (b) more sophisticated experiments to place lower bounds on the generation of heat and production of nuclear products, (c) a collaboration with Texas A M University to analyze electrodes and electrolytes for fusion by-products in a cell producing 10% excess heat (we found no by-products), and (d) attempts to replicate the Frascati experiment that first found neutron bursts when high-pressure deuterium gas in a cylinder with Ti chips was temperature-cycled. We failed in categories (a) and (b) to replicate either the Pons/Fleischmann or the Jones phenomena. We have seen phenomena similar to the Frascati results, (d) but these low-level burst signals may not be coming from neutrons generated in the Ti chips. Summaries of our experiments are described in Section II, as is a theoretical effort based on cosmic ray muons to describe low-level neutron production. Details of the experimental groups' work are contained in the six appendices. At LLNL, independent teams were spontaneously formed in response to the early announcements on cold fusion. This report's format follows this organization.

  2. CRREL (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory) Technical Publications. Supplement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    when the void in the snow-ice -t&erm da recorders, and radio telemetry of deat have isall been incorporated in an access and communications systemCost...Total mnie additiose to the amv in the barber at Soakt StOL Marie Mlchii and Onsterin, produced by wheel atiamsnse (single, dual , ta m, loci- treatment...reetilts are the RUBDER SNOW FRICTION, ICE TEMPERA-The ajorob~ve o t C rs ofEngneer l~m Tratmet prsened fr a cylindrical sensor made of stel that UEAD

  3. Automated algorithm for mapping regions of cold-air pooling in complex terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, Jessica D.; Pepin, Nicholas; Rochford, Caitlin

    2008-11-01

    In complex terrain, air in contact with the ground becomes cooled from radiative energy loss on a calm clear night and, being denser than the free atmosphere at the same elevation, sinks to valley bottoms. Cold-air pooling (CAP) occurs where this cooled air collects on the landscape. This article focuses on identifying locations on a landscape subject to considerably lower minimum temperatures than the regional average during conditions of clear skies and weak synoptic-scale winds, providing a simple automated method to map locations where cold air is likely to pool. Digital elevation models of regions of complex terrain were used to derive surfaces of local slope, curvature, and percentile elevation relative to surrounding terrain. Each pixel was classified as prone to CAP, not prone to CAP, or exhibiting no signal, based on the criterion that CAP occurs in regions with flat slopes in local depressions or valleys (negative curvature and low percentile). Along-valley changes in the topographic amplification factor (TAF) were then calculated to determine whether the cold air in the valley was likely to drain or pool. Results were checked against distributed temperature measurements in Loch Vale, Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado; in the Eastern Pyrenees, France; and in Yosemite National Park, Sierra Nevada, California. Using CAP classification to interpolate temperatures across complex terrain resulted in improvements in root-mean-square errors compared to more basic interpolation techniques at most sites within the three areas examined, with average error reductions of up to 3°C at individual sites and about 1°C averaged over all sites in the study areas.

  4. Hypomethylation of cytosine residues in cold-sensitive regions of Cestrum strigilatum (Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Guarido, Paula Carolina Paes; de Paula, Adriano Alves; da Silva, Carlos Roberto Maximiano; Rodriguez, Carmen; Vanzela, André Luís Laforga

    2012-04-01

    Heterochromatin comprises a fraction of the genome usually with highly repeated DNA sequences and lacks of functional genes. This region can be revealed by using Giemsa C-banding, fluorochrome staining and cytomolecular tools. Some plant species are of particular interest through having a special type of heterochromatin denominated the cold-sensitive region (CSR). Independent of other chromosomal regions, when biological materials are subjected to low temperatures (about 0 °C), CSRs appear slightly stained and decondensed. In this study, we used Cestrum strigilatum (Solanaceae) to understand some aspects of CSR condensation associated with cytosine methylation levels, and to compare the behavior of different heterochromatin types of this species, when subjected to low temperatures.

  5. Hypomethylation of cytosine residues in cold-sensitive regions of Cestrum strigilatum (Solanaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Guarido, Paula Carolina Paes; de Paula, Adriano Alves; da Silva, Carlos Roberto Maximiano; Rodriguez, Carmen; Vanzela, André Luís Laforga

    2012-01-01

    Heterochromatin comprises a fraction of the genome usually with highly repeated DNA sequences and lacks of functional genes. This region can be revealed by using Giemsa C-banding, fluorochrome staining and cytomolecular tools. Some plant species are of particular interest through having a special type of heterochromatin denominated the cold-sensitive region (CSR). Independent of other chromosomal regions, when biological materials are subjected to low temperatures (about 0 °C), CSRs appear slightly stained and decondensed. In this study, we used Cestrum strigilatum (Solanaceae) to understand some aspects of CSR condensation associated with cytosine methylation levels, and to compare the behavior of different heterochromatin types of this species, when subjected to low temperatures. PMID:22888295

  6. Green Roof Research through EPA's Regional Applied Research Effort - slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE) allows the Regions of the EPA to choose research projects to be performed in partnership with EPA’s Office of Research and Development (ORD). Over the last decade, several green roof projects...

  7. Green Roof Research through EPA's Regional Applied Research Effort

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE) allows the Regions of the EPA to choose research projects to be performed in partnership with EPA’s Office of Research and Development (ORD). Over the last decade, several green roo...

  8. Green Roof Research through EPA's Regional Applied Research Effort - slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE) allows the Regions of the EPA to choose research projects to be performed in partnership with EPA’s Office of Research and Development (ORD). Over the last decade, several green roof projects...

  9. A comprehensive evaluation of high friction overlay systems on bridge decks in cold climate regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostick, Robert D.

    In recent history the Minnesota Department of Transportation has looked to improve the safety of bridge decks by installing high friction overlays (HFO). A comprehensive study researched four different proprietary HFO systems placed on fourteen bridge decks throughout Minnesota. Research was split into three separate tasks: (1) laboratory testing of aggregate properties, (2) field observations and testing, and (3) a comprehensive analysis of crash data investigated crash rates on bridges with HFO systems. Field observations and testing revealed that the use of snowplows quickly abrades HFO systems. Abrasion, among other factors, causes a reduction in surface friction values, and reduces the life of HFO systems. Furthermore, improving crash rate trends cannot be directly correlated to the installation of HFO systems. Research concludes that HFO systems should not be used in Minnesota. Other cold climate transportation agencies should conduct research emulated after this study to assess HFO systems in their jurisdiction.

  10. Trends of Future Heavy Snowfall and Accumulated Freezing Indexes in Japanese Snowy Cold Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Y.; Matsuzawa, M.

    2015-12-01

    To achieve sufficient, effective winter road maintenance, it is important that long-term snow and ice hazard mitigation plans be examined and formulated by taking into consideration the influence of climate change. In this study, we have developed a method of predicting more accurately the indexes of heavy snowfall events that occur over short periods of time and future projections of winter temperatures based on the relationship of observed data to the climate model predicted values. The indexes for heavy snowfall were the maximum 24-hour snowfall and the frequency of 10-cm or more snowfall within a maximum 6-hour period. Indexes for cold weather were the accumulated freezing index in winter and the number of days of freeze-thaw days. Subsequently, we have applied this methodology for Japanese snowy cold regions, in order to clarify the trends for near future and century-end future period changes. The results indicate that current measures to mitigate the effects of extremely heavy snowfall in inland areas of Hokkaido may require enhancement of operational procedures. In addition, the possibility of pavement and concrete damage in the colder regions is expected to increase due to the increment in the number of freeze-thaw days. Based upon the results of this study, we will identify the road management issues associated with climate change using the recent trends and predictions for the near future and century-end future climate periods.

  11. Definition of initial conditions and soil profile depth for Hydrological Land Surface Models in Cold Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapriza-Azuri, G.; Gamazo, P. A.; Razavi, S.; Wheater, H. S.

    2016-12-01

    Earth system models are essential for the evaluation of the impact of climate change. At global and regional scales, General Circulation Models (GCM) and Regional Climate Models (RCM) are used to simulate climate change evolution. Hydrological Land Surface Models (HLSM) are used along with GCMs and RCMs (coupled or offline) to have a better representation of the hydrological cycle. All these models typically have a common implementation of the energy and water balance in the soil, known as the Land Surface Model (LSM). In general, a standard soil configuration with a depth of no more than 4 meters is used in all LSMs that are commonly implemented in GCMs, RCMs and HLSMs. For moderate climate conditions, this depth is sufficient to capture the intra-annual variability in the energy and water balance. However, for cold regions and for long-term simulations, deeper subsurface layers are needed in order to allow the heat signal to propagate through the soil to deeper layers and hence to avoid erroneous near-surface states and fluxes. Deeper soil/rock configurations create longer system memories, and as such, particular care should be taken to define the initial conditions for the subsurface system. In this work we perform a sensitivity analysis of the main factors that affect the subsurface energy and water balance for LSMs in cold regions - depth of soil, soil parameters, initial conditions and climate conditions for a warm-up period. We implement a 1D model using the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS) LSM for a study area in northern Canada where measurements of soil temperature profiles are available. Results suggest that an adequate representation of the heat propagation process in the soil requires the simulation of a soil depth of greater than 25 meters. As for initial conditions we recommend to spin-up over a cycle of an average climate year and then use reconstructed climate time series with a length of more than 300 years.

  12. Effects of ice and floods on vegetation in streams in cold regions: implications for climate change.

    PubMed

    Lind, Lovisa; Nilsson, Christer; Weber, Christine

    2014-11-01

    Riparian zones support some of the most dynamic and species-rich plant communities in cold regions. A common conception among plant ecologists is that flooding during the season when plants are dormant generally has little effect on the survival and production of riparian vegetation. We show that winter floods may also be of fundamental importance for the composition of riverine vegetation. We investigated the effects of ice formation on riparian and in-stream vegetation in northern Sweden using a combination of experiments and observations in 25 reaches, spanning a gradient from ice-free to ice-rich reaches. The ice-rich reaches were characterized by high production of frazil and anchor ice. In a couple of experiments, we exposed riparian vegetation to experimentally induced winter flooding, which reduced the dominant dwarf-shrub cover and led to colonization of a species-rich forb-dominated vegetation. In another experiment, natural winter floods caused by anchor-ice formation removed plant mimics both in the in-stream and in the riparian zone, further supporting the result that anchor ice maintains dynamic plant communities. With a warmer winter climate, ice-induced winter floods may first increase in frequency because of more frequent shifts between freezing and thawing during winter, but further warming and shortening of the winter might make them less common than today. If ice-induced winter floods become reduced in number because of a warming climate, an important disturbance agent for riparian and in-stream vegetation will be removed, leading to reduced species richness in streams and rivers in cold regions. Given that such regions are expected to have more plant species in the future because of immigration from the south, the distribution of species richness among habitats can be expected to show novel patterns.

  13. Effects of ice and floods on vegetation in streams in cold regions: implications for climate change

    PubMed Central

    Lind, Lovisa; Nilsson, Christer; Weber, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Riparian zones support some of the most dynamic and species-rich plant communities in cold regions. A common conception among plant ecologists is that flooding during the season when plants are dormant generally has little effect on the survival and production of riparian vegetation. We show that winter floods may also be of fundamental importance for the composition of riverine vegetation. We investigated the effects of ice formation on riparian and in-stream vegetation in northern Sweden using a combination of experiments and observations in 25 reaches, spanning a gradient from ice-free to ice-rich reaches. The ice-rich reaches were characterized by high production of frazil and anchor ice. In a couple of experiments, we exposed riparian vegetation to experimentally induced winter flooding, which reduced the dominant dwarf-shrub cover and led to colonization of a species-rich forb-dominated vegetation. In another experiment, natural winter floods caused by anchor-ice formation removed plant mimics both in the in-stream and in the riparian zone, further supporting the result that anchor ice maintains dynamic plant communities. With a warmer winter climate, ice-induced winter floods may first increase in frequency because of more frequent shifts between freezing and thawing during winter, but further warming and shortening of the winter might make them less common than today. If ice-induced winter floods become reduced in number because of a warming climate, an important disturbance agent for riparian and in-stream vegetation will be removed, leading to reduced species richness in streams and rivers in cold regions. Given that such regions are expected to have more plant species in the future because of immigration from the south, the distribution of species richness among habitats can be expected to show novel patterns. PMID:25505542

  14. Low modulus polymer packaged optical fiber sensor for macrocrack monitoring in ice structures of cold regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Peng; Zhou, Zhi

    2014-09-01

    Ice structures provide load-bearing capability for energy exploitation and transportation in cold regions. Meanwhile, staff and facilities take a risk due to large amounts of distributed macrocracks in ice roads, ice bridges, and ice platforms. It is critical to monitor macrocracks for detecting and understanding the fracture process under such a harsh environment. Aiming to obtain real-time, long-term, and quantitative crack opening information for ice structures, this paper presents a feasibility study on monitoring macrocracks with a low modulus polymer packaged optical fiber sensor. Brillouin optical time-domain analysis-based sensing technology is utilized for the distributed strain measurement. According to in situ monitoring requirements, a type of silicone rubber material with appropriate mechanical properties is selected to fabricate the sensor. On this basis, a strain transfer analysis on the packaged and embedded sensor is carried out to derive the relation between the optical measurement and the increment of the crack width. The prototypes have been evaluated by demonstration tests on a tensile device and an ice road model. The experimental results show the sensor can survive in a cold environment and under the large strain resulting from the macrocrack opening. These measured data agree well with the linear calibration. The macrocracks opening in large-scale ice structures can be characterized based on the optical sensor.

  15. Improvement through low cost biofilm carrier in anaerobic tubular digestion in cold climate regions.

    PubMed

    Martí-Herrero, J; Alvarez, R; Rojas, M R; Aliaga, L; Céspedes, R; Carbonell, J

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this research is to evaluate the increase of biogas production with low cost tubular digesters in cold climates using PET rings inside the reactor. Two similar digesters have been operated and monitored in cold weather conditions and have been fed with cow manure. Digester 1 was filled with PET - rings as a biofilm carrier, Digester 2 was kept as a reference. Through the PET - rings the functional surface could be increased by a factor 4.2. The results show that 44% more biogas per Kg SV has been produced with the biofilm carrier in use (0.33 m(3)/kg SV) (reference digester -0.23 m(3)/kg SV), at an organic load rate of 0.26 kg SV/m(3)/d. The thermal performance shows that with an adaptation of the low cost tubular digester the slurry temperature can be raised up to 16.6°C (average) by surrounding temperature of 6.1°C (average) without using any active heating system.

  16. Cold-Air Pools and Regional Warming in the Lake Tahoe Region, Central Sierra Nevada of California—Observations and Considerations regarding the Future of Climate-Change Refugia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dettinger, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Naturally occurring climate refugia, specifically in the form of cold-air pools (CAPs) in mountain basins, are increasingly discussed as potential safe havens against some impacts of global warming on western ecosystems and cold-adapted species. A key concern in these discussions should be: How will CAPs react to regional warming? Several broad possibilities exist: CAPs may "resist" regional warming, remaining as cool as ever despite warming of their surroundings. CAPs may "reflect" regional warming, experiencing temperature increases that are roughly equal to the warming of their surroundings but that leave the CAP as cool relative to their surroundings as ever. Or CAPs might "disintegrate" in the face of regional warming, losing their special cool status relative to surroundings and in the process warming much more than their surroundings. An evaluation of historical observations of wintertime cold-air pooling in the Lake Tahoe basin and adjacent Truckee drainage offers examples of CAPs that have resisted regional warming (Tahoe) and that have reflected regional warming (Truckee). These two CAP responses to warming suggest that no single fate awaits all CAPs in the Sierra Nevada. Rather, different CAPs will likely evolve in different ways, depending on their topographic configurations (e.g., closed vs draining basins), topographic depths, CAP areas, and even (in the case of the Tahoe basin) thermal conditions at the base of the CAP. These CAP examples also suggest a need for research on the possibility of equivalent future responses by other, non-CAP climate refugia in a warming world.

  17. [Spatial and temporal variations of hydrological characteristic on the landscape zone scale in alpine cold region].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong-Gang; Hu, Jin-Fei; Xiao, Hong-Lang; Zou, Song-Bing; Yin, Zhen-Liang

    2013-10-01

    There are few studies on the hydrological characteristics on the landscape zone scale in alpine cold region at present. This paper aimed to identify the spatial and temporal variations in the origin and composition of the runoff, and to reveal the hydrological characteristics in each zone, based on the isotopic analysis of glacier, snow, frozen soil, groundwater, etc. The results showed that during the wet season, heavy precipitation and high temperature in the Mafengou River basin caused secondary evaporation which led to isotope fractionation effects. Therefore, the isotope values remained high. Temperature effects were significant. During the dry season, the temperature was low. Precipitation was in the solid state during the cold season and the evaporation was weak. Water vapor came from the evaporation of local water bodies. Therefore, less secondary evaporation and water vapor exchange occurred, leading to negative values of delta18O and deltaD. delta18O and deltaD values of precipitation and various water bodies exhibited strong seasonal variations. Precipitation exhibited altitude effects, delta18O = -0. 005 2H - 8. 951, deltaD = -0.018 5H - 34. 873. Other water bodies did not show altitude effects in the wet season and dry season, because the runoff was not only recharged by precipitation, but also influenced by the freezing and thawing process of the glacier, snow and frozen soil. The mutual transformation of precipitation, melt water, surface water and groundwater led to variations in isotopic composition. Therefore, homogenization and evaporation effect are the main control factors of isotope variations.

  18. Solute transport modelling in a coupled water and heat flow system applied to cold regions hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frampton, Andrew; Destouni, Georgia

    2016-04-01

    In cold regions, flow in the unsaturated zone is highly dynamic with seasonal variability and changes in temperature, moisture, and heat and water fluxes, all of which affect ground freeze-thaw processes and influence transport of inert and reactive waterborne substances. In arctic permafrost environments, near-surface groundwater flow is further restricted to a relatively shallow and seasonally variable active layer, confined by perennially frozen ground below. The active layer is typically partially saturated with ice, liquid water and air, and is strongly dependent on seasonal temperature fluctuations, thermal forcing and infiltration patterns. Here there is a need for improved understanding of the mechanisms controlling subsurface solute transport in the partially saturated active layer zone. Studying solute transport in cold regions is relevant to improve the understanding of how natural and anthropogenic pollution may change as activities in arctic and sub-arctic regions increase. It is also particularly relevant for understanding how dissolved carbon is transported in coupled surface and subsurface hydrological systems under climate change, in order to better understand the permafrost-hydrological-carbon climate feedback. In this contribution subsurface solute transport under surface warming and degrading permafrost conditions is studied using a physically based model of coupled cryotic and hydrogeological flow processes combined with a particle tracking method. Changes in subsurface water flows and solute transport travel times are analysed for different modelled geological configurations during a 100-year warming period. Results show that for all simulated cases, the minimum and mean travel times increase non-linearly with warming irrespective of geological configuration and heterogeneity structure. The travel time changes are shown to depend on combined warming effects of increase in pathway length due to deepening of the active layer, reduced transport

  19. Hot-gas cold-dust pumping for water masers associated with H II regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deguchi, S.

    1981-01-01

    A collisional pump with an internal sink is proposed for the water masers associated with H II regions, where the population inversion occurs due to the absorption by cold ice-mantle grains in a highly dusty cloud of the far-infrared line radiation of hot water vapor. A new escape probability method is developed to calculate the transfer of line radiation in dusty medium. The pump mechanism explains the power of usual maser sources associated with H II regions and the enormous power of the sources associated with W49 N and external galaxies. Models of maser clouds have a radius of 5 x 10 to the 15th-10 to the 16th cm, an H2 number density of 4 x 10 to the 9th/cu cm, an expansion velocity of 10-30 km/s, a kinetic temperature of 350 K, and a grain temperature of 100 K. Giant maser sources require grains of the size about 1 micron. The apparent size of the emission spots (approximately 10 to the 13th cm) observed by VLBI is interpreted as due to a fluctuation in the cloud, and the assembly of the spots is spread within a size of 10 to the 16th cm. The temperature difference between the dust and gas is due to a relaxation process after an infrared burst accompanying protostar formation.

  20. Hot-gas cold-dust pumping for water masers associated with H II regions

    SciTech Connect

    Deguchi, S.

    1981-10-01

    A collisional pump with an internal sink is proposed for the water masers associated with H II regions, where the population inversion occurs due to the absorption by cold ice-mantle grains in a highly dusty cloud of the far-infrared line radiation of hot water vapor. A new escape probability method is developed to calculate the transfer of line radiation in dusty medium. The pump mechanism explains the power of usual maser sources associated with H II regions and the enormous power of the sources associated with W49 N and external galaxies. Models of maser clouds have a radius of 5 x 10/sup 15/--10/sup 16/ cm, an H/sub 2/ number density of 4 x 10/sup 9/ cm/sup -3/, an expansion velocity of 10--30 km s/sup -1/, a kinetic temperature of 350 K, and a grain temperature of 100 K. Giant maser sources require grains of the size about 1 ..mu..m. The apparent size of the emission spots (approx.10/sup 13/ cm) observed by VLBI is interpreted as due to fluctuation in the cloud, and the assembly of the spots is spread within a size of 10/sup 16/ cm. The temperature difference between the dust and gas is due to a relaxation process after an infrared burst accompanying protostar formation.

  1. Cryo-Pedotransfer Functions for Estimating Hydraulic Properties of Soils in Cold Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, D.; Mailapalli, D. R.; Thompson, A.

    2013-12-01

    One of the arduous tasks in engineering hydrology of cold regions is estimating the soil hydraulic properties such as soil freezing characteristics and hydraulic conductivity, which are important when studying transport process during freeze-thaw processes. Expensive data collection methods and existing isothermal models are limitations in understanding soil water dynamics in frozen soils. Pedotransfer functions (PTFs) have been effectively used in the earth and environmental related sciences to estimate soil physical and chemical properties easily, routinely, or cheaply for a specific non-frozen geographical region. Based on similarity between wetting and freezing processes in soil, we present a new approach to derive soil freezing characteristics from soil water characteristics of non-frozen soils using existing PTFs. We refer to these as the Cryo-PTFs. We consider a conventional soil water characteristic model and existing PTFs for determining the relationships; unfrozen water content vs. subzero temperature, and hydraulic conductivity vs. subzero temperature using Clapeyron equation. The proposed approach successfully simulated unfrozen water content and hydraulic conductivity for different soils including peat when compared with those reported in the literature. Furthermore, effect of soil bulk density and organic matter content on unfrozen water content and hydraulic conductivity at different subzero temperatures was analyzed for a range of soils.

  2. Cold Regions: Instrumentation Operation and Use. Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 1-1-004

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-10

    In general, synthetic fluids and lubricants are less affected by cold temperatures than petroleum -based fluids and lubricants. Chemical reactions...for cold conditions, cables and connectors are more susceptible to damage if overly flexed or strained, and radios or microwave telemetry systems...cold. Color films may also exhibit a color shift as one emulsion layer slows down more than another. c. The following considerations apply to

  3. Lidar Temperature Measurements During the SOLVE Campaign and the Absence of PSCs from Regions of Very Cold Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burris, John; McGee, Thomas; Hoegy, Walt; Newman, Paul; Lait, Leslie; Twigg, Laurence; Sumnicht, Grant; Heaps, William; Hostetler, Chris; Neuber, Roland; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Airborne Raman Ozone, Temperature and Aerosol Lidar (AROTEL) measured extremely cold temperatures during all three deployments (December 1-16, 1999, January 14-29, 2000 and February 27-March 15, 2000) of the Sage III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE). Temperatures were significantly below values observed in previous years with large regions regularly below 191 K and frequent temperature retrievals yielding values at or below 187 K. Temperatures well below the saturation point of type I polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) were regularly encountered but their presence was not well correlated with PSCs observed by the NASA Langley Research Center's Aerosol Lidar co-located with AROTEL. Temperature measurements by meteorological sondes launched within areas traversed by the DC-8 showed minimum temperatures consistent in time and vertical extent with those derived from AROTEL data. Calculations to establish whether PSCs could exist at measured AROTEL temperatures and observed mixing ratios of nitric acid and water vapor showed large regions favorable to PSC formation. On several occasions measured AROTEL temperatures up to 10 K below the NAT saturation temperature were insufficient to produce PSCs even though measured values of nitric acid and water were sufficient for their formation.

  4. Effects of Land Management Practices on Cold Region Hydrological Processes in an Agricultural Prairie Basin (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, T. H.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Wheater, H. S.; Baulch, H. M.

    2013-12-01

    Conservation tillage including zero and reduced tillage, crop rotation and upstream reservoirs are commonly implemented as beneficial management practices (BMPs) in the Canadian Prairies. However, their effects are strongly dependent on interactions with cold region hydrological processes, such as wind redistribution of snow, snowmelt, infiltration to frozen soils and evaporation, due to strong coupling between land surface characteristics and hydrology. These interactions are poorly understood and few studies have investigated them using a physically-based modeling framework. In this study, we deploy a physically-based, semi-distributed cold regions hydrological model (CRHM) to investigate the impacts of land management practices in the South Tobacco Creek Basin (STC) which forms part of the Red River Basin in southern Manitoba, Canada. The STC (~73 km2) is set in a gently rolling landscape of low relief (~200 m). Detailed field data such as crop type, tillage practices, crop residue and planting and harvesting dates are available from 1995 and are used to parameterize the model. While the majority of parameters are specified a priori, we have manually calibrated roughness and initial soil water storage parameters to compare the simulations with runoff observations at multiple scales (upstream catchment, mid-basin gauge and outlet gauge) and snow observations during 2000-2001 water year. The calibrated model based on the 2000-2001 period is further evaluated over the 2001-2011 period, which includes high inter-annual variability. The results suggest good agreement between observations and simulations and provide insight into hydrological controls. Snowmelt runoff is a major contributor to streamflow while the contribution of summer rainfall runoff is highly variable. The evaporative fraction is high during dry years (2002-2004) indicating a vertical flux controlled mass balance while the runoff fraction dominates during wet years (2005-2011), suggesting overland

  5. Terrestrial cold-desert analogs: Antarctic landforms and implications for regional glaciation on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, J. W.; Marchant, D. R.; Dickson, J. L.; Baker, D. M.; Mackay, S.; Lamp, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Antarctic Dry Valleys (ADV) are generally classified as a hyper-arid, cold-polar desert. The region has long been considered an important terrestrial analog for Mars because of its cold and dry climate and because it contains a suite of landforms at macro-, meso-, and microscales that closely resemble those occurring on the martian surface. The extreme hyperaridity of both Mars and the ADV has focused attention on the importance of salts and brines on soil development, phase transitions from liquid water to ice, and ultimately, on process geomorphology and landscape evolution at a range of scales on both planets. The ADV can be subdivided into three microclimate zones: a coastal thaw zone, an inland mixed zone, and a stable upland zone; zones are defined on the basis of summertime measurements of atmospheric temperature, soil moisture, and relative humidity. Subtle variations in these climate parameters result in considerable differences in the distribution and morphology of: (1) macroscale features (e.g., slopes and gullies); (2) mesoscale features (e.g., polygons, including ice-wedge, sand-wedge, and sublimation-type polygons, as well as viscous-flow features, including solifluction lobes, gelifluction lobes, and debris-covered glaciers); and (3) microscale features (e.g., rock-weathering processes/features, including salt weathering, wind erosion, and surface pitting). Equilibrium landforms are those features that formed in balance with environmental conditions within fixed microclimate zones. We report on our multi-year field and instrument analysis of four important ADV landforms: 1) sublimation polygons and relation to buried ice, 2) gullies and the environmental controls responsible for their episodic activity, 3) slope streaks, the role of water and brines in their formation and the timing of their activity, and 4) debris-covered glaciers and their three-dimensional geometry, mode and rates of formation. The relative geomorphic and climate stability for

  6. LLNL`s regional seismic discrimination research

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, W.R.; Mayeda, K.M.; Goldstein, P.

    1995-07-01

    The ability to negotiate and verify a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) depends in part on the ability to seismically detect and discriminate between potential clandestine underground nuclear tests and other seismic sources, including earthquakes and mining activities. Regional techniques are necessary to push detection and discrimination levels down to small magnitudes, but existing methods of event discrimination are mainly empirical and show much variability from region to region. The goals of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) regional discriminant research are to evaluate the most promising discriminants, improve our understanding of their physical basis and use this information to develop new and more effective discriminants that can be transported to new regions of high monitoring interest. In this report we discuss our preliminary efforts to geophysically characterize two regions, the Korean Peninsula and the Middle East-North Africa. We show that the remarkable stability of coda allows us to develop physically based, stable single station magnitude scales in new regions. We then discuss our progress to date on evaluating and improving our physical understanding and ability to model regional discriminants, focusing on the comprehensive NTS dataset. We apply this modeling ability to develop improved discriminants including slopes of P to S ratios. We find combining disparate discriminant techniques is particularly effective in identifying consistent outliers such as shallow earthquakes and mine seismicity. Finally we discuss our development and use of new coda and waveform modeling tools to investigate special events.

  7. Correlation and causation in tree-ring-based reconstruction of paleohydrology in cold semiarid regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elshorbagy, Amin; Wagener, Thorsten; Razavi, Saman; Sauchyn, David

    2016-09-01

    This paper discusses ways in which the tree-ring-based reconstruction of paleohydrology can be better understood and better utilized to support water resource management, especially in cold semiarid regions. The relationships between tree growth as represented by tree ring chronologies (TRCs), runoff (Q), precipitation (P), and evapotranspiration (ET) are discussed and analyzed within both statistical and hydrological contexts. Data from the Oldman River Basin (OMRB), Alberta, Canada, are used to demonstrate the relevant issues. Instrumental records of Q and P data were available while actual ET was estimated using a lumped conceptual hydrological model developed in this study. Correlation analysis was conducted to explore the relationships between TRCs and each of Q, P, and ET over the entire historical record (globally) as well as locally in time within the wet and dry subperiods. Global and local correlation strengths and linear relationships appear to be substantially different. This outcome particularly affects tree-ring-based inferences about the hydrology of wet and dry episodes when reconstructions are made using regression models. Important findings include (i) reconstruction of paleo-runoff may not be as credible as paleo-precipitation and paleo-evapotranspiration; (ii) a moving average window of P and ET larger than 1 year might be necessary for reconstruction of these variables; and (iii) the long-term mean of reconstructed P, Q, and ET leads us to conclude that there is uncertainty about the past climate. Finally, we suggest using the topographic index to prejudge side suitability for dendrohydrological analysis.

  8. Improving the understanding and diagnosis of Earth system changes in cold regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    I review key hydrological state variables and fluxes relevant to cold regions, specifically snow, permafrost and seasonally frozen soils, lakes, and wetlands, and comment on the ability of current models to represent the associated processes, and the quality of the data sets upon which model development and diagnosis efforts rest. Although snow processes are relatively well represented in current generation land surface models, at least at large scales for deep mountain snowpacks, the representation of high latitude snow processes remain complicated by the role of snow redistribution, and of sublimation during the shoulder (especially spring) season. Most credible land surface models now include representations of permafrost, some of which perform well when forced with local climate data; however their performance over large areas is limited by spatial variability of key processes, including soil thermal characteristics. Likewise, many land surface models now represent the hydrology and energetics of lakes, which cover a substantial portion of the landscape in many high latitude environs. However, accurate representation of lakes requires knowledge of certain characteristics of their bathymetry and hydrological connectivity, information which is not always available. Likewise, the representation of wetlands in models, although improved in many cases, is limited by topography (and the role of microtopography, even at large scales). Nonetheless, increased attention to high latitude hydrological processes has demonstrably improved the fidelity of land surface representations over the last decade or so.

  9. Changes in cold region flood regimes inferred from long-record reference gauging stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burn, Donald H.; Whitfield, Paul H.

    2017-04-01

    Variability and nonstationarity in flood regimes of cold regions are examined using data from hydrometric reference streamflow gauging stations from 27 natural watersheds in Canada and adjacent areas of the United States. Choosing stations from reference networks with nearly 100 years of data allows for the investigation of changes that span several phases of some of the atmospheric drivers that may influence flood behavior. The reference hydrologic networks include only stations considered to have good quality data and were screened to avoid the influences of regulation, diversions, or land use change. Changes and variations in flood regimes are complex and require a multifaceted approach to properly characterize the types of changes that have occurred and are likely to occur in the future. Peaks over threshold (POT) data are extracted from daily flow data for each watershed, and changes to the magnitude, timing, frequency, volume, and duration of threshold exceedences are investigated. Seasonal statistics are used to explore changes in the nature of the flood regime based on changes in the timing of flood threshold exceedences. A variety of measures are developed to infer flood regime shifts including from a nival regime to a mixed regime and a mixed regime to a more pluvial-dominated regime. The flood regime at many of the watersheds demonstrates increased prominence of rainfall floods and decreased prevalence of snowmelt contributions to flood responses. While some individual stations show a relationship between flood variables and climate indices, these relationships are generally weak.

  10. Assessing the performance of a cold region evapotranspiration landfill cover using lysimetry and electrical resistivity tomography.

    PubMed

    Schnabel, William E; Munk, Jens; Abichou, Tarek; Barnes, David; Lee, William; Pape, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    In order to test the efficacy ofa cold-region evapotranspiration (ET) landfill cover against a conventional compacted clay (CCL) landfill cover, two pilot scale covers were constructed in side-by-side basin lysimeters (20m x 10m x 2m) at a site in Anchorage, Alaska. The primary basis of comparison between the two lysimeters was the percolation of moisture from the bottom of each lysimeter. Between 30 April 2005 and 16 May 2006, 51.5 mm of water percolated from the ET lysimeter, compared to 50.6 mm for the the CCL lysimeter. This difference was not found to be significant at the 95% confidence level. As part of the project, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was utilized to measure and map soil moisture in ET lysimeter cross sections. The ERT-generated cross sections were found to accurately predict the onset and duration of lysimeter percolation. Moreover, ERT-generated soil moisture values demonstrated a strong linear relationship to lysimeter percolation rates (R-Squared = 0.92). Consequently, ERT is proposed as a reliable tool for assessing the function of field scale ET covers in the absence of drainage measurement devices.

  11. Regional seismic discrimination research at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, W.R.; Mayeda, K.M.; Goldstein, P.; Patton, H.J.; Jarpe, S.; Glenn, L.

    1995-10-01

    The ability to verify a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) depends in part on the ability to seismically detect and discriminate between potential clandestine underground nuclear tests and other seismic sources, including earthquakes and mining activities. Regional techniques are necessary to push detection and discrimination levels down to small magnitudes, but existing methods of event discrimination are mainly empirical and show much variability from region to region. The goals of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) regional discriminant research are to evaluate the most promising discriminants, improve the understanding of their physical basis and use this information to develop new and more effective discriminants that can be transported to new regions of high monitoring interest. In this report the authors discuss preliminary efforts to geophysically characterize the Middle East and North Africa. They show that the remarkable stability of coda allows one to develop physically based, stable single station magnitude scales in new regions. They then discuss progress to date on evaluating and improving physical understanding and ability to model regional discriminants, focusing on the comprehensive NTS dataset. The authors apply this modeling ability to develop improved discriminants including slopes of P to S ratios. They find combining disparate discriminant techniques is particularly effective in identifying consistent outliers such as shallow earthquakes and mine seismicity. Finally they discuss development and use of new coda and waveform modeling tools to investigate special events.

  12. Processing of analogues of plume fallout in cold regions of Enceladus by energetic electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergantini, A.; Pilling, S.; Nair, B. G.; Mason, N. J.; Fraser, H. J.

    2014-10-01

    Context. Enceladus, a small icy moon of Saturn, is one of the most remarkable bodies in the solar system. This moon is a geologically active object, and despite the lower temperatures on most of its surface, the geothermally heated south polar region presents geysers that spouts a plume made of water (~90%), carbon dioxide, methane, ammonia, and methanol, among other molecules. Most of the upward-moving particles do not have the velocity to escape from the gravitational influence of the moon and fall back to the surface. The molecules in the ice are continuously exposed to ionizing radiation, such as UV and X-rays photons, cosmic rays, and electrons. Over time, the ionizing radiation promotes molecular bond rupture, destroying and also forming molecules, radicals, and fragments. Aims: We analyse the processing of an ice mixture analogue to the Enceladus fallout ice in cold resurfaced areas (north pole) by 1 keV electrons. The main goal is to search for complex species that have not yet been detected in this moon, and to determine relevant physico-chemical parameters, such as destruction and formation cross-sections and the half-life of the studied molecules in the ice. Methods: The experiment consisted of the electron irradiation of an Enceladus-like ice mixture (H2O:CO2:CH4:NH3:CH3OH) in an ultra-high vacuum chamber at 20 K. The analysis was made by infrared spectrometry in the mid-infrared region (4000-800 cm-1 or 2.5-12.5 μm). Results: The absolute dissociation cross-sections of the parent molecules, the formation cross-section of daughter species, and the half-life of the parental species in a simulated Enceladus irradiation scenario were determined. Among the produced species, CO (carbon monoxide), OCN- (cyanate anion), HCONH2 (formamide), and H2CO (formaldehyde) were tentatively detected.

  13. Advances in RUC LSM snow component to address cold biases in snow-covered regions in RAP and HRRR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, T. G.; Benjamin, S.; Brown, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    RUC Land-Surface Model (LSM), a Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) LSM option, is used as a land surface component in the operational Rapid Refresh (RAP) over North America domain and in the High-Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) over CONUS domain. It was also added to the land-surface model suite available in NASA Land Information System (LIS), and work has been started to implement it in the Next Generation Global Prediction System (NGGPS) as part of the RAP/HRRR physics suite. The RUC LSM performance has been evaluated for almost two decades within the real-time operational weather prediction systems focused on storm-scale predictions for severe weather and safer aviation. And in the recent couple of years it has been more and more extensively utilized by the WRF community in different parts of the world, including Arctic regions, and for different applications. Valuable feedback from the National Weather Prediction forecast offices and the WRF community has motivated further advances towards better representation of processes in snow-covered regions. The new treatment has been implemented for grid cells partially covered with snow. It considers snow-covered and non-snow-covered portions of a grid cell independently, and independently determined surface fluxes are aggregated to feed back into the surface-layer scheme at the end of each time step. This new "mosaic" approach removes the constraint of keeping skin temperature of partially covered with snow grid cells at or below the freezing point, and helps to reduce cold biases in these regions. Comparison results from experiments with the new and old approaches will be presented at the meeting. Also, techniques impemented in RAP/HRRR for optimal initialization of snow cover on the ground will be presented.

  14. 35 Years of Marine Natural Product Research in Sweden: Cool Molecules and Models from Cold Waters.

    PubMed

    Bohlin, Lars; Cárdenas, Paco; Backlund, Anders; Göransson, Ulf

    2017-01-01

    Currents efforts in marine biodiscovery have essentially focused on temperate to tropical shallow water organisms. With more than 6000 species of marine plants and animals, the Kosterfjord area has the richest marine biodiversity in Swedish waters, but it remains understudied. The overall objective of our marine pharmacognosy research is to explore and reveal the pharmacological potential of organisms from this poorly explored region. More generally, we wish to understand aspects of structure-activity relationships of chemical interactions in cold-water marine environment (shallow and deep). Our strategy is based on ecologically guided search for compounds through studies of physiology and organism interactions coupled to identification of bioactive molecules guided by especially in vivo assays. The research programme originated in the beginning of the 1980s with a broad screening of Swedish marine organisms using both in vitro and in vivo assays, resulting in isolation and identification of several different bioactive molecules. Two congenerous cyclopeptides, i.e. barettin and 8,9-dihydrobarettin, were isolated from the deep-sea sponge Geodia barretti, and structurally elucidated, guided by their antifouling activity and their affinity to a selection of human serotonin receptors. To optimize the activity a number of analogues of barettin were synthezised and tested for antifouling activity. Within the EU project BlueGenics, two larger homologous peptides, barrettides A and B, were isolated from G. baretti. Also, metabolic fingerprinting combined with sponge systematics was used to further study deep-sea natural product diversity in the genus Geodia. Finally, the chemical property space model 'ChemGPS-NP' has been developed and used in our research group, enabling a more efficient use of obtained compounds and exploration of possible biological activities and targets. Another approach is the broad application of phylogenetic frameworks, which can be used in

  15. Common garden experiments to characterize cold acclimation responses in plants from different climatic regions.

    PubMed

    Malyshev, Andrey V; Henry, Hugh A L; Kreyling, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Cold acclimation is a crucial factor to consider in the context of ongoing climate change. Maladaptation with regard to frost damage and use of the growing season may occur depending on cold acclimation cues. Importance of photoperiod and preceding temperatures as cues needs therefore to be evaluated within (ecotypes) and among species. Common garden designs, in particular the (1) establishment of multiple common gardens along latitudinal/altitudinal gradients, (2) with in situ additional climate manipulations and (3) with manipulations in climate chambers are proposed as tools for the detection of local adaptations and relative importance of temperature and photoperiod as cues for cold adaptation. Here, we discuss issues in species and ecotype selection, establishment of common gardens including manipulations of temperature and photoperiod, and quantification of cold adaptation.

  16. Research and Development Trend of Shape Control for Cold Rolling Strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong-Cheng; Liu, Hong-Min; Liu, Jun

    2017-09-01

    Shape is an important quality index of cold rolling strip. Up to now, many problems in the shape control domain have not been solved satisfactorily, and a review on the research progress in the shape control domain can help to seek new breakthrough directions. In the past 10 years, researches and applications of shape control models, shape control means, shape detection technology, and shape control system have achieved significant progress. In the aspect of shape control models, the researches in the past improve the accuracy, speed and robustness of the models. The intelligentization of shape control models should be strengthened in the future. In the aspect of the shape control means, the researches in the past focus on the roll optimization, mill type selection, process optimization, local strip shape control, edge drop control, and so on. In the future, more attention should be paid to the coordination control of both strip shape and other quality indexes, and the refinement of control objective should be strengthened. In the aspects of shape detection technology and shape control system, some new types of shape detection meters and shape control systems are developed and have successfully industrial applications. In the future, the standardization of shape detection technology and shape control system should be promoted to solve the problem of compatibility. In general, the four expected development trends of shape control for cold rolling strip in the future are intelligentization, coordination, refinement, and standardization. The proposed research provides new breakthrough directions for improving shape quality.

  17. Research and Development Trend of Shape Control for Cold Rolling Strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong-Cheng; Liu, Hong-Min; Liu, Jun

    2017-07-01

    Shape is an important quality index of cold rolling strip. Up to now, many problems in the shape control domain have not been solved satisfactorily, and a review on the research progress in the shape control domain can help to seek new breakthrough directions. In the past 10 years, researches and applications of shape control models, shape control means, shape detection technology, and shape control system have achieved significant progress. In the aspect of shape control models, the researches in the past improve the accuracy, speed and robustness of the models. The intelligentization of shape control models should be strengthened in the future. In the aspect of the shape control means, the researches in the past focus on the roll optimization, mill type selection, process optimization, local strip shape control, edge drop control, and so on. In the future, more attention should be paid to the coordination control of both strip shape and other quality indexes, and the refinement of control objective should be strengthened. In the aspects of shape detection technology and shape control system, some new types of shape detection meters and shape control systems are developed and have successfully industrial applications. In the future, the standardization of shape detection technology and shape control system should be promoted to solve the problem of compatibility. In general, the four expected development trends of shape control for cold rolling strip in the future are intelligentization, coordination, refinement, and standardization. The proposed research provides new breakthrough directions for improving shape quality.

  18. Contemporary use of the cold pressor task in pediatric pain research: a systematic review of methods.

    PubMed

    Birnie, Kathryn A; Petter, Mark; Boerner, Katelynn E; Noel, Melanie; Chambers, Christine T

    2012-09-01

    The cold pressor task (CPT) is an ethical experimental pain task widely used by pediatric pain researchers to examine a variety of important theoretical and clinical questions. The purpose of this systematic review was to describe contemporary use of the CPT in pediatric pain research to identify possible methodological and procedural inconsistencies and inform future research. All papers using the CPT to examine pain-related outcomes in children ≤18 years old published after 2005 were identified, 2005 being when published pediatric CPT studies were last reviewed and guidelines for pediatric use of the CPT were published. Information related to samples, CPT methodology, and pain outcomes was recorded. Thirty-six published papers, involving 2,242 children (aged 3-18 years) from both healthy and clinical samples, met review inclusion criteria. Several aspects of CPT methodology with significant potential to impact pain outcomes were found to be inconsistently implemented and reported, including water temperature, use of informed versus uninformed ceilings, and the presence of observers during the CPT. Self-report child pain intensity and pain tolerance were common outcomes. A number of refinements for use of the CPT in pediatric pain research are suggested. The cold pressor task is a commonly used experimental method in pediatric pain research. This systematic review reveals important methodological inconsistencies in its use and suggestions for improvements to previously published guidelines. Copyright © 2012 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Geographic Research in the USGS Western Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tongue, Mara

    2007-01-01

    The two geography research programs of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Land Remote Sensing and Geographic Analysis and Monitoring, have very strong relevance to the USGS mission and science strategy. In the western United States, the particular niche of these geography programs is in connecting USGS science to people and communities. Reports from the National Academy of Sciences and other organizations invariably encourage the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to ensure the quality of its science while finding ways to make it more relevant to important societal issues. Much of the geography research conducted in the USGS Western Region does exactly that. In Menlo Park, California, the geography research team is focused on developing tools and techniques to help people assess risk from natural hazards and environmental impacts. In Flagstaff and Tucson, Arizona, geography scientists explore new ways to use remote sensing to help communities deal with environmental issues.

  20. Future Indonesia-East Timor Relations: An Analysis of the Regional Security Practices in the Cold War and After

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    Indonesia In the fourteenth century, long before the arrival of Dutch and Portuguese colonizers, the era of Majapahit rule the old Javanese Hindu...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. FUTURE INDONESIA -EAST TIMOR...from... to) ("DD MON YYYY") Title and Subtitle FUTURE INDONESIA -EAST TIMOR RELATIONS: AN ANALYSIS OF THE REGIONAL SECURITY PRACTICES IN THE COLD WAR

  1. Ices on Mercury: Chemistry of volatiles in permanently cold areas of Mercury's north polar region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delitsky, M. L.; Paige, D. A.; Siegler, M. A.; Harju, E. R.; Schriver, D.; Johnson, R. E.; Travnicek, P.

    2017-01-01

    Observations by the MESSENGER spacecraft during its flyby and orbital observations of Mercury in 2008-2015 indicated the presence of cold icy materials hiding in permanently-shadowed craters in Mercury's north polar region. These icy condensed volatiles are thought to be composed of water ice and frozen organics that can persist over long geologic timescales and evolve under the influence of the Mercury space environment. Polar ices never see solar photons because at such high latitudes, sunlight cannot reach over the crater rims. The craters maintain a permanently cold environment for the ices to persist. However, the magnetosphere will supply a beam of ions and electrons that can reach the frozen volatiles and induce ice chemistry. Mercury's magnetic field contains magnetic cusps, areas of focused field lines containing trapped magnetospheric charged particles that will be funneled onto the Mercury surface at very high latitudes. This magnetic highway will act to direct energetic protons, ions and electrons directly onto the polar ices. The radiation processing of the ices could convert them into higher-order organics and dark refractory materials whose spectral characteristics are consistent with low-albedo materials observed by MESSENGER Laser Altimeter (MLA) and RADAR instruments. Galactic cosmic rays (GCR), scattered UV light and solar energetic particles (SEP) also supply energy for ice processing. Cometary impacts will deposit H2O, CH4, CO2 and NH3 raw materials onto Mercury's surface which will migrate to the poles and be converted to more complex Csbnd Hsbnd Nsbnd Osbnd S-containing molecules such as aldehydes, amines, alcohols, cyanates, ketones, hydroxides, carbon oxides and suboxides, organic acids and others. Based on lab experiments in the literature, possible specific compounds produced may be: H2CO, HCOOH, CH3OH, HCO, H2CO3, CH3C(O)CH3, C2O, CxO, C3O2, CxOy, CH3CHO, CH3OCH2CH2OCH3, C2H6, CxHy, NO2, HNO2, HNO3, NH2OH, HNO, N2H2, N3, HCN, Na2O, Na

  2. Research aircraft observations of the mesoscale and microscale structure of a cold front over the eastern Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Nicholas A.; Shapiro, M. A.

    1991-01-01

    The structure of an oceanic cold front is described on the basis of research aircraft observations taken during the Ocean Storms field experiment. Synoptic and mesoscale analyses compare the structure of an upper-level jet-front system observed slightly downstream from the wind speed maximum to its structure in the upstream entrance region. Stratospheric potential vorticity and ozone were found within the frontal zone down to about 800 mb. Microscale analyses of the front near the sea surface were carried out for a portion of the front having the signature of a 'rope' cloud in satellite imagery. A narrow (less than 1 km) zone of upward motion (about 4 m/s) and of horizontal shear (about 0.01/s) characterized the front near the surface. Significant alongfront variability was found, including lateral displacements in the frontal zone where there were weaker updrafts.

  3. Research aircraft observations of the mesoscale and microscale structure of a cold front over the eastern Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Nicholas A.; Shapiro, M. A.

    1991-01-01

    The structure of an oceanic cold front is described on the basis of research aircraft observations taken during the Ocean Storms field experiment. Synoptic and mesoscale analyses compare the structure of an upper-level jet-front system observed slightly downstream from the wind speed maximum to its structure in the upstream entrance region. Stratospheric potential vorticity and ozone were found within the frontal zone down to about 800 mb. Microscale analyses of the front near the sea surface were carried out for a portion of the front having the signature of a 'rope' cloud in satellite imagery. A narrow (less than 1 km) zone of upward motion (about 4 m/s) and of horizontal shear (about 0.01/s) characterized the front near the surface. Significant alongfront variability was found, including lateral displacements in the frontal zone where there were weaker updrafts.

  4. The Changing Cold Regions Network: Improving the Understanding and Prediction of Changing Land, Water, and Climate in the Mackenzie and Saskatchewan River Basins, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBeer, C. M.; Wheater, H. S.; Chun, K. P.; Shook, K.; Whitfield, P. H.

    2014-12-01

    Within the cold interior of western and northern Canada, rapid and widespread environmental changes are taking place, which are of serious concern for society and have a range of implications from local to regional and global scales. From a scientific standpoint there is an urgent need to understand the changes and develop improved diagnostic and predictive modelling tools to deal with the uncertainty faced in the future. The Changing Cold Regions Network (CCRN) is a research consortium of over 50 Canadian university and government scientists and international researchers aimed at addressing these issues within the geographic domain of the Mackenzie and Saskatchewan River Basins. CCRN's primary focus is to integrate existing and new experimental data with modelling and remote sensing products to understand, diagnose and predict changing land, water and climate, and their interactions and feedbacks. To support these activities, the network utilizes a suite of 14 world-class water, ecosystem, cryosphere and climate (WECC) observatories across this region that provide exceptional opportunities to observe change, investigate processes and their dynamics, and develop and test environmental models. This talk will briefly describe the CCRN thematic components and WECC observatories, and will then describe some of the observed environmental changes and their linkages across the northern and mountainous parts of the network study domain. In particular, this will include changes in permafrost, terrestrial vegetation, snowcover, glaciers, and river discharge in relation to observed climatic changes across the region. The observations draw on a wide range of literature sources and statistical analyses of federal and provincial regional monitoring network data, while more detailed observations at some of the WECC observatories help to show how these regional changes are manifested at local scales and vice versa. A coordinated special observation and analysis period across all

  5. Analysis of various descent trajectories for a hypersonic-cruise, cold-wall research airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawing, P. L.

    1975-01-01

    The probable descent operating conditions for a hypersonic air-breathing research airplane were examined. Descents selected were cruise angle of attack, high dynamic pressure, high lift coefficient, turns, and descents with drag brakes. The descents were parametrically exercised and compared from the standpoint of cold-wall (367 K) aircraft heat load. The descent parameters compared were total heat load, peak heating rate, time to landing, time to end of heat pulse, and range. Trends in total heat load as a function of cruise Mach number, cruise dynamic pressure, angle-of-attack limitation, pull-up g-load, heading angle, and drag-brake size are presented.

  6. Evaluation of liquid water measuring instruments in cold clouds sampled during FIRE. [First ISCCP Research Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Miloshevich, Larry M.

    1989-01-01

    Airborne liquid water content (LWC) measurements were conducted with an icing detector and a forward-scattering spectrometer probe during 10 flights into cold clouds, as part of the First ISCCP Research Experiment (FIRE). The LWC measurements thus obtained compare favorably with those from the hot-wire probes in the range where LWC is above the detection limits of the latter; the hot-wire probes have detection thresholds about one order of magnitude higher than is possible with the icing detector and spectrometer probe. FIRE experiment data indicate that LWC should be taken into consideration in cloud studies at temperatures down to at least 35 C.

  7. The last stand of the psychocultural cold warriors: military contract research in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Joy

    2011-01-01

    In 1966, the social scientists of the Simulmatics Corporation arrived in Saigon. Tasked by the Pentagon with helping to pacify South Vietnam, they conducted political and social psychological research on Viet Cong defectors, government soldiers, and Vietnamese villagers. This essay argues that Simulmatics's work captures some of the ironies of Cold War social science: its tendency to mask militarization behind the rhetoric of peaceful nation-building, its blurring of data collection and intelligence gathering, and its ambitious dedication to revealing the unseen contents of hearts and minds while remaining ignorant of the historical, cultural, and linguistic contexts in which its subjects lived. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Asphalt Concrete for Cold Regions, A Comparative Laboratory Study and Analysis of Mixtures Containing Soft and Hard Grades of Asphalt Cement,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    ilto n aggregate ................................................................................................. ... 4 4 . B razil test eq u ipm en...t .................................................................................................... 5 5. D iagram o f B razil test...80 B J1 DEMPSEY, J INGERSOLL, T CJOHNSON UNCLAS7SIFIED CRREL-80-5 N ’~EVEL. Asphalt concrete tor cold regions Cold DTIC o , ELECTE i i L MAR 2 5 1980

  9. Characterization of cold hardiness in quince: potential pear rootstock candidates for northern pear production regions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The US pear industry lacks a size-controlling, precocious rootstock for pear production. Commercially available selections of quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) have been reported to possess insufficient cold tolerance for northern latitude sites. Fifty in-situ clonal quince accessions with diverse orig...

  10. European cold wave during February 2012 and impacts in wine growing regions of Moldavia (Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planchon, Olivier; Quénol, Hervé; Irimia, Liviu; Patriche, Cristi

    2015-05-01

    A severe cold wave hits a large part of Europe between late January and mid-February 2012 and caused damages in the vineyard of Moldavia in Northeastern Romania. During the cold wave, the daily minimum temperature fell near -30 °C at some weather stations in Moldavia, but the hilly terrain caused strong temperature differences at small scales: up to 10 °C in a few kilometres. Three main cold spells with very low minimum temperatures were identified in association with the succession of three circulation types (according to the Hess-Brezowsky classification): Fennoscandian high anticyclonic (HFA, January 29-February 4), Central European ridge (BM, February 5-7) and northeast anticyclonic NEA (NEA, February 8-11). A multi-scale agroclimatic analysis in the vineyard of Cotnari (Moldavia, Romania) was carried out in the particular meteorological context of the early 2012 European cold wave. The results especially pointed out the local-scale (topoclimatic) effects on the high spatial variability of temperature and consequently a contrasting spatial distribution of damage on grape vine. The analysis of data recorded from temperature loggers installed in several test sites in the vineyard of Cotnari, depending on its topographical features, and of the observations of frost damage on grape vines (on vine buds, vine canes and even vine arms and trunks) pointed out a significant correlation between the topographic position and the grape vine variety.

  11. Precise Landslide Displacement Time Series from Continuous GPS Observations in Tectonically Active and Cold Regions: A Case Study in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuddus, Y.; Wang, G.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past 15 years, Global Positioning System (GPS) has been frequently used as a scientific tool to detect potential earth mass movements and to track creeping landslides. In this study, we investigated four-years of continuous GPS data (September 2006-July 2010) recorded at a landslide site in Alaska. This GPS station (AC55) was installed on an un-identified creeping site by the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) project, which was funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation. The landslide moves with a steady horizontal velocity of 5.5 cm/year toward NEE, and had a subsidence rate of 2.6 cm/year. There was a considerable correlation between annual snow loading and melting cycles and seasonal variations of the landslide displacements. The seasonal movements vary year to year with an average peak-to-peak amplitude of 1.5 cm and 1.0 cm in horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. This study addresses three challenging issues in applying GPS for landslide monitoring in tectonically active and cold regions. The three challenges include (1) detecting GPS-derived positions that could be contaminated by the snow and ice accumulated on GPS antennas during cold seasons, (2) establishing a precise local reference frame and assessing its accuracy, and (3) excluding local seasonal ground motions from GPS-derived landslide displacements. The methods introduced in this study will be useful for GPS landslide monitoring in other tectonically active and/or cold regions.

  12. Storms or cold fronts: what is really responsible for the extreme waves regime in the Colombian Caribbean coastal region?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, L. J.; Ortiz-Royero, J. C.; Ruiz-Merchan, J. K.; Higgins, A. E.; Henriquez, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the contribution and importance of cold fronts and storms to extreme waves in different areas of the Colombian Caribbean in an attempt to determine the extent of the threat posed by the flood processes to which these coastal populations are exposed. Furthermore, the study wishes to establish the actions to which coastal engineering constructions should be subject. In the calculation of maritime constructions, the most important parameter is the height of the wave. For this reason, it is necessary to establish the design wave height to which a coastal engineering structure should be resistant. This wave height varies according to the return period considered. The significant height values for the areas focused on in the study were calculated in accordance with Gumbel's extreme value methodology. The methodology was evaluated using data from the reanalysis of the spectral National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) WAVEWATCH III® (WW3) model for 15 points along the 1600 km of the Colombian Caribbean coastline (continental and insular) between the years 1979 and 2009. The results demonstrated that the extreme waves caused by tropical cyclones and those caused by cold fronts have different effects along the Colombian Caribbean coast. Storms and hurricanes are of greater importance in the Guajira Peninsula (Alta Guajira). In the central area (consisting of Baja Guajira, and the cities of Santa Marta, Barranquilla, and Cartagena), the strong impact of cold fronts on extreme waves is evident. However, in the southern region of the Colombian Caribbean coast (ranging from the Gulf of Morrosquillo to the Gulf of Urabá), the extreme values of wave heights are lower than in the previously mentioned regions, despite being dominated mainly by the passage of cold fronts. Extreme waves in the San Andrés and Providencia insular region present a different dynamic from

  13. Status report on the cold neutron source of the Garching neutron research facility FRM-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobrecht, K.; Gutsmiedl, E.; Scheuer, A.

    2002-01-01

    The new high flux research reactor of the Technical University of Munich (Technische Universität München, TUM) will be equipped with a cold neutron source (CNS). The centre of the CNS will be located in the D 2O-reflector tank at 400 mm from the reactor core axis close to the thermal neutron flux maximum. The power of 4500 W developed by the nuclear heating in the 16 l of liquid deuterium at 25 K, and in the structures, is evacuated by a two-phase thermal siphon avoiding film boiling and flooding. The thermal siphon is a single tube with counter current flow. It is inclined by 10° from vertical, and optimised for a deuterium flow rate of 14 g/s. Optimisation of structure design and material, as well as safety aspects will be discussed. Those parts of the structure, which are exposed to high thermal neutron flux, are made from Zircaloy 4 and 6061T6 aluminium. Structure failure due to embrittlement of the structure material under high rapid neutron flux is very improbable during the lifetime of the CNS (30 years). Double, in pile even triple, containment with inert gas liner guarantees lack of explosion risk and of tritium contamination to the environment. Adding a few percent of hydrogen (H 2) to the deuterium (D 2) will improve the moderating properties of our relatively small moderator volume. Nearly all of the hydrogen is bound in the form of HD molecules. A long-term change of the hydrogen content in the deuterium is avoided by storing the mixture not in a gas buffer volume but as a metal hydride at low pressure. The metal hydride storage system contains two getter beds, one with 250 kg of LaCo 3Ni 2, the other one with 150 kg of ZrCo 0.8Ni 0.2. Each bed can take the total gas inventory, both beds together can absorb the total gas inventory in <6 min at a pressure <3 bar. The new reactor will have 13 beam tubes, 4 of which are looking at the CNS, including two for very cold (VCN) and ultra-cold neutron (UCN) production. The latter will take place in the

  14. Regionally Applied Research Efforts (RARE) Report titled " ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The traditional methodology for health risk assessment used by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is based on the use of exposure assumptions (e.g. exposure duration, food ingestion rate, body weight, etc.) that represent the entire American population, either as a central tendency exposure (e.g. average, median) or as a reasonable maximum exposure (e.g. 95% upper confidence limit). Unfortunately, EPA lacked exposure information for assessing health risks for New England regional tribes sustaining a tribal subsistence way of life. As a riverine tribe, the Penobscot culture and traditions are inextricably tied to the Penobscot River watershed. It is through hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering and making baskets, pottery, moccasins, birch-bark canoes and other traditional practices that the Penobscot culture and people are sustained. The Penobscot River receives a variety of pollutant discharges leaving the Penobscot Indian Nation (PIN) questioning the ecological health and water quality of the river and how this may affect the practices that sustain their way of life. The objectives of this Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE) study were to: (1) Develop culturally sensitive methodologies for assessing the potential level of exposure to contaminants that Penobscot Indian Nation tribal members may have from maintaining tribal sustenance practices; (2) Conduct field surveys and laboratory analysis on targeted flora and fauna for chemical expo

  15. Blasting and Blast Effects in Cold Regions. Part 3. Explosions in Ground Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    Laboratory. The work was done under DA Project 4A762730AT42, Design, Construction, and Operations Technology for Cold Re,-ions; Task Area CS, Combat...strength. This can affect the economics of a large- the limited data for frozen materials have to be in- scale mining operation that is efficient...rocks and soils. dinary blasting operations for excavation and con- In this report, explosion effects in solid ground struction. materials are

  16. A reassessment of surface friction model for maximum cold fusion reactions in superheavy mass region

    SciTech Connect

    Fukushima, A.; Wada, T.; Ohta, M.; Nasirov, A.; Aritomo, Y.

    2007-02-26

    We have made a study on the capture process of 40,48Ca+ 208Pb systems with a dynamical approach based on the surface friction model. The deformation of the nuclei due to the mutual excitation is taken into account. We have calculated the capture cross sections for several values of the friction coefficients. It was shown that, in the cold fusion reactions, the friction parameters of the surface friction model needs to be reexamined.

  17. Bibliography on Cold Regions Science and Technology. Volume 40, Part 1, 1986

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    by the large stature of the plants, because of increased annual productivity of aenal parts, and by the deep green color of the leaves resulting...Wave propaga- tion. 40-335 Arctic hydro-climatic measurements and database— associate to the hydro-power Investigations In Green - land. Andersen...Simulated physical effects uf shallow soil heat extrac - tion. Lundin, L.-C, Cold rtgions science and tcchnulogy. July 1985, 11(1), p.45-61, 21 refs Soil

  18. Large Scale Observatories for Changing Cold Regions - Recent Progress and Future Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheater, H. S.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Carey, S. K.; DeBeer, C. M.

    2016-12-01

    Observatories are at the core of hydrological science and a critical resource for the detection and analysis of environmental change. The combination of multiple pressures on the water environment and new scientific opportunities provides a context where a broader vision is urgently needed. Human activities are increasingly affecting land and water management at multiple scales, so our observatories now need to more fully include the human dimensions of water, including their integration across jurisdictional boundaries and at large basin scales. And large scales are also needed to diagnose and predict impacts of climate change at regional and continental scales, and to address land-water-atmosphere interactions and feedbacks. We argue the need to build on the notable past successes of the World Climate Research Programme and move forward to a new era of globally-distributed large scale observatories. This paper introduces 2 such observatories in rapidly warming western Canada - the 405,000 km2 Saskatchewan and the 1.8 million km2 Mackenzie river basins. We review progress in these multi-scale observatories, including the use of point and small basin-scale observatory sites to observe and diagnose complex regional patterns of hydrological change. And building on new opportunities for observational systems and data assimilation, we present a vision for a pan-Canadian observing system to support the science needed for the management of future societal risk from extreme events and environmental change.

  19. A review of research in ``cold fusion`` and its impact on energy conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Hurtak, J.J.; Bailey, P.G.

    1995-12-31

    During the past six years, cold fusion enhancement through a variety of research techniques has grown at a rapid rate to the point where it now can be regarded as a major field of endeavor, a second generation heat transfer technology. Observations have been made of deuteron-deuteron (d-d) fusion at room temperature during low voltage electrolytic infusion of deuterons into metallic titanium or palladium electrodes. Neutrons with and energy of approximately 2.5 MeV were with a sensitive neutron spectrometer at a rate of 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} n/s, which cannot be accounted for by ambient-neutron background variations. These reactions have been known to yield an excited helium nucleus ({sup 4} He) with approximately 23.8 MeV excess energy, where d+d= {sup 4}He + energy. In most successful experiments, 1% to 50% more heat than the input of electric power into the electrolytic cells has been recorded. These experiments are being successfully repeated on an international basis. Some of these results and various theories proposed to explain this phenomena are presented. Possible applications of ``cold fusion`` technology are given, and its impact on energy conservation is discussed.

  20. Cold Atmospheric Plasma for Medicine: State of Research and Clinical Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Woedtke, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Basic research in plasma medicine has made excellent progress and resulted in the fundamental insights that biological effects of cold atmospheric plasmas (CAP) are significantly caused by changes of the liquid environment of cells, and are dominated by redox-active species. First CAP sources are CE-certified as medical devices. Main focus of plasma application is on wound healing and treatment of infective skin diseases. Clinical applications in this field confirm the supportive effect of cold plasma treatment in acceleration of healing of chronic wounds above all in cases where conventional treatment fails. Cancer treatment is another actual and emerging field of CAP application. The ability of CAP to kill cancer cells by induction of apoptosis has been proved in vitro. First clinical applications of CAP in palliative care of cancer are realized. In collaboration with Hans-Robert Metelmann, University Medicine Greifswald; Helmut Uhlemann, Klinikum Altenburger Land GmbH Altenburg; Anke Schmidt and Kai Masur, Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology (INP Greifswald); Renate Schönebeck, Neoplas Tools GmbH Greifswald; and Klaus-Dieter Weltmann, Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology (INP Greifswald).

  1. QUANTITATIVE CHANGES IN REGIONAL CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW INDUCED BY COLD, HEAT AND ISCHEMIC PAIN: A CONTINUOUS ARTERIAL SPIN LABELING STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Frölich, Michael A.; Deshpande, Hrishikesh; Ness, Timothy; Deutsch, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Background The development of arterial spin labeling methods, has allowed measuring regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) quantitatively and to show the pattern of cerebral activity associated with any state such as a sustained pain state or changes due to a neurotropic drug. Methods We studied the differential effects of three pain conditions in ten healthy subjects on a 3T scanner during resting baseline, heat, cold and ischemic pain using continuous arterial spin labeling. Results Cold pain showed the greatest absolute rCBF increases in left anterior cingulate cortex, left amygdala, left angular gyrus, and Brodmann Area 6, and a significant rCBF decrease in the cerebellum. Changes in rCBF were characteristic of the type of pain condition: cold and heat pain showed increases, while the ischemic condition showed a reduction in mean absolute gray matter flow compared to rest. An association of subjects’ pain tolerance and cerebral blood flow was noted. Conclusions The observation that quantitative rCBF changes are characteristic of the pain task employed and that there is a consistent rCBF change in Brodman area 6, an area responsible for the integration of a motor response to pain, should provide extremely useful information in the quest to develop an imaging biomarker of pain. Conceivably, response in BA6 may serve as an objective measure of analgesic efficacy. PMID:22913924

  2. Design of the cold neutron triple-axis spectrometer at the China Advanced Research Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, P.; Zhang, Hongxia; Bao, W.; Schneidewind, A.; Link, P.; Grünwald, A. T. D.; Georgii, R.; Hao, L. J.; Liu, Y. T.

    2016-06-01

    The design of the first cold neutron triple-axis spectrometer at the China Advanced Research Reactor is presented. Based on the Monte Carlo simulations using neutron ray-tracing program McStas, the parameters of major neutron optics in this instrument are optimized. The neutron flux at sample position is estimated to be 5.6 ×107 n/cm2/s at neutron incident energy Ei=5 meV when the reactor operates normally at the designed 60 MW power. The performances of several neutron supermirror polarizing devices are compared and their critical parameters are optimized for this spectrometer. The polarization analysis will be realized with a flexible switch from the unpolarized experimental mode.

  3. Bibliography on Cold Regions Science and Technology. Volume 52. Part 2,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-12-01

    tunnel model studies of roof snow loads resulting basin [1997, eng] 52-5537 52-5657 from multiple snowstorms [1997, eag] 52-318 Mitro France Michell , FL...P.FJ. Vachon ,P.W. Palaeolithic landscapes of Europe and environs, 150,000- Comment on "On the magnitude of transport out of the Satellite...Dependence of surface albedo in the Arctic on surface charae- [1997,eng] 52-1575 Plan now for cold-weather operation of cooling towers. Michell , teristics

  4. An overview of the latest results of cold seep research along the Hikurangi Margin, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greinert, J.; Faure, K.; Bialas, J.; Linke, P.; Pecher, I.; Rowden, A.

    2008-12-01

    Prior to 2006, the knowledge about cold seeps around New Zealand was based mainly on accidental recovery of seep fauna or methane-derived carbonates by fishermen and flares in echo sounders. Lewis and Marshall (1996) compiled these findings, providing the first details on 13 seep sites. Four of those are located at the Hikurangi Margin along the east coast of New Zealand's North Island. Since then, three international cruises in 2006 and 2007 enhanced our knowledge considerably about methane seepage along the Hikurangi Margin, an area which has in places very strong BSRs. Two cruises on RV TANGAROA in 2006 focused on extensive reconnaissance work as well as fauna sampling, geochemical pore water analyses and CTD casts including water sampling for methane analyses. Several new seep sites were discovered during these cruises. Using these data, very detailed investigations in four main working areas could be performed during a 10-weeks expedition with RV SONNE (SO191). All research topics currently discussed in the scientific community were addressed using state-of-the-art equipment (e.g. deep- tow side-scan and ROV-deployments). Fourteen institutes from seven countries were involved. Echosounder and sidescan surveys unmistakably revealed active seep sites by detecting bubbles in the water column and carbonate precipitation at the seafloor forming massive chemoherm complexes. These complexes are associated with typical seep fauna like tube worms, bivalve mollusk species (Calyptogena, Bathymodiolus),and bacterial mats. At the fringe of these chemoherms dark sediment patches were observed which exihibit a novel seep habitat dominated by dense beds of two new species of heterotrophic ampharetid polychaetes. Bubble release was visually observed at several sites and recorded in the backscatter of various acoustic devices. At one site (680m water depth) very strong, pulsing outbursts could be observed repeatedly with methane fluxes of 20 to 25 l/min (60 to 74 mol

  5. Integrated research on the Pen Duick cold-water coral mounds: the MiCROSYSTEMS approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rooij, David; de Mol, Lies; Blamart, Dominique; Mienis, Furu; Wehrmann, Laura M.; Barbieri, Roberto; Maignien, Lois; Templer, Stefanie P.; de Haas, Henk; Henriet, Jean-Pierre

    2010-05-01

    The ESF EuroDIVERSITY MiCROSYSTEMS project aimed to turn the cold-water coral (CWC) mounds on the Pen Duick Escarpment (PDE) in the Gulf of Cadiz into a natural laboratory, exploring this highly complex biotope and to characterize its biodiversity. A common point of discussion with all other CWC mound provinces, surpassing its broad range of regional and morphological variability, concerns the driving forces regarding the initiation of these complex deep-water systems. Both oceanographic and geological processes have been proposed to play a significant role in the mound nucleation, growth and decline. During IODP Expedition 307, the importance of biogeochemical processes was already elucidated. Here, we present the preliminary results of the MD169 campaign as an integrated case study of three PDE CWC mounds: Alpha, Beta and Gamma mounds. Although cold-water corals are a common feature on the adjacent cliffs, mud volcanoes and seafloor, no actual living reef has been observed during the many ROV surveys. This multidisciplinary study aims to present a comprehensive and holistic view on the local dynamic geological and oceanographic environment. Coring data suggests (past or present) methane seepage near the Pen Duick Escarpment. Several sources and pathways are proposed, among which a stratigraphic migration through uplifted Miocene series underneath PDE. Its dominant morphology has influenced the local hydrodynamics within the course of the Pliocene, as documented by the emplacement of a sediment drift. Predominantly during post-Middle Pleistocene glacial episodes, favourable conditions were present for mound growth. An additional advantage for CWC mound nucleation near the top of PDE is offered through seepage-related carbonate crusts which might offer elevated colonization positions. Present-day seabed observations also suggested a possible important role of open coral rubble frameworks in the mound building process. These graveyards not only act as sediment trap

  6. An integrated numerical framework for water quality modelling in cold-region rivers: A case of the lower Athabasca River.

    PubMed

    Shakibaeinia, Ahmad; Kashyap, Shalini; Dibike, Yonas B; Prowse, Terry D

    2016-11-01

    There is a great deal of interest to determine the state and variations of water quality parameters in the lower Athabasca River (LAR) ecosystem, northern Alberta, Canada, due to industrial developments in the region. As a cold region river, the annual cycle of ice cover formation and breakup play a key role in water quality transformation and transportation processes. An integrated deterministic numerical modelling framework is developed and applied for long-term and detailed simulation of the state and variation (spatial and temporal) of major water quality constituents both in open-water and ice covered conditions in the lower Athabasca River (LAR). The framework is based on the a 1D and a 2D hydrodynamic and water quality models externally coupled with the 1D river ice process models to account for the cold season effects. The models are calibrated/validated using available measured data and applied for simulation of dissolved oxygen (DO) and nutrients (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus). The results show the effect of winter ice cover on reducing the DO concentration, and a fluctuating temporal trend for DO and nutrients during summer periods with substantial differences in concentration between the main channel and flood plains. This numerical frame work can be the basis for future water quality scenario-based studies in the LAR.

  7. Bibliography on Cold Regions Science and Technology, Volume 45, Part 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    94 , enM 45-2653 On the use of brine and high-density immiscible liquis fo Lynch, DL acay D sryice removal (19,p.575-581, cog] liquis6fo 2-13 micron...parameters in a forced air stream [ 199 1, pt.383-393, eng] 45-9% Cold temperature properties of polymer-modified asphalt p. 1009-1017, eng] 45-3022 Palm ...and 1989 t1 99 1, 78p., nor3 45-3856 water (1 9 9 1, p.681 6 - 68 2 6, eng] 45.2776 1989. Data report E1 99 0 , 122p., eng3 451 Ost-eng, W. Palms , T

  8. Intercomparison of Global Reanalyses and Regional Simulations of Cold Season Water Budgets in the Western United States

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Lai R.; Qian, Yun; Han, Jongil; Roads, John O.

    2003-12-01

    Estimating water budgets of river basins in the western U.S. is a challenge because of the effects of complex terrain and lack of comprehensive observational datasets. This study aims at understanding the uncertainty in estimating water budgets of the Columbia River (CRB) and Sacramento-San Joaquin (SSJ) River basins. An intercomparison was performed based on the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis I (NRA1), NCEP/DOE Reanalysis II (NRA2), ECMWF reanalyses (ERA), regional climate simulations produced by the Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5) and NCEP Regional Spectral Model (RSM), and two precipitation datasets gridded at 2.5 and 1/8 degree for seven years between 1986 and 1993 to study the effects of spatial resolutions, model configurations and parameterizations, and large-scale conditions on basin-scale water budgets. Results showed that overall, the regional simulations were superior in terms of simulating the spatial distributions of mean precipitation and precipitation anomalies compared to the global reanalyses. However, cold season precipitation was generally amplified through downscaling using the regional models such that basin mean precipitations were typically higher than the observed, while the opposite was true for the reanalyses. The amplification was the largest in the RSM simulation driven by NRA2, which showed the biggest difference between the large-scale and regional-scale basin mean precipitations. ERA and the MM5 simulation driven by ERA provided the best basin mean precipitation estimates when compared to the 1/8o observational dataset.

  9. Restriction to large-scale gene flow vs. regional panmixia among cold seep Escarpia spp. (Polychaeta, Siboglinidae).

    PubMed

    Cowart, Dominique A; Huang, Chunya; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie; Carney, Susan L; Fisher, Charles R; Schaeffer, Stephen W

    2013-08-01

    The history of colonization and dispersal in fauna distributed among deep-sea chemosynthetic ecosystems remains enigmatic and poorly understood because of an inability to mark and track individuals. A combination of molecular, morphological and environmental data improves understanding of spatial and temporal scales at which panmixia, disruption of gene flow or even speciation may occur. Vestimentiferan tubeworms of the genus Escarpia are important components of deep -sea cold seep ecosystems, as they provide long-term habitat for many other taxa. Three species of Escarpia, Escarpia spicata [Gulf of California (GoC)], Escarpia laminata [Gulf of Mexico (GoM)] and Escarpia southwardae (West African Cold Seeps), have been described based on morphology, but are not discriminated through the use of mitochondrial markers (cytochrome oxidase subunit 1; large ribosomal subunit rDNA, 16S; cytochrome b). Here, we also sequenced the exon-primed intron-crossing Haemoglobin subunit B2 intron and genotyped 28 microsatellites to (i) determine the level of genetic differentiation, if any, among the three geographically separated entities and (ii) identify possible population structure at the regional scale within the GoM and West Africa. Results at the global scale support the occurrence of three genetically distinct groups. At the regional scale among eight sampling sites of E. laminata (n = 129) and among three sampling sites of E. southwardae (n = 80), no population structure was detected. These findings suggest that despite the patchiness and isolation of seep habitats, connectivity is high on regional scales.

  10. Tree-Ring Proxies of Hydroclimate Variability in the Great Lakes Region during Cold Excursions Back to 15ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panyushkina, I. P.; Leavitt, S. W.

    2014-12-01

    A decade-long investigation of subfossil wood buried in glacio-fluvial, fluvial and lacustrine deposits from the U.S. Great Lakes region has resulted in a Great Lakes tree-ring network (GLTRN) comprising 47 sites dated from ca. 15 ka to 3ka. The GLTRN provides high-resolution proxies for exploration of local and regional responses to hydroclimate change at inter-annual scales during the transition from the Late Pleistocene to the Holocene. Classification of radiometric ages of GLTRN wood with relative cumulative-probability function delineates intervals and importance of hydrological changes in time and space. The overwhelming majority of wood burial events correlate with generally cold climate excursions. Forest-stand deterioration and tree mortality events at the studied sites are demonstrated to result from flooding, via river aggradation (identifying occurrence of extreme hydrologic events), rise of water table, or lake inundation. To better evaluate the special patterns of hydrological change back to 15ka, we developed four floating d13C chronologies from spruce tree rings. The length of these tree-ring proxy series that capture high-frequency moisture variability of the Great Lakes area ranges from 120 to 250 years. Our data indicate progressive wet intervals during the cold excursions precisely dated with 14C tree-ring wiggles at 13.7ka, 12.1ka, and 11.3ka that fall in the Bølling-Allerød and Pre-Boreal Interstadials, and Younger Dryas Stadial. The inter-annual and decadal variability of tree-ring moisture proxies are similar across the studied locations and time intervals. Such coherence of respective proxies may result from both local ecological stability of spruce communities or regional response to a common source of moisture at the studied time intervals and locations. This study demonstrates a potential of GLTRN proxies for modeling hydroclimatic changes at the North American continent back 15 ka.

  11. Translating Research from Animal Models: Does It Matter that Our Rodents are So Cold?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Does it matter that preclinical rodent models are routinely housed below their thermoneutral zone and are thereby cold-stressed? We compile evidence showing that rodents housed below their thermoneutral zone are cold-stressed, hypermetalbolic, hypertensive, sleep-deprived, obesi...

  12. Translating Research from Animal Models: Does It Matter that Our Rodents are So Cold?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Does it matter that preclinical rodent models are routinely housed below their thermoneutral zone and are thereby cold-stressed? We compile evidence showing that rodents housed below their thermoneutral zone are cold-stressed, hypermetalbolic, hypertensive, sleep-deprived, obesi...

  13. Sulfur biogeochemistry of cold seeps in the Green Canyon region of the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formolo, Michael J.; Lyons, Timothy W.

    2013-10-01

    Cold seeps in the Gulf of Mexico provide a natural laboratory to study biogeochemical cycling of sulfur, carbon, and oxygen at hydrate- and hydrocarbon-rich deep marine settings with obvious additional relevance to studies of diverse modern and ancient seeps. Of particular interest are the sulfur isotope signatures of microbial sulfate reduction coupled to anaerobic oxidation of methane and other non-methane liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons. Whereas most of the published sulfur isotope data from cold seep systems pertain to pore-water species, our study integrates both solid and dissolved sulfur: acid-volatile sulfides (SAVS), pyrite (Spy), elemental sulfur (S°), dissolved sulfate and ΣH2S. Modeled and 35SO42- reduction rates and δ13C and δ18O data for authigenic carbonates are integrated within this sulfur framework. Our results indicate extreme variability over narrow spatial and temporal scales within short distances (meters) from active seeps. High rates of microbial sulfate reduction can lead to complete consumption of the sulfate within the upper few centimeters of burial, while meters away the sulfate profile shows little depletion. Such small-scale variability must reflect the structure and temporal dynamics of hydrocarbon migration in the presence of low amounts of background organic matter. Our past work demonstrated that electron donors other than methane drive significant levels of microbial activity at these seeps, and very recent work has demonstrated that oxidation of higher chain volatile hydrocarbons can contribute to the high levels of microbial activity. These findings are consistent with our new results. Elevated concentrations of pyrite and diagenetic carbonate relative to background sediments are diagnostic of active seepage, yet the S isotopes tell more complex stories. Low levels of the transient, 'instantaneous' products of S cycling-AVS and S°-show high δ34S values that increase with depth. Most of the pyrite formation, however, seems

  14. Project COLD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazanjian, Wendy C.

    1982-01-01

    Describes Project COLD (Climate, Ocean, Land, Discovery) a scientific study of the Polar Regions, a collection of 35 modules used within the framework of existing subjects: oceanography, biology, geology, meterology, geography, social science. Includes a partial list of topics and one activity (geodesic dome) from a module. (Author/SK)

  15. Research Review: City and Regional Magazines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynds, Ernest C.

    1994-01-01

    Argues that city magazines have vast unexplored potential as agenda setters, investigative reporters, and advocates of improved cities. Traces the historical development of city magazines, reviews the limited research in the field, and suggests research approaches that the magazines could use to expand their services to readers, advertisers,…

  16. Research Review: City and Regional Magazines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynds, Ernest C.

    1994-01-01

    Argues that city magazines have vast unexplored potential as agenda setters, investigative reporters, and advocates of improved cities. Traces the historical development of city magazines, reviews the limited research in the field, and suggests research approaches that the magazines could use to expand their services to readers, advertisers,…

  17. Simplifications of Simulation on Energy Balances and Estimations of a Hybrid Renewable Energy System for Use in Cold Climate Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akpan, Itoro Etim; Sasaki, Masafumi; Endoh, Noboru

    A simplified double grade meteorological data model for the simulation of the annual performance of a domestic-size renewable energy system is proposed. With the model, only two representative days (clearest and cloudiest) during each season of the year are necessary to estimate annual energy balances, carbon emissions and the running costs. The model was chosen in preference to other simplified models based on the error distributions from the results of the continuous simulations in a test period. Detailed numerical simulation studies show that the carbon emissions from the renewable energy system are about 16%of a comparable conventional system. The thermal energy produced by a solar collector during the winter season, however, is insufficient to meet all the loads so that frequent heat pump operations and the auxiliary boiler are necessary in cold climate regions.

  18. Cold War and the environment: the role of Finland in international environmental politics in the Baltic Sea region.

    PubMed

    Räsänen, Tuomas; Laakkonen, Simo

    2007-04-01

    The Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area signed in 1974 in Helsinki is probably the most important environmental agreement consummated in the Baltic Sea region. This article is the first study that explores the history of this agreement, also known as the Helsinki Convention, by using primary archival sources. The principal sources are the archives of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland. We examine the role of Finland in the process that led to the signing of the Helsinki Convention from the perspective of international politics. The study focuses primarily on Finnish, Swedish, and Soviet state-level parties from the end of the 1960s to 1974. We show that Cold War politics affected in several ways negotiations and contents of the Helsinki Convention. We also argue that the Soviet Union used the emerging international environmental issues as a new tool of power politics.

  19. Can constructed wetlands reduce the diffuse phosphorus loads to eutrophic water in cold temperate regions?

    PubMed

    Braskerud, B C; Tonderski, K S; Wedding, B; Bakke, R; Blankenberg, A-G B; Ulén, B; Koskiaho, J

    2005-01-01

    Construction of wetlands is a possible supplement to best management practices (BMP) at the field level to mitigate phosphorus (P) pollution from agricultural areas. In this paper, annual results from 17 intensively studied wetlands in the cold temperate or boreal climatic zone are reported and analyzed. Surface areas varied from 0.007 to 8.7% of the catchment area. The average total phosphorus (TP) retention varied from 1 to 88%, and the dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) retention from -19 to 89%. Retention varied substantially from site to site, indicating the existence of site-specific factors in the catchment and wetlands that influenced the P removal. Factors important for P retention in wetlands were evaluated through multiple statistical analyses by dividing P into two fractions: particulate phosphorus (PP) and DRP. Both relative (%) PP and DRP retention increased with wetland surface area. However, PP retention was not as sensitive as DRP in terms of wetland size and retention: specific PP retention (gram P retention per m(2) and year) decreased as wetland area (A(w)) increased, suggesting the existence of a site-specific optimal wetland to catchment area (A(c)) ratio. Particulate P retention decreased with increasing DRP to TP ratio, while the opposite was found for DRP. Dissolved reactive P retention was higher in new than in old wetlands, while increasing age did not influence PP retention negatively. Effective BMP in the catchment is important to keep the P loss low, because the outlet concentration of P from wetlands is often positively correlated to the input concentration. However, wetlands act as the last buffer in a catchment, since the retention often increases as the P concentration in streams increases.

  20. Hydrologic Assessment of Remotely Sensed High Resolution Precipitation Products over Cold-Mountainous Regions, and Analysis of the GPM Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrangi, A.; Andreadis, K.; Fisher, J. B.; Turk, F. J.; Painter, T. H.; Granger, S. L.; Das, N. N.; Stephens, G. L.

    2014-12-01

    Remote sensing of precipitation in mountainous and snow-fed basins is challenging, but critical for hydrometeorological applications and water resources management. This study is part of the ongoing effort to develop a Regional Hydrological Extremes Assessment System (RHEAS). Five commonly used satellite-based high-resolution precipitation products (HRPPs) over several basins in the mountainous western United States are investigated. The products (TRMM 3B42, TRMM 3B42-RT, CMORPH, PERSIANN, and PERSIANN-CCS) are analyzed using ground gauge and gauge-adjusted radar precipitation data. In order to diagnose the sources of errors, level 2 products are also explored (AMSR, AMSU, TRMM TMI, TRMM PR, and CloudSat). CloudSat provided useful insight on light rain and snowfall and was used as an additional resource to improve the analysis. For hydrologic assessment, the skill of HRPPs and the resulting streamflow simulations from the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrological model is cross-compared. It was found that over the mountainous west US basins, HRPPs often capture major precipitation events, but seldom capture the observed magnitude of precipitation, especially during winter when snowfall is dominant. Bias adjustment is found to be effective in enhancing the HRPPs and resulting streamflow simulations. The results using collocated AMSR-E, CloudSat, and AMSU suggest that current limitations in retrieving snowfall, precipitation from systems that lack frozen hydrometeors, and systems over frozen land contribute largely to the observed errors transferred to HRPPs. In light of the operation of the GPM mission, further opportunities for enhancing snowfall retrieval and hydrology of cold and mountainous regions are becoming available. We provide some initial assessment of the latest GPM observations and discuss about the impact of GPM over cold-mountainous basins.

  1. Vitamin C and colds

    MedlinePlus

    ... belief is that vitamin C can cure the common cold . However, research about this claim is conflicting. Although ... Fashner J, Ericson K, Werner S. Treatment of the common cold in children and adults. Am Fam Physician. 2012; ...

  2. Investigating the performance and energy saving potential of Chinese commercial building benchmark models for the hot humid and severe cold climate regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Lesley Anne

    2011-12-01

    The demand for energy in China is growing at an alarming rate. Buildings have become a significant component of the energy-demand mix accounting for nearly one-quarter of the country's total primary energy consumption. This study compares the building code standards for office and hotel buildings in the hot humid and severe cold climate regions of China and the United States. Benchmark office and hotel building models have been developed for Guangzhou and Harbin, China that meets China's minimum national and regional building energy codes with the integration of common design and construction practices for each region. These models are compared to the ASHRAE standard based US reference building models for Houston, Texas and Duluth, Minnesota which have similar climate conditions. The research further uses a building energy optimization tool to optimize the Chinese benchmarks using existing US products to identify the primary areas for potential energy savings. In the case of the Harbin models, an economic analysis has also been performed to determine the economic feasibility of alternative building designs. The most significant energy-saving options are then presented as recommendations for potential improvements to current China building energy codes.

  3. Geomembrane applications for controlling diffusive migration of petroleum hydrocarbons in cold region environments.

    PubMed

    McWatters, Rebecca S; Rutter, Allison; Rowe, R Kerry

    2016-10-01

    Laboratory permeation tests examine the migration of aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX)) at 2, 7 and 14 °C through three different types of geomembrane (high density polyethylene (HDPE), linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)). Tests on both virgin and exhumed field samples provide permeation parameters (partitioning (Sgf), diffusion (Dg), and permeation (Pg) coefficients) for the three geomembranes. These results are combined with published values for the same geomembranes at 23 °C to establish an Arrhenius relationship that can be used to estimate diffusion parameters at temperatures other than those for which tests were conducted. Tests on an HDPE geomembrane sample exhumed after 3 years from a landfill site in the Canadian Arctic showed no significant difference in diffusion characteristics compared to an otherwise similar unaged and unexposed HDPE geomembrane. Contaminant transport modeling for benzene through HDPE, LLPDE and PVC in a simulated landfill cover show that for the conditions examined the presence of any of the three geomembranes below the 2 m thick soil cover substantially reduced the contaminant flux compared to the soils alone for realistic degrees of saturation in the cover soil. For these same realistic cold climate cases, of the three geomembranes examined, the HDPE geomembrane was the most effective at controlling the contaminant flux out of the landfill. An increase in soil cover and liner temperature by 2 °C (from potential climate change effects) above those currently measured at an Arctic landfill showed an increase in contaminant transport through the cover system for all geomembranes due to the increase surface temperature (especially in the summer months). Modeling of the addition of an extra 0.5 m of soil cover, as a mitigation measure for the effects of climate change, indicates that the main benefit of adding this unsaturated soil was to reduce the

  4. Controlling Factors of the Surface Energy and Water Balances in cities located in cold climate regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Järvi, L.; Grimmond, S. B.; Christen, A.; McFadden, J. P.; Strachan, I. B.

    2016-12-01

    Urban effects on climate are often pronounced in winter due to large anthropogenic heat releases and differences in snow cover between urban and surrounding rural areas. In this study, we simulate energy and water balances in cities characterized by cold winter climates with snow. Eleven urban sites from Helsinki (Finland), Basel (Switzerland), Montreal (Canada) and Minneapolis (USA) are analysed. The sites were selected based on the availability of either measured turbulent fluxes (from eddy covariance) or surface runoff to be used for model evaluation. The sites vary with respect to land cover fractions, irrigation habits and population densities. For example, the plan area fraction of impervious surface varies from 5% in Minneapolis to 84% in Basel. To simulate urban energy and water balances, we use the Surface Urban Energy and Water balance Scheme (SUEWS) model, which has been designed to minimize the number of required input variables and model parameters. For each site, the model is run in an offline mode using measured hourly meteorological data with a time step of 5-min. As the modelled time periods range from one (Basel) to 7.5 years (Helsinki), a wide range of meteorological conditions occur. Our results show how both evaporation and surface runoff are highly dependent on the fraction of impervious surface cover (r > |0.8|) during snow-free periods. However, high year-to-year variability in simulated evaporation and runoff indicates that climatological factors are also important. In winter, the amount and duration of snow cover become import controlling factor in determining the two components of water balance. The shorter the snow cover period is, the larger the cumulative runoff tends to be. Thus, our results suggest that warmer winters with less snow will increase the stress on drainage systems and modify the urban ecosystem via changes in evaporation and Bowen ratio. Also, our results indicate that simply using the fraction of impervious or pervious

  5. Regional Event Identification Research in Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    include mining event ground- truth data collection in central Asia, and efforts to improve the magnitude and distance amplitude correction (MDAC...identify active mines. Our goal was to tie event clusters with similar waveforms to specific mine sites, and thereby establish ground truth location and...event ground- truth data in central Asia, and we have continued efforts to derive Eurasian two-dimensional, regional-phase attenuation models and

  6. The Research on Optimization of Edge Drop Control for Cold Tandem Rolling Mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiao-Min; Yue, Xiao-Xue

    2016-05-01

    The cold tandem rolling of metal strip presents a significant control challenge because of nonlinearities and process complexities. And reducing edge drop of cold rolling strips and meeting uniform thickness will be a new tough shape theories and technologies. In this paper, the existing edge drop control are analyzed and optimized. The simulation results and practical data show that the optimized control system can effectively control the edge drop.

  7. Cold Crucible Induction Melter Technology: Results of Laboratory Directed Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    Gombert, Dirk; Richardson, John Grant

    2001-09-01

    This report provides a review of cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) technology and presents summaries of alternatives and design issues associated with major system components. The objective in this report is to provide background systems level information relating to development and application of cold crucible induction-heated melter technology for radiological waste processing. Included is a detailed description of the bench-top melter system at the V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute currently being used for characterization testing

  8. [Healthcare research and regional programming in Umbria (Italy)].

    PubMed

    Romagnoli, Carlo; Minelli, Liliana

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between regional programming and national health research policy, and in particular evaluates the role that intellectual capital plays in innovation processes of knowledge-based organizations. The concepts of intellectual capital and knowledge-based organization are defined in the paper, as these are especially useful when speaking of university, healthcare systems and research and development companies. The paper also examines the various types of healthcare research (basic research, clinical trial, epidemiological research, valutative research) and the role that each type of research plays in healthcare programming at the national and regional levels.

  9. EXPERIENCE IN REDUCING ELECTRON CLOUD AND DYNAMIC PRESSURE RISE IN WARM AND COLD REGIONS IN RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG, S.Y.; AHRENS,L.; ALLESI, J.; BAI, M.; BLASKIEWICZ, M.; CAMERON, P.; CONNOLLY, R.; DREES, A.; FISCHER, W.; GULLOTTA, J.; HE, P.; HSEUH, H.C.; HUANG, H.; LEE, R.; LITVINENKO, V.; MACKAY, W.W.; MONTAG, C.; NICOLETTI, A.; OERTER, B.; PILAT, F.; PTITSYN, V.; ROSER, T.; SATOGATA, T.; SMART, L.; SYNDSTRUP, L.; TEPIKIAN, S.; THIEBERGER, P.; TRBOJEVIC, D.; WEI, J.; ZENO, K.

    2006-06-23

    The large scale application of non-evaporable getter coating in RHIC has been effective in reducing the electron cloud. Since beams with higher intensity and smaller bunch spacing became possible in operation, the emittance growth is of concern. Study results are reported together with experiences of machine improvements: saturated NEG coatings, anti-grazing ridges in warm sections, and the pre-pumping in cryogenic regions.

  10. On improving cold region hydrological processes in the Canadian Land Surface Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganji, Arman; Sushama, Laxmi; Verseghy, Diana; Harvey, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Regional and global climate model simulated streamflows for high-latitude regions show systematic biases, particularly in the timing and magnitude of spring peak flows. Though these biases could be related to the snow water equivalent and spring temperature biases in models, a good part of these biases is due to the unaccounted effects of non-uniform infiltration capacity of the frozen ground and other related processes. In this paper, the treatment of frozen water in the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS), which is used in the Canadian regional and global climate models, is modified to include fractional permeable area, supercooled liquid water and a new formulation for hydraulic conductivity. The impact of these modifications on the regional hydrology, particularly streamflow, is assessed by comparing three simulations performed with the original and two modified versions of CLASS, driven by atmospheric forcing data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) reanalysis (ERA-Interim) for the 1990-2001 period over a northeast Canadian domain. The two modified versions of CLASS differ in the soil hydraulic conductivity and matric potential formulations, with one version being based on formulations from a previous study and the other one is newly proposed. Results suggest statistically significant decreases in infiltration and therefore soil moisture during the snowmelt season for the simulation with the new hydraulic conductivity and matric potential formulations and fractional permeable area concept compared to the original version of CLASS, which is also reflected in the increased spring surface runoff and streamflows in this simulation with modified CLASS over most of the study domain. The simulated spring peaks and their timing in this simulation are also in better agreement to those observed. This study thus demonstrates the importance of treatment of frozen water for realistic simulation of streamflows.

  11. Development of the Finse Alpine Research Station towards a platform for multi-disciplinary research on Land-Atmosphere Interaction in Cold Environments (LATICE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkhart, John F.; Decker, Sven; Filhol, Simon; Hulth, John; Nesje, Atle; Schuler, Thomas V.; Sobolowski, Stefan; Tallaksen, Lena M.

    2017-04-01

    The Finse Alpine Research Station provides convenient access to the Hardangervidda mountain plateau in Southern Norway (60 deg N, 1222 m asl). The station is located above the tree-line in vicinity to the west-eastern mountain water divide and is easily accessible by train from Bergen and Oslo. The station itself offers housing and basic laboratory facilities and has been used for ecological monitoring. Over the past years, studies on small-scale snow distribution and ground temperature have been performed and accompanied by a suite of meteorological measurements. Supported by strategic investments by the University of Oslo and ongoing research projects, these activities are currently expanded and the site is developed towards a mountain field laboratory for studies on Land-Atmosphere Interaction in Cold Environments, facilitated by the LATICE project (www.mn.uio.no/latice). Additional synergy comes from close collaborations with a range of institutions that perform operational monitoring close to Finse, including long-term time series of meteorological data and global radiation. Through our activities, this infrastructure has been complemented by a permanent tower for continuous Eddy-Covariance measurements along with associated gas fluxes. A second, mobile covariance system is in preparation and will become operational in 2017. In addition, a wireless sensor network is set up to grasp the spatial distributions of basic meteorological variables, snow depth and glacier mass balance on the nearby Hardangerjøkulen ice cap. While the research focus so far was on small scale processes (snow redistribution), this is now being expanded to cover hydrological processes on the catchment and regional scale. To this end, two discharge stations have been installed to gauge discharge from two contrasting catchments (glacier dominated and non-glacierized). In this presentation, we provide an overview over existing and planned infrastructure, field campaigns and research

  12. [Research progress in water eco-functional regionalization].

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-mei; Zeng, Wen-lu; Zhou, Qi-xing

    2009-12-01

    Water eco-functional regionalization is a new zoning approach based on the study of regional differences in water ecosystem, aimed to reveal the spatial differentiation characteristics and distribution patterns of water environment at different regional and zonal scales. This paper discussed the methodologies, objectives, and limitations of water function zoning, water environmental function zoning, geoecology zoning, ecoregion classification, and water eco-functional regionalization, summarized the research progress in the water eco-functional regionalization, and compared the regionalization system at home and abroad. The disadvantages of our water eco-functional regionalization system were pointed out, and its development trend was prospected.

  13. Characteristics of organic soil in black spruce forests: Implications for the application of land surface and ecosystem models in cold regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yi, S.; Manies, K.; Harden, J.; McGuire, A.D.

    2009-01-01

    Soil organic layers (OL) play an important role in landatmosphere exchanges of water, energy and carbon in cold environments. The proper implementation of OL in land surface and ecosystem models is important for predicting dynamic responses to climate warming. Based on the analysis of OL samples of black spruce (Picea mariana), we recommend that implementation of OL for cold regions modeling: (1) use three general organic horizon types (live, fibrous, and amorphous) to represent vertical soil heterogeneity; (2) implement dynamics of OL over the course of disturbance, as there are significant differences of OL thickness between young and mature stands; and (3) use two broad drainage classes to characterize spatial heterogeneity, as there are significant differences in OL thickness between dry and wet sites. Implementation of these suggestions into models has the potential to substantially improve how OL dynamics influence variability in surface temperature and soil moisture in cold regions. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophys.ical Union.

  14. Research Note: Dimensions of Program Quality in Regional Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Denise L.

    1987-01-01

    This study extended the research done by Conrad and Blackburn (1985) on program quality in regional universities. Researchers increased the number of departments and disciplines studied. Indicates that traditional indicators of quality may be valid, but they carry a different weight at regional universities. (RB)

  15. Bibliography on Cold Regions Science and Technology. Volume 51, Part 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    transfer to Zooplankton grazers. Michel , C, Legendre, L., Ingram, R.G., Gosselin, M., Levasseur, M., Journal of geophysical research, Aug. 15...Canadian Arctic. Moorman, B.J., Michel , F.A., Wilson, A., Perma- frost and periglacial processes, Sep. 1996, 7(3), p.257-266, With French summary...Glacier area. Vachon , P.W., et al, International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Lincoln, NE, May 27- 31,1996. IGARSS󈨤. Remote sensing

  16. Bibliography on Cold Regions Science and Technology. Volume 44, Part 1, 1990

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    carbonlmg of chlorophyll a per hour in Jan. A chatishowing drate and ice. In a ave clouds, with, tooling rates of hundreds pigment ratio, chlorophyll...influented hy- Snuv-radar. an efficient tool fui areal snow pack as- winter. dropower station in GrecnlapJ. sessments. Ashton, G.D., MP 2500, Hanoei, NH...assemblages of St. Lawrence and St. Kergomard, C., et al, Geophysical research letters, lopkinson pressure bar apparatus: a tool for rapid Matthew Islands

  17. The Impact of the Atlantic Cold Tongue on West African Monsoon Onset in Regional Model Simulations for 1998-2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Druyan, Leonard M.; Fulakeza, Matthew B.

    2014-01-01

    The Atlantic cold tongue (ACT) develops during spring and early summer near the Equator in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Guinea. The hypothesis that the ACT accelerates the timing of West African monsoon (WAM) onset is tested by comparing two regional climate model (RM3) simulation ensembles. Observed sea surface temperatures (SST) that include the ACT are used to force a control ensemble. An idealized, warm SST perturbation is designed to represent lower boundary forcing without the ACT for the experiment ensemble. Summer simulations forced by observed SST and reanalysis boundary conditions for each of five consecutive years are compared to five parallel runs forced by SST with the warm perturbation. The article summarizes the sequence of events leading to the onset of the WAM in the Sahel region. The representation of WAM onset in RM3 simulations is examined and compared to Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and reanalysis data. The study evaluates the sensitivity of WAM onset indicators to the presence of the ACT by analysing the differences between the two simulation ensembles. Results show that the timing of major rainfall events and therefore theWAM onset in the Sahel are not sensitive to the presence of the ACT. However, the warm SST perturbation does increase downstream rainfall rates over West Africa as a consequence of enhanced specific humidity and enhanced northward moisture flux in the lower troposphere.

  18. Diversity and cold adaptation of culturable endophytic fungi from bryophytes in the Fildes Region, King George Island, maritime Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Liu, Hong-Yu; Wei, Yu-Zhen; Li, Hai-Long; Su, Jing; Zhao, Li-Xun; Yu, Li-Yan

    2013-04-01

    Endophytic fungi associated with three bryophyte species in the Fildes Region, King George Island, maritime Antarctica, that is, the liverwort Barbilophozia hatcheri, the mosses Chorisodontium aciphyllum and Sanionia uncinata, were studied by culture-dependent method. A total of 128 endophytic fungi were isolated from 1329 tissue segments of 14 samples. The colonization rate of endophytic fungi in three bryophytes species were 12.3%, 12.1%, and 8.7%, respectively. These isolates were identified to 21 taxa, with 15 Ascomycota, 5 Basidiomycota, and 1 unidentified fungus, based on morphological characteristics and sequence analyses of ITS region and D1/D2 domain. The dominant fungal endophyte was Hyaloscyphaceae sp. in B. hatcheri, Rhizoscyphus sp. in C. aciphyllum, and one unidentified fungus in S. uncinata; and their relative frequencies were 33.3%, 32.1%, and 80.0%, respectively. Furthermore, different Shannon-Weiner diversity indices (0.91-1.99) for endophytic fungi and low endophytic fungal composition similarities (0.19-0.40) were found in three bryophyte species. Growth temperature tests indicated that 21 taxa belong to psychrophiles (9), psychrotrophs (11), and mesophile (1). The results herein demonstrate that the Antarctic bryophytes are an interesting source of fungal endophytes and the endophytic fungal composition is different among the bryophyte species, and suggest that these fungal endophytes are adapted to cold stress in Antarctica.

  19. Cold Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COLD STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Workers who ... cold environments may be at risk of cold stress. Extreme cold weather is a dangerous situation that ...

  20. Research on heat transfer characteristics and cold trap capacity of a water catcher during vacuum pre-cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Enhai; Liu, Yin; Wang, Changzhong; Liu, Shiqi

    2017-01-01

    Effect of vacuum pre-cooling process on apples was a complex process of heat and mass transfers. The research is based on the physical properties of apples and their heat and mass transfer mechanisms during vacuum pre-cooling. As for the heat transfer characteristics of a water catcher in vacuum pre-cooling, the research studied the heat transfer mechanism and calculated the cold trap capacity by experimental means, and it cold trap capacity were evaluated to supply references for future research into the practical applications of such vacuum pre-cooling techniques. The results provide a theoretical basis for exploring better pre-cooling process conditions and the design of water catchers. The experimental results show that, when the wall temperature of the water catcher is -5°C, the optimal cold trap capacity is about 90.72g and the required cooling capacity is 210.13W in the vacuum pre-cooling of 201.9g of apples.

  1. Coupling of the simultaneous heat and water model with a distributed hydrological model and evaluation of the combined model in a cold region watershed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To represent the effects of frozen soil on hydrology in cold regions, a new physically based distributed hydrological model has been developed by coupling the simultaneous heat and water model (SHAW) with the geomorphology based distributed hydrological model (GBHM), under the framework of the water...

  2. Increasing nursing faculty research: the Iowa gerontological nursing research and regional research consortium strategies.

    PubMed

    Maas, Meridean L; Conn, Vicki; Buckwalter, Kathleen C; Herr, Keela; Tripp-Reimer, Toni

    2009-01-01

    Research development and regional consortium strategies are described to assist schools in all countries extend their gerontological nursing research productivity. The strategies, collaboration and mentoring experiences, and outcomes are also shared to illustrate a highly successful approach in increasing faculty programs of nursing research in a focused area of inquiry. A case description of gerontological nursing research development and regional consortium strategies in schools of nursing is used. The regional consortium included 17 schools of nursing that are working to increase faculty programs of gerontological nursing research. Survey responses describing publications, presentations, and research funding awards from 65 of 114 total faculty participants in consortium opportunities (pilot and mentoring grant participants, participants in summer scholars' grantsmanship seminars) were collected annually from 1995 through 2008 to describe outcomes. From 1994 through 2008, faculty participants from the consortium schools who responded to the annual surveys reported a total of 597 gerontological nursing publications, 527 presentations at research conferences, funding of 221 small and internal grants, and 130 external grant awards, including 47R-series grants and 4 K awards. There is an urgent need for more nurse faculty with programs of research to inform the health care of persons and support the preparation of nurse clinicians and faculty. The shortage of nurse scientists with active programs of gerontological research is especially serious and limits the number of faculty who are needed to prepare future gerontological nurses, particularly those with doctoral degrees who will assume faculty positions. Further, junior faculty with a gerontological nursing research foci often lack the colleagues, mentors, and environments needed to develop successful research careers. The outcomes of the development and regional consortium strategies suggest that the principles of

  3. Element concentrations in cold-water gorgonians and black coral from Azores region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimundo, Joana; Vale, Carlos; Caetano, Miguel; Anes, Bárbara; Carreiro-Silva, Marina; Martins, Inês; Matos, Valentina de; Porteiro, Filipe M.

    2013-12-01

    Seamounts are thought to support high biodiversity and special biological communities, including corals. Corals incorporate minor and trace elements and have been suggested as possible bioindicators of their availability in the environment. Forty specimens of five gorgonian species (Alcyonacea) and a black coral (Antipatharia) were collected in 12 sites in the Azores region. Concentrations of Ca, Mg, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Cd and Pb were determined in skeleton and attached tissue of each individual from each species. Leiopathes sp. had higher Cr, Ni, Se and Pb concentrations than the gorgonians. Enhanced Cu and Cd values were registered in Leiopathes and Acanthogorgia hirsuta. Specimens of A. hirsuta also presented elevated concentrations of Zn and Co. Linear relationships between Cd and Cu, Zn and Se point to response mechanisms in corals, possibly related to the induction of proteins enlarging the capacity to incorporate further quantities of essential elements. Results obtained in this study suggest the existence of an additional source of Cd in waters off Azores Islands associated with natural hydrothermal activities.

  4. The Application Research of Modern Intelligent Cold Chain Distribution System Based on Internet of Things Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Dehui; Gao, Shan

    This paper implemented an intelligent cold chain distribution system based on the technology of Internet of things, and took the protoplasmic beer logistics transport system as example. It realized the remote real-time monitoring material status, recorded the distribution information, dynamically adjusted the distribution tasks and other functions. At the same time, the system combined the Internet of things technology with weighted filtering algorithm, realized the real-time query of condition curve, emergency alarming, distribution data retrieval, intelligent distribution task arrangement, etc. According to the actual test, it can realize the optimization of inventory structure, and improve the efficiency of cold chain distribution.

  5. Development of An Enthalpy-based Frozen Soil Model and Its Validation in A Cold Region in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, H.

    2015-12-01

    A physically-based frozen soil model was developed based on the Water and Energy Budget-based Distributed Hydrological model (WEB-DHM) for the simulation of water and energy transfer in cold regions. In order to simulate the soil freezing/thawing processes stably and efficiently, a two-step algorithm is applied to solve the non-linear energy governing equations: 1) the thermal diffusion equation is used to simulate the heat fluxes between soil layers without considering liquid-ice phase change; 2) a freezing/thawing scheme is used to derive soil temperature, liquid water content and ice content from enthalpy conservation, mass conservation, and freezing point depression equations. In the algorithm, a parameterization set is adopted to update hydraulic and thermal properties by considering the presence of ice and low soil temperatures. The performance of the frozen soil model was validated at point scale in a typical mountainous permafrost region of Binggou Watershed, Heihe Basin, Northwest China. Results show that the model can achieve a convergent solution at a typical time step (hourly) and layer sizes (centimeters) of current land process models. It is able to reproduce the observed soil freezing/thawing processes and hydrological processes. The simulated profiles of soil temperature, liquid water content, ice content and thawing front depth are in good agreement with the observations and the characteristics of permafrost. The freeze-thaw cycle in frozen soil evolution was continuously represented by the contour map of soil temperature and ice content of all soil layers. Therefore, this model can be coupled with hydrological, ecological and climate models to deepen our physical understanding in permafrost regions.

  6. Maturity group classification and maturity locus genotyping of early-maturing soybean varieties from high-latitude cold regions.

    PubMed

    Jia, Hongchang; Jiang, Bingjun; Wu, Cunxiang; Lu, Wencheng; Hou, Wensheng; Sun, Shi; Yan, Hongrui; Han, Tianfu

    2014-01-01

    With the migration of human beings, advances of agricultural sciences, evolution of planting patterns and global warming, soybeans have expanded to both tropical and high-latitude cold regions (HCRs). Unlike other regions, HCRs have much more significant and diverse photoperiods and temperature conditions over seasons or across latitudes, and HCR soybeans released there show rich diversity in maturity traits. However, HCR soybeans have not been as well classified into maturity groups (MGs) as other places. Therefore, it is necessary to identify MGs in HCRs and to genotype the maturity loci. Local varieties were collected from the northern part of Northeast China and the far-eastern region of Russia. Maturity group reference (MGR) soybeans of MGs MG000, MG00, and MG0 were used as references during field experiments. Both local varieties and MGR soybeans were planted for two years (2010-2011) in Heihe (N 50°15', E 127°27', H 168.5 m), China. The days to VE (emergence), R1 (beginning bloom) and R7 (beginning maturity) were recorded and statistically analyzed. Furthermore, some varieties were further genotyped at four molecularly-identified maturity loci E1, E2, E3 and E4. The HCR varieties were classified into MG0 or even more early-maturing. In Heihe, some varieties matured much earlier than MG000, which is the most early-maturing known MG, and clustered into a separate group. We designated the group as MG0000, following the convention of MGs. HCR soybeans had relatively stable days to beginning bloom from emergence. The HCR varieties diversified into genotypes of E1, E2, E3 and E4. These loci had different effects on maturity. HCRs diversify early-maturing MGs of soybean. MG0000, a new MG that matures much earlier than known MGs, was developed. HCR soybean breeding should focus more on shortening post-flowering reproductive growth. E1, E2, E3, and E4 function differentially.

  7. Development of an enthalpy-based frozen soil model and its validation in a cold region in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Huiyi; Koike, Toshio; Yang, Kun; Wang, Lei; Shrestha, Maheswor; Lawford, Peter

    2016-05-01

    An enthalpy-based frozen soil model was developed for the simulation of water and energy transfer in cold regions. To simulate the soil freezing/thawing processes stably and efficiently, a three-step algorithm was applied to solve the nonlinear governing equations: (1) a thermal diffusion equation was implemented to simulate the heat conduction between soil layers; (2) a freezing/thawing scheme used a critical temperature criterion to judge the phase status and introduced enthalpy and total water mass into freezing depression equation to represent ice formation/melt and corresponding latent heat release/absorption; and (3) a water flow scheme was employed to describe the liquid movement within frozen soil. In addition, a parameterization set of hydraulic and thermal properties was updated by considering the frozen soil effect. The performance of the frozen soil model was validated at point scale in a typical mountainous permafrost basin of China. An ice profile initialization method is proposed for permafrost modeling. Results show that the model can achieve a convergent solution at a time step of hourly and a surface layer thickness of centimeters that are typically used in current land surface models. The simulated profiles of soil temperature, liquid water content, ice content and thawing front depth are in good agreement with the observations and the characteristics of permafrost. The model is capable of continuously reproducing the diurnal and seasonal freeze-thaw cycle and simulating frozen soil hydrological processes.

  8. Research priorities in epilepsy for the Asia-Oceanian region.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Patrick; Cabral-Lim, Leonor; D'Souza, Wendyl; Jain, Satish; Lee, Byung-In; Liao, Weiping; Lim, Shih-Hui; Otsuki, Taisuke; Tan, Chong-Tin; Wantanabe, Masako

    2015-05-01

    The Asia-Oceanian region is the most populous region in the world. Although there has been substantial economic development and improvement in health services in recent years, epilepsy remains generally an underrecognized and understudied condition. To help promote research in the region, the Commission on Asian and Oceanian Affairs (CAOA) of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) appointed the Research Task Force (RTF) to facilitate the development of research priorities for the region. Research that focuses on issues that are unique or of particular importance in the Asia-Oceanian region is encouraged, and that captures the impact of the dynamic socioeconomic changes taking place in the region is emphasized. Based on these considerations, we propose research "dimensions" as priorities within the Asia-Oceanian region. These are studies (1) that would lead to fuller appreciation of the health burden of epilepsy, particularly the treatment gap; (2) that would lead to better understanding of the causes of epilepsy; (3) that would alleviate the psychosocial consequences of epilepsy; (4) that would develop better therapies and improved therapeutic outcomes; and (5) that would improve the research infrastructure.

  9. Vernalization Requirement and the Chromosomal VRN1-Region can Affect Freezing Tolerance and Expression of Cold-Regulated Genes in Festuca pratensis

    PubMed Central

    Ergon, Åshild; Melby, Tone I.; Höglind, Mats; Rognli, Odd A.

    2016-01-01

    Plants adapted to cold winters go through annual cycles of gain followed by loss of freezing tolerance (cold acclimation and deacclimation). Warm spells during winter and early spring can cause deacclimation, and if temperatures drop, freezing damage may occur. Many plants are vernalized during winter, a process making them competent to flower in the following summer. In winter cereals, a coincidence in the timing of vernalization saturation, deacclimation, downregulation of cold-induced genes, and reduced ability to reacclimate, occurs under long photoperiods and is under control of the main regulator of vernalization requirement in cereals, VRN1, and/or closely linked gene(s). Thus, the probability of freezing damage after a warm spell may depend on both vernalization saturation and photoperiod. We investigated the role of vernalization and the VRN1-region on freezing tolerance of meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.), a perennial grass species. Two F2 populations, divergently selected for high and low vernalization requirement, were studied. Each genotype was characterized for the copy number of one of the four parental haplotypes of the VRN1-region. Clonal plants were cold acclimated for 2 weeks or vernalized/cold acclimated for a total of 9 weeks, after which the F2 populations reached different levels of vernalization saturation. Vernalized and cold acclimated plants were deacclimated for 1 week and then reacclimated for 2 weeks. All treatments were given at 8 h photoperiod. Flowering response, freezing tolerance and expression of the cold-induced genes VRN1, MADS3, CBF6, COR14B, CR7 (BLT14), LOS2, and IRI1 was measured. We found that some genotypes can lose some freezing tolerance after vernalization and a deacclimation–reacclimation cycle. The relationship between vernalization and freezing tolerance was complex. We found effects of the VRN1-region on freezing tolerance in plants cold acclimated for 2 weeks, timing of heading after 9 weeks of

  10. Cold Regions Environmental Considerations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-03

    Vegetation types in the subarctic are primarily forest-tundra, taiga , and open woodlands. The northern edge of the Subarctic MOE (the boundary between the...continuous discontinuous Soils (sediments, loess, dust) very limited limited abundant Vegetation (boreal forest, taiga ) not present not present present...you can hear and see exceptionally well over open snow-covered terrain. However, in a deep snow-covered forest ( taiga ), it becomes extremely dark

  11. Deterrence from Cold War to Long War: Lessons from Six Decades of RAND Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    The U-2 and Corona would 11 See Rosenberg and Moore (1981–1982) for discussion of the expansion of targets and the nuclear arsenal. 12 Capt. William...Moore, quoted in Rosenberg and Moore (1981–1982, p. 25). 30 Deterrence—From Cold War to Long War soon make counterforce targeting vastly more...damage limitation clear. It stated that, if LNOs fail to control escala - tion and general war occurs, then damage limitation is second in prior- ity only

  12. Maturity Group Classification and Maturity Locus Genotyping of Early-Maturing Soybean Varieties from High-Latitude Cold Regions

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wencheng; Hou, Wensheng; Sun, Shi; Yan, Hongrui; Han, Tianfu

    2014-01-01

    Background With the migration of human beings, advances of agricultural sciences, evolution of planting patterns and global warming, soybeans have expanded to both tropical and high-latitude cold regions (HCRs). Unlike other regions, HCRs have much more significant and diverse photoperiods and temperature conditions over seasons or across latitudes, and HCR soybeans released there show rich diversity in maturity traits. However, HCR soybeans have not been as well classified into maturity groups (MGs) as other places. Therefore, it is necessary to identify MGs in HCRs and to genotype the maturity loci. Methods Local varieties were collected from the northern part of Northeast China and the far-eastern region of Russia. Maturity group reference (MGR) soybeans of MGs MG000, MG00, and MG0 were used as references during field experiments. Both local varieties and MGR soybeans were planted for two years (2010-2011) in Heihe (N 50°15′, E 127°27′, H 168.5 m), China. The days to VE (emergence), R1 (beginning bloom) and R7 (beginning maturity) were recorded and statistically analyzed. Furthermore, some varieties were further genotyped at four molecularly-identified maturity loci E1, E2, E3 and E4. Results The HCR varieties were classified into MG0 or even more early-maturing. In Heihe, some varieties matured much earlier than MG000, which is the most early-maturing known MG, and clustered into a separate group. We designated the group as MG0000, following the convention of MGs. HCR soybeans had relatively stable days to beginning bloom from emergence. The HCR varieties diversified into genotypes of E1, E2, E3 and E4. These loci had different effects on maturity. Conclusion HCRs diversify early-maturing MGs of soybean. MG0000, a new MG that matures much earlier than known MGs, was developed. HCR soybean breeding should focus more on shortening post-flowering reproductive growth. E1, E2, E3, and E4 function differentially. PMID:24740097

  13. Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest Drinking ...

  14. Cold Urticaria

    MedlinePlus

    ... throat when consuming cold food or drink Severe reactions may include: A whole-body response (anaphylaxis), which ... to cold water. The majority of cold urticaria reactions occur when skin is exposed to temperatures lower ...

  15. Remotely sensing a cold region dune field using airborne LiDAR and high resolution aerial photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baughman, C. A.; Jones, B. M.; Babcock, E.; Bodony, K. L.; Mann, D. H.; Larson, C. F.; Smith, J.

    2016-12-01

    Sand dunes and sheets respond to global and regional climatic changes, ecological succession, and disturbance events. Approximately 100,000 km2 of active and stable sand sheets occur in the Arctic and Subarctic today. These cold regions dunes are also subject to changes in permafrost conditions. Permafrost can influence soil moisture and vegetation, which then influences sand availability and transport. This study describes the morphometry and dynamics of the Nogahabara Dunes of interior Alaska's discontinuous permafrost zone and local permafrost conditions using 2015 airborne LiDAR, historic aerial photography, ground penetrating radar, and historical climate data. Average active dune height is 10 meters, with a maximum dune height of 28 meters. Dune spacing is approximately 130 meters. Where dunes are irregularly shaped and have variable orientation, dune spacing ranges from 40 to 200+ meters. Average dune migration between 1952 and 2015 is 63cm yr-1. Dune migration direction was variable; however, the predominant direction of movement was to the southeast. This agrees with historical wind records. Despite substantial within-field movement, the overall extent of the active dune field has not changed in 60 years. Small blow-out features were observed in the aftermath of fires that occurred in the vegetated portion of the dune field in 2015. Inferred reflectors in GPR data show that permafrost is present within the active dune field 2-4 meters below ground surface, but there does not appear to be any morphometric features directly related to permafrost. Depth-to-permafrost is shallower within the inactive dunes adjacent to the active dune field due to surface stability and cover by vegetation and insulating soil organics. Recent fire on the inactive dunes has the potential to reactivate dormant dunes through the degradation of underlying permafrost however long term monitoring will be required to validate this scenario. Acquisition of contemporary airborne Li

  16. Research priorities in medical education in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    PubMed

    Amini, M; Kojuri, J; Lotfi, F; Karimian, Z; Abadi, A S H

    2012-07-01

    Ways are needed to effect quality improvement in medical education research in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). This study aimed to determine the principle themes and to draw up a list of priorities in medical education research in EMR. Using the nominal group technique with a group of 30 experts, a list of major themes in medical education research was prepared. In a 2-round Delphi survey the list was sent to another 47 experts in the Region with a questionnaire that included open questions about change and reform in medical education. In the final list of 20, the 5 highest priorities identified were: training physicians to be effective teachers; community-driven models for curriculum development; clinical teaching models; education about professionalism and ethics; and education for evidence-based medicine. Themes determined by this survey can help researchers in EMR to focus on priority areas in research.

  17. Influence of site and soil properties on the DRIFT spectra of northern cold-region soils [Influence of site and soil properties on the mid-infrared spectra of northern cold-region soils

    DOE PAGES

    Matamala, Roser; Calderon, Francisco J.; Jastrow, Julie D.; ...

    2017-06-05

    information contained in MidIR spectra of bulk soil integrates the quantity and chemical composition of soil organic matter with soil forming factors and highlights the potential for using this information to assess the degradation state of organic matter stored in northern cold-region soils.« less

  18. Strengthening integrated research and capacity development within the Caribbean region

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Caribbean region, like other developing regions of the world, faces significant challenges in conducting research, especially in the context of limited resource capacities and capabilities. Further, due to its diverse and multiple island states, research capacity is scattered and unevenly spread within the region. The Caribbean EcoHealth Programme (CEHP) is a research program that is structured to improve the capacity and capability of health professionals in the Caribbean region to respond in integrative and innovative ways to on-going and emerging environmental health challenges by means of multi-sectoral interventions. Methods Core parts of the CEHP’s mission are to (1) conduct collaborative research in areas that the region has identified as critical; (2) build and strengthening integrated approaches to research; and (3) develop and enhance basic research capacity within the Caribbean region. Fundamental to the success of the CEHP’s human and resource development mission has been its use of the Atlantis Mobile Laboratory (AML). The AML has allowed the CEHP program to move throughout the Caribbean and be able to respond to calls for specific research and capacity building opportunities. Results The CEHP’s five main research projects have generated the following results: (1) the Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) study has evaluated human exposures to POPs, heavy metals, pesticides, and zoonotic infections; (2) the Burden of Illness (BOI) studies have developed protocols for the testing of foodborne microorganisms, strengthen laboratory analytical capabilities, and determined the prevalence and incidence of food-borne illness; (3) the Rainwater Harvesting (RWH) study has evaluated the microbial and chemical quality of rainwater harvesting systems; (4) the Ecotoxicology Water (ETW) studies have provided much needed data on the quality of recreational and drinking water supplies, and (5) the Food Safety Training Program has developed Diploma

  19. General-Purpose Heat Source: Research and development program: Cold-Process Verification Test Series

    SciTech Connect

    Reimus, M.A.H.; George, T.G.

    1996-06-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Because any space mission could experience a launch abort or return from orbit, the heat source must be designed and constructed to survive credible accident environments. Previous testing conducted in support of the Galileo and Ulysses missions documented the response of GPHSs and individual GPHS capsules fueled with {sup 238}UO{sub 2} ({sup 235}U-depleted) to a variety of explosive overpressure and impact events. In the early 1990s, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) resumed fabrication of {sup 238}UO{sub 2} GPHS pellets. The Cold-Process Verification (CPV) Test Series was designed to compare the response of GPHS heat sources loaded with recently fabricated hot- and cold-pressed {sup 238}UO{sub 2} pellets to the response of urania pellets used in the Galileo and Ulysses performance tests. This report documents eleven bare-capsule impacts and one impact of a fully loaded GPHS module. All of the failures observed in the bare-clad impact tests were similar to failures observed in previous safety tests. No failures occurred in the module impact test.

  20. Hot and cold fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    This article presents an overview of research in cold fusion research and development in cold fusion at the Tokomak Fusion Test Reactor at the Princeton Plasma Physics Lab, and at the inertial containment facility at Lawrence Livermore National Lab. is described.

  1. [The Early Years of Military Laser Research and Technology in the Federal Republic of Germany During the Cold War].

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Helmuth

    2014-01-01

    The invention of the laser in 1960 and the innovation process of laser technology during the following years coincided with the dramatic increase of the East-West-conflict during the 1960s - the peak of the so-called Cold War after the erection of the Berlin Wall in 1961. The predictable features of the new device, not only for experimental sciences, but also for technical and military applications, led instantly to a laser hype all over the world. Military funding and research played a major part in this development. Especially in the United States military laser research and development played an important role in the formation of Cold War sciences. The European allies followed this example to a certain degree, but their specific national environments led to quite different solutions and results. This article describes and analyzes the special features and background of this development for the Federal Republic of Germany in the area of conflict between science, politics and industry from 1960 to the early 1970s.

  2. Artic and subarctic environmental analyses utilizing ERTS-1 imagery. Cold regions environmental analysis based on ERTS-1 imagery (preprint)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. M. (Principal Investigator); Haugen, R. K.; Gatto, L. W.; Slaughter, C. W.; Marlar, T. L.; Mckim, H. L.

    1972-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. An overriding problem in arctic and subarctic environmental research has been the absence of long-term observational data and the sparseness of geographical coverage of existing data. A first look report is presented on the use of ERTS-1 imagery as a major tool in two large area environmental studies: (1) investigation of sedimentation and other nearshore marine processes in Cook Inlet, Alaska; and (2) a regional study of permafrost regimes in the discontinuous permafrost zone of Alaska. These studies incorporate ground truth acquisition techniques that are probably similar to most ERTS investigations. Studies of oceanographic processes in Cook Inlet will be focused on seasonal changes in nearshore bathymetry, tidal and major current circulation patterns, and coastal sedimentation processes, applicable to navigation, construction, and maintenance of harbors. Analyses will be made of the regional permafrost distribution and regimes in the Upper Koyukuk-Kobuk River area located in NW Alaska.

  3. Cold adaptations.

    PubMed

    Launay, Jean-Claude; Savourey, Gustave

    2009-07-01

    Nowdays, occupational and recreational activities in cold environments are common. Exposure to cold induces thermoregulatory responses like changes of behaviour and physiological adjustments to maintain thermal balance either by increasing metabolic heat production by shivering and/or by decreasing heat losses consecutive to peripheral cutaneous vasoconstriction. Those physiological responses present a great variability among individuals and depend mainly on biometrical characteristics, age, and general cold adaptation. During severe cold exposure, medical disorders may occur such as accidental hypothermia and/or freezing or non-freezing cold injuries. General cold adaptations have been qualitatively classified by Hammel and quantitatively by Savourey. This last classification takes into account the quantitative changes of the main cold reactions: higher or lower metabolic heat production, higher or lesser heat losses and finally the level of the core temperature observed at the end of a standardized exposure to cold. General cold adaptations observed previously in natives could also be developed in laboratory conditions by continuous or intermittent cold exposures. Beside general cold adaptation, local cold adaptation exists and is characterized by a lesser decrease of skin temperature, a more pronounced cold induced vasodilation, less pain and a higher manual dexterity. Adaptations to cold may reduce the occurrence of accidents and improve human performance as surviving in the cold. The present review describes both general and local cold adaptations in humans and how they are of interest for cold workers.

  4. Widespread and rapid thermokarst development in a region of very cold continuous permafrost in the Canadian High Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farquharson, L. M.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Cable, W.; Walker, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    Climate warming in regions of ice-rich permafrost can result in widespread thermokarst development which can have drastic impacts on ecosystem processes and human infrastructure. Numerous studies have demonstrated that local permafrost degradation is occurring in areas of relatively "warm" permafrost, yet few have acknowledged nor documented the vulnerability of cold permafrost to degradation. In this study we present the first dataset coupling observations of ice-wedge degradation and thermokarst development with on-site continuous ground temperature data. We show evidence of widespread permafrost degradation at three monitoring sites underlain by continuous permafrost, in the Canadian High Arctic (73 to 79°N). Across all sites, the lack of a substantial organic protective layer makes the permafrost vulnerable to increases in summer temperature. At the start of our ground observation period, ice wedges at each site showed little to no evidence of degradation, suggesting that this recent disturbance is unprecedented during the Holocene. During the last decade, at all sites, we observed a warming trend for climate and ground temperature, leading to an increase in active layer depth, ice-wedge melting, and subsequent ground subsidence. Between 2005 and 2013, active layer depth increased at Isachsen, Mould Bay and Green Cabin by up to 20, 30, and 40 cm respectively. This lead to trough deepening at Green Cabin and new development followed by further deepening of troughs at Mould Bay and Isachsen. To measure elevation changes caused by thermokarst development, and establish a baseline for future monitoring, we used structure from motion (SfM) photogrammetry to derive a high spatial resolution digital terrain model at each site. Local distribution of thermokarst landforms were quantified using high-resolution spectral satellite imagery at an annual resolution between 2010 and 2015 and indicate that ice-wedge trough development is widespread within at least a 1 km

  5. Cold Climate Foundation Retrofit Experimental Hygrothermal Performance. Cloquet Residential Research Facility Laboratory Results

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, Louise F.; Harmon, Anna C.

    2015-04-09

    This project was funded jointly by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL focused on developing a full basement wall system experimental database to enable others to validate hygrothermal simulation codes. NREL focused on testing the moisture durability of practical basement wall interior insulation retrofit solutions for cold climates. The project has produced a physically credible and reliable long-term hygrothermal performance database for retrofit foundation wall insulation systems in zone 6 and 7 climates that are fully compliant with the performance criteria in the 2009 Minnesota Energy Code. These data currently span the period from November 10, 2012 through May 31, 2014 and are anticipated to be extended through November 2014. The experimental data were configured into a standard format that can be published online and that is compatible with standard commercially available spreadsheet and database software.

  6. Applicability research on passive design of residential buildings in hot summer and cold winter zone in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Huihui; Zhou, Xuan

    2017-04-01

    Passive design has long been a concern as an effective way of building energy efficiency. However, different urban climate characteristics determine the time-effectiveness of passive design. According to the climate characteristics of hot summer and cold winter zone in China, this research chose five cities, Shanghai, Wuhan, Chongqing, Nanjing and Changsha, to analyze their residential building energy consumption and thermal environment conditions. Based on Weather Tool calculation and analysis, the purpose of this research is to put forward the concept of Suitable Degree (SD), namely the applicability of the passive design. In addition, five cities’ SD of passive design technology had been analyzed from aspect of ventilation, temperature, solar radiation and envelope, then passive design strategies and methods of five cities’ residential building were discussed.

  7. Variable regions in Flavobacterium psychrophilum strains identified by comparative genomics: application to selective breeding for cold water disease resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacterial cold water disease is one of the most frequent causes of elevated loss in juvenile salmonids, and the development of effective control strategies is a high priority to aquaculturists, management agencies, and conservationists. Since 2005, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) have been bred ...

  8. Priority regions for research on dryland cereals and legumes

    PubMed Central

    Hyman, Glenn; Barona, Elizabeth; Biradar, Chandrashekhar; Guevara, Edward; Dixon, John; Beebe, Steve; Castano, Silvia Elena; Alabi, Tunrayo; Gumma, Murali Krishna; Sivasankar, Shoba; Rivera, Ovidio; Espinosa, Herlin; Cardona, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Dryland cereals and legumes  are important crops in farming systems across the world.  Yet they are frequently neglected among the priorities for international agricultural research and development, often due to lack of information on their magnitude and extent. Given what we know about the global distribution of dryland cereals and legumes, what regions should be high priority for research and development to improve livelihoods and food security? This research evaluated the geographic dimensions of these crops and the farming systems where they are found worldwide. The study employed geographic information science and data to assess the key farming systems and regions for these crops. Dryland cereal and legume crops should be given high priority in 18 farming systems worldwide, where their cultivated area comprises more than 160 million ha. These regions include the dryer areas of South Asia, West and East Africa, the Middle East and North Africa, Central America and other parts of Asia. These regions are prone to drought and heat stress, have limiting soil constraints, make up half of the global population and account for 60 percent of the global poor and malnourished. The dryland cereal and legume crops and farming systems merit more research and development attention to improve productivity and address development problems. This project developed an open access dataset and information resource that provides the basis for future analysis of the geographic dimensions of dryland cereals and legumes. PMID:27303632

  9. Priority regions for research on dryland cereals and legumes.

    PubMed

    Hyman, Glenn; Barona, Elizabeth; Biradar, Chandrashekhar; Guevara, Edward; Dixon, John; Beebe, Steve; Castano, Silvia Elena; Alabi, Tunrayo; Gumma, Murali Krishna; Sivasankar, Shoba; Rivera, Ovidio; Espinosa, Herlin; Cardona, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Dryland cereals and legumes  are important crops in farming systems across the world.  Yet they are frequently neglected among the priorities for international agricultural research and development, often due to lack of information on their magnitude and extent. Given what we know about the global distribution of dryland cereals and legumes, what regions should be high priority for research and development to improve livelihoods and food security? This research evaluated the geographic dimensions of these crops and the farming systems where they are found worldwide. The study employed geographic information science and data to assess the key farming systems and regions for these crops. Dryland cereal and legume crops should be given high priority in 18 farming systems worldwide, where their cultivated area comprises more than 160 million ha. These regions include the dryer areas of South Asia, West and East Africa, the Middle East and North Africa, Central America and other parts of Asia. These regions are prone to drought and heat stress, have limiting soil constraints, make up half of the global population and account for 60 percent of the global poor and malnourished. The dryland cereal and legume crops and farming systems merit more research and development attention to improve productivity and address development problems. This project developed an open access dataset and information resource that provides the basis for future analysis of the geographic dimensions of dryland cereals and legumes.

  10. Statistical Research of Investment Development of Russian Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burtseva, Tatiana A.; Aleshnikova, Vera I.; Dubovik, Mayya V.; Naidenkova, Ksenya V.; Kovalchuk, Nadezda B.; Repetskaya, Natalia V.; Kuzmina, Oksana G.; Surkov, Anton A.; Bershadskaya, Olga I.; Smirennikova, Anna V.

    2016-01-01

    This article the article is concerned with a substantiation of procedures ensuring the implementation of statistical research and monitoring of investment development of the Russian regions, which would be pertinent for modern development of the state statistics. The aim of the study is to develop the methodological framework in order to estimate…

  11. Research Note: Dimensions of Program Quality in Regional Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Denise L.; And Others

    Research by Conrad and Blackburn on program quality in master's departments at regional universities was replicated and extended. The present sample doubled the number of departments (from 45 to 81), increased the number of institutions (from 14 to 33), and added a different state (i.e., the original study consisted of two southern states). The…

  12. Defining and Measuring Entrepreneurship for Regional Research: A New Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Sarah A.

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation, I develop a definition and regional measure of entrepreneurship that will aid entrepreneurship research and economic development policy. My new indicators represent an improvement over current measures of entrepreneurship. The chief contribution of these new indicators is that they incorporate innovation, which others ignore.…

  13. Defining and Measuring Entrepreneurship for Regional Research: A New Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Sarah A.

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation, I develop a definition and regional measure of entrepreneurship that will aid entrepreneurship research and economic development policy. My new indicators represent an improvement over current measures of entrepreneurship. The chief contribution of these new indicators is that they incorporate innovation, which others ignore.…

  14. Genetics/Genomics Research in the Central Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2006-01-01

    Genetics-based research within the Biological Resources Discipline (BRD) Science Centers in the Central Region incorporates many aspects of the field of genetics. Research activities range from documenting patterns of genetic variation in order to investigate relationships among species, populations and individuals to investigating the structure, function and expression of genes and their response to environmental stressors. Research in the broad areas of genetics requires multidisciplinary expertise and specialized equipment and instrumentation. Brief summaries of the capabilities of the five BRD Centers are given below.

  15. The InterFrost benchmark of Thermo-Hydraulic codes for cold regions hydrology - first inter-comparison phase results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenier, Christophe; Rühaak, Wolfram

    2016-04-01

    Climate change impacts in permafrost regions have received considerable attention recently due to the pronounced warming trends experienced in recent decades and which have been projected into the future. Large portions of these permafrost regions are characterized by surface water bodies (lakes, rivers) that interact with the surrounding permafrost often generating taliks (unfrozen zones) within the permafrost that allow for hydrologic interactions between the surface water bodies and underlying aquifers and thus influence the hydrologic response of a landscape to climate change. Recent field studies and modeling exercises indicate that a fully coupled 2D or 3D Thermo-Hydraulic (TH) approach is required to understand and model past and future evolution such units (Kurylyk et al. 2014). However, there is presently a paucity of 3D numerical studies of permafrost thaw and associated hydrological changes, which can be partly attributed to the difficulty in verifying multi-dimensional results produced by numerical models. A benchmark exercise was initialized at the end of 2014. Participants convened from USA, Canada, Europe, representing 13 simulation codes. The benchmark exercises consist of several test cases inspired by existing literature (e.g. McKenzie et al., 2007) as well as new ones (Kurylyk et al. 2014; Grenier et al. in prep.; Rühaak et al. 2015). They range from simpler, purely thermal 1D cases to more complex, coupled 2D TH cases (benchmarks TH1, TH2, and TH3). Some experimental cases conducted in a cold room complement the validation approach. A web site hosted by LSCE (Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement) is an interaction platform for the participants and hosts the test case databases at the following address: https://wiki.lsce.ipsl.fr/interfrost. The results of the first stage of the benchmark exercise will be presented. We will mainly focus on the inter-comparison of participant results for the coupled cases TH2 & TH3. Both cases

  16. The InterFrost benchmark of Thermo-Hydraulic codes for cold regions hydrology - first inter-comparison results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenier, Christophe; Roux, Nicolas; Anbergen, Hauke; Collier, Nathaniel; Costard, Francois; Ferrry, Michel; Frampton, Andrew; Frederick, Jennifer; Holmen, Johan; Jost, Anne; Kokh, Samuel; Kurylyk, Barret; McKenzie, Jeffrey; Molson, John; Orgogozo, Laurent; Rivière, Agnès; Rühaak, Wolfram; Selroos, Jan-Olof; Therrien, René; Vidstrand, Patrik

    2015-04-01

    The impacts of climate change in boreal regions has received considerable attention recently due to the warming trends that have been experienced in recent decades and are expected to intensify in the future. Large portions of these regions, corresponding to permafrost areas, are covered by water bodies (lakes, rivers) that interact with the surrounding permafrost. For example, the thermal state of the surrounding soil influences the energy and water budget of the surface water bodies. Also, these water bodies generate taliks (unfrozen zones below) that disturb the thermal regimes of permafrost and may play a key role in the context of climate change. Recent field studies and modeling exercises indicate that a fully coupled 2D or 3D Thermo-Hydraulic (TH) approach is required to understand and model the past and future evolution of landscapes, rivers, lakes and associated groundwater systems in a changing climate. However, there is presently a paucity of 3D numerical studies of permafrost thaw and associated hydrological changes, and the lack of study can be partly attributed to the difficulty in verifying multi-dimensional results produced by numerical models. Numerical approaches can only be validated against analytical solutions for a purely thermic 1D equation with phase change (e.g. Neumann, Lunardini). When it comes to the coupled TH system (coupling two highly non-linear equations), the only possible approach is to compare the results from different codes to provided test cases and/or to have controlled experiments for validation. Such inter-code comparisons can propel discussions to try to improve code performances. A benchmark exercise was initialized in 2014 with a kick-off meeting in Paris in November. Participants from USA, Canada, Germany, Sweden and France convened, representing altogether 13 simulation codes. The benchmark exercises consist of several test cases inspired by existing literature (e.g. McKenzie et al., 2007) as well as new ones. They

  17. CRREL (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory) Technical Publications. Supplement, October 1986-September 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    of tne narerial. StLLs for frozen regusring Mote work. Piper were presented on tc’, (ise-; rained ) material (silt ani clay) have spec-ific foltowing...eceIniac t42 tjoes and amounts of nuillingj Eates, 5. A. surface materials expo)sed to acid depositiin. Lbs Perxafror :res’eth structures, Co ld weather...7 ci]ti F Li 3iP3Ot atf the EP4 Acid Sets program3. ri isitil foci das t-siei fartoo of the citxi; the S3 86-36 redesign-]j iii iamplifiel fort disc

  18. Definition of Research Needs to Address Airport Pavement Distress in Cold Regions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    Pavement distress and condition rating ..................................................................... 8 Surveys of airport pavement distress...11 10. Selection of minimum number of sample units ................................................ 11 11. Condition survey data sheets...14 13. Distribution of survey questionnaire response with respect to FAA and AAA E boundaries

  19. The CRREL (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory) Hopkinson Bar Apparatus.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    of the strain gauge bridge were usd L,, produCe simulated strain. The details of the instrumentation are g Iven i:n AppcndL:-z B. ; 4AVE F 0 M A NA...DUTTA ET AL DEC 97 CRREL-SR-8-24 F/ G 11/7 UEEEEEEEshIhi EOEONEh-E EL’.’ J1. -_0 111112.2 1.1 - 1I8 1=111111L MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART pe S% F...and installing the test facility and for reviewing the report. They thank Darryl Calkins , Dr. Ronald Liston, and Dr. Eugene Marvin for their

  20. Climate at CRREL (Cold Regions Research & Engineering Laboratory) Hanover, New Hampshire.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    brand names does not constitute an official en- dorsement or approval of the use of such commercial products. Accession For NTIS qRA&I DTIC TAB -Ti i...conversion tables in the ASTM Metric Practice Guide (E 380), which has been approved for use by the Department of Defense. Converted values should be rounded...73 37’ -4r VAR I ff Tom Konthly Kax - 94 Peak Gmat Nimeing Moothly if - 24 Table A57. Monthly meteorological summary. June 1977 Toeratmce (o7) l. HUIn

  1. Cold plasma technologies for the inactivation of human pathogens on fresh and fresh-cut produce

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Research in cold plasma processing at the USDA’s Eastern Regional Research Center is focused on developing this technology into an effective tool to improve the safety of a variety of foods. Cold plasma applied to outbreak strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Stanley inoculated on the ...

  2. Cold Climate Foundation Retrofit Experimental Hygrothermal Performance: Cloquet Residential Research Facility Laboratory Results

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, Louise F.; Harmon, Anna C.

    2015-04-01

    Thermal and moisture problems in existing basements create a unique challenge because the exterior face of the wall is not easily or inexpensively accessible. This approach addresses thermal and moisture management from the interior face of the wall without disturbing the exterior soil and landscaping. the interior and exterior environments. This approach has the potential for improving durability, comfort, and indoor air quality. This project was funded jointly by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL focused on developing a full basement wall system experimental database to enable others to validate hygrothermal simulation codes. NREL focused on testing the moisture durability of practical basement wall interior insulation retrofit solutions for cold climates. The project has produced a physically credible and reliable long-term hygrothermal performance database for retrofit foundation wall insulation systems in zone 6 and 7 climates that are fully compliant with the performance criteria in the 2009 Minnesota Energy Code. The experimental data were configured into a standard format that can be published online and that is compatible with standard commercially available spreadsheet and database software.

  3. Technology Solutions Case Study: Cold Climate Foundation Wall Hygrothermal Research Facility, Cloquet, Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    2014-09-01

    This case study describes the University of Minnesota’s Cloquet Residential Research Facility (CRRF) in northern Minnesota, which features more than 2,500 ft2 of below-grade space for building systems foundation hygrothermal research. Here, the NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership team researches ways to improve the energy efficiency of the building envelope, including wall assemblies, basements, roofs, insulation, and air leakage.

  4. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 2): Marathon Battery, Cold Spring, NY. (Third remedial action), September 1989. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-29

    The Marathon Battery site is a former battery-manufacturing plant in Cold Spring, Putnam County, New York. The site is composed of three study areas: Area I, which consists of East Foundry Cove Marsh and Constitution Marsh; Area II, which encompasses the former plant, presently a book-storage warehouse, the surrounding grounds, and a vault with cadmium contaminated sediment dredged from East Foundry Cove; and Area III, which includes East Foundry Cove (48 acres), West Foundry Cove and the Hudson River in the vicinity of Cold Spring pier and a sewer outfall. Contamination in Area III emanates from plant waste water that was discharged via the city sewer system into the Hudson River at Cold Spring Pier or, in some instances, through a storm sewer into East Foundry Cove. A Record of Decision (ROD) was signed for Area I in September 1986 with cleanup activities to include dredging the East Foundry Cove Marsh. The second ROD for the site was signed in September 1988 and included decontamination of the battery plant and soil excavation in Area II. The 1989 ROD represents the third and final operable unit for the site and addresses sediment contamination in Area III. The primary contaminants of concern affecting sediment at the site are metals, including cadmium and nickel.

  5. Climate change and health research in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    PubMed

    Habib, Rima R; Zein, Kareem El; Ghanawi, Joly

    2010-06-01

    Anthropologically induced climate change, caused by an increased concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, is an emerging threat to human health. Consequences of climate change may affect the prevalence of various diseases and environmental and social maladies that affect population health. In this article, we reviewed the literature on climate change and health in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. This region already faces numerous humanitarian crises, from conflicts to natural hazards and a high burden of disease. Climate change is likely to aggravate these emergencies, necessitating a strengthening of health systems and capacities in the region. However, the existing literature on climate change from the region is sparse and informational gaps stand in the way of regional preparedness and adaptation. Further research is needed to assess climatic changes and related health impacts in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Such knowledge will allow countries to identify preparedness vulnerabilities, evaluate capacity to adapt to climate change, and develop adaptation strategies to allay the health impacts of climate change.

  6. An overview of gas hydrate and cold seep research along the Hikurangi Margin, New Zealand (2006 & 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greinert, J.; Faure, K.; Naudts, L.; de Batist, M.; Bialas, J.; Linke, P.; Pecher, I.; Rowden, R.

    2009-04-01

    Prior to 2006, the knowledge about cold seeps around New Zealand was based mainly on accidental recovery of seep fauna or methane-derived carbonates by fishermen and the detection of flares in fish-finding sonars. Lewis and Marshall (1996; NZJGG) compiled these findings, providing the first details on 13 seep sites. Four of those are located at the Hikurangi Margin along the east coast of New Zealand's North Island. Since then, three international cruises in 2006 and 2007 enhanced our knowledge considerably about methane seepage along the Hikurangi Margin, an area which has widely distributed and in places very strong BSR. Two cruises on the RV TANGAROA (led by GNS Science and NIWA, NZ) in 2006 focused on extensive reconnaissance work (multibeam mapping, seismic surveys, flare imaging, visual observations) as well as fauna sampling, geochemical pore water analyses and CTD casts including water sampling for methane analyses. Several new seep sites were discovered during these cruises. Using these data, very detailed investigations in four main working areas could be performed during a 10-week expedition with RV SONNE (SO191, led by IFM-GEOMAR, Germany). All research topics currently discussed in the scientific community were addressed using state-of-the-art equipment (e.g. deep-tow side-scan, TV-guided sampling, lander and ROV-deployments). Fourteen institutes from seven countries were involved (Australia, Belgium, Germany, New Zealand, United Kingdom, United States, Switzerland). Echosounder and sidescan surveys unmistakably revealed active seep sites by detecting bubbles in the water column and carbonate precipitation at the seafloor forming massive chemoherm complexes. These complexes are associated with typical seep fauna like tube worms, bivalve mollusk species (Calyptogena, Bathymodiolus),and bacterial mats. At the fringe of these chemoherms dark sediment patches were observed which exihibit a novel seep habitat dominated by dense beds of two new species of

  7. Cold Urticaria

    PubMed Central

    Wasserman, Stephen I.; Soter, Nicholas A.; Center, David M.; Austen, K. Frank

    1977-01-01

    Sera were obtained from the venous effluents of cold-challenged arms of patients with idiopathic cold urticaria without plasma or serum cryoproteins; these sera exhibited increased neutrophil chemotactic activity without alterations of the complement system. A two- to fourfold augmentation of the base-line neutrophil chemotactic activity of serum from the immersed extremity began within 1 min, peaked at 2 min, and returned to base-line levels within 15 min, whereas there was no change in the serum chemotactic activity in the control arm. The augmented chemotactic activity in the serum specimens from the challenged arm of each patient appeared in a high molecular-weight region, as assessed by the difference in activity recovered after Sephadex G-200 gel filtration of the paired lesional and control specimens. Sequential purification of this high molecular-weight activity by anion- and cation-exchange chromatography revealed a single peak of activity at both steps. The partially purified material continued to exhibit a high molecular weight, being excluded on Sepharose 4B, and had a neutral isoelectric point. The partially purified material showed a preferential chemotactic activity for neutrophilic polymorphonuclear leukocytes, required a gradient for expression of this function, and exhibited a capacity to deactivate this cell type. This active principle, termed high molecular-weight neutrophil chemotactic factor, exhibited a time-course of release that could be superimposed upon that of histamine and the low molecular-weight eosinophil chemotactic factor and may represent another mast cell-derived mediator. PMID:874083

  8. The emission-line regions in the nucleus of NGC 1313 probed with GMOS-IFU: a supergiant/hypergiant candidate and a kinematically cold nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, R. B.; Steiner, J. E.

    2017-04-01

    NGC 1313 is a bulgeless nearby galaxy, classified as SB(s)d. Its proximity allows high spatial resolution observations. We performed the first detailed analysis of the emission-line properties in the nuclear region of NGC 1313, using an optical data cube obtained with the Gemini Multi-object Spectrograph. We detected four main emitting areas, three of them (regions 1, 2 and 3) having spectra typical of H II regions. Region 1 is located very close to the stellar nucleus and shows broad spectral features characteristic of Wolf-Rayet stars. Our analysis revealed the presence of one or two WC4-5 stars in this region, which is compatible with results obtained by previous studies. Region 4 shows spectral features (as a strong Hα emission line, with a broad component) typical of a massive emission-line star, such as a luminous blue variable, a B[e] supergiant or a B hypergiant. The radial velocity map of the ionized gas shows a pattern consistent with rotation. A significant drop in the values of the gas velocity dispersion was detected very close to region 1, which suggests that the young stars there were formed from this cold gas, possibly keeping low values of velocity dispersion. Therefore, although detailed measurements of the stellar kinematics were not possible (due to the weak stellar absorption spectrum of this galaxy), we predict that NGC 1313 may also show a drop in the values of the stellar velocity dispersion in its nuclear region.

  9. Interaction of the main cold shock protein CS7.4 (CspA) of Escherichia coli with the promoter region of hns.

    PubMed

    Brandi, A; Pon, C L; Gualerzi, C O

    1994-01-01

    Escherichia coli protein CS7.4 (CspA), homologous to the class of eukaryotic Y-box DNA-binding proteins, is a cold shock transcriptional activator of at least two genes, hns and gyrA. It was demonstrated that all or nearly all the elements necessary for the stimulation of hns transcription by CS7.4 protein are located in the proximal 110 bp DNA fragment of this gene with no additional elements being present in a longer fragment (660 bp) extending further upstream from the hns promoter. Protein CS7.4 bound strongly to the 110 bp segment of the hns promoter in crude extracts of cold shocked cells, but the purified protein displayed a weak interaction with the same DNA fragment. Purified CS7.4 protein also caused increased or decreased accessibility to DNase I at different sites of the 110 bp fragment of hns but the majority of these effects was seen only in the presence of RNA polymerase. Since gel shift experiments showed that protein CS7.4 stimulated the binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter of hns and since it is known that there are similarities between CS7.4 and ssDNA-binding proteins, we suggest that formation of the open complex by the RNA polymerase or protein-protein contacts between CS7.4 and the RNA polymerase are prerequisites for and/or the effects of the interaction of CS7.4 with its DNA target. The presence of a conserved CCAAT element in the hns promoter region, on the other hand, was found not to be stringently required for cold shock activation since expression of E coli of an hns-cat fusion containing the Proteus vulgaris hns promoter lacking a CCAAT box increased over four-fold after cold shock.

  10. Common cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000678.htm Common cold To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The common cold most often causes a runny nose, nasal congestion, ...

  11. Diving of great shearwaters (Puffinus gravis) in cold and warm water regions of the South Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Ronconi, Robert A; Ryan, Peter G; Ropert-Coudert, Yan

    2010-11-30

    Among the most widespread seabirds in the world, shearwaters of the genus Puffinus are also some of the deepest diving members of the Procellariiformes. Maximum diving depths are known for several Puffinus species, but dive depths or diving behaviour have never been recorded for great shearwaters (P. gravis), the largest member of this genus. This study reports the first high sampling rate (2 s) of depth and diving behaviour for Puffinus shearwaters. Time-depth recorders (TDRs) were deployed on two female great shearwaters nesting on Inaccessible Island in the South Atlantic Ocean, recording 10 consecutive days of diving activity. Remote sensing imagery and movement patterns of 8 males tracked by satellite telemetry over the same period were used to identify probable foraging areas used by TDR-equipped females. The deepest and longest dive was to 18.9 m and lasted 40 s, but most (>50%) dives were <2 m deep. Diving was most frequent near dawn and dusk, with <0.5% of dives occurring at night. The two individuals foraged in contrasting oceanographic conditions, one in cold (8 to 10°C) water of the Sub-Antarctic Front, likely 1000 km south of the breeding colony, and the other in warmer (10 to 16°C) water of the Sub-tropical Frontal Zone, at the same latitude as the colony, possibly on the Patagonian Shelf, 4000 km away. The cold water bird spent fewer days commuting, conducted four times as many dives as the warm water bird, dived deeper on average, and had a greater proportion of bottom time during dives. General patterns of diving activity were consistent with those of other shearwaters foraging in cold and warm water habitats. Great shearwaters are likely adapted to forage in a wide range of oceanographic conditions, foraging mostly with shallow dives but capable of deep diving.

  12. Diving of Great Shearwaters (Puffinus gravis) in Cold and Warm Water Regions of the South Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Ronconi, Robert A.; Ryan, Peter G.; Ropert-Coudert, Yan

    2010-01-01

    Background Among the most widespread seabirds in the world, shearwaters of the genus Puffinus are also some of the deepest diving members of the Procellariiformes. Maximum diving depths are known for several Puffinus species, but dive depths or diving behaviour have never been recorded for great shearwaters (P. gravis), the largest member of this genus. This study reports the first high sampling rate (2 s) of depth and diving behaviour for Puffinus shearwaters. Methodology/Principal Findings Time-depth recorders (TDRs) were deployed on two female great shearwaters nesting on Inaccessible Island in the South Atlantic Ocean, recording 10 consecutive days of diving activity. Remote sensing imagery and movement patterns of 8 males tracked by satellite telemetry over the same period were used to identify probable foraging areas used by TDR-equipped females. The deepest and longest dive was to 18.9 m and lasted 40 s, but most (>50%) dives were <2 m deep. Diving was most frequent near dawn and dusk, with <0.5% of dives occurring at night. The two individuals foraged in contrasting oceanographic conditions, one in cold (8 to 10°C) water of the Sub-Antarctic Front, likely 1000 km south of the breeding colony, and the other in warmer (10 to 16°C) water of the Sub-tropical Frontal Zone, at the same latitude as the colony, possibly on the Patagonian Shelf, 4000 km away. The cold water bird spent fewer days commuting, conducted four times as many dives as the warm water bird, dived deeper on average, and had a greater proportion of bottom time during dives. Conclusions/Significance General patterns of diving activity were consistent with those of other shearwaters foraging in cold and warm water habitats. Great shearwaters are likely adapted to forage in a wide range of oceanographic conditions, foraging mostly with shallow dives but capable of deep diving. PMID:21152089

  13. Cold Sore

    MedlinePlus

    ... genitals. Most people who are infected with the virus that causes cold sores never develop signs and symptoms. Cold sores ... an infection — test positive for evidence of the virus that causes cold sores. People who have weakened immune systems are ...

  14. Global competencies of regional stem cell research: bibliometrics for investigating and forecasting research trends.

    PubMed

    Watatani, Kenji; Xie, Zhongquan; Nakatsuji, Norio; Sengoku, Shintaro

    2013-09-01

    We employed a bibliometric approach to examine regional stem cell research in the USA, the UK, Japan and China based on publications from 2007 to 2011 with a co-citation clustering analysis to identify region-specific clusters of global competencies. We observed that there are clear differences in the number and interdisciplinary spread of competencies across regions: the USA retains the largest capacity and capability for pursuing medical and pharmaceutical applications; China has shown substantial growth through fusion approaches with chemistry and material sciences; Japan has been pursuing basic biology and is currently seeking further growth; and the UK has shown considerable growth and quality with a focus on medical research and the widest interdisciplinary spread. Furthermore, we discuss policy implications from these results in terms of industrial and clinical applications. These findings provide a rational way of evaluating research policies and forecasting research trends.

  15. [Cold-induced urticaria].

    PubMed

    Delorme, N; Drouet, M; Thibaudeau, A; Verret, J L

    2002-09-01

    Cold urticaria is characterized by the development of urticaria, usually superficial and/or angioedematous reaction after cold contact. It was found predominantly in young women. The diagnosis is based on the history and ice cube test. Patients with a negative ice cube test may have represented systemic cold urticaria (atypical acquired cold urticaria) induced by general body cooling. The pathogenesis is poorly understood. Cold urticaria can be classified into acquired and familial disorders, with an autosomal dominant inheritance. Idiopathic cold urticaria is most common type but the research of a cryopathy is necessary. Therapy is often difficult. It is essential that the patient be warned of the dangers of swimming in cold water because systemic hypotension can occur. H1 antihistamines can be used for treatment of cold urticaria but the clinical responses are highly variable. The combination with an H2 antagonists is more effective. Doxepin may be useful in the treatment. Leukotriene receptor antagonists may be a novel, promising drug entity. In patients who do not respond to previous treatments, induction of cold tolerance may be tried.

  16. Food Safety and Intervention Technologies Research: Cold Plasma as a Nonthermal food processing technology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Contamination of meats, seafood, poultry, eggs, and fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables is an ongoing concern. The Food Safety and Intervention Technologies Research Unit develops and validates innovative approaches and new technologies that control pathogenic bacteria and viruses while preser...

  17. Food Safety and Intervention Technologies research: cold plasma as a nonthermal food processing technology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Contamination of meats, seafood, poultry, eggs, and fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables is an ongoing concern. The Food Safety and Intervention Technologies Research Unit develops and validates innovative approaches and new technologies that control pathogenic bacteria and viruses while preser...

  18. In from the Cold? Reflections on Participatory Research from 1970-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Budd L.

    2005-01-01

    Participatory research (PR) is a term that was first articulated in Tanzania in the early 1970s to describe a variety of community-based approaches to the creation of knowledge. Taken together these approaches combine social investigation, education and action in an interrelated process. The International Council for Adult Education provided a…

  19. Understanding and Representing Stable Boundary Layer Over Cold Regions Based on Observations and A New Diagnostic Turbulence Scheme in CanAm4 Climate Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yanping; McFarlane, Norman; Monahan, Adam; Scinocca, John

    2017-04-01

    A new semi-empirical diagnostic turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) scheme is used in combination with observational analysis to understand and to represent stable boundary layers (SBL) over cold regions. Five year observations from Cabauw, Netherlands, demonstrate multiple regimes of turbulence, winds, and stratification under nighttime clear-sky conditions. Among observed SBL depth, approximately 10% are very shallow (<= 40m), and around 70% are 200m or deeper. This 10/70 fraction and the sharp regime transition of near-surface temperature inversions are common features in all seasons. The new TKE scheme is capable of reproducing the observed clear-sky S-shape relationship between near surface wind speed and stratification, and it reproduces a more realistic fraction of very shallow SBL than that of the operational one in the CanAM4 climate models. However, the number of weak SBL that are deeper than 200m is significantly underestimated over cold regions in both operational and new schemes. The key physical mechanism supporting the regime transition and the occurrence of deep SBLs will be summarized.

  20. Exercise in the Cold

    PubMed Central

    Fudge, Jessie

    2016-01-01

    Context: Hypothermia and frostbite injuries occur in cold weather activities and sporting events. Evidence Acquisition: A PubMed search was used to identify original research and review articles related to cold, frostbite, and hypothermia. Inclusion was based on their relevance to prevention and treatment of cold-related injuries in sports and outdoor activities. Dates of review articles were limited to those published after 2010. No date limit was set for the most recent consensus statements or original research. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 5. Results: Frostbite and hypothermia are well-documented entities with good prevention strategies and prehospital treatment recommendations that have changed very little with time. A layered approach to clothing is the best way to prevent injury and respond to weather changes. Each athlete, defined as a participant in a cold weather sport or activity, will respond to cold differently depending on anthropometric measurements and underlying medical risk factors. An understanding of wind-chill temperatures, wetness, and the weather forecast allows athletes and event coordinators to properly respond to changing weather conditions. At the first sign of a freezing cold injury, ensure warm, dry clothes and move to a protected environment. Conclusion: Cold injuries can be prevented, and cold weather activities are safe with proper education, preparation, and response to changing weather conditions or injury. PMID:26857732

  1. Regional Seismic Identification Research:Processing, Transportability and Source Models

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, W; Mayeda, K; Rodgers, A; Taylor, S; Dodge, D; Matzel, E; Ganzberger, M

    2004-07-09

    Our identification research for the past several years has focused on the problem of correctly discriminating small-magnitude explosions from a background of earthquakes, mining tremors, and other events. Small magnitudes lead to an emphasis on regional waveforms. It has been shown that at each test site where earthquake and explosions are in close proximity and recorded at the same station, clear differences in the regional body waves such as the relative high frequency amplitudes of P and S waves can be used to discriminate between event types. However path and source effects can also induce such differences, therefore these must be quantified and accounted for. We have been using a specific technique called Magnitude and Distance Amplitude Correction (MDAC), with some success to account for some of these effects.

  2. Health assessment for Marathon Battery, Cold Springs, New York, Region 2. CERCLIS No. NYD001959757. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-07-16

    The 11-acre Marathon Battery Site (MBS) Plant is located in Putnam County, Cold Springs, New York. The site is bordered to the east by a wooded area and to the south by a junkyard and Foundary Cove. Foundary Cove is a wetland marsh connected by several channels to the Hudson River. Various heavy metals have been identified on-site. They include arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, lead, nickel, and zinc. In addition, a previous ATSDR memorandum reports the results of a ground-water sample containing high concentrations of trichloroethylene. Based on the preliminary information reviewed concerning on-site and off-site contamination, MBS represents a potential public health threat to area residents.

  3. The common cold.

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, Terho; Järvinen, Asko

    2003-01-04

    Despite great advances in medicine, the common cold continues to be a great burden on society in terms of human suffering and economic losses. Of the several viruses that cause the disease, the role of rhinoviruses is most prominent. About a quarter of all colds are still without proven cause, and the recent discovery of human metapneumovirus suggests that other viruses could remain undiscovered. Research into the inflammatory mechanisms of the common cold has elucidated the complexity of the virus-host relation. Increasing evidence is also available for the central role of viruses in predisposing to complications. New antivirals for the treatment of colds are being developed, but optimum use of these agents would require rapid detection of the specific virus causing the infection. Although vaccines against many respiratory viruses could also become available, the ultimate prevention of the common cold seems to remain a distant aim.

  4. Tracking cold bottom water in the Gargano Peninsula and Bari Canyon regions of the Adriatic using seismic oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Warren; Book, Jeffrey; Carniel, Sandro; Lindwall, Dennis; Bortoluzzi, Giovanni; Hobbs, Richard

    2010-05-01

    Tracking cold, dense bottom water from conventional ship sampling is difficult - equipment safety concerns result in incomplete sampling near the seafloor, and lateral variability can be significant. Mooring time series are poor at mapping dense water vein spatial extents and can even completely miss sampling narrow veins. The relatively new technique of seismic oceanography (SO) could potentially provide a new way of identifying and characterizing these bottom waters that is not as subject to the constraints and difficulties of present methods. Furthermore, combining SO with conventional sampling is particularly appealing for better characterization of the quick and small scales of dense water cascades and bottom trapped phenomenon.. There is a relationship between oceanic temperatures and the seismic data such that seismic images can be made to represent a quantitative measure of vertical temperature gradient through much of the water column and even very near the seafloor. The SO technique involves towing a low frequency, broadband (20-250 Hz) sound source (such as an air gun array) and a long, 600-1200 m, array of hydrophones. SO uses much lower frequencies than conventional Acoustical Oceanography (AO) techniques, and is affected by the acoustic impedance (product of sound speed and density) directly, not via proxy such as impurities or biota in the water. The sound pulses reflect off the (mostly temperature) contrasts in the water, and are recorded on the hydrophone array, creating an image of temperature gradient. Because the reflection coefficients are small, signal-enhancing techniques such as synthetic aperture (common midpoint binning) processing is required. The images generated using SO allow for the tracking of very thin (less than 10 m thick) bottom currents provided that the temperature contrast between the bottom, and overlying water is strong enough (0.3 to 1.2 degrees C, depending on acoustic noise levels) and abrupt enough (10-15 meters). The

  5. [Effect of tillage patterns on the structure of weed communities in oat fields in the cold and arid region of North China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Zhang, Li; Wu, Dong-Xia; Zhang, Jun-Jun

    2014-06-01

    In order to clarify the effects of tillage patterns on farmland weed community structure and crop production characteristics, based on 10 years location experiment with no-tillage, subsoiling and conventional tillage in the cold and arid region of North China, and supplementary experiment of plowing after 10 years no-tillage and subsoiling, oat was planted in 2 soils under different tillage patterns, and field weed total density, dominant weed types, weed diversity index, field weed biomass and oats yield were measured. The results showed that the regional weed community was dominated by foxtail weed (Setaira viridis); the weed density under long-term no-tillage was 2.20-5.14 times of tillage at different growing stages of oat, but there were no significant differences between conditional tillage and plowing after long-term no-tillage and subsoiling. Field weed Shannon diversity indices were 0.429 and 0.531, respectively, for sandy chestnut soil and loamy meadow soil under no-tillage conditions, and field weed biomass values were 1.35 and 2.26 times of plowing treatment, while the oat biomass values were only 2807.4 kg x hm(-2) and 4053.9 kg x hm(-2), decreased by 22.3% and 46.2%, respectively. The results showed that the weed community characteristics were affected by both tillage patterns and soil types. Long-term no-tillage farmland in the cold and arid region of North China could promote the natural evolution of plant communities by keeping more perennial weeds, and the plowing pattern lowered the annual weed density, eliminated perennial weeds with shallow roots, and stimulated perennial weeds with deep roots.

  6. Experimental research on micro-pit defects of SUS 430 stainless steel strip in cold rolling process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Changsheng; Li, Miao; Zhu, Tao; Huo, Gang

    2013-05-01

    In order to improve surface glossiness of stainless steel strip in tandem cold rolling, experimental research on micro-pit defects of SUS 430 ferrite stainless steel was investigated in laboratory. The surface morphology of micro-pit defects was observed by SEM. The effects of micro-pit defects on rolling reduction, roll surface roughness and emulsion parameters were analyzed. With the pass number increasing, the quantity and surface of micro-pit defects were reduced, uneven peak was decreased and gently along rolling direction, micro-pit defects had equally distributed tendency along tranverse direction. The micro-pit defects were increased with the roll surface roughness increase. The defects ratio was declined with larger gradient at pass number 1 to 3, but gentle slope at pass number 4 to 5. The effects of temperature 55° and 63°, concentration 3% and 6% of emulsion on micro-pit effects had not obvious difference. Maintain of micro-pit was effected by rolling oil or air in the micro-pit, the quality of oil was much more than the air in the micro-pit in lubrication rolling.

  7. Thermoregulatory modeling for cold stress.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaojiang; Tikuisis, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Modeling for cold stress has generated a rich history of innovation, has exerted a catalytic influence on cold physiology research, and continues to impact human activity in cold environments. This overview begins with a brief summation of cold thermoregulatory model development followed by key principles that will continue to guide current and future model development. Different representations of the human body are discussed relative to the level of detail and prediction accuracy required. In addition to predictions of shivering and vasomotor responses to cold exposure, algorithms are presented for thermoregulatory mechanisms. Various avenues of heat exchange between the human body and a cold environment are reviewed. Applications of cold thermoregulatory modeling range from investigative interpretation of physiological observations to forecasting skin freezing times and hypothermia survival times. While these advances have been remarkable, the future of cold stress modeling is still faced with significant challenges that are summarized at the end of this overview.

  8. Regional services in a research context: USDA Climate Hubs in the USDA Agricultural Research Service

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ten USDA Climate Hubs were created in 2014 to develop and deliver science-based, region-specific information and technologies to better enable agricultural decision-making and management. Of these ten Hubs, half are administered by USDA’s Agricultural Research Service (ARS), an agency with historica...

  9. Research Assessment Exercise Results and Research Funding in the United Kingdom: A Regional-Territorial Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterji, Monojit; Seaman, Paul

    2007-01-01

    A considerable sum of money is allocated to UK universities on the basis of Research Assessment Exercise performance. In this paper we analyse the impact of the two main funding models on the intra-territorial and intra-regional allocation of funds. We also examine the effect of the present system of territorial safety nets and discuss the impact…

  10. The Implement of a Multi-layer Frozen Soil Scheme into SSiB3 and its Evaluation over Cold Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Q.

    2016-12-01

    The SSiB3 is a biophysics-based model of land-atmosphere interactions and is designed for global and regional studies. It has three soil layers, three snow layers, as well as one vegetation layer. Soil moisture of the three soil layers, interception water store for the canopy, subsurface soil temperature, ground temperature, canopy temperature and snow water equivalent are all predicted based on the water and energy balance at canopy, soil and snow. SSiB3 substantially enhances the model's capability for cold season studies and produces reasonable results compared with observations. However, frozen soil processes are ignored in the SSiB3 and may have effects on the interannual variability of soil temperature and deep soil memory. A multi-layer comprehensive frozen soil scheme (FSM), which is developed for climate study has been implemented into the SSiB3 to describe soil heat transfer and water flow affected by frozen processed in soil. In the coupled SSiB3-FSM, both liquid water and ice content have been taken into account in the frozen soil hydrologic and thermal property parameterization. The maximum soil layer depth could reach 10 meters thick depending on land conditions. To better evaluate the models' performance, the coupled offline SSiB3-FSM and SSiB3 have been driven from 1948 to 1958 by the Princeton global meteorological data set, respectively. For the 10yrs run, the coupled SSiB3-FSM almost captures the features over different regions, especially cold regions. In order to analysis and compare the differences of SSIB3-FSM and SSIB3 in detail, monthly mean surface temperature for different regions are compared with CAMS data. The statistical results of surface skin temperature show that high latitude regions, Africa, Eastern Australia, and North American monsoon regions have been greatly improved in SSIB3-FSM. For the global statistics, the RMSE of the surface temperature simulated by SSiB3-FSM can be improved about 0.6K compared to SSiB3. In this study

  11. Component Testing for Modular Pier Replacement at McMurdo Station, Antarctica: Inflatable Pontoons, Gelbo Flex and Full-Scale Cold Storage/Fold Tests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    Replacement at McMurdo Station, Antarctica: Inflatable Pontoons Gelbo Flex and Full-Scale Cold Storage /Fold Tests Co ld R eg io ns R es ea rc h an...Pontoons Gelbo Flex and Full-Scale Cold Storage /Fold Tests Jason C. Weale and Margaret A. Knuth Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL...4 4 Full-Scale Pontoon Cold Storage and Inflation Tests

  12. Cold Plasma: A Novel Intervention for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Research in cold plasma processing at the USDA’s Eastern Regional Research Center is focused on developing this technology into an effective tool to improve the safety of a variety of foods. This presentation will provide an introduction to the technology that will explain the engineering and microb...

  13. Human whole body cold adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Daanen, Hein A.M.; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced vasodilation in fingers and toes compared to Caucasians and Inuit. About 40,000 y after humans left Africa, natives in cold terrestrial areas seems to have developed not only behavioral adaptations, but also physiological adaptations to cold. Dedicated studies show that repeated whole body exposure of individual volunteers, mainly Caucasians, to severe cold results in reduced cold sensation but no major physiological changes. Repeated cold water immersion seems to slightly reduce metabolic heat production, while repeated exposure to milder cold conditions shows some increase in metabolic heat production, in particular non-shivering thermogenesis. In conclusion, human cold adaptation in the form of increased metabolism and insulation seems to have occurred during recent evolution in populations, but cannot be developed during a lifetime in cold conditions as encountered in temperate and arctic regions. Therefore, we mainly depend on our behavioral skills to live in and survive the cold. PMID:27227100

  14. The cold reading technique.

    PubMed

    Dutton, D L

    1988-04-15

    For many people, belief in the paranormal derives from personal experience of face-to-face interviews with astrologers, palm readers, aura and Tarot readers, and spirit mediums. These encounters typically involve cold reading, a process in which a reader makes calculated guesses about a client's background and problems and, depending on the reaction, elaborates a reading which seems to the client so uniquely appropriate that it carries with it the illusion of having been produced by paranormal means. The cold reading process is shown to depend initially on the Barnum effect, the tendency for people to embrace generalized personality descriptions as idiosyncratically their own. Psychological research into the Barnum effect is critically reviewed, and uses of the effect by a professional magician are described. This is followed by detailed analysis of the cold reading performances of a spirit medium. Future research should investigate the degree to which cold readers may have convinced themselves that they actually possess psychic or paranormal abilities.

  15. Analytical solutions for benchmarking cold regions subsurface water flow and energy transport models: One-dimensional soil thaw with conduction and advection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurylyk, Barret L.; McKenzie, Jeffrey M.; MacQuarrie, Kerry T. B.; Voss, Clifford I.

    2014-08-01

    Numerous cold regions water flow and energy transport models have emerged in recent years. Dissimilarities often exist in their mathematical formulations and/or numerical solution techniques, but few analytical solutions exist for benchmarking flow and energy transport models that include pore water phase change. This paper presents a detailed derivation of the Lunardini solution, an approximate analytical solution for predicting soil thawing subject to conduction, advection, and phase change. Fifteen thawing scenarios are examined by considering differences in porosity, surface temperature, Darcy velocity, and initial temperature. The accuracy of the Lunardini solution is shown to be proportional to the Stefan number. The analytical solution results obtained for soil thawing scenarios with water flow and advection are compared to those obtained from the finite element model SUTRA. Three problems, two involving the Lunardini solution and one involving the classic Neumann solution, are recommended as standard benchmarks for future model development and testing.

  16. Analytical solutions for benchmarking cold regions subsurface water flow and energy transport models: one-dimensional soil thaw with conduction and advection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurylyk, Barret L.; McKenzie, Jeffrey M; MacQuarrie, Kerry T. B.; Voss, Clifford I.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous cold regions water flow and energy transport models have emerged in recent years. Dissimilarities often exist in their mathematical formulations and/or numerical solution techniques, but few analytical solutions exist for benchmarking flow and energy transport models that include pore water phase change. This paper presents a detailed derivation of the Lunardini solution, an approximate analytical solution for predicting soil thawing subject to conduction, advection, and phase change. Fifteen thawing scenarios are examined by considering differences in porosity, surface temperature, Darcy velocity, and initial temperature. The accuracy of the Lunardini solution is shown to be proportional to the Stefan number. The analytical solution results obtained for soil thawing scenarios with water flow and advection are compared to those obtained from the finite element model SUTRA. Three problems, two involving the Lunardini solution and one involving the classic Neumann solution, are recommended as standard benchmarks for future model development and testing.

  17. Comparison of effects of cold-region soil/snow processes and the uncertainties from model forcing data on permafrost physical characteristics

    DOE PAGES

    Barman, Rahul; Jain, Atul K.

    2016-03-28

    Here, we used a land surface model to (1) evaluate the influence of recent improvements in modeling cold-region soil/snow physics on near-surface permafrost physical characteristics (within 0–3 m soil column) in the northern high latitudes (NHL) and (2) compare them with uncertainties from climate and land-cover data sets. Specifically, four soil/snow processes are investigated: deep soil energetics, soil organic carbon (SOC) effects on soil properties, wind compaction of snow, and depth hoar formation. In the model, together they increased the contemporary NHL permafrost area by 9.2 × 106 km2 (from 2.9 to 12.3—without and with these processes, respectively) and reducedmore » historical degradation rates. In comparison, permafrost area using different climate data sets (with annual air temperature difference of ~0.5°C) differed by up to 2.3 × 106 km2, with minimal contribution of up to 0.7 × 106 km2 from substantial land-cover differences. Individually, the strongest role in permafrost increase was from deep soil energetics, followed by contributions from SOC and wind compaction, while depth hoar decreased permafrost. The respective contribution on 0–3 m permafrost stability also followed a similar pattern. However, soil temperature and moisture within vegetation root zone (~0–1 m), which strongly influence soil biogeochemistry, were only affected by the latter three processes. The ecosystem energy and water fluxes were impacted the least due to these soil/snow processes. While it is evident that simulated permafrost physical characteristics benefit from detailed treatment of cold-region biogeophysical processes, we argue that these should also lead to integrated improvements in modeling of biogeochemistry.« less

  18. Comparison of effects of cold-region soil/snow processes and the uncertainties from model forcing data on permafrost physical characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barman, Rahul; Jain, Atul K.

    2016-03-01

    We used a land surface model to (1) evaluate the influence of recent improvements in modeling cold-region soil/snow physics on near-surface permafrost physical characteristics (within 0-3 m soil column) in the northern high latitudes (NHL) and (2) compare them with uncertainties from climate and land-cover data sets. Specifically, four soil/snow processes are investigated: deep soil energetics, soil organic carbon (SOC) effects on soil properties, wind compaction of snow, and depth hoar formation. In the model, together they increased the contemporary NHL permafrost area by 9.2 × 106 km2 (from 2.9 to 12.3—without and with these processes, respectively) and reduced historical degradation rates. In comparison, permafrost area using different climate data sets (with annual air temperature difference of ˜0.5°C) differed by up to 2.3 × 106 km2, with minimal contribution of up to 0.7 × 106 km2 from substantial land-cover differences. Individually, the strongest role in permafrost increase was from deep soil energetics, followed by contributions from SOC and wind compaction, while depth hoar decreased permafrost. The respective contribution on 0-3 m permafrost stability also followed a similar pattern. However, soil temperature and moisture within vegetation root zone (˜0-1 m), which strongly influence soil biogeochemistry, were only affected by the latter three processes. The ecosystem energy and water fluxes were impacted the least due to these soil/snow processes. While it is evident that simulated permafrost physical characteristics benefit from detailed treatment of cold-region biogeophysical processes, we argue that these should also lead to integrated improvements in modeling of biogeochemistry.

  19. Assessment of climate change impacts on watershed in cold-arid region: an integrated multi-GCM-based stochastic weather generator and stepwise cluster analysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, X. W.; Li, Y. P.; Huang, G. H.; Liu, J.

    2016-07-01

    An integrated multi-GCM-based stochastic weather generator and stepwise cluster analysis (MGCM-SWG-SCA) method is developed, through incorporating multiple global climate models (MGCM), stochastic weather generator (SWG), and stepwise-clustered hydrological model (SCHM) within a general framework. MGCM-SWG-SCA can investigate uncertainties of projected climate changes as well as create watershed-scale climate projections from large-scale variables. It can also assess climate change impacts on hydrological processes and capture nonlinear relationship between input variables and outputs in watershed systems. MGCM-SWG-SCA is then applied to the Kaidu watershed with cold-arid characteristics in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of northwest China, for demonstrating its efficiency. Results reveal that the variability of streamflow is mainly affected by (1) temperature change during spring, (2) precipitation change during winter, and (3) both temperature and precipitation changes in summer and autumn. Results also disclose that: (1) the projected minimum and maximum temperatures and precipitation from MGCM change with seasons in different ways; (2) various climate change projections can reproduce the seasonal variability of watershed-scale climate series; (3) SCHM can simulate daily streamflow with a satisfactory degree, and a significant increasing trend of streamflow is indicated from future (2015-2035) to validation (2006-2011) periods; (4) the streamflow can vary under different climate change projections. The findings can be explained that, for the Kaidu watershed located in the cold-arid region, glacier melt is mainly related to temperature changes and precipitation changes can directly cause the variability of streamflow.

  20. Mass Balance of Stok Glacier in the Cold Arid Ladakh Region of Trans-Himalaya Using Temperature Index Model, and It's Reconstruction Since 1991-2016.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soheb, M.

    2016-12-01

    Glaciers in Ladakh region are very small yet they carry a lot of significance as they have a direct impact on the human society. Because of the arid climate, the glaciers and snow melt water is the only source for domestic and irrigation water use in the region. Ironically no study has been carried out in this region in terms of glacier mass balance and melt estimation so far. In 2015, mass balance study was started on Stok glacier located in Chhabe Nama basin of Zanskar Range, western Himalayas India. The glacier is a winter accumulation type glacier. It is the second largest glacier in the catchment and reserves around 20 % (0.023 Gt.) of ice where the ice reserve in the whole Stok village catchment is around 0.088 Gt. Sub-seasonal mass balance over entire ablation zone have been investigated for a period of over two months using direct glaciological method. During this period the ablation zone experienced a negative mass balance of -0.26 ± 0.40 m w.e. Temperature index model was used to reconstruct annual mass balance since 1999-2016. The model captured a negative glacier-wide mass balance over the entire period. The annual mass balances varied from -0.02 to -0.2 m w.e. with a cumulative mass balance of -0.94 and -1.38 m w.e. for 1991-99 and 2003-2016, respectively. The data scarcity is one of the major problem in this region, therefore temperature and precipitation data used is based on REMO model. The region is also losing mass despite of being in a cold and high altitude region, which can be attributed to the very low amount of annual precipitation (10 cm). However, the loss is comparatively lower than other glaciers in the southern part of western Himalayas. The study also reveals that ablation period in this region ends around a month earlier than other glaciers in the western Himalayas where ablation generally ends during early October. The retreat was different for each year but the retreat rate remained almost similar since 1991-2016. The retreat rate

  1. Cold injuries.

    PubMed

    Kruse, R J

    1995-01-01

    There are two categories of cold injury. The first is hypothermia, which is a systemic injury to cold, and the second is frostbite, which is a local injury. Throughout history, entire armies, from George Washington to the Germans on the Russian Front in World War II, have fallen prey to prolonged cold exposure. Cold injury is common and can occur in all seasons if ambient temperature is lower than the core body temperature. In the 1985 Boston Marathon, even though it was 76 degrees and sunny, there were 75 runners treated for hypothermia. In general, humans adapt poorly to cold exposure. Children are at particular risk because of their relatively greater surface area/body mass ratio, causing them to cool even more rapidly than adults. Because of this, the human's best defense against cold injury is to limit his/her exposure to cold and to dress appropriately. If cold injury has occurred and is mild, often simple passive rewarming such as dry blankets and a warm room are sufficient treatment.

  2. Genome-Wide Linkage and Regional Association Study of Blood Pressure Response to the Cold Pressor Test in Han Chinese: The GenSalt Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xueli; Gu, Dongfeng; He, Jiang; Hixson, James E.; Rao, Dabeeru C.; Lu, Fanghong; Mu, Jianjun; Jaquish, Cashell E.; Chen, Jing; Huang, Jianfeng; Shimmin, Lawrence C.; Rice, Treva K.; Chen, Jichun; Wu, Xigui; Liu, Depei; Kelly, Tanika N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Blood pressure (BP) response to cold pressor test (CPT) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We performed a genome-wide linkage scan and regional association analysis to identify genetic determinants of BP response to CPT. Methods and Results A total of 1,961 Chinese participants completed the CPT. Multipoint quantitative trait linkage analysis was performed, followed by single-marker and gene-based analyses of variants in promising linkage regions (logarithm of odds, LOD ≥ 2). A suggestive linkage signal was identified for systolic BP (SBP) response to CPT at 20p13-20p12.3, with a maximum multipoint LOD score of 2.37. Based on regional association analysis with 1,351 SNPs in the linkage region, we found that marker rs2326373 at 20p13 was significantly associated with mean arterial pressure (MAP) responses to CPT (P = 8.8×10−6) after FDR adjustment for multiple comparisons. A similar trend was also observed for SBP response (P = 0.03) and DBP response (P = 4.6×10−5). Results of gene-based analyses showed that variants in genes MCM8 and SLC23A2 were associated with SBP response to CPT (P = 4.0×10−5 and 2.7×10−4, respectively), and variants in genes MCM8 and STK35 were associated with MAP response to CPT (P = 1.5×10−5 and 5.0×10−5, respectively). Conclusions Within a suggestive linkage region on chromosome 20, we identified a novel variant associated with BP responses to CPT. We also found gene-based associations of MCM8, SLC23A2 and STK35 in this region. Further work is warranted to confirm these findings. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT00721721. PMID:25028485

  3. Two-dimensional finite difference model to study temperature distribution in SST regions of human limbs immediately after physical exercise in cold climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Babita; Adlakha, Neeru

    2015-02-01

    Thermoregulation is a complex mechanism regulating heat production within the body (chemical thermoregulation) and heat exchange between the body and the environment (physical thermoregulation) in such a way that the heat exchange is balanced and deep body temperatures are relatively stable. The external heat transfer mechanisms are radiation, conduction, convection and evaporation. The physical activity causes thermal stress and poses challenges for this thermoregulation. In this paper, a model has been developed to study temperature distribution in SST regions of human limbs immediately after physical exercise under cold climate. It is assumed that the subject is doing exercise initially and comes to rest at time t = 0. The human limb is assumed to be of cylindrical shape. The peripheral region of limb is divided into three natural components namely epidermis, dermis and subdermal tissues (SST). Appropriate boundary conditions have been framed based on the physical conditions of the problem. Finite difference has been employed for time, radial and angular variables. The numerical results have been used to obtain temperature profiles in the SST region immediately after continuous exercise for a two-dimensional unsteady state case. The results have been used to analyze the thermal stress in relation to light, moderate and vigorous intensity exercise.

  4. Global characteristics of the cold plasma in the equatorial plasmapause region as deduced from the geos 1 mutual impedance probe

    SciTech Connect

    Decreu, P.M.E.; Beghin, C.; Parrot, M.

    1982-02-01

    Thermal plasma parameters derived by the muntal impedance experiment on GEOS are described. The experiment is well suited to the measurement of the electron density and temperature of the outer plasmasphere (when kT/sub e//N/sub e/<1.6 eV/cm/sup 3/). This investigation of the whole set of data supplied by GEOS 1 (4regions: the plasmasphere, an intermediate region of ionospheric refilling, and the plasma trough. In the plasmasphere, we observe profiles with N/sub e/proportionalL/sup -4/, while T/sub e/ stands around 10,000 /sup 0/K or less. The intermediate region, situated next to the plasmasphere and above it, is always present in the day sector, where the ionospheric source plays a leading part. In that zone, the plasma parameters, poorly known up to now, exhibit N/sub e/ values approx.2 to 20 cm/sup -3/, together with T/sub e/ values of 20,000 /sup 0/K on the average, dispersed over a 5,000 to 100,000 /sup 0/K range during disturbances. In the night sector, the intermediate region is seen only during the recovery phase. The region of depleted density is observed at the higher L values in the night and morning MTL sectors. There, plasmas out of Maxwellian equilibrium are seen under disturbed conditions. The dynamic response of the thermal plasma parameters to temporal variations of the a/sub m/ index of magnetic activity follows a known scenario as concerns N/sub e/, making apparent a night-to-day, MTL dependent time delay. As concerns T/sub e/, the dynamical study reveals striking features, such as the persistance of the T/sub e/ modifications into the dusk sector, the interpretation of which remains to be clarified.

  5. Cold fusion anomalies more perplexing than ever

    SciTech Connect

    Dagani, R

    1989-11-01

    This article addresses the debate over research on cold fusion. Analysis is made of the research efforts that have taken place since cold fusion was first thought to have been discovered in Utah. Research in the Soviet Union on the cold fusion phenomenon is also discussed.

  6. Bridging the Gap between Academic Research and Regional Development in the Basque Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsen, James; Larrea, Miren; Wilson, James R.; Aranguren, Mari Jose

    2012-01-01

    The discussion in this article focuses on how the gap between academic knowledge and regional development can be bridged, creating conditions for change processes between researchers and regional agents. Institutional entrepreneurs can create regional development organisations and research organisations, but in order to fulfil regional needs it is…

  7. Bridging the Gap between Academic Research and Regional Development in the Basque Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsen, James; Larrea, Miren; Wilson, James R.; Aranguren, Mari Jose

    2012-01-01

    The discussion in this article focuses on how the gap between academic knowledge and regional development can be bridged, creating conditions for change processes between researchers and regional agents. Institutional entrepreneurs can create regional development organisations and research organisations, but in order to fulfil regional needs it is…

  8. Cold intolerance

    MedlinePlus

    Some causes of cold intolerance are: Anemia Anorexia nervosa Blood vessel problems, such as Raynaud phenomenon Chronic severe illness General poor health Underactive thyroid ( hypothyroidism ) Problem with the hypothalamus (a part ...

  9. Research Information Needs of Public Policy Oriented Researchers at a Regional University: Issues Emerging from a Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Faye

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the results of a pilot study of the research information needs, behaviour and source preferences of academic researchers at a regional university engaged in a public policy research project. In-depth interviews with three public policy oriented academic researchers undertaking interdisciplinary research projects at Charles…

  10. Research Information Needs of Public Policy Oriented Researchers at a Regional University: Issues Emerging from a Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Faye

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the results of a pilot study of the research information needs, behaviour and source preferences of academic researchers at a regional university engaged in a public policy research project. In-depth interviews with three public policy oriented academic researchers undertaking interdisciplinary research projects at Charles…

  11. [Textual research on the time of completion of XU Shuwei' books on exo-pathogenic cold diseases].

    PubMed

    Lu, Mingxin

    2015-11-01

    Shang han bai zheng ge (Poets of Syndromes of Exo-pathogenic Cold Disease), Shang han fa wei lun (Discourse on Elucidation of Exo-pathogenic Cold Disease), Shang han jiu shi lun (90 Discourses on Exo-pathogenic Cold Disease) were the three extant books on exo-pathogenic cold disease written by Xu Shuwei among his other works of its kind. Although there were carved editions of the Yuan and Ming Dynasties, these books were gradually paid attention for citations by other physicians till the Qing Dynasty. Through comparison of its texts, it can be found that the title of Shang han bai zheng ge was mentioned in his other medical works. While Shang han fa wei lun and Shang han jiu shi lun contained some overlapping contents, some even carrying concept contradictory to each other. According to historical materials, Xu Shuwei began to write the above-mentioned 3 books in the Northern Song Dynasty. In the several early years of the Southern Song Dynasty after crossing the Yangtze River, he collected the remained manuscripts and continued to write. Among them, Shang han bai zheng ge was completed first, followed by Shang han fa wei lun, with Shang han jiu shi lun came as the last.

  12. The New Cold Neutron Radiography Facility (CNRF) at the Mianyang Research Reactor of the China Academy of Engineering Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin, Tang; Heyong, Huo; Ke, Tang; Rogers, John; Haste, Martin; Christodoulou, Marios

    A new cold neutron radiography beamline has been designed and constructed for the Mianyang reactor at the Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry of the China Academy of Engineering Physics. This paper describes the components of the system and demonstrates the achievable image resolution.

  13. Frontier Science in the Polar Regions: Current Activities of the Polar Research Board

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, L. M.

    2011-12-01

    The National Academies (the umbrella term for the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, Institute of Medicine, and National Research Council) is a private, nonprofit organization chartered by Congress in 1863. The Polar Research Board (PRB) is the focal point within the Academies for providing advice on issues related to the Arctic, Antarctic, and cold regions in general. Tasks within the PRB mission include: providing a forum for the polar science community to address research needs and policy issues; conducting studies and workshops on emerging scientific and policy issues in response to requests from federal agencies and others; providing program reviews, guidance, and assessments of priorities; and facilitating communication on polar issues among academia, industry, and government. The PRB also serves as the US National Committee to two international, nongovernmental polar science organizations: the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) and the International Arctic Science Committee (IASC). The polar regions are experiencing rapid changes in environment and climate, and the PRB has a number of completed and ongoing studies that will enhance scientific understanding of these issues. This poster will illustrate current PRB activities as well as results from two recently released reports: Frontiers in Understanding Climate Change and Polar Ecosystems and Future Science Opportunities in Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. In the former, a set of frontier research questions are developed to help scientists understand the impacts of climate change on polar ecosystems. The report builds on existing knowledge of climate change impacts and highlights the next big topics to be addressed in the coming decades. In addition, a number of methods and technologies are identified that will be useful to advance future research in polar ecosystem science. In the latter, changes to important science conducted on Antarctica and the surrounding

  14. Measurements and modeling of cold 13CH4 spectra in the 3750-4700 cm-1 region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, L. R.; Nikitin, A. V.; Sung, K.; Rey, M.; Tashkun, S. A.; Tyuterev, Vl. G.; Crawford, T. J.; Smith, M. A. H.; Mantz, A. W.

    2016-05-01

    A new study of 13CH4 line intensities and positions was performed in the Octad region between 3750 and 4700 cm-1. Using 13C-enriched samples, spectra were recorded with both the McMath-Pierce FTS at Kitt Peak Observatory in Arizona and the Bruker IFS-125HR at JPL. Sample temperatures ranged between 80 and 296 K. Line positions and intensities of ~15,000 features were retrieved at different temperatures by non-linear least squares curve-fitting procedures. Intensities were used to estimate the lower state energies for 60% of the features in order to determine quantum assignments up to J=10. A preliminary analysis was performed using the effective Hamiltonian and the effective dipole transition moment expressed in terms of irreducible tensor operators adapted to spherical top molecules. Selected assignments were made up to J=10 for all 24 sub-vibrational states of the Octad; these were modeled for 4752 experimental line positions and 3301 selected line intensities fitted with RMS standard deviations of 0.004 cm-1 and 6.9%, respectively. Integrated intensities of the eight Octad bands are compared to ab initio variational calculations. A prediction of the 13CH4 is given, but further analysis to improve the calculation will be reported in the future.

  15. Cardiovascular responses to cold exposure

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhongjie

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertension is increased in winter and in cold regions of the world. Cold temperatures make hypertension worse and trigger cardiovascular complications (stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure, etc.). Chronic or intermittent exposure to cold causes hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy in animals. The purpose of this review is to provide the recent advances in the mechanistic investigation of cold-induced hypertension (CIH). Cold temperatures increase the activities of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). The SNS initiates CIH via the RAS. Cold exposure suppresses the expression of eNOS and formation of NO, increases the production of endothelin-1 (ET-1), up-regulates ETA receptors, but down-regulates ETB receptors. The roles of these factors and their relations in CIH will be reviewed. PMID:20036896

  16. Cardiovascular responses to cold exposure.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhongjie

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertension is increased in winter and in cold regions of the world. Cold temperatures make hypertension worse and trigger cardiovascular complications (stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure, etc.). Chronic or intermittent exposure to cold causes hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy in animals. The purpose of this review is to provide the recent advances in the mechanistic investigation of cold-induced hypertension (CIH). Cold temperatures increase the activities of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). The SNS initiates CIH via the RAS. Cold exposure suppresses the expression of eNOS and formation of NO, increases the production of endothelin-1 (ET-1), up-regulates ETA receptors, but down-regulates ETB receptors. The roles of these factors and their relations in CIH will be reviewed.

  17. Regional Education Organizations: The School District Perspective. A Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzi, Nina; Urahn, Sue

    This report examines how Minnesota school districts use regional education organizations and how well the existing system of regional organizations serves school districts. Data were obtained from a survey of all 395 Minnesota school districts, of which 321, or a response rate of 81 percent, responded. The survey focused on issues surrounding…

  18. Cold injuries.

    PubMed

    Long, William B; Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to cold can produce a variety of injuries that occur as a result of man's inability to adapt to cold. These injuries can be divided into localized injury to a body part, systemic hypothermia, or a combination of both. Body temperature may fall as a result of heat loss by radiation, evaporation, conduction, and convection. Hypothermia or systemic cold injury occurs when the core body temperature has decreased to 35 degrees C (95 degrees F) or less. The causes of hypothermia are either primary or secondary. Primary, or accidental, hypothermia occurs in healthy individuals inadequately clothed and exposed to severe cooling. In secondary hypothermia, another illness predisposes the individual to accidental hypothermia. Hypothermia affects multiple organs with symptoms of hypothermia that vary according to the severity of cold injury. The diagnosis of hypothermia is easy if the patient is a mountaineer who is stranded in cold weather. However, it may be more difficult in an elderly patient who has been exposed to a cold environment. In either case, the rectal temperature should be checked with a low-reading thermometer. The general principals of prehospital management are to (1) prevent further heat loss, (2) rewarm the body core temperature in advance of the shell, and (3) avoid precipitating ventricular fibrillation. There are two general techniques of rewarming--passive and active. The mechanisms of peripheral cold injury can be divided into phenomena that affect cells and extracellular fluids (direct effects) and those that disrupt the function of the organized tissue and the integrity of the circulation (indirect effects). Generally, no serious damage is seen until tissue freezing occurs. The mildest form of peripheral cold injury is frostnip. Chilblains represent a more severe form of cold injury than frostnip and occur after exposure to nonfreezing temperatures and damp conditions. Immersion (trench) foot, a disease of the sympathetic nerves and blood

  19. Variability of Snow Ablation: Consequences for Runoff Generation at the Process Scale and Lessons for Large Cold Regions Catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomeroy, J. W.; Carey, S. K.; Granger, R. J.; Hedstrom, N. R.; Janowicz, R.; Pietroniro, A.; Quinton, W. L.

    2002-12-01

    The supply of water to large northern catchments such as the Mackenzie and Yukon Rivers is dominated by snowmelt runoff from first order mountain catchments. In order to understand the timing, peak and duration of the snowmelt freshet at larger scale it is important to appreciate the spatial and temporal variability of snowmelt and runoff processes at the source. For this reason a comprehensive hydrology study of a Yukon River headwaters catchment, Wolf Creek Research Basin, near Whitehorse, has focussed on the spatial variability of snow ablation and snowmelt runoff generation and the consequences for the water balance in a mountain tundra zone. In northern mountain tundra, surface energetics vary with receipt of solar radiation, shrub vegetation cover and initial snow accumulation. Therefore the timing of snowmelt is controlled by aspect, in that south facing slopes become snow-free 4-5 weeks before the north facing. Runoff generation differs widely between the slopes; there is normally no spring runoff generated from the south facing slope as all meltwater evaporates or infiltrates. On the north facing slope, snowmelt provides substantial runoff to hillside macropores which rapidly route water to the stream channel. Macropore distribution is associated with organic terrain and discontinuous permafrost, which in turn result from the summer surface energetics. Therefore the influence of small-scale snow redistribution and energetics as controlled by topography must be accounted for when calculating contributing areas to larger scale catchments, and estimating the effectiveness of snowfall in generating streamflow. This concept is quite distinct from the drainage controlled contributing area that has been found useful in temperate-zone hydrology.

  20. Cold urticaria.

    PubMed

    Claudy, A

    2001-11-01

    Cold urticaria is one form of urticaria that may be associated with other forms of physical urticarias. Frequency is generally estimated at two or three per 100. The triggering effect of cold is found at history taking in most of the cases. The urticaria is usually superficial, and more rarely associated with deep and/or mucosal urticaria. The diagnosis is based on history taking and the ice cube test. An exhaustive search for an etiologic factor is often unfruitful, and the presence of a cryopathy should lead to a complete work-up. Therapy of cold urticaria may prove to be difficult. In patients with secondary cold urticaria, underlying disease must be treated in order to resolve the skin symptoms. H1-antihistamines can be used but the clinical responses are highly variable. Short-time treatment with low concentration corticosteroids suppresses the symptoms only partially and temporarily. In patients who do not respond to previous treatments, induction of cold tolerance may be proposed but the procedure is difficult to carry out in daily life over an extended period. Key word: cryoglobulins.

  1. Antivirals for the common cold.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, T O; Tyrrell, D

    2001-01-01

    The common cold is a ubiquitous short and usually mild illness for which preventive and treatment interventions have been under development since the mid-40s. As our understanding of the disease has increased, more experimental antivirals have been developed. This review attempts to draw together experimental evidence of the effects of these compounds. To identify, assemble, evaluate and (if possible) synthesise the results of published and unpublished randomised controlled trials of the effects of antivirals to prevent or minimise the impact of the common cold. We searched electronic databases, corresponded with researchers and handsearched the archives of the MRC's Common Cold Unit (CCU). We included original reports of randomised and quasi-randomised trials assessing the effects of antivirals on volunteers artificially infected and in individuals exposed to colds in the community. We included 241 studies assessing the effects of Interferons, interferon-inducers and other antivirals on experimental and naturally occurring common colds, contained in 230 reports. We structured our comparisons by experimental or community setting. Although intranasal interferons have high preventive efficacy against experimental colds (protective efficacy 46%, 37% to 54%) and to a lesser extent against natural colds (protective efficacy 24%, 21% to 27%) and are also significantly more effective than placebo in attenuating the course of experimental colds (WMD 15.90, 13.42 to 18.38), their safety profile makes compliance with their use difficult. For example, prolonged prevention of community colds with interferons causes blood-tinged nasal discharge (OR 4.52, 3.78 to 5.41). Dipyridamole (protective efficacy against natural colds 49%, 30% to 62%), ICI 130, 685 (protective efficacy against experimental colds 58%, 35% to 74% ), Impulsin (palmitate) (protective efficacy against natural colds 44%, CI 35% to 52% ) and Pleconaril (protective efficacy against experimental colds 71%, 15% to

  2. Helium Find Thaws the Cold Fusion Trail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennisi, E.

    1991-01-01

    Reported is a study of cold fusion in which trace amounts of helium, possible evidence of an actual fusion reaction, were found. Research methodology is detailed. The controversy over the validity of experimental results with cold fusion are reviewed. (CW)

  3. Helium Find Thaws the Cold Fusion Trail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennisi, E.

    1991-01-01

    Reported is a study of cold fusion in which trace amounts of helium, possible evidence of an actual fusion reaction, were found. Research methodology is detailed. The controversy over the validity of experimental results with cold fusion are reviewed. (CW)

  4. Involvement of the 5'-untranslated region in cold-regulated expression of the rbpA1 gene in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis M3.

    PubMed Central

    Sato, N; Nakamura, A

    1998-01-01

    Transcript of the rbpA1 gene in Anabaena variabilis accumulates significantly at low growth temperatures below 28 degreesC. This accumulation was maximal at 16 degreesC. Accumulation of the rbpA1 transcript was completely abolished by rifampicin, but not by chloramphenicol. Photosynthesis was not required for this cold-induced accumulation. This accumulation of transcript was partly accounted for by increased stability of the rbpA1 transcript at low temperature. Expression of chimeric genes containing 3'-deleted rbpA1 sequences fused to the lacZ gene was regulated by low temperature when almost the entire 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) remained undeleted. Further deletion resulted in constitutive expression of the chimeric gene. The 5'-UTR sequence formed two types of complexes in vitro with protein extract from cells grown at 38 degreesC, but not with extract from the 22 degreesC grown cells. Affinity purification identified polypeptides of 75 and 32 kDa in Complex 1 and a 72 kDa polypeptide in Complex 2. These results are compatible with a model in which expression of the rbpA1 gene is regulated by transcriptional derepression at low temperature, although additional mechanisms, such as regulation of mRNA stability, might also contribute to temperature-dependent regulation. PMID:9547280

  5. [Effects of different organic matter mulching on water content, temperature, and available nutrients of apple orchard soil in a cold region].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiang-Tao; Lü, De-Guo; Qin, Si-Jun

    2014-09-01

    The effects of different organic matter covers on soil physical-chemical properties were investigated in a 'Hanfu' apple orchard located in a cold region. Four treatments were applied (weed mulching, rice straw mulching, corn straw mulching, and crushed branches mulching), and physical-chemical properties, including orchard soil moisture and nutrient contents, were compared among treatment groups and between organic matter-treated and untreated plots. The results showed that soil water content increased in the plots treated with organic matter mulching, especially in the arid season. Cover with organic matter mulch slowed the rate of soil temperature increase in spring, which was harmful to the early growth of fruit trees. Organic matter mulching treatments decreased the peak temperature of orchard soil in the summer and increased the minimum soil temperature in the fall. pH was increased in soils treated with organic matter mulching, especially in the corn straw mulching treatment, which occurred as a response to alleviating soil acidification to achieve near-neutral soil conditions. The soil organic matter increased to varying extents among treatment groups, with the highest increase observed in the weed mulching treatment. Overall, mulching increased alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium in the soil, but the alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen content in the rice straw mulching treatment was lower than that of the control.

  6. Regional information network systems on Scientific research - two examples of Ishikawa and Toyama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuma, Kenji

    Science and Technology Agency has been promoting regional information network systems on scientific research. The common purpose of the systems is to enhance good communications among various researchers in regions as well as between researchers in Tsukuba and researchers in regions, and accordingly to contribute to the evolution of the regional R&D. These network systems with the help of the pursonal computor communication system have been carried out as prototypes since 1988, in not only Tsukuba area, but four other regions. Two of them are in Ishikawa prefecture and Toyama prefecture. The situations and details of the two are explained.

  7. The Economic Impact of Eight Research Universities on the Boston Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simha, O. Robert

    2005-01-01

    The greater Boston region's eight research universities play a key role in the region's economic health and welfare. They are magnets for research and development talent and for billions of dollars in investment. These institutions contribute $7.4 billion dollars to the regional economy, jobs for about 50,000 university employees and 37,000…

  8. Distributed land surface modeling with utilization of multi-sensor satellite data: application for the vast agricultural terrain in cold region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzylev, E.; Uspensky, A.; Gelfan, A.; Startseva, Z.; Volkova, E.; Kukharsky, A.; Romanov, P.; Alexandrovich, M.

    2012-04-01

    A technique for satellite-data-based modeling water and heat regimes of a large scale area has been developed and applied for the 227,300 km2 agricultural region in the European Russia. The core component of the technique is the physically based distributed Remote Sensing Based Land Surface Model (RSBLSM) intended for simulating transpiration by vegetation and evaporation from bare soil, vertical transfer of water and heat within soil and vegetation covers during a vegetation season as well as hydrothermal processes in soil and snow covers during a cold season, including snow accumulation and melt, dynamics of soil moisture and temperature during soil freezing and thawing, infiltration into frozen soil. Processes in the "atmosphere-snow-frozen soil" system are critical for cold region agriculture, as they control crop development in early spring before the vegetation season beginning. For assigning the model parameters as well as for preliminary calibrating and validating the model, available multi-year data sets of soil moisture/temperature profiles, evaporation, snow and soil freezing depth measured at the meteorological stations located within the study region have been utilized. To provide an appropriate parametrization of the model for the areas where ground-based measurements are unavailable, estimates have been utilized for vegetation, meteorological and snow characteristics derived from the multispectral measurements of AVHRR/NOAA (1999-2010), MODIS/EOS Terra & Aqua (2002-2010), AMSR-E/Aqua (2003-2004; 2008-2010), and SEVIRI/Meteosat-9 (2009-2010). The technologies of thematic processing the listed satellite data have been developed and applied to estimate the land surface and snow cover characteristics for the study area. The developed technologies of AVHRR data processing have been adapted to retrieve land surface temperature (LST) and emissivity (E), surface-air temperature at a level of vegetation cover (TA), normalized vegetation index (NDVI), leaf

  9. COLD TRAP

    DOEpatents

    Milleron, N.

    1963-03-12

    An improved linear-flow cold trap is designed for highvacuum applications such as mitigating back migration of diffusion pump oil moiecules. A central pot of liquid nitrogen is nested within and supported by a surrounding, vertical, helical coil of metai sheet, all enveloped by a larger, upright, cylindrical, vacuum vessel. The vertical interstices between successive turns of the coil afford lineal, axial, high-vacuum passages between open mouths at top and bottom of said vessel, while the coil, being cold by virtue of thermal contact of its innermost turn with the nitrogen pot, affords expansive proximate condensation surfaces. (AEC)

  10. Probing the cold and warm molecular gas in the Whirlpool Galaxy: Herschel SPIRE-FTS observations of the central region of M51 (NGC 5194)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirm, M. R. P.; Wilson, C. D.; Kamenetzky, J.; Parkin, T. J.; Glenn, J.; Maloney, P.; Rangwala, N.; Spinoglio, L.; Baes, M.; Boselli, A.; Cooray, A.; De Looze, I.; Fernández-Ontiveros, J. A.; Karczewski, O. Ł.; Wu, R.

    2017-10-01

    We present Herschel Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE)-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) intermediate-sampled mapping observations of the central ˜8 kpc (˜150 arcsec) of M51, with a spatial resolution of 40 arcsec. We detect four 12CO transitions (J = 4-3 to J = 7-6) and the [C i] 3P2-3P1 and 3P1-3P0 transitions. We supplement these observations with ground-based observations of 12CO J = 1-0 to J = 3-2 and perform a two-component non-local thermodynamic equilibrium analysis. We find that the molecular gas in the nucleus and centre regions has a cool component (Tkin ˜ 10-20 K) with a moderate but poorly constrained density (n(H2) ˜ 103-106 cm-3), as well as significant molecular gas in a warmer (Tkin ˜ 300-3000 K), lower density (n(H2) ˜ 101.6-102.5 cm-3) component. We compare our CO line ratios and calculated densities along with ratios of CO to total infrared luminosity to a grid of photon-dominated region (PDR) models and find that the cold molecular gas likely resides in PDRs with a field strength of G0 ˜ 102. The warm component likely requires an additional source of mechanical heating, from supernovae and stellar winds or possibly shocks produced in the strong spiral density wave. When compared to similar two-component models of other star-forming galaxies published as part of the Very Nearby Galaxies Survey (Arp 220, M82 and NGC 4038/39), M51 has the lowest density for the warm component, while having a warm gas mass fraction that is comparable to those of Arp 220 and M82, and significantly higher than that of NGC 4038/39.

  11. Male meiosis, morphometric analysis and distribution pattern of 2× and 4× cytotypes of Ranunculus hirtellus Royle, 1834 (Ranunculaceae) from the cold regions of northwest Himalayas (India)

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Puneet; Singhal, Vijay Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In this study, we examined the chromosome number, detailed male meiosis, microsporogenesis, pollen fertility and morphological features and distribution of 2× and 4× cytotypes of Ranunculus hirtellus Royle, 1834. The majority of the populations scored now from cold regions of the northwest Himalayas showed tetraploid (n=16) meiotic chromosome count and one of the populations studied from the Manimahesh hills existed at diploid level (n=8). The individuals of diploid cytotype exhibited perfectly normal meiotic course resulting in 100% pollen fertility and pollen grains of uniform sizes. On the other hand, the plants of the tetraploid cytotype from all the populations in spite of showing normal bivalent formation and equal distribution to the opposite poles at anaphases showed various meiotic abnormalities. The most prominent among these meiotic abnormalities was the cytomixis which involved inter PMC (pollen mother cell) chromatin material transfer at different stages of meiosis-I. The phenomenon of cytomixis induced various meiotic abnormalities which include chromatin stickiness, pycnotic chromatin, laggards and chromatin bridges, out of plate bivalents at metaphase-I, disoriented chromatin material at anaphase/telophase and micronuclei. Consequently, these populations exhibited varying percentages of pollen sterility (24 - 77 %) and pollen grains of heterogeneous sizes. Analysis of various morphometric features including the stomata in 2× and 4× cytotypes showed that increase in ploidy level in the species is correlated with gigantism of vegetative and floral characters and the two cytotypes can be distinguished from each other on the basis of morphological characters. The distribution patterns of the 2× and 4× cytotypes now detected and 2×, 3×, 4× cytotypes detected earlier by workers from other regions of the Indian Himalayas have also been discussed. PMID:24260626

  12. Psychological and psychophysiological factors in prevention and treatment of cold injuries.

    PubMed

    Kappes, B; Mills, W; O'Malley, J

    1993-01-01

    health, performance, and injury prevention in extreme isolated cold environments has important strategic and scientific implications. What is learned from behavioral studies of cold survival provides an opportunity to increase our scientific knowledge and understanding. These cold research findings can assist in our future exploration of cold, underwater farming at great depths, and to far distance space travel to cold planets. The relatively new research frontier "Polar Psychology" has evolved to study how interactions with cold environments can have both positive and/or negative consequences. This research simulates the psychological factors likely to be encountered while exploring isolated cold regions of distant galaxies. The psychological and psychophysiological correlates of cold experience appear to be a function of four interactive issues: the environment, genetic predisposition, learning or experience, and finally perception or cognition. Individual cold tolerance seems to relate heavily on sensation, perception and behavior.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  13. The Role of Regional Conferences in Research Resident Career Development: The California Psychiatry Research Resident Retreat.

    PubMed

    Besterman, Aaron D; Williams, Jody K; Reus, Victor I; Pato, Michele T; Voglmaier, Susan M; Mathews, Carol A

    2017-04-01

    For psychiatry research resident career development, there is a recognized need for improved cross-institutional mentoring and networking opportunities. One method to address this need is via regional conferences, open to current and recently graduated research residents and their mentors. With this in mind, we developed the biennial California Psychiatry Research Resident Retreat (CPRRR) and collected feedback from participants to 1) Assess resident satisfaction, 2) Determine the utility of the retreat as a networking and mentorship tool, and 3) Identify areas for improvement. We gathered survey data from resident attendees at the two first CPRRRs. We analyzed the data to look for trends in satisfaction as well as areas that need improvement. Thirty-two residents from five California training programs attended the CPRRR in 2013 while 33 attended from six programs in 2015. The residents were from all years of training, but concentrated in their second and third years. Approximately 41% and 49% of the attendees were female and 53% and 39% had an MD/PhD in 2013 and 2015, respectively. Twenty-four and 32 residents provided anonymous feedback in 2013 and 2015, respectively. Mean feedback scores were very high (> 4/5) for overall satisfaction, peer- and faculty-networking, the keynote speaker and the flash talks for both years. Mean feedback scores for the ethics debates and mentoring sessions were somewhat lower (≤ 4/5), however, both showed significant improvement from 2013 to 2015. The CPRRRs appear to be an effective mechanism for providing psychiatry research residents with a meaningful cross-institutional opportunity for networking and mentorship. Feedback-driven changes to the CPRRRs improved participant satisfaction for several components of the conference. Future efforts will be aimed at broadening mentorship and networking opportunities, optimizing teaching approaches for research ethics, and considering different feedback-gathering approaches to allow for

  14. Human monoclonal antibodies encoded by the V4-34 gene segment show cold agglutinin activity and variable multireactivity which correlates with the predicted charge of the heavy-chain variable region.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, S J; Turner, C E; Stevenson, F K; Spellerberg, M B; Thorpe, R; Natvig, J B; Thompson, K M

    1998-01-01

    We have characterized the reactivities of a panel of V4-34-encoded human IgM monoclonal antibodies (mAb) which bind the erythrocyte Rh D antigen, derived from an immunized individual. These were compared with the specificities of V4-34-encoded autoantibodies with I/i reactivity produced from patients with cold agglutinin disease (CAD), and other V4-34-encoded autoantibodies. The antibodies were evaluated for cold agglutinin activity using haemagglutination tests, immunofluorescence microscopy for reactivity with tissue components, and in solid phase radiobinding assays with purified antigens. We found that (i) cold agglutinin activity was a property of all the V4-34-encoded mAb (ii) the cold agglutinins from CAD patients were generally monospecific for I/i whereas most of the anti-D and the other V4-34-encoded mAb displayed multireactive properties, frequently binding to strongly acidic antigens (iii) computation of the net charge of the heavy-chain V regions showed that the multireactive mAb were generally more positively charged than the monospecific cold agglutinins, which could contribute to their multireactive phenotype. The involvement of charge interactions was further indicated by the effects of pH and ionic strength on the immunofluorescence staining patterns.

  15. Strip edge cracking simulation in cold rolling

    SciTech Connect

    Hubert, C.; Dubar, L.; Dubar, M.; Dubois, A.

    2011-01-17

    This research work focuses on a specific defect which occurs during cold rolling of steel strips: edge-serration. Investigations on the industrial processes have led to the conclusion that this defect is the result of the edge-trimming and cold rolling sequences. The aim of this research work is to analyze the effect of the cutting process and the cold rolling on cracks occurrence, especially on strip edges.This study is performed using an experimental testing stand called Upsetting Rolling Test (URT). It allows to reproduce cold rolling contact parameters such as forward slip, reduction ratio and friction coefficients. Specimens sampled near trimmed industrial strip edges are deformed using the URT stand. Two sets of specimens with different stress states, obtained by annealing, are submitted to two reduction passes with extreme forward slips.Scanning electron microscopy observations added to 3D optical surface profiler topographies show that on one hand, forward slip has a major effect on cracks opening. On the other hand, cracks opening decreases according to high roll strip speed gradient. Concerning the heat-treated specimens, no crack appeared after all reduction passes, showing a large influence of the cutting process and consequently of the local stress state in the vicinity of the burnish and fracture regions.

  16. Strip edge cracking simulation in cold rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, C.; Dubar, L.; Dubar, M.; Dubois, A.

    2011-01-01

    This research work focuses on a specific defect which occurs during cold rolling of steel strips: edge-serration. Investigations on the industrial processes have led to the conclusion that this defect is the result of the edge-trimming and cold rolling sequences. The aim of this research work is to analyze the effect of the cutting process and the cold rolling on cracks occurrence, especially on strip edges. This study is performed using an experimental testing stand called Upsetting Rolling Test (URT). It allows to reproduce cold rolling contact parameters such as forward slip, reduction ratio and friction coefficients. Specimens sampled near trimmed industrial strip edges are deformed using the URT stand. Two sets of specimens with different stress states, obtained by annealing, are submitted to two reduction passes with extreme forward slips. Scanning electron microscopy observations added to 3D optical surface profiler topographies show that on one hand, forward slip has a major effect on cracks opening. On the other hand, cracks opening decreases according to high roll strip speed gradient. Concerning the heat-treated specimens, no crack appeared after all reduction passes, showing a large influence of the cutting process and consequently of the local stress state in the vicinity of the burnish and fracture regions.

  17. Research Ready Program: A First in Regional South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penman, Joy; Oliver, Mary

    2012-01-01

    In response to the South Australian Certificate of Education (SACE) Board's introduction in 2010 of the new Research Project subject, the University of South Australia's Centre for Participation and Community Engagement took the opportunity to engage further with school students by organising the Research Ready Program. The adoption of the program…

  18. Research Ready Program: A First in Regional South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penman, Joy; Oliver, Mary

    2012-01-01

    In response to the South Australian Certificate of Education (SACE) Board's introduction in 2010 of the new Research Project subject, the University of South Australia's Centre for Participation and Community Engagement took the opportunity to engage further with school students by organising the Research Ready Program. The adoption of the program…

  19. Contact lenses in extreme cold environments: response of rabbit corneas.

    PubMed

    Socks, J F

    1982-04-01

    Contact lenses are worn by many individuals in military and civilian populations. Anecdotal reports have described contact lenses "sticking" and "freezing" to the eye during extreme cold conditions. However, some articles indicate the advantages of wearing contact lenses in cold environments. Military operations frequently taken place in cold regions; therefore, we need to known whether contact lenses can be worn safely in extreme cold. Rabbits were fitted with hard (polymethyl methacrylate) contact lenses and exposed to -28.9 degrees C temperatures with winds up to 78 mph (125 km/hr) for 3-hr periods. The wind-chill factor in these conditions exceeded -67.8 degrees C. No effects of the cold or contact lenses were seen in 85% of the eyes. A few of the eyes, both with contact lenses and without, showed mild superficial fluorescein staining of the cornea which cleared within a few ours after exposure. Histologic examination of the corneas revealed no abnormalities attributable to the cold. Inasmuch as this study showed that rabbits wearing contact lenses in extreme cold suffered no acute deleterious effects to the eyes, the research can be expanded to include human subjects.

  20. Cold Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes oral herpes, or cold sores. Type 1 herpes virus infects more than half of the U.S. population by the time they reach their 20s. Type 2 usually affects the genital area Some people have no symptoms from the ...

  1. Cold Hands

    MedlinePlus

    ... you have a problem with the nerves or blood circulation or a problem with tissue damage in your hands or fingers. ... of causes. Having cold hands could signal a problem with your blood circulation or the blood vessels in your hands. Make ...

  2. Electrical Grounding in Cold Regions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    distribu- tion of shallow permafrost (Hoekstra et al. 1975, Arcone et al. 1979). These methods can be used year-round, whereas DC methods are difficult...for calculating the resistance of a vertical electrode in layered earth. Arcone (1977) calculated resistances in one- and two-layered earth for...vertical rods or horizontal wires and compared the results to the theoretical results of Sunde (1949). Arcone showed that a horizontal wire is preferable

  3. Social Research in North American Moisture-Deficient Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, John W., Ed.

    Five papers presented at the 9th symposium held during the 42nd annual meeting of the Southwestern and Rocky Mountain Division of the American Association for the Advancement of Science are: (1) "Do We Need a Sociology of Arid Regions"?; (2) "Deficit Creating Influences for Role Performance and Status Acquisition in Sparsely…

  4. The Northeastern Research Station Strategic Framework: Regional Focus, Global Perspective

    Treesearch

    Northeastern Research Station

    2000-01-01

    The Northeastern Research Station Strategic Framework sets forth the strategic goals to provide information and technology required to ensure the sustainability of Northeastern forests and the goods and services they provide.

  5. [Mediator effect analysis of the trait coping style on job stress and fatigue of the military personnel stationed in plateau and high cold region].

    PubMed

    Zhang, J J; Jia, J M; Tao, N; Song, Z X; Ge, H; Jiang, Y; Tian, H; Qiu, E C; Tang, J H; Liu, J W

    2017-03-20

    Objective: To investigate the fatigue status of military personnel stationed in plateau and high cold region, and to analyze the mediator effect of trait coping style on job stress and fatigue. Methods: In October 2010, with the method of cluster random sampling survey, 531 military personnel stationed in plateau and high cold region were chosen as subject. The fatigue status were evaluated by the Chinese version multidimensional fatigue inventory (MFI-20) , job stress were evaluated by the Job Stress Survey (JSS) , and trait coping style were evaluated by the Trait Coping Style Questionnaire (TCSQ) . Results: According to the information of different population characteristics, mean rank of physical fatigue about the urban (town) group were higher than that of rural group (Z=-2.200, P<0.05) ; mean rank of reduced motivation about the urban (town) group were higher than that of rural group (Z=-2.781, P<0.05) ; mean rank of general fatigue scores about the urban (town) group were higher than that of rural group (Z=-3.026, P<0.05) ; mean rank of physical fatigue about the up or equal 20-years old age group were higher than that of below 20-years old age group (Z=-4.045, P<0.05) ; mean rank of reduced motivation about the up or equal 20-years old age group were higher than that of below 20-years old age group (Z=-2.182, P<0.05) ; mean rank of mental fatigue about the up or equal 20-years old age group were higher than that of below 20-years old age group (Z=-2.879, P<0.05) ; mean rank of general fatigue scores about the up or equal 20-years old age group were higher than that of below 20-years old age group (Z=-3.647, P<0.05) ; mean rank of reduced motivation were significant statistical difference among the military officers, sergeancy and soldier group (F=18.965, P<0.05) ; mean rank of general fatigue scores were significant statistical difference among the military officers, sergeancy and soldier group (F=14.711, P<0.05) . The score of negative coping style were

  6. Cold Fusion, A Journalistic Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivit, Steven B.

    2005-03-01

    Author of the recent book, The Rebirth of Cold Fusion, and founder of New Energy Times, Steven B. Krivit presents a summary of cold fusion's, past, present and possible future. This talk will briefly review five highlights of the recent New Energy Times investigation into cold fusion research:1. Analysis of early studies that supposedly disproved cold fusion.2. Key early corroborations that supported the claims of Fleischmann and Pons.3. The evolving understanding of cold fusion reaction paths and by-products.4. A look at volumetric power density.5. Brief comparison of the progress in hot fusion research as compared to cold fusion research.New Energy Times, founded in 2000, is an independent communications company which currently specializes in reporting on cold fusion researchootnotetextReferences and copies of the presentation are available at www.newenergytimes.com/reports/aps2005.htmhttp://www.newenergytimes.com/reports/aps2005.htm. It has no affiliations with any organization, entity or party which invests in these technologies, nor any individual researcher or research facility.

  7. Hot, Cold, and Really Cold.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Describes a physics experiment investigating temperature prediction and the relationship between the physical properties of heat units, melting, dissolving, states of matter, and energy loss. Details the experimental setup, which requires hot and cold water, a thermometer, and ice. Notes that the experiment employs a deliberate counter-intuitive…

  8. Hot, Cold, and Really Cold.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Describes a physics experiment investigating temperature prediction and the relationship between the physical properties of heat units, melting, dissolving, states of matter, and energy loss. Details the experimental setup, which requires hot and cold water, a thermometer, and ice. Notes that the experiment employs a deliberate counter-intuitive…

  9. Research in Regional Seismology: The Effect of Anisotropy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-19

    Defense Technical Information Center. All others should apply to the National Technical Information Service. If your address has changed , or if you wish to...correction can be restricted to homogeneous regions of a model. It should also be noted that in this formulation, the changes in reflection and...the details of the complete waveform so- lution change slightly for the 50% velocity perturbation. These are not reproduced by the ray-Born method

  10. Monitoring of Sedimentary Fluxes in Cold Environments: The SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beylich, Achim A.

    2014-05-01

    Projected climate change in cold regions is expected to alter melt season duration and intensity, along with the number of extreme rainfall events, total annual precipitation and the balance between snowfall and rainfall. Similarly, changes to the thermal balance are expected to reduce the extent of permafrost and seasonal ground frost and increase active layer depths. These effects will undoubtedly change surface environments in cold regions and alter the fluxes of sediments, nutrients and solutes, but the absence of quantitative data and coordinated geomorphic process monitoring and analysis to understand the sensitivity of the Earth surface environment is acute in cold climate environments. The International Association of Geomorphologists` (I.A.G. / A.I.G.) SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Program (2005 - 2017) is addressing this existing key knowledge gap. The central research question of this global group of scientists is to: Assess and model the contemporary sedimentary fluxes in cold climates, with emphasis on both particulate and dissolved components. Research carried out at each of the ca. 50 defined SEDIBUD key test sites varies by program, logistics and available resources, but typically represent interdisciplinary collaborations of geomorphologists, hydrologists, ecologists, permafrost scientists and glaciologists. SEDIBUD has developed manuals and protocols (SEDIFLUX Manual) with a key set of primary surface process monitoring and research data requirements to incorporate results from these diverse projects and allow coordinated quantitative analysis across the program. Defined SEDIBUD key tasks for the coming years include (i) The continued generation and compilation of comparable longer-term datasets on contemporary sedimentary fluxes and sediment yields from SEDIBUD key test sites worldwide, (ii) The continued extension of the SEDIBUD metadata database with these datasets, (iii) The testing of defined SEDIBUD hypotheses (available

  11. Ocean-Atmosphere Environments of Antarctic-Region Cold-Air Mesocyclones: Evaluation of Reanalyses for Contrasting Adjacent 10-Day Periods ("Macro-Weather") in Winter.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carleton, A. M.; Auger, J.; Birkel, S. D.; Maasch, K. A.; Mayewski, P. A.; Claud, C.

    2015-12-01

    Mesoscale cyclones in cold-air outbreaks (mesocyclones) feature in the weather and climate of the Antarctic (e.g., Ross Sea) and sub-antarctic (Drake Passage). They adversely impact field operations, and influence snowfall, the ice-sheet mass balance, and sea-air energy fluxes. Although individual mesocyclones are poorly represented on reanalyses, these datasets robustly depict the upper-ocean and troposphere environments in which multiple mesocyclones typically form. A spatial metric of mesocyclone activity—the Meso-Cyclogenesis Potential (MCP)—used ERA-40 anomaly fields of: sea surface temperature (SST) minus marine air temperature (MAT), near-surface winds, 500 hPa air temperature, and the sea-ice edge location. MCP maps composited by teleconnection phases for 1979-2001, broadly correspond to short-period satellite "climatologies" of mesocyclones. Here, we assess 3 reanalysis datasets (CFSR, ERA-I and MERRA) for their reliably to depict MCP patterns on weekly to sub-monthly periods marked by strong regional shifts in mesocyclone activity (frequencies, track densities) occurring during a La Niña winter: June 21-30, 1999 (SE Indian Ocean) and September 1-10, 1999 (Ross Sea sector). All reanalyses depict the marked variations in upper ocean and atmosphere variables between adjacent 10-day periods. Slight differences may owe to model resolution or internal components (land surface, coupled ocean models), and/or how the observations are assimilated. For June 21-30, positive SST-MAT, southerly winds, proximity to the ice edge, and negative T500, accompany increased meso-cyclogenesis. However, for September 1-10, surface forcing does not explain frequent comma cloud "polar lows" north-east of the Ross Sea. Inclusion of the upper-level diffluence (e.g., from Z300 field) in the MCP metric, better depicts the observed mesocyclone activity. MCP patterns on these "macro-weather" time scales appear relatively insensitive to the choice of reanalysis.

  12. Simulation and Feasibility Study on a ‘Renewable Energy House’ with a Geothermal Heat Pump-Powered Floor Heating System in Cold Climate Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Masafumi; Akpan, Itoro; Endoh, Noboru

    An actual renewable energy house, equipped with a geothermal heat pump (GHP)-powered floor heating system was investigated and analyzed. Daily annual monitoring between February 2005 ˜ February 2006 and real-time continuous system monitoring within selected periods during the winter season between November 2006 ˜ January 2007, were carried out in order to establish the actual performance of the system. It emerged that the GHP-powered floor heating system is sufficient for space heating, with the maintenance of near-uniform room temperatures even during the coldest days in a very cold region like Hokkaido, Japan. About 37% average of the floor heat losses are recoverable and more than 50% of the ventilation heat losses are recovered due to various innovative energy-saving techniques built into the system. Annual heat loss from the house estimated by the numerical simulation showed good agreement with the measured annual thermal demand for room heating. The simulation also estimated that annual running costs and Green House Gas (GHG) emissions reductions of 47% and 49% respectively, can be realized with this system compared to an equivalent conventional system. A detailed cost analysis for the GHP-only system revealed that if the cost of fuel oil increases by about 50% from the current value of ¥80/L, then the payback period for a GHP-powered renewable energy system is about 14 years. This payback period reduces to about 10 years if 30% of the initial cost of the GHP-powered system is externally funded.

  13. Characterization of regional cold-hydrothermal inflows enriched in arsenic and associated trace-elements in the southern part of the Duero Basin (Spain), by multivariate statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Giménez-Forcada, Elena; Vega-Alegre, Marisol; Timón-Sánchez, Susana

    2017-09-01

    Naturally occurring arsenic in groundwater exceeding the limit for potability has been reported along the southern edge of the Cenozoic Duero Basin (CDB) near its contact with the Spanish Central System (SCS). In this area, spatial variability of arsenic is high, peaking at 241μg/L. Forty-seven percent of samples collected contained arsenic above the maximum allowable concentration for drinking water (10μg/L). Correlations of As with other hydrochemical variables were investigated using multivariate statistical analysis (Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, HCA and Principal Component Analysis, PCA). It was found that As, V, Cr and pH are closely related and that there were also close correlations with temperature and Na(+). The highest concentrations of arsenic and other associated Potentially Toxic Geogenic Trace Elements (PTGTE) are linked to alkaline NaHCO3 waters (pH≈9), moderate oxic conditions and temperatures of around 18°C-19°C. The most plausible hypothesis to explain the high arsenic concentrations is the contribution of deeper regional flows with a significant hydrothermal component (cold-hydrothermal waters), flowing through faults in the basement rock. Water mixing and water-rock interactions occur both in the fissured aquifer media (igneous and metasedimentary bedrock) and in the sedimentary environment of the CDB, where agricultural pollution phenomena are also active. A combination of multivariate statistical tools and hydrochemical analysis enabled the distribution pattern of dissolved As and other PTGTE in groundwaters in the study area to be interpreted, and their most likely origin to be established. This methodology could be applied to other sedimentary areas with similar characteristics and problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #11: GREAT LAKES REGIONAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project is being conducted as part of the first National Assessment of "The Potential Consequences of Climate Change and Climate Variability on the United States". With EPA sponsorship, the University of Michigan has organized a multi-disciplinary team of researchers to lea...

  15. Polar Stratospheric Research Platforms -Ballooning in the Polar Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterzen, Steven; Masi, Silvia; Debernardis, Paolo

    Tracing the history of ballooning in the Antarctic and Arctic, we can look at Nobile/Amundsen in the Arctic as well as Scott in Antarctica making use of balloons. Technological advances over the past few decades have lead to the development of relatively secure stratospheric research platforms that can not only lift 4 tons of instrumentation to over 38 kilometers into "near space", but can last at float altitudes for well over 30 days at float. This kind of performance comes at a relatively low cost compared to rocket propelled research. For the past 7 years the Italian Space Agency (ASI) has funded the development of the most northern launch facility for Long Duration Balloons from Longyearbyen, Svalbard, Norway. In 2009, the launch of the SORA experiment from Svalbard, suspended below an 800,000 m3 balloon proved concept of the feasibility of scientific heavy lift balloon launches from 79 deg N. From deep space observations to near space investigation, aerosols and Earth observations, polar stratospheric balloons offer the scientific investigators a stable platform to perform a wide range of research. This paper will discuss research opportunities, future scientific payloads scheduled for launching from Svalbard, and the development of Ultra Light Long Duration Balloon and the telemetry systems.

  16. A research agenda for silviculture in the Great Lakes Region

    Treesearch

    Brian Palik; Louise Levy

    2004-01-01

    The Great Lakes Silviculture Summit took place in April 2003 at Michigan Technological University. The primary audience of the summit included institutional representatives who define needs and set policy regarding silvicultural approaches and practice, as well as researchers working in silviculture or related disciplines.

  17. Advancements in Micrometeorological Technique for Monitoring CH4 Release from Remote Permafrost Regions: Principles, Emerging Research, and Latest Updates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burba, George; Budishchev, Artem; Gioli, Beniamino; Haapanala, Sami; Helbig, Manuel; Losacco, Salvatore; Mammarella, Ivan; Moreaux, Virginie; Murphy, Patrick; Oechel, Walter; Peltola, Olli; Rinne, Janne; Sonnentag, Oliver; Sturtevant, Cove; Vesala, Timo; Zona, Donatella; Zulueta, Rommel

    2014-05-01

    in permafrost regions have mostly been made with static chamber techniques, and few were done with the eddy covariance approach using closed-path analyzers. Although chambers and closed-path analyzers have advantages, both techniques have significant limitations, especially for remote or portable research in cold regions. Static chamber measurements are discrete in time and space, and particularly difficult to use over polygonal tundra with highly non-uniform micro-topography and active soil layer. Closed-path gas analyzers for measuring CH4 eddy fluxes require climate control, employ high-power pumps, and generally require grid power and infrastructure. As a result, spatial coverage of eddy covariance CH4 flux measurements in cold regions remains limited. Existing stations are often located near grid power sources and roads rather than in the middle of the methane-producing ecosystem, while those that are placed appropriately may require extraordinary efforts to build and maintain them, with large investments into manpower and infrastructure. In this presentation, basic principles of eddy covariance flux measurements are explained, along with details on the CH4, CO2 and H2O exchange measurements using low-power flux stations. Also included are latest updates on the emerging research utilizing such stations in remote permafrost regions, and on the 2013-2014 development of fully automated remote unattended flux station capable of processing data on-the-go to continuously output final CH4 release rates.

  18. The Research of Historical Trusses in Northern Regions of Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korenková, Renáta; Krušinský, Peter

    2014-06-01

    The blanket research of historical trusses in the territory of Slovakia has been running at our department since 2008. This research is done as teamwork in cooperation with experts from the field of conservation, and it is mainly focused on typology, construction, and the current technical and constructional state of investigated trusses. The long-time support of the grant scheme from the Ministry of Culture allows to get a fair amount of different data related to individual buildings and structures, which enables to carry out the in-depth research. In terms of their conservation and maintenance with an effort to extend their lifetime (the oldest known historical trusses in Slovakia are those of the 13th century), it is necessary to look into the microclimate impact of the under-roof space on wooden roof structures as well as to monitor the contemporary constructional and technical condition of a roof structure itself. The suitable microclimate in the under-roof space is influenced by a number of marginal conditions, constructional solutions of roof details, proper space ventilation etc

  19. Disconnected Youth in the Research Triangle Region: An Ominous Problem Hidden in Plain Sight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodson, David; Guillory, Ferrel; Lipsitz, Joan; Raper, Noah; Rausch, Christina

    2008-01-01

    In September 2006, the North Carolina GlaxoSmithKline Foundation commissioned MDC, Inc. of Chapel Hill to analyze the problem of "disconnected youth" in the Research Triangle region, determine the current state of the region's responses to the challenge, and recommend steps to deepen and accelerate action on the issue. The research process was…

  20. Research on wastewater reuse planning in Beijing central region.

    PubMed

    Jia, H; Guo, R; Xin, K; Wang, J

    2005-01-01

    The need to implement wastewater reuse in Beijing is discussed. Based on the investigation of the built wastewater reuse projects in Beijing, the differences between small wastewater reuse system and large systems were analyzed according to the technical, economical and social issues. The advantages and disadvantages of the small system and the large system were then given. In wastewater reuse planning in Beijing urban region, the large system was adopted. The rations of reclaimed water for difference land use type, including industrial reuse, municipal reuse, grass irrigation, and scenes water reuse were determined. Then according to the land use information in every block in central Beijing, using GIS techniques, the amounts of the reclaimed water needed in every block were calculated, and the main pipe system of reclaimed water was planned.

  1. [Cumulative radiation dosage and epidemiological research in the Chernobyl region].

    PubMed

    Vorob'ev, A I; Domracheva, E V; Klevezal', G A; Meshcheriakova, L M; Moiseeva, T N; Osechinskiĭ, I V; Serezhenkov, V A; Shklovskiĭ-Kordi, N E

    1994-01-01

    Individual biological dosimetry covering chromosomal analysis and electronic paramagnetic resonance spectrometry has been performed in 1300 subjects exposed to ionizing radiation after the Chernobyl accident. Cumulative radiation doses above 40 ImC were registered in 5%, about 100 ImC in 1% of the examinees. In 1% of cytogenetic investigations there appeared multiaberrant cells indicative of hot particle incorporation. Regional epidemiologists do not record changes in the incidence of hematological diseases. This may be explained by a small percent of the dose carriers, rare occurrence of hematological disorders and the time of radiation-induced oncogenic effects. The above representative group exposed to definite radiation doses may serve the subject of epidemiological surveys on the role of low-dose and low-rate radiation in pathogenesis of human diseases.

  2. Cold Stowage Flight Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campana, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) provides a test bed for researchers to perform science experiments in a variety of fields, including human research, life sciences, and space medicine. Many of the experiments being conducted today require science samples to be stored and transported in a temperature controlled environment. NASA provides several systems which aide researchers in preserving their science. On orbit systems provided by NASA include the Minus Eighty Laboratory freezer for ISS (MELFI), Microgravity Experiment Research Locker Incubator (MERLIN), and Glacier. These freezers use different technologies to provide rapid cooling and cold stowage at different temperature levels on board ISS. Systems available to researchers during transportation to and from ISS are MERLIN, Glacier, and Coldbag. Coldbag is a passive cold stowage system that uses phase change materials. Details of these current technologies will be provided along with operational experience gained to date. With shuttle retirement looming, NASA has protected the capability to provide a temperature controlled environment during transportation to and from the ISS with the use of Glacier and Coldbags, which are compatible with future commercial vehicles including SpaceX's Dragon Capsule, and Orbital s Cygnus vehicle. This paper will discuss the capability of the current cold stowage hardware and how it may continue to support NASA s mission on ISS and in future exploration missions.

  3. Cold Stowage Flight Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campana, Sharon E.; Melendez, David T.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) provides a test bed for researchers to perform science experiments in a variety of fields, including human research, life sciences, and space medicine. Many of the experiments being conducted today require science samples to be stored and transported in a temperature controlled environment. NASA provides several systems which aid researchers in preserving their science. On orbit systems provided by NASA include the Minus Eighty Laboratory freezer for ISS (MELFI), Microgravity Experiment Research Locker Incubator (MERLIN), and Glacier. These freezers use different technologies to provide rapid cooling and cold stowage at different temperature levels on board ISS. Systems available to researchers during transportation to and from ISS are MERLIN, Glacier, and Coldbag. Coldbag is a passive cold stowage system that uses phase change materials to maintain temperature. Details of these current technologies are provided along with operational experience gained to date. This paper discusses the capability of the current cold stowage hardware and how it may continue to support NASA s mission on ISS and in future exploration missions.

  4. Converged Infrastructure for Emerging Regions - A Research Agenda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevrollier, Nicolas; Zidbeck, Juha; Ntlatlapa, Ntsibane; Simsek, Burak; Marikar, Achim

    In remote parts of Africa, the lack of energy supply, of wired infrastructure, of trained personnel and the limitation in OPEX and CAPEX impose stringent requirements on the network building blocks that support the communication infrastructure. Consequently, in this promising but untapped market, the research aims at designing and implementing energy-efficient, robust, reliable and affordable wide heterogeneous wireless mesh networks to connect geographically very large areas in a challenged environment. This paper proposes a solution that is aimed at enhancing the usability of Internet services in the harsh target environment and especially how the end-users experience the reliability of these services.

  5. The West African Health Organization's experience in improving the health research environment in the ECOWAS region.

    PubMed

    Aidam, Jude; Sombié, Issiaka

    2016-04-20

    The West African Health Organization (WAHO) implemented a research development program in West Africa during 2009-2013 using the Knowledge for Better Health Research Capacity Development Framework, developed by Pang et al. (Bull World Health Organ 81(11):815-820, 2003), on strategies used to improve the research environment. The framework has the following components: stewardship, financing, sustainable resourcing and research utilization. This paper describes how WAHO implemented this research development program in the West African region to help improve the research environment and lessons learnt. This is a retrospective review of the regional research development program using a triangulation of activity reports, an independent evaluation and the authors' experiences with stakeholders. This program was designed to address gaps along the components of the framework and to improve partnership. The activities, results and challenges are summarised for each component of the framework. The independent evaluation was conducted using over 180 semi-structured interviews of key stakeholders in the West African region and activity reports. WAHO and major stakeholders validated these findings during a regional meeting. All 15 ECOWAS countries benefited from this regional research development program. WAHO provided technical and financial support to eight countries to develop their policies, priorities and plans for research development to improve their research governance. WAHO, along with other technical and financial partners, organised many capacity-strengthening trainings in health systems research methodology, resource mobilization, ethical oversight and on HRWeb, a research information management platform. WAHO helped launch a regional network of health research institutions to improve collaboration between regional participating institutions. Further, WAHO developed strategic research partnerships and mobilised additional funding to support the program. The program

  6. Super Cold Arctic Mesopause Project (CAMP): A research project to investigate the polar middle atmosphere in summer with rocket launches from 65 deg-80 deg N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, E.; Philbrick, C. R.; Thomas, G. E.; Witt, G.

    A Cold Arctic Mesopause Project for summer to study the structure and dynamics of the middle atmosphere (50 to 150 km) above the north polar region is proposed. It should concentrate on measurements of water vapor, ozone and temperature and their variability as a function of time, and geomagnetic and meteor shower activity; formation, particle size and density, transport and life time of noctilucent cloud (NLC) particles; dynamics and temperature and their effects on ice particle growths and the distribution of minor constituents including the ionospheric plasma; and electric fields, charged aerosols, and massive positive and negative ions in the vicinity of NLC. In situ measurements from rockets, grouped in two to three salvos should be supported by ground, airborne and satellite remote sensing experiments.

  7. Molecular markers associated with cold-hardiness in Camellia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers from expressed sequence tag-polymerase chain reaction (EST-PCR) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were developed with the goal to separate cold hardy camellias from non-cold hardy ones. A total of 28 cold hardy and non-cold h...

  8. Cold tolerance in Arabidopsis kamchatica.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Jessica J; Takebayashi, Naoki; Sformo, Todd; Wolf, Diana E

    2015-03-01

    Cold tolerance is a critically important factor determining how plants will be influenced by climate change, including changes in snowcover and extreme weather events. Although a great deal is known about cold tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana, it is not highly cold tolerant. This study examined cold tolerance and its genetic diversity in an herbaceous subarctic relative, Arabidopsis kamchatica, which generally occurs in much colder climates.• Thermal analysis and electrolyte leakage were used to estimate supercooling points and lethal temperatures (LT50) in cold-acclimated and nonacclimated families from three populations of A. kamchatica.• Arabidopsis kamchatica was highly cold tolerant, with a mean LT50 of -10.8°C when actively growing, and -21.8°C when cold acclimated. It also was able to supercool to very low temperatures. Surprisingly, actively growing plants supercooled more than acclimated plants (-14.7 vs. -12.7°C). There was significant genetic variation for cold tolerance both within and among populations. However, both cold tolerance and genetic diversity were highest in the midlatitude population rather than in the far north, indicating that adaptations to climate change are most likely to arise in the center of the species range rather than at the edges.• Arabidopsis kamchatica is highly cold tolerant throughout its range. It is far more freeze tolerant than A. thaliana, and supercooled to lower temperatures, suggesting that A. kamchatica provides a valuable complement to A. thaliana for cold tolerance research. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  9. COLD TRAPS

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, W.I.

    1958-09-30

    A cold trap is presented for removing a condensable component from a gas mixture by cooling. It consists of a shell, the exterior surface of which is chilled by a refrigerant, and conductive fins welded inside the shell to condense the gas, and distribute the condensate evenly throughout the length of the trap, so that the trap may function until it becomes completely filled with the condensed solid. The contents may then be removed as either a gas or as a liquid by heating the trap. This device has particuinr use as a means for removing uranium hexafluoride from the gaseous diffusion separation process during equipment breakdown and repair periods.

  10. Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment in cold climate - A review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mo; Zhang, Dong Qing; Dong, Jian Wen; Tan, Soon Keat

    2017-07-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) have been successfully used for treating various wastewaters for decades and have been identified as a sustainable wastewater management option worldwide. However, the application of CW for wastewater treatment in frigid climate presents special challenges. Wetland treatment of wastewater relies largely on biological processes, and reliable treatment is often a function of climate conditions. To date, the rate of adoption of wetland technology for wastewater treatment in cold regions has been slow and there are relatively few published reports on CW applications in cold climate. This paper therefore highlights the practice and applications of treatment wetlands in cold climate. A comprehensive review of the effectiveness of contaminant removal in different wetland systems including: (1) free water surface (FWS) CWs; (2) subsurface flow (SSF) CWs; and (3) hybrid wetland systems, is presented. The emphasis of this review is also placed on the influence of cold weather conditions on the removal efficacies of different contaminants. The strategies of wetland design and operation for performance intensification, such as the presence of plant, operational mode, effluent recirculation, artificial aeration and in-series design, which are crucial to achieve the sustainable treatment performance in cold climate, are also discussed. This study is conducive to further research for the understanding of CW design and treatment performance in cold climate. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Remedial Investigation for Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) Hanover, New Hampshire. Phase 2. Volume 2. Appendices. Revision 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-18

    SSS09 AHOL 0.5 X X X 8-02-93 AOC 9 SSSIO AHOL 0.5 X X X 8-02-93 AOC 9 SSS11 AHOL 0.5 X X X 8-02-93 Child Care Center SSS12 AHOL 0.5 X X X 8-02-93 Child ...93 Child Care Center SSS13 AHOL 0.5 X X X 8-03-93 CRREL Site SSS20 AHOL 0.5 X X X 8-03-93 CRREL Site SSS21 AHOL 0.5 X X X 8-03-93 CRREL Site SSS22...CRREL Sie SSS29 AHOL 0.5 X° X* X° 8-03-93 CRREL Se SSS29 RNSW 0.0 X X X 8-03-93 CRREL Site SSS29 FBUK 0.0 X X X 8-03-93 Child Care Center SSS13 TRIP 0.0

  12. Remedial Investigation for Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) Hanover, New Hampshire. Phase 2. Volume 3. Appendices. Revision 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-18

    DOCUMENT DRAWS CONCLUSIONS AS TO THE NATURE AND EXTEND OF SOIL AND GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATION CREATED BY PAST SPILLS, DISPOSAL PRACTICES, AND OPERATIONS...FINE GRAINED SOILS . LOCALLY, THE CONTAMINANTS ARE ADSORBED ONTO SOILS . CONTAMINANTS ARE ALSO PRESENT IN THE GROUND- WATER MOVING BELOW THE SITE. THE...THE SITE’S SOUTHERN BOUNDARY. FRACTURES IN BEDROCK ARE INFRE- QUENT. PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS WERE DETECTED PRIMARILY IN SOIL SAMPLES. WITH LOW

  13. Characteristics of organic soil in black spruce forests: implications for the application of land surface and ecosystem models in cold regions

    Treesearch

    Shuhua Yi; Kristen Manies; Jennifer Harden; David. McGuire

    2009-01-01

    Soil organic layers (OL) play an important role in land-atmosphere exchanges of water, energy and carbon in cold environments. The proper implementation of OL in land surface and ecosystem models is important for predicting dynamic responses to climate warming. Based on the analysis of OL samples of black spruce (Picea mariana), we recommend that...

  14. “You Can’t be Cold and Scientific”: Community Views on Ethical Issues in Intellectual Disability Research

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Katherine E.; Schwartz, Nicole M.; Gibbons, Colleen M.; Olick, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Perceptions, attitudes, and ethical concerns related to conducting research with adults with intellectual disability hinder scientific innovation to promote health. Yet we lack an understanding of community views on effective research policy and practice. To address this knowledge void, we qualitatively studied the views of adults with intellectual disability and those who provide them support regarding research participation of adults with intellectual disability. We found substantial support for their inclusion, particularly given the possibility of benefits to adults with intellectual disability, researchers, and society. We also found concerns for potential harm and differing ideas on how to promote safety. Our findings emphasize the importance of their inclusion in research, and the need for policies and practices that promote respect and safety. PMID:25769310

  15. "You can't be cold and scientific": community views on ethical issues in intellectual disability research.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Katherine E; Schwartz, Nicole M; Gibbons, Colleen M; Olick, Robert S

    2015-04-01

    Perceptions, attitudes, and ethical concerns related to conducting research with adults with intellectual disability hinder scientific innovation to promote health. Yet we lack an understanding of community views on effective research policy and practice. To address this knowledge void, we qualitatively studied the views of adults with intellectual disability and those who provide them support regarding research participation of adults with intellectual disability. We found substantial support for their inclusion, particularly given the possibility of benefits to adults with intellectual disability, researchers, and society. We also found concerns for potential harm and differing ideas on how to promote safety. Our findings emphasize the importance of their inclusion in research, and the need for policies and practices that promote respect and safety.

  16. A Preliminary Study of Surface Temperature Cold Bias in COAMPS

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, H-N S; Leach, M J; Sugiyama, G A; Aluzzi, F J

    2001-04-27

    It is well recognized that the model predictability is more or less hampered by the imperfect representations of atmospheric state and model physics. Therefore, it is a common problem for any numerical models to exhibit some sorts of biases in the prediction. In this study, the emphasis is focused on the cold bias of surface temperature forecast in Naval Research Laboratory's three-dimensional mesoscale model, COAMPS (Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System). Based on the comparison with the ground station data, there were two types of ground temperature cold biases identified in LLNL (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) operational forecasts of COAMPS over the California and Nevada regions during the 1999 winter and the 2000 spring. The first type of cold bias appears at high elevation regions covered by snow, and its magnitude can be as large as 30 F - 40 F lower than observed. The second type of cold bias mainly exists in the snow-free clear-sky regions, where the surface temperature is above the freezing point, and its magnitude can be up to 5 F - 10 F lower than observed. These cold biases can affect the low-level stratification, and even the diurnal variation of winds in the mountain regions, and therefore impact the atmospheric dispersion forecast. The main objective of this study is to explore the causes of such cold bias, and to further the improvement of the forecast performance in COAMPS. A series of experiments are performed to gauge the sensitivity of the model forecast due to the physics changes and large-scale data with various horizontal and vertical resolutions.

  17. 20 Years of Developing Capacity for Action-Oriented Collaborative Regional Research in the Asia-Pacific Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tupas, L. M.; Stevenson, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    During its 3rd strategic phase, which ran from 2010 to 2015, the APN provided support for 123 projects through its competitive collaborative regional research and capacity development programmes. With over 250 peer-reviewed papers and the underlying philosophy that the regional research it undertakes engages at least two developing countries, the 3rd strategic phase is not only improving the research capabilities of nations in the region, but is engaging the developing country community in underpinning policy-relevant research. The extent to which science is contributing to policy is further evident in that 69% of the activities conducted had some form of science-policy mechanism built in to the project activities. The period of the 3rd Strategic Phase has been witness to significant changes in the make-up of the "conventional" global change arena, with the transition of some global change programmes into the new "Future Earth" initiative. At the same time, major events such as the Rio+20 Summit, the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals, the establishment of an IPCC-related platform for biodiversity, i.e. IPBES, and the evolving engagement of science and policy communities has kept the APN busy at what it does best - networking and partnering with the international community. The APN has embraced these changes through its dynamism, allowing the APN to meet not only the needs of the scientists and decision makers its serves in the region but those of the international science communities as well. The challenge for the APN in its next two decades will be to ensure alignment with the transforming global change arena. With key phrases such as "policy-relevant science" and "science-policy interactions" being adopted broadly by the community at large these days, the APN's niche in the global community has received considerable recognition, particularly as other institutions strive to adopt similar practices that the APN has built over the last 20 years.

  18. Status of national health research systems in ten countries of the WHO African Region

    PubMed Central

    Kirigia, Joses M; Wambebe, Charles

    2006-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Committee for Africa, in 1998, passed a resolution (AFR/RC48/R4) which urged its Member States in the Region to develop national research policies and strategies and to build national health research capacities, particularly through resource allocation, training of senior officials, strengthening of research institutions and establishment of coordination mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to take stock of some aspects of national resources for health research in the countries of the Region; identify current constraints facing national health research systems; and propose the way forward. Methods A questionnaire was prepared and sent by pouch to all the 46 Member States in the WHO African Region through the WHO Country Representatives for facilitation and follow up. The health research focal person in each of the countries Ministry of Health (in consultation with other relevant health research bodies in the country) bore the responsibility for completing the questionnaire. The data were entered and analysed in Excel spreadsheet. Results The key findings were as follows: the response rate was 21.7% (10/46); three countries had a health research policy; one country reported that it had a law relating to health research; two countries had a strategic health research plan; three countries reported that they had a functional national health research system (NHRS); two countries confirmed the existence of a functional national health research management forum (NHRMF); six countries had a functional ethical review committee (ERC); five countries had a scientific review committee (SRC); five countries reported the existence of health institutions with institutional review committees (IRC); two countries had a health research programme; and three countries had a national health research institute (NHRI) and a faculty of health sciences in the national university that conducted health research. Four out of the ten

  19. Cold Spray Aluminum for Magnesium Gearbox Repair

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    Cold Spray Aluminum for Magnesium Gearbox Repair Phillip F Leyman . US Army Research Laboratory Weapons & Materials Research Directorate...AND SUBTITLE Cold Spray Aluminum for Magnesium Gearbox Repair 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...tirogram ec ves • Develop the densest, thinnest, most corrosion resistant Aluminum -based Cold Spray coating ith th t t dh i b d t th tw e grea es

  20. [Research advances in simulating regional crop growth under water stress by remote sensing].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Shili; Ma, Yuping

    2005-06-01

    It is of practical significance to simulate the regional crop growth under water stress, especially at regional scale. Combined with remote sensing information, crop growth simulation model could provide an effective way to estimate the regional crop growth, development and yield formation under water stress. In this paper, related research methods and results were summarized, and some problems needed to be further studied and resolved were discussed.

  1. Handbook of Research on Higher Education in the MENA Region: Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baporikar, Neeta, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    As the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region becomes increasingly intertwined in the global economy, investment continues to be made in the educational sector. Multidimensional approaches to higher education have greatly influenced the state of business and government in the region. The "Handbook of Research on Higher Education in the…

  2. Handbook of Research on Higher Education in the MENA Region: Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baporikar, Neeta, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    As the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region becomes increasingly intertwined in the global economy, investment continues to be made in the educational sector. Multidimensional approaches to higher education have greatly influenced the state of business and government in the region. The "Handbook of Research on Higher Education in the…

  3. Educational Reforms in the Asia-Pacific Region: Trends, Challenges and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Yin Cheong

    This paper analyzes trends and challenges in recent educational reform and development in the Asia-Pacific region and explores related implications for educational research. There are numerous educational reforms in nearly all countries in the region as they respond to challenges of globalization, information technology, knowledge-based economy,…

  4. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH, MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT IN THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA Region 3 to implement a long-term research, monitoring, and assessment program in the Mid-Atlantic region - the Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment (MAIA). The MAIA mission is to develop a broad-based partnership to integrate scientific knowledge into the decision-making proc...

  5. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #6: PUBLICATION OF FIRST REPORT FROM MID-ATLANTIC REGIONAL ASSESSMENT (MARA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research news edition announces the publication of the first report from the Mid-Atlantic Regional Assessment (MARA). The report is entitled, *Climate Change Impacts in the Mid-Atlantic Region -- A Workshop Report.* MARA is being conducted as part of the USGCRP First Nation...

  6. Silvicultural research and the evolution of forest practices in the Douglas-fir region.

    Treesearch

    Robert O. Curtis; Dean S. DeBell; Richard E. Miller; Michael Newton; J. Bradley St. Clair; William I. Stein

    2007-01-01

    Silvicultural practices in the Douglas-fir region evolved through a combination of formal research, observation, and practical experience of forest managers and silviculturists, and changing economic and social factors. This process began more than a century ago and still continues. It has had a great influence on the economic well-being of the region and on the...

  7. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH, MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT IN THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA Region 3 to implement a long-term research, monitoring, and assessment program in the Mid-Atlantic region - the Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment (MAIA). The MAIA mission is to develop a broad-based partnership to integrate scientific knowledge into the decision-making proc...

  8. The Regional Distribution of Energy-Related Scientists and Engineers, 1976. Research Memorandum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Michael G.; Blair, Philip

    Examined are several factors related to regional variations in the number of energy-related scientists and engineers and how this subgroup differs from the base group of scientists and engineers. The emphasis of this research project was to determine the influence of regional differences in industry mix and in staffing patterns within industries…

  9. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 2): Mid-State Disposal Landfill, Marathon Battery, Cold Spring, New York, (second remedial action), September 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-30

    The Marathon Battery Company (MBC) site, a former battery manufacturing plant, is located in the Village of Cold Spring in Putnam, New York, approximately 40 miles north of New York City. The site operated from 1952 to 1979 producing military and commercial batteries. During this time the site changed ownership several times, finally operating as the MBC from 1969 to 1979. Before 1965, the plant's wastewater treatment system discharged into the Hudson River at the Cold Spring pier via the Cold Spring sewer system, except during periods of overload or system shutdown during which time the process effluent was discharged directly into East Foundry Cove Marsh (EFCM) to the southeast. Between November 1972 and July 1973, a limited cleanup was conducted by MBC and other responsible parties, to remove sediment from parts of Foundry Cove and surrounding areas contaminated with cadmium and nickel in excess of 900 mg/kg. The selected remedial action for Area II at this site includes: decontamination of the former battery facility; excavation; and offsite disposal.

  10. Investigation of the Cold Fusion Phenomenon in the Surface Region of Hydrogen Non-occlusive Metal Catalysts; W, Pt, and Au

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozima, Hideo; Mizuno, Tadahiko

    2009-03-01

    There are several experimental data sets showing occurrence of the cold fusion phenomenon (CFP) in such contact metallic catalysts which do not occlude hydrogen isotopes such as tungsten (W), platinum (Pt) and gold (Au). These metals do not occlude hydrogen isotopes and are different from such hydrogen occlusive transition metals usually used in the cold fusion (CF) experiments such as Ti, Ni, and Pd. The non-occlusive isotopes and give us precious information about mechanisms facilitating formation of specific matter for the CFP (CF matter) in the cold fusion material. In the electrolysis experiments with these metals as electrodes and with several electrolytes in light or heavy water, transmuted nuclides were observed in the surface layer of the electrodes. The generated nuclides were localized in areas with a diameter of around a few μm in the surface layer of thickness less than 103 nm. These specific nuclides observed in the host metals, W, Pt and Au, depend on the composition of the electrolyte.

  11. COLD-PCR amplification of bisulfite-converted DNA allows the enrichment and sequencing of rare un-methylated genomic regions.

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Rizaldos, Elena; Milbury, Coren A; Karatza, Elli; Chen, Clark C; Makrigiorgos, G Mike; Merewood, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant hypo-methylation of DNA is evident in a range of human diseases including cancer and diabetes. Development of sensitive assays capable of detecting traces of un-methylated DNA within methylated samples can be useful in several situations. Here we describe a new approach, fast-COLD-MS-PCR, which amplifies preferentially un-methylated DNA sequences. By employing an appropriate denaturation temperature during PCR of bi-sulfite converted DNA, fast-COLD-MS-PCR enriches un-methylated DNA and enables differential melting analysis or bisulfite sequencing. Using methylation on the MGMT gene promoter as a model, it is shown that serial dilutions of controlled methylation samples lead to the reliable sequencing of un-methylated sequences down to 0.05% un-methylated-to-methylated DNA. Screening of clinical glioma tumor and infant blood samples demonstrated that the degree of enrichment of un-methylated over methylated DNA can be modulated by the choice of denaturation temperature, providing a convenient method for analysis of partially methylated DNA or for revealing and sequencing traces of un-methylated DNA. Fast-COLD-MS-PCR can be useful for the detection of loss of methylation/imprinting in cancer, diabetes or diet-related methylation changes.

  12. Different types of cold adaptation in humans.

    PubMed

    Makinen, Tiina Maria

    2010-06-01

    Human adaptation to cold may occur through acclimatization or acclimation and includes genetic, physiologic, morphological or behavioural responses. It has been studied in indigenous populations, during polar or ski expeditions, sporting activities, military training, in urban people, or under controlled conditions involving exposures to cold air or water. Although divergent results exist between the studies, the main cold adaptation responses are either insulative (circulatory adjustments, increase of fat layer) or metabolic (shivering or nonshivering thermogenesis) and may be positive (enhanced) or negative (blunted). The pattern of cold adaptation is dependent on the type (air, water) and intensity (continuous, intermittent) of the cold exposure. In addition, several individual factors like age, sex, body composition, exercise, diet, fitness and health modify the responses to cold. Habituation of thermal sensations to cold develops first, followed by cardiovascular, metabolic and endocrinological responses. If the repeated cold stimulus is discontinued, adaptation will gradually disappear. The functional significance of physiological cold adaptation is unclear, and some of the responses can even be harmful and predispose to cold injuries. The article summarises recent research information concerning with the thermoregulatory responses related to repeated exposures to cold (air or water), and also discusses the determinants of cold adaptation, as well as its functional significance.

  13. The Louisiana Clinical Data Research Network: Leveraging Regional and National Resources to Improve Clinical Research Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Parke, Courtney; Cook, Julia; Carton, Thomas; Rao, Sohail

    2014-01-01

    Background Mapping of the human genome and technological advancements allowing storage and rapid retrieval of healthcare data have heralded a new phase in clinical medicine and have served as a catalyst for the advent of personalized medicine. The use of health information databases provides a unique opportunity to investigate questions of great complexity and real-world application in a way that is most useful in providing high quality, safe, and cost-effective clinical care to patients. Methods The Louisiana Clinical Data Research Network (LACDRN) aims to streamline the workflow of multiinstitutional clinical studies and to dramatically expand the clinical research resources available to local investigators. The LACDRN contains health information for more than 1 million patients in Southeast Louisiana and is a rich resource for researchers to conduct retrospective or observational trials and to recruit patients for prospective studies. Results The LACDRN is part of a large-scale initiative by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute to create a national electronic health record network that enables the timely initiation and completion of comparative effectiveness research in a coordinated effort. For the first time, network research will be guided in part by input from patients and caregivers, increasing their engagement in the research process. Conclusion The establishment of the LACDRN is a unique opportunity for clinicians to take part in an innovative national initiative designed to offer new clinical research options for patients and to carry out cutting-edge translational, clinical, and health services research. PMID:25598739

  14. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth > For Teens > Cough & Cold ... tos y el resfriado Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ...

  15. Cold symptoms (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Colds are caused by a virus and can occur year-round. The common cold generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing. Other symptoms include sore throat, cough, and headache. A cold usually lasts ...

  16. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth > For Teens > Cough & Cold ... Someone Quit? Avoiding DXM Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ...

  17. Cold plasma decontamination of foods.

    PubMed

    Niemira, Brendan A

    2012-01-01

    Cold plasma is a novel nonthermal food processing technology that uses energetic, reactive gases to inactivate contaminating microbes on meats, poultry, fruits, and vegetables. This flexible sanitizing method uses electricity and a carrier gas, such as air, oxygen, nitrogen, or helium; antimicrobial chemical agents are not required. The primary modes of action are due to UV light and reactive chemical products of the cold plasma ionization process. A wide array of cold plasma systems that operate at atmospheric pressures or in low pressure treatment chambers are under development. Reductions of greater than 5 logs can be obtained for pathogens such as Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus. Effective treatment times can range from 120 s to as little as 3 s, depending on the food treated and the processing conditions. Key limitations for cold plasma are the relatively early state of technology development, the variety and complexity of the necessary equipment, and the largely unexplored impacts of cold plasma treatment on the sensory and nutritional qualities of treated foods. Also, the antimicrobial modes of action for various cold plasma systems vary depending on the type of cold plasma generated. Optimization and scale up to commercial treatment levels require a more complete understanding of these chemical processes. Nevertheless, this area of technology shows promise and is the subject of active research to enhance efficacy.

  18. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #2: MID-ATLANTIC REGIONAL ASSESSMENT (MARA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of this National Assessment effort mandated by the Global Change Research Act of 1990, EPA's Global Change Research Program is sponsoring the Mid-Atlantic Regional Assessment (MARA). With EPA sponsorship, a multi-disciplinary team of faculty members is leading the first a...

  19. Growing Our Own: A Regional Approach to Encourage Psychiatric Residents to Enter Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunik, Mark E.; Hudson, Sonora; Schubert, Brenda; Nasrallah, Henry; Kirchner, JoAnn E.; Sullivan, Greer

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This article describes a regional program developed by the Department of Veterans Affairs South Central Mental Illness Research, Education and Clinical Center for training psychiatry residents in research and attracting them to academic careers. Methods: The authors describe a low-cost, innovative program developed to increase the…

  20. THE NEW MEDIA IN EDUCATION. A REPORT OF THE WESTERN REGIONAL CONFERENCE ON EDUCATIONAL MEDIA RESEARCH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EDLING, JACK V.

    A REPORT OF THE WESTERN REGIONAL CONFERENCE ON EDUCATIONAL MEDIA RESEARCH HELD AT SACRAMENTO, CALIFORNIA, APRIL 20-22, 1960, WAS PRESENTED. THE CONFERENCE WAS HELD TO REVIEW AND HELP CHART FUTURE DIRECTIONS IN RESEARCH, EXPERIMENTATION, AND THE DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION RELATIVE TO NEW INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA. THE CONFERENCE HAD FOUR PURPOSES--TO…

  1. Regional Exchanges of Information through Intermediate Linkages Affiliated with SEAs: The Research and Development Exchange (RDx).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronkosky, Preston C.

    The Research and Development Exchange (RDx) is a network of eight regional educational laboratories, one university-based research and development center, and a consortium of seven state education agencies working to support state and local school improvement efforts. The RDx has four goals, designed to support dissemination and school improvement…

  2. Capacity Building in Early Childhood Education Research in a Regional Australian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumsion, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a case study of successful research capacity building in the field of early childhood education in a non-research intensive, regional Australian university. In a context characterised by substantial political, economic and structural constraints, it illustrates a creative, strategic, and to some extent, transgressive approach…

  3. Researching School Choice in Regional Australia: What Can This Tell Us about the Ethnographic Imaginary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsolidis, Georgina

    2016-01-01

    This is an exploration of methodological debates related to ethnographic research. Reflection on conducting research on school choice in an Australian regional centre is the beginning point for a discussion of what Appadurai describes as a dialectical relationship between the neighbourhood and its capacity to exist and reshape itself in relation…

  4. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #2: MID-ATLANTIC REGIONAL ASSESSMENT (MARA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of this National Assessment effort mandated by the Global Change Research Act of 1990, EPA's Global Change Research Program is sponsoring the Mid-Atlantic Regional Assessment (MARA). With EPA sponsorship, a multi-disciplinary team of faculty members is leading the first a...

  5. Capacity Building in Early Childhood Education Research in a Regional Australian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumsion, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a case study of successful research capacity building in the field of early childhood education in a non-research intensive, regional Australian university. In a context characterised by substantial political, economic and structural constraints, it illustrates a creative, strategic, and to some extent, transgressive approach…

  6. Preventing childhood obesity in Latin America: an agenda for regional research and strategic partnerships.

    PubMed

    Caballero, B; Vorkoper, S; Anand, N; Rivera, J A

    2017-07-01

    The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity in Latin America poses a major public health challenge to the region. In response, many countries are implementing obesity prevention programmes aimed at modifying known risk factors. However, the limited scientific evidence inhibits the development and implementation of novel, effective interventions across the region. To address these gaps, the NIH Fogarty International Center convened a workshop of researchers, policymakers, programme implementers and public health advocates who are actively engaged in the region to prevent childhood obesity. Major aims of the meeting were to define the current status of childhood obesity, identify the scientific gaps in our understanding of the epidemic, point out the barriers and opportunities for research and outline a plan for capacity building in the region in the area of childhood obesity. This series of articles reflects the key outcome of the meeting and offers an analysis of the knowledge translation needed for evidence-based policy initiatives, a review of the research agenda and an evaluation of research capacity in the region. The goal of the papers is to inform the development of multidisciplinary and multisector research collaborations, which are essential to the implementation of successful childhood obesity prevention strategies in the region. © 2017 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity.

  7. Cold confusion

    SciTech Connect

    Chapline, G.

    1989-07-01

    On March 23 two chemists, Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons startled the world with a press conference at the University of Utah where they announced that they had achieved nuclear fusion at room temperatures. As evidence they cited the production of ''excess'' amounts of heat in an electrochemical apparatus and observation of neutron production. While the production of heat in a chemical apparatus is not in itself unusual the observation of neutrons is certainly extraordinary. As it turned out, though, careful measurements of the neutron production in electrochemical apparatus similar to that used by Fleischmann and Pons carried out at dozens of other laboratories has shown that the neutron production fails by many orders of magnitude to support the assertion by Fleischmann and Pons that their discovery represents a new and cheap source of fusion power. In particular, independent measurements of the neutron production rate suggest that the actual rate of fusion energy production probably does not exceed 1 trillionth of a watt. This paper discusses the feasibility that cold fusion is actually being achieved. 7 refs.

  8. MISR Browse Images: Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-02

    ... MISR Browse Images: Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX) These MISR Browse images provide a ... over the region observed during the NASA Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX). CLPX involved ground, airborne, and satellite measurements ...

  9. Hot and Cold

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-16

    This view shows Mercury's north polar region, colored by the maximum biannual surface temperature, which ranges from >400 K (red) to 50 K (purple). As expected for the Solar System's innermost planet, areas of Mercury's surface that are sunlit reach high temperatures, and hence most of this image is colored red! In contrast, some craters near Mercury's poles have regions that remain permanently in shadow, and in these regions even the maximum temperatures can be extremely low. Evidence from MESSENGER and Earth-based observations indicate that water ice deposits are present in these cold craters. The craters nearest Mercury' poles have surface temperatures less than 100 K (-173°C, -280°F), and water ice is stable on the surface, such as in Prokofiev. However, many craters near but somewhat farther from Mercury's poles have cold, permanently shadowed interiors, but the maximum temperature is too high for water ice to persist at the surface. In these craters, water ice is present but is buried beneath a thin, low-reflectance volatile layer likely consisting of organic-rich material, such as in Berlioz crater. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19247

  10. An invitation to measure insect cold tolerance: Methods, approaches, and workflow.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Brent J; Coello Alvarado, Litza E; Ferguson, Laura V

    2015-10-01

    Insect performance is limited by the temperature of the environment, and in temperate, polar, and alpine regions, the majority of insects must face the challenge of exposure to low temperatures. The physiological response to cold exposure shapes the ability of insects to survive and thrive in these environments, and can be measured, without great technical difficulty, for both basic and applied research. For example, understanding insect cold tolerance allows us to predict the establishment and spread of insect pests and biological control agents. Additionally, the discipline provides the tools for drawing physiological comparisons among groups in wider studies that may not be focused primarily on the ability of insects to survive the cold. Thus, the study of insect cold tolerance is of a broad interest, and several reviews have addressed the theories and advances in the field. Here, however, we aim to clarify and provide rationale for common practices used to study cold tolerance, as a guide for newcomers to the field, students, and those wishing to incorporate cold tolerance into a broader study. We cover the 'tried and true' measures of insect cold tolerance, the equipment necessary for these measurement, and summarize the ecological and biological significance of each. Finally, we suggest a framework and workflow for measuring cold tolerance and low temperature performance in insects.

  11. Peaceful atoms in agriculture and food: how the politics of the Cold War shaped agricultural research using isotopes and radiation in post war divided Germany.

    PubMed

    Zachmann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    During the Cold War, the super powers advanced nuclear literacy and access to nuclear resources and technology to a first-class power factor. Both national governments and international organizations developed nuclear programs in a variety of areas and promoted the development of nuclear applications in new environments. Research into the use of isotopes and radiation in agriculture, food production, and storage gained major importance as governments tried to promote the possibility of a peaceful use of atomic energy. This study is situated in divided Germany as the intersection of the competing socio-political systems and focuses on the period of the late 1940s and 1950s. It is argued that political interests and international power relations decisively shaped the development of "nuclear agriculture". The aim is to explore whether and how politicians in both parts of the divided country fostered the new field and exerted authority over the scientists. Finally, it examines the ways in which researchers adapted to the altered political conditions and expectations within the two political structures, by now fundamentally different.

  12. Assessing the state of health research in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    PubMed

    Ismail, S A; McDonald, A; Dubois, E; Aljohani, F G; Coutts, A P; Majeed, A; Rawaf, S

    2013-06-01

    Member states across the Eastern Mediterranean region face unprecedented health challenges, buffeted by demographic change, a dual disease burden, rising health costs, and the effects of ongoing conflict and population movements - exacerbated in the near-term by instability arising from recent political upheaval in the Middle East. However, health actors in the region are not well positioned to respond to these challenges because of a dearth of good quality health research. This review presents an assessment of the current state of health research systems across the Eastern Mediterranean based on publicly available literature and data sources. The review finds that - while there have been important improvements in productivity in the Region since the early 1990s - overall research performance is poor with critical deficits in system stewardship, research training and human resource development, and basic data surveillance. Translation of research into policy and practice is hampered by weak institutional and financial incentives, and concerns over the political sensitivity of findings. These problems are attributable primarily to chronic under-investment - both financial and political - in Research and Development systems. This review identifies key areas for a regional strategy and how to address challenges, including increased funding, research capacity-building, reform of governance arrangements and sustained political investment in research support. A central finding is that the poverty of publicly available data on research systems makes meaningful cross-comparisons of performance within the EMR difficult. We therefore conclude by calling for work to improve understanding of health research systems across the region as a matter of urgency.

  13. Cold H I in faint dwarf galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, Narendra Nath; Chengalur, Jayaram N.; Karachentsev, Igor D.; Kaisin, Serafim S.; Begum, Ayesha

    2016-03-01

    We present the results of a study of the amount and distribution of cold atomic gas, as well its correlation with recent star formation in a sample of extremely faint dwarf irregular galaxies. Our sample is drawn from the Faint Irregular Galaxy GMRT Survey (FIGGS) and its extension, FIGGS2. We use two different methods to identify cold atomic gas. In the first method, line-of-sight H I spectra were decomposed into multiple Gaussian components and narrow Gaussian components were identified as cold H I. In the second method, the brightness temperature (TB ) is used as a tracer of cold H I. We find that the amount of cold gas identified using the TB method is significantly larger than the amount of gas identified using Gaussian decomposition. We also find that a large fraction of the cold gas identified using the TB method is spatially coincident with regions of recent star formation, although the converse is not true. That is only a small fraction of the regions with recent star formation are also covered by cold gas. For regions where the star formation and the cold gas overlap, we study the relationship between the star formation rate density and the cold H I column density. We find that the star formation rate density has a power-law dependence on the H I column density, but that the slope of this power law is significantly flatter than that of the canonical Kennicutt-Schmidt relation.

  14. Overview of Predictive Microbiology Research in the Microbial Food Safety Research Unit at the USDA-Eastern Regional Research Center

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Microbial Food Safety Research Unit (MFSRU) maintains a commitment to high quality basic and applied research on pathogenic bacteria and virus to ensure a safe food supply. Their research addresses high priority U.S. national needs by developing technical information and technologies needed by F...

  15. Turbulent Heat Fluxes during an Intense Cold-Air Outbreak over the Kuroshio Extension Region: Results from a High-Resolution Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-12

    agreement with AMTEX observa- tions and sensible and latent heat fluxes of 300 and 700 Wm 2, respectively, which are close to the observed values. Xue et...1,300 Wm 2, respectively. Modeling of cold-air outbreaks using a full three-dimensional coupled atmosphere–ocean model was done for the Gulf Stream for a...latent heat flux of 575 Wm 2. In this study, we present a case from 30 January through 6 February 2005 where the formation of cyclo- nes followed the

  16. Review on Cold-Formed Steel Connections

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Cher Siang; Mohammad, Shahrin; Md Tahir, Mahmood; Shek, Poi Ngian

    2014-01-01

    The concept of cold-formed light steel framing construction has been widespread after understanding its structural characteristics with massive research works over the years. Connection serves as one of the important elements for light steel framing in order to achieve its structural stability. Compared to hot-rolled steel sections, cold-formed steel connections perform dissimilarity due to the thin-walled behaviour. This paper aims to review current researches on cold-formed steel connections, particularly for screw connections, storage rack connections, welded connections, and bolted connections. The performance of these connections in the design of cold-formed steel structures is discussed. PMID:24688448

  17. Review on cold-formed steel connections.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeong Huei; Tan, Cher Siang; Mohammad, Shahrin; Tahir, Mahmood Md; Shek, Poi Ngian

    2014-01-01

    The concept of cold-formed light steel framing construction has been widespread after understanding its structural characteristics with massive research works over the years. Connection serves as one of the important elements for light steel framing in order to achieve its structural stability. Compared to hot-rolled steel sections, cold-formed steel connections perform dissimilarity due to the thin-walled behaviour. This paper aims to review current researches on cold-formed steel connections, particularly for screw connections, storage rack connections, welded connections, and bolted connections. The performance of these connections in the design of cold-formed steel structures is discussed.

  18. Cold energy

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, John P.

    2015-12-04

    Deviations in Q for resonant superconducting radio frequency niobium accelerator cavities are generally correlated with resistivity loss mechanisms. Field dependent Qs are not well modeled by these classical loss mechanisms, but rather can represent a form of precision cavity surface thermometry. When the field dependent Q variation shows improvement with increasing B field level the classical treatment of this problem is inadequate. To justify this behavior hydrogen as a ubiquitous impurity in niobium, which creates measurable property changes, even at very low concentrations is typically considered the cause of such anomalous behavior. This maybe the case in some instances, but more importantly any system operating with a highly coherent field with a significant time dependent magnetic component at near 2° K will have the ability to organize the remaining free spins within the London penetration depth to form a coupled energy reservoir in the form of low mass spin waves. The niobium resonant cavities are composed of a single isotope with a large nuclear spin. When the other loss mechanisms are stripped away this may be the gain medium activated by the low level residual magnetic fields. It was found that one resonant cavity heat treatment produced optimum surface properties and then functioned as a MASER extracting energy from the 2° K thermal bath while cooling the cavity walls. The cavity operating in this mode is a simulator of what can take place in the wider but not colder universe using the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as a thermal source. The low mass, long lifetimes, and the scale of the magnetic spin waves on the weakly magnetized interstellar medium allows energy to be stored that is many orders of magnitude colder than the cosmic microwave background. A linear accelerator cavity becomes a tool to explore the properties of the long wave length magnetic spin waves that populate this cold low energy regime.

  19. Cold energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, John P.

    2015-12-01

    Deviations in Q for resonant superconducting radio frequency niobium accelerator cavities are generally correlated with resistivity loss mechanisms. Field dependent Qs are not well modeled by these classical loss mechanisms, but rather can represent a form of precision cavity surface thermometry. When the field dependent Q variation shows improvement with increasing B field level the classical treatment of this problem is inadequate. To justify this behavior hydrogen as a ubiquitous impurity in niobium, which creates measurable property changes, even at very low concentrations is typically considered the cause of such anomalous behavior. This maybe the case in some instances, but more importantly any system operating with a highly coherent field with a significant time dependent magnetic component at near 2° K will have the ability to organize the remaining free spins within the London penetration depth to form a coupled energy reservoir in the form of low mass spin waves. The niobium resonant cavities are composed of a single isotope with a large nuclear spin. When the other loss mechanisms are stripped away this may be the gain medium activated by the low level residual magnetic fields. It was found that one resonant cavity heat treatment produced optimum surface properties and then functioned as a MASER extracting energy from the 2° K thermal bath while cooling the cavity walls. The cavity operating in this mode is a simulator of what can take place in the wider but not colder universe using the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as a thermal source. The low mass, long lifetimes, and the scale of the magnetic spin waves on the weakly magnetized interstellar medium allows energy to be stored that is many orders of magnitude colder than the cosmic microwave background. A linear accelerator cavity becomes a tool to explore the properties of the long wave length magnetic spin waves that populate this cold low energy regime.

  20. Cold Confusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogle, Pamela W.

    1991-01-01

    Public relations issues arising from the University of Utah's controversial announcement of research claiming achievement of nuclear fusion at room temperature are discussed. They include problems occurring before and after the initial press conference, secrecy vs. openness, research ethics, and effects lasting past the original incident and…

  1. Cold Confusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogle, Pamela W.

    1991-01-01

    Public relations issues arising from the University of Utah's controversial announcement of research claiming achievement of nuclear fusion at room temperature are discussed. They include problems occurring before and after the initial press conference, secrecy vs. openness, research ethics, and effects lasting past the original incident and…

  2. Bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in cold regions: Development of a pre-optimized biostimulation biopile-scale field assay in Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Martínez Álvarez, L M; Ruberto, Lam; Lo Balbo, A; Mac Cormack, W P

    2017-03-02

    Bioremediation proved to be an effective approach to deal with soil contamination, especially in isolated, cold environments such as Antarctica. Biostimulation, involving the addition of macronutrients -mainly nitrogen and phosphorous- is considered the simplest and cheapest bioremediation process. Optimizing the levels of these nutrients is a key step prior to the application of a biostimulation strategy. In this work, N and P levels, optimized by Response Surface Methodology (RSM) at lab-scale, were applied to an Antarctic hydrocarbon contaminated soil. The process was performed on-site, using high density polyethylene geomembranes (800μm) to isolate treated soil from the surroundings and under environmental conditions at Carlini station (Antarctica) during 50days. Two 0.5ton biopiles were used as experimental units; a control biopile (CC), and a biostimulated system (BS), amended with N and P. At the end of the assay, hydrocarbon removal was significantly higher in BS system compared to CC (75.79% and 49.54% respectively), showing that the applied strategy was effective enough to perform a field-assay in Antarctica that significantly reduce soil contamination levels; and proving that RSM represents a fundamental tool for the optimization of nutrient levels to apply during bioremediation of fuel contaminated cold soils.

  3. [Research of regional medical consumables reagent logistics system in the modern hospital].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jingjiong; Zhang, Yanwen; Luo, Xiaochen; Zhang, Qing; Zhu, Jianxin

    2013-09-01

    To explore the modern hospital and regional medical consumable reagents logistics system management. The characteristics of regional logistics, through cooperation between medical institutions within the region, and organize a wide range of special logistics activities, to make reasonable of the regional medical consumable reagents logistics. To set the regional management system, dynamic management systems, supply chain information management system, after-sales service system and assessment system. By the research of existing medical market and medical resources, to establish the regional medical supplies reagents directory and the initial data. The emphasis is centralized dispatch of medical supplies reagents, to introduce qualified logistics company for dispatching, to improve the modern hospital management efficiency, to costs down. Regional medical center and regional community health service centers constitute a regional logistics network, the introduction of medical consumable reagents logistics services, fully embodies integrity level, relevance, purpose, environmental adaptability of characteristics by the medical consumable reagents regional logistics distribution. Modern logistics distribution systems can increase the area of medical consumables reagent management efficiency and reduce costs.

  4. Colds and the Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2014October 2014familydoctor.org editorial staff OverviewWhat is the common cold and the flu?The common cold and the flu are viral infections of the ... have a cold or the flu?Although the common cold and the flu share many similar symptoms, they ...

  5. Cold remedies (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Sore throat, cough, stuffy nose, sneezing, runny nose, fever, chills, and muscle aches are all symptoms associated with the common cold. Over-the-counter medicines for a cold only alleviate cold symptoms but do not shorten the duration of a cold. As always, ...

  6. Extending Lkn Climate Regionalization with Spatial Regularization: AN Application to Epidemiological Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liss, Alexander; Gel, Yulia R.; Kulinkina, Alexandra; Naumova, Elena N.

    2016-06-01

    Regional climate is a critical factor in public health research, adaptation studies, climate change burden analysis, and decision support frameworks. Existing climate regionalization schemes are not well suited for these tasks as they rarely take population density into account. In this work, we are extending our recently developed method for automated climate regionalization (LKN-method) to incorporate the spatial features of target population. The LKN method consists of the data limiting step (L-step) to reduce dimensionality by applying principal component analysis, a classification step (K-step) to produce hierarchical candidate regions using k-means unsupervised classification algorithm, and a nomination step (N-step) to determine the number of candidate climate regions using cluster validity indexes. LKN method uses a comprehensive set of multiple satellite data streams, arranged as time series, and allows us to define homogeneous climate regions. The proposed approach extends the LKN method to include regularization terms reflecting the spatial distribution of target population. Such tailoring allows us to determine the optimal number and spatial distribution of climate regions and thus, to ensure more uniform population coverage across selected climate categories. We demonstrate how the extended LKN method produces climate regionalization can be better tailored to epidemiological research in the context of decision support framework.

  7. Facts about the Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > Influenza Facts About The Common Cold What Is a Cold? Colds are minor infections ... for 10 to 40 percent of colds. Other common cold viruses include coronavirus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) . ...

  8. Eighteen years of research on AIDS: contribution of and collaborations between different world regions.

    PubMed

    Falagas, Matthew E; Bliziotis, Ioannis A; Kondilis, Barbara; Soteriades, Elpidoforos S

    2006-12-01

    The scientific community invests significant resources on HIV/AIDS research to confront the current epidemic. We reviewed the medical literature in order to evaluate the contribution of different world regions on HIV/AIDS research during the past 18 years. We retrieved articles, using an elaborate methodology, from three journals focusing on HIV/AIDS between 1986 and 2003, indexed in the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) and the Web of Science databases of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI). Comparisons were made by dividing the world into nine geographic regions, and by using the human development index (HDI) categorization. A total of 9502 articles on HIV/AIDS were retrieved from three AIDS journals over an 18-year study period. The United States and Western Europe together and five developed out of nine world regions made up a striking 83% and 92% of the world's research production on HIV/AIDS, respectively. Scientists from the developing world participated in 10.4% of the articles published during 1986-1991, 14.7% during 1992-1997, and 21.3% during 1998-2003. Researchers from countries included in the high, medium, and low HDI category produced 2240, 9, and 15 articles per billion population, respectively. About half of articles originating in Latin America and the Caribbean and half in Asia were produced in collaboration with the United States. However, 40% of articles from Africa and 58% from Eastern Europe were produced in cooperation with Western Europe. Collaboration between researchers within developing regions was negligible. The vast majority of the world's research on AIDS is produced in the developed world. Although research production was minimal in the developing world, we found that regions included in the low and medium HDI categories showed a higher proportion of increase in research productivity than the developed countries. International collaborations should significantly increase and expand beyond the traditional cultural and

  9. Western Regional Center of the National Institute for Climatic Change Research

    SciTech Connect

    Hungate, Bruce A.

    2013-05-02

    The major goal of this project was fostering, integrating, synthesizing, and disseminating experimental, observational, and modeling research on predicted climate change in the western region of the U.S. and the impacts of that change on the structure, productivity, and climatic interactions of the region's natural and managed ecological systems. This was accomplished through administering a competitive grants program developed in collaboration with the other four regional centers of the NICCR. The activities supported included efforts to synthesize research on climate change in the western U.S. through meta-analysis studies, model comparisons, and data synthesis workshops. Results from this work were disseminated to the scientific and public media. This project also supported the development of the NICCR web site, hosted at NAU, which was used as the means to accept pre-proposal and proposal submissions for each funding cycle, and served as a clearing house for public outreach for results from NICCR-funded research

  10. Inventory of non-federally funded marine pollution research, development, and monitoring activities: West Coast region

    SciTech Connect

    Canton, G.M.; Opresko, D.M.; Weaver, R.S.

    1987-12-01

    Knowledge of current marine pollution research and monitoring programs is an important factor in planning and guiding future national efforts to control such pollution. To supplement these reports on Federal activities, NMPPO published a series of reports in 1980 on non-federally funded marine pollution research and monitoring activities in various regions. The following document presents an update of one of these reports. It presents an inventory of the non-federally funded research and monitoring projects for the West Coast region of the United States. It is one in a series of four updates that will collectively provide an updated inventory of non-federally funded projects for all the coastal regions of the United States.

  11. [Relationship between productivity and efficiency in research funding for Spanish regions].

    PubMed

    Buela-Casal, Gualberto; Bermúdez, Ma Paz; Sierra, Juan Carlos; Quevedo-Blasco, Raúl; Guillén-Riquelme, Alejandro; Castro, Ángel

    2010-11-01

    Quality is a major current needs and requirements for any university system. The funding that universities receive a relevant influence on the scientific productivity of these. Thus the main objective of this study is to classify the Spanish regions in terms of scientific productivity and economic efficiency of their universities. It followed the same procedure used to prepare the 2009 ranking of research productivity in Spanish universities. The results show that there are differences in the classifications made on the basis of productivity and efficiency in the investigation. The more efficient Spanish regions in managing its resources to obtain research results are Catalonia, Asturias, Aragon, and Cantabria. From the results, each region can compare their situation with the rest and analyze strengths and weaknesses in research in terms of resources.

  12. A new technique for controlling the finger skin temperature in microcirculatory research demonstrated in a local cold stress test in healthy controls and patients with Raynaud's phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Hahn, M; Klyscz, T; Bohnenberger, G; Jünger, M

    1996-01-01

    Changes in skin temperature cause great changes in blood flow and capillary blood pressure. The new technique presented here makes it possible to control the temperature of the finger during nailfold capillaroscopy. Automatic temperature control, both for warming and cooling, is made possible with the aid of a temperature-controlled finger holder. The temperature of the finger holder can be automatically matched to the spontaneous skin temperature of the examined finger, or the finger holder temperature and temperature change velocity can be set digitally to a desired value. We used this new technique in a local cold stress test on 9 healthy controls (3 men, 6 women) and 9 patients (3 men, 6 women) with Raynaud's phenomenon due to systemic sclerosis. We simultaneously measured capillary red blood cell velocity (CBV) and laser Doppler flux (LDF) in adjacent areas of the finger nailfold with three different cooling procedures (8, 10, 12 degrees C for 5 min). CBV and LDF values showed the most pronounced differences between patients and controls at 12 degrees C. This new technique supplements capillaroscopy with full temperature control and defined temperature changes. It can also be combined with measurements of LDF and capillary blood pressure. In view of the disadvantages of other cooling methods we recommend this new and easy-to-handle technique for clinical practice and research.

  13. Pan Eurasian Experiment (PEEX): a new research initiative focused on the Northern Pan-Eurasian Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petäjä, Tuukka; Lappalainen, Hanna; Zaytseva, Nina; Shvidenko, Anatoli; Kujansuu, Joni; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Viisanen, Yrjö; Kotlyakov, Vladimir; Kasimov, Nikolai; Bondur, Valery; Matvienko, Gennadi; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kulmala, Markku

    2014-05-01

    The increasing human activities are changing the environment and the humanity is we are pushing the safe boundaries of the globe. It is of utmost importance to gauge with a comprehensive research program on the current status of the environment, particularly in the most vulnerable locations. Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) is a new multidisciplinary research approach aiming at resolving the major uncertainties in the Earth system science and global sustainability questions in the Arctic and boreal Pan-Eurasian regions. The PEEX program aims (i) to understand the Earth system and the influence of environmental and societal changes in pristine and industrialized Pan-Eurasian environments, (ii) to establish and sustain long-term, continuous and comprehensive ground-based airborne and seaborne research infrastructures, and to utilize satellite data and multi-scale model frameworks, (iii) to contribute to regional climate scenarios in the northern Pan-Eurasia and determine the relevant factors and interactions influencing human and societal wellbeing (iv) to promote the dissemination of PEEX scientific results and strategies in scientific and stake-holder communities and policy making, (v) to educate the next generation of multidisciplinary global change experts and scientists, and (vi) to increase the public awareness of climate change impacts in the Pan-Eurasian region. The development of PEEX research infrastructure will be one of the first activities of PEEX. PEEX will find synergies with the major European land-atmosphere observation infrastructures such as ICOS a research infrastructure to decipher the greenhouse gas balance of Europe and adjacent regions, ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network-project), and ANAEE (The experimentation in terrestrial ecosystem research) networks and with the flag ship stations like the SMEARs (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations) when design, re-organizing and networking existing

  14. Research on and Application to BH-HTC High Density Cementing Slurry System on Tarim Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuanhong, Song; Fei, Gao; Jianyong, He; Qixiang, Yang; Jiang, Yang; Xia, Liu

    2017-08-01

    A large section of salt bed is contented in Tarim region Piedmont which constructs complex geological conditions. For high-pressure gas well cementing difficulties from the region, high density cement slurry system has been researched through reasonable level of particle size distribution and second weighting up. The results of laboratory tests and field applications show that the high density cementing slurry system is available to Tarim region cementing because this system has a well performance in slurry stability, gas breakthrough control, fluidity, water loss, and strength.

  15. Cancer Mortality in the Mississippi Delta Region: Descriptive Epidemiology and Needed Future Research and Interventions.

    PubMed

    Zahnd, Whitney E; Jenkins, Wiley D; Mueller-Luckey, Georgia S

    2017-01-01

    The Delta Region is a federally designated, socioeconomically disadvantaged region of the United States covering 252 counties in eight states along the Mississippi River. The objective of this study is to describe the Region's cancer mortality burden. National Center for Health Statistics data were used to calculate age-adjusted mortality rates and rate ratios for the Delta Region for all cancers, lung, colorectal, breast (female), cervical, and prostate cancers. Rates were also calculated for comparison groups, and were stratified by gender, race, rurality, and socioeconomic status. The all-cancer mortality rate in the Delta Region was higher than all comparison groups across all stratifications. Higher rates were seen for cervical and colorectal cancer across comparison groups and stratifications. Delta Blacks had higher rates than Whites, and rural Delta residents had higher rates than their urban peers for most cancers. Further research and interventions should be conducted to elucidate and reduce these disparities.

  16. Applications of monsoon research: Opportunities to inform decisionmaking and reduce regional vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, A. J.; Garfin, G. M.; Wilder, M.; Lenart, M.; Vásquez-León, M.; Comrie, A. C.

    2007-05-01

    This presentation will describe ongoing efforts to understand interactions between the North American Monsoon and society, in order to develop applications for monsoon research in a highly complex, multicultural and binational region. The North American Monsoon is an annual precipitation regime that begins in early June in Mexico and progresses northward to the southwestern United States. The region includes stakeholders in large urban complexes, productive agricultural areas, and sparsely populated arid and semi-arid ecosystems. The political, cultural, and socioeconomic divisions between the U.S. and Mexico create a broad range of sensitivities to climate variability as well as capacities to use forecasts and other information to cope with climate. We will highlight methodologies to link climate science with society and analyze opportunities for monsoon science to benefit society in four sectors: natural hazards management, agriculture, public health, and water management. We present a synthesized list of stakeholder needs and a calendar of decisions to help scientists link user needs to potential forecasts and products. To ensure usability of forecasts and other research products, we recommend iterative scientist-stakeholder interactions, through integrated assessments. These knowledge- exchange interactions can improve the capacity for stakeholders to use forecasts thoughtfully and inform the development of research, and for the research community to obtain feedback on climate-related products and receive insights to guide research direction. We expect that integrated assessments can capitalize on the opportunities for monsoon science to inform decisionmaking, in the best instances, reduce regional climate vulnerabilities and enhance regional sustainability

  17. Small-scale variations of climate change in mountainous forested terrain - a regional study from H.J. Andrews Long Term Ecological Research site in Oregon, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honzakova, Katerina; Hoffmann, Peter; Jones, Julia; Thomas, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    There has been conflicting evidence as to whether high elevations are experiencing more pronounced climate warming than lower elevations in mountainous regions. In this study we analyze temperature records from H.J. Andrews Long Term Ecological Research, Oregon, USA and several nearby areas, comprising together 28 stations located in Cascade Mountains. The data, starting in 1958, are first checked for quality and homogenized using the Standard Normal Homogeneity Test. As a reference, composite climate time series based on the Global Historic Climate Network is created and together with cross-referencing against station records used to correct breaks and shifts in the data. In the next step, we investigate temperature patterns of the study site from 1958 to 2016 and compare them for valley and hill stations. In particular, we explore seasonality and inter-annual variability of the records and trends of the last day of frost. Additionally, 'cold' sums (positive and negative) are calculated to obtain a link between temperature and ecosystems' responses (such as budbreaks). So far, valley stations seem to be more prone to climate change than ridge or summit stations, contrary to current thinking. Building on previous knowledge, we attempt to provide physical explanations for the temperature records, focusing on wind patterns and associated phenomena such as cold air drainage and pooling. To aid this we analyze wind speed and direction data available for some of the stations since 1996, including seasonality and inter-annual variability of the observed flows.

  18. WITHDRAWN: Antivirals for the common cold.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, T O; Tyrrell, D

    2007-07-18

    The common cold is a ubiquitous short and usually mild illness for which preventive and treatment interventions have been under development since the mid-40s. As our understanding of the disease has increased, more experimental antivirals have been developed. This review attempts to draw together experimental evidence of the effects of these compounds. To identify, assemble, evaluate and (if possible) synthesise the results of published and unpublished randomised controlled trials of the effects of antivirals to prevent or minimise the impact of the common cold. We searched electronic databases, corresponded with researchers and handsearched the archives of the MRC's Common Cold Unit (CCU). We included original reports of randomised and quasi-randomised trials assessing the effects of antivirals on volunteers artificially infected and in individuals exposed to colds in the community. We included 241 studies assessing the effects of Interferons, interferon-inducers and other antivirals on experimental and naturally occurring common colds, contained in 230 reports. We structured our comparisons by experimental or community setting. Although intranasal interferons have high preventive efficacy against experimental colds (protective efficacy 46%, 37% to 54%) and to a lesser extent against natural colds (protective efficacy 24%, 21% to 27%) and are also significantly more effective than placebo in attenuating the course of experimental colds (WMD 15.90, 13.42 to 18.38), their safety profile makes compliance with their use difficult. For example, prolonged prevention of community colds with interferons causes blood-tinged nasal discharge (OR 4.52, 3.78 to 5.41). Dipyridamole (protective efficacy against natural colds 49%, 30% to 62%), ICI 130, 685 (protective efficacy against experimental colds 58%, 35% to 74% ), Impulsin (palmitate) (protective efficacy against natural colds 44%, CI 35% to 52% ) and Pleconaril (protective efficacy against experimental colds 71%, 15% to

  19. Influenza research in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: the current state and the way forward.

    PubMed

    Kayali, Ghazi; Webby, Richard J; Samhouri, Dalia; Mafi, Ali Reza; Bassili, Amal

    2013-11-01

    We searched published literature, surveillance data sources, and sequence databases to analyze the state of influenza virus research and to identify research gaps in the World Health Organization (WHO) Eastern Mediterranean Region. PubMed, Scopus, and other databases were searched for influenza publications and nucleotide sequences. WHO's FluNet was searched to determine virologic reporting from each country. We found that influenza research has increased in recent years with the emergence of H5N1 and pandemic H1N1. In some countries, influenza research is growing and is diversified, covering epidemiologic, veterinary, and basic science aspects. However, the volume and diversity of influenza research is low, especially in light of the burden of influenza in the region. To have contemporary and advanced research in the region, systematic surveillance in humans and animals, as well as at the human-animal interface, needs to be boosted. Surveillance data should then be used to answer more important epidemiologic, virologic, immunologic, and basic science questions. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Microwave Remote Sensing and the Cold Land Processes Field Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward J.; Cline, Don; Davis, Bert; Hildebrand, Peter H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Cold Land Processes Field Experiment (CLPX) has been designed to advance our understanding of the terrestrial cryosphere. Developing a more complete understanding of fluxes, storage, and transformations of water and energy in cold land areas is a critical focus of the NASA Earth Science Enterprise Research Strategy, the NASA Global Water and Energy Cycle (GWEC) Initiative, the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX), and the GEWEX Americas Prediction Project (GAPP). The movement of water and energy through cold regions in turn plays a large role in ecological activity and biogeochemical cycles. Quantitative understanding of cold land processes over large areas will require synergistic advancements in 1) understanding how cold land processes, most comprehensively understood at local or hillslope scales, extend to larger scales, 2) improved representation of cold land processes in coupled and uncoupled land-surface models, and 3) a breakthrough in large-scale observation of hydrologic properties, including snow characteristics, soil moisture, the extent of frozen soils, and the transition between frozen and thawed soil conditions. The CLPX Plan has been developed through the efforts of over 60 interested scientists that have participated in the NASA Cold Land Processes Working Group (CLPWG). This group is charged with the task of assessing, planning and implementing the required background science, technology, and application infrastructure to support successful land surface hydrology remote sensing space missions. A major product of the experiment will be a comprehensive, legacy data set that will energize many aspects of cold land processes research. The CLPX will focus on developing the quantitative understanding, models, and measurements necessary to extend our local-scale understanding of water fluxes, storage, and transformations to regional and global scales. The experiment will particularly emphasize developing a strong synergism between process

  1. Improving Linkages between Research and Education Reform: Report of a Regional Seminar. Report from the Regional Seminar on Educational Research in Asia and the Pacific (Tokyo, Japan, October 18-November 2, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Educational Research, Tokyo (Japan).

    This Regional Seminar was convened for the purpose of providing a forum for educational researchers to exchange information and experiences about educational research and its relationship to educational reform in the countries of the Asian Pacific region. The Regional Seminar was attended by 17 participants from 16 countries in Asia and the…

  2. Amygdala functional connectivity is reduced after the cold pressor task.

    PubMed

    Clewett, David; Schoeke, Andrej; Mather, Mara

    2013-09-01

    The amygdala forms a crucial link between central pain and stress systems. Previous research indicates that psychological stress affects amygdala activity, but it is less clear how painful stressors influence subsequent amygdala functional connectivity. In the present study, we used pulsed arterial spin labeling (PASL) to investigate differences in healthy male adults' resting-state amygdala functional connectivity following a cold pressor versus a control task, with the stressor and control conditions being conducted on different days. During the period of peak cortisol response to acute stress (approximately 15-30 min after stressor onset), participants were asked to rest for 6 min with their eyes closed during a PASL scanning sequence. The cold pressor task led to reduced resting-state functional connectivity between the amygdalae and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and this occurred irrespective of cortisol release. The stressor also induced greater inverse connectivity between the left amygdala and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a brain region implicated in the down-regulation of amygdala responsivity. Furthermore, the degree of poststressor left amygdala decoupling with the lateral OFC varied according to self-reported pain intensity during the cold pressor task. These findings indicate that the cold pressor task alters amygdala interactions with prefrontal and ACC regions 15-30 min after the stressor, and that these altered functional connectivity patterns are related to pain perception rather than cortisol feedback.

  3. Teachers, Teacher Education and Development: Report on an APEID Regional Meeting of Directors of Educational Research and Development Institutes in the Asia and the Pacific Region. Final Report of a Regional Meeting (July 7-15, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Educational Research, Tokyo (Japan).

    The 1997 Asia-Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) Regional Meeting of Directors of Educational Research and Development Institutes in the Asia and the Pacific Region reviewed research from the Asia-Pacific region related to teachers, teacher education, and teacher development. The meeting identified common…

  4. Sustaining a regional emerging infectious disease research network: a trust-based approach.

    PubMed

    Silkavute, Pornpit; Tung, Dinh Xuan; Jongudomsuk, Pongpisut

    2013-01-01

    The Asia Partnership on Emerging Infectious Diseases Research (APEIR) was initiated in 2006 to promote regional collaboration in avian influenza research. In 2009, the partnership expanded its scope to include all emerging infectious diseases. APEIR partners include public health and animal researchers, officials and practitioners from Cambodia, China, Lao PDR, Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam. APEIR has accomplished several major achievements in three key areas of activity: (i) knowledge generation (i.e., through research); (ii) research capacity building (e.g., by developing high-quality research proposals, by planning and conducting joint research projects, by adopting a broader Ecohealth/OneHealth approach); and (iii) policy advocacy (e.g., by disseminating research results to policy makers). This paper describes these achievements, with a focus on the partnership's five major areas of emerging infectious disease research: wild migratory birds, backyard poultry systems, socio-economic impact, policy analysis, and control measures. We highlight two case studies illustrating how the partnership's research results are being used to inform policy. We also highlight lessons learned after five years of working hard to build our partnership and the value added by a multi-country, multi-sectoral, multi-disciplinary research partnership like APEIR.

  5. Sustaining a Regional Emerging Infectious Disease Research Network: A Trust-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Silkavute, Pornpit; Tung, Dinh Xuan; Jongudomsuk, Pongpisut

    2013-01-01

    The Asia Partnership on Emerging Infectious Diseases Research (APEIR) was initiated in 2006 to promote regional collaboration in avian influenza research. In 2009, the partnership expanded its scope to include all emerging infectious diseases. APEIR partners include public health and animal researchers, officials and practitioners from Cambodia, China, Lao PDR, Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam. APEIR has accomplished several major achievements in three key areas of activity: (i) knowledge generation (i.e., through research); (ii) research capacity building (e.g., by developing high-quality research proposals, by planning and conducting joint research projects, by adopting a broader Ecohealth/OneHealth approach); and (iii) policy advocacy (e.g., by disseminating research results to policy makers). This paper describes these achievements, with a focus on the partnership's five major areas of emerging infectious disease research: wild migratory birds, backyard poultry systems, socio-economic impact, policy analysis, and control measures. We highlight two case studies illustrating how the partnership's research results are being used to inform policy. We also highlight lessons learned after five years of working hard to build our partnership and the value added by a multi-country, multi-sectoral, multi-disciplinary research partnership like APEIR. PMID:23362419

  6. A Regional Approach to Training and Research in the Education of Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fudell, Stanley E.

    The Handicapped Children Project (HCP) was established to ascertain the southern region's needs and resources in special education teacher training programs. It was intended to encourage inservice training, to assist in planning for cooperative use of training and research resources, to provide information to states, and to assist in planning…

  7. The Role of Colleges and Universities in the Stimulation of Regional Research and Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Elmer J.

    The role of colleges and universities in regional research and service is considered on the basis of six institutional projects: Georgia Institute of Technology, Iowa State University, Oklahoma State University, Ohio State University, Pennsylvania State University, and the University of Tennessee. Case study summaries for each institution cover…

  8. Curvilinear Extensions to Johnson-Neyman Regions of Significance and Some Applications to Educational Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wunderlich, Kenneth W.; Borich, Gary D.

    Considerable thought, research, and concern has been expanded in an effort to determine whether the assumption of a quadratic relation between a single predictor and a criterion violated the assumptions which Johnson and Neyman (1936) state for calculating regions of significance about interacting regressions. In particular, there has been special…

  9. Handbook of Research on Science Education and University Outreach as a Tool for Regional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narasimharao, B. Pandu, Ed.; Wright, Elizabeth, Ed.; Prasad, Shashidhara, Ed.; Joshi, Meghana, Ed.

    2017-01-01

    Higher education institutions play a vital role in their surrounding communities. Besides providing a space for enhanced learning opportunities, universities can utilize their resources for social and economic interests. The "Handbook of Research on Science Education and University Outreach as a Tool for Regional Development" is a…

  10. Addressing Human Capital Challenges: Assessing the Experiences of Four Countries in the Arab Region. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gabriella; Karoly, Lynn A.; Constant, Louay; Salem, Hanine; Goldman, Charles A.

    2008-01-01

    This research brief describes an analysis of the reform efforts of four Arab region nations (Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates) in response to human capital challenges they face in preparing their people to work in a global environment. (Contains 3 tables.) [For associated report, see ED503118.

  11. A Research Based Method by Which a State or Regional Association May Select Its Outstanding Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, James E.

    Presented is a research based method by which a state or regional professional organization may select the outstanding paper from those submitted for consideration. The procedure is conducted in three steps: submission, initial review, and final selection. During the initial review process the selection committee (four or more members) reviews all…

  12. Evaluating the Efficiency of Research in Academic Departments: An Empirical Analysis in an Italian Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Dal Bianco, Antonio; Landoni, Paolo; Sala, Alessandro; Salerno, Mario

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the efficiency of university departments in science, technology and medicine in an Italian Region (Lombardy). The aim of the paper is twofold: (i) to analyse the changes in productivity in recent years (from 2004 and 2007); and (ii) to detect factors that are potentially affecting efficiency. The research benefited from a…

  13. Building an Institute for Triple Helix Research Innovation in the Pacific Region. Revision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    to single organizations , partnerships, cities, regions, and globally ( Preese , 2004). As part of its foundational research program, the Institute...Investigator and any Associates) CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION : UCERA University...Contracting Organization ) REPORT DATE: October 2008 (Enter month and year, i.e., January 2001) TYPE OF REPORT: Annual (Revised) (Enter

  14. Evaluating the Efficiency of Research in Academic Departments: An Empirical Analysis in an Italian Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Dal Bianco, Antonio; Landoni, Paolo; Sala, Alessandro; Salerno, Mario

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the efficiency of university departments in science, technology and medicine in an Italian Region (Lombardy). The aim of the paper is twofold: (i) to analyse the changes in productivity in recent years (from 2004 and 2007); and (ii) to detect factors that are potentially affecting efficiency. The research benefited from a…

  15. Research Collaboration across Higher Education Systems: Maturity, Language Use, and Regional Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Jung Cheol; Lee, Soo Jeung; Kim, Yangson

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed whether research collaboration patterns differ across higher education systems based on maturity of the systems, their language, and their geographical region. This study found that collaboration patterns differ across higher education systems: academics in developed systems are more collaborative than their colleagues in…

  16. Research Collaboration across Higher Education Systems: Maturity, Language Use, and Regional Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Jung Cheol; Lee, Soo Jeung; Kim, Yangson

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed whether research collaboration patterns differ across higher education systems based on maturity of the systems, their language, and their geographical region. This study found that collaboration patterns differ across higher education systems: academics in developed systems are more collaborative than their colleagues in…

  17. What Makes "Good" Literacy and Numeracy Provision? Case Study Research of Regional Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guenther, John

    The question of what makes 'good' literacy and numeracy provision was examined by reviewing interview data from a project on the role of vocational education and training that was conducted by the University of Tasmania's Centre for Research and Learning in Regional Australia. The study dataset included the findings from 541 structured interviews…

  18. Possibilities for a Reference and Research Library System in the Buffalo-Niagara Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This survey to determine how the library resources in the Buffalo-Niagara area might be utilized in a regional Reference and Research Library Resources (3R's) system studied: (1) area library resources, (2) strength of the libraries at the State University of New York at Buffalo (SUNY Buffalo) and the Buffalo and Erie County Public Library…

  19. [Organisation of clinical research in France: the new missions of inter-regional delegations for clinical research].

    PubMed

    Jaillon, Patrice

    2008-05-01

    The organisation of clinical research in French teaching hospitals has been profoundly modified over the past 15 years. The first call for clinical research projects was made by the Ministry of Health in 1993. This Hospital Program for Clinical Research was created by the public welfare system, a situation unique in Europe and the USA at the time. Every year since 1993, new clinical research projects have been supported through this program. In 2007, more than 14 million euros was provided for clinical research in oncology more than 21 million euros for clinical research in other fields, and more than 11 million euros through interregional grants. Overall, more than 50 million euros will be provided in 2008 to support clinical research with public sponsorship in French teaching hospitals. Major organisational changes were made to support this unprecedented financial effort in favor of clinical research. In each of the 29 French teaching hospitals, a Delegation for Clinical Research (DRC) was created to promote public sponsorship of clinical trials, to monitor these trials, to guarantee that Good Clinical Practices are respected, and to control the financial aspects of research projects. Clinical Research Assistants were recruited by DRC to monitor clinical trials. Clinical Investigation Centers (CIC) were organized in conjunction with teaching hospitals and with the French biomedical research council (INSERM). Today, there are 54 CICs located in 23 teaching hospitals, conducting clinical trials and other research in epidemiology and biotechnology. In May 2005, seven interregional delegations for clinical research (DIRC) were created to coordinate these activities on a regional basis. The aim was to improve scientific collaboration between teaching hospitals in a given region, to organize the training of clinical investigators and technicians, and to support the development of clinical trial monitoring, quality assurance, and pharmacovigilance. A 2006 survey of

  20. Rice and cold stress: methods for its evaluation and summary of cold tolerance-related quantitative trait loci

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cold stress adversely affects rice (Oryza sativa L.) growth and productivity, and has so far determined its geographical distribution. Dissecting cold stress-mediated physiological changes and understanding their genetic causes will facilitate the breeding of rice for cold tolerance. Here, we review recent progress in research on cold stress-mediated physiological traits and metabolites, and indicate their roles in the cold-response network and cold-tolerance evaluation. We also discuss criteria for evaluating cold tolerance and evaluate the scope and shortcomings of each application. Moreover, we summarize research on quantitative trait loci (QTL) related to cold stress at the germination, seedling, and reproductive stages that should provide useful information to accelerate progress in breeding cold-tolerant rice. PMID:25279026

  1. Cold plasma processing to improve food safety

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cold plasma is an antimicrobial process being developed for application as a food processing technology. This novel intervention is the subject of an expanding research effort by groups around the world. A variety of devices can be used to generate cold plasma and apply it to the food commodity bein...

  2. A consistent structure of phytoplankton communities across the warm-cold regions of the water mass on a meridional transect in the East/Japan Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Jung Hyun; Han, Eunah; Lee, Sang Heon; Park, Hyun Je; Kim, Kyung-Ryul; Kang, Chang-Keun

    2017-09-01

    Three cruises were undertaken along a meridional transect in the East/Japan Sea (EJS) in spring (May 2007), summer (July 2009), and fall (October 2012) to determine the geographic variations in phytoplankton biomass and community composition. This study revealed a gradient of surface temperature and a fluctuation of hydrographic conditions along the transect. Although a subpolar front (SPF) formed between the warm- and cold-water masses (37-40°N), no significant differences in phytoplankton biomass and community composition were detected between the southern and northern parts of the EJS. These results disprove our initial hypothesis that different water masses may contain differently structured phytoplankton communities. In the present study, isothermal layers (≤ 12 °C) fluctuated over a depth of 50 m in both warm- and cold-water masses, depending on the SPF. In contrast, the nitracline (i.e. 2.5 μM nitrate isopleth) depth was recorded within a limited range of 20-40 m in spring, 30-50 m in summer, and 40-60 m in fall. The chlorophyll a concentrations at the subsurface chlorophyll maxima (SCM) were significantly higher in spring and summer (356 ± 233 and 270 ± 182 ng L-1, respectively) than in fall (117 ± 89 ng L-1). The relative contributions of individual phytoplankton groups to the depth-integrated chlorophyll a concentration conformed to the composition of the phytoplankton community in the SCM layer, showing a dominance of diatoms (58 ± 19% in spring, 48 ± 11% in summer, and 30 ± 20% in fall). Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that the geographic structures of phytoplankton communities were strongly associated with the vertical structures of water temperature and nutrient concentration in the water column rather than with horizontal gradients of hydrographic conditions. Finally, our findings suggest that water column stability and light-nutrient availability in the euphotic zone play a key role in determining geographical consistency of

  3. The SEDL/Regional Exchange: One Component of an Emerging Effort to Disseminate the Outcomes of Educational Research and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronkosky, Preston C.

    This paper describes the need for a regional dissemination system; the conceptualization of the Southwest Educational Development Labortory (SEDL) Regional Exchange as part of the nation-wide Research and Development Exchange (RDx); and the operation of the SEDL Regional Exchange (RX). It emphasizes that the Research and Development Exchange is…

  4. The Outlook for Low-Grade Fuels in Tomsk Region: Research Experience at Tomsk Polytechnic University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaustov, Sergei A.; Kazakov, Alexander V.; Cherkashina, Galina A.; Sobinova, Liubov A.

    2016-02-01

    The urgency of the discussed issue is caused by the need to substitute in the regional fuel-energy balances imported energy resources with local low-grade fuels. The main aim of the study is to estimate thermal properties of local fuels in Tomsk region and evaluate its energy use viability. The methods used in the study were based standard GOST 52911-2008, 11022-95 and 6382-2001, by means of a bomb calorimeter ABK-1 and Vario micro cube analyzer. The mineral ash of researched fuels was studied agreeing with GOST 10538-87. The results state the fact that discussed low-grade fuels of Tomsk region in the unprepared form are not able to replace imported coal in regional energy balance, because of the high moisture and ash content values. A promosing direction of a low-temperature fue processing is a catalytic converter, which allows receiving hydrogen-enriched syngas from the initial solid raw.

  5. IRTM brightness temperature maps of the Martian south polar region during the polar night: The cold spots don't move

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paige, D. A.; Crisp, D.; Santee, M. L.; Richardson, M. I.

    1993-01-01

    A series of infrared thermal mapper (IRTM) south polar brightness temperature maps obtained by Viking Orbiter 2 during a 35-day period during the southern fall season in 1978 was examined. The maps show a number of phenomena that have been identified in previous studies, including day to day brightness temperature variations in individual low temperature regions and the tendency for IRTM 11-micron channel brightness temperatures to also decrease in regions where low 20-micron channel brightness temperatures are observed. The maps also show new phenomena, the most striking of which is a clear tendency for the low brightness temperature regions to occur at fixed geographic regions. During this season, the coldest low brightness temperatures appear to be concentrated in distinct regions, with spatial scales ranging from 50 to 300 km. There are approximately a dozen of these concentrations, with the largest centered near the location of the south residual polar cap. Other concentrations are located at Cavi Angusti and close to the craters Main, South, Lau, and Dana. Broader, less intense regions appear to be well correlated with the boundaries of the south polar layered deposits and the Mountains of Mitchell. No evidence for horizontal motion of any of these regions has been detected.

  6. Regional intelligence and suicide rate: new data for Australia and a synthesis of research.

    PubMed

    Voracek, Martin

    2007-08-01

    Previous research has shown for the most part positive correlations between intelligence and suicide prevalence on the national level. However, this study found proxies for regional intelligence in Australia (international average domain scores from the PISA 2000 study) to be significantly negatively correlated with the total, male, and female suicide rates of the different administrative divisions of Australia, and this finding was independent of regional wealth. A research synthesis of the current results and those from similar studies of other countries (positive correlations for Austria, Belarus, The British Isles, Denmark, and The Netherlands; inconclusive findings for France, Germany, and the USA) was conducted. This synthesis of research findings showed that positive ecological correlations of intelligence with suicide rate were more likely observed for nations with higher suicide rates and poorer general living conditions, whereas there was no relation with national IQ.

  7. Design of a next-generation regional weather research and forecast model.

    SciTech Connect

    Michalakes, J.

    1999-01-13

    The Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model is a new model development effort undertaken jointly by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and a number of collaborating institutions and university scientists. The model is intended for use by operational NWP and university research communities, providing a common framework for idealized dynamical studies, fill physics numerical weather prediction, air-quality simulation, and regional climate. It will eventually supersede large, well-established but aging regional models now maintained by the participating institutions. The WRF effort includes re-engineering the underlying software architecture to produce a modular, flexible code designed from the outset to provide portable performance across diverse computing architectures. This paper outlines key elements of the WRF software design.

  8. Application of research and information to human resources policies: regional goals for the Americas.

    PubMed

    Mandelli, Marcos; Rigoli, Felix

    2015-12-01

    Objective Report experiences involving the use of research and information systems to support national human resources policies through benchmarking between different countries, with comparisons over time and between similar countries or regions. Method In 2007, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) promoted a set of goals for all the countries in the Americas to improve the situation of health human resources, using a uniform methodology and research process carried out by Observatories of Human Resources. Results The analysis focused on the progress made in relation to the main challenges in the Southern Cone countries, with a special emphasis on Brazil, noting improvements in the distribution of professionals in the regions. Conclusion These experiences showed how research and the use of information systems can stimulate the expansion of good practices in the training, retention and development of the health workforce in the Americas.

  9. Advances in cold plasma technology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Foodborne pathogens continue to be an issue on a variety of commodities, prompting research into novel interventions. Cold plasma is a nonthermal food processing technology which uses energetic, reactive gases to inactivate contaminating microbes on meats, poultry and fruits and vegetables. The prim...

  10. Informed Consent in cross-cultural perspective: clinical research in the Tibetan Autonomous Region, PRC.

    PubMed

    Adams, Vincanne; Miller, Suellen; Craig, Sienna; Sonam; Nyima; Droyoung; Le, Phuoc V; Varner, Micheal

    2007-12-01

    Procedures of Informed Consent are considered a high priority for international biomedical research. However, informed consent protocols are not necessarily transferable across cultural, national or ethnic groups. Recent debates identify the need for balancing ethical universals with practical and local conditions and paying attention to questions of cultural competence when it comes to the Informed Consent process for clinical biomedical research. This article reports on the results of a two-year effort to establish a culturally appropriate Informed Consent process for biomedical research in the Tibet Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China. A team of Tibetan and American researchers, physicians, health professionals and medical anthropologists conducted the research. The Informed Consent was specifically for undertaking a triple-blind, double placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial of a Tibetan medicine compared with Misoprostol for reducing postpartum blood loss. The findings suggest greater need for flexibility and cooperation in establishing Informed Consent protocols across cultures and nations.

  11. Regional Ocean Climatologies: A New Line of Ocean Climate Research Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishonov, A. V.; Arzayus, K. M.; Baranova, O.; Boyer, T.; Parsons, A. R.; Seidov, D.

    2016-02-01

    National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) has recently begun developing a new line of products that are collectively defined as Regional Ocean Climatologies, or, when attributed to a specific region, just Regional Climatology (RC). There are five RC products developed to date—the Gulf of Mexico, East Asian Seas, Arctic & Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian Seas, and the Northwest Atlantic (NWA) RC. The newest NWA RC, which has been recently published (http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/OC5/regional_climate/nwa-climate/) is discussed in more details. A key for the success in generating a regional climatology is availability of historical oceanographic data in the selected region and the spatial data coverage sufficient for building an unambiguous statistics. In all five NCEI RCs, the data coverage is either good or acceptable in large parts of the selected regions. Therefore the regional climatology buildups were deemed successful and may become a useful tool for applied oceanographic research and projects. The annual and seasonal objectively analyzed temperature and salinity and in some cases other essential oceanographic parameters were substantiated in all mentioned climatologies at up to 1/10-degree spatial resolution. However, essential inherent problems arise in monthly fields assembled on the high resolution 1/10-degree grid. We are discussing some of these problems and conceivable approaches to address them using re-iterative quality control and subsequent climatology rerun cycles on the fine resolution grid. The re-iterative quality control facilitates better regional climatologies on decadal and longer scales. The NWA RC is used here to demonstrate superiority of the finer-resolution decadal climatologies over coarser-scale ones and exemplifies how the re-iterative quality control helps improving both finer and coarser-resolution decadal climatological fields. The climate pattern trends in the NWA region are being presented and discussed using a retrospective

  12. Characteristics of the atmospheric circulation associated with cold-season heavy rainfall and flooding over a complex terrain region in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efstathiou, G. A.; Lolis, C. J.; Zoumakis, N. M.; Kassomenos, P.; Melas, D.

    2014-01-01

    Raingauge data from four meteorological stations in Chalkidiki peninsula (Greece) were used to identify the characteristics of the synoptic circulation patterns associated with cold-season heavy rainfall events and corresponding flooding over the area. Precipitation climatology over the complex topography of Chalkidiki is characterized by limited annual rainfall, but in the occurrence of heavy rainfall episodes daily accumulations are exceptionally high with increased precipitation rates, leading often to severe flooding. Fifty-five cases of high daily accumulations for the period of 1997 to 2010, mostly observed during December and October, were classified into eight clusters by applying S-Mode Factor Analysis and Cluster Analysis to the ERA-Interim grid point reanalysis data. The results revealed that, in most cases, intense rainfall and flooding is produced by synoptic scale disturbances that generate and sustain cyclonic activity over south Italy, the Ionian, and less frequently over the Aegean Sea. In particular, the atmospheric circulation patterns associated with heavy rainfall are characterized by the presence of a southeasterly-easterly low-level humid flow over Chalkidiki in conjunction with the potentially unstable lower troposphere influenced by mid-level cyclonic vorticity advection and enhanced low-level convergence over the complex terrain.

  13. Cold Stress and the Cold Pressor Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverthorn, Dee U.; Michael, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Temperature and other environmental stressors are known to affect blood pressure and heart rate. In this activity, students perform the cold pressor test, demonstrating increased blood pressure during a 1- to 2-min immersion of one hand in ice water. The cold pressor test is used clinically to evaluate autonomic and left ventricular function. This…

  14. Cold Stress and the Cold Pressor Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverthorn, Dee U.; Michael, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Temperature and other environmental stressors are known to affect blood pressure and heart rate. In this activity, students perform the cold pressor test, demonstrating increased blood pressure during a 1- to 2-min immersion of one hand in ice water. The cold pressor test is used clinically to evaluate autonomic and left ventricular function. This…

  15. Development of a Regional Nursing Research Partnership for Academic and Practice Collaborations

    PubMed Central

    Tubbs-Cooley, Heather L.; Martsolf, Donna S.; Pickler, Rita H.; Morrison, Caroline F.; Wardlaw, Cassie E.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Collaborative nursing research across academic and practice settings is imperative to generate knowledge to improve patient care. Models of academic/practice partnerships for nursing research are lacking. This paper reports data collected before and during a one-day retreat for nurse researchers and administrators from local universities and health care organizations designed to establish a regional nursing research partnership. Methods. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to address the study aims: (1) to assess research involvement and institutional research resources; (2) to assess interest in and concerns regarding cross-institutional collaborations; and (3) to describe perceptions of the purpose of a partnership and resources needed to ensure success. Results. Participants (n = 49) had differing perceptions of accessibility to resources; participants in practice settings reported less accessibility to resources, notably grant development, informatics, and research assistant support. Participants were interested in collaboration although concerns about conflict of interest were expressed. Four themes related to partnering were identified: harnessing our nursing voice and identity; developing as researchers; staying connected; and positioning for a collaborative project. Conclusion. Academic-practice research collaborations will become increasingly important with health care system changes. Strategies to develop and sustain productive partnerships should be supported. PMID:23984059

  16. An Architecture for the Integration of Clinical Data from a PEHR in a Regional Research Platform.

    PubMed

    Schreiweis, Björn; Bronsch, Tobias; Stein, Katharina E; Nöst, Stefan; Aguduri, Lakshmi S; Brandner, Antje; Pensold, Peter; Weiss, Nicolas; Yüksekogul, Nilay; Bergh, Björn; Heinze, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Making clinical information available for research is not only relevant for healthcare institutions, but also for regional EHRs, as cross-sectorial information can be made accessible. In the INFOPAT (INFOrmation technology for PATient-oriented health care in the Rhine-Neckar metropolitan region) project we are thus implementing both, a regional personal cross-enterprise electronic health record (PEHR) and a regional research platform (RRP) based on information from the PEHR. IHE profiles are implemented to achieve interoperability between healthcare institutions electronic medical records (EMR) and PEHR on the one hand, as well as PEHR and RRP on the other hand. The use case for the RRP is cross-sectorial quality assessment and improvement for colorectal cancer based on a quality indicator (QI) approach including patients' perspectives. For semantic interoperability the responses are transferred in the form of HL7 CDA L2 documents. The resulting architecture for a RRP shows that implementing a PEHR in combination with a RRP based on international communication standards is possible. Also IHE XDS can be used for integration of patient care and biomedical research infrastructures.

  17. Boreal partners in flight: Working together to build a regional research and monitoring program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handel, Colleen M.; Bonney, Rick; Pashley, David N.; Cooper, Robert J.; Niles, Larry

    1999-01-01

    Boreal regions of western North America regularly support breeding populations of 130 species of landbirds, including 68 Nearctic-Neotropical migrants. Primary conservation concerns within the region include increased timber harvesting, insect outbreaks, fire suppression, mining, impacts of military training activities, urbanization, and recreational activities. Under auspices of Partners in Flight, biologists, land and resource managers, and conservationists from Alaska and western Canada have combined efforts to develop a regional research and monitoring program for landbirds. An experimental monitoring program has been under way during the past four years to test the relative statistical power and cost-effectiveness of various monitoring methods in Alaska. Joint efforts currently include the Alaska Checklist Project on National Wildlife Refuges, 75 Breeding Bird Surveys along the road system, 122 Off-road Point Count routes, 27 Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship banding sites, and 8 migration banding stations. The ultimate goal is to design a comprehensive monitoring program that is sensitive to changes in population size, survival rates, and productivity, but robust enough to accommodate logistical constraints that arise when working in vast, roadless areas with limited funds and staff. Primary challenges that must be faced to assure the long-term future of such a program are obtaining long-term commitment from resource agencies in the region, integrating this program with other national and regional programs that address those species and habitats that are inadequately monitored by established techniques, and developing cooperative research, monitoring, and management programs at the landscape level.

  18. Cold Weather Pet Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... accordingly. You will probably need to shorten your dog’s walks in very cold weather to protect you ... slipping and falling. Long-haired or thick-coated dogs tend to be more cold-tolerant, but are ...

  19. Cold and Cough Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... What can you do for your cold or cough symptoms? Besides drinking lots of fluids and getting ... medicines. There are lots of different cold and cough medicines, and they do different things. Nasal decongestants - ...

  20. Cold medicines and children

    MedlinePlus

    ... aspx . Accessed July 26, 2016. Cherry JD. The common cold. In: Cherry JD, Harrison GJ, Kaplan SL, Steinbach ... 2014:chap 7. Miller EK, Williams JV. The common cold. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, ...

  1. Skin Reactions to Cold

    PubMed Central

    Talpash, Orest

    1976-01-01

    Although skin reactions to cold are seen surprisingly infrequently in Canada, it is important to manage them correctly when they do occur. Frostbite, cold urticarias, Raynaud's disease and phenomenon, and several miscellaneous changes are discussed. PMID:21308019

  2. Cold knife cone biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... biopsy; Pap smear - cone biopsy; HPV - cone biopsy; Human papilloma virus - cone biopsy; Cervix - cone biopsy; Colposcopy - cone biopsy Images Female reproductive anatomy Cold cone biopsy Cold cone removal References American ...

  3. Water resources management in southern Europe: clues for a research and innovation based regional hypercluster.

    PubMed

    Martins, G; Brito, A G; Nogueira, R; Ureña, M; Fernández, D; Luque, F J; Alcácer, C

    2013-04-15

    European countries are facing increasing pressures on their water resources despite stringent regulations and systematic efforts on environmental protection. In this context, research and innovation play a strategic role reinforcing the efficiency of water policies. The present study provides a multilevel assessment of research and innovation practices in the field of water resource management in southern European countries and regions (more specifically; Cyprus, Albania, Poitou-Charentes in France, Andalusia in Spain and the North of Portugal). The analysis was based on a strategic framework aimed at gaining an insight of the current constraints, as well as of the existing and future technological solutions for a better water resource management. The triple helix model proved to be a useful analytical framework for assessing the efforts of different groups towards a common goal. The analysis proved the existence of a significant evolution in the use of technological tools to assist decision-making processes in integrated river basin management in all regions. Nevertheless, the absence of formal channels for knowledge and data exchange between researchers and water resource managers complicates the formers involvement in the decision-making process regarding water allocation. Both researchers and consultants emphasize the low availability of data, together with the need to advance on water resource economics as relevant constraints in the field. The SWOT analysis showed similar concerns among the participating regions and provided a battery of effective projects that resulted in the preparation of a Joint Action Plan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. ENSO's far reaching connection to Indian cold waves.

    PubMed

    Ratnam, J V; Behera, Swadhin K; Annamalai, H; Ratna, Satyaban B; Rajeevan, M; Yamagata, Toshio

    2016-11-23

    During boreal winters, cold waves over India are primarily due to transport of cold air from higher latitudes. However, the processes associated with these cold waves are not yet clearly understood. Here by diagnosing a suite of datasets, we explore the mechanisms leading to the development and maintenance of these cold waves. Two types of cold waves are identified based on observed minimum surface temperature and statistical analysis. The first type (TYPE1), also the dominant one, depicts colder than normal temperatures covering most parts of the country while the second type (TYPE2) is more regional, with significant cold temperatures only noticeable over northwest India. Quite interestingly the first (second) type is associated with La Niña (El Niño) like conditions, suggesting that both phases of ENSO provide a favorable background for the occurrence of cold waves over India. During TYPE1 cold wave events, a low-level cyclonic anomaly generated over the Indian region as an atmospheric response to the equatorial convective anomalies is seen advecting cold temperatures into India and maintaining the cold waves. In TYPE2 cold waves, a cyclonic anomaly generated over west India anomalously brings cold winds to northwest India causing cold waves only in those parts.

  5. ENSO’s far reaching connection to Indian cold waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnam, J. V.; Behera, Swadhin K.; Annamalai, H.; Ratna, Satyaban B.; Rajeevan, M.; Yamagata, Toshio

    2016-11-01

    During boreal winters, cold waves over India are primarily due to transport of cold air from higher latitudes. However, the processes associated with these cold waves are not yet clearly understood. Here by diagnosing a suite of datasets, we explore the mechanisms leading to the development and maintenance of these cold waves. Two types of cold waves are identified based on observed minimum surface temperature and statistical analysis. The first type (TYPE1), also the dominant one, depicts colder than normal temperatures covering most parts of the country while the second type (TYPE2) is more regional, with significant cold temperatures only noticeable over northwest India. Quite interestingly the first (second) type is associated with La Niña (El Niño) like conditions, suggesting that both phases of ENSO provide a favorable background for the occurrence of cold waves over India. During TYPE1 cold wave events, a low-level cyclonic anomaly generated over the Indian region as an atmospheric response to the equatorial convective anomalies is seen advecting cold temperatures into India and maintaining the cold waves. In TYPE2 cold waves, a cyclonic anomaly generated over west India anomalously brings cold winds to northwest India causing cold waves only in those parts.

  6. ENSO’s far reaching connection to Indian cold waves

    PubMed Central

    Ratnam, J. V.; Behera, Swadhin K.; Annamalai, H.; Ratna, Satyaban B.; Rajeevan, M.; Yamagata, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    During boreal winters, cold waves over India are primarily due to transport of cold air from higher latitudes. However, the processes associated with these cold waves are not yet clearly understood. Here by diagnosing a suite of datasets, we explore the mechanisms leading to the development and maintenance of these cold waves. Two types of cold waves are identified based on observed minimum surface temperature and statistical analysis. The first type (TYPE1), also the dominant one, depicts colder than normal temperatures covering most parts of the country while the second type (TYPE2) is more regional, with significant cold temperatures only noticeable over northwest India. Quite interestingly the first (second) type is associated with La Niña (El Niño) like conditions, suggesting that both phases of ENSO provide a favorable background for the occurrence of cold waves over India. During TYPE1 cold wave events, a low-level cyclonic anomaly generated over the Indian region as an atmospheric response to the equatorial convective anomalies is seen advecting cold temperatures into India and maintaining the cold waves. In TYPE2 cold waves, a cyclonic anomaly generated over west India anomalously brings cold winds to northwest India causing cold waves only in those parts. PMID:27876871

  7. Cold air systems: Sleeping giant

    SciTech Connect

    MacCracken, C.D. )

    1994-04-01

    This article describes how cold air systems help owners increase the profits from their buildings by reducing electric costs and improving indoor air quality through lower relative humidity levels. Cold air distribution involves energy savings, cost savings, space savings, greater comfort, cleaner air, thermal storage, tighter ducting, coil redesign, lower relative humidities, retrofitting, and improved indoor air quality (IAQ). It opens a door for architects, engineers, owners, builders, environmentalists, retrofitters, designers, occupants, and manufacturers. Three things have held up cold air's usage: multiple fan-powered boxes that ate up the energy savings of primary fans. Cold air room diffusers that provided inadequate comfort. Condensation from ducts, boxes, and diffusers. Such problems have been largely eliminated through research and development by utilities and manufacturers. New cold air diffusers no longer need fan powered boxes. It has also been found that condensation is not a concern so long as the ducts are located in air conditioned space, such as drop ceilings or central risers, where relative humidity falls quickly during morning startup.

  8. Characterizing convective cold pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drager, Aryeh J.; van den Heever, Susan C.

    2017-06-01

    Cold pools produced by convective storms play an important role in Earth's climate system. However, a common framework does not exist for objectively identifying convective cold pools in observations and models. The present study investigates convective cold pools within a simulation of tropical continental convection that uses a cloud-resolving model with a coupled land-surface model. Multiple variables are assessed for their potential in identifying convective cold pool boundaries, and a novel technique is developed and tested for identifying and tracking cold pools in numerical model simulations. This algorithm is based on surface rainfall rates and radial gradients in the density potential temperature field. The algorithm successfully identifies near-surface cold pool boundaries and is able to distinguish between connected cold pools. Once cold pools have been identified and tracked, composites of cold pool evolution are then constructed, and average cold pool properties are investigated. Wet patches are found to develop within the centers of cold pools where the ground has been soaked with rainwater. These wet patches help to maintain cool surface temperatures and reduce cold pool dissipation, which has implications for the development of subsequent convection.

  9. The common cold.

    PubMed

    2009-02-01

    1) Most colds are due to viruses and resolve spontaneously after a few days. Available drugs do not modify the course of a viral cold; 2) Some drugs used to treat colds carry a risk of serious adverse effects. This includes nasal sprays, especially vasoconstrictors such as pseudo-ephedrine and, in young children, menthol, camphor, and terpene derivatives.

  10. Coping with Cold Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... found inside the mouth.) What Causes Cold Sores? Cold sores are caused by a virus called herpes (say: HUR-peez). Herpes is one ... the world. The medical name for the specific virus that causes cold sores is herpes simplex. There are two types ...

  11. Development of Distributed Research Center for monitoring and projecting regional climatic and environmental changes: first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordov, Evgeny; Shiklomanov, Alexander; Okladinikov, Igor; Prusevich, Alex; Titov, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Description and first results of the cooperative project "Development of Distributed Research Center for monitoring and projecting of regional climatic and environmental changes" recently started by SCERT IMCES and ESRC UNH are reported. The project is aimed at development of hardware and software platform prototype of Distributed Research Center (DRC) for monitoring and projecting regional climatic and environmental changes over the areas of mutual interest and demonstration the benefits of such collaboration that complements skills and regional knowledge across the northern extratropics. In the framework of the project, innovative approaches of "cloud" processing and analysis of large geospatial datasets will be developed on the technical platforms of two U.S. and Russian leading institutions involved in research of climate change and its consequences. Anticipated results will create a pathway for development and deployment of thematic international virtual research centers focused on interdisciplinary environmental studies by international research teams. DRC under development will comprise best features and functionality of earlier developed by the cooperating teams' information-computational systems RIMS (http://rims.unh.edu) and CLIMATE(http://climate.scert.ru/), which are widely used in Northern Eurasia environment studies. The project includes several major directions of research (Tasks) listed below. 1. Development of architecture and defining major hardware and software components of DRC for monitoring and projecting of regional environmental changes. 2. Development of an information database and computing software suite for distributed processing and analysis of large geospatial data hosted at ESRC and IMCES SB RAS. 3. Development of geoportal, thematic web client and web services providing international research teams with an access to "cloud" computing resources at DRC; two options will be executed: access through a basic graphical web browser and

  12. Boreal spring precipitation variability in the cold arid western Himalaya during the last millennium, regional linkages, and socio-economic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadava, Akhilesh K.; Bräuning, Achim; Singh, Jayendra; Yadav, Ram R.

    2016-07-01

    Precipitation in the monsoon shadow zone of the western Himalayan region, largely under the influence of mid-latitude westerlies, is the dominant regional socioeconomic driver. Current knowledge of long-term regional precipitation variability is scarce due to spatially and temporally limited weather and high-resolution proxy climate records. We developed the first boreal spring precipitation reconstruction for the western Himalaya covering the last millennium (1030-2011 C.E.). The annually resolved reconstruction is based on a large tree-ring data set of Himalayan cedar (Cedrus deodara) and neoza pine (Pinus gerardiana) from 16 ecologically homogeneous moisture stressed settings in Kinnaur, western Indian Himalaya. The precipitation reconstruction revealed persistent long-term spring droughts from the 12th to early 16th century C.E. and pluvial from the late 16th century C.E. to recent decades. The late 15th and early 16th centuries (1490-1514 C.E.) displayed the driest episode, with precipitation being ∼15% lower than the long-term mean. The early 19th century (1820-1844 C.E.) was the wettest period of the past millennium, with mean precipitation ∼13% above the long-term mean. The reconstructed boreal spring precipitation from the western Himalaya revealed large-scale consistency with hydrological records from westerly dominated regions in Central Asia, indicating synoptic-scale changes in atmospheric circulation during the major part of the Medieval and Little Ice Age periods. Protracted droughts in Central Asia could have caused severe contraction of the regional economy, as indicated by striking coherence of reconstructed drought periods and historic social upheavals and invasions of India from Central and Western Asian invaders. Vulnerability to climatic extremes underpins the need to develop a better understanding of the temporal and spatial variability in regional hydroclimate in order to devise viable water resource management plans.

  13. Publication: Presentation rate in the Latin American region of the International Association for Dental Research.

    PubMed

    Jara-Tracchia, Lilian; Aromando, Romina F; Itoiz, María E

    2010-01-01

    Most research conducted by the dental scientific community is presented at the Annual Meetings of the different Divisions and Sections of IADR. This research acquires real value when the results are published in peer-reviewed journals. A useful indicator of the publication efficiency of research work is the rate of publication (PR), i.e., the ratio between the quantity of presentations and subsequent publications in peer-reviewed journals. The aim of this study was to analyze the PR of the presentations at the Sections and Divisions of the Latin American Region of the International Association for Dental Research (IADR). We considered the presentations at the Annual Meetings of Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Peru held in 2002 and 2003 and their corresponding publications indexed in PubMed from 2002 to 2009. For Venezuela, we analyzed the meetings held in 2002 and 2005, because they did not hold consecutive annual meetings. Presentation periods were selected based on previous data that report an interval of up to five years between presentation and publication. The number of presentations and the PR are related to the number of years that Sections and Divisions have existed. In Brazil and Argentina, PR (expressed as 1 publication: x presentations) is 1:3. The amount of research in Brazil is almost 8 times higher than in Argentina. Newer Sections and Divisions have produced fewer presentations, and the PR is also lower. We hope that this type of analysis will encourage the promotion of dental research at the different institutions and in the different vacancy areas of research, and facilitate exchange among researchers in the Region, enabling greater use to be made of their scientific activities.

  14. Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Publications » DrugFacts » Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Revised ... syrup is sometimes diverted for abuse. How Are Cough and Cold Medicines Abused? Cough and cold medicines ...

  15. Building International Research Partnerships in the North Atlantic-Arctic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benway, Heather M.; Hofmann, Eileen; St. John, Michael

    2014-09-01

    The North Atlantic-Arctic region, which is critical to the health and socioeconomic well being of North America and Europe, is susceptible to climate-driven changes in circulation, biogeochemistry, and marine ecosystems. The need for strong investment in the study of biogeochemical and ecosystem processes and interactions with physical processes over a range of time and space scales in this region was clearly stated in the 2013 Galway Declaration, an intergovernmental statement on Atlantic Ocean cooperation (http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-13-459_en.htm). Subsequently, a workshop was held to bring together researchers from the United States, Canada, and Europe with expertise across multiple disciplines to discuss an international research initiative focused on key features, processes, and ecosystem services (e.g., Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, spring bloom dynamics, fisheries, etc.) and associated sensitivities to climate changes.

  16. Prairies, psychedelics and place: the dynamics of region in psychiatric research.

    PubMed

    Dyck, Erika

    2009-09-01

    In 1957, the word 'psychedelic' entered the English lexicon from a rather unexpected location: an asylum superintendent working on the Canadian prairies in one of the provincial mental hospitals in Saskatchewan. During the 1950s Saskatchewan-based researchers engaged in political and psychiatric reforms that brought international attention to their work in a relatively isolated geographic location. This article considers the influence of location on the development of a medical theory that challenged prevailing ideas about the causation and treatment of mental illness and addiction. Drawing on perspectives from historians, political scientists, sociologists and geographers, this case study explores the historical meanings of region and place and combines older historiographical traditions, which define region in political terms, with concepts borrowed from other disciplines, which offer a more nuanced view of cultural geography, to examine the development of psychedelic research in the post-World War II period.

  17. An Overview of SWOT Related Research in Canada, with a Focus on the Peace-Athabasca Delta Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, D. L.; Baird, D. J.; Brisco, B.; Cantin, J. F.; Fiset, J. M.; Fortin, V.; Leconte, R.; Niemann, O.; Pietroniro, A.; Saint-Jean, R.; Siles, G. L.; Skelly, R.; Stiff, D.; Trudel, M.; Yang, D.

    2016-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing platforms like the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) provide innovative opportunities to monitor surface water elevation of rivers, lakes and wetlands. For rivers, surface water slopes can be obtained and discharge estimated where gauging is of low density and/or absent, such as remote northern regions of Canada. In wetlands areas, such as deltas, high resolution surface water extent and digital elevation mapping (DEM) can be combined with surface water elevation products to assess recharge, drawdown and storage of water. The Peace-Athabasca Delta (PAD) is a deltaic ecosystem of international importance. This 6000 km2 delta complex, which formed at the confluence of the Peace, Athabasca and Birch rivers, contains >1000 lake/wetland basins with varying degrees of connectivity to the main flow system. Wetland hydroperiod is influenced by occasional ice-jam and open-water inundations that recharge the basins. Prior studies identified i) change in storage and ii) pathways of river-to-wetland floodwater connection as key knowledge gaps, limiting our ability to assess ecosystem status. Surface elevation mapping of the PAD was obtained using aerial remote sensing Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), plus thousands of ground based surface and bathymetric survey points tied to Global Positioning System (GPS). The elevation information was recently used to develop a high resolution DEM and a two dimensional hydraulic model (H2D2). Importantly, the surveyed areas contain >25 wetland monitoring sites where water level/depth, water quality, and aquatic ecology have been monitored for several years. The objective of this presentation is four-fold: i) Outline ongoing SWOT related research in Canada; ii) Present the surface water connectivity and storage results for the PAD complex; iii) Outline the implications of anticipated SWOT derived products in enhancing our ability to understand hydrological regimes by providing novel hydrometric data sets

  18. A regional interdependence model of musculoskeletal dysfunction: research, mechanisms, and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Sueki, Derrick G; Cleland, Joshua A; Wainner, Robert S

    2013-05-01

    The term 'regional interdependence' or RI has recently been introduced into the vernacular of physical therapy and rehabilitation literature as a clinical model of musculoskeletal assessment and intervention. The underlying premise of this model is that seemingly unrelated impairments in remote anatomical regions of the body may contribute to and be associated with a patient's primary report of symptoms. The clinical implication of this premise is that interventions directed at one region of the body will often have effects at remote and seeming unrelated areas. The formalized concept of RI is relatively new and was originally derived in an inductive manner from a variety of earlier publications and clinical observations. However, recent literature has provided additional support to the concept. The primary purpose of this article will be to further refine the operational definition for the concept of RI, examine supporting literature, discuss possible clinically relevant mechanisms, and conclude with a discussion of the implications of these findings on clinical practice and research.

  19. Assessing Regional Scale Fluxes of Mass, Momentum, and Energy with Small Environmental Research Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulueta, Rommel Callejo

    Natural ecosystems are rarely structurally or functionally homogeneous. This is true for the complex coastal regions of Magdalena Bay, Baja California Sur, Mexico, and the Barrow Peninsula on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska. The coastal region of Magdalena Bay is comprised of the Pacific coastal ocean, eutrophic lagoon, mangroves, and desert ecosystems all adjacent and within a few kilometers, while the Barrow Peninsula is a mosaic of small ponds, thaw lakes, different aged vegetated thaw-lake basins ( VDTLBs ) and interstitial tundra which have been dynamically formed by both short- and long-term processes. We used a combination of tower- and small environmental research aircraft (SERA)-based eddy covariance measurements to characterize the spatial and temporal patterns of CO2, latent, and sensible heat fluxes along with MODIS NDVI, and land surface information, to scale the SERA-based CO2 fluxes up to the regional scale. In the first part of this research, the spatial variability in ecosystem fluxes from the Pacific coastal ocean, eutrophic lagoon, mangroves, and desert areas of northern Magdalena Bay were studied. SERA-derived average midday CO2 fluxes from the desert showed a slight uptake of -1.32 mumol CO2 m-2 s-1, the coastal ocean also showed uptake of -3.48 mumol CO2 m-2 s -1, and the lagoon mangroves showed the highest uptake of -8.11 mumol CO2 m-2 s-1. Additional simultaneous measurements of NDVI allowed simple linear modeling of CO2 flux as a function of NDVI for the mangroves of the Magdalena Bay region. In the second part of this research, the spatial variability of ecosystem fluxes across the 1802 km2 Barrow Peninsula region was studied. During typical 2006 summer conditions, the midday hourly CO2 flux over the region was -2.04 x 105 kgCO2 hr-1. The CO2 fluxes among the interstitial tundra, Ancient and Old VDTLBs, as well as between the Medium and Young VDTLBs were not significantly different. Combined, the interstitial tundra and Old and Ancient

  20. Early and delayed long-term transcriptional changes and short-term transient responses during cold acclimation in olive leaves.

    PubMed

    Leyva-Pérez, María de la O; Valverde-Corredor, Antonio; Valderrama, Raquel; Jiménez-Ruiz, Jaime; Muñoz-Merida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; Barroso, Juan Bautista; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús; Luque, Francisco

    2015-02-01

    Low temperature severely affects plant growth and development. To overcome this constraint, several plant species from regions having a cool season have evolved an adaptive response, called cold acclimation. We have studied this response in olive tree (Olea europaea L.) cv. Picual. Biochemical stress markers and cold-stress symptoms were detected after the first 24 h as sagging leaves. After 5 days, the plants were found to have completely recovered. Control and cold-stressed plants were sequenced by Illumina HiSeq 1000 paired-end technique. We also assembled a new olive transcriptome comprising 157,799 unigenes and found 6,309 unigenes differentially expressed in response to cold. Three types of response that led to cold acclimation were found: short-term transient response, early long-term response, and late long-term response. These subsets of unigenes were related to different biological processes. Early responses involved many cold-stress-responsive genes coding for, among many other things, C-repeat binding factor transcription factors, fatty acid desaturases, wax synthesis, and oligosaccharide metabolism. After long-term exposure to cold, a large proportion of gene down-regulation was found, including photosynthesis and plant growth genes. Up-regulated genes after long-term cold exposure were related to organelle fusion, nucleus organization, and DNA integration, including retrotransposons. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  1. Cold Tolerance of Plants Used for Cold-Regions Revegetation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-01

    water Mitochondrial 02 uptake Sweet potatot Decreased translocation, which can result in the desiccation of Chlorogenic acid Sweet potato Increased...Amino acids Bean Increased of toxic substances between the ice and the soil surface. Protein Bean Decreased Also, frozen soil and plant stems can prevent...warmer aerial plant parts. Oxalic acid Oxalis sp. Increased Chlorophyll Bean Decreased Frost heaving has been a concern in forestry and Organic acids

  2. A meta-analysis of plant facilitation in coastal dune systems: responses, regions, and research gaps

    PubMed Central

    Lortie, Christopher J.; Zaitchik, Benjamin; Prado, Paulo Inácio

    2015-01-01

    Empirical studies in salt marshes, arid, and alpine systems support the hypothesis that facilitation between plants is an important ecological process in severe or ‘stressful’ environments. Coastal dunes are both abiotically stressful and frequently disturbed systems. Facilitation has been documented, but the evidence to date has not been synthesized. We did a systematic review with meta-analysis to highlight general research gaps in the study of plant interactions in coastal dunes and examine if regional and local factors influence the magnitude of facilitation in these systems. The 32 studies included in the systematic review were done in coastal dunes located in 13 countries around the world but the majority was in the temperate zone (63%). Most of the studies adopt only an observational approach to make inferences about facilitative interactions, whereas only 28% of the studies used both observational and experimental approaches. Among the factors we tested, only geographic region mediates the occurrence of facilitation more broadly in coastal dune systems. The presence of a neighbor positively influenced growth and survival in the tropics, whereas in temperate and subartic regions the effect was neutral for both response variables. We found no evidence that climatic and local factors, such as life-form and life stage of interacting plants, affect the magnitude of facilitation in coastal dunes. Overall, conclusions about plant facilitation in coastal dunes depend on the response variable measured and, more broadly, on the geographic region examined. However, the high variability and the limited number of studies, especially in tropical region, indicate we need to be cautious in the generalization of the conclusions. Anyway, coastal dunes provide an important means to explore topical issues in facilitation research including context dependency, local versus regional drivers of community structure, and the importance of gradients in shaping the outcome of net

  3. A meta-analysis of plant facilitation in coastal dune systems: responses, regions, and research gaps.

    PubMed

    Castanho, Camila de Toledo; Lortie, Christopher J; Zaitchik, Benjamin; Prado, Paulo Inácio

    2015-01-01

    Empirical studies in salt marshes, arid, and alpine systems support the hypothesis that facilitation between plants is an important ecological process in severe or 'stressful' environments. Coastal dunes are both abiotically stressful and frequently disturbed systems. Facilitation has been documented, but the evidence to date has not been synthesized. We did a systematic review with meta-analysis to highlight general research gaps in the study of plant interactions in coastal dunes and examine if regional and local factors influence the magnitude of facilitation in these systems. The 32 studies included in the systematic review were done in coastal dunes located in 13 countries around the world but the majority was in the temperate zone (63%). Most of the studies adopt only an observational approach to make inferences about facilitative interactions, whereas only 28% of the studies used both observational and experimental approaches. Among the factors we tested, only geographic region mediates the occurrence of facilitation more broadly in coastal dune systems. The presence of a neighbor positively influenced growth and survival in the tropics, whereas in temperate and subartic regions the effect was neutral for both response variables. We found no evidence that climatic and local factors, such as life-form and life stage of interacting plants, affect the magnitude of facilitation in coastal dunes. Overall, conclusions about plant facilitation in coastal dunes depend on the response variable measured and, more broadly, on the geographic region examined. However, the high variability and the limited number of studies, especially in tropical region, indicate we need to be cautious in the generalization of the conclusions. Anyway, coastal dunes provide an important means to explore topical issues in facilitation research including context dependency, local versus regional drivers of community structure, and the importance of gradients in shaping the outcome of net

  4. The outcomes of regional healthcare information systems in health care: a review of the research literature.

    PubMed

    Mäenpää, Tiina; Suominen, Tarja; Asikainen, Paula; Maass, Marianne; Rostila, Ilmari

    2009-11-01

    The resulting regional healthcare information systems were expected to have effects and impacts on health care procedures, work practices and treatment outcomes. The aim is to find out how health information systems have been investigated, what has been investigated and what are the outcomes. A systematic review was carried out of the research on the regional health information systems or organizations. The literature search was conducted on four electronic Cinahl Medline, Medline/PubMed and Cochrane. The common type of study design was the survey research and case study, and the data collection was carried out via different methodologies. They found out different types of regional health information systems (RHIS). The systems were heterogeneous and were in different phases of these developments. The RHIS outcomes focused on the five main areas: flow of information, collaboration, process redesign, system usability and organization culture. The RHIS improved the clinical data access, timely information, and clinical data exchange and improvement in communication and coordination within a region between professionals but also there was inadequate access to patient relevant clinical data. There were differences in organization culture, vision and expectations of leadership and consistency of strategic plan. Nevertheless, there were widespread participation by both healthcare providers and patients.

  5. [Strengthening global health informatics research within the andean region through international collaboration].

    PubMed

    Curioso, Walter H; García, Patricia J; Castillo, Greta M; Blas, Magaly M; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Zimic, Mirko

    2010-09-01

    To improve global health and the welfare of a population, skilled human resources are required, not only in medicine and health, but also in the field of informatics. Unfortunately, training and research programs specific to biomedical informatics in developing countries are both scarce and poorly documented. The aim of this paper is to report the results from the first Informatics Expert Meeting for the Andean Region, including, nine Latin American based institutional case studies. This two-day event occurred in March 2010 and brought together twenty-three leaders in biomedical informatics from around the world. The blend of practical and experiential advice from these experts contributed to rich discussions addressing both challenges and applications of informatics within Latin American. In addition, to address the needs emphasized at the meeting, the QUIPU Network was established to expand the research consortium in the Andean Region, Latin America, and internationally. The use of these new technologies in existing public health training and research programs will be key to improving the health of populations in the Andean Region and around the globe.

  6. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #34: PUBLICATION OF FACT SHEET BY EPA REGION 3, "HOW WILL CLIMATE CHANGE AFFECT THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION?"

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Global Change Research Program is pleased to announce the publication of a fact sheet entitled, "How Will Climate Change Affect the Mid-Atlantic Region?." This information sheet was prepared and published by EPA's Region 3 office. It summarizes key findings from the Mid-Atl...

  7. To the Extremes! A Teacher Research Experience Program in the Polar Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warburton, J.; Bartholow, S.

    2014-12-01

    PolarTREC-Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, a teacher professional development program, began with the International Polar Year in 2004 and continues today in the United States. In 2007, the National Science Foundation designated PolarTREC as potentially transformative, meaning that the "research results often do not fit within established models or theories and may initially be unexpected or difficult to interpret; their transformative nature and utility might not be recognized until years later." PolarTREC brings U.S. K-12 educators and polar researchers together through an innovative teacher research experience model. Teachers spend three to six weeks in remote arctic and Antarctic field camps. Since 2007, over 100 teachers have been placed in field experiences throughout the Arctic and Antarctic and with half of them participating in field experiences in Antarctica. During their experience, teachers become research team members filling a variety of roles on the team. They also fulfil a unique role of public outreach officer, conducting live presentations about their field site and research as well as journaling, answering questions, and posting photos. Evaluation data collected over the past eight years on program participants shows that PolarTREC has clearly achieved it goals and strongly suggests programs that link teachers and researchers can have the potential to transform the nature of science education. By giving teachers the content knowledge, pedagogical tools, confidence, understanding of science in the broader society, and experiences with scientific inquiry, participating teachers are using authentic scientific research in their classrooms. Not surprisingly this has also led to increases in student interest and knowledge about the Polar Regions. In this presentation, we will highlight the best practices of teacher research experiences as well as discuss why it is vital to have teachers and researchers work together to communicate

  8. Strategic Analysis of the Asia-Pacific Region: Is a Forward-Based Aircraft Carrier Required in the Post-Cold War Era?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-07

    include Southeast Asia, Indonesia and Thailand (East Indian Ocean ) in the west, the Australian continent in the south to Northeast Asia the Kurile...purposes, the area bounded by western Indonesia and Thailand (East Indian Ocean /South Asia) in the west extending northwesterly to include the Arabian Sea...relations, regional stability, and freedom of oceanic trade routes. In Europe, the multilateral NATO military alliance protected free democracies against the

  9. The Application of Hermeneutical Analysis to Research on the Cold War in Soviet Animation Media Texts from the Second Half of the 1940s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedorov, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    The Cold War era, which spawned a mutual ideological confrontation between communist and capitalist countries, left its mark on all categories of media texts, including cartoons and animations. Cartoons were used by the authorities as tools for delivering the necessary confrontational ideological content in an attractive folkloric, fairy-tale…

  10. Cognitive Performance during a 24-Hour Cold Exposure Survival Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Geoffrey L.; Zaharieva, Dessi; Basset, Fabien A.; Hynes, Zach

    2016-01-01

    Survivor of a ship ground in polar regions may have to wait more than five days before being rescued. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore cognitive performance during prolonged cold exposure. Core temperature (Tc) and cognitive test battery (CTB) performance data were collected from eight participants during 24 hours of cold exposure (7.5°C ambient air temperature). Participants (recruited from those who have regular occupational exposure to cold) were instructed that they could freely engage in minimal exercise that was perceived to maintaining a tolerable level of thermal comfort. Despite the active engagement, test conditions were sufficient to significantly decrease Tc after exposure and to eliminate the typical 0.5–1.0°C circadian rise and drop in core temperature throughout a 24 h cycle. Results showed minimal changes in CTB performance regardless of exposure time. Based on the results, it is recommended that survivors who are waiting for rescue should be encouraged to engage in mild physical activity, which could have the benefit of maintaining metabolic heat production, improve motivation, and act as a distractor from cold discomfort. This recommendation should be taken into consideration during future research and when considering guidelines for mandatory survival equipment regarding cognitive performance. PMID:27478839

  11. Inspection of Space Station Cold Plate Using Visual and Automated Holographic Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Arthur J.; Melis, Matthew E.; Weiland, Kenneth E.

    1999-01-01

    Real-time holography has been used to confirm the presence of non-uniformity in the construction of an International Space Station cold plate. Ultrasonic C-scans have previously shown suspected areas of cooling fin disbonds. But both neural-net processed and visual holography did not evidence any progressive permanent changes resulting from 3000 pressurization and relaxation cycles of a Dash 8 cold plate. Neural-net and visual inspections were performed of characteristic patterns generated from electronic time-average holograms of the vibrating cold plate. Normal modes of vibration were excited at very low amplitudes for this purpose, The neural nets were trained to flag very small changes in the mode shapes as encoded in the characteristic patterns. Both the whole cold plate and a zoomed region were inspected. The inspections were conducted before, after, and during pressurization and relaxation cycles of the cold plate. A water-filled cold plate was pressurized to 120 psig (827 kPa) and relaxed for each cycle. Each cycle required 5 seconds. Both the artificial neural networks and the inspectors were unable to detect changes in the mode shapes of the relaxed cold plate. The cold plate was also inspected visually using real-time holography and double-exposure holography. Regions of non-uniformity correlating with the C-scans were apparent, but the interference patterns did not change after 3000 pressurization and relaxation cycles. These tests constituted the first practical application of a neural-net inspection technique developed originally with support from the Director's Discretionary Fund at the Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field.

  12. GLOBE Cornerstones: Advancing Student Research Worldwide through Virtual and Regional Symposia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgeault, J.; Malmberg, J. S.; Murphy, T.; Darche, S.; Ruscher, P.; Jabot, M.; Odell, M. R. L.; Kennedy, T.

    2016-12-01

    The GLOBE Program, an international science and education program, encourages students from around the world to participate in authentic scientific research of the Earth system. Students use scientific protocols to explore their local environments, compare their findings with other GLOBE schools both in the U.S. and in other participating countries, and then share their findings via the GLOBE.gov website. In order to facilitate this scientific communication, GLOBE held an international virtual science fair in 2016. The science fair included 105 research projects submitted from GLOBE students in various countries, 37 mentoring scientists, and 24 judges. Mentors and judges were members of the GLOBE International STEM Professionals Network and located around the world. On a national level, NSF funded six face-to-face U.S. regional student research symposia where 164 students presented 67 research projects to scientists for review. The 1.5 day events included student activities, teacher professional development, tours of NASA centers, and opportunities for students to engage with scientists to discover both traditional and non-traditional STEM career pathways. To support teachers, the leadership team offered and archived webinars on science practices; from field investigation basics to creating a poster and GLOBE partners provided guidance along the way. This presentation will include the framework for the regional and international science symposia , the scoring rubrics and evaluation, recruitment of judges and mentors, and lessons learned.

  13. Optimization of Cold Rolling and Subsequent Annealing Treatment on Mechanical Properties of TWIP Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamani, D.; Golshan, A.; Dini, G.; Ismarrubie, Z. N.; Azmah Hanim, M. A.; Sajuri, Z.

    2017-08-01

    This research work studied the effect of cold rolling reduction and subsequent annealing temperature on the microstructural evolution and the mechanical properties of Fe-32Mn-4Si-2Al twinning-induced plasticity steel plates. For this, uniaxial tensile tests were carried out for three cold rolling reductions (50, 65 and 80%) and subsequent annealing treatment at 550-750 °C for 1.8 ks. The results were discussed in terms of the yield strength, ultimate tensile strength and total elongation and its dependence on the introduced microstructure. Regression analysis was used to develop the mathematical models of the mechanical properties. Moreover, analysis of variance was employed to verify the precision of the mathematical models. Finally, desirability function was used as an effective optimization approach for multi-objective optimization of the cold rolling reduction and annealing temperature. It is considerable that there is no research attempting to find optimum mechanical properties of the steels using this approach. The results indicated that applying large cold rolling reduction (upper than 75%) and subsequent annealing treatment in the recovery region and also the application of large cold rolling reduction and the subsequent annealing treatment in the lower limit of partial recrystallization region were effective methods to obtain an excellent combination of mechanical properties.

  14. How cold is cold dark matter?

    SciTech Connect

    Armendariz-Picon, Cristian; Neelakanta, Jayanth T. E-mail: jtneelak@syr.edu

    2014-03-01

    If cold dark matter consists of particles, these must be non-interacting and non-relativistic by definition. In most cold dark matter models however, dark matter particles inherit a non-vanishing velocity dispersion from interactions in the early universe, a velocity that redshifts with cosmic expansion but certainly remains non-zero. In this article, we place model-independent constraints on the dark matter temperature to mass ratio, whose square root determines the dark matter velocity dispersion. We only assume that dark matter particles decoupled kinetically while non-relativistic, when galactic scales had not entered the horizon yet, and that their momentum distribution has been Maxwellian since that time. Under these assumptions, using cosmic microwave background and matter power spectrum observations, we place upper limits on the temperature to mass ratio of cold dark matter today (away from collapsed structures). These limits imply that the present cold dark matter velocity dispersion has to be smaller than 54 m/s. Cold dark matter has to be quite cold, indeed.

  15. Intersections of downscaling, the ethics of climate services, and regional research grand challenges.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitson, B.; Jack, C. D.; Gutowski, W. J., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    Possibly the leading complication for users of climate information for policy and adaptation is the confusing mix of contrasting data sets that offer widely differing (and often times fundamentally contradictory) indications of the magnitude and direction of past and future regional climate change. In this light, the most pressing scientific-societal challenge is the need to find new ways to understand the sources of conflicting messages from multi-model, multi-method and multi-scale disparities, to develop and implement new analytical methodologies to address this difficulty and so to advance the interpretation and communication of robust climate information to decision makers. Compounding this challenge is the growth of climate services which, in view of the confusing mix of climate change messages, raises serious concerns as to the ethics of communication and dissemination of regional climate change data.The Working Group on Regional Climate (WGRC) of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP) oversees the CORDEX downscaling program which offers a systematic approach to compare the CMIP5 GCMs alongside RCMs and Empirical-statistical (ESD) downscaling within a common experimental design, and which facilitates the evaluation and assessment of the relative information content and sources of error. Using results from the CORDEX RCM and ESD evaluation experiment, and set against the regional messages from the CMIP5 GCMs, we examine the differing messages that arise from each data source. These are then considered in terms of the implications of consequence if each data source were to be independently adopted in a real world use-case scenario. This is then cast in the context of the emerging developments on the distillation dilemma - where the pressing need is for multi-method integration - and how this relates to the WCRP regional research grand challenges.

  16. Bibliography on Cold Regions Science and Technology. Cumulative Author Index. Volumes 28-32, Cumulative Subject Index. Volumes 28-32, Parts 1 and 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-01

    honeysuckle buds of varied win, the last 250 years,’central southern Norway (1977, p.1-24, eoM ter hardiness in unfavorable media, causedby 2.4.5...overwintering qualities of two types of honeysuckle buds planted in the icefield region, Alaska-Canada (1975, 263p., eng 32-2772 Far North E1975, p.43...1974, p.364.367, overwintering qualities of two types of honeysuckle buds planted in the rul 30-766 Far North (1975, p.43-S0, rma 31-21 Moisture

  17. Cognitive Egocentrism Differentiates Warm and Cold People.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Ryan L; Bresin, Konrad; Ode, Scott; Robinson, Michael D

    2013-02-01

    Warmth-coldness is a fundamental dimension of social behavior. Cold individuals are egocentric in their social relations, whereas warm individuals are not. Previous theorizing suggests that cognitive egocentrism underlies social egocentrism. It was hypothesized that higher levels of interpersonal coldness would predict greater cognitive egocentrism. Cognitive egocentrism was assessed in basic terms through tasks wherein priming a lateralized self-state biased subsequent visual perceptions in an assimilation-related manner. Such effects reflect a tendency to assume that the self's incidental state provides meaningful information concerning the external world. Cognitive egocentrism was evident at high, but not low, levels of interpersonal coldness. The findings reveal a basic difference between warm and cold people, encouraging future research linking cognitive egocentrism to variability in relationship functioning.

  18. Cognitive Egocentrism Differentiates Warm and Cold People

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Ryan L.; Bresin, Konrad; Ode, Scott; Robinson, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Warmth-coldness is a fundamental dimension of social behavior. Cold individuals are egocentric in their social relations, whereas warm individuals are not. Previous theorizing suggests that cognitive egocentrism underlies social egocentrism. It was hypothesized that higher levels of interpersonal coldness would predict greater cognitive egocentrism. Cognitive egocentrism was assessed in basic terms through tasks wherein priming a lateralized self-state biased subsequent visual perceptions in an assimilation-related manner. Such effects reflect a tendency to assume that the self's incidental state provides meaningful information concerning the external world. Cognitive egocentrism was evident at high, but not low, levels of interpersonal coldness. The findings reveal a basic difference between warm and cold people, encouraging future research linking cognitive egocentrism to variability in relationship functioning. PMID:23564985

  19. Female Academics' Research Capacities in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq: Socio-Cultural Issues, Personal Factors and Institutional Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masika, Rachel; Wisker, Gina; Dabbagh, Lanja; Akreyi, Kawther Jameel; Golmohamad, Hediyeh; Bendixen, Lone; Crawford, Kirstin

    2014-01-01

    In October 2010, an interdisciplinary group of female academics from a university in the Kurdistan region of Iraq initiated a collaborative research project with a UK university to investigate opportunities and challenges for female academics' research leadership in universities in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. The project aimed to develop female…

  20. Cognitive, Psychomotor, and Physical Performance in Cold Air After Cooling by Exercise in Cold Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    Saybrook, CT ) were at- tached at 11 skin sites: foot, calf, anterior thigh, abdo - men, chest, triceps, anterior aspect of the forearm, sub- scapular...Effects of cold experience and training on administration of emergency medical treatment in the cold. Groton, CT : Naval Submarine Medical Research

  1. [Leather dust and systematic research on occupational tumors: the national and regional registry TUNS].

    PubMed

    Mensi, Carolina; Sieno, Claudia; Consonni, Dario; Riboldi, Luciano

    2012-01-01

    The sinonasal cancer (SNC) are a rare tumors characterized by high occupational etiologic fraction. For this reason their incidence and etiology can be actively monitored by a dedicated cancer registry. The National Registry of these tumours is situated at the Italian Institute for Occupational Safety and Prevention (ISPESL) and is based on Regional Operating Centres (ROCs). In Lombardy Region the ROC has been established at the end of 2007 with the purpose to make a systematic surveillance and therefore to support in the most suitable way the scientific research and the prevention actions in the high risk working sectors. The aims of this surveillance are: to estimate the regional incidence of SNC, to define different sources of occupational and environmental exposure both known (wood, leather, nickel, chromium) and unknown. The registry collects all the new incident cases of epithelial SNC occurring in residents in Lombardy Region since 01.01.2008. The regional Registry is managed according to National Guidelines. Until January 2010 we received 596 cases of suspected SNC; only 91 (15%) of these were actually incident cases according to the inclusion criteria of the Registry, and they were preferentially adenocarcinoma and squamous carcinoma. In 2008 the regional age-standardized incidence rate of SNC for males and females, respectively, is 0.8 and 0.5 per 100,000. Occupational or environmental exposure to wood or leather dust is ascertained in over the 50% of cases. The occupational exposure to leather dust was duo to work in shoe factories. Our preliminary findings confirm that occupational exposure to wood and leather dusts are the more relevant risk factors for SNC. The study of occupational sectors and job activity in cases without such exposure could suggest new etiologic hypothesis.

  2. MIDWESTERN REGIONAL CENTER OF THE DOE NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR CLIMATIC CHANGE RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, Andrew J.

    2014-02-28

    The goal of NICCR (National Institute for Climatic Change Research) was to mobilize university researchers, from all regions of the country, in support of the climatic change research objectives of DOE/BER. The NICCR Midwestern Regional Center (MRC) supported work in the following states: North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Wisconsin, Illinois, Michigan, Indiana, and Ohio. The MRC of NICCR was able to support nearly $8 million in climatic change research, including $6,671,303 for twenty projects solicited and selected by the MRC over five requests for proposals (RFPs) and $1,051,666 for the final year of ten projects from the discontinued DOE NIGEC (National Institute for Global Environmental Change) program. The projects selected and funded by the MRC resulted in 135 peer-reviewed publications and supported the training of 25 PhD students and 23 Masters students. Another 36 publications were generated by the final year of continuing NIGEC projects supported by the MRC. The projects funded by the MRC used a variety of approaches to answer questions relevant to the DOE’s climate change research program. These included experiments that manipulated temperature, moisture and other global change factors; studies that sought to understand how the distribution of species and ecosystems might change under future climates; studies that used measurements and modeling to examine current ecosystem fluxes of energy and mass and those that would exist under future conditions; and studies that synthesized existing data sets to improve our understanding of the effects of climatic change on terrestrial ecosystems. In all of these efforts, the MRC specifically sought to identify and quantify responses of terrestrial ecosystems that were not well understood or not well modeled by current efforts. The MRC also sought to better understand and model important feedbacks between terrestrial ecosystems, atmospheric chemistry, and regional

  3. WRF Test on IBM BG/L:Toward High Performance Application to Regional Climate Research

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, H S

    2008-09-25

    The effects of climate change will mostly be felt on local to regional scales (Solomon et al., 2007). To develop better forecast skill in regional climate change, an integrated multi-scale modeling capability (i.e., a pair of global and regional climate models) becomes crucially important in understanding and preparing for the impacts of climate change on the temporal and spatial scales that are critical to California's and nation's future environmental quality and economical prosperity. Accurate knowledge of detailed local impact on the water management system from climate change requires a resolution of 1km or so. To this end, a high performance computing platform at the petascale appears to be an essential tool in providing such local scale information to formulate high quality adaptation strategies for local and regional climate change. As a key component of this modeling system at LLNL, the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model is implemented and tested on the IBM BG/L machine. The objective of this study is to examine the scaling feature of WRF on BG/L for the optimal performance, and to assess the numerical accuracy of WRF solution on BG/L.

  4. Environmental justice and regional inequality in southern California: implications for future research.

    PubMed Central

    Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Pastor, Manuel; Porras, Carlos; Sadd, James

    2002-01-01

    Environmental justice offers researchers new insights into the juncture of social inequality and public health and provides a framework for policy discussions on the impact of discrimination on the environmental health of diverse communities in the United States. Yet, causally linking the presence of potentially hazardous facilities or environmental pollution with adverse health effects is difficult, particularly in situations in which diverse populations are exposed to complex chemical mixtures. A community-academic research collaborative in southern California sought to address some of these methodological challenges by conducting environmental justice research that makes use of recent advances in air emissions inventories and air exposure modeling data. Results from several of our studies indicate that communities of color bear a disproportionate burden in the location of treatment, storage, and disposal facilities and Toxic Release Inventory facilities. Longitudinal analysis further suggests that facility siting in communities of color, not market-based "minority move-in," accounts for these disparities. The collaborative also investigated the health risk implications of outdoor air toxics exposures from mobile and stationary sources and found that race plays an explanatory role in predicting cancer risk distributions among populations in the region, even after controlling for other socioeconomic and demographic indicators. Although it is unclear whether study results from southern California can be meaningfully generalized to other regions in the United States, they do have implications for approaching future research in the realm of environmental justice. The authors propose a political economy and social inequality framework to guide future research that could better elucidate the origins of environmental inequality and reasons for its persistence. PMID:11929723

  5. A comparison among root soil-conservation effects for nine herbs at the cold region highway in north-eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, W.; Wang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    High soil-conservation herbs are very important for slope vegetation restoration of a highway in serious sandstorm regions. In this study, nine common herbs in northeast China were selected and compared to study soil-conservation effects by using an undisturbed-soil trough scouring method for soil anti-scourability enhancement and hydrostatic collapse method for soil anti-erodibility. Further, principal components analysis was used to identify significant root features that affected soil erosion resistance. Results indicated that different herbs had distinct enhancement effects on soil erosion resistance. Soil anti-scourability enhancement index decreased with increases of soil depth, slope gradient and rainfall amount. Relationship between soil anti-erodibility enhancement index ( S) and immersion time ( t) is a cubic spline in each different herb type ( R 2 ≥ 0.88). Herb root features such as micro-aggregates, organic matter, net leaf weight, thick root length, fine root length and biomass contributed a leading role in soil erosion resistance enhancement effect, and all their common factor variances were more than 0.81. Descending order of soil erosion resistance enhancement effect in soil anti-scourability for nine herbs is Poa pratensis, Medicago sativa, Viola philippica, Rudbeckia hirta, Clematis heracleifolia, Kalimeris indica, Cosmos bipinnata, Hemerocallis fulva and Sedum elatinoides, while the sequence of soil anti-erodibility is M. sativa, S. elatinoides, P. pratensis, R. hirta, H. fulva, V. philippica, C. heracleifolia, C. bipinnata and K. indica. Therefore, we concluded that P. pratensis and M. sativa were the most suitable herbs for resisting soil erosion and recommended to be widely planted for road vegetation recovery in this region.

  6. Asymptomatic myocardial ischemia following cold provocation

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, M.J.; Deanfield, J.E.; deLandsheere, C.M.; Wilson, R.A.; Kensett, M.; Selwyn, A.P.

    1987-09-01

    Cold is thought to provoke angina in patients with coronary disease either by an increase in myocardial demand or an increase in coronary vascular resistance. We investigated and compared the effects of cold pressor stimulation and symptom-limited supine bicycle exercise on regional myocardial perfusion in 35 patients with stable angina and coronary disease and in 10 normal subjects. Regional myocardial perfusion was assessed with positron emission tomography and rubidium-82. Following cold pressor stimulation 24 of 35 patients demonstrated significant abnormalities of regional myocardial perfusion with reduced cation uptake in affected regions of myocardium: 52 +/- 9 to 43 +/- 9 (p less than 0.001 vs normal subjects). Among these 24 patients only nine developed ST depression and only seven had angina. In contrast, 29 of 35 patients underwent supine exercise, and abnormal regional myocardial perfusion occurred in all 29, with a reduction in cation intake from 48 +/- 10 to 43 +/- 14 (p less than 0.001 vs normal subjects). Angina was present in 27 of 29 and ST depression in 25 of 29. Although the absolute decrease in cation uptake was somewhat greater following cold as opposed to exercise, the peak heart rate after cold was significantly lower than that after exercise (82 +/- 12 vs 108 +/- 16 bpm, p less than 0.05). Peak systolic blood pressures after cold and exercise were similar (159 +/- 24 vs 158 +/- 28). Thus, cold produces much more frequent asymptomatic disturbances of regional myocardial perfusion in patients with stable angina and coronary disease than is suggested by pain or ECG changes.

  7. A Case Study of Land Treatment in a Cold Climate-West Dover, Vermont,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    D-A25 438 A CASE STUDY OF LAND TREATMENT IN R COLD CLINATE-NEST 1/2 DOVER VERRONT(U) COLD REGIONS RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING LAB HRNOYER NH J R BOUZOUN...mlusually frn Other soils present in the pray field were identi- more than 4 weeks. fied as Podunk and Walpole . The Podunk soils are According to information...layers. Walpole soils are deep, somewhat from 0.5 to 50 gpm (gallons per minute), with a poorly to poorly drained soils on terraces, with fine median yield

  8. Research access to privately owned wetland basins in the prairie pothole region of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fellows, David P.; Buhl, Thomas K.

    1995-01-01

    We describe efforts to obtain access for research to 81 wetland basins on 69 farms in four zones of the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota, South Dakota, and Minnesota. Access was obtained to 54% of the farms in areas where land was intensively cropped and 87% of farms in areas of low cropping intensity. On average, 1.35 operators had to be contacted and 1.70 interviews were required to obtain a decision on access to a farm. On 77% of the farms, cooperators placed at least one restriction on access, most commonly requiring walking access only or notification before nighttime work. Cost of obtaining access averaged $265/farm in wages and travel expenses. No cooperators were willing to sign written access agreements. Operators rescinded access to four farms and drained three wetland basins during the first year; six of the seven sites lost were in the intensively cropped portion of a low-wetland-density zone. The difficulty of obtaining and retaining research access to privately owned wetland basins in intensively cropped areas may be related to landowner attitudes towards wetlands. Researchers may have to rely on remote sensing or consider payment for access to secure representative research sites in such areas. Unwillingness of cooperators to sign access agreements may jeopardize research by the newly formed National Biological Service and other resource management agencies.

  9. Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments (GLORIA): Results From Four Target Regions in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butz, R. J.; Dennis, A.; Millar, C. I.; Westfall, R. D.

    2008-12-01

    The Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments (GLORIA) is a worldwide network of long- term research sites established to assess the impacts of climate change in sensitive native alpine communities. Many alpine species face habitat fragmentation and loss, and even extinction because they are adapted to cold temperatures and very limited in their geographic distribution. This study summarizes the data collected from four sites comprised of three to four summits each in the Sierra Nevada and White Mountain ranges of California. The 14 summits cover elevational gradients ranging from 3170m to 4285m. On each summit, habitat characteristics, species composition, species cover, and frequency counts are recorded in sixteen 1m x 1m quadrats. Additional surveys on the percentage cover of surface types and of each species in eight larger plots extending to 10m below the summit focus on detecting changes in species richness and species migrations. Sites were analyzed both independently and as a group to explore similarities and differences in species composition, plant functional groups, phenology, and response to climate. A total of 124 species were identified across all sites. The summits within each site exhibited rich, heterogeneous plant communities, but ones in which most species were infrequent. Northern slopes generally had the highest vegetation cover and eastern slopes, the lowest. Elevation, aspect, and substrate all strongly influenced community composition. The average minimum winter soil temperature varied by more than 10C between the lowest and highest sites in the gradient. Resampling over time will allow us to discern trends in species diversity and temperature, and assess and predict losses in biodiversity and other threats to these fragile alpine ecosystems. Results from this work will contribute to a predictive understanding of shifts in the distribution of alpine species with climate warming in the western U.S.; expand existing long

  10. Analysis of the Quality of Research and Development at the OERI Research and Development Centers and at the OERI Regional Educational Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinovskis, Maris A.

    An evaluation of the Research and Development Centers and the Regional Educational Laboratories of the Office of Educational Research and Improvement (OERI) was conducted by an outside analyst brought in in September 1991 by then Assistant Secretary Diane Ravitch. The Research and Development Centers have been one of the primary sources of…

  11. Rural Development Research in the Northeast for the Next Five Years--A Framework. Task Force Report to the Northeastern Regional Agricultural Research Planning Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosswhite, William; And Others

    The Northeastern Regional Agricultural Research Planning Committee commissioned a joint U.S. Department of Agriculture-Experiment Station Task Force to provide a framework for Rural Development (RD) research over the next 5 years. Based on criteria of: significance; researchability; relevance to group decisions, actions, and applicability;…

  12. Investigating high mortality during the cold season: mapping mean weather patterns of temperature and pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Michael J.; Lee, Cameron C.

    2014-11-01

    Due to a number of complicating factors, cold-related mortality has long been understudied. Through a synoptic climatological, environment-to-circulation perspective, this research takes a unique approach in examining anomalous surface temperature and pressure map patterns associated with the days leading up to high-mortality, spike days for Chicago, Illinois during the cold season. Atmospheric conditions leading to spike days during the cold season were evaluated through both seasonal anomaly and 1-day anomaly maps. Results indicate that high-mortality days are typically preceded by unseasonably cold weather situated over the region from 2 to 5 days beforehand, with significantly higher than average pressure 1 to 2 days before a mortality spike. As this system moves eastward, a significant 1-day warming trend accompanying a significant drop in sea level pressure follows—occurring on the day of the mortality spike or 1 day prior. Both scenarios—cold, high pressure air exposure and the rapid change in weather—are consistent with previous literature connecting them as factors contributing to cold-related mortality increases, with this sequence possibly playing a key role in yielding mortality levels anomalous enough to meet the threshold for a spike.

  13. Constraining the Depth of Polar Ice Deposits and Evolution of Cold Traps on Mercury with Small Craters in Permanently Shadowed Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, Ariel N.; Head, James W.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Chabot, Nancy L.

    2017-01-01

    Earth-based radar observations revealed highly reflective deposits at the poles of Mercury [e.g., 1], which collocate with permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) detected from both imagery and altimetry by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft [e.g., 2]. MESSENGER also measured higher hydrogen concentrations at the north polar region, consistent with models for these deposits to be composed primarily of water ice [3]. Enigmatic to the characterization of ice deposits on Mercury is the thickness of these radar-bright features. A current minimum bound of several meters exists from the radar measurements, which show no drop in the radar cross section between 13- and 70-cm wavelength observations [4, 5]. A maximum thickness of 300 m is based on the lack of any statistically significant difference between the height of craters that host radar-bright deposits and those that do not [6]. More recently, this upper limit on the depth of a typical ice deposit has been lowered to approximately 150 m, in a study that found a mean excess thickness of 50 +/- 35 m of radar-bright deposits for 6 craters [7]. Refining such a constraint permits the derivation of a volumetric estimate of the total polar ice on Mercury, thus providing insight into possible sources of water ice on the planet. Here, we take a different approach to constrain the thickness of water-ice deposits. Permanently shadowed surfaces have been resolved in images acquired with the broadband filter on MESSENGER's wide-angle camera (WAC) using low levels of light scattered by crater walls and other topography [8]. These surfaces are not featureless and often host small craters (less than a few km in diameter). Here we utilize the presence of these small simple craters to constrain the thickness of the radar-bright ice deposits on Mercury. Specifically, we compare estimated depths made from depth-to-diameter ratios and depths from individual Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA

  14. Distributions of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers in surface soils of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau: implications of GDGT-based proxies in cold and dry regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, S.; Xu, Y.; Wang, Y.; He, Y.; Hou, J.; Chen, L.; He, J.-S.

    2015-01-01

    The methylation index of branched tetraethers (MBT) and cyclization ratio of branched tetraethers (CBT) based on the distribution of bacteria-derived branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (bGDGTs) are useful proxies for the reconstruction of continental paleotemperature and soil pH. Several calibrations of the MBT-CBT index have been proposed based on global and regional soils and lake sediments. However, little is known about the distribution and applicability of GDGTs proxies in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP), a critical region of the global climate system. Here, we investigated 33 surface soils covering a large area of the QTP. Redundancy analysis showed that soil pH was the most important factor affecting GDGT distributions, followed by mean annual precipitation (MAP) and mean annual air temperature (MAT). The branched-isoprenoid tetraether (BIT) index, an indicator for estimation of soil organic matter in aquatic environments, varied from 0.48 to 1 and negatively correlated with soil pH (r2 = 0.38), suggesting that the BIT index should be used with caution in the QTP. A transfer function of the CBT index-soil pH was established to estimate paleo-soil pH in the QTP: pH = 8.33-1.43 × CBT (r2 = 0.80, RMSE = 0.27 pH unit). The local calibration of MBT-CBT index presented a weak, still significant correlation with MAT (r2 = 0.36) mainly owing to the additional influence of MAP (r2 = 0.50). Combining our data with previously reported GDGTs for Chinese soils resulted in a new calibration of MBT/CBT-MAT: MAT = 2.68+26.14 × MBT-3.37 × CBT (r2 = 0.73; RMSE = 4.2 °C, n = 164). The correlation coefficient and residual error of this new transfer function is comparable with global calibrations, suggesting that MBT-CBT paleotemperature proxy is still valid in the QTP.

  15. Research activities at the Australian Bureau of Meteorology for the regional ionospheric specification and forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouya, Zahra; Terkildsen, Michael

    2016-07-01

    The Australian Space Forecast Centre (ASFC) provides space weather forecasts to a diverse group of customers. Space Weather Services (SWS) within the Australian Bureau of Meteorology is focussed both on developing tailored products and services for the key customer groups, and supporting ASFC operations. Research in SWS is largely centred on the development of data-driven models using a range of solar-terrestrial data. This paper will cover some data requirements , approaches and recent SWS activities for data driven modelling with a focus on the regional Ionospheric specification and forecasting.

  16. Increased endothelin-1 and diminished nitric oxide levels in blister fluids of patients with intermediate cold type complex regional pain syndrome type 1

    PubMed Central

    Groeneweg, J George; Huygen, Frank JPM; Heijmans-Antonissen, Claudia; Niehof, Sjoerd; Zijlstra, Freek J

    2006-01-01

    Background In complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS1) pro-inflammatory mediators and vascular changes play an important role in the sustained development and outcome of the disease. The aim of this study was to determine the involvement of vasoactive substances endothelin-1 (ET-1) and nitric oxide (NO) during early chronic CRPS1. Methods Included were 29 patients with CRPS 1 who were diagnosed during the acute stage of their disease and observed during follow-up visits. Disease activity and impairment were determined and artificial suction blisters were made on the CRPS1 and the contralateral extremities for measurements of IL-6, TNF-α, ET-1 and nitrate/nitrite (NOx). Results The levels of IL-6, TNF-α and ET-1 in blister fluid in the CRPS1 extremity versus the contralateral extremity were significantly increased and correlated with each other, whereas NOx levels were decreased. Conclusion The NOx/ET-1 ratio appears to be disturbed in the intermediate stage of CRPS, resulting in vasoconstriction and consequently in a diminished tissue blood distribution. PMID:17137491

  17. LIP19, a basic region leucine zipper protein, is a Fos-like molecular switch in the cold signaling of rice plants.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Hidekazu; Sato, Kazuhito; Berberich, Thomas; Miyazaki, Atsushi; Ozaki, Rei; Imai, Ryozo; Kusano, Tomonobu

    2005-10-01

    The rice low-temperature-induced lip19 gene encodes a 148-amino-acid basic region/leucine zipper (bZIP) protein, termed LIP19. In this study we characterized LIP19 and showed that it lacks the usual ability of bZIP proteins to homodimerize and to bind DNA, as does the Fos protein in mammals. Using a yeast two-hybrid system, the cDNA clones whose products interact with LIP19 were screened. This search revealed a clone termed OsOBF1 (Oryza sativa OBF1) that encodes a new bZIP protein (OsOBF1). This protein forms a homodimer and binds to the hexamer motif sequence (5'-ACGTCA-3'). The protein-protein interaction in homo- and hetero-combinations between LIP19 and OsOBF1 was confirmed in vitro and in planta. LIP19 and OsOBF1 most likely interact with each other more strongly than OsOBF1 interacts with itself, and the resulting heterodimer binds to the C/G hybrid sequence but not to the hexamer sequence. Whereas the expression patterns of lip19 and OsOBF1 in response to low temperatures were totally opposite, the locations of their expression were almost identical. Based upon the presented data, we propose a model describing the low-temperature signal switching mediated by LIP19 in rice.

  18. Cold fusion, Alchemist's dream

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, E.D.

    1989-09-01

    In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalysed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalysed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D{sub 2} molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D{sub 2} fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into {sup 4}He; secondary D+T fusion within the hydrogenated metal lattice; {sup 3}He to {sup 4}He ratio within the metal lattice; shock induced fusion; and anomalously high isotopic ratios of {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He.

  19. CAREST--Multilingual Regional Integration for Health Promotion and Research on Sickle Cell Disease and Thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Knight-Madden, Jennifer; Romana, Marc; Villaescusa, Rinaldo; Reid, Marvin; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Boutin, Laurence; Elana, Gisèle; Elenga, Narcisse; Wheeler, Gillian; Lee, Ketty; Nieves, Rosa; Jones Lecointe, Althea; Lalanne-Mistrih, Marie-Laure; Loko, Gylna; Keclard-Christophe, Lisiane; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique

    2016-05-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a significant problem in the Caribbean, where many individuals have African and Asian forebears. However, reliable prevalence data and specific health care programs for SCD are often missing in this region. Closer collaboration between Caribbean territories initiated in 2006 to set up strategies to promote better equity in the health care system for SCD patients led to the formation of CAREST: the Caribbean Network of Researchers on Sickle Cell Disease and Thalassemia. We present the effectiveness of collaborations established by CAREST to promote SCD newborn screening programs and early childhood care, to facilitate health worker training and approaches for prevention and treatment of SCD complications, and to carry out inter-Caribbean research studies.

  20. Inconsistent selection and definition of local and regional endpoints in breast cancer research.

    PubMed

    Moossdorff, M; van Roozendaal, L M; Schipper, R-J; Strobbe, L J A; Voogd, A C; Tjan-Heijnen, V C G; Smidt, M L

    2014-12-01

    Results in breast cancer research are reported using study endpoints. Most are composite endpoints (such as locoregional recurrence), consisting of several components (for example local recurrence) that are in turn composed of specific events (such as skin recurrence). Inconsistent endpoint selection and definition might lead to unjustified conclusions when comparing study outcomes. This study aimed to determine which locoregional endpoints are used in breast cancer studies, and how these endpoints and their components are defined. PubMed was searched for breast cancer studies published in nine leading journals in 2011. Articles using endpoints with a local or regional component were included and definitions were compared. Twenty-three different endpoints with a local or regional component were extracted from 44 articles. Most frequently used were disease-free survival (25 articles), recurrence-free survival (7), local control (4), locoregional recurrence-free survival (3) and event-free survival (3). Different endpoints were used for similar outcomes. Of 23 endpoints, five were not defined and 18 were defined only partially. Of these, 16 contained a local and 13 a regional component. Included events were not specified in 33 of 57 (local) and 27 of 50 (regional) cases. Definitions of local components inconsistently included carcinoma in situ and skin and chest wall recurrences. Regional components inconsistently included specific nodal sites and skin and chest wall recurrences. Breast cancer studies use many different endpoints with a locoregional component. Definitions of endpoints and events are either not provided or vary between trials. To improve transparency, facilitate trial comparison and avoid unjustified conclusions, authors should report detailed definitions of all endpoints. © 2014 BJS Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.