Science.gov

Sample records for cold rolling mill

  1. Recycle of valuable products from oily cold rolling mill sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bo; Zhang, Shen-gen; Tian, Jian-jun; Pan, De-an; Liu, Yang; Volinsky, Alex A.

    2013-10-01

    Oily cold rolling mill (CRM) sludge contains lots of iron and alloying elements along with plenty of hazardous organic components, which makes it as an attractive secondary source and an environmental contaminant at the same time. The compound methods of "vacuum distillation + oxidizing roasting" and "vacuum distillation + hydrogen reduction" were employed for the recycle of oily cold rolling mill sludge. First, the sludge was dynamically vacuum distilled in a rotating furnace at 50 r/min and 600°C for 3 h, which removed almost hazardous organic components, obtaining 89.2wt% ferrous resultant. Then, high purity ferric oxide powders (99.2wt%) and reduced iron powders (98.9wt%) were obtained when the distillation residues were oxidized and reduced, respectively. The distillation oil can be used for fuel or chemical feedstock, and the distillation gases can be collected and reused as a fuel.

  2. VOC emissions controls for aluminum cold rolling mills

    SciTech Connect

    Genoble, A.L.; Lagoe, D.J.; Wasyluk, W.J.R.

    1997-12-31

    This paper is a case history of retrofitting VOC emissions controls to two (2) aluminum cold rolling mills at an aluminum sheet complex in central New York. The plant site was located in the northeast ozone transport region, and it was necessary to achieve compliance with VOC emissions limitations. Emissions control equipment included high efficiency filters for VOC mists and a wash oil process for scrubbing VOC vapors. All rolling oil was recovered for reuse on site. A vacuum distillation process was used to separate wash oil from rolling oil. The equipment began operating in mid-1995, and long term results have proven the validity of the recovery concept. Total project costs were $7.2 million for two (2) 60,000 ACFM systems. Project duration from the date of the initial request for equipment price quotations to the first round of stack testing was twenty (20) months. The modular construction of the vacuum distillation equipment simplified field erection and shortened the duration of field work. Stack testing indicated overall VOC collection efficiencies that exceeded regulatory requirements. Initially, problems were experienced with Method 25 stack testing methodology. Final results were confirmed by two (2) independent methods.

  3. Reliable roll force prediction in cold mill using multiple neural networks.

    PubMed

    Cho, S; Cho, Y; Yoon, S

    1997-01-01

    The cold rolling mill process in steel works uses stands of rolls to flatten a strip to a desired thickness. The accurate prediction of roll force is essential for product quality. Currently, a suboptimal mathematical model is used. We trained two multilayer perceptrons, one to directly predict the roll force and the other to compute a corrective coefficient to be multiplied to the prediction made by the mathematical model. Both networks were shown to improve the accuracy by 30-50%. Combining the two networks and the mathematical model results in systems with an improved reliability.

  4. Tribological Testing of Anti-Adhesive coatings for Cold Rolling Mill Rolls--Application to TiN-Coated Rolls

    SciTech Connect

    Ould, Choumad; Montmitonnet, Pierre; Gachon, Yves; Badiche, Xavier

    2011-05-04

    Roll life is a major issue in cold strip rolling. Roll wear may result either in too low roll roughness, bringing friction below the minimum requested for strip entrainment; or it may degrade strip surface quality. On the contrary, adhesive wear and transfer (''roll coating'', ''pick up'') may form a thick metallic deposits on the roll which increases friction excessively and degrades strip surface again [1]. The roll surface, with the help of a materials-adapted lubricant, must therefore possess anti-wear and anti-adhesive properties. Thus, High Speed Steeel (HSS) rolls show superior properties compared with standard Cr-steel rolls due to their high carbide surface coverage. Another way to improve wear and adhesion properties of surfaces is to apply hard metallic (hard-Cr) or ceramic coatings. Chromium is renowned for its excellent anti-wear and anti-adhesive properties and may serve as a reference. Here, as a first step towards alternative, optimised coatings, a PVD TiN coating has been deposited on tool steels, as previous attempts have proved TiN to be rather successful in cold rolling experiments [2,3]. Different tribological tests are reported here, giving insight in both anti-adhesive properties and fatigue life improvement.

  5. Microstructural characteristics of prematurely failed cold-strip mill work-rolls: Some observations on spalling susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Amitava; Prasad, M. S.; Barhai, P. K.; Mukherjee, S. K.

    2005-04-01

    A comprehensive metallurgical investigation was carried out on samples of prematurely failed cold-strip mill work-rolls used in an integrated steel plant to study the influence of microstructural characteristics on failure propensity and roll life. The samples pertained to 3 wt.% Cr-base forged steel work-rolls, which exhibited variations in roll life despite operation under similar mill environments. Optical and SEM revealed that while a uniform dispersion of fine globular carbides was conducive to higher roll life, carbides of angular and/or elongated morphologies acted as stress-raisers, induced microcracking of the tempered martensite matrix, and accentuated eventual spalling. From the standpoint of nonmetallic inclusions, higher life rolls were cleaner. Low/poor life rolls showed higher incidences of MnS and angular TiN inclusions, which often provided sites for the precipitation of undesirable elongated carbides. Although microprobe analysis indicated that carbides in these rolls were essentially M7C3, quantitative metallography revealed that, apart from morphology, roll performance was profoundly influenced by carbide content and count. Interestingly, while higher life rolls were characterized by carbide contents of >4.5 vol.% and counts of >200,000 number/mm2, rolls exhibiting low and poor lives showed significantly lower values of these features. X-ray diffractometry of spalled roll specimens indicated that while higher life rolls contained minimal retained austenite, rolls exhibiting lower lives inevitably contained >10% retained austenite. The deleterious effect of excessive retained austenite on the spalling susceptibility of cold-strip mill work-rolls was attributed to its possible transformation to martensite under imposed rolling stresses.

  6. Balance mathematical model for the heat regime of cold rolling of electrical steel strips in a reversing mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garber, E. A.; Aleshin, A. E.; Degtev, S. S.; Traino, A. I.

    2013-11-01

    A mathematical model is developed to describe the heat regime of a reversing cold-rolling mill that takes into account the substantial differences between the heat processes occurring in reversing and continuous mills. Model and heat balance equations are used to calculate the strip temperature in passes and the temperature and the heat profile of rolls as functions of the rolling regime parameters and the heat-transfer coefficients that characterize the heat exchange between a strip, rolls, and lubricant-cooling agents and depend on the cooling system parameters of a mill. The model can be used to find a heat regime favorable for achieving the required final magnetic properties of electrical steel. The efficiency of the factors affecting the heat regime in rolling is studied.

  7. Roll mill for milling coal

    SciTech Connect

    Brundiek, H.; Werner, L.

    1984-02-21

    A roll mill, more specially for coal, has a turning pan and a number of rolls running thereon for producing a milling effect. Each roll is supported on a rocker arm, able to be turned about a horizontal axis which is roughly tangential to the pan. The rocker arm and the roll on it are forced down against the pan by a hydraulic cylinder joined with a fork which, in turn, is joined with the rocker arm for turning it about the turnpin. The fork may be unjoined from the rocker arm for upkeep work on the roll. Each rocker arm has a gas-tight cover structure which is part of the casing of the mill.

  8. Tribological Testing of Anti-Adhesive coatings for Cold Rolling Mill Rolls—Application to TiN-Coated Rolls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ould, Choumad; Gachon, Yves; Montmitonnet, Pierre; Badiche, Xavier

    2011-05-01

    Roll life is a major issue in cold strip rolling. Roll wear may result either in too low roll roughness, bringing friction below the minimum requested for strip entrainment; or it may degrade strip surface quality. On the contrary, adhesive wear and transfer ("roll coating", "pick up") may form a thick metallic deposits on the roll which increases friction excessively and degrades strip surface again [1]. The roll surface, with the help of a materials-adapted lubricant, must therefore possess anti-wear and anti-adhesive properties. Thus, High Speed Steeel (HSS) rolls show superior properties compared with standard Cr-steel rolls due to their high carbide surface coverage. Another way to improve wear and adhesion properties of surfaces is to apply hard metallic (hard-Cr) or ceramic coatings. Chromium is renowned for its excellent anti-wear and anti-adhesive properties and may serve as a reference. Here, as a first step towards alternative, optimised coatings, a PVD TiN coating has been deposited on tool steels, as previous attempts have proved TiN to be rather successful in cold rolling experiments [2,3]. Different tribological tests are reported here, giving insight in both anti-adhesive properties and fatigue life improvement.

  9. The Research on Optimization of Edge Drop Control for Cold Tandem Rolling Mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiao-Min; Yue, Xiao-Xue

    2016-05-01

    The cold tandem rolling of metal strip presents a significant control challenge because of nonlinearities and process complexities. And reducing edge drop of cold rolling strips and meeting uniform thickness will be a new tough shape theories and technologies. In this paper, the existing edge drop control are analyzed and optimized. The simulation results and practical data show that the optimized control system can effectively control the edge drop.

  10. Improvement of the technique of calculating the energy-force parameters of pinch-pass mills for increasing the efficiency of producing cold-rolled strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garber, E. A.; Timofeeva, M. A.

    2016-11-01

    New propositions are introduced into the technique of energy-force calculation of pinch-pass mills in order to determine the energy-force and technological parameters of skin rolling of cold-rolled steel strips at the minimum errors. The application of these propositions decreases the errors of calculating the forces and torques in a working stand by a factor of 3-5 as compared to the calculation according to the well-known technique, saves the electric power in the existing mills, and demonstrates the possibility of decreasing the dimensions of working stands and the power of the rolling mill engine.

  11. Shear Roll Mill Reactivation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-13

    pneumatically operated paste dumper and belt conveyor system, the loss in weight feeder system, the hydraulically operated shear roll mill, the pellet...out feed belt conveyor , and the pack out system comprised of the metal detector, scale, and pack out empty and full drum roller conveyors . Page | 4...feed hopper and conveyor supplying the loss in weight feeder were turned on, and it was verified that these items functioned as designed. The

  12. CONTROL FOR ROLLING MILL

    DOEpatents

    Shuck, A.B.; Shaw, W.C.

    1961-06-20

    A plutonium-rolling apparatus is patented that has two sets of feed rolls, shaping rolls between the feed rolls, and grippers beyond the feed rolls, which ready a workpiece for a new pass through the shaping rolls by angularly shifting the workpiece about its axis or transversely moving it on a line parallel to the axes of the shaping rolls. Actuation of each gripper for gripping or releasing the workpiece is produced by the relative positions assumed by the feed rolls adjacent to the gripper as the workpiece enters or leaves the feed rolls.

  13. Decoupling control based on terminal sliding mode and wavelet network for the speed and tension system of reversible cold strip rolling mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yiming; Liu, Le; Li, Jianxiong; Xu, Yanze

    2015-08-01

    To weaken the nonlinear coupling influences among the variables in the speed and tension system of reversible cold strip rolling mill, a novel dynamic decoupling control strategy is proposed based on nonsingular fast terminal sliding mode (NFTSM) and wavelet neural network (WNN). First, nonlinear disturbance observers are developed to counteract the mismatched uncertainties, and then input/output dynamic decoupling and linearisation for the speed and tension nonlinear coupling system are realised by utilising the inverse system theory. Second, nonsingular fast terminal sliding mode controller (NFTSMC) for each pseudo linear subsystem is presented based on backstepping and two-power reaching law, so as to improve the global convergence speed and robust stability of the system. Third, adaptive WNNs are used to approximate the uncertain items of the system, so as to improve the control precision of the speed and tension of reversible cold strip rolling mill. Theoretical analyses show that the NFTSMs satisfy reachability condition, the system error variables can converge to equilibrium point in finite time, and the resulting closed-loop system is globally asymptotically stable. Finally, simulation research is carried out on the speed and tension system of a 1422 mm reversible cold strip rolling mill by using the actual data, and results show the superiority of the proposed control strategy in comparison with the strategies of cascade PI, linear sliding mode control and internal model control.

  14. Rolling Mill Hill, Nashville, TN

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Rolling Mill Hill was the home to Nashville General Hospital from 1890 to the 1990s and encompassed several buildings and structures. These existing buildings of historical significance were re-used in the form of apartments. The original Trolley Barns on the site are now artists’ lofts and are home to several companies and non-profit offices. Nance Place, which entails additional buildings built on-site, is a Tax Credit Workforce Housing Development and is Platinum LEED certified.

  15. VIEW OF HANDOPERATED ROLLING MILLS ROLLING STANDS FROM LEFT TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF HAND-OPERATED ROLLING MILLS ROLLING STANDS FROM LEFT TO RIGHT: THREE HIGH; THREE HIGH; THREE HIGH; THREE HIGH (OPERATED AS A TWO-HIGH); TWO HIGH TWO HIGH MANUFACTURED BY BLAW-KNOX THREE HIGH MANUFACTURED BY LEWIS FOUNDRY AND MACHINE CO. - Cambria Iron Company, Gautier Works, 12" Mill, Clinton Street & Little Conemaugh River, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  16. Simulation of rolling friction in the working stands of wide-strip mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garber, E. A.; Samarin, S. N.; Traino, A. I.; Ermilov, V. V.

    2007-04-01

    The energy consumed for rolling friction in the interroll contact area in the working stands of cold-rolling and pinch-pass mils intended for the production of wide steel strips has been analyzed. The coefficients and power of rolling friction are obtained for the first time using the databases of the process control systems of operating mills and simulating these quantities. A statistically reliable regression relation is obtained between the coefficient of rolling friction and the significant parameters of rolling and skin rolling (i.e., the interroll force, the roll speed, and the roll body roughness). The power fraction consumed for rolling friction is found to reach 60 80% of the total power of the main drive of working stands for skin rolling and 30 50% for cold rolling. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account these power losses in designing mills and developing technological cold-rolling conditions.

  17. Recent developments in semiprocessed cold rolled magnetic lamination steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilinski, E. J.

    2006-09-01

    Over the past 10 years the magnetic property performance of semi-processed cold rolled magnetic lamination steels in North America have approached those of nonoriented, semi-processed silicon steel. This improvement was accomplished via higher alloy levels in conjunction with hot band annealing. New temper rolling strategies can produce weakly oriented steels tailored to specific applications, such as small transformers used in fluorescent lighting ballasts. Recently, production trials for 0.0138 in product cold rolled on tin mills has been undertaken. Efforts to further improve properties through a better understanding of texture control and via implementation of new production processes, such as thin slab or strip casting, continue.

  18. Rolling process and its influence analysis on hot continuous rolling mill vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xiaobin; Zang, Yong; Jin, Ke

    2016-12-01

    Rolling mill vibration is a worldwide problem, although it has been found that the mill structure defects are the main cause of vibration, but the inhibition measures are difficult to implement. So we discussed the rolling force parameters influence on rolling mill vibration and suppression measures from rolling technology in this article. The results show that the rolling force is increased as the reduction ratio and speed increases, and decreases with the increase in temperature; reduction ratio has more obvious influence than rolling temperature and speed, so we should give priority to the reduction allocation in production. Rolled strip is thinner; the self-excited relations in mill system are stronger, namely the stability of the rolling mill is poor and mill vibration would more likely produce. The comprehensive field tests and analysis were carried out, and it shows that roll horizontal vibration and torsional vibration have less relationship and the mechanism between horizontal and vertical vibration is same.

  19. 10. SCALEBREAKER FOR THE 160' PLATE MILL. DELIVERY ROLL TABLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. SCALEBREAKER FOR THE 160' PLATE MILL. DELIVERY ROLL TABLE (ON THE RIGHT) WAS PAINTED BRIGHT YELLOW JUST BEFORE PHOTOGRAPH WAS TAKEN. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, 160" Plate Mill, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  20. 10. VIEW OF THE INSTALLATION OF PLUTONIUM FABRICATION ROLLING MILL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF THE INSTALLATION OF PLUTONIUM FABRICATION ROLLING MILL. THE MILL ROLLED INGOTS INTO SHEETS THAT WERE THEN CUT INTO CIRCLE BLANKS TO BE PASSED THROUGH THE CENTER LINE FOR PRESSING. (2/19/63) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Fabrication, Central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  1. Model development of work roll wear in hot strip mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ziying; Guan, Yingping; Wang, Fengqin

    2017-06-01

    This paper, based on the analysis of the main factors(specific roll force, mean roll surface temperature, irregular edge wear and contact arc length) affecting roll wear, designed a new work roll wear model, the test data shows that the model can more accurately reflect the work roll wear, can be on-line prediction of work roll wear. The roll wear curve, including constant wear and irregular edge wear, presents a box shape, and the reasons also are showed in this paper. The top roll wear and bottom roll wear in the same mill are inconsistent, and the reasons are also analysed in this paper. Results show that the construction of the work roll mathematical model accords with the general law of work roll wear and tear; it can more accurately forecast roll wear online.

  2. Roll compaction/dry granulation: comparison between roll mill and oscillating granulator in dry granulation.

    PubMed

    Sakwanichol, Jarunee; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit; Ingenerf, Gernot; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Different experimental factorial designs were employed to evaluate granule properties obtained from oscillating granulator and roll mill. Four oscillating-granulator parameters were varied, i.e. rotor speed, oscillating angle, aperture of mesh screen and rotor type. Six roll-mill parameters that were throughput, speed ratio in both first and second stages, gap between roll pair in both stages and roll-surface texture were also investigated. Afterwards, the granule properties obtained from two milling types with similar median particle size were compared. All milling parameters in both milling types affected significantly the median particle size, size distribution and amount of fine particles (P < 0.05), except the rotor types of oscillating granulator on fines. Only three milling parameters influenced significantly the flowability (P < 0.05). These were the throughput and the gap size in the first stage of roll mill and the sieve size of oscillating granulator. In comparison between milling types, the differences of granule properties were not practically relevant. However, the roll mill had much higher capacity than the oscillating granulator about seven times, resulting in improving energy savings per unit of product. Consequently, the roll mill can be applied instead of oscillating granulator for roll compaction/dry granulation technique.

  3. Strip edge cracking simulation in cold rolling

    SciTech Connect

    Hubert, C.; Dubar, L.; Dubar, M.; Dubois, A.

    2011-01-17

    This research work focuses on a specific defect which occurs during cold rolling of steel strips: edge-serration. Investigations on the industrial processes have led to the conclusion that this defect is the result of the edge-trimming and cold rolling sequences. The aim of this research work is to analyze the effect of the cutting process and the cold rolling on cracks occurrence, especially on strip edges.This study is performed using an experimental testing stand called Upsetting Rolling Test (URT). It allows to reproduce cold rolling contact parameters such as forward slip, reduction ratio and friction coefficients. Specimens sampled near trimmed industrial strip edges are deformed using the URT stand. Two sets of specimens with different stress states, obtained by annealing, are submitted to two reduction passes with extreme forward slips.Scanning electron microscopy observations added to 3D optical surface profiler topographies show that on one hand, forward slip has a major effect on cracks opening. On the other hand, cracks opening decreases according to high roll strip speed gradient. Concerning the heat-treated specimens, no crack appeared after all reduction passes, showing a large influence of the cutting process and consequently of the local stress state in the vicinity of the burnish and fracture regions.

  4. Strip edge cracking simulation in cold rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, C.; Dubar, L.; Dubar, M.; Dubois, A.

    2011-01-01

    This research work focuses on a specific defect which occurs during cold rolling of steel strips: edge-serration. Investigations on the industrial processes have led to the conclusion that this defect is the result of the edge-trimming and cold rolling sequences. The aim of this research work is to analyze the effect of the cutting process and the cold rolling on cracks occurrence, especially on strip edges. This study is performed using an experimental testing stand called Upsetting Rolling Test (URT). It allows to reproduce cold rolling contact parameters such as forward slip, reduction ratio and friction coefficients. Specimens sampled near trimmed industrial strip edges are deformed using the URT stand. Two sets of specimens with different stress states, obtained by annealing, are submitted to two reduction passes with extreme forward slips. Scanning electron microscopy observations added to 3D optical surface profiler topographies show that on one hand, forward slip has a major effect on cracks opening. On the other hand, cracks opening decreases according to high roll strip speed gradient. Concerning the heat-treated specimens, no crack appeared after all reduction passes, showing a large influence of the cutting process and consequently of the local stress state in the vicinity of the burnish and fracture regions.

  5. Energy efficiency improvement of electric drive of cold pilgering mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sychev, D. A.; Savosteenko, N. V.; Gryzlov, A. A.

    2017-02-01

    Different ways to improve the energy efficiency of electric drives of cold pilgering mill are considered. Mathematical modeling methods represent studies according to which it is possible to evaluate quantitatively the energy savings. For example, cold pilgering mill 450 shows the mean square of the armature current of the main drive motor related to critical frequency of the speed loop. The possibility of energy saving by previous field weakening of the motor before the operating cycle of rolling is considered. The optimal energy saving points of supply and termination of the pulse are determined by the field weakening. The correlation of the parameters of the dynamic units and the change of the electric drive work schedule provides the greatest loss reduction in the main drive of the cold pilgering mill stand based on the conditions. Activities aimed at improving energy efficiency of electric drives of mills of this group are reviewed, which reduces the electric energy consumption for the cycle rolling by 20-25 %.

  6. Improvement of rolling 6 mm thin plates in plate rolling mill PT. Krakatau Posco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujiyanto, Hamdani

    2017-01-01

    A 6-mm thin plate is difficult to produce especially if the product requires wide size and high strength. Flatness is the main quality issue in rolling 6-mm plate using a 4-high reversing mill which use ±1100-mm work roll. Thus some methods are applied to overcome such issue in order to comply to customer quality requirement. Pre-rolling, rolling, and post-rolling conditions have to be considered comprehensively. Roll unit management will be the key factor before rolling condition. The roll unit itself has a significant impact on work roll crown wearness in relation with work roll intial crown and thermal crown. Work roll crown along with the modification of hydraulic gap control (HGC) could directly alter the flatness of the plate.

  7. Wear of hot rolling mill rolls: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spuzic, S.; Strafford, K. N.; Subramanian, C.; Savage, G.

    1994-08-01

    Rolling is today one of the most important industrial processes because a greater volume of material is worked by rolling than by any other technique. Roll wear is a multiplex process where mechanical and thermal fatigue combines with impact, abrasion, adhesion and corrosion, which all depend on system interactions rather than material characteristics only. The situation is more complicated in section rolling because of the intricacy of roll geometry. Wear variables and modes are reviewed along with published methods and models used in the study and testing of roll wear. This paper reviews key aspects of roll wear control - roll material properties, roll pass design, and system factors such as temperature, loads and sliding velocity. An overview of roll materials is given including adamites, high Cr materials, high speed tool steels and compound rolls. Non-uniform wear, recognized as the most detrimental phenomenon in section rolling, can be controlled by roll pass design. This can be achieved by computer-aided graphical and statistical analyses of various pass series. Preliminary results obtained from pilot tests conducted using a two-disc hot wear rig and a scratch tester are discussed.

  8. 5. VIEW OF BERYLLIUM PROCESSING AREA, ROLLING MILL. BERYLLIUM FORMING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF BERYLLIUM PROCESSING AREA, ROLLING MILL. BERYLLIUM FORMING BEGAN IN SIDE A OF THE BUILDING IN 1962. (11/5/73) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  9. 16. VIEW OF A ROLLING MILL THAT WAS USED TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW OF A ROLLING MILL THAT WAS USED TO CREATE A METAL SHEET (SHOWN). (4/16/57) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  10. Study Friction Distribution during the Cold Rolling of Material by Matroll Software

    SciTech Connect

    Abdollahi, H.; Dehghani, K.

    2007-04-07

    Rolling process is one of the most important ways of metal forming. Since the results of this process are almost finished product, therefore controlling the parameters affecting this process is very important in order to have cold rolling products with high quality. Among the parameters knowing the coefficient of friction within the roll gap is known as the most significant one. That is because other rolling parameters such as rolling force, pressure in the roll gap, forward slip, surface quality of sheet, and the life of work rolls are directly influenced by friction. On the other hand, in rolling calculation due to lake of a true amount for coefficient of friction a supposed value is considered for it. In this study, a new software (Matroll), is introduced which can determine the coefficient of friction (COF) and plot the friction hills for an industrial mill. Besides, based on rolling equations, it offers about 30 rolling parameters as outputs. Having the rolling characteristics as inputs, the software is able to calculate the coefficient of friction. Many rolling passes were performed on real industrial aluminum mill. The coefficient of friction was obtained for all passes. The results are in good agreement with the findings of the other researchers.

  11. Prediction of Rolling Force Using AN Adaptive Neural Network Model during Cold Rolling of Thin Strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, H. B.; Jiang, Z. Y.; Tieu, A. K.; Liu, X. H.; Wang, G. D.

    Customers for cold rolled strip products expect the good flatness and surface finish, consistent metallurgical properties and accurate strip thickness. These requirements demand accurate prediction model for rolling parameters. This paper presents a set-up optimization system developed to predict the rolling force during cold strip rolling. As the rolling force has the very nonlinear and time-varying characteristics, conventional methods with simple mathematical models and a coarse learning scheme are not sufficient to achieve a good prediction for rolling force. In this work, all the factors that influence the rolling force are analyzed. A hybrid mathematical roll force model and an adaptive neural network have been improved by adjusting the adaptive learning algorithm. A good agreement between the calculated results and measured values verifies that the approach is applicable in the prediction of rolling force during cold rolling of thin strips, and the developed model is efficient and stable.

  12. #43 HOT ROLL, A TWOHIGH REVERSING MILL THAT PRODUCES THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    #43 HOT ROLL, A TWO-HIGH REVERSING MILL THAT PRODUCES THE LONGEST COPPER AND ALLOY STRIP IN THE U.S. INDUSTRY. OVERALL LENGTH OF THE RUN-OUT LINE IS 300'. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  13. The Evolution of the Surface Morphologies and Microstructures of an Unleveled Hot-Rolled Steel Strip During Cold Rolling After Hydrogen Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Yu-An; Shang, Qiuyue; Zang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Lei; Peng, Xingdong; Jia, Pinfeng

    2016-01-01

    The removal of oxide scale from a hot-rolled strip surface can completely eliminate environmental pollution if performed by hydrogen-reduction descaling instead of traditional pickling descaling. However, a large number of cracks appear on the surface of a leveled hot-rolled steel strip after hydrogen reduction. This effect is likely to impede the application of reduction descaling to cold-rolled products. Nevertheless, there are almost no cracks on the surface of an unleveled hot-rolled steel strip if the hot-rolled steel strip is not subjected to repeated bending by the leveler machine. The surface quality of a reduced steel strip will be better than that of a pickled steel strip. To investigate the evolution of the surface morphologies, microstructures, and properties of an unleveled strip steel during cold rolling, unleveled strip steel samples were rolled using a four-high mill after hydrogen reduction and after pickling. The surface morphologies and cross-sectional microstructures of the samples were observed by SEM, and the surface-roughness values were measured using a TR200 profilometer before and after cold-rolling deformation. The evolution of the surface morphologies and cross-sectional microstructures of the sample after cold rolling were analyzed. The results show that the oxide scale formed on the surface turns into a metallic iron layer, and a decarburization layer appears between the metallic iron layer and the steel matrix after hydrogen reduction. Few cracks, besides pores, and bubbles, appeared on the surface of the sample after hydrogen reduction. The pores and bubbles were roll-flattened after five passes of cold rolling. The work hardening degree and mechanical properties of the reduced sample are similar to those of the pickled sample after cold rolling. Compared with the rolled sample after pickling, the surface qualities of the reduced samples are better than those of the pickled samples and better than those of the reduced samples that

  14. A contact-type tensionmeter for hot rolling mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Zhaohui; Sun, Yikang; Wang, Jun; Que, Cheng

    2008-12-01

    To improve the hot rolled strip quality and operational stability, a novel tensionmeter based on lever principle is developed which inspects latent waves and provides real references for flatness control in hot rolling process. The contact-type tensionmeter including two segmented rolls can get the transverse tension distribution along the strip width. Tension profile is deduced by different ratio of four force values from the embedded force sensors in tensionmeter system. The compact mechanical structure ensures the tensionmeter's robust stability in hot rolling process, standard hardware and software for data acquisition make the system easy to operate and maintain. The trails have proven tensionmeter successful in improving both strip flatness and mill performance.

  15. Isothermal austenitization of cold-rolled steel type 08

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsenko, A. I.; Repina, N. I.; Ginevskaya, L. A.

    1981-12-01

    Features of isothermal austenitization for cold-rolled and annealed 08 type structural steels are not the same. Deformation during cold rolling causes a reduction in the temperature for the start of austenite formation and the transformation range is extended, but it does not have a marked effect on the temperature for the end of the process.

  16. Progress in cold roll bonding of metals

    PubMed Central

    Li, Long; Nagai, Kotobu; Yin, Fuxing

    2008-01-01

    Layered composite materials have become an increasingly interesting topic in industrial development. Cold roll bonding (CRB), as a solid phase method of bonding same or different metals by rolling at room temperature, has been widely used in manufacturing large layered composite sheets and foils. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of a technology using layered composite materials produced by CRB and discuss the suitability of this technology in the fabrication of layered composite materials. The effects of process parameters on bonding, mainly including process and surface preparation conditions, have been analyzed. Bonding between two sheets can be realized when deformation reduction reaches a threshold value. However, it is essential to remove surface contamination layers to produce a satisfactory bond in CRB. It has been suggested that the degreasing and then scratch brushing of surfaces create a strong bonding between the layers. Bonding mechanisms, in which the film theory is expressed as the major mechanism in CRB, as well as bonding theoretical models, have also been reviewed. It has also been showed that it is easy for bcc structure metals to bond compared with fcc and hcp structure metals. In addition, hardness on bonding same metals plays an important part in CRB. Applications of composites produced by CRB in industrial fields are briefly reviewed and possible developments of CRB in the future are also described. PMID:27877949

  17. Progress in cold roll bonding of metals.

    PubMed

    Li, Long; Nagai, Kotobu; Yin, Fuxing

    2008-04-01

    Layered composite materials have become an increasingly interesting topic in industrial development. Cold roll bonding (CRB), as a solid phase method of bonding same or different metals by rolling at room temperature, has been widely used in manufacturing large layered composite sheets and foils. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of a technology using layered composite materials produced by CRB and discuss the suitability of this technology in the fabrication of layered composite materials. The effects of process parameters on bonding, mainly including process and surface preparation conditions, have been analyzed. Bonding between two sheets can be realized when deformation reduction reaches a threshold value. However, it is essential to remove surface contamination layers to produce a satisfactory bond in CRB. It has been suggested that the degreasing and then scratch brushing of surfaces create a strong bonding between the layers. Bonding mechanisms, in which the film theory is expressed as the major mechanism in CRB, as well as bonding theoretical models, have also been reviewed. It has also been showed that it is easy for bcc structure metals to bond compared with fcc and hcp structure metals. In addition, hardness on bonding same metals plays an important part in CRB. Applications of composites produced by CRB in industrial fields are briefly reviewed and possible developments of CRB in the future are also described.

  18. Rolling mill optimization using an accurate and rapid new model for mill deflection and strip thickness profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Arif Sultan

    This work presents improved technology for attaining high-quality rolled metal strip. The new technology is based on an innovative method to model both the static and dynamic characteristics of rolling mill deflection, and it applies equally to both cluster-type and non cluster-type rolling mill configurations. By effectively combining numerical Finite Element Analysis (FEA) with analytical solid mechanics, the devised approach delivers a rapid, accurate, flexible, high-fidelity model useful for optimizing many important rolling parameters. The associated static deflection model enables computation of the thickness profile and corresponding flatness of the rolled strip. Accurate methods of predicting the strip thickness profile and strip flatness are important in rolling mill design, rolling schedule set-up, control of mill flatness actuators, and optimization of ground roll profiles. The corresponding dynamic deflection model enables solution of the standard eigenvalue problem to determine natural frequencies and modes of vibration. The presented method for solving the roll-stack deflection problem offers several important advantages over traditional methods. In particular, it includes continuity of elastic foundations, non-iterative solution when using pre-determined elastic foundation moduli, continuous third-order displacement fields, simple stress-field determination, the ability to calculate dynamic characteristics, and a comparatively faster solution time. Consistent with the most advanced existing methods, the presented method accommodates loading conditions that represent roll crowning, roll bending, roll shifting, and roll crossing mechanisms. Validation of the static model is provided by comparing results and solution time with large-scale, commercial finite element simulations. In addition to examples with the common 4-high vertical stand rolling mill, application of the presented method to the most complex of rolling mill configurations is demonstrated

  19. Simulation and optimization of the cold roll-forming process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheu, Jinn-Jong

    2004-06-01

    In this paper, the cold roll-forming process of steel was simulated. The FEM model of rollers was built in the LS-DYNA software. There are six stands used in the cold-roll-forming process simulation. The frictions of the tools were determined by the comparison of the cold-roll-forming results and the simulation deformation. Many friction conditions were tested to approach the experimental results of the forming experiments. The blanks were pushed through the rollers in the roll-forming machine. While in the simulation, the rollers were running over the fixed-end blank instead of moving the materials. The resulted motion is the same but the boundary conditions were easier to specify and control. The rolling speeds in the simulation were higher to save the calculation time but still confirm to the experiment results. The simulation results shown the axial and the shear strains were induced during the bending process of sheet metal. The thickness of the sheet metal was varied very slightly during the roll-forming process. The dimension and shape of the cold roll-formed specimens were in good agreement with the experiment results. The Taguchi method was adopted to design an optimum roll flower.

  20. Development of satellite mill and trial rolling of profiled metal strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Y.; Watanabe, T.; Utsunomiya, H.

    1992-12-01

    A new type of compact continuous mill called the “Satellite mill” has been developed to produce profiled metal strip from flat strip. This mill consists of one large-diameter driven roll (central roll) and five smaller rolls (satellite rolls) arranged along the periphery of the central roll. A strip is continuously rolled at five gaps between the central roll and the satellite rolls. All rolls are driven at an equal roll peripheral speed to promote transverse metal flow or lateral spread. Guide shoes are provided between the adjacent satellite rolls and are supported with two adjacent satellite rolls. They prevent a strip from bulging or buckling. A test mill was constructed, and rolling experiments have been performed on the production of T-shaped or U-shaped profiled aluminum strip. The deformation- load characteristics were investigated and compared with those of conventional rolling. As a result, in the satellite mill rolling operation, elongation was suppressed. Lateral spread was enhanced, and the profile of the product cross section was significantly improved. Consequently, the new rolling process was found to be forming of profiled metal strip.

  1. Experience in TMT with the use of cold lengthwise rolling in dead rolls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agas'yants, G. A.; Semibratov, G. G.; Kodjaspirov, G. E.

    2007-01-01

    Experience in the thermomechanical treatment of long stepped preforms for shafts (including torsion ones), studs, forcing bolts, and other articles from high-strength and maraging steels with the use of cold lengthwise rolling in dead rolls is described. The used variants of TMT make it possible to obtain hardened highly loaded machine parts with high quality and performance parameters.

  2. Correlating microstructure and texture in cold-rolled Ta ingot

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, C. ); Kumar, P. )

    1989-10-01

    An analysis of tantalum ingot cold-rolled and annealed under different conditions reveals several correlations between the microstructure, developed textures and thermomechanical processing parameters. For example, the hardness of rolled sheet is not significantly affected by the amount of reduction prior to the final anneal, while the final grain size decreases with an increasing number of intermediate annealing steps. Four classes of texture are found in the cold-rolled tantalum, but the finger-grained classes can only be produced via a 70 percent reduction in thickness prior to the final anneal. Although ample dislocation debris is produced by the rolling operation, clearly defined line dislocations and dislocations networks are absent, indicating that full recrystallization is not achieved in the finished sheets. A large concentration of ledge dislocations at the grain boundary regions is considered an important contributor to the good formability of tantalum.

  3. The kinematics of the four-roll mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higdon, J. J. L.

    1993-01-01

    Numerical computations are employed to study the flow field produced by a four-roll mill. The radius of the cylinders a, the cylinder spacing 2b, and the size 2l of the square container are varied to assess the effects on the kinematics of the flow field. It is found that a ratio of a/b=0.625 with l/b≥3.0 produces the best approximation to a pure extensional flow. With these parameter values, the extension rate remains constant with an error of less than 1% over an axial region x/b≤0.5. By contrast, the commonly accepted design a/b=0.772 suggested by Fuller and Leal [J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys. 19, 557 (1981)] produces a variation in extension rate of 50% over the same region. Streamline patterns and velocity gradient error contours are presented for these two designs.

  4. Rolling of T-shaped profiled strip by the satellite mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utsunomiya, H.; Saito, Y.; Hayashi, T.; Sakai, T.

    1997-06-01

    A new type of compact mill called a “satellite mill” is used for producing T-shaped profiled strip from flat strip. The mill comprises one large-diameter flat roll (central roll) and five smaller-diameter caliber rolls (satellite rolls) arranged along the periphery of the central roll. The flat strip is continuously passed through the five gaps between the central roll and the satellite rolls and formed into a T shape. All rolls are driven at an equal peripheral speed to restrain elongation of strip and to promote transversal metal flow. A guide shoe is provided between each two adjacent satellite rolls to prevent the strip from bulging out or buckling. Using aluminum as a model material, some rolling experiments were performed on the mill. T-shaped profiled strips with a thickness ratio (thickness of thick part per thickness of thin part) as high as three were rolled successfully. When deformation and force characteristics were investigated, it was found that, in comparison to a conventional multipass caliber rolling, the elongation of the strip is suppressed and the filling ability is much improved.

  5. Optimization of cold rolling process parameters in order to increasing rolling speed limited by chatter vibrations

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Ali; Forouzan, Mohammad R.

    2012-01-01

    Chatter has been recognized as major restriction for the increase in productivity of cold rolling processes, limiting the rolling speed for thin steel strips. It is shown that chatter has close relation with rolling conditions. So the main aim of this paper is to attain the optimum set points of rolling to achieve maximum rolling speed, preventing chatter to occur. Two combination methods were used for optimization. First method is done in four steps: providing a simulation program for chatter analysis, preparing data from simulation program based on central composite design of experiment, developing a statistical model to relate system tendency to chatter and rolling parameters by response surface methodology, and finally optimizing the process by genetic algorithm. Second method has analogous stages. But central composite design of experiment is replaced by Taguchi method and response surface methodology is replaced by neural network method. Also a study on the influence of the rolling parameters on system stability has been carried out. By using these combination methods, new set points were determined and significant improvement achieved in rolling speed. PMID:25685398

  6. Linking Grain Boundary Microstructure to Stress Corrosion Cracking of Cold Rolled Alloy 690 in PWR Primary Water

    SciTech Connect

    Bruemmer, Stephen M.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Thomas, Larry E.

    2012-10-01

    Grain boundary microstructures and microchemistries are examined in cold-rolled alloy 690 tubing and plate materials and comparisons are made to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) behavior in PWR primary water. Chromium carbide precipitation is found to be a key aspect for materials in both the mill annealed and thermally treated conditions. Cold rolling to high levels of reduction was discovered to produce small IG voids and cracked carbides in alloys with a high density of grain boundary carbides. The degree of permanent grain boundary damage from cold rolling was found to depend directly on the initial IG carbide distribution. For the same degree of cold rolling, alloys with few IG precipitates exhibited much less permanent damage. Although this difference in grain boundary damage appears to correlate with measured SCC growth rates, crack tip examinations reveal that cracked carbides appeared to blunt propagation of IGSCC cracks in many cases. Preliminary results suggest that the localized grain boundary strains and stresses produced during cold rolling promote IGSCC susceptibility and not the cracked carbides and voids.

  7. Texture Evolution of a Non-oriented Electrical Steel Cold Rolled at Directions Different from the Hot Rolling Direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Youliang; Hilinski, Erik; Li, Jian

    2015-11-01

    With the objective of optimizing the crystallographic texture of non-oriented electrical steel, i.e., reducing the <111>//ND and <110>//RD fibers and promoting the <001>//ND texture, a new rolling scheme was proposed and tested, in which the cold rolling direction (CRD) was intentionally inclined at an angle to the hot rolling direction (HRD) in order to change the orientation flow paths during cold rolling and alter the final texture of the annealed sheets. A non-oriented electrical steel containing 0.88 wt pct Si was hot rolled using conventional routes and annealed, and a number of rectangular plates were cut from the hot band with the longitudinal directions inclined at various angles, i.e., 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 deg, to the HRD. These plates were then cold rolled along the longitudinal directions with a thickness reduction of 72 pct. The cold-rolled samples were annealed, temper rolled and annealed again (final annealing). The texture evolution during hot rolling, hot band annealing, cold rolling, and final annealing was characterized by electron backscatter diffraction and X-ray diffraction techniques. By changing the CRD with respect to the HRD, the initial texture and the orientation flow paths were altered, which resulted in apparent differences in the textures as compared to conventional cold rolling. After temper rolling and final annealing, the recrystallization textures consisted of mainly a <001>//ND fiber and there was almost no <111>//ND fiber. The sample cold rolled at an angle of 60 deg to the HRD had the strongest texture (intensity almost 2× of conventional rolling) with a maximum at the cube {001}<100> orientation—a magnetically favorable orientation for non-oriented electrical steels.

  8. 46. 84INCH STRIP MILL. SLABS ROLLED AT THE PLANT'S SLABBING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. 84-INCH STRIP MILL. SLABS ROLLED AT THE PLANT'S SLABBING MILL ARE REHEATED IN ONE OF TWO CONTINUOUS FURNACES, THEN PUSHED OUT ONTO A CONVEYOR THAT CARRIES THEM TO THE ROUGHING AND FINISHING STANDS. - Corrigan, McKinney Steel Company, 3100 East Forty-fifth Street, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  9. Effect of roll-compaction and milling conditions on granules and tablet properties.

    PubMed

    Perez-Gandarillas, Lucia; Perez-Gago, Ana; Mazor, Alon; Kleinebudde, Peter; Lecoq, Olivier; Michrafy, Abderrahim

    2016-09-01

    Dry granulation is an agglomeration process used to produce size-enlarged particles (granules), improving the handling properties of powders such as flowability. In this process, powders are compacted using a roll press to produce ribbons, which are milled in granules used further in the tableting process. The granule and tablet properties are influenced by the existence of different designs of the roll compactors, milling systems and the interaction between process parameters and raw material properties. The main objective of this work was to investigate how different roll-compaction conditions and milling process parameters impact on ribbons, granules and tablet properties, highlighting the role of the sealing system (cheek plates and rimmed roll). In this context, two common excipients differing in their mechanical behaviour (MCC and mannitol) are used. The study is based on the analysis of granule size distribution together with the characterization of loss of compactability during die compaction. Results show that the tensile strength of tablets is lower when using granules than when the raw materials are compressed. Moreover, the plastic material (MCC) is more sensitive than the brittle one (mannitol). Regarding the roll-force, it is observed that the higher the roll force, the lower the tensile strength of tablets from granulated material is. These findings are in agreement with the literature. The comparison of sealing systems shows that the rimmed-roll system leads to slightly stronger tablets than the use of cheek plates. In addition, the use of the rimmed-roll system reduces the amount of fines, in particular when high roll force is applied. Overall, it can be concluded that roll-compaction effect is predominant over the milling effect on the production of fines but less significant on the tablet properties. This study points out that the balance between a good flowability by reducing the amount of fines and appropriate tablet strength is achieved with

  10. Development of alignment-guidance device for grooved roll mill using parallel projection imaging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, Toshifumi; Iwata, Teruhisa; Yamagami, Daisaku; Takagi, Keiji

    2013-04-01

    The accuracy in the arrangement of grooved rolls for the finishing rolling mill is of large importance for the good roundness of the bar steel product supplied to the precision machinery components such as the bearing of the high speed motor. Combining telecentric optics, silhouette image processing techniques, and statistical data processing allowed the development of the quantitative alignment guidance technique of the grooved rolls. The developed system demonstrated a high measuring accuracy and was seen to have practical use.

  11. Cold pressure welding by incremental rolling: Deformation zone analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Hans Christian; Homberg, Werner; Hoppe, Christian; Grundmeier, Guido; Hordych, Illia; Maier, Hans Jürgen

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we analyse the deformation zone that forms during cold welding of metal pairs by incremental rolling. The tool geometry has great influence on the forming behaviour and the overall shape of the metal part. In order to improve the process, an increase in surface exposure is aspired since it should lead to an increased weld strength. Six tool geometries were tested by means of FEA and analysed based on the surface exposure created between the surfaces in contact.

  12. Investigation and Modeling of Recrystallization of Cold Rolled Automotive Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhitelev, P.; Vasilyev, A.; Sokolov, S.; Sokolov, D.; Paligin, R.

    2016-04-01

    Ferrite recrystallization in cold-rolled sheets of automotive steels has been studied using a Geeble 3800 complex. Mathematical models for quantitative description of the process kinetics and prediction of the recrystallized ferrite grain size have been developed. These models enable performing calculations for any arbitrary heating regimes, including those that are used in industrial production practice, and allow taking into account the effects of a fairly wide range variation of the chemical composition of steels.

  13. Research and Development Trend of Shape Control for Cold Rolling Strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong-Cheng; Liu, Hong-Min; Liu, Jun

    2017-09-01

    Shape is an important quality index of cold rolling strip. Up to now, many problems in the shape control domain have not been solved satisfactorily, and a review on the research progress in the shape control domain can help to seek new breakthrough directions. In the past 10 years, researches and applications of shape control models, shape control means, shape detection technology, and shape control system have achieved significant progress. In the aspect of shape control models, the researches in the past improve the accuracy, speed and robustness of the models. The intelligentization of shape control models should be strengthened in the future. In the aspect of the shape control means, the researches in the past focus on the roll optimization, mill type selection, process optimization, local strip shape control, edge drop control, and so on. In the future, more attention should be paid to the coordination control of both strip shape and other quality indexes, and the refinement of control objective should be strengthened. In the aspects of shape detection technology and shape control system, some new types of shape detection meters and shape control systems are developed and have successfully industrial applications. In the future, the standardization of shape detection technology and shape control system should be promoted to solve the problem of compatibility. In general, the four expected development trends of shape control for cold rolling strip in the future are intelligentization, coordination, refinement, and standardization. The proposed research provides new breakthrough directions for improving shape quality.

  14. Research and Development Trend of Shape Control for Cold Rolling Strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong-Cheng; Liu, Hong-Min; Liu, Jun

    2017-07-01

    Shape is an important quality index of cold rolling strip. Up to now, many problems in the shape control domain have not been solved satisfactorily, and a review on the research progress in the shape control domain can help to seek new breakthrough directions. In the past 10 years, researches and applications of shape control models, shape control means, shape detection technology, and shape control system have achieved significant progress. In the aspect of shape control models, the researches in the past improve the accuracy, speed and robustness of the models. The intelligentization of shape control models should be strengthened in the future. In the aspect of the shape control means, the researches in the past focus on the roll optimization, mill type selection, process optimization, local strip shape control, edge drop control, and so on. In the future, more attention should be paid to the coordination control of both strip shape and other quality indexes, and the refinement of control objective should be strengthened. In the aspects of shape detection technology and shape control system, some new types of shape detection meters and shape control systems are developed and have successfully industrial applications. In the future, the standardization of shape detection technology and shape control system should be promoted to solve the problem of compatibility. In general, the four expected development trends of shape control for cold rolling strip in the future are intelligentization, coordination, refinement, and standardization. The proposed research provides new breakthrough directions for improving shape quality.

  15. Method for the production of cold rolled steel sheet having super deep drawability

    SciTech Connect

    Tokunaga, Y.; Yamada, M.

    1985-03-12

    Method for the production of a cold rolled steel sheet which has a distinguished deep drawability as well as chemical treating ability by the steps of providing a very low carbon steel, adding Ti and Nb in combination to said steel, hot rolling and cold rolling said steel to produce a cold rolled steel sheet, and subjecting said cold rolled steel sheet to a continuous anneal at a temperature of more than 700/sup 0/ C. to less than the Ac/sup 3/ transformation point.

  16. The Relationship Between Hot and Cold Rolling Parameters and Secondary Recrystallization Behavior in Silicon Steel Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahangiri, Mohammadreza

    2015-08-01

    The effect of different hot and cold rolling process variables was evaluated for the secondary recrystallization behavior of silicon steel sheets, and a simple model was developed. On the basis of the model, the following results can be drawn: (a) for complete secondary recrystallization of silicon steel sheets, rolling of cast ingots must precede MnS precipitation start; (b) if it is necessitated, intermediate annealing during hot rolling passes must be carried out in the temperature of about 1000 °C; (c) during hot rolling, the amount of initial strain before the intermediate annealing of rolled strips at 1000 °C must be >70% reduction in thickness; (d) in the two-stage cold rolling method, the thickness reduction in the second cold rolling stage must be <61%; and (e) secondary recrystallization is encouraged by using the non-conventional three-stage cold rolling method with two intermediate anneals.

  17. Rheology of coal-water slurries prepared by the HP roll mill grinding of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.

    1992-12-01

    The objective of the research is the development of improved technology for the preparation of coal-water slurries, which have potential for replacing fuel oil in direct combustion. The fine grinding of coal is a crucial step in the manufacture of coal-water slurries. In this context, currently available grinding mills exhibit poor energy efficiency for size reduction and non-optimum packing characteristics of the ground coal. The first increases the cost of manufacture of coal-water slurries and the second adversely affects their rheological properties. The newly invented choke-fed, high-pressure roll mill is up to 50% more energy efficient and, moreover, there are reasons to believe that it produces a size distribution of ground particles which is closer to the dense packing composition. The high-pressure roll mill (which is perhaps the only really significant innovation in industrial comminution in this century) has lower capital cost, occupies less floor space, shows negligible wear rate, accepts feed with a wide range of moisture contents and, of particular importance, it can be scaled up to grind hundreds of tons of solids per hour. The high-pressure roll mill provides a unique opportunity to develop an improved technology for preparing coal-water slurries. Our research group in the University of California at Berkeley not only has a fully instrumented, laboratory-scale, choke-fed. high-pressure roll mill (the only one of its kind in the United States) but also fully instrumented laboratory ball mills for comparative fine coal preparation purposes. In this research program, our plans are to systematically investigate comminution energy consumption, deagglomeration procedures, and the stability and rheology of coal-water slurry fuel prepared with high-pressure roll mill, and to compare the results with slurry prepared with ball-milled coal.

  18. Hot Rolling of Gamma Titanium Aluminide Foil (PREPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    the processing sequence usually comprises hot rolling of thick (or thin) slab, hot sheet rolling, and final cold rolling with various intermediate...surface conditioning stages. Cold rolling is frequently done with multi-stand, four-high mills (for sheet) or Sendzimir reversing mills (for foil...both of which impart a high degree of thickness control. Alloys which exhibit high work-hardening rates or limited cold ductility (e.g., stainless

  19. Texture development in dual-phase cold-rolled 18 pct Ni maraging steel

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Z.; Farooque, M.; Ul Haq, A.; Khan, A.Q.

    1997-12-01

    Austenite and martensite textures were studied in 18 pct Ni 350-maraging steel as a function of various degrees of cold rolling. The austenite phase in the samples was produced by repeated thermal cycling between ambient and 800 C. The austenite phase thus formed was mechanically unstable and transformed to the martensite phase after 30 pct cold rolling. The texture developed as a result of cold rolling, and its effect upon microstructure and hardness has been studied.

  20. Investigation on the cold rolling and structuring of cold sprayed copper-coated steel sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobzin, K.; Öte, M.; Wiesner, S.; Gerdt, L.; Senge, S.; Hirt, G.

    2017-03-01

    A current driving force of research is lightweight design. One of the approaches to reduce the weight of a component without causing an overall stiffness decrease is the use of multi-material components. One of the main challenges of this approach is the low bonding strength between different materials. Focusing on steel-aluminum multi-material components, thermally sprayed copper coatings can come into use as a bonding agent between steel sheets and high pressure die cast aluminum to improve the bonding strength. This paper presents a combination of cold gas spraying of copper coatings and their subsequent structuring by rolling as surface pretreatment method of the steel inserts. Therefore, flat rolling experiments are performed with samples in “as sprayed” and heat treated conditions to determine the influence of the rolling process on the bond strength and the formability of the coating. Furthermore, the influence of the rolling on the roughness and the hardness of the coating was examined. In the next step, the coated surface was structured, to create a surface topology suited for a form closure connection in a subsequent high-pressure die casting process. No cracks were observed after the cold rolling process with a thickness reduction of up to ε = 14 % for heat treated samples. Structuring of heat treated samples could be realized without delamination and cracking.

  1. The effect of cold rolling parameters on the recrystallization texture of non-oriented electrical steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamata, R.; Kubota, T.; Yamada, K.

    1997-12-01

    The effect of cold rolling condition on magnetic properties of non-oriented electrical steel was investigated. For evaluation of cold roiling condition, utilizing rolling shape factor (RSF) was proposed. In the case of small RSF, magnetic induction was improved. Development of ND ∥ <111< components was suppressed in the recrystallized texture near the surface, and the vicinity of the {100}<001> component was developed after grain growth. The relation between RSF and cold-rolling condition was examined by computer simulation; such results were attributed to the increment of shear strain in the surface texture. Magnetic properties would be improved by adequate control of cold-rolling condition.

  2. Extended Kalman Filter Based Neural Networks Controller For Hot Strip Rolling mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussaoui, A. K.; Abbassi, H. A.; Bouazza, S.

    2008-06-01

    The present paper deals with the application of an Extended Kalman filter based adaptive Neural-Network control scheme to improve the performance of a hot strip rolling mill. The suggested Neural Network model was implemented using Bayesian Evidence based training algorithm. The control input was estimated iteratively by an on-line extended Kalman filter updating scheme basing on the inversion of the learned neural networks model. The performance of the controller is evaluated using an accurate model estimated from real rolling mill input/output data, and the usefulness of the suggested method is proved.

  3. Extended Kalman Filter Based Neural Networks Controller For Hot Strip Rolling mill

    SciTech Connect

    Moussaoui, A. K.; Abbassi, H. A.; Bouazza, S.

    2008-06-12

    The present paper deals with the application of an Extended Kalman filter based adaptive Neural-Network control scheme to improve the performance of a hot strip rolling mill. The suggested Neural Network model was implemented using Bayesian Evidence based training algorithm. The control input was estimated iteratively by an on-line extended Kalman filter updating scheme basing on the inversion of the learned neural networks model. The performance of the controller is evaluated using an accurate model estimated from real rolling mill input/output data, and the usefulness of the suggested method is proved.

  4. Control method for steel strip roughness in Two-stand temper mill rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rui; Zhang, Qingdong; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Yu, Meng; Wang, Bo

    2015-05-01

    How to control surface roughness of steel strip in a narrow range for a long time has become an important question because surface roughness would significantly influence the appearance of the products. However, there are few effective solutions to solve the problem currently. In this paper, considering both asperities of work roll pressing in and squeezing the steel strip, two asperity contact models including squeezing model and pressing in model in a two-stand temper mill rolling are established by using finite element method (FEM). The simulation investigates the influences of multiple process parameters, such as work roll surface roughness, roll radius and roll force on the surface roughness of steel strip. The simulation results indicate that work rolls surface roughness and roll force play important roles in the products; furthermore, the effect of roll force in the first stand is opposite to the second. According to the analysis, a control method for steel strip surface roughness in a narrow range for a long time is proposed, which applies higher work roll roughness in the first stand and lower roll roughness in the second to make the steel strip roughness in a required narrow range. In the later stage of the production, decreasing the roll force in the first stand and increasing the roll force in the second stand guarantee the steel strip roughness relatively stable in a long time. The following experimental measurements on the surface topography and roughness of the steel strips during the whole process are also conducted. The results validate the simulation conclusions and prove the effect of the control method. The application of the proposed method in the steel strip production shows excellent performance including long service life of work roll and high finished product rate.

  5. Effect of cold-rolling on the magnettic ttransitions in Au83Fe17

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing Du, Chen; J, Nogues; K, V. Rao; C, E. Violet; R, J. Borg

    1988-03-01

    The temperature dependences of the dynamic-elastic and viscous susceptibilities have been measured for Au83Fe17 after cold-rolling. It is found that cold-rolling reduces the Curie temperature and raises the spin-freezing temperature remarkably. These results can be explained on the basis of the precipitation medel proposed by Borg and Violet.

  6. Microstructural evolution in warm-rolled and cold-rolled strip cast 6.5 wt% Si steel thin sheets and its influence on magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianglong; Liu, Zhenyu; Li, Haoze; Wang, Guodong

    2017-07-01

    6.5 wt% Si steel thin sheets were usually fabricated by warm rolling. In our previous work, 6.5 wt% Si steel thin sheets with good magnetic properties had been successfully fabricated by cold rolling based on strip casting. In the present work, the main purposes were to find out the influences of warm rolling and cold rolling on microstructures and magnetic properties of the thin sheets with the thickness of 0.2 mm, and to confirm which rolling method was more suitable for fabricating 6.5 wt% Si steel thin sheets. The results showed that the cold rolled sheet could obtain good surface quality and flatness, while the warm rolled sheet could not. The intensity of γ-fiber rolling texture (<1 1 1>//ND) of cold rolled specimen was weaker than that of the warm rolled specimen, especially for the {1 1 1}<1 1 2> component at surface layer and {1 1 1}<1 1 0> component at center layer. After the same annealing treatment, the cold rolled specimen, which had higher stored energy and weaker intensity of γ-fiber rolling texture, could obtain smaller recrystallization grain size, weaker intensity of γ-fiber recrystallization texture and stronger intensity of λ-fiber recrystallization texture. Therefore, due to the good surface quality, smaller recrystallization grain size and optimum recrystallization texture, the cold rolled specimen possessed improved magnetic properties, and cold rolling should be more suitable for fabricating 6.5 wt% Si steel thin sheets.

  7. Soft Starting Arrangements Availables for Hot Rolling Mills for Energy Conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisen, A. M.; Bapat, P. M.; Gagnuly, S. K.

    2012-07-01

    The conventional rolling mills in India are producing a major part of structural steel requirement of the country. The energy conservation in these rolling mills can be achieved mainly by reducing the size of the prime mover i.e. main electric motor. The power consumption per ton can be considerably decreased through proper selection of electric motor since it has been an observation by many surveyors[1] that the selection of electric motor of the rolling mill has been almost five to ten times on the higher side which can be easily verified from the power consumption and motor working data.Flywheel is a mechanical storage device. Largest size of flywheels are frequently recommended for smooth running of rolling mills. The main difficulty encountered in selecting large capacity flywheel or flywheel gear box system is the starting of the mill with smaller capacity electric motor. The starting characteristic of electric motor is not suitable for starting such rolling mill with very high inertia flywheel. In such condition it becomes very essential to introduce the soft starting arrangement for the electric motor so that considerably small size motor can start the flywheel effectively.Soft starters are used for the smooth start-up control of three-phase induction motors. The soft starter is functionally located between the Flywheel and the electric motor. In selecting the correct soft starter to suit the application the peculiarities of the soft start should be considered. In the prevailing conditions we use the motor of high horse power due to the fact that the flywheel requires high torque to be driven initially. For the same reason the efficiency of the flywheel is very low initially. Once the flywheel stores sufficient power which is required at the start up, the flywheel then requires less power than given initially. If we somehow are able to increase the efficiency of the flywheel using a flexible electrical, mechanical, hydraulic or flexible drives with

  8. Effect of the cold-rolling parameters and the yield strength of the strip material on the friction stresses in a deformation zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garber, E. A.; Yagudin, I. V.; Ermilov, V. V.; Traino, A. I.

    2009-10-01

    The reliability of the methods of determining the friction coefficient is analyzed, since the friction stresses in the deformation zone during cold rolling significantly affect the quality of cold-rolled sheets and the energy consumption. The well-known experimental data and empirical dependences are shown to contradict each other, and the statistical assurance of these dependences is absent. A database on the interrelated technological and energy-force parameters of a five-stand cold-rolling mill, which includes a wide range of steel grades and strip sizes and shapes, is analyzed. Regression analysis is used to obtain a statistically reliable regression dependence of the friction coefficient in the deformation zone on the most significant technological parameters. The application of this dependence decreases the error of energy-force calculations by more than two times.

  9. TOPICAL REVIEW: Progress in cold roll bonding of metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Long; Nagai, Kotobu; Yin, Fuxing

    2008-04-01

    Layered composite materials have become an increasingly interesting topic in industrial development. Cold roll bonding (CRB), as a solid phase method of bonding same or different metals by rolling at room temperature, has been widely used in manufacturing large layered composite sheets and foils. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of a technology using layered composite materials produced by CRB and discuss the suitability of this technology in the fabrication of layered composite materials. The effects of process parameters on bonding, mainly including process and surface preparation conditions, have been analyzed. Bonding between two sheets can be realized when deformation reduction reaches a threshold value. However, it is essential to remove surface contamination layers to produce a satisfactory bond in CRB. It has been suggested that the degreasing and then scratch brushing of surfaces create a strong bonding between the layers. Bonding mechanisms, in which the film theory is expressed as the major mechanism in CRB, as well as bonding theoretical models, have also been reviewed. It has also been showed that it is easy for fcc structure metals to bond compared with bcc and hcp structure metals. In addition, hardness on bonding same metals plays an important part in CRB. Applications of composites produced by CRB in industrial fields are briefly reviewed and possible developments of CRB in the future are also described. Corrections were made to the abstract and conclusion of this article on 18 June 2008. The corrected electronic version is identical to the print version.

  10. Intermixing in Cu/Ni multilayers induced by cold rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Perepezko, J. H.; Larson, D.; Reinhard, D.

    2015-04-01

    Repeated cold rolling was performed on multilayers of Cu60/Ni40 and Cu40/Ni60 foil arrays to study the details of driven atomic scale interfacial mixing. With increasing deformation, there is a significant layer refinement down to the nm level that leads to the formation of a solid solution phase from the elemental end members. Intriguingly, the composition of the solid solution is revealed by an oscillation in the composition profile across the multilayers, which is different from the smoothly varying profile due to thermally activated diffusion. During the reaction, Cu mixed into Ni preferentially compared to Ni mixing into Cu, which is also in contrast to the thermal diffusion behavior. This is confirmed by observations from X-ray diffraction, electron energy loss spectrum and atom probe tomography. The diffusion coefficient induced by cold rolling is estimated as 1.7 × 10-17 m2/s, which cannot be attributed to any thermal effect. The effective temperature due to the deformation induced mixing is estimated as 1093 K and an intrinsic diffusivity db, which quantifies the tendency towards equilibrium in the absence of thermal diffusion, is estimated as 6.38 × 10-18 m2/s. The fraction of the solid solution phase formed is illustrated by examining the layer thickness distribution and is described by using an error function representation. The evolution of mixing in the solid solution phase is described by a simplified sinusoid model, in which the amplitude decays with increased deformation level. The promoted diffusion coefficient could be related to the effective temperature concept, but the establishment of an oscillation in the composition profile is a characteristic behavior that develops due to deformation.

  11. Intermixing in Cu/Ni multilayers induced by cold rolling

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.; Perepezko, J. H.; Larson, D.; Reinhard, D.

    2015-04-28

    Repeated cold rolling was performed on multilayers of Cu60/Ni40 and Cu40/Ni60 foil arrays to study the details of driven atomic scale interfacial mixing. With increasing deformation, there is a significant layer refinement down to the nm level that leads to the formation of a solid solution phase from the elemental end members. Intriguingly, the composition of the solid solution is revealed by an oscillation in the composition profile across the multilayers, which is different from the smoothly varying profile due to thermally activated diffusion. During the reaction, Cu mixed into Ni preferentially compared to Ni mixing into Cu, which is also in contrast to the thermal diffusion behavior. This is confirmed by observations from X-ray diffraction, electron energy loss spectrum and atom probe tomography. The diffusion coefficient induced by cold rolling is estimated as 1.7 × 10{sup −17} m{sup 2}/s, which cannot be attributed to any thermal effect. The effective temperature due to the deformation induced mixing is estimated as 1093 K and an intrinsic diffusivity d{sub b}, which quantifies the tendency towards equilibrium in the absence of thermal diffusion, is estimated as 6.38 × 10{sup −18} m{sup 2}/s. The fraction of the solid solution phase formed is illustrated by examining the layer thickness distribution and is described by using an error function representation. The evolution of mixing in the solid solution phase is described by a simplified sinusoid model, in which the amplitude decays with increased deformation level. The promoted diffusion coefficient could be related to the effective temperature concept, but the establishment of an oscillation in the composition profile is a characteristic behavior that develops due to deformation.

  12. Effects of microalloying on hot-rolled and cold-rolled Q&P steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo de Araujo, Ana Luiza

    Third generation advanced high strength steels (AHSS) have been a major focus in steel development over the last decade. The premise of these types of steel is based on the potential to obtain excellent combinations of strength and ductility with low-alloy compositions by forming mixed microstructures containing retained austenite (RA). The development of heat treatments able to achieve the desired structures and properties, such as quenching and partitioning (Q&P) steels, is driven by new requirements to increase vehicle fuel economy by reducing overall weight while maintaining safety and crashworthiness. Microalloying additions of niobium (Nb) and vanadium (V) in sheet products are known to provide strengthening via grain refinement and precipitation hardening and may influence RA volume fraction and transformation behavior. Additions of microalloying elements in Q&P steels have not been extensively studied to date, however. The objective of the present study was to begin to understand the potential roles of Nb and V in hot-rolled and cold-rolled Q&P steel. For that, a common Q&P steel composition was selected as a Base alloy with 0.2C-1.5Si-2.0Mn (wt. %). Two alloys with an addition of Nb (0.02 and 0.04 wt. %) and one with an addition of V (0.06 wt. %) to the Base alloy were investigated. Both hot-rolled and cold-rolled/annealed Q&P simulations were conducted. In the hot-rolled Q&P study, thermomechanical processing was simulated via hot torsion testing in a GleebleRTM 3500, and four coiling temperatures (CT) were chosen. Microstructural evaluation (including RA measurements via electron backscattered diffraction - EBSD) and hardness measurements were performed for all alloys and coiling conditions. The analysis showed that Nb additions led to overall refinement of the prior microstructure. Maximum RA fractions were measured at the 375 °C CT, and microalloying was associated with increased RA in this condition when compared to the Base alloy. A change in

  13. Identification of Material Properties Based on Rolling Process at 4-Stand Laboratory Mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szeliga, D.; Graf, M.; Kawalla, R.; Pietrzyk, M.

    2011-05-01

    The general objective of the work is to estimate the properties of the material in hot strip rolling process. The authors propose a modified inverse algorithm; to make direct use of the manufacturing process instead of conventional plastometric tests. This approach allows to reduce time and costs of identification. The rolling at 4-stand pilot mill at the Institute of Metal Forming, TU Bergakademie, Freiberg was selected. The material was C45 steel. The measured quantities of the process were rolling loads and torques, as well as temperatures. Numerical tests have shown that accuracy of torque predictions is low, therefore, the goal function of inverse analysis was defined as an average square root error between measured and FEM calculated rolling loads only. The first stage of the work was to develop the model of the hot strip rolling, which defines the direct model in the inverse analysis. This model is complex, it composes the whole roughing and finishing rolling. Based on the model and results of the laboratory experiment, the deformation process including the temperature field and the recrystallization up to the last finishing mill is calculated. Moreover, an application of the inverse analysis to the identification of the models of the hot strip rolling and design of the rolling parameters allows to obtain the required microstructure of final products. Inverse analysis and/or optimization of such a manufacturing chain is time-consuming. Large number of control parameters makes the time of the analysis unacceptable. Therefore, the metamodel of the hot rolling is applied to make the inverse calculations efficient. In the work the results of calculations with identified process parameters and experimental data are compared and presented. Also advantages and disadvantages are described.

  14. Study on edge crack propagation during cold rolling of thin strip by FEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, H. B.; Jiang, Z. Y.; Wei, D. B.; Tieu, A. K.

    2010-06-01

    Edge crack is one common phenomenon in cold rolling of thin strip which affects qualities of the rolled strip. A three-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element (FE) model for cold flat product rolling has been developed to simulate the edge crack propagation during rolling. Stress field is investigated around the edge crack tip, and the effects of the friction coefficient, the initial crack size, reductions on crack propagation are analysed. The FE simulation provides a better understanding of the crack growth at the edge of thin strip, and could be helpful in developing of cold rolled strip with high performance mechanical properties. The optimum condition to eliminate defects is discussed, and the proposed prediction method of surface defect can be utilised to make defect free products in rolling processes.

  15. The effect of cold rolling parameters on the recrystallization texture of non-oriented electrical steel

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamata, R.; Kubota, T.; Yamada, K.

    1997-12-01

    The effect of cold rolling condition on magnetic properties of non-oriented electrical steel was investigated. For evaluation of cold rolling condition, utilizing rolling shape factor (RSF) was proposed. In the case of small RSF, magnetic induction was improved. Development of ND {parallel} <111> components was suppressed in the recrystallized texture near the surface, and the vicinity of the {l_brace}100{r_brace}<001> component was developed after grain growth. The relation between RSF and cold-rolling condition was examined by computer simulation; such results were attributed to the increment of shear strain in the surface texture. Magnetic properties would be improved by adequate control of cold-rolling condition.

  16. Microstructure and texture evolution in cold-rolled and annealed alloy MA-956

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosoda, Takashi

    The microstructural and texture development with thermomechanical processing, performed through a combination of cold-rolling and annealing, in MA-956 plate consisting of a layered and inhomogeneous microstructure was systematically assessed. The alloy contained in mass percent, 20 Cr, 4.8 Al, 0.4 Ti, 0.4 Y2O3, and the balance iron. The starting material was as-hot-rolled plate, 9.7 mm thick. The as-hot-rolled plate was subjected to 40%, 60%, and 80% cold-rolling reduction and subsequently annealed at 1000, 1200, or 1380. Assessment of microstructural and texture developments before and after cold-rolling and annealing was performed using light optical microscopy (LOM), Vickers hardness testing, and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Locally introduced misorientations by cold-rolling in each region were evaluated by Kernel Average Misorientation (KAM) maps. The as-hot-rolled condition contained a layered and inhomogeneous microstructure consisting of thin and coarse elongated grains, and aggregated regions which consisted of fine grains and sub-grains with {100} texture parallel to the longitudinal direction. The microstructure of the 40% cold-rolled condition contained deformation bands, and the 60% and 80% cold-rolled conditions also contained highly deformed regions where the deformation bands were intricately tangled. A predominant orientation of (001) parallel to the rolling direction was developed during cold-rolling, becoming more prominent with increasing reduction. The magnitudes of KAM angles varied through the thickness depending on the initial microstructures. Recrystallization occurred in regions where high KAM angles were dense after annealing and nucleation sites were the aggregation regions, deformation bands, and highly deformed regions. The shape and size of the recrystallized grains varied depending on the nucleation sites.

  17. Effect of texture on the cold rolling behavior of an alpha-two titanium aluminide

    SciTech Connect

    Sukonnik, I.M.; Semiatin, S.L.; Haynes, M. USAF, Wright Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY )

    1992-03-01

    The effect of the texture on the cold rolling behavior of an alpha-2 titanium aluminide, Ti-14AL-21Nb (wt pct), was investigated by measuring pole figures, Knoop hardness yield loci, tensile ductility, and the starting microstructure of a number of lots of the cold-rolled material. Results showed that measurements of tensile ductility do not necessarily correlate with the cold rolling performance. On the other hand, the Knoop hardness yield locus provides a convenient quality control tool to assess lot-to-lot variations in texture and plastic anisotropy, and hence to estimate the rollability of sheet and foil specimens. 8 refs.

  18. Cold rolling induced alloying behaviors in metallic multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhe

    Phase transformation and atomic scale intermixing induced by deformation are important and fundamental issues in the mechanical alloying processes. Repeated cold rolling and folding experiments were performed on the metallic multilayers in order to study the deformation driven behaviors. Various binary systems such as isomorphous, eutectic and thermodynamically immiscible systems were studied. Moreover, monometallic Pd, Pt and Fe were selected in order to study the deformation driven recrystallization behavior. In Cu/Ni multilayers, the composition of the solid solution is revealed by an oscillation in the composition profile across the multilayers, which is different from the smoothly varying profile due to thermally activated diffusion. During the reaction, Cu mixed into Ni preferentially compared to Ni mixing into Cu, which is also in contrast to the thermal diffusion behavior. During the cold rolling of multilayers of Ni and V, deformation induces phase transformation and an interfacial mixing with suppression of nucleation of intermetallic phases. The results also demonstrate that between pure Ni and V layers a metastable fcc solid solution phase forms in Ni70V30, a metastable bcc solid solution phase forms in Ni30V70 and metastable fcc and bcc solid solution phases form in Ni57V43. Compared to the stored energy due to dislocation and interfaces, the excess chemical free energy from the interfacial mixing is the largest portion of total stored energy from deformation, which represents a form of mechanochemical transduction. The difference in the intermixing behaviors between Cu/Ni and Ni/V systems is due to that the systems have different heat of mixing and interface characters. Deformation of Cu/Fe multilayers yields a smooth and monotonic variation in the composition profile. From the local composition consumption it is revealed that that Fe mixes into Cu preferentially than Cu mixing into Fe. The room temperature deformation driven recrystallization was

  19. Numerical simulations of vesicle and bubble dynamics in two-dimensional four-roll mill flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yongsam; Lai, Ming-Chih; Seol, Yunchang

    2017-05-01

    We use a computational technique based on the immersed boundary method to construct a four-roll mill device with which we can generate a broad spectrum of flow types from an extensional flow to a rotational one. We put a vesicle or a bubble in the constructed four-roll mill device to investigate their interaction with the surrounding fluid. The vesicle dynamics are determined by its bending rigidity, inextensibility, and hydrodynamical force, whereas the bubble dynamics is governed by the surface tension and the hydrodynamic interaction. Depending on the type of the flow, these suspended objects go through either a tank-treading motion or a tumbling motion. We validate our numerical method by a convergence study and discuss the transition between tank-treading and tumbling motions for the vesicles and bubbles.

  20. Preparation Model Based Control System For Hot Steel Strip Rolling Mill Stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouazza, S. E.; Abbassi, H. A.; Moussaoui, A. K.

    2008-06-01

    As part of a research project on El-hadjar Hot Steel Rolling Mill Plant Annaba Algeria a new Model based control system is suggested to improve the performance of the hot strip rolling mill process. In this paper off-line model based controllers and a process simulator are described. The process models are based on the laws of physics. these models can predict the future behavior and the stability of the controlled process very reliably. The control scheme consists of a control algorithm. This Model based Control system is evaluated on a simulation model that represents accurately the dynamic of the process. Finally the usefulness to the Steel Industry of the suggested method is highlighted.

  1. Texture studies of cold rolled steel, Cu and Ni by neutron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Černík, M.; Neov, D.

    2000-03-01

    The submitted contribution deals with texture investigations of some polycrystalline materials subjected to cold rolling process. Using neutron diffraction the texture of rolled steel, Cu and electrolytic Ni having the cubic BCC or FCC lattices were studied. On the basis of pole figures for Fe(1 1 0), Fe(2 0 0), Fe(1 1 2), Cu(1 1 1), Cu(2 0 0), Cu(2 2 0) and Ni(1 1 1), Ni(2 0 0), Ni(2 20), orientation distribution function (ODF) fully describing the texture of individual samples, could be determined (Wenk and Kocks, Metall. Trans. Al8 (1987) 1083; Kallend et al. Mater. Sci. Eng. A132 (1991)). It has been found that cold rolling significantly changes the texture and a complete anisotropy of the original material. Cold rolling as a specific method of metal forming creates in the rolled material a fibrous structure with α and γ fibres.

  2. EBSD study on crystallographic texture and microstructure development of cold-rolled FePd alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Hung-Pin; Ng, Tin-San; Kuo, Jui-Chao; Chen, Yen-Chun; Chen, Chun-Liang; Ding, Shi-Xuan

    2014-07-01

    The crystallographic texture and microstructure of FePd alloy after cold-rolling deformation were investigated using electron backscatter diffraction. The major orientations of twin copper and copper after 50% thickness reduction were observed in face-centered cubic-disordered FePd alloy, whereas the main orientation was obtained from brass type after 90% cold rolling. Increase in cold rolling resulted in the change of preferred orientation from copper to brass. Decrease in orientation intensity of copper also increased that of Goss and brass. - Highlights: • The evolution of texture and microstructure in FePd alloy was investigated after cold rolling using EBSD. • Increasing in reduction leads to the change of texture from Copper-type to Brass-type. • The reduction of Copper orientation results in increasing in Goss and Brass orientations.

  3. Microstructure and helium irradiation performance of high purity tungsten processed by cold rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhe; Han, Wenjia; Yu, Jiangang; Kecskes, Laszlo; Zhu, Kaigui; Wei, Qiuming

    2016-10-01

    This work aims to investigate the effects of confined cold rolling on the evolution of microstructure, hardness, and helium irradiation performance of high purity tungsten (W). Using a final rolling temperature of 450 °C, W samples were severely deformed by confined cold rolling up to equivalent strains (εeq) of 1.6 and 3.3. Experimental results indicate that the average grain size of W specimens processed by confined cold rolling has been greatly reduced, and the rolled W samples with εeq ∼3.3 do not show an "ideal texture" of (001)[110] which is the expected texture of bcc metals processed by conventional cold rolling. The irradiation resistance against 60 keV He+ ions with up to a dose of 1.5 × 1022 ions·m-2 of the rolled W is compared to that of the as-received W. Results show that, due to an improvement of the metal's ductility, blister bursting with a partially opened lid forms on the surface of the rolled W, whereas blister bursting with a fully opened lid forms on the surface of the as-received W.

  4. Mechanical properties of cold-rolled AISI 304LN steel at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Ilola, R.J.; Haenninen, H.E.; Heinaekari, M.J.

    1996-12-01

    Mechanical properties of 0--70% cold-rolled AISI 304LN steel (0, 16 wt.% N) were investigated by means of tensile and Charpy V-notch impact tests between room temperature and {minus}196 C. Fracture surfaces of the tested specimens were investigated using SEM (scanning electron microscope). Austenite stability against {alpha}{prime}-martensite formation during cooling and during deformation in cold-rolling and mechanical testing was determined using magnetic measurements.

  5. Texture evolution of commercial pure Ti during cold rolling and recrystallization annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hai-tao; Liu, Ji-xiong; Mi, Zhen-li; Zhao, Ai-min; Bi, Yan-jun

    2012-06-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) was employed to analyze the texture evolution of commercial pure (CP) Ti during cold rolling and recrystallization annealing. The texture components were measured by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) after recrystallization annealing. The CP Ti tends to form a texture with the basal pole tilted 30°-40° away from the normal direction toward the transverse direction. The texture of the initial hot-rolled plate can be classified into three kinds, i.e., the pyramid texture ( {bar 1013} )[ {5bar 2bar 30} ] and ( {bar 2021} )[ {10bar 15} ], the basal plane texture ( {0001} )[ {2bar 1bar 10} ], and the stronger prism texture ( {11bar 20} )[ {0001} ]. After cold rolling and annealing (700°C, 60 min), the main texture components are the cold-rolled texture ( {11bar 25} )[ {11bar 23} ] and the recrystallized texture ( {1013} )[ {5bar 2bar 30} ]. The texture ( {bar 2021} )[ {10bar 15} ] is inherited from the texture of the initial hot-rolled plate with the decrease of orientation density gradually. The volume contents of the cold-rolled texture { {bar 2115} \\}< {01bar 10} > and the recrystallized texture { {10bar 13} }< {1bar 210} > are calculated by EBSD. After recrystallization annealing, the specimen is rich in the recrystallized texture and inherits some of texture components from the cold-rolled texture. When the annealing time is prolonged, the anisotropic value decreases.

  6. Microstructural Evolution in Hot and Cold-Rolled Ti-Nb Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabei, A.; Startt, J.; Hoffman, R. T.; Yavari, E.; Deo, C.; Garmestani, H.

    2017-01-01

    Phase transformations, morphology, and crystallographic texture evolution in hot and cold-rolled Ti-25.51 wt.% Nb alloys are investigated. The experimental procedure involves synthesis of the alloy by arc melting followed by cold or hot rolling with intermediate prior and postheat treatments. Composition and phase analysis of all alloys are conducted using x-ray diffraction techniques and microstructural observations are conducted using an optical microscope. These examinations reveal that the as-melted alloy possesses large millimeter size grains with no stored strain energy and a two phase β - α' microstructure. Direct cold rolling followed by a short homogenization leads to a β - α'' mixture with ω precipitates. Two hour annealing before cold rolling leads to an α' - α'' mixture with a characteristic triangular martensitic microstructure evidencing the act of shear on formation of the phase. Hot rolling followed by a water quench results in a β - α'' mixture, while annealing prior to hot rolling transforms the arc-melted material to a α' - α'' mixture. The crystallographic textures of similar microstructure mixtures in hot and cold-rolled samples are distinctively different. The analysis shows that the microstructure serves as an identifying characteristic of the processing paths and is highly dependent on the mode of processing.

  7. Mechanism of Oxidation of Austenitic Stainless Steels under Conditions of Hot Rolling in Steckel Mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobo, S. J.; Palmiere, E. J.; Rainforth, W. M.

    2008-10-01

    The development of oxide scales on hot-rolled austenitic stainless steels under conditions imposed by the industrial Steckel Mill operation introduces particular characteristics that impact downstream on the surface quality of the hot-rolled strip product. In this research, the development of these particular surface structures were studied on 302 austenitic stainless steel by means of laboratory process simulation involving mechanical deformation in a multipass hot rolling schedule and long interpass time inside equalizing furnaces. Surface analysis using a set of complementary techniques that included field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and glow discharge optical spectroscopy (GDOS) provided a full characterization of the resulting surface structures. These structures consisted in multiple oxide scale and metal layers that were developed after each rolling pass and heavily modified by the following rolling operation establishing a single repetitive mechanism of surface development. The mechanism of formation of these complex multilayer surface structures has been fully determined as being associated with a cyclic oxidation pattern involving successive stages of protective oxidation, chemical breakaway, and the progress of duplex oxidation.

  8. Control of surface thermal scratch of strip in tandem cold rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jinshan; Li, Changsheng

    2014-07-01

    The thermal scratch seriously affects the surface quality of the cold rolled stainless steel strip. Some researchers have carried out qualitative and theoretical studies in this field. However, there is currently a lack of research on effective forecast and control of thermal scratch defects in practical production, especially in tandem cold rolling. In order to establish precise mathematical model of oil film thickness in deformation zone, the lubrication in cold rolling process of SUS410L stainless steel strip is studied, and major factors affecting oil film thickness are also analyzed. According to the principle of statistics, mathematical model of critical oil film thickness in deformation zone for thermal scratch is built, with fitting and regression analytical method, and then based on temperature comparison method, the criterion for deciding thermal scratch defects is put forward. Storing and calling data through SQL Server 2010, a software on thermal scratch defects control is developed through Microsoft Visual Studio 2008 by MFC technique for stainless steel in tandem cold rolling, and then it is put into practical production. Statistics indicate that the hit rate of thermal scratch is as high as 92.38%, and the occurrence rate of thermal scratch is decreased by 89.13%. Owing to the application of the software, the rolling speed is increased by approximately 9.3%. The software developed provides an effective solution to the problem of thermal scratch defects in tandem cold rolling, and helps to promote products surface quality of stainless steel strips in practical production.

  9. Simulation of the thermal conditions of rolls in a wide-strip hot-rolling mill to determine their effective cooling conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garber, E. A.; Khlopotin, M. V.; Traino, A. I.; Popov, E. S.; Savinykh, A. F.

    2009-06-01

    An advanced procedure is developed for the thermal calculation of the rolls in a wide-strip hot-rolling mill (WSHRM). It combines the following two adaptive models: the thermal balance in the active surface layer in a roll per revolution and the thermal balance in the main zones of work and backup rolls with axisymmetric temperature fields with allowance for the heat exchange between a strip, rolls, the coolant, and the environment. In contrast to the well-known models, this advanced procedure calculates the bulk mean temperature and the thermal profile in a roll more accurately, since the temperature drop across the surface layer in this procedure is calculated allowing for the intensities of the contact and convective heat exchange between rolls. Data on the coefficient of heat transfer from rolls to the coolant supplied at an excess pressure of 1.0-1.5 MPa are presented for the first time. This procedure is used in a 2000 WSHRM and improves the transverse profile of hot-rolled strips due to a stabilized thermal profile in rolls.

  10. Customized maximal-overlap multiwavelet denoising with data-driven group threshold for condition monitoring of rolling mill drivetrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jinglong; Wan, Zhiguo; Pan, Jun; Zi, Yanyang; Wang, Yu; Chen, Binqiang; Sun, Hailiang; Yuan, Jing; He, Zhengjia

    2016-02-01

    Fault identification timely of rolling mill drivetrain is significant for guaranteeing product quality and realizing long-term safe operation. So, condition monitoring system of rolling mill drivetrain is designed and developed. However, because compound fault and weak fault feature information is usually sub-merged in heavy background noise, this task still faces challenge. This paper provides a possibility for fault identification of rolling mills drivetrain by proposing customized maximal-overlap multiwavelet denoising method. The effectiveness of wavelet denoising method mainly relies on the appropriate selections of wavelet base, transform strategy and threshold rule. First, in order to realize exact matching and accurate detection of fault feature, customized multiwavelet basis function is constructed via symmetric lifting scheme and then vibration signal is processed by maximal-overlap multiwavelet transform. Next, based on spatial dependency of multiwavelet transform coefficients, spatial neighboring coefficient data-driven group threshold shrinkage strategy is developed for denoising process by choosing the optimal group length and threshold via the minimum of Stein's Unbiased Risk Estimate. The effectiveness of proposed method is first demonstrated through compound fault identification of reduction gearbox on rolling mill. Then it is applied for weak fault identification of dedusting fan bearing on rolling mill and the results support its feasibility.

  11. Plate Rolling Modeling at Mill 5000 of OJSC ``Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel'' for Analysis and Optimization of Temperature Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salganik, V.; Shmakov, A.; Pesin, A.; Pustovoytov, D.

    2010-06-01

    Modeling of strip deflected mode and thermal state in rolling is an integral part of the technology and perspective rolling-mill machinery such as plate mill 5000 of the OJSC "Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel". To comprehend metal behavior in the deformation zone in the rough passes during plate rolling it is essential to assess the impact of various temperature factors on variations in field of stress and strain intensities as well as temperature fields in deformation. To do such researches in consideration of various software products and adequate results one of the most effective methods nowadays is regarded as the method of finite elements. The research shows modeling of roughing rolling of a pipe steel sheet with strength category X80 according to standard API-5L. In the research of the metal deflected mode software product DEFORM 2D has been used for the isothermal and nonisothermic process. The mathematical modeling allows revealing the impact of temperature field on the metal deflected mode in the rough passes in plate rolling. Supposedly, it is deformation heating that can have more impact on the ingot temperature profile in the finishing passes in controlled rolling of the pipe steel grades. It is defined by high percent reduction, rolling speeds; more area of heat exchange surface; less thickness and lower temperature of rolling. The results can be used to develop efficient modes of plate rolling of the pipe steels.

  12. Optimization of Cold Rolling and Subsequent Annealing Treatment on Mechanical Properties of TWIP Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamani, D.; Golshan, A.; Dini, G.; Ismarrubie, Z. N.; Azmah Hanim, M. A.; Sajuri, Z.

    2017-08-01

    This research work studied the effect of cold rolling reduction and subsequent annealing temperature on the microstructural evolution and the mechanical properties of Fe-32Mn-4Si-2Al twinning-induced plasticity steel plates. For this, uniaxial tensile tests were carried out for three cold rolling reductions (50, 65 and 80%) and subsequent annealing treatment at 550-750 °C for 1.8 ks. The results were discussed in terms of the yield strength, ultimate tensile strength and total elongation and its dependence on the introduced microstructure. Regression analysis was used to develop the mathematical models of the mechanical properties. Moreover, analysis of variance was employed to verify the precision of the mathematical models. Finally, desirability function was used as an effective optimization approach for multi-objective optimization of the cold rolling reduction and annealing temperature. It is considerable that there is no research attempting to find optimum mechanical properties of the steels using this approach. The results indicated that applying large cold rolling reduction (upper than 75%) and subsequent annealing treatment in the recovery region and also the application of large cold rolling reduction and the subsequent annealing treatment in the lower limit of partial recrystallization region were effective methods to obtain an excellent combination of mechanical properties.

  13. Evolutions of Microstructure and Properties During Cold Rolling of 19Cr Duplex Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Qingxuan; Xu, Wanjian; Wu, Zhaoyu; Li, Jun; Xu, Yulai; Xiao, Xueshan; Hu, Jincheng; Jiang, Laizhu

    2016-10-01

    Evolutions of microstructure, mechanical, and corrosion properties of 19Cr (Fe-18.9Cr-10.1Mn-0.3Ni-0.261N-0.030C-0.5Si) duplex stainless steel have been investigated during cold rolling at room temperature. Dislocation slip dominated deformation mode of ferrite phase. However, deformation mechanism of austenite phase was different with the increasing cold-rolling reductions. Dislocation slip and strengthening effect of twin boundaries caused pile-up phenomenon at the initial deformation stage. When the amount of cold-rolling reduction attained greater than 50 pct, induced α'-martensite appeared in deformed austenite phase. Hardness of austenite phase was higher than that of the deformed ferrite because of its higher strengthening effect during cold-rolling process. Cold-rolling deformation caused deterioration of the pitting corrosion resistance in 3.5 wt pct NaCl aqueous solution. Pitting corrosion always initiated in the ferrite phase and the phase boundary in the solution-treated alloy. Additional pitting holes appeared in deformed austenite phase because of the decrease in corrosion resistance caused by dislocation accumulation and induced α'-martensite.

  14. Simulation of the longitudinal thickness deviation of the steel strips hot rolled in the continuous group of a broad-strip mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garber, E. A.; Pospelov, I. D.; Traino, A. I.; Savinykh, A. F.; Nikolaev, N. Yu.; Mishnev, P. A.

    2012-09-01

    A model for the formation of longitudinal thickness deviation in hot-rolled strips as a function of the rolling parameters and an algorithm for optimizing the rolling conditions for the criterion of the minimum longitudinal thickness deviation are developed and implemented in the form of computer programs. This optimization is performed by the redistribution of percent reductions over the stands of the finishing group in a broad-strip hot-rolling mill. As a result of the application and industrial tests of the developed computer programs on a 2000 rolling mill, the longitudinal thickness deviation of hot-rolled strips is decreased by a factor of 1.87.

  15. Improvement of rolling modes of long length rails on the universal rail and structural steel mill “EVRAZ ZSMK”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovatenko, A. V.; Umansky, A. A.; Kadykov, V. N.

    2016-09-01

    Using the results of theoretical and experimental research a new rolling mode of long-length rails on the universal rail-and-structural steel mill JSC “EVRAZ Consolidated West Siberian Metallurgical Plant” (“EVRAZ ZSMK”) was developed with a reduced number of passes in the breakdown stands. Experimental and industrial testing and implementation of the new rolling mode showed a high technical and economic efficiency of its use - reduction in the specific energy consumption was registered, as well as decrease in rejection of rails due to their surface defects, consumption of mill rolls and increase in mill productivity. The cost- effectiveness after implementation was more than 98 million RUB per year.

  16. Improvement of hydrogen storage properties of magnesium alloys by cold rolling and forging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huot, Jacques; Amira, Sofiene; Lang, Julien; Skryabina, Nataliya; Fruchart, Daniel

    2014-08-01

    In this talk we show that cold rolling (CR) could be used to enhance hydrogen sorption properties of magnesium and magnesium alloys. In particular, cold rolling could reduce the first hydrogenation time, the so-called activation. Pure magnesium, commercial AZ91D alloy, and an experimental creep resistant magnesium alloy MRI153 in the as-cast and die-cast states were investigated. We found that both MRI and AZ91 alloys present faster activation kinetic than pure magnesium. This could be explained by the texture, higher number of defects, and nanostructure in CR materials but also precipitates at the grain boundaries. The effect of filing was also investigated.

  17. Influence of the angle between cold rolling direction and hot rolling direction on the texture evolution of non-oriented electrical steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Y.; Hilinski, E.; Attard, M.; Bibby, D.; Santos, R.; Zavadil, R.

    2015-04-01

    In processing non-oriented electrical steel sheets using conventional rolling schemes, the most common texture components obtained after final annealing are the magnetically unfavourable <111>//ND (γ) and <110>//RD (α) fibres. A lot of researches have been carried out trying to optimize the processes to produce the favourable <001>//ND (θ) fibre. However, since the final texture is formed through a series of texture evolution steps during the solidification, hot rolling, cold rolling and annealing processes, it is quite challenging to tailor the texture of the final product. In this study, a new rolling scheme was examined, in which the cold rolling direction (CRD) was inclined to the hot rolling direction (HRD) at an angle from 0° to 90° (with a 15° increment). This was intended to alter the texture commonly produced by cold rolling along the HRD, and to optimize the final recrystallization texture. The cold rolling and recrystallization textures of two non-oriented electrical steels with 0.9% and 2.8% Si were measured. It was found that the inclination of CRD to HRD has a substantial effect on the cold rolling texture for both steels, but only in the low Si steel, does it lead to significantly different recrystallization textures. A strong cube texture was produced at an inclination angle of 60°, and the <111>//ND (γ) fibre was significantly weakened or essentially disappeared. The core losses of these steels were measured by Epstein frame method and the results showed a ∼10% difference among strips cold rolled at different angles. A minimum core loss occurred at a 45° inclination angle in the low Si steel.

  18. Rheology of coal-water slurries prepared by the HP roll mill grinding of coal. Quarterly technical progress report No. 10, December 1, 1994--February 28, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.

    1995-03-01

    The research during this quarter was, directed towards: (1) systematic study of preparation of coal fines by high-pressure roll mill grinding and by high-pressure roll mill/ball mill hybrid grinding, (2) investigation of the rheological behavior of slurries prepared with fines produced by these techniques, and (3) study of the effect of coal cleaning on both short term and long term slurry rheology. Results are discussed.

  19. Influence of heat treatment on the properties of cold-rolled precision carbon strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubchevskii, V. P.; Frolov, A. P.; Nemkina, É. D.; Radyukevich, E. V.; Chernykh, L. I.

    1991-03-01

    The optimum properties of masks may be obtained with tann=770-820°C, and regardless of chemical analysis of the steel and the conditions of preliminary cold rolling the minimum tensile strength and coercive force, the maximum ferritic grain size, and the sharpest crystallographic structure, providing good formability of the strip, are provided.

  20. Inspection of Internal Defects in Cold-Rolled Steel Sheets Using Lamb Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sang-Woo; Kim, GooHwa; Bae, Jinsu

    2009-03-01

    Lamb wave was applied to inspect natural defects in the cold-rolled steel sheets in the laboratory. Oxidized inclusions were introduced artificially during casting steel slab and these real defects were stretched in rolling direction in hot and cold rolling process. Lamb wave was introduced to inspect defects in width direction which is normal to the defect direction. Inspected natural internal defects were evaluated to show their shape and to find exact location with other techniques such as magnetic particle test and 3-D X-Ray CT. There is correlation between MT indication length and Lamb wave signal level. All of real defects were located in subsurface according to the 3-D X-Ray CT results

  1. Grain Boundary Evolution of Cold-Rolled FePd Alloy during Recrystallization at Disordering Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hung-Pin; Chen, Delphic; Kuo, Jui-Chao

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the grain boundary character and texture of 50% and 90% cold-rolled FePd alloy was investigated during recrystallization at 700 °C. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) measurements were performed on the rolling direction to normal direction section. Kernel average misorientation (KAM) calculated from EBSD measurements was employed to determine the recrystallization fraction. The Avrami exponent n of recrystallization is 1.9 and 4.9 for 50% and 90% cold rolling, respectively. The new formation of texture reveals random texture during the recrystallization process. As annealing time increased, the number of high angle boundary (HAGB) and coincidence site lattice (CSL) increased with consumption of low angle boundary (LAGB). In addition, possible transformations between different grain boundaries are observed here.

  2. The effects of cold rolling and heat treatment on Al 6063 reinforced with silicon carbide granules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balogun, S. A.; Adeosun, S. O.; Sanni, O. S.

    2009-08-01

    The effects of cold rolling and heat treatment on the strength and ductility of aluminum alloy 6063 reinforced with silicon carbide granules have been examined. Silicon carbide (SiCp) 100 μm grain size was added to 6063 aluminum in volume fractions of 0-30% to produce samples for heat treatment and cold rolling. The results show that an optimum combination of strength and ductility at 137.92 MPa and true strain of 0.173 is achievable with rolled-and-tempered samples containing 10% SiCp. This is a significant improvement on 6063 aluminum alloy having an ultimate tensile strength of ˜100 MPa at true strain of 0.18.

  3. Statistical analysis on static recrystallization texture evolution in cold-rolled AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun-Ho; Ahn, Tae-Hong; Choi, Hyun-Sik; Chung, Jung-Man; Kim, Dong-Ik; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Han, Heung Nam

    2013-08-01

    Cast AZ31B-H24 magnesium alloy, comprising Mg with 3.27 wt% Al and 0.96 wt% Zn, was cold rolled and subsequently annealed. Global texture evolutions in the specimens were observed by X-ray diffractometry after the thermomechanical processing. Image-based microstructure and texture for the deformed, recrystallized, and grown grains were observed by electron backscattered diffractometry. Recrystallized grains could be distinguished from deformed ones by analyzing grain orientation spread. Split basal texture of ca. ±10-15° in the rolling direction was observed in the cold-rolled sample. Recrystallized grains had widely spread basal poles at nucleation stage; strong {0001} basal texture developed with grain growth during annealing.

  4. A Study of the Batch Annealing of Cold-Rolled HSLA Steels Containing Niobium or Titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Chao; Garcia, C. Isaac; Choi, Shi-Hoon; DeArdo, Anthony J.

    2015-08-01

    The batch annealing behavior of two cold-rolled, microalloyed HSLA steels has been studied in this program. One steel was microalloyed with niobium while the other with titanium. A successfully batch annealed steel will exhibit minimum variation in properties along the length of the coil, even though the inner and outer wraps experience faster heating and cooling rates and lower soaking temperatures, i.e., the so-called "cold spot" areas, than the mid-length portion of the coil, i.e., the so-called "hot spot" areas. The variation in strength and ductility is caused by differences in the extent of annealing in the different areas. It has been known for 30 years that titanium-bearing HSLA steels show more variability after batch annealing than do the niobium-bearing steels. One of the goals of this study was to try to explain this observation. In this study, the annealing kinetics of the surface and center layers of the cold-rolled sheet were compared. The surface and center layers of the niobium steel and the surface layer of the titanium steel all showed similar annealing kinetics, while the center layer of the titanium steel exhibited much slower kinetics. Metallographic results indicate that the stored energy of the cold-rolled condition, as revealed by grain center sub-grain boundary density, appeared to strongly influence the annealing kinetics. The kinetics were followed by the Kernel Average Misorientation reconstruction of the microstructure at different stages on annealing. Possible pinning effects caused by microalloy precipitates were also considered. Methods of improving uniformity and increasing kinetics, involving optimizing both hot-rolled and cold-rolled microstructure, are suggested.

  5. Adaptation of an Asperity Ploughing Model to Measured Roll Topographies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalli, L. A.; Malkani, H. G.; Sheu, S.

    2004-06-01

    A previously published asperity ploughing model has been adapted in order to approximate the measured as-ground roll surface topography. The model is then integrated with classical cold rolling plastic deformation equations including coupling to the lubricant film evolution through the roll bite. The friction distribution through the roll bite is thus a function of the specific details of the roll surface topography as well as the process parameters. predictions of roll force, torque and forward slip as well as sliding distance and volume of metal swept out by the asperities are then made and compared to experimental measurements for an aluminum alloy rolled on a laboratory rolling mill.

  6. Improved strength and ductility of high alloy containing Al-12Zn-3Mg-2.5Cu alloy by combining non-isothermal step rolling and cold rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravikumar, V. V.; Kumaran, S.

    2017-02-01

    Al-12Zn-3Mg-2.5Cu alloy was prepared using a liquid metallurgy route under the optimized conditions. A sample cut from the ingot was rolled non-isothermally from 400°C to 100°C in 100°C steps, with 15% reduction in thickness; it was then cold rolled isothermally at room temperature for 85% reduction. The cold-rolled alloys were characterized by electron microscopy, hardness test, and tensile test to elucidate their structural evolution and evaluate their mechanical behavior. In the results, the cast alloy consists of α-aluminum and various intermetallic compounds. These compounds are segregated along the grain boundaries, which makes the alloy difficult to roll at room temperature. The combined effect of non-isothermal step rolling and cold rolling results in the nano/microsized compounds distributed uniformly in the matrix. The hardness is substantially increased after rolling. This increase in hardness is attributed to the ultra-fine grain size, fine-scale intermetallic compounds, and structural defects (e.g., dislocations, stacking faults, and sub-grains). The ultimate tensile strength of the rolled alloy is approximately 628 MPa with 7% ductility.

  7. Calculation of Crystallographic Texture of BCC Steels During Cold Rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Arpan

    2017-05-01

    BCC alloys commonly tend to develop strong fibre textures and often represent as isointensity diagrams in φ 1 sections or by fibre diagrams. Alpha fibre in bcc steels is generally characterised by <110> crystallographic axis parallel to the rolling direction. The objective of present research is to correlate carbon content, carbide dispersion, rolling reduction, Euler angles (ϕ) (when φ 1 = 0° and φ 2 = 45° along alpha fibre) and the resulting alpha fibre texture orientation intensity. In the present research, Bayesian neural computation has been employed to correlate these and compare with the existing feed-forward neural network model comprehensively. Excellent match to the measured texture data within the bounding box of texture training data set has been already predicted through the feed-forward neural network model by other researchers. Feed-forward neural network prediction outside the bounds of training texture data showed deviations from the expected values. Currently, Bayesian computation has been similarly applied to confirm that the predictions are reasonable in the context of basic metallurgical principles, and matched better outside the bounds of training texture data set than the reported feed-forward neural network. Bayesian computation puts error bars on predicted values and allows significance of each individual parameters to be estimated. Additionally, it is also possible by Bayesian computation to estimate the isolated influence of particular variable such as carbon concentration, which exactly cannot in practice be varied independently. This shows the ability of the Bayesian neural network to examine the new phenomenon in situations where the data cannot be accessed through experiments.

  8. Deformation and annealing textures of surface layers of copper sheets cold-rolled under unlubricated condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hyun-Sik; Han, Heung Nam; Lee, Dong Nyung

    2017-01-01

    The texture of rolled sheets is known to vary with depth from the shear texture in the surface layer to the planestrain-compression texture in the center layer. This study has interpreted the deformation and annealing textures evolved in the surface layer of a four-layered-copper sheet cold-rolled by 93% reduction in thickness without lubrication at room temperature. The surface and center layers were separated from the cold-rolled four-layered copper sheet. The deformed surface layer was annealed for 1 h at 823 K. The deformation texture of the surface layer could be simulated by straining the {112}<111> oriented fcc crystals by a true strain of 2.66 in the rolling direction at 0 ≤ | e 13/ e 11| ≤ 1.4, where eij are the displacement gradients and the subscripts 1 and 3 represent the sheet rolling and sheet surface normal directions, respectively, using a visco-plastic self-consistent scheme. The annealing texture could be approximated by the simulated shear deformation orientations plus near the {001}<100> orientation that was approximated by the recrystallization orientations calculated from the simulated deformation orientations. The recrystallization orientations were calculated by the strain-energy-release-maximization theory for the recrystallization texture evolution.

  9. Study on Online Analysis of Transfer Function of Variable-Speed Rolling Mill Motor with Shaft Torsional Vibration Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaoki, Toshifumi; Takanezawa, Makoto; Kimoto, Masanori; Morita, Noboru; Hoshino, Takeo; Hashizume, Kenji

    The torsional vibration between metal rolling rolls and a rolling mill motor, may occur in recent days, as a result of higher speed response adjustment for variable speed rolling mill motor drive system. Issues in this paper are focused on excess acceleration value, in tangential direction of the mill motor rotor, which is caused by the motor shaft torsional resonance at the white noise signal superposition to the speed reference signal of the motor drive system for the online transfer function analysis. As a result of the acceleration analysis, the acceleration values in “G” (Relative acceleration value on the basis of Gravity) can be plotted on “Bode-Diagram”, which is namely frequency response for the speed signal amplitude transmission ratio. In addition, relation between the white noise amplitude reduction and the transfer function analysis accuracy deterioration is also examined, in this paper. As the amplitude of the white noise decreases, the analysis error increases because of the reduction in the resolution when the amplitude of the white noise signal is small.

  10. Effect of cold rolling on microstructure and mechanical property of extruded Mg–4Sm alloy during aging

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Rongguang; Xin, Renlong; Chapuis, Adrien; Liu, Qing; Fu, Guangyan; Zong, Lin; Yu, Yongmei; Guo, Beitao; Guo, Shuguo

    2016-02-15

    Microstructure and mechanical properties of the Mg–4Sm (wt.%) alloy, prepared via combined processes of extrusion, cold rolling and aging, have been investigated. The hot extruded alloy exhibits a weak rare earth magnesium alloy texture with < 11 − 21 >//ED, while the cold-rolled alloy shows a stronger basal texture with < 0001 >//ND. Many tensile twins and double twins are observed in grains after rolling. The cold-rolled alloy shows a weak age-hardening response compared with the extruded alloy, which is the result of more precipitation in the twin boundary during aging. The rolled alloy exhibits almost no precipitate free zone during aging compared with the extruded alloy. The higher proof stress of the rolled alloy in peak-aged condition is attributed to the presence of twin boundaries, stronger basal texture, higher dislocation density, and the suppression of precipitate free zone compared with the extruded alloy. - Highlights: • No precipitate free zone appears in cold-rolled alloy after aging. • Segregation and precipitates are observed in twin boundaries and grain boundaries. • Cold-rolled alloy shows a weak age-hardening response.

  11. Texture and magnetic properties of non-oriented electrical steels processed by an unconventional cold rolling scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Youliang; Hilinski, Erik J.

    2016-05-01

    Two non-oriented electrical steels containing 0.9 wt% and 2.8 wt% of silicon were processed using an unconventional cold rolling scheme, i.e. the cold rolling direction (CRD) was intentionally inclined at an angle to the hot rolling direction (HRD) so that the initial texture before cold rolling and the rotation paths of crystals during cold deformation were both altered as compared to conventional cold rolling along the original HRD. The cold-rolled steel strips were then annealed, skin-pass rolled and final annealed. The texture and microstructure of the materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and optical microscopy, and considerable differences in average grain size and texture were observed at different inclination angles. The magnetic properties of the steel strips were measured at 400 Hz and 1.0 T/1.5 T using a specially designed Epstein frame, and apparent differences were also noticed at various angles. The magnetic quality of texture was evaluated using different texture factors/parameters and compared to the measured magnetic properties. Although apparent improvement on the magnetic quality of texture can be noted by inclining the CRD to HRD, the trend does not match the measured magnetic properties at 400 Hz, which may have been affected by other parameters in addition to crystallographic texture.

  12. Relationship between mechanical and magnetic properties in cold rolled low carbon steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Kikuchi, H.; Kamada, Y.

    2006-12-01

    Structure-sensitive properties of minor hysteresis loops have been compared with Vickers hardness and ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) obtained by Charpy impact test for cold rolled low carbon steel. Minor loops were measured with increasing magnetic field amplitude, step by step, and were analyzed in connection with the rolling reduction. We found that minor-loop coefficients deduced from relations between minor-loop parameters increase with increasing rolling reduction and have a simple relationship with both mechanical properties, Vickers hardness, and DBTT. We also found that these coefficients have a linear relation with coercive force obtained by the major loop. The present analysis method using minor loops is highly effective for nondestructive evaluation of ductile-brittle transition, in terms of the high sensitivity to lattice defects as well as low measurement field.

  13. In Search of the Attributes Responsible for Sliver Formation in Cold Rolled Steel Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, Itishree; Das, Prasun; Bhattacharjee, Debashish; Datta, Shubhabrata

    2017-04-01

    Surface quality is one of the most important characteristics of cold rolled (CR) steel sheets for its application in consumer goods industries. The actual cause of sliver formation is very difficult to determine, as it is revealed only after the final cold rolling of the steel. A thorough investigation on searching the root cause of sliver formation in CR steel is done here using several statistical tools towards mining the industrial data for extraction of knowledge. As the complex interactions between the variables make it difficult to identify the cause, it is seen that findings from different techniques differed to a certain extent. Still it is revealed that 21 variables could be short listed as major contributor for sliver formation, but those are found to be from all the areas of the processing. This leads to the conclusion that no particular process variable or particular processing could be held responsible for sliver formation.

  14. Texture evolution of cold rolled and reversion annealed metastable austenitic CrMnNi steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidner, A.; Fischer, K.; Segel, C.; Schreiber, G.; Biermann, H.

    2015-04-01

    A thermo-mechanical process consisting of cold rolling and subsequent reversion annealing was applied to high-alloy metastable austenitic CrMnNi steels with different nickel contents. As a result of the reversion annealing ultrafine grained material with a grain size in the range between 500 nm up to 4 μm were obtained improving the strength behavior of the material. The evolution of the texture of both the cold rolled states and the reversion-annealed states was studied either by X-ray diffraction or by EBSD measurements. The nickel content has a significant influence on the austenite stability and consequently also on the amount of the martensitic phase transformation. However, the developed textures in both steel variants with different austenite stability revealed the same behavior. In both investigated steels the texture of the reverted austenite is a pronounced Bs-type texture as developed also for the deformed austenite

  15. Microstructure evolution during isochronal annealing of a 42% cold rolled TRIP-TWIP steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramanik, S.; Saleh, A. A.; Santos, D. B.; Pereloma, E. V.; Gazder, A. A.

    2015-08-01

    A high manganese TRIP-TWIP steel was cold rolled to 42% thickness reduction and isochronally annealed between 600 to 900 °C for 300 s. The microstructural evolution during annealing was studied by high resolution electron back-scattering diffraction. After cold rolling, the steel comprised predominant fraction of α'-martensite, a small fraction of blocky ε-martensite and a trace fraction of retained austenite (γ). During annealing, the reversion of ε and α' martensite to γ was followed by the recrystallisation of γ. While the processes of reversion to and recrystallisation of γ were completed by 700 °C, further annealing between 750 to 900 °C led to γ grain growth. A novel method to delineate the γ-γ grain boundaries was developed in order to accurately quantify γ grain size and subsequently the activation energy for γ grain growth.

  16. Conventional cold-rolling and annealing of 0.06%C steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordala, Phoumiphon; Othman, Radzali; Yusop, Nurul Khalidah; Ismail, Ahmad Badri

    2017-07-01

    This paper demonstrated the ability to obtain an ultrafine-grained microstructure in 0.06%C steel via a simple process of cold-rolling and annealing, without the need for a severe plastic deformation process. A dual-phase ferrite-martensite starting microstructure was cold-rolled by 75% reduction in thickness and subsequently annealed at various temperatures from 400°C to 700°C for 30 min. The microstructures, as well as the microhardness and tensile strength properties, were evaluated by metallographic analyses and mechanical tests, respectively. The results showed that the specimen annealed at an intermediate temperature of 500°C exhibited excellent mechanical properties when compared to other annealing temperatures, as well as the as-received specimen.

  17. In Search of the Attributes Responsible for Sliver Formation in Cold Rolled Steel Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, Itishree; Das, Prasun; Bhattacharjee, Debashish; Datta, Shubhabrata

    2016-06-01

    Surface quality is one of the most important characteristics of cold rolled (CR) steel sheets for its application in consumer goods industries. The actual cause of sliver formation is very difficult to determine, as it is revealed only after the final cold rolling of the steel. A thorough investigation on searching the root cause of sliver formation in CR steel is done here using several statistical tools towards mining the industrial data for extraction of knowledge. As the complex interactions between the variables make it difficult to identify the cause, it is seen that findings from different techniques differed to a certain extent. Still it is revealed that 21 variables could be short listed as major contributor for sliver formation, but those are found to be from all the areas of the processing. This leads to the conclusion that no particular process variable or particular processing could be held responsible for sliver formation.

  18. Characterization of Cu Distribution in an Al-0.3%Cu Alloy Cold Rolled to 98%

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuai, L. F.; Huang, T. L.; Wu, G. L.; Hansen, N.; Huang, X.

    2017-07-01

    In this study, the distribution of Cu element in a Al (99.9996% purity)-0.3%Cu alloy cold rolled to 98% has been characterized in detail by using three-dimensional atom probe (3DAP) and ChemiSTEM techniques. The cold rolled structure is a typical high strain lamellar structure with an average boundary spacing of 200 nm, indicating a strong role of the small amount of Cu element in stabilizing the microstructure to form the fine scale structure. A heavy segregation of Cu element in the lamellar boundaries of high angles has been observed and the Cu concentration in the boundaries can be as high as 20 times of the nominal concentration of the alloy, which is considered as the main reason for a formation of a stable nanoscale lamellar structure.

  19. Processes leading to formation of cube texture in cold-rolled Ni-Cr-W alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dosovitskiy, G. A.; Mudretsova, S. N.; Garshev, A. V.; Amelichev, V. A.; Samoilenkov, S. V.; Gervasieva, I. V.; Khlebnikova, Yu. V.; Rodionov, D. P.; Kaul, A. R.

    2014-01-01

    Behavior of cold-rolled fcc Ni88.4Cr9.2W2.4 alloy during heating has been studied. Two consecutive exothermic processes were detected using differential scanning calorimetry, high-temperature X-ray diffraction, and dilatometry. The processes were identified as polygonization and recrystallization, which lead to cube texture formation, as was shown by X-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction. The heat effects of these processes were determined.

  20. Quality Parameters Defined by Chebyshev Polynomials in Cold Rolling Process Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judin, Mika; Nylander, Jari; Larkiola, Jari; Verho, Martti

    2011-05-01

    The thickness profile of hot strip is of importance to profile, flatness and shape of the final cold rolled product. In this work, strip thickness and flatness profiles are decomposed into independent components by solving Chebyshev polynomials coefficients using matrix calculation. Four terms are used to characterize most common shapes of thickness and flatness profile. The calculated Chebyshev coefficients from different line measurements are combined together and analysed using neural network tools. The most common types of shapes are classified.

  1. Combustion Synthesis Reaction Behavior of Cold-Rolled Ni/Al and Ti/Al Multilayers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    6   Figure 4 . Combustion synthesis process of the cold-rolled Ni/Al multilayer foils: (a) reaction front of the displacement of the reaction...Reactive Nanostructured Foil Used as a Heat Source for Joining Titanium . J. Appl. Phys. 2004, 96 ( 4 ), 2336–2342. 16. Wang, J.; Besnoin, E...2011 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) January 2006–January 2008 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE Combustion Synthesis Reaction Behavior of

  2. Quality Parameters Defined by Chebyshev Polynomials in Cold Rolling Process Chain

    SciTech Connect

    Judin, Mika; Nylander, Jari; Larkiola, Jari; Verho, Martti

    2011-05-04

    The thickness profile of hot strip is of importance to profile, flatness and shape of the final cold rolled product. In this work, strip thickness and flatness profiles are decomposed into independent components by solving Chebyshev polynomials coefficients using matrix calculation. Four terms are used to characterize most common shapes of thickness and flatness profile. The calculated Chebyshev coefficients from different line measurements are combined together and analysed using neural network tools. The most common types of shapes are classified.

  3. Influence of thermal treatment on magnetocaloric properties of Gd cold rolled ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taskaev, Sergey V.; Buchelnikov, Vasiliy D.; Pellenen, Anatoliy P.; Kuz'min, Michael D.; Skokov, Konstantin P.; Karpenkov, Dmitry Yu.; Bataev, Dmitry S.; Gutfleisch, Oliver

    2013-05-01

    This work reports the influence of heat treatment on the magnetocaloric effect of cold-rolled Gd ribbons. A significant depression of magnetic and thermodynamical properties occurs in severely deformed ribbons. However, it is possible to recover the initial values, characteristic of polycrystals by way of heat treatment. The heat treatment regimes are directly connected with the degree of plastic deformation. The proposed approach is convenient for manufacturing magnetocaloric materials in the form of thin ribbons for magnetic refrigerators.

  4. Recrystallization Texture Transition in Fe-2.1 Wt Pct Si Steel by Different Cold Rolling Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Ning; Sha, Yuhui; Zhang, Fang; Liu, Jinlong; Zuo, Liang

    2016-12-01

    The competition dependent on cold rolling reduction among main recrystallization texture components in Fe-2.1 wt pct Si sheets was investigated from the hot band characterized by strong Cube ({001}<100>) at center layer and weak Goss ({110}<001>) at quarter layer. The deformation and recrystallization textures through thickness were both analyzed by X-ray diffraction technique. Goss, Cube, and {111}<112> components dominate the recrystallization texture in sequence with the cold rolling reduction increasing from 60 to 90 pct. This recrystallization texture transition with cold rolling reduction can be explained in terms of the number and nature of nucleation sites for various texture components. A variety of final recrystallization textures are proposed for non-oriented silicon steel by designing texture and microstructure of hot band and cold rolling reduction.

  5. Influence of cold rolling degree and ageing treatments on the precipitation hardening of 2024 and 7075 alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naimi, A.; Yousfi, H.; Trari, M.

    2013-08-01

    In the present work, the precipitation hardening of 2024 and 7075 aluminum alloys is investigated as a function of cold rolling degree, ageing time and temperature using Vickers microhardness measurements and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It is found that a variation in such parameters can improve the hardness and plays an important role in the precipitation hardening process. At specific ageing temperature, the large cold rolled 7075 alloy exhibits two peaks of hardness. Moreover, for both alloys, the increment of hardness during ageing decreases with increasing the cold rolling degree. While in some cases microhardness measurements give impression that the precipitation reaction is slowed down by deformation, DSC analysis indicates that the precipitation is much accelerated since only a slight deformation decreases strongly the temperatures of reactions. However, the degree of cold rolling does not play a crucial role.

  6. Rheology of coal-water slurries prepared by the high-pressure roll mill grinding of coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; De, A.

    1996-08-01

    The preparation of coal water slurries to replace fuel oil for direct combustion has become an important field in modem coal technology. The U.S. Department of Energy has planned or has underway several demonstration projects to burn coal-water slurries to replace fuel oil is attractive not only because there is an assured domestic supply of coal, but also on various technoeconomic grounds. Coal-water slurries combine the handling flexibility of fuel oil in power plants and various other industrial applications. This report discusses the rheology of coal-water slurries and the correlation to the coal preparation by grinding with a choke-fed high pressure roll mill. Performance of the roll mills and energy consumption are described.

  7. The effects of cold rolling on the microstructural and spall response of 1100 aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, C. L.; Chen, C. Q.; Ramesh, K. T.; Dandekar, D. P.

    2013-09-01

    As received 1100-O aluminum was cold rolled (CR) to 30%, 70%, and 80% reduction, respectively, to study the effects of microstructural evolution on the spall response using plate impact experiments. Previous results show a sharp increase in pullback velocity for 1100-O aluminum with increase in peak shock stress between 4.0 and 8.3 GPa due to hardening, followed by a decrease for peak shock stresses up to 12.0 GPa possibly due to softening. This maximum was not observed for the 30% CR, which showed only an increase in pullback velocity over the shock stress range of 4.0-12.0 GPa due to hardening (net increase in dislocation density). For the 70% CR aluminum, no change was observed in the pullback velocity over the range tested (4.0-11.0 GPa) probably due to saturation in dislocation density. Similar observations were made for the 80% CR, that is, no change was observed in the spall response between 4.0 GPa and 11.0 GPa. However, variations were observed in the spall response for the 80% CR, and these variations are attributed to material inhomogeneity possibly caused by increased cold rolling beyond saturation. The results also show a significant increase in Hugoniot Elastic Limit with increase in percent cold rolling.

  8. Microstructural evolution in a low carbon steel during cold rolling and subsequent annealing.

    PubMed

    Ghassemali, E; Kermanpur, A; Najafizadeh, A

    2010-09-01

    Cold rolling with subsequent annealing of lath martensite structure could lead to the formation of nanostructures in low carbon steels. In the present work, the microstructural evolution of a 0.13% C steel during this process was studied. The specimens were austenitized at 950 degrees C followed by quenching in ice-brine to get martensitic structure. The quenched samples were aged at 200 degrees C for 30 min. These specimens were cold rolled up to 90% reduction in thickness without any intermediate annealing and then annealed at the temperatures from 400 to 600 degrees C. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy and color metallography was used to investigate the microstructure. Microscopic investigations showed that a multiphase nanostructure composed of equiaxed ferrite grains with the mean grain size of about 188 nm and small blocks of tempered martensite can be achieved under annealing at 400 degrees C for 90 min. Formation of the nanostructure was discussed from the viewpoint of characteristics of the martensite starting structure. Fragmentation of martensite lathes in cold rolling stage play an important role on recrystallization at annealing stage to get the ultrafine structure.

  9. Phase diagrams of a cold rolling emulsion for aluminum{copyright}

    SciTech Connect

    Deneuville, P.; Charbonnier, P.; Ravey, J.C.

    1995-08-01

    Emulsions are complex metalworking fluids. In metal rolling the generally accepted {open_quotes}plate{close_quotes} mechanism results in a separation of the mixture inside the roll bite into a water phase and a surfactant/oil phase. The water phase cools the tools and the oil phase lubricates the interface between the metal and the tools. Rolling emulsions can be considered as ternary systems that consist of water, oil and surfactant. The oil and its additives can be considered as a single component. This paper describes the application of phase diagrams to an aluminum cold rolling emulsion and provides insights into the separation of the water and the oil lubricant phases. It is shown that the amount of water solubilized in the separated oil phase depends on the nature and amount of additives and surfactants, and on the temperature. The emulsions studied were compared using a special rolling device developed in the authors` laboratory and their tribological properties were related to the phase diagrams. 18 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Genetic based sensorless hybrid intelligent controller for strip loop formation control between inter-stands in hot steel rolling mills.

    PubMed

    Thangavel, S; Palanisamy, V; Duraiswamy, K

    2008-04-01

    Safe operating environment is essential for all complex industrial processes. The safety issues in steel rolling mill when the hot strip passes through consecutive mill stands have been considered in this paper. Formation of sag in strip is a common problem in the rolling process. The excessive sag can lead to scrap runs and damage to machinery. Conventional controllers for mill actuation system are based on a rolling model. The factors like rise in temperature, aging, wear and tear are not taken into account while designing a conventional controller. Therefore, the conventional controller cannot yield a requisite controlled output. In this paper, a new Genetic-neuro-fuzzy hybrid controller without tension sensor has been proposed to optimize the quantum of excessive sag and reduce it. The performance of the proposed controller has been compared with the performance of fuzzy logic controller, Neuro-fuzzy controller and conventional controller with the help of data collected from the plant. The simulation results depict that the proposed controller has superior performance than the other controllers.

  11. Using automatic particle counting to monitor aluminum cold mill coolant{copyright}

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, D.L.

    1995-08-01

    A comprehensive program of testing and evaluation of aluminum cold rolling coolant conditions has been conducted using an automatic particle counting instrument. The project had three objectives. First, there was a need to know at what level of coolant particle contamination is surface cleanliness of an aluminum sheet affected during the rolling process. Secondly, is application of particle counting technology a reliable tool for troubleshooting coolant filtration systems and finally, what are the advantages of analyzing rolling coolants for contamination levels? A testing program was designed and performed over a two-year period. The test results revealed that mineral seal and synthetic-type coolants can begin to affect aluminum sheet surface cleanliness levels when particle sizes greater than five microns are in excess of 10,000 particles power 100 milliliters of rolling coolant. After performing over 3,000 separate tests, it was very clean that particle count levels are direct indicators of how well a filtration facility is performing. Through the application of particle counting, a number of conditions in coolant filtration facilities can be readily detected. Such items as defective filter valving, torn or fractured filter cloth, damaged filter parts, improper equipment operation and many other factors will directly impact the operation of aluminum cold rolling coolant filters. 11 figs.

  12. Investigation of the influence of the chemical composition of HSLA steel grades on the microstructure homogeneity during hot rolling in continuous rolling mills using a fast layer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidtchen, M.; Rimnac, A.; Warczok, P.; Kozeschnik, E.; Bernhard, C.; Bragin, S.; Kawalla, R.; Linzer, B.

    2016-03-01

    The newly developed LaySiMS simulation tool provides new insight for inhomogeneous material flow and microstructure evolution in an endless strip production (ESP) plant. A deepened understanding of the influence of inhomogeneities in initial material state, temperature profile and material flow and their impact on the finished product can be reached e.g. by allowing for variable layer thickness distributions in the roll gap. Coupling temperature, deformation work and work hardening/recrystallization phenomena accounts for covering important effects in the roll gap. The underlying concept of the LaySiMS approach will be outlined and new insight gained regarding microstructural evolution, shear and inhomogeneous stress and strain states in the roll gap as well as local residual stresses will be presented. For the case of thin slab casting and direct rolling (TSDR) the interrelation of inhomogeneous initial state, micro structure evolution and dissolution state of micro alloying elements within the roughing section of an ESP line will be discussed. Special emphasis is put on the influence of the local chemical composition arising from direct charging on throughthickness homogeneity of the final product. It is concluded that, due to the specific combination of large reductions in the high reduction mills (HRM) and the highly inhomogeneous inverse temperature profile, the ESP-concept provides great opportunities for homogenizing the microstructure across the strip thickness.

  13. Hot and cold rolling of high nitrogen Cr-Ni and Cr-Mn austenitic stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilola, R.; Hänninen, H.; Kauppi, T.

    1998-10-01

    Behavior of austenitic Cr-Ni-(0.14-0.50)N and Cr-Mn-(0.78-1.00)N steels in hot and cold rolling was investigated by rolling experiments and mechanical testing. Structure of the steels in the as-cast condition and fracture surfaces after the rolling experiments were investigated using optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Resistance to deformation was calculated using rolling forces in hot rolling. Increase in strength in the rolling experiments was related to the nitrogen content of the steels. Resistance to deformation during hot rolling increased with decreasing rolling temperature and with increasing nitrogen content. In some steels, hot rolling led to edge cracking, which was more a function of impurity than nitrogen content. Microscopy revealed that the edge cracking occurred along grain boundaries and second phase particles. For the cold-rolled steels, the highest achievable reductions were limited due to a “crocodiling” phenomenon, that is, opening of the strip end. Fracture type at the opened strip end was a brittle-like fracture.

  14. Hot and cold rolling of high nitrogen Cr-Ni and Cr-Mn austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Iiola, R.; Hanninen, H.; Kauppi, T.

    1998-10-01

    Behavior of austenitic Cr-Ni-(0.14--0.50)N and Cr-Mn-(0.78--1.00)N steels in hot and cold rolling was investigated by rolling experiments and mechanical testing. Structure of the steels in the as-cast condition and fracture surfaces after the rolling experiments were investigated using optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Resistance to deformation was calculated using rolling forces in hot rolling. Increase in strength in the rolling experiments was related to the nitrogen content of the steels. Resistance to deformation during hot rolling increased with decreasing rolling temperature and with increasing nitrogen content. In some steels, hot rolling led to edge cracking, which was more a function of impurity than nitrogen content. Microscopy revealed that the edge cracking occurred along grain boundaries and second phase particles. For the cold-rolled steels, the highest achievable reductions were limited due to a crocodiling phenomenon, that is, opening of the strip end. Fracture type at the opened strip end was a brittle-like fracture.

  15. Influence of carbon content on cold rolling and recrystallization texture in polycrystalline 3% Si-Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takenaka, M.; Shingaki, Y.; Imamura, T.; Hayakawa, Y.

    2015-04-01

    The influence of carbon content on cold rolling and recrystallization texture in polycrystalline 3%Si-Fe under the relatively high rolling reduction condition has been investigated. The main component of recrystallization texture was {554}<225> orientation in ultra low carbon (ULC) 3%Si-Fe and {411}<148> orientation in low carbon (LC) 3%Si-Fe. The origin of {411}<148> recrystallization texture development in LC 3%Si-Fe is discussed in terms of the rotation of deformation twin from {100}<011> to {411}<148> orientation with the generation of the slip bands inside the neighboring matrix grain {111}<011>. The rotation axis of this crystal rotation was estimated <112> axis. Assuming the single slip system activation in BCC metal, crystal rotation around <112> axis indicates an activation of {110}<111> slip system. In terms of Schmid factor, {112}<111> slip system must be activated in {100}<011> matrix. This is not in agreement with the estimation of {110}<111> slip system activation. Detailed observation on the cold rolled sample revealed that common slip plane passed through the deformation twin and surrounding deformed matrix grains. It is considered that slip plane matching (SPM) with neighboring grains activates the lower Schmid factor slip system in deformation twin. These results suggest that not only Schmid factor but also SPM with neighboring grains should be considered to decide the active slip systems in polycrystalline metals.

  16. In-situ TEM phase formation in cold rolled aluminum-nickel multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Sieber, H.; Perepezko, J.H.

    1998-12-31

    Multilayer samples of Nickel and Aluminum with an overall composition of Al-20Ni were prepared by cold rolling of elemental foils. The sample microstructures and phases were characterized by XRD, SEM and TEM/SAED, and the reactive phase formation was then examined by DSC measurements. XRD, SEM and TEM measurements show that the rolling procedure results in a decrease of the Al and Ni layer thicknesses (down to 100 nm in average) and a decrease of the grain size (down to less than 50 nm). No phase formation is observed during the cold rolling procedure. In isochronal DSC scans of the Al-Ni multilayers, the formation of the Al{sub 3}Ni phase was found to be a two step reaction process due to 2-dimensional nucleation and lateral growth and a 3-dimensional phase thickening. While XRD measurements showed Al{sub 3}Ni as the only phase that forms, more detailed TEM investigations of the samples after DSC treatment also showed a small amount of an amorphous Al-Ni phase, formed by a thermally activated solid state amorphization reaction (SSAR). In-situ TEM heating of the amorphous areas under the electron beam in the microscope yielded the crystallization of the amorphous phase to a B2 structure and a growth of the B2 grains up to 100 nm in size.

  17. Evaluation of residual uranium contamination in the dirt floor of an abandoned metal rolling mill.

    PubMed

    Glassford, Eric; Spitz, Henry; Lobaugh, Megan; Spitler, Grant; Succop, Paul; Rice, Carol

    2013-02-01

    A single, large, bulk sample of uranium-contaminated material from the dirt floor of an abandoned metal rolling mill was separated into different types and sizes of aliquots to simulate samples that would be collected during site remediation. The facility rolled approximately 11,000 tons of hot-forged ingots of uranium metal approximately 60 y ago, and it has not been used since that time. Thirty small mass (≈ 0.7 g) and 15 large mass (≈ 70 g) samples were prepared from the heterogeneously contaminated bulk material to determine how measurements of the uranium contamination vary with sample size. Aliquots of bulk material were also resuspended in an exposure chamber to produce six samples of respirable particles that were obtained using a cascade impactor. Samples of removable surface contamination were collected by wiping 100 cm of the interior surfaces of the exposure chamber with 47-mm-diameter fiber filters. Uranium contamination in each of the samples was measured directly using high-resolution gamma ray spectrometry. As expected, results for isotopic uranium (i.e., U and U) measured with the large-mass and small-mass samples are significantly different (p < 0.001), and the coefficient of variation (COV) for the small-mass samples was greater than for the large-mass samples. The uranium isotopic concentrations measured in the air and on the wipe samples were not significantly different and were also not significantly different (p > 0.05) from results for the large- or small-mass samples. Large-mass samples are more reliable for characterizing heterogeneously distributed radiological contamination than small-mass samples since they exhibit the least variation compared to the mean. Thus, samples should be sufficiently large in mass to insure that the results are truly representative of the heterogeneously distributed uranium contamination present at the facility. Monitoring exposure of workers and the public as a result of uranium contamination resuspended

  18. EBSD characterization of twinning in cold-rolled CP-Ti

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X.; Duan, Y.L.; Xu, G.F.; Peng, X.Y.; Dai, C.; Zhang, L.G.; Li, Z.

    2013-10-15

    This work presents the use of a mechanical testing system and the electron backscatter diffraction technique to study the mechanical properties and twinning systems of cold-rolled commercial purity titanium, respectively. The dependence of twinning on the matrix orientation is analyzed by the distribution map of Schmid factor. The results showed that the commercial purity titanium experienced strong strain hardening and had excellent formability during rolling. Both the (112{sup ¯}2)<112{sup ¯}3{sup ¯}> compressive twins and (101{sup ¯}2)<101{sup ¯}1{sup ¯}> tensile twins were dependent on the matrix orientation. The Schmid factor of a grain influenced the activation of a particular twinning system. The specific rolling deformation of commercial purity titanium controlled the number and species of twinning systems and further changed the mechanical properties. - Highlights: • CP-Ti experienced strain hardening and had excellent formability. • Twins were dependent on the matrix orientation. • Schmid factor of a grain influenced the activation of a twinning system. • Rolling deformation controlled twinning systems and mechanical properties.

  19. Size Effect on Mechanical Properties and Texture of Pure Copper Foil by Cold Rolling

    PubMed Central

    Song, Meng; Liu, Xianghua; Liu, Lizhong

    2017-01-01

    To study the size effect on the properties of copper, tensile tests were performed with pure copper foil (thickness range from 25 μm to 300 μm) by cold rolling. A pronounced size effect was observed at a thickness of 76 μm. The results showed that ultimate strength increased as sample thickness decreased from 300 μm to 100 μm, however, this was decreased as the thickness changed from 76 μm to 25 μm with ultrahigh strain, with the same trend of dislocation density and micro stain. The rolling texture were consisted of copper {112}<111>, brass {011}<211>, and S {123}<634>. These features seemed to be linked to the increase of fraction of surface grain to volume, which led to lower districting on the dislocation slip. PMID:28772898

  20. Orientation Dependence of the Deformation Microstructure of Ta-4%W after Cold-Rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Ma, G. Q.; Godfrey, A.; Shu, D. Y.; Chen, Q.; Wu, G. L.

    2017-07-01

    One of the common features of deformed face-centered cubic metals with medium to high stacking fault energy is the formation of geometrically necessary dislocation boundaries. The dislocation boundary arrangements in refractory metals with body-centered cubic crystal structure are, however, less well known. To address this issue a Ta-4%W alloy was cold rolled up to 70% in thickness in the present work. The resulting deformation microstructures were characterized by electron back-scattering diffraction and the dislocation boundary arrangements in each grain were revealed using sample-frame misorientation axis maps calculated using an in-house code. The maps were used to analyze the slip pattern of individual grains after rolling, revealing an orientation dependence of the slip pattern.

  1. Texture Prediction of Cold and Hot Rolled Titanium Using Processing Path Model

    SciTech Connect

    Bouhattate, Jamaa; Li, Dongsheng; Castello Branco, Gilberto A.; Bacaltchuk, Cristiane M.; Garmestani, Hamid

    2010-04-01

    Titanium alloys have very attractive properties, which are highly dependent on the material microstructure. Accurately predicting the microstructure of such materials during processing for materials design is, therefore, very important. In this work texture evolution of titanium alloys cold rolled at room temperature and hot rolled at 260oC is simulated using a processing path model. Texture coefficients, a set of weights in spherical harmonics expansion of texture, are utilized as descriptors of materials to represent the texture state of polycrystalline materials during processing. This model is based on the conservation principle in the orientation space. Deriving from experimental texture input at different deformation stages, the texture evolution matrix was calculated. This matrix is used to predict texture evolution for the specified deformation mode. The simulated texture evolution results agree well with experimental results.

  2. Role of Crystallographic Textures on Failure Behavior in HSLA Grade-420 Steel During Cold Rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoumi, Mohammad; Silva, Cleiton Carvalho; Lemos, Igor Anjos; Herculano, Luis Flavio Gaspar; de Abreu, Hamilton Ferreira Gomes

    2017-04-01

    The microstructural and textural evolution was analyzed during rolling at room temperature to obtain detailed information about the failure behavior in HSLA grade-420 steel. Electron backscatter diffraction measurements were carried out in both non-cracked and cracked areas after cold rolling to find a correlation between microstructural parameters (i.e., grain orientation, grain boundary characteristics and Taylor factor) and crack propagation. The results showed that the crack tended to propagate along grains oriented with {001} planes parallel to the normal direction with high Taylor factor value. The special boundaries associated with the {111}, {110} and {221} planes were indicated as crack resistance, while ∑ 5, 13a and 17a, which related to the {001} planes, were crack-susceptible. Transgranular cracking was subjected within grains with high Taylor factor, while mismatch in Taylor factor between neighboring grains could provide an easy path for intergranular crack propagation.

  3. Role of Crystallographic Textures on Failure Behavior in HSLA Grade-420 Steel During Cold Rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoumi, Mohammad; Silva, Cleiton Carvalho; Lemos, Igor Anjos; Herculano, Luis Flavio Gaspar; de Abreu, Hamilton Ferreira Gomes

    2017-02-01

    The microstructural and textural evolution was analyzed during rolling at room temperature to obtain detailed information about the failure behavior in HSLA grade-420 steel. Electron backscatter diffraction measurements were carried out in both non-cracked and cracked areas after cold rolling to find a correlation between microstructural parameters (i.e., grain orientation, grain boundary characteristics and Taylor factor) and crack propagation. The results showed that the crack tended to propagate along grains oriented with {001} planes parallel to the normal direction with high Taylor factor value. The special boundaries associated with the {111}, {110} and {221} planes were indicated as crack resistance, while ∑ 5, 13a and 17a, which related to the {001} planes, were crack-susceptible. Transgranular cracking was subjected within grains with high Taylor factor, while mismatch in Taylor factor between neighboring grains could provide an easy path for intergranular crack propagation.

  4. Modelling the Process Chain of Cold Rolled Dual Phase Steel for Automotive Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramazani, A.; Prahl, U.

    This project aims to develop a virtual process chain for the production of components out of cold-rolled dual-phase (DP) steel. The simulation chain starts with cold-rolled strip. During intercritical annealing process all relevant steps like recrystallization, austenite formation and grain growth, ferrite and martensite transformation including bainite fractions and quasi-tempering during hot dip coating and coiling are taken into account. Concerning the final mechanical properties transformation induced micro eigenstresses are described as well as strain partitioning on microscale during cold forming. This multi-scale and process-spanning approach enables the local properties in the part for varying composition and processing conditions. Thus, it can be used for the knowledge driven design and optimization of tailored material and process. To describe all the steps along the process chain, various simulation programs have been linked. By comparison of simulation and experimental results the predictability of this approach can be shown an in a later stage the integrative simulation approach will be further developed towards application for material and process design.

  5. Behavior of a nano-particle and a polymer molecule in a nano-scale four-roll mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vo, Minh; Papavassiliou, Dimitrios

    2016-11-01

    The four-roll mill device could be used to create a mixed flow from purely extensional stresses to completely rotational through the proper selection of speed and direction of each of the four cylindrical rollers. Considerable research has been done with this device for macroscale rheological studies.. In our study, the dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) method was employed to investigate the behavior of a nano-sphere and a polymer molecule in different conditions within a four-roll mill device. Hydrophilic properties of each roll were generated by adjusting interaction parameters and using bounce back boundary condition at the solid surface. All simulations were run up to 4x106 time steps at room temperature using the open source LAMMPS package. After the flow in the system reached equilibrium, a nano-sphere and then a polymer chain were released at the center of the simulation box. Their trajectories were recorded at different shear rate conditions. The propagation of nanosphere in different rotational flow will be discussed. Additionally, the deformation of polymer chains will be compared to that in a simple shear flow.

  6. Shock compression response of cold-rolled Ni/Al multilayer composites

    DOE PAGES

    Specht, Paul E.; Weihs, Timothy P.; Thadhani, Naresh N.

    2017-01-06

    Uniaxial strain, plate-on-plate impact experiments were performed on cold-rolled Ni/Al multilayer composites and the resulting Hugoniot was determined through time-resolved measurements combined with impedance matching. The experimental Hugoniot agreed with that previously predicted by two dimensional (2D) meso-scale calculations. Additional 2D meso-scale simulations were performed using the same computational method as the prior study to reproduce the experimentally measured free surface velocities and stress profiles. Finally, these simulations accurately replicated the experimental profiles, providing additional validation for the previous computational work.

  7. On the microstructural evolution of cold-rolled Al+5at.% Mg

    SciTech Connect

    Dirras, G.F.; Biget, M.P.; Rey, C.

    1995-09-01

    The present study shows that the deformation microstructures of cold-rolled Al+5at.%Mg evolve according to the grain subdivision principles as reported elsewhere. The saturation of microband is a basic phenomenon and is clearly evidenced here. It results in: (1) The triggering of S-type MBs because of continuous accommodation requirements. These MBs are found to incorporate an intense localized shear on {l_brace}111{r_brace} slip planes. (2) The bending of saturated MBs when the surrounding matrix exhibits a non-negligible gradient of deformation.

  8. Magnetic non-destructive evaluation of hardening of cold rolled reactor pressure vessel steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuejiao; Qiang, Wenjiang; Shu, Guogang

    2017-08-01

    Non-destructive test (NDT) of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel is urgently required due to the life extension program of nuclear power plant. Here magnetic NDT of cold rolled RPV steel is studied. The strength, hardness and coercivity increase with the increasing deformation, and a good linear correlation between the increment of coercivity, hardness and yield strength is found, which may be helpful to develop magnetic NDT of degradation of RPV steel. It is also found that besides dislocation density, the distribution of dislocations may affect coercivity as well.

  9. Texture Development in a Cold-Rolled and Annealed Body-Centered-Cubic Mg-Li Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, G. J.; Duggan, B. J.

    2007-10-01

    The rolling and annealing textures formed in bcc Mg 14 wt pct Li have been investigated and compared with interstitial-free (IF) and more heavily alloyed ferritic steel rolled at the same temperature. The α fiber texture component (<110>//rolling direction) is very strong after 90 pct rolling at room temperature; however, there is evidence that the γ fiber ({111}//rolling plane) weakens with increasing rolling strain to give a peaklike texture centered on {111}<110>. A rarely found cold rolling fiber texture has been identified, which has {100}//rolling plane and peaks at {100}<014>. Annealing at 200 °C very rapidly produces {554}<225>, which gives way to components near {111}<123> on grain growth. The α fiber is destroyed by recrystallization; however, the {100}//rolling plane fiber shifts intensity from the as-rolled orientation {100}<014> to {100}<012>. Since texture largely determines drawability, the best that can be achieved in terms of press performance of this alloy is most likely a Lankford parameter of unity.

  10. Deformation behavior of electro-deposited pure Fe and its texture evolution during cold-rolling and subsequent annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, N.; Yoshinaga, N.; Ushioda, K.

    2015-04-01

    Electro-deposited pure Fe has a characteristic of having very sharp isotropic ND//<111> fiber texture with a needle-like shaped fine grain elongated to ND. This Fe exhibits a surprisingly high r-value of over 7; however, such a high r-value might not be rationalized only from texture. Careful slip analyses reveal that restricted slips take place in the specific {110} slip planes, which are perpendicular to the sheet surface. Since grain boundaries with columnar structure are also perpendicular to the sheet surface, the slip plane in a certain grain may easily connect to the slip plane in adjacent grains having within ±30 degree rotation relationship around the common axis of ND//<111>. The operation of such a slip system is considered to cause the width strain much larger than the thickness strain. Furthermore, the texture evolution during cold-rolling and subsequent annealing was investigated using electro-deposited pure Fe as a starting material. Regardless of the amount of cold-rolling reduction, 65% to 90%, {111}<112> cold-rolling texture developed. After recrystallization, {111}<112> texture remained when material is cold-rolled by 65%, while {111}<011> texture developed when materials are cold-rolled by 80% and 90%. From the investigation into the mechanism on the development of recrystallization texture, the oriented nucleation and selective growth theories are concluded to contribute to the evolution of annealing texture.

  11. The Influence of Initial Microstructure on the Recrystallization Behaviour of Cold-Rolled AA3003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaghorbani, Payman; Poole, Warren J.; Wells, Mary A.; Parson, Nick C.

    Due to an excellent combination of strength, formability, corrosion resistance and material cost, extruded Al-Mn alloys (e.g. AA3003) are widely used in heat exchanger applications for automotive and off road applications. Grain size control is essential, as it affects important properties such as corrosion resistance, strength and formability. The present work describes experimental observations on the microstructure resulting from different homogenization practices of AA3003 which modify the dispersoid distribution and the initial grain size. This work considers deformation by cold rolling to reductions of 10-80 pet followed by annealing at the temperature range of 350 to 600 °C. Preliminary results show that there is a critical temperature below which concurrent precipitation of Mn-bearing dispersoids retards recovery and static recrystallization giving rise to different recrystallized grain sizes. The effect of initial grain size was observed to be significant when there were almost no dispersoids with cold reductions of 10-20 pct.

  12. Recovery during annealing in a cold rolled low carbon steel. Part I: Kinetics and microstructural characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-de-Guerenu, A.; Arizti, F.; Diaz-Fuentes, M.; Gutierrez, I

    2004-07-12

    A cold rolled low carbon steel has been annealed at low temperatures (300-500 deg. C) in order to promote recovery without interaction with recrystallization. It has been shown that the recovery process can be monitored by means of non-destructive magnetic techniques using coercive field (H{sub c}) measurements. Transmission electron microscopy and electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) observations were carried out in order to investigate the microstructural changes associated with the measured decrease in H{sub c} produced by the recovery. The EBSD image quality maps show that on a microstructural scale, the cold work stored energy is distributed heterogeneously among different texture components, in agreement with previous studies. Recovery mainly affects the {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace} {gamma}-fibre orientations, leading to the formation of well defined subgrains.

  13. Transverse Crack Modeling of Continuously Casted Slabs through Finite Element Method in Roughing Rolling at Wide Strip Mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesin, A.; Salganik, V.; Pustovoytov, D.

    2010-06-01

    In the pipe billet production at the wide strip mills of hot rolling big metal losses are caused by surface defects that affect most parts of the finished strips. The rolling surface defects are referred to the breach of steelmaking technology. Specialists mostly face defects of metal surface such as "scab" and "crack". The only area suffered from these defects is a slab edge. This area has the least surface temperature at the unbending of the continuous-casting machine, and together with deep buckles made by reciprocating motion of the crystallizer it is mostly subjected to transverse cracks that can be up to several millimeters. Each surface defect of the continuously casted slab will further turn into the surface defect of the strip bar. For some grade sets, mostly made of pipe steel grades the amount of strips with these defects can reach up to 60-70%. The area that is mostly prone to these defects is the edge of the strip. The work reveals investigation of the form change peculiarities in the transverse cracks of the continuously casted slab in roughing rolling in the horizontal rollers. The finite element method with software DEFORM 3D V6.1 has been applied in modeling. The work gives a form change mechanism of transverse cracks of slabs in deformation. Further crack growth in rolling is assessed due to Cockroft-Latham criteria.

  14. Texture evolution in grain-oriented electrical steel during hot band annealing and cold rolling.

    PubMed

    Shin, S M; Birosca, S; Chang, S K; De Cooman, B C

    2008-06-01

    The optimization of magnetic and physical properties of electrical steel is imperative for many engineering applications. The key factors to improve magnetic properties are the steel composition as well as control of the crystallographic orientation and microstructure of the steel during processing. However, this requires careful control of processing at all stages of production. Under certain conditions of deformation and annealing, electrical steel can be produced to have favourable texture components. For grain-oriented (GO) electrical steels that are used in most transformer cores, a pronounced {110} <001> Goss texture plays a vital role to achieve low power losses and high permeability. Essentially, Goss texture develops during secondary re-crystallization in GO electrical steels; however, the mechanism of the abnormal Goss grain growth is still disputed in the literature. In the current study, the influence of the annealing conditions on the development of annealing, cold rolling and re-crystallization textures of hot-rolled GO electrical steel were investigated in detail following each processing step. Furthermore, the orientation data from electron backscatter diffraction were used to evaluate the orientation-dependent stored energy of deformed grains after hot rolling. In the light of new findings in the present study, annealing and deformation texture development mechanisms were critically reviewed.

  15. NASA Ares I Launch Vehicle First Stage Roll Control System Cold Flow Development Test Program Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butt, Adam; Popp, Christopher G.; Holt, Kimberly A.; Pitts, Hank M.

    2010-01-01

    The Ares I launch vehicle is the selected design, chosen to return humans to the moon, Mars, and beyond. It is configured in two inline stages: the First Stage is a Space Shuttle derived five-segment Solid Rocket Booster and the Upper Stage is powered by a Saturn V derived J-2X engine. During launch, roll control for the First Stage (FS) is handled by a dedicated Roll Control System (RoCS) located on the connecting Interstage. That system will provide the Ares I with the ability to counteract induced roll torque while any induced yaw or pitch moments are handled by vectoring of the booster nozzle. This paper provides an overview of NASA s Ares I FS RoCS cold flow development test program including detailed test objectives, types of tests run to meet those objectives, an overview of the results, and applicable lessons learned. The test article was built and tested at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL. The FS RoCS System Development Test Article (SDTA) is a full scale, flight representative water flow test article whose primary objective was to obtain fluid system performance data to evaluate integrated system level performance characteristics and verify analytical models. Development testing and model correlation was deemed necessary as there is little historical precedent for similar large flow, pulsing systems such as the FS RoCS. The cold flow development test program consisted of flight-similar tanks, pressure regulators, and thruster valves, as well as plumbing simulating flight geometries, combined with other facility grade components and structure. Orifices downstream of the thruster valves were used to simulate the pressure drop through the thrusters. Additional primary objectives of this test program were to: evaluate system surge pressure (waterhammer) characteristics due to thruster valve operation over a range of mission duty cycles at various feed system pressures, evaluate temperature transients and heat transfer in the

  16. Production of iron aluminides by strip casting followed by cold rolling at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Blackford, J.R.; Buckley, R.A.; Jones, H.; Sellars, C.M.

    1996-05-15

    The high resistance of iron aluminides to sulfidizing and oxidizing environments at high temperatures offers potential for structural application as lower cost alternatives to 300 and 400 series stainless steels and some nickel-base alloys. They are, however, subject to ductility limitations at room temperature which compel careful processing in order to achieve optimum properties in the final product. The standard melt-processing route of casting to ingot followed by hot and warm working to bar, plate or sheet is critically dependent on, for example, control of grain size in the initial cast structure, and the low ductility of the ingot structure at room temperature rules out cold working as a possibility at that stage. The purpose of this contribution is to report results of initial trials involving strip casting from the melt followed directly by cold-rolling and heat treatment. A previous communication reported results of an alternative novel route, that of co-rolling of elemental foils followed by heat treatment.

  17. Multi objective Taguchi optimization approach for resistance spot welding of cold rolled TWIP steel sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutar, Mumin; Aydin, Hakan; Bayram, Ali

    2017-08-01

    Formability and energy absorption capability of a steel sheet are highly desirable properties in manufacturing components for automotive applications. TWinning Induced Plastisity (TWIP) steels are, new generation high Mn alloyed steels, attractive for the automotive industry due to its outstanding elongation (%40-45) and tensile strength (~1000MPa). So, TWIP steels provide excellent formability and energy absorption capability. Another required property from the steel sheets is suitability for manufacturing methods such as welding. The use of the steel sheets in the automotive applications inevitably involves welding. Considering that there are 3000-5000 welded spots on a vehicle, it can be interpreted that one of the most important manufacturing method is Resistance Spot Welding (RSW) for the automotive industry. In this study; firstly, TWIP steel sheet were cold rolled to 15% reduction in thickness. Then, the cold rolled TWIP steel sheets were welded with RSW method. The welding parameters (welding current, welding time and electrode force) were optimized for maximizing the peak tensile shear load and minimizing the indentation of the joints using a Taguchi L9 orthogonal array. The effect of welding parameters was also evaluated by examining the signal-to-noise ratio and analysis of variance (ANOVA) results.

  18. Rheology of coal-water slurries prepared by the HP roll mill grinding of coal. Quarterly technical progress report No. 1, September 1--November 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.

    1992-12-01

    The objective of the research is the development of improved technology for the preparation of coal-water slurries, which have potential for replacing fuel oil in direct combustion. The fine grinding of coal is a crucial step in the manufacture of coal-water slurries. In this context, currently available grinding mills exhibit poor energy efficiency for size reduction and non-optimum packing characteristics of the ground coal. The first increases the cost of manufacture of coal-water slurries and the second adversely affects their rheological properties. The newly invented choke-fed, high-pressure roll mill is up to 50% more energy efficient and, moreover, there are reasons to believe that it produces a size distribution of ground particles which is closer to the dense packing composition. The high-pressure roll mill (which is perhaps the only really significant innovation in industrial comminution in this century) has lower capital cost, occupies less floor space, shows negligible wear rate, accepts feed with a wide range of moisture contents and, of particular importance, it can be scaled up to grind hundreds of tons of solids per hour. The high-pressure roll mill provides a unique opportunity to develop an improved technology for preparing coal-water slurries. Our research group in the University of California at Berkeley not only has a fully instrumented, laboratory-scale, choke-fed. high-pressure roll mill (the only one of its kind in the United States) but also fully instrumented laboratory ball mills for comparative fine coal preparation purposes. In this research program, our plans are to systematically investigate comminution energy consumption, deagglomeration procedures, and the stability and rheology of coal-water slurry fuel prepared with high-pressure roll mill, and to compare the results with slurry prepared with ball-milled coal.

  19. Nanomechanical Characterization and Protein Adsorption of Cold-Rolled Zirconium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivedi, Pramanshu; Patel, Anup Kumar; Maurya, Rita; Jayaganthan, R.; Balani, Kantesh

    2015-04-01

    The success of the implants used for bone regeneration and repair is highly dependent on the cell material interaction, which is further influenced by interaction of body proteins with the implant materials. In this study, a novel nanostructured Zircaloy-2 has been developed using cold rolling (reduction of 25%, 50%. 75%, and 85%), which resulted in the refinement of grains by several orders of magnitude. Phase analysis was done using x-ray diffraction, and the microstructures of room-temperature rolled Zircaloy-2 were obtained using optical microscopy. The adsorption behavior of bovine serum albumin as a function of protein concentration on Zircaloy-2 was performed, and the wettability before and after protein adsorption on Zircaloy-2 samples was estimated by measuring the contact angle of a water droplet on the processed samples. Nanoindentation studies were performed, which indicated higher hardness (of 2.15 GPa) and reduced elastic modulus (47.4 GPa) when compared with that of as-received Zircaloy-2 (hardness of ~0.12 GPa and reduced elastic modulus of 5.6 GPa). Also, it was found that protein adsorption increases to 0.59 mg/cm2 for maximum deformed samples when compared with that of 0.38 mg/cm2 for as-received samples. Contact angle decreased with increasing reduction from 62° (of the as-received sample) to 44° (at a reduction of 85%). But after protein adsorption, a further decrease in the contact angle from 43° (as received) to 26° (for 85% reduction) was observed. Thus, the engineered cold rolling can allow tailoring the nanomechanical properties of Zircaloy-2 while rendering the required protein adsorption as potential implant material.

  20. Chemical banding revealed by chemical etching in a cold-rolled metastable stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Celada, C.; Toda-Caraballo, I.; Kim, B.; San Martín, D.

    2013-10-15

    The current work describes the metallographic characterization of the initial microstructure of a cold rolled precipitation hardening semi-austenitic stainless steel (12Cr–9Ni–4Mo–2Cu–1Ti, in wt.%). The use of the Lichtenegger and Blöch (L–B) color etching solution has been shown to reveal not only the phases present in the microstructure, but also the existence of chemical banding along the rolling direction. The L–B reagent has been found to color the microstructure in bands depending on what alloying elements have segregated to each band. Two-dimensional electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) maps have shown that Ni, Cu and Ti segregate together in the bands, while Cr has an opposite behavior. Mo has a mixed segregation behavior although much weaker than the other elements and more prompt to segregate like Ni does. A direct comparison of light optical micrographs with the EPMA maps of the same area of the microstructure has enable to establish a direct relationship between the alloying element band concentration and the resulting etching color contrast obtained with the L–B reagent. Thermodynamic calculations predict that solidification in this steel takes place with ferrite as the primary phase. Equilibrium partitioning coefficient calculations seem to support the observed segregation patterns. - Highlights: • A cold rolled metastable stainless steel has been characterized thoroughly. • EPMA shows that Ni, Cu and Ti segregate together; Cr in an opposite way. • L–B color etching is sensitive to the segregation of these chemical elements. • This chemical banding has been reduced by applying a homogenization heat treatment. • Partitioning coefficient calculations agree with the observed segregation patterns.

  1. Estimation of residual stress in cold rolled iron-disks using magnetic and ultrasonic methods and neutron diffraction technique

    SciTech Connect

    Aksenov, V.L.; Balagurov, A.M.; Taran, Yu.V.; Bokuchava, G.D.; Schreiber, J.

    1995-12-31

    Variation of internal stress states in cold rolled sheet metal can essentially influence the result of forming processes. Therefore it is important to control the forming process by a practicable in line testing method. For this purpose magnetic and ultrasonic nondestructive methods are available. However, it is necessary to calibrate these techniques. This paper describes a first step of such a calibration procedure making use of the neutron diffraction method. On the basis of the diffraction results an assessment of the magnetic and ultrasonic methods for the estimation of residual stress in the cold rolled iron-disks was made. Reasonable measuring concepts for practical applications to forming processes with cold rolled sheet metal are discussed.

  2. The effect of cold-rolling on the magnetic properties of non-oriented silicon steel sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, B.Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Kaido, C.; Yamashiro, Y.

    1999-09-01

    Non-oriented 3% silicon steel sheets were cold-rolled to 0.1 mm thick by various methods, and then they were finally annealed in an argon atmosphere for 1.5 hours at 900 C with a cooling rate of 0.025 C/s. Their magnetic properties changed depending on cold-rolling method used. A sample which had magnetic two-easy-directions with strong (100) cubic texture was obtained in the following way. The sample was alternately cold-rolled in two perpendicular directions L and T, and was also subjected to an intermediate anneal. The average grain diameter of the sample was 57 {micro}m. Its magnetic induction at 800 A/m was 1.65 T in the L direction, and 1.62 T in T direction, respectively.

  3. Numerical study of strain-rate effect in cold rolls forming of steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falsafi, J.; Demirci, E.; Silberschmidt, V. V.

    2013-07-01

    Cold roll forming (CRF) is a well-known continuous manufacturing process, in which a flat strip is deformed by successive rotating pairs of tools, without changing the material thickness. In the past decades, to lessen the process-development efforts, finite-element simulations have been increasingly employed to improve the process design and predict the manufacturing-induced defects. One of the important aspects in design of the CRF process is consideration of resulting strains in the final product as the material passes through several complex forming stands. Sufficient knowledge of longitudinal strain in the workpiece is required to set various process parameters. Increasing a process speed in a roll forming operation can bring cost advantages, but the influence of the forming speed on the strain distribution should be explored. This study is focussed on a strain-rate effect in the CRF process of steel sheets. The strain-rate dependency of a plastic behaviour observed in most metals can affect the finished product's quality as well as process parameters. This paper investigates the influence of the strain rate on longitudinal strains induced in the roll forming operation by incorporating a phenomenological Johnson-Cook constitutive model, which allows studying the impact of the process speed on the output product. Taking advantage of 3D finite element analysis, a roll forming process was simulated using MCS.Marc, comprising a complete set of forming stations. Through the changing of the process speed, the strain rate impact on longitudinal peak strains and forming length was investigated. The results highlight the effect of the strain rate on edge thinning and subsequent undesirable distortions in the product.

  4. Reinforcement of the Cube texture during recrystallization of a 1050 aluminum alloy partially recrystallized and 10% cold-rolled

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Wei; Helbert, Anne-Laure Baudin, Thierry; Brisset, Francois; Penelle, Richard

    2012-02-15

    In high purity Aluminum, very strong {l_brace}100{r_brace}<001> recrystallization texture is developed after 98% cold rolling and annealing at 500 Degree-Sign C. On the contrary, in Aluminum alloys of commercial purity, the Cube component hardly exceeds 30% after complete recrystallization. Parameters controlling Cube orientation development are mainly the solute dragging due to impurities in solid solution and the stored deformation energy. In the present study, besides the 85% cold rolling, two extra annealings and a slight cold rolling are introduced in the processing route to increase the Cube volume fraction. The Cube development was analyzed by X-ray diffraction and Electron BackScattered Diffraction (EBSD). The nucleation and growth mechanisms responsible for the large Cube growth were investigated using FEG/EBSD in-situ heating experiments. Continuous recrystallization was observed in Cube oriented grains and competed with SIBM (Strain Induced Boundary Migration) mechanism. This latter was favored by the stored energy gap introduced during the additional cold-rolling between the Cube grains and their neighbors. Finally, a Cube volume fraction of 65% was reached after final recrystallization. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EBSD in-situ heating experiments of aluminum alloy of commercial purity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A 10% cold-rolling after a partial recrystallization improved Cube nucleation and growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Annealing before cold-rolling limited the solute drag effect and permitted a large Cube growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cube development is enhanced by continuous recrystallization of Cube sub-grains. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The preferential Cube growth occurs by SIBM of small Cube grains.

  5. Effects of cold rolling on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Fe-Ni-Mn-Mo-Ti-Cr maraging steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmudi, Abbas; Nedjad, Syamak Hossein; Behnam, Mir Masud Jabbari

    2011-10-01

    Effects of cold rolling on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Fe-Ni-Mn-Mo-Ti-Cr maraging steels were studied. To investigate the microstructure and mechanical properties, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, tensile test, and hardness test were used. The results show that the solution-annealing treatment in the cold-rolled steel redounds to the formation of submicrocrystalline Fe2(Mo, Ti) Laves phase particles, which are stable at high temperatures. These secondary Laves phase particles prevent from recrystallization at high temperatures and correspond to semi-brittle fracture in the subsequent aging treatment.

  6. Microstructures and mechanical properties of Ti-Mo alloys cold-rolled and heat treated

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Yinglong; Luo Dongmei

    2011-10-15

    In this study, the microstructures and mechanical properties of Ti-10Mo and Ti-20Mo alloys (mass%) are investigated to assess the potential use in biomedical applications. The microstructures are examined by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical properties are determined from uniaxial tensile tests. The experimental results indicate that the microstructures and mechanical properties of Ti-Mo alloys are dependent upon the cold rolling, solution heat treatment, and Mo content. The Ti-10Mo alloy exhibits ({alpha}'' + {beta}) and ({beta} + {omega}) phases under the cold rolling (CR) and solution treatment (ST), respectively. By contrast, the Ti-20Mo alloy comprises only {beta} phase under such conditions. The quenched Ti-20Mo alloy has the lowest elastic modulus and CR Ti-20Mo alloy has the highest tensile strength. The quenched Ti-10Mo alloy exhibits the excellent ductility and two-stage yielding from stress-strain curves due to the stress-induced martensite transformation from {beta} to {alpha}'' during tensile deformation. These Ti-Mo alloys exhibit low yield strength and good ductility, and they are more suitable for biomedical applications than the conventional metallic biomaterials from the viewpoint of better mechanical compatibility. The quenched Ti-10Mo alloy has some advantages over the other {beta} binary Ti-Mo alloys for biomedical applications. {beta} type Ti-Mo-Sn alloys are expected to be promising candidates for novel metallic biomaterials. - Highlights: {yields} The microstructures and mechanical properties of Ti-Mo alloys are dependent upon the cold rolling, solution heat treatment, and Mo content. {yields} The quenched Ti-10Mo alloy exhibits the excellent ductility and two-stage yielding due to stress-induced martensite transformation from beta to alpha double prime during tensile deformation. {yields} The Ti-Mo alloys are more suitable for biomedical applications than the conventional metallic

  7. Effects of the deep rolling process on the surface roughness and properties of an Al-3vol%SiC nanoparticle nanocomposite fabricated by mechanical milling and hot extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sattari, Sajjad; Atrian, Amir

    2017-07-01

    Deep rolling is one of the most widely used surface mechanical treatments among several methods used to generate compressive residual stress. This process is usually used for axisymmetric components and can lead to improvements of the surface quality, dimensional accuracy, and mechanical properties. In this study, we deduced the appropriate deep rolling parameters for Al-3vol%SiC nanocomposite samples using roughness and microhardness measurements. The nanocomposite samples were fabricated using a combination of mechanical milling, cold pressing, and hot extrusion techniques. Density measurements indicated acceptable densification of the samples, with no porosity. The results of tensile tests showed that the samples are sufficiently strong for the deep rolling process and also indicated near 50% improvement of tensile strength after incorporating SiC nanoparticle reinforcements. The effects of some important rolling parameters, including the penetration depth, rotation speed, feed rate, and the number of passes, on the surface quality and microhardness were also investigated. The results demonstrated that decreasing the feed rate and increasing the number of passes can lead to greater surface hardness and lower surface roughness.

  8. Annealing Behavior at Triple Junctions in High-Purity Aluminum After Slight Cold Rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Wenhong; Wang, Weiguo; Fang, Xiaoying; Qin, Congxiang

    2017-04-01

    High-purity polycrystalline aluminum samples with a typical grain size of approximately 30 μm were slightly cold-rolled with a thickness reduction of 15%, and then, off-line in situ electron backscatter diffraction was used to identify the annealing behavior at triple junctions during annealing at 400 °C. The results show that recrystallization nuclei are developed at some triple junctions during annealing. High-angle grain boundaries migrate from harder grains to softer grains at the triple junctions leading to the formation of nuclei. All such nuclei show Σ3 orientation relationships with the parent grains, and the bounded Σ3 boundaries are found to be incoherent. During further annealing, these nuclei are consumed by other growing grains, indicating that their presence is just a release of the strain concentration at the triple junctions.

  9. FT-IR Analysis Of Oil Emulsions Used In The Cold Rolling Of Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Kenneth C.; Pilon, Andre; Noel, D.

    1989-12-01

    In the cold rolling of steel sheet, oil-in-water emulsions are used to provide lubrication and cooling. Both the concentration and the quality of the oil involved must be carefully controlled in order to produce an acceptable product. Current analytical procedures usually involve separation of the oil from the water, followed by analysis of the different components by various wet chemical and instrumental methods. In principle, attenuated total reflection FT-IR spectroscopy offers the possibility of obtaining much or all of the required information from one measurement made directly on the emulsion. This paper describes some preliminary results involving the use of ATR spectroscopy to determine the percentage of oil in a clean emulsion. Although the use of ATR for aqueous solutions is well known, its applicability to emulsions has been less widely studied. In particular, the heterogeneous nature of emulsions could cause problems not encountered with aqueous solutions.

  10. Estimation of Dislocation Density in Cold-Rolled Commercially Pure Titanium by Using Synchrotron Diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ALkhazraji, Hasan; Salih, Mohammed Z.; Zhong, Zhengye; Mhaede, Mansour; Brokmeier, Hans-Günter; Wagner, Lothar; Schell, N.

    2014-08-01

    Cold rolling (CR) leads to a heavy changes in the crystallographic texture and microstructure, especially crystal defects, such as dislocations, and stacking faults increase. The microstructure evolution in commercially pure titanium (cp-Ti) deformed by CR at the room temperature was determined by using the synchrotron peak profile analysis of full width at half maximum (FWHM). The computer program ANIZC has been used for the calculation of diffraction contrast factors of dislocations in elastically anisotropic hexagonal crystals. The dislocation density has a minimum value at 40 pct reduction. The increase of the dislocation density at higher deformation levels is caused by the nucleation of new generation of dislocations from the crystallite grain boundaries. The high-cycle fatigue strength (HCF) has a maximum value at 80 pct reduction and it has a minimum value at 40 pct reduction in the commercially pure titanium.

  11. Change in magnetic properties of a cold rolled and thermally aged Fe-Cu alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, D. G.; Ryu, K. S.; Kobayashi, S.; Takahashi, S.; Cheong, Y. M.

    2010-05-01

    The variation in magnetic properties of a Fe-1%Cu model alloy due to a cold rolling and a thermal aging has been evaluated to simulate the radiation damage of reactor pressure vessel of nuclear power plant. The thermal aging was conducted at 500 °C with different aging times in series. The hysteresis loops, magnetic Barkhausen noise (BN) and Vickers microhardness were measured for prestrained, strained, and thermal aged samples. The coercivity increased by a plastic strain and decreased by thermal aging, The BN decreased in the prestrained and strained samples but large changes were observed in the strained sample. These results were interpreted in terms of the domain wall motion signified by a change in the mean free path associated with microinternal stress and copper rich precipitates.

  12. Annealing Behavior at Triple Junctions in High-Purity Aluminum After Slight Cold Rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Wenhong; Wang, Weiguo; Fang, Xiaoying; Qin, Congxiang

    2017-02-01

    High-purity polycrystalline aluminum samples with a typical grain size of approximately 30 μm were slightly cold-rolled with a thickness reduction of 15%, and then, off-line in situ electron backscatter diffraction was used to identify the annealing behavior at triple junctions during annealing at 400 °C. The results show that recrystallization nuclei are developed at some triple junctions during annealing. High-angle grain boundaries migrate from harder grains to softer grains at the triple junctions leading to the formation of nuclei. All such nuclei show Σ3 orientation relationships with the parent grains, and the bounded Σ3 boundaries are found to be incoherent. During further annealing, these nuclei are consumed by other growing grains, indicating that their presence is just a release of the strain concentration at the triple junctions.

  13. Nanocrystalline Advanced High Strength Steel Produced by Cold Rolling and Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, Daniel M.; Van Aken, David C.

    2016-05-01

    An advanced high strength steel of composition Fe-0.11C-2.46Si-11.5Mn-0.38Al-0.029N (wt pct) was produced with a yield strength of 790 MPa, an ultimate tensile strength of 1300 MPa, and a total elongation of 28 pct. Conventional processing of hot-band steel by cold rolling and annealing at 873 K (600 °C) was used to produce a nanocrystalline structure with an average grain diameter 112 ± 25 nm (68 pct confidence level). Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were utilized to characterize the nanocrystalline steel, which consisted of γ-austenite, ɛ-martensite, and α-ferrite.

  14. Parameter Optimization During Forging Process of a Novel High-Speed-Steel Cold Work Roll

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jing; Liu, Ligang; Sun, Yanliang; Li, Qiang; Ren, Xuejun; Yang, Qingxiang

    2016-01-01

    The forging of high-speed-steel (HSS) roll has always been a technical problem in manufacturing industry. In this study, the forging process of a novel HSS cold work roll was simulated by deform-3D on the basis of rigid-viscoplastic finite element model. The effect of heating temperature and forging speed on temperature and stress fields during forging process was simulated too. The results show that during forging process, the temperature of the contact region with anvils increases. The stress of the forging region increases and distributes un-uniformly, while that of the non-forging region is almost zero. With increasing forging time, Z load on anvil increases gradually. With increasing heating temperature or decreasing forging speed, the temperature of the whole billet increases, while the stress and Z load on anvil decrease. In order to ensure the high efficiency and safety of the forging process, the heating temperature and the forging speed are chosen as 1160 °C and 16.667 mm/s, respectively.

  15. Static Recovery Modeling of Dislocation Density in a Cold Rolled Clad Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penlington, Alex

    Clad alloys feature one or more different alloys bonded to the outside of a core alloy, with non-equilibrium, interalloy interfaces. There is limited understanding of the recovery and recrystallization behaviour of cold rolled clad aluminum alloys. In order to optimize the properties of such alloys, new heat treatment processes may be required that differ from what is used for the monolithic alloys. This study examines the recovery behaviour of a cold rolled Novelis Fusion(TM) alloy containing an AA6XXX core with an AA3003 cladding on one side. The bond between alloys appears microscopically discrete and continuous, but has a 30 microm wide chemical gradient. The as-deformed structure at the interalloy region consists of pancaked sub-grains with dislocations at the misorientation boundaries and a lower density organized within the more open interiors. X-ray line broadening was used to extract the dislocation density from the interalloy region and an equivalently deformed AA6XXX following static annealing using a modified Williamson-Hall analysis. This analysis assumed that Gaussian broadening contributions in a pseudo-Voigt function corresponded only to strain from dislocations. The kinetics of the dislocation density evolution to recrystallization were studied isothermally at 2 minute intervals, and isochronally at 175 and 205°C. The data fit the Nes model, in which the interalloy region recovered faster than AA6XXX at 175°C, but was slower at 205°C. This was most likely caused by change in texture and chemistry within this region such as over-aging of AA6XXX . Simulation of a continuous annealing and self homogenization process both with and without pre-recovery indicates a detectable, though small change in the texture and grain size in the interalloy region.

  16. Inhibition of cold rolled steel corrosion by Tween-20 in sulfuric acid: weight loss, electrochemical and AFM approaches.

    PubMed

    Mu, Guannan; Li, Xianghong

    2005-09-01

    The inhibiting action of a nonionic surfactant of Tween-20 on the corrosion of cold rolled steel (CRS) in 0.5-7.0 M sulfuric acid (H(2)SO(4)) was studied by weight loss and potentiodynamic polarization methods. Atomic force microscope (AFM) provided the surface conditions. The results show that inhibition efficiency increases with the inhibitor concentration, while it decreases with the sulfuric acid concentration. The adsorption of inhibitor on the cold rolled steel surface obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm equation. Effect of immersion time was studied and discussed. The effect of temperature on the corrosion behavior of cold rolled steel was also studied at four temperatures ranging from 30 to 60 degrees C, the thermodynamic parameters such as adsorption heat, adsorption free energy, and adsorption entropy were calculated. The results revealed that the adsorption was physisorption mechanism. A kinetic study of cold rolled steel in uninhibited and inhibited acid was also discussed. The kinetic parameters such as apparent activation energy, pre-exponential factor, rate constant, and reaction constant were calculated for the reactions of corrosion. The inhibition effect is satisfactorily explained by both thermodynamic and kinetic models. Polarization curves show that Tween-20 is a cathodic-type inhibitor in sulfuric acid. The results obtained from weight loss and potentiodynamic polarization are in good agreement, and the Tween-20 inhibition action could also be evidenced by surface AFM images.

  17. Temperature behavior of exothermic reaction of Al/Ni multilayer powder materials based on cold-rolling and pulverizing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kametani, Nagamasa; Izumi, Taisei; Miyake, Shugo; Kanetsuki, Shunsuke; Namazu, Takahiro

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, the characteristics of self-propagating exothermic reactions of an Al/Ni multilayer powder materials fabricated by a cold-rolling and powdering procedure are reported as initial findings of the first trial on a heat source for various applications with the energy-saving feature. Experimental results showed that, following the reaction of the developed Al/Ni multilayer powder materials in air atmosphere, the maximum temperature increased from approximately 1450 °C to over 1768 °C with increasing number of passes from 20 to 40 in cold-rolling. Furthermore, observations by scanning electron microscopy and crystallographic identification by X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the multilayer structure of powdered Al/Ni after 40 passes of cold-rolling was deformed, became thinner with below sub-micrometer thickness, and almost completely reacted to NiAl intermetallic compounds. It is possible that optimizing cold-rolling conditions enables us to control exothermic heat, which will be useful for heat sources.

  18. High temperature deformation mechanism of 15CrODS ferritic steels at cold-rolled and recrystallized conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugino, Yoshito; Ukai, Shigeharu; Oono, Naoko; Hayashi, Shigenari; Kaito, Takeji; Ohtsuka, Satoshi; Masuda, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Sato, Eiichi

    2015-11-01

    The ODS ferritic steels realize potentially higher operating temperature due to structural stability by the dispersed nano-size oxide particles. The deformation process and mechanism of 15CrODS ferritic steels were investigated at 1073 K and 1173 K for the cold-rolled and recrystallized conditions. Tensile and creep tests were conducted at the stress in parallel (LD) and perpendicular (TD) directions to the grain boundaries. Strain rate varied from 10-1 to 10-9 s-1. For the LD specimens, deformation in the cold rolled and recrystallized conditions is reinforced by finely dispersed oxide particles. The dominant deformation process for the recrystallized TD specimen is controlled through the grain boundary sliding and stress accommodation via diffusional creep at temperature of 1173 K and lower strain rate less than 10-4 s-1. The grain boundary sliding couldn't be rate-controlling process at 1073 K for the as-cold rolled TD specimen, where a dynamic recovery of the dislocation produced by cold-rolling is related to the deformation process.

  19. Kinetics of Ferrite Recrystallization and Austenite Formation During Intercritical Annealing of the Cold-Rolled Ferrite/Martensite Duplex Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazaheri, Y.; Kermanpur, A.; Najafizadeh, A.; Kalashami, A. Ghatei

    2016-03-01

    Ultrafine-grained, dual-phase (UFG DP) steels were produced by a new route using an uncommon cold-rolling and subsequent intercritical annealing of ferrite/martensite duplex starting microstructures. The effects of processing parameters such as rolling reduction, intercritical annealing temperature, and time on the microstructural evaluations have been studied. UFG DP steels with an average grain size of about 1 to 2 μm were achieved by short intercritical annealing of the 80 pct cold-rolled duplex microstructures. The kinetics of ferrite recrystallization and austenite formation were studied based on the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) model. The proposed model for describing the isothermal austenite formation kinetics was applied successfully to the nonisothermal conditions. It was found that complete recrystallization of ferrite before the austenite formation led to the formation of a large extent randomly distributed austenite in the ferrite matrix and a chain-networked structure.

  20. Experimental research on micro-pit defects of SUS 430 stainless steel strip in cold rolling process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Changsheng; Li, Miao; Zhu, Tao; Huo, Gang

    2013-05-01

    In order to improve surface glossiness of stainless steel strip in tandem cold rolling, experimental research on micro-pit defects of SUS 430 ferrite stainless steel was investigated in laboratory. The surface morphology of micro-pit defects was observed by SEM. The effects of micro-pit defects on rolling reduction, roll surface roughness and emulsion parameters were analyzed. With the pass number increasing, the quantity and surface of micro-pit defects were reduced, uneven peak was decreased and gently along rolling direction, micro-pit defects had equally distributed tendency along tranverse direction. The micro-pit defects were increased with the roll surface roughness increase. The defects ratio was declined with larger gradient at pass number 1 to 3, but gentle slope at pass number 4 to 5. The effects of temperature 55° and 63°, concentration 3% and 6% of emulsion on micro-pit effects had not obvious difference. Maintain of micro-pit was effected by rolling oil or air in the micro-pit, the quality of oil was much more than the air in the micro-pit in lubrication rolling.

  1. Influence of wheat milling on low-hydration bread quality developed by sheeting rolls.

    PubMed

    Gómez, M; Ruiz-París, E; Oliete, B

    2011-06-01

    It is well known that milling influences the characteristics of flour and products made from it. This article analyzed the influence of milling on the quality of low-hydration bread. In general, milling influenced the quality of these products more than the type of wheat selected. Among the various mill streams, the last break and reduction streams produced lower quality bread and must be eliminated in milling. These streams had a higher protein and ash content, showing the presence of components of the outer layers of the grain. The flour was able to absorb more water, but had less extensibility in kneading and the dough generated was weaker due the poorer quality of its proteins and the influence of elements from the outer layers. Thus, bread made from these streams had smaller volume, had a firmer texture and had both darker crumb and crust. These differences, along with the effect of the kind of flour on the flavor and aroma of the bread, made it less acceptable than flour from the rest of the streams studied.

  2. Effect of Cold Rolling on the Coffin Manson Relationship in Low-Cycle Fatigue of Superalloy IN718

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praveen, K. V. U.; Singh, Vakil

    2008-01-01

    The age-hardenable Ni-Fe based superalloy IN718 exhibits a dual-slope Coffin Manson (C-M) relationship during low-cycle fatigue (LCF). Effort was made to eliminate the dual-slope C-M relationship by introducing prior deformation. Peak-aged (PA) material was subjected to different degrees of cold reduction, and its LCF behavior was examined. Cold rolling is found to be highly effective in eliminating the dual slope and enhancing the fatigue life at low strain amplitudes. Cold rolling coupled with stress relieving (SR) treatment is found to further improve the fatigue life. The role of texture on the observed LCF behavior is analyzed and found to have no significant effect.

  3. Precipitation in cold-rolled Al–Sc–Zr and Al–Mn–Sc–Zr alloys prepared by powder metallurgy

    SciTech Connect

    Vlach, M.; Stulikova, I.; Smola, B.; Kekule, T.; Kudrnova, H.; Danis, S.; Gemma, R.; Ocenasek, V.; Malek, J.; Tanprayoon, D.; Neubert, V.

    2013-12-15

    The effects of cold-rolling on thermal, mechanical and electrical properties, microstructure and recrystallization behaviour of the AlScZr and AlMnScZr alloys prepared by powder metallurgy were studied. The powder was produced by atomising in argon with 1% oxygen and then consolidated by hot extrusion at 350 °C. The electrical resistometry and microhardness together with differential scanning calorimetry measurements were compared with microstructure development observed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction. Fine (sub)grain structure developed and fine coherent Al{sub 3}Sc and/or Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) particles precipitated during extrusion at 350 °C in the alloys studied. Additional precipitation of the Al{sub 3}Sc and/or Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) particles and/or their coarsening was slightly facilitated by the previous cold rolling. The presence of Sc,Zr-containing particles has a significant antirecrystallization effect that prevents recrystallization at temperatures minimally up to 420 °C. The precipitation of the Al{sub 6}Mn- and/or Al{sub 6}(Mn,Fe) particles of a size ∼ 1.0 μm at subgrain boundaries has also an essential antirecrystallization effect and totally suppresses recrystallization during 32 h long annealing at 550 °C. The texture development of the alloys seems to be affected by high solid solution strengthening by Mn. The precipitation of the Mn-containing alloy is highly enhanced by a cold rolling. The apparent activation energy of the Al{sub 3}Sc particles formation and/or coarsening and that of the Al{sub 6}Mn and/or Al{sub 6}(Mn,Fe) particle precipitation in the powder and in the compacted alloys were determined. The cold deformation has no effect on the apparent activation energy values of the Al{sub 3}Sc-phase and the Al{sub 6}Mn-phase precipitation. - Highlights: • The Mn, Sc and Zr additions to Al totally suppresses recrystallization at 550 °C. • The Sc,Zr-containing particle

  4. Effect of Inertial Force on Thermal Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication of Oil Film Bearing in Rolling Mill Lubricated by the Oil-water Two-phase Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Wang, You-Qiang; Wang, Jian; Fan, Xiao-Meng

    2016-05-01

    The oil film bearing in rolling mill as the research object in this paper is established oilwater two-phase flow of thermal elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) model with the inertia force and thermal effect of the Reynolds equation. The oil film bearing in rolling mill in oil-water two-phase flow is analyzed the effect on the pyrolysis with considering inertia force, and the lubricant film pressure, film thickness with the changes in the relationship between water content, rolling force and spindle speed. The results showed that the lubricant film thickness is increased and carrying capacity is also increased with considering inertial force. With the increase of water content, lubricant film thickness is increased and the carrying capacity is decreased.

  5. Microstructure and Texture Development during Cold Rolling in UNS S32205 and UNS S32760 Duplex Stainless Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Amit; Khatirkar, Rajesh Kisni; Chalapathi, Darshan; Kumar, Gulshan; Suwas, Satyam

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, microstructure and texture evolution during cold rolling in UNS S32205 and UNS S32760 duplex stainless steel was investigated. Both steels were unidirectionally cold rolled up to 80 pct thickness reduction. Scanning electron microscopy and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) were used for microstructural characterization, while X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used for the measurement of bulk texture. Strain-induced martensite (SIM) was identified and quantified with the help of magnetic measurements (B-H curve and magnetization saturation). With the increase in plastic strain, the grains became morphologically elongated along the rolling direction with the reduction in average band thickness and band spacing. SIM increased with the increase in deformation and was found to be a function of strain and the SFE of austenite. The increase in SIM was much more pronounced in UNS S32205 steel as compared to UNS S32760 steel. After cold rolling, strong α-fiber (RD//<110>) texture was developed in ferrite, while brass texture was dominant in austenite for both steels. The strength of texture components and fibers was stronger in UNS S32760 steel. Another significant feature was the development of weak γ-fiber (ND//<111>) in UNS S32760 steel at intermediate deformation.

  6. Microstructure and Texture Development during Cold Rolling in UNS S32205 and UNS S32760 Duplex Stainless Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Amit; Khatirkar, Rajesh Kisni; Chalapathi, Darshan; Kumar, Gulshan; Suwas, Satyam

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, microstructure and texture evolution during cold rolling in UNS S32205 and UNS S32760 duplex stainless steel was investigated. Both steels were unidirectionally cold rolled up to 80 pct thickness reduction. Scanning electron microscopy and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) were used for microstructural characterization, while X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used for the measurement of bulk texture. Strain-induced martensite (SIM) was identified and quantified with the help of magnetic measurements (B-H curve and magnetization saturation). With the increase in plastic strain, the grains became morphologically elongated along the rolling direction with the reduction in average band thickness and band spacing. SIM increased with the increase in deformation and was found to be a function of strain and the SFE of austenite. The increase in SIM was much more pronounced in UNS S32205 steel as compared to UNS S32760 steel. After cold rolling, strong α-fiber (RD//<110>) texture was developed in ferrite, while brass texture was dominant in austenite for both steels. The strength of texture components and fibers was stronger in UNS S32760 steel. Another significant feature was the development of weak γ-fiber (ND//<111>) in UNS S32760 steel at intermediate deformation.

  7. Rheology of coal-water slurries prepared by the HP roll mill grinding of coal. Quarterly technical progress report No. 6, December 1, 1993--February 28, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.

    1994-03-01

    The effect of the addition of nonionic surfactants on the aggregative stability of coal-water slurries was investigated through determination of sedimentation volumes and floc size distributions. Sedimentation volume measurements for nonionic surfactants show that for Triton X-165, Triton X-305 and Triton X-405, the sedimentation volume decreases slightly with added reagent up to 0.5 wt % addition, decreasing sharply for reagent additions between 0.5 to 0.75 wt %. However, at higher additions, the sedimentation volume levels off for Triton X-165, but increases for both Triton X-305 and Triton X-405. These results are in agreement with the viscosity measurements. Because of its plastic nature, bituminous coal is readily briquetted or agglomerated by the intense localized stresses encountered during comminution in the high-pressure roll mill. The degree of briquetting depends on the nature of the coal and the compressive stresses. We have found that the briquettes can readily be deagglomerated by stirring the comminuted products in a in methanol suspension. Our results show that the amount of minus 200-mesh coal produced depends mainly on the energy invested in the high-pressure roll grinding. The percentage of fines generated increases more or less linearly with the specific grinding energy consumed in the initial stages and tends to level off at the high energy inputs higher than 3 kwh/t. Even at 3.74 kWh/t of energy input, the ground product contained only 30 percent of minus 200-mesh particles, which is much lower than 80 percent of minus 200-mesh particles required in the coalwater slurries for direct combustion in power plants. Therefore, future work will encompass grinding of the high-pressure roll milled product in ball mill or rod mill, using hygrid HP roll mill/ball mill circuit for feed preparation.

  8. Online Use of Physically Based Plasticity Models for Steady State Cold Rolling Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decroos, Koen; Seefeldt, Marc

    2013-12-01

    A procedure has been developed to incorporate computationally costly physically based crystal plasticity models to calculate texture and anisotropy for steady state forming processes online. When using these models, at every point in the deformed zone, an average and a nonlinear solution procedure for stresses and/or strains in all these grains is required. The online calculation cost is avoided by offline creating a database with texture and anisotropy data for all possible deformation modes of the process. The case studied is a cold rolling process, but can easily be extended to any type of forming process, when the deformation field is known in advance. Textures and anisotropy data are predicted using a viscoplastic self-consistent model, but the method is suitable for any kind of crystal plasticity model. Single crystal plastic parameters, such as the critical resolved shear stress, the single crystal hardening parameters, and the strain-rate sensitivity, have been calibrated based on mechanical tests by means of a direct search simplex algorithm. The online calculated deformation history is compared to the histories stored in the database and the best match is selected. The deformation history is divided in two zones, the one before the neutral point where forward shearing occurs and the one after the neutral point where backward shearing occurs. One online deformation generation and selection procedure requires 0.005 s of CPU time for a database with a division in deformation gradients fine enough to accurately cover all deformations. The method allows calculating yield surfaces at any point in space based on microstructural effects modeled by crystal plasticity, without incremental material updating and necessity to define a kinematic and isotropic hardening, which makes the method suitable for fast models to calculate rolling forces and torques online.

  9. The microstructure and creep behavior of cold rolled udimet 188 sheet.

    PubMed

    Boehlert, C J; Longanbach, S C

    2011-06-01

    Udimet 188 was subjected to thermomechanical processing (TMP) in an attempt to understand the effects of cold-rolling deformation on the microstructure and tensile-creep behavior. Commercially available sheet was cold rolled to varying amounts of deformation (between 5-35% reduction in sheet thickness) followed by a solution treatment at 1,464 K (1,191 °C) for 1 h and subsequent air cooling. This sequence was repeated four times to induce a high-volume fraction of low-energy grain boundaries. The resultant microstructure was characterized using electron backscattered diffraction. The effect of the TMP treatment on the high-temperature [1,033-1,088 K (760-815 °C)] creep behavior was evaluated. The measured creep stress exponents (6.0-6.8) suggested that dislocation creep was dominant at 1,033 K (760 °C) for stresses ranging between 100-220 MPa. For stresses ranging between 25-100 MPa at 1,033 K (760 °C), the stress exponents (2.3-2.8) suggested grain boundary sliding was dominant. A significant amount of grain boundary cracking was observed both on the surface and subsurface of deformed samples. To assess the mechanisms of crack nucleation, in situ scanning electron microscopy was performed during the elevated-temperature tensile-creep deformation. Cracking occurred preferentially along general high-angle grain boundaries (GHAB) and less than 25% of the cracks were found on low-angle grain boundaries (LAB) and coincident site lattice boundaries (CSLB). Creep rupture experiments were performed at T = 1,088 K (815 °C) and σ = 165 MPa and the greatest average time-to-rupture was exhibited by the TMP sheet with the greatest fraction of LAB+CSLB. However, a clear correlation was not exhibited between the grain boundary character distribution and the minimum creep rates. The findings of this work suggest that although grain boundary engineering may be possible for this alloy, simply relating the fraction of grain boundary types to the creep resistance is not

  10. Processing of Clay/Epoxy Nanocomposites with a Three-Roll Mill Machine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) epoxy resin cured with methyl tetrahydrophthalic anhydride hardener from Vantico was used as the matrix. 1...temperature and curing agent [4]. The commonly used techniques to process clay- epoxy nanocomposites are: direct mixing and solution mixing [4-71...UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP014247 TITLE: Processing of Clay/ Epoxy Nanocomposites with a Three-Roll

  11. Lipoid pneumonia caused by oil mist exposure from a steel rolling tandem mill.

    PubMed

    Cullen, M R; Balmes, J R; Robins, J M; Smith, G J

    1981-01-01

    Five of nine active tandem mill operators exposed at work to aerosolized hydrocarbon mist were referred for evaluation of respiratory complaints. The worker with the longest exposure had reduced lung volumes; he was admitted to the hospital for detailed study. Exercise studies revealed work load limited by ventilation and arterial oxygen desaturation. Flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsy revealed evidence of lipoid pneumonia. Assessment of the mill revealed levels of respirable oil mist by personal samplers throughout the area far below the currently accepted standard of 5 mg/M3. These findings confirm a 20-year-old hypothesis of J.G. Jones regarding the hazard of oil mist in this industrial setting.

  12. Lipoid pneumonia caused by oil mist exposure from a steel rolling tandem mill

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, M.R.; Balmes, J.R.; Robins, J.M.; Smith, G.J.

    1981-01-01

    Five of nine active tandem mill operators exposed at work to aerosolized hydrocarbon mist were referred for evaluation of respiratory complaints. The worker with the longest exposure had reduced lung volumes; he was admitted to the hospital for detailed study. Exercise studies revealed work load limited by ventilation and arterial oxygen desaturation. Flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsy revealed evidence of lipoid pneumonia. Assessment of the mill revealed levels of respirable oil mist by personal samplers throughout the area far below the currently accepted standard of 5 mg/M3. These findings confirm a 20-year-old hypothesis of J.G. Jones regarding the hazard of oil mist in this industrial setting.

  13. Heat fluxes and roll circulations over the western Gulf Stream during an intense cold-air outbreak

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Shu-Hsien; Ferguson, Michael P.

    1991-01-01

    Turbulence and heat fluxes in the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) for three aircraft stacks near the western Gulf Stream front, observed during the Genesis of Atlantic Lows Experiment (GALE) January 28, 1986 cold-air outbreak, has been studied using mixed-layer scaling. The GOES image and stability parameter indicates that these three stacks were in the roll vortex regime. The turbulence structure in the MABL is studied for this case, as well as the significance of roll vortices to heat fluxes. The roll circulations are shown to contribute significantly to the sensible (temperature) and latent heat (moisture) fluxes with importance increasing upward. The results suggest that the entrainment at the MABL top might affect the the budgets of temperature and humidity fluxes in the lower MABL, but not in the unstable surface layer.

  14. Analysis of Magnetic Minor Hysteresis Loops in Thermally Aged and Cold-rolled Fe-Cu Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, F.; Kobayashi, S.; Murakami, T.; Takahashi, S.; Kamada, Y.; Kikuchi, H.

    2011-01-01

    Neutron irradiation causes the formation of Cu precipitate in reactor pressure vessel steel and makes the steel susceptible to rupture. In the present study, we have examined magnetic minor hysteresis loops of Fe-1wt%Cu alloy after thermally ageing at 753 K and subsequent cold rolling to elucidate the effects of Cu precipitation on magnetic properties. Minor-loop coefficients, obtained from scaling power laws between field-dependent parameters of minor hysteresis loops, decrease with ageing time and show a local maximum around 200 min, reflecting the growth of Cu precipitates with ageing. For the alloy cold-rolled after ageing, the minor-loop properties linearly increase with reduction and show a good relationship with mechanical properties such as DBTT and hardness. These observations indicate that the analysis method using magnetic minor loops can be an useful technique of nondestructive evaluation of irradiation embrittlement and subsequent deformation hardening in reactor pressure vessel steels.

  15. Performance Optimization of Cold Rolled Type 316L Stainless Steel by Sand Blasting and Surface Linishing Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczyk, B.; Heine, B.; Engelberg, D. L.

    2016-03-01

    Sand blasting followed by a surface linishing treatment was applied to optimize the near-surface microstructure of cold rolled type 316L stainless steel. The introduction of cold rolling led to the formation of α-martensite. Specimens with large thickness reductions (40, 53%) were more susceptible to localized corrosion. The application of sand blasting produced a near-surface deformation layer containing compressive residual stresses with significantly increased surface roughness, resulting in reduced corrosion resistance. The most resistant microstructure was obtained with the application of a final linishing treatment after sand blasting. This treatment produced microstructures with compressive near-surface residual stresses, reduced surface roughness, and increased resistance to localized corrosion.

  16. Dislocation densities and stored energy after cold rolling of Al-Mg alloys: Investigations by resistivity and differential scanning calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Verdier, M.; Flandin, L.; Brechet, Y.; Groma, I.; Lendvai, J.; Guyot, P.

    1997-08-15

    The authors have shown that the heat released during heating samples of Al-2.5%Mg cold rolled at different strains stems from two contributions: one corresponds to the annihilation of defects during recrystallization and the other to desegregation of solute atoms from the core of dislocations. A low temperature endotherm peak is also observed and can be attributed to dissolution of Mg clusters formed in dislocation walls. The authors have shown that the hardness of the material can be described by a single internal variable which is the density of dislocations. In contrast to this, the energy stored during cold rolling can not be described by a single variable theory. As a consequence, the yield stress alone can not be sufficient to depict stored energy and thus recrystallization kinetics.

  17. Microstructure and Property Modifications of Cold Rolled IF Steel by Local Laser Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallberg, Håkan; Adamski, Frédéric; Baïz, Sarah; Castelnau, Olivier

    2017-07-01

    Laser annealing experiments are performed on cold rolled IF steel whereby highly localized microstructure and property modification are achieved. The microstructure is seen to develop by strongly heterogeneous recrystallization to provide steep gradients, across the submillimeter scale, of grain size and crystallographic texture. Hardness mapping by microindentation is used to reveal the corresponding gradients in macroscopic properties. A 2D level set model of the microstructure development is established as a tool to further optimize the method and to investigate, for example, the development of grain size variations due to the strong and transient thermal gradient. Particular focus is given to the evolution of the beneficial γ-fiber texture during laser annealing. The simulations indicate that the influence of selective growth based on anisotropic grain boundary properties only has a minor effect on texture evolution compared to heterogeneous stored energy, temperature variations, and nucleation conditions. It is also shown that although the α-fiber has an initial frequency advantage, the higher probability of γ-nucleation, in combination with a higher stored energy driving force in this fiber, promotes a stronger presence of the γ-fiber as also observed in experiments.

  18. Microstructure and Property Modifications of Cold Rolled IF Steel by Local Laser Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallberg, Håkan; Adamski, Frédéric; Baïz, Sarah; Castelnau, Olivier

    2017-10-01

    Laser annealing experiments are performed on cold rolled IF steel whereby highly localized microstructure and property modification are achieved. The microstructure is seen to develop by strongly heterogeneous recrystallization to provide steep gradients, across the submillimeter scale, of grain size and crystallographic texture. Hardness mapping by microindentation is used to reveal the corresponding gradients in macroscopic properties. A 2D level set model of the microstructure development is established as a tool to further optimize the method and to investigate, for example, the development of grain size variations due to the strong and transient thermal gradient. Particular focus is given to the evolution of the beneficial γ-fiber texture during laser annealing. The simulations indicate that the influence of selective growth based on anisotropic grain boundary properties only has a minor effect on texture evolution compared to heterogeneous stored energy, temperature variations, and nucleation conditions. It is also shown that although the α-fiber has an initial frequency advantage, the higher probability of γ-nucleation, in combination with a higher stored energy driving force in this fiber, promotes a stronger presence of the γ-fiber as also observed in experiments.

  19. Investigation on Hydrogen-Induced Delayed Fracture of Cold-Rolled DP980 Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yun; Chen, Liang; Kuang, Shuang; Xie, Chunqian

    2017-05-01

    In this study, the phenomenon of hydrogen-induced delayed fracture of two cold-rolled DP980 steels with different chemical compositions was studied. The results show that the microstructure of both steels is composed of ferrite matrix, martensite-austenite islands and small amount of bainite. DP980-1 having higher contents of C and Si exhibits higher tensile strength, lower yield strength and higher elongation in comparison with DP980-2 having lower contents of C and Si. According to the results of slow strain rate tensile tests, the tensile strength of DP980-1 after hydrogen charging is reduced by 20.8%, while it is just 5.4% for DP980-2. Moreover, very fine dimples can still be observed in the fracture surface of DP980-2 after hydrogen charging, which indicates a good ductile. The main reasons leading to the better delayed fracture resistance of DP980-2 are the lower volume fraction of martensite-austenite islands, lower content of diffusible hydrogen and the grain refinement effects.

  20. Austenite Formation in a Cold-Rolled Semi-austenitic Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celada Casero, Carola; San Martín, David

    2014-04-01

    The progress of the martensite ( α') to austenite ( γ) phase transformation has been thoroughly investigated at different temperatures during the continuous heating of a cold-rolled precipitation hardening metastable stainless steel at a heating rate of 0.1 K/s. Heat-treated samples have been characterized using different experimental complementary techniques: high-resolution dilatometry, magnetization, and thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements, micro-hardness-Vickers testing, optical/scanning electron microscopy, and tensile testing. The two-step transformation behavior observed is thought to be related to the presence of a pronounced chemical banding in the initial microstructure. This banding has been characterized using electron probe microanalysis. Unexpectedly, dilatometry measurements seem unable to locate the end of the transformation accurately, as this technique does not detect the second step of this transformation (last 20 pct of it). It is shown that once the starting ( A S) and finishing ( A F) transformation temperatures have been estimated by magnetization measurements, the evolution of the volume fractions of austenite and martensite can be evaluated by TEP or micro-hardness measurement quite reliably as compared to magnetization measurements. The mechanical response of the material after being heated to temperatures close to A S, A F, and ( A F - A S)/2 is also discussed.

  1. Characterization of a cold-rolled 2101 lean duplex stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Bassani, Paola; Breda, Marco; Brunelli, Katya; Mészáros, Istvan; Passaretti, Francesca; Zanellato, Michela; Calliari, Irene

    2013-08-01

    Duplex stainless steels (DSS) may be defined as a category of steels with a two-phase ferritic-austenitic microstructure, which combines good mechanical and corrosion properties. However, these steels can undergo significant microstructural modification as a consequence of either thermo-mechanical treatments (ferrite decomposition, which causes σ- and χ-phase formation and nitride precipitation) or plastic deformation at room temperature [austenite transformation into strain-induced martensite (SIM)]. These secondary phases noticeably affect the properties of DSS, and therefore are of huge industrial interest. In the present work, SIM formation was investigated in a 2101 lean DSS. The material was subjected to cold rolling at various degrees of deformation (from 10 to 80% thickness reduction) and the microstructure developed after plastic deformation was investigated by electron backscattered diffraction, X-ray diffraction measurements, and hardness and magnetic tests. It was observed that SIM formed as a consequence of deformations higher than ~20% and residual austenite was still observed at 80% of thickness reduction. Furthermore, a direct relationship was found between microstructure and magnetic properties.

  2. 3D microband boundary alignments and transitions in a cold rolled commercial purity aluminum alloy

    SciTech Connect

    George, C.; Soe, B.; King, K.; Quadir, M.Z.; Ferry, M.; Bassman, L.

    2013-05-15

    In the study of microband formation during plastic deformation of face centered cubic metals and alloys, two theories have been proposed regarding the orientations of their boundaries: (i) they are aligned parallel to crystallographic planes associated with dislocation glide (i.e. (111) planes in FCC metals), or (ii) they are aligned in accordance with the macroscopic stress state generated during deformation. In this study, high resolution 3D electron backscatter diffraction (3D EBSD) was used to investigate the morphology and crystallographic nature of microband boundaries within a 19 × 9 × 8.6 μm volume of a deformed grain in commercial purity aluminum cold rolled to 22% reduction. It was found that microband boundaries correspond to both theories of orientation. Additionally, a single surface may contain both crystallographic and non-crystallographic alignments. Misorientations across boundaries in the regions of microband triple junctions have been identified for both boundary alignments. - Highlights: ► Reconstruction of a 3D volume of crystallographic orientations from EBSD data ► Subgrain features accurately reconstructed using specially designed strategies. ► Microband boundaries contain crystallographic and non-crystallographic alignments. ► Boundaries form by crystallographic process but rotate to non-crystallographic.

  3. Annealing textures for drawability: Influence of the degree of cold rolling reduction for low-carbon and extra low-carbon ferritic steels

    SciTech Connect

    Pero-Sanz, J.; Ruiz-Delgado, M.; Martinez, V.; Verdeja, J.I.

    1999-11-01

    This work considers the optimization of deep drawing properties by studying the influence of hot rolling conditions, cold reduction rate, and final annealing on the evolution of steel sheet textures. Two steels have been selected: a low-C steel used for enameling applications, and an extra-low-C steel of the interstitial-free type. Results show that the intensity of {l{underscore}brace}111{r{underscore}brace} component--and, consequently, drawability--is considerably higher in the textures of cold-rolled and annealed sheets than in hot-rolled sheets. It is suggested that drawability of sheets annealed after cold rolling improves if greater than conventional reduction rates are used during rolling. Finally, it is shown that, contrary to what has sometimes been claimed, improved of the ``r'' coefficient are not accompanied by a pancake morphology of the ferrite grains.

  4. On Factors Affecting the Phase Transformation and Mechanical Properties of Cold-Rolled Transformation-Induced-Plasticity-Aided Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soliman, Mohamed; Palkowski, Heinz

    2008-10-01

    Two Mo-Nb microalloyed transformation-induced-plasticity (TRIP) steels, with Al contents of 0.23 and 0.65, were subjected to several hot-rolling conditions designed to generate different ferrite morphologies and grain sizes. These structures were then cold rolled and TRIP annealed under different heat-treatment conditions. To further develop TRIP steel in terms of strength and ductility, stabilizing retained austenite by isothermal bainitic transformation was studied in detail. Microstructure observation and tensile tests were conducted, and volume fractions of retained austenite were measured. It was observed that increasing the aluminum content enhances the transformation rate and increases the total amount of bainite fraction at the expense of retained austenite. The latter effect enhances formability by increasing ductility. Furthermore, it was observed that the hot-rolling schedule, prior to cold rolling and heat treatment, has a decisive effect on structure refinement, which enhances the strength-ductility balance of the final product. To study the transformation behavior, dilatometer testing was conducted under conditions similar to that of the heat treatment. Thermodynamic calculations were used to verify the results.

  5. Rheology of coal-water slurries prepared by the HP roll mill grinding of coal. Quarterly technical progress report number 11, March 1--May 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.

    1995-06-01

    The objective of this research is the development of improved technology for the preparation of coal-water slurries that have potential for replacing fuel oil in direct combustion. Detailed investigations of the effect of solids content and chemical additives on the rheology of coal-water slurries, prepared with fines produced by the ball milling of Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, were conducted during the first phase of the research program. These experiments were to provide a baseline against which the rheological behavior of slurries prepared with fines produced by high-pressure roll milling or hybrid high-pressure, roll mill/ball mill grinding could be compared. The viscosity of slurries with high solids content is strongly influenced by the packing density of the feed material. The packing density can be significantly altered by mixing distributions of different median sizes, and to an extent by modifying the grinding environment. The research during this quarter was, therefore, directed towards: (1) establishing the relationship between the packing characteristic of fines and the viscosity of slurries prepared with the fines; (2) investigation of the effect of mixing distribution on the rheology; and (3) study of the effect of grinding environment in the ball mill on the rheology of coal-water slurries.

  6. Efficient anti-corrosive coating of cold-rolled steel in a seawater environment using an oil-based graphene oxide ink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singhbabu, Y. N.; Sivakumar, B.; Singh, J. K.; Bapari, H.; Pramanick, A. K.; Sahu, Ranjan K.

    2015-04-01

    We report the production of an efficient anti-corrosive coating of cold-rolled (CR) steel in a seawater environment (~3.5 wt% NaCl aqueous solution) using an oil-based graphene oxide ink. The graphene oxide was produced by heating Aeschynomene aspera plant as a carbon source at 1600 °C in an argon atmosphere. The ink was prepared by cup-milling the mixture of graphene oxide and sunflower oil for 10 min. The coating of ink on the CR steel was made using the dip-coating method, followed by curing at 350 °C for 10 min in air atmosphere. The results of the potentiodynamic polarization show that the corrosion rate of bare CR steel decreases nearly 10 000-fold by the ink coating. Furthermore, the salt spray test results show that the red rusting in the ink-coated CR steel is initiated after 100 h, in contrast to 24 h and 6 h in the case of oil-coated and bare CR steel, respectively. The significant decrease in the corrosion rate by the ink-coating is discussed based on the impermeability of graphene oxide to the corrosive ions.We report the production of an efficient anti-corrosive coating of cold-rolled (CR) steel in a seawater environment (~3.5 wt% NaCl aqueous solution) using an oil-based graphene oxide ink. The graphene oxide was produced by heating Aeschynomene aspera plant as a carbon source at 1600 °C in an argon atmosphere. The ink was prepared by cup-milling the mixture of graphene oxide and sunflower oil for 10 min. The coating of ink on the CR steel was made using the dip-coating method, followed by curing at 350 °C for 10 min in air atmosphere. The results of the potentiodynamic polarization show that the corrosion rate of bare CR steel decreases nearly 10 000-fold by the ink coating. Furthermore, the salt spray test results show that the red rusting in the ink-coated CR steel is initiated after 100 h, in contrast to 24 h and 6 h in the case of oil-coated and bare CR steel, respectively. The significant decrease in the corrosion rate by the ink-coating is

  7. Treatment of dilute waste oil emulsion from aluminum rolling mill operations by a biological aerated filter

    SciTech Connect

    Carriere, P.E.; Reed, B.E.; Brooks, J.

    1995-12-31

    Wastewater from aluminum industry contains oil used primarily during the aluminum rolling process. In this study, oily wastewater from the manufacturer`s processes was transferred to two holding ponds having a total capacity of about 5 million gallons. A detention time of 10 days was maintained to allow the free oil to rise to the surface and the solids to settle. Wastewater from the ponds was withdrawn at a depth of 9 feet and used as influent to the pilot-scale biological aerated filter. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the pilot-scale biological aerated filter on oil and grease (O and G) and total suspended solids (TSS) removal.

  8. A new online exhaust gas monitoring system in hydrochloric acid regeneration of cold rolling mills.

    PubMed

    Tuo, Long; Zheng, Xiang; Chen, Xiong

    2015-07-07

    Measuring the content of hydrogen chloride (HCl) in exhaust gas used to take time and energy. In this paper, we introduce a new online monitoring system which can output real-time data to the monitoring center. The system samples and cools exhaust gas, and after a series of processing, it will be analyzed by a specific instrument. The core part of this system is remote terminal unit (RTU) which is designed on Cortex-A8 embedded architecture. RTU runs a scaled-down version of Linux which is a good choice of OS for embedded applications. It controls the whole processes, does data acquisition and data analysis, and communicates with monitoring center through Ethernet. In addition, through a software developed for windows, the monitoring process can be remotely controlled. The new system is quite beneficial for steel industry to do environment monitoring.

  9. Experimental and numerical investigation on cold flat rolling processes of DC04 sheets with special focus on residual stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, A.; Mehner, T.; Binotsch, C.; Sieber, M.; Awiszus, B.; Lampke, T.

    2016-03-01

    The process of cold flat rolling is a widespread industrial technique to manufacture semi-finished products, e.g., for the automotive or homewares industry. Basic knowledge of the process regarding dimensioning and adjustment of defined characteristics is already state of the art. However, a detailed consideration and analysis with respect to local inhomogeneous residual stresses in several process steps mostly remains disregarded. A broad understanding of the process due to the distribution of residual stresses in the workpiece and the direction of the stress tensors allows for a definition of the characteristics of the workpiece even before the actual manufacturing process. For that purpose, it is necessary to perform numerical investigations by means of the finite element analysis (FEA) of cold flat rolling processes. Within this contribution, several approaches for the calibration of the FEA with the real flat rolling process will be addressed and discussed. To ensure that the numerical consideration provides realistic results, this calibration is indispensable. General parameters such as geometry, height reduction, rolling temperature, process time, and the rolling speed are considered as well as a photogrammetric survey, and calculated residual stresses with results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) will be compared. In the course of the experiments, a good agreement between the stress results of the FEA and the XRD was found in the center of the specimen. In combination with the allocation of the stress orientations, the agreement close to the edges is also fine. Some issues that cause differences between the FEA and the experiment are dis-cussed.

  10. Biaxial Tensile Test of Cold Rolled IF Steel Sheet for Large Plastic Strain Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enatsu, Ryotaro; Kuwabara, Toshihiko

    2011-08-01

    Deformation behavior of cold rolled IF steel sheet (SPCE) under biaxial tension has been investigated for large plastic strain range over 15%. The test material was bent and TIG welded to form a tubular specimen with an outer diameter of 46.2 mm and wall thickness of 0.8 mm. The tubular specimens have been subjected to linear stress paths in the first quadrant of stress space with the use of a servo-controlled tension-internal pressure testing machine developed by one of the authors [T. Kuwabara, K. Yoshida, K. Narihara, S. Takahashi, Anisotropic plastic deformation of extruded aluminum alloy tube under axial forces and internal pressure, Int. J. Plasticity 21, 101-117 (2005)]. Moreover, biaxial tensile tests using a cruciform specimen have also been carried out to more precisely measure the deformation behavior for a small strain range following initial yielding. True stress-true plastic strain curves, contours of plastic work in stress space and the directions of plastic strain rates have been measured and compared with those calculated using selected yield functions: the von Mises, Hill's quadratic and Yld2000-2d [Barlat, F., Brem, J.C., Yoon, J.W., Chung, K., Dick, R.E., Lege, D.J., Pourboghrat, F., Choi, S.H., Chu, E., Plane stress yield function for aluminum alloy sheets—Part 1: Theory. Int. J. Plasticity 19, 1297-1319 (2003)]. The plastic deformation behavior up to a work equivalent plastic strain of ɛ0p = 0.19 has been successfully measured. It is found that the test material exhibits differential hardening and that the Yld2000-2d yield function with an exponent of six most closely predicts the contours of plastic work and the directions of plastic strain rates.

  11. Tribology and Tool Wear of Hot Dip Galvanized Zinc Magnesium Alloys on Cold Rolled Steel Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raab, A. E.; Berger, E.; Freudenthaler, J.; Leomann, F.; Walch, C.

    2011-05-01

    Recently zinc based coatings on cold rolled steel with improved functionality in terms of forming and/or corrosion behaviour have been intensively investigated in the steel industry1,2,3. One of the most promising products are zinc magnesium alloys produced in hot dip galvanizing process. These coatings were already introduced in construction industry a few years ago1. With some modifications the improved properties of the coating are also interesting for automotive industry. In the present work the tribological potential of hot dip galvanized zinc magnesium coatings (HDG/ZM) produced at an industrial line under regular production, was studied in terms of sliding properties, adhesive and abrasive tool wear. First a short introduction into surface morphology of HDG/ZM will be given. For the tribological characterization of the material, which is the main topic of the contribution, different tests were performed on hot dip galvanised zinc magnesium material and results were compared with classic hot dip galvanized zinc coating (HDG/Z). The investigations are mainly based on the strip draw test which allows the determination of the friction coefficient directly by using a constant contact pressure. Deep drawing property was tested by forming model cups. The abrasive tool wear was tested using a standard test for material used in automotive industry. The adhesive tool wear was investigated by characterizing the coating material transferred to the tool in the strip draw test. All performed tests show an improved drawability of HDG/ZM compared to classical HDG/Z reference material. However the most promising difference between HDG/ZM and HDG/Z is that galling was found to be less for HDG/ZM than for HDG/Z. Therefore HDG/ZM is an interesting system not only with respect to corrosion protection but also in terms of tribology and provides clear advantages in formability.

  12. The effect of manganese and sulfur contents on the magnetic properties of cold rolled lamination steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, K. C.

    1986-08-01

    The effect of Mn and S contents on the magnetic properties of cold rolled lamination steel was investigated in eleven low C steels. The results indicated that Mn content was a major factor influencing the magnetic quality of the lamination steels. An optimum range of Mn was a prerequisite for optimum permeability and exciting power. For Mn contents up to 1.25 Pct, the core loss improved nonlinearly with increasing Mn content. At higher Mn contents, the magnetic properties deteriorated for the experimental conditions used as a consequence of poor grain size development after the final decarburizing anneal. Decreasing the S content from 0.018 Pct to 0.010 Pct improved the core loss at all induction levels. The permeability and exciting power were improved at 1 T, but a very slight deterioration in permeability and exciting power was seen at 1.5 and 1.7 T. Estimations of core loss improvement based on regression equations indicated that lowering the S content from 0.018 Pct to 0.010 Pct improved the core loss in w/lb-mil as follows: 0.0041 at 1 T, 0.0079 at 1.5 T, and 0.0093 at 1.7 T (1 w/lb-mil = 86.8 w/kg-mm). The response surface analyses indicated that Mn content in the range of 0.7 Pct to 1 Pct, depending on the S content, should develop optimum magnetic properties. However, Mn content at the low end of this range is preferred for practical applications.

  13. Local Thickening of Stainless Tube Considering Dimension Variation of the Cold Roll Formed Tube Billet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheu, Jinn-Jong; Yu, Cheng-Hsien

    2011-01-01

    A stud end consists of tube body and a flange in order to connect two tubes to form a long straight or angled pipe line. The flange is thicker than the tube body to strengthen the pipe connection. A thicker round hollow disk is usually welded to a straight tube to get the flange of the tube end and then machined to the specified dimension of the two-piece type stud end. A one-piece type stud end of tube proposed here is produced via the local thickening of tube end, flaring, and flange forging processes. The roundness of raw tube is not promised in the cold roll forming (CRF) process, which causes the inaccuracy of dimensions, wrinkling, and folding defects during the local thickening process of tube end. In this paper, a preform process was proposed to correct the dimension of the tube to be thickened. The CRF tube billets were measured and preformed to the required dimensions before thickening. The proposed preforming process was able to resize and control the dimensions and roundness of the tube billet to prevent irregular movement of billet. A three-staged punch profile was designed to prevent the folding defect during the thickening process. Experiments of resizing and thickening were carried out to verify the simulation results and the proposed punch profile design. The CAE simulations demonstrated the defects of folding are very sensitive to the dimension variation of tube billet. The experimental results of thickening process were in good agreement with the simulation predictions using the perfect (with preforming process) and the imperfect (original CRF) tube billets. The proposed pre-forming process and the punch profile designs were able to minimize the surface defects of tube local thickening.

  14. Tribology and Tool Wear of Hot Dip Galvanized Zinc Magnesium Alloys on Cold Rolled Steel Sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Raab, A. E.; Berger, E.; Freudenthaler, J.; Leomann, F.; Walch, C.

    2011-05-04

    Recently zinc based coatings on cold rolled steel with improved functionality in terms of forming and/or corrosion behaviour have been intensively investigated in the steel industry. One of the most promising products are zinc magnesium alloys produced in hot dip galvanizing process. These coatings were already introduced in construction industry a few years ago. With some modifications the improved properties of the coating are also interesting for automotive industry. In the present work the tribological potential of hot dip galvanized zinc magnesium coatings (HDG/ZM) produced at an industrial line under regular production, was studied in terms of sliding properties, adhesive and abrasive tool wear.First a short introduction into surface morphology of HDG/ZM will be given. For the tribological characterization of the material, which is the main topic of the contribution, different tests were performed on hot dip galvanised zinc magnesium material and results were compared with classic hot dip galvanized zinc coating (HDG/Z). The investigations are mainly based on the strip draw test which allows the determination of the friction coefficient directly by using a constant contact pressure. Deep drawing property was tested by forming model cups. The abrasive tool wear was tested using a standard test for material used in automotive industry. The adhesive tool wear was investigated by characterizing the coating material transferred to the tool in the strip draw test.All performed tests show an improved drawability of HDG/ZM compared to classical HDG/Z reference material. However the most promising difference between HDG/ZM and HDG/Z is that galling was found to be less for HDG/ZM than for HDG/Z. Therefore HDG/ZM is an interesting system not only with respect to corrosion protection but also in terms of tribology and provides clear advantages in formability.

  15. Rheology of coal-water slurries prepared by the HP roll mill grinding of coal. Quarterly technical progress report No. 12, June 1, 1995--August 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.

    1995-09-01

    The objective of this research is the development of improved technology for the preparation of coal-water slurries that have potential for replacing fuel oil in direct combustion. This should be of major importance to the United States in its efforts to reduce dependence on imported oil and to rely more on its enormous low-cost coal resources. In accordance with this objective, in the first stage of this project, considerable work was conducted to standardize experimental procedures for sample preparation, coal grinding, and Theological measurements to assure reproducibility of the experimental results. Since a Haake RV-12 viscometer with an MV-DIN sensor system was found to give the most reproducible results for measurement of slurry viscosities, it has subsequently been used for all of our Theological measurements. Methods were developed for applying the acoustophoresis technique for studying the electrokinetic behavior of concentrated coal-water suspensions. These measurements were carried out using this technique to identify the potential of chemical additives for functioning as reagents for effective dispersion. Detailed investigations of the effect of solids content and chemical additives on the rheology of coal-water slurries, prepared with fines produced by the ball milling of Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, were conducted during the first phase of our research program. These experiments were to provide a baseline against which the rheological behavior of slurries prepared with fines produced by high-pressure roll milling or hybrid high-pressure roll mill/ball mill grinding could be compared.

  16. Efficient anti-corrosive coating of cold-rolled steel in a seawater environment using an oil-based graphene oxide ink.

    PubMed

    Singhbabu, Y N; Sivakumar, B; Singh, J K; Bapari, H; Pramanick, A K; Sahu, Ranjan K

    2015-05-07

    We report the production of an efficient anti-corrosive coating of cold-rolled (CR) steel in a seawater environment (∼3.5 wt% NaCl aqueous solution) using an oil-based graphene oxide ink. The graphene oxide was produced by heating Aeschynomene aspera plant as a carbon source at 1600 °C in an argon atmosphere. The ink was prepared by cup-milling the mixture of graphene oxide and sunflower oil for 10 min. The coating of ink on the CR steel was made using the dip-coating method, followed by curing at 350 °C for 10 min in air atmosphere. The results of the potentiodynamic polarization show that the corrosion rate of bare CR steel decreases nearly 10,000-fold by the ink coating. Furthermore, the salt spray test results show that the red rusting in the ink-coated CR steel is initiated after 100 h, in contrast to 24 h and 6 h in the case of oil-coated and bare CR steel, respectively. The significant decrease in the corrosion rate by the ink-coating is discussed based on the impermeability of graphene oxide to the corrosive ions.

  17. Observation of co-segregation of titanium and boron at the interface between recrystallized and unrecrystallized grains in cold-rolled interstitial-free steel sheets.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, J; Haga, J; Kawakami, K; Ushioda, K

    2015-12-01

    It has been reported that the addition of ppm levels of B strongly retarded the growth of recrystallized grain into unrecrystallized grains in the process of cold-rolling and annealing of Ti-added interstitial-free (IF) ferritic steels. This phenomenon was explained by solute drag effect based on the assumption that, during annealing, B atoms segregate at the interface between recrystallized and unrecrystallized grains where they interact with Ti atoms. To verify this, atom probe tomography analysis of the interface was performed in Ti-added IF steels with and without B addition. Needle tips containing the interface identified from electron backscattering diffraction analysis, were produced by focused ion beam milling with the lift-out method. To increase the experiment reliability, the misorientation angle of the aimed interface was compared with that estimated by field ion microscopy analysis. Considerable amount of Ti segregation was observed at the interface in the steel without B addition, which increased with increasing amount of B segregation in the steel with B addition. The results suggest that the retardation of the interface migration was caused by solute drag effect based on the simultaneous co-segregation of Ti and B due to their attractive interaction.

  18. The Work Softening by Deformation-Induced Disordering and Cold Rolling of 6.5 wt pct Si Steel Thin Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianglong; Li, Haoze; Zhang, Weina; Liu, Zhenyu; Wang, Guodong; Luo, Zhonghan; Zhang, Fengquan

    2016-09-01

    As-cast strip of 6.5 wt pct Si steel was fabricated by twin-roll strip casting. After hot rolling at 1323 K (1050 °C), thin sheets with the thickness of 0.35 mm were produced by warm rolling at 373 K (100 °C) with rolling reductions of 15, 25, 35, 45, 55, and 65 pct. Influence of warm rolling reduction on ductility was investigated by room temperature bending test. The measurement of macro-hardness showed that "work softening" could begin when the warm rolling reduction exceeded 35 pct. The room temperature ductility of the thin sheets gradually increased with the increase of warm rolling reductions, and the plastic deformation during bending began to form when the warm rolling reduction was greater than 45 pct, the 65 pct rolled thin sheet exhibited the maximum plastic deformation of about 0.6 pct during bending at room temperature, with a few small dimples having been observed on the fracture surfaces. B2-ordered domains were formed in the 15, 25, 35, 45, and 55 pct rolled specimens, and their average size decreased with the increase of warm rolling reductions. By contrast, no B2-ordered domain could be found in the 65 pct rolled specimen. It had been observed that large-ordered domains could be split into several small parts by the slip of partial super-dislocations during warm rolling, which led to significant decrease of the order degree to cause the phenomenon of deformation-induced disordering. On the basis of these results, cold rolling schedule was developed to successfully fabricate 0.25-mm-thick sheets with good surface qualities and magnetic properties from warm rolled sheets.

  19. Characterization on carbide of a novel steel for cold work roll during solidification process

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, J.; Liu, L.G.; Li, Q.; Sun, Y.L.; Gao, Y.K.; Ren, X.J.; Yang, Q.X.

    2013-05-15

    A novel steel for cold work roll was developed in this work. Its phase structures were determined by X-ray diffraction, and phase transformation temperatures during the cooling process were measured by Differential Scanning Calorimeter. The Fe–C isopleths of the steel were calculated by Thermo-Calc to preliminarily determine the characteristic temperatures of the different phases. Then the specimens were quenched at these characteristic temperatures. The typical microstructures were observed by Optical Microscopy and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Disperse Spectroscopy. The results show that α-Fe, MC, M{sub 2}C and M{sub 7}C{sub 3} precipitate when the specimen is cooled slowly to room temperature. According to the DSC curve and the Fe–C isopleths, the characteristic temperatures of the phase transformation and carbide precipitation are chosen as 1380 °C, 1240 °C, 1200 °C and 1150 °C respectively. Primary austenite precipitates at 1380 °C, then eutectic reaction occurs in residual liquid after quenching and the eutectic microstructures distribute along the crystal grain boundary. The eutectic MC is leaf-like and eutectic M{sub 2}C is fibrous-like. Both of them precipitate in ternary eutectic reaction simultaneously at 1240 °C, grow together in the form of dendrite along the crystal grain boundary. Secondary MC precipitates from the austenitic matrix at 1200 °C and nucleates at the position where eutectic MC located accompanied by the dissolving of eutectic carbides. The mixed secondary M{sub 2}C and M{sub 7}C{sub 3} precipitate at 1150 °C. The secondary M{sub 2}C is strip-like and honeycomb-like, while the M{sub 7}C{sub 3} is chrysanthemum-like and maze-like. - Highlights: • The solidification process was analyzed by Thermo-Calc, DSC, XRD and SEM observation. • Primary and secondary carbides precipitated during solidification were determined. • The three dimensional morphologies of all carbides was observed. • The

  20. Surface Characterization Of Cold-Rolled Steel By Grazing-Angle Reflection-Absorption FT-IR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilon, Andre; Cole, Kenneth C.; Noel, D.

    1989-12-01

    Residues from the oil-in-water emulsions used in the cold-rolling of steel are responsible in large part for an undesirable film of contamination sometimes found on the steel surface, even after the annealing stage. This contamination can have significant effects on the adhesion and corrosion resistance of paint coatings subsequently applied to the surface. The object of the work reported here was to determine the potential of grazing-angle reflection-absorption FT-IR spectroscopy for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the residues left on the surface.

  1. Influence of pulsating magnetic field on softening behavior of cold rolled AISI 4340 steel at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, S.N.; Singh, P.N.; Singh, V.

    1996-06-15

    The mechanical behavior of a ferromagnetic material is influenced by presence of magnetic field. The rate of stress relaxation in nickel increases by a.c. magnetic field of 11 Oersted (Oe) and 60 Hz. The application of 800 Oe steady magnetic field accelerates the process of creeping in high purity iron. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the influence of pulsating magnetic field of 942 Oe, produced by a.c. current (50Hz), on the softening behavior of AISI 4340 steel, cold rolled to 20, 60, and 80%.

  2. Microstructural Evolution and Recrystallization Kinetics of a Cold-Rolled, Ferrite-Martensite Structure During Intercritical Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etesami, S. A.; Enayati, M. H.

    2016-07-01

    The recrystallization behavior of 80 pct, cold-rolled, low-carbon, dual-phase steel during intercritical annealing for different times was studied. The annealed microstructures showed that the recrystallization initially occurred in the deformed martensitic regions. The values of Avrami exponent for recrystallization varied from 3.8 to 4 with an activation energy of 46.9 kJ/mol. This study also introduced a novel method for the production of bimodal grain structures in low-carbon, ferrite-martensite steel.

  3. Correlation of Microstructure and Texture in a Two-Phase High-Mn Twinning-Induced Plasticity Steel During Cold Rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashiq, Mohammad; Dhekne, Pushkar; Hamada, Atef Saad; Sahu, Puspendu; Mahato, B.; Minz, R. K.; Ghosh Chowdhury, Sandip; Pentti Karjalainen, L.

    2017-10-01

    The evolution of microstructure and texture of a two-phase austenite-ferrite twinning-induced plasticity steel during cold rolling was investigated and different deformation mechanisms were found to become active with increasing thickness reductions. Optical microscopy showed the formation of brass-type shear bands across several austenite grains at reductions greater than 50 pct. TEM observations reveal the presence of deformation twinning in austenite. The austenite phase initially shows the Cu-type texture, i.e., Cu {1 1 2}〈1 1 1〉, Goss {0 1 1}〈1 0 0〉 with a spread toward Brass {1 1 0}〈1 1 2〉. With continued cold rolling, the Cu {1 1 2}〈1 1 1〉 component moves toward CuT component {552}〈115〉 and the other two components increase in intensity. There is also emergence of {111} fiber after 90 pct cold rolling. The ferrite phase exhibits the evolution of ND-rotated Cube component {001}〈110〉 along with 〈110〉 fiber at lower as well as at higher rolling reductions. An exception is at 75 pct reduction, when the ferrite texture contains {111} fiber in place of 〈110〉 fiber with a weak rotated-Cube component. Phase fraction analysis by X-ray diffraction indicates a decrease in the austenite fraction up to 75 pct reduction followed by an increase at 90 pct reduction. After 90 pct cold rolling, the phase fraction is similar to that of the "as-received" state. Elongated grains of ferrite phase in finer dimensions after 90 pct cold rolling indicate softening within that phase; at similar stage, there are finer scale austenite grains mostly at the grain boundaries. The above has been suggested to be related with the adiabatic heating during cold rolling due to the high strain hardening of the austenite phase.

  4. Effects of Two-Stage Cold Rolling Schedule on Microstructure and Texture Evolution of Strip Casting Grain-Oriented Silicon Steel with Extra-Low Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hong-Yu; Liu, Hai-Tao; Liu, Wen-Qiang; Wang, Yin-Ping; Liu, Zhen-Yu; Wang, Guo-Dong

    2016-04-01

    A 0.27 mm-thick grain-oriented silicon steel sheet with extra-low carbon was successfully produced by a novel processing route including strip casting, normalizing, two-stage cold rolling with an intermediate annealing, primary annealing, and secondary recrystallization annealing. The evolutions of microstructure and texture along the whole processing route were investigated with a special emphasis on the effects of two-stage cold rolling schedule. It was found that Goss orientation originated in the first cold rolling due to shear banding and relatively strong Goss texture evolved through the whole thickness after intermediate annealing. This is significantly different from the results in conventional process in which the origin of Goss texture is in the hot rolling stage and Goss texture only develops below the sheet surface. Besides, it was found that cold rolling schedule had significant influences on microstructure homogeneity, evolution of λ-fiber texture in primary annealed state and, thus, on secondary recrystallization. In case of appropriate cold rolling schedule, a homogeneous microstructure with Goss texture, relatively strong γ-fiber texture and medium α-fiber texture was observed in the primary annealed strip. Although Goss texture in primary annealed state was much weaker than that in two-stage route in conventional process, a perfect secondary recrystallization microstructure was produced and the magnetic induction B8 was as high as 1.85 T. By contrast, when the cold rolling schedule was inappropriate, the primary annealed strips exhibited inhomogeneous microstructure, together with weak γ-fiber texture, medium α-fiber and λ-fiber texture. Finally, the sheets showed incomplete secondary recrystallization microstructure in which a large number of fine grains still existed.

  5. Strong <001> recrystallization texture component in 6.5 wt% Si electrical steel thin sheets by secondary cold rolling and annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Hongjiang; Zhang, Zhihao; Mo, Yuanke; Xie, Jianxin

    2016-12-01

    In order to prepare thin sheet with a strong <001> texture component, secondary cold rolling and recrystallization annealing were carried out on a raw sheet of high silicon electrical steel (6.5 wt% Si). The raw sheet was obtained through a process of directional solidification, followed by warm and cold rolling, and annealing. The effects of secondary cold rolling reduction, annealing temperature and holding time on the recrystallization microstructure and texture were investigated. The formation of strong <001> texture component was analyzed. The results showed that the <001> texture component could be enhanced when the sheets were prepared through appropriate secondary cold rolling and annealing. It was ascribed to the cube and Goss recrystallized grains had frequency advantages as well as size advantages during nucleation. Furthermore, the cube and Goss recrystallized grains were easy to grow larger due to the advantage on grain boundary energy and surface energy. The samples prepared through secondary cold rolling with the reduction of 30% and annealing at 1300 °C for 1-5 h exhibited good magnetic properties. The magnetic induction B8 of the samples was 1.335-1.398 T and the core loss P10/50 and P10/400 were 0.383-0.391 W/kg and 5.935-6.422 W/kg, respectively.

  6. Effect of microalloying elements on the structure and properties of low-carbon and ultralow-carbon cold-rolled steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girina, O. A.; Fonshtein, N. M.; Storozheva, L. M.

    1994-03-01

    Cold-rolled steels used for the forged components of automobiles should exhibit high, partly mutually-exclusive properties: high forgeability with desirably high strength, resistance to aging combined with hardenability at temperatures for drying paint coatings, etc. Satisfaction of these requirements is provided to a considerable degree by microalloying. The final mechanical properties of cold-rolled steel depend on such structural parameters of hot-rolled strip as texture, the amount of dissolved C and N atoms in α-solid solution, and ferrite grain size. With constant hot rolling production schedules these structural parameters are governed by steel composition, in particular by the type of microalloying. In this work the effect is considered for dispersed microalloying elements, i.e., phosphorus, boron, titanium, and nïobium, on the final mechanical properties of low- and ultralow-carbon steels.

  7. Accelerated carbonation using municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash and cold-rolling wastewater: Performance evaluation and reaction kinetics.

    PubMed

    Chang, E-E; Pan, Shu-Yuan; Yang, Liuhanzi; Chen, Yi-Hung; Kim, Hyunook; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2015-09-01

    Accelerated carbonation of alkaline wastes including municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash (MSWI-BA) and the cold-rolling wastewater (CRW) was investigated for carbon dioxide (CO2) fixation under different operating conditions, i.e., reaction time, CO2 concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, particle size, and CO2 flow rate. The MSWI-BA before and after carbonation process were analyzed by the thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The MSWI-BA exhibits a high carbonation conversion of 90.7%, corresponding to a CO2 fixation capacity of 102g perkg of ash. Meanwhile, the carbonation kinetics was evaluated by the shrinking core model. In addition, the effect of different operating parameters on carbonation conversion of MSWI-BA was statistically evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM) using experimental data to predict the maximum carbonation conversion. Furthermore, the amount of CO2 reduction and energy consumption for operating the proposed process in refuse incinerator were estimated. Capsule abstract: CO2 fixation process by alkaline wastes including bottom ash and cold-rolling wastewater was developed, which should be a viable method due to high conversion.

  8. Nano- and microvoid formation in ultrafine-grained martensitic Fe-Ni-Mn steel after severe cold rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi-Nanesa, Hadi; Nili-Ahmadabadi, Mahmoud; Mirsepasi, Arya; Zamani, Cyrus

    2014-03-01

    Severe cold-rolling was applied on solution annealed Fe-Ni-Mn steel with fully lath martensite structure to obtain ultrafine-grained structure. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) were employed to investigate the microstructural evolution after severe cold-rolling. HRTEM images showed the typical deformed structure consisting of lamellar dislocation cell blocks. HRTEM study also revealed strain-induced reverse martensitic transformation (activated during grain refinement). It was assumed that severe plastic deformation route and related deformation mode were responsible for microstructural evolutions. X-ray diffraction (XRD) diagram revealed 7% (volume fraction) reverted austenite after final deformation pass. Moreover, HRTEM images revealed nano-void nucleation at the interface of severely deformed martensite and reverted austenite presumably due to high strain energy of misfit and molar volume difference between the austenite and the martensite. It seems that the coalescence of nano-voids could lead to the formation of microvoids in the microstructure.

  9. Modeling of the Recrystallization and Austenite Formation Overlapping in Cold-Rolled Dual-Phase Steels During Intercritical Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ollat, M.; Massardier, V.; Fabregue, D.; Buscarlet, E.; Keovilay, F.; Perez, M.

    2017-07-01

    Austenite formation kinetics of a DP1000 steel was investigated from a ferrite-pearlite microstructure (either fully recrystallized or cold-rolled) during typical industrial annealing cycles by means of dilatometry and optical microscopy after interrupted heat treatments. A marked acceleration of the kinetics was found when deformed ferrite grains were present in the microstructure just before austenite formation. After having described the austenite formation kinetics without recrystallization and the recrystallization kinetics of the steel without austenite formation by simple JMAK laws, a mixture law was used to analyze the kinetics of the cold-rolled steel for which austenite formation and recrystallization may occur simultaneously. In the case where the interaction between these two phenomena is strong, three main points were highlighted: (i) the heating rate greatly influences the austenite formation kinetics, as it affects the degree of recrystallization at the austenite start temperature; (ii) recrystallization inhibition above a critical austenite fraction accelerates the austenite formation kinetics; (iii) the austenite fractions obtained after a 1 hour holding deviate from the local equilibrium fractions given by Thermo-Calc, contrary to the case of the recrystallized steel. This latter result could be due to the fact that the dislocations of the deformed ferrite matrix could promote the diffusion of the alloying elements of the steel and accelerate austenite formation.

  10. Modeling of the Recrystallization and Austenite Formation Overlapping in Cold-Rolled Dual-Phase Steels During Intercritical Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ollat, M.; Massardier, V.; Fabregue, D.; Buscarlet, E.; Keovilay, F.; Perez, M.

    2017-10-01

    Austenite formation kinetics of a DP1000 steel was investigated from a ferrite-pearlite microstructure (either fully recrystallized or cold-rolled) during typical industrial annealing cycles by means of dilatometry and optical microscopy after interrupted heat treatments. A marked acceleration of the kinetics was found when deformed ferrite grains were present in the microstructure just before austenite formation. After having described the austenite formation kinetics without recrystallization and the recrystallization kinetics of the steel without austenite formation by simple JMAK laws, a mixture law was used to analyze the kinetics of the cold-rolled steel for which austenite formation and recrystallization may occur simultaneously. In the case where the interaction between these two phenomena is strong, three main points were highlighted: (i) the heating rate greatly influences the austenite formation kinetics, as it affects the degree of recrystallization at the austenite start temperature; (ii) recrystallization inhibition above a critical austenite fraction accelerates the austenite formation kinetics; (iii) the austenite fractions obtained after a 1 hour holding deviate from the local equilibrium fractions given by Thermo-Calc, contrary to the case of the recrystallized steel. This latter result could be due to the fact that the dislocations of the deformed ferrite matrix could promote the diffusion of the alloying elements of the steel and accelerate austenite formation.

  11. The dislocation density and twin-boundary frequency determined by X-ray peak profile analysis in cold rolled magnetron-sputter deposited nanotwinned copper

    SciTech Connect

    Csiszar, Gabor; Ungar, Tamas; Balogh, Levente; Misra, Amit; Zhang Xinghang

    2011-08-15

    The dislocation density and the average twin boundary frequency is determined quantitatively in as-deposited and cold-rolled nanotwinned Cu thin films by high-resolution X-ray line profile analysis. After cold-rolling the dislocation density increases considerably, whereas the twin boundary frequency decreases only slightly. The physical parameters of the substructure provided by the quantitative X-ray analysis are in agreement with earlier transmission electron microscopy observations. The flow stress of the as-deposited and the cold-rolled films is directly correlated with the average thickness of twin lamellae and the dislocation density by taking into account the Hall-Petch and Taylor type strengthening mechanisms.

  12. 32. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: End of mill into which cane was fed between top and bottom roll. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  13. Influence of cold rolling direction on texture, inhibitor and magnetic properties in strip-cast grain-oriented 3% silicon steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, F.; Lu, X.; Zhang, Y. X.; Wang, Y.; Jiao, H. T.; Cao, G. M.; Yuan, G.; Xu, Y. B.; Misra, R. D. K.; Wang, G. D.

    2017-02-01

    An unconventional cold rolling scheme (inclined rolling at 0°, 30°, 45°, 90° during second-stage cold rolling process) was adopted to process grain-oriented silicon steel based on strip casting process. The influences of inclination angles on microstructure, texture, inhibitor and magnetic properties were studied by a combination of EBSD, XRD and TEM. It was found that the α-fiber texture was weakened and γ-fiber was strengthened in cold rolled sheet with increase in inclination angle. The primary recrystallization sheet exhibited more homogeneous microstructure with relatively strong γ-fiber, medium α-fiber texture, weak λ-fiber texture and Goss component at high inclination angles. Fine and homogeneous inhibitors were obtained after primary annealing with increase in inclination angle from 0° to 90° because of more uniform deformation after inclined rolling. The grain-oriented silicon steel experienced completely secondary recrystallization at various inclination angles after final annealing process, with superior magnetic properties at 0° and 90°. Furthermore, Goss nuclei capable of final secondary recrystallization in strip casting process newly formed both in-grain shear bands and grain boundaries region during second-stage cold rolling and subsequent annealing process, which is different from the well-accepted results that Goss texture originated from the subsurface layer of the hot rolled sheet or during intermediate annealing process. In addition, the Goss texture that nucleated in-grain shear bands was weaker but more accurate as compared to that in grain boundaries region.

  14. 34. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Side view of mill. Vertical drive shaft lying on ground in foreground. When drive-shaft was in upright position its bevel gear was meshed with the bevel gear of the top roll, transmitting the animals'circular motion around the drive shaft to the horizontal rolls. The foundation is of portland cement. The heavy timber mill bed, between the mill and the portland cement foundation has rolled away. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  15. AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 3 of 6: MICROSTRUCTURAL ENGINEERING IN HOT-STRIP MILLS Part 2 of 2: Constitutive Behavior Modeling of Steels Under Hot-Rolling Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Yi-Wen Cheng; Patrick Purtscher

    1999-07-30

    This report describes the development of models for predicting (1) constitutive behaviors and (2) mechanical properties of hot-rolled steels as functions of chemical composition, microstructural features, and processing variables. The study includes the following eight steels: A36, DQSK, HSLA-V, HSLA-Nb, HSLA-50/Ti-Nb, and two interstitial-free (IF) grades. These developed models have been integrated into the Hot-Strip Mill Model (HSMM), which simulates the hot strip rolling mills and predicts the mechanical properties of hot-rolled products. The HSMM model has been developed by the University of British Columbia-Canada as a part of project on the microstructural engineering in hot-strip mills.

  16. Analysis of Strip Profile in Flat Rolling by the Finite Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T. H.; Lee, W. H.; Hwang, S. M.

    2004-06-01

    A full, finite element (FE)-based approach is presented for the precision analysis of the strip profile in flat rolling. Basic FE models for the analysis of the mechanical behavior of the strip and of the rolls are described in detail. Also described is an iterative strategy for a rigorous treatment of the mechanical contact occurring at the roll-strip interface and at the roll-roll interface. Then, presented is an integrated FE process model for the coupled analysis of the mechanical behavior of the strip, work roll, and backup roll in four-high mill. A series of process simulation are conducted and the results are compared with the measurements made in hot and cold rolling experiments.

  17. Forming a perfect cubic texture in thin copper-yttrium alloy strips during cold rolling and annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schastlivtsev, V. M.; Rodionov, D. P.; Khlebnikova, Yu. V.; Akshentsev, Yu. N.; Egorova, L. Yu.; Suaridze, T. R.

    2016-03-01

    The structure of strips produced from the Cu-1 wt % Y binary alloy using cold deformation by rolling to the degree of deformation of 99%, followed by recrystallization annealing, as well as the process of texture formation in these strips, is studied. The possibility of forming a perfect cubic texture in a thin strip made of a binary yttrium-modified copper-based alloy has been shown in principle, which opens the prospect of the use of this alloy to produce substrates for strip high-temperature superconductors of the second generation. The optimum conditions of annealing have been determined, which make it possible to form a perfect biaxial texture in the Cu-1 wt % Y alloy with a content of cubic grains {001}<100> ± 10° on the surface of the textured strip of over 95%.

  18. Shear-Coupled Grain Growth and Texture Development in a Nanocrystalline Ni-Fe Alloy during Cold Rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Ungár, Tamás; Toth, Laszlo S.; Skrotzki, Werner; Wang, Yan Dong; Ren, Yang; Choo, Hahn; Fogarassy, Zsolt; Zhou, X. T.; Liaw, Peter K.

    2016-12-01

    The evolution of texture, grain size, grain shape, dislocation, and twin density has been determined by synchrotron X-ray diffraction and line profile analysis in a nanocrystalline Ni-Fe alloy after cold rolling along different directions related to the initial fiber and the long axis of grains. The texture evolution has been simulated by the Taylor-type relaxed-constraints viscoplastic polycrystal model. The simulations were based on the activity of partial dislocations in correlation with the experimental results of dislocation density determination. The concept of stress-induced shear coupling is supported and strengthened by both the texture simulations and the experimentally determined evolution of the microstructure parameters. Grain growth and texture evolution are shown to proceed by the shear coupling mechanism supported by dislocation activity as long as the grain size is not smaller than about 20 nm.

  19. Shear-Coupled Grain Growth and Texture Development in a Nanocrystalline Ni-Fe Alloy during Cold Rolling

    SciTech Connect

    Li, L.; Ungar, T.; Toth, L. S.; Skrotzki, W.; Wang, Y. D.; Ren, Y.; Choo, H.; Fogarassy, Zs.; Zhou, X. T.; Liaw, P. K.

    2016-12-01

    The evolution of texture, grain size, grain shape, dislocation and twin density has been determined by synchrotron X-ray diffraction and line profile analysis in a nanocrystalline Ni- Fe alloy after cold rolling along different directions related to the initial fiber and the long axis of grains. The texture evolution has been simulated by the Taylor-type relaxed constraints viscoplastic polycrystal model. The simulations were based on the activity of partial dislocations in correlation with the experimental results of dislocation density determination. The concept of stress-induced shear-coupling is supported and strengthened by both the texture simulations and the experimentally determined evolution of the microstructure parameters. Grain-growth and texture evolution are shown to proceed by the shear-coupling mechanism supported by dislocation activity as long as the grain size is not smaller than about 20 nm.

  20. Effect of Austenitizing Temperature on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Semi-High-Speed Steel Cold-Forged Rolls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qiong; Sun, Da-Le; Liu, Chang-Sheng

    2009-10-01

    The effect of austenitizing temperature on the microstructure and mechanical properties of semi-high-speed steel (S-HSS) cold-forged rolls was investigated. Low-temperature austenitizing below 1313 K induced carbide coarsening during subsequent tempering at 973 K due to the nucleation effect of undissolved M7C3. On the other hand, the heavy dissolution of M7C3 above 1353 K caused the fine carbide formation on lath and plate boundaries, which retarded the subgrain growth during tempering. The increase in strength with increasing austenitizing temperature was attributed to the fine carbide distribution and the high dislocation density. Furthermore, as the austenitizing temperature increased, the impact energy markedly reduced, due to the large prior austenite grain size and the high strength. Finally, based on the microstructure and mechanical properties, an optimal austenitizing temperature range between 1313 and 1333 K was determined.

  1. Microstructure characterization based on the type of deformed grains in cold-rolled, Cu-added, bake-hardenable steel

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.S.; Kim, S.I.; Choi, S.-H.

    2014-06-01

    The electron backscatter diffraction technique has been used to characterize the microstructure of deformed grains in cold-rolled, Cu-added, bake-hardenable steel. A new scheme based on the kind and number of average orientations, as determined from a unique grain map of the deformed grains, was developed in order to classify deformed grains by type. The α-fiber components, γ-fiber components and random orientations, those which could not be assigned to either γ-fiber or α-fiber components, were used to define the average orientation of unique grains within individual deformed grains. The microstructures of deformed grains in as-rolled specimens were analyzed based on the Taylor factor, stored energy, and misorientation. The relative levels and distributions of the Taylor factor, the stored energy and the misorientation were examined in terms of the types of deformed grains. - Highlights: • We characterized the microstructure of Cu-added BH steel using EBSD. • A new scheme was developed in order to classify deformed grains by type. • Stored energy and misorientation are strongly dependent on the type of deformed grains. • Microstructure was examined in terms of the types of deformed grains.

  2. Microstructural Evolution During Cold Rolling and Subsequent Annealing in Low-Carbon Steel with Different Initial Microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Toshio; Dannoshita, Hiroyuki; Maruoka, Kuniaki; Ushioda, Kohsaku

    2017-08-01

    Microstructural evolution during cold rolling and subsequent annealing of low-carbon steel with different initial microstructures was investigated from the perspective of the competitive phenomenon between recrystallization of ferrite and reverse phase transformation from ferrite to austenite. Three kinds of hot-rolled sheet specimens were prepared. Specimen P consisted of ferrite and pearlite, specimen B consisted of bainite, and specimen M consisted of martensite. The progress of recovery and recrystallization of ferrite during annealing was more rapid in specimen M than that in specimens P and B. In particular, the recrystallized ferrite grains in specimen M were fine and equiaxed. The progress of ferrite-to-austenite phase transformation during intercritical annealing was more rapid in specimen M than in specimens P and B. In all specimens, the austenite nucleation sites were mainly at high-angle grain boundaries, such as those between recrystallized ferrite grains. The austenite distribution was the most uniform in specimen M. Thus, we concluded that fine equiaxed recrystallized ferrite grains were formed in specimen M, leading to a uniform distribution of austenite.

  3. Accelerated carbonation using municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash and cold-rolling wastewater: Performance evaluation and reaction kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, E-E; Pan, Shu-Yuan; Yang, Liuhanzi; Chen, Yi-Hung; Kim, Hyunook; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Carbonation was performed using CO{sub 2}, wastewater and bottom ash in a slurry reactor. • A maximum capture capacity of 102 g CO{sub 2} per kg BA was achieved at mild conditions. • A maximum carbonation conversion of MSWI-BA was predicted to be 95% by RSM. • The CO{sub 2} emission from Bali incinerator could be expected to reduce by 6480 ton/y. • The process energy consumption per ton CO{sub 2} captured was estimated to be 180 kW h. - Abstract: Accelerated carbonation of alkaline wastes including municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash (MSWI-BA) and the cold-rolling wastewater (CRW) was investigated for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) fixation under different operating conditions, i.e., reaction time, CO{sub 2} concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, particle size, and CO{sub 2} flow rate. The MSWI-BA before and after carbonation process were analyzed by the thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The MSWI-BA exhibits a high carbonation conversion of 90.7%, corresponding to a CO{sub 2} fixation capacity of 102 g per kg of ash. Meanwhile, the carbonation kinetics was evaluated by the shrinking core model. In addition, the effect of different operating parameters on carbonation conversion of MSWI-BA was statistically evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM) using experimental data to predict the maximum carbonation conversion. Furthermore, the amount of CO{sub 2} reduction and energy consumption for operating the proposed process in refuse incinerator were estimated. Capsule abstract: CO{sub 2} fixation process by alkaline wastes including bottom ash and cold-rolling wastewater was developed, which should be a viable method due to high conversion.

  4. Rapid Transformation Annealing: a Novel Method for Grain Refinement of Cold-Rolled Low-Carbon Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesch, C.; Álvarez, P.; Bleck, W.; Gil Sevillano, J.

    2007-09-01

    A novel heat treatment, rapid transformation annealing (RTA) is introduced, which uses the refining effect of the phase transformation during recrystallization annealing. The RTA is comprised of rapid heating including the full or partial phase transformation of cold-rolled, nonrecrystallized, or partly recrystallized α microstructure to γ microstructure combined with subsequent rapid cooling to ambient temperature. In this way, a substantial grain refinement compared to conventional industrial annealing of cold-rolled strip can be realized. Minimum homogeneous grain sizes of 2.3 μm are produced in microalloyed high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steels. A plain low-carbon steel shows despite any microalloying grain sizes of about 2.5 μm. Grain refinement results in a substantial increase in strength and in a pronounced strain hardening in the ΘIV stage. Simultaneously, the uniform and total elongation slightly decrease, which is a physical consequence of Considère’s instability criterion. By a refinement from 4.2 to 2.3 μm, the yield and tensile strength of a HSLA grade can be increased by about 130 MPa to 535 and 650 MPa, while the total elongation is reduced by about four percentage points to 21 pct, i.e., a still moderate formability is provided. In general, the ductility-strength relationship remains similar to the conventional behavior. For all investigated steel grades, the Hall Petch (HP) relationship is fulfilled. Furthermore, it is proved that RTA cycles can be realized in pilot scale as far as induction heating devices are applied.

  5. Effect of severe cold-rolling and annealing on microstructure and mechanical properties of AlCoCrFeNi2.1 eutectic high entropy alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wani, I. S.; Bhattacharjee, T.; Sheikh, S.; Lu, Y.; Chatterjee, S.; Guo, S.; Bhattacharjee, P. P.; Tsuji, N.

    2017-05-01

    The possibility of microstructural refinement and improvement of mechanical properties by severe cold-rolling was investigated in an AlCoCrFeNi2.1 lamellar eutectic high entropy alloy (EHEA). The as-cast alloy revealed fine scale eutectic mixture of L12 (ordered FCC) and B2 (ordered BCC) phases. During severe cold-rolling up to 90% reduction in thickness the B2 phase maintained the ordered structure, while the L12 phase showed the evolution of a nanocrystalline structure and progressive disordering. Annealing of the severely cold-rolled material resulted in the formation of duplex microstructures composed of two different phases with equiaxed morphologies and significant resistance to grain growth up to 1200°C. Annealing at 1000°C resulted in an optimum strength-ductility balance with the tensile strength of 1175 MPa and the total elongation of 23%. The present results showed that severe cold-rolling and annealing can impart very attractive mechanical properties in complex EHEAs.

  6. Crack paths, microstructure, and fatigue crack growth in annealed and cold-rolled AISI 304 stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ming; Chen, Shuchun; Wei, Robert P.

    1992-01-01

    To assist in the understanding of micromechanisms for corrosion fatigue crack growth in metastable austenitic steels, the relationships between the crack paths and the underlying microstructure were investigated for annealed and cold-rolled (CR) 304 stainless steels that had been tested in a deaerated 3.5 pct NaCl solution, air, and vacuum. Corrosion fatigue in the deleterious environments (3.5 pct NaCl and air) was brittle and occurred primarily by {001}γ and other unidentified, quasi-cleavage (QC), accompanied by preferential cracking along {111}γ twin and grain boundaries. In contrast, fatigue cracking in vacuum was ductile, fully transgranular, and noncrystallographic. Transformation to alpha prime (α'-) martensite by fatigue was found to be essentially complete in the CR steel, which contained ɛ-martensite, and in the annealed steel tested in vacuum, but was substantially less in the annealed steel tested in air and 3.5 pct NaCl solution. These results, taken in conjunction with the crack growth and electrochemical reaction data, support hydrogen embrittlement (HE) as the mechanism for corrosion fatigue crack growth in 304 stainless steels in 3.5 pct NaCl solution. Martensitic transformation appears not to be the only responsible factor for embrittlement. Other microstructural components, such as twin and grain boundaries, slip bands, and cold work-induced lattice defects, may play more important roles in enhancing crack growth rates.

  7. Rolling Process Modeling Report. Finite-Element Model Validation and Parametric Study on various Rolling Process parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Soulami, Ayoub; Lavender, Curt A.; Paxton, Dean M.; Burkes, Douglas

    2015-06-15

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been investigating manufacturing processes for the uranium-10% molybdenum alloy plate-type fuel for high-performance research reactors in the United States. This work supports the U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration’s Office of Material Management and Minimization Reactor Conversion Program. This report documents modeling results of PNNL’s efforts to perform finite-element simulations to predict roll-separating forces for various rolling mill geometries for PNNL, Babcock & Wilcox Co., Y-12 National Security Complex, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Idaho National Laboratory. The model developed and presented in a previous report has been subjected to further validation study using new sets of experimental data generated from a rolling mill at PNNL. Simulation results of both hot rolling and cold rolling of uranium-10% molybdenum coupons have been compared with experimental results. The model was used to predict roll-separating forces at different temperatures and reductions for five rolling mills within the National Nuclear Security Administration Fuel Fabrication Capability project. This report also presents initial results of a finite-element model microstructure-based approach to study the surface roughness at the interface between zirconium and uranium-10% molybdenum.

  8. [Comparison of texture distribution of cold rolled DC and CC AA 5052 aluminum alloy at different positions through thickness direction by XRD].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-biao; Ma, Min; Yang, Qing-xiang; Wang, Shan; Liu, Wen-chang; Zhao, Ying-mei

    2013-09-01

    To provide gist of DC AA 5052 and CC AA 5052 aluminum alloy to industry production and application, the texture variation of cold rolled sheets through thickness direction was studied by X-ray diffraction method, and the difference in texture at surface, quarter and center layer was analyzed. The hot plates of direct chill cast (DC) AA 5052 and continuous cast (CC) AA 5052 aluminum alloy were annealed at 454 degrees C for 4 hours and then cold rolled to different reductions. The strength and volume fraction of the fiber in CC AA 5052 aluminum alloy is larger than in DC AA 5052 aluminum alloy after same rolling reduction The volume fraction of the recrystallization texture cube in the CC AA 5052 aluminum alloy is less than in the DC AA 5052 aluminum alloy, which result in that CC AA 5052 aluminum alloy needs less cold rolling reduction than DC AA 5052 aluminum alloy for generating the texture with same intensity and volume fraction at surface layer, quarter layer and center layer. The manufacturability and performance of CC AA 5052 aluminum alloy is superior to DC AA 5052 aluminum alloy for use in stamping.

  9. Microstructure and texture evolution of ultra-thin grain-oriented silicon steel sheet fabricated using strip casting and three-stage cold rolling method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hong-Yu; Liu, Hai-Tao; Wang, Yin-Ping; Wang, Guo-Dong

    2017-03-01

    A 0.1 mm-thick grain-oriented silicon steel sheet was successfully produced using strip casting and three-stage cold rolling method. The microstructure, texture and inhibitor evolution during the processing was briefly analyzed. It was found that Goss texture was absent in the hot rolled sheet because of the lack of shear deformation. After normalizing, a large number of dispersed MnS precipitates with the size range of 15-90 nm were produced. During first cold rolling, dense shear bands were generated in the deformed ferrite grains, resulting in the intense Goss texture after first intermediate annealing. The microstructure was further refined and homogenized during the subsequent cold rolling and annealing processes. After primary recrystallization annealing, a homogeneous microstructure consisting of fine and equiaxed grains was produced while the associated texture was characterized by a strong γ-fiber texture. Finally, a complete secondary recrystallization microstructure consisting of entirely large Goss grains was produced. The magnetic induction B8 and iron loss P10/400 was 1.79 T and 6.9 W/kg, respectively.

  10. The Effect of Rolling As-Cast and Homogenized U-10Mo Samples on the Microstructure Development and Recovery Curves

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, Vineet V.; Paxton, Dean M.; Lavender, Curt A.; Burkes, Douglas

    2016-07-30

    Over the past several years Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been actively involved in supporting the U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Material Management and Minimization (formerly Global Threat Reduction Initiative). The U.S. High- Power Research Reactor (USHPRR) project is developing alternatives to existing highly enriched uranium alloy fuel to reduce the proliferation threat. One option for a high-density metal fuel is uranium alloyed with 10 wt% molybdenum (U-10Mo). Forming the U-10Mo fuel plates/foils via rolling is an effective technique and is actively being pursued as part of the baseline manufacturing process. The processing of these fuel plates requires systematic investigation/understanding of the pre- and post-rolling microstructure, end-state mechanical properties, residual stresses, and defects, their effect on the mill during processing, and eventually, their in-reactor performance. In the work documented herein, studies were conducted to determine the effect of cold and hot rolling the as-cast and homogenized U-10Mo on its microstructure and hardness. The samples were homogenized at 900°C for 48 h, then later annealed for several durations and temperatures to investigate the effect on the material’s microstructure and hardness. The rolling of the as-cast plate, both hot and cold, was observed to form a molybdenum-rich and -lean banded structure. The cold rolling was ineffective, and in some cases exacerbated the as-cast defects. The grains elongated along the rolling direction and formed a pancake shape, while the carbides fractured perpendicularly to the rolling direction and left porosity between fractured particles of UC. The subsequent annealing of these samples at sub-eutectoid temperatures led to rapid precipitation of the ' lamellar phase, mainly in the molybdenum-lean regions. Annealing the samples above the eutectoid temperature did not refine the grain size or the banded

  11. Rheology of coal-water slurries prepared by the HP roll mill grinding of coal. Quarterly technical progress report No. 13, September 1, 1995--November 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this research is the development of improved technology of the preparation of coal-water slurries that have potential for replacing fuel oil in direct combustion. Research accomplishments are summarized for: standardization of experimental procedures; investigation of effect of high-pressure roll mill/ball mill grinding on the energetics of fine grinding and the rheology of coal-water slurries prepared with such fines; study of aging behavior of slurries; and ways of improving rheology of slurries. The rheological behavior of slurries is a manifestation of particle-particle and particle-fluid interactions in the slurry. Improvement in the rheology of slurries could be brought about by suitably altering these interactions. The research directed towards investigation of the influence of co-addition of sodium hexametaphosphate and vacuum oil, with CoalMaster as the primary dispersant, showed that co-addition of the reagents significantly improved the rheology of coal-water slurries. Further research conducted in this quarter indicated that co-addition of reagents also improves the long-term rheological behavior of coal-water slurries.

  12. Texture and Microstructure for Magnetic Properties of Two-Stage Cold-Rolled Fe-6.5 Wt Pct Si Thin Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yongchuang; Sha, Yuhui; Liu, Jinlong; Zhang, Fang; Zuo, Liang

    2016-12-01

    Decreasing thickness and optimizing texture are the two critical means to improve the magnetic properties of high-silicon electrical steel sheet. In the present study, the 0.15-mm-thick Fe-6.5 wt pct Si thin sheets were produced by two-stage cold rolling process with intermediate annealing. The effects of intermediate microstructure on recrystallization texture were investigated using X-ray diffraction and electron backscattered diffraction. As the intermediate grain size increases from 40 to 80 μm, the favorable η fiber (<001>//RD, rolling direction) is enhanced and harmful γ fiber (<111>//ND, normal direction) is weakened after final annealing, and consequently, the magnetic properties are improved evidently. The number and nature of shear bands relative to the grain boundary regions, which are closely related to the intermediate grain size and rolling parameters, are responsible for the recrystallization texture development.

  13. Evolution of microstructure and crystallographic texture in severely cold rolled high entropy equiatomic CoCrFeMnNi alloy during annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathiaraj, G. D.; Lee, C.; Tsai, C. W.; Yeh, J. W.; Bhattacharjee, P. P.

    2015-04-01

    An equiatomic FCC CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy (HEA) was heavily cold rolled up to 90% reduction in thickness followed by isochronal annealing for 1 hour at temperatures ranging between 700°C to 1100°C. A strong brass texture was observed in the cold-rolled condition indicating the low stacking fault energy of the material. A fine stable microstructure was observed during annealing at low temperatures. The recrystallization texture was characterized by the presence of deformation texture components, in particular, the α-fiber (ND//<110>), S ({123} <634>) and the typical brass recrystallization texture component ({236} <385>). Annealing twins were shown to have important effect on the formation of annealing texture.

  14. Mechanical properties of Fe -10Ni -7Mn martensitic steel subjected to severe plastic deformation via cold rolling and wire drawing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi-Nanesa, H.; Nili-Ahmadabadi, M.; Shirazi, H.

    2010-07-01

    Fe-Ni-Mn martensitic steels are one of the major groups of ultra-high strength steels that have good mechanical properties and ductility in as annealed condition but they suffer from severe inter-granular embitterment after aging. In this paper, the effect of heavy shaped cold rolling and wire drawing on the mechanical properties of Fe-Ni-Mn steel was investigated. This process could provide a large strain deformation in this alloy. The total strain was epsilon ~7. Aging behavior and tensile properties of Fe-10Ni-7Mn were studied after aging at 753 K. The results showed that the ultimate tensile strength and ductility after cold rolling, wire drawing and aging increased up to 2540 MPa and 7.1 %, respectively, while the conventional steels show a premature fracture stress of 830 MPa with about zero ductility after aging.

  15. High-resolution electron microscopy observation and dislocation reaction mechanism of fivefold twinning in a Cu-rich precipitate in a cold rolled ferritic steel containing copper

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ling; Wang, Wei; Chen, Bolin; Zhou, Xiying; Li, Zhongwen; Zhou, Bangxin; Wang, Lumin

    2014-09-15

    Ferritic steels containing copper have been studied as model systems for clusters/precipitate formation in reactor pressure vessel steels. The samples were aged at 400 °C for 4000 h and subsequently cold rolled to 30% reduction at room temperature. The microstructural characteristics of the samples were analyzed using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Direct evidence was found that the fivefold twinning occurs via simultaneous emission of two Shockley partial dislocations from two particular α-Fe/Cu interfaces, and then the pileup tips of the twofold twin. - Highlights: • Fivefold twin is observed in a Cu-rich precipitate in cold rolled ferritic steels. • A dislocation reaction mechanism for the fivefold twin formation is proposed. • Two particular mismatching α-Fe/Cu-rich precipitate interfaces play a critical role.

  16. Effect of cold rolling on fatigue crack propagation of TiNi/Al6061 shape memory composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Young Chul; Kang, Jung Ho; Lee, Jin Kyung; Lee, Gyu Chang; Furuya, Yasybumi

    2007-08-01

    A TiNi alloy fiber was used to recover the original shape of materials using its shape memory effect. The shape memory alloy plays an important role within the metal matrix composite. The shape memory alloy can control the crack propagation in the metal matrix composite, and improve the tensile strength of the composite. In this study, TiNi/Al6061 shape memory alloy (SMA) composite was fabricated by the hot press method, and pressed by a roller for its strength improvement. The four kinds of specimens were fabricated with 0%, 3.2%, 5.2% and 7% volume fraction of TiNi alloy fiber, respectively. A fatigue test has been performed to evaluate the crack initiation and propagation for the TiNi/Al6061 SMA composite fabricated by this method. In order to study the shape memory effect of the TiNi alloy fiber, the test has also been done under both room temperature and high temperature conditions. The relationship between the crack growth rate and the stress intensity factor was clarified for the composite, and the cold rolling effect was also studied.

  17. Effect of cold rolling and first precipitates on the coarsening behavior of γ″-phases in Inconel 718 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing-ling; Guo, Qian-ying; Liu, Yong-chang; Li, Chong; Yu, Li-ming; Li, Hui-jun

    2016-09-01

    The coarsening behaviors of γ″-phase particles in Inconel 718 alloy aged at 750, 800, and 850°C were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Detailed observations and quantitative measurements were conducted to characterize the coarsening behavior of the γ?-phase under various aging conditions. The experimental results indicate that the existence of the δ-phase retards the formation and coarsening of the γ″-phase, without influencing its final particle size or amount. Moreover, when cold rolled with a reduction of 50%, the dimensions of the γ″ particles in Inconel 718 alloy decrease with increasing aging time. Furthermore, the coarsening behavior of the γ″-phase in the Inconel 718 alloy after a normal aging treatment (sample A) and that of the primary δ-phase (sample B) follow the Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner (LSW) diffusion-controlled growth theory; the thus-obtained activation energies for the γ″-phase are 292 kJ·mol-1 and 302 kJ·mol-1, respectively.

  18. Effects of Annealing Treatment Prior to Cold Rolling on Delayed Fracture Properties in Ferrite-Austenite Duplex Lightweight Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Seok Su; Song, Hyejin; Kim, Jung Gi; Kwak, Jai-Hyun; Kim, Hyoung Seop; Lee, Sunghak

    2016-02-01

    Tensile properties of recently developed automotive high-strength steels containing about 10 wt pct of Mn and Al are superior to other conventional steels, but the active commercialization has been postponed because they are often subjected to cracking during formation or to the delayed fracture after formation. Here, the delayed fracture behavior of a ferrite-austenite duplex lightweight steel whose microstructure was modified by a batch annealing treatment at 1023 K (750 °C) prior to cold rolling was examined by HCl immersion tests of cup specimens, and was compared with that of an unmodified steel. After the batch annealing, band structures were almost decomposed as strong textures of {100}<011> α-fibers and {111}<112> γ-fibers were considerably dissolved, while ferrite grains were refined. The steel cup specimen having this modified microstructure was not cracked when immersed in an HCl solution for 18 days, whereas the specimen having unmodified microstructure underwent the delayed fracture within 1 day. This time delayed fracture was more critically affected by difference in deformation characteristics such as martensitic transformation and deformation inhomogeneity induced from concentration of residual stress or plastic strain, rather than the difference in initial microstructures. The present work gives a promise for automotive applications requiring excellent mechanical and delayed fracture properties as well as reduced specific weight.

  19. Effects of overaging temperature on the microstructure and properties of 600 MPa cold-rolled dual-phase steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Chun-fu; Zheng, Zhi-wang; Zhang, Gong-ting; Chang, Jun; Zhang, Shen-gen; Liu, Bo

    2016-08-01

    C-Mn steels prepared by annealing at 800°C for 120 s and overaging at 250-400°C were subjected to pre-straining (2%) and baking treatments (170°C for 20 min) to measure their bake-hardening (BH2) values. The effects of overaging temperature on the microstructure, mechanical properties, and BH2 behavior of 600 MPa cold-rolled dual-phase (DP) steel were investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and tensile tests. The results indicated that the martensite morphology exhibited less variation when the DP steel was overaged at 250-350°C. However, when the DP steel was overaged at 400°C, numerous non-martensite and carbide particles formed and yield-point elongation was observed in the tensile curve. When the overaging temperature was increased from 250 to 400°C, the yield strength increased from 272 to 317 MPa, the tensile strength decreased from 643 to 574 MPa, and the elongation increased from 27.8% to 30.6%. Furthermore, with an increase in overaging temperature from 250 to 400°C, the BH2 value initially increases and then decreases. The maximum BH2 value of 83 MPa was observed for the specimen overaged at 350°C.

  20. Evolution of Microstructure and Texture During Cold Rolling and Annealing of a Highly Cube-Textured ({001} < {100} rangle ) Polycrystalline Nickel Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, P. P.; Takatsuji, Y.; Miyajima, Y.; Terada, D.; Tsuji, N.

    2012-07-01

    The evolution of microstructure and texture is studied during the heavy cold rolling and annealing of a highly cube-textured ({001} < {100} > ) polycrystalline nickel sheet. Near and intermediate cube grains (≤5 deg and 5 deg to 10 deg misorientation, respectively, with exact cube orientation) are more unstable up to 60 pct reduction compared with the far cube grains (10 deg to 15 deg misorientation), and they rotate away to a rolling direction (RD)-rotated cube orientation ({013} < {100} > , denoted by C RD). In contrast, beyond 60 pct reduction, near and intermediate cube grains are more stable than far cube grains, which results in an overall increase in the stability of cube orientation. After 90 pct cold rolling, several cube bands adjacent to or surrounded by C RD bands and separated by low-angle grain boundaries (LAGBs) over large part of their lengths are observed. After annealing of the 90 pct rolled material, no cube texture formation is observed, which is attributed to the delayed nucleation of cube grains owing to the unfavorable structure and local misorientation environment surrounding cube bands.

  1. Effect of Annealing on Mechanical Properties and Formability of Cold Rolled Thin Sheets of Fe-P P/M Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivedi, Shefali; Ravi Kumar, D.; Aravindan, S.

    2016-10-01

    Phosphorus in steel is known to increase strength and hardness and decrease ductility. Higher phosphorus content (more than 0.05%), however, promotes brittle behavior due to segregation of Fe3P along the grain boundaries which makes further mechanical working of these alloys difficult. In this work, thin sheets of Fe-P alloys (with phosphorus in range of 0.1-0.35%) have been developed through processing by powder metallurgy followed by hot rolling and cold rolling. The effect of phosphorus content and annealing parameters (temperature and time) on microstructure, mechanical properties, formability in biaxial stretching and fracture behavior of the cold rolled and annealed sheets has been studied. A comparison has also been made between the properties of the sheets made through P/M route and the conventional cast route with similar phosphorus content. It has been shown that thin sheets of Fe-P alloys with phosphorous up to 0.35% possessing a good combination of strength and formability can be produced through rolling of billets of these alloys made through powder metallurgy technique without the problem of segregation.

  2. Elimination of Dual Slope from the Coffin Manson Relationship of Low-Cycle Fatigue in the Titanium Alloy Timetal 834, by Cold Rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sai Srinadh, K. V.; Singh, Vakil

    2007-08-01

    Cold rolling of the titanium alloy Timetal 834 was found to cause marked enhancement in low-cycle fatigue (LCF) life at low strain amplitude and to eliminate bilinear behavior from the Coffin Manson (C-M) relationship. It was due to work hardening of surface grains of soft orientation and consequent increase in resistance of the material against crack initiation. The observed effect was not associated with texture.

  3. 2. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761899. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1899. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Top roll and one bottom roll, mill housing or cheeks, and spur pinion gears. The broken projection on the mill beside the bottom roll indicates the location of the cane tray. The cane juice crushed from the cane flowed into the juice tray below the bottom rolls. It then flowed into a wooden gutter and through a short tunnel in the mill's masonry enclosure and on to the boiling house for further processing. The opening at the base of the masency wall (In the photograph) is where the gutter ran from the mill to the boiling house. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  4. Cold-atom quantum simulator for SU(2) Yang-Mills lattice gauge theory.

    PubMed

    Zohar, Erez; Cirac, J Ignacio; Reznik, Benni

    2013-03-22

    Non-Abelian gauge theories play an important role in the standard model of particle physics, and unfold a partially unexplored world of exciting physical phenomena. In this Letter, we suggest a realization of a non-Abelian lattice gauge theory-SU(2) Yang-Mills in (1 + 1) dimensions, using ultracold atoms. Remarkably, and in contrast to previous proposals, in our model gauge invariance is a direct consequence of angular momentum conservation and thus is fundamental and robust. Our proposal may serve as well as a starting point for higher-dimensional realizations.

  5. The evolution with strain of the stored energy in different texture components of cold-rolled IF steel revealed by high resolution X-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Wauthier-Monnin, A.; Chauveau, T.; Castelnau, O.; Réglé, H.; Bacroix, B.

    2015-06-15

    During the deformation of low carbon steel by cold-rolling, dislocations are created and stored in grains depending on local crystallographic orientation, deformation, and deformation gradient. Orientation dependent dislocation densities have been estimated from the broadening of X-ray diffraction lines measured on a synchrotron beamline. Different cold-rolling levels (from 30% to 95% thickness reduction) have been considered. It is shown that the present measurements are consistent with the hypothesis of the sole consideration of screw dislocations for the analysis of the data. The presented evolutions show that the dislocation density first increases within the α fiber (=(hkl)<110>) and then within the γ fiber (=(111)). A comparison with EBSD measurements is done and confirms that the storage of dislocations during the deformation process is orientation dependent and that this dependence is correlated to the cold-rolling level. If we assume that this dislocation density acts as a driving force during recrystallization, these observations can explain the fact that the recrystallization mechanisms are generally different after moderate or large strains. - Highlights: • Dislocation densities are assessed by XRD in main texture components of a steel sheet. • Dislocation densities vary with both strain and texture components. • The analysis relies on the sole presence of screw dislocations. • The measured dislocation densities include the contribution of both SSD and GND.

  6. Effect of Starting Microstructure on the Grain Refinement in Cold-Rolled Low-Carbon Steel During Annealing at Two Different Heating Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, Anish; Mandal, Madhumanti; Mandal, Abhisek; Basiruddin Sk, Md.; Mukherjee, Subrata; Chakrabarti, Debalay

    2016-01-01

    Cold-rolled samples of different starting microstructures, namely ferrite-pearlite (F+P) and ferrite-martensite structures, with blocky martensite (F+Mb) and fibrous martensite (F+Mf) morphologies were reheated at two different heating rates (1 and 300 K/s) to sub-critical and inter-critical annealing temperatures [773 K to 1173 K (500 °C to 900 °C)] and immediately water quenched. Grain refinement after annealing of cold-rolled samples depends on the rate of recovery, recrystallization, transformation, and grain growth. Rapid recrystallization during annealing weakened the recrystallization-transformation interaction in F+P sample. Higher rate of ferrite recovery reduced the driving force for recrystallization, which weakened the recrystallization-transformation interaction during annealing of F+Mb sample. As a result, coarser grain structures were obtained after annealing of cold-rolled F+P and F+Mb starting structures. Strong recrystallization-transformation interaction and suppression of grain growth by uniformly distributed carbide particles and austenite islands (after transformation) offered finest ferrite grain size and best combination of strength and ductility in F+Mf sample.

  7. 33. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: From above the mill showing the three 15' x 22' horizontal rolls, mill frame or cheeks, portland cement foundation, and lower part of vertical drive shaft lying next mill in foreground. The loose metal piece resting on top of the mill frame matched the indented portion of the upper frame to form a bracket and bearing for the drive shaft when it was in its proper upright position. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  8. In-Situ Agglomeration and De-agglomeration by Milling of Nano-Engineered Lubricant Particulate Composites for Cold Spray Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neshastehriz, M.; Smid, I.; Segall, A. E.

    2014-10-01

    Nano-engineered self-lubricating particles comprised of hexagonal-boron-nitride powder (hBN) encapsulated in nickel have been developed for cold spray coating of aluminum components. The nickel encapsulant consists of several nano-sized layers, which are deposited on the hBN particles by electroless plating. In the cold spray deposition, the nickel becomes the matrix in which hBN acts as the lubricant. The coating demonstrated a very promising performance by reducing the coefficient of friction by almost 50% and increasing the wear resistance more than tenfold. The coatings also exhibited higher bond strength, which was directly related to the hardenability of the particles. During the encapsulation process, the hBN particles agglomerate and form large clusters. De-agglomeration has been studied through low- and high-energy ball milling to create more uniform and consistent particle sizes and to improve the cold spray deposition efficiency. The unmilled and milled particles were characterized with Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy, BET, and hardness tests. It was found that in low-energy ball milling, the clusters were compacted to a noticeable extent. However, the high-energy ball milling resulted in breakup of agglomerations and destroyed the nickel encapsulant.

  9. 35. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Bevel gear at lower end of vertical drive shaft in foreground turned bevel gear of top roll when the vertical drive shaft was in place in the brass-bearing socket in the middle ground of the photograph. The bolts above the top roll and at the side of the two bottom rolls adjusted the pressure and position of the rolls' brass bearings. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  10. 31. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: View down at the mill from top of the mill's circular masonry enclosure. Mill animals circling above the mill, on top of the enclosure, dragged booms radiating from the drive shaft to power the mill. The drive-shaft is no longer in its upright positon but is lying next to the mill in the foreground. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  11. Study on anaerobic treatment of hazardous steel-mill waste rolling oil (SmWRO) for multi-benefit disposal route.

    PubMed

    Ma, Huanhuan; Li, Zifu; Yin, Fubin; Kao, William; Yin, Yi; Bai, Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    Steel-mill waste rolling oil (SmWRO) is considered as hazardous substance with high treatment and disposal fees. Anaerobic process could not only transform the hazardous substance into activated sludge, but also generate valuable biogas. This study aimed at studying the biochemical methane potential of SmWRO under inoculum to substrate VS ratios (ISRs) of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 and 3 using septic tank sludge as inoculum in mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, with blank tests for control. Specific biogas yield (mL/g VS(added)), net biogas yield (mL/g VS(removed)) and VS removal were analyzed. The ANOVA results indicated great influence of ISR and temperature on studied parameters. ISR of 1.5 at 55°C and ISR of 1.5 and 2 at 35°C were suggested with the highest specific biogas yield (262-265 and 303mL/g VS(added)). Kinetic analysis showed that Gompertz model fit the experimental data best with the least RMSE and largest R(2). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of cold rolling on the anisotropy of the shear modulus and the poisson coefficient of polycrystalline copper and silicon steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usov, V. V.; Bryukhanov, A. A.; Shkatulyak, N. M.; Manzhikov, A. V.

    1993-02-01

    We consider a method for calculating the anisotropy of the shear modulus and the Poisson coefficient in the rolling plane for textured polycrystalline materials with a cubic lattice, which makes use of the integrated texture characteristics for averaging over the single-crystal properties, which are a certain combination of direction cosines in the sample coordinates, averaged with respect to orientation. The integrated texture characteristics are determined from two experimentally opposite polar figures of the plates. We study the influence of the amount of deformation during cold rolling on the anisotropy of the plate properties listed above for copper and silicon steel. The accuracy in the calculations is better than 5%. The results are compared with data from other authors.

  13. γ→α‧ Martensitic transformation and magnetic property of cold rolled Fe-20Mn-4Al-0.3C steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Biao; Li, Changsheng; Han, Yahui; Wang, Jikai

    2016-12-01

    Direct γ→α‧ martensitic transformation during cold rolling deformation was investigated for a high-Mn non-magnetic steel. Its influence on magnetic property was also analyzed. The magnetization under rolling reduction less than 50% almost presents a linear increase with the applied magnetic field. With deformation up to 73% and 93% thickness reductions, strain induced α‧-martensite transformation starts to occur, causing the steel to be slightly magnetized. The α‧-martensite prefers to nucleate directly at either microband-microband or microband-twin intersections without participation of intermediate ε-martensite. The volume fraction of α‧-martensite is estimated as 0.070% and 0.17%, respectively, based on the magnetic hysteresis loops. Such a small fraction of ferromagnetic α‧-martensite shows little influence on the magnetic induction intensity and low relative permeability.

  14. Static Electropulsing-Induced Microstructural Changes and Their Effect on the Ultra-Precision Machining of Cold-Rolled AZ91 Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Duo; To, Suet; Zhu, Yao Hua; Wang, Hao; Tang, Guo Yi

    2012-04-01

    The effects of electropulsing on the phase transformations of a cold-rolled Mg-9Al-1Zn alloy were studied using X-ray diffraction, back-scattered electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and optical microscopy techniques. The results indicated that with increasing frequency of electropulsing, the decomposition and precipitation of β phase were tremendously accelerated sequentially. Electropulsing accelerated the decomposition of β phase by a factor of approximately 3600 times. The effects of the electropulsing-induced microstructural changes on machinability of the alloy, by single-point diamond turning, was discussed.

  15. Evidence for viscous flow nature in Zr{sub 60}Al{sub 15}Ni{sub 25} metallic glass subjected to cold rolling

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Zhijie; Hao Weixin; Hu Yong; Song Kaikai; Eckert, Juergen; Stoica, Mihai; Scudino, Sergio

    2013-07-08

    The microstructure changes of Zr{sub 60}Al{sub 15}Ni{sub 25} metallic glass upon cold rolling and their influences on the thermally induced crystallization kinetics are investigated. The results show that atomic redistribution occurs within the localized zones in the glassy matrix, resulting from the softening of the shear modulus, which retards the crystallization behaviors during the subsequent heating. The present work provides direct evidence for the viscous flow nature in a metallic glass subjected to plastic deformation, during which the softened zones act as potential shear transformation zones.

  16. 1. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Historical view, 1934, from T.T. Waterman collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association. Large rectangular piece lying in front of the mill is the top of the mill frame appearing in its proper place in 1928 views. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  17. Influence of annealing treatment on micro/macro-texture and texture dependent magnetic properties in cold rolled FeCo-7.15V alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasani, S.; Shamanian, M.; Shafyei, A.; Behjati, P.; Nezakat, M.; Fathi-Moghaddam, M.; Szpunar, J. A.

    2015-03-01

    The influence of annealing treatment on macro- and micro-texture of cold-rolled FeCo-7.15V ferromagnetic ultra-thin foils were studied. The microstructural studies performed by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) showed the formation of paramagnetic precipitations ((Fe, Co)3V) during annealing. During cold rolling of the FeCo-7.15V magnet, the texture components of type (113) [ 1 1 bar 0 ] , (001) [ 1 1 bar 0 ] , (111) [ 1 1 bar 0 ] , and (111) [ 1 2 bar 1 ] , all related to α and γ-fibers were formed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and local texture measurements performed by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) were made on the annealed samples. Both methods revealed that the recrystallized samples have texture characterized by γ fiber component, when the recovered samples were characterized by α fiber component. The grain boundary character distribution (GBCD) and microstructures of the material were analyzed using EBSD. The experimental results showed that annealing at 870 °C for 2 h resulted in a high frequency of twin boundaries. The maximum CSL density could reach 7.5% under annealing conditions: at 870 °C for 2 h. Finally, in order to investigate the texture influence on the magnetic properties, magnetic properties of the samples were measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The results showed an improvement in remanence induction (Br) with the formation of hard axis <100>.

  18. Grain refinement and mechanical response of U-5.5 wt%Nb alloy produced by cold rolling and heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhiyong; Ma, Rong; Hu, Guichao; Wu, Jun; Wang, Zhenhong; Luo, Chao

    2017-10-01

    Cold rolling was coupled with annealing and water quenching to manipulate the grain size of U-5.5 wt%Nb (U-5.5Nb) alloy. X-ray diffraction analysis and optical microscopy were used to study the microstructure evolution of the U-5.5Nb alloy. Specimens with fine and homogeneous equiaxed grains were obtained with an average grain size of 4.3 μm for the fine-grained sample. Tensile testing and micro-indentation testing were employed to investigate the mechanical properties of the samples. The strength of the fine-grained alloy decreased by ∼5.6% compared with that of the coarse-grained sample, and the ductility increased by more than 30%. The mean hardness and elastic modulus of the fine-grained alloy decreased by 11.8% and 21.8%, respectively. Overall, this cold-rolling and annealing/quenching process is an attractive method to control the grain size of U-5.5Nb alloy, and thus its properties.

  19. 2. INTERIOR VIEW OF MILL, SHOWING THE TWOHIGH HANDOPERATED MILLS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. INTERIOR VIEW OF MILL, SHOWING THE TWO-HIGH HAND-OPERATED MILLS (ON THE LEFT HAND SIDE), PRIOR TO THEIR OPERATION; THIS PHOTO WAS TAKEN FROM THE OVERHEAD CRANE - American Brass Company, Kenosha Works, Hot Roll Mill, Kenosha, Kenosha County, WI

  20. 30. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1885-1870. View: Masonry-lined passage-way leading to the mill at the center of its circular masonry enclosure. The passageway permitted cane to be carried to the mill and cane trash (bagasse) to be carried away. Bridges over the passageways, no longer in place, permitted the mill animals to circle and power the mill from above. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  1. Cold-rolling behavior of biomedical Ni-free Co-Cr-Mo alloys: Role of strain-induced ε martensite and its intersecting phenomena.

    PubMed

    Mori, Manami; Yamanaka, Kenta; Chiba, Akihiko

    2015-03-01

    Ni-free Co-Cr-Mo alloys are some of the most difficult-to-work metallic materials used commonly in biomedical applications. Since the difficulty in plastically deforming them limits their use, an in-depth understanding of their plastic deformability is of crucial importance for both academic and practical purposes. In this study, the microstructural evolution of a Co-29Cr-6Mo-0.2N (mass%) alloy during cold rolling was investigated. Further, its work-hardening behavior is discussed while focusing on the strain-induced face-centered cubic (fcc) γ→hexagonal close-packed (hcp) ε martensitic transformation (SIMT). The planar dislocation slip and subsequent SIMT occurred even in the initial stage of the deformation process owing to the low stability of the γ-phase and contributed to the work hardening behavior. However, the amount of the SIMTed ε-phase did not explain the overall variation in work hardening during cold rolling. It was found that the intersecting of the SIMTed ε-plates enhanced local strain evolution and then produced fine domain-like deformation microstructures at the intersections. Consequently, the degree of work hardening was reduced during subsequent plastic deformation, resulting in the alloy exhibiting a two-stage work hardening behavior. The results obtained in this study suggest that the interaction between ε-martensites, and ultimately its relaxation mechanism, is of significant importance; therefore, this aspect should be addressed in detail; the atomic structures of the γ-matrix/ε-martensite interfaces, the phenomenon of slip transfer at the interfaces, and the slipping behavior of the ε-phase itself are needed to be elucidated for further increasing the cold deformability of such alloys. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Asymmetric cold/warm rolling simulation by crystal plasticity multi-scale finite element analysis based on crystallographic homogenization

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Koshiro; Sakamoto, Hidetoshi; Kuramae, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Hideo; Nakamachi, Eiji

    2010-06-15

    The purpose of this study is forming a high formability aluminum alloy sheet metal by controlling the microcrystal structure and the texture. So asymmetric rolling is applied to the material process. Analysis method is crystal plasticity multi-scale finite element analysis based on crystallographic homogenization.

  3. Roll cooling and its relationship to roll life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, A. A.; Lin, F. H.; Gunderia, A. S.; Ni, D. S.

    1989-11-01

    Combined experimental and numerical research has been conducted to investigate the roll cooling system used in steel rolling mills and its relationship to roll life. Roll cooling has been identified as a critical factor in the problems of excessive roll wear or spalling, which cause shortened roll life. A special laboratory apparatus resembling the cooling systems used in the steel mills has been developed to evaluate the corresponding heat transfer coefficients. These coefficients have then been utilized for numerical simulation of the rolling processes. In simulation, the thermal behavior of both the roll and the strip have been considered with emphasis on roll temperature and the induced cyclic thermal stresses. An understanding of the cyclic stress can be utilized to evaluate roll wear, and leads to reduction of the roll spalling, or to extension of the roll life by minimizing the cyclic stress or the resultant fatigue stress. As indicated by the present study, in order to minimize the cyclic or fatigue stresses, the roll should be subjected to uniform cooling, as the sharper the heat transfer coefficient distribution, the higher the thermal stress induced.

  4. 7. VIEW OF 46 X 110 BLOOMING AND SLABBING MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF 46 X 110 BLOOMING AND SLABBING MILL ROLL HOUSING IN THE PRIMARY MILL BUILDING LOOKING EAST. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Primary Mill, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  5. Dislocation Substructure in the Cold-Rolled Ni-20 Mass Pct Cr Alloy Analyzed by X-ray Diffraction, Positron Annihilation Lifetime, and Transmission Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonemura, Mitsuharu; Inoue, Koji

    2016-12-01

    The systematic change in the dislocation density and characteristics that develop under cold rolling as a simulated deformation was studied in order to examine the fundamental behavior of dislocations in terms of the dislocation substructure formation. In particular, the dislocation density was quantified by X-ray line profile analysis (XLPA), which is effective for quantifying the dislocation density and character; positron annihilation lifetime (PAL), which is sensitive to vacancy-type lattice defects; the Bailey-Hirsch equation from the hardness (Hv); and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The strain dependency of the dislocation density analyzed by XLPA, PAL, TEM, and Hv showed a similar tendency with an increase in the dislocation. In particular, the dislocation density by XLPA had good agreement with the results of TEM at low strain levels and with PAL at high strain levels. As a result, a combination of these techniques successfully showed the behavior of the dislocation substructure.

  6. Effects of Cold-Rolling/Aging Treatments on the Shape Memory Properties of Ti49.3Ni50.7 Shape Memory Alloy

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shih-Hang; Lin, Keng-Hua; Wu, Shyi-Kaan

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the combined effects of strengthening, precipitates, and textures on the shape recovery ability and superelasticity of thermomechanically treated Ti49.3Ni50.7 shape memory alloy (SMA) in both the rolling and transverse directions were studied by experimental measurements and theoretical calculations. Experimental results and theoretical calculations showed that the 300 °C × 100 h aged specimen exhibited the best shape memory effect because it possessed the most favorable textures, highest matrix strength, and most beneficially coherent stress induced by Ti3Ni4 precipitates. The 30% cold-rolled and then 300 °C × 100 h aged specimen exhibited the highest strength and superelasticity; however, its shape recovery ability was not as good as expected because the less favorable textures and the high strength inhibited the movements of dislocations and martensite boundaries. Therefore, to achieve the most optimal shape memory characteristics of Ni-rich TiNi SMAs, the effects of textures, matrix strength, and internal defects, such as Ti3Ni4 precipitates and dislocations, should all be carefully considered and controlled during thermomechanical treatments. PMID:28773060

  7. Effects of Cold-Rolling/Aging Treatments on the Shape Memory Properties of Ti49.3Ni50.7 Shape Memory Alloy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shih-Hang; Lin, Keng-Hua; Wu, Shyi-Kaan

    2017-06-26

    In this study, the combined effects of strengthening, precipitates, and textures on the shape recovery ability and superelasticity of thermomechanically treated Ti49.3Ni50.7 shape memory alloy (SMA) in both the rolling and transverse directions were studied by experimental measurements and theoretical calculations. Experimental results and theoretical calculations showed that the 300 °C × 100 h aged specimen exhibited the best shape memory effect because it possessed the most favorable textures, highest matrix strength, and most beneficially coherent stress induced by Ti3Ni4 precipitates. The 30% cold-rolled and then 300 °C × 100 h aged specimen exhibited the highest strength and superelasticity; however, its shape recovery ability was not as good as expected because the less favorable textures and the high strength inhibited the movements of dislocations and martensite boundaries. Therefore, to achieve the most optimal shape memory characteristics of Ni-rich TiNi SMAs, the effects of textures, matrix strength, and internal defects, such as Ti3Ni4 precipitates and dislocations, should all be carefully considered and controlled during thermomechanical treatments.

  8. The Effect of Fe Content on Recrystallization Texture Evolution, Microstructures, and Earing of Cold Rolled Continuous Cast AA5052 Alloy Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xiyu; Wen, Wei; Zhang, Yuanbin; Xu, Bin; Zeng, Qiang; Liu, Yansheng; Tong, Lirong; Zhai, Tongguang; Li, Zhong

    2016-04-01

    Continuous cast AA5052 Al alloys, containing iron contents of 0.120 and 0.466 wt pct, respectively, were cold rolled and annealed at temperatures ranging from 505 K to 755 K (232 °C to 482 °C). The recrystallization textures in the two alloys were analyzed using X-ray diffraction and electron back scatter diffraction, respectively. It was found that higher Fe content promoted the formation of deformation textures and retarded the formation of cube texture in the two alloys. Most cube-oriented grains formed in both these alloys were associated with coarse particles, whereas the P—{011}<566>, R—{123}<634>, and Goss or randomly oriented grains were often related to particle stringers consisted of fine particles along the rolling direction. It was also found that the volume fraction of each texture component was a Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov-type function of annealing temperature in the two alloys. The texture evolution rate with the annealing temperature was calculated from this function and used to determine the onset temperature of each recrystallization texture component.

  9. Texture Evolution and Residual Stress Relaxation in a Cold-Rolled Al-Mg-Si-Cu Alloy Using Vibratory Stress Relief Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jia-Siang; Hsieh, Chih-Chun; Lin, Chi-Ming; Kuo, Che-Wei; Wu, Weite

    2013-02-01

    Over the last half century, vibratory stress relief (VSR) has come to be recognized as a technique with several unique benefits, and it has found applications in various industries. However, the mechanisms involved remain unclear, and the textures corresponding to residual stress relaxation were rarely reported in the existing literature. The purpose of this study is to discuss the texture evolution and residual stress relaxation in a cold-rolled Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy using VSR technique. All the residual stress measurements were performed using a standard X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. Measurement of texture was performed on the specimen surface using conventional pole figure (PF) as well as orientation distribution functions (ODFs) methods. Results indicate that the VSR technique can be applied to weaken the α-fiber and cause the residual stress of the rolled samples to gradually approach uniformity in XRD analysis. The best relaxation of the compressive residual stress reaches about 52.6 pct, but relaxation of the tensile residual stress is less than 10 pct. After the VSR process for 20 minutes, the texture intensities of PFs (200) and (220) as compared to those in nonvibration are nearly homogeneously distributed. Furthermore, the texture of (111) PF perpendicular to normal direction (ND), which is affected by vibratory force parallel to ND, almost disappears.

  10. Effect of texture and grain size on the magnetic flux density and core loss of cold-rolled high silicon steel sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Jing; Yang, Ping; Mao, Weimin; Ye, Feng

    2015-11-01

    The effects of texture and grain size on the magnetic flux density and core loss (50-20 kHz) of 0.23 mm-thick cold-rolled high silicon steel sheets are investigated by means of electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD), loss separation, and anisotropy parameter (ε) calculation. A model of the hysteresis loss coefficient kh considering average grain size and ε is established. The magnetic flux density at 800 A/m (B8) is closely related to the volume fraction of η-fiber-oriented grains, while the magnetic flux density at 5000 A/m (B50) is closely related to the volume fractions of γ- and λ-fiber-oriented grains in high silicon steel. The hysteresis loss of high silicon steel can be greatly reduced by increasing the grain size and optimizing the texture of the sheets. Although increases in frequencies decrease the effect of texture on core loss, the effect cannot be ignored. As annealing temperature and time increase, the relative difference in core loss between the rolling direction (RD) and the transverse direction (TD) is maintained at higher frequencies because of increases in grain size, decreases in γ texture, and maintenance of a strong η texture. Texture and grain size jointly affect the high-frequency core loss of high silicon steel.

  11. Recovery of Ductility in Ultrafine-Grained Low-Carbon Steel Processed Through Equal-Channel Angular Pressing Followed by Cold Rolling and Flash Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Raj Bahadur; Mukhopadhyay, N. K.; Sastry, G. V. S.; Manna, R.

    2017-01-01

    The low-carbon steel workpieces are deformed by equal-channel angular pressing at 293 K (20 °C) up to an equivalent strain of 12 using route B c, which results in the bulk ultrafine-grained (UFG) structure with high dislocation density and partial dissolution of cementite. The yield strength (YS) is enhanced from 208 (as-received) to 872 MPa and the tensile strength is increased from 362 to 996 MPa, but the material loses total elongation (TE) from 36.2 to 2.9 pct. Cold rolling of equal-channel angular pressed steel produces the refined structure of grain size 0.11 μm. The YS increases further to 924 MPa with a marginal gain in ductility due to the reappearance of the γ fiber component. Flash annealing the samples, which were equal-channel angular pressed followed by cold rolling, at 873 K (600 °C) results in 27 pct of micron-sized (9 µm) ferrite grains in submicron-sized (<1 µm) matrix with a reduced defect density and small amount of precipitation of cementite. TE increases from 2.9 to 23.3 pct. The material retains a YS of 484 MPa and tensile strength of 517 MPa, which are higher than those of the as-received material. The UFG grains are failed by cleavage, but the micron-sized grains display ductile fracture. The ductility of the flash-annealed material is recovered significantly due to bimodal grain size distribution in ferrite and the development of a good amount of γ fiber texture components. The major contribution toward recovery of ductility comes from the bimodal grain size distribution in ferrite rather the precipitation of cementite.

  12. Recovery of Ductility in Ultrafine-Grained Low-Carbon Steel Processed Through Equal-Channel Angular Pressing Followed by Cold Rolling and Flash Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Raj Bahadur; Mukhopadhyay, N. K.; Sastry, G. V. S.; Manna, R.

    2017-03-01

    The low-carbon steel workpieces are deformed by equal-channel angular pressing at 293 K (20 °C) up to an equivalent strain of 12 using route B c, which results in the bulk ultrafine-grained (UFG) structure with high dislocation density and partial dissolution of cementite. The yield strength (YS) is enhanced from 208 (as-received) to 872 MPa and the tensile strength is increased from 362 to 996 MPa, but the material loses total elongation (TE) from 36.2 to 2.9 pct. Cold rolling of equal-channel angular pressed steel produces the refined structure of grain size 0.11 μm. The YS increases further to 924 MPa with a marginal gain in ductility due to the reappearance of the γ fiber component. Flash annealing the samples, which were equal-channel angular pressed followed by cold rolling, at 873 K (600 °C) results in 27 pct of micron-sized (9 µm) ferrite grains in submicron-sized (<1 µm) matrix with a reduced defect density and small amount of precipitation of cementite. TE increases from 2.9 to 23.3 pct. The material retains a YS of 484 MPa and tensile strength of 517 MPa, which are higher than those of the as-received material. The UFG grains are failed by cleavage, but the micron-sized grains display ductile fracture. The ductility of the flash-annealed material is recovered significantly due to bimodal grain size distribution in ferrite and the development of a good amount of γ fiber texture components. The major contribution toward recovery of ductility comes from the bimodal grain size distribution in ferrite rather the precipitation of cementite.

  13. The critical parameters in in-situ MgB2 wires and tapes with ex-situ MgB2 barrier after hot isostatic pressure, cold drawing, cold rolling and doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajda, D.; Morawski, A.; Zaleski, A. J.; Häßler, W.; Nenkov, K.; Rindfleisch, M. A.; Żuchowska, E.; Gajda, G.; Czujko, T.; Cetner, T.; Hossain, M. S. A.

    2015-05-01

    MgB2 precursor wires were prepared using powder in tube technique by Institute of High Pressure PAS in Warsaw. All samples were annealed under isostatic pressure generated by liquid Argon in the range from 0.3 GPa to 1 GPa. In this paper, we show the effects of different processing routes, namely, cold drawing (CD), cold rolling (CR), hot isostatic pressure (HIP) and doping on critical current density (Jc), pinning force (Fp), irreversible magnetic-field (Birr), critical temperature (Tc), n value, and dominant pinning mechanism in MgB2/Fe wires with ex situ MgB2 barrier. The results show that medium pressures (˜0.35 GPa) lead to high Jc in low and medium magnetic fields (0 T - 9 T). On the other hand, higher pressures (˜1 GPa) lead to enhanced Jc in high magnetic fields (above 9 T). Transport measurements show that CD, CR, and HIP have small effects on Birr and Tc, but CD, CR, HIP, and doping enhance Jc and Fp in in situ MgB2 wires with ex situ MgB2 barrier. Transport measurements on in situ undoped MgB2 wire with ex situ MgB2 barrier yield a Jc of about 100 A/mm2 at 4.2 K in 6 T, at 10 K in 4 T and at 20 K in 2 T. The results also show that cold drawing causes increase of n value.

  14. The U.S. Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act -- An environmental legacy of the Cold War

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, C.D.; Nelson, R.A.; Mann, P.

    1993-12-31

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has guided the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project through its first 10 years of successful remediation. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA), passed in 1978, identified 24 uranium mill tailings sites in need of remediation to protect human health and the environment from the residual contamination resulting from the processing of uranium ore. The UMTRCA was promulgated in two titles: Title 1 and Title 2. This paper describes the regulatory structure, required documentation, and some of the technical approaches used to meet the Act`s requirements for managing and executing the $1.4 billion project under Title 1. Remedial actions undertaken by private industry under Title 2 of the Act are not addressed in this paper. Some of the lessons learned over the course of the project`s history are presented so that other countries conducting similar remedial action activities may benefit.

  15. Roll Eccentricity Control Using Identified Eccentricity of Top/Bottom Rolls by Roll Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imanari, Hiroyuki; Koshinuma, Kazuyoshi

    Roll eccentricity is a periodic disturbance caused by a structure of back up rolls in rolling mills, and it affects product thickness accuracy. It cannot be measured directly by sensors, so it should be identified by measured thickness or measured roll force. When there is a large difference of diameters between top and bottom back up roll, the performance of roll eccentricity control using feedback signals of roll force or thickness has not been so good. Also it has been difficult for the control to be applied from the most head end because it is necessary to identify the roll eccentricity during rolling. A new roll eccentricity control has been developed to improve these disadvantages and to get better performance. The method identifies top and bottom roll eccentricity respectively from one signal of roll force and it can start the control from head end. In this paper the new control method is introduced and actual application results to a hot strip mill are shown.

  16. The influence of heat treatment on properties of cold rolled alloyed steel and nickel superalloys sheets used in aircraft industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaba, K.; Dul, I.; Puchlerska, S.

    2017-02-01

    Superalloys based on nickel and selected steels are widely used in the aerospace industry, because of their excellent mechanical properties, heat resistance and creep resistance. Metal sheets of these materials are plastically deformed and applied, inter alia, to critical components of aircraft engines. Due to their chemical composition these materials are hardly deformable. There are various methods to improve the formability of these materials, including plastic deformation at an elevated or high temperature, or a suitable heat treatment before forming process. The paper presents results of the metal sheets testing after heat treatment. For the research, sheets of two types of nickel superalloys type Inconel and of three types of steel were chosen. The materials were subjected to multivariate heat treatment at different temperature range and time. After this step, mechanical properties were examined according to the metal sheet rolling direction. The results were compared and the optimal type of pre-trial softening heat treatment for each of the materials was determined.

  17. One-zone rolling of composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokhan, L. S.; Morozov, Yu. A.; Slavgorodskaya, Yu. B.

    2016-12-01

    The energy-force parameters of free rolling of a strip without its tension and rolling with one backward or forward creep zone in the deformation zone are compared. The limiting backward or forward tensions are determined, and the change in the linear sizes of a composite billet during deformation in a rolling mill is considered.

  18. Large-scale Evaluation of Nickel Aluminide Rolls in a Heat-Treat Furnace at Bethelehem Steel's (Now ISG) Burns Harbor Plate Mill

    SciTech Connect

    Mengel, J.

    2003-12-16

    At Bethlehem Steel Burns Harbor Plate Division (now ISG Burns Harbor Plate Inc.)'s annealing furnace, new nickel aluminide intermetallic alloy rolls provide greater high-temperature strength and wear resistance compared to the conventional H series cast austenitic alloys currently used in the industry. Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Bethlehem (ISG) partnered under a U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technology's Emerging Technology Deployment Program to demonstrate and evaluate the nickel aluminide intermetallic alloy rolls as part of an updated energy efficient large commercial annealing furnace system. Many challenges were involved in this project, including developing welding procedures for joining nickel aluminide intermetallic alloys with H-series austenitic alloys, developing commercial cast roll manufacturing specifications, working with several commercial suppliers to produce a quantity of high quality, reproducible nickel aluminide rolls for a large steel industrial annealing furnace, installing and demonstrating the capability of the rolls in this furnace, performing processing trials to evaluate the benefits of new equipment and processes, and documenting the findings. Updated furnace equipment including twenty-five new automated furnace control dampers have been installed replacing older design, less effective units. These dampers, along with upgraded flame-safety control equipment and new AC motors and roll-speed control equipment, are providing improved furnace control and additional energy efficiency. Energy data shows up to a 34% energy reduction from baseline after the installation of upgraded furnace damper controls along with up to a 34% reduction in greenhouse gases, potential for an additional 3 to 6% energy reduction per campaign of light-up and shutdown, and a 46% energy reduction from baseline for limited trials of a combination of improved damper control and straight-through plate processing. The straight-through processing

  19. Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Mg-SiCp Composite Sheets Fabricated by Sintering and Warm Rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, S.; Jabbari, A. H.; Sedighi, M.

    2017-07-01

    In this study, magnesium matrix composite sheets were fabricated by applying powder metallurgy and warm rolling methods. After preparing required mixtures of magnesium powder and SiC particles in different conditions, they were cold-pressed and sintered. Then, the sintered specimens were warm rolled through different numbers of passes. The effects of ball-milling process and the number of rolling passes were investigated on the tensile strength, hardness, microstructure, and fracture surface of magnesium matrix composites. The results were compared to those monolithic magnesium specimens (without reinforcement particle) produced in a way similar to that of the composites. The results show that among different factors (i.e., ball-milling process, the presence of SiC particles, and the number of rolling passes), the number of rolling passes is the most effective parameter on increasing the ultimate tensile strength (UTS),Vickers microhardness, and grain refinement. In this regard, UTS of the samples was increased at least 163% between second and sixth rolling passes. Moreover, for the sintered and six-pass rolled composite samples, microhardness and grain refinement were improved, respectively, about 30 and 70%.

  20. Cold storage of 'Manzanilla de Sevilla' and 'Manzanilla Cacereña' mill olives from super-high density orchards.

    PubMed

    Morales-Sillero, Ana; Pérez, Ana G; Casanova, Laura; García, José M

    2017-12-15

    The suitability of the cold storage (2°C) of fruit to maintain the quality of 'Manzanilla de Sevilla' and 'Manzanilla Cacereña' intended for virgin olive oil extraction was investigated. This temperature was effective in keeping the best commercial category of oil quality in both manually harvested olives and in mechanically harvested 'Manzanilla Cacereña' fruits for 11days. Mechanical harvesting induced significant decreases in oxidative stability and in the main phenolic compounds contents in the oils during cold storage and, only initially, in the total volatiles, regardless of the cultivar considered. However, the contents of volatile esters, associated to fruity flavor, were always higher in the oils from mechanically harvested fruits. 'Manzanilla de Sevilla' oils exhibited higher total volatiles during fruit cold storage, regardless of the harvesting system used. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of Inclusions in Cold Drawn Wire and Precursor Hot-Rolled Rod Coil in VIM-VAR Nickel-Titanium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sczerzenie, Frank; Paul, Graeme; Belden, Clarence

    2011-07-01

    Inclusion content is important for the mechanical behavior and performance of Nitinol wires, particularly in fatigue-rated devices. The purpose of this work was to make a quantitative comparison between inclusion populations in cold drawn wires and the precursor populations in hot-rolled rod coil. Inclusion content was examined in a series of VIM-VAR alloys with different transformation temperatures (TTR) controlled by the Ni to Ti ratio. This range of chemistry was chosen to assess the effect of Ni to Ti ratio on inclusion formation. In order to understand the differences in behavior between carbides and intermetallic oxides in wire drawing, carbides, and intermetallic oxide inclusions were measured separately using optical metallography pursuant to ASTM F2063. In VIM-VAR alloys at higher Ni to Ti ratios about 50.79 a/o Ni the formation of intermetallic oxides appears to be suppressed in the as-cast material through the presence of carbon and the precipitation of eutectic TiC in place of eutectic Ti4Ni2O x . The structure of VIM-VAR alloy also varies after hot working depending on the TTR of the alloy. Higher TTR binary alloys with lower Ni to Ti ratios tend to have more and larger intermetallic oxides and fewer and smaller carbides after hot working. Microsegregation plays a role in inclusion formation. That is, during solidification, C, O, N diffuse to the interdendritic regions. This increases the potential for the precipitation of nonmetallic species. Carbides and intermetallic oxides behave differently in hot working and cold drawing. The change in maximum carbide size from coil to wire is very near zero for all Ni to Ti ratios. The change in maximum inclusion size from coil to wire is driven mainly by the fracture of intermetallic oxides and the formation of intermetallic oxide stringers.

  2. Optimal Cluster Mill Pass Scheduling With an Accurate and Rapid New Strip Crown Model

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, Arif S.; Grandhi, Ramana V.; Zipf, Mark E.

    2007-05-17

    Besides the requirement to roll coiled sheet at high levels of productivity, the optimal pass scheduling of cluster-type reversing cold mills presents the added challenge of assigning mill parameters that facilitate the best possible strip flatness. The pressures of intense global competition, and the requirements for increasingly thinner, higher quality specialty sheet products that are more difficult to roll, continue to force metal producers to commission innovative flatness-control technologies. This means that during the on-line computerized set-up of rolling mills, the mathematical model should not only determine the minimum total number of passes and maximum rolling speed, it should simultaneously optimize the pass-schedule so that desired flatness is assured, either by manual or automated means. In many cases today, however, on-line prediction of strip crown and corresponding flatness for the complex cluster-type rolling mills is typically addressed either by trial and error, by approximate deflection models for equivalent vertical roll-stacks, or by non-physical pattern recognition style models. The abundance of the aforementioned methods is largely due to the complexity of cluster-type mill configurations and the lack of deflection models with sufficient accuracy and speed for on-line use. Without adequate assignment of the pass-schedule set-up parameters, it may be difficult or impossible to achieve the required strip flatness. In this paper, we demonstrate optimization of cluster mill pass-schedules using a new accurate and rapid strip crown model. This pass-schedule optimization includes computations of the predicted strip thickness profile to validate mathematical constraints. In contrast to many of the existing methods for on-line prediction of strip crown and flatness on cluster mills, the demonstrated method requires minimal prior tuning and no extensive training with collected mill data. To rapidly and accurately solve the multi-contact problem

  3. Optimal Cluster Mill Pass Scheduling With an Accurate and Rapid New Strip Crown Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Arif S.; Grandhi, Ramana V.; Zipf, Mark E.

    2007-05-01

    Besides the requirement to roll coiled sheet at high levels of productivity, the optimal pass scheduling of cluster-type reversing cold mills presents the added challenge of assigning mill parameters that facilitate the best possible strip flatness. The pressures of intense global competition, and the requirements for increasingly thinner, higher quality specialty sheet products that are more difficult to roll, continue to force metal producers to commission innovative flatness-control technologies. This means that during the on-line computerized set-up of rolling mills, the mathematical model should not only determine the minimum total number of passes and maximum rolling speed, it should simultaneously optimize the pass-schedule so that desired flatness is assured, either by manual or automated means. In many cases today, however, on-line prediction of strip crown and corresponding flatness for the complex cluster-type rolling mills is typically addressed either by trial and error, by approximate deflection models for equivalent vertical roll-stacks, or by non-physical pattern recognition style models. The abundance of the aforementioned methods is largely due to the complexity of cluster-type mill configurations and the lack of deflection models with sufficient accuracy and speed for on-line use. Without adequate assignment of the pass-schedule set-up parameters, it may be difficult or impossible to achieve the required strip flatness. In this paper, we demonstrate optimization of cluster mill pass-schedules using a new accurate and rapid strip crown model. This pass-schedule optimization includes computations of the predicted strip thickness profile to validate mathematical constraints. In contrast to many of the existing methods for on-line prediction of strip crown and flatness on cluster mills, the demonstrated method requires minimal prior tuning and no extensive training with collected mill data. To rapidly and accurately solve the multi-contact problem

  4. Kinetic modeling on CO₂ capture using basic oxygen furnace slag coupled with cold-rolling wastewater in a rotating packed bed.

    PubMed

    Chang, E-E; Chen, Tse-Lun; Pan, Shu-Yuan; Chen, Yi-Hung; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2013-09-15

    In this study, direct and indirect carbonation of basic oxygen furnace slag (BOFS) coupled with cold-rolling wastewater (CRW) was carried out via a rotating packed bed (RPB). The solid products were qualitatively characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and quantitatively analyzed with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The leachate was analyzed with inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The results indicate that the maximum achievable carbonation conversion (MACC) of BOFS was 90.7%, corresponding to a capture capacity of 0.277 g CO₂/g of BOFS, by direct carbonation with CRW under a rotation speed of 750 rpm at 30 °C for 20 min. In addition, CO₂ mass balance among the gas, liquid, and solid phases within an RPB was well-developed, with an error less than 10%, to confirm the actual CO₂ capture capacity of BOFS with precision and accuracy. Furthermore, a reaction kinetic model based on mass balance was established to determine the reaction rate constant for various liquid agents (CRW and pure water). It was concluded that co-utilization of alkaline wastes including BOFS and CRW via the RPB is a novel approach for both enhancing CO₂ capture capacity and reducing the environmental impacts of alkaline wastes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of heat treatment on formability in 0.15C-1.5Si-1.5Mn multiphase cold-rolled steel sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chang Gil; Kim, Sung-Joon; Song, Byung-Hwan; Lee, Sunghak

    2002-10-01

    The effects of volume fraction and the stability of retained austenite on the formability of a 0.15C-1.5Si-1.5Mn (hereafter all in wt.%) TRIP-aided multiphase cold-rolled steel sheet were investigated after various heat treatments. The steel sheets were intercritically annealed at 800°C, and isothermally treated at 400°C and 430°C. Microstructural observation, tensile tests and limiting dome height (LDH) tests were conducted on the heat-treated sheet specimens, and the changes in retained austenite volume fraction as a function of tensile strain were measured using an X-ray diffractometer. The results showed a plausible relationship between formability and retained austenite stability. Although the same amount of retained austenite was obtained after isothermal holding at different temperatures, better formability was obtained in the specimens with the higher stability of retained austenite. If the stability of the retained austenite is high, the strain-induced transformation of retained austenite to martensite can be stably progressed, resulting in a delay of necking to the high strain region and improvement in formability.

  6. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of V-Nb Microalloyed Ultrafine-Grained Dual-Phase Steels Processed Through Severe Cold Rolling and Intercritical Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papa Rao, M.; Subramanya Sarma, V.; Sankaran, S.

    2016-12-01

    Ultrafine-grained (UFG) dual-phase (DP) steel was produced by severe cold rolling (true strain of 2.4) and intercritical annealing of a low carbon V-Nb microalloyed steel in a temperature range of 1003 K to 1033 K (730 °C to 760 °C) for 2 minutes, and water quenching. The microstructure of UFG DP steels consisted of polygonal ferrite matrix with homogeneously distributed martensite islands (both of size <1 µm) and a small fraction of the inter lath films of retained austenite. The UFG DP steel produced through intercritical annealing at 1013 K (740 °C) has good combination of strength (1295 MPa) and ductility (uniform elongation, 13 pct). The nanoscale V- and Nb-based carbides/carbonitrides and spheroidized cementite particles have played a crucial role in achieving UFG DP microstructure and in improving the strength and work hardening. Analysis of work hardening behavior of the UFG DP steels through modified Crussard-Jaoul analysis showed a continuously varying work hardening rate response which could be approximated by 2 or 3 linear regimes. The transmission electron microscopy analysis on post tensile-tested samples indicated that these regimes are possibly related to the work hardening of ferrite, lath, and twin martensite, respectively.

  7. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of V-Nb Microalloyed Ultrafine-Grained Dual-Phase Steels Processed Through Severe Cold Rolling and Intercritical Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papa Rao, M.; Subramanya Sarma, V.; Sankaran, S.

    2017-03-01

    Ultrafine-grained (UFG) dual-phase (DP) steel was produced by severe cold rolling (true strain of 2.4) and intercritical annealing of a low carbon V-Nb microalloyed steel in a temperature range of 1003 K to 1033 K (730 °C to 760 °C) for 2 minutes, and water quenching. The microstructure of UFG DP steels consisted of polygonal ferrite matrix with homogeneously distributed martensite islands (both of size <1 µm) and a small fraction of the inter lath films of retained austenite. The UFG DP steel produced through intercritical annealing at 1013 K (740 °C) has good combination of strength (1295 MPa) and ductility (uniform elongation, 13 pct). The nanoscale V- and Nb-based carbides/carbonitrides and spheroidized cementite particles have played a crucial role in achieving UFG DP microstructure and in improving the strength and work hardening. Analysis of work hardening behavior of the UFG DP steels through modified Crussard-Jaoul analysis showed a continuously varying work hardening rate response which could be approximated by 2 or 3 linear regimes. The transmission electron microscopy analysis on post tensile-tested samples indicated that these regimes are possibly related to the work hardening of ferrite, lath, and twin martensite, respectively.

  8. The effects of cold rolling orientation and water chemistry on stress corrosion cracking behavior of 316L stainless steel in simulated PWR water environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Junjie; Lu, Zhanpeng; Xiao, Qian; Ru, Xiangkun; Han, Guangdong; Chen, Zhen; Zhou, Bangxin; Shoji, Tetsuo

    2016-04-01

    Stress corrosion cracking behaviors of one-directionally cold rolled 316L stainless steel specimens in T-L and L-T orientations were investigated in hydrogenated and deaerated PWR primary water environments at 310 °C. Transgranular cracking was observed during the in situ pre-cracking procedure and the crack growth rate was almost not affected by the specimen orientation. Locally intergranular stress corrosion cracks were found on the fracture surfaces of specimens in the hydrogenated PWR water. Extensive intergranular stress corrosion cracks were found on the fracture surfaces of specimens in deaerated PWR water. More extensive cracks were found in specimen T-L orientation with a higher crack growth rate than that in the specimen L-T orientation with a lower crack growth rate. Crack branching phenomenon found in specimen L-T orientation in deaerated PWR water was synergistically affected by the applied stress direction as well as the preferential oxidation path along the elongated grain boundaries, and the latter was dominant.

  9. Roll force, torque, lever arm coefficient, and strain distribution in edge rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundberg, S.-E.; Gustafsson, T.

    1993-12-01

    Due to the growing importance of width control in strip and plate mills, edge rolling is currently an im-portant process in hot rolling mills. Research in edge rolling has been carried out, and in the present ar-ticle, models for roll force, torque, and lever arm coefficient are derived using the upper bound method. A simple, kinematically admissible deformation zone and velocity field, independent of friction in the roll gap, is proposed, and the energy dissipation rate is derived. The formula for energy dissipation rate has, in practice, no limitation because all edge rolling geometries are safely in the area where the formula is valid. Roll force and torque are derived by means of two independent integrals. Thus, the lever arm coef-ficient is evaluated from the expressions for roll force and torque using conventional rolling theory. Roll-ing trials report good agreement with theory. Measured roll forces are similar to calculated forces. Furthermore, the shape of the dogbone that arises during edge rolling is in fairly good agreement with the calculated dogbone shape. Deviations are due to the deviation from ideally plastic material in the ex-periments. Also, the strain distribution over the dogbone is similar to the proposed deformation zone. Thus, a new formula has been developed to a stage that it can be implemented in width control systems for edge rolling stands in hot strip and plate mills.

  10. 12. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Historical view, 1934, T.T. Waterman Collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Oahu, Hawaii. Masonry-lined passageway leading to the mill at the center of its circular masonry enclosure. The passageway permitted cane to be carried to the mill and cane trash (bagasse) to be carried away after milling. Bridges over the passageways, not in place, permitted the mill animals to circle and power the mill from above. View shows area prior to substantial overgrowth existing in 1978 views of the area. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  11. Effect of cold rolling on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Al0.25CoCrFe1.25Ni1.25 high-entropy alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.; Gao, M. C.; Ma, S. G.; Yang, H. J.; Wang, Z. H.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Qiao, J. W.

    2015-08-05

    Cold rolling can break down the as-cast dendrite microstructure and thus may have pronounced impact on the mechanical behavior of the alloy. In the present study, the effect of cold rolling on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Al0.25CoCrFe1.25Ni1.25 high-entropy alloy in the face-centered cubic structure was investigated. With increasing the thickness reduction from cold rolling, the hardness, the yield strength, and the fracture strength increased at the cost of reducing ductility. At the thickness reduction of 80%, the tensile strength (hardness) was 702 MPa (406 MPa), 1.62 (2.43) times that in the as-cast condition. Compared to traditional alloys, Al0.25CoCrFe1.25Ni1.25 has the highest hardening rate with respect to CR thickness reduction. Lastly, the phase relation and the mixing properties of Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of AlxCoCrFe1.25Ni1.25 were predicted using the CALPHAD method.

  12. Effect of cold rolling on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Al0.25CoCrFe1.25Ni1.25 high-entropy alloy

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Z.; Gao, M. C.; Ma, S. G.; ...

    2015-08-05

    Cold rolling can break down the as-cast dendrite microstructure and thus may have pronounced impact on the mechanical behavior of the alloy. In the present study, the effect of cold rolling on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Al0.25CoCrFe1.25Ni1.25 high-entropy alloy in the face-centered cubic structure was investigated. With increasing the thickness reduction from cold rolling, the hardness, the yield strength, and the fracture strength increased at the cost of reducing ductility. At the thickness reduction of 80%, the tensile strength (hardness) was 702 MPa (406 MPa), 1.62 (2.43) times that in the as-cast condition. Compared to traditional alloys, Al0.25CoCrFe1.25Ni1.25more » has the highest hardening rate with respect to CR thickness reduction. Lastly, the phase relation and the mixing properties of Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of AlxCoCrFe1.25Ni1.25 were predicted using the CALPHAD method.« less

  13. The Small-RNA Profiles of Almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) Reproductive Tissues in Response to Cold Stress.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Marzieh; Ghazanfari, Farahnaz; Fadaei, Adeleh; Ahmadi, Laleh; Shiran, Behrouz; Rabei, Mohammad; Fallahi, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Spring frost is an important environmental stress that threatens the production of Prunus trees. However, little information is available regarding molecular response of these plants to the frost stress. Using high throughput sequencing, this study was conducted to identify differentially expressed miRNAs, both the conserved and the non-conserved ones, in the reproductive tissues of almond tolerant H genotype under cold stress. Analysis of 50 to 58 million raw reads led to identification of 174 unique conserved and 59 novel microRNAs (miRNAs). Differential expression pattern analysis showed that 50 miRNA families were expressed differentially in one or both of almond reproductive tissues (anther and ovary). Out of these 50 miRNA families, 12 and 15 displayed up-regulation and down-regulation, respectively. The distribution of conserved miRNA families indicated that miR482f harbor the highest number of members. Confirmation of miRNAs expression patterns by quantitative real- time PCR (qPCR) was performed in cold tolerant (H genotype) alongside a sensitive variety (Sh12 genotype). Our analysis revealed differential expression for 9 miRNAs in anther and 3 miRNAs in ovary between these two varieties. Target prediction of miRNAs followed by differential expression analysis resulted in identification of 83 target genes, mostly transcription factors. This study comprehensively catalogued expressed miRNAs under different temperatures in two reproductive tissues (anther and ovary). Results of current study and the previous RNA-seq study, which was conducted in the same tissues by our group, provide a unique opportunity to understand the molecular basis of responses of almond to cold stress. The results can also enhance the possibility for gene manipulation to develop cold tolerant plants.

  14. The Small-RNA Profiles of Almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) Reproductive Tissues in Response to Cold Stress

    PubMed Central

    Shiran, Behrouz; Rabei, Mohammad; Fallahi, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Spring frost is an important environmental stress that threatens the production of Prunus trees. However, little information is available regarding molecular response of these plants to the frost stress. Using high throughput sequencing, this study was conducted to identify differentially expressed miRNAs, both the conserved and the non-conserved ones, in the reproductive tissues of almond tolerant H genotype under cold stress. Analysis of 50 to 58 million raw reads led to identification of 174 unique conserved and 59 novel microRNAs (miRNAs). Differential expression pattern analysis showed that 50 miRNA families were expressed differentially in one or both of almond reproductive tissues (anther and ovary). Out of these 50 miRNA families, 12 and 15 displayed up-regulation and down-regulation, respectively. The distribution of conserved miRNA families indicated that miR482f harbor the highest number of members. Confirmation of miRNAs expression patterns by quantitative real- time PCR (qPCR) was performed in cold tolerant (H genotype) alongside a sensitive variety (Sh12 genotype). Our analysis revealed differential expression for 9 miRNAs in anther and 3 miRNAs in ovary between these two varieties. Target prediction of miRNAs followed by differential expression analysis resulted in identification of 83 target genes, mostly transcription factors. This study comprehensively catalogued expressed miRNAs under different temperatures in two reproductive tissues (anther and ovary). Results of current study and the previous RNA-seq study, which was conducted in the same tissues by our group, provide a unique opportunity to understand the molecular basis of responses of almond to cold stress. The results can also enhance the possibility for gene manipulation to develop cold tolerant plants. PMID:27253370

  15. Roll-to-Roll production of carbon nanotubes based supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jingyi; Childress, Anthony; Karakaya, Mehmet; Roberts, Mark; Arcilla-Velez, Margarita; Podila, Ramakrishna; Rao, Apparao

    2014-03-01

    Carbon nanomaterials provide an excellent platform for electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs). However, current industrial methods for producing carbon nanotubes are expensive and thereby increase the costs of energy storage to more than 10 Wh/kg. In this regard, we developed a facile roll-to-roll production technology for scalable manufacturing of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) with variable density on run-of-the-mill kitchen Al foils. Our method produces MWNTs with diameter (heights) between 50-100 nm (10-100 μm), and a specific capacitance as high as ~ 100 F/g in non-aqueous electrolytes. In this talk, the fundamental challenges involved in EDLC-suitable MWNT growth, roll-to-roll production, and device manufacturing will be discussed along with electrochemical characteristics of roll-to-roll MWNTs. Research supported by NSF CMMI Grant1246800.

  16. D STAND DELIVERY END OF #44 TANDEM BREAKDOWN MILL WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    D STAND DELIVERY END OF #44 TANDEM BREAKDOWN MILL WITH UPCOILER. BACKUP ROLLS, 40 TONS. WORK ROLLS, 20 TONS., C. 1900. OPERATING SPEED, 600'/MINUTE. AUTOMATIC GAUGE CONTROL. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  17. 21. DIAGONAL VIEW OF THE 48' MILL STEAM ENGINE. SPARE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. DIAGONAL VIEW OF THE 48' MILL STEAM ENGINE. SPARE VERTICAL ROLLS ARE VISIBLE TO THE LEFT AND RIGHT OF THE ENGINE. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, 48" Plate Mill, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  18. 16. View of cane mill sitting under open shed showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. View of cane mill sitting under open shed showing discharge and top rolls. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Steam Engine & Mill, 2.65 Mi. N of PR Rt. 2 Bridge over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

  19. 18. OPERATOR'S SIDE OF 48' MILL STAND SHOWING DIALS, VERTICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. OPERATOR'S SIDE OF 48' MILL STAND SHOWING DIALS, VERTICAL ROLL SCREWDOWN, AND VIEW THROUGH HOUSING TO PINION STAND. Martin Stupich, Photographer, 1989. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, 48" Plate Mill, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  20. 17. ENGINE SIDE OF 48' MILL STAND SHOWING POWER CONNECTIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. ENGINE SIDE OF 48' MILL STAND SHOWING POWER CONNECTIONS TO PINION STAND AND VERTICAL ROLL SCREWDOWN MECHANISM. Martin Stupich, Photographer, 1989. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, 48" Plate Mill, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  1. Cold Stress Tolerance in Psychrotolerant Soil Bacteria and Their Conferred Chilling Resistance in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.) under Low Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Parthiban; Kim, Kiyoon; Krishnamoorthy, Ramasamy; Mageswari, Anbazhagan; Selvakumar, Gopal; Sa, Tongmin

    2016-01-01

    The present work aimed to study the culturable diversity of psychrotolerant bacteria persistent in soil under overwintering conditions, evaluate their ability to sustain plant growth and alleviate chilling stress in tomato. Psychrotolerant bacteria were isolated from agricultural field soil samples colleced during winter and then used to study chilling stress alleviation in tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum cv Mill). Selective isolation after enrichment at 5°C yielded 40 bacterial isolates. Phylogenetic studies indicated their distribution in genera Arthrobacter, Flavimonas, Flavobacterium, Massilia, Pedobacter and Pseudomonas. Strains OS211, OB146, OB155 and OS261 consistently improved germination and plant growth when a chilling stress of 15°C was imposed and therefore were selected for pot experiments. Tomato plants treated with the selected four isolates exhibited significant tolerance to chilling as observed through reduction in membrane damage and activation of antioxidant enzymes along with proline synthesis in the leaves when exposed to chilling temperature conditions (15°C). Psychrotolerant physiology of the isolated bacteria combined with their ability to improve germination, plant growth and induce antioxidant capacity in tomato plants can be employed to protect plants against chilling stress.

  2. Cold Stress Tolerance in Psychrotolerant Soil Bacteria and Their Conferred Chilling Resistance in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.) under Low Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Parthiban; Kim, Kiyoon; Krishnamoorthy, Ramasamy; Mageswari, Anbazhagan; Selvakumar, Gopal; Sa, Tongmin

    2016-01-01

    The present work aimed to study the culturable diversity of psychrotolerant bacteria persistent in soil under overwintering conditions, evaluate their ability to sustain plant growth and alleviate chilling stress in tomato. Psychrotolerant bacteria were isolated from agricultural field soil samples colleced during winter and then used to study chilling stress alleviation in tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum cv Mill). Selective isolation after enrichment at 5°C yielded 40 bacterial isolates. Phylogenetic studies indicated their distribution in genera Arthrobacter, Flavimonas, Flavobacterium, Massilia, Pedobacter and Pseudomonas. Strains OS211, OB146, OB155 and OS261 consistently improved germination and plant growth when a chilling stress of 15°C was imposed and therefore were selected for pot experiments. Tomato plants treated with the selected four isolates exhibited significant tolerance to chilling as observed through reduction in membrane damage and activation of antioxidant enzymes along with proline synthesis in the leaves when exposed to chilling temperature conditions (15°C). Psychrotolerant physiology of the isolated bacteria combined with their ability to improve germination, plant growth and induce antioxidant capacity in tomato plants can be employed to protect plants against chilling stress. PMID:27580055

  3. EAST ELEVATION, LTV STEEL (FORMERLY REPUBLIC STEEL), 8" BAR MILL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST ELEVATION, LTV STEEL (FORMERLY REPUBLIC STEEL), 8" BAR MILL, BUFFALO PLANT. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM ROLL SHOP. 8" BAR MILL DESIGNED AND BUILT BY DONNER STEEL CO. (PREDECESSOR OF REPUBLIC), 1919-1920. FOR DESCRIPTION OF ORIGINAL MILL SEE "IRON AGE", 116\\4 (23 JULY 1925): 201-204. - LTV Steel, 8-inch Bar Mill, Buffalo Plant, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  4. Effect of Asymmetrical Stand Stiffness on Hot Rolled Strip Shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Dianyao; Xu, Jianzhong; Jiang, Zhengyi; Zhang, Xiaoming; Liu, Xianghua; Wang, Guodong

    The difference of elastic springs between the operating side (OS) and driving side (DS) of rolling mill has a significant influence on the strip shape not just the strip thickness. Based on the slit beam and roll deformation theories, the roll force distribution was analysed considering the asymmetric stiffness of the OS and DS of rolling mill, and the work roll and backup roll deformation equations were deduced respectively, and the thickness distribution in lateral direction of the hot rolled strip at exit was discussed. Using the roll elastic deformation analysis software which was developed previously based on the influence coefficient method, the roll flattening distribution, roll pressure distribution and the rolling force distribution caused by the asymmetric stand stiffness were calculated and analysed, and the exit strip profile of the rolling mill was also presented. The relationship between the mill stiffness difference and the strip wedge shape or single wave was obtained. Effect of the upstream asymmetric mill on strip crown and flatness of the downstream stands was discussed.

  5. Technological, physico-chemical and sensory properties of raw and cooked meat batter incorporated with various levels of cold milled flaxseed powder.

    PubMed

    Yogesh, K; Langoo, B A; Sharma, S K; Yadav, D N

    2015-03-01

    Flaxseed has been proven for its multidimensional health benefits and can be used for development of emulsion type functional meat products. In view of this the incorporation of cold milled flaxseed powder (FSP) in meat batter at level 1-5 % was investigated. The results revealed that incorporation significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the total fluid release (TFR), fat release (FR) and water release (WR) of raw meat batter. The surface and internal color values were differed significantly (P < 0.05) among treatments at initial as well as during refrigerated storage period. Texture values especially hardness and chewiness values were found less (P < 0.05) in FSP treated samples and textural properties in FSP treated samples were not deteriorated during storage as compared to control samples. Thus incorporation of FSP had some beneficial effects on physico-chemical properties and textural properties which were also stable during storage period. However the redness values and sensory scores were observed less in FSP treated samples.

  6. Hot rolling of thick uranium molybdenum alloys

    DOEpatents

    DeMint, Amy L.; Gooch, Jack G.

    2015-11-17

    Disclosed herein are processes for hot rolling billets of uranium that have been alloyed with about ten weight percent molybdenum to produce cold-rollable sheets that are about one hundred mils thick. In certain embodiments, the billets have a thickness of about 7/8 inch or greater. Disclosed processes typically involve a rolling schedule that includes a light rolling pass and at least one medium rolling pass. Processes may also include reheating the rolling stock and using one or more heavy rolling passes, and may include an annealing step.

  7. Effect of cold rolling on the oxidation resistance of T91 steel in oxygen-saturated stagnant liquid lead-bismuth eutectic at 450 °C and 550 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Hong; Ye, Zhongfei; Wang, Pei; Li, Dianzhong; Zhang, Yutuo; Li, Yiyi

    2016-08-01

    The compatibility of T91 steels having different preparation processes with oxygen-saturated stagnant lead-bismuth eutectic have been investigated at 450 °C and 550 °C. It is found that cold rolling decreases the thickness of the oxide scale of T91 steel by forming a continuous enhanced Cr-rich belt in the inner oxide layer next to the internal oxidation zone, which is attributed to the rapid diffusion of Cr induced by numerous non-equilibrium grain boundaries and migrating dislocations.

  8. Rheology of coal-water slurries prepared by the HP roll mill grinding of coal. Quarterly technical progress report, September 1, 1994--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.

    1994-12-01

    The objective of this research is the development of improved technology for the preparation of coal-water slurries than have potential for replacing fuel oil in direct combustion. This should be of major importance to the United States in its efforts to reduce dependence on imported oil and to rely more on its enormous low-cost coal resources. In accordance with this objective, in the first stage of this project, considerable work has been conducted in the initial stage to standardize experimental procedures for sample preparation, grinding and rheological measurements. For this purpose, Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous coal was dry ground in a ball mill for preparing coal-water slurries. In order to find a suitable sensor system for the rheological measurements of coal-water slurries, the authors have tested a Haake RV-12 viscometer with MV-II, MV-SP, MV-DIN, and TSV-DIN sensor systems on coal-water slurries containing 60% solids. The results indicated that the Haake RV-12 viscometer with a MV-DIN sensor system gives more reproducible results. The results obtained in investigation of the effect of particle size and solids content on the rheological behavior of the slurries showed that at the same shear rate, both the shear stress and viscosity of the slurries increase as the mean diameter of the particles decreases, and that the viscosity of the slurries increases as the solids content is increased.

  9. 4. ROW OF SPARE THREEHIGH ROLL STANDS ADJACENT TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. ROW OF SPARE THREE-HIGH ROLL STANDS ADJACENT TO THE 32/28 STRUCTURAL MILL. AN OVERHEAD CRANE LIFTED THESE STANDS INTO PLACE ON THE 32/28 MILL. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Structural Mill, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  10. The Sensitivity Analysis of Inherent Frequency of Roll Mill’s Main Drive System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Dongxiao

    2017-07-01

    In order to avoid the beat vibration of rolling mill, taking F1 rolling mill of 1780 tandem mill as an example, a twelve DOF branched torsional vibration model of main drive system of F1 rolling mill was constructed. Then the inherent frequency of the rolling mill and the corresponding vibration modes of every inherent frequency were calculated. Meanwhile, the sensitivity of first and second inherent frequency with the change of equivalent rotational inertias and torsional stiffness of rolling mill were analyzed, and the most sensitive parameters which influence on first and second inherent frequency were found out. The result shows that the equivalent inertias of upper and lower work rolls and equivalent stiffness of upper and lower joint shaft of drive system were most sensitive parameters, which are easier to change first and second inherent frequency of drive system. The research will provide theory reference for adopting proper mechanical parameters in equipment design.

  11. Isothermal Roll Forging of T55 Compressor Blades

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-12-01

    VI LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1 Some Stages in Cold Roll-Forging of Compressor Blade 4 in 17 - 4PH Steel 2 Single Pass Isothermal Rolling of 0.375...operations in blade manufacture by this method are shown in Figure 1 for a cold-rolled compressor blade in 17 - 4PH steel used in a Solar turbine. In the...34’■ ’y^ at ̂ ^PP Figure 1, Some Stages in Cold Steel (#76-2679) Roll-Forging of Compressor Blade in 17 - 4PH 2.2 THE ISOTHERMAL ROLL

  12. Fundamental phenomena governing heat transfer during rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, W. C.; Samarasekera, I. V.; Hawbolt, E. B.

    1993-06-01

    To quantify the effect of roll chilling on the thermal history of a slab during hot rolling, tests were conducted at the Canada Center for Mineral and Energy Technology (CANMET) and at the University of British Columbia (UBC). In these tests, the surface and the interior temperatures of specimens were recorded during rolling using a data acquisition system. The corresponding heat-transfer coefficients in the roll bite were back-calculated by a trial-and-error method using a heat-transfer model. The heat-transfer coefficient was found to increase along the arc of contact and reach a maximum, followed by a decrease, until the exit of the roll bite. Its value was influenced by rolling parameters, such as percent reduction, rolling speed, rolling temperature, material type, etc. It was shown that the heat-transfer coefficient in the roll gap was strongly dependent on the roll pressure, and the effect of different variables on the interfacial heat-transfer coefficient can be related to their influence on pressure. At low mean roll pressure, such as in the case of rolling plain carbon steels at elevated temperature, the maximum heat-transfer coefficient in the roll bite was in the 25 to 35 kW/m2 °C range. As the roll pressure increased with lower rolling temperature and higher deformation resistance of stainless steel and microalloyed grades, the maximum heat-transfer coefficient reached a value of 620 kW/m2 °C. Obviously, the high pressure improved the contact between the roll and the slab surface, thereby reducing the resistance to heat flow. The mean roll-gap heat-transfer coefficient at the interface was shown to be linearly related to mean roll pressure. This finding is important because it permitted a determination of heat-transfer coefficients applicable to industrial rolling from pilot mill data. Thus, the thermal history of a slab during rough rolling was computed using a model in which the mean heat-transfer coefficient between the roll and the slab was

  13. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip for Transportation Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin M. McHugh; Y. Lin; Y. Zhou; E. J. Lavernia; J.-P. Delplanque; S. B. Johnson

    2005-02-01

    Spray rolling is a novel strip casting technology in which molten aluminum alloy is atomized and deposited into the roll gap of mill rolls to produce aluminum strip. A combined experimental/modeling approach has been followed in developing this technology with active participation from industry. The feasibility of this technology has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale and it is currently being scaled-up. This paper provides an overview of the process and compares the microstructure and properties of spray-rolled 2124 aluminum alloy with commercial ingot-processed material

  14. 1. Front view of steam engine and mill, looking NE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Front view of steam engine and mill, looking NE, showing (l to r) 6-column beam engine, flywheel, reduction gears and 3-roll cane mill. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Steam Engine & Mill, 2.65 Mi. N of PR Rt. 2 Bridge over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

  15. Rolling Reloaded

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Simon A.; Nieminen, John M.

    2008-01-01

    Not so long ago a new observation about rolling motion was described: for a rolling wheel, there is a set of points with instantaneous velocities directed at or away from the centre of the wheel; these points form a circle whose diameter connects the centre of the wheel to the wheel's point of contact with the ground (Sharma 1996 "Eur. J. Phys."…

  16. 2. 3/4 view looking SW showing threeroll can mill, reduction ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. 3/4 view looking SW showing three-roll can mill, reduction gear, flywheel with steam engine in background. - Hacienda Azucarera la Igualdad, Sugar Mill Ruins & Steam Engine, PR Route 332, Guanica, Guanica Municipio, PR

  17. Rolling Ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raux, P. S.; Reis, P. M.; Bush, J. W. M.; Clanet, C.

    2010-07-01

    We present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of rolling elastic ribbons. Particular attention is given to characterizing the steady shapes that arise in static and dynamic rolling configurations. In both cases, above a critical value of the forcing (either gravitational or centrifugal), the ribbon assumes a two-lobed, peanut shape similar to that assumed by rolling droplets. Our theoretical model allows us to rationalize the observed shapes through consideration of the ribbon’s bending and stretching in response to the applied forcing.

  18. Compressibility of tungsten and molybdenum bars during rotary swaging and rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkov, L. A.; Mymrin, S. A.; Samodurova, M. N.; Dzhigun, N. S.; Latfulina, Yu. S.

    2015-05-01

    The compressibility of bars and hydraulically forged workpieces made of tungsten and molybdenum is studied during rotary swaging and rolling in mills with two-, three-, and four-roll passes. The compressibility of molybdenum MCh bars and hydraulically forged molybdenum M-MP workpieces is investigated during rotary swaging and rolling in three- and four-roll passes. The compressibility of tungsten VA and VL bars and hydraulically forged tungsten V-MP workpieces is investigated during rotary swaging and rolling in three- and four-roll passes. The compressibility of the hydraulically forged tungsten V-MP workpieces is analyzed under two- and four-roll pass rolling conditions.

  19. Occupational noise in rice mills.

    PubMed

    Prasanna Kumar, G V; Dewangan, K N; Sarkar, Amaresh; Kumari, Amrita; Kar, Banani

    2008-01-01

    A major occupational hazard for the workers in rice mills is the noise during the operation of various machines. A noise survey was conducted in the workrooms of eight renowned rice mills of the north-eastern region of India established during the period between 1980 and 1985. The rice mills were selected on the basis of the outcome of a walk-through noise survey involving several rice mills of the region. A noise survey map of each rice mill was drawn to identify the predominant noise sources and the causes of high noise in the workrooms of the rice mill. The sound-pressure level (SPL) in the workrooms of the rice mill varied from 78 to 92 dBA. The paddy cleaner, rubber roll sheller, compartment separator, rice cleaner, auxiliary sieve shaker and an electric motor without enclosure were found to be the predominant noise sources in the workrooms of the mill. The causes of high noise in the rice mills may be attributed to the use of a long flat belt drive, crank-and-pitman mechanism, absence of an electric motor enclosure, poor machine maintenance and inadequate acoustic design of the workroom of the rice mill. About 26% of the total labourers were found to be exposed to higher levels of noise than 85 dBA. Subjective response indicated that about 26% of the total labourers felt noise interferes in their work and about 49% labourers were of opinion that noise interferes with their conversation. Noise from machines in the rice mills was found to be the major occupational hazard for the rice mill workers. The predominant noise sources need to be identified and the causes of high noise need to be studied to undertake the appropriate measures to reduce the noise level. To identify the predominant noise sources and their distributions in rice mills, to study the causes of high levels of noise in rice mills and to examine the response of the workers towards noise. A noise survey was conducted in eight renowned rice mills of the north-eastern region of India. The mills were

  20. Rolling Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larimer, Stanley J.; Lisec, Thomas R.; Spiessbach, Andrew J.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed rolling robot routinely traverses rough terrain, clearing rocks as high as 1 m. Climbs steps 1 m high and spans ditches 2.3 m wide. Simple but rugged semiautonomous rover has large wheels and articulated body. With combined yaw, roll, and four-wheel drive, robot crawls slowly to pass over soft or sandy terrain. Senses terrain along corridor, chooses path to avoid insurmountable obstacles, and monitors state of vehicle for unexpected hazards.

  1. MAIN DRIVE MOTOR FOR BLISS #43 HOT ROLL. THIS WESTINGHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MAIN DRIVE MOTOR FOR BLISS #43 HOT ROLL. THIS WESTINGHOUSE UNIT HAS SINCE BEEN REPLACED BY A 5000 HP TOSHIBA MOTOR. REHEAT FURNACES ARE SHOWN BEHIND MILL MOTOR. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  2. Thin section casting program. Volume 4: Static cast product bending, straightening, and rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-01-01

    Statically cast 1/2 in., 3/4 in., and 1 in. thick steel slabs were subjected to hot rolling in a laboratory reversing mill and to simulated coiling-uncoiling on a three-point bender-unbender. Tensile properties and microstructures of hot bands thinner than 0.15 in. produced from the statically cast slabs were found to be independent of initial slab thickness and similar to those from conventionally cast 8 to 10 in. thick slabs. Cold rolled and batch annealed product from the statically cast slabs had mechanical properties equivalent to those of conventionally processed deep-drawing quality steel. Overall, the results of this task indicated that 1/2 to 1 in. thick steel sections produced in a twin belt caster can be coiled and uncoiled in a hot coiler box downstream of the caster without generating any cracks in the product, and that the total range of hot and cold rolled sheet and strip products with qualities equivalent to those of conventionally produced can be obtained from the 1/2 in. to 1 in. thick sections. This report is the fifth of a six volume set on thin section casting.

  3. Roll Casting of Al-25%Si

    SciTech Connect

    Haga, Toshio; Harada, Hideto; Watari, Hisaki

    2011-05-04

    Strip casting of Al-25%Si strip was tried using an unequal diameter twin roll caster. The diameter of the lower roll (large roll) was 1000 mm and the diameter of the upper roll (small roll) was 250 mm. Roll material was mild steel. The sound strip could be cast at the speeds ranging from 8 m/min to 12 m/min. The strip did not stick to the roll without the parting material. The primary Si, which existed at centre area of the thickness direction, was larger than that which existed at other area. The size of the primary Si was smaller than 0.2 mm. Eutectic Si was smaller 5 {mu}m. The as-cast strip was ranging from 2 mm to 3 mm thick and its width was 100 mm. The as-cast strip could be hot rolled down to 1 mm. The hot rolled strip was cold rolled. The primary Si became smaller and the pore occurred around the primary Si after the rolling.

  4. High-strength rolled sections with structural anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odesskii, P. D.; Chernenko, V. T.

    1992-08-01

    The article investigates the properties of high-strength sections .for building structures. It examines theinfluence of structural anisotropy on the operational properties of profiles of steel St3ps strengthened fromthe rolling heat on a high-speed mill. It is shown that the use of such rolled sections in industo, is promising.

  5. SASS Applied to Optimum Work Roll Profile Selection in the Hot Rolling of Wide Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolle, Lars

    The quality of steel strip produced in a wide strip rolling mill depends heavily on the careful selection of initial ground work roll profiles for each of the mill stands in the finishing train. In the past, these profiles were determined by human experts, based on their knowledge and experience. In previous work, the profiles were successfully optimised using a self-organising migration algorithm (SOMA). In this research, SASS, a novel heuristic optimisation algorithm that has only one control parameter, has been used to find the optimum profiles for a simulated rolling mill. The resulting strip quality produced using the profiles found by SASS is compared with results from previous work and the quality produced using the original profile specifications. The best set of profiles found by SASS clearly outperformed the original set and performed equally well as SOMA without the need of finding a suitable set of control parameters.

  6. Taylorwilson four roll straightener of the no. 1 seamless line ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Taylor-wilson four roll straightener of the no. 1 seamless line in bay 12 of the main pipe mill building. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Main Pipe Mill Building, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  7. Looking south at the aetna standard piercer and mannesman rolls ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking south at the aetna standard piercer and mannesman rolls of the no. 2 seamless line in bay 19 of the main pipe mill building. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Main Pipe Mill Building, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  8. ORE BUCKET ON TRAM. NOTE THAT BUCKET ROLLS ALONG UPPER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ORE BUCKET ON TRAM. NOTE THAT BUCKET ROLLS ALONG UPPER, STATIONARY SUSPENSION CABLE, PULLED BY LOWER, MOVING TRACTION CABLE. FOREGROUND CABLES ARE FOR BUCKET'S TRIP FROM MINE TO MILL. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  9. VIEW LOOKING NORTH IN REROLL BAY SHOWING #43 HOT ROLL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING NORTH IN REROLL BAY SHOWING #43 HOT ROLL RUN-OUT LINE (L) AND LOADING AREA FOR #44 BREAKDOWN MILL (FOREGROUND) IN CENTER BACKGROUND IS TORIN MILLING LINE WITH ASSOCIATED SCRAP RECOVERY SYSTEMS. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  10. Modeling of thermomechanical and metallurgical phenomena in steel strip during hot direct rolling and runout table cooling of thin-cast slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muojekwu, Cornelius Anaedu

    employing finite difference and finite element analysis. The CSP mill measurements were utilized to validate model predictions of temperature, roll force, grain size and mechanical properties. Good agreement was obtained between prediction and measurement in most of the cases. An estimate of the heat extraction from the various mill sub-units was conducted from the validated calculations. It was found that heat loss by radiation accounted for 48-51 percent of the total heat loss, the work rolls accounted for 41-44 percent, the descaling unit accounted for 4-6 percent and the interstand sprays accounted for the remaining 3-4 percent. It was found that the uniform strain model consistently predicts lower temperatures than the target exit temperature for thin gauges due to a low estimate of deformation heat. Model results captured the details of heat transfer, deformation, recrystallization and austenite decomposition in the CSP mill. The effect of various mill parameters were elucidated, and the similarities and differences between conventional cold-charge rolling and CSP rolling were highlighted. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  11. Simulation of contact stresses and forces during hot rolling of thin wide strips with allowance for a stick zone and elastic regions in the deformation zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garber, E. A.; Kozhevnikova, I. A.; Tarasov, P. A.; Zavrazhnov, A. A.; Traino, A. I.

    2007-04-01

    A new procedure for the calculation of contact stresses and hot-rolling forces for wide strips 0.8 1.5 mm thick has been developed and tested. This procedure takes into account the presence of a stick zone in the deformation zone and stress distributions in both elastic and plastic regions in the deformation zone. The average error in the force calculation according to the new procedure is 5%, which is more than two times smaller than the calculation error of well-known force calculation procedures. The developed procedure is used to simulate the contact stresses in the deformation zones of working stands in a six-stand 1700 mill during rolling of strips thinner than 1.0 mm. A number of new relations for the state of stress in a strip have been revealed upon simulation. Some of these relations are as follows: in the last stands, the length of elastic regions accounts for 10 17% of the total deformation-zone length; the maximum normal contact stresses are 1300 1400 MPa, which corresponds to the stresses in the deformation zones of cold-rolling mills; the stick-zone length accounts for 85 99% of the deformation-zone length; and the contact stresses in the stick zone are virtually independent of the friction coefficient. The developed calculation procedure can be used to optimize the technological regimes of wide-strip mills.

  12. Rolling Uphill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Rod

    2017-01-01

    In a recent letter to this journal, Mungan noted that translational energy can be converted into gravitational potential energy when an object is projected vertically, but rotational energy is not usually converted in this manner. As an exception, he gave an example where "a ball initially rolling without slipping will travel higher up a…

  13. [Comporison Sduty of Microstructure by Metallographicalk on the Polarized Light and Texture by XRD of CC 5083 and CC 5182 Aluminium Alloy after Cold Rolling and Recrystallization].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-biao; Li, Yong-wei; Tan, Yuan-biao; Ma, Min; Wang, Xue-min; Liu, Wen-chang

    2015-03-01

    At present the study of relation between microstructure, texture and performance of CC 5083 aluminium alloy after cold tolling and recrystallization processes is still finitude. So that the use of the CC 5083 aluminium alloy be influenced. Be cased into electrical furnace, hot up with unlimited speed followed the furnace hot up to different temperature and annealed 2h respectively, and be cased into salt-beth furnace, hot up quickly to different temperature and annealed 30 min respectively for CC 5083 and CC 5182 aluminum alloy after cold roling with 91.5% reduction. The microstructure be watched use metallographic microscope, the texture be inspected by XRD. The start temperature of recrystallization and grain grow up temperature within annealing in the electric furnace of CC 5083 aluminum alloy board is 343 degrees C, and the shap of grain after grow up with long strip (the innovation point ); The start temperature of recrystallization within annealling in the salt bath furnace of CC 5083 is 343 degrees C. The start temperature and end temperature of recrystallization within annealling of CC 5083 and CC 5182 aluminum alloy is 371 degrees C. The grain grow up outstanding of cold rooled CC 5152 aluminum alloy after annealed with 454 degrees C in the electric furnace and salt bath furnace. The start temperature of grain grow up of CC 5083 alluminurn alloy annealed in the electric furnace and salt bath furnace respectively is higher than the start temperature of grain grow up of CC 5182 alluminum alloy annealed in the electric furnace and salt bath furnace respectively. The strat temperature of recrystallization grain grow up is higher than which annealled with other three manner annealing process. The recrystallization temperature of CC 5182 annealed in the salt bath furnace is higher than which annealed in the electric furnace. The recrystallization temperature of the surface layer of CC 5083 and CC 5182 aluminum alloy is higher than the inner layer (the innovation

  14. Dynamic Simulation of the Tailing Process in Hot Finishing Mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Shinil; Lu, Cheng; Du, Xiaozhong; Tieu, Anh Kiet

    In this paper an explicit dynamic finite element method model has been developed to investigate the strip deformation behavior between two adjacent stands in hot finishing mill. The effect of the roll speed ratio of second stand to first stand on tension and the tailing behavior of the strip has been discussed in details. It has been found that the strip accumulation occurs if the roll speed ratio is small. The tensile stress increases with the roll speed ratio. During the tailing process the accumulated strip caused by the small roll speed ratios knocks onto the roll, while the swing of the strip tail occurs for the large roll speed ratios and it strikes the roll as well. Both tailing phenomena will result in the strip tail pincher or roll damage in the real operation.

  15. Detection of internally infested popcorn using electrically conductive roller mills

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To detect popcorn kernels infested by the internal feeding stored-product insect pest Sitophilus zeamais, maize weevil, a laboratory roller mill was modified so that the electrical conductivity of the grain is measured while the kernels are milled between the rolls. When a kernel with a S. zeamais l...

  16. 7. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST INSIDE OF 22' BAR MILL MOTOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST INSIDE OF 22' BAR MILL MOTOR ROOM AT MOTOR/GEAR DRIVE ASSEMBLY FOR THE THREE HIGH, 28 ROUGHING ROLL STAND. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, 22-Inch Bar Mill, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  17. 8. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST INSIDE OF THE 22' BAR MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST INSIDE OF THE 22' BAR MILL MOTOR ROOM AT THE REVERSING MOTOR/GEAR DRIVE ASSEMBLY FOR THE TWO-HIGH 22 FINISHING ROLL STANDS. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, 22-Inch Bar Mill, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  18. 6. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH INSIDE OF 22' BAR MILL MOTOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH INSIDE OF 22' BAR MILL MOTOR ROOM AT MOTOR/GEAR DRIVE ASSEMBLY FOR THE THREE HIGH, 28 ROUGHING ROLL STAND. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, 22-Inch Bar Mill, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  19. 9. Detail view of cane mill showing feed, top and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Detail view of cane mill showing feed, top and discharge roll driving pinions and main shaft coupling. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Steam Engine & Mill, 2.65 Mi. N of PR Rt. 2 Bridge over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

  20. DISCHARGE END OF 8" MILL REHEATING FURNACE, SHOWING MOTOROPERATED PEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DISCHARGE END OF 8" MILL REHEATING FURNACE, SHOWING MOTOR-OPERATED PEEL BAR PUSHER WITH PINCH ROLLS FOR MOVING BILLETS ENDWISE OUT THE OPPOSITE SIDE OF THE FURNACE TOWARD THE CONTINUOUS ROUGHING TRAIN. - LTV Steel, 8-inch Bar Mill, Buffalo Plant, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  1. Research on the rolling moment in the symmetrical and asymmetrical rolling process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexa, V.; Raţiu, S. A.; Kiss, I.; Cioată, C. G.

    2017-01-01

    Research distribution the rolling moments symmetrical and asymmetrical report presents great importance both in theory and to introduce clarifications to the calculation of rolling resistance line assemblies. Clarifying individuals of metallic material deformation between the rolls single cylinder diameters act of any difference of work and analysis of advance and delay phenomena. Torque drive value for each of the rolling cylinders was done by reducing the thickness of the laminate samples, an experimental facility located in the laboratory of plastic deformation of the Faculty of Engineering Hunedoara. The analysis of research results show that in terms of power consumption for deformation and safety equipment in operation is rational for mills which require such a difference between the work rolls to execute about one cylinder operated.

  2. Computer-aided analysis and design of the shape rolling process for producing turbine engine airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lahoti, G. D.; Akgerman, N.; Altan, T.

    1978-01-01

    Mild steel (AISI 1018) was selected as model cold rolling material and Ti-6A1-4V and Inconel 718 were selected as typical hot rolling and cold rolling alloys, respectively. The flow stress and workability of these alloys were characterized and friction factor at the roll/workpiece interface was determined at their respective working conditions by conducting ring tests. Computer-aided mathematical models for predicting metal flow and stresses, and for simulating the shape rolling process were developed. These models utilized the upper bound and the slab methods of analysis, and were capable of predicting the lateral spread, roll separating force, roll torque, and local stresses, strains and strain rates. This computer-aided design system was also capable of simulating the actual rolling process, and thereby designing the roll pass schedule in rolling of an airfoil or a similar shape.

  3. The thermal and metallurgical state of steel strip during hot rolling: Part II. Factors influencing rolling loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devadas, C.; Baragar, D.; Ruddle, G.; Samarasekera, I. V.; Hawbolt, E. B.

    1991-02-01

    Traditional models for computing roll forces during hot rolling generally ignore the steep thermal gradients set up in the through-thickness direction due to roll chilling and deformation heat. In this paper, Alexander’s model has been modified to account for the effect of thermal gradients on roll forces. Flow stress data have been obtained by conducting tests on a cam plastometer and a Gleeble 1500 for a 0.05 pct carbon, a 0.34 pct carbon, and a 0.07 pct carbon with 0.024 pct niobium steel for temperatures and strain rates attained in each of the stands on Stelco’s Lake Erie Works (LEW) hot-strip mill. The hyperbolic sine equation has been shown to fit the data and is capable of predicting flow stress over a range of temperatures and strain rates. Simulations of the industrial operation have been conducted on the pilot mill at CANMET, and it has been shown by comparing predicted and measured roll forces that the friction coefficient is reduced from 0.3 to ˜R 0.35 to 0.25 in the presence of a lubricant. It has also been shown that incorporating the steep thermal gradients in the roll-bite zone increases predicted roll forces by 6 to ˜R 10 pct over the values computed based on centerline temperatures. The model has been validated also by comparing predictions with roll forces measured on the industrial mill.

  4. Mathematical modeling of deformation during hot rolling

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, D.; Stachowiak, R.G.; Samarasekera, I.V.; Brimacombe, J.K.

    1994-12-31

    The deformation that occurs in the roll bite during the hot rolling of steel, particularly the strain-rate and strain distribution, has been mathematically modeled using finite-element analysis. In this paper three different finite-element models are compared with one another and with industrial measurements. The first model is an Eulerian analysis based on the flow formulation method, while the second utilizes an Updated Lagrangian approach. The third model is based on a commercially available program DEFORM which also utilizes a Lagrangian reference frame. Model predictions of strain and strain-rate distribution, particularly near the surface of the slab, are strongly influenced by the treatment of friction at the boundary and the magnitude of the friction coefficient or shear factor. Roll forces predicted by the model have been compared with industrial rolling loads from a seven-stand hot-strip mill.

  5. Rolling Uphill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    2017-04-01

    In a recent letter to this journal, Mungan noted that translational energy can be converted into gravitational potential energy when an object is projected vertically, but rotational energy is not usually converted in this manner. As an exception, he gave an example where "a ball initially rolling without slipping will travel higher up a rough ramp than it will up a frictionless ramp." However, such a result is unlikely to be observed in practice. A better example would be a ball spinning rapidly forwards as it slides up the ramp, since the friction force on the ball then acts in a direction up the ramp.

  6. 13. INTERIOR VIEW OF REFINING MILL, SHOWING NO. RF2450 EXHAUSTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. INTERIOR VIEW OF REFINING MILL, SHOWING NO. RF-24-50 EXHAUSTER ON NO. 3 ROLL MILL, INSTALLED IN 1944. DRIED AND CRUSHED BENTONITE WAS BLOWN UP INTO A FINISHED PRODUCT BIN - Clay Spur Bentonite Plant & Camp, Refining Mill, Clay Spur Siding on Burlington Northern Railroad, Osage, Weston County, WY

  7. Numerical Modeling of Tube Forming by HPTR Cold Pilgering Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sornin, D.; Pachón-Rodríguez, E. A.; Vanegas-Márquez, E.; Mocellin, K.; Logé, R.

    2016-09-01

    For new fast-neutron sodium-cooled Generation IV nuclear reactors, the candidate cladding materials for the very strong burn-up are ferritic and martensitic oxide dispersion strengthened grades. Classically, the cladding tube is cold formed by a sequence of cold pilger milling passes with intermediate heat treatments. This process acts upon the geometry and the microstructure of the tubes. Consequently, crystallographic texture, grain sizes and morphologies, and tube integrity are highly dependent on the pilgering parameters. In order to optimize the resulting mechanical properties of cold-rolled cladding tubes, it is essential to have a thorough understanding of the pilgering process. Finite Element Method (FEM) models are used for the numerical predictions of this task; however, the accuracy of the numerical predictions depends not only on the type of constitutive laws but also on the quality of the material parameters identification. Therefore, a Chaboche-type law which parameters have been identified on experimental observation of the mechanical behavior of the material is used here. As a complete three-dimensional FEM mechanical analysis of the high-precision tube rolling (HPTR) cold pilgering of tubes could be very expensive, only the evolution of geometry and deformation is addressed in this work. The computed geometry is compared to the experimental one. It is shown that the evolution of the geometry and deformation is not homogeneous over the circumference. Moreover, it is exposed that the strain is nonhomogeneous in the radial, tangential, and axial directions. Finally, it is seen that the dominant deformation mode of a material point evolves during HPTR cold pilgering forming.

  8. Milling dynamics. I - Attritor dynamics: Results of a cinematographic study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rydin, R. W.; Maurice, D.; Courtney, T. H.

    1993-01-01

    The motions of grinding media and powder in an attritor canister were studied by means of filming the agitated charge and frame-by-frame scrutiny of the footage. In conjunction with auxiliary experiments, this permitted semiquantitative analysis of the milling action. In particular, the mill can be divided into several regions characterized by different balances between direct impacts and rolling/sliding of the grinding media. Simple calculations suggest that impacts are more capable of effecting mechanical alloying (MA) than are rolling or sliding events in an attritor. Powder circulation within an operating mill was also investigated. Based on the results and the accompanying analysis, concepts for improved attritor design are presented.

  9. Milling dynamics. I - Attritor dynamics: Results of a cinematographic study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rydin, R. W.; Maurice, D.; Courtney, T. H.

    1993-01-01

    The motions of grinding media and powder in an attritor canister were studied by means of filming the agitated charge and frame-by-frame scrutiny of the footage. In conjunction with auxiliary experiments, this permitted semiquantitative analysis of the milling action. In particular, the mill can be divided into several regions characterized by different balances between direct impacts and rolling/sliding of the grinding media. Simple calculations suggest that impacts are more capable of effecting mechanical alloying (MA) than are rolling or sliding events in an attritor. Powder circulation within an operating mill was also investigated. Based on the results and the accompanying analysis, concepts for improved attritor design are presented.

  10. 30. STEEL INGOTS RECEIVE THEIR FIRST ROLLING ON THE 44INCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. STEEL INGOTS RECEIVE THEIR FIRST ROLLING ON THE 44-INCH BLOOMING MILL, SHOWN HERE. BLOOMS THEN TRAVEL ON ROLLERS DIRECTLY TO THE 21-INCH MILL AND/OR THE 18-INCH MILL FOR FURTHER REDUCTION INTO BILLETS. BLOOMING MILL WAS BUILT FOR THE CORRIGAN, McKINNEY CO. BY THE UNITED ENGINEERING & FOUNDRY CO. OF PITTSBURGH. - Corrigan, McKinney Steel Company, 3100 East Forty-fifth Street, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  11. Study of texture, microstructure and mechanical properties of asymmetrically rolled aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wronski, M.; Wierzbanowski, K.; Wronski, S.; Bacroix, B.; Wróbel, M.; Uniwersał, A.

    2015-04-01

    Asymmetric rolling is a promising forming technique offering numerous possibilities of material properties modification and the improvement of technological process parameters. This geometry of deformation is relatively easy to implement on existing industrial rolling mills. Moreover, it can provide large volume of a material with modified properties. The study of microstructure, crystallographic texture and mechanical properties of asymmetrically rolled aluminium is presented in this work. The above characteristics were examined using EBSD technique and X-ray diffraction. The rolling asymmetry was realized using two identical rolls, driven by independent motors, rotating with different angular velocities. It was found that asymmetric rolling leads to microstructure refinement, texture homogenization and decreasing of residual stress.

  12. Tandem strip mill's multi-parameter coupling dynamic modeling based on the thickness control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yan; Zhang, Yang; Sun, Jianliang; Zang, Yong

    2015-03-01

    The rolling process is determined by the interaction of a number of different movements, during which the relative movement occurs between the vibrating roll system and the rolled piece, and the roll system's vibration interacts with the strip's deformation and rigid movement. So many parameters being involved leads to a complex mechanism of this coupling effect. Through testing and analyzing the vibration signals of the mill in the rolling process, the rolling mill's coupled model is established with comprehensive consideration of the coupling interaction between the mill's vertical vibration, its torsional vibration and the working roll's horizontal vibration, and vibration characteristics of different forms of rolling mill's vibration are analyzed under the coupling effect. With comprehensive attention to the relationship between the roll system, the moving strip and the rolling parameters' dynamic properties, and also from the strip thickness control point of view, further research is done on the coupling mechanism between the roll system's movement and the moving strip's characteristics in the rolling process. As a result, the law of inertial coupling and the stiffness coupling effect caused by different forms of the roll system's vibration is determined and the existence of nonlinear characteristics caused by the elastic deformation of moving strip is also found. Furthermore, a multi-parameter coupling-dynamic model is established which takes the tandem strip mill as its research object by making a detailed kinematics analysis of the roll system and using the principle of virtual work. The coupling-dynamic model proposes the instruction to describe the roll system's movement, and analyzes its dynamic response and working stability, and provides a theoretical basis for the realization of the strip thickness' dynamic control.

  13. Influence of Carbon Content and Rolling Temperature on Rolling Texture in 3 Pct Si Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shingaki, Y.; Takashima, M.; Hayakawa, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Effects of carbon and rolling temperature up to 453 K (180 °C) on rolling texture of 3 pct Si steel at a reduction of 66 pct were investigated using a single crystal with an initial orientation of {110}<001>. With residual-level carbon, uniform slip deformation was observed in the specimen cold rolled at room temperature and most of initial orientation {110}<001> rotated to {111}<112> during the rolling. With carbon addition, the formation of the deformation twins and the shear bands were promoted in the specimen cold rolled at room temperature. Regions with {110}<001> were observed inside the shear bands. Warm-rolled specimen with residual-level carbon had microbands containing tiny {110}<001> regions. Warm-rolled specimen with carbon addition had both the shear bands and the microbands but no deformation twin. Additionally, there were unique band structures with rotated crystal orientation around the rolling direction from initial orientation {110}<001>. These experimental results suggest that the carbon addition inhibits dislocation migration by the increase of the critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) and that the high deformation temperature activates multiple slip systems by the reduction of CRSS and further that the carbon addition and high deformation temperature superimposed bring about the activation of symmetrical {110} slip systems additionally.

  14. Practice of Improving Roll Deformation Theory in Strip Rolling Process Based on Boundary Integral Equation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhengwen; Xiao, Hong; Xie, Hongbiao

    2014-02-01

    Precise strip-shape control theory is significant to improve rolled strip quality, and roll flattening theory is a primary part of the strip-shape theory. To improve the accuracy of roll flattening calculation based on semi-infinite body model, a new and more accurate roll flattening model is proposed in this paper, which is derived based on boundary integral equation method. The displacement fields of the finite length semi-infinite body on left and right sides are simulated by using finite element method (FEM) and displacement decay functions on left and right sides are established. Based on the new roll flattening model, a new 4Hi mill deformation model is established and verified by FEM. The new model is compared with Foppl formula and semi-infinite body model in different strip width, roll shifting value and bending force. The results show that the pressure and flattening between rolls calculated by the new model are more precise than other two models, especially near the two roll barrel edges.

  15. Quantifying texture evolution during hot rolling of AZ31 Twin Roll Cast strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelova, S.; Schaeben, H.

    2015-04-01

    Multi-pass rolling experiments with an AZ31 Twin Roll Cast (TRC) alloy were performed on an industrial scaled four-high rolling mill. Within the rolling with an intermediate annealing the evolution of texture was investigated. To quantify the extent of preferred crystallographic orientation experimental X-ray pole figures were measured after different process steps and analyzed using the free and open Matlab® toolbox MTEX for texture analysis. The development of the fiber texture was observed and analyzed in dependence on rolling conditions. In the initial state the specimen exhibits a texture composed of a weak basal texture and a cast texture with {0001}-planes oriented across the rolling direction. During the following rolling process a fiber texture was developed. The expected strength increment of the fiber texture was quantitatively confirmed in terms of volume portions of the orientation density function around the fiber and in terms of the canonical parameters of fitted pseudo Bingham distributions. On the results of this work a model for prediction of the texture evolution during the strip rolling of magnesium in the examined parameter range was developed.

  16. Technique of determining the parameters of rapid strengthening of an aluminum alloy during hot rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loginov, Yu. N.; Golovnin, M. A.

    2017-03-01

    A new estimation procedure for estimating the influence of rapid strengthening on the strain resistance is proposed using a 6061 aluminum alloy (AD33, 1330) as an example. To implement this procedure, it is suggested to mathematically process the data of a system for monitoring a hot rolling mill. Attention is paid to the fact that the roll force in each pass increases with the rolling speed. On the basis of the determined strain resistance at a known roll force, it is possible to plot strain resistance as a function of the rolling speed. It has been revealed that the results of data processing are reliable for roll passes from 6 to 12, which is confirmed by the results of dispersion analysis. The obtained results have been compared with the published laboratory data, and they are found to agree with each other. The results obtained can be applied for everyday operation of rolling-mill shops.

  17. Temperature Control of Hot Strip Finishing Mill with Inter Stand Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiguchi, Kunio; Anbe, Yoshiharu; Imanari, Hiroyuki

    It is important for hot strip mill to keep finishing mill delivery temperature to it’s target value because of yield strength and tensile strength of rolled strip. We propose a new method for finishing mill delivery temperature control (FDTC) of a hot strip mill using inter stand strip coolant (ISC). FDTC consists of initial setting (before threading) values calculation of ISC flow rate and finishing mill speed, feed forward FDTC (FF-FDTC) and feedback FDTC (FB-FDTC). The mathematical strip temperature model of finishing mill was identified using normal operating data and some tests. Actual mill application with 7 stands finishing mill showed good FDTC results and also it made possible to increase rolling speed which increase production rate.

  18. Mechanics of Thin Strip Steering in Hot Rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhengyi; Tieu, Kiet A.

    2004-06-01

    The hot rolling of thin strip can result in several problems in hot rolling, for instance, the control of strip steering, strip shape and flatness and surface roughness etc. Therefore, the hot rolling of thin strip brings out a requirement of innovative technologies such as the extended control of shape and flatness, steering control and reduction of load by roll gap lubrication. In this paper, the authors focus on the analysis of thin strip snaking movement, as well as solve the related problems such as the shape and flatness due to a larger reduction applied when the strip is thinner. A finite element method was used to simulate this nonsymmetricity rolling considering the non-uniform reduction along the strip width. The calculated spread is compared with the measured values obtained from the rolling mill in laboratory and the friction effect is also discussed.

  19. New technology for recyclingmaterials from oily cold rollingmill sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bo; Zhang, Shen-gen; Tian, Jian-jun; Pan, De-an; Meng, Ling; Liu, Yang

    2013-12-01

    Oily cold rolling mill (CRM) sludge is one of metallurgical industry solid wastes. The recycle of these wastes can not only protect the environment but also permit their reutilization. In this research, a new process of "hydrometallurgical treatment + hydrothermal synthesis" was investigated for the combined recovery of iron and organic materials from oily CRM sludge. Hydrometallurgical treatment, mainly including acid leaching, centrifugal separation, neutralization reaction, oxidizing, and preparation of hydrothermal reaction precursor, was first utilized for processing the sludge. Then, micaceous iron oxide (MIO) pigment powders were prepared through hydrothermal reaction of the obtained precursor in alkaline media. The separated organic materials can be used for fuel or chemical feedstock. The quality of the prepared MIO pigments is in accordance with the standards of MIO pigments for paints (ISO 10601-2007). This clean, effective, and economical technology offers a new way to recycle oily CRM sludge.

  20. An FE Based On-line Model for the Prediction of Work Roll Thermal Profile in Hot Strip Rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ji Won; Lee, Jung Hyeung; Sun, Cheng Gang; Hwang, Sang Moo

    2010-06-01

    Prediction and control of the thermal deformation of the work roll is vital for enhancing product quality in hot strip and plate rolling. In this paper, we present an on-line model for the prediction of the work roll thermal profile. The model is developed on the basis of an integrated finite element model for the coupled analysis of heat transfer and deformation occurring at the bite zone, to rigorously take into account the effect of various rolling parameters on the thermal behavior of the work roll. The validity of the model is demonstrated through comparison with measurements made in an industrial hot strip mill. Also, an emphasis is given to the examination the effect of some selected rolling parameters in an actual production environment.

  1. Rolling-Element Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Anderson, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    Rolling element bearings are a precision, yet simple, machine element of great utility. A brief history of rolling element bearings is reviewed and the type of rolling element bearings, their geometry and kinematics, as well as the materials they are made from and the manufacturing processes they involve are described. Unloaded and unlubricated rolling element bearings, loaded but unlubricated rolling element bearings and loaded and lubricated rolling element bearings are considered. The recognition and understanding of elastohydrodynamic lubrication covered, represents one of the major development in rolling element bearings.

  2. Modeling recrystallization kinetics during strip rolling

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, W.P.; Hawbolt, E.B.; Meadowcroft, T.R.

    1995-01-01

    In order to simulate the microstructural evolution during hot strip rolling, double-hit compression tests have been carried out on plain carbon steels. Using the softening data obtained by these tests, mathematical models were developed to predict the overall kinetics of static recrystallization under roughing and finishing mill conditions. These models include the effects of deformation temperature, applied strain, strain rate and initial austenite grain size. Predictions based on these models are in reasonable agreement with the present experimental results.

  3. Computer-aided analysis and design of the shape rolling process for producing turbine engine airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lahoti, G. D.; Akgerman, N.; Altan, T.

    1978-01-01

    Mild steel (AISI 1018) was selected as model cold-rolling material and Ti-6Al-4V and INCONEL 718 were selected as typical hot-rolling and cold-rolling alloys, respectively. The flow stress and workability of these alloys were characterized and friction factor at the roll/workpiece interface was determined at their respective working conditions by conducting ring tests. Computer-aided mathematical models for predicting metal flow and stresses, and for simulating the shape-rolling process were developed. These models utilize the upper-bound and the slab methods of analysis, and are capable of predicting the lateral spread, roll-separating force, roll torque and local stresses, strains and strain rates. This computer-aided design (CAD) system is also capable of simulating the actual rolling process and thereby designing roll-pass schedule in rolling of an airfoil or similar shape. The predictions from the CAD system were verified with respect to cold rolling of mild steel plates. The system is being applied to cold and hot isothermal rolling of an airfoil shape, and will be verified with respect to laboratory experiments under controlled conditions.

  4. Multi-stage FE simulation of hot ring rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Geijselaers, H. J. M.; van den Boogaard, A. H.

    2013-05-01

    As a unique and important member of the metal forming family, ring rolling provides a cost effective process route to manufacture seamless rings. Applications of ring rolling cover a wide range of products in aerospace, automotive and civil engineering industries [1]. Above the recrystallization temperature of the material, hot ring rolling begins with the upsetting of the billet cut from raw stock. Next a punch pierces the hot upset billet to form a hole through the billet. This billet, referred to as preform, is then rolled by the ring rolling mill. For an accurate simulation of hot ring rolling, it is crucial to include the deformations, stresses and strains from the upsetting and piercing process as initial conditions for the rolling stage. In this work, multi-stage FE simulations of hot ring rolling process were performed by mapping the local deformation state of the workpiece from one step to the next one. The simulations of upsetting and piercing stages were carried out by 2D axisymmetric models using adaptive remeshing and element erosion. The workpiece for the ring rolling stage was subsequently obtained after performing a 2D to 3D mapping. The commercial FE package LS-DYNA was used for the study and user defined subroutines were implemented to complete the control algorithm. The simulation results were analyzed and also compared with those from the single-stage FE model of hot ring rolling.

  5. Validation of the Hot Strip Mill Model

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Shulkosky; David Rosberg; Jerrud Chapman

    2005-03-30

    The Hot Strip Mill Model (HSMM) is an off-line, PC based software originally developed by the University of British Columbia (UBC) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) under the AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program. The HSMM was developed to predict the temperatures, deformations, microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of steel strip or plate rolled in a hot mill. INTEG process group inc. undertook the current task of enhancing and validating the technology. With the support of 5 North American steel producers, INTEG process group tested and validated the model using actual operating data from the steel plants and enhanced the model to improve prediction results.

  6. Microstructure and texture of asymmetrically rolled aluminium and titanium after deformation and recrystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wronski, M.; Wierzbanowski, K.; Wronski, S.; Bacroix, B.

    2015-08-01

    Asymmetric rolling is used to modify material properties and to reduce forces and torques applied during deformation. This geometry of deformation is relatively easy to implement on existing industrial rolling mills and it can provide large volumes of a material. The results of the study of microstructure and crystallographic texture in asymmetrically rolled aluminium 6061 and titanium (grade 2) are presented in this work. These characteristics were determined using the EBSD technique and X-ray diffraction. The rolling asymmetry was realized using two identical rolls, driven by independent motors, rotating with different angular velocities. It was found that asymmetric rolling leads to microstructural refinement and texture rotation (around the transverse direction). The impact of asymmetric rolling on microstructural refinement appears also in recrystallized samples of both materials. On the other hand, texture rotation, caused by asymmetric rolling, persists after annealing in titanium but not in aluminium samples.

  7. Rolling-Contact Rheostat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruoff, C. F.

    1985-01-01

    Contact noise in rheostats and potentiometers reduced by rolling contact design. Smooth rolling action eliminates sporadic variations in resistance caused by bouncing and stick/slip motion of conventional sliding contacts.

  8. 4. ROLL LATHE OF THE MAIN ROLL SHOP. THE LATHE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. ROLL LATHE OF THE MAIN ROLL SHOP. THE LATHE WAS CLOSED WITH TWO ROLLS IN PLACE, AND THE LOWER ROLL WAS TURNED TO MATCH THE UPPER ROLL. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Main Roll Shop, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  9. In-Orbit Construction with a Helical Seam Pipe Mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilhooley, N.

    The challenges of building large structures in space, and in particular a torus habitat, require novel processes. One potential method is to manufacture helical seam (also called spiral) pipe in orbit using a pipe mill. These machines turn rolls of steel or alloy into fully formed, welded and inspected pipe, pressure vessels and silos of various diameters. Pipe mills are highly automated and efficient in a factory environment and are increasingly being used for in-situ repair. By constructing in-orbit (on-orbit assembly) the launch vehicle can supply full payloads of compact, robust rolls of material; and the installation design is less restricted by fairing constraints and modular limitations. The use of a pipe mill is discussed as a possible construction method, for comparison an example design envelope is shown and further pipe mill products are considered.

  10. Internal roll compression system

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Graydon E.

    1985-01-01

    This invention is a machine for squeezing water out of peat or other material of low tensile strength; the machine including an inner roll eccentrically positioned inside a tubular outer roll, so as to form a gradually increasing pinch area at one point therebetween, so that, as the rolls rotate, the material is placed between the rolls, and gets wrung out when passing through the pinch area.

  11. Multilayer roll bonded aluminium foil: processing, microstructure and flow stress

    SciTech Connect

    Barlow, C.Y.; Nielsen, P.; Hansen, N

    2004-08-02

    Bulk aluminium has been produced by warm-rolling followed by cold-rolling of commercial purity (99% purity) aluminium foil. The bonding appeared perfect from observation with the naked eye, light and transmission electron microscopy. By comparison with bulk aluminium of similar purity (AA1200) rolled to a similar strain (90%RA), the roll-bonded metal showed a much higher density of high-angle grain boundaries, similar strength and improved thermal stability. This study has implications for a number of applications in relation to the processing of aluminium. Roll bonding is of interest as a method for grain size refinement; oxide-containing materials have increased strength, enhanced work-hardening behaviour, and exhibit alterations in recrystallisation behaviour. The behaviour of the hard oxide film is of interest in aluminium processing, and has been investigated by characterising the size and distribution of oxide particles in the roll-bonded samples.

  12. Design factors for milling sweet sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Monroe, G.E.; Bryan, W.L.

    1983-06-01

    A conveyor/shredder/3-roll mill system was modified to process 30-cm billets of sweet sorghum and to develop basic design information. Percent juice extracted increased with throughput until the system plugged. Maximum operable rates for whole plants and stalks were respectively 19 and 25 kg/min, and about 48 percent of total crop sugar was recovered from either plants or stalks.

  13. Cold Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COLD STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Workers who ... cold environments may be at risk of cold stress. Extreme cold weather is a dangerous situation that ...

  14. Effect of sliding and rolling friction on the energy-force parameters during hot rolling in four-high stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garber, E. A.; Kozhevnikova, I. A.; Tarasov, P. A.; Traino, A. I.

    2007-12-01

    A procedure for the calculation of the main-drive power for a hot-rolling wide-strip mill is developed. It takes into account that 85 99% of the lengths of the deformation zones in the working stands of such mills are occupied by stick zones, in which a strip undergoes static friction stresses (which do useful work only in the backward slip zone). This procedure also takes into account the rolling friction energy losses, which account for 83 93% of the power consumed for the rotation of idle backup rolls or 29 68% of the total energy consumed by the main mill drive. The average power calculation error for this procedure is 5%, and the maximum error is 10%, which is three to five times smaller than the errors of well-known calculation procedures. Our procedure has a high potential for revealing the reserves of decreasing the contact stresses in rolls and the saving of electric power via the redistribution of the reductions and tensions between stands and an increase in the temperature of the semi-finished rolled products.

  15. Modelling pressure rolling of asymmetric rolling process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexa, V.; Ratiu, S. A.; Kiss, I.; Cioata, V. G.

    2017-05-01

    The paper presents a comparative analysis between experimental results and modelling in order to interpret the value of the contact pressure on the asymmetric longitudinal rolling. It is also intended action and the different behaviour of upper cylinder compared to the lower cylinder action in situations when both are driven, or only one operates. In the modelling will be presented on the basis of boundary conditions imposed rolling pressure variation in the degree of reduction and also re size arc length of contact. Determining a curve is also important to determine the locus of points which characterize symmetry conditions partial rolling process between unequal diameters cylinders.

  16. Mathematical-Artificial Neural Network Hybrid Model to Predict Roll Force during Hot Rolling of Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, S.; Sengupta, P. P.; Singh, A. P.; Marik, A. K.; Talukdar, P.

    2013-07-01

    Accurate prediction of roll force during hot strip rolling is essential for model based operation of hot strip mills. Traditionally, mathematical models based on theory of plastic deformation have been used for prediction of roll force. In the last decade, data driven models like artificial neural network have been tried for prediction of roll force. Pure mathematical models have accuracy limitations whereas data driven models have difficulty in convergence when applied to industrial conditions. Hybrid models by integrating the traditional mathematical formulations and data driven methods are being developed in different parts of world. This paper discusses the methodology of development of an innovative hybrid mathematical-artificial neural network model. In mathematical model, the most important factor influencing accuracy is flow stress of steel. Coefficients of standard flow stress equation, calculated by parameter estimation technique, have been used in the model. The hybrid model has been trained and validated with input and output data collected from finishing stands of Hot Strip Mill, Bokaro Steel Plant, India. It has been found that the model accuracy has been improved with use of hybrid model, over the traditional mathematical model.

  17. Grease selection for sealed roll neck bearings

    SciTech Connect

    Schrama, R.C.; Vickerman, R.T.; Bender, C.P.

    1995-09-01

    During the 1990`s, a revolution took place in the steel industry with respect to lubricant usage, maintenance costs and the environment. The 4-row taper roller bearings that are used in rolling mills on the work roll necks have been historically lubricated with grease from a centralized grease system, pre-packed with grease at each roll change, or fed with oil from mist or air-oil system. Steel mills are being forced to reduce lubricant consumption to reduce maintenance costs, decrease the costs for the disposal of sludges created from the spent greases and reduce the amount of sludge that was created. The sealed bearing became an avenue for accomplishing these objectives. The open 4-row taper roller bearing was redesigned to accommodate seals. The bearing was pre-packed with grease and put into service without any grease replenishment for up to 22 months operation time. The selection of the grease to provide optimum operating characteristics for the lubricant and the bearing is one of the critical elements to the success of the bearing design. This paper reviews the critical properties that are necessary in the grease for the lubricant to provide the correct tribological functions in the bearing. This includes wear of the rollers and raceways, seal lip and surface wear, heat generation during rotation and under load, corrosion resistance, resistance to shearing during the working life of the grease and resistance to water contamination.

  18. 8" MILL CONTINUOUS ROUGHING TRAIN, SHOWING PULPIT (R), STANDS #0,1,2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8" MILL CONTINUOUS ROUGHING TRAIN, SHOWING PULPIT (R), STANDS #0,1,2, TRANSFER TABLE B, AND STANDS #3,4,5,(L). STEEL BEING ROLLED MOVES FROM RIGHT TO LEFT. - LTV Steel, 8-inch Bar Mill, Buffalo Plant, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  19. The implementation of HPGR mills in existing grinding circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Patzelt, N.; Knecht, J.; Longhurst, D.

    1996-12-31

    High pressure grinding mills have been successfully introduced in the industry. They offer the possibilities for capacity increase of existing plants and reduction of operating costs. The plants in operation are running in different applications and modes of operation. They can be installed in a combination with SAG and ball mills or in a stand-alone mode. In combination with other grinding mills, it has to be investigated how the HPGR can be installed to reach the full efficiency. This paper describes the possibilities of implementing high pressure grinding rolls and shows by case studies the potential of savings which could be reached.

  20. Load-signature analysis for pack rolling of near-gamma titanium aluminide alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Semiatin, S.L. . Metals and Ceramics Division); Seetharaman, V. )

    1994-11-01

    The objective of the present work was to demonstrate the sensitivity of rolling-load signature analysis as a means to monitor hot-pack-rolling processes for the fabrication of sheet of near-gamma titanium-aluminide alloy sand other difficult-to-work materials. In previous work, a simple method was developed for the prediction of temperature transients during two steps in the pack-rolling process: the transfer of the pack from the furnace to the rolling mill and the actual rolling operation itself. The accuracy of the temperature-transient calculations was established through load-signature data obtained during trials for Ti-48Al (atomic percent) rolled at a single nominal (furnace) temperature. In the present work, additional results are presented and discussed for hot pack rolling at various nominal temperatures and for a range of near-gamma titanium-aluminide alloys.

  1. Improvement of the conditions of high-accuracy rolling of soft magnetic strips due to the application of a refined mathematical model of the process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traino, A. I.; Rusakov, A. D.

    2012-03-01

    The specific features of deformation during cold rolling are studied to develop a refined model for the cold rolling of precision soft magnetic strips. The results of development of the theory of cold rolling are used for highly worked thin strips to calculate and optimize the technological conditions of production of a wide range of precision strips applied in instrument making, electrotechnical industry, and so on.

  2. The thermal and metallurgical state of steel strip during hot rolling: Part I. Characterization of heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devadas, C.; Samarasekera, I. V.; Hawbolt, E. B.

    1991-02-01

    A technique using intrinsic thermocouples was developed to monitor the thermal response of steel samples during hot rolling. A series of hot-rolling tests was conducted with the thermocoupleinstrumented samples on CANME’s pilot mill to simulate individual stands of Stelco’s Lake Erie Works hot-strip mill. A mathematical model of heat transfer in the roll bite has been employed to back calculate the roll/strip interface heat-transfer coefficients for lubricated and unlubricated conditions. The influence of reduction, rolling speed, and prerolling on roll-strip heat transfer has also been examined. For unlubricated rolling tests, the heat-transfer coefficient in the roll bite increased with time, reaching a steady-state value of 57 kW/m2 °C. The corresponding number for the lubricated tests was 31 kW/m2 °C. The observed variation in the interface heat-transfer coefficient with increasing strain and interface pressure points to a strong dependence on the real area of contact between the strip and rolls. Therefore, it appears that heat transfer between the two surfaces occurs primarily by conduction across asperity contacts. The high heat-transfer coefficients attained at the roll/strip interface promote chilling of the strip to a depth of approximately one-eighth of the thickness. To validate the overall heattransfer model, predicted surface temperatures of the strip have been compared with interstand temperature measurements obtained on the industrial mill using pyrometers.

  3. Origins of rolling friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    2017-09-01

    When a hard object rolls on a soft surface, or vice versa, rolling friction arises from deformation of the soft object or the soft surface. The friction force can be described in terms of an offset in the normal reaction force or in terms of energy loss arising from the deformation. The origin of the friction force itself is not entirely clear. It is investigated qualitatively in this paper by rolling a steel ball on soft foam and by rolling a foam cylinder on a hard surface. The deformation of the foam was observed visually, providing simple insights into the origin of the friction force.

  4. Evaluation of roll compaction as a preparation method for hydroxypropyl cellulose-based matrix tablets

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Imjak; Gilli, Tiziana; Betz, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Roll compaction was applied for the preparation of hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC)-based sustained-release matrix tablets. Matrix tablets made via roll compaction exhibited higher dosage uniformity and faster drug release than direct-compacted tablets. HPC viscosity grade, roll pressure, and milling speed affected tablet properties significantly. Roll compaction seems to be an adequate granulation method for the preparation of HPC-based matrix tablets due to the simplicity of the process, less handling difficulty from HPC tackiness as well as easier particle size targeting. Selecting the optimum ratio of plastic excipients and the particle size of starting materials can however be critical issues in this method. PMID:21687348

  5. Influence of relative rolling reduction and thickness layers bimetallic plate at the non-uniformity of the strain after rolling process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rydz, D.; Stradomski, G.; Dyja, H.

    2017-02-01

    In the article were made numerical and laboratory tests of two-layers rolling process sheet composed of Al99,8 + M1E. Laboratory tests made with use of 150 mm diameter working rolls mill. To the modeling of the bimetallic plate rolling were taken the FEM Forge 2D software based on the theory of plasticity and MathCad program (in which to the rolling process modeling were used the mathematical model developed in the work [5] based on the theory of viscoelasticity). The aim of study was to determine the influence of layer thickness HT0/HM0 and relative deformation ε on the uneven distribution of steel sheet deformation after rolling process. Calculations based on the theory of viscoelasticity allowed additionally take into account the impact of the delayed effects of the variation of viscoelastic deformation of layers of the bimetallic plate rolling process.

  6. Effects of the microstructure of twin roll cast and hot rolled plates on the surface quality of presensitized plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yuan-Zhi; Zhang, Ya-Feng; Zhao, Chao-Qi; Zhou, Feng

    2014-09-01

    The effect of the microstructure of plates fabricated both in the traditional process, involving casting, hot rolling and cold rolling (HR), and in the novel twin roll casting + cold rolling (TRC) process on the surface quality of presensitized (PS) plates was analyzed by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS). The formation of pores on the surface of the electrolyzed HR plate could be attributed to the presence of approximately 1-μm-sized large Al-Fe precipitates in the HR plate compared to the smaller precipitates in the TRC plate. Moreover, residual graphite lubricants used during the TRC process were entrapped on the surface of the TRC plate during the subsequent rolling process. The entrapped pollutants tended to further deteriorate the formation of pores on the surface of the TRC plate, and no residual carbon was detected on the surface of the HR plate. Furthermore, the surface quality of the TRC plate can be improved by surface cleaning before the cold rolling process, which could dramatically lower the residual graphite on the surface.

  7. Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest Drinking ...

  8. Cold Urticaria

    MedlinePlus

    ... throat when consuming cold food or drink Severe reactions may include: A whole-body response (anaphylaxis), which ... to cold water. The majority of cold urticaria reactions occur when skin is exposed to temperatures lower ...

  9. 12. TROJAN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRIMARY MILL No. 1 (MONADNOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. TROJAN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRIMARY MILL No. 1 (MONADNOCK CHILEAN) FROM EAST, c. 1912. ELEVATOR No. 1 ADJACENT TO MILL. CREDIT WR. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  10. Understanding Rolle's Theorem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parameswaran, Revathy

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on an experiment studying twelfth grade students' understanding of Rolle's Theorem. In particular, we study the influence of different concept images that students employ when solving reasoning tasks related to Rolle's Theorem. We argue that students' "container schema" and "motion schema" allow for rich…

  11. Preferred orientation of rolling-induced \\varepsilon martensite in an Fe-Mn-Si alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jee, K. K.; Jang, W. Y.; Chung, Y. H.

    2003-10-01

    Preferred orientation of \\varepsilon martensite induced by cold rolling is studied in an Fe-27Mn-3.5Si alloy. Since the flat rolling is essentially a plane strain condition, cold rolling is applied to induced the martensite. The alloy consists of stacking faults and thermal \\varepsilon martensite with some variants in γ matrix. By cold rolling, \\varepsilon martensite plates are preferably induced with a single variant, producing a preferred orientation. Rolling-induced \\varepsilon martensite is observed to possess a preferred orientation of (1013)\\varepsilon [3032]\\varepsilon. It is revealed that the [3032]\\varepsilon and normal direction of (1013)\\varepsilon experience the largest contraction and expansion, respectively, in γto\\varepsilon shear deformation when c/a is almost (8/3)^{1/2}.

  12. Biomass torrefaction mill

    DOEpatents

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.

    2016-05-17

    A biomass torrefaction system includes a mill which receives a raw biomass feedstock and operates at temperatures above 400 F (204 C) to generate a dusty flue gas which contains a milled biomass product.

  13. Cold adaptations.

    PubMed

    Launay, Jean-Claude; Savourey, Gustave

    2009-07-01

    Nowdays, occupational and recreational activities in cold environments are common. Exposure to cold induces thermoregulatory responses like changes of behaviour and physiological adjustments to maintain thermal balance either by increasing metabolic heat production by shivering and/or by decreasing heat losses consecutive to peripheral cutaneous vasoconstriction. Those physiological responses present a great variability among individuals and depend mainly on biometrical characteristics, age, and general cold adaptation. During severe cold exposure, medical disorders may occur such as accidental hypothermia and/or freezing or non-freezing cold injuries. General cold adaptations have been qualitatively classified by Hammel and quantitatively by Savourey. This last classification takes into account the quantitative changes of the main cold reactions: higher or lower metabolic heat production, higher or lesser heat losses and finally the level of the core temperature observed at the end of a standardized exposure to cold. General cold adaptations observed previously in natives could also be developed in laboratory conditions by continuous or intermittent cold exposures. Beside general cold adaptation, local cold adaptation exists and is characterized by a lesser decrease of skin temperature, a more pronounced cold induced vasodilation, less pain and a higher manual dexterity. Adaptations to cold may reduce the occurrence of accidents and improve human performance as surviving in the cold. The present review describes both general and local cold adaptations in humans and how they are of interest for cold workers.

  14. Improving the Surface Roughness of Pickled Steel Strip by Control of Rolling Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yao-Nan; Lin, Szu-Ning; Liou, Horng-Yih; Chang, Chu-Wei; Wu, Chia-Chan; Wang, Ying-Chun

    2013-01-01

    This investigation is to analyze the surface roughness problem of low carbon pickled steel strips from the view points of prior hot rolling conditions and the hot-rolled scales. The results showed that, compared with other parameters, the most important factor in hot rolling to affect the surface roughness was the rolling temperature. As the temperature was increased, the amount of the outer brittle α-Fe2O3 increased, leading to rough scale/substrate interface and rough surface after pickling. However, the effect of coiling temperature was almost negligible because no further rolling existed after that stage. Quantitative estimation showed that decrease in rolling temperature in this investigation reduced the surface roughness, Ra, from 1.06-1.78 μm to 0.88-1.10 μm after pickling in laboratory. Similar degree of improvement in roughness was also observed after pickling in mill.

  15. Effect of Roll Material on Surface Quality of Rolled Aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qi

    The surface defects of aluminum alloys that have undergone hot rolling were studied. The effects of different roll materials, of the number of rolling passes and of lubrication on surface defects of hot rolled aluminum alloys were investigated by laboratory hot rolling. Two different aluminum alloys, Al-Mn and Al-Mg, were each rolled against three different steel alloy rolls, AISI 52100, AISI 440C and AISI D2. The results showed that different roll materials do affect the morphology of the mating aluminum alloy surface with apparent surface defects, which included magnesium and oxygen rich dark regions on both alloys. The carbide protrusions in 440C and D2 steel rolls are confirmed to be responsible for the dark, rich magnesium and oxygen regions on both the rolled Al-Mn and Al-Mg alloy surfaces. As the number of passes increases, Mg and O deposit in the form of patches and grain boundaries near the surface area.

  16. Research on strip hysteretic behavior and mill vertical vibration system nonlinear dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xiaobin; Zang, Yong; Jin, Ke

    2016-10-01

    Rolling mill vibration is a technical problem in the iron and steel industry for many years and has serious impact and harm on production. There were serious vibrations in the middle mills when rolling thin container strip for the compact strip production (CSP) strip hot rolling process. This paper studied the hysteretic characteristic of rolled strip and established the vertical vibration system single-degree-of-freedom dynamics model of the F3 mill rollers. The influence of parameters on the system characteristics was studied, such as the linear damping coefficient, linear stiffness coefficient, nonlinear displacement coefficient, nonlinear velocity coefficient and exciting force, and then, the vibration source and vibration-restraining measure were studied from the roll gap. The results show that with increasing linear stiffness, damping and hysteresis coefficient, it can reduce the possibility of chaotic system; the linear stiffness coefficient had the greatest influence, and hysteresis damping coefficient had minimal influence on chaotic threshold. In order to reduce rolling mill vibration amplitude, we should reduce the external excitation force firstly, and in order to improve the dynamic performance of the system, we should control the speed of nonlinear coefficient values. The contrast experiments were carried out at the production scene finally.

  17. Roll System and Stock's Multi-parameter Coupling Dynamic Modeling Based on the Shape Control of Steel Strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Peng, Yan; Sun, Jianliang; Zang, Yong

    2017-03-01

    The existence of rolling deformation area in the rolling mill system is the main characteristic which distinguishes the other machinery. In order to analyze the dynamic property of roll system's flexural deformation, it is necessary to consider the transverse periodic movement of stock in the rolling deformation area which is caused by the flexural deformation movement of roll system simultaneously. Therefore, the displacement field of roll system and flow of metal in the deformation area is described by kinematic analysis in the dynamic system. Through introducing the lateral displacement function of metal in the deformation area, the dynamic variation of per unit width rolling force can be determined at the same time. Then the coupling law caused by the co-effect of rigid movement and flexural deformation of the system structural elements is determined. Furthermore, a multi-parameter coupling dynamic model of the roll system and stock is established by the principle of virtual work. More explicitly, the coupled motion modal analysis was made for the roll system. Meanwhile, the analytical solutions for the flexural deformation movement's mode shape functions of rolls are discussed. In addition, the dynamic characteristic of the lateral flow of metal in the rolling deformation area has been analyzed at the same time. The establishment of dynamic lateral displacement function of metal in the deformation area makes the foundation for analyzing the coupling law between roll system and rolling deformation area, and provides a theoretical basis for the realization of the dynamic shape control of steel strip.

  18. Roll System and Stock's Multi-parameter Coupling Dynamic Modeling Based on the Shape Control of Steel Strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Peng, Yan; Sun, Jianliang; Zang, Yong

    2017-05-01

    The existence of rolling deformation area in the rolling mill system is the main characteristic which distinguishes the other machinery. In order to analyze the dynamic property of roll system's flexural deformation, it is necessary to consider the transverse periodic movement of stock in the rolling deformation area which is caused by the flexural deformation movement of roll system simultaneously. Therefore, the displacement field of roll system and flow of metal in the deformation area is described by kinematic analysis in the dynamic system. Through introducing the lateral displacement function of metal in the deformation area, the dynamic variation of per unit width rolling force can be determined at the same time. Then the coupling law caused by the co-effect of rigid movement and flexural deformation of the system structural elements is determined. Furthermore, a multi-parameter coupling dynamic model of the roll system and stock is established by the principle of virtual work. More explicitly, the coupled motion modal analysis was made for the roll system. Meanwhile, the analytical solutions for the flexural deformation movement's mode shape functions of rolls are discussed. In addition, the dynamic characteristic of the lateral flow of metal in the rolling deformation area has been analyzed at the same time. The establishment of dynamic lateral displacement function of metal in the deformation area makes the foundation for analyzing the coupling law between roll system and rolling deformation area, and provides a theoretical basis for the realization of the dynamic shape control of steel strip.

  19. 75 FR 71463 - Woodland Mills Corporation Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... Employment and Training Administration Woodland Mills Corporation Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Revised... of Woodland Mills Corporation, Mill Spring, North Carolina, to apply for Trade Adjustment Assistance... yarn produced by Woodland Mills Corporation, Mill Spring, North Carolina Woodland Mills...

  20. Biomechanics of leukocyte rolling

    PubMed Central

    Sundd, Prithu; Pospieszalska, Maria K.; Cheung, Luthur Siu-Lun; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos; Ley, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Leukocyte rolling on endothelial cells and other P-selectin substrates is mediated by P-selectin binding to P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 expressed on the tips of leukocyte microvilli. Leukocyte rolling is a result of rapid, yet balanced formation and dissociation of selectin-ligand bonds in the presence of hydrodynamic shear forces. The hydrodynamic forces acting on the bonds may either increase (catch bonds) or decrease (slip-bonds) their lifetimes. The force-dependent ‘catch-slip’ bond kinetics are explained using the ‘two pathway model’ for bond dissociation. Both the ‘sliding-rebinding’ and the ‘allosteric’ mechanisms attribute ‘catch-slip’ bond behavior to the force-induced conformational changes in the lectin-EGF domain hinge of selectins. Below a threshold shear stress, selectins cannot mediate rolling. This ‘shear-threshold’ phenomenon is a consequence of shear-enhanced tethering and catch-bond enhanced rolling. Quantitative dynamic footprinting microscopy has revealed that leukocytes rolling at venular shear stresses (> 0.6 Pa) undergo cellular deformation (large footprint) and form long tethers. The hydrodynamic shear force and torque acting on the rolling cell are thought to be synergistically balanced by the forces acting on tethers and stressed microvilli, however, their relative contribution remains to be determined. Thus, improvement beyond the current understanding requires in silico models that can predict both cellular and microvillus deformation and experiments that allow measurement of forces acting on individual microvilli and tethers. PMID:21515934

  1. Rolling element fatigue testing of gear materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahm, A. H.

    1978-01-01

    Rolling element fatigue lives of nine alloys were evaluated in Rolling Contact (RC) rigs. Test conditions included a Hertzian stress at 4,826 MPa (700 ksi), a rolling speed of 6.23 m/sec (245 in/sec.). Tests were run with a Type I oil (MIL-L-7808G) at room temperature. B-10 lives (10% failure rate) of alloys were compared versus reference alloys, VIM-VAR AISI M-50 and VAR AISI 9310. Six case carburizing alloys (AISI 9310, CBS600, CBS1000M, EX00014, Vasco X-2 and EX00053) and three through-hardening alloys (AISI M-50, VascoMax 350 and Vasco Matrix 2 evaluated, showed RCF performance inferior or equivalent to that of AISI 9310 and AISI M-50. It was also found that the effects of vacuum melting processes, different tempering temperatures, freezing cycle during heat treating, shot peening, gold plating and chrome plating employed in the present investigation did not significantly affect RCF life.

  2. Effects of oxide layers on surface defects during hot rolling processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Kyungzoon; Kim, Kisoo; Kim, Sung Kyu; Lee, Doh-Jae

    2012-04-01

    An oxide layer, which developed on the surface of a commercial hot rolling mill, was examined by forcibly stopping the roller between mill stands during activity. Liquid quartz was sprayed on the strip to prevent further oxide layer growth during cooling after stopping the hot-rolling mills. Then the thickness and shape of the oxide layer was examined in a cross-sectional view using an optical microscope. The thickness of the oxide layer increased through the 1st and 2nd passes of hot rolling, and then decreased through successive rolling, because the thickening rate by growth is larger than the thinning rate by deformation in high temperature. The temperature distributions of the oxide layer as well as the strip were predicted using the thermo-mechanical finite element method. As thermal conductivity of the oxide layer is low, the temperature deviation of the oxide layer increases and average temperature decreases as the thickness of the oxide layer increases, suggesting the increased formation of surface defects. With these results, a new cooling device was installed between the hot rolling mills to decrease the surface temperature and the thickness of the oxide layer, resulting in improved surface quality of the strip.

  3. Coiling Temperature Control in Hot Strip Mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imanari, Hiroyuki; Fujiyama, Hiroaki

    Coiling temperature is one of the most significant factors in products of hot strip mill to determine material properties such as strength, toughness of steel, so it is very important to achieve accurate coiling temperature control (CTC). Usually there are a few pyrometers on the run out table in hot strip mill, therefore temperature model and its adapting system have large influences on the accuracy of CTC. Also unscheduled change of rolling speed has a bad effect to keep coiling temperature as its target. Newly developed CTC system is able to get very accurate coiling temperature against uncertain factors and disturbances by adopting easily identified temperature model, learning method and dynamic set up function. The features of the CTC system are discussed with actual data, and the effectiveness of the system is shown by actual control results.

  4. Review on Cold-Formed Steel Connections

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Cher Siang; Mohammad, Shahrin; Md Tahir, Mahmood; Shek, Poi Ngian

    2014-01-01

    The concept of cold-formed light steel framing construction has been widespread after understanding its structural characteristics with massive research works over the years. Connection serves as one of the important elements for light steel framing in order to achieve its structural stability. Compared to hot-rolled steel sections, cold-formed steel connections perform dissimilarity due to the thin-walled behaviour. This paper aims to review current researches on cold-formed steel connections, particularly for screw connections, storage rack connections, welded connections, and bolted connections. The performance of these connections in the design of cold-formed steel structures is discussed. PMID:24688448

  5. Review on cold-formed steel connections.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeong Huei; Tan, Cher Siang; Mohammad, Shahrin; Tahir, Mahmood Md; Shek, Poi Ngian

    2014-01-01

    The concept of cold-formed light steel framing construction has been widespread after understanding its structural characteristics with massive research works over the years. Connection serves as one of the important elements for light steel framing in order to achieve its structural stability. Compared to hot-rolled steel sections, cold-formed steel connections perform dissimilarity due to the thin-walled behaviour. This paper aims to review current researches on cold-formed steel connections, particularly for screw connections, storage rack connections, welded connections, and bolted connections. The performance of these connections in the design of cold-formed steel structures is discussed.

  6. Effect of rolling asymmetry on selected properties of grade 2 titanium sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wroński, M.; Wierzbanowski, K.; Wróbel, M.; Wroński, S.; Bacroix, B.

    2015-09-01

    Asymmetric rolling can be used in order to modify material properties and to reduce forces and torques applied during deformation. This geometry of deformation is relatively easy to implement on existing industrial rolling mills and it can provide large volumes of a material. The study of microstructure, crystallographic texture and residual stress in asymmetrically rolled titanium (grade 2) is presented in this work. The above characteristics were examined using the EBSD technique and X-ray diffraction. The rolling asymmetry was realized using two identical rolls, driven by independent motors, rotating with different angular velocities. It was found that asymmetric rolling leads to microstructure modification and refinement. At low deformations one observes a process of grain size decrease caused by the asymmetry of rolling process. In contrast, at the medium range of deformations the microstructure refinement consists mainly in subgrain formation and grain fragmentation. Another observation is that for low to intermediate rolling reductions (≤40%) the predominant mechanisms are slip and twinning, while for higher deformation (>40%) the main mechanism is slip. It was found that grain refinement effect, caused by the rolling asymmetry, persists also after recrystallization annealing. And finally, texture homogenization and reduction of residual stress were confirmed for asymmetrically rolled samples.

  7. 70. PRIMARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER No. 2 FROM NORTHWEST. MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. PRIMARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER No. 2 FROM NORTHWEST. MILL DISCHARGED INTO LAUNDER WHICH PIERCED THE SIDE OF THE CLASSIFIER PAN. WOOD LAUNDER WITHIN CLASSIFIER VISIBLE (FILLED WITH DEBRIS). HORIZONTAL WOOD PLANKING BEHIND MILL IS FEED BOX. MILL SOLUTION PIPING RUNS ALONG BASE OF WEST SIDE OF CLASSIFIER. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  8. A Simulation of Surface Roughness in Hot Strip Rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jianning; Tieu, A. Kiet; Jiang, Zhengyi

    2004-06-01

    In hot strip rolling the temperature range is 800-1000 °C where an oxide scale layer is formed on the steel surface. In this paper, the authors consider a model of surface roughness based on Gaussian distribution function, where a rough surface profile or surface section profile with specified roughness parameters can be generated easily and analysed. The effect of roughness parameters on the change of surface roughness is also considered. The aim of this study is to determine the surface roughness and the asperity deformation at the scale-steel interface and the final roughness profile of the rolled strip after the hot finishing mill. Based on the MSC-MARC package, a finite element method (FEM) model is used to simulate the hot strip rolling asperity deformation and surface roughness transfer of the oxide scale and the steel surface roughness. The generated profile of surface roughness is verified by the scanned surface profile of the oxidized hot strip.

  9. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip

    SciTech Connect

    Lavernia, E.J.; Delplanque, J-P; McHugh, K.M.

    2006-05-10

    Spray forming is a competitive low-cost alternative to ingot metallurgy for manufacturing ferrous and non-ferrous alloy shapes. It produces materials with a reduced number of processing steps, while maintaining materials properties, with the possibility of near-net-shape manufacturing. However, there are several hurdles to large-scale commercial adoption of spray forming: 1) ensuring strip is consistently flat, 2) eliminating porosity, particularly at the deposit/substrate interface, and 3) improving material yield. Through this program, a new strip/sheet casting process, termed spray rolling, has been developed, which is an innovative manufacturing technique to produce aluminum net-shape products. Spray rolling combines the benefits of twin-roll casting and conventional spray forming, showing a promising potential to overcome the above hurdles associated with spray forming. Spray rolling requires less energy and generates less scrap than conventional processes and, consequently, enables the development of materials with lower environmental impacts in both processing and final products. Spray Rolling was developed as a collaborative project between the University of California-Davis, the Colorado School of Mines, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and an industry team. The following objectives of this project were achieved: (1) Demonstration of the feasibility of the spray rolling process at the bench-scale level and evaluation of the materials properties of spray rolled aluminum strip alloys; and (2) Demonstration of 2X scalability of the process and documentation of technical hurdles to further scale up and initiate technology transfer to industry for eventual commercialization of the process.

  10. Rolling-element fatigue life of AMS 5900 balls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    The rolling-element fatigue life of AMS 5900 12.7-mm (1/2-in.) dia was determined in five-ball fatigue testers. The 10% life with the warm headed AMS 5900 balls was equivalent to that of AMS 5749 and over eight times that of AISI M-50. The AMS balls fabricated by cold heading had small surface cracks which initiated fatigue spalls where these cracks were crossed by running tracks. The cold-headed AMS 5900 balls had a 10% fatigue life an order of magnitude less than that of the warm headed balls even when failures on the cold headed balls at visible surface cracks were omitted.

  11. Common cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000678.htm Common cold To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The common cold most often causes a runny nose, nasal congestion, ...

  12. Deformation behavior of a slab with width reduction in a hot mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Myung-Sik; Ahn, Ick-Tae; Moon, Young-Hoon

    2005-06-01

    The deformation of a slab with various width reductions has been investigated using a rigid-plastic finite-element analysis. A commercial finite-element code was used to analyze a dog-bone profile, mean thickness, length of slab, and longitudinal width profile after edging and horizontal rolling. The deformation behavior of a slab in a heavy edger mill was also compared with deformation in a sizing press. It was found that the sizing press followed by horizontal rolling is more efficient in width reduction than deformation by a heavy edger mill followed by horizontal rolling. The finite-element analysis results for the deformation of a slab also show reasonable agreement with measurements from an actual mill test, and from physical modeling experiments.

  13. Advanced Modeling and Materials in Kraft Pulp Mills

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, J.R.; Gorog, J.P.

    2002-05-15

    This CRADA provided technical support to the Weyerhaeuser Company on a number of issues related to the performance and/or selection of materials at a number of locations in a pulp and paper mill. The studies related primarily to components for black liquor recovery boilers, but some effort was directed toward black liquor gasifiers and rolls for paper machines. The purpose of this CRADA was to assist Weyerhaeuser in the evaluation of materials exposed in various paper mill environments and to provide direction in the selection of alternate materials, when appropriate.

  14. Cold Sore

    MedlinePlus

    ... genitals. Most people who are infected with the virus that causes cold sores never develop signs and symptoms. Cold sores ... an infection — test positive for evidence of the virus that causes cold sores. People who have weakened immune systems are ...

  15. Revitalizing America's Mills: A Report on Brownfields Mill Projects

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report focuses on mills -- former textile, wood, paper, iron, and steel mills. The report describes the challenges and opportunities of mill sites with case studies highlighting some of the most creative solutions from across the country.

  16. Stochastic disks that roll.

    PubMed

    Holmes-Cerfon, Miranda

    2016-11-01

    We study a model of rolling particles subject to stochastic fluctuations, which may be relevant in systems of nano- or microscale particles where rolling is an approximation for strong static friction. We consider the simplest possible nontrivial system: a linear polymer of three disks constrained to remain in contact and immersed in an equilibrium heat bath so the internal angle of the polymer changes due to stochastic fluctuations. We compare two cases: one where the disks can slide relative to each other and the other where they are constrained to roll, like gears. Starting from the Langevin equations with arbitrary linear velocity constraints, we use formal homogenization theory to derive the overdamped equations that describe the process in configuration space only. The resulting dynamics have the formal structure of a Brownian motion on a Riemannian or sub-Riemannian manifold, depending on if the velocity constraints are holonomic or nonholonomic. We use this to compute the trimer's equilibrium distribution with and without the rolling constraints. Surprisingly, the two distributions are different. We suggest two possible interpretations of this result: either (i) dry friction (or other dissipative, nonequilibrium forces) changes basic thermodynamic quantities like the free energy of a system, a statement that could be tested experimentally, or (ii) as a lesson in modeling rolling or friction more generally as a velocity constraint when stochastic fluctuations are present. In the latter case, we speculate there could be a "roughness" entropy whose inclusion as an effective force could compensate the constraint and preserve classical Boltzmann statistics. Regardless of the interpretation, our calculation shows the word "rolling" must be used with care when stochastic fluctuations are present.

  17. Stochastic disks that roll

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes-Cerfon, Miranda

    2016-11-01

    We study a model of rolling particles subject to stochastic fluctuations, which may be relevant in systems of nano- or microscale particles where rolling is an approximation for strong static friction. We consider the simplest possible nontrivial system: a linear polymer of three disks constrained to remain in contact and immersed in an equilibrium heat bath so the internal angle of the polymer changes due to stochastic fluctuations. We compare two cases: one where the disks can slide relative to each other and the other where they are constrained to roll, like gears. Starting from the Langevin equations with arbitrary linear velocity constraints, we use formal homogenization theory to derive the overdamped equations that describe the process in configuration space only. The resulting dynamics have the formal structure of a Brownian motion on a Riemannian or sub-Riemannian manifold, depending on if the velocity constraints are holonomic or nonholonomic. We use this to compute the trimer's equilibrium distribution with and without the rolling constraints. Surprisingly, the two distributions are different. We suggest two possible interpretations of this result: either (i) dry friction (or other dissipative, nonequilibrium forces) changes basic thermodynamic quantities like the free energy of a system, a statement that could be tested experimentally, or (ii) as a lesson in modeling rolling or friction more generally as a velocity constraint when stochastic fluctuations are present. In the latter case, we speculate there could be a "roughness" entropy whose inclusion as an effective force could compensate the constraint and preserve classical Boltzmann statistics. Regardless of the interpretation, our calculation shows the word "rolling" must be used with care when stochastic fluctuations are present.

  18. Extended slow-roll conditions and rapid-roll conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Chiba, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Masahide E-mail: gucci@phys.aoyama.ac.jp

    2008-10-15

    We derive slow-roll conditions for a scalar field which is non-minimally coupled with gravity in a consistent manner and express spectral indices of scalar/tensor perturbations in terms of the slow-roll parameters. The conformal invariance of the curvature perturbation is proved without linear approximations. Rapid-roll conditions are also derived, and the relation with the slow-roll conditions is discussed.

  19. Rolling through a vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Schaar, Jan Pieter; Yang, I.-Sheng

    2013-12-01

    We clarify under what conditions slow-roll inflation can continue almost undisturbed, while briefly evolving through a (semi-classically) metastable false vacuum. Furthermore, we look at potential signatures in the primordial power spectrum that could point towards the existence of traversed metastable false vacua. Interestingly, the theoretical constraints for the existence of traversable metastable vacua imply that Planck should be able to detect the resulting features in the primordial power spectrum. In other words, if Planck does not see features this immediately implies the non-existence of metastable false vacua rolled through during the inflationary epoch.

  20. METHOD OF ROLLING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Smith, C.S.

    1959-08-01

    A method is described for rolling uranium metal at relatively low temperatures and under non-oxidizing conditions. The method involves the steps of heating the uranium to 200 deg C in an oil bath, withdrawing the uranium and permitting the oil to drain so that only a thin protective coating remains and rolling the oil coated uranium at a temperature of 200 deg C to give about a 15% reduction in thickness at each pass. The operation may be repeated to accomplish about a 90% reduction without edge cracking, checking or any appreciable increase in brittleness.

  1. Compound taper milling machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, N. R.

    1969-01-01

    Simple, inexpensive milling machine tapers panels from a common apex to a uniform height at panel edge regardless of the panel perimeter configuration. The machine consists of an adjustable angled beam upon which the milling tool moves back and forth above a rotatable table upon which the workpiece is held.

  2. Bay Mills' Bold Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Eric

    2011-01-01

    It's a long, long way from Bay Mills Community College, near the shores of frigid Lake Superior, to Detroit. But distance, time and demographics aside, the school and the city are united by Bay Mills' status as the nation's only tribally controlled college that authorizes quasi-public schools, known officially as public school academies. And it's…

  3. Bay Mills' Bold Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Eric

    2011-01-01

    It's a long, long way from Bay Mills Community College, near the shores of frigid Lake Superior, to Detroit. But distance, time and demographics aside, the school and the city are united by Bay Mills' status as the nation's only tribally controlled college that authorizes quasi-public schools, known officially as public school academies. And it's…

  4. Microstructure Evolution During Spray Rolling and Heat Treatment of 2124 Al

    SciTech Connect

    K.M. McHugh; Y. Lin; Y. Zhou; S.B. Johnson; J.P. Delplanque; E.J. Lavernia

    2006-09-01

    Spray rolling is a strip casting technology that combines elements of spray forming and twin-roll casting. It consists of atomizing molten metal with a high velocity inert gas, quenching the resultant droplets in flight, and directing the spray between mill rolls. In-flight convection heat transfer from atomized droplets and conduction heat transfer at the rolls rapidly move an alloy’s latent heat. Hot deformation of the semi-solid material in the rolls results in fully consolidated, rapidly-solidified product. While similar in many ways to twin-roll casting, spray rolling is able to process a broader range of alloys and operates at a higher production rate. A laboratory-scale strip caster has been constructed at INL and used to evaluate the interplay of processing parameters and strip quality while producing strips up to 200 mm wide and 1.6 – 6.4 mm thick. Plans are underway to scale to 600 mm width and demonstrate steady-state operation. As-spray-rolled strip is characterized by a flat, uniformly thick profile with minimal porosity or segregation. This paper examines how processing parameters influence the microstructure transformations that take place during spray rolling and post-deposition heat treatment of 2124 Al.

  5. STANDBY TOP AND BOTTOM ROTARY MILLING CUTTERS FOR TORIN LINE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    STANDBY TOP AND BOTTOM ROTARY MILLING CUTTERS FOR TORIN LINE. SOME PRODUCT FROM THE #43 HOT ROLL IS PROCESSED ON THE TORIN LINE TO REMOVE OXIDIZED SURFACE MATERIAL. IN PRACTICE 15-20/1000 IS CUT FROM THE UPPER AND LOWER SURFACES OF THE STRIP AND RECYCLED TO THE CASTING SHOP. TORIN LINE ADDED AS PART OF 1981 EXPANSION PROGRAM. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  6. Rolling Spot Welder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Garret E.; Fonteyne, Steve L.

    1990-01-01

    Wheeled tool speeds tack-welding operations. Spotwelds foil to parts in preparation for brazing. Includes electrode wheel rolling across foil. Welding current in electrode pulsed as electrode moves along, making series of uniformly-spaced low-current spot welds.

  7. Rolling Spot Welder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Garret E.; Fonteyne, Steve L.

    1990-01-01

    Wheeled tool speeds tack-welding operations. Spotwelds foil to parts in preparation for brazing. Includes electrode wheel rolling across foil. Welding current in electrode pulsed as electrode moves along, making series of uniformly-spaced low-current spot welds.

  8. Aircraft roll steering command system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambregts, Antonius A. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Aircraft roll command signals are generated as a function of the Microwave Landing System based azimuth, groundtrack, groundspeed and azimuth rate or range distance input parameters. On initial approach, roll command signals are inhibited until a minimum roll command requirement is met. As the aircraft approaches the centerline of the runway, the system reverts to a linear track control.

  9. Texture evolution in warm rolled low-carbon steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Araiza, Miguel

    The effect of warm and cold rolling parameters on the development of annealing textures and their effects on the final formability were studied in two LC steels containing 0.8%Cr. Warm rolling temperatures between 640 and 750°C were employed, together with reductions of 65% to 80%. The effects of an additional cold rolling reduction of 40%, different initial hot band grain sizes (HBGSs) and a decrease in the heating rate during annealing were also studied. The ND fibre, <111>//ND, of the recrystallization texture was strengthened as the warm rolling temperature was decreased. A noticeable improvement in both the continuity and intensity of the ND fibre was obtained when samples were submitted to an additional 40% cold rolling reduction. The ND fibre was even more continuous and intense when a low heating rate was utilized, yielding r-values of 1.2 and 1.3 for the warm rolled and warm plus cold rolled samples, respectively. On the other hand, the volume fraction of grains containing shear bands is slightly lower for the finer HBGS. However, this does not reduce the amount of in-grain nucleation of gamma grains, suggesting that shear bands are not the only factor that has to be considered in the improvement of warm rolling textures. Although the normal anisotropy is not affected by the HBGS, much lower Deltar values were associated with the finer grained steel. The texture changes taking place during recrystallization were examined using electron back-scattered diffraction. The recrystallization textures resemble the deformation textures but with a more extensive alpha fibre that includes the {113}<471> orientation; the gamma fibre extends to the {554}<225>. These two orientations are related to the {112}<110> deformed grains by near 26° rotations about selected <110> axes. Nevertheless, both orientations appear in the early stages of recrystallization, an observation that does not support the oriented growth theory. The {111} < hkl> orientations are the first to

  10. 102. VIEW OF PILOT MILL INTERIOR, MILLING LEVEL FROM WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    102. VIEW OF PILOT MILL INTERIOR, MILLING LEVEL FROM WEST. BALL MILL FOUNDATION IN FOREGROUND, SLOPED CLASSIFIER BED AND CALCINE BIN ADJACENT, WITH CRUSHER IN BACKGROUND. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  11. Relationship between Rice Sample Milling Conditions and Milling Quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of milling conditions on milling quality of medium grain rough rice M202. Using a McGill No. 3 mill, the conditions studied were milling weight and duration, and polishing weight and duration. This research examined the relationships among the...

  12. 13. TROJAN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRIMARY MILL No. 1 (ALLIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. TROJAN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRIMARY MILL No. 1 (ALLIS CHALMERS BALL MILL) FROM EAST, c. 1919. ELECTRIC MOTOR AND DRIVE SHAFT CLEARLY VISIBLE. CREDIT WR. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  13. 9. Monadnock Mills complex from the south. Mill No. 1 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Monadnock Mills complex from the south. Mill No. 1 is in the center, with the Wheel and Pump House and Mill No. 2 to the left, and the Clothroom Building/Bleach House to the right. - Monadnock Mills, 15 Water Street, Claremont, Sullivan County, NH

  14. GRCop-84 Rolling Parameter Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, William S.; Ellis, David L.

    2008-01-01

    This report is a section of the final report on the GRCop-84 task of the Constellation Program and incorporates the results obtained between October 2000 and September 2005, when the program ended. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed a new copper alloy, GRCop-84 (Cu-8 at.% Cr-4 at.% Nb), for rocket engine main combustion chamber components that will improve rocket engine life and performance. This work examines the sensitivity of GRCop-84 mechanical properties to rolling parameters as a means to better define rolling parameters for commercial warm rolling. Experiment variables studied were total reduction, rolling temperature, rolling speed, and post rolling annealing heat treatment. The responses were tensile properties measured at 23 and 500 C, hardness, and creep at three stress-temperature combinations. Understanding these relationships will better define boundaries for a robust commercial warm rolling process. The four processing parameters were varied within limits consistent with typical commercial production processes. Testing revealed that the rolling-related variables selected have a minimal influence on tensile, hardness, and creep properties over the range of values tested. Annealing had the expected result of lowering room temperature hardness and strength while increasing room temperature elongations with 600 C (1112 F) having the most effect. These results indicate that the process conditions to warm roll plate and sheet for these variables can range over wide levels without negatively impacting mechanical properties. Incorporating broader process ranges in future rolling campaigns should lower commercial rolling costs through increased productivity.

  15. The Milling Assistant

    SciTech Connect

    Burd, W.C.

    1989-09-01

    A knowledge based computer program that assists programmers of Numerically Controlled (NC) machine tools is described. The program uses part features identified by the NC programmer at a CAD/CAM graphics display and a set of manufacturing rules to select machining parameters and produce NC part programs. An expert system determines the correct NC sequence and the machining parameters. Both milled and point-to-point features are programmed by the Milling Assistant. Examples are included to illustrate the problem domain. Extensions to the Milling Assistant are described. 11 refs.

  16. [Radioactivity monitoring of steel processing in Croatian steel mills and foundries].

    PubMed

    Sofilić, Tahir; Marjanović, Tihana; Rastovcan-Mioc, Alenka

    2006-03-01

    The last twenty years have seen a number of cases of radioactive pollution in metallurgical industry. Therefore many metal producers have implemented systematic monitoring of radioactivity in their production processes, especially in steel processing, steel being the most applied construction material with the annual world output of over billion tonnes. Learning from the experience of the best known steel producers in Europe and the world Croatian steel mills have introduced radioactivity surveillance and control systems for radioactive elements in steel scrap, semi-finished and finished products. This paper argues in favour of radioactivity surveillance and control systems in steel and steel castings production in Croatia, and describes current systems and solutions available. Since we lack our own standards and regulations to control both domestic and imported steel scrap, semi-finished products (crude steel, hot and cold rolled strip) and finished products, we need to start implementing radioactivity surveillance and control systems in our steel and steel castings production applying the current international recommendations and guidelines, until we build up our own monitoring system and adopt legislation on the national level. This paper gives an overview of the basic types of radioactivity surveillance and control systems, the most frequent requirements to be met, as well as of the measurement and information flow in their application in steel and steel castings production.

  17. 13. VIEW OF THE MILL LOOKING SOUTHWEST SHOWING THE MILL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF THE MILL LOOKING SOUTHWEST SHOWING THE MILL, TRESTLES, A WAREHOUSE AT THE RIGHT SIDE TO THE PHOTOGRAPH. NOTE THE PIPE IN THE LOWER CENTER FOREGROUND. THIS IS A RUIN OF THE TAILING LINE THAT RAN FROM THE MILL TO THE CYANIDE PLANT ABOUT 1800 FEET NORTH OF THE MILL. DETERIORATED PIECES OF THE WOOD TRESTLE THAT CARRIED THE PIPE ARE SCATTERED AROUND THE PIPE. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  18. Walk and roll robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A mobile robotic unit features a main body, a plurality of legs for supporting the main body on and moving the main body in forward and reverse directions about a base surface, and a drive assembly. According to an exemplary embodiment each leg includes a respective pivotal hip joint, a pivotal knee joint, and a wheeled foot adapted to roll along the base surface. Also according to an exemplary embodiments the drive assembly includes a motor operatively associated with the hip and knee joints and the wheeled foot for independently driving pivotal movement of the hip joint and the knee joint and rolling motion of the wheeled foot. The hip joint may include a ball-and-socket-type joint interconnecting top portion of the leg to the main body, such that the hip joint is adapted to pivot said leg in a direction transverse to a forward-and-reverse direction.

  19. Cold injuries.

    PubMed

    Kruse, R J

    1995-01-01

    There are two categories of cold injury. The first is hypothermia, which is a systemic injury to cold, and the second is frostbite, which is a local injury. Throughout history, entire armies, from George Washington to the Germans on the Russian Front in World War II, have fallen prey to prolonged cold exposure. Cold injury is common and can occur in all seasons if ambient temperature is lower than the core body temperature. In the 1985 Boston Marathon, even though it was 76 degrees and sunny, there were 75 runners treated for hypothermia. In general, humans adapt poorly to cold exposure. Children are at particular risk because of their relatively greater surface area/body mass ratio, causing them to cool even more rapidly than adults. Because of this, the human's best defense against cold injury is to limit his/her exposure to cold and to dress appropriately. If cold injury has occurred and is mild, often simple passive rewarming such as dry blankets and a warm room are sufficient treatment.

  20. Study on the cold working process for FM steel cladding tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tae Kyu; Kim, Sung Ho

    2011-04-01

    A cold working process for FM steel cladding tubes of the sodium-cooled fast reactor was studied. Hot-rolled 9Cr-2W steel plates were heat-treated to dissolve the M 23C 6 and V-rich MX precipitates into the matrix, followed by several cold rollings and intermediate/final heat treatments with the purpose of nucleating the dissolved precipitates on the dislocations formed through the cold rolling. As a result, it was possible to obtain the FM steels with very fine and uniform precipitates which were more promising for superior tensile properties.

  1. Investigation of thermomechanical behavior of a work roll and of roll life in hot strip rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, C. G.; Hwang, S. M.; Yun, C. S.; Chung, J. S.

    1998-09-01

    An integrated finite element-based model is presented for the prediction of the steady-state thermomechanical behavior of the roll-strip system and of roll life in hot strip rolling. The model is comprised of basic finite-element models, which are incorporated into an iterative-solution procedure to deal with the interdependence between the thermomechanical behavior of the strip and that of the work roll, which arises from roll-strip contact, as well as with the interdependence between the thermal and mechanical behavior. Comparison is made between the predictions and the measurements to assess solution accuracy. Then, the effect of various process parameters on the detailed aspects of thermomechanical behavior of the work roll and on roll life is investigated via a series of process simulations.

  2. Confirmation Tests of Hot and Cold Artillery Shell Drawing Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-05-01

    numerical control ( CNC ) machining of templates for cold and hot drawing operations 130 C-18 NC-Program for machining the template for cold drawing die...finish-welded using the electrodes from the hardfacing alloy. After the dies are cooled, the bore is finish- machined on a copier lathe using appropriate...cold drawing and three for hot drawing - were manufactured using a CNC Milling machine at Battelle’s Columbus Laboratories. Plates of 114.3 mm (4.5 in

  3. Ion Milling of Sapphire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Don A.; Herren, Kenneth A.

    2004-01-01

    The ion milling of sapphire is a complicated operation due to several characteristics of the material itself. It is a relatively hard transparent nonconductive crystalline material that does not transfer heat nearly as well as metals that have been successfully ion milled in the past. This investigation involved designing an experimental arrangement, using existing ion milling equipment, as the precursor to figuring the surface of sapphire and other insulating optical materials. The experimental arrangement employs a laser probe beam to constantly monitor the stresses being induced in the material, as it is being ion milled. The goal is to determine if the technique proposed would indeed indicate the stress being induced in the material so that these stresses can be managed to prevent failure of the optic.

  4. Ion Milling of Sapphire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Don A.; Herren, Kenneth A.

    2004-01-01

    The ion milling of sapphire is a complicated operation due to several characteristics of the material itself. It is a relatively hard transparent nonconductive crystalline material that does not transfer heat nearly as well as metals that have been successfully ion milled in the past. This investigation involved designing an experimental arrangement, using existing ion milling equipment, as the precursor to figuring the surface of sapphire and other insulating optical materials. The experimental arrangement employs a laser probe beam to constantly monitor the stresses being induced in the material, as it is being ion milled. The goal is to determine if the technique proposed would indeed indicate the stress being induced in the material so that these stresses can be managed to prevent failure of the optic.

  5. Pitt Mill Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Oder, R.R.; Borzone, L.A.

    1990-05-01

    Results of a technical and economic evaluation of application of the Pitt Mill to fine coal grinding are presented. The Pitt Mill is a vertically oriented, batch operated, intermediate energy density (0. 025 kW/lb media), stirred ball mill. The mill grinds coal from coarse sizes (typically 3/16 inch or 4 mesh topsize) to the 10 micron to 20 micron mean particle diameter size range in a single step using a shallow grinding bed containing inexpensive, readily available, course grinding media. Size reduction is efficient because of rapid product circulation through the grinding bed caused by action of a novel circulation screw mounted on the agitator shaft. When a dispersant is employed, the grinding can be carried out to 50% to 60% solids concentration. Use of coarse grinding media offers the possibility of enhanced mineral liberation because size reduction is achieved more by impact shattering than by attrition. The batch method offers the possibility of very close control over product particle size distribution without overproduction of fines. A two- phase program was carried out. In the first phase, Grinding Studies, tests were run to determine a suitable configuration of the Pitt Mill. Machine design parameters which were studied included screw configuration, media type, agitator RPM, time, media size, and slurry chamber aspect ratio. During the last part of this phase of the program, tests were carried out to compare the results of grinding Pocahontas seam, Pittsburgh {number sign}8, and East Kentucky Mingo County coals by the Pitt Mill and by a two-stage grinding process employing a Netzsch John mill to feed a high energy density (0.05 kW/Lb media) disc mill. 22 refs., 25 tabs.

  6. The rolling texture of 18% Ni-350 maraging steel

    SciTech Connect

    Haq, A. ul; Khan, A.Q. )

    1993-02-01

    Texture development in hot rolled sheet and hot forged tube of 18% Ni-350 maraging steel has been studied after various degrees of cold deformation and flow turning, respectively. Hot rolled sheet exhibited considerable mechanical anisotropy. Weak texture development was observed following flow turning compared to cold deformation. Above 80% deformation, an increase in work hardening was accompanied by an increase in the orientation density of the texture component (001)[110]. Deformation of 97% leads to the development of the texture component (111)[110], with the highest orientation density 10.3 times random and a constant orientation density of 9 times random along [var phi][sub 1] at [phi] = 55[degree] and [var phi][sub 2] = 45[degree]. This texture was correlated with the appearance of shear bands in the microstructure.

  7. Improving cold chain systems: Challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Ashok, Ashvin; Brison, Michael; LeTallec, Yann

    2017-04-19

    While a number of new vaccines have been rolled out across the developing world (with more vaccines in the pipeline), cold chain systems are struggling to efficiently support national immunization programs in ensuring the availability of safe and potent vaccines. This article reflects on the Clinton Health Access Initiative, Inc. (CHAI) experience working since 2010 with national immunization programs and partners to improve vaccines cold chains in 10 countries-Ethiopia, Nigeria, Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, Uganda, Cameroon, Mozambique, Lesotho and India - to identify the root causes and solutions for three common issues limiting cold chain performance. Key recommendations include: Collectively, the solutions detailed in this article chart a path to substantially improving the performance of the cold chain. Combined with an enabling global and in-country environment, it is possible to eliminate cold chain issues as a substantial barrier to effective and full immunization coverage over the next few years. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. 16. 3RD FLOOR, J.M. LEHMANN CO. FIVEROLL TOILET SOAP MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. 3RD FLOOR, J.M. LEHMANN CO. FIVE-ROLL TOILET SOAP MILL INSTALLED 1950, TO WEST; BUCKET CONVEYOR AT RIGHT MOVED WASTE FROM 2ND FLOOR SOAP PRESSES TO 5TH FLOOR RE-MANUFACTURE - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-14, 54-58 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  9. Phase evolution in carbide dispersion strengthened nanostructured copper composite by high energy ball milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Zuhailawati; Nur Hawadah, M. S.

    2012-09-01

    In this study, high-energy ball milling was applied to synthesis in situ nanostructured copper based composite reinforced with metal carbides. Cu, M (M=W or Ti) and graphite powder mixture were mechanically alloyed for various milling time in a planetary ball mill with composition of Cu-20vol%WC and Cu-20vol%TiC. Then the as-milled powder were compacted at 200 to 400 MPa and sintered in a vacuum furnace at 900°C. The results of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis showed that formation of tungsten carbides (W2C and WC phases) was observed after sintering of Cu-W-C mixture while TiC precipitated in as-milled powder of Cu-Ti-C composite after 5 h and become amorphous with longer milling. Mechanism of MA explained the cold welding and fracturing event during milling. Cu-W-C system shows fracturing event is more dominant at early stage of milling and W particle still existed after milling up to 60 h. While in Cu-Ti-C system, cold welding is more dominant and all Ti particles dissolved into Cu matrix.

  10. Phase evolution in carbide dispersion strengthened nanostructured copper composite by high energy ball milling

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Zuhailawati; Nur Hawadah, M. S.

    2012-09-06

    In this study, high-energy ball milling was applied to synthesis in situ nanostructured copper based composite reinforced with metal carbides. Cu, M (M=W or Ti) and graphite powder mixture were mechanically alloyed for various milling time in a planetary ball mill with composition of Cu-20vol%WC and Cu-20vol%TiC. Then the as-milled powder were compacted at 200 to 400 MPa and sintered in a vacuum furnace at 900 Degree-Sign C. The results of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis showed that formation of tungsten carbides (W{sub 2}C and WC phases) was observed after sintering of Cu-W-C mixture while TiC precipitated in as-milled powder of Cu-Ti-C composite after 5 h and become amorphous with longer milling. Mechanism of MA explained the cold welding and fracturing event during milling. Cu-W-C system shows fracturing event is more dominant at early stage of milling and W particle still existed after milling up to 60 h. While in Cu-Ti-C system, cold welding is more dominant and all Ti particles dissolved into Cu matrix.

  11. Phase transformation kinetics in rolled U-10 wt. % Mo foil: Effect of post-rolling heat treatment and prior γ-UMo grain size

    DOE PAGES

    Jana, Saumyadeep; Overman, Nicole; Varga, Tamas; ...

    2017-09-25

    Here, the effect of sub-eutectoid heat treatment on the phase transformation behavior in rolled U-10 wt.% Mo (U10Mo) foils was systematically investigated. The as-cast 5 mm thick foils were initially homogenized at 900 °C for 48 h and were hot rolled to 2 mm and later cold rolled down to 0.2 mm. Three starting microstructures were evaluated: (i) hot + cold-rolled to 0.2 mm (as-rolled condition), (ii) hot + cold-rolled to 0.2 mm + annealed at 700 °C for 1 h, and (iii) hot + cold-rolled to 0.2 mm + annealed at 1000 °C for 60 h. Annealing of as-rolledmore » materials at 700 °C resulted in small grain size (15 ± 9 μm average grain size), while annealing at 1000 °C led to very large grains (156 ± 118 μm average grain size) in rolled U10Mo foils. Later the samples were subjected to sub-eutectoid heat-treatment temperatures of 550 °C, 500 °C, and 400 °C for different durations of time starting from 1 h up to 100 h. U10Mo rolled foils went through various degrees of decomposition when subjected to the sub-eutectoid heat-treatment step and formed a lamellar microstructure through a cellular reaction mostly along the previous γ-UMo grain boundaries. The least amount of cellular reaction was observed in the large-grain microstructure at all temperatures. Conversely, a substantial amount of cellular reaction was observed in both the as-rolled and the small-grain microstructure. After 100 h of heat treatment at 500 °C, the volume fraction of the lamellar phase was found to be 4%, 22%, and 82% in large-grain, as-rolled, and small-grain samples, respectively.« less

  12. Experimental Study on Heat Transfer in a Rolling Ash Cooler used in the CFB Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W.; Li, J. J.; Yang, S.; Si, X. D.; Yang, H. R.; Lu, J. F.; Yue, G. X.

    From the view of the reliability and the techno-economy, the rolling ash cooler is feasible for the large-scale CFB boilers. However, existing studies on heat transfer in rolling ash cooler mainly focused on heat balance calculation and cold, hot test on the ash cooler outputs. In the heat balance calculation, the value of the overall heat transfer coefficient (a) is usually estimated by the experience, lacking of the support of experimental data.

  13. Cold intolerance

    MedlinePlus

    Some causes of cold intolerance are: Anemia Anorexia nervosa Blood vessel problems, such as Raynaud phenomenon Chronic severe illness General poor health Underactive thyroid ( hypothyroidism ) Problem with the hypothalamus (a part ...

  14. Simulation of vertical-horizontal rolling process during width reduction by full three-dimensional rigid-plastic finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, S.; Liu, X.; Wang, G.; Zhang, W.

    1997-12-01

    Vertical-horizontal (V-H) rolling is an important process during width reduction in the roughing stand of hot strip mill. A simulation of steady-state V-H rolling was carried out by the full three-dimensional rigid-plastic finite element method (3D RPFEM). To consider the shear work rate and cope with a singular point, an extremely thin array of elements was attached before the entry of the roll. The slab shape, the spread, the separating force, and the rolling torque calculated were in good agreement with the experimental values.

  15. Analysis of Fatigue Crack Paths in Cold Drawn Pearlitic Steel.

    PubMed

    Toribio, Jesús; González, Beatriz; Matos, Juan-Carlos

    2015-11-04

    In this paper, a fracto-metallographic analysis was performed on the cracked specimens of cold drawn pearlitic steel subjected to fatigue tests. Fatigue cracks are transcollonial and exhibit a preference for fracturing pearlitic lamellae, with non-uniform crack opening displacement values, micro-discontinuities, branchings, bifurcations and frequent local deflections that create microstructural roughness. At the micro-level, the cold drawn pearlitic steel exhibits higher micro-roughness than the hot rolled bar (this is a consequence of the manufacturing process by cold drawing), so that the actual fractured surface in the cold drawn wire is greater than that in the hot rolled bar, due to the fact that the crack deflection events are more frequent and with higher angle in the former (the heavily drawn prestressing steel wire). These findings show the relevant role on the manufacturing process by cold drawing in the fatigue crack propagation in pearlitic steel.

  16. Rolling cuff flexible bellows

    DOEpatents

    Lambert, Donald R.

    1985-01-01

    A flexible connector apparatus used to join two stiff non-deformable members, such as piping. The apparatus is provided with one or more flexible sections or assemblies each utilizing a bellows of a rolling cuff type connected between two ridge members, with the bellows being supported by a back-up ring, such that only the curved end sections of the bellows are unsupported. Thus, the bellows can be considered as being of a tube-shaped configuration and thus have high pressure resistance. The components of the flexible apparatus are sealed or welded one to another such that it is fluid tight.

  17. Mechanical properties and structure of friction stir welds of rolled Zr-modified AA5083 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malopheyev, S.; Mironov, S.; Kaibyshev, R.

    2016-11-01

    Microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welds of Zr-modified AA5083 aluminum sheets were studied. The sheets were produced by cold or hot rolling with a total reduction of 80%. In both rolled conditions, the average high angle boundary spacing was 17-18 µm. The density of free dislocations was ˜5.6 × 1013 and ˜3.5 × 1014 m-2 in hot rolled and cold rolled conditions, respectively. The volume fraction of incoherent Al6Mn dispersoids with an average diameter of ˜25 nm was measured to be ˜0.076%. Defect-free welds were produced by double-side friction stir welding (FSW). Friction stir welding led to the formation of fully recrystallized microstructures with the average grain size about 2.5 µm and low dislocation density in the stir zone in both conditions. The average size and volume fraction of Al6Mn particles increased to ˜25 nm and ˜0.1%, respectively. The joint efficiency of the friction stir welds for ultimate tensile strength was found to be 74 and 94% in the cold-rolled and hot-rolled preprocessed material conditions. The relatively low weld strength was attributed to the elimination of dislocation substructure strengthening during FSW.

  18. Rotordynamic Influence on Rolling ELement Bearing Selection and Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Queitzsch, Gilbert K., Jr.; Fleming, David P.

    2001-01-01

    Three case studies are presented that illustrate the importance of dynamic considerations in the design of machinery supported by rolling element bearings. The first case concerns a milling spindle that experienced internal rubs and high bearing loads, and required retrofit of an additional . damped bearing. The second case deals with a small high-speed generator that suffered high vibration due to flexible mounting. The third case is a propulsion fan simulator rig whose bearings failed catastrophically due to improper bearing installation (which resulted in inadequate dynamic bearing stiffness) and lack of health monitoring instrumentation.

  19. 68. VIEW OF MILLING FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. SECONDARY MILL AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. VIEW OF MILLING FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. SECONDARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER AT MIDDLE LEFT. PRIMARY MILL SURGE TANK AND LAUNDERS AT MIDDLE BOTTOM. STAIR TO TROJAN CLASSIFIER LEVEL BEHIND CRANE BENT, UPPER RIGHT. PAIRED PIPES FROM PRIMARY PULP PUMPS TO PRIMARY THICKENERS RISE VERTICALLY AT MIDDLE RIGHT AND RUN HORIZONTALLY ACROSS TOP OF VIEW. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  20. 168. VIEW OF MILLING FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. SECONDARY MILL AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    168. VIEW OF MILLING FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. SECONDARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER AT MIDDLE LEFT. PRIMARY MILL SURGE TANK AND LAUNDERS AT MIDDLE BOTTOM. STAIR TO TROJAN CLASSIFIER LEVEL BEHIND CRANE BENT, UPPER RIGHT. PAIRED PIPES FROM PRIMARY PULP PUMPS TO PRIMARY THICKENERS RISE VERTICALLY AT MIDDLE RIGHT AND RUN HORIZONTALLY ACROSS TOP OF VIEW - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  1. Improving the quality of rolled pipe steel products by minimizing the bending of the ends of plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salganik, V. M.; Chikishev, D. N.; Denisov, S. V.; Stekanov, P. A.; Shmakov, A. V.; Fomichev, A. V.

    2013-11-01

    The causes of the vertical bending of the front ends of plates during hot rolling are revealed. A finite-element mathematical model is developed to describe the state of stress of the metal in an asymmetric deformation zone with allowance for solving a temperature problem, and the model is adapted to the conditions of the 5000 rolling mill in OAO MMK. It is found that, in rolling with mismatched work roll speeds, the direction of bending of the front strip end is determined by the strip thickness and the deformation zone shape. The main cause of the bending of the front plate end at the stage of finishing stage of rolling is shown to be the difference between the roller bed level and the rolling line. New asymmetric deformation regimes are developed with allowance for the effect of the deformation zone shape on the direction of bending of the front strip end. The developed technological regimes of asymmetric rolling make it possible to decrease the mill downtime because of the bending of the breakdown bar ends and to reduce the metal volume rejected because of violated temperature regimes of the thermomechanical treatment of plates.

  2. 7 CFR 868.306 - Milling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.306 Milling requirements. The degree of milling for milled rice; i.e., “hard... interpretive line samples for such rice. ...

  3. 7 CFR 868.306 - Milling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.306 Milling requirements. The degree of milling for milled rice; i.e., “hard... interpretive line samples for such rice. ...

  4. 7 CFR 868.306 - Milling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.306 Milling requirements. The degree of milling for milled rice; i.e., “hard... interpretive line samples for such rice. ...

  5. 7 CFR 868.306 - Milling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.306 Milling requirements. The degree of milling for milled rice; i.e., “hard... interpretive line samples for such rice. ...

  6. 2. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING WASTE WEIR AT MILL RIVER. MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING WASTE WEIR AT MILL RIVER. MILL RIVER CULVERT (HAER NY-112) IS VISIBLE IN UPPER RIGHT HAND CORNER. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Mill River Waste Weir, U.S. Route 9 at Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Tarrytown, Westchester County, NY

  7. 71. VIEW OF MILL FLOOR FROM WEST. SECONDARY MILL IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. VIEW OF MILL FLOOR FROM WEST. SECONDARY MILL IN LOWER CENTER; BARREN SOLUTION TANK AT MIDDLE RIGHT. PAIRED PIPES AT TOP OF VIEW RUN FROM PRIMARY PULP PUMPS ON LEFT TO PRIMARY THICKENERS ON RIGHT. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  8. Cold injuries.

    PubMed

    Long, William B; Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to cold can produce a variety of injuries that occur as a result of man's inability to adapt to cold. These injuries can be divided into localized injury to a body part, systemic hypothermia, or a combination of both. Body temperature may fall as a result of heat loss by radiation, evaporation, conduction, and convection. Hypothermia or systemic cold injury occurs when the core body temperature has decreased to 35 degrees C (95 degrees F) or less. The causes of hypothermia are either primary or secondary. Primary, or accidental, hypothermia occurs in healthy individuals inadequately clothed and exposed to severe cooling. In secondary hypothermia, another illness predisposes the individual to accidental hypothermia. Hypothermia affects multiple organs with symptoms of hypothermia that vary according to the severity of cold injury. The diagnosis of hypothermia is easy if the patient is a mountaineer who is stranded in cold weather. However, it may be more difficult in an elderly patient who has been exposed to a cold environment. In either case, the rectal temperature should be checked with a low-reading thermometer. The general principals of prehospital management are to (1) prevent further heat loss, (2) rewarm the body core temperature in advance of the shell, and (3) avoid precipitating ventricular fibrillation. There are two general techniques of rewarming--passive and active. The mechanisms of peripheral cold injury can be divided into phenomena that affect cells and extracellular fluids (direct effects) and those that disrupt the function of the organized tissue and the integrity of the circulation (indirect effects). Generally, no serious damage is seen until tissue freezing occurs. The mildest form of peripheral cold injury is frostnip. Chilblains represent a more severe form of cold injury than frostnip and occur after exposure to nonfreezing temperatures and damp conditions. Immersion (trench) foot, a disease of the sympathetic nerves and blood

  9. Video Analysis of Rolling Cylinders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phommarach, S.; Wattanakasiwich, P.; Johnston, I.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we studied the rolling motion of solid and hollow cylinders down an inclined plane at different angles. The motions were captured on video at 300 frames s[superscript -1], and the videos were analyzed frame by frame using video analysis software. Data from the real motion were compared with the theory of rolling down an inclined…

  10. Video Analysis of Rolling Cylinders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phommarach, S.; Wattanakasiwich, P.; Johnston, I.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we studied the rolling motion of solid and hollow cylinders down an inclined plane at different angles. The motions were captured on video at 300 frames s[superscript -1], and the videos were analyzed frame by frame using video analysis software. Data from the real motion were compared with the theory of rolling down an inclined…

  11. Lubrication of rolling element bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper is a broad survey of the lubrication of rolling-element bearings. Emphasis is on the critical design aspects related to speed, temperature, and ambient pressure environment. Types of lubrication including grease, jets, mist, wick, and through-the-race are discussed. The paper covers the historical development, present state of technology, and the future problems of rolling-element bearing lubrication.

  12. Lubricating Coolant for Cold Rolling of Aluminum and Its Alloys,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The title fluid consists of a mixtures of alkyl esters of high molecular weight acids, an ester of xylitol and a C(subscript 6) or higher fatty acid...molecular weight acids 3-6, an ester of xylitol and a C(subscript 6) or higher fatty acid 1-3, an Al soap 0.3-1, a mineral oil 10-60, a polyoxyethylene

  13. Cold urticaria.

    PubMed

    Claudy, A

    2001-11-01

    Cold urticaria is one form of urticaria that may be associated with other forms of physical urticarias. Frequency is generally estimated at two or three per 100. The triggering effect of cold is found at history taking in most of the cases. The urticaria is usually superficial, and more rarely associated with deep and/or mucosal urticaria. The diagnosis is based on history taking and the ice cube test. An exhaustive search for an etiologic factor is often unfruitful, and the presence of a cryopathy should lead to a complete work-up. Therapy of cold urticaria may prove to be difficult. In patients with secondary cold urticaria, underlying disease must be treated in order to resolve the skin symptoms. H1-antihistamines can be used but the clinical responses are highly variable. Short-time treatment with low concentration corticosteroids suppresses the symptoms only partially and temporarily. In patients who do not respond to previous treatments, induction of cold tolerance may be proposed but the procedure is difficult to carry out in daily life over an extended period. Key word: cryoglobulins.

  14. Method of manufacturing metallic products such as sheet by cold working and flash anealing

    DOEpatents

    Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Sikka, Vinod K.

    2001-01-01

    A metallic alloy composition is manufactured into products such as press formed or stamped products or rolled products such as sheet, strip, rod, wire or band by one or more cold working steps with intermediate or final flash annealing. The method can include cold rolling an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide alloy and annealing the cold worked product in a furnace by infrared heating. The flash annealing is preferably carried out by rapidly heating the cold worked product to an elevated temperature for less than one minute. The flash annealing is effective to reduce surface hardness of the cold worked product sufficiently to allow further cold working. The product to be cold worked can be prepared by casting the alloy or by a powder metallurgical technique such as tape casting a mixture of metal powder and a binder, roll compacting a mixture of the powder and a binder or plasma spraying the powder onto a substrate. In the case of tape casting or roll compaction, the initial powder product can be heated to a temperature sufficient to remove volatile components. The method can be used to form a cold rolled sheet which is formed into an electrical resistance heating element capable of heating to 900.degree. C. in less than 1 second when a voltage up to 10 volts and up to 6 amps is passed through the heating element.

  15. Method of manufacturing metallic products such as sheet by cold working and flash annealing

    DOEpatents

    Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Sikka, Vinod K.

    2000-01-01

    A metallic alloy composition is manufactured into products such as press formed or stamped products or rolled products such as sheet, strip, rod, wire or band by one or more cold working steps with intermediate or final flash annealing. The method can include cold rolling an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide alloy and annealing the cold worked product in a furnace by infrared heating. The flash annealing is preferably carried out by rapidly heating the cold worked product to an elevated temperature for less than one minute. The flash annealing is effective to reduce surface hardness of the cold worked product sufficiently to allow further cold working. The product to be cold worked can be prepared by casting the alloy or by a powder metallurgical technique such as tape casting a mixture of metal powder and a binder, roll compacting a mixture of the powder and a binder or plasma spraying the powder onto a substrate. In the case of tape casting or roll compaction, the initial powder product can be heated to a temperature sufficient to remove volatile components. The method can be used to form a cold rolled sheet which is formed into an electrical resistance heating element capable of heating to 900.degree. C. in less than 1 second when a voltage up to 10 volts and up to 6 amps is passed through the heating element.

  16. Critical rolling angle of microparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farzi, Bahman; Vallabh, Chaitanya K. P.; Stephens, James D.; Cetinkaya, Cetin

    2016-03-01

    At the micrometer-scale and below, particle adhesion becomes particularly relevant as van der Waals force often dominates volume and surface proportional forces. The rolling resistance of microparticles and their critical rolling angles prior to the initiation of free-rolling and/or complete detachment are critical in numerous industrial processes and natural phenomenon involving particle adhesion and granular dynamics. The current work describes a non-contact measurement approach for determining the critical rolling angle of a single microparticle under the influence of a contact-point base-excitation generated by a transient displacement field of a prescribed surface acoustic wave pulse and reports the critical rolling angle data for a set of polystyrene latex microparticles.

  17. COLD TRAP

    DOEpatents

    Milleron, N.

    1963-03-12

    An improved linear-flow cold trap is designed for highvacuum applications such as mitigating back migration of diffusion pump oil moiecules. A central pot of liquid nitrogen is nested within and supported by a surrounding, vertical, helical coil of metai sheet, all enveloped by a larger, upright, cylindrical, vacuum vessel. The vertical interstices between successive turns of the coil afford lineal, axial, high-vacuum passages between open mouths at top and bottom of said vessel, while the coil, being cold by virtue of thermal contact of its innermost turn with the nitrogen pot, affords expansive proximate condensation surfaces. (AEC)

  18. Avoiding the parametric roll

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acomi, Nicoleta; Ancuţa, Cristian; Andrei, Cristian; Boştinǎ, Alina; Boştinǎ, Aurel

    2016-12-01

    Ships are mainly built to sail and transport cargo at sea. Environmental conditions and state of the sea are communicated to vessels through periodic weather forecasts. Despite officers being aware of the sea state, their sea time experience is a decisive factor when the vessel encounters severe environmental conditions. Another important factor is the loading condition of the vessel, which triggers different behaviour in similar marine environmental conditions. This paper aims to analyse the behaviour of a port container vessel in severe environmental conditions and to estimate the potential conditions of parametric roll resonance. Octopus software simulation is employed to simulate vessel motions under certain conditions of the sea, with possibility to analyse the behaviour of ships and the impact of high waves on ships due to specific wave encounter situations. The study should be regarded as a supporting tool during the decision making process.

  19. Influence of chemistry and hot rolling conditions on high permeability non-grain oriented silicon steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huňady, J.; Černík, M.; Hilinski, E. J.; Predmerský, M.; Magurová, A.

    2006-09-01

    This paper discusses the influence of chemical composition on the final electromagnetic properties in higher permeability material. Furthermore, the effect of the hot rolling practice and the end of austenite transformation temperature range on the hot band microstructure is described. The magnetic polarization J5000 better than 1.7 T, using hot rolling conditions 40 mm transfer bar thickness, finish mill entry temperature 1000 °C, and finishing temperature 800-840 °C and after decarburization heat treatment and grain growth treatment, was obtained.

  20. On-line monitoring of quality by laser scanning on rolled aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmiedl, Roland; Maneke, Gerd; Benninghoff, Heinz-Juergen

    1993-12-01

    On-line inspection of fast moving surfaces is one of the domains of laser scanning methods, especially whenever extremely small flaws are to be monitored on high quality products. Results of surface inspection on rolled aluminum based on several years' experience with several generations of inspection equipment are presented. Surface texture and characteristics of aluminum flaws require a problem related design of the laser scanner hardware for operation in the environment of a rolling mill plant. Fast intelligent data processing develops the inspection equipment to the center part of a plant-wide quality concept that strongly supports the idea of producing quality instead of only selecting quality.