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Sample records for cold vacuum drying

  1. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-07-01

    This document provides the detailed design requirements for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. Process, safety, and quality assurance requirements and interfaces are specified.

  2. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Irwin, J.J.

    1997-09-24

    This release of the Design Requirements Document is a complete restructuring and rewrite to the document previously prepared and released for project W-441 to record the design basis for the design of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility.

  3. Cold Vacuum Drying Facility hazard analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Krahn, D.E.

    1998-02-23

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) hazard analysis to support the CVDF phase 2 safety analysis report (SAR), and documents the results. The hazard analysis was performed in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, and implements the requirements of US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

  4. Project W-441, cold vacuum drying facility design requirements document

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neill, C.T.

    1997-05-08

    This document has been prepared and is being released for Project W-441 to record the design basis for the design of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. This document sets forth the physical design criteria, Codes and Standards, and functional requirements that were used in the design of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. This document contains section 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements Document. The remaining sections will be issued at a later date. The purpose of the Facility is to dry, weld, and inspect the Multi-Canister Overpacks before transport to dry storage.

  5. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Acceptance for Beneficial Use

    SciTech Connect

    BRISBIN, S.A.

    2000-01-05

    This document provides a checklist of the items required for turnover of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility from the Construction Projects organization to the Operations organization. This document will be updated periodically to document completion of additional deliverables.

  6. Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility operations manual

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-05-12

    This document provides the Operations Manual for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). The Manual was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-002, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998) and, the HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-002, 1997, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, Rev. 3a. The Operations Manual contains general descriptions of all the process, safety and facility systems in the CVDF, a general CVD operations sequence, and has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

  7. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Technical Safety Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    KRAHN, D.E.

    2000-08-08

    The Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility define acceptable conditions, safe boundaries, bases thereof, and management or administrative controls required to ensure safe operation during receipt of multi-canister overpacks (MCOs) containing spent nuclear fuel. removal of free water from the MCOs using the cold vacuum drying process, and inerting and testing of the MCOs before transport to the Canister Storage Building. Controls required for public safety, significant defense in depth, significant worker safety, and for maintaining radiological and toxicological consequences below risk evaluation guidelines are included.

  8. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Design Basis Accident Analysis Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    PIEPHO, M.G.

    1999-10-20

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Annex B, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report, ''Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR).'' All assumptions, parameters and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the FSAR.

  9. Fire Hazard Analysis for the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, B.H.

    1999-08-19

    This Fire Hazard Analysis assesses the risk from fire within individual fire areas in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility at the Hanford Site in relation to existing or proposed fire protection features to ascertain whether the objectives of DOE Order 5480.7A Fire Protection are met.

  10. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Set Point Determination

    SciTech Connect

    PHILIPP, B.L.

    2000-09-04

    The Safety Class Instrumentation and Control (SCIC) system provides active detection and response to process anomalies that, if unmitigated, would result in a safety event. Specifically, actuation of the SCIC system includes two portions. The portion which isolates the MCO and initiates the safety-class helium (SCHe) purge, and the portion which detects and stops excessive heat input to the MCO annulus on high Tempered Water (TW) inlet temperature. For the MCO isolation and purge, the SCIC receives MCO pressure (both positive pressure and vacuum), helium flow rate, bay high temperature switch status, seismic trip status, and time-under-vacuum trips signals. The SCIC system will isolate the MCO and start an SCHe system purge if any of the following occur. (1) Isolation and purge from one of the SCHe ''isolation'' and ''purge'' buttons is manually initiated (administratively controlled). (2) The first vacuum cycle exceeds 8 hours at vacuum, or any subsequent vacuum cycle exceeds 4 hours at vacuum without re-pressurizing the MCO for a minimum of 4 hours. (This is referred to as the 8/4/4 requirement and provides thermal equilibrium within the MCO.) (3) MCO is below atmospheric pressure and the helium flow is below the minimum required to keep hydrogen less than 4% by volume. (When MCO pressure is below 12 torr there is insufficient hydrogen to exceed the 4% level and therefore no purge is required. A five minute time delay on low flow allows flow to be stopped in order to reach < 12 torr.) (4) The duration for the transition from above atmospheric pressure to vacuum (time to reach pressure below -11.7 psig [{approx}155 torr]) exceeds 5 minutes. (5) The duration for the transition from vacuum (below -11.1 psig [{approx}185 torr]) back to pressure [greater than 0.5 psig] exceeds 5 minutes. (6) MCO reaches a vacuum state (<0.5 psig) without an adequate, verified purge volume. (The MCO must be maintained above atmospheric pressure (approximately 0.5 psig) to prevent

  11. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Set Point Determination

    SciTech Connect

    PHILIPP, B.L.

    2000-03-21

    The Safety Class Instrumentation and Control (SCIC) system provides active detection and response to process anomalies that, if unmitigated, would result in a safety event. Specifically, actuation of the SCIC system includes two portions. The portion which isolates the MCO and initiates the safety-class helium (SCHe) purge, and the portion which detects and stops excessive heat input to the MCO on high tempered water MCO inlet temperature. For the MCO isolation and purge, the SCIC receives signals from MCO pressure (both positive pressure and vacuum), helium flow rate, bay high temperature switches, seismic trips and time under vacuum trips.

  12. Cold vacuum drying facility 90% design review

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neill, C.T.

    1997-05-02

    This document contains review comment records for the CVDF 90% design review. Spent fuels retrieved from the K Basins will be dried at the CVDF. It has also been recommended that the Multi-Conister Overpacks be welded, inspected, and repaired at the CVD Facility before transport to dry storage.

  13. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Set Point Determination

    SciTech Connect

    PHILIPP, B.L.

    2000-01-12

    This document provides the calculations used to determine the error of safety class signals used for the CVD process These errors are used with the Parameter limits to arrive at the initial set point. The Safety Class Instrumentation and Control (SCIC) system provides active detection and response to process anomalies that, if unmitigated would result in a safety event. Specifically actuation of the SCIC system includes two portions. The portion which isolates the MCO and initiates the safety-class helium (SCHe) purge, and the portion which detects and stops excessive heat input to the MCO on high tempered water MCO inlet temperature. For the MCO isolation and purge the SCIC receives signals from MCO pressure (both positive pressure and vacuum) helium flow rate, bay high temperature switches, seismic trips and time under vacuum trips.

  14. Gas Composition Transients in the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility

    SciTech Connect

    PACKER, M.J.

    2000-05-10

    The purpose of this document is to evaluate selected problems involving the prediction of transient gas compositions during Cold Vacuum Drying operations. The problems were evaluated to answer specific design questions. The document is formatted as a topical report with each section representing a specific problem solution. The problem solutions are reported in the calculation format specified in HNF-1613, Rev. 0, EP 7.6.

  15. Cold Vacuum Drying facility design basis accident analysis documentation

    SciTech Connect

    CROWE, R.D.

    2000-08-08

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Annex B, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR), ''Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Final Safety Analysis Report.'' All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the FSAR. The calculations in this document address the design basis accidents (DBAs) selected for analysis in HNF-3553, ''Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report'', Annex B, ''Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Final Safety Analysis Report.'' The objective is to determine the quantity of radioactive particulate available for release at any point during processing at the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) and to use that quantity to determine the amount of radioactive material released during the DBAs. The radioactive material released is used to determine dose consequences to receptors at four locations, and the dose consequences are compared with the appropriate evaluation guidelines and release limits to ascertain the need for preventive and mitigative controls.

  16. Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility vacuum and purge system design description

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1998-11-30

    This document provides the System Design Description (SDD) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Vacuum and Purge System (VPS) . The SDD was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-O02, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998), The HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-002, 1998, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, and the CVDF Design Summary Report. The SDD contains general descriptions of the VPS equipment, the system functions, requirements and interfaces. The SDD provides references for design and fabrication details, operation sequences and maintenance. This SDD has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

  17. Cold vacuum drying residual free water test description

    SciTech Connect

    Pajunen, A.L.

    1997-12-23

    Residual free water expected to remain in a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) after processing in the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility is investigated based on three alternative models of fuel crevices. Tests and operating conditions for the CVD process are defined based on the analysis of these models. The models consider water pockets constrained by cladding defects, water constrained in a pore or crack by flow through a porous bed, and water constrained in pores by diffusion. An analysis of comparative reaction rate constraints is also presented indicating that a pressure rise test can be used to show MCO`s will be thermally stable at operating temperatures up to 75 C.

  18. Thermal analysis of cold vacuum drying of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Piepho, M.G.

    1998-07-20

    The thermal analysis examined transient thermal and chemical behavior of the Multi canister Overpack (MCO) container for a broad range of cases that represent the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) processes. The cases were defined to consider both normal and off-normal operations at the CVD Facility for an MCO with Mark IV N, Reactor spent fuel in four fuel baskets and one scrap basket. This analysis provides the basis for the MCO thermal behavior at the CVD Facility for its Phase 2 Safety Analysis Report (revision 4).

  19. Human factors engineering report for the cold vacuum drying facility

    SciTech Connect

    IMKER, F.W.

    1999-06-30

    The purpose of this report is to present the results and findings of the final Human Factors Engineering (HFE) technical analysis and evaluation of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). Ergonomics issues are also addressed in this report, as appropriate. This report follows up and completes the preliminary work accomplished and reported by the Preliminary HFE Analysis report (SNF-2825, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Human Factors Engineering Analysis: Results and Findings). This analysis avoids redundancy of effort except for ensuring that previously recommended HFE design changes have not affected other parts of the system. Changes in one part of the system may affect other parts of the system where those changes were not applied. The final HFE analysis and evaluation of the CVDF human-machine interactions (HMI) was expanded to include: the physical work environment, human-computer interface (HCI) including workstation and software, operator tasks, tools, maintainability, communications, staffing, training, and the overall ability of humans to accomplish their responsibilities, as appropriate. Key focal areas for this report are the process bay operations, process water conditioning (PWC) skid, tank room, and Central Control Room operations. These key areas contain the system safety-class components and are the foundation for the human factors design basis of the CVDF.

  20. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Safety Class Instrumentation & Control System Design Description

    SciTech Connect

    WHITEHURST, R.

    1999-12-01

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Safety Class Instrumentation and Control system (SCIC). The SCIC provides safety functions and features to protect the environment, off-site and on-site personnel and equipment. The function of the SCIC is to provide automatic trip features, valve interlocks, alarms, indication and control for the cold vacuum drying process.

  1. Design verification and validation plan for the cold vacuum drying facility

    SciTech Connect

    NISHIKAWA, L.D.

    1999-06-03

    The Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) provides the required process systems, supporting equipment, and facilities needed for drying spent nuclear fuel removed from the K Basins. This document presents the both completed and planned design verification and validation activities.

  2. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Sampling and Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    2000-09-22

    The Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility provides the required process systems, supporting equipment, and facilities needed for the conditioning of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from the Hanford K-Basins prior to storage at the Canister Storage Building (CSB). The process water conditioning (PWC) system collects and treats the selected liquid effluent streams generated by the CVD process. The PWC system uses ion exchange modules (IXMs) and filtration to remove radioactive ions and particulate from CVD effluent streams. Water treated by the PWC is collected in a 5000-gallon storage tank prior to shipment to an on-site facility for additional treatment and disposal. The purpose of this sampling and analysis plan is to document the basis for achieving the following data quality objectives: (1) Measurement of the radionuclide content of the water transferred from the multi-canister overpack (MCO), vacuum purge system (VPS) condensate tank, MCO/Cask annulus and deionized water flushes to the PWC system receiver tanks. (2) Trending the radionuclide inventory of IXMs to assure that they do not exceed the limits prescribed in HNF-2760, Rev. 0-D, ''Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (Onsite) Ion Exchange Modules,'' and HNF-EP-0063 Rev. 5, ''Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria'' for Category 3, non-TRU, low level waste (LLW). (3) Determining the radionuclide content of the PWC system bulk water storage tank to assure that it meets the limits set forth in HNF-3 172, Rev. 0, ''Hanford Site Liquid Waste Acceptance Criteria,'' to permit transfer and disposal at the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) located at the 200 East Area.

  3. Criticality Safety Evaluation Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facilities Process Water Handling System

    SciTech Connect

    KESSLER, S.F.

    2000-08-10

    This report addresses the criticality concerns associated with process water handling in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. The controls and limitations on equipment design and operations to control potential criticality occurrences are identified.

  4. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-07-02

    This document provides the Operations Manual for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). The Manual was developed in conjunction with HNF-553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report Annex B--Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. The HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-002, 1999, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, Rev. 4, and the CVDF Final Design Report. The Operations Manual contains general descriptions of all the process, safety and facility systems in the CVDF, a general CVD operations sequence and references to the CVDF System Design Descriptions (SDDs). This manual has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

  5. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    2000-02-03

    This document provides the Operations Manual for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). The Manual was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-002, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of the Processing Systems (Garvin 1998) and, the HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-002, 1997, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, Rev. 3a. The Operations Manual contains general descriptions of all the process, safety and facility systems in the CVDF, a general CVD operations sequence, and has been developed for the spent nuclear fuel project (SNFP) Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

  6. Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility process water conditioning system design description

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1998-11-30

    This document provides the System Design Description (SDD) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Process Water Conditioning (PWC) System. The SDD was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-002, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998), the HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-O02, 1998, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, and the CVDF Design Summary Report. The SDD contains general descriptions of the PWC equipment, the system functions, requirements and interfaces. The SDD provides references for design and fabrication details, operation sequences and maintenance. This SDD has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

  7. Cold Vacuum Drying facility effluent drains system design description (SYS 18)

    SciTech Connect

    TRAN, Y.S.

    2000-05-11

    The Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility provides required process systems, supporting equipment, and facilities needed for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) mission. This system design description (SDD) addresses the effluent drain system (EFS), which supports removal of water from the process bay floors. The discussion that follows is limited to piping, valves, components, and the process bay floor drain retention basin.

  8. Preliminary safety evaluation for the spent nuclear fuel project`s cold vacuum drying system

    SciTech Connect

    Garvin, L.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-01

    This preliminary safety evaluation (PSE) considers only the Cold Vacuum Drying System (CVDS) facility and its mission as it relates to the integrated process strategy (WHC 1995). The purpose of the PSE is to identify those CBDS design functions that may require safety- class and safety-significant accident prevention and mitigation features.

  9. Cold Vacuum Drying facility potable water system design description (SYS 26)

    SciTech Connect

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-07-02

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) potable water (PW) system. The PW system provides potable water to the CVDF for supply to sinks, water closets, urinals, showers, custodial service sinks, drinking fountains, the decontamination shower, supply water to the non-PW systems, and makeup water for the de-ionized water system.

  10. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Safety Class Instrumentation and Control System Design Description SYS 93-2

    SciTech Connect

    WHITEHURST, R.

    1999-07-02

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Safety Class Instrumentation and Control system (SCIC). The SCIC provides safety functions and features to protect the environment, off-site and on-site personnel and equipment. The function of the SCIC is to provide automatic trip features, valve interlocks, alarms, indication and control for the cold vacuum drying process.

  11. Cold Vacuum Drying facility crane and hoist system design description (SYS 14)

    SciTech Connect

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-07-06

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) crane and hoist system. The overhead crane and hoist system is located in the process bays of the CVDF. It supports the processes required to drain the water and dry the spent nuclear fuel contained in the multi-canister overpacks after they have been removed from the K-Basins. The cranes will also be used to assist maintenance activities within the bays, as required.

  12. Cold vacuum drying proof of performance (first article testing) test results

    SciTech Connect

    MCCRACKEN, K.J.

    1999-06-23

    This report presents and details the test results of the first of a kind process referred to as Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD). The test results are compiled from several months of testing of the first process equipment skid and ancillary components to de-water and dry Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCO) filled with Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF). The tests results provide design verifications, equipment validations, model validation data, and establish process parameters.

  13. Hanford spent nuclear fuel cold vacuum drying proof of performance test procedure

    SciTech Connect

    McCracken, K.J.

    1998-06-10

    This document provides the test procedure for cold testing of the first article skids for the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) process at the Facility. The primary objective of this testing is to confirm design choices and provide data for the initial start-up parameters for the process. The current scope of testing in this document includes design verification, drying cycle determination equipment performance testing of the CVD process and MCC components, heat up and cool-down cycle determination, and thermal model validation.

  14. Cold Vacuum Drying facility fire protection system design description (SYS 24)

    SciTech Connect

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-07-06

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) fire protection system (FPS). The FPS provides fire detection, suppression, and loss limitation for the CVDF structure, personnel, and in-process spent nuclear fuel. The system provides, along with supporting interfacing systems, detection, alarm, and activation instrumentation and controls, distributive piping system, isolation valves, and materials and controls to limit combustibles and the associated fire loadings.

  15. Cold Vacuum Drying facility deionized water system design description (SYS 25)

    SciTech Connect

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-07-02

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) de-ionized water system. The de-ionized water system is used to provide clean, conditioned water, free from contaminants, chlorides and iron for the CVD Facility. Potable water is supplied to the deionized water system, isolated by a backflow prevention device. After the de-ionization process is complete, via a packaged de-ionization unit, de-ionized water is supplied to the process deionization unit.

  16. Cold Vacuum Drying facility civil structural system design description (SYS 06)

    SciTech Connect

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-07-06

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility civil - structural system. This system consists of the facility structure, including the administrative and process areas. The system's primary purpose is to provide for a facility to house the CVD process and personnel and to provide a tertiary level of containment. The document provides a description of the facility and demonstrates how the design meets the various requirements imposed by the safety analysis report and the design requirements document.

  17. Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Crane and Hoist System Design Description (SYS 14)

    SciTech Connect

    TRAN, Y.S.

    2000-06-07

    This system design description (SDD) is for the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility overhead crane and hoist system. The overhead crane and hoist system is a general service system. It is located in the process bays of the CVD Facility, supports the processes required to drain the water and dry the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) contained in the multi-canister overpacks (MCOs) after they have been removed from the K-Basins. The location of the system in the process bay is shown.

  18. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    2000-11-18

    The mission of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) is to achieve the earliest possible removal of free water from Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs). The MCOs contain metallic uranium SNF that have been removed from the 100K Area fuel storage water basins (i.e., the K East and K West Basins) at the US. Department of Energy Hanford Site in Southeastern Washington state. Removal of free water is necessary to halt water-induced corrosion of exposed uranium surfaces and to allow the MCOs and their SNF payloads to be safely transported to the Hanford Site 200 East Area and stored within the SNF Project Canister Storage Building (CSB). The CVDF is located within a few hundred yards of the basins, southwest of the 165KW Power Control Building and the 105KW Reactor Building. The site area required for the facility and vehicle circulation is approximately 2 acres. Access and egress is provided by the main entrance to the 100K inner area using existing roadways. The CVDF will remove free. water from the MCOs to reduce the potential for continued fuel-water corrosion reactions. The cold vacuum drying process involves the draining of bulk water from the MCO and subsequent vacuum drying. The MCO will be evacuated to a pressure of 8 torr or less and backfilled with an inert gas (helium). The MCO will be sealed, leak tested, and then transported to the CSB within a sealed shipping cask. (The MCO remains within the same shipping Cask from the time it enters the basin to receive its SNF payload until it is removed from the Cask by the CSB MCO handling machine.) The CVDF subproject acquired the required process systems, supporting equipment, and facilities. The cold vacuum drying operations result in an MCO containing dried fuel that is prepared for shipment to the CSB by the Cask transportation system. The CVDF subproject also provides equipment to dispose of solid wastes generated by the cold vacuum drying process and transfer process water removed

  19. Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility safety equipment list

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-02-24

    This document provides the safety equipment list (SEL) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). The SEL was prepared in accordance with the procedure for safety structures, systems, and components (SSCs) in HNF-PRO-516, ''Safety Structures, Systems, and Components,'' Revision 0 and HNF-PRO-097, Engineering Design and Evaluation, Revision 0. The SEL was developed in conjunction with HNF-SO-SNF-SAR-O02, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998). The SEL identifies the SSCs and their safety functions, the design basis accidents for which they are required to perform, the design criteria, codes and standards, and quality assurance requirements that are required for establishing the safety design basis of the SSCs. This SEL has been developed for the CVDF Phase 2 Safety Analysis Report (SAR) and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future phases of the CVDF SAR until the CVDF final SAR is approved.

  20. Cold vacuum drying facility: Phase 1 FMEA/FMECA session report

    SciTech Connect

    Pitkoff, C.C.

    1998-04-21

    The mission of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project is to remove the fuel currently located in the K-Basins 100 Area to provide safe handling and interim storage of the fuel. The spent nuclear fuel will be repackaged in multi-canister overpacks, partially dried in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF), and then transported to the Canister Storage Building (CSB) for further processing and interim storage. The CVDF, a subproject to the SNF Project, will be constructed in the 100K area. The CVDF will remove free water and vacuum dry the spent nuclear fuel, making it safer to transport and store at the CSB. At present, the CVDF is approximately 90% complete with definitive design. Part of the design process is to conduct Failure Modes, Effects, and Criticality Analysis (FMECA). A four-day FMECA session was conducted August 18 through 21, 1997. The purpose of the session was to analyze 16 subsystems and operating modes to determine consequences of normal, upset, emergency, and faulted conditions with respect to production and worker safety. During this process, acceptable and unacceptable risks, needed design or requirement changes, action items, issues/concerns, and enabling assumptions were identified and recorded. Additionally, a path forward consisting of recommended actions would be developed to resolve any unacceptable risks. The team consisted of project management, engineering, design authority, design agent, safety, operations, and startup personnel. The report summarizes potential problems with the designs, design requirements documentation, and other baseline documentation.

  1. Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility tempered water and tempered water cooling system design description

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1998-11-30

    This document provides the System Design Description (SDD) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Tempered Water (TW) and Tempered Water Cooling (TWC) System . The SDD was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-002, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998), The HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-O02, 1998, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, and the CVDF Design Summary Report. The SDD contains general descriptions of the TW and TWC equipment, the system functions, requirements and interfaces. The SDD provides references for design and fabrication details, operation sequences and maintenance. This SOD has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

  2. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility General Service Helium System Design Description

    SciTech Connect

    SHAPLEY, B.J.

    2000-04-20

    The purpose of this System Design Description (SDD) is to describe the characteristics of the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility general service helium system. The general service helium system is a general service facility process support system, but does include safety-class structures, systems and components (SSCs) providing protection to the offsite public. The general service helium system also performs safety-significant functions that provide protection to onsite workers. The general helium system essential function is to provide helium (He) to support process functions during all phases of facility operations. General service helium is used to purge the cask and the MCO in order to maintain their internal atmospheres below hydrogen flammability concentrations. The general service helium system also supplies helium to purge the process water conditioning (PWC) lines and components and the vacuum purge system (VPS) vacuum pump. The general service helium system, if available following an Safety Class Instrument and Control System (SCIC) Isolation and Purge (IS0 and PURGE) Trip, can provide an alternate general service helium system source to supply the Safety-Class Helium (SCHe) System.

  3. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT KOP DISPOSITION - THERMAL AND GAS ANALYSIS FOR THE COLD VACUUM DRYING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    SWENSON JA; CROWE RD; APTHORPE R; PLYS MG

    2010-03-09

    The purpose of this document is to present conceptual design phase thermal process calculations that support the process design and process safety basis for the cold vacuum drying of K Basin KOP material. This document is intended to demonstrate that the conceptual approach: (1) Represents a workable process design that is suitable for development in preliminary design; and (2) Will support formal safety documentation to be prepared during the definitive design phase to establish an acceptable safety basis. The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) is responsible for the disposition of Knock Out Pot (KOP) sludge within the 105-K West (KW) Basin. KOP sludge consists of size segregated material (primarily canister particulate) from the fuel and scrap cleaning process used in the Spent Nuclear Fuel process at K Basin. The KOP sludge will be pre-treated to remove fines and some of the constituents containing chemically bound water, after which it is referred to as KOP material. The KOP material will then be loaded into a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO), dried at the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) and stored in the Canister Storage Building (CSB). This process is patterned after the successful drying of 2100 metric tons of spent fuel, and uses the same facilities and much of the same equipment that was used for drying fuel and scrap. Table ES-l present similarities and differences between KOP material and fuel and between MCOs loaded with these materials. The potential content of bound water bearing constituents limits the mass ofKOP material in an MCO load to a fraction of that in an MCO containing fuel and scrap; however, the small particle size of the KOP material causes the surface area to be significantly higher. This relatively large reactive surface area represents an input to the KOP thermal calculations that is significantly different from the calculations for fuel MCOs. The conceptual design provides for a copper insert block that limits the volume available to

  4. Cold cathode vacuum gauging system

    DOEpatents

    Denny, Edward C.

    2004-03-09

    A vacuum gauging system of the cold cathode type is provided for measuring the pressure of a plurality of separate vacuum systems, such as in a gas centrifuge cascade. Each casing is fitted with a gauge tube assembly which communicates with the vacuum system in the centrifuge casing. Each gauge tube contains an anode which may be in the form of a slender rod or wire hoop and a cathode which may be formed by the wall of the gauge tube. The tube is provided with an insulated high voltage connector to the anode which has a terminal for external connection outside the vacuum casing. The tube extends from the casing so that a portable magnet assembly may be inserted about the tube to provide a magnetic field in the area between the anode and cathode necessary for pressure measurements in a cold cathode-type vacuum gauge arrangement. The portable magnetic assembly is provided with a connector which engages the external high voltage terminal for providing power to the anode within in the gauge tube. Measurement is made in the same manner as the prior cold cathode gauges in that the current through the anode to the cathode is measured as an indication of the pressure. By providing the portable magnetic assembly, a considerable savings in cost, installation, and maintenance of vacuum gauges for pressure measurement in a gas centrifuge cascade is realizable.

  5. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, Gordon E.

    1998-01-01

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by carbon vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging.

  6. Drying leather with vacuum and toggling sequentially

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated a drying method that will enable leather to be dried under vacuum and stretch sequentially to improve area yield. Vacuum drying offers fast speed at a low temperature, which would be advantageous to heat-vulnerable chrome-free leather. Adding a toggle action after vacuum drying cou...

  7. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1998-03-10

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, are disclosed with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by carbon vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging. 15 figs.

  8. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1998-04-14

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition are disclosed. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging. 14 figs.

  9. Composite drying with simultaneous vacuum and toggling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drying is an important mechanical operation in the leather making process. Leather acquires its final texture, consistency and flexibility in the drying operation. Vacuum drying offers fast water removal at a low temperature, which is particularly advantageous to heat-vulnerable chrome-free leathe...

  10. Wet/Dry Vacuum Cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reimers, Harold; Andampour, Jay; Kunitser, Craig; Thomas, Ike

    1995-01-01

    Vacuum cleaner collects and retains dust, wet debris, and liquids. Designed for housekeeping on Space Station Freedom, it functions equally well in normal Earth Gravity or in microgravity. Generates acoustic noise at comfortably low levels and includes circuitry that reduces electromagnetic interference to other electronic equipment. Draws materials into bag made of hydrophobic sheet with layers of hydrophilic super-absorbing pads at downstream end material. Hydrophilic material can gel many times its own weight of liquid. Blower also provides secondary airflow to cool its electronic components.

  11. Evaluation of Dry, Rough Vacuum Pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Brian

    2006-01-01

    This document provides information on the testing and evaluation of thirteen dry rough vacuum pumps of various designs and from various manufacturers. Several types of rough vacuum pumps were evaluated, including scroll, roots, and diaphragm pumps. Tests included long term testing, speed curve generation, voltage variance, vibrations emissions and susceptibility, electromagnetic interference emissions and susceptibility, static leak rate, exhaust restriction, response/recovery time tests, and a contamination analysis for scroll pumps. Parameters were found for operation with helium, which often is not provided from the manufacturer

  12. Microwave-vacuum drying system (MIVAC). Progress report No. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Wear, F C

    1980-01-01

    Progress in developing a microwave vacuum system (MIVAC) for drying grain at a facility capable of handling up to 400 bushels/h and of storing up to 1000 bushels each of wet and dry grain is reported. The design of a prototype 48 kW drying system is described. (LCL)

  13. Vacuum Foam Drying: An Alternative to Lyophilization for Biomolecule Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Jangle, R. D.; Pisal, S. S.

    2012-01-01

    Vacuum foam drying is evaluated as an alternative for lyophilization for enhanced process and storage stability of bovine serum albumin. The protein protective efficiency of different stabilizers was compared in vacuum foam drying and lyophilization. Sucrose mixtures produced better foam characters than mannitol. Unlike calcium lactate, incorporation of polyvinyl pyrrolidone to sucrose synergistically enhanced the recovery of bovine serum albumin. The conformational stability and bovine serum albumin content further increased with sodium phosphate as compared to potassium phosphate. All sucrose mixtures, except calcium lactate showed large α-helix amide-I band at approximately 1656 cm-1. The amorphous powder diffraction in case of sodium phosphate monobasic mixture retained maximum bovine serum albumin content. The crystallization of similar mixtures in lyophilization reduced its bovine serum albumin content. Vacuum foam drying showed better processing and storage stability of bovine serum albumin than lyophilization process. Hence vacuum foam drying is short, simple and industrially economical process for biomolecules preservation. PMID:23325988

  14. Composite drying with simultaneous vacuum and toggling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drying is one of key steps to govern the physical properties of leather and it is where leather acquires its final texture, consistency and flexibility. Recently we have been working diligently to improve chrome-free leather by optimizing its drying process. We developed a drying method using a co...

  15. Is Cold Dark Matter a Vacuum Effect?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houlden, Michael A.

    Current theories about the Universe based on an FLRW model conclude that it is composed of ~4% normal matter, ~28 % dark matter and ~68% Dark Energy which is responsible for the well-established accelerated expansion: this model works extremely well. As the Universe expands the density of normal and dark matter decreases while the proportion of Dark Energy increases. This model assumes that the amount of dark matter, whose nature at present is totally unknown, has remained constant. This is a natural assumption if dark matter is a particle of some kind - WIMP, sterile neutrino, lightest supersysmmetric particle or axion, etc. - that must have emerged from the early high temperature phase of the Big Bang. This paper proposes that dark matter is not a particle such as these but a vacuum effect, and that the proportion of dark matter in the Universe is actually increasing with time. The idea that led to this suggestion was that a quantum process (possibly the Higgs mechanism) might operate in the nilpotent vacuum that Rowlands postulates is a dual space to the real space where Standard Model fundamental fermions (and we) reside. This could produce a vacuum quantum state that has mass, which interacts gravitationally, and such states would be `dark matter'. It is proposed that the rate of production of dark matter by this process might depend on local circumstances, such as the density of dark matter and/or normal matter. This proposal makes the testable prediction that the ratio of baryonic to dark matter varies with redshift and offers an explanation, within the framework of Rowlands' ideas, of the coincidence problem - why has cosmic acceleration started in the recent epoch at redshift z ~0.55 when the Dark Energy density first became equal to the matter density?. This process also offers a potential solution to the `missing baryon' problem.

  16. Experience with Dry Running Vacuum Pumps in Helium Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arztmann, R.

    2008-03-01

    A process vacuum system for helium using dry running vacuum pumps only was shop tested and installed in a refrigeration plant to serve cavities operating at 2K for a cryogenic storage ring. The paper explains the joint development steps of Busch AG and Linde Kryotechnik AG to use dry running vacuum pumps for helium service at ambient temperature. A roots type booster pump followed by a non lube rotary screw pump provides very good performance in a helium vacuum pump system. Variable frequency drives on both pumps allow to adjust the pump characteristics to a wide range of operating parameters. Operation without friction of sealing elements in the compression space also of the screw pump promises extended maintenance intervals and virtually no wear on the rotors. The current plant operation at Max Plank Institute in Heidelberg, Germany Laboratory will provide additional experience for further applications.

  17. A novel dehydration technique for carrot slices implementing ultrasound and vacuum drying methods.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-Gang; Guo, Xiao-Yu; Wu, Tao

    2016-05-01

    A novel drying technique using a combination of ultrasound and vacuum dehydration was developed to shorten the drying time and improve the quality of carrot slices. Carrot slices were dried with ultrasonic vacuum (USV) drying and vacuum drying at 65 °C and 75 °C. The drying rate was significantly influenced by the drying techniques and temperatures. Compared with vacuum drying, USV drying resulted in a 41-53% decrease in the drying time. The drying time for the USV and vacuum drying techniques at 75 °C was determined to be 140 and 340 min for carrot slices, respectively. The rehydration potential, nutritional value (retention of β-carotene and ascorbic acid), color, and textural properties of USV-dried carrot slices are predominately better compared to vacuum-dried carrot slices. Moreover, lower energy consumption was used in the USV technique. The drying data (time versus moisture ratio) were successfully fitted to Wang and Singh model.

  18. Drying rate and temperature profile for superheated steam vacuum drying and moist air drying of softwood lumber

    SciTech Connect

    Pang, S.; Dakin, M.

    1999-07-01

    Two charges of green radiata pine sapwood lumber were dried, ether using superheated steam under vacuum (90 C, 0.2 bar abs.) or conventionally using hot moist air (90/60 C). Due to low density of the drying medium under vacuum, the circulation velocity used was 10 m/s for superheated steam drying and 5.0 m/s for moist air drying, and in both cases, the flow was unidirectional. In drying, stack drying rate and wood temperatures were measured to examine the differences between the superheated steam drying and drying using hot moist air. The experimental results have shown that the stack edge board in superheated steam drying dried faster than in the hot moist air drying. Once again due to the low density of the steam under vacuum, a prolonged maximum temperature drop across load (TDAL) was observed in the superheated steam drying, however, the whole stack dried slower and the final moisture content distribution was more variable than for conventional hot moist air drying.

  19. Cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics: Instrumentation and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerstl, S.; Voutta, R.; Casalbuoni, S.; Grau, A. W.; Holubek, T.; de Jauregui, D. Saez; Bartolini, R.; Cox, M. P.; Longhi, E. C.; Rehm, G.; Schouten, J. C.; Walker, R. P.; Sikler, G.; Migliorati, M.; Spataro, B.

    2014-10-01

    For a proper design of the cryogenic layout of superconducting insertion devices it is necessary to take into account the heat load from the beam to the cold beam tube. In order to measure and possibly understand the beam heat load to a cold bore, a cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics (COLDDIAG) has been built. COLDDIAG is designed in a flexible way, to allow its installation in different light sources. In order to study the beam heat load and the influence of the cryosorbed gas layer, the instrumentation comprises temperature sensors, pressure gauges, and mass spectrometers as well as retarding field analyzers with which it is possible to measure the beam heat load, total pressure, and gas content as well as the flux of particles hitting the chamber walls. In this paper we describe the experimental equipment, the installation of COLDDIAG in the Diamond Light Source and selected examples of the measurements performed to show the capabilities of this unique instrument.

  20. Optimization of frozen sour cherries vacuum drying process.

    PubMed

    Sumić, Zdravko; Tepić, Aleksandra; Vidović, Senka; Jokić, Stela; Malbaša, Radomir

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to optimize the vacuum-drying of frozen sour cherries in order to preserve health-beneficial phytochemicals, as well as textural characteristics. Investigated range of temperature was 46-74°C and, of pressure, 17-583mbar, in a new design of vacuum-dryer equipment. The total solids, a(w) value, total phenolics, vitamin C, antioxidant activity, anthocyanin content, total colour change and firmness were used as quality indicators of dried sour cherry. Within the experimental range of studied variables, the optimum conditions of 54.03°C and 148.16mbar were established for vacuum drying of sour cherry. Separate validation experiments were conducted, under optimum conditions, to verify predictions and adequacy of the second-order polynomial models. Under these optimal conditions, the predicted amount of total phenolics was 744mg CAE/100 dw, vitamin C 1.44mg/100g per dry weight (g dw), anthocyanin content 125mg/100g dw, IC(50) 3.23mg/ml, total solids 70.72%, a(w) value 0.646, total colour change 52.61 and firmness 3395.4g. The investigated parameters had a significant effect on the quality of the dried sour cherries.

  1. Overview of High Power Vacuum Dry RF Load Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnykh, Anatoly

    2015-08-27

    A specific feature of RF linacs based on the pulsed traveling wave (TW) mode of operation is that only a portion of the RF energy is used for the beam acceleration. The residual RF energy has to be terminated into an RF load. Higher accelerating gradients require higher RF sources and RF loads, which can stably terminate the residual RF power. RF feeders (from the RF source though the accelerating section to the load) are vacuumed to transmit multi-megawatt high power RF. This overview will outline vacuumed RF loads only. A common method to terminate multi-MW RF power is to use circulated water (or other liquid) as an absorbing medium. A solid dielectric interface (a high quality ceramic) is required to separate vacuum and liquid RF absorber mediums. Using such RF load approaches in TW linacs is troubling because there is a fragile ceramic window barrier and a failure could become catastrophic for linac vacuum and RF systems. Traditional loads comprising of a ceramic disk have limited peak and average power handling capability and are therefore not suitable for high gradient TW linacs. This overview will focus on ''vacuum dry'' or ''all-metal'' loads that do not employ any dielectric interface between vacuum and absorber. The first prototype is an original design of RF loads for the Stanford Two-Mile Accelerator.

  2. Young's Moduli of Cold and Vacuum Plasma Sprayed Metallic Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, S. V.; Pawlik, R.; Loewenthal, W.

    2009-01-01

    Monolithic metallic copper alloy and NiCrAlY coatings were fabricated by either the cold spray (CS) or the vacuum plasma spray (VPS) deposition processes. Dynamic elastic modulus property measurements were conducted on these monolithic coating specimens between 300 K and 1273 K using the impulse excitation technique. The Young's moduli decreased almost linearly with increasing temperature at all temperatures except in the case of the CS Cu-23%Cr-5%Al and VPS NiCrAlY, where deviations from linearity were observed above a critical temperature. It was observed that the Young's moduli for VPS Cu-8%Cr were larger than literature data compiled for Cu. The addition of 1%Al to Cu- 8%Cr significantly increased its Young's modulus by 12 to 17% presumably due to a solid solution effect. Comparisons of the Young s moduli data between two different measurements on the same CS Cu- 23%Cr-5%Al specimen revealed that the values measured in the first run were about 10% higher than those in the second run. It is suggested that this observation is due to annealing of the initial cold work microstructure resulting form the cold spray deposition process.

  3. Vacuum Drying of Actual Transuranic Waste from Hanford Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Tingey, Joel M.

    2004-05-20

    Composites of sludge from Tanks 241-B-203, 241-T-203, 241 T 204, and 241-T-110 at the Hanford Site were prepared at the Hanford 222-S Laboratory from core samples retrieved from these tanks. These tank composites may not be representative of the entire contents of the tank but provide some indication of the properties of the waste within these underground storage tanks. The composite samples were diluted with water at the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to represent the slurries that are expected to be received from tank retrieval operations and processed to produce a final waste stream. The dilutions were vacuum dried at 60 C and 26 in. of mercury ({approx} 100 torr). Semi-quantitative measurements of stickiness and cohesive strength were made on these dilutions as a function of drying time. Mass loss as a function of drying time and total solids concentration of the initial dilution and at the conclusion of drying were also measured. Visual observations of the sludge were recorded throughout the drying process.

  4. Advanced development receiver thermal vacuum tests with cold wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sedgwick, Leigh M.

    1991-01-01

    The first ever testing of a full size solar dynamic heat receiver using high temperature thermal energy storage was completed. The heat receiver was designed to meet the requirements for operation on the Space Station Freedom. The purpose of the test program was to quantify the receiver thermodynamic performance, its operating temperatures, and thermal response to changes in environmental and power module interface boundary conditions. The heat receiver was tested in a vacuum chamber with liquid nitrogen cold shrouds and an aperture cold plate to partially simulate a low Earth orbit environment. The cavity of the receiver was heated by an infrared quartz lamp heater with 30 independently controllable zones to produce flux distributions typical of candidate concentrators. A closed Brayton cycle engine simulator conditioned a helium xenon gas mixture to specific interface conditions to simulate various operational modes of the solar dynamic power module. Inlet gas temperature, pressure, and flow rate were independently varied. A total of 58 simulated orbital cycles were completed during the test conduct period. The test hardware, execution of testing, test data, and post test inspections are described.

  5. Cold-Cathodes for Sensors and Vacuum Microelectronics

    SciTech Connect

    Siegal, M.P.; Sullivan, J.P.; Tallant, D.R.; Simpson, R.L.; DiNardo, N.J.; Mercer, T.W.; Martinez-Miranda, L.J.

    1998-05-01

    The aim of this laboratory-directed research and development project was to study amorphous carbon (a-C) thin films for eventual cold-cathode electron emitter applications. The development of robust, cold-cathode emitters are likely to have significant implications for modern technology and possibly launch a new industry: vacuum micro-electronics (VME). The potential impact of VME on Sandia`s National Security missions, such as defense against military threats and economic challenges, is profound. VME enables new microsensors and intrinsically radiation-hard electronics compatible with MOSFET and IMEM technologies. Furthermore, VME is expected to result in a breakthrough technology for the development of high-visibility, low-power flat-panel displays. This work covers four important research areas. First, the authors studied the nature of the C-C bonding structures within these a-C thin films. Second, they determined the changes in the film structures resulting from thermal annealing to simulate the effects of device processing on a-C properties. Third, they performed detailed electrical transport measurements as a function of annealing temperature to correlate changes in transport properties with structural changes and to propose a model for transport in these a-C materials with implications on the nature of electron emission. Finally, they used scanning atom probes to determine important aspects on the nature of emission in a-C.

  6. Switchable Adhesion in Vacuum Using Bio-Inspired Dry Adhesives.

    PubMed

    Purtov, Julia; Frensemeier, Mareike; Kroner, Elmar

    2015-11-04

    Suction based attachment systems for pick and place handling of fragile objects like glass plates or optical lenses are energy-consuming and noisy and fail at reduced air pressure, which is essential, e.g., in chemical and physical vapor deposition processes. Recently, an alternative approach toward reversible adhesion of sensitive objects based on bioinspired dry adhesive structures has emerged. There, the switching in adhesion is achieved by a reversible buckling of adhesive pillar structures. In this study, we demonstrate that these adhesives are capable of switching adhesion not only in ambient air conditions but also in vacuum. Our bioinspired patterned adhesive with an area of 1 cm(2) provided an adhesion force of 2.6 N ± 0.2 N in air, which was reduced to 1.9 N ± 0.2 N if measured in vacuum. Detachment was induced by buckling of the structures due to a high compressive preload and occurred, independent of air pressure, at approximately 0.9 N ± 0.1 N. The switch in adhesion was observed at a compressive preload between 5.6 and 6.0 N and was independent of air pressure. The difference between maximum adhesion force and adhesion force after buckling gives a reasonable window of operation for pick and place processes. High reversibility of the switching behavior is shown over 50 cycles in air and in vacuum, making the bioinspired switchable adhesive applicable for handling operations of fragile objects.

  7. Switchable Adhesion in Vacuum Using Bio-Inspired Dry Adhesives

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Suction based attachment systems for pick and place handling of fragile objects like glass plates or optical lenses are energy-consuming and noisy and fail at reduced air pressure, which is essential, e.g., in chemical and physical vapor deposition processes. Recently, an alternative approach toward reversible adhesion of sensitive objects based on bioinspired dry adhesive structures has emerged. There, the switching in adhesion is achieved by a reversible buckling of adhesive pillar structures. In this study, we demonstrate that these adhesives are capable of switching adhesion not only in ambient air conditions but also in vacuum. Our bioinspired patterned adhesive with an area of 1 cm2 provided an adhesion force of 2.6 N ± 0.2 N in air, which was reduced to 1.9 N ± 0.2 N if measured in vacuum. Detachment was induced by buckling of the structures due to a high compressive preload and occurred, independent of air pressure, at approximately 0.9 N ± 0.1 N. The switch in adhesion was observed at a compressive preload between 5.6 and 6.0 N and was independent of air pressure. The difference between maximum adhesion force and adhesion force after buckling gives a reasonable window of operation for pick and place processes. High reversibility of the switching behavior is shown over 50 cycles in air and in vacuum, making the bioinspired switchable adhesive applicable for handling operations of fragile objects. PMID:26457864

  8. Vacuum contact drying kinetics of Jack pine wood and its influence on mechanical properties: industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouertani, Sahbi; Koubaa, Ahmed; Azzouz, Soufien; Hassini, Lamine; Dhib, Kamel Ben; Belghith, Ali

    2014-12-01

    Wood can be dried rapidly using combined contact heating and low vacuum. However, the impact on Jack pine wood drying and its mechanical strength remains unclear. The aim of this paper was to determine the kinetics of vacuum contact drying of Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) wood boards (dimensions 50 × 100 × 2480 mm3) under various drying temperatures and vacuum pressures at a pilot scale. Drying temperatures and vacuum pressures ranged from 65 to 95 °C and from 169.32 to 507.96 mbar, respectively. Dried samples were subjected to flexural loading to determine mechanical strength. Results indicated that drying time decreased with higher drying temperature and vacuum pressure, where as decreased vacuum pressure increased the temperature of wood samples at a constant drying temperature. Results also indicated that the mechanical properties of dried samples were affected by drying temperature, vacuum pressure, and lumber grade. Mechanical test results were then compared to those for a conventional drying process, revealing that vacuum contact drying do not have a negative impact on the wood mechanical properties.

  9. Drying kinetics and characteristics of combined infrared-vacuum drying of button mushroom slices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehi, Fakhreddin; Kashaninejad, Mahdi; Jafarianlari, Ali

    2016-10-01

    Infrared-vacuum drying characteristics of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) were evaluated in a combined dryer system. The effects of drying parameters, including infrared radiation power (150-375 W), system pressure (5-15 kPa) and time (0-160 min) on the drying kinetics and characteristics of button mushroom slices were investigated. Both the infrared lamp power and vacuum pressure influenced the drying time of button mushroom slices. The rate constants of the nine different kinetic's models for thin layer drying were established by nonlinear regression analysis of the experimental data which were found to be affected mainly by the infrared power level while system pressure had a little effect on the moisture ratios. The regression results showed that the Page model satisfactorily described the drying behavior of button mushroom slices with highest R value and lowest SE values. The effective moisture diffusivity increases as power increases and range between 0.83 and 2.33 × 10-9 m2/s. The rise in infrared power has a negative effect on the ΔE and with increasing in infrared radiation power it was increased.

  10. Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) drying: an optimization approach using microwave-vacuum drying.

    PubMed

    Hirun, Sathira; Utama-Ang, Niramon; Roach, Paul D

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of microwave power (2,400-4,000 W) and drying times (10-30 min) on the quality of dried turmeric in terms of colour (L, a*, b*), moisture content, water activity (aw), ash, antioxidant activity (2,2-dipheneyl-1-picrylhydrazyl; DPPH), total phenolic and curcuminoids content. In addition, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was implemented to optimize the drying conditions for turmeric. A range of quality parameters, microwave power (W) and time (min) were fitted to quadratic models using a central composite design. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistic results suggested that the optimal qualities (i.e., aw, value, moisture content, phenolic content, curcuminoid content and EC50 and L value) of dried turmeric were achieved at high vacuum-microwave power (3,500-4,000 W) and long duration (27-30 min). The improvement in the quality of dried turmeric microwave-vacuum drying in these conditions was illustrated through the enzymatic browning reaction via inhibition of polyphenol oxidase which suppressed the formation of the brown pigments and increased the phenol substrates.

  11. Cold Vacuum Dryer (CVD) Facility Fire Protection System Design Description (SYS 24)

    SciTech Connect

    SINGH, G.

    2000-10-17

    This system design description (SDD) addresses the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility fire protection system (FPS). The primary features of the FPS for the CVD are a fire alarm and detection system, automatic sprinklers, and fire hydrants. The FPS also includes fire extinguishers located throughout the facility and fire hydrants to assist in manual firefighting efforts. In addition, a fire barrier separates the operations support (administrative) area from the process bays and process bay support areas. Administrative controls to limit combustible materials have been established and are a part of the overall fire protection program. The FPS is augmented by assistance from the Hanford Fire Department (HED) and by interface systems including service water, electrical power, drains, instrumentation and controls. This SDD, when used in conjunction with the other elements of the definitive design package, provides a complete picture of the FPS for the CVD Facility.

  12. Dehydration kinetics of salmon and trout fillets using ultrasonic vacuum drying as a novel technique.

    PubMed

    Başlar, Mehmet; Kılıçlı, Mahmut; Yalınkılıç, Barış

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a novel ultrasonic vacuum (USV) drying technique was used to shorten the drying time of fish fillets. For this purpose, ultrasonic treatment and vacuum-drying were simultaneously performed to dehydrate salmon and trout fillets at 55°C, 65°C, and 75°C. In addition, the USV technique was compared with vacuum-drying and oven-drying techniques. The dehydration kinetics of the fillets was successfully described by seven thin-layer drying models with R(2) range between 0.944 and 1.000. Depending on drying temperatures and fish species, the drying times could be shortened using the USV technique between 7.4% and 27.4% compared with vacuum-drying. The highest effective moisture diffusivity was determined in the fillets dried with the USV technique and they increased with increasing drying temperatures. Ultrasonic treatment accelerated the vacuum drying process for the fillets; therefore, this technique could be used to improve the efficiency of vacuum-drying for the fillets.

  13. Growth control of Listeria innocua 2030c on vacuum-packaged cold-smoked salmon by lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Tomé, Elisabetta; Gibbs, Paul A; Teixeira, Paula C

    2008-02-10

    Five bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB): Enterococcus faecium ET05, Lactobacillus curvatus ET06, L. curvatus ET30, L. deldrueckii ET32 and Pediococcus acidilactici ET34, selected by their capacity for growth and producing inhibition in vitro at high salt-on-water content, low temperature and anaerobic atmosphere, conditions simulating cold-smoked fish, were inoculated onto salmon fillets, in co-culture with Listeria innocua 2030c, and cold-smoked processed (dry salted for 6 h; drying for 6 h; smoke for 2 h). The finished product was then packed under vacuum and stored at 5 degrees C. Enumeration of LAB and L. innocua was performed during storage. Results showed that strain E. faecium ET05 was the best biopreservative candidate for controlling L. innocua growth in vacuum-packaged cold-smoked salmon (CSS) processed under the salting/drying/smoking parameters referred above. L. curvatus ET30 and L. delbrueckii ET32 also showed a good biopreservation potential for CSS although they were less effective than the former. L. curvatus ET06 and P. acidilactici ET34 showed a bacteriostatic mode of action against the target bacteria in vitro as well as when inoculated into the salmon fillets. This study describes a potential application of five different LAB in the biopreservation of Listeria in CSS.

  14. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Electrical Equipment Hydrogen Hazard Protection

    SciTech Connect

    PHILIPP, B.L.

    2000-01-20

    This document explains that with the use of a helium purge and adequate control, the systems attached to the MCO in the CVDF are not in a flammable environment. Effective safeguards against ventilation failure are provided which reduces the flammability hazard classification within the protected enclosure to Unclassified. Intrinsically safe components are not required for this system.

  15. Preparation of High-Grade Powders from Tomato Paste Using a Vacuum Foam Drying Method.

    PubMed

    Sramek, Martin; Schweiggert, Ralf Martin; van Kampen, Andreas; Carle, Reinhold; Kohlus, Reinhard

    2015-08-01

    We present a rapid and gentle drying method for the production of high-grade tomato powders from double concentrated tomato paste, comparing results with powders obtained by foam mat air drying and freeze dried powders. The principle of this method consists of drying tomato paste in foamed state at low temperatures in vacuum. The formulations were dried at temperatures of 50, 60, and 70 °C and vacuum of 200 mbar. Foam stability was affected by low serum viscosity and the presence of solid particles in tomato paste. Consequently, serum viscosity was increased by maltodextrin addition, yielding optimum stability at tomato paste:maltodextrin ratio of 2.4:1 (w/w) in dry matter. Material foamability was improved by addition of 0.5% (w/w, fresh weight) egg white. Because of solid particles in tomato paste, foam air filling had to be limited to critical air volume fraction of Φ = 0.7. The paste was first pre-foamed to Φ = 0.2 and subsequently expanded in vacuo. After drying to a moisture content of 5.6% to 7.5% wet base (w.b.), the materials obtained were in glassy state. Qualities of the resulting powders were compared with those produced by freeze and air drying. Total color changes were the least after vacuum drying, whereas air drying resulted in noticeable color changes. Vacuum foam drying at 50 °C led to insignificant carotenoid losses, being equivalent to the time-consuming freeze drying method. In contrast, air drying caused lycopene and β-carotene losses of 18% to 33% and 14% to 19% respectively. Thus, vacuum foam drying enables production of high-grade tomato powders being qualitatively similar to powders obtained by freeze drying.

  16. Development of a compact freeze vacuum drying for jelly fish (Schypomedusae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhamid, M. Idrus; Yulianto, M.; Nasruddin

    2012-06-01

    A new design of a freeze vacuum drying with internal cooling and heater from condenser's heat loss was built and tested. The dryer was used to dry jelly fish (schypomedusae), to study the effect of drying parameters such as the temperature within the drying chamber on mass losses (evaporation) during the freezing stage and the moisture ratio at the end of the drying process. The midili thin layer mathematical drying model was used to estimate and predict the moisture ratio curve based on different drying chamber temperatures. This experiment shows that decreasing the drying chamber temperature with constant pressure results in less mass loss during the freezing stage Drying time was reduced with an increase in drying temperature. Decreasing the drying chamber temperature results in lower pressure saturation of the material has no effect of drying chamber pressure on mass transfer.

  17. The effect of ohmic heating on vacuum drying rate of sweet potato tissue.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Tuoxiu; Lima, Marybeth

    2003-05-01

    Ohmically heating fruit and vegetable tissue has been shown to increase hot-air drying rate, shift desorption isotherms, and increase juice extraction yields with respect to untreated, conventionally heated, and microwaved samples. The objective of this study was to determine if ohmically heating sweet potato tissue would enhance the vacuum drying rate of these samples with respect to untreated samples. Sweet potato cubes were ohmically heated to three endpoint temperatures using three electrical field strengths and were then placed in a freeze dryer. Moisture content vs. time data were collected and modeled. Results showed that the vacuum drying rates of ohmically heated samples were faster than raw samples for most treatment combinations, and that the maximum reduction of drying time was 24%. Minimal ohmic treatment can result in a significant decrease in vacuum drying time, which could have important economic and product quality implications.

  18. Fate of the false vacuum: Towards realization with ultra-cold atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fialko, O.; Opanchuk, B.; Sidorov, A. I.; Drummond, P. D.; Brand, J.

    2015-06-01

    Quantum decay of a relativistic scalar field from a false vacuum is a fundamental idea in quantum field theory. It is relevant to models of the early Universe, where the nucleation of bubbles gives rise to an inflationary universe and the creation of matter. Here we propose a laboratory test using an experimental model of an ultra-cold spinor Bose gas. A false vacuum for the relative phase of two spin components, serving as the unstable scalar field, is generated by means of a modulated radio-frequency coupling of the spin components. Numerical simulations demonstrate the spontaneous formation of true vacuum bubbles with realistic parameters and time-scales.

  19. Consider the cold facts about steam-jet vacuum cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, L.O. )

    1993-01-01

    This article compares the advantages of steam-jet vacuum cooling systems with mechanical compression or absorption systems. Steam-jet vacuum systems are popular where large flow rates of cool water are continuously required. Some utility and cogeneration plants find steam-jet cooling a convenient use for excess summer steam to improve the summer load balance between steam production and electric power generation. Initial costs depend on size and capacity. A 100-200 ton unit may be comparable to a mechanical system of the same size. In addition a cooling tower will be needed where river, pond, or lake water is not available. Simplicity and reliability of the system means savings in maintenance costs.

  20. Adhesives For Use In Vacuum, Radiation, And Cold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouquet, Frank L.

    1988-01-01

    Report presents results of literature searches and tests of eight adhesives for use in high-radiation, low-temperature, vacuum environment of Galileo spacecraft mission to Jupiter. Used as bonding agents for thermal blankets, instruments, structural members, and coatings. Adhesives tested for contamination, reflectance, bond integrity, color, transmittance, outgassing, dielectric constant, coefficient of thermal expansion, optical interference, peel strength, and shear strength. Some of tests conducted at temperature of liquid nitrogen (-150 degree C).

  1. Near infrared photography with a vacuum-cold camera. [Orion nebula observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossano, G. S.; Russell, R. W.; Cornett, R. H.

    1980-01-01

    Sensitized cooled plates have been obtained of the Orion nebula region and of Sh2-149 in the wavelength ranges 8000 A-9000 A and 9,000 A-11,000 A with a recently designed and constructed vacuum-cold camera. Sensitization procedures are described and the camera design is presented.

  2. Effect of drying parameters on physiochemical and sensory properties of fruit powders processed by PGSS-, Vacuum- and Spray-drying.

    PubMed

    Feguš, Urban; Žigon, Uroš; Petermann, Marcus; Knez, Željko

    2015-01-01

    Aim of this experimental work was to investigate the possibility of producing fruit powders without employing drying aid and to investigate the effect of drying temperatures on the final powder characteristics. Raw fruit materials (banana puree, strawberry puree and blueberry concentrate) were processed using three different drying techniques each operating at a different temperature conditions: vacuum-drying (-27-17 °C), Spray-drying (130-160 °C) and PGSS-drying (112-152 °C). Moisture content, total colour difference, antioxidant activity and sensory characteristics of the processed fruit powders were analysed. The results obtained from the experimental work indicate that investigated fruit powders without or with minimal addition of maltodextrin can be produced. Additionally, it was observed that an increase in process temperature results in a higher loss of colour, antioxidant activity and intensity of the flavour profile.

  3. Non-enzymatic browning and flavour kinetics of vacuum dried onion slices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Jayeeta; Shrivastava, Shanker L.; Rao, Pavuluri S.

    2015-01-01

    Onion slices were dehydrated under vacuum to produce good quality dried ready-to-use onion slices. Colour development due to non-enzymatic browning and flavour loss in terms of thiosulphinate concentration was determined, along with moisture content and rehydration ratio. Kinetics of non-enzymatic browning and thiosulphinate loss during drying was analysed. Colour change due to non-enzymatic browning was found to be much lower in the case of vacuum dried onion, and improved flavour retention was observed as compared to hot air dried onion slices. The optical index values for non-enzymatic browning varied from 18.41 to 38.68 for untreated onion slices and from 16.73 to 36.51 for treated slices, whereas thiosulphinate concentration in the case of untreated onion slices was within the range of 2.96-3.92 μmol g-1 for dried sample and 3.71-4.43 μmol g-1 for the treated onion slices. Rehydration ratio was also increased, which may be attributed to a better porous structure attained due to vacuum drying. The treatment applied was found very suitable in controlling non-enzymatic browning and flavour loss during drying, besides increasing rehydration ratio. Hence, high quality dried ready- to-use onion slices were prepared.

  4. Methods for batch fabrication of cold cathode vacuum switch tubes

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Charles A.; Trowbridge, Frank R.

    2011-05-10

    Methods are disclosed for batch fabrication of vacuum switch tubes that reduce manufacturing costs and improve tube to tube uniformity. The disclosed methods comprise creating a stacked assembly of layers containing a plurality of adjacently spaced switch tube sub-assemblies aligned and registered through common layers. The layers include trigger electrode layer, cathode layer including a metallic support/contact with graphite cathode inserts, trigger probe sub-assembly layer, ceramic (e.g. tube body) insulator layer, and metallic anode sub-assembly layer. Braze alloy layers are incorporated into the stacked assembly of layers, and can include active metal braze alloys or direct braze alloys, to eliminate costs associated with traditional metallization of the ceramic insulator layers. The entire stacked assembly is then heated to braze/join/bond the stack-up into a cohesive body, after which individual switch tubes are singulated by methods such as sawing. The inventive methods provide for simultaneously fabricating a plurality of devices as opposed to traditional methods that rely on skilled craftsman to essentially hand build individual devices.

  5. Microwave application on air drying of apple (var. Granny Smith). The influence of vacuum impregnation pretreatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin Esparza, Maria Eugenia

    Combined hot air-microwave drying has been studied on apple (var. Granny Smith), with and without vacuum impregnation (VI) pretreatment with isotonic solution, respect to kinetics, microstructural and final quality items. In order to reach this objective, a drier has been designed and built, that allows to control and to register all the variables which take place during the drying process. Thermal and dielectric properties, that are very important characteristics when studying heat and mass transfer phenomena that occur during the combined drying process, have been related to temperature and/or moisture content throughout empirical equations. It could be observed that all these properties decreased with product moisture content. Respect to dielectric properties, a relationship among water binding forms to food structure and water molecules relaxation frequency has been found. On the other hand, the effect of drying treatment conditions (air rate, drying temperature, sample thickness and incident microwave power) on the drying rate, from an empirical model based on diffusional mechanisms with two kinetic parameters (k1 and k2), both function of the incident microwave power, has been studied. Microwave application to air drying implied a notable decrease on drying time, the higher the applied power the higher the reduction. Microstructural study by Cryo-Sem revealed fast water vaporization taking place when microwaves are applied. Vacuum impregnation did not implied an additional advantage for combined drying as drying rate was similar to that of NIV samples. Finally, it has been studied the influence of process conditions on the color and mechanical properties of the dried product (IV and NIV). Vacuum impregnation implied an increase on the fracture resistance and less purity and tone angle. Microwave application induced product browning with respect to air drying (tone decreased and purity increased).

  6. Modeling and optimization of red currants vacuum drying process by response surface methodology (RSM).

    PubMed

    Šumić, Zdravko; Vakula, Anita; Tepić, Aleksandra; Čakarević, Jelena; Vitas, Jasmina; Pavlić, Branimir

    2016-07-15

    Fresh red currants were dried by vacuum drying process under different drying conditions. Box-Behnken experimental design with response surface methodology was used for optimization of drying process in terms of physical (moisture content, water activity, total color change, firmness and rehydratation power) and chemical (total phenols, total flavonoids, monomeric anthocyanins and ascorbic acid content and antioxidant activity) properties of dried samples. Temperature (48-78 °C), pressure (30-330 mbar) and drying time (8-16 h) were investigated as independent variables. Experimental results were fitted to a second-order polynomial model where regression analysis and analysis of variance were used to determine model fitness and optimal drying conditions. The optimal conditions of simultaneously optimized responses were temperature of 70.2 °C, pressure of 39 mbar and drying time of 8 h. It could be concluded that vacuum drying provides samples with good physico-chemical properties, similar to lyophilized sample and better than conventionally dried sample.

  7. Spent nuclear fuel vacuum drying thermal-hydraulic analysis and dynamic model development status report

    SciTech Connect

    Irwin, J.J.; Ogden, D.M., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-28

    This report summarizes preliminary thermal hydraulic scoping analysis and model development associated with the K Basin spent fuel MCO draining and vacuum drying system. The purpose of the draining and drying system is to remove all free water from the interior of the MCO, baskets, and fuel prior to back filling with inert gas and transfer to the hot conditioning process. Dominant physical processes and parameters are delineated and related quantitatively. Minimum dynamic modeling capability required to simulate the process of transporting heat to the residual water on the fuel and transport of the steam produced from the system by vacuum pumping are defined.

  8. Optimization of microwave vacuum drying of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) seeds by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yuting; Zhang, Yi; Zeng, Shaoxiao; Zheng, Yafeng; Chen, Feng; Guo, Zhebin; Lin, Yufei; Zheng, Baodong

    2012-10-01

    Drying is the main process used to treat lotus seeds for storage. In this study, response surface methodology was used to optimize processing methods for microwave vacuum (MWV) drying of lotus seeds and to create a desirable product. A central composite design with three important factors: microwave output power (2.0-4.0 kW), vacuum degree (-0.070 to -0.090 MPa) and on/off ratio (68/52 s to 99/21 s) was used to study the response variables of drying time, shrinkage ratio, rehydration ratio and whiteness index. The optimum conditions for MWV drying of lotus seeds were determined to obtain a minimal drying time, minimal shrinkage ratio, maximum rehydration ratio and maximum whiteness index. The optimum drying conditions were found to be: microwave output power 3.2 kW, vacuum degree -0.083 MPa and on/off ratio 94/26 s. Under these optimal conditions, drying time, shrinkage ratio, rehydration ratio and whiteness index were found to be 10 min, 37.66%, 157.1% and 68.83, respectively.

  9. Assessment of vacuum-dried peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) as a source of natural antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Uribe, Elsa; Marín, Daniela; Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Quispe-Fuentes, Issis; Rodríguez, Angela

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature in the vacuum drying process of Mentha piperita L. (50 to 90 °C). Generally, drying processes affect the quality of product, however, vacuum drying works under sub-atmospheric pressures. In order to investigate how temperature affects this herb, as to color, chlorophyll, total phenolic (TPC), total flavonoid (TFC) contents, antioxidant activity by DPPH and ORAC methods. Mineral, vitamin C and sugar contents were also evaluated. A slight change in color and chlorophyll content was observed in the samples. The highest values for TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity methods were obtained at 50 and 70 °C however, a decrease in the vitamin C content was observed. Minerals such as K, Ca, Mg and Na were found. Sucrose showed the highest sugar content. This work suggests that M. piperita L. can be used as a natural antioxidant, whether fresh or dried.

  10. Microwave-Osmotic/Microwave-Vacuum Drying of Whole Cranberries: Comparison with Other Methods.

    PubMed

    Wray, Derek; Ramaswamy, Hosahalli S

    2015-12-01

    A novel drying method for frozen-thawed whole cranberries was developed by combining microwave osmotic dehydration under continuous flow medium spray (MWODS) conditions with microwave vacuum finish-drying. A central composite rotatable design was used to vary temperature (33 to 67 °C), osmotic solution concentration (33 to 67 °B), contact time (5 to 55 min), and flow rate (2.1 to 4.1 L/min) in order to the determine the effects of MWODS input parameters on quality of the dried berry. Quality indices monitored included colorimetric and textural data in addition to anthocyanin retention and cellular structure. Overall it was found that the MWODS-MWV process was able to produce dried cranberries with quality comparable to freeze dried samples in much shorter time. Additionally, cranberries dried via the novel process exhibited much higher quality than those dried via either vacuum or convective air drying in terms of color, anthocyanin content, and cellular structure.

  11. Ultrasonic Spray Drying vs High Vacuum and Microwaves Technology for Blueberries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candia-Muñoz, N.; Ramirez-Bunster, M.; Vargas-Hernández, Y.; Gaete-Garretón, L.

    Interest in high quality foods: good taste and a high content of nutrients with healthy beneficial effects are increasing. Fruits have good properties but, they are lost because the oxidation process, additionally, for different reasons a 40% of harvested fruit are lost. To conserve the fruit properties an ultrasonic assisted spray dryer was developed and tested, comparing its results with microwave-vacuum drying technology. Results did shown taste, color, smell, particle shape and size distribution better than the conventional one. The antioxidants conservation were quite good except in the anthocyanins, in which the microwave and vacuum technology shown best results.

  12. Comparison of the volatile constituents in cold-pressed bergamot oil and a volatile oil isolated by vacuum distillation.

    PubMed

    Belsito, Emilia L; Carbone, Concetta; Di Gioia, Maria L; Leggio, Antonella; Liguori, Angelo; Perri, Francesca; Siciliano, Carlo; Viscomi, Maria C

    2007-09-19

    The vacuum distillation of bergamot peels furnishes a high-quality essential oil that is totally bergapten-free. This oil was compared with that produced by distillation of cold-pressed oils and those commercially available. The oil obtained by vacuum distillation of the bergamot vegetable matrix shows a composition quite similar to that of the cold-pressed oil. It also displays qualitative characteristics that are superior with respect to those normally observed for essential oils isolated by distillation of cold-pressed oils. Oils isolated by the method presented here can constitute ideal candidates in producing foods, for example, Earl Grey tea, and cosmetic preparations.

  13. Analysis of the moisture evaporation process during vacuum freeze-drying of koumiss and shubat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shingisov, Azret Utebaevich; Alibekov, Ravshanbek Sultanbekovich

    2016-10-01

    The equation for the calculating of a moisture evaporation rate in the vacuum freeze-drying, wherein as a driving force instead of the generally accepted in the drying theory of ∆t temperature difference, ∆p pressure difference, ∆c concentration difference, a difference of water activity in the product and the relative air humidity (a_{w} - φ) is suggested. By using the proposed equation, the processes of vacuum freeze-drying of koumiss and shubat were analyzed, and it was found two drying periods: constant and falling. On the first drying period, a moisture evaporation rate of koumiss is j = 2.75 × 10-3 kg/(m2 h) and of shubat is j = 2.37 × 10-3 kg/(m2 h). On the second period, values decrease for koumiss from j = 2.65 × 10-3 kg/(m2 h) to j = 1.60 × 10-3 kg/(m2 h), and for shubat from j = 2.25 × 10-3 kg/(m2 h) to j = 1.62 × 10-3 kg/(m2 h). Specific humidity for koumiss is ueq = 0.61 kg/kg and for shubat is ueq = 0.58 kg/kg. The comparative analyze of the experimental data of the moisture evaporation rate versus the theoretical calculation shows that the approximation reliability is R2 = 0.99. Consequently, the proposed equation is useful for the analyzing a moisture evaporation rate during a vacuum freeze-drying of dairy products, including cultured milk foods.

  14. A New Freezing Method Using Pre-Dehydration by Microwave-Vacuum Drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuruta, Takaharu; Hamidi, Nurkholis

    Partial dehydration by microwave-vacuum drying has been applied to tuna and strawberry in order to reduce cell-damages caused by the formation of large ice-crystals during freezing. The samples were subjected to microwave vacuum drying at pressure of 5 kPa and temperature less than 27°C to remove small amount of water prior to freezing. The tuna were cooled by using the freezing chamber at temperature -50°C or -150°C, while the strawberries were frozen at temperature -30°C or -80°C, respectively. The temperature transients in tuna showed that removing some water before freezing made the freezing time shorter. The observations of ice crystal clearly indicated that rapid cooling and pre-dehydration prior to freezing were effective in minimizing the size of ice crystal. It is also understood that the formation of large ice crystals has a close relation to the cell damages. After thawing, the observation of microstructure was done on the tuna and strawberry halves. The pre-dehydrated samples showed a better structure than the un-dehydrated one. It is concluded that the pre-dehydration by microwave-vacuum drying is one promising method for the cryo-preservation of foods.

  15. 46 CFR 148.245 - Direct reduced iron (DRI); lumps, pellets, and cold-molded briquettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Direct reduced iron (DRI); lumps, pellets, and cold-molded briquettes. 148.245 Section 148.245 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.245 Direct reduced iron (DRI); lumps, pellets, and...

  16. 46 CFR 148.245 - Direct reduced iron (DRI); lumps, pellets, and cold-molded briquettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Direct reduced iron (DRI); lumps, pellets, and cold-molded briquettes. 148.245 Section 148.245 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.245 Direct reduced iron (DRI); lumps, pellets, and...

  17. 46 CFR 148.245 - Direct reduced iron (DRI); lumps, pellets, and cold-molded briquettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Direct reduced iron (DRI); lumps, pellets, and cold-molded briquettes. 148.245 Section 148.245 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.245 Direct reduced iron (DRI); lumps, pellets, and...

  18. 46 CFR 148.245 - Direct reduced iron (DRI); lumps, pellets, and cold-molded briquettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Direct reduced iron (DRI); lumps, pellets, and cold-molded briquettes. 148.245 Section 148.245 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.245 Direct reduced iron (DRI); lumps, pellets, and...

  19. Hygienization of municipal sludge in automatically operated chamber filter presses with thermal vacuum drying.

    PubMed

    Sagberg, P

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the state of the art of thermal vacuum drying in chamber filter presses for unattended automatic operation. The achieved results are exemplified by the treatment of the two stage digested combined primary, chemical and biological sludge created by the VEAS concept for nutrient removal from municipal wastewater at VEAS. The water removal rate in each stage of the drying process is described, with comments on the low energy needs. The advantages of one-sided heating, the capacity and the drying potential are discussed. The hygienization potential of the process is demonstrated by the effect on thermostable coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli, salmonella, the spores of sulfite reducing anaerobic bacteria, f-specific bacteriophages, the seeds of the weed, wild oat, Avena fatua, and the parasite eggs of the potato cyst nematode, Globodera rostochiensis. A more complete paper with the VEAS-concept is found on the VEAS homepage (www.veas.nu).

  20. Changes in non-volatile taste components of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) during different stages of freeze drying and freeze drying combined with microwave vacuum drying.

    PubMed

    Pei, Fei; Shi, Ying; Gao, Xingyang; Wu, Fangning; Mariga, Alfred Mugambi; Yang, Wenjian; Zhao, Liyan; An, Xinxin; Xin, Zhihong; Yang, Fangmei; Hu, Qiuhui

    2014-12-15

    Button mushroom slices were dehydrated using freeze drying (FD) or FD combined with microwave vacuum drying (FMVD), and the non-volatile component profiles were studied. The results showed that the level of non-volatile components in button mushroom firstly increased during sublimation of FD/FMVD process and then fell during desorption in FD process and MVD in FMVD process. Compared to FD products, the contents of soluble sugars and polyols in FMVD products were relatively low, whereas the contents of total free amino acids were significantly higher, close to the level of fresh mushroom. However, there was no significant difference in the contents of 5'-nucleotides and organic acids between FD and FMVD products. The equivalent umami concentration (EUC) values for FD and FMVD products did not differ from fresh, indicating that both drying methods could effectively preserve MSG (monosodium glutamate)-like components in button mushroom.

  1. Comparison of three-dimensional printing and vacuum freeze-dried techniques for fabricating composite scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Sun, Kai; Li, Ruixin; Jiang, Wenxue; Sun, Yufu; Li, Hui

    2016-09-02

    In this study, the performances of different preparation methods of the scaffolds were analyzed for chondrocyte tissue engineering. Silk fibroin/collagen (SF/C) was fabricated using a vacuum freeze-dried technique and by 3D printing. The porosity, water absorption expansion rates, mechanical properties, and pore sizes of the resulting materials were evaluated. The proliferation and metabolism of the cells was detected at different time points using an MTT assay. Cell morphologies and distributions were observed by histological analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The porosity, water absorption expansion rate, and Young's modulus of the material obtained via 3D printing were significantly higher than those obtained by the freeze-dried method, while the pore size did not differ significantly between the two methods. MTT assay results showed that the metabolism of cells seeded on the 3D printed scaffolds was more viable than the metabolism on the freeze-dried material. H&E staining of the scaffolds revealed that the number of cells in the 3D printed scaffold was higher in comparison to a similar measurement on the freeze-dried material. Consequently, stem cells grew well inside the 3D printed scaffolds, as measured by SEM, while the internal structure of the freeze-dried scaffold was disordered. Compared with the freeze-dried technique, the 3D printed scaffold exhibited better overall performance and was more suitable for cartilage tissue engineering.

  2. Critically safe volume vacuum pickup for use in wet or dry cleanup of radioactive enclosures

    DOEpatents

    Zeren, Joseph D.

    1993-12-28

    A physical compact vacuum pickup device of critically safe volume and geometric shape is provided for use in radioactive enclosures, such as a small glove box, to facilitate manual cleanup of either wet or dry radioactive material. The device is constructed and arranged so as to remain safe when filled to capacity with plutonium-239 oxide. Two fine mesh filter bags are supported on the exterior of a rigid fine mesh stainless steel cup. This assembly is sealed within, and spaced from, the interior walls of a stainless steel canister. An air inlet communicates with the interior of the canister. A modified conventional vacuum head is physically connected to, and associated with, the interior of the mesh cup. The volume of the canister, as defined by the space between the mesh cup and the interior walls of the canister, forms a critically safe volume and geometric shape for dry radioactive particles that are gathered within the canister. A critically safe liquid volume is maintained by operation of a suction terminating float valve, and/or by operation of redundant vacuum check/liquid drain valves and placement of the air inlet.

  3. Critically safe volume vacuum pickup for use in wet or dry cleanup of radioactive enclosures

    DOEpatents

    Zeren, J.D.

    1993-12-28

    A physical compact vacuum pickup device of critically safe volume and geometric shape is provided for use in radioactive enclosures, such as a small glove box, to facilitate manual cleanup of either wet or dry radioactive material. The device is constructed and arranged so as to remain safe when filled to capacity with plutonium-239 oxide. Two fine mesh filter bags are supported on the exterior of a rigid fine mesh stainless steel cup. This assembly is sealed within, and spaced from, the interior walls of a stainless steel canister. An air inlet communicates with the interior of the canister. A modified conventional vacuum head is physically connected to, and associated with, the interior of the mesh cup. The volume of the canister, as defined by the space between the mesh cup and the interior walls of the canister, forms a critically safe volume and geometric shape for dry radioactive particles that are gathered within the canister. A critically safe liquid volume is maintained by operation of a suction terminating float valve, and/or by operation of redundant vacuum check/liquid drain valves and placement of the air inlet. 5 figures.

  4. A comparative study of beef quality after ageing longissimus muscle using a dry ageing bag, traditional dry ageing or vacuum package ageing.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Babol, Jakub; Bredie, Wender L P; Nielsen, Belinda; Tománková, Jana; Lundström, Kerstin

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate beef quality of longissimus muscle after ageing in dry ageing bags, traditional dry ageing or vacuum for 8 or 19 days. Lower ageing weight loss, odour score and microbial growth were found in meat aged in dry ageing bags than after traditional dry ageing. The sensory panel detected no differences for most of the sensory attributes between samples using the two dry ageing methods, except for the odour of the cutting surface. The dry-aged steaks had more umami and butter fried meat taste compared with vacuum-aged steaks. Ageing time affected most of the sensory traits in this study, which improved as ageing time increased from 8 to 19 days. In a consumer test, meat aged for 21 days in dry ageing bags was preferred than the samples aged in vacuum. This may be due to the higher tenderness and juiciness obtained during storage in dry ageing bags than meat aged in vacuum.

  5. Vacuum Drying for Extending Litchi Shelf-Life: Vitamin C, Total Phenolics, Texture and Shelf-Life Assessment.

    PubMed

    Richter Reis, Felipe; de Oliveira, Aline Caroline; Gadelha, Gabriella Giani Pieretti; de Abreu, Marcela Breves; Soares, Hillary Isabelle

    2017-01-24

    In an attempt to obtain shelf-stable litchi fruit with preserved nutritional quality and good sensory features, quarters of peeled and pitted fruits were vacuum dried at 50, 60 and 70 °C at a constant pressure of 8.0 kPa. The product was assessed for its vitamin C, total phenolics and texture (hardness). In addition, the product with the best texture was assessed for its shelf-life by means of accelerated testing. Results suggest that vacuum dried litchi retained almost 70% of the vitamin C and total phenolics when compared to frozen fruits (control). Vitamin C and phenolic compounds content significantly decreased with drying, while no difference was found between different drying temperatures. Hardness increased with drying temperature. The sample dried at 70 °C presented crispness, which is a desired quality feature in dried fruit products. This sample was subjected to shelf-life evaluation, whose result suggests a shelf-life of eight months at 23 °C. Total color change (CIE ΔE00) was the expiry criterion. Vacuum drying was a suitable technique for producing shelf-stable litchi fruit with good texture while preserving its desirable original nutrients. Consumption of vacuum dried litchi may be beneficial to health due to its remarkable content of phenolic compounds and vitamin C.

  6. Microwave-vacuum drying of sour cherry: comparison of mathematical models and artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Motavali, Ali; Najafi, Gholam Hassan; Abbasi, Solayman; Minaei, Saeid; Ghaderi, Abdurrahman

    2013-08-01

    Drying characteristics of sour cherries were determined using microwave vacuum drier at various microwave powers (360, 600, 840, 1200 W) and absolute pressures (200, 400, 600, 800 mbars). In addition, using the artificial neural networks (ANN), trained by standard Back-Propagation algorithm, the effects of microwave power, pressure and drying time on moisture ratio (MR) and drying rate (DR) were investigated Based on the evaluation of experimental data fitting with semi-theoretical and empirical models, the Midilli et al. model was selected as the most appropriate one. Furthermore, the ANN model was able to predict the moisture ratio and drying rate quite well with determination coefficients (R(2)) of 0.9996, 0.9961 and 0.9958 for training, validation and testing, respectively. The prediction Mean Square Error of ANN was about 0.0003, 0.0071 and 0.0053 for training, validation and testing, respectively. This parameter signifies the difference between the desired outputs (as measured values) and the simulated values by the model. The good agreement between the experimental data and ANN model leads to the conclusion that the model adequately describes the drying behavior of sour cherries, in the range of operating conditions tested.

  7. Calculation methodology of the heat pump in the process of oscillating vacuum-conductive drying of lumber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safin, R. R.; Khasanshin, R. R.; Shaikhutdinova, A. R.; Khakimzyanov, I. F.

    2016-04-01

    The oscillating technologies consisting in alternating of the stage of heating of the material and vacuumization are the most advanced in the process of wood drying. In this regard, the article examines the energy-saving technology of the oscillating vacuum-conductive drying of lumber, during which the thermal energy of the moisture evaporated from the material under vacuum in one chamber by using the heat pump is transferred to the heating of the material in the other chamber. The authors develop the method of calculating the rate of removal of moisture from the heated material at the stage of vacuumization depending on the depth of vacuum, temperature, humidity and thickness of the material, which is the initial condition for calculating the heat pump.

  8. A device for vacuum drying, inert gas backfilling and solder sealing of hermetic implant packages.

    PubMed

    Schuettler, Martin; Huegle, Matthias; Ordonez, Juan S; Wilde, Juergen; Stieglitz, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Modern implanted devices utilize microelectronics that have to be protected from the body fluids in order to maintain their functionality over decades. Moisture protection of implants is addressed by enclosing the electronic circuits into gas-tight packages. In this paper we describe a device that allows custom-built hermetic implant packages to be vacuum-dried (removing residual moisture from inside the package), backfilled with an inert gas at adjustable pressure and hermetically sealed employing a solder seal. A typical operation procedure of the device is presented.

  9. Nanostructural Characteristics of Vacuum Cold-Sprayed Hydroxyapatite/Graphene-Nanosheet Coatings for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi; Huang, Jing; Li, Hua

    2014-10-01

    Development of novel biocompatible nanomaterials has provided insights into their potential biomedical applications. Bulk fabrication of the nanomaterials in the form of coatings remains challenging. Here, we report hydroxyapatite (HA)/graphene-nanosheet (GN) composite coatings deposited by vacuum cold spray (VCS). Significant shape changes of HA nanograins during the coating deposition were revealed. The nanostructural features of HA together with curvature alternation of GN gave rise to dense structures. Based on the microstructural characterization, a structure model was proposed to elucidate the nanostructural characteristics of the HA-GN nanocomposites. Results also showed that addition of GN significantly enhanced fracture toughness and elastic modulus of the HA-based coatings, which is presumably accounted for by crack bridging offered by GN in the composites. The VCS HA-GN coatings show potential for biomedical applications for the repair or replacement of hard tissues.

  10. On the measurement the neutron lifetime using ultra-cold neutrons in a vacuum quadrupole trap

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, J. D.; Penttila, S. I.

    2004-01-01

    We present a conceptual design for an experiment to measure the neutron lifetime ({approx}882 s) with an accuracy of 10{sup -4}. The lifetime will be measured by observing the decay rate of a sample of UCNs confined in vacuum in a magnetic trap. The UCN collaboration at LANL has developed a prototype ultra-cold neutron UCN source that is expected to produce a bottled UCN density of more than 100 UCN/cm{sup 3}. The availability of such an intense source makes it possible to approach the measurement of the neutron lifetime in a new way. We argue below that it is possible to measure the neutron lifetime to 10{sup -4} in a vacuum magnetic trap. The measurement involves no new technology beyond the expected UCN density. If even higher densities are available, the experiment can be made better and/or less expensive. We present the design and methodology for the measurement. The slow loss of neutrons that have stable orbits, but are not energetically trapped would produce a systematic error in the measurement. We discuss a new approach, chaotic cleaning, to the elimination of quasi-neutrons from the trap by breaking the rotational symmetry of the quadrupole trap. The neutron orbits take on a chaotic character and mode mixing causes the neutrons on the quasi-bound orbits to leave the trap.

  11. Effect of microwave power on kinetics and characteristics of microwave vacuum-dried longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) pulp.

    PubMed

    Su, Dongxiao; Zhang, Mingwei; Wei, Zhencheng; Tang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Ruifen; Liu, Lei; Deng, Yuanyuan

    2015-03-01

    The drying kinetics of longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) pulp processed by microwave vacuum under different microwave levels (2.67, 5.33, 8.00, and 10.67 W/g) was investigated (pressure controlled at -85 ± 2 kPa) in the present study. It was found that the drying rate of longan pulp was dependent on the microwave power, and the rehydration rate increased from 1.96 to 2.17 with the increase of microwave power from 2.67 to 10.67 W/g. Among nine selected thin layer models, the microwave vacuum drying of longan pulp was well represented by five models, which were Page, Modified Henderson and Pabis, Wang and Singh, Logarithmic, and Midilli models. Furthermore, the results of statistical analysis indicated that the Midilli model could describe the best experimental data. In addition, scanning electron microscope observation showed that the microwave vacuum-dried longan pulp had a porous structure.

  12. Consumer preference and effect of correct or misleading information after ageing beef longissimus muscle using vacuum, dry ageing, or a dry ageing bag.

    PubMed

    Stenström, Helena; Li, Xin; Hunt, Melvin C; Lundström, Kerstin

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine which ageing treatment of beef was sensorially preferred by consumers and how their preference changed when given information about the ageing treatment used. Longissimus thoracis et lumborum from four young bulls were randomly assigned three ageing treatments: dry ageing, vacuum ageing and ageing in a highly moisture permeable bag (bag dry-ageing); each was aged at 1.6 °C for another 13 days. A preference test (171 consumers) with questions about overall liking, tenderness, and juiciness was performed. Thereafter, a deceptive test (61 consumers) was performed with two taste samples, the first taste sample with correct information about ageing treatment and the second with false information. In the preference test, consumers preferred dry ageing and bag dry-ageing to vacuum ageing. In the deceptive test, dry ageing was preferred, but the information given influenced preference.

  13. Formulation design and optimization of mouth dissolve tablets of nimesulide using vacuum drying technique.

    PubMed

    Gohel, Mukesh; Patel, Madhabhai; Amin, Avani; Agrawal, Ruchi; Dave, Rikita; Bariya, Nehal

    2004-04-26

    The purpose of this research was to develop mouth dissolve tablets of nimesulide. Granules containing nimesulide, camphor, crospovidone, and lactose were prepared by wet granulation technique. Camphor was sublimed from the dried granules by exposure to vacuum. The porous granules were then compressed. Alternatively, tablets were first prepared and later exposed to vacuum. The tablets were evaluated for percentage friability, wetting time, and disintegration time. In the investigation, a 32 full factorial design was used to investigate the joint influence of 2 formulation variables: amount of camphor and crospovidone. The results of multiple linear regression analysis revealed that for obtaining a rapidly disintegrating dosage form, tablets should be prepared using an optimum concentration of camphor and a higher percentage of crospovidone. A contour plot is also presented to graphically represent the effect of the independent variables on the disintegration time and percentage friability. A checkpoint batch was also prepared to prove the validity of the evolved mathematical model. Sublimation of camphor from tablets resulted in superior tablets as compared with the tablets prepared from granules that were exposed to vacuum. The systematic formulation approach helped in understanding the effect of formulation processing variables.

  14. Effects of cold dry air nasal stimulation on airway mucosal blood flow in humans.

    PubMed

    Le Merre, C; Isber, J; Chediak, A D; Wanner, A

    2003-10-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that nasal challenges can induce reflex responses in the respiratory system. Some authors have described bronchoconstriction and modification of the pattern of breathing following nasal challenges by irritants and cold air. We propose to determine the effect of nasal stimulation with cold dry air on airway mucosal blood flow (Qaw) in the proximal tracheal bronchial tree of healthy humans. Nine healthy subjects participated in the study. Baseline measurement Qaw, nasal airway resistance (NAR) and airway caliber by specific airways conductance (SGaw) were followed by nasal challenge with cold dry air. Qaw, NAR and Sgaw were determined after the challenge. In those subjects in which a significant decline in Qaw was recorded the protocol was repeated after pretreatment with nasal anesthesia using topical lidocaine. Cold dry air challenge produced a significant decrease in mean Qaw for the nine subjects and this response was abolished by pretreatment with nasal anesthesia using topical lidocaine. There was no significant change in Sgaw and NAR after the challenge and topical lidocaine anesthesia. Our data indicates that nasal stimulation with cold dry air leads to a reduction in Qaw and that this effect may be mediated by a nasal reflex.

  15. Research on heat transfer characteristics and cold trap capacity of a water catcher during vacuum pre-cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Enhai; Liu, Yin; Wang, Changzhong; Liu, Shiqi

    2017-01-01

    Effect of vacuum pre-cooling process on apples was a complex process of heat and mass transfers. The research is based on the physical properties of apples and their heat and mass transfer mechanisms during vacuum pre-cooling. As for the heat transfer characteristics of a water catcher in vacuum pre-cooling, the research studied the heat transfer mechanism and calculated the cold trap capacity by experimental means, and it cold trap capacity were evaluated to supply references for future research into the practical applications of such vacuum pre-cooling techniques. The results provide a theoretical basis for exploring better pre-cooling process conditions and the design of water catchers. The experimental results show that, when the wall temperature of the water catcher is -5°C, the optimal cold trap capacity is about 90.72g and the required cooling capacity is 210.13W in the vacuum pre-cooling of 201.9g of apples.

  16. Meat quality, microbiological status and consumer preference of beef gluteus medius aged in a dry ageing bag or vacuum.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Babol, Jakub; Wallby, Anna; Lundström, Kerstin

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated meat quality and consumer preference after ageing beef gluteus medius in a water vapour-permeable dry-ageing bag or in vacuum for 14 days. Higher ageing and trim losses but lower thawing loss, cooking loss and water content were found in samples aged in dry ageing bags compared to those aged in vacuum. Samples aged in dry ageing bags had higher total bacteria and yeast counts but lower lactic acid bacteria counts than those aged in vacuum, both before and after trimming. Meat aged in dry ageing bag was more tender and juicier and overall preferred by consumers compared with samples aged in vacuum. Female participants outperformed the males in detecting differences in palatability. No differences were found in pH, smell, shear force, colour, Enterobacteriaceae, and mould counts. Thus, by using a dry ageing bag, it is possible to produce dry-aged meat in a more controlled condition without negative effects on sensory or other quality attributes.

  17. Improvement of Freezing Quality of Food by Pre-dehydration with Microwave-Vacuum Drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidi, Nurkholis; Tsuruta, Takaharu

    Partial dehydration by microwave vacuum drying has been applied to tuna, oyster and mackerel prior to freezing in order to reduce quality damages due to freezing and thawing. Samples were dehydrated at pressure of 4kPa and temperature lower than 25°C. Two cooling conditions were tested in the experiment by using the freezing chamber of temperatures -20°C and -80°C. The experimental results showed that decreasing the water content in tuna could lower the freezing point temperature and made the freezing time shorter. It was also found that removing some water was effective to reduce the size of ice crystal and the drip loss in mackerel. After thawing, the pre-dehydrated mackerel showed better microstructure than that frozen without pre-treatment. Furthermore, the sensory tests have been done by a group of panelist for the evaluation on aroma, flavor, and general acceptability of mackerels.

  18. Overall Quality of Fruits and Vegetables Products Affected by the Drying Processes with the Assistance of Vacuum-Microwaves.

    PubMed

    Figiel, Adam; Michalska, Anna

    2016-12-30

    The seasonality of fruits and vegetables makes it impossible to consume and use them throughout the year, thus numerous processing efforts have been made to offer an alternative to their fresh consumption and application. To prolong their availability on the market, drying has received special attention as currently this method is considered one of the most common ways for obtaining food and pharmaceutical products from natural sources. This paper demonstrates the weakness of common drying methods applied for fruits and vegetables and the possible ways to improve the quality using different drying techniques or their combination with an emphasis on the microwave energy. Particular attention has been drawn to the combined drying with the assistance of vacuum-microwaves. The quality of the dried products was ascribed by chemical properties including the content of polyphenols, antioxidant capacity and volatiles as well as physical parameters such as color, shrinkage, porosity and texture. Both these fields of quality classification were considered taking into account sensory attributes and energy aspects in the perspective of possible industrial applications. In conclusion, the most promising way for improving the quality of dried fruit and vegetable products is hybrid drying consisting of osmotic dehydration in concentrated fruit juices followed by heat pump drying and vacuum-microwave finish drying.

  19. Overall Quality of Fruits and Vegetables Products Affected by the Drying Processes with the Assistance of Vacuum-Microwaves

    PubMed Central

    Figiel, Adam; Michalska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The seasonality of fruits and vegetables makes it impossible to consume and use them throughout the year, thus numerous processing efforts have been made to offer an alternative to their fresh consumption and application. To prolong their availability on the market, drying has received special attention as currently this method is considered one of the most common ways for obtaining food and pharmaceutical products from natural sources. This paper demonstrates the weakness of common drying methods applied for fruits and vegetables and the possible ways to improve the quality using different drying techniques or their combination with an emphasis on the microwave energy. Particular attention has been drawn to the combined drying with the assistance of vacuum-microwaves. The quality of the dried products was ascribed by chemical properties including the content of polyphenols, antioxidant capacity and volatiles as well as physical parameters such as color, shrinkage, porosity and texture. Both these fields of quality classification were considered taking into account sensory attributes and energy aspects in the perspective of possible industrial applications. In conclusion, the most promising way for improving the quality of dried fruit and vegetable products is hybrid drying consisting of osmotic dehydration in concentrated fruit juices followed by heat pump drying and vacuum-microwave finish drying. PMID:28042845

  20. Argon used as dry suit insulation gas for cold-water diving

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cold-water diving requires good thermal insulation because hypothermia is a serious risk. Water conducts heat more efficiently compared to air. To stay warm during a dive, the choice of thermal protection should be based on physical activity, the temperature of the water, and the duration of exposure. A dry suit, a diving suit filled with gas, is the most common diving suit in cold water. Air is the traditional dry suit inflation gas, whereas the thermal conductivity of argon is approximately 32% lower compared to that of air. This study evaluates the benefits of argon, compared to air, as a thermal insulation gas for a dry suit during a 1-h cold-water dive by divers of the Royal Netherlands Navy. Methods Seven male Special Forces divers made (in total) 19 dives in a diving basin with water at 13°C at a depth of 3 m for 1 h in upright position. A rubber dry suit and woollen undergarment were used with either argon (n = 13) or air (n = 6) (blinded to the divers) as suit inflation gas. Core temperature was measured with a radio pill during the dive. Before, halfway, and after the dive, subjective thermal comfort was recorded using a thermal comfort score. Results No diver had to abort the test due to cold. No differences in core temperature and thermal comfort score were found between the two groups. Core temperature remained unchanged during the dives. Thermal comfort score showed a significant decrease in both groups after a 60-min dive compared to baseline. Conclusions In these tests the combination of the dry suit and undergarment was sufficient to maintain core temperature and thermal comfort for a dive of 1 h in water at 13°C. The use of argon as a suit inflation gas had no added value for thermal insulation compared to air for these dives. PMID:24438580

  1. Effect of drying methods with the application of vacuum microwaves on the bioactive compounds, color, and antioxidant activity of strawberry fruits.

    PubMed

    Wojdyło, Aneta; Figiel, Adam; Oszmiański, Jan

    2009-02-25

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the application of vacuum-microwave drying (240, 360, and 480 W) in the production process of dehydrated strawberry and to compare and contrast the quality of these dehydrated strawberries in terms of their polyphenol compounds, concentration of some heat liable components, and color to that of freeze-dried, convective, and vacuum-dried strawberry. Thus, the effect of vacuum-microwave drying and other drying methods on the antioxidant activity of berries was evaluated. Whole fresh and dried fruits were assessed for phenolics (anthocyanins, flavanols, hydroxycinnamic acids, and flavonols), ascorbic acid, and antioxidant activity (all parameters were calculated on a dry matter basis). Analysis of data shows that ellagic acid and flavanol changes were affected by drying techniques and cultivar. Drying destroyed anthocyanins, flavanols, and ascorbic acid, and there was a significant decrease in antioxidant activity. The most striking result was that conventional and vacuum drying decreased antioxidant activity in both cultivars, whereas contradictory results were found for vacuum-microwave processed strawberry. This study has demonstrated that vacuum-microwave drying, especially at 240 W, can produce high-quality products, with the additional advantage of reduced processing times, compared to other processes such as freeze-drying.

  2. Abnormal activity of corneal cold thermoreceptors underlies the unpleasant sensations in dry eye disease

    PubMed Central

    Kovács, Illés; Luna, Carolina; Quirce, Susana; Mizerska, Kamila; Callejo, Gerard; Riestra, Ana; Fernández-Sánchez, Laura; Meseguer, Victor M.; Cuenca, Nicolás; Merayo-Lloves, Jesús; Acosta, M. Carmen; Gasull, Xavier; Belmonte, Carlos; Gallar, Juana

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Dry eye disease (DED) affects >10% of the population worldwide, and it provokes an unpleasant sensation of ocular dryness, whose underlying neural mechanisms remain unknown. Removal of the main lachrymal gland in guinea pigs caused long-term reduction of basal tearing accompanied by changes in the architecture and density of subbasal corneal nerves and epithelial terminals. After 4 weeks, ongoing impulse activity and responses to cooling of corneal cold thermoreceptor endings were enhanced. Menthol (200 μM) first excited and then inactivated this augmented spontaneous and cold-evoked activity. Comparatively, corneal polymodal nociceptors of tear-deficient eyes remained silent and exhibited only a mild sensitization to acidic stimulation, whereas mechanonociceptors were not affected. Dryness-induced changes in peripheral cold thermoreceptor responsiveness developed in parallel with a progressive excitability enhancement of corneal cold trigeminal ganglion neurons, primarily due to an increase of sodium currents and a decrease of potassium currents. In corneal polymodal nociceptor neurons, sodium currents were enhanced whereas potassium currents remain unaltered. In healthy humans, exposure of the eye surface to menthol vapors or to cold air currents evoked unpleasant sensations accompanied by increased blinking frequency that we attributed to cold thermoreceptor stimulation. Notably, stimulation with menthol reduced the ongoing background discomfort of patients with DED, conceivably due to use-dependent inactivation of cold thermoreceptors. Together, these data indicate that cold thermoreceptors contribute importantly to the detection and signaling of ocular surface wetness, and develop under chronic eye dryness conditions an injury-evoked neuropathic firing that seems to underlie the unpleasant sensations experienced by patients with DED. PMID:26675826

  3. Abnormal activity of corneal cold thermoreceptors underlies the unpleasant sensations in dry eye disease.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Illés; Luna, Carolina; Quirce, Susana; Mizerska, Kamila; Callejo, Gerard; Riestra, Ana; Fernández-Sánchez, Laura; Meseguer, Victor M; Cuenca, Nicolás; Merayo-Lloves, Jesús; Acosta, M Carmen; Gasull, Xavier; Belmonte, Carlos; Gallar, Juana

    2016-02-01

    Dry eye disease (DED) affects >10% of the population worldwide, and it provokes an unpleasant sensation of ocular dryness, whose underlying neural mechanisms remain unknown. Removal of the main lachrymal gland in guinea pigs caused long-term reduction of basal tearing accompanied by changes in the architecture and density of subbasal corneal nerves and epithelial terminals. After 4 weeks, ongoing impulse activity and responses to cooling of corneal cold thermoreceptor endings were enhanced. Menthol (200 μM) first excited and then inactivated this augmented spontaneous and cold-evoked activity. Comparatively, corneal polymodal nociceptors of tear-deficient eyes remained silent and exhibited only a mild sensitization to acidic stimulation, whereas mechanonociceptors were not affected. Dryness-induced changes in peripheral cold thermoreceptor responsiveness developed in parallel with a progressive excitability enhancement of corneal cold trigeminal ganglion neurons, primarily due to an increase of sodium currents and a decrease of potassium currents. In corneal polymodal nociceptor neurons, sodium currents were enhanced whereas potassium currents remain unaltered. In healthy humans, exposure of the eye surface to menthol vapors or to cold air currents evoked unpleasant sensations accompanied by increased blinking frequency that we attributed to cold thermoreceptor stimulation. Notably, stimulation with menthol reduced the ongoing background discomfort of patients with DED, conceivably due to use-dependent inactivation of cold thermoreceptors. Together, these data indicate that cold thermoreceptors contribute importantly to the detection and signaling of ocular surface wetness, and develop under chronic eye dryness conditions an injury-evoked neuropathic firing that seems to underlie the unpleasant sensations experienced by patients with DED.

  4. Cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics: Analysis of the measurements at the Diamond Light Source and impedance bench measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voutta, R.; Gerstl, S.; Casalbuoni, S.; Grau, A. W.; Holubek, T.; Saez de Jauregui, D.; Bartolini, R.; Cox, M. P.; Longhi, E. C.; Rehm, G.; Schouten, J. C.; Walker, R. P.; Migliorati, M.; Spataro, B.

    2016-05-01

    The beam heat load is an important input parameter needed for the cryogenic design of superconducting insertion devices. Theoretical models taking into account the different heating mechanisms of an electron beam to a cold bore predict smaller values than the ones measured with several superconducting insertion devices installed in different electron storage rings. In order to measure and possibly understand the beam heat load to a cold bore, a cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics (COLDDIAG) has been built. COLDDIAG is equipped with temperature sensors, pressure gauges, mass spectrometers as well as retarding field analyzers which allow to measure the beam heat load, total pressure, and gas content as well as the flux of particles hitting the chamber walls. COLDDIAG was installed in a straight section of the Diamond Light Source (DLS). In a previous paper the experimental equipment as well as the installation of COLDDIAG in the DLS are described [S. Gerstl et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 17, 103201 (2014)]. In this paper we present an overview of all the measurements performed with COLDDIAG at the DLS and their detailed analysis, as well as impedance bench measurements of the cold beam vacuum chamber performed at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology after removal from the DLS. Relevant conclusions for the cryogenic design of superconducting insertion devices are drawn from the obtained results.

  5. In situ precipitation and vacuum drying of interferon alpha-2a: development of a single-step process for obtaining dry, stable protein formulation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vineet; Sharma, Vikas K; Kalonia, Devendra S

    2009-01-21

    Feasibility studies were performed to develop a process for obtaining stable dry protein formulations based on in situ polyethylene glycol (PEG)-induced precipitation and vacuum drying of interferon alpha-2a (IFNalpha2a) solution in a vial. Using a laboratory scale freeze dryer, the process was carried out in two phases: first, protein solution containing PEG was concentrated to achieve protein precipitation, and second, remaining water was removed by further reducing the chamber pressure. Drying conditions, i.e. temperature and pressure, and solution composition were selected to ensure maximal precipitation (solubility of IFNalpha2a), to achieve precipitation without boiling, and to ensure stability. Dried formulations were subjected to stability studies (40 degrees C). Concentration and precipitation could be achieved at a fast rate by utilizing pressures slightly above the vapor pressure of water. Fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) studies showed that precipitated IFNalpha2a maintained its native structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) studies showed that IFNalpha2a when dried in the presence of trehalose, maintained its secondary structure. Trehalose also prevented formation of aggregates during drying. Moisture contents of 1% (w/w) were achieved within 48 h of drying. Dry formulation containing 1:20:100 (w/w) IFNalpha2a:trehalose:mannitol was stable against aggregation and oxidation (6% oxidized at 40 degrees C, 6 months). Stability profile was comparable to a similar lyophilized formulation.

  6. Moisture Sorption and Thermodynamic Properties of Vacuum-Dried Capsosiphon fulvescens Powder

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Li; Rhim, Jong-Whan; Lee, Jun Ho

    2015-01-01

    The moisture sorption isotherms of vacuum-dried edible green alga (Capsosiphon fulvescens) powders were determined at 25, 35, and 45°C and water activity (aw) in the range of 0.11~0.94. An inversion effect of temperature was found at high water activity (>0.75). Various mathematical models were fitted to the experimental data, and Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller model was found to be the most suitable model describing the relationship between equilibrium moisture content and water activity (<0.45). Henderson model could also provide excellent agreement between the experimental and predicted values despite of the intersection point. Net isosteric heat of adsorption decreased from 15.77 to 9.08 kJ/mol with an increase in equilibrium moisture content from 0.055 to 0.090 kg H2O/kg solids. The isokinetic temperature (Tβ) was 434.79 K, at which all the adsorption reactions took place at the same rate. The enthalpy-entropy compensation suggested that the mechanism of the adsorption process was shown to be enthalpy-driven. PMID:26451360

  7. Vis-NIR hyperspectral imaging in visualizing moisture distribution of mango slices during microwave-vacuum drying.

    PubMed

    Pu, Yuan-Yuan; Sun, Da-Wen

    2015-12-01

    Mango slices were dried by microwave-vacuum drying using a domestic microwave oven equipped with a vacuum desiccator inside. Two lab-scale hyperspectral imaging (HSI) systems were employed for moisture prediction. The Page and the Two-term thin-layer drying models were suitable to describe the current drying process with a fitting goodness of R(2)=0.978. Partial least square (PLS) was applied to correlate the mean spectrum of each slice and reference moisture content. With three waveband selection strategies, optimal wavebands corresponding to moisture prediction were identified. The best model RC-PLS-2 (Rp(2)=0.972 and RMSEP=4.611%) was implemented into the moisture visualization procedure. Moisture distribution map clearly showed that the moisture content in the central part of the mango slices was lower than that of other parts. The present study demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging was a useful tool for non-destructively and rapidly measuring and visualizing the moisture content during drying process.

  8. Quality assessment of microwave-vacuum dried material with the use of computer image analysis and neural model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koszela, K.; OtrzÄ sek, J.; Zaborowicz, M.; Boniecki, P.; Mueller, W.; Raba, B.; Lewicki, A.; Przybył, K.

    2014-04-01

    The farming area for vegetables in Poland is constantly changed and modified. Each year the cultivation structure of particular vegetables is different. However, it is the cultivation of carrots that plays a significant role among vegetables. According to the Main Statistical Office (GUS), in 2012 carrot held second position among the cultivated root vegetables, and it was estimated at 835 thousand tons. In the world we are perceived as the leading producer of carrot, due to the fourth place in the ranking of global producers. Poland is the largest producer of this vegetable in the EU [1]. It is also noteworthy, that the demand for dried vegetables is still increasing. This tendency affects the development of drying industry in our country, contributing to utilization of the product surplus. Dried vegetables are used increasingly often in various sectors of food products industry, due to high nutrition value, as well as to changing alimentary preferences of consumers [2-3]. Dried carrot plays a crucial role among dried vegetables, because of its wide scope of use and high nutrition value. It contains a lot of carotene and sugar present in the form of crystals. Carrot also undergoes many different drying processes, which makes it difficult to perform a reliable quality assessment and classification of this dried material. One of many qualitative properties of dried carrot, having important influence on a positive or negative result of the quality assessment, is color and shape. The aim of the research project was to develop a method for the analysis of microwave-vacuum dried carrot images, and its application for the classification of individual fractions in the sample studied for quality assessment. During the research digital photographs of dried carrot were taken, which constituted the basis for assessment performed by a dedicated computer programme developed as a part of the research. Consequently, using a neural model, the dried material was classified [4-6].

  9. Microstructure, microhardness and dry friction behavior of cold-sprayed tin bronze coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xueping; Zhang, Ga; Li, Wen-Ya; Dembinski, Lucas; Gao, Yang; Liao, Hanlin; Coddet, Christian

    2007-12-01

    In this paper, two types of tin bronze coatings (Cu-6 wt.% Sn and Cu-8 wt.% Sn) were prepared by cold spray process. The as-sprayed coatings were subjected to a vacuum heat treatment at 600 °C for 3 h. The coating microstructure, microhardness and tribological performance were characterized. The effects of the tin content and the vacuum heat treatment on the microstructure, microhardness and tribological behavior of the coatings were investigated. It is found that the as-sprayed CuSn6 (As6) and CuSn8 (As8) coatings exhibit practically an identical porosity. Meanwhile, As8 presents a higher microhardness than As6. In addition, the increase of the tin content in the powder feedstock leads to a lower wear rate. After a heat treatment, coating porosities are significantly reduced. However, the coating hardness is significantly decreased and the coating presents a much decreased wear resistance. For the as-sprayed coatings, such factors as ploughing and particle delamination could determine the sliding process. The heat treatment results in a distinct modification of the tribological behavior. For the annealed coatings, the adhesion, between the coating and the counterpart, could play a dominant role in the sliding process.

  10. The influence of mid-latitude storm tracks on hot, cold, dry and wet extremes.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Jascha; Coumou, Dim

    2015-12-11

    Changes in mid-latitude circulation can strongly affect the number and intensity of extreme weather events. In particular, high-amplitude quasi-stationary planetary waves have been linked to prolonged weather extremes at the surface. In contrast, analyses of fast-traveling synoptic-scale waves and their direct influence on heat and cold extremes are scarce though changes in such waves have been detected and are projected for the 21st century. Here we apply regression analyses of synoptic activity with surface temperature and precipitation in monthly gridded observational data. We show that over large parts of mid-latitude continental regions, summer heat extremes are associated with low storm track activity. In winter, the occurrence of cold spells is related to low storm track activity over parts of eastern North America, Europe, and central- to eastern Asia. Storm tracks thus have a moderating effect on continental temperatures. Pronounced storm track activity favors monthly rainfall extremes throughout the year, whereas dry spells are associated with a lack thereof. Trend analyses reveal significant regional changes in recent decades favoring the occurrence of cold spells in the eastern US, droughts in California and heat extremes over Eurasia.

  11. The influence of mid-latitude storm tracks on hot, cold, dry and wet extremes

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Jascha; Coumou, Dim

    2015-01-01

    Changes in mid-latitude circulation can strongly affect the number and intensity of extreme weather events. In particular, high-amplitude quasi-stationary planetary waves have been linked to prolonged weather extremes at the surface. In contrast, analyses of fast-traveling synoptic-scale waves and their direct influence on heat and cold extremes are scarce though changes in such waves have been detected and are projected for the 21st century. Here we apply regression analyses of synoptic activity with surface temperature and precipitation in monthly gridded observational data. We show that over large parts of mid-latitude continental regions, summer heat extremes are associated with low storm track activity. In winter, the occurrence of cold spells is related to low storm track activity over parts of eastern North America, Europe, and central- to eastern Asia. Storm tracks thus have a moderating effect on continental temperatures. Pronounced storm track activity favors monthly rainfall extremes throughout the year, whereas dry spells are associated with a lack thereof. Trend analyses reveal significant regional changes in recent decades favoring the occurrence of cold spells in the eastern US, droughts in California and heat extremes over Eurasia. PMID:26657163

  12. The influence of mid-latitude storm tracks on hot, cold, dry and wet extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Jascha; Coumou, Dim

    2015-12-01

    Changes in mid-latitude circulation can strongly affect the number and intensity of extreme weather events. In particular, high-amplitude quasi-stationary planetary waves have been linked to prolonged weather extremes at the surface. In contrast, analyses of fast-traveling synoptic-scale waves and their direct influence on heat and cold extremes are scarce though changes in such waves have been detected and are projected for the 21st century. Here we apply regression analyses of synoptic activity with surface temperature and precipitation in monthly gridded observational data. We show that over large parts of mid-latitude continental regions, summer heat extremes are associated with low storm track activity. In winter, the occurrence of cold spells is related to low storm track activity over parts of eastern North America, Europe, and central- to eastern Asia. Storm tracks thus have a moderating effect on continental temperatures. Pronounced storm track activity favors monthly rainfall extremes throughout the year, whereas dry spells are associated with a lack thereof. Trend analyses reveal significant regional changes in recent decades favoring the occurrence of cold spells in the eastern US, droughts in California and heat extremes over Eurasia.

  13. Survival of experimentally induced Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts in vacuum packed goat meat and dry fermented goat meat sausages.

    PubMed

    Neumayerová, Helena; Juránková, Jana; Saláková, Alena; Gallas, Leo; Kovařčík, Kamil; Koudela, Břetislav

    2014-05-01

    Ingestion of raw or undercooked meat is a potential source of human toxoplasmosis. The aim of this study was to determine the viability of Toxoplasma gondii cysts in vacuum packed (VP) goat meat and in dry fermented sausages (DFS), and evaluate certain physical and chemical parameters, like water activity (aw), pH value, content of salt, dry matter and fat. A portion of muscle tissue from experimentally infected animals was used for production of VP meat with or without addition of 2.5% curing salt, and stored at 4 °C or at -20 °C. Results of bioassay showed that, samples of vacuum packed Toxoplasma positive meat without salt addition were alive after six weeks at 4 °C. Incubation at -20 °C supported the viability after 3 h, but not after 4 h. After 7 days in 2.5% of curing salt, samples of T. gondii VP goat meat were still viable, but not after 14 days at 4 °C. All the DFS samples were not positive for infective cysts which mean that, they do not pose a risk of T. gondii transmission. These data suggest that vacuum packaging increases the survival of T. gondii cysts.

  14. Vacuum Ultraviolet and Infrared Spectra of Condensed Methyl Acetate on Cold Astrochemical Dust Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaraman, B.; Nair, B. G.; Lo, J.-I.; Kundu, S.; Davis, D.; Prabhudesai, V.; Raja Sekhar, B. N.; Mason, N. J.; Cheng, B.-M.; Krishnakumar, E.

    2013-12-01

    Following the recent report of the first identification of methyl acetate (CH3COOCH3) in the interstellar medium (ISM), we have carried out vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy studies on methyl acetate from 10 K until sublimation in an ultrahigh vacuum chamber simulating astrochemical conditions. We present the first VUV and IR spectra of methyl acetate relevant to ISM conditions. Spectral signatures clearly showed molecular reorientation to have started in the ice by annealing the amorphous ice formed at 10 K. An irreversible phase change from amorphous to crystalline methyl acetate ice was found to occur between 110 K and 120 K.

  15. Fire Hazard Analysis for the Cold Vacuum Drying facility (CVD) Facility

    SciTech Connect

    SINGH, G.

    2000-09-06

    The CVDF is a nonreactor nuclear facility that will process the Spent Nuclear Fuels (SNF) presently stored in the 105-KE and 105-KW SNF storage basins. Multi-canister overpacks (MCOs) will be loaded (filled) with K Basin fuel transported to the CVDF. The MCOs will be processed at the CVDF to remove free water from the fuel cells (packages). Following processing at the CVDF, the MCOs will be transported to the CSB for interim storage until a long-term storage solution can be implemented. This operation is expected to start in November 2000. A Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is required for all new facilities and all nonreactor nuclear facilities, in accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.7A, Fire Protection. This FHA has been prepared in accordance with DOE 5480.7A and HNF-PRO-350, Fire Hazard Analysis Requirements. Additionally, requirements or criteria contained in DOE, Richland Operations Office (RL) RL Implementing Directive (RLID) 5480.7, Fire Protection, or other DOE documentation are cited, as applicable. This FHA comprehensively assesses the risk of fire at the CVDF to ascertain whether the specific objectives of DOE 5480.7A are met. These specific fire protection objectives are: (1) Minimize the potential for the occurrence of a fire. (2) Ensure that fire does not cause an onsite or offsite release of radiological and other hazardous material that will threaten the public health and safety or the environment. (3) Establish requirements that will provide an acceptable degree of life safety to DOE and contractor personnel and ensure that there are no undue hazards to the public from fire and its effects in DOE facilities. (4) Ensure that vital DOE programs will not suffer unacceptable delays as a result of fire and related perils. (5) Ensure that property damage from fire and related perils does not exceed an acceptable level. (6) Ensure that process control and safety systems are not damaged by fire or related perils. This FHA is based on the facility as constructed and with planned operation at the time of document preparation. Changes in facility planned and actual operation require that the identified fire risks associated with the CVDF be re-evaluated. Consequently, formal documentation and future revision of this FHA may be required.

  16. Report on UQ and PCMM Analysis of Vacuum Drying for UFD S&T Gaps

    SciTech Connect

    M. Fluss

    2015-08-31

    This report discusses two phenomena that could affect the safety, licensing, transportation, storage, and disposition of the spent fuel storage casks and their contents (radial hydriding during drying and water retention after drying) associated with the drying of canisters for dry spent fuel storage. The report discusses modeling frameworks and evaluations that are, or have been, developed as a means to better understand these phenomena. Where applicable, the report also discusses data needs and procedures for monitoring or evaluating the condition of storage containers during and after drying. A recommendation for the manufacturing of a fully passivated fuel rod, resistant to oxidation and hydriding is outlined.

  17. Spacecraft attitude impacts on COLD-SAT non-vacuum jacketed LH2 supply tank thermal performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arif, Hugh

    1990-01-01

    The Cryogenic On-Orbit Liquid Depot - Storage, Acquisition and Transfer (COLD-SAT) spacecraft will be launched into low earth orbit to perform fluid management experiments on the behavior of subcritical liquid hydrogen (LH2). For determining the optimum on-orbit attitude for the COLD-SAT satellite, a comparative analytical study was performed to determine the thermal impacts of spacecraft attitude on the performance of the COLD-SAT non-vacuum jacketed LH2 supply tank. Tank thermal performance was quantified by total conductive and radiative heat leakage into the pressure vessel due to the absorbed solar, earth albedo and infra-red on-orbit fluxes, and also by the uniformity of the variation of this leakage on the vessel surface area. Geometric and thermal analysis math models were developed for the spacecraft and the tank as part of this analysis, based on their individual thermal/structural designs. Two quasi-inertial spacecraft attitudes were investigated and their effects on the tank performance compared. The results are one of the criteria by which the spacecraft orientation in orbit was selected for the in-house NASA Lewis Research Center design.

  18. Efficient thermoelectric trap for metal vapours suitable for high-vacuum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piwinski, Mariusz; Klosowski, Lukasz; Dziczek, Darek; Chwirot, Stanislaw

    2016-09-01

    Atomic beams are widely used in various collisional experiments. Typically, cold traps are used to prevent the investigated atoms from spreading within the vacuum chamber and contaminating the system. Usually such a trap consists of a vacuum feedthrough with metal element cooled with liquid nitrogen or dry ice on the atmosphere side and a metal trap in the vacuum. Using liquid nitrogen or dry ice is relatively inconvenient due to high costs of operation and a need of periodically refilling the reservoir of the cold medium. We present a new thermoelectric cold trap composed of water-cooled vacuum feedthrough with Peltier modules placed at the high vacuum end. The present system ensures the cold trap temperature below -20°C, low enough to efficiently catch the atoms of interest. The new cold trap was characterised and compared with typical LN2 trap.

  19. Surface analysis of cryofixation-vacuum-freeze-dried polyaluminum chloride-humic acid (PACl-HA) flocs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yili; Du, Baiyu; Liu, Jie; Lu, Jia; Shi, Baoyou; Tang, Hongxiao

    2007-12-15

    The powder of polyaluminum chloride-humic acid (PACl-HA) flocs was prepared by cryofixation-vacuum-freeze-drying method. The FTIR spectra show that some characteristic functional groups in polyaluminum chloride (PACl), humic acid (HA), and kaolin still existed in the dried flocs. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) patterns indicate that these flocs are amorphous. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms were obtained for different samples of the dried PACl-HA flocs. The BET specific surface area, BJH cumulative absorbed volume and BJH desorption average pore diameter of them were determined. The peak values of 8.4-11.2 nm (pore diameter) for pore size distribution (PSD) curves indicate that the pores of the dried flocs are mostly mesopores. The surface fractal dimensions D(s) and the corresponding fractal scales determined from both SEM images and nitrogen adsorption-desorption data sets reveal the multi-scale surface fractal properties of the dried PACl-HA flocs, which exhibited two distinct fractal regimes: a regime of low fractal dimensions (2.07-2.26) at higher scales (23-387 nm), mainly belonging to exterior surface scales, and a higher fractal dimensions (2.24-2.37) at lower scales (0.80-7.81 nm), falling in pore surface scales. Both HA addition and kaolin reduction in dried floc can decrease the irregularity and roughness of external surface. However, for the irregularity and roughness of pore surface, the addition of HA or kaolin in dried floc can increase them. Furthermore, some difference was found between the pore surface fractal dimensions D(s) calculated from nitrogen adsorption and desorption data. The pore surface D(s) values calculated through thermodynamic model were much greater than three.

  20. Design of a Pilot Plant for Vacuum Infusion of High Lipoidal Liquids into Dried Foods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    programmable logic controller monitors the temperatures, pressures, and...operational steps are implemented through the programmable logic controller . Emergency stops and manual overrides for automatic equipment are designed in...Figure 1. The primary control element of the vacuum infusion system is a microprocessor-based programmable logic controller . The programmable logic controller

  1. Critically safe vacuum pickup for use in wet or dry cleanup of radioactive materials

    DOEpatents

    Zeren, Joseph D.

    1994-01-01

    A vacuum pickup of critically safe quantity and geometric shape is used in cleanup of radioactive materials. Collected radioactive material is accumulated in four vertical, parallel, equally spaced canisters arranged in a cylinder configuration. Each canister contains a filter bag. An upper intake manifold includes four 90 degree spaced, downward facing nipples. Each nipple communicates with the top of a canister. The bottom of each canister communicates with an exhaust manifold comprising four radially extending tubes that meet at the bottom of a centrally located vertical cylinder. The top of the central cylinder terminates at a motor/fan power head. A removable HEPA filter is located intermediate the top of the central cylinder and the power head. Four horizontal bypass tubes connect the top of the central cylinder to the top of each of the canisters. Air enters the vacuum cleaner via a hose connected to the intake manifold. Air then travels down the canisters, where particulate material is accumulated in generally equal quantities in each filter bag. Four air paths of bag filtered air then pass radially inward to the bottom of the central cylinder. Air moves up the central cylinder, through the HEPA filter, through a vacuum fan compartment, and exits the vacuum cleaner. A float air flow valve is mounted at the top of the central cylinder. When liquid accumulates to a given level within the central cylinder, the four bypass tubes, and the four canisters, suction is terminated by operation of the float valve.

  2. Modified atmosphere packaging and vacuum packaging for long period chilled storage of dry-cured Iberian ham.

    PubMed

    Parra, V; Viguera, J; Sánchez, J; Peinado, J; Espárrago, F; Gutierrez, J I; Andrés, A I

    2010-04-01

    Dry-cured Iberian ham slices were stored under vacuum and under four different modified atmospheres (60/40=60%N(2)+40%CO(2); 70/30=70%N(2)+30%CO(2); 80/20=80%N(2)+20%CO(2); argon=70%argon+30%CO(2)) at 4+/-1 degrees C during 120 days. Gas composition, moisture content, pH, colour, pigment content, and lipid stability were measured, as well as sensory and microbial analysis were carried out throughout storage. A loss of intensity of red colour (a(*)-values) was observed during storage in ham slices (P<0.05). Consistently, MbFe(II)NO content also decreased throughout storage (P>0.05). Slices of ham packed in 40%CO(2) (60/40) and 30%CO(2) (70/30) showed lower a(*)-values than the rest of the batches after 60 days (P<0.05), though differences were not evident after 120 days (P>0.05). TBARs values showed an upward trend during the storage of packaged slices (P<0.05). Vacuum-packed slices showed the lowest TBARs values and those packed with 40%CO(2), the highest. Sensory attributes did not vary significantly (P>0.05) throughout storage under refrigeration and packed either in vacuum or in modified atmospheres. No safety problems were detected in relation to the microbial quality in any case.

  3. Evaluation of HEPA vacuum cleaning and dry steam cleaning in reducing levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and house dust mite allergens in carpets

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chang Ho; Yiin, Lih-Ming; Fan, Zhi-Hua (Tina); Rhoads, George G.

    2014-01-01

    Dry steam cleaning, which has gained recent attention as an effective method to reduce house dust mite (HDM) allergen concentration and loading in carpets, was evaluated in this study for its efficacy in lowering levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as well as HDM allergens. Fifty urban homes with wail-to-wall carpets, mostly low-income and with known lead contamination, were studied in 2003 and 2004. Two carpet-cleaning interventions were compared: Repeated HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air filtered) vacuuming alone and repeated HEPA vacuuming supplemented with dry steam cleaning. Vacuum samples were collected to measure carpet loading of dust and contaminants immediately before and after cleaning. Paired comparisons were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the cleaning protocols in reducing the levels of PAHs and HDM allergens in carpets. The results indicated that both cleaning methods substantially reduced the loading of PAHs and HDM allergens as well as dust in carpets (p < 0.0001). The reductions in loading of dust (64.4%), PAHs (69.1%), and HDM allergens (85.5%), by dry steam cleaning plus repetitive HEPA vacuuming were larger than the reductions by regular HEPA vacuuming alone: dust (55.5%), PAHs (58.6%), and HDM allergens (80.8%), although the difference was statistically significant only for dust and PAHs. We conclude that intensive HEPA vacuum cleaning substantially reduced the loading of PAHs and HDM allergens in carpets in these urban homes and that dry steam cleaning added modestly to cleaning effectiveness. PMID:19137159

  4. Simple and Rapid Immobilization of Coating Polymers on Poly(dimethyl siloxane)-glass Hybrid Microchips by a Vacuum-drying Method.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Fumihiko; Nakagawara, Syo; Nukatsuka, Isoshi; Hori, Yusuke; Sueyoshi, Kenji; Otsuka, Koji

    2015-01-01

    A simple and rapid vacuum-drying modification method was applied to several neutral and charged polymers to obtain coating layers for controlling electroosmotic flow (EOF) and suppressing sample adsorption on poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS)-glass hybrid microchips. In the vacuum-dried poly(vinylpyrrolidone) coating, the electroosmotic mobility (μeo) was suppressed from +2.1 to +0.88 × 10(-4) cm(2)/V·s, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) of μeo was improved from 10.2 to 2.5% relative to the bare microchannel. Among several neutral polymers, poly(vinylalcohol) (PVA) and poly(dimethylacrylamide) coatings gave more suppressed and repeatable EOF with RSDs of less than 2.3%. The vacuum-drying method was also applicable to polyanions and polycations to provide accelerated and inversed EOF, respectively, with acceptable RSDs of less than 4.9%. In the microchip electrophoresis (MCE) analysis of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in the vacuum-dried and thermally-treated PVA coating channel, an almost symmetric peak of BSA was obtained, while in the native microchannel a significantly skewed peak was observed. The results demonstrated that the vacuum-dried polymer coatings were effective to control the EOF, and reduced the surface adsorption of proteins in MCE.

  5. Formation of Authigenic Sulfates in Cold Dry Glaciers: Terrestrial and Planetary Implications of Sublimites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massé, M.; Rondeau, B.; Ginot, P.; Schmitt, B.; Bourgeois, O.; Mitri, G.

    2015-12-01

    Salts are common on planetary surfaces, and sulfates have been widely observed on Earth, Mars (Gendrin et al., 2005) and on some of Jupiter's and Saturn's icy moons like Europa (Dalton et al., 2007). These minerals can form under a wide range of conditions, and the determination of sulfate formation processes can provide key elements for deciphering past planetary surface conditions. Most terrestrial sulfates form as evaporites in warm environments with high water/rock ratios, but these conditions are rarely encountered on other planets. Here we describe the formation of cryogenic sulfates in an extreme cold and dry environment: the Guanaco glacier located in the Chilean Andes (Fig.1a, Rabatel et al., 2011). Field analyses reveal that it is a cold-based glacier, its surface temperature remains below 0°C throughout the year, and ablation occurs mostly by sublimation. Ablation creates ice cliffs punctuated of pluricentimetric whitish, tapered crystals embedded in the ice (Fig.1b, c). By Raman and chemistry, they proved to be gypsum, covered by micrometric crystals of jarosite, halotrichite and native sulfur. The euhedral morphology of these soft minerals indicates that they are neoformed and have not been transported in the ice. This is supported by the absence of gypsum crystals in ice cores drilled through the glacier. We infer that the crystallization thus occurred at the glacier surface during ice sublimation and does not involve liquid water. To distinguish this original salt formation process from the more common evaporites, we name these minerals "sublimites". Though this formation process is uncommon and generates minor quantities of sulfates on Earth, it may be dominant on other bodies in the Solar System where sublimation is effective. Examples of planetary sublimites may include gypsum on the North Polar Cap of Mars (Massé et al., 2012), and other sulfates on icy moons where sublimation has been observed (Howard et al., 2008).

  6. Effects of vacuum UV and UVC radiation on dry Escherichia coli plasmid pUC19. II. Mutational specificity at the lacZ gene.

    PubMed

    Wehner, J; Horneck, G

    1995-10-01

    The mutational spectra at the lacZ gene, induced either by vacuum UV at 160 nm or UVC at 254 nm in vacuum-dried preparations of Escherichia coli plasmid pUC19 DNA, have been characterized from 72 E. coli-propagated mutants by DNA sequencing. In plasmids irradiated in vacuum, vacuum UV is five times more mutagenic than UVC. In the UV-induced mutants, base substitutions largely predominate, with GC-->AT (G, guanine; C, cytosine; A, adenine; T, thymine) transitions being the most abundant type of base change for vacuum UV (61%) and UVC (47%). Most of the GC-->AT transitions appear to occur at dipyrimidine sites, which are located at the non-transcribed DNA strand. Some, but not all, hot spots for GC-->AT transitions are identical for vacuum UV and UVC. Frameshifts, resulting from a loss of the thymine residue, are specific for UVC (22%), and were not detected after treatment with vacuum UV. They occur predominantly at thymine runs of the transcribed DNA strand. Only a few deletions were detected following irradiation with vacuum UV (7.5%) and UVC (2%); however, their frequency is not enhanced compared with the spontaneous mutation spectrum. The data confirm the important role of base substitution mutations in UV-induced mutagenesis, which is not only valid for the UVC range, but extends towards the vacuum UV range.

  7. Mechanical properties and area retention of leather dried with biaxial stretching under vacuum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The conversion of animal hides to leather involves many complicated chemical and mechanical operations. Drying is one of the mechanical operations, and plays a key role in determining the physical properties of leather. It is where leather acquires its final texture, consistency and flexibility. ...

  8. Effects of age and season on haematological parameters of donkeys during the rainy and cold-dry seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakari, Friday Ocheja; Ayo, Joseph Olusegun; Rekwot, Peter Ibrahim; Kawu, Mohammed Umar

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of age and season on haematological parameters of donkeys at rest during the rainy and cold-dry seasons. Thirty healthy donkeys divided into three groups based on their age served as the subjects. During each season, blood sample was collected from each donkey thrice, 2 weeks apart, for haematological analysis, and the dry-bulb temperature (DBT), relative humidity (RH) and temperature-humidity index (THI) were obtained thrice each day during the experimental period using standard procedures. During the rainy season, the mean DBT (33.05 ± 0.49 °C), RH (73.63 ± 1.09 %) and THI (84.39 ± 0.71) were higher ( P < 0.0001) than the corresponding values of 24.00 ± 0.44 °C, 36.80 ± 0.92 % and 64.80 ± 0.62, during the cold-dry season. Packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte count [red blood cell (RBC)], haemoglobin concentration (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), platelet count (PLT), leucocyte count [white blood cell (WBC)], lymphocyte count (LYM) and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (N/L) were higher ( P < 0.05) in adults than foals during the rainy season. The MCV, MCH, WBC, NEU, LYM and PLT of adult and yearling donkeys were higher ( P < 0.05) during the rainy than the cold-dry season. The PCV, RBC, Hb, MCV, MCH, and NEU of foals were higher in the rainy than the cold-dry season. The N/L of adult and foal donkeys were higher ( P < 0.05) in the rainy than in the cold-dry season. In conclusion, PCV, RBC, Hb and LYM were considerably higher in foals than yearlings or adults during the rainy season, while erythrocytic indices and platelet counts were higher in adults or yearlings than in foals in both seasons. Erythrocytic indices, PLT and N/L were higher in the rainy than the cold-dry season in adults, yearlings and foals.

  9. Effects of age and season on haematological parameters of donkeys during the rainy and cold-dry seasons.

    PubMed

    Zakari, Friday Ocheja; Ayo, Joseph Olusegun; Rekwot, Peter Ibrahim; Kawu, Mohammed Umar

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of age and season on haematological parameters of donkeys at rest during the rainy and cold-dry seasons. Thirty healthy donkeys divided into three groups based on their age served as the subjects. During each season, blood sample was collected from each donkey thrice, 2 weeks apart, for haematological analysis, and the dry-bulb temperature (DBT), relative humidity (RH) and temperature-humidity index (THI) were obtained thrice each day during the experimental period using standard procedures. During the rainy season, the mean DBT (33.05 ± 0.49 °C), RH (73.63 ± 1.09 %) and THI (84.39 ± 0.71) were higher (P < 0.0001) than the corresponding values of 24.00 ± 0.44 °C, 36.80 ± 0.92 % and 64.80 ± 0.62, during the cold-dry season. Packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte count [red blood cell (RBC)], haemoglobin concentration (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), platelet count (PLT), leucocyte count [white blood cell (WBC)], lymphocyte count (LYM) and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (N/L) were higher (P < 0.05) in adults than foals during the rainy season. The MCV, MCH, WBC, NEU, LYM and PLT of adult and yearling donkeys were higher (P < 0.05) during the rainy than the cold-dry season. The PCV, RBC, Hb, MCV, MCH, and NEU of foals were higher in the rainy than the cold-dry season. The N/L of adult and foal donkeys were higher (P < 0.05) in the rainy than in the cold-dry season. In conclusion, PCV, RBC, Hb and LYM were considerably higher in foals than yearlings or adults during the rainy season, while erythrocytic indices and platelet counts were higher in adults or yearlings than in foals in both seasons. Erythrocytic indices, PLT and N/L were higher in the rainy than the cold-dry season in adults, yearlings and foals.

  10. Potential Groundwater Recharge from the Infiltration of Surface Runoff in Cold and Dry Creeks, Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Waichler, Scott R.

    2005-12-13

    Runoff from Cold and Dry Creeks may provide an important source of groundwater recharge on the Hanford Site. This report presents estimates of total volume and distribution of such recharge from extreme precipitation events. Estimates were derived using a simple approach that combined the Soil Conservation Service curve number runoff method and an exponential-decay channel infiltration model. Fifteen-minute streamflow data from four gaging stations, and hourly precipitation data from one climate station, were used to compute curve numbers and calibrate the infiltration model. All data were from several storms occurring during January 1995. Design storm precipitation depths ranging from 1.6 to 2.7 inches were applied with computed curve numbers to produce total runoff/recharge of 7,700 to 15,900 ac-ft, or approximately 10 times the average annual rate from this recharge source as determined in a previous study. Approximately two-thirds of the simulated recharge occurred in the lower stream reaches contained in the broad alluvial valley that parallels State Highway 240 near the Hanford 200 Area.

  11. Bifidogenic characteristic and protective effect of saba starch on survival of Lactobacillus plantarum CIF17AN2 during vacuum-drying and storage.

    PubMed

    Hongpattarakere, Tipparat; Uraipan, Supansa

    2015-03-06

    Resistant starch (RS) from unripe saba banana (Musa sapientum (Linn)) (Kluai Hin) exhibited high resistance to gastric acid and intestinal amylases. Its bifidogenic effect under competition of human fecal microflora was determined in the simulated proximal region of human colon. In addition, saba RS effectively protected Lactobacillus plantarum CIF17AN2 during drying process. The maximum survival of 85.81% was achieved under vacuum drying operated at 37 °C when saba RS was added. The addition of saba RS to formulate a synbiotic product was able to retain high viability of the vacuum-dried L. plantarum during 8-week storage at ambient temperature. This is because saba RS can stabilize the moisture content of the synbiotic product. In contrast, the dramatic increase of moisture content in the vacuum-dried L. plantarum without saba RS led to significant decrease in cell survival. Moreover, saba RS could potentially protect the vacuum-dried L. plantarum from gastric acid and bile exposures.

  12. Effect of Modified Atmosphere Packaging and Vacuum Packaging on Quality Characteristics of Low Grade Beef during Cold Storage.

    PubMed

    Hur, S J; Jin, S K; Park, J H; Jung, S W; Lyu, H J

    2013-12-01

    Many studies have been carried out with respect to packaging methods and temperature conditions of beef. However, the effects of packaging methods and temperature conditions on the quality characteristics have not been extensively studied in low-grade beef. Low-grade beef samples were divided into 3 groups (C: ziplock bag packaging, T1: vacuum packaging, and T2: modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), CO2/N2 = 3:7) and samples were stored at 4°C for 21 days. The water-holding capacity (WHC) was significantly lower in T1 than in the other samples up to 14 days of storage. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and volatile basic nitrogen values were significantly lower in T1 and T2 than in C after 7 to 14 days of storage. The total bacterial counts were significantly lower in T1 and T2 than in C after 14 days of storage. In a sensory evaluation, tenderness and overall acceptability were significantly higher in T1 and T2 than in C at the end of the storage period (21 days). We propose that the MAP method can improve beef quality characteristics of low-grade beef during cold storage. However, the beneficial effects did not outweigh the cost increase to implement MAP.

  13. Effect of Modified Atmosphere Packaging and Vacuum Packaging on Quality Characteristics of Low Grade Beef during Cold Storage

    PubMed Central

    Hur, S. J.; Jin, S. K.; Park, J. H.; Jung, S. W.; Lyu, H. J.

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have been carried out with respect to packaging methods and temperature conditions of beef. However, the effects of packaging methods and temperature conditions on the quality characteristics have not been extensively studied in low-grade beef. Low-grade beef samples were divided into 3 groups (C: ziplock bag packaging, T1: vacuum packaging, and T2: modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), CO2/N2 = 3:7) and samples were stored at 4°C for 21 days. The water-holding capacity (WHC) was significantly lower in T1 than in the other samples up to 14 days of storage. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and volatile basic nitrogen values were significantly lower in T1 and T2 than in C after 7 to 14 days of storage. The total bacterial counts were significantly lower in T1 and T2 than in C after 14 days of storage. In a sensory evaluation, tenderness and overall acceptability were significantly higher in T1 and T2 than in C at the end of the storage period (21 days). We propose that the MAP method can improve beef quality characteristics of low-grade beef during cold storage. However, the beneficial effects did not outweigh the cost increase to implement MAP. PMID:25049769

  14. Effect of the inoculation of a starter culture and vacuum packaging (during resting stage) on the appearance and some microbiological and physicochemical parameters of dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Molinero, F; Arnau, J

    2008-05-01

    The effect of the inoculation of a starter culture and vacuum packaging (during the resting stage) on dry-cured ham appearance, microbiological and physicochemical parameters was studied. Half of the 36 processed hams were inoculated, after salting, with a commercial starter culture containing lactic-acid bacteria, Gram-positive catalase-positive cocci and yeasts. 18 hams per group (inoculated and non-inoculated) remained vacuum packaged during resting. Microbiological analyses were carried out on the lean surface during processing, on subcutaneous fat tissue at the drying stage and on lean tissue in the finished product. Appearance was evaluated during processing. Physicochemical analyses (NaCl, H(2)O, proteolysis index, a(w)) were done on Semimembranosus and Biceps femoris in the final product. Inoculation caused a reduction of mould growth and oil drip. Vacuum packaging induced increased proteolysis and increases in all microbial counts and a reduction of oil drip, mould growth and weight loss during processing.

  15. Spent Nuclear Fuel Dry Transfer System Cold Demonstration Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, Max R; McKinnon, M. A.

    1999-12-01

    The spent nuclear fuel dry transfer system (DTS) provides an interface between large and small casks and between storage-only and transportation casks. It permits decommissioning of reactor pools after shutdown and allows the use of large storage-only casks for temporary onsite storage of spent nuclear fuel irrespective of reactor or fuel handling limitations at a reactor site. A cold demonstration of the DTS prototype was initiated in August 1996 at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The major components demonstrated included the fuel assembly handling subsystem, the shield plug/lid handling subsystem, the cask interface subsystem, the demonstration control subsystem, a support frame, and a closed circuit television and lighting system. The demonstration included a complete series of DTS operations from source cask receipt and opening through fuel transfer and closure of the receiving cask. The demonstration included both normal operations and recovery from off-normal events. It was designed to challenge the system to determine whether there were any activities that could be made to jeopardize the activities of another function or its safety. All known interlocks were challenged. The equipment ran smoothly and functioned as designed. A few "bugs" were corrected. Prior to completion of the demonstration testing, a number of DTS prototype systems were modified to apply lessons learned to date. Additional testing was performed to validate the modifications. In general, all the equipment worked exceptionally well. The demonstration also helped confirm cost estimates that had been made at several points in the development of the system.

  16. Transcriptomic Analysis of the Adaptation of Listeria monocytogenes to Growth on Vacuum-Packed Cold Smoked Salmon.

    PubMed

    Tang, Silin; Orsi, Renato H; den Bakker, Henk C; Wiedmann, Martin; Boor, Kathryn J; Bergholz, Teresa M

    2015-10-01

    The foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is able to survive and grow in ready-to-eat foods, in which it is likely to experience a number of environmental stresses due to refrigerated storage and the physicochemical properties of the food. Little is known about the specific molecular mechanisms underlying survival and growth of L. monocytogenes under different complex conditions on/in specific food matrices. Transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) was used to understand the transcriptional landscape of L. monocytogenes strain H7858 grown on cold smoked salmon (CSS; water phase salt, 4.65%; pH 6.1) relative to that in modified brain heart infusion broth (MBHIB; water phase salt, 4.65%; pH 6.1) at 7°C. Significant differential transcription of 149 genes was observed (false-discovery rate [FDR], <0.05; fold change, ≥2.5), and 88 and 61 genes were up- and downregulated, respectively, in H7858 grown on CSS relative to the genes in H7858 grown in MBHIB. In spite of these differences in transcriptomes under these two conditions, growth parameters for L. monocytogenes were not significantly different between CSS and MBHIB, indicating that the transcriptomic differences reflect how L. monocytogenes is able to facilitate growth under these different conditions. Differential expression analysis and Gene Ontology enrichment analysis indicated that genes encoding proteins involved in cobalamin biosynthesis as well as ethanolamine and 1,2-propanediol utilization have significantly higher transcript levels in H7858 grown on CSS than in that grown in MBHIB. Our data identify specific transcriptional profiles of L. monocytogenes growing on vacuum-packaged CSS, which may provide targets for the development of novel and improved strategies to control L. monocytogenes growth on this ready-to-eat food.

  17. Transcriptomic Analysis of the Adaptation of Listeria monocytogenes to Growth on Vacuum-Packed Cold Smoked Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Silin; Orsi, Renato H.; den Bakker, Henk C.; Wiedmann, Martin; Boor, Kathryn J.

    2015-01-01

    The foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is able to survive and grow in ready-to-eat foods, in which it is likely to experience a number of environmental stresses due to refrigerated storage and the physicochemical properties of the food. Little is known about the specific molecular mechanisms underlying survival and growth of L. monocytogenes under different complex conditions on/in specific food matrices. Transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) was used to understand the transcriptional landscape of L. monocytogenes strain H7858 grown on cold smoked salmon (CSS; water phase salt, 4.65%; pH 6.1) relative to that in modified brain heart infusion broth (MBHIB; water phase salt, 4.65%; pH 6.1) at 7°C. Significant differential transcription of 149 genes was observed (false-discovery rate [FDR], <0.05; fold change, ≥2.5), and 88 and 61 genes were up- and downregulated, respectively, in H7858 grown on CSS relative to the genes in H7858 grown in MBHIB. In spite of these differences in transcriptomes under these two conditions, growth parameters for L. monocytogenes were not significantly different between CSS and MBHIB, indicating that the transcriptomic differences reflect how L. monocytogenes is able to facilitate growth under these different conditions. Differential expression analysis and Gene Ontology enrichment analysis indicated that genes encoding proteins involved in cobalamin biosynthesis as well as ethanolamine and 1,2-propanediol utilization have significantly higher transcript levels in H7858 grown on CSS than in that grown in MBHIB. Our data identify specific transcriptional profiles of L. monocytogenes growing on vacuum-packaged CSS, which may provide targets for the development of novel and improved strategies to control L. monocytogenes growth on this ready-to-eat food. PMID:26209664

  18. Influence of microwave vacuum drying on glass transition temperature, gelatinization temperature, physical and chemical qualities of lotus seeds.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yingting; Jiang, Yajun; Zheng, Baodong; Zhuang, Weijing; Zheng, Yafeng; Tian, Yuting

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of microwave power density on effective moisture diffusion coefficient (Deff), glass transition temperature (Tg), gelatinization temperature (TP), physical and chemical qualities of lotus seeds during microwave vacuum drying. Deff increased by 42% and 127% at 15W/g and 20W/g, respectively, when compared with 10W/g. TP was negatively correlated with the relaxation times of T21 and T22, while Tg was negatively correlated with the relative areas A22. The rates of change of color were observed to be divided roughly into two periods, consisting of a rapid change caused by enzymatic browning and a slow change caused by non-enzymatic browning. An equation is provided to illustrate the relationship of k1 and k2 of Peleg's model depending on power density during rehydration kinetics. The samples at 20W/g exhibited the higher content of amino acid (540.19mg/100gd.b.) while lower starch (17.53g/100gd.b.).

  19. Physicochemical characterization of nopal pads (Opuntia ficus indica) and dry vacuum nopal powders as a function of the maturation.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Garcia, M E; de Lira, C; Hernández-Becerra, E; Cornejo-Villegas, M A; Palacios-Fonseca, A J; Rojas-Molina, I; Reynoso, R; Quintero, L C; Del-Real, A; Zepeda, T A; Muñoz-Torres, C

    2007-09-01

    This paper presents the physicochemical and nutrimental characterization of fresh nopal (Opuntia ficus indica, Redonda variety) and nopal powder produced at different stages of development. Nopal powder was obtained by dry vacuum technique using 10(2) Torr and low temperature (40 degrees C). The results showed that the nutrimental and mineral composition of nopal changes as a function of the maturation as follow: The ash content increases from 18.41 for nopalitos (60 g of weight) to 23.24% (nopal pads 200 g); calcium content increases from 1.52 to 3.72%, while phosphorous exhibits an opposite trend: 0.43 to 0.27%, respectively. Calcium oxalate was determined by X-ray diffraction and SEM microscopy and quantified by using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Calcium oxalate decreases from 7.95 to 3.47 mg/g and the Ca/P ratio varies from 3.6 to 11. The soluble fibre decreases from 25.22 to 14.91%, while insoluble fibre increases from 29.87 to 41.65%. These results suggest that nopal could be an important source of minerals within the diets of people in Mexico and the rest of Latin America.

  20. The effect of preparation under vacuum and microwave drying on the mechanical properties of porcelain ceramic foam via polymeric sponge method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahatha, S. H.; Mohammed, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper was demonstrated the effect of preparation condition under vacuum and microwave drying on the mechanical properties of porcelain ceramic foam. The study was based on five different polymeric foam templates with thickness ranging from 0.5 to 4 cm. The templates were impregnated in ceramic slurry with solid loading ranging from 35 to 55 wt. % under vacuum pressure 10-1 Torr and then sintered to 1250°C. Effects of polymeric foam template thickness and solid loading quantity were evaluated based on porosity, density and mechanical properties (compressive and flexural strengths) of the ceramic foam.

  1. FY 1999 Progress Report on: Potential Groundwater Recharge from the Infiltration of Surface Runoff in Cold and Dry Creeks

    SciTech Connect

    Wigmosta, Mark S.; Guensch, Gregory R.

    2006-12-31

    The volume of water available for groundwater recharge through the infiltration of surface runoff in Cold and Dry Creeks was estimated for a 100-year storm and the Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) of Skaggs and Walters (1981). A 100-year, 7-day design storm was developed from 40 years of precipitation data measured at the Hanford Meteorological Station (HMS). Runoff measured in Upper Cold Creek was used with HMS precipitation data to calculate curve numbers for the Soil Conservation Service rainfall-runoff model. The estimated water available for recharge from surface runoff produced by the 100-year storm is 3-6 times the annual recharge rate from direct infiltration of precipitation over the Hanford Site. Potential recharge from the PMP is 7-11 times the annual volume of direct recharge.

  2. Reduction of Listeria Innocua Contamination in Vacuum-Packaged Dry-Cured Italian Pork Products After High Hydrostatic Pressure Treatment.

    PubMed

    Merialdi, Giuseppe; Ramini, Mattia; Ravanetti, Emanuela; Gherri, Giorgio; Bonilauri, Paolo

    2015-05-28

    The present work aims to present the results of the application of a treatment with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on Italian fermented and dry-cured pork products. The products used in this study were portioned cured ham, portioned bacon and salami, vacuumpackaged and produced by a single processing company. Two studies were conducted on a single batch of the three products by means of an artificial contamination with Listeria innocua as a surrogate of L. monocytogenes. In the first trial a superficial contamination was obtained by immersion for 3 min in the culture broth with a concentration of approximately 9 log cfu/mL. At the end of the inoculum step, the pieces were dred at room temperature and vacuum packaged. In the second trial 50 kg of minced pork meat were contaminated before production of salami. In both cases the inoculum contained 5 strains of L. innocua. Subsequently, in both trials, 10 samples were randomly divided into two groups of 5 pieces each: i) TH group, samples treated with HHP; ii) group C, control samples, not subjected to any treatment. All samples were stored at refrigeration temperature at the end of HHP treatments (if applied), and analyzed for the determination of the surface (1st trial) and deep (2nd trial) quantitative contamination of L. innocua. pH and aW were also determined on 3 pieces of each products belonging to group C. The difference between the medians of the log cfu/cm2 or g established between controls and treated were compared using the non-parametric test (Kruskal-Wallis test) with P<0.01. In all products and in both trials the level of contamination detected in treatment groups was always significantly lower than in controls (P<0.01). In particular, in vacuum-packaged ham, bacon and salami viability logarithmic viability reductions equal to -2.29, -2.54 and -2.51 were observed, respectively. This study aimed to evaluate a not-thermal treatment on Italian cured or fermented pork products. The results of this study

  3. Assessment of long-term monthly and seasonal trends of warm (cold), wet (dry) spells in Kansas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokoohaki, H.; Anandhi, A.

    2013-12-01

    A few recent studies have focused on trends in rainfall, temperature, and frost indicators at different temporal scales using centennial weather station data in Kansas; our study supplements this work by assessing the changes in spell indicators in Kansas. These indicators provide the duration between temperature-based (warm and cold) and precipitation-based (wet and dry) spells. For wet (dry) spell calculations, a wet day is defined as a day with precipitation ≥1 mm, and a dry day is defined as one with precipitation ≤1 mm. For warm (cold) spell calculations, a warm day is defined as a day with maximum temperature >90th percentile of daily maximum temperature, and a cold day is defined as a day with minimum temperature <10th percentile of daily minimum temperature. The percentiles are calculated for 1971-2000, and four spell indicators are calculated: Average Wet Spell Length (AWSL), Dry Spell Length (ADSL), Average Warm Spell Days (AWSD) and Average Cold Spell Days (ACSD) are calculated. Data were provided from 23 centennial weather stations across Kansas, and all calculations were done for four time periods (through 1919, 1920-1949, 1950-1979, and 1980-2009). The definitions and software provided by Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) were adapted for application to Kansas. The long- and short-term trends in these indices were analyzed at monthly and seasonal timescales. Monthly results indicate that ADSL is decreasing and AWSL is increasing throughout the state. AWSD and ACSD both showed an overall decreasing trend, but AWSD trends were variable during the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. Results of seasonal analysis revealed that the fall season recorded the greatest increasing trend for ACSD and the greatest decreasing trend for AWSD across the whole state and during all time periods. Similarly, the greatest increasing and decreasing trends occurred in winter for AWSL and ADSL, respectively. These variations can be

  4. The influence of using vacuum-dried poly(alkenoic) acids upon the physical properties of a glass polyalkenoate (ionomer) cement.

    PubMed

    Walls, A W; McCabe, J F; Murray, J J

    1989-06-01

    Some of the physical characteristics of two glass polyalkenoate cements have been measured. The two cements differ in terms of the presentation of the poly(alkenoic) acid used to form the cement and in the method of mixing of the materials. The 'conventional' cement uses an aqueous solution of poly(acid) and is an encapsulated mechanically mixed material. The alternative material contains a vacuum-dried poly(acid) powder with the ion-leachable glass, and is mixed by hand with a 15 per cent aqueous solution of tartaric acid. There were some minor differences between the two products, including a delay in the onset of the setting reaction for the material containing the vacuum-dried poly(acid) powder. These differences would probably have little significant effect upon the clinical performance of the materials.

  5. Effect of the inoculation of a starter culture and vacuum packaging during the resting stage on sensory traits of dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Molinero, F; Arnau, J

    2008-12-01

    The effects of the inoculation of a mixed starter culture and vacuum packaging (during resting stage) on odour, appearance, texture and flavour of dry-cured ham were studied. After salting, half of the 36 processed hams were inoculated with a commercial starter culture containing lactic-acid bacteria, Gram-positive catalase-positive cocci and yeasts. Nine hams per group (inoculated and non-inoculated) remained vacuum-packaged during resting. External odour during the process, as well as appearance of the cut surface, texture and flavour on semimembranosus and biceps femoris of the final product were assessed. Vacuum packaging during resting caused an increase in white film and feedstuff flavour, as well as a decrease in aged flavour, hardness, fibrousness and overall liking. The use of the starter culture brought about an increase in feedstuff flavour, a decrease in sweetness, aged flavour, nutty flavour and overall liking and, only in vacuum-packaged hams, the development of a floral flavour, but had no significant effect on texture descriptors. The starter culture studied is considered inappropriate for the production of traditional Spanish dry-cured ham regardless of the type of resting used.

  6. Comparison of modified atmosphere packaging and vacuum packaging for long period storage of dry-cured ham: effects on colour, texture and microbiological quality.

    PubMed

    García-Esteban, Marta; Ansorena, Diana; Astiasarán, Iciar

    2004-05-01

    Slices of dry-cured hams (Biceps femoris muscle) were stored during 8 weeks under vacuum and modified atmospheres (100% N(2) and a mixture of 20% CO(2) and 80% N(2)) in order to study the modifications on colour, texture and microbial counts during that period. Lightness was found to be more stable when samples were stored with 20% CO(2) and 80% N(2) without statistical differences between vacuum and 100% N(2). A slight whiteness was observed in the vacuum packed samples. Yellowness increased during time in vacuum packed samples, although no differences were found among the three conditions at the end of the study. Redness values were not affected by time or by the packaging system. With regard to texture, values found for all samples were within the normal range for this type of products, although it was observed that modified atmosphere packaging preserved samples better from hardening than vacuum packaging. No safety problems were detected in relation to the microbial quality in any case. In general, no clear differences were found among the three packaging systems for colour, texture and microbial quality in the storage conditions studied.

  7. Nearing the cold-arid limits of microbial life in permafrost of an upper dry valley, Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Goordial, Jacqueline; Davila, Alfonso; Lacelle, Denis; Pollard, Wayne; Marinova, Margarita M; Greer, Charles W; DiRuggiero, Jocelyn; McKay, Christopher P; Whyte, Lyle G

    2016-01-01

    Some of the coldest and driest permafrost soils on Earth are located in the high-elevation McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDVs) of Antarctica, but little is known about the permafrost microbial communities other than that microorganisms are present in these valleys. Here, we describe the microbiology and habitable conditions of highly unique dry and ice-cemented permafrost in University Valley, one of the coldest and driest regions in the MDVs (1700 m above sea level; mean temperature −23 °C; no degree days above freezing), where the ice in permafrost originates from vapour deposition rather than liquid water. We found that culturable and total microbial biomass in University Valley was extremely low, and microbial activity under ambient conditions was undetectable. Our results contrast with reports from the lower-elevation Dry Valleys and Arctic permafrost soils where active microbial populations are found, suggesting that the combination of severe cold, aridity, oligotrophy of University Valley permafrost soils severely limit microbial activity and survival. PMID:27323892

  8. Nearing the cold-arid limits of microbial life in permafrost of an upper dry valley, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Goordial, Jacqueline; Davila, Alfonso; Lacelle, Denis; Pollard, Wayne; Marinova, Margarita M; Greer, Charles W; DiRuggiero, Jocelyn; McKay, Christopher P; Whyte, Lyle G

    2016-07-01

    Some of the coldest and driest permafrost soils on Earth are located in the high-elevation McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDVs) of Antarctica, but little is known about the permafrost microbial communities other than that microorganisms are present in these valleys. Here, we describe the microbiology and habitable conditions of highly unique dry and ice-cemented permafrost in University Valley, one of the coldest and driest regions in the MDVs (1700 m above sea level; mean temperature -23 °C; no degree days above freezing), where the ice in permafrost originates from vapour deposition rather than liquid water. We found that culturable and total microbial biomass in University Valley was extremely low, and microbial activity under ambient conditions was undetectable. Our results contrast with reports from the lower-elevation Dry Valleys and Arctic permafrost soils where active microbial populations are found, suggesting that the combination of severe cold, aridity, oligotrophy of University Valley permafrost soils severely limit microbial activity and survival.

  9. Vacuum mechatronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackwood, Susan; Belinski, Steven E.; Beni, Gerardo

    1989-01-01

    The discipline of vacuum mechatronics is defined as the design and development of vacuum-compatible computer-controlled mechanisms for manipulating, sensing and testing in a vacuum environment. The importance of vacuum mechatronics is growing with an increased application of vacuum in space studies and in manufacturing for material processing, medicine, microelectronics, emission studies, lyophylisation, freeze drying and packaging. The quickly developing field of vacuum mechatronics will also be the driving force for the realization of an advanced era of totally enclosed clean manufacturing cells. High technology manufacturing has increasingly demanding requirements for precision manipulation, in situ process monitoring and contamination-free environments. To remove the contamination problems associated with human workers, the tendency in many manufacturing processes is to move towards total automation. This will become a requirement in the near future for e.g., microelectronics manufacturing. Automation in ultra-clean manufacturing environments is evolving into the concept of self-contained and fully enclosed manufacturing. A Self Contained Automated Robotic Factory (SCARF) is being developed as a flexible research facility for totally enclosed manufacturing. The construction and successful operation of a SCARF will provide a novel, flexible, self-contained, clean, vacuum manufacturing environment. SCARF also requires very high reliability and intelligent control. The trends in vacuum mechatronics and some of the key research issues are reviewed.

  10. The Next Generation of Cold Immersion Dry Suit Design Evolution for Hypothermia Prevention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galofaro, Joel

    2013-01-01

    This new utility patent is an active design that relies on the lung's role as an organic heat exchanger for providing deep body core heating of air. It is based on the fact that the greatest heat loss mechanism for an insulated human body immersed in a cold water environment is due to heat loss through respiration. This innovation successfully merges two existing technologies (cold immersion suit and existing valve technologies) to produce a new product that helps prevent against the onset of hypothermia at sea. During normal operations, a human maintains an approximate body temperature of [98.6 F (37 C)]. A mechanism was developed to recover the warm temperature from the body and reticulate it in a survival suit. The primary intention is to develop an encompassing systems design that can both easily and cost effectively be integrated in all existing currently manufactured cold water survival suits, and as such, it should be noted that the cold water immersion suit is only used as a framework or tool for laying out the required design elements. At the heart of the suit is the Warm Air Recovery (WAR) system, which relies on a single, large Main Purge Valve (MPV) and secondary Purge Valves (PV) to operate. The main purge valve has a thin membrane, which is normally closed, and acts as a one-way check valve. When warm air is expelled from the lungs, it causes the main purge valve to open. Air forced from the MPV is dumped directly into the suit, thereby providing warmth to the torso, legs, and arms. A slight positive over-pressure in the suit causes warm waste air (or water if the suit is punctured) to be safely vented into the sea through large PVs located at the bottom of each arm and leg. The secondary purge valves act to prevent the buildup of large concentrations of CO2 gas and help guard against asphyxia. It is noted that the MPV causes the inhalation and exhalation cycles to be completely isolated from one another in the current suit design.

  11. Dry and wet heat transfer through clothing dependent on the clothing properties under cold conditions.

    PubMed

    Richards, Mark G M; Rossi, René; Meinander, Harriet; Broede, Peter; Candas, Victor; den Hartog, Emiel; Holmér, Ingvar; Nocker, Wolfgang; Havenith, George

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of moisture on the heat transfer through clothing in relation to the water vapour resistance, type of underwear, location of the moisture and climate. This forms part of the work performed for work package 2 of the European Union THERMPROTECT project. Thermal manikin results of dry and wet heat loss are presented from different laboratories for a range of 2-layer clothing with similar dry insulations but different water vapour permeabilities and absorptive properties. The results obtained from the different manikins are generally consistent with each other. For each climate, total wet heat loss is predominately dependent on the permeability of the outer layer. At 10 degrees C, the apparent evaporative heat loss is markedly higher than expected from evaporation alone (measured at 34 degrees C), which is attributed to condensation within the clothing and to increased conductivity of the wet clothing layers.

  12. The dominance of cold and dry alteration processes on recent Mars, as revealed through pan-spectral orbital analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvatore, M. R.; Mustard, J. F.; Head, J. W.; Rogers, A. D.; Cooper, R. F.

    2014-10-01

    Classic low-albedo regions of the martian surface are investigated using combined reflectance and emission (“pan-spectral”) data to constrain the types of alteration mineral phases that are present at spectrally significant abundances (>10-15%). The lack of hydrated mineral species observed using near-infrared data suggests that anhydrous chemical alteration dominates at the regional scale. Spectral characteristics in the VNIR and TIR are consistent with those associated with weathering processes identified in the hyper-arid, hypo-thermal, and geologically stable McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica, where oxidative weathering processes dominate and significant aqueous alteration does not occur. In addition, the spectral trends associated with oxidative weathering processes are similar to regional trends in VNIR spectral characteristics observed on Mars and potentially complicate the spectral interpretation of basaltic terrains. Collectively, these relationships suggest that the martian surface has been dominated by cold, dry, and stable conditions since the formation of these low-albedo regions. While significant at regional scales early in martian history, aqueous alteration appears to be predominantly absent from large-scale basaltic regions on Mars.

  13. Absolute atomic oxygen and nitrogen densities in radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure cold plasmas: Synchrotron vacuum ultra-violet high-resolution Fourier-transform absorption measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Niemi, K.; O'Connell, D.; Gans, T.; Oliveira, N. de; Joyeux, D.; Nahon, L.; Booth, J. P.

    2013-07-15

    Reactive atomic species play a key role in emerging cold atmospheric pressure plasma applications, in particular, in plasma medicine. Absolute densities of atomic oxygen and atomic nitrogen were measured in a radio-frequency driven non-equilibrium plasma operated at atmospheric pressure using vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) absorption spectroscopy. The experiment was conducted on the DESIRS synchrotron beamline using a unique VUV Fourier-transform spectrometer. Measurements were carried out in plasmas operated in helium with air-like N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} (4:1) admixtures. A maximum in the O-atom concentration of (9.1 {+-} 0.7) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} m{sup -3} was found at admixtures of 0.35 vol. %, while the N-atom concentration exhibits a maximum of (5.7 {+-} 0.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} m{sup -3} at 0.1 vol. %.

  14. Cold adaptive traits revealed by comparative genomic analysis of the eurypsychrophile Rhodococcus sp. JG3 isolated from high elevation McMurdo Dry Valley permafrost, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Goordial, Jacqueline; Raymond-Bouchard, Isabelle; Zolotarov, Yevgen; de Bethencourt, Luis; Ronholm, Jennifer; Shapiro, Nicole; Woyke, Tanja; Stromvik, Martina; Greer, Charles W; Bakermans, Corien; Whyte, Lyle

    2016-02-01

    The permafrost soils of the high elevation McMurdo Dry Valleys are the most cold, desiccating and oligotrophic on Earth. Rhodococcus sp. JG3 is one of very few bacterial isolates from Antarctic Dry Valley permafrost, and displays subzero growth down to -5°C. To understand how Rhodococcus sp. JG3 is able to survive extreme permafrost conditions and be metabolically active at subzero temperatures, we sequenced its genome and compared it to the genomes of 14 mesophilic rhodococci. Rhodococcus sp. JG3 possessed a higher copy number of genes for general stress response, UV protection and protection from cold shock, osmotic stress and oxidative stress. We characterized genome wide molecular adaptations to cold, and identified genes that had amino acid compositions favourable for increased flexibility and functionality at low temperatures. Rhodococcus sp. JG3 possesses multiple complimentary strategies which may enable its survival in some of the harshest permafrost on Earth.

  15. Gene expression programming approach for the estimation of moisture ratio in herbal plants drying with vacuum heat pump dryer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikmen, Erkan; Ayaz, Mahir; Gül, Doğan; Şahin, Arzu Şencan

    2017-02-01

    The determination of drying behavior of herbal plants is a complex process. In this study, gene expression programming (GEP) model was used to determine drying behavior of herbal plants as fresh sweet basil, parsley and dill leaves. Time and drying temperatures are input parameters for the estimation of moisture ratio of herbal plants. The results of the GEP model are compared with experimental drying data. The statistical values as mean absolute percentage error, root-mean-squared error and R-square are used to calculate the difference between values predicted by the GEP model and the values actually observed from the experimental study. It was found that the results of the GEP model and experimental study are in moderately well agreement. The results have shown that the GEP model can be considered as an efficient modelling technique for the prediction of moisture ratio of herbal plants.

  16. Thick, Cold and Dry Roots: the Key to Longevity of Continental Arc Lithosphere?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, E. J.; Soustelle, V.; Hirth, G.; Saal, A. E.; Kruckenberg, S. C.; Eiler, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    In contrast to the continuity of mid-ocean ridge magmatism, arc volcanism is episodic, characterized by flareups lasting 10 - 50 My which, for reasons that remain unclear, end abruptly in <10 My. Key to understanding the origins of episodic arc behavior lie in constraining the roles of subducting vs. overriding lithosphere. Here, we show that upper mantle xenoliths from the Sierra Nevada arc, CA, USA represent mantle wedge residues that were thickened and rapidly cooled at ~3 GPa and 750 C, presumably at the slab-mantle interface. Pervasive melt infiltration from wedge-derived basalts transformed the depleted residues into refertilized lherzolite. Olivine crystal-preferred orientations (CPO) are weak and show predominantly axial-(010) and one lherzolite with B-type CPO. Measured water contents by SIMS in olivine and pyroxene are low, 5 - 9 ppm and 30 - 500 ppm, respectively. Assuming olivine lost water during eruption, recalculated olivine water in equilibrium with pyroxene does not exceed 35 ppm, resulting in reconstructed bulk rock water content similar to the MORB source. Extrapolation of experimental olivine water solubility to the xenoliths' final PT conditions ranges from 30 to 270 ppm, indicating that the peridotites are water-undersaturated. Such low water contents are not sufficient to produce axial-(010) and B-type CPO. Instead, we propose that the observed CPO was inherited from the prior melt infiltration event, which deformed the peridotites via grain-size sensitive, diffusion creep (e.g., grain boundary sliding). Therefore, water played little role in deformation of arc mantle. Low water contents in thick, cold arc roots result in very high viscosities which preclude significant deformation at final PT. In the Sierran case, rapid cooling also helped to freeze in geochemical and microstructural evidence of earlier melt-assisted deformation, and allowed the preservation of arc mantle lithosphere for ~80 My after it was formed. Only when the Farallon

  17. Proteomics of hot-wet and cold-dry temperaments proposed in Iranian traditional medicine: a Network-based Study

    PubMed Central

    Rezadoost, Hassan; Karimi, Mehrdad; Jafari, Mohieddin

    2016-01-01

    Lack of molecular biology evidence has led clinical success of alternative and complementary medicine (CAM) to be marginalized. In turn, a large portion of life Science researchers could not communicate and help to develop therapeutic potential laid in these therapeutic approaches. In this study, we began to quantify descriptive classification theory in one of the CAM branches i.e. Iranian traditional medicine (ITM). Using proteomic tools and network analysis, the expressed proteins and their relationships were studied in mitochondrial lysate isolated from PBMCs from two different temperaments i.e. Hot-wet (HW) and Cold-dry (CD). The 82% of the identified proteins are over- or under-represented in distinct temperaments. Also, our result showed the different protein-protein interaction networks (PPIN) represented in these two temperaments using centrality and module finding analysis. Following the gene ontology and pathway enrichment analysis, we have found enriched biological terms in each group which are in conformity with the physiologically known evidence in ITM. In conclusion, we argued that the network biology which naturally consider life at the system level along with the different omics data will pave the way toward explicit delineation of the CAM activities. PMID:27452083

  18. Protozoans bacterivory in a subtropical environment during a dry/cold and a rainy/warm season.

    PubMed

    Hisatugo, Karina F; Mansano, Adrislaine S; Seleghim, Mirna H R

    2014-01-01

    In aquatic ecosystems, bacteria are controlled by several organisms in the food chain, such as protozoa, that use them as food source. This study aimed to quantify the ingestion and clearance rates of bacteria by ciliates and heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF) in a subtropical freshwater reservoir (Monjolinho reservoir - São Carlos - Brazil) during one year period, in order to verify their importance as consumers and controllers of bacteria in two seasons, a dry/cold and a rainy/warm one. For this purpose, in situ bacterivory experiments were carried out bimonthly using fluorescently labeled bacteria with 5-(4,6 diclorotriazin-2yl) aminofluorescein (DTAF). Although ciliates have shown the highest individual ingestion and clearance rates, bacterivory was dominated by HNF, who showed higher population ingestion rates (mean of 9,140 bacteria h(-1) mL(-1)) when compared to ciliates (mean of 492 bacteria h(-1) mL(-1)). The greater predation impact on bacterial communities was caused mainly by the small HNF (< 5 μm) population, especially in the rainy season, probably due to the abundances of these organisms, the precipitation, trophic index state and water temperature that were higher in this period. Thus, the protozoan densities together with environmental variables were extremely relevant in determining the seasonal pattern of bacterivory in Monjolinho reservoir.

  19. Impact of high pressure treatment and intramuscular fat content on colour changes and protein and lipid oxidation in sliced and vacuum-packaged Iberian dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Verónica; Utrera, Mariana; Estévez, Mario; Ventanas, Jesús; Ventanas, Sonia

    2014-08-01

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) (600MPa) and intramuscular fat content (IMF) on colour parameters and oxidative stability of lipids and proteins in sliced vacuum-packaged Iberian dry-cured ham during refrigerated storage (120 days at 2°C) was investigated. Several studies have investigated the influence of HHP on lipid oxidation of meat products. However, its effects on protein carbonylation, as also the influence of IMF content on this carbonylation are poorly understood. HHP treatment had a significant effect on lean lightness after 0 and 120 days of storage while IMF content increased lightness and yellowness over time. Regarding oxidative stability, the effect of HHP treatment depended on IMF content samples with a high IMF having greater lipid instability while samples with a low IMF underwent more protein carbonylation.

  20. Meat Processing Plant Microbiome and Contamination Patterns of Cold-Tolerant Bacteria Causing Food Safety and Spoilage Risks in the Manufacture of Vacuum-Packaged Cooked Sausages.

    PubMed

    Hultman, Jenni; Rahkila, Riitta; Ali, Javeria; Rousu, Juho; Björkroth, K Johanna

    2015-10-01

    Refrigerated food processing facilities are specific man-made niches likely to harbor cold-tolerant bacteria. To characterize this type of microbiota and study the link between processing plant and product microbiomes, we followed and compared microbiota associated with the raw materials and processing stages of a vacuum-packaged, cooked sausage product affected by a prolonged quality fluctuation with occasional spoilage manifestations during shelf life. A total of 195 samples were subjected to culturing and amplicon sequence analyses. Abundant mesophilic psychrotrophs were detected within the microbiomes throughout the different compartments of the production plant environment. However, each of the main genera of food safety and quality interest, e.g., Leuconostoc, Brochothrix, and Yersinia, had their own characteristic patterns of contamination. Bacteria from the genus Leuconostoc, commonly causing spoilage of cold-stored, modified-atmosphere-packaged foods, were detected in high abundance (up to >98%) in the sausages studied. The same operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were, however, detected in lower abundances in raw meat and emulsion (average relative abundance of 2%±5%), as well as on the processing plant surfaces (<4%). A completely different abundance profile was found for OTUs phylogenetically close to the species Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. These OTUs were detected in high abundance (up to 28%) on the processing plant surfaces but to a lesser extent (<1%) in raw meat, sausage emulsion, and sausages. The fact that Yersinia-like OTUs were found on the surfaces of a high-hygiene packaging compartment raises food safety concerns related to their resilient existence on surfaces.

  1. Composition and origin of amber ice and its influence on the behaviour of cold glaciers in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mager, Sarah; Fitzsimons, Sean; Frew, Russell; Samyn, Denis; Lorrain, Reginald

    This paper examines the basal ice sequence of Rhone Glacier, a cold-based glacier in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, using isotopic and solute chemistry data. Three different ice facies are identified: englacial, amber and stratified. The englacial facies is clean, bubbly ice of meteoric origin and is underlain by an amber facies. Amber ice is a characteristic of cold alpine glaciers in the McMurdo Dry Valleys and is distinctive for its high solute concentrations and much higher strain rates compared with the overlying englacial ice and the underlying stratified ice. Analysis of the stratified facies reveals an isotopic signature indicative of melt then refreeze processes and it is most likely associated with apron entrainment at the margin. By contrast, the amber facies has a co-isotopic slope of 8 and plots on a meteoric waterline. The inclusion of impurities in the amber ice reveals prolonged contact with the bed, and its depleted isotopic signature is consistent with ice formed during a cooler period. Comparison of the basal sequence of Rhone Glacier with other cold-based glaciers in the McMurdo Dry Valleys reveals strong similarities between valley-side glaciers (e.g. Meserve and Rhone Glaciers), whereas valley-floor glacier basal sequences (e.g. Suess Glacier) are characterized by structurally complex amalgamations of ice and debris.

  2. COLD TRAP

    DOEpatents

    Milleron, N.

    1963-03-12

    An improved linear-flow cold trap is designed for highvacuum applications such as mitigating back migration of diffusion pump oil moiecules. A central pot of liquid nitrogen is nested within and supported by a surrounding, vertical, helical coil of metai sheet, all enveloped by a larger, upright, cylindrical, vacuum vessel. The vertical interstices between successive turns of the coil afford lineal, axial, high-vacuum passages between open mouths at top and bottom of said vessel, while the coil, being cold by virtue of thermal contact of its innermost turn with the nitrogen pot, affords expansive proximate condensation surfaces. (AEC)

  3. A warm and wet Little Climatic Optimum and a cold and dry Little Ice Age in the southern Rocky Mountains, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, K.L.

    1992-05-01

    In the next century, increases in atmospheric trace gas concentration could warm the global average temperature beyond what it has ranged during the past century. Examination of larger-than-historic climatic changes that have occurred in the past in specific regions provides realistic context for evaluating such potential future changes. This paper has contrasted the climatic manifestation of the Little Climatic Optimum or Medieval Warm Period (AD 900--1300) with that of the Little Ice Age (AD 1300--1850) in the northern Colorado Plateau region of the southwestern USA. The zenith of the Anasazi occupation coincides with the former and their demise coincides with the latter, when conditions became too cold and especially dry (in the summer) to support upland dry farming. During the height of the Little Climatic Optimum the region was characterized by a relatively long growing season and greater winter and summer precipitation than that of today. This resulted in a relatively rapid development of a potential dry-farming belt that was twice as wide as the present and areas that cannot be dry farmed today were routinely farmed by the Anasazi. Such conditions would be beneficial to dry farmers in the Four Corners region if those conditions were repeated in the near future.

  4. The influence of sorghum grain decortication on bioethanol production and quality of the distillers' dried grains with solubles using cold and conventional warm starch processing.

    PubMed

    Nkomba, Edouard Y; van Rensburg, Eugéne; Chimphango, Annie F A; Görgens, Johann F

    2016-03-01

    Very high gravity hydrolysis-fermentation of whole and decorticated sorghum grains were compared using conventional and cold hydrolysis methods to assess the extent by which decortication could minimize enzymes dosages and affect the quality of the distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS). All processing configurations achieved ethanol concentrations between 126 and 132 g/L (16.0-16.7%v/v), although decortication resulted in a decreased ethanol yield. Decortication resulted in a decreased volumetric productivity during warm processing from 1.55 to 1.25 g L(-1)h(-1), whereas the required enzyme dosage for cold processing was decreased from 250 to 221 μl/100 gstarch. Cold processing decreased the average acid detergent fibre (ADF) from 35.59% to 29.32% and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) from 44.04% to 32.28% in the DDGS compared to the conventional (warm) processing. Due to lower enzyme requirements, the use of decorticated grains combined with cold processing presents a favourable process configuration and source of DDGS for non-ruminants.

  5. Modeling vapor diffusion within cold and dry supraglacial tills of Antarctica: Implications for the preservation of ancient ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalewski, Douglas E.; Marchant, David R.; Swanger, Kate M.; Head, James W., III

    2011-03-01

    We modeled water-vapor diffusion within Mullins till, a relatively dry supraglacial till in southern Victoria Land, Antarctica, that rests directly on Mullins Glacier, purportedly one of the oldest alpine glaciers in the world. Like most supraglacial tills in cold-desert environments, Mullins till contains three characteristic facies: a weathered facies representing the oxidation of iron-bearing minerals and the physical disintegration of surface rocks; a sand-wedge facies representing the episodic infill of thermal cracks associated with contraction-crack polygons; and an underlying fresh facies representing the addition of englacial debris (sourced from rockfall) as overlying ice sublimes. Using a one-dimensional model for Fickian vapor diffusion through porous media, we show that the rate of subsurface ice sublimation varies by ~ 5.5% beneath till facies and that over timescales of 10 5 years diffusion through "porous" sand wedges contributes to the development of deep troughs surrounding high-centered polygons. Applying site-specific meteorological data collected over a four-year period, we show that ice loss at the stagnant terminus of Mullins Glacier is ~ 6.6 × 10 -5 m a -1, a value that (although low and assuming an ice thickness of ~ 150 m) is consistent with complete ice loss under current environmental forcing in ~ 2.5 Ma. Our sensitivity tests indicate that the vast majority of sublimation occurs during the summer months. Calculated summertime losses drop to zero with either a reduction in soil and ice surface temperatures of ~ 6.4 °C or an increase in atmospheric relative humidity from 44% to 75%, both of which could arise from an increase in cloud cover over Mullins Glacier. Sublimation responses to meteorological forcing are not uniform across Mullins Glacier. A summer increase in soil temperature of 2 °C results in negligible change in ice sublimation at Mullins terminus, but a 27% increase in ice loss in upper Mullins Valley. The key factor is

  6. Purifying Aluminum by Vacuum Distillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    Proposed method for purifying aluminum employs one-step vacuum distillation. Raw material for process impure aluminum produced in electrolysis of aluminum ore. Impure metal melted in vacuum. Since aluminum has much higher vapor pressure than other constituents, boils off and condenses on nearby cold surfaces in proportions much greater than those of other constituents.

  7. Damage escape and repair in dried Chroococcidiopsis spp. from hot and cold deserts exposed to simulated space and martian conditions.

    PubMed

    Billi, Daniela; Viaggiu, Emanuela; Cockell, Charles S; Rabbow, Elke; Horneck, Gerda; Onofri, Silvano

    2011-01-01

    The cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis, overlain by 3 mm of Antarctic sandstone, was exposed as dried multilayers to simulated space and martian conditions. Ground-based experiments were conducted in the context of Lichens and Fungi Experiments (EXPOSE-E mission, European Space Agency), which were performed to evaluate, after 1.5 years on the International Space Station, the survival of cyanobacteria (Chroococcidiopsis), lichens, and fungi colonized on Antarctic rock. The survival potential and the role played by protection and repair mechanisms in the response of dried Chroococcidiopsis cells to ground-based experiments were both investigated. Different methods were employed, including evaluation of the colony-forming ability, single-cell analysis of subcellular integrities based on membrane integrity molecular and redox probes, evaluation of the photosynthetic pigment autofluorescence, and assessment of the genomic DNA integrity with a PCR-based assay. Desiccation survivors of strain CCMEE 123 (coastal desert, Chile) were better suited than CCMEE 134 (Beacon Valley, Antarctica) to withstand cellular damage imposed by simulated space and martian conditions. Exposed dried cells of strain CCMEE 123 formed colonies, maintained subcellular integrities, and, depending on the exposure conditions, also escaped DNA damage or repaired the induced damage upon rewetting.

  8. Damage Escape and Repair in Dried Chroococcidiopsis spp. from Hot and Cold Deserts Exposed to Simulated Space and Martian Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billi, Daniela; Viaggiu, Emanuela; Cockell, Charles S.; Rabbow, Elke; Horneck, Gerda; Onofri, Silvano

    2011-01-01

    The cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis, overlain by 3mm of Antarctic sandstone, was exposed as dried multilayers to simulated space and martian conditions. Ground-based experiments were conducted in the context of Lichens and Fungi Experiments (EXPOSE-E mission, European Space Agency), which were performed to evaluate, after 1.5 years on the International Space Station, the survival of cyanobacteria (Chroococcidiopsis), lichens, and fungi colonized on Antarctic rock. The survival potential and the role played by protection and repair mechanisms in the response of dried Chroococcidiopsis cells to ground-based experiments were both investigated. Different methods were employed, including evaluation of the colony-forming ability, single-cell analysis of subcellular integrities based on membrane integrity molecular and redox probes, evaluation of the photosynthetic pigment autofluorescence, and assessment of the genomic DNA integrity with a PCR-based assay. Desiccation survivors of strain CCMEE 123 (coastal desert, Chile) were better suited than CCMEE 134 (Beacon Valley, Antarctica) to withstand cellular damage imposed by simulated space and martian conditions. Exposed dried cells of strain CCMEE 123 formed colonies, maintained subcellular integrities, and, depending on the exposure conditions, also escaped DNA damage or repaired the induced damage upon rewetting.

  9. Elastic vacuum seal for cryogenic temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Kolenko, E.A.

    1988-06-01

    Cold-hardened silicone rubber is proposed as a vacuum seal in units that contain materials with vastly different expansion coefficients and which operate at cryogenic temperatures. The cold vulcanization process and the polymerization catalyst used to accelerate and stabilize the process are described. Test results obtained for vacuum tightness in liquid nitrogen are assessed.

  10. Cold injuries.

    PubMed

    Kruse, R J

    1995-01-01

    There are two categories of cold injury. The first is hypothermia, which is a systemic injury to cold, and the second is frostbite, which is a local injury. Throughout history, entire armies, from George Washington to the Germans on the Russian Front in World War II, have fallen prey to prolonged cold exposure. Cold injury is common and can occur in all seasons if ambient temperature is lower than the core body temperature. In the 1985 Boston Marathon, even though it was 76 degrees and sunny, there were 75 runners treated for hypothermia. In general, humans adapt poorly to cold exposure. Children are at particular risk because of their relatively greater surface area/body mass ratio, causing them to cool even more rapidly than adults. Because of this, the human's best defense against cold injury is to limit his/her exposure to cold and to dress appropriately. If cold injury has occurred and is mild, often simple passive rewarming such as dry blankets and a warm room are sufficient treatment.

  11. [Optimization of vacuum belt drying process of Gardeniae Fructus in Reduning injection by Box-Behnken design-response surface methodology].

    PubMed

    Huang, Dao-sheng; Shi, Wei; Han, Lei; Sun, Ke; Chen, Guang-bo; Wu Jian-xiong; Xu, Gui-hong; Bi, Yu-an; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Xiao, Wei

    2015-06-01

    To optimize the belt drying process conditions optimization of Gardeniae Fructus extract from Reduning injection by Box-Behnken design-response surface methodology, on the basis of single factor experiment, a three-factor and three-level Box-Behnken experimental design was employed to optimize the drying technology of Gardeniae Fructus extract from Reduning injection. With drying temperature, drying time, feeding speed as independent variables and the content of geniposide as dependent variable, the experimental data were fitted to a second order polynomial equation, establishing the mathematical relationship between the content of geniposide and respective variables. With the experimental data analyzed by Design-Expert 8. 0. 6, the optimal drying parameter was as follows: the drying temperature was 98.5 degrees C , the drying time was 89 min, the feeding speed was 99.8 r x min(-1). Three verification experiments were taked under this technology and the measured average content of geniposide was 564. 108 mg x g(-1), which was close to the model prediction: 563. 307 mg x g(-1). According to the verification test, the Gardeniae Fructus belt drying process is steady and feasible. So single factor experiments combined with response surface method (RSM) could be used to optimize the drying technology of Reduning injection Gardenia extract.

  12. Vacuum Freeze-Drying, a Method Used To Salvage Water-Damaged Archival and Library Materials: A RAMP Study with Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCleary, John M.

    This Records and Archives Management Programme (RAMP) study covers the conservation of archival documents and the application of freeze-drying to the salvage of documents damaged by flood. Following an introductory discussion of the hazards of water, the study presents a broad summary of data on freeze-drying, including the behavior of…

  13. Additional guidance for including nuclear safety equivalency in the Canister Storage Building and Cold Vacuum Drying Facility final safety analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Garvin, L.J.

    1997-05-20

    This document provides guidance for the production of safety analysis reports that must meet both DOE Order 5480.23 and STD 3009, and be in compliance with the DOE regulatory policy that imposes certain NRC requirements.

  14. Alkali vapor pressure modulation on the 100 ms scale in a single-cell vacuum system for cold atom experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Dugrain, Vincent; Reichel, Jakob; Rosenbusch, Peter

    2014-08-15

    We describe and characterize a device for alkali vapor pressure modulation on the 100 ms timescale in a single-cell cold atom experiment. Its mechanism is based on optimized heat conduction between a current-modulated alkali dispenser and a heat sink at room temperature. We have studied both the short-term behavior during individual pulses and the long-term pressure evolution in the cell. The device combines fast trap loading and relatively long trap lifetime, enabling high repetition rates in a very simple setup. These features make it particularly suitable for portable atomic sensors.

  15. Effects of vacuum UV and UVC radiation on dry E. coli plasmid pUC19. I. Inactivation, lacZ- mutation induction and strand breaks.

    PubMed

    Wehner, J; Horneck, G

    1995-04-01

    Using Escherichia coli plasmid pUC19 as a test system to study the effects of radiation on DNA at the molecular level, the wavelength (160-254 nm) dependence of inactivation (loss of the ability to transform E. coli), mutation induction in the target gene lacZ and induction of single-strand breaks and double-strand breaks was investigated. The same fluences were applied for all endpoints tested. In the UVC range, the cross-sections of inactivation and mutation induction match the DNA absorption curve, whereas the cross-section for single-strand break induction deviates from the DNA curve, especially at 220 nm. In the vacuum UV range, with increasing energy of the photons, the cross-sections of inactivation and single-strand breaks increase sharply (from 190 to 160 nm by more than one order of magnitude), which is not reflected by the DNA curve. In this UV range, the shape of the action spectrum is similar to that of the absorption curve of the sugar phosphate moiety of DNA. Only after irradiation with vacuum UV at 160 nm are double-strand breaks detected. Their induction rate is about one order of magnitude lower than that of single-strand breaks at the same wavelength; however, their induction rate is at least twice that of single-strand breaks at longer wavelengths. Concerning mutation induction, the increment in the vacuum UV range is less well expressed. The data suggest the contribution of different kinds of photochemical injury to inactivation and mutation induction.

  16. VACUUM TRAP

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, H.S.

    1959-09-15

    An improved adsorption vacuum trap for use in vacuum systems was designed. The distinguishing feature is the placement of a plurality of torsionally deformed metallic fins within a vacuum jacket extending from the walls to the central axis so that substantially all gas molecules pass through the jacket will impinge upon the fin surfaces. T fins are heated by direct metallic conduction, thereby ol taining a uniform temperature at the adeorbing surfaces so that essentially all of the condensible impurities from the evacuating gas are removed from the vacuum system.

  17. ISABELLE vacuum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Halama, H J

    1980-01-01

    The Intersecting Storage Accelerator (ISABELLE) consists of two rings having a circumference of 3.8 km each. In these rings superconducting magnets, held at 4 K, bend and focus the proton beam which is accelerated up to 400 GeV. Due to very different pressure requirements, ISABELLE has two completely independent vacuum systems. One, which operates at 1 x 10/sup -11/ Torr, provides a very clean environment for the circulating proton beam. Here only ion and titanium sublimation pumps are used to provide the vacuum. The other system maintains superconducting magnet vessels at a pressure below 1 x 10/sup -4/ Torr, since at this pressure the gas conduction becomes negligible. In this so-called insulating vacuum system, turbomolecular pumps pump the inadvertent small helium leaks. Other gases are cryocondensed on the cold surfaces of the cryogenic system. The basic element of ISABELLE known as Full Cell containing 45 meters of beam tube, 8 pumping stations, 8 superconducting magnets and complete instrumentation has been constructed, leak checked and tested. All design parameters have been achieved in both vacuum systems. The two vacuum systems are described with particular emphasis on the influence of superconducting magnets in the selection of materials and UHV components.

  18. Vacuum Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Biltoft, P J

    2004-10-15

    The environmental condition called vacuum is created any time the pressure of a gas is reduced compared to atmospheric pressure. On earth we typically create a vacuum by connecting a pump capable of moving gas to a relatively leak free vessel. Through operation of the gas pump the number of gas molecules per unit volume is decreased within the vessel. As soon as one creates a vacuum natural forces (in this case entropy) work to restore equilibrium pressure; the practical effect of this is that gas molecules attempt to enter the evacuated space by any means possible. It is useful to think of vacuum in terms of a gas at a pressure below atmospheric pressure. In even the best vacuum vessels ever created there are approximately 3,500,000 molecules of gas per cubic meter of volume remaining inside the vessel. The lowest pressure environment known is in interstellar space where there are approximately four molecules of gas per cubic meter. Researchers are currently developing vacuum technology components (pumps, gauges, valves, etc.) using micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. Miniature vacuum components and systems will open the possibility for significant savings in energy cost and will open the doors to advances in electronics, manufacturing and semiconductor fabrication. In conclusion, an understanding of the basic principles of vacuum technology as presented in this summary is essential for the successful execution of all projects that involve vacuum technology. Using the principles described above, a practitioner of vacuum technology can design a vacuum system that will achieve the project requirements.

  19. Vacuum Virtues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathey, Allen

    2007-01-01

    Upright vacuums, like cars, vary in quality, features and performance. Like automobiles, some uprights are reliable, others may be problematic, and some become a problem as a result of neglect or improper use. So, how do education institutions make an informed choice and, having done so, ensure that an upright vacuum goes the distance? In this…

  20. Optimization of the Composite Repair Work using 5H Satin Dry Glass Fabric and Epoxy Resin LY5052/HY5052 Materials through the Vacuum Bagging Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartono; Rifai, Mochammad; Subawi, Handoko

    2016-08-01

    In composite repair terminology, the intermingled fiber joints (IFJs) concept is clearly identified as the most effective in transferring stress. However, the practical application leads to apply the laminated fiber joints (LFJs) concept for composite repair. The LFJs become almost as strong as the IFJs as the jointed zone length increases. The LFJs concept was implemented to set up the repair configuration for this work. It is identified that fracture tendency as the result of crack propagation starts from the free edges. This tendency is alleviated by applying vacuum bag to compact the laminate system. If necessary, additional accelerated curing was performed at low temperature for short time. However, this repair work preferably applying natural overnight cure to ensure the structure stability. Additionally, the repair handling and waiting purposes take 40% out of the effectively repair time. The waiting time should be anticipated in the composite repair to reduce wasting time for unproductive output.

  1. Gravitational vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryan, L. S.; Saakyan, G. S.

    1984-09-01

    The existence of a special gravitational vacuum is considered in this paper. A phenomenological method differing from the traditional Einsteinian formalization is utilized. Vacuum, metric and matter form a complex determined by field equations and at great distances from gravitational masses vacuum effects are small but could be large in powerful fields. Singularities and black holes justify the approach as well as the Ambartsmyan theory concerning the existence of supermassive and superdense prestallar bodies that then disintegrate. A theory for these superdense bodies is developed involving gravitational field equations that describe the vacuum by an energy momentum tensor and define the field and mass distribution. Computations based on the theory for gravitational radii with incompressible liquid models adequately reflecting real conditions indicate that a gravitational vacuum could have considerable effects on superdense stars and could have radical effects for very large masses.

  2. 7 CFR 58.230 - Heavy duty vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. 58.230 Section 58.230....230 Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. Each plant handling dry milk products shall be equipped with a heavy duty industrial vacuum cleaner. The vacuum cleaner shall be of a type that has a collector...

  3. 7 CFR 58.230 - Heavy duty vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. 58.230 Section 58.230....230 Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. Each plant handling dry milk products shall be equipped with a heavy duty industrial vacuum cleaner. The vacuum cleaner shall be of a type that has a collector...

  4. 7 CFR 58.230 - Heavy duty vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. 58.230 Section 58.230....230 Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. Each plant handling dry milk products shall be equipped with a heavy duty industrial vacuum cleaner. The vacuum cleaner shall be of a type that has a collector...

  5. 7 CFR 58.230 - Heavy duty vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. 58.230 Section 58.230....230 Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. Each plant handling dry milk products shall be equipped with a heavy duty industrial vacuum cleaner. The vacuum cleaner shall be of a type that has a collector...

  6. 7 CFR 58.230 - Heavy duty vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. 58.230 Section 58.230....230 Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. Each plant handling dry milk products shall be equipped with a heavy duty industrial vacuum cleaner. The vacuum cleaner shall be of a type that has a collector...

  7. Space Technology for Crop Drying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    McDonnell Douglas came up with a new method of drying agricultural crops derived from vacuum chamber technology called MIVAC, a compression of microwave vacuum drying system. A distant cousin of the home microwave oven, MIVAC dries by means of electrically- generated microwaves introduced to a crop-containing vacuum chamber. Microwaves remove moisture quickly and the very low pressure atmosphere in the chamber permits effective drying at much lower than customary temperatures. Thus energy demand is doubly reduced by lower heat requirement and by the shorter time electric power is needed.

  8. R&D ERL: Vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Mapes, M.; Smart, L.; Weiss, D.; Steszyn, A.; Todd, R.

    2010-01-01

    cryostat vacuum thermally insulating the SRF cavities need only reduce the convective heat load such that heat loss is primarily radiation through several layers of multi-layer insulation and conductive end-losses which are contained by 5{sup o}K thermal transitions. Prior to cool down rough vacuum {approx}10{sup -5} torr range is established and maintained by a dedicated turbomolecular pump station. Cryopumping by the cold mass and heat shields reduces the insulating vacuum to 10{sup -7} torr range after cool down.

  9. Evaluation of drug load and polymer by using a 96-well plate vacuum dry system for amorphous solid dispersion drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Po-Chang; Ran, Yingqing; Chou, Kang-Jye; Cui, Yong; Sambrone, Amy; Chan, Connie; Hart, Ryan

    2012-06-01

    It is well recognized that poor dissolution rate and solubility of drug candidates are key limiting factors for oral bioavailability. While numerous technologies have been developed to enhance solubility of the drug candidates, poor water solubility continuously remains a challenge for drug delivery. Among those technologies, amorphous solid dispersions (SD) have been successfully employed to enhance both dissolution rate and solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs. This research reports a high-throughput screening technology developed by utilizing a 96-well plate system to identify optimal drug load and polymer using a solvent casting approach. A minimal amount of drug was required to evaluate optimal drug load in three different polymers with respect to solubility improvement and solid-state stability of the amorphous drug-polymer system. Validation of this method was demonstrated with three marketed drugs as well as with one internal compound. Scale up of the internal compound SD by spray drying further confirmed the validity of this method, and its quality was comparable to a larger scale process. Here, we demonstrate that our system is highly efficient, cost-effective, and robust to evaluate the feasibility of spray drying technology to produce amorphous solid dispersions.

  10. Effects of dry, vacuum, and special bag aging; USDA quality grade; and end-point temperature on yields and eating quality of beef Longissimus lumborum steaks.

    PubMed

    Dikeman, Michael E; Obuz, Ersel; Gök, Veli; Akkaya, Levent; Stroda, Sally

    2013-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of three aging methods: (dry (D), wet (W), and special bag (SB)); two quality grades [USDA Choice((≥Small(50) marbling) and Select); and two cooked end-point temperatures (62.8 °C and 71.1 °C) on physico-chemical traits of instrumental tenderness, color, and sensory properties of Longissimus lumborum beef muscle. Dry-aged loins had higher (P<0.0001) weight loss than W or SB aged loins. However, D and SB aged loins had similar (P>0.05) combined losses. W aged loins had higher (P<0.01) L* values than D or SB aged loins. Warner-Bratzler shear force of steaks was not affected (P>0.05) by aging method or quality grade but increased (P<0.0001) as end-point temperature increased. Sensory panel evaluation also showed no effect (P>0.05) of aging method or quality grade on myofibrillar tenderness, juiciness, connective tissue amount, overall tenderness or off flavor intensity. Steaks cooked to 62.8 °C were juicier (P<0.05) than those cooked to 71.1 °C. Neither D nor SB aging had advantages over W aging.

  11. Freeze drying method

    DOEpatents

    Coppa, Nicholas V.; Stewart, Paul; Renzi, Ernesto

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

  12. Freeze drying apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Coppa, Nicholas V.; Stewart, Paul; Renzi, Ernesto

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

  13. Cold Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COLD STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Workers who ... cold environments may be at risk of cold stress. Extreme cold weather is a dangerous situation that ...

  14. Effect of a cold, dry air incursion on atmospheric boundary layer processes over a high-altitude lake in the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhaoguo; Lyu, Shihua; Wen, Lijuan; Zhao, Lin; Ao, Yinhuan; Wang, Shaoying

    2017-03-01

    High-altitude lakes are frequently exposed to extreme meteorological conditions, but the surface and atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) processes have received little attention under specific weather conditions. This study used the multi-source field data, re-analysis and remote sensing data to investigate the varying patterns and driving forces of the convective boundary layer (CBL) height over Ngoring Lake in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) before and after the cold air incursion. Daily cumulative surface heat flux and buoyancy flux over the land were markedly larger than those over the lake on a clear summer day, but an opposite pattern was observed accompanied by the cold air incursion. CBLs determined by the potential temperature thinned (depth < 100 m) over the lake in the daytime and thickened (400-600 m) at night on a clear day. Along with the arrival of the cold air, CBL rapidly thickened to 2280 m over the lake, exceeded than the maximum value at adjacent Madoi station. Cold air dramatically cooled the middle-upper atmosphere but the temperature of the lower atmosphere cooled down slowly, partly due to a sharp increase of sensible heat flux over the lake, both of which linked up to weaken the potential temperature gradient. Moreover, increasing wind speed and vertical wind shear further facilitated the buoyancy flux to exert higher heat convection efficiency. All of these factors acted together to cause the rapid growth of CBL over the lake. This investigation provided a more in-depth knowledge of boundary layer dynamics in the lake-rich region of the TP.

  15. Dry Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Dry Mouth What Is Dry Mouth? Dry mouth is the feeling that there is ... when a person has dry mouth. How Dry Mouth Feels Dry mouth can be uncomfortable. Some people ...

  16. Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest Drinking ...

  17. Exercise in the Cold

    PubMed Central

    Fudge, Jessie

    2016-01-01

    Context: Hypothermia and frostbite injuries occur in cold weather activities and sporting events. Evidence Acquisition: A PubMed search was used to identify original research and review articles related to cold, frostbite, and hypothermia. Inclusion was based on their relevance to prevention and treatment of cold-related injuries in sports and outdoor activities. Dates of review articles were limited to those published after 2010. No date limit was set for the most recent consensus statements or original research. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 5. Results: Frostbite and hypothermia are well-documented entities with good prevention strategies and prehospital treatment recommendations that have changed very little with time. A layered approach to clothing is the best way to prevent injury and respond to weather changes. Each athlete, defined as a participant in a cold weather sport or activity, will respond to cold differently depending on anthropometric measurements and underlying medical risk factors. An understanding of wind-chill temperatures, wetness, and the weather forecast allows athletes and event coordinators to properly respond to changing weather conditions. At the first sign of a freezing cold injury, ensure warm, dry clothes and move to a protected environment. Conclusion: Cold injuries can be prevented, and cold weather activities are safe with proper education, preparation, and response to changing weather conditions or injury. PMID:26857732

  18. Cold Helium Gas Pressurization For Spacecraft Cryogenic Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morehead, Robert L.; Atwell. Matthew J.; Hurlbert, Eric A.; Melcher, J. C.

    2017-01-01

    To reduce the dry mass of a spacecraft pressurization system, helium pressurant may be stored at low temperature and high pressure to increase mass in a given tank volume. Warming this gas through an engine heat exchanger prior to tank pressurization both increases the system efficiency and simplifies the designs of intermediate hardware such as regulators, valves, etc. since the gas is no longer cryogenic. If this type of cold helium pressurization system is used in conjunction with a cryogenic propellant, though, a loss in overall system efficiency can be expected due to heat transfer from the warm ullage gas to the cryogenic propellant which results in a specific volume loss for the pressurant, interpreted as the Collapse Factor. Future spacecraft with cryogenic propellants will likely have a cold helium system, with increasing collapse factor effects as vehicle sizes decrease. To determine the collapse factor effects and overall implementation strategies for a representative design point, a cold helium system was hotfire tested on the Integrated Cryogenic Propulsion Test Article (ICPTA) in a thermal vacuum environment at the NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station. The ICPTA vehicle is a small lander-sized spacecraft prototype built at NASA Johnson Space Center utilizing cryogenic liquid oxygen/liquid methane propellants and cryogenic helium gas as a pressurant to operate one 2,800lbf 5:1 throttling main engine, two 28lbf Reaction Control Engines (RCE), and two 7lbf RCEs (Figure 1). This vehicle was hotfire tested at a variety of environmental conditions at NASA Plum Brook, ranging from ambient temperature/simulated high altitude, deep thermal/high altitude, and deep thermal/high vacuum conditions. A detailed summary of the vehicle design and testing campaign may be found in Integrated Cryogenic Propulsion Test Article Thermal Vacuum Hotfire Testing, AIAA JPC 2017.

  19. Diurnal Chemical Characterization of Aerosols at Downtown Mexico City During the Cold dry Seasons of 2003 and 2005. Part I. Data Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grutter, M.; Moya, M.; Matias, E.; Baez, A.

    2006-12-01

    Data of size-differentiated (0.18-10 μm) and bulk (1, 2.5 μm) inorganic aerosols collected during February-March of 2003 and 2005 at a site near downtown Mexico City are analyzed and discussed in the present work. Physico-chemical consistency tests applied on the data base showed a reliability of 85%. Highest concentrations of PM occurred mainly in fine size ranges, i.e., accumulation mode (size-differentiated) and fine (PM1), specifically during the morning sampling periods. Sulfate, nitrate and ammonium were the dominant species though higher concentrations of NaCl were observed during the 2003 field campaign. Concentration of this species is explained in terms of the potential influence of the nearby dry salt-lake of Texcoco. Electroneutrality balances are achieved for all size ranges: PM10 (size-differentiated), PM2.5 and PM1 indicating the significant presence of gas-phase NH3 (> 40 ppb) observed consistently during the morning sampling periods in the Valley of Mexico was of importance in providing enough NH4+ to neutralize observed sulfate concentrations. Measured PM2.5 during the 2005 field campaign was exceeding several times the recent issued (November 2005) PM2.5 Mexican standard of 65 μg/m3.

  20. Vacuum-insulated catalytic converter

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K.

    2001-01-01

    A catalytic converter has an inner canister that contains catalyst-coated substrates and an outer canister that encloses an annular, variable vacuum insulation chamber surrounding the inner canister. An annular tank containing phase-change material for heat storage and release is positioned in the variable vacuum insulation chamber a distance spaced part from the inner canister. A reversible hydrogen getter in the variable vacuum insulation chamber, preferably on a surface of the heat storage tank, releases hydrogen into the variable vacuum insulation chamber to conduct heat when the phase-change material is hot and absorbs the hydrogen to limit heat transfer to radiation when the phase-change material is cool. A porous zeolite trap in the inner canister absorbs and retains hydrocarbons from the exhaust gases when the catalyst-coated substrates and zeolite trap are cold and releases the hydrocarbons for reaction on the catalyst-coated substrate when the zeolite trap and catalyst-coated substrate get hot.

  1. Drying kinetics and physico-chemical characteristics of Osmo- dehydrated Mango, Guava and Aonla under different drying conditions.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P Suresh; Sagar, V R

    2014-08-01

    Mango (Mangiferra indica L), guava (Psiduim guajava L.) slices and aonla (Emblica officinalis L) segments were osmo-dried under four different dying conditions viz., cabinet drier (CD), vacuum oven drier (VOD), low temperature drier (LTD) and solar drier (SD) to evaluate the best drying condition for the fruits. It was found that vacuum oven drying was superior to other mode of drying as it holds maximum nutrients like acidity, ascorbic acid, sugar and water removal and moisture ratio of products. It was found through regression analysis that drying ratio and rehydration ratio was also superior in vacuum drying followed by cabinet drying. In addition, descriptive analysis on sensory score was also found best with vacuum drying while the Non-enzymatic browning (NEB), which is undesirable character on dried product, was more with solar drier.

  2. Common cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000678.htm Common cold To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The common cold most often causes a runny nose, nasal congestion, ...

  3. Germanium detector vacuum encapsulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, N. W.; Malone, D. F.; Pehl, R. H.; Cork, C. P.; Luke, P. N.; Landis, D. A.; Pollard, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes an encapsulation technology that should significantly improve the viability of germanium gamma-ray detectors for a number of important applications. A specialized vacuum chamber has been constructed in which the detector and the encapsulating module are processed in high vacuum. Very high vacuum conductance is achieved within the valveless encapsulating module. The detector module is then sealed without breaking the chamber vacuum. The details of the vacuum chamber, valveless module, processing, and sealing method are presented.

  4. PLASMA WINDOW FOR VACUUM - ATMOSPHERE INTERFACE AND FOCUSING LENS OF SOURCES FOR NON-VACUUM MATERIAL MODIFICATION.

    SciTech Connect

    HERSHCOVITCH,A.

    1997-09-07

    Material modifications by ion implantation, dry etching, and micro-fabrication are widely used technologies, all of which are performed in vacuum, since ion beams at energies used in these applications are completely attenuated by foils or by long differentially pumped sections, which ate currently used to interface between vacuum and atmosphere. A novel plasma window, which utilizes a short arc for vacuum-atmosphere interface has been developed. This window provides for sufficient vacuum atmosphere separation, as well as for ion beam propagation through it, thus facilitating non-vacuum ion material modification.

  5. [Effect on quality of Scrophulariae Radix with modern drying technology].

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-wei; Liu, Pei; Qian, Da-wei; Lu, Xue-jun; Guo, Sheng; Zhu, Zhen-hua; Duan, Jin-ao

    2015-11-01

    Modern drying technology was used to explore suitable drying process to provide scientific basis for improving drying processing methods of Scrophulariae Radix. Controlled temperature and humidity drying, vacuum drying apparatus, microwave vacuum drying apparatus, short infrared drying device were used to gain samples for analyzing. The character appearance, concentration of main components and power consumption indicators were chosen for preliminary judging. Six major components, including iridoids and phenylpropanoids were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS method. The contents of polysaccharides were determined by UV-visible spectrophotometry. The character appearance with controlled temperature and humidity drying and short infrared drying meet the pharmacopoeia standard (Ch. p, edition 2015), while samples with vacuum and microwave vacuum drying apparatus didn't. Compared to fresh sample, concentrations of harpagide, harpagoside, aucubin and catalpol were lower in the dried samples. Angoroside-C showed no significant change before and after drying. Concentration of acteoside increased after drying. Samples with controlled temperature (70 degrees C) and humidity (15% - 10%) drying had high content and short drying time. The better drying process of Scrophulariae Radix was controlled temperature and humidity drying. The method will provide the reference for the drying technology standard of roots medicine.

  6. Effects of different drying methods on the product quality and volatile compounds of whole shiitake mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yuting; Zhao, Yingting; Huang, Jijun; Zeng, Hongliang; Zheng, Baodong

    2016-04-15

    Various drying methods play important roles in the preservation of foods. However, how the different drying methods affect the quality of some foods is not clear. This paper evaluates the effects of hot air, vacuum, microwave, and microwave vacuum drying techniques on important qualities and volatile compounds of whole shiitake (Lentinus edodes) mushrooms. These four drying methods resulted in a significantly (p<0.05) increase in the content of total free amino acids and the relative content of sulfur compounds of dried products. Microwave vacuum drying helped to maintain larger amounts of taste-active amino acids, and improved nutrient retention and color attributes. Furthermore, the uniform honeycomb network created by microwave vacuum drying along with a less collapsed structure of dried samples can be used to explain the observed high rehydration ratio. Therefore, microwave vacuum drying should be a potential method for obtaining high-quality dried mushrooms.

  7. ANS cold source neutronics analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lillie, R.A.

    1994-06-01

    This paper describes the calculational procedures employed in the ongoing neutronics analysis of the ANS cold source and presents in chronological order some of the more important results from the one- and two-dimensional discrete calculations performed to date in support of the ANS cold source design. In particular, cold neutron currents from cryostat shapes which can be adequately modeled with two-dimensional geometries are compared with and without reentrant cavities. Also, results are presented from one-dimensional comparative liquid hydrogen vs liquid deuterium calculations in which the density, placement, and para-ortho mixture of liquid hydrogen is investigated. In addition, the evolution of the ANS conceptual design cold source from an initial short cylindrical cryostat with hemispherical upper and lower heads employing a natural convection liquid deuterium circulation system to the final spherical design employing a pumped system is described. Finally, performance data and heating rates are presented for some possible alternate ANS cryostat and vacuum jacket materials.

  8. Vacuum-assisted delivery

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000514.htm Vacuum-assisted delivery To use the sharing features on ... the baby through the birth canal. When is Vacuum-assisted Delivery Needed? Even after your cervix is ...

  9. Radiation hard vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, Gordon E.

    1990-03-06

    A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction.

  10. Radiation hard vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, Gordon E.

    1990-01-01

    A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction.

  11. The Classical Vacuum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Timothy H.

    1985-01-01

    The classical vacuum of physics is not empty, but contains a distinctive pattern of electromagnetic fields. Discovery of the vacuum, thermal spectrum, classical electron theory, zero-point spectrum, and effects of acceleration are discussed. Connection between thermal radiation and the classical vacuum reveals unexpected unity in the laws of…

  12. Dry PMR-15 Resin Powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D.; Roberts, Gary D.

    1988-01-01

    Shelf lives of PMR-15 polymides lengthened. Procedure involves quenching of monomer reactions by vacuum drying of PRM-15 resin solutions at 70 to 90 degree F immediately after preparation of solutions. Absence of solvent eliminates formation of higher esters and reduces formation of imides to negligible level. Provides fully-formulated dry PMR-15 resin powder readily dissolvable in solvent at room temperature immediately before use. Resins used in variety of aerospace, aeronautical, and commercial applications.

  13. Comparative Evaluation of Physicochemical Properties of Pine Needle Powders Prepared by Different Drying Methods

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Ha-Sook; Lee, Jun Ho

    2015-01-01

    Systematic study of how different drying methods, namely hot-air drying, vacuum-drying, and freeze-drying, affect color, browning index, degree of rehydration, water solubility, and vitamin C content is critical for utilizing pine needle powders (PNP) as a novel ingredient in functional foods. Samples prepared by vacuum-drying showed a significantly higher L*-value, whereas higher a*- and b*-values were detected in the hot-air dried samples (P<0.05). The browning index was significantly higher in samples prepared by vacuum-drying compared to samples prepared by freeze-drying (P<0.05). Freeze-dried PNP exhibited a significantly higher degree of rehydration than hot-air dried samples (P<0.05). Water solubilities of freeze-dried and hot-air dried samples were significantly higher than that of vacuum-dried sample (P<0.05). Vitamin C was less destroyed during freeze-drying compared to hot-air or vacuum-drying (P<0.05). Freeze-dried samples displayed a clear porous structure and appeared to have a bigger space, whereas hot-air dried samples showed lower porosity than vacuum and freeze-dried samples. PMID:26176003

  14. Ultrasonic Clothes Drying Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Viral; Momen, Ayyoub

    2016-05-09

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory researchers Ayyoub Momen and Viral Patel demonstrate a direct contact ultrasonic clothes dryer under development by ORNL in collaboration with General Electric (GE) Appliances. This novel approach uses high-frequency mechanical vibrations instead of heat to extract moisture as cold mist, dramatically reducing drying time and energy use. Funding for this project was competitively awarded by DOE’s Building Technologies Office in 2014.

  15. Ultrasonic Clothes Drying Technology

    ScienceCinema

    Patel, Viral; Momen, Ayyoub

    2016-07-12

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory researchers Ayyoub Momen and Viral Patel demonstrate a direct contact ultrasonic clothes dryer under development by ORNL in collaboration with General Electric (GE) Appliances. This novel approach uses high-frequency mechanical vibrations instead of heat to extract moisture as cold mist, dramatically reducing drying time and energy use. Funding for this project was competitively awarded by DOE’s Building Technologies Office in 2014.

  16. Indian Vacuum Society: The Indian Vacuum Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, T. K.

    2008-03-01

    The Indian Vacuum Society (IVS) was established in 1970. It has over 800 members including many from Industry and R & D Institutions spread throughout India. The society has an active chapter at Kolkata. The society was formed with the main aim to promote, encourage and develop the growth of Vacuum Science, Techniques and Applications in India. In order to achieve this aim it has conducted a number of short term courses at graduate and technician levels on vacuum science and technology on topics ranging from low vacuum to ultrahigh vacuum So far it has conducted 39 such courses at different parts of the country and imparted training to more than 1200 persons in the field. Some of these courses were in-plant training courses conducted on the premises of the establishment and designed to take care of the special needs of the establishment. IVS also regularly conducts national and international seminars and symposia on vacuum science and technology with special emphasis on some theme related to applications of vacuum. A large number of delegates from all over India take part in the deliberations of such seminars and symposia and present their work. IVS also arranges technical visits to different industries and research institutes. The society also helped in the UNESCO sponsored post-graduate level courses in vacuum science, technology and applications conducted by Mumbai University. The society has also designed a certificate and diploma course for graduate level students studying vacuum science and technology and has submitted a syllabus to the academic council of the University of Mumbai for their approval, we hope that some colleges affiliated to the university will start this course from the coming academic year. IVS extended its support in standardizing many of the vacuum instruments and played a vital role in helping to set up a Regional Testing Centre along with BARC. As part of the development of vacuum education, the society arranges the participation of

  17. Cold intolerance

    MedlinePlus

    Some causes of cold intolerance are: Anemia Anorexia nervosa Blood vessel problems, such as Raynaud phenomenon Chronic severe illness General poor health Underactive thyroid ( hypothyroidism ) Problem with the hypothalamus (a part ...

  18. Vacuum pump aids ejectors

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.E.

    1982-12-01

    The steam ejector/vacuum pump hybrid system has been operating satisfactorily since the summer of 1981. This system has essentially been as troublefree as the all-ejector system and, of course, has provided a substantial cost savings. Construction is currently under way to convert the vacuum system of another crude still which is equipped with steam ejectors and barometric condensers to the hybrid system of steam ejectors, surface condensers, and vacuum pumps. This current project is even more financially attractive because it allows a dirty water cooling tower which serves the barometric condensers to be shut down. Providing a vacuum for crude distillation vacuum towers with this hybrid system is by no means the only application of this technique. Any vacuum system consisting of all steam ejectors would be a candidate for this hybrid system and the resulting savings in energy.

  19. Maintaining vacuum furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalewski, J.

    2000-04-01

    A preventive maintenance program is essential for safe and consistent vacuum furnace operation. The program should be developed in cooperation with safety, maintenance, and furnace operators, implemented as soon as the furnace is commissioned, and adhered to throughout the life of the furnace. This article serves as an introduction to the topic of vacuum furnace preventive maintenance. Basic information about installing a new vacuum furnace also is provided.

  20. Vacuum probe surface sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahlava, B. A. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A vacuum probe surface sampler is described for rapidly sampling relatively large surface areas which possess relatively light loading densities of micro-organism, drug particles or the like. A vacuum head with a hollow handle connected to a suitable vacuum source is frictionally attached to a cone assembly terminating in a flared tip adapted to be passed over the surface to be sampled. A fine mesh screen carried by the vacuum head provides support for a membrane filter which collects the microorganisms or other particles. The head assembly is easily removed from the cone assembly without contacting the cone assembly with human hands.

  1. Dry Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    ... or chewing tobacco can increase dry mouth symptoms. Methamphetamine use. Methamphetamine use can cause severe dry mouth and damage to teeth, a condition also known as "meth mouth." If you don't have enough saliva ...

  2. Effects of nonthermal electrons on plasma expansion into vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Bennaceur-Doumaz, D. Bara, D.; Benkhelifa, E.; Djebli, M.

    2015-01-28

    The expansion of semi-infinite plasma into vacuum is analyzed with a hydrodynamic model for cold ions assuming electrons modelled by a kappa-type distribution. Similarly to Mora study of a plasma expansion into vacuum [P. Mora, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 185002 (2003)], we formulated empirical expressions for the electric field strength, velocity, and position of the ion front in one-dimensional nonrelativistic, collisionless isothermally expanding plasma. Analytic expressions for the maximum ion energy and the spectrum of the accelerated ions in the plasma were derived and discussed to highlight the electron nonthermal effects on enhancing the ion acceleration in plasma expansion into vacuum.

  3. Dry Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    Dry mouth is the feeling that there is not enough saliva in your mouth. Everyone has a dry mouth once in a while - if they are nervous, ... under stress. But if you have a dry mouth all or most of the time, it can ...

  4. Cold injuries.

    PubMed

    Long, William B; Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to cold can produce a variety of injuries that occur as a result of man's inability to adapt to cold. These injuries can be divided into localized injury to a body part, systemic hypothermia, or a combination of both. Body temperature may fall as a result of heat loss by radiation, evaporation, conduction, and convection. Hypothermia or systemic cold injury occurs when the core body temperature has decreased to 35 degrees C (95 degrees F) or less. The causes of hypothermia are either primary or secondary. Primary, or accidental, hypothermia occurs in healthy individuals inadequately clothed and exposed to severe cooling. In secondary hypothermia, another illness predisposes the individual to accidental hypothermia. Hypothermia affects multiple organs with symptoms of hypothermia that vary according to the severity of cold injury. The diagnosis of hypothermia is easy if the patient is a mountaineer who is stranded in cold weather. However, it may be more difficult in an elderly patient who has been exposed to a cold environment. In either case, the rectal temperature should be checked with a low-reading thermometer. The general principals of prehospital management are to (1) prevent further heat loss, (2) rewarm the body core temperature in advance of the shell, and (3) avoid precipitating ventricular fibrillation. There are two general techniques of rewarming--passive and active. The mechanisms of peripheral cold injury can be divided into phenomena that affect cells and extracellular fluids (direct effects) and those that disrupt the function of the organized tissue and the integrity of the circulation (indirect effects). Generally, no serious damage is seen until tissue freezing occurs. The mildest form of peripheral cold injury is frostnip. Chilblains represent a more severe form of cold injury than frostnip and occur after exposure to nonfreezing temperatures and damp conditions. Immersion (trench) foot, a disease of the sympathetic nerves and blood

  5. Cold urticaria.

    PubMed

    Claudy, A

    2001-11-01

    Cold urticaria is one form of urticaria that may be associated with other forms of physical urticarias. Frequency is generally estimated at two or three per 100. The triggering effect of cold is found at history taking in most of the cases. The urticaria is usually superficial, and more rarely associated with deep and/or mucosal urticaria. The diagnosis is based on history taking and the ice cube test. An exhaustive search for an etiologic factor is often unfruitful, and the presence of a cryopathy should lead to a complete work-up. Therapy of cold urticaria may prove to be difficult. In patients with secondary cold urticaria, underlying disease must be treated in order to resolve the skin symptoms. H1-antihistamines can be used but the clinical responses are highly variable. Short-time treatment with low concentration corticosteroids suppresses the symptoms only partially and temporarily. In patients who do not respond to previous treatments, induction of cold tolerance may be proposed but the procedure is difficult to carry out in daily life over an extended period. Key word: cryoglobulins.

  6. Working in a Vacuum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathey, Allen

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses several myths about vacuum cleaners and offers tips on evaluating and purchasing this essential maintenance tool. These myths are: (1) Amps mean performance; (2) Everyone needs high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA): (3) Picking up a "bowling ball" shows cleaning power; (4) All vacuum bags are the same; (5)…

  7. FINAL REPORT: Transformational electrode drying process

    SciTech Connect

    Claus Daniel, C.; Wixom, M.

    2013-12-19

    This report includes major findings and outlook from the transformational electrode drying project performance period from January 6, 2012 to August 1, 2012. Electrode drying before cell assembly is an operational bottleneck in battery manufacturing due to long drying times and batch processing. Water taken up during shipment and other manufacturing steps needs to be removed before final battery assembly. Conventional vacuum ovens are limited in drying speed due to a temperature threshold needed to avoid damaging polymer components in the composite electrode. Roll to roll operation and alternative treatments can increase the water desorption and removal rate without overheating and damaging other components in the composite electrode, thus considerably reducing drying time and energy use. The objective of this project was the development of an electrode drying procedure, and the demonstration of processes with no decrease in battery performance. The benchmark for all drying data was an 80°C vacuum furnace treatment with a residence time of 18 – 22 hours. This report demonstrates an alternative roll to roll drying process with a 500-fold improvement in drying time down to 2 minutes and consumption of only 30% of the energy compared to vacuum furnace treatment.

  8. Influence of processing steps in cold-smoked salmon production on survival and growth of persistent and presumed non-persistent Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Porsby, Cisse Hedegaard; Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Mohr, Mona; Gram, Lone

    2008-03-20

    Cold-smoked salmon is a ready-to-eat product in which Listeria monocytogenes sometimes can grow to high numbers. The bacterium can colonize the processing environment and it is believed to survive or even grow during the processing steps. The purpose of the present study was to determine if the steps in the processing of cold-smoked salmon affect survival and subsequent growth of a persistent strain of L. monocytogenes to a lesser degree than presumed non-persistent strains. We used a sequence of experiments increasing in complexity: (i) small salmon blocks salted, smoked or dried under model conditions, (ii) fillets of salmon cold-smoked in a pilot plant and finally, (iii) assessment of the bacterial levels before and after processing during commercial scale production. L. monocytogenes proliferated on salmon blocks that were brined or dipped in liquid smoke and left at 25 degrees C in a humidity chamber for 24 h. However, combining brining and liquid smoke with a drying (25 degrees C) step reduced the bacterium 10-100 fold over a 24 h period. Non-salted, brine injected or dry salted salmon fillets were surface inoculated with L. monocytogenes and cold-smoked in a pilot plant. L. monocytogenes was reduced from 10(3) to 10-10(2) CFU/cm(2) immediately after cold-smoking. The greatest reductions were observed in dry salted and brine injected fillets as compared to cold-smoking of non-salted fresh fillets. Levels of L. monocytogenes decreased further when the cold-smoked fish was vacuum-packed and stored at 5 degrees C. A similar decline was seen when inoculating brine injected fillets after cold-smoking. High phenol concentrations are a likely cause of this marked growth inhibition. In a commercial production facility, the total viable count of salmon fillets was reduced 10-1000 fold by salting, cold-smoking and process-freezing (a freezing step after smoking and before slicing). The prevalence of L. monocytogenes in the commercial production facility was too low to

  9. ELETTRA vacuum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardini, M.

    1991-08-01

    A status report of the vacuum system of ELETTRA, the 2 GeV, 400 mA light source under construction in Trieste, will be described. The Vacuum project, presented at ``Synchrotron Radiation Vacuum Workshop'' at Riken (Japan 22-24 March 1990) and more recently at EVC-2, the European Vacuum Conference at Trieste (Italy 21-26 May 1990), is now in the phase of testing a prototype sector, which is 1/24 of the ring circumference. Details and some technological aspects of the fabrication will be reviewed together with the vacuum performances. Results of laboratory experiments on components, standard or not, allowed us to finalize the main choices in light of the general philosophy of the project and will be properly summarized.

  10. Microfabricated triggered vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Roesler, Alexander W.; Schare, Joshua M.; Bunch, Kyle

    2010-05-11

    A microfabricated vacuum switch is disclosed which includes a substrate upon which an anode, cathode and trigger electrode are located. A cover is sealed over the substrate under vacuum to complete the vacuum switch. In some embodiments of the present invention, a metal cover can be used in place of the trigger electrode on the substrate. Materials used for the vacuum switch are compatible with high vacuum, relatively high temperature processing. These materials include molybdenum, niobium, copper, tungsten, aluminum and alloys thereof for the anode and cathode. Carbon in the form of graphitic carbon, a diamond-like material, or carbon nanotubes can be used in the trigger electrode. Channels can be optionally formed in the substrate to mitigate against surface breakdown.

  11. Cervical spine annulus vacuum.

    PubMed

    Bohrer, S P; Chen, Y M

    1988-01-01

    Thirty-eight annulus vacuums in 27 patients were analyzed with regard to location, configuration, and associated vertebral abnormalities such as degenerative changes, absent and compressed anterosuperior vertebral body corners, and annulus calcification. It is concluded that most annulus vacuums are a degenerative phenomenon at the attachment of the annulus to bone. These vacuums may be associated with other degenerative changes such as osteophytes and annulus calcification. Vacuums have a strong association with compressed anterosuperior corners. These deformed corners are thought to be early osteophytes and may be related to previous trauma, a vertebra with an absent corner, and/or normal motion. Small annulus vacuums adjacent to vertebral corners with a normal appearance are more likely to result from acute trauma.

  12. Housing protects laser in vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canali, V. G.

    1978-01-01

    Airtight housing encloses laser for easy alinement and operation in high-vacuum chamber. Beam is transmitted through window into vacuum chamber. Flexible line runs through vacuum chamber to outside, maintaining laser enclosure at atmospheric pressure.

  13. Vacuum encapsulated hermetically sealed diamond amplified cathode capsule and method for making same

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Triveni; Walsh, John; Gangone, Elizabeth

    2014-12-30

    A vacuum encapsulated, hermetically sealed cathode capsule for generating an electron beam of secondary electrons, which generally includes a cathode element having a primary emission surface adapted to emit primary electrons, an annular insulating spacer, a diamond window element comprising a diamond material and having a secondary emission surface adapted to emit secondary electrons in response to primary electrons impinging on the diamond window element, a first cold-weld ring disposed between the cathode element and the annular insulating spacer and a second cold-weld ring disposed between the annular insulating spacer and the diamond window element. The cathode capsule is formed by a vacuum cold-weld process such that the first cold-weld ring forms a hermetical seal between the cathode element and the annular insulating spacer and the second cold-weld ring forms a hermetical seal between the annular spacer and the diamond window element whereby a vacuum encapsulated chamber is formed within the capsule.

  14. Cold Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes oral herpes, or cold sores. Type 1 herpes virus infects more than half of the U.S. population by the time they reach their 20s. Type 2 usually affects the genital area Some people have no symptoms from the ...

  15. Thermophoretic vacuum wand

    DOEpatents

    Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott; Rader, Daniel John

    2001-01-01

    A thermophoretic vacuum wand that is particularly suited for transporting articles in a cleanroom environment so that potential particle contaminants in the air do not become adhered to the surface of the article is described. The wand includes a housing having a platen with a front surface with suction port(s) through the platen; a vacuum source for applying a negative pressure to the suction port(s); and heating device for the object. Heating the article when it is held by the vacuum wand affords thermophoretic protection that effectively prevents particles in the air from depositing onto the article.

  16. Thermophoretic vacuum wand

    DOEpatents

    Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott; Rader, Daniel John

    2000-01-01

    A thermophoretic vacuum wand that is particularly suited for transporting articles in a cleanroom environment so that potential particle contaminants in the air do not become adhered to the surface of the article is described. The wand includes a housing having a platen with a front surface with suction port(s) through the platen; a vacuum source for applying a negative pressure to the suction port(s); and heating device for the object. Heating the article when it is held by the vacuum wand affords thermophoretic protection that effectively prevents particles in the air from depositing onto the article.

  17. Collapse of vacuum bubbles in a vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Kin-Wang; Wang, Shang-Yung

    2011-02-15

    We revisit the dynamics of a false vacuum bubble in a background de Sitter spacetime. We find that there exists a large parameter space that allows the bubble to collapse into a black hole or to form a wormhole. This may have interesting implications for the creation of a baby universe in the laboratory, the string landscape where the bubble nucleation takes place among a plenitude of metastable vacua, and the inflationary physics.

  18. Vacuum mechatronics first international workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Belinski, S.E.; Shirazi, M.; Hackwood, S.; Beni, G. )

    1989-01-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: proposed epitaxial thin film growth in the ultra-vacuum of space; particle monitoring and control in vacuum processing equipment; electrostatic dust collector for use in vacuum systems; materials evaluation of an electrically noisy vacuum slip ring assembly; an overview of lubrication and associated materials for vacuum service; the usage of lubricants in a vacuum environment; guidelines and practical applications for lubrication in vacuum; recent development in leak detector and calibrator designs; the durability of ballscrews for ultrahigh vacuum; vacuum-compatible robot for self-contained manufacturing systems; the design, fabrication, and assembly of an advanced vacuum robotics system for space payload calibration; design criteria for mechanisms used in space; and concepts and requirements for semiconductor multiprocess integration in vacuum. These papers are indexed separately elsewhere.

  19. Hot, Cold, and Really Cold.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Describes a physics experiment investigating temperature prediction and the relationship between the physical properties of heat units, melting, dissolving, states of matter, and energy loss. Details the experimental setup, which requires hot and cold water, a thermometer, and ice. Notes that the experiment employs a deliberate counter-intuitive…

  20. The classical vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, T. H.

    1985-08-01

    The history of vacuum concepts is reviewed, noting that no way is known to physically produce a true void. Even at absolute zero, a pattern of electromagnetic wave fluctuations are still present. The fluctuations are called zero-point radiation (ZPR). To be invariant to Lorentz transformation, ZPR has a spectral intensity proportional to the cube of each frequency. ZPR does not change in response to compression and produces a force between objects that is inversely proportional to the 4th power of the separation distance. The ZPR scale value has been measured to be one-half of the Planck constant, and is the measure of the energy of a harmonic oscillator, such as the electron, in a vacuum. Finally, since gravitational accelerations always occur in the physical space, a minimum thermal radiation can also be found for the vacuum, implying that a fixed relationship exists between thermal radiation and the classical vacuum.

  1. Vacuum Camera Cooler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laugen, Geoffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    Acquiring cheap, moving video was impossible in a vacuum environment, due to camera overheating. This overheating is brought on by the lack of cooling media in vacuum. A water-jacketed camera cooler enclosure machined and assembled from copper plate and tube has been developed. The camera cooler (see figure) is cup-shaped and cooled by circulating water or nitrogen gas through copper tubing. The camera, a store-bought "spy type," is not designed to work in a vacuum. With some modifications the unit can be thermally connected when mounted in the cup portion of the camera cooler. The thermal conductivity is provided by copper tape between parts of the camera and the cooled enclosure. During initial testing of the demonstration unit, the camera cooler kept the CPU (central processing unit) of this video camera at operating temperature. This development allowed video recording of an in-progress test, within a vacuum environment.

  2. TFTR diagnostic vacuum controller

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.; Persons, R.

    1981-01-01

    The TFTR diagnostic vacuum controller (DVC) provides in conjunction with the Central Instrumentation Control and Data Acquisition System (CICADA), control and monitoring for the pumps, valves and gauges associated with each individual diagnostic vacuum system. There will be approximately 50 systems on TFTR. Two standard versions of the controller (A and B) wil be provided in order to meet the requirements of two diagnostic manifold arrangements. All pump and valve sequencing, as well as protection features, will be implemented by the controller.

  3. Interacting vacuum energy in the dark sector

    SciTech Connect

    Chimento, L. P.; Carneiro, S.

    2015-03-26

    We analyse three cosmological scenarios with interaction in the dark sector, which are particular cases of a general expression for the energy flux from vacuum to matter. In the first case the interaction leads to a transition from an unstable de Sitter phase to a radiation dominated universe, avoiding in this way the initial singularity. In the second case the interaction gives rise to a slow-roll power-law inflation. Finally, the third scenario is a concordance model for the late-time universe, with the vacuum term decaying into cold dark matter. We identify the physics behind these forms of interaction and show that they can be described as particular types of the modified Chaplygin gas.

  4. Interacting vacuum energy in the dark sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chimento, L. P.; Carneiro, S.

    2015-03-01

    We analyse three cosmological scenarios with interaction in the dark sector, which are particular cases of a general expression for the energy flux from vacuum to matter. In the first case the interaction leads to a transition from an unstable de Sitter phase to a radiation dominated universe, avoiding in this way the initial singularity. In the second case the interaction gives rise to a slow-roll power-law inflation. Finally, the third scenario is a concordance model for the late-time universe, with the vacuum term decaying into cold dark matter. We identify the physics behind these forms of interaction and show that they can be described as particular types of the modified Chaplygin gas.

  5. Trapping atoms using nanoscale quantum vacuum forces.

    PubMed

    Chang, D E; Sinha, K; Taylor, J M; Kimble, H J

    2014-07-10

    Quantum vacuum forces dictate the interaction between individual atoms and dielectric surfaces at nanoscale distances. For example, their large strengths typically overwhelm externally applied forces, which makes it challenging to controllably interface cold atoms with nearby nanophotonic systems. Here we theoretically show that it is possible to tailor the vacuum forces themselves to provide strong trapping potentials. Our proposed trapping scheme takes advantage of the attractive ground-state potential and adiabatic dressing with an excited state whose potential is engineered to be resonantly enhanced and repulsive. This procedure yields a strong metastable trap, with the fraction of excited-state population scaling inversely with the quality factor of the resonance of the dielectric structure. We analyse realistic limitations to the trap lifetime and discuss possible applications that might emerge from the large trap depths and nanoscale confinement.

  6. Simple, reliable, and nondestructive method for the measurement of vacuum pressure without specialized equipment.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jin-Peng; Ji, Zhong-Hua; Zhao, Yan-Ting; Chang, Xue-Fang; Xiao, Lian-Tuan; Jia, Suo-Tang

    2013-09-01

    We present a simple, reliable, and nondestructive method for the measurement of vacuum pressure in a magneto-optical trap. The vacuum pressure is verified to be proportional to the collision rate constant between cold atoms and the background gas with a coefficient k, which can be calculated by means of the simple ideal gas law. The rate constant for loss due to collisions with all background gases can be derived from the total collision loss rate by a series of loading curves of cold atoms under different trapping laser intensities. The presented method is also applicable for other cold atomic systems and meets the miniaturization requirement of commercial applications.

  7. COLD TRAPS

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, W.I.

    1958-09-30

    A cold trap is presented for removing a condensable component from a gas mixture by cooling. It consists of a shell, the exterior surface of which is chilled by a refrigerant, and conductive fins welded inside the shell to condense the gas, and distribute the condensate evenly throughout the length of the trap, so that the trap may function until it becomes completely filled with the condensed solid. The contents may then be removed as either a gas or as a liquid by heating the trap. This device has particuinr use as a means for removing uranium hexafluoride from the gaseous diffusion separation process during equipment breakdown and repair periods.

  8. Improving Vacuum Cleaners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Under a Space Act Agreement between the Kirby company and Lewis Research Center, NASA technology was applied to a commercial vacuum cleaner product line. Kirby engineers were interested in advanced operational concepts, such as particle flow behavior and vibration, critical factors to improve vacuum cleaner performance. An evaluation of the company 1994 home care system, the Kirby G4, led to the refinement of the new G5 and future models. Under the cooperative agreement, Kirby had access to Lewis' holography equipment, which added insight into how long a vacuum cleaner fan would perform, as well as advanced computer software that can simulate the flow of air through fans. The collaboration resulted in several successes including fan blade redesign and continuing dialogue on how to improve air-flow traits in various nozzle designs.

  9. Cold Urticaria

    PubMed Central

    Wasserman, Stephen I.; Soter, Nicholas A.; Center, David M.; Austen, K. Frank

    1977-01-01

    Sera were obtained from the venous effluents of cold-challenged arms of patients with idiopathic cold urticaria without plasma or serum cryoproteins; these sera exhibited increased neutrophil chemotactic activity without alterations of the complement system. A two- to fourfold augmentation of the base-line neutrophil chemotactic activity of serum from the immersed extremity began within 1 min, peaked at 2 min, and returned to base-line levels within 15 min, whereas there was no change in the serum chemotactic activity in the control arm. The augmented chemotactic activity in the serum specimens from the challenged arm of each patient appeared in a high molecular-weight region, as assessed by the difference in activity recovered after Sephadex G-200 gel filtration of the paired lesional and control specimens. Sequential purification of this high molecular-weight activity by anion- and cation-exchange chromatography revealed a single peak of activity at both steps. The partially purified material continued to exhibit a high molecular weight, being excluded on Sepharose 4B, and had a neutral isoelectric point. The partially purified material showed a preferential chemotactic activity for neutrophilic polymorphonuclear leukocytes, required a gradient for expression of this function, and exhibited a capacity to deactivate this cell type. This active principle, termed high molecular-weight neutrophil chemotactic factor, exhibited a time-course of release that could be superimposed upon that of histamine and the low molecular-weight eosinophil chemotactic factor and may represent another mast cell-derived mediator. PMID:874083

  10. century drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdon, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

    2014-11-01

    Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twenty-first century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman-Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both

  11. Superoleophobicity under vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xinjie; Wang, Xiaolong; Liang, Yongmin; Bell, Steven E. J.; Liu, Weimin; Zhou, Feng

    2011-05-01

    By using superoleophobic alumina and low vapor pressure oils we have been able to study wetting behavior at high vacuum. Here, we show that a superoleophobic state can exist for some probe liquids, even under high vacuum. However, with other liquids the surfaces are only superoloephobic because air is trapped beneath the droplet and the contact angle decreases dramatically (150°-120°) if this air is removed. These observations open up the possibility of designing materials which fully exploit the potential of physically trapped air to achieve extreme oleophobicity and/or hydrophobicity.

  12. Electrostatic Levitator Vacuum Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Optical ports ring the Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) vacuum chamber to admit light from the heating laser (beam passes through the window at left), positioning lasers (one port is at center), and lamps to allow diagnostic instruments to view the sample. The ESL uses static electricity to suspend an object (about 2-3 mm in diameter) inside a vacuum chamber while a laser heats the sample until it melts. This lets scientists record a wide range of physical properties without the sample contacting the container or any instruments, conditions that would alter the readings. The Electrostatic Levitator is one of several tools used in NASA's microgravity materials science program.

  13. K-130 Cyclotron vacuum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, R. C.; Bhattacharya, S.; Bhole, R. B.; Roy, Anindya; Pal, Sarbajit; Mallik, C.; Bhandari, R. K.

    2012-11-01

    The vacuum system for K-130 cyclotron has been operational since 1977. It consists of two sub-systems, main vacuum system and beam line vacuum system. The main vacuum system is designed to achieve and maintain vacuum of about 1 × 10-6 mbar inside the 23 m3 volume of acceleration chamber comprising the Resonator tank and the Dee tank. The beam line vacuum system is required for transporting the extracted beam with minimum loss. These vacuum systems consist of diffusion pumps backed by mechanical pumps like roots and rotary pumps. The large vacuum pumps and valves of the cyclotron vacuum system were operational for more than twenty five years. In recent times, problems of frequent failures and maintenance were occurring due to aging and lack of appropriate spares. Hence, modernisation of the vacuum systems was taken up in order to ensure a stable high voltage for radio frequency system and the extraction system. This is required for efficient acceleration and transportation of high intensity ion beam. The vacuum systems have been upgraded by replacing several pumps, valves, gauges and freon units. The relay based control system for main vacuum system has also been replaced by PLC based state of the art control system. The upgraded control system enables inclusion of additional operational logics and safety interlocks into the system. The paper presents the details of the vacuum system and describes the modifications carried out for improving the performance and reliability of the vacuum system.

  14. In-vacuum micro-PIXE analysis of biological specimens in frozen-hydrated state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tylko, G.; Mesjasz-Przybyłowicz, J.; Przybyłowicz, W. J.

    2007-07-01

    The first in-vacuum measurements of biological specimens in frozen-hydrated state using proton microbeam have been performed at Materials Research Group, iThemba LABS, South Africa. A commercially available cryotransfer system used in electron microscopy has been adapted for this purpose. The analyzed material was frozen in propane cooled by liquid nitrogen, fractured, carbon coated and transferred onto the cold stage (100 K) in the nuclear microprobe chamber. Micro-PIXE and simultaneous proton backscattering was performed using 3 MeV proton beam. Monitoring of water vapour composition during the proton bombardment showed good stability of the analyzed material. Quantitative results were obtained by standardless method, tested using 20% gelatine standards with added PbCl 2. The differences between the concentrations obtained for frozen-hydrated and next freeze-dried specimens and the value calculated on the basis of weighted mass of PbCl 2 added to gelatine were statistically insignificant. Leaf tissue of Senecio anomalochrous and larvae of Chysolina pardalina were used as examples of plant and animal tissue. Quantitative elemental mapping of frozen-hydrated specimens compared with subsequent analysis of the same areas after freeze-drying revealed the same distribution pattern in both cases.

  15. VACUUM SEALING MEANS FOR LOW VACUUM PRESSURES

    DOEpatents

    Milleron, N.

    1962-06-12

    S>A vacuum seal is designed in which the surface tension of a thin layer of liquid metal of low vapor pressure cooperates with adjacent surfaces to preclude passages of gases across pressure differentials as low as 10/sup -8/ mm Hg. Mating contiguous surfaces composed of copper, brass, stainless steel, nickel, molybdenum, tungsten, tantalum, glass, quartz, and/or synthetic mica are disposed to provide a maximum tolerance, D, expressed by 2 gamma /P/sub 1/, where gamma is the coefflcient of the surface tension of the metal sealant selected in dynes/cm/sub 2/. Means for heating the surfaces remotely is provided where temperatures drop below about 250 deg C. A sealant consisting of an alloy of gallium, indium, and tin, among other combinations tabulated, is disposed therebetween after treating the surfaces to improve wettability, as by ultrasonic vibrations, the surfaces and sealants being selected according to the anticipated experimental conditions of use. (AEC)

  16. Dry cell battery poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  17. Gas injected vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Hardin, K. Dan

    1977-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a gas injected vacuum switch comprising a housing having an interior chamber, a conduit for evacuating the interior chamber, within the chamber an anode and a cathode spaced from the anode, and a detonator for injecting electrically conductive gas into the chamber between the anode and the cathode to provide a current path therebetween.

  18. Sorption vacuum trap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrington, A. E.; Caruso, A. J.

    1970-01-01

    Modified sorption trap for use in high vacuum systems contains provisions for online regeneration of sorbent material. Trap is so constructed that it has a number of encapsulated resistance heaters and a valving and pumping device for removing gases from heated sorbing material. Excessive downtime is eliminated with this trap.

  19. Vacuum Kundt waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, David; Milson, Robert; Coley, Alan

    2013-03-01

    We discuss the invariant classification of vacuum Kundt waves using the Cartan-Karlhede algorithm and determine the upper bound on the number of iterations of the Karlhede algorithm to classify the vacuum Kundt waves (Collins (1991 Class. Quantum Grav. 8 1859-69), Machado Ramos (1996 Class. Quantum Grav. 13 1589)). By choosing a particular coordinate system we partially construct the canonical coframe used in the classification to study the functional dependence of the invariants arising at each iteration of the algorithm. We provide a new upper bound, q ⩽ 4, and show that this bound is sharp by analyzing the subclass of Kundt waves with invariant count beginning with (0, 1,…) to show that the class with invariant count (0, 1, 3, 4, 4) exists. This class of vacuum Kundt waves is shown to be unique as the only set of metrics requiring the fourth covariant derivatives of the curvature. We conclude with an invariant classification of the vacuum Kundt waves using a suite of invariants.

  20. A Hydration of an Alkyne Illustrating Steam and Vacuum Distillation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasacz, J. P.; Badding, V. G.

    1982-01-01

    Reports on the conversion 2,5-dimethylhexyne-2,5-diol(I) to 2,2,5,5-tetramethyltetrahydrofuran-3-one(II) using aqueous mercuric sulfate without the use of acid. The experiment has been successfully performed in introductory organic chemistry laboratories demonstrating alkyne hydration, steam distillation, vacuum distillation, drying of organic…

  1. Demonstrations with a Vacuum: Old Demonstrations for New Vacuum Pumps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Explains mechanisms of 19th-century vacuum pumps. Describes demonstrations using the pump including guinea and feather tube, aurora tube, electric egg, Gassiots cascade, air mill, bell in vacuum, density and buoyancy of air, fountain in vacuum, mercury shower, palm and bladder glasses, Bacchus demonstration, pneumatic man-lifter, and Magdeburg…

  2. Tritium handling in vacuum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, J.T.; Coffin, D.O.

    1986-10-01

    This report provides a course in Tritium handling in vacuum systems. Topics presented are: Properties of Tritium; Tritium compatibility of materials; Tritium-compatible vacuum equipment; and Tritium waste treatment.

  3. Furnace brazing under partial vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckown, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Brazing furnace utilizing partial-vacuum technique reduces tooling requirements and produces better bond. Benefit in that partial vacuum helps to dissociate metal oxides that inhibit metal flow and eliminates heavy tooling required to hold parts together during brazing.

  4. Gas bearing operates in vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, G. S.

    1975-01-01

    Bearing has restrictions to reduce air leaks and is connected to external pumpout facility which removes exhausted air. Token amount of air which is lost to vacuum is easily removed by conventional vacuum pump.

  5. The use of ion beam cleaning to obtain high quality cold welds with minimal deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sater, B. L.; Moore, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    A variation of cold welding is described which utilizes an ion beam to clean mating surfaces prior to joining in a vacuum environment. High quality solid state welds were produced with minimal deformation.

  6. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth > For Teens > Cough & Cold ... Someone Quit? Avoiding DXM Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ...

  7. A radiation hard vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1988-07-19

    A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction. 3 figs.

  8. Colorful drying.

    PubMed

    Lakio, Satu; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2010-03-01

    Drying is one of the standard unit operations in the pharmaceutical industry and it is important to become aware of the circumstances that dominate during the process. The purpose of this study was to test microcapsulated thermochromic pigments as heat indicators in a fluid bed drying process. The indicator powders were manually granulated with alpha-lactose monohydrate resulting in three particle-size groups. Also, pellets were coated with the indicator powders. The granules and pellets were fluidized in fluid bed dryer to observe the progress of the heat flow in the material and to study the heat indicator properties of the indicator materials. A tristimulus colorimeter was used to measure CIELAB color values. Color indicator for heat detection can be utilized to test if the heat-sensitive API would go through physical changes during the pharmaceutical drying process. Both the prepared granules and pellets can be used as heat indicator in fluid bed drying process. The colored heat indicators give an opportunity to learn new aspects of the process at real time and could be exploded, for example, for scaling-up studies.

  9. Drying effects on the antioxidant properties of tomatoes and ginger.

    PubMed

    Gümüşay, Özlem Aktürk; Borazan, Alev Akpınar; Ercal, Nuran; Demirkol, Omca

    2015-04-15

    In this study, the effects of four different drying processes, sun drying (SD), oven drying (OD), vacuum oven drying (VOD) and freeze drying (FD) for tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) in terms of thiolic and phenolic contents have been studied. Thiol content, total phenolic content (TPC), ascorbic acid (AA) content, and cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) were determined in fresh and dried samples. Glutathione (GSH) and cysteine (Cys) were determined as the thiol contents of tomatoes and ginger. Significant losses were observed in the contents of TPC, AA, GSH and Cys and CUPRAC values in all samples that were dried using the thermal method. There was a statistically significant difference in the losses of the TPC, AA, and thiol contents between the use of thermal drying and freeze drying (except Cys in tomatoes) methods. Freeze dried tomato and ginger samples have been found to have better antioxidant properties.

  10. Surge-damping vacuum valve

    DOEpatents

    Bullock, Jack C.; Kelly, Benjamin E.

    1980-01-01

    A valve having a mechanism for damping out flow surges in a vacuum system which utilizes a slotted spring-loaded disk positioned adjacent the valve's vacuum port. Under flow surge conditions, the differential pressure forces the disk into sealing engagement with the vacuum port, thereby restricting the flow path to the slots in the disk damping out the flow surge.

  11. Portable vacuum object handling device

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Gordon H.

    1983-08-09

    The disclosure relates to a portable device adapted to handle objects which are not to be touched by hand. A piston and bore wall form a vacuum chamber communicating with an adaptor sealably engageable with an object to be lifted. The piston is manually moved and set to establish vacuum. A valve is manually actuatable to apply the vacuum to lift the object.

  12. Bakeout Chamber Within Vacuum Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Daniel M.; Soules, David M.; Barengoltz, Jack B.

    1995-01-01

    Vacuum-bakeout apparatus for decontaminating and measuring outgassing from pieces of equipment constructed by mounting bakeout chamber within conventional vacuum chamber. Upgrade cost effective: fabrication and installation of bakeout chamber simple, installation performed quickly and without major changes in older vacuum chamber, and provides quantitative data on outgassing from pieces of equipment placed in bakeout chamber.

  13. Experimental Performance of a Thermoelectric Heat-Pump Drying System for Drying Herbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wongsim, K.; Jamradloedluk, J.; Lertsatitthanakorn, C.; Siriamornpun, S.; Rungsiyopas, M.; Soponronnarit, S.

    2015-06-01

    In this study we investigated thermoelectric (TE) heat-pump drying of laurel clock vine leaves, and the effect of drying-air temperature on the characteristics of the leaves. The TE drying system comprised four TE modules each with its own rectangular fin heat sink. The hot side of each TE module was fixed to its own heat sink; the cold sides were fixed to heat-pipe heat sinks and a drying chamber. The drying time depended on drying-air temperature. The heating capacity and coefficient of performance (COP) increased as the current supplied to the TE modules was increased. Calculated COP for the entire TE heat-pump drying system were 1.28 and 0.81 for drying-air temperatures of 50 and 40°C, respectively.

  14. Window-assisted nanosphere lithography for vacuum micro-nano-electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Nannan; Pang, Shucai; Yan, Fei; Chen, Lei; Jin, Dazhi; Xiang, Wei; Zhang, De; Zeng, Baoqing

    2015-04-15

    Development of vacuum micro-nano-electronics is quite important for combining the advantages of vacuum tubes and solid-state devices but limited by the prevailing fabricating techniques which are expensive, time consuming and low-throughput. In this work, window-assisted nanosphere lithography (NSL) technique was proposed and enabled the low-cost and high-efficiency fabrication of nanostructures for vacuum micro-nano-electronic devices, thus allowing potential applications in many areas. As a demonstration, we fabricated high-density field emitter arrays which can be used as cold cathodes in vacuum micro-nano-electronic devices by using the window-assisted NSL technique. The details of the fabricating process have been investigated. This work provided a new and feasible idea for fabricating nanostructure arrays for vacuum micro-nano-electronic devices, which would spawn the development of vacuum micro-nano-electronics.

  15. Atmospheric freeze drying assisted by power ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santacatalina, J. V.; Cárcel, J. A.; Simal, S.; Garcia-Perez, J. V.; Mulet, A.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric freeze drying (AFD) is considered an alternative to vacuum freeze drying to keep the quality of fresh product. AFD allows continuous drying reducing fix and operating costs, but presents, as main disadvantage, a long drying time required. The application of power ultrasound (US) can accelerate AFD process. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the application of power ultrasound to improve atmospheric freeze drying of carrot. For that purpose, AFD experiments were carried out with carrot cubes (10 mm side) at constant air velocity (2 ms-1), temperature (-10°C) and relative humidity (10%) with (20.5 kWm-3,USAFD) and without (AFD) ultrasonic application. A diffusion model was used in order to quantify the influence of US in drying kinetics. To evaluate the quality of dry products, rehydration capacity and textural properties were determined. The US application during AFD of carrot involved the increase of drying rate. The effective moisture diffusivity identified in USAFD was 73% higher than in AFD experiments. On the other hand, the rehydration capacity was higher in USAFD than in AFD and the hardness of dried samples did not show significant (p<0.05) differences. Therefore, US application during AFD significantly (p<0.05) sped-up the drying process preserving the quality properties of the dry product.

  16. Cold confusion

    SciTech Connect

    Chapline, G.

    1989-07-01

    On March 23 two chemists, Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons startled the world with a press conference at the University of Utah where they announced that they had achieved nuclear fusion at room temperatures. As evidence they cited the production of ''excess'' amounts of heat in an electrochemical apparatus and observation of neutron production. While the production of heat in a chemical apparatus is not in itself unusual the observation of neutrons is certainly extraordinary. As it turned out, though, careful measurements of the neutron production in electrochemical apparatus similar to that used by Fleischmann and Pons carried out at dozens of other laboratories has shown that the neutron production fails by many orders of magnitude to support the assertion by Fleischmann and Pons that their discovery represents a new and cheap source of fusion power. In particular, independent measurements of the neutron production rate suggest that the actual rate of fusion energy production probably does not exceed 1 trillionth of a watt. This paper discusses the feasibility that cold fusion is actually being achieved. 7 refs.

  17. Vacuum tool manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1992-12-31

    This invention is comprised of an apparatus for manipulating a vacuum hose in a reactor vessel comprising a housing with two opposing openings, an arm carried by the housing and deployable from a stowed position essentially completely within the housing to an extended position where the arm extends through the two openings in a generally horizontal position. The arm preferably has a two-fingered gripping device for gripping the vacuum hose but may carry a different end effector such as a grinding wheel. The fingers are opened and closed by one air cylinder. A second air cylinder extends the device. A third air cylinder within the housing pivotally pulls the opposing end of the arm into the housing via a pivoting member pivotally connected between the third air cylinder shaft and the arm.

  18. Edison's vacuum technology patents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waits, Robert K.

    2003-07-01

    During 1879 Thomas Edison's Menlo Park, New Jersey laboratory developed the means to evacuate glass lamp globes to less than a mTorr in 20 min and in mid-1880 began production of carbon-filament incandescent lamps. Among Edison's nearly 1100 U.S. patents are five for vacuum pump improvements, and at least eight others that are vacuum-related; all applied for between 1880 and 1886. Inspired by an 1878 article by De La Rue and Müller [Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 169, 155 (1878)] on studies of glow discharges, Edison devised a combination pump using the Geissler pump as a rough pump and the Sprengel pump for continuous exhaustion. Edison's patents described means to control the mercury flow and automate the delivery of the mercury to banks of up to a hundred pumps. Other patents described various means to remove residual gases during lamp processing.

  19. Vacuum tool manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1993-11-23

    Apparatus for manipulating a vacuum hose in a reactor vessel comprises a housing with two opposing openings, an arm carried by the housing and deployable from a stowed position essentially completely within the housing to an extended position where the arm extends through the two openings in a generally horizontal position. The arm preferably has a two-fingered gripping device for gripping the vacuum hose but may carry a different end effector such as a grinding wheel. The fingers are opened and closed by one air cylinder. A second air cylinder extends the device. A third air cylinder within the housing pivotally pulls the opposing end of the arm into the housing via a pivoting member pivotally connected between the third air cylinder shaft and the arm. 6 figures.

  20. Compact vacuum insulation

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K.; Potter, Thomas F.

    1993-01-01

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially "point" or "line" contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form "line" contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively "point" contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  1. Compact vacuum insulation embodiments

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K.; Potter, Thomas F.

    1992-01-01

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially "point" or "line" contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form "line" contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively "point" contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  2. Compact vacuum insulation embodiments

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1992-04-28

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point' or line' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included. 26 figs.

  3. Compact vacuum insulation

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1993-01-05

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point'' or line'' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line'' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point'' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  4. Vacuum tool manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, William T.

    1993-01-01

    Apparatus for manipulating a vacuum hose in a reactor vessel comprises a housing with two opposing openings, an arm carried by the housing and deployable from a stowed position essentially completely within the housing to an extended position where the arm extends through the two openings in a generally horizontal position. The arm preferably has a two-fingered gripping device for gripping the vacuum hose but may carry a different end effector such as a grinding wheel. The fingers are opened and closed by one air cylinder. A second air cylinder extends the device. A third air cylinder within the housing pivotally pulls the opposing end of the arm into the housing via a pivoting member pivotally connected between the third air cylinder shaft and the arm.

  5. Integrated structure vacuum tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimeff, J.; Kerwin, W. J. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    High efficiency, multi-dimensional thin film vacuum tubes suitable for use in high temperature, high radiation environments are described. The tubes are fabricated by placing thin film electrode members in selected arrays on facing interior wall surfaces of an alumina substrate envelope. Cathode members are formed using thin films of triple carbonate. The photoresist used in photolithography aids in activation of the cathodes by carbonizing and reacting with the reduced carbonates when heated in vacuum during forming. The finely powdered triple carbonate is mixed with the photoresist used to delineate the cathode locations in the conventional solid state photolithographic manner. Anode and grid members are formed using thin films of refractory metal. Electron flow in the tubes is between grid elements from cathode to anode as in a conventional three-dimensional tube.

  6. An automated vacuum system

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins, W.H. ); Vaughn, G.D. ); Bridgman, C. )

    1991-01-01

    Software tools available with the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) control system provide the capability to express a control problem as a finite state machine. System states and transitions are expressed in terms of accelerator parameters and actions are taken based on state transitions. This is particularly useful for sequencing operations which are modal in nature or are unwieldy when implemented with conventional programming. State diagrams are automatically translated into code which is executed by the control system. These tools have been applied to the vacuum system for the GTA accelerator to implement automatic sequencing of operations. With a single request, the operator may initiate a complete pump-down sequence. He can monitor the progress and is notified if an anomaly occurs requiring intervention. The operator is not required to have detailed knowledge of the vacuum system and is protected from taking inappropriate actions. 1 ref., 6 figs.

  7. Vacuum window glazings for energy-efficient buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, D.K.; Smith, L.K.; Tracy, C.E.; Potter, T.; Christensen, C. ); Soule, D.E. )

    1990-05-01

    The technical feasibility of a patented, laser-welded, evacuated insulating window was studied. The window has two edge-sealed sheets of glass separated by 0.5-mm glass spheres spaced 30 mm apart in a regular array. A highly insulating frame is required and several designs were analyzed. The vacuum window's combination of high solar transmittance and low thermal conductance makes it superior to many other windows in cold climates. In the US Pacific Northwest, the vacuum window could save about 6 MJ of heating energy annually per square meter of window in comparison to conventional, double-glazed windows. A large, vacuum laser-welding facility was designed and installed to conduct glass welding experiments and to fabricate full-sized vacuum windows. Experiments confirmed the feasibility of laser-sealing glass in vacuum but identified two difficulties. Under some circumstances, bubbles of dissolved gases form during welding and weaken the seal. Glass also vaporizes and contaminates the laser beam steering mirror. A novel moving metal foil mirror was developed to circumvent the contamination problem, but it has not yet been used to complete welding experiments and fabricate full-sized vacuum windows. 63 refs., 53 figs., 19 tabs.

  8. Vacuum system of the cyclotrons in VECC, Kolkata

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Anindya; Bhole, R.B.; Akhtar, J.; Yadav, R.C.; Pal, Sarbajit; Sarkar, D.; Bhandari, R.K. E-mail: rbb@vecc.gov.in E-mail: yadav@vecc.gov.in E-mail: dsarkar@vecc.gov.in

    2011-07-01

    The vacuum system of the K=130 Room Temperature Cyclotron (RTC) (operational since 1978) has been recently modernized and the same of the K{sub bend}=520 Superconducting Cyclotron (SCC), currently under commissioning, is being deployed for remote monitoring and control. The vacuum system of RTC is designed to achieve and maintain vacuum level of 2 X 10{sup -6} mbar inside 23 m{sup 3} volume of Resonator tank and DEE tank. This has been upgraded by replacing several valves, Freon units, gauges and pumps. The relay based manual control system has been replaced by PLC based automated system. The SCC vacuum system also has an elaborate arrangement comprising of turbo molecular pumping modules with associated isolation valves and characteristic gauges. This paper describes essential elements, typically used to obtain high (1X10{sup -7} mbar) vacuum using rotary pumps, diffusion pumps and cold traps/turbo-molecular pumps and other system components such as valves, gauges and baffles. The supervisory control methodology/scheme of both the vacuum systems, developed in-house using EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System), a standard open-source software tool for designing distributed control system, is also elaborated here. (author)

  9. Vacuum: From Art to Exact Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafferty, James M.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the history of vacuum technology. Includes vacuum pump developments (mechanical, ion, and cyrogenic pumps), measurement techniques, the development of the American Vacuum Society, and electronics in vacuum technology. (JN)

  10. Decontamination in the Electron Probe Microanalysis with a Peltier-Cooled Cold Finger.

    PubMed

    Buse, Ben; Kearns, Stuart; Clapham, Charles; Hawley, Donovan

    2016-10-01

    A prototype Peltier thermoelectric cooling unit has been constructed to cool a cold finger on an electron microprobe. The Peltier unit was tested at 15 and 96 W, achieving cold finger temperatures of -10 and -27°C, respectively. The Peltier unit did not adversely affect the analytical stability of the instrument. Heat conduction between the Peltier unit mounted outside the vacuum and the cold finger was found to be very efficient. Under Peltier cooling, the vacuum improvement associated with water vapor deposition was not achieved; this has the advantage of avoiding severe degradation of the vacuum observed when warming up a cold finger from liquid nitrogen (LN2) temperatures. Carbon contamination rates were reduced as cooling commenced; by -27°C contamination rates were found to be comparable with LN2-cooled devices. Peltier cooling, therefore, provides a viable alternative to LN2-cooled cold fingers, with few of their associated disadvantages.

  11. Air bearing vacuum seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Booth, Rex

    1978-01-01

    An air bearing vacuum seal assembly capable of rotating at the speed of several thousand revolutions per minute using an air cushion to prevent the rotating and stationary parts from touching, and a two stage differential pumping arrangement to maintain the pressure gradient between the air cushion and the vacuum so that the leak rate into the vacuum is, for example, less than 1 .times. 10.sup.-4 Pa m.sup.3 /s. The air bearing vacuum seal has particular application for mounting rotating targets to an evacuated accelerator beam tube for bombardment of the targets with high-power charged particle beams in vacuum.

  12. Subsurface Salts in Antarctic Dry Valley Soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englert, P.; Bishop, J. L.; Gibson, E. K.; Koeberl, C.

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of water-soluble ions, major and minor elements, and other parameters were examined to determine the extent and effects of chemical weathering on cold desert soils. Patterns at the study sites support theories of multiple salt forming processes, including marine aerosols and chemical weathering of mafic minerals. Periodic solar-mediated ionization of atmospheric nitrogen might also produce high nitrate concentrations found in older sediments. Chemical weathering, however, was the major contributor of salts in Antarctic Dry Valleys. The Antarctic Dry Valleys represent a unique analog for Mars, as they are extremely cold and dry desert environments. Similarities in the climate, surface geology, and chemical properties of the Dry Valleys to that of Mars imply the possible presence of these soil formation mechanisms on Mars, other planets and icy satellites.

  13. Cold energy

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, John P.

    2015-12-04

    Deviations in Q for resonant superconducting radio frequency niobium accelerator cavities are generally correlated with resistivity loss mechanisms. Field dependent Qs are not well modeled by these classical loss mechanisms, but rather can represent a form of precision cavity surface thermometry. When the field dependent Q variation shows improvement with increasing B field level the classical treatment of this problem is inadequate. To justify this behavior hydrogen as a ubiquitous impurity in niobium, which creates measurable property changes, even at very low concentrations is typically considered the cause of such anomalous behavior. This maybe the case in some instances, but more importantly any system operating with a highly coherent field with a significant time dependent magnetic component at near 2° K will have the ability to organize the remaining free spins within the London penetration depth to form a coupled energy reservoir in the form of low mass spin waves. The niobium resonant cavities are composed of a single isotope with a large nuclear spin. When the other loss mechanisms are stripped away this may be the gain medium activated by the low level residual magnetic fields. It was found that one resonant cavity heat treatment produced optimum surface properties and then functioned as a MASER extracting energy from the 2° K thermal bath while cooling the cavity walls. The cavity operating in this mode is a simulator of what can take place in the wider but not colder universe using the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as a thermal source. The low mass, long lifetimes, and the scale of the magnetic spin waves on the weakly magnetized interstellar medium allows energy to be stored that is many orders of magnitude colder than the cosmic microwave background. A linear accelerator cavity becomes a tool to explore the properties of the long wave length magnetic spin waves that populate this cold low energy regime.

  14. Sympathetic cooling of nanospheres with cold atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montoya, Cris; Witherspoon, Apryl; Ranjit, Gambhir; Casey, Kirsten; Kitching, John; Geraci, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Ground state cooling of mesoscopic mechanical structures could enable new hybrid quantum systems where mechanical oscillators act as transducers. Such systems could provide coupling between photons, spins and charges via phonons. It has recently been shown theoretically that optically trapped dielectric nanospheres could reach the ground state via sympathetic cooling with trapped cold atoms. This technique can be beneficial in cases where cryogenic operation of the oscillator is not practical. We describe experimental advances towards coupling an optically levitated dielectric nanosphere to a gas of cold Rubidium atoms. The sphere and the cold atoms are in separate vacuum chambers and are coupled using a one-dimensional optical lattice. This work is partially supported by NSF, Grant Nos. PHY-1205994,PHY-1506431.

  15. Slat Heater Boxes for Thermal Vacuum Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Eugene

    2003-01-01

    Slat heater boxes have been invented for controlling the sink temperatures of objects under test in a thermal vacuum chamber, the walls of which are cooled to the temperature of liquid nitrogen. A slat heater box (see Figure 1) includes a framework of struts that support electrically heated slats that are coated with a high-emissivity optically gray paint. The slats can be grouped together into heater zones for the purpose of maintaining an even temperature within each side. The sink temperature of an object under test is defined as the steady-state temperature of the object in the vacuum/ radiative environment during the absence of any internal heat source or sink. The slat heater box makes it possible to closely control the radiation environment to obtain a desired sink temperature. The slat heater box is placed inside the cold thermal vacuum chamber, and the object under test is placed inside (but not in contact with) the slat heater box. The slat heaters occupy about a third of the field of view from any point on the surface of the object under test, the remainder of the field of view being occupied by the cold chamber wall. Thus, the radiation environment is established by the combined effects of the slat heater box and the cold chamber wall. Given (1) the temperature of the chamber wall, (2) the fractions of the field of view occupied by the chamber wall and the slat heater box, and (3) the emissivities of the slats, chamber wall, and the surface of object under test, the slat temperature required to maintain a desired sink temperature can be calculated by solving the equations of gray-body radiation for the steady-state adiabatic case (equal absorption and emission by the object under test). Slat heater boxes offer an important advantage over the infrared lamps that have been previously used to obtain desired sink temperatures: In comparison with an infrared lamp, a slat heater box provides a greater degree of sink temperature uniformity for a test

  16. Cold remedies (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Sore throat, cough, stuffy nose, sneezing, runny nose, fever, chills, and muscle aches are all symptoms associated with the common cold. Over-the-counter medicines for a cold only alleviate cold symptoms but do not shorten the duration of a cold. As always, ...

  17. Beam tube vacuum in future superconducting proton colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, W.

    1994-10-01

    The beam tube vacuum requirements in future superconducting proton colliders that have been proposed or discussed in the literature -- SSC, LHC, and ELN -- are reviewed. The main beam tube vacuum problem encountered in these machines is how to deal with the magnitude of gas desorption and power deposition by synchrotron radiation while satisfying resistivity, impedance, and space constraints in the cryogenic environment of superconducting magnets. A beam tube vacuum model is developed that treats photodesorption of tightly bound H, C, and 0, photodesorption of physisorbed molecules, and the isotherm vapor pressure of H{sub 2}. Experimental data on cold tube photodesorption experiments are reviewed and applied to model calculations of beam tube vacuum performance for simple cold beam tube and liner configurations. Particular emphasis is placed on the modeling and interpretation of beam tube photodesorpiion experiments at electron synchrotron light sources. The paper also includes discussion of the constraints imposed by beam image current heating, the growth rate of the resistive wall instability, and single-bunch instability impedance limits.

  18. Use and Care of the Extended Cold Weather Clothing System (ECWCS).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    NOT USE BLEACH OR STARCH. b. Drying. Tumble dry at low heat setting. DO NOT EXCEED 130°F1540 C. Remove Immediately from dryer . To drip dry, remove...DO NOT USE BLEACH OR STARCH. b. Drying. Tumble dry at low temperture (100*F/38 C) and REMOVE IMMEDIATELY from dryer . AVOID OVER-DRYING. To drip dry...detergent. Rinse in clean cold water. NOTE: DO NOT USE BLEACH OR STARCH. b. Drying. Tumble dry at lowest fabric cycle, delicate/gentle (do not exceed

  19. Dry-Column Flash Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shusterman, Alan J.; McDougal, Patrick G.; Glasfeld, Arthur

    1997-10-01

    Dry-column flash chromatography is a safe, powerful, yet easily learned preparative chromatography technique. It has proven useful in research, and an adaptation of the technique for use in large teaching laboratories (general chemistry, organic chemistry) is described here. The student version is similar to vacuum filtration, uses the same compact, readily available glassware, and inexpensive and safe solvents (ethyl acetate and hexane) and adsorbent (Merck grade 60 silica gel). The technique is sufficiently simple and powerful that a beginning student can successfully resolve diastereomers on sample scales ranging from 100 mg to >1 g.

  20. Recent advances in drying and dehydration of fruits and vegetables: a review.

    PubMed

    Sagar, V R; Suresh Kumar, P

    2010-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables are dried to enhance storage stability, minimize packaging requirement and reduce transport weight. Preservation of fruits and vegetables through drying based on sun and solar drying techniques which cause poor quality and product contamination. Energy consumption and quality of dried products are critical parameters in the selection of drying process. An optimum drying system for the preparation of quality dehydrated products is cost effective as it shortens the drying time and cause minimum damage to the product. To reduce the energy utilization and operational cost new dimensions came up in drying techniques. Among the technologies osmotic dehydration, vacuum drying, freeze drying, superheated steam drying, heat pump drying and spray drying have great scope for the production of quality dried products and powders.

  1. Vacuum bell therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sesia, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Background For specific therapy to correct pectus excavatum (PE), conservative treatment with the vacuum bell (VB) was introduced more than 10 years ago in addition to surgical repair. Preliminary results using the VB were encouraging. We report on our 13-year experience with the VB treatment including the intraoperative use during the Nuss procedure and present some technical innovations. Methods A VB with a patient-activated hand pump is used to create a vacuum at the anterior chest wall. Three different sizes of vacuum bells, as well as a model fitted for young women, exist. The appropriate size is selected according to the individual patient’s age and ventral surface. The device should be used at home for a minimum of 30 minutes (twice a day), and may be used up to a maximum of several hours daily. The intensity of the applied negative pressure can be evaluated with an integrated pressure gauge during follow-up visits. A prototype of an electronic model enables us to measure the correlation between the applied negative pressure and the elevation of the anterior chest wall. Results Since 2003, approx. 450 patients between 2 to 61 years of age started the VB therapy. Age and gender specific differences, depth of PE, symmetry or asymmetry, and concomitant malformations such as scoliosis and/or kyphosis influence the clinical course and success of VB therapy. According to our experience, we see three different groups of patients. Immediate elevation of the sternum was confirmed thoracoscopically during the Nuss procedure in every patient. Conclusions The VB therapy has been established as an alternative therapeutic option in selected patients suffering from PE. The initial results up to now are encouraging, but long-term results comprising more than 15 years are so far lacking, and further evaluation and follow-up studies are necessary. PMID:27747177

  2. Rolling through a vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Schaar, Jan Pieter; Yang, I.-Sheng

    2013-12-01

    We clarify under what conditions slow-roll inflation can continue almost undisturbed, while briefly evolving through a (semi-classically) metastable false vacuum. Furthermore, we look at potential signatures in the primordial power spectrum that could point towards the existence of traversed metastable false vacua. Interestingly, the theoretical constraints for the existence of traversable metastable vacua imply that Planck should be able to detect the resulting features in the primordial power spectrum. In other words, if Planck does not see features this immediately implies the non-existence of metastable false vacua rolled through during the inflationary epoch.

  3. Avoiding Death by Vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barroso, A.; Ferreira, P. M.; Ivanov, I.; Santos, R.; Silva, João P.

    2013-07-01

    The two-Higgs doublet model (2HDM) can have two electroweak breaking, CP-conserving, minima. The possibility arises that the minimum which corresponds to the known elementary particle spectrum is metastable, a possibility we call the "panic vacuum". We present analytical bounds on the parameters of the softly broken Peccei-Quinn 2HDM which are necessary and sufficient conditions to avoid this possibility. We also show that, for this particular model, the current LHC data already tell us that we are necessarily in the global minimum of the theory, regardless of any cosmological considerations about the lifetime of the false vacua.

  4. Vacuum Beat Wave Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, C. I.; Hafizi, B.; Ting, A.; Burris, H. R.; Sprangle, P.; Esarey, E.; Ganguly, A.; Hirshfield, J. L.

    1997-11-01

    The Vacuum Beat Wave Accelerator (VBWA) is a particle acceleration scheme which uses the non-linear ponderomotive beating of two different frequency laser beams to accelerate electrons. A proof-of-principle experiment to demonstrate the VBWA is underway at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). This experiment will use the beating of a 1054 nm and 527 nm laser pulse from the NRL T-cubed laser to generate the beat wave and a 4.5 MeV RF electron gun as the electron source. Simulation results and the experimental design will be presented. The suitability of using axicon or higher order Gaussian laser beams will also be discussed.

  5. Thermal Vacuum Test Facility.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-31

    tne power has a rear terminal sensor input for this Probe, use it. Otherwiseq connect the probe to the front panel. The end of the sensor should be...outlet on the front panel of the vacuum chamber. BUS CONNECTtONS: Plug the 1/0 expander card into one of the three calculator slots. Cover the other two...mating cable. Soth connectors on the slave disk are identical, so either one can be used. This cable also locks into place at each end . Connect the other

  6. Microwave-assisted drying of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) fruits: Drying kinetics, polyphenols, anthocyanins, antioxidant capacity, colour and texture.

    PubMed

    Zielinska, Magdalena; Michalska, Anna

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of hot air convective drying (HACD), microwave vacuum drying (MWVD) and their combination (HACD+MWVD) on the drying kinetics, colour, total polyphenols, anthocyanins antioxidant capacity and texture of frozen/thawed blueberries. Drying resulted in reduction of total polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity (69 and 77%, respectively). The highest content of total polyphenols was noted after HACD at 90°C. Lower air temperature and prolonged exposure to oxygen resulted in greater degradation of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity. Drying processes caused a significant decrease (from 70 to 95%) in the content of anthocyanins. The highest content of anthocyanins and the strongest antioxidant capacity was found in blueberries dried using HACD at 90°C+MWVD. Among drying methods, HACD at 90°C+MWVD satisfied significant requirements for dried fruits i.e. short drying time and improved product quality.

  7. Candidate Coatings and Dry Traction Drives for Planetary Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert; Oswald, Fred B.

    2002-01-01

    Robert Fusaro and Fred Oswald of the Mechanical Components Branch discussed 'Candidate Coatings and Dry Traction Drives for Planetary Vehicles'. Vehicles to be designed for exploration of planets and moons of the solar system will require reliable mechanical drives to operate efficiently. Long-term operation of these drives will be challenging because of extreme operating conditions. These extreme conditions include: very high and/or very cold temperatures, wide temperature ranges, dust, vacuum or low-pressure atmospheres, and corrosive environments. Most drives used on Earth involve oil-lubricated gears. However, due to the extreme conditions on planetary surfaces, it may not be advisable or even possible to use oil lubrication. Unfortunately, solid lubricants do not work well when applied to gears because of the high contact stress conditions and large sliding motion between the teeth, which cause wear and limit life. We believe traction drives will provide an attractive alternative to gear drives. Traction drives are composed of rollers that provide geometry more conducive to solid lubrication. Minimal slip occurs in this contact geometry and thus there is very low wear to the solid lubricant. The challenge for these solid-lubricated drives is finding materials or coatings that provide the required long-life while also providing high traction. We seek materials that provide low wear with high friction.

  8. MOLECULAR VACUUM PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Eckberg, E.E.

    1960-09-27

    A multiple molecular vacuum pump capable of producing a vacuum of the order of 10/sup -9/ mm Hg is described. The pump comprises a casing of an aggregate of paired and matched cylindrical plates, a recessed portion on one face of each plate concentrically positioned formed by a radially extending wall and matching the similarly recessed portion of its twin plate of that pair of plates and for all paired and matched plates; a plurality of grooves formed in the radially extending walls of each and all recesses progressing in a spiral manner from their respective starting points out at the periphery of the recess inwardly to the central area; a plurality of rotors rotatably mounted to closely occupy the spaces as presented by the paired and matched recesses between all paired plates; a hollowed drive-shaft perforated at points adjacent to the termini of all spiral grooves; inlet ports at the starting points of all grooves and through all plates at common points to each respectively; and a common outlet passage presented by the hollow portion of the perforated hollowed drive-shaft of the molecular pump. (AEC)

  9. Motor actuated vacuum door

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanagud, A. V.

    1986-10-01

    Doors that allow scientific instruments to record and retrieve the observed data are often required to be designed and installed as a part of sounding rocket hardware. The motor-actuated vacuum door was designed to maintain a medium vacuum of the order of 0.0001 torr or better while closed, and to provide an opening 15 inches long x 8.5 inches wide while open for cameras to image Halley's comet. When the electric motor receives the instruction to open the door through the payload battery, timer, and relay circuit, the first operation is to unlock the door. After unlatching, the torque transmitted by the motor to the main shaft through the links opens the door. A microswitch actuator, which rides on the linear motion conversion mechanism, is adjusted to trip the limit switch at the end of the travel. The process is repeated in the reverse order to close the door. 'O' rings are designed to maintain the seal. Door mechanisms similar to the one described have flown on Aerobee 17.018 and Black Brant 27.047 payloads.

  10. Portable vacuum object handling device

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, G.H.

    1983-08-09

    The disclosure relates to a portable device adapted to handle objects which are not to be touched by hand. A piston and bore wall form a vacuum chamber communicating with an adaptor sealably engageable with an object to be lifted. The piston is manually moved and set to establish vacuum. A valve is manually actuatable to apply the vacuum to lift the object. 1 fig.

  11. Vacuum leak detector and method

    DOEpatents

    Edwards, Jr., David

    1983-01-01

    Apparatus and method for detecting leakage in a vacuum system involves a moisture trap chamber connected to the vacuum system and to a pressure gauge. Moisture in the trap chamber is captured by freezing or by a moisture adsorbent to reduce the residual water vapor pressure therein to a negligible amount. The pressure gauge is then read to determine whether the vacuum system is leaky. By directing a stream of carbon dioxide or helium at potentially leaky parts of the vacuum system, the apparatus can be used with supplemental means to locate leaks.

  12. Recycle of valuable products from oily cold rolling mill sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bo; Zhang, Shen-gen; Tian, Jian-jun; Pan, De-an; Liu, Yang; Volinsky, Alex A.

    2013-10-01

    Oily cold rolling mill (CRM) sludge contains lots of iron and alloying elements along with plenty of hazardous organic components, which makes it as an attractive secondary source and an environmental contaminant at the same time. The compound methods of "vacuum distillation + oxidizing roasting" and "vacuum distillation + hydrogen reduction" were employed for the recycle of oily cold rolling mill sludge. First, the sludge was dynamically vacuum distilled in a rotating furnace at 50 r/min and 600°C for 3 h, which removed almost hazardous organic components, obtaining 89.2wt% ferrous resultant. Then, high purity ferric oxide powders (99.2wt%) and reduced iron powders (98.9wt%) were obtained when the distillation residues were oxidized and reduced, respectively. The distillation oil can be used for fuel or chemical feedstock, and the distillation gases can be collected and reused as a fuel.

  13. Piezoelectrically Actuated Shutter for High Vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Robert; Klose, Gerhard

    2003-01-01

    A piezoelectrically actuated shutter is undergoing development for use in experiments on laser cooling of atoms. The shutter is required to be compatible with ultrahigh vacuum [pressure of 10(exp -9) torr (.1.3 x 10(exp -7) Pa) or less] and to be capable of performing reliably in the vacuum for at least one year. In operation, the shutter would enable the collection and launch of successive samples of cold atoms and would enable the interrogation of the immediately preceding sample while preventing disturbance of the atoms of that sample by light from the collection region. A major constraint is imposed on the design and operation of the shutter by a requirement that it not generate a magnetic field large enough to perturb an atomic clock. An electromagnetically actuated shutter could satisfy all requirements except this one. Hence, it was decided to use piezoelectric instead of electromagnetic actuation. The shutter (see figure) includes two commercial piezoelectrically driven flexure stages that produce a travel of 0.5 mm. Levers mechanically amplify the travel to the required level of 1 cm. Problems that remained to be addressed at the time of reporting the information for this article included lifetime testing and correction of a tendency for shutter blades to bounce open.

  14. Environmental Testing in Thermal Vacuum Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Inside a thermal vacuum at Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, technicians prepare NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander for environmental testing.

    The Phoenix lander was encapsulated in its aeroshell -- which included both the back shell and heat shield -- as it was subjected to extreme cold and heat in a vacuum, space-like condition. The spacecraft undergoes extensive environmental testing to confirm Phoenix will perform in the extreme conditions it will experience during its trip from Earth to Mars, during its arrival and landing, and while it works on the surface of Mars.

    The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen, and the Max Planck Institute in Germany. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  15. Measurement of vacuum pressure with a magneto-optical trap: A pressure-rise method.

    PubMed

    Moore, Rowan W G; Lee, Lucie A; Findlay, Elizabeth A; Torralbo-Campo, Lara; Bruce, Graham D; Cassettari, Donatella

    2015-09-01

    The lifetime of an atom trap is often limited by the presence of residual background gases in the vacuum chamber. This leads to the lifetime being inversely proportional to the pressure. Here, we use this dependence to estimate the pressure and to obtain pressure rate-of-rise curves, which are commonly used in vacuum science to evaluate the performance of a system. We observe different rates of pressure increase in response to different levels of outgassing in our system. Therefore, we suggest that this is a sensitive method which will find useful applications in cold atom systems, in particular, where the inclusion of a standard vacuum gauge is impractical.

  16. Measurement of vacuum pressure with a magneto-optical trap: A pressure-rise method

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Rowan W. G.; Lee, Lucie A.; Findlay, Elizabeth A.; Torralbo-Campo, Lara; Bruce, Graham D.; Cassettari, Donatella

    2015-09-15

    The lifetime of an atom trap is often limited by the presence of residual background gases in the vacuum chamber. This leads to the lifetime being inversely proportional to the pressure. Here, we use this dependence to estimate the pressure and to obtain pressure rate-of-rise curves, which are commonly used in vacuum science to evaluate the performance of a system. We observe different rates of pressure increase in response to different levels of outgassing in our system. Therefore, we suggest that this is a sensitive method which will find useful applications in cold atom systems, in particular, where the inclusion of a standard vacuum gauge is impractical.

  17. Retention of caffeic acid derivatives in dried Echinacea purpurea.

    PubMed

    Kim, H O; Durance, T D; Scaman, C H; Kitts, D D

    2000-09-01

    Different drying methods were applied to fresh Canadian-grown Echinacea purpurea flowers to determine optimal drying procedures for preserving caffeic acid derivatives. Fresh flowers of E. purpurea were dried by freeze-drying (FD), vacuum microwave drying with full vacuum (VMD), and air-drying (AD) at 25, 40, and 70 degrees C. Using HPLC, chicoric acid and caftaric acid levels were quantitated in dried flowers. These acids were significantly affected by the drying method conditions used. Although significant (p < 0.05) loss of chicoric acid was observed when flowers were stored at high moisture, VMD flowers with a low moisture content retained the highest levels of chicoric acid and caftaric acid similar to FD flowers. Flowers that were AD at 25 degrees C retained about 50%, while those dried by AD at 70 degrees C resulted in the lowest retention of these acids. Although flowers dried by AD at 40 degrees C retained relatively high amounts of chicoric acid and caftaric acid, the time (55 h) required to reach optimal drying was considerably longer than that (47 min) for VMD.

  18. Cold Stress and the Cold Pressor Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverthorn, Dee U.; Michael, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Temperature and other environmental stressors are known to affect blood pressure and heart rate. In this activity, students perform the cold pressor test, demonstrating increased blood pressure during a 1- to 2-min immersion of one hand in ice water. The cold pressor test is used clinically to evaluate autonomic and left ventricular function. This…

  19. LIGO vacuum system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livas, Jeffrey C.; Moore, Boude C.

    1988-01-01

    A laser interferometer gravitational wave observatory (LIGO) is being developed with sensitivities which will have a high probability of detecting gravitational waves from astrophysical sources. A major component of LIGO is a total of 16 km of 1.2 m (48 inch) diameter tube at a pressure of less than 10 to the minus 8th power torr. It will be of 304L stainless steel procured directly from the steel mills with the initial hydrogen content specially reduced. Projections of the outgassing rates of hydrogen and of water vapor as a function of time are given and the uncertainties discussed. Based on these, a preliminary analysis of the vacuum system is presented.

  20. ULTRA HIGH VACUUM VALVE

    DOEpatents

    Fry, W.A.

    1962-05-29

    A valve for high vacuum applications such as the CStellarator where chamber pressures as low as 2 x 10/sup -10/ mm Hg are necessary is designed with a line-of-sight path through the valve for visual inspection of the contents of reactants in such chambers. The valve comprises a turnable resilient metal ball having an aperture therethrough, means for selectively turning the ball to rotate the axis of its line-of-sight path, and soft, deformable opposing orifices that are movable relatively toward said ball to seal with opposite ball surfaces upon said movement of said axis of said line-of-sight path. The valve also includes a bellows seal connected between said orifices and internal actuating means that eliminates the requirement for gasketed turnable valve closing stems. (AEC)

  1. THERMOCOUPLE VACUUM GAUGE

    DOEpatents

    Price, G.W.

    1954-08-01

    A protector device is described for use in controlling the pressure within a cyclotron. In particular, an electrical circuit functions to actuate a vacuum pump when a predetermined low pressure is reached and disconnect the pump when the pressure increases abcve a certain value. The principal feature of the control circuit lies in the use of a voltage divider network at the input to a relay control tube comprising two parallel, adjustable resistances wherein one resistor is switched into the circuit when the relay connects the pump to a power source. With this arrangement the relay is energized at one input level received from a sensing element within the cyclotron chamber and is de-energized when a second input level, representing the higher pressure limit, is reached.

  2. Sterilization of Bacillus atrophaeus using OH radicals supplied by vacuum ultraviolet method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonetamari, Kenta; Tokumitsu, Yusuke; Yonemori, Seiya; Ono, Ryo; Yasuda, Hachiro; Mizuno, Akira

    2015-09-01

    Sterilization by cold plasma has widely been performed. It is well known that reactive oxygen species (ROS) has a potential of sterilization. However, it is not clear which ROS is effective on sterilization because a lot of types of ROS are produced in plasma. In this study, sterilization effect of OH radicals by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) method was investigated. This method utilizes photodissociation reaction to produce ROS so it can produce ROS selectively. Wet and dry helium with and without 1% O2 gas was used to demonstrate sterilization effect of OH radicals. Gases were flowed in a quartz tube (inner diameter 2 mm, outer diameter 4 mm) at a flow rate of 1.5 L/min. The produced ROS flowed out of the quartz tube nozzle. A Xe2 excimer lamp emitting 172 +/- 7 nm VUV light was placed parallel to the quartz tube with a distance of 8 mm. The distance between the lower end of the lamp and the nozzle of quartz tube was changed from 3 to 15 cm. As a target of sterilization, Bacillus atrophaeus (ATCC 9372) was used. The density of OH radicals was measured using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). As a result, sterilization using VUV method was verified. This result showed that OH radicals sterilized the bacteria.

  3. Vacuum Energy Sequestering and Graviton Loops.

    PubMed

    Kaloper, Nemanja; Padilla, Antonio

    2017-02-10

    We recently formulated a local mechanism of vacuum energy sequester. This mechanism automatically removes all matter loop contributions to vacuum energy from the stress energy tensor which sources the curvature. Here we adapt the local vacuum energy sequestering mechanism to also cancel all the vacuum energy loops involving virtual gravitons, in addition to the vacuum energy generated by matter fields alone.

  4. Vacuum Energy Sequestering and Graviton Loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaloper, Nemanja; Padilla, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    We recently formulated a local mechanism of vacuum energy sequester. This mechanism automatically removes all matter loop contributions to vacuum energy from the stress energy tensor which sources the curvature. Here we adapt the local vacuum energy sequestering mechanism to also cancel all the vacuum energy loops involving virtual gravitons, in addition to the vacuum energy generated by matter fields alone.

  5. Breather cloth for vacuum curing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, M. W.

    1979-01-01

    Finely-woven nylon cloth that has been treated with Teflon improves vacuum adhesive bonding of coatings to substrates. Cloth is placed over coating; entire assembly, including substrate, coating, and cloth, is placed in plastic vacuum bag for curing. Cloth allows coating to "breathe" when bag is evacuated. Applications include bonding film coatings to solar concentrators and collectors.

  6. Multipurpose Vacuum Induction Processing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindaraju, M.; Kulkarni, Deepak; Balasubramanian, K.

    2012-11-01

    Multipurpose vacuum processing systems are cost effective; occupy less space, multiple functional under one roof and user friendly. A multipurpose vacuum induction system was designed, fabricated and installed in a record time of 6 months time at NFTDC Hyderabad. It was designed to function as a) vacuum induction melting/refining of oxygen free electronic copper/pure metals, b) vacuum induction melting furnace for ferrous materials c) vacuum induction melting for non ferrous materials d) large vacuum heat treatment chamber by resistance heating (by detachable coil and hot zone) e) bottom discharge vacuum induction melting system for non ferrous materials f) Induction heat treatment system and g) directional solidification /investment casting. It contains provision for future capacity addition. The attachments require to manufacture multiple shaped castings and continuous rod casting can be added whenever need arises. Present capacity is decided on the requirement for 10years of development path; presently it has 1.2 ton liquid copper handling capacity. It is equipped with provision for capacity addition up to 2 ton liquid copper handling capacity in future. Provision is made to carry out the capacity addition in easy steps quickly. For easy operational maintenance and troubleshooting, design was made in easily detachable sections. High vacuum system is also is detachable, independent and easily movable which is first of its kind in the country. Detailed design parameters, advantages and development history are presented in this paper.

  7. Vacuum Enhanced Cutaneous Biopsy Instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Joseph

    1999-06-25

    A syringe-like disposable cutaneous biopsy instrument equipped with a tubular blade at its lower end, and designed so that a vacuum is created during use, said vacuum serving to retain undeformed a plug of tissue cut from a patient's skin.

  8. Vacuum flash evaporated polymer composites

    DOEpatents

    Affinito, J.D.; Gross, M.E.

    1997-10-28

    A method for fabrication of polymer composite layers in a vacuum is disclosed. More specifically, the method of dissolving salts in a monomer solution, vacuum flash evaporating the solution, condensing the flash evaporated solution as a liquid film, and forming the condensed liquid film into a polymer composite layer on a substrate is disclosed.

  9. Vacuum flash evaporated polymer composites

    DOEpatents

    Affinito, John D.; Gross, Mark E.

    1997-01-01

    A method for fabrication of polymer composite layers in a vacuum is disclosed. More specifically, the method of dissolving salts in a monomer solution, vacuum flash evaporating the solution, condensing the flash evaporated solution as a liquid film, and forming the condensed liquid film into a polymer composite layer on a substrate is disclosed.

  10. Vacuum Gas Tungsten Arc Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeks, J. L.; Todd, D. T.; Wooten, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    A two-year program investigated vacuum gas tungsten arc welding (VGTAW) as a method to modify or improve the weldability of normally difficult-to-weld materials. After a vacuum chamber and GTAW power supply were modified, several difficult-to-weld materials were studied and key parameters developed. Finally, Incoloy 903 weld overlays were produced without microfissures.

  11. Vacuum enhanced cutaneous biopsy instrument

    DOEpatents

    Collins, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    A syringe-like disposable cutaneous biopsy instrument equipped with a tubular blade at its lower end, and designed so that a vacuum is created during use, said vacuum serving to retain undeformed a plug of tissue cut from a patient's skin.

  12. Cold and Cough Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... What can you do for your cold or cough symptoms? Besides drinking lots of fluids and getting ... medicines. There are lots of different cold and cough medicines, and they do different things. Nasal decongestants - ...

  13. Cold medicines and children

    MedlinePlus

    ... aspx . Accessed July 26, 2016. Cherry JD. The common cold. In: Cherry JD, Harrison GJ, Kaplan SL, Steinbach ... 2014:chap 7. Miller EK, Williams JV. The common cold. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, ...

  14. Skin Reactions to Cold

    PubMed Central

    Talpash, Orest

    1976-01-01

    Although skin reactions to cold are seen surprisingly infrequently in Canada, it is important to manage them correctly when they do occur. Frostbite, cold urticarias, Raynaud's disease and phenomenon, and several miscellaneous changes are discussed. PMID:21308019

  15. Cold knife cone biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... biopsy; Pap smear - cone biopsy; HPV - cone biopsy; Human papilloma virus - cone biopsy; Cervix - cone biopsy; Colposcopy - cone biopsy Images Female reproductive anatomy Cold cone biopsy Cold cone removal References American ...

  16. Bubbling the false vacuum away

    SciTech Connect

    Gleiser, M.; Rogers, B.; Thorarinson, J.

    2008-01-15

    We investigate the role of nonperturbative, bubblelike inhomogeneities on the decay rate of false-vacuum states in two- and three-dimensional scalar field theories. The inhomogeneities are induced by setting up large-amplitude oscillations of the field about the false vacuum, as, for example, after a rapid quench or in certain models of cosmological inflation. We show that, for a wide range of parameters, the presence of large-amplitude bubblelike inhomogeneities greatly accelerates the decay rate, changing it from the well-known exponential suppression of homogeneous nucleation to a power-law suppression. It is argued that this fast, power-law vacuum decay--known as resonant nucleation--is promoted by the presence of long-lived oscillons among the nonperturbative fluctuations about the false vacuum. A phase diagram is obtained distinguishing three possible mechanisms for vacuum decay: homogeneous nucleation, resonant nucleation, and crossover. Possible applications are briefly discussed.

  17. Hadron Contribution to Vacuum Polarisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davier, M.; Hoecker, A.; Malaescu, B.; Zhang, Z.

    2016-10-01

    Precision tests of the Standard Theory require theoretical predictions taking into account higher-order quantum corrections. Among these vacuum polarisation plays a predominant role. Vacuum polarisation originates from creation and annihilation of virtual particle-antiparticle states. Leptonic vacuum polarisation can be computed from quantum electrodynamics. Hadronic vacuum polarisation cannot because of the non-perturbative nature of QCD at low energy. The problem is remedied by establishing dispersion relations involving experimental data on the cross section for e+ e- annihilation into hadrons. This chapter sets the theoretical and experimental scene and reviews the progress achieved in the last decades thanks to more precise and complete data sets. Among the various applications of hadronic vacuum polarisation calculations, two are emphasised: the contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, and the running of the fine structure constant α to the Z mass scale. They are fundamental ingredients to high precision tests of the Standard Theory.

  18. Mars: Always Cold, Sometimes Wet?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Pascal; McKay, Christoper P.

    2003-01-01

    A synthesis of a diverse suite of observations of H2O-related landforms that are possible Mars analogs from terrestrial polar regions (Devon Island in the Arctic; the Dry Valleys of Antarctica) put into question any requirement for extended episode(s) of warm and wet climate in Mars past. Geologically transient episodes of localized H2O cycling, forced by exogenic impacts, enhanced endogenic heat flow, and/or orbit-driven short-term local environmental change under an otherwise cold, low pressure (=10(exp 2) mbar) global climate, may be sufficient to account for the martian surface's exposed record of aqueous activity. A Mars that was only sometimes locally warm and wet while remaining climatically cold throughout its history is consistent with results (difficulties) encountered in modeling efforts attempting to support warm martian climate hypotheses. Possible analogs from terrestrial cold climate regions for the recent gully features on Mars also illustrate how transient localized aqueous activity might, under specific circumstances, also occur on Mars under the present frigid global climatic regime.

  19. Effect of Drying Methods on the Steroidal Alkaloid Content of Potato Peels, Shoots and Berries.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mohammad B; Brunton, Nigel P; Rai, Dilip K

    2016-03-25

    The present study has found that dried potato samples yielded significantly higher levels of steroidal alkaloids such as α-solanine and α-chaconine than the corresponding fresh samples, as determined by the UPLC-MS/MS technique. Among the drying techniques used, air drying had the highest effect on steroidal alkaloid contents, followed by freeze drying and vacuum oven drying. There was no significant difference between the freeze dried and vacuum oven dried samples in their α-chaconine contents. However, freeze dried potato shoots and berries had significantly higher α-solanine contents (825 µg/g dry weight (DW) in shoots and 2453 µg/g DW in berries) than the vacuum oven dried ones (325 µg/g dry weight (DW) in shoots and 2080 µg/g DW in berries). The kinetics of steroidal alkaloid contents of potato shoots during air drying were monitored over a period of 21 days. Both α-solanine and α-chaconine content increased to their maximum values, 875 µg/g DW and 3385 µg/g DW, respectively, after 7 days of drying. The steroidal alkaloid contents of the shoots decreased significantly at day 9, and then remained unchanged until day 21. In line with the potato shoots, air dried potato tuber peels also had higher steroidal alkaloid content than the freeze dried and vacuum oven dried samples. However, a significant decrease of steroidal alkaloid content was observed in air dried potato berries, possibly due to degradation during slicing of the whole berries prior to air drying. Remarkable variation in steroidal alkaloid contents among different tissue types of potato plants was observed with the potato flowers having the highest content.

  20. Credit PSR. This interior view shows the vacuum tumble dryer. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit PSR. This interior view shows the vacuum tumble dryer. The tumble dryer is lined with a water jacket to maintain temperature during the drying of ammonium perchlorate ("AP"); water enters and exits the dryer jacket through the pipe fittings along the horizontal center line of the dryer. The wall at the right is constructed to blow out in the event of an explosion - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Oxidizer Dryer Building, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  1. 49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system... Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.56 Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system. The following requirements apply to vehicles with vacuum brake assist units and vacuum brake...

  2. 49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system... Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.56 Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system. The following requirements apply to vehicles with vacuum brake assist units and vacuum brake...

  3. 49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system... Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.56 Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system. The following requirements apply to vehicles with vacuum brake assist units and vacuum brake...

  4. 49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system... Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.56 Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system. The following requirements apply to vehicles with vacuum brake assist units and vacuum brake...

  5. 49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system... Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.56 Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system. The following requirements apply to vehicles with vacuum brake assist units and vacuum brake...

  6. Gravitational vacuum condensate stars

    PubMed Central

    Mazur, Pawel O.; Mottola, Emil

    2004-01-01

    A new final state of gravitational collapse is proposed. By extending the concept of Bose–Einstein condensation to gravitational systems, a cold, dark, compact object with an interior de Sitter condensate pv = -ρv and an exterior Schwarzschild geometry of arbitrary total mass M is constructed. These regions are separated by a shell with a small but finite proper thickness ℓ of fluid with equation of state p = +ρ, replacing both the Schwarzschild and de Sitter classical horizons. The new solution has no singularities, no event horizons, and a global time. Its entropy is maximized under small fluctuations and is given by the standard hydrodynamic entropy of the thin shell, which is of the order kBℓMc/, instead of the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy formula, SBH = 4πkBGM2/c. Hence, unlike black holes, the new solution is thermodynamically stable and has no information paradox. PMID:15210982

  7. Soils and weathering processes in Antarctic Dry Valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englert, P.; Bishop, J. L.; Patel, S.; Gibson, E. K.; Koeberl, C.

    2013-09-01

    The Antarctic Dry Valleys (ADV) represent a unique analog for Mars, as they are extremely cold and dry desert environments [1,2]. Elevated clay and salt components just below the surface indicate an active subsurface alteration environment where liquid water is seasonally present. Similarities in the climate, surface geology, and chemical properties of the Dry Valleys to that of Mars imply the possible presence of these soil-formation mechanisms on Mars, other planets and icy satellites.

  8. Vacuum-jacketed hydrofluoric acid solution calorimeter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robie, R.A.

    1965-01-01

    A vacuum-jacketed metal calorimeter for determining heats of solution in aqueous HF was constructed. The reaction vessel was made of copper and was heavily gold plated. The calorimeter has a cooling constant of 0.6 cal-deg -1-min-1, approximately 1/4 that of the air-jacketed calorimeters most commonly used with HF. It reaches equilibrium within 10 min after turning off the heater current. Measurements of the heat of solution of reagent grade KCl(-100 mesh dried 2 h at 200??C) at a mole ratio of 1 KCl to 200 H2O gave ??H = 4198??11 cal at 25??C. ?? 1965 The American Institute of Physics.

  9. Spent fuel drying system test results (first dry-run)

    SciTech Connect

    Klinger, G.S.; Oliver, B.M.; Abrefah, J.; Marschman, S.C.; MacFarlan, P.J.; Ritter, G.A.

    1998-07-01

    The water-filled K-Basins in the Hanford 100 Area have been used to store N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) since the 1970s. Because some leaks in the basin have been detected and some of the fuel is breached due to handling damage and corrosion, efforts are underway to remove the fuel elements from wet storage. An Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) has been developed to package, dry, transport, and store these metallic uranium fuel elements in an interim storage facility on the Hanford Site. Information required to support the development of the drying processes, and the required safety analyses, is being obtained from characterization tests conducted on fuel elements removed from the K-Basins. A series of whole element drying tests (reported in separate documents, see Section 7.0) have been conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on several intact and damaged fuel elements recovered from both the K-East and K-West Basins. This report documents the results of the first dry-run test, which was conducted without a fuel element. The empty test apparatus was subjected to a combination of low- and high-temperature vacuum drying treatments that were intended to mimic, wherever possible, the fuel treatment strategies of the IPS. The data from this dry-run test can serve as a baseline for the first two fuel element tests, 1990 (Run 1) and 3128W (Run 2). The purpose of this dry-run was to establish the background levels of hydrogen in the system, and the hydrogen generation and release characteristics attributable to the test system without a fuel element present. This test also serves to establish the background levels of water in the system and the water release characteristics. The system used for the drying test series was the Whole Element Furnace Testing System, described in Section 2.0, which is located in the Postirradiation Testing Laboratory (PTL, 327 Building). The test conditions and methodology are given in section 3.0, and the experimental

  10. Vacuum Brazing of Accelerator Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rajvir; Pant, K. K.; Lal, Shankar; Yadav, D. P.; Garg, S. R.; Raghuvanshi, V. K.; Mundra, G.

    2012-11-01

    Commonly used materials for accelerator components are those which are vacuum compatible and thermally conductive. Stainless steel, aluminum and copper are common among them. Stainless steel is a poor heat conductor and not very common in use where good thermal conductivity is required. Aluminum and copper and their alloys meet the above requirements and are frequently used for the above purpose. The accelerator components made of aluminum and its alloys using welding process have become a common practice now a days. It is mandatory to use copper and its other grades in RF devices required for accelerators. Beam line and Front End components of the accelerators are fabricated from stainless steel and OFHC copper. Fabrication of components made of copper using welding process is very difficult and in most of the cases it is impossible. Fabrication and joining in such cases is possible using brazing process especially under vacuum and inert gas atmosphere. Several accelerator components have been vacuum brazed for Indus projects at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore using vacuum brazing facility available at RRCAT, Indore. This paper presents details regarding development of the above mentioned high value and strategic components/assemblies. It will include basics required for vacuum brazing, details of vacuum brazing facility, joint design, fixturing of the jobs, selection of filler alloys, optimization of brazing parameters so as to obtain high quality brazed joints, brief description of vacuum brazed accelerator components etc.

  11. Solid Lubrication by Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes in Air and in Vacuum for Space and Aeronautics Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.; Andraws, Rodney; Jacques, David; VanderWal, Randy L.; Sayir, Ali

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate recently developed aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and dispersed MWNTs for solid lubrication applications, unidirectional sliding friction experiments were conducted with 440 C stainless steel balls and hemispherical alumina-yttria stabilized zirconia pins in sliding contact with the MWNTs deposited on quartz disks in air and in vacuum. The results indicate that MWNTs have superior solid lubrication friction properties and endurance lives in air and vacuum under dry conditions. The coefficient of friction of the dispersed MWNTs is close to 0.05 and 0.009 in air and in vacuum, respectively, showing good dry lubricating ability. The wear life of MWNTs exceeds 1 million passes in both air and vacuum showing good durability. In general, the low coefficient of friction can be attributed to the combination of the transferred, agglomerated patches of MWNTs on the counterpart ball or pin surfaces and the presence of tubular MWNTs at interfaces.

  12. Microencapsulation of Lactobacillus plantarum (mtcc 5422) by spray-freeze-drying method and evaluation of survival in simulated gastrointestinal conditions.

    PubMed

    Dolly, Priyanka; Anishaparvin, A; Joseph, G S; Anandharamakrishnan, C

    2011-01-01

    Spray-drying (SD) and freeze-drying (FD) are widely used methods for microencapsulation of heat-sensitive materials like probiotics for long-term preservation and transport. Spray-freeze-drying (SFD) is relatively a new technique that involves spraying a solution into a cold medium and removal of solvent (water) by conventional vacuum FD method. In this study, the SFD microencapsulated Lactobacillus plantarum powder (1:1 and 1:1.5 core-to-wall ratios of whey protein) is compared with the microencapsulated powders produced by FD and SD methods. The SFD and FD processed microencapsulated powder show 20% higher cell viability than the SD samples. In simulated gastrointestinal conditions, the SFD and FD cells show up to 4 h better tolerance than SD samples and unencapsulated cells in acidic and pepsin condition. The morphology of SFD samples shows particles almost in spherical shape with numerous fine pores, which in turn results in good rehydration behaviour of the powdered product.

  13. Vacuum phenomenon: Clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Gohil, Ishan; Vilensky, Joel A; Weber, Edward C

    2014-04-01

    Vacuum phenomenon (VP) is an anatomical entity of potential confusion in the diagnosis and evaluation of joint pathology. Observation of this phenomenon has been demonstrated on basic radiographs, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Although VP is most often associated with degenerative joint disease, it is observed with other pathologies. Two problematic scenarios can occur: a false-positive diagnosis of serious pathology instead of benign VP and a false-negative diagnosis of benign VP with a more serious underlying process Despite this potential for confusion, criteria for distinguishing VP from other causes of joint pain and for evaluating a suspected case of VP have not been fully established. We reviewed the literature to determine underlying mechanism, symptomology, associated pathologies, and clinical importance of VP. The formation of VP can be explained by gas solubility, pressure-volume relationships, and human physiology. CT, GRE-MRI, and multipositional views are the best imaging studies to view VP. Although most cases of VP are benign, it can be associated with clinical signs and symptoms. VP outside the spine is an underreported finding on imaging studies. VP should be on the differential diagnosis for joint pain, especially in the elderly. We have proposed criteria for diagnosing VP and generated a basic algorithm for its workup. Underreporting of this phenomenon shows a lack of awareness of VP on the part of physicians. By identifying true anatomic VP, we can prevent harm from suboptimal treatment of patients.

  14. Compact vacuum insulation

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K.; Potter, Thomas F.

    1992-01-01

    Improved compact insulation panel is provided which is comprised of two adjacent metal sheets spaced close together with a plurality of spherical, or other discretely shaped, glass or ceramic beads optimally positioned between the sheets to provide support and maintain the spacing between the metal sheets when the gases therebetween are evacuated to form a vacuum. These spherical glass beads provide the maximum support while minimizing thermal conductance. In its preferred embodiment; these two metal sheets are textured with ribs or concave protrusions in conjunction with the glass beads to maximize the structural integrity of the panels while increasing the spacing between beads, thereby reducing the number of beads and the number of thermal conduction paths. Glass or porcelain-enameled liners in combination with the glass spacers and metal sidewalls effectively decrease thermal conductivity, and variious laminates, including wood, porcelain-enameled metal, and others effectively increase the strength and insulation capabilities of the panels. Also, a metal web is provided to hold the spacers in place, and strategic grooves are shown to accommodate expansion and contraction or shaping of the panels.

  15. Compact vacuum insulation

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1992-10-27

    Improved compact insulation panel is provided which is comprised of two adjacent metal sheets spaced close together with a plurality of spherical, or other discretely shaped, glass or ceramic beads optimally positioned between the sheets to provide support and maintain the spacing between the metal sheets when the gases there between are evacuated to form a vacuum. These spherical glass beads provide the maximum support while minimizing thermal conductance. In its preferred embodiment; these two metal sheets are textured with ribs or concave protrusions in conjunction with the glass beads to maximize the structural integrity of the panels while increasing the spacing between beads, thereby reducing the number of beads and the number of thermal conduction paths. Glass or porcelain-enameled liners in combination with the glass spacers and metal sidewalls effectively decrease thermal conductivity, and various laminates, including wood, porcelain-enameled metal, and others effectively increase the strength and insulation capabilities of the panels. Also, a metal web is provided to hold the spacers in place, and strategic grooves are shown to accommodate expansion and contraction or shaping of the panels. 35 figs.

  16. Quantum Vacuum Pathway Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habegger, Eric John

    2005-02-01

    It is theorized that the quantum vacuum is a random electromagnetic field that permeates the universe. It will be shown that acceleration between a quark and a random electromagnetic energy field is an analog of the reaction between a charge moving at constant velocity with respect to an organized electromagnetic field. The difference is that with a quark any natural perpendicular deflection during that motion, as predicted by Lorentz, is contained by the strong force, which results in a change in the angular momentum of the spin of a quark. The first derivative of the equations of motion of charges in an organized electromagnetic field may be used when applied to a random electromagnetic field to invoke the same fields modeled by Maxwell's equations. Mass is intimately bound up with a quark's spin angular momentum and the energy for that increase comes directly from the local field. The underlying randomness of the local field normally remains intact through these energy exchanges but it is speculated that in a quantum entanglement, an absolute level of order is imposed on the field along a path between two particles. This causes the non local effects seen in quantum entanglement. The mechanism that may cause this effect is discussed and a simple experiment is proposed that can test the hypothesis. Also discussed are new theoretical constructs for electromagnetic radiation, mass, the skin effect, self-inductance, superposition, and gravity. The emphasis will be on an intuitive and logical approach more than a mathematical approach.

  17. Precooler Ring Vacuum System

    SciTech Connect

    Moenich, J.

    1980-10-02

    The precooler vacuum system, as proposed by FNAL, is based on a suitable modification of the existing Electron Cooling Ring System. Because of the magnetic cycle of the bending magnets, distributed ion pumping, as exists in the Electron Cooling Ring, is not applicable. Instead, the proposed pumping will be done with commercial appendage ion pumps mounted approximately every two meters around the circumference of the ring. The loss of effective pumping speed and non-uniformity of system pressure with appendage pumps may not be major considerations but the large number required does effect experimental and analytical equipment placement considerations. There is a distributed pumping technique available which: (1) is not affected by the magnetic cycle of the bending magnets; (2) will provide a minimum of four times the hydrogen pumping speed of the proposed appendage ion pumps; (3) will require no power during pumping after the strip is activated; (4) will provide the heat source for bakeout; (5) is easily replaceable; and (6) can be purchased, installed, and operated at a generous economic advantage over the presently proposed ion pumped system. The pumping technique referred to is non-evaporable gettering with ST101 Zr/Al pumping strip. A technical description of this pumping strip is given on Data Sheet 1 and 2 attached to this report.

  18. KEKB vacuum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanazawa, K.; Kato, S.; Suetsugu, Y.; Hisamatsu, H.; Shimamoto, M.; Sato, M.; Shirai, M.

    2001-01-01

    For KEK B-factory (KEKB), two rings with a circumference of 3016 m, mainly made of copper have been constructed. One ring stores a maximum of 2.6 A positron beam with the energy at 3.5 GeV, the other stores 1.1 A, 8 GeV electron beam. These stored currents far exceed those of existing electron storage rings. The inside of a beam duct is designed to minimize an effect of beam induced fields. A gap between flanges is filled using Helicoflex as a vacuum seal. Contact force of a RF finger in a bellows is assured by the use of a spring finger. Pumping slots are backed by crossing bars to prevent the penetration of beam induced fields. To obtain a pressure of 10 -7 Pa with beam, a pumping speed is designed to realize 0.1 m 3 s -1 m -1 assuming that the photodesorption coefficient reaches 10 -6 molecules/photon. The NEG strip is used as a main pump element. Chemical polishing is applied to clean the extruded surface of copper chambers. Almost all chambers are baked before installation. Only ion pumps are baked in situ. From beginning to end, a completely oil free pumping system is used. The photodesorption coefficient at the start of the commissioning was slightly higher than expected, but the decrease of the coefficient is as expected on the whole. There is no trouble on the RF contact for bellows.

  19. Vacuum still bottoms viscometer

    SciTech Connect

    Dinsmore, T.V.; Wilson, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    A viscometer system that is capable of measuring VSB viscosity on-line has been designed, constructed, and tested. The viscometer will not only provide continuous on-line measurements for process control purposes, but will also determine viscosity as functions of temperature and shear rate. The latter results may be used to verify design-base information for direct coal liquefaction demonstration plants. The viscosities of Wilsonville samples of VSB and LSRC were determined as functions of shear rate and, in the case of LSRC, temperature. The VSB viscosity was found to be shear-rate sensitive, while the LSRC viscosity was temperature sensitive. A 24-h test run was unsuccessful, apparently because the check valves in the pump plugged; however, all other mechanical, electrical, and electronic equipment operated satisfactorily. The source of the plugging was thought to be degradation products, which should not cause difficulties in the pilot plant where fresh vacuum bottoms feed is always available. In summary, the results obtained in this study indicate that the viscometer system is ready to be transported to a plant such as Wilsonville and operated on-line. 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Photoelectron backscattering in vacuum phototubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubsandorzhiev, B. K.; Vasiliev, R. V.; Vyatchin, Y. E.; Shaibonov, B. A. J.

    2006-11-01

    In this article we describe results of studies of a photoelectron backscattering effect in vacuum phototubes: classical photomultipliers (PMT) and hybrid phototubes (PH). Late pulses occurring in PMTs are attributed to the photoelectron backscattering and distinguished from pulses due to an anode glow effect. The late pulses are measured in a number of PMTs and HPs with various photocathode sizes covering 1 50 cm range and different types of the first dynode materials and construction designs. It is shown that the late pulses are a generic feature of all vacuum photodetectors—PMTs and PHs—and they do not deteriorate dramatically amplitude and timing responses of vacuum phototubes.

  1. Mechanical Engineering Refrigeration Systems for Cold Storage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    heating water ur brine. (See Figure 5.) (1) Heat brine for the underfloor heating system . * (2) Heat water for heating adjacent...in Basic DM Title 3.1 1 Plumbing Systems 3.2 2,2A Industrial and Municipal Type Incinerators 3.3 3,4,5 Heating , Ventilation, and Air Conditioning... Systems 3.4 6 Refrigeration Systems for Cold Storage 3.5 7,10 Compressed and Vacuum Air Systems 3.6 8 Central Heating Plants 3.7 9 Power Plants 3.8

  2. Thermal vacuum integrated system test at B-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudlac, M. T.; Weaver, H. F.; Cmar, M. D.

    2012-04-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) Plum Brook Station (PBS) Space Propulsion Research Facility, commonly referred to as B-2, is NASA's third largest thermal vacuum facility. It is the largest designed to store and transfer large quantities of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, and is perfectly suited to support developmental testing of chemical propulsion systems as well as fully integrated stages. The facility is also capable of providing thermal-vacuum simulation services to support testing of large lightweight structures, Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) systems, electric propulsion test programs, and other In-Space propulsion programs. A recently completed integrated system test demonstrated the refurbished thermal vacuum capabilities of the facility. The test used the modernized data acquisition and control system to monitor the facility during pump down of the vacuum chamber, operation of the liquid nitrogen heat sink (or cold wall) and the infrared lamp array. A vacuum level of 1.3 × 10-4 Pa (1 × 10-6 torr) was achieved. The heat sink provided a uniform temperature environment of approximately 77 K (139°R) along the entire inner surface of the vacuum chamber. The recently rebuilt and modernized infrared lamp array produced a nominal heat flux of 1.4 kW/m2 at a chamber diameter of 6.7 m (22 ft) and along 11 m (36 ft) of the chamber's cylindrical vertical interior. With the lamp array and heat sink operating simultaneously, the thermal systems produced a heat flux pattern simulating radiation to space on one surface and solar exposure on the other surface. The data acquired matched pretest predictions and demonstrated system functionality.

  3. Thermal Vacuum Integrated System Test at B-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kudlac, Maureen T.; Weaver, Harold F.; Cmar, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) Plum Brook Station (PBS) Space Propulsion Research Facility, commonly referred to as B-2, is NASA s third largest thermal vacuum facility. It is the largest designed to store and transfer large quantities of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, and is perfectly suited to support developmental testing of chemical propulsion systems as well as fully integrated stages. The facility is also capable of providing thermal-vacuum simulation services to support testing of large lightweight structures, Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) systems, electric propulsion test programs, and other In-Space propulsion programs. A recently completed integrated system test demonstrated the refurbished thermal vacuum capabilities of the facility. The test used the modernized data acquisition and control system to monitor the facility during pump down of the vacuum chamber, operation of the liquid nitrogen heat sink (or cold wall) and the infrared lamp array. A vacuum level of 1.3x10(exp -4)Pa (1x10(exp -6)torr) was achieved. The heat sink provided a uniform temperature environment of approximately 77 K (140deg R) along the entire inner surface of the vacuum chamber. The recently rebuilt and modernized infrared lamp array produced a nominal heat flux of 1.4 kW/sq m at a chamber diameter of 6.7 m (22 ft) and along 11 m (36 ft) of the chamber s cylindrical vertical interior. With the lamp array and heat sink operating simultaneously, the thermal systems produced a heat flux pattern simulating radiation to space on one surface and solar exposure on the other surface. The data acquired matched pretest predictions and demonstrated system functionality.

  4. How cold is cold dark matter?

    SciTech Connect

    Armendariz-Picon, Cristian; Neelakanta, Jayanth T. E-mail: jtneelak@syr.edu

    2014-03-01

    If cold dark matter consists of particles, these must be non-interacting and non-relativistic by definition. In most cold dark matter models however, dark matter particles inherit a non-vanishing velocity dispersion from interactions in the early universe, a velocity that redshifts with cosmic expansion but certainly remains non-zero. In this article, we place model-independent constraints on the dark matter temperature to mass ratio, whose square root determines the dark matter velocity dispersion. We only assume that dark matter particles decoupled kinetically while non-relativistic, when galactic scales had not entered the horizon yet, and that their momentum distribution has been Maxwellian since that time. Under these assumptions, using cosmic microwave background and matter power spectrum observations, we place upper limits on the temperature to mass ratio of cold dark matter today (away from collapsed structures). These limits imply that the present cold dark matter velocity dispersion has to be smaller than 54 m/s. Cold dark matter has to be quite cold, indeed.

  5. Reduction of spoilage of chilled vacuum-packed lamb by psychrotolerant clostridia.

    PubMed

    Adam, Katharine H; Flint, Steve H; Brightwell, Gale

    2013-02-01

    Methods for the reduction of spoilage, of lamb, by psychrotolerant clostridia were investigated including exposure to air, hot and cold water spray washing and tyndallisation. Initially vegetative cells of psychrotolerant clostridia associated with spoilage of chilled vacuum-packed meat were exposed to aerobic cooked meat medium at room temperature (21 °C) to determine how long they remained viable. Survival of strains varied from 2h to 3 days. Vegetative cells of Clostridium estertheticum subsp. estertheticum survived 7 days at 10 °C with little reduction in viable numbers. This ruled out exposure to air as a practical method for reducing spoilage. Trials were also carried out on chilled vacuum-packed lamb inoculated with spores of Cl. estertheticum subsp. estertheticum. The time until inoculated packs reached the loss of vacuum stage varied from 38 to 53 days. Hot and cold water washing extended the shelf life by 12 to 13 days in comparison to untreated packs.

  6. Operating experiences and test results of six cold helium compressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D. P.; Gibbs, R. J.; Schlafke, A. P.; Sondericker, J. H.; Wu, K. C.

    Three small and three large cold helium centrifugal compressors have been operated at Brookhaven National Laboratory between 1981 and 1986. The three small cold compressors have been installed on a 1000 W refrigerator for testing a string of superconducting magnets and for R and D purposes. The three large units are components of the BNL 24.8 KW refrigerator to be used to provide cooling for the RHIC project. These compressors are used either to circulate a large amount of supercritical helium through a group of magnets or to pump on the helium bath to reduce temperature in the system. One small circulating compressor tested employs tilting-pad gas bearings and is driven by a DC motor. The two small cold vacuum pumps tested use oil bearings and are driven by oil turbines. The three large oil-bearing cold compressors are driven by DC motors through a gear box. A unique feature of the large vacuum pump is the combination of two pumps with a total of four stages on the same shaft. The adiabatic efficiencies are found to be 57% for the large vacuum pumps and close to 50% for the large circulating compressor. Good overall reliability has been experienced.

  7. Variation of the Phytochemical Constituents and Antioxidant Activities of Zingiber officinale var. rubrum Theilade Associated with Different Drying Methods and Polyphenol Oxidase Activity.

    PubMed

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah

    2016-06-17

    The effects of different drying methods (freeze drying, vacuum oven drying, and shade drying) on the phytochemical constituents associated with the antioxidant activities of Z. officinale var. rubrum Theilade were evaluated to determine the optimal drying process for these rhizomes. Total flavonoid content (TFC), total phenolic content (TPC), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity were measured using the spectrophotometric method. Individual phenolic acids and flavonoids, 6- and 8-gingerol and shogaol were identified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method. Ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays were used for the evaluation of antioxidant activities. The highest reduction in moisture content was observed after freeze drying (82.97%), followed by vacuum oven drying (80.43%) and shade drying (72.65%). The highest TPC, TFC, and 6- and 8-shogaol contents were observed in samples dried by the vacuum oven drying method compared to other drying methods. The highest content of 6- and 8-gingerol was observed after freeze drying, followed by vacuum oven drying and shade drying methods. Fresh samples had the highest PPO activity and lowest content of flavonoid and phenolic acid compounds compared to dried samples. Rhizomes dried by the vacuum oven drying method represent the highest DPPH (52.9%) and FRAP activities (566.5 μM of Fe (II)/g DM), followed by freeze drying (48.3% and 527.1 μM of Fe (II)/g DM, respectively) and shade drying methods (37.64% and 471.8 μM of Fe (II)/g DM, respectively) with IC50 values of 27.2, 29.1, and 34.8 μg/mL, respectively. Negative and significant correlations were observed between PPO and antioxidant activity of rhizomes. Vacuum oven dried rhizomes can be utilized as an ingredient for the development of value-added food products as they contain high contents of phytochemicals with valuable antioxidant potential.

  8. Alumina barrier for vacuum brazing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beuyukian, C. S.

    1980-01-01

    Heating platens of vacuum-brazing press will not stick to workpiece if aluminum oxide "paper" is interposed. Paper does not disintegrate in press, will not contaminate braze alloy, and helps form smoothly contoured, regular fillet at brazed edges.

  9. APS storage ring vacuum system

    SciTech Connect

    Niemann, R.C.; Benaroya, R.; Choi, M.; Dortwegt, R.J.; Goeppner, G.A.; Gonczy, J.; Krieger, C.; Howell, J.; Nielsen, R.W.; Roop, B.; Wehrle, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source synchrotron radiation facility, under construction at the Argonne National Laboratory, incorporates a large ring for the storage of 7 GeV positrons for the generation of photon beams for the facility's experimental program. The Storage Ring's 1104 m circumference is divided into 40 functional sectors. The sectors include vacuum, beam transport, control, acceleration and insertion device components. The vacuum system, which is designed to operate at a pressure of 1 n Torr, consists of 240 connected sections, the majority of which are fabricated from an aluminum alloy extrusion. The sections are equipped with distributed NeG pumping, photon absorbers with lumped pumping, beam position monitors, vacuum diagnostics and valving. The details of the vacuum system design, selected results of the development program and general construction plans are presented. 11 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Vacuum lamination of photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    Vacuum lamination of terrestrial photovoltaic modules is a new high volume process requiring new equipment and newly develop materials. Equipment development, materials research, and some research in related fields and testing methods are discussed.

  11. IRIS Leaves Thermal Vacuum Chamber

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows the transportation of the IRIS observatory from the thermal vacuum chamber back to the clean tent for final testing and preparations for delivery to the launch site at Vandenberg A...

  12. [Endoscopic vacuum-assisted closure].

    PubMed

    Wedemeyer, J; Lankisch, T

    2013-03-01

    Anastomotic leakage in the upper and lower intestinal tract is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Within the last 10 years endoscopic treatment options have been accepted as sufficient treatment option of these surgical complications. Endoscopic vacuum assisted closure (E-VAC) is a new innovative endoscopic therapeutic option in this field. E-VAC transfers the positive effects of vacuum assisted closure (VAC) on infected cutaneous wounds to infected cavities that can only be reached endoscopically. A sponge connected to a drainage tube is endoscopically placed in the leakage and a continuous vacuum is applied. Sponge and vacuum allow removal of infected fluids and promote granulation of the leakage. This results in clean wound grounds and finally allows wound closure. Meanwhile the method was also successfully used in the treatment of necrotic pancreatitis.

  13. VACUUM DEPOSITION OF THIN FILMS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The book deals with methods of obtaining and processing thin films , methods of measuring the deposition rate and thickness of thin-film layers, and...the main fields of application of thin films . Vacuum requirements and the requirements for the composition of the residual medium in thermal...evaporation and cathode sputtering are given, and modern methods of producing and measuring vacuums and the equipment used in obtaining thin films are described. (Author)

  14. Dry Macular Degeneration

    MedlinePlus

    Dry macular degeneration Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Dry macular degeneration is a common eye disorder among people over 65. ... vision in your direct line of sight. Dry macular degeneration may first develop in one eye and then ...

  15. Integrated Cryogenic Propulsion Test Article Thermal Vacuum Hotfire Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morehead, Robert L.; Melcher, J. C.; Atwell, Matthew J.; Hurlbert, Eric A.

    2017-01-01

    In support of a facility characterization test, the Integrated Cryogenic Propulsion Test Article (ICPTA) was hotfire tested at a variety of simulated altitude and thermal conditions in the NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station In-Space Propulsion Thermal Vacuum Chamber (formerly B2). The ICPTA utilizes liquid oxygen and liquid methane propellants for its main engine and four reaction control engines, and uses a cold helium system for tank pressurization. The hotfire test series included high altitude, high vacuum, ambient temperature, and deep cryogenic environments, and several hundred sensors on the vehicle collected a range of system level data useful to characterize the operation of an integrated LOX/Methane spacecraft in the space environment - a unique data set for this propellant combination.

  16. Technical specification for vacuum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Khaw, J.

    1987-01-01

    The vacuum systems at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) are primarily of all-metal construction and operate at pressures from 10/sup -5/ to 10/sup -11/ Torr. The primary gas loads during operation result from thermal desorption and beam-induced desorption from the vacuum chamber walls. These desorption rates can be extremely high in the case of hydrocarbons and other contaminants. These specifications place a major emphasis on eliminating contamination sources. The specifications and procedures have been written to insure the cleanliness and vacuum integrity of all SLAC vacuum systems, and to assist personnel involved with SLAC vacuum systems in choosing and designing components that are compatible with existing systems and meet the quality and reliability of SLAC vacuum standards. The specification includes requirements on design, procurement, fabrication, chemical cleaning, clean room practices, welding and brazing, helium leak testing, residual gas analyzer testing, bakeout, venting, and pumpdown. Also appended are specifications regarding acceptable vendors, isopropyl alcohol, bakeable valve cleaning procedure, mechanical engineering safety inspection, notes on synchrotron radiation, and specifications of numerous individual components. (LEW)

  17. Laser-Free Cold-Atom Gymnastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Harvey; Feinberg, Benedict; Munger, Charles T., Jr.; Nishimura, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    We have performed beam transport simulations on ultra cold (2 μK) and cold (130 μK) neutral Cs atoms in the F = M = + 4 (magnetic weak-field seeking) ground state. We use inhomogeneous magnetic fields to focus and accelerate the atoms. Acceleration of neutral atoms by an inhomogeneous magnetic field was demonstrated by Stern and Gerlach in 1922. In the simulations, a two mm diameter cloud of atoms is released to fall under gravity. A magnetic coil focuses the falling atoms. After falling 41 cm, the atoms are reflected in the magnetic fringe field of a solenoid. They return to their starting height, about 0.7 s later, having passed a second time through the focusing coil. The simulations show that > 98 % of ultra cold Cs atoms and > 70 % of cold Cs atoms will survive at least 15 round trips (assuming perfect vacuum). More than 100 simulations were run to optimize coil currents and focusing coil diameter and height. Simulations also show that atoms can be launched into a fountain. An experimental apparatus to test the simulations, is being constructed. This technique may find application in atomic fountain clocks, interferometers, and gravitometers, and may be adaptable for use in microgravity. It may also work with Bose-Einstein condensates of paramagnetic atoms.

  18. Cold-Worked Inconel(R) 718 Bars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montano, J. W.

    1988-01-01

    Cold working and double aging yield high strength without sacrifice of resistance to corrosion. Report presents data on mechanical properties and stress-corrosion resistance of triple-melted, solution-treated, work-strengthened, direct-double-aged Inconel(R) 718 alloy. Triple melting consists of vacuum induction melting, electro-slag remelting, and vacuum arm remelting. Data indicate advance in processing of large-diameter bars. New process increases yield strength without reducing the elongation, reduction of area, and grain size.

  19. Improving the physical properties crunchiness of potato crisps by pretreatment techniques and vacuum frying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Mai T. T.; Chen, Xiao Dong

    2013-08-01

    Vacuum frying with pre-treatment of potato crisps are potentially effective processes on the improving the crispness of potato crisps. Pre-drying and subsequent sugar dipping are considered as an advantageous process as the pre-treatment of potato crisps to reduce considerable amount of oil uptake. In this study, potato crisps were blanched, pre-dried, and dipped in the solution of sugar (23.07%, in 2 seconds) before vacuum frying at 120 °C, 110 °C with vacuum pressures, which is 150 mbars. The results were collected by testing the crispiness of the potato crisps with the three-point-support method and using an Instron Universal Testing Machine through the texture parameters: Maximum Peak Force; Slope of Initial Tangent, Hardness, Stiffness, Firmness, Modulus of Elasticity and Maximum Tensile Stress. There was a significant improving in physical properties of crisps observed. Crisps that had been pre- treatment and vacuum- fried at 110 °C (150 mbars) had much improving in crispness (50%) including the hardness (170%), stiffness (140%), firmness (50%) and modulus of elasticity (60%) compared with normal frying at 180 °C without pretreatment and vacuum frying. The effect of vacuum frying and the pre-treatment technique on the improving the physical properties of crisps was evaluated. The shrinkage of potato crisps after frying was also considered in this research. The color and microstructure of potato crisps with pre-treatments and vacuum frying have also been obtained.

  20. Vacuum-Gauge Connection For Shipping Container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Robert H.

    1990-01-01

    External connector enables measurement of vacuum in stored part. Remote-readout connector added to shipping container and connected to thermo-couple vacuum gauge in vacuum-insulated cryogenic line packed in container. Enables monitoring of condition of vacuum without opening container.

  1. [Cold-induced urticaria].

    PubMed

    Delorme, N; Drouet, M; Thibaudeau, A; Verret, J L

    2002-09-01

    Cold urticaria is characterized by the development of urticaria, usually superficial and/or angioedematous reaction after cold contact. It was found predominantly in young women. The diagnosis is based on the history and ice cube test. Patients with a negative ice cube test may have represented systemic cold urticaria (atypical acquired cold urticaria) induced by general body cooling. The pathogenesis is poorly understood. Cold urticaria can be classified into acquired and familial disorders, with an autosomal dominant inheritance. Idiopathic cold urticaria is most common type but the research of a cryopathy is necessary. Therapy is often difficult. It is essential that the patient be warned of the dangers of swimming in cold water because systemic hypotension can occur. H1 antihistamines can be used for treatment of cold urticaria but the clinical responses are highly variable. The combination with an H2 antagonists is more effective. Doxepin may be useful in the treatment. Leukotriene receptor antagonists may be a novel, promising drug entity. In patients who do not respond to previous treatments, induction of cold tolerance may be tried.

  2. Cold fusion, Alchemist's dream

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, E.D.

    1989-09-01

    In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalysed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalysed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D{sub 2} molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D{sub 2} fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into {sup 4}He; secondary D+T fusion within the hydrogenated metal lattice; {sup 3}He to {sup 4}He ratio within the metal lattice; shock induced fusion; and anomalously high isotopic ratios of {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He.

  3. Dry mouth during cancer treatment

    MedlinePlus

    Chemotherapy - dry mouth; Radiation therapy - dry mouth; Transplant - dry mouth; Transplantation - dry mouth ... National Cancer Institute. Chemotherapy and you: support for people with cancer. Updated May 2007. ... ...

  4. Improving Seed Germination and Peanut Yields by Cold Plasma Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling; Li, Jiangang; Shen, Minchong; Hou, Jinfeng; Shao, Hanliang; Dong, Yuanhua; Jiang, Jiafeng

    2016-10-01

    This study explored the effects of cold plasma treatment on seed germination, plant growth, and peanut yield. Cold plasma treatment improved germination and seedling growth, and the 120 W treatment produced the best effect. Germination potential and germination rate were markedly raised by 150% and 21%, respectively. Germination was accelerated and the uniformity of emergence improved. The apparent contact angle was decreased by 53%. Seedling shoot and root dry weights increased by 11% and 9%. Leaf area, leaf thickness, leaf nitrogen concentration, chlorophyll contents, and dry weight at the fruiting stage, together with plant height, stem diameter, and root dry weight at the mature stage were all markedly raised by the cold plasma treatment. The cold plasma treatment enhanced yield components, such as branch numbers per plant, pod numbers per plant, and 100 pod weights by 8%, 13%, and 9%, respectively, compared to the control. Furthermore, the yield improved by 10%. These results suggested that cold plasma treatment improved germination, plant growth, and yield, which might be due to the cold plasma increasing the leaf area, nitrogen concentrations, and chlorophyll contents. supported by National Key Technology Research and Development Program of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (No. 2012BAD05B04), National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41201241), “Strategic Priority Research Program” of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. XDB15030301) and Jiangsu Province Science and Technology Support Program (No. BE2013452)

  5. Vacuum Packaging for Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-10-01

    The Vacuum Packaging for MEMS Program focused on the development of an integrated set of packaging technologies which in totality provide a low cost...high volume product-neutral vacuum packaging capability which addresses all MEMS vacuum packaging requirements. The program balanced the need for...near term component and wafer-level vacuum packaging with the development of advanced high density wafer-level packaging solutions. Three vacuum

  6. Probability distribution of the vacuum energy density

    SciTech Connect

    Duplancic, Goran; Stefancic, Hrvoje; Glavan, Drazen

    2010-12-15

    As the vacuum state of a quantum field is not an eigenstate of the Hamiltonian density, the vacuum energy density can be represented as a random variable. We present an analytical calculation of the probability distribution of the vacuum energy density for real and complex massless scalar fields in Minkowski space. The obtained probability distributions are broad and the vacuum expectation value of the Hamiltonian density is not fully representative of the vacuum energy density.

  7. Cold stress and the cold pressor test.

    PubMed

    Silverthorn, Dee U; Michael, Joel

    2013-03-01

    Temperature and other environmental stressors are known to affect blood pressure and heart rate. In this activity, students perform the cold pressor test, demonstrating increased blood pressure during a 1- to 2-min immersion of one hand in ice water. The cold pressor test is used clinically to evaluate autonomic and left ventricular function. This activity is easily adapted to an inquiry format that asks students to go to the scientific literature to learn about the test and then design a protocol for carrying out the test in classmates. The data collected are ideal for teaching graphical presentation of data and statistical analysis.

  8. Note: High density pulsed molecular beam for cold ion chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Kokish, M. G.; Rajagopal, V.; Marler, J. P.; Odom, B. C.

    2014-08-15

    A recent expansion of cold and ultracold molecule applications has led to renewed focus on molecular species preparation under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Meanwhile, molecular beams have been used to study gas phase chemical reactions for decades. In this paper, we describe an apparatus that uses pulsed molecular beam technology to achieve high local gas densities, leading to faster reaction rates with cold trapped ions. We characterize the beam's spatial profile using the trapped ions themselves. This apparatus could be used for preparation of molecular species by reactions requiring excitation of trapped ion precursors to states with short lifetimes or for obtaining a high reaction rate with minimal increase of background chamber pressure.

  9. Drying effects on the antioxidant properties of polysaccharides obtained from Agaricus blazei Murrill.

    PubMed

    Wu, Songhai; Li, Feng; Jia, Shaoyi; Ren, Haitao; Gong, Guili; Wang, Yanyan; Lv, Zesheng; Liu, Yong

    2014-03-15

    Three polysaccharides (ABMP-F, ABMP-V, ABMP-A) were obtained from Agaricus blazei Murrill via methods such as freeze drying, vacuum drying and air drying, respectively. Their chemical compositions were examined, and antioxidant activities were investigated on the basis of assay for hydroxyl radical, DPPH radical, ABTS free radical scavenging ability and assay for Fe(2+)-chelating ability. Results showed that the three ABMPs have different physicochemical and antioxidant properties. Compared with air drying and vacuum drying methods, freeze drying method resulted to ABMP with higher neutral sugar, polysaccharide yield, uronic acid content, and stronger antioxidant abilities of hydroxyl radical, DPPH radical, ABTS radical scavenging and Fe(2+)-chelating. As a result, Agaricus blazei Murrill polysaccharides are natural antioxidant and freeze drying method serves as a good choice for the preparation of such polysaccharides and should be used to produce antioxidants for food industry.

  10. Measurement of partial pressures in vacuum technology and vacuum physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, W. K.

    1986-01-01

    It is pointed out that the measurement of gaseous pressures of less than 0.0001 torr is based on the ionization of gas atoms and molecules due to collisions with electrons. The particle density is determined in place of the pressure. The ionization cross sections for molecules of various gases are discussed. It is found that the true pressure in a vacuum system cannot be determined with certainty if it is unknown which gas is present. Effects of partial pressure determination on the condition of the vacuum system are discussed together with ion sources, systems of separation, and ion detection.

  11. Vacuum-assisted cesarean section

    PubMed Central

    McQuivey, Ross W; Block, Jon E

    2017-01-01

    There has been a dramatic rise in the frequency of cesarean sections, surpassing 30% of all deliveries in the US. This upsurge, coupled with a decreasing willingness to allow vaginal birth after cesarean section, has resulted in an expansion of the use of vacuum assistance to safely extract the fetal head. By avoiding the use of a delivering hand or forceps blade, the volume being delivered through the uterine incision can be decreased when the vacuum is used properly. Reducing uterine extensions with their associated complications (eg, excessive blood loss) in difficult cases is also a theoretical advantage of vacuum delivery. Maternal discomfort related to excessive fundal pressure may also be lessened. To minimize the risk of neonatal morbidity, proper cup placement over the “flexion point” remains essential to maintain vacuum integrity and reduce the chance of inadvertent detachment and uterine extensions. Based on the published literature and pragmatic clinical experience, utilization of the vacuum device is a safe and effective technique to assist delivery during cesarean section. PMID:28331371

  12. VACUUM TRAP AND VALVE COMBINATION

    DOEpatents

    Milleron, N.; Levenson, L.

    1963-02-19

    This patent relates to a vacuum trap and valve combination suitable for use in large ultra-high vacuum systems. The vacuum trap is a chamber having an inlet and outlet opening which may be made to communicate with a chamber to be evacuated and a diffusion pump, respectively. A valve is designed to hermeticaliy seal with inlet opening and, when opened, block the line-of- sight'' between the inlet and outlet openings, while allowing a large flow path between the opened vaive and the side walls of the trap. The interior of the trap and the side of the valve facing the inlet opening are covered with an impurity absorbent, such as Zeolite or activated aluminum. Besides the advantage of combining two components of a vacuum system into one, the present invention removes the need for a baffle between the pump and the chamber to be evacuated. In one use of a specific embodiment of this invention, the transmission probability was 45 and the partial pressure of the pump fluid vapor in the vacuum chamber was at least 100 times lower than its vapor pressure. (AEC)

  13. BIOMASS DRYING TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report examines the technologies used for drying of biomass and the energy requirements of biomass dryers. Biomass drying processes, drying methods, and the conventional types of dryers are surveyed generally. Drying methods and dryer studies using superheated steam as the d...

  14. Thin layer modeling of tom yum herbs in vacuum heat pump dryer.

    PubMed

    Artnaseaw, A; Theerakulpisut, S; Benjapiyaporn, C

    2010-04-01

    Thin layer vacuum heat pump drying experiments were conducted to determine drying models for Tom Yum herbs (chili, lemon grass, kaffir lime leaf and galangal slice). The drying experiments were conducted in a vacuum heat pump dryer at a constant drying pressure of 0.2 bars and drying temperatures ranging from 50 °C to 65 °C. The experimental results were fitted to a number of well-known thin layer drying models and it was found, for the range of drying temperature tested, that the Midilli model is the best model for all Tom Yum herbs. To account for the influence of drying temperature, the constants and coefficients of model were formulated as functions of the drying temperature. Statistical tests of agreement between the model and experimental results were performed by determining the coefficient of determination (R²) , reduced chi-square (χ²) and root mean square error (RMSE). It was found that the model is in very good agreement with the experimental results.

  15. Cold fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    1989-11-01

    I am pleased to forward to you the Final Report of the Cold Fusion Panel. This report reviews the current status of cold fusion and includes major chapters on Calorimetry and Excess Heat, Fusion Products and Materials Characterization. In addition, the report makes a number of conclusions and recommendations, as requested by the Secretary of Energy.

  16. Cold-Weather Sports

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cold-Weather Sports KidsHealth > For Teens > Cold-Weather Sports Print A A A What's in this ... Equipment Ahh, winter! Shorter days. Frigid temperatures. Foul weather. What better time to be outdoors? Winter sports ...

  17. Cold Sores (HSV-1)

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cold Sores (HSV-1) KidsHealth > For Teens > Cold Sores (HSV-1) A A A What's in this article? ... or around a person's lips, are caused by herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) . But they don't ...

  18. Chilling Out With Colds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your head hurts. You don't have the energy to even get out of bed. And you can't breathe out of your nose. What's wrong? You may have a cold! Having a cold is the #1 reason kids visit the doctor and stay home from school. Kids can get six to ten ...

  19. Using a Cold Radiometer to Measure Heat Loads and Survey Heat Leaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiPirro, M.; Tuttle, J.; Hait, T.; Shirron, P.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed an inexpensive cold radiometer for use in thermal/vacuum chambers to measure heat loads, characterize emissivity and specularity of surfaces and to survey areas to evaluate stray heat loads. We report here the results of two such tests for the James Webb Space Telescope to measure heat loads and effective emissivities of2 major pieces of optical ground support equipment that will be used in upcoming thermal vacuum testing of the Telescope.

  20. Using a Cold Radiometer to Measure Heat Loads and Survey Heat Leaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dipirro, M.; Tuttle, J.; Hait, T.; Shirron, P.

    2014-01-01

    We have developed an inexpensive cold radiometer for use in thermal/vacuum chambers to measure heat loads, characterize emissivity and specularity of surfaces and to survey areas to evaluate stray heat loads. We report here the results of two such tests for the James Webb Space Telescope to measure heat loads and effective emissivities of 2 major pieces of optical ground support equipment that will be used in upcoming thermal vacuum testing of the Telescope.

  1. Survival of freeze-dried bacteria.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto-Shinohara, Yukie; Sukenobe, Junji; Imaizumi, Takashi; Nakahara, Toro

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the survival of freeze-dried bacterial species stored at the International Patent Organism Depository (IPOD) and to elucidate the characteristics affecting survival. Bacterial strains were freeze-dried, sealed in ampoules under a vacuum (<1 Pa), and stored in the dark at 5 degrees C. The survival of a variety of species following storage for up to 20 years was analyzed. The survival of freeze-dried species was analyzed in terms of two stages, freeze-drying and storing. Nonmotile genera showed relatively high survival after freeze-drying. Motile genera with peritrichous flagella showed low survival rates after freeze-drying. Vibrio and Aeromonas, which produce numerous flagella, showed very low survival rates. In Lactobacillus, non-trehalose-fermenting species showed better survival rates after freeze-drying than did fermenting species, and those species with teichoic acid in the cell wall showed lower survival rates during storage than species with teichoic acid in the cell membrane. Human pathogenic species of Corynebacterium, Bacillus, Streptococcus, and Klebsiella showed lower survival rates during storage than nonpathogenic species within the same genus. Among Pseudomonas species, P. chlororaphis, the only species tested that forms levan from sucrose, showed the lowest survival rate during storage in the genus. Survival rates of Gram-negative species during storage tended to be lower than those of Gram-positive species, though Chryseobacterium meningosepticum had stable survival during storage. The conclusion is that smooth cell surfaces (i.e., no flagella) and lack of trehalose outside the cytoplasm improved survival rates after freeze-drying. Because desiccation is important for survival during storage, the presence of extracellular polysaccharides or teichoic acids is disadvantageous for long-term survival. The lower survival rates of freeze-dried Gram-negative bacteria compared with those of Gram-positive bacteria

  2. Gravity-Induced Vacuum Dominance

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, William C. C.; Vanzella, Daniel A. T.

    2010-04-23

    It has been widely believed that, except in very extreme situations, the influence of gravity on quantum fields should amount to just small, subdominant contributions. This view seemed to be endorsed by the seminal results obtained over the last decades in the context of renormalization of quantum fields in curved spacetimes. Here, however, we argue that this belief is false by showing that there exist well-behaved spacetime evolutions where the vacuum energy density of free quantum fields is forced, by the very same background spacetime, to become dominant over any classical energy-density component. By estimating the time scale for the vacuum energy density to become dominant, and therefore for backreaction on the background spacetime to become important, we argue that this (infrared) vacuum dominance may bear unexpected astrophysical and cosmological implications.

  3. Gravity-induced vacuum dominance.

    PubMed

    Lima, William C C; Vanzella, Daniel A T

    2010-04-23

    It has been widely believed that, except in very extreme situations, the influence of gravity on quantum fields should amount to just small, subdominant contributions. This view seemed to be endorsed by the seminal results obtained over the last decades in the context of renormalization of quantum fields in curved spacetimes. Here, however, we argue that this belief is false by showing that there exist well-behaved spacetime evolutions where the vacuum energy density of free quantum fields is forced, by the very same background spacetime, to become dominant over any classical energy-density component. By estimating the time scale for the vacuum energy density to become dominant, and therefore for backreaction on the background spacetime to become important, we argue that this (infrared) vacuum dominance may bear unexpected astrophysical and cosmological implications.

  4. Microscale Digital Vacuum Electronic Gates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manohara, Harish (Inventor); Mojarradi, Mohammed M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement microscale digital vacuum electronic gates. In one embodiment, a microscale digital vacuum electronic gate includes: a microscale field emitter that can emit electrons and that is a microscale cathode; and a microscale anode; where the microscale field emitter and the microscale anode are disposed within at least a partial vacuum; where the microscale field emitter and the microscale anode are separated by a gap; and where the potential difference between the microscale field emitter and the microscale anode is controllable such that the flow of electrons between the microscale field emitter and the microscale anode is thereby controllable; where when the microscale anode receives a flow of electrons, a first logic state is defined; and where when the microscale anode does not receive a flow of electrons, a second logic state is defined.

  5. D-Zero Vacuum System

    SciTech Connect

    Wintercorn, S.J.; /Fermilab

    1986-04-07

    The system pumping speed was calculated by taking the reciprocal of the sum of the reciprocal pump speed and the reciprocal line conductances. The conductances of the pipe were calculated from the following formulas taken from the Varian vacuum manual. This report updates the original to reflect the pumping curves and basic vacuum system characteristics for the purchased components and installed piping of the D-Zero vacuum system. The system consists of two Edward's E2M275 two stage mechanical pumps, a Leybold-Heraeus WSU2000 Blower and three Varian 4' diffusion pumps (one for each cryostat). Individual pump and system pumping speed curves and a diagram of the system is included.

  6. Silicon crystal growth in vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khattak, C. P.; Schmid, F.

    1982-01-01

    The most developed process for silicon crystal growth is the Czochralski (CZ) method which was in production for over two decades. In an effort to reduce cost of single crystal silicon for photovoltaic applications, a directional solidification technique, Heat Exchanger Method (HEM), was adapted. Materials used in HEM and CZ furnaces are quite similar (heaters, crucibles, insulation, etc.). To eliminate the cost of high purity argon, it was intended to use vacuum operation in HEM. Two of the major problems encountered in vacuum processing of silicon are crucible decomposition and silicon carbide formation in the melt.

  7. Vacuum Plasma Spraying Replaces Electrodeposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Richard R.; Power, Chris; Burns, David H.; Daniel, Ron; Mckechnie, Timothy N.

    1992-01-01

    Vacuum plasma spraying used to fabricate large parts with complicated contours and inner structures, without uninspectable welds. Reduces time, and expense of fabrication. Wall of combustion chamber built up inside of outer nickel-alloy jacket by plasma spraying. Particles of metal sprayed partially melted in plasma gun and thrown at supersonic speed toward deposition surface. Vacuum plasma-spray produces stronger bond between the grooves and covering layer completing channels and wall of combustion chamber. In tests, bond withstood pressure of 20 kpsi, three times allowable limit by old method.

  8. Vacuum Cleaner Fan Being Improved

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweedt, Daniel L.

    1997-01-01

    As part of the technology utilization program at the NASA Lewis Research Center, efforts are underway to transfer aerospace technologies to new areas of practical application. One such effort involves using advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes for turbomachinery to analyze the internal fluid dynamics of low-speed fans and blowers. This year, the Kirby Company in Cleveland, Ohio, approached NASA with a request for technologies that could help them improve their vacuum cleaners. Of particular interest to Kirby is the high-frequency blade-passing noise generation of their vacuum cleaner fan at low airflow rates.

  9. Method for vacuum fusion bonding

    DOEpatents

    Ackler, Harold D.; Swierkowski, Stefan P.; Tarte, Lisa A.; Hicks, Randall K.

    2001-01-01

    An improved vacuum fusion bonding structure and process for aligned bonding of large area glass plates, patterned with microchannels and access holes and slots, for elevated glass fusion temperatures. Vacuum pumpout of all components is through the bottom platform which yields an untouched, defect free top surface which greatly improves optical access through this smooth surface. Also, a completely non-adherent interlayer, such as graphite, with alignment and location features is located between the main steel platform and the glass plate pair, which makes large improvements in quality, yield, and ease of use, and enables aligned bonding of very large glass structures.

  10. Vacuum-ultraviolet frequency-modulation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hollenstein, U; Schmutz, H; Agner, J A; Sommavilla, M; Merkt, F

    2017-01-07

    Frequency-modulation (FM) spectroscopy has been extended to the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Coherent VUV laser radiation is produced by resonance-enhanced sum-frequency mixing (νVUV=2νUV+ν2) in Kr and Xe using two near-Fourier-transform-limited laser pulses of frequencies νUV and ν2. Sidebands generated in the output of the second laser (ν2) using an electro-optical modulator operating at the frequency νmod are directly transferred to the VUV and used to record FM spectra. Demodulation is demonstrated both at νmod and 2νmod. The main advantages of the method compared to VUV absorption spectroscopy are its background-free nature, the fact is that its implementation using table-top laser equipment is straightforward and that it can be used to record VUV absorption spectra of cold samples in skimmed supersonic beams simultaneously with laser-induced-fluorescence and photoionization spectra. To illustrate these advantages, we present VUV FM spectra of Ar, Kr, and N2 in selected regions between 105000 cm(-1) and 122000 cm(-1).

  11. New measurements of multilayer insulation at variable cold temperature and elevated residual gas pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funke, Th; Haberstroh, Ch

    2015-12-01

    New MLI measurements at the TU Dresden flow type calorimeter have been carried out. Specimens of 20 layer double side aluminized polyester film were tested. A cylindrical cold surface of 0.9 m2 is held at the desired cold boundary temperature between approximately 30 K and 300 K. The heat transfer through the MLI is measured by recording the mass flow as well as the inlet and the outlet temperature of the cooling fluid. Measurements at varied cold boundary temperatures have been performed. Moreover the effect of an additional vacuum degradation - as it might occur by decreasing getter material performance in real systems at elevated temperatures - is studied by a controlled inlet of nitrogen gas. Thus the vacuum pressure was varied over a range of 10-7 mbar to 10-2 mbar. Different cold boundary temperatures between 35 K and 110 K were investigated. Test results for 20 layer MLI are presented.

  12. Meeting today's requirements for large thermal vacuum test facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corinth, R. L.; Rouse, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    The Lockheed Thermal Vacuum Facility at Sunnyvale, California, completed in late 1986, one of the largest multi-program facilities constructed to date is described. The horizontal 12.2 m diameter by 24.4 m long chamber has removable heads at each end and houses a thermal shroud providing a test volume 10.4 m diameter by 24.4 m long. The chamber and thermal shroud are configured to permit the insertion of a 6.1 m wide by 24.4 m long vibration isolated optical bench. The pumpimg system incorporates an internal cryopumping array, turbomolecular pumps and cryopumps to handle multi-program needs and ranges of gas loads. The high vacuum system is capable of achieving clean, dry and empty pressures below 1.3 times 10 to the minus 6 power Pa (10 to the minus 8 power torr.)

  13. Cold subcutaneous abscesses.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, R.; Stephens, L.; Kelly, A. P.

    1990-01-01

    Cold abscesses are defined as having no associated erythema, heat, or tenderness. They may be present in immunodeficiency disorders, deep mycoses, and other infectious diseases. As there is a dearth information on this subject in the dermatology, surgery, and infectious disease literature, we present a case of cold abscesses secondary to coccidioidomycosis and discuss the possible role of humoral immunity, cell-mediated immunity, prostaglandins, T cells, and other mediators in cold abscess pathogenesis. In addition, therapeutic guidelines for abscesses are reviewed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2280425

  14. Miniature cold gas thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bzibziak, R. J., Sr.

    1992-07-01

    Cold gas thrusters provide a safe, inexpensive, lightweight and reliable means of propulsive control for small satellites, projectiles and maneuvering control systems. Moog Inc. has designed and developed a family of miniature cold gas thrusters for use on Strategic Defense Iniative flight simulation experiments, sounding rockets, small satellite applications, astronaut control systems, and close proximity maneuvering systems for Space System. Construction features such as coil assembly, core assembly, armature assembly, external housing and valve body are discussed. The design approach, performance characteristics and functional description of cold gas thrusters designed for various applications are presented.

  15. Vacuum-jacketed line spacer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houte, F. A.; Mckee, H. B.; Patten, T. C.

    1976-01-01

    Device has three integral, equally spaced leaf springs. Springs separate outer vacuum jacket from fluid carrying line, yet minimize conductive heat leaks and liquid boiloff. One-piece heat spring has sufficient flexibility to accommodate differential thermal expansion of inner and outer line.

  16. Cleaner Vacuum-Bag Curing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemons, J. M.; Penn, B. G.; Ledbetter, Frank E., III; Daniels, J. G.

    1987-01-01

    Improvement upon recommended procedures saves time and expense. Autoclave molding in vacuum bag cleaner if adhesive-backed covering placed around caul plate as well as on mold plate. Covering easy to remove after curing and leaves caul plate free of resin deposits.

  17. Quantum Vacuum Structure and Cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Rafelski, Johann; Labun, Lance; Hadad, Yaron; Chen, Pisin; /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2011-12-05

    Contemporary physics faces three great riddles that lie at the intersection of quantum theory, particle physics and cosmology. They are: (1) The expansion of the universe is accelerating - an extra factor of two appears in the size; (2) Zero-point fluctuations do not gravitate - a matter of 120 orders of magnitude; and (3) The 'True' quantum vacuum state does not gravitate. The latter two are explicitly problems related to the interpretation and the physical role and relation of the quantum vacuum with and in general relativity. Their resolution may require a major advance in our formulation and understanding of a common unified approach to quantum physics and gravity. To achieve this goal we must develop an experimental basis and much of the discussion we present is devoted to this task. In the following, we examine the observations and the theory contributing to the current framework comprising these riddles. We consider an interpretation of the first riddle within the context of the universe's quantum vacuum state, and propose an experimental concept to probe the vacuum state of the universe.

  18. Vacuum barrier for excimer lasers

    DOEpatents

    Shurter, Roger P.

    1992-01-01

    A barrier for separating the vacuum area of a diode from the pressurized gas area of an excimer laser. The barrier is a composite material comprising layers of a metal such as copper, along with layers of polyimide, and a matrix of graphite fiber yarns impregnated with epoxy. The barrier is stronger than conventional foil barriers, and allows greater electron throughput.

  19. Vacuum barrier for excimer lasers

    DOEpatents

    Shurter, R.P.

    1992-09-15

    A barrier for separating the vacuum area of a diode from the pressurized gas area of an excimer laser. The barrier is a composite material comprising layers of a metal such as copper, along with layers of polyimide, and a matrix of graphite fiber yarns impregnated with epoxy. The barrier is stronger than conventional foil barriers, and allows greater electron throughput. 3 figs.

  20. Vacuum Flushing of Sewer Solids

    EPA Science Inventory

    The vacuum sewer and tank cleaning (flushing) technology removes sewer solids from urban drainage systems, such as storage tanks and pipes. This technology is both effective and inexpensive. In addition, it can be considered a true green technology. It operates under atmospheri...

  1. Plates for vacuum thermal fusion

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, James C.; Balch, Joseph W.

    2002-01-01

    A process for effectively bonding arbitrary size or shape substrates. The process incorporates vacuum pull down techniques to ensure uniform surface contact during the bonding process. The essence of the process for bonding substrates, such as glass, plastic, or alloys, etc., which have a moderate melting point with a gradual softening point curve, involves the application of an active vacuum source to evacuate interstices between the substrates while at the same time providing a positive force to hold the parts to be bonded in contact. This enables increasing the temperature of the bonding process to ensure that the softening point has been reached and small void areas are filled and come in contact with the opposing substrate. The process is most effective where at least one of the two plates or substrates contain channels or grooves that can be used to apply vacuum between the plates or substrates during the thermal bonding cycle. Also, it is beneficial to provide a vacuum groove or channel near the perimeter of the plates or substrates to ensure bonding of the perimeter of the plates or substrates and reduce the unbonded regions inside the interior region of the plates or substrates.

  2. A vacuum ultraviolet spectrophotometric system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James F.; Keffer, Charles E.; Zukic, Muamer

    1993-01-01

    The development of a vacuum ultraviolet spectrophotometric system for measuring transmittance and reflectance at variable angles is presented. Using various detectors and sources, the spectrophotometric system has been used for wavelengths from 80 nm to 300 nm with optical components up to 80 mm in diameter. The capability exists to make measurements through the visible range.

  3. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. M.A. Ebadian

    2000-01-13

    The purpose of the project is to increase the productivity and economics of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCB's and lead-base paint and provides worker and environmental protection by continuously recycling the blast media and the full containment of the dust generated in the process.

  4. Degassing procedure for ultrahigh vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, B. C.

    1979-01-01

    Calculations based on diffusion coefficients and degassing rates for stainless-steel vacuum chambers indicate that baking at lower temperatures for longer periods give lower ultimate pressures than rapid baking at high temperatures. Process could reduce pressures in chambers for particle accelerators, fusion reactors, material research, and other applications.

  5. Impact of tilling on biosolids drying and indicator microorganisms survival during solar drying process.

    PubMed

    Song, Inhong; Dominguez, Teodulo; Choi, Christopher Y; Kang, Moon Seong

    2014-01-01

    As biosolids application to croplands becomes a common practice, potential harm from pathogenic microbes needs to be mitigated for its safe reuse. The objective of this study was to investigate the impacts of tilling treatment on biosolids drying and microbial inactivation during the solar drying process in a semi-arid and temperate region. Solar drying experiments were conducted in sand and gravel dying beds open-to-the-air and under covering structures with biosolids to 20 cm depth from 2004 to 2006. Anaerobically- and Aerobically-digested biosolids received different tilling treatments throughout the drying process, while a series of biosolids samples were collected to determine the impact on total solids and microbial concentrations (Salmonella spp and heminth ova). Tilling treatments appeared to enhance the biosolids drying and microbial inactivation. Tilling was more effective during the cold season compared with the summer season and tilling treatments were also helpful in elevating biosolids temperature by expediting biosolids drying. The combined effect of temperature increase and moisture decrease by tilling may have resulted in faster microbial inactivation, particularly for persistent helminth ova. It was concluded that incorporation of tilling into biosolids solar drying can expedite biosolids drying as well as microbial inactivation, and thus can be an effective measure for shortening the biosolids conversion to Class A biosolids in which pathogens are reduced to below detectable levels.

  6. Thermal Vacuum Testing of ICPTA RCS at Plum Brook B-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, M. J.; Hurlbert, E. A.; Melcher, J. C.; Morehead, R. L.

    2017-01-01

    Vacuum and thermal vacuum testing of the Integrated Cryogenic Propulsion Test Article (ICPTA) was performed at the Plum Brook B-2 facility as a part of a system checkout and facility characterization effort. Multiple test objectives included: integrated Reaction Control System (RCS) characterization, cold helium pressurization system characterization, modal propellant gaging experiment (Orion), CFM propellant loading experiments, main engine characterization. The ICPTA is a test bed for LOX/LCH4 technologies built in 2016 using new components and hardware from the former Morpheus vehicle and other projects.

  7. Characterisation of inorganic elements and volatile organic compounds in the dried sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae-Won; Lim, Na-Lae; Cho, Kichul; Yang, Hye Young; Yim, Kyung June; Kim, Mi-Ju; Lee, Myunglip; Kim, Dong Hyeun; Koh, Hyoung Bum; Jung, Won-Kyo; Roh, Seong Woon; Kim, Daekyung

    2014-03-15

    The sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus lives in a variety of marine habitats and is an important cultivated edible aquatic species in East Asia. In this study, S. japonicus, collected from the sea near Jeju Island of Korea, was lyophilised or vacuum-dried and then analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The GC-MS profiles of vacuum-dried and lyophilised samples differed. Based on direct injection and static headspace analysis, 37 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified in vacuum-dried samples and 33 VOCs were identified in lyophilised samples. Therefore, the odour of vacuum-dried sea cucumber is thought to be due to the presence of various VOCs that are absent in lyophilised sea cucumber. According to ICP-MS analysis, the levels of 15 inorganic elements were slightly higher in lyophilised samples than in vacuum-dried samples. The results of the inorganic and organic chemical analyses provide information about the composition of dried sea cucumber.

  8. Vacuum polarization and Hawking radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmati, Shohreh

    Quantum gravity is one of the interesting fields in contemporary physics which is still in progress. The purpose of quantum gravity is to present a quantum description for spacetime at 10-33cm or find the 'quanta' of gravitational interaction.. At present, the most viable theory to describe gravitational interaction is general relativity which is a classical theory. Semi-classical quantum gravity or quantum field theory in curved spacetime is an approximation to a full quantum theory of gravity. This approximation considers gravity as a classical field and matter fields are quantized. One interesting phenomena in semi-classical quantum gravity is Hawking radiation. Hawking radiation was derived by Stephen Hawking as a thermal emission of particles from the black hole horizon. In this thesis we obtain the spectrum of Hawking radiation using a new method. Vacuum is defined as the possible lowest energy state which is filled with pairs of virtual particle-antiparticle. Vacuum polarization is a consequence of pair creation in the presence of an external field such as an electromagnetic or gravitational field. Vacuum polarization in the vicinity of a black hole horizon can be interpreted as the cause of the emission from black holes known as Hawking radiation. In this thesis we try to obtain the Hawking spectrum using this approach. We re-examine vacuum polarization of a scalar field in a quasi-local volume that includes the horizon. We study the interaction of a scalar field with the background gravitational field of the black hole in the desired quasi-local region. The quasi-local volume is a hollow cylinder enclosed by two membranes, one inside the horizon and one outside the horizon. The net rate of particle emission can be obtained as the difference of the vacuum polarization from the outer boundary and inner boundary of the cylinder. Thus we found a new method to derive Hawking emission which is unitary and well defined in quantum field theory.

  9. Cold hardiness in molluscs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansart, Armelle; Vernon, Philippe

    2003-05-01

    Molluscs inhabit all types of environments: seawater, intertidal zone, freshwater and land, and of course may have to deal with subzero temperatures. Ectotherm animals survive cold conditions by avoiding it by extensive supercooling (freezing avoidant species) or by bearing the freezing of their extracellular body fluids (freezing tolerant species). Although some studies on cold hardiness are available for intertidal molluscs, they are scarce for freshwater and terrestrial ones. Molluscs often exhibit intermediary levels of cold hardiness, with a moderate or low ability to supercool and a limited survival to the freezing of their tissues. Several factors could be involved: their dependence on water, their ability to enter dormancy, the probability of inoculative freezing in their environment, etc. Size is an important parameter in the development of cold hardiness abilities: it influences supercooling ability in land snails, which are rather freezing avoidant and survival to ice formation in intertidal organisms, which generally tolerate freezing.

  10. Colds and flus - antibiotics

    MedlinePlus

    Fashner J, Ericson K, Werner S. Treatment of the common cold in children and adults. Am Fam Physician. 2012; ... gov/pubmed/22962927 . Melio FR, Berge LR. Upper respiratory tract infections. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ...

  11. Coping with Colds

    MedlinePlus

    ... re hungry. And you might have heard that chicken soup can cure a cold. There's no real ... you have strep throat and need treatment with antibiotics. If your doctor does prescribe antibiotics, be sure ...

  12. The cold reading technique.

    PubMed

    Dutton, D L

    1988-04-15

    For many people, belief in the paranormal derives from personal experience of face-to-face interviews with astrologers, palm readers, aura and Tarot readers, and spirit mediums. These encounters typically involve cold reading, a process in which a reader makes calculated guesses about a client's background and problems and, depending on the reaction, elaborates a reading which seems to the client so uniquely appropriate that it carries with it the illusion of having been produced by paranormal means. The cold reading process is shown to depend initially on the Barnum effect, the tendency for people to embrace generalized personality descriptions as idiosyncratically their own. Psychological research into the Barnum effect is critically reviewed, and uses of the effect by a professional magician are described. This is followed by detailed analysis of the cold reading performances of a spirit medium. Future research should investigate the degree to which cold readers may have convinced themselves that they actually possess psychic or paranormal abilities.

  13. Improved shelf life of dried Beauveria bassiana blastospores using convective drying and active packaging processes.

    PubMed

    Mascarin, Gabriel Moura; Jackson, Mark A; Behle, Robert W; Kobori, Nilce N; Júnior, Ítalo Delalibera

    2016-10-01

    The yeast form (blastospore) of the dimorphic insect-pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana can be rapidly produced using liquid fermentation methods but is generally unable to survive rapid dehydration processes or storage under non-refrigerated conditions. In this study, we evaluated the influence of two convective drying methods, various modified atmosphere packaging systems, and storage temperatures on the desiccation tolerance, storage stability, and virulence of blastospores of B. bassiana ESALQ 1432. All blastospore formulations were dried to <5 % water content equivalent to aw < 0.3. The viability of B. bassiana blastospores after air drying and spray drying was greater than 80 %. Vacuum-packaged blastospores remained viable longer when stored at 4 °C compared with 28 °C with virtually no loss in viability over 9 months regardless the drying method. When both oxygen and moisture scavengers were added to sealed packages of dried blastospore formulations stored at 28 °C, viability was significantly prolonged for both air- and spray-dried blastospores. The addition of ascorbic acid during spray drying did not improve desiccation tolerance but enhanced cell stability (∼twofold higher half-life) when stored at 28 °C. After storage for 4 months at 28 °C, air-dried blastospores produced a lower LC80 and resulted in higher mortality to whitefly nymphs (Bemisia tabaci) when compared with spray-dried blastospores. These studies identified key storage conditions (low aw and oxygen availability) that improved blastospore storage stability at 28 °C and will facilitate the commercial development of blastospores-based bioinsecticides.

  14. Materials for ultra-high vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, G.

    1989-08-15

    This report discusses materials for use in ultrahigh vacuum systems of 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} Torr or lower. The author briefly discusses alloys, solders, insulators and joining methods for vacuum systems. (JDL)

  15. Vacuum casting of thick polymeric films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, E. F.; Moacanin, J.

    1979-01-01

    Bubble formation and layering, which often plague vacuum-evaporated films, are prevented by properly regulating process parameters. Vacuum casting may be applicable to forming thick films of other polymer/solvent solutions.

  16. Ceramic-to-metal vacuum seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sackerlotzky, O. H.

    1979-01-01

    Knife-edge sealing technique forms reliable, vacuum-tight bonds between materials having very different thermal-expansion characteristics. Seal is thin and flexible and absorb shear, hoop, and bonding stresses at joint so that seal remains vacuum tight.

  17. D-0 North End Cap Calorimeter Cold Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, J.; /Fermilab

    1990-08-02

    The North endcap calorimeter vessel was recieved on July 1, 1990. A cooldown of the pressure vessel with liquid nitrogen was performed on July 10-11 to check the vessel's integrity. With the pressure vessel cold, the insulating vacuum was monitored for leaks. Through out the testing, the insulating vacuum remained good and the vessel passed the test. The cold test was carried out per the procedures of D-Zero engineering note 3740.220-EN-250. The test was very similar to the cold test performed on the Central Calorimeter in October of 1987. Reference D-Zero engineering notes 3740.210-EN-122, 3740.000-EN107, and 3740.210-EN-110 for information about the CC cold test. The insulating vacuum space was pumped on while equipment was being connected to the pressure vessel. Two hours after starting to pump with the blower the vacuum space pressure was at about 210 microns. Pumping on the vacuum space for the next 15 hours showed no progress and a leak detector was connected to the pumping line. A leak check showed a leak in a thermocouple feedthru on the vacuum space relief plate. After fixing the leak, the pressure dropped to 16 microns in less than one hour. A rate of rise test was performed starting at a pressure of 13 microns. The pressure rose to 39 microns within 8 minutes and then only rose to 43 microns in 2.5 hours (1.6 microns/hour). After all connections were made to the pressure vessel, a vacuum pump with an estimated effective pumping speed of about 70 scfm was valved on. The lowest pressure achieved after 2 days of pumping was 80 microns. Valving out the pump for 30 minutes resulted in a 5 micron per minute rate of rise. The rate of rise was considered acceptable since there were known leak paths through the bolts of the signal ports. The EC North vessel was rolled outside of Lab A in preparation for a 5000 gallon liquid nitrogen trailer which arrived July, 10 at 8:00am. Before filling the vessel, the vacuum space pump was valved off. The pressure in the

  18. Dry eye syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... of dry eyes include: Dry environment or workplace (wind, air conditioning) Sun exposure Smoking or second-hand ... NOT smoke and avoid second-hand smoke, direct wind, and air conditioning. Use a humidifier, especially in ...

  19. A Review of Maintenance of Vacuum inside Vacuum Insulation Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chun Guang; Xu, Lie

    The growing concerns over global energy crisis and the phasing out of polyurethane foams blown with CFC-11, which has high Ozone Depletion Potential(ODP), have pushed thermal insulation technology to improve its efficiency. Vacuum Insulation Panel(VIP) has been regarded as a super thermal insulation material with a thermal resistance of about 5-10 times higher than conventional thermal insulation. Appropriate vacuum in VIP is one of the most important factors contributing to the long term heat insulation performance of VIP. In this paper, the researches on three factors, which influence internal pressure inside VIP, including gas and water vapor permeation through the barrier, gas absorption by getters and desiccants and outgassing of the kernel, were reviewed respectively. Following this, the research emphasis and suggestions, which should be paid attention to, were summarized.

  20. Switching Circuit for Shop Vacuum System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, R. K.

    1987-01-01

    No internal connections to machine tools required. Switching circuit controls vacuum system draws debris from grinders and sanders in machine shop. Circuit automatically turns on vacuum system whenever at least one sander or grinder operating. Debris safely removed, even when operator neglects to turn on vacuum system manually. Pickup coils sense alternating magnetic fields just outside operating machines. Signal from any coil or combination of coils causes vacuum system to be turned on.

  1. Freeze-drying today and tomorrow.

    PubMed

    Leary, J H; Stanford, E A

    1976-10-01

    The freeze-drying process and equipment have been improved over the years; the cycle times have shortened and the dried products have improved as a result. This talk will deal with these improvements and how we have progressed from the early systems to where we are today. Such areas of discussion will include: vacuum pumping systems, how they are sized and designed to meet the needs for general and special applications; heat transfer systems, and their use in maintaining the drying profile; condensing surface design, and what is best for certain types of dryers; controls and instrumentation, and how these have played a big part in the drying process and have made it possible to get repeatability; refrigeration systems, and the part they play in the performance of freeze-drying; and lastly the effect of internal stoppering, bottomless trays, and other items such as these have had on the present state of the art. It goes without saying that there have been many changes and there will continue to be changes and we shall endeavor to look into the future--as to what might well bo some of these changes. Included in the talk will be a number of slides and illustrations to point out the various items as they are discussed.

  2. Gravitational vacuum polarization. II. Energy conditions in the Boulware vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, M.

    1996-10-01

    Building on techniques developed in the preceding paper, I investigate the various pointwise and averaged energy conditions for the quantum stress-energy tensor corresponding to a conformally coupled massless scalar field in the Boulware vacuum. I work in the test-field limit, restrict attention to the Schwarzschild geometry, and invoke a mixture of analytical and numerical techniques. In contradistinction to the case of the Hartle-Hawking vacuum, wherein violations of the energy conditions were confined to the region between the event horizon and the unstable photon orbit, I show that in the Boulware vacuum (1) all standard (pointwise and averaged) energy conditions are violated throughout the exterior region, all the way from spatial infinity down to the event horizon, and (2) outside the event horizon the standard pointwise energy conditions are violated in a maximal manner: They are violated at all points and for all null or timelike vectors. (The region inside the event horizon is considerably messier and of dubious physical relevance. Nevertheless, the standard pointwise energy conditions seem to be violated even inside the event horizon.) I argue that this is highly suggestive evidence, pointing to the fact that general self-consistent solutions of semiclassical quantum gravity might {ital not} satisfy the energy conditions and may in fact for certain quantum fields and certain quantum states violate {ital all} the energy conditions. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  3. 14 CFR 29.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 29.1433 Section 29.1433... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 29.1433 Vacuum systems. (a... the discharge lines from the vacuum air pump when the delivery temperature of the air becomes...

  4. 46 CFR 154.804 - Vacuum protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vacuum protection. 154.804 Section 154.804 Shipping... Systems § 154.804 Vacuum protection. (a) Except as allowed under paragraph (b) of this section, each cargo tank must have a vacuum protection system meeting paragraph (a)(1) of this section and either...

  5. Utilize Vacuum Forming to Make Interdisciplinary Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Tyler S.; Valenza, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The concept of vacuum forming has been around since the 19th century, despite not being fully utilized in industry until the 1950s. In the past, industrial arts classes have used vacuum-forming projects to concentrate solely on the manufacturing process and the final product. However, vacuum forming is not just an old industrial arts activity; it…

  6. 14 CFR 29.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 29.1433 Section 29.1433... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 29.1433 Vacuum systems. (a... the discharge lines from the vacuum air pump when the delivery temperature of the air becomes...

  7. 14 CFR 25.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 25.1433 Section 25.1433... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1433 Vacuum systems. There... discharge lines from the vacuum air pump when the delivery temperature of the air becomes unsafe....

  8. 14 CFR 25.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 25.1433 Section 25.1433... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1433 Vacuum systems. There... discharge lines from the vacuum air pump when the delivery temperature of the air becomes unsafe....

  9. 46 CFR 154.804 - Vacuum protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vacuum protection. 154.804 Section 154.804 Shipping... Systems § 154.804 Vacuum protection. (a) Except as allowed under paragraph (b) of this section, each cargo tank must have a vacuum protection system meeting paragraph (a)(1) of this section and either...

  10. 46 CFR 154.804 - Vacuum protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vacuum protection. 154.804 Section 154.804 Shipping... Systems § 154.804 Vacuum protection. (a) Except as allowed under paragraph (b) of this section, each cargo tank must have a vacuum protection system meeting paragraph (a)(1) of this section and either...

  11. 14 CFR 25.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 25.1433 Section 25.1433... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1433 Vacuum systems. There... discharge lines from the vacuum air pump when the delivery temperature of the air becomes unsafe....

  12. 14 CFR 25.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 25.1433 Section 25.1433... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1433 Vacuum systems. There... discharge lines from the vacuum air pump when the delivery temperature of the air becomes unsafe....

  13. 14 CFR 29.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 29.1433 Section 29.1433... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 29.1433 Vacuum systems. (a... the discharge lines from the vacuum air pump when the delivery temperature of the air becomes...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 25.1433 Section 25.1433... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1433 Vacuum systems. There... discharge lines from the vacuum air pump when the delivery temperature of the air becomes unsafe....

  15. 14 CFR 29.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 29.1433 Section 29.1433... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 29.1433 Vacuum systems. (a... the discharge lines from the vacuum air pump when the delivery temperature of the air becomes...

  16. 46 CFR 154.804 - Vacuum protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vacuum protection. 154.804 Section 154.804 Shipping... Systems § 154.804 Vacuum protection. (a) Except as allowed under paragraph (b) of this section, each cargo tank must have a vacuum protection system meeting paragraph (a)(1) of this section and either...

  17. 14 CFR 29.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 29.1433 Section 29.1433... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 29.1433 Vacuum systems. (a... the discharge lines from the vacuum air pump when the delivery temperature of the air becomes...

  18. Teaching in a Cold Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert, Alan

    1979-01-01

    Designed to help teachers deal with students in a cold environment, this article explains cold physiology and fundamental laws of heat; describes 14 common cold injuries and their current treatment; and lists a number of useful teaching techniques for cold environments. (SB)

  19. Teaching in a Cold Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert, Alan

    Instructors who teach outdoors in an environment so cold as to cause injury must satisfy program objectives while avoiding cold injury to themselves and students, help students focus on learning instead of discomfort, and alleviate some students' intense fear of the cold. Dealing with the cold successfully requires a thorough knowledge of:…

  20. Understanding Colds: Anatomy of the Nose

    MedlinePlus

    ... Colds Prevention Treatment Children Complications Special Features References Common Cold Understanding Colds Anatomy of the Nose The nose ... cm (3/8 inch) per minute. What a Common Cold Is A common cold is an illness caused ...

  1. Encapsulation of black carrot juice using spray and freeze drying.

    PubMed

    Murali, S; Kar, Abhijit; Mohapatra, Debabandya; Kalia, Pritam

    2015-12-01

    Black carrot juice extracted using pectinase enzyme was encapsulated in three different carrier materials (maltodextrin 20DE, gum arabic and tapioca starch) using spray drying at four inlet temperatures (150, 175, 200 and 225 ℃) and freeze drying at a constant temperature of - 53 ℃ and vacuum of 0.22-0.11 mbar with the constant feed mixture. The products were analyzed for total anthocyanin content, antioxidant activity, water solubility index, encapsulation efficiency and total colour change. For both the drying methods followed in this study, maltodextrin 20DE as the carrier material has proven to be better in retaining maximum anthocyanin and antioxidant activity compared to gum arabic and tapioca starch. The best spray dried product, was obtained at 150 ℃. The most acceptable was the freeze dried product with maximum anthocyanin content, antioxidant activity, water solubility index, encapsulation efficiency and colour change.

  2. Dry influenza vaccines: towards a stable, effective and convenient alternative to conventional parenteral influenza vaccination.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Jasmine; Born, Philip A; Frijlink, Henderik W; Hinrichs, Wouter L J

    2016-11-01

    Cold-chain requirements, limited stockpiling potential and the lack of potent immune responses are major challenges of parenterally formulated influenza vaccines. Decreased cold chain dependence and stockpiling can be achieved if vaccines are formulated in a dry state using suitable excipients and drying technologies. Furthermore, having the vaccine in a dry state enables the development of non-parenteral patient friendly dosage forms: microneedles for transdermal administration, tablets for oral administration, and powders for epidermal, nasal or pulmonary administration. Moreover, these administration routes have the potential to elicit an improved immune response. This review highlights the rationale for the development of dried influenza vaccines, as well as processes used for the drying and stabilization of influenza vaccines; it also compares the immunogenicity of dried influenza vaccines administered via non-invasive routes with that of parenterally administered influenza vaccines. Finally, it discusses unmet needs, challenges and future developments in the field of dried influenza vaccines.

  3. Decoherence delays false vacuum decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachlechner, Thomas C.

    2013-05-01

    We show that gravitational interactions between massless thermal modes and a nucleating Coleman-de Luccia bubble may lead to efficient decoherence and strongly suppress metastable vacuum decay for bubbles that are small compared to the Hubble radius. The vacuum decay rate including gravity and thermal photon interactions has the exponential scaling \\Gamma \\sim \\Gamma _{CDL}^{2}, where ΓCDL is the Coleman-de Luccia decay rate neglecting photon interactions. For the lowest metastable initial state an efficient quantum Zeno effect occurs due to thermal radiation of temperatures as low as the de Sitter temperature. This strong decoherence effect is a consequence of gravitational interactions with light external mode. We argue that efficient decoherence does not occur for the case of Hawking-Moss decay. This observation is consistent with requirements set by Poincaré recurrence in de Sitter space.

  4. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    William S. McPhee

    2001-08-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) needs improved technologies to decontaminate large areas of both concrete and steel surfaces. The technology should have high operational efficiency, minimize exposures to workers, and produce low levels of secondary waste. In order to meet the DOE's needs, an applied research and development project for the improvement of a current decontamination technology, Vacuum Blasting, is proposed. The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of the existing vacuum blasting technology which has been widely used in DOE sites for removing radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint. The proposed work would increase the productivity rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites.

  5. Deflated--victims of vacuum.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Roy E

    2007-04-11

    Atmospheric pressure combined with a partial vacuum within chemical plant or refinery tanks can result in some ego-deflating moments. This article will review three catastrophic vessel failures in detail and touch on several other incidents. A 4000-gal acid tank was destroyed by a siphoning action; a well maintained tank truck was destroyed during a routine delivery; and a large, brand new refinery mega-vessel collapsed as the steam within it condensed. Seasoned engineers are aware of the frail nature of tanks and provide safeguards or procedures to limit damages. The purpose of this paper is to ensure this new generation of chemical plant/refinery employees understand the problems of the past and take the necessary precautions to guard against tank damages created by partial vacuum conditions.

  6. Open vacuum tube in space.

    PubMed

    Gonfalone, A A; Arends, H J

    1979-11-01

    After having reviewed briefly the reliability of vacuum tubes on spacecraft, it is shown that the operation in space of a vacuum tube with an open structure is possible provided adequate measures are taken. The tube considered here is a multielectrode electron gun emitting electrons into space, in order to control the potential of a satellite. To avoid the failure of the most sensitive element of the gun, namely the impregnated tungsten cathode, the gun design includes such characteristics as a slow warming up of the heater element, a reactivation program used in case of cathode contamination, and a clean opening system which is not contaminant. Similarities with communication tubes are considered and the advantages of open tubes are mentioned.

  7. Radiation reaction in quantum vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seto, Keita

    2015-02-01

    Since the development of the radiating electron theory by P. A. M. Dirac in 1938 [P. A. M. Dirac, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 167, 148 (1938)], many authors have tried to reformulate this model, called the "radiation reaction". Recently, this equation has become important for ultra-intense laser-electron (plasma) interactions. In our recent research, we found a stabilized model of the radiation reaction in quantum vacuum [K. Seto et al., Prog. Theor. Exp. Phys. 2014, 043A01 (2014)]. It led us to an updated Fletcher-Millikan charge-to-mass ratio including radiation. In this paper, I will discuss the generalization of our previous model and the new equation of motion with the radiation reaction in quantum vacuum via photon-photon scatterings and also introduce the new tensor d{E}^{μ ν α β }/dm, as the anisotropy of the charge-to-mass ratio.

  8. In-vacuum exposure shutter

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Terry A.; Replogle, William C.; Bernardez, Luis J.

    2004-06-01

    An in-vacuum radiation exposure shutter device can be employed to regulate a large footprint light beam. The shutter device includes (a) a source of radiation that generates an energy beam; (2) a shutter that includes (i) a frame defining an aperture toward which the energy beam is directed and (ii) a plurality of blades that are secured to the frame; and (3) device that rotates the shutter to cause the plurality of blades to intercept or allow the energy beam to travel through the aperture. Each blade can have a substantially planar surface and the plurality of blades are secured to the frame such that the planar surfaces of the plurality of blades are substantially parallel to each other. The shutter device is particularly suited for operation in a vacuum environment and can achieve shuttering speeds from about 0.1 second to 0.001 second or faster.

  9. Dry deposition velocities

    SciTech Connect

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1984-03-01

    Dry deposition velocities are very difficult to predict accurately. In this article, reported values of dry deposition velocities are summarized. This summary includes values from the literature on field measurements of gas and particle dry deposition velocities, and the uncertainties inherent in extrapolating field results to predict dry deposition velocities are discussed. A new method is described for predicting dry deposition velocity using a least-squares correlation of surface mass transfer resistances evaluated in wind tunnel experiments. 14 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  10. Structure of drying costs

    SciTech Connect

    Sztabert, Z.T.

    1996-05-01

    A knowledge of cost structure and cost behavior is necessary in the management activities, particularly in the domain of investment or production decision making, as well as in the areas of production cost planning and control. Prediction and analysis of values of cost components for different technologies of drying are important when selection of a drying method and drying equipment should be done. Cost structures of lumber and coal drying processes together with an application of the factor method for prediction of the drying cost are presented.

  11. Cold moderators at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, A. T.

    1997-09-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) cold moderators were not an 'Oak Ridge first', but would have been the largest both physically and in terms of cold neutron flux. Two cold moderators were planned each 410 mm in diameter and containing about 30L of liquid deuterium. They were to be completely independent of each other. A modular system design was used to provide greater reliability and serviceability. When the ANS was terminated, up–grading of the resident High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) was examined and an initial study was made into the feasibility of adding a cold source. Because the ANS design was modular, it was possible to use many identical design features. Sub-cooled liquid at 4 bar abs was initially chosen for the HFIR design concept, but this was subsequently changed to 15 bar abs to operate above the critical pressure. As in the ANS, the hydrogen will operate at a constant pressure throughout the temperature range and a completely closed loop with secondary containment was adopted. The heat load of 2 kW made the heat flux comparable with that of the ANS. Subsequent studies into the construction of cryogenic moderators for the proposed new Synchrotron Neutron source indicated that again many of the same design concepts could be used. By connecting the two cold sources together in series, the total heat load of 2 kW is very close to that of the HFIR allowing a very similar supercritical hydrogen system to be configured. The two hydrogen moderators of the SNS provide a comparable heat load to the HFIR moderator. It is subsequently planned to connect the two in series and operate from a single cold loop system, once again using supercritical hydrogen. The spallation source also provided an opportunity to re-examine a cold pellet solid methane moderator operating at 20K.

  12. Matrix assisted ionization in vacuum, a sensitive and widely applicable ionization method for mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Trimpin, Sarah; Inutan, Ellen D

    2013-05-01

    An astonishingly simple new method to produce gas-phase ions of small molecules as well as proteins from the solid state under cold vacuum conditions is described. This matrix assisted ionization vacuum (MAIV) mass spectrometry (MS) method produces multiply charged ions similar to those that typify electrospray ionization (ESI) and uses sample preparation methods that are nearly identical to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI). Unlike these established methods, MAIV does not require a laser or voltage for ionization, and unlike the recently introduced matrix assisted ionization inlet method, does not require added heat. MAIV-MS requires only introduction of a crystalline mixture of the analyte incorporated with a suitable small molecule matrix compound such as 3-nitrobenzonitrile directly to the vacuum of the mass spectrometer. Vacuum intermediate pressure MALDI sources and modified ESI sources successfully produce ions for analysis by MS with this method. As in ESI-MS, ion formation is continuous and, without a laser, little chemical background is observed. MAIV, operating from a surface offers the possibility of significantly improved sensitivity relative to atmospheric pressure ionization because ions are produced in the vacuum region of the mass spectrometer eliminating losses associated with ion transfer from atmospheric pressure to vacuum. Mechanistic aspects and potential applications for this new ionization method are discussed.

  13. 6 MV Vacuum Voltmeter Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    reversed). The draw rod compresses o-ring seals between the insulators and rings to allow operation in vacuum. The insulator outer surfaces are coated...small-diameter ends, and have toroidal conductors attached at their large-diameter ends. The field shaper surfaces are treated to increase the...the direction to emit electrons toward the VVM insulator stack. The field magnitude is about 0.5 MV/cm, and would probably emit without the surface

  14. Low-Cost "Vacuum Desiccator"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweet, Frederick

    2004-10-01

    Described are individualized, low-cost, and safe desiccators that can be efficiently and rapidly made with an inexpensive kitchen aid sold for shrink-wrapping food. The device can be used for enclosing small vials or bottles and also jars that are too large to be placed in conventional glass or plastic desiccators. This shrink-wrapping device is proposed for producing "vacuum desiccators" in large undergraduate chemistry laboratories or in graduate and research laboratories.

  15. The solar vacuum water pump

    SciTech Connect

    Ryduchowski, K.W.

    1983-12-01

    In this paper the conception of the solar vacuum water pump is presented. The working medium of the pump consists of the water vapour with temperature about 100/sup 0/C, which is produced by solar energy Fresnel-lens collector. The pressure difference between the condensing chamber /3/ and ambient atmosphere caused by the direct condensation of the water vapour at the surface of the pumped water, creates the necessary pumping force.

  16. Improved Vacuum-Tight Connector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudin, Frank

    1989-01-01

    Simple reinforcing tube increases service life and improves seal. Short stainless-steel tube inserted in copper tube to reinforce against compression, preventing leaks due to thermal distortion or to collapse under squeeze of ferrule in compressure fitting. Several test specimens of improved connector constructed, tested, and evaluated. Fittings not only operated successfully at required operating conditions of vacuum and temperature but also consistently demonstrated high reliability after loosened and tightened many times.

  17. Random numbers from vacuum fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yicheng; Chng, Brenda; Kurtsiefer, Christian

    2016-07-01

    We implement a quantum random number generator based on a balanced homodyne measurement of vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. The digitized signal is directly processed with a fast randomness extraction scheme based on a linear feedback shift register. The random bit stream is continuously read in a computer at a rate of about 480 Mbit/s and passes an extended test suite for random numbers.

  18. Vacuum distillation of americium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J W; Knighton, J B; Nannie, C A

    1982-01-22

    High-purity americium metal has been distilled in multigram quantities from a plutonium-americium alloy. The procedure consisted of a two-stage vacuum distillation carried out at 1200/sup 0/C and 10/sup -6/ torr pressure. Four batches of americium metal were produced ranging in weight from 13.3 grams to 54.1 grams. The purity of the americium product ranged from 99.27 to 99.79%.

  19. Matter, spacetime and the vacuum.

    PubMed

    Overduin, J; Fahr, H J

    2001-12-01

    We distinguish three historical and scientific views of matter, spacetime, and the relationship between them: the absolute approach of Newton, the relational approach most often associated with Mach, and a third, geometrical approach which inspired Einstein and continues to drive efforts toward a unified theory of fundamental interactions today. Which is correct? We suggest that this is, to a large extent, an "ill-posed question," reminiscent of the wave/particle debate in earlier times. The boundary between matter and spacetime is no longer easy to draw, and it is likely that they are complementary aspects of the same reality. There is no clearer illustration of this than the modern view of the vacuum. We review the importance of this concept in cosmology, and explore the extent to which the old idea of an "empty" vacuum might still be maintained. If the real cosmological vacuum is far from empty, as observations now suggest, then it may be possible to achieve an even simpler goal: a Universe with a net energy of zero.

  20. Cosmic vacuum and galaxy formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernin, A. D.

    2006-04-01

    It is demonstrated that the protogalactic perturbations must enter the nonlinear regime before the red shift z≈ 1; otherwise they would be destroyed by the antigravity of the vacuum dark energy at the subsequent epoch of the vacuum domination. At the zrrV={M/[(8π/3)ρV]}1/3, where M is the mass of a given over-density and ρV is the vacuum density. The criterion provides a new relation between the largest mass condensations and their spatial scales. All the real large-scale systems follow this relation definitely. It is also shown that a simple formula is possible for the key quantity in the theory of galaxy formation, namely the initial amplitude of the perturbation of the gravitational potential in the protogalactic structures. The amplitude is time independent and given in terms of the Friedmann integrals, which are genuine physical characteristics of the cosmic energies. The results suggest that there is a strong correspondence between the global design of the Universe as a whole and the cosmic structures of various masses and spatial scales.