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Sample records for cold water-washed cut

  1. Investigation of water washes suitable for very small meat plants to reduce pathogens on beef surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Sally Flowers; Henning, William R; Mills, Edward W; Doores, Stephanie; Ostiguy, Nancy; Cutter, Catherine N

    2010-05-01

    Water washing with a handheld hose was performed on beef surfaces to ascertain the most effective combination of methods needed to remove potentially harmful microorganisms. For these experiments, beef brisket surfaces were experimentally inoculated with a fecal slurry containing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter jejuni. In a pilot study, surfaces were washed with cold water (15 degrees C) at various water pressures, spray distances, application times, and drip times, and remaining bacterial populations were determined following the enumeration and isolation of pathogens and naturally occurring hygiene indicators (mesophilic aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and E. coli). The most efficacious combinations of these washing conditions were applied subsequently to artificially contaminated beef brisket surfaces in conjunction with hot (77 degrees C), warm (54 degrees C), and additional cold (15 degrees C) water washes. In the cold water washing pilot study, combinations of physical washing conditions significantly reduced all bacterial populations (P < 0.05). Further studies clearly indicated the superior bactericidal effectiveness of hot water washing; E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium were reduced by 3.8 and 4.1 log CFU/cm(2), respectively. Overall, higher water temperature, longer application times, and shorter spray distances more effectively removed pathogens from inoculated beef surfaces. These findings will be used to formulate water washing recommendations for very small meat processing establishments.

  2. HIGH-SPEED CUTTING OF LARGE CROSS SECTION OF COLD METAL,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    CASTINGS, * CUTTING ), (*COLD WORKING, EFFECTIVENESS), CUTTING TOOLS, STEEL, ALLOYS, RECTANGULAR BODIES, STRESSES, MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS, RODS, DEFORMATION, MICROSTRUCTURE, CRACK PROPAGATION, TIME, USSR

  3. Water wash apparatus for cleaning radioactively contaminated garments

    SciTech Connect

    Sewter, B.R.; Jarvis, T.A.; Kirchner, M.A.; Prisco, A.J. Jr.; Bonneau, A.M.; Trendler, K.E.; Briggs, W.E.; Godfrey, L.E.

    1990-03-20

    This patent describes an apparatus for water washing fabrics and removing radioactive contaminants therefrom without the generation of liquid effluents. It comprises: a washing machine means for washing the fabrics having a wash water inlet, a rinse water inlet, and an outlet, and a hydraulically closed wash water system which includes a reservoir means of polished water connected to the wash water inlet of the machine means, a particulate filtration means connected to the outlet for removing particulate impurities from the wash water discharged from the outlet, and a water polishing means connected between the particulate filtration means and the wash water inlet for supplying the reservoir means with filtered and polished water.

  4. Effects of soap-water wash on human epidermal penetration.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hanjiang; Jung, Eui-Chang; Phuong, Christina; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard

    2016-08-01

    Skin decontamination is a primary interventional method used to decrease dermal absorption of hazardous contaminants, including chemical warfare agents, pesticides and industrial pollutants. Soap and water wash, the most common and readily available decontamination system, may enhance percutaneous absorption through the "wash-in effect." To understand better the effect of soap-water wash on percutaneous penetration, and provide insight to improving skin decontamination methods, in vitro human epidermal penetration rates of four C(14) -labeled model chemicals (hydroquinone, clonidine, benzoic acid and paraoxon) were assayed using flow-through diffusion cells. Stratum corneum (SC) absorption rates of these chemicals at various hydration levels (0-295% of the dry SC weights) were determined and compared with the results of the epidermal penetration study to clarify the effect of SC hydration on skin permeability. Results showed accelerated penetration curves of benzoic acid and paraoxon after surface wash at 30 min postdosing. Thirty minutes after washing (60 min postdosing), penetration rates of hydroquinone and benzoic acid decreased due to reduced amounts of chemical on the skin surface and in the SC. At the end of the experiment (90 min postdosing), a soap-water wash resulted in lower hydroquinone penetration, greater paraoxon penetration and similar levels of benzoic acid and clonidine penetration compared to penetration levels in the non-wash groups. The observed wash-in effect agrees with the enhancement effect of SC hydration on the SC chemical absorption rate. These results suggest SC hydration derived from surface wash to be one cause of the wash-in effect. Further, the occurrence of a wash-in effect is dependent on chemical identity and elapsed time between exposure and onset of decontamination. By reducing chemical residue quantity on skin surface and in the SC reservoir, the soap-water wash may decrease the total quantity of chemical absorbed in the

  5. Decontamination of fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables with cold plasma technology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Contamination of fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables by foodborne pathogens has prompted research into novel interventions. Cold plasma is a nonthermal food processing technology which uses energetic, reactive gases to inactivate contaminating microbes. This flexible sanitizing method uses ele...

  6. Cold atmospheric plasma disinfection of cut fruit surfaces contaminated with migrating microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Perni, Stefano; Shama, Gilbert; Kong, M G

    2008-08-01

    The efficacy of cold atmospheric gas plasmas against Escherichia coli type 1, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Gluconobacter liquefaciens, and Listeria monocytogenes Scott A was examined on inoculated membrane filters and inoculated fruit surfaces. Inoculated samples were exposed to a cold atmospheric plasma plume generated by an AC voltage of 8 kV at 30 kHz. The cold atmospheric plasma used in this study was very efficient in reducing the microbial load on the surfaces of filter membranes. However, its efficacy was markedly reduced for microorganisms on the cut surfaces. This lack of effect was not the result of quenching of reactive plasma species responsible for microbial inactivation but principally the result of the migration of microorganisms from the exterior of the fruit tissue to its interior. The velocity of migration through melon tissues was estimated to be around 300 microm min(-1) for E. coli and S. cerevisiae and through mango tissues to be 75 to 150 microm min(-1). These data can serve as operational targets for optimizing the performance of gas plasma inactivation processes. The current capabilities of cold atmospheric plasmas are reviewed and ways to improve their bactericidal efficacy are identified and discussed. Considerable scope exists to enhance significantly the efficacy of cold atmospheric plasmas for decontaminating fresh cut fruits.

  7. Experimental Investigation of Tensile Test on Connection of Cold-formed Cut-curved Steel Section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sani, Mohd Syahrul Hisyam Mohd; Muftah, Fadhluhartini; Rahman, Nurul Farraheeda Abdul; Fakri Muda, Mohd

    2017-08-01

    Cold-formed steel (CFS) is widely used as structural and non-structural components such as roof trusses and purlin. A CFS channel section with double intermediate web stiffener and lipped is chosen based on the broader usage in roof truss construction. CFS section is cut to form cold-formed pre-cut-curved steel section and lastly strengthened by several types of method or likely known as connection to establish the cold-formed cut-curved steel (CFCCS) section. CFCCS is proposed to be used as a top chord section in the roof truss system. The CFCCS is to resist the buckling phenomena of the roof truss structure and reduced the compression effect on the top chord. The tensile test connection of CFCCS section, especially at the flange element with eight types of connection by welding, plate with self-drilling screw and combination is investigated. The flange element is the weakest part that must be solved first other than the web element because they are being cut totally, 100% of their length for curving process. The testing is done using a universal testing machine for a tensile load. From the experiment, specimen with full welding has shown as a good result with an ultimate load of 13.37 kN and reported having 35.41% when compared with normal specimen without any of connection methods. Furthermore, the experimental result is distinguished by using Eurocode 3. The failure of a full welding specimen is due to breaking at the welding location. Additionally, all specimens with either full weld or spot weld or combination failed due to breaking on weld connection, but specimen with flange plate and self-drilling screw failed due to tilting and bearing. Finally, the full welding specimen is chosen as a good connection to perform the strengthening method of CFCCS section.

  8. Tension Behaviour on the Connection of the Cold-Formed Cut-Curved Steel Channel Section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sani, Mohd Syahrul Hisyam Mohd; Muftah, Fadhluhartini; Fakri Muda, Mohd; Siang Tan, Cher

    2017-08-01

    Cold-formed steel (CFS) are utilised as a non-structural and structural element in construction activity especially a residential house and small building roof truss system. CFS with a lot of advantages and some of disadvantages such as buckling that must be prevented for roof truss production are being studied equally. CFS was used as a top chord of the roof truss system which normally a slender section is dramatically influenced to buckling failure and instability of the structure. So, the curved section is produced for a top chord for solving the compression member of the roof truss. Besides, there are lacked of design and production information about the CFS curved channel section. In the study, the CFS is bent by using a cut-curved method because of ease of production, without the use of skilled labour and high cost machine. The tension behaviour of the strengthening method of cut-curved or could be recognised as a connection of the cut-curved section was tested and analysed. There are seven types of connection was selected. From the testing and observation, it is shown the specimen with full weld along the cut section and adds with flange element plate with two self-drilling screws (F7A) was noted to have a higher value of ultimate load. Finally, there are three alternative methods of connection for CFS cut-curved that could be a reference for a contractor and further design.

  9. Suitability of gamma irradiation for preserving fresh-cut watercress quality during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Pinela, José; Barreira, João C M; Barros, Lillian; Verde, Sandra Cabo; Antonio, Amilcar L; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-09-01

    The suitability of gamma irradiation (1, 2 and 5kGy) for preserving quality parameters of fresh-cut watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.) during storage at 4±1°C for 7d was investigated. The storage time decreased the protein content and the main carbohydrates, and increased the levels of malic and fumaric acids, sucrose and mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and PUFA). The different irradiation doses did not caused any significant colour change. In general, the 2kGy dose favoured PUFA and was the most suitable to preserve the overall postharvest quality of fresh-cut watercress during cold storage. In turn, the 5kGy dose better preserved the antioxidant activity and total flavonoids and favoured MUFA, tocopherols and total phenolics, thus originating a final product with enhanced functional properties. Therefore, the suitability of gamma irradiation for preserving fresh-cut watercress quality during cold storage was demonstrated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Water washes and caustic leaches of sludge from Hanford Tank S-101 and water washes of sludge from Hanford Tank C-103

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, R.D.; Collins, J.L.; Chase, C.W.

    1998-07-01

    In 1993, the Department of Energy (DOE) selected the enhanced sludge washing (ESW) process as the baseline for pretreatment of Hanford tank sludges. The ESW process uses a series of water washes and caustic leaches to separate nonradioactive components such as aluminum, chromium, and phosphate from the high-level waste sludges. If the ESW process is successful, the volume of immobilized high-level waste will be significantly reduced. The tests on the sludge from Hanford Tank S-101 focused on the effects of process variables such as sodium hydroxide concentration (1 and 3 M), temperature (70 and 95 C), and leaching time (5, 24, 72, and 168 h) on the efficacy of the ESW process with realistic liquid-to-solid ratios. Another goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of water washes on a sludge sample from hanford Tank C-103. The final objective of this study was to test potential process control monitors during the water washes and caustic leaches with actual sludge. Both {sup 137}Cs activity and conductance were measured for each of the water washes and caustic leaches. Experimental procedures, a discussion of results, conclusions and recommendations are included in this report.

  11. Effects of drill cuttings on larvae of the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Järnegren, Johanna; Brooke, Sandra; Jensen, Henrik

    2017-03-01

    Fossil fuel consumption is predicted to dominate energy needs until at least 2040. To make up for reduced production from maturing fields, oil and gas exploration activities on the Norwegian continental shelf have greatly increased over the past several years. Strict emission controls have resulted in a substantial reduction in the release of hazardous chemicals. However, because of the increased exploration the discharges of water-based drill cuttings and muds have increased substantially, temporarily increasing water column sediment loads. The stony coral Lophelia pertusa is the most widely distributed and well-studied of the structure forming cold water corals (CWC) and it thrives in Norwegian waters where many reefs are located in the vicinity of oil platforms or exploration areas. This species provides habitat for a diverse and abundant assemblage of invertebrates and fishes, including commercially valuable species. High sediment loads are known to negatively affect adult corals, but impacts on the early life history stages are unknown. We investigated the effects of a range of drill cutting concentrations (0.5-640 ppm) on larvae of L. pertusa at ages five days and 15-20 days. One set of experiments was conducted in static experimental chambers that exposed larvae to decreasing concentrations over time, and the other maintained continuous drill cutting concentrations for the duration of the experiment (24 h). Increased sediment load for a duration of 24 h caused significant larval mortality, but there was an age-dependent difference in sensitivity of larvae. Younger larvae were significantly more susceptible to lower concentrations of drill cuttings than older larvae, while the older larvae were significantly more affected at higher concentrations. Five day old larvae were affected at treatment concentration 40 ppm. The larval cilia became clogged, preventing the larvae from swimming actively and ultimately causing mortality. Larvae of many species use cilia

  12. Effects of water washing and torrefaction pretreatments on rice husk pyrolysis by microwave heating.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuping; Dong, Qing; Zhang, Li; Xiong, Yuanquan; Liu, Xinzhi; Zhu, Shuguang

    2015-10-01

    The influences of water washing, torrefaction and combined water washing-torrefaction pretreatments on microwave pyrolysis of rice husk samples were investigated. The results indicated that the process of combined water washing-torrefaction pretreatment could effectively remove a large portion of inorganics and improve the fuel characteristics to a certain extent. The gas products were rich in combustible compositions and the syngas quality was improved by pretreatment process. The liquid products contained less moisture content, acids and furans, while more concentrated phenols and sugars from microwave pyrolysis of rice husk after pretreatments, especially after the combined water washing-torrefaction pretreatment. Biochar, produced in high yield, has the alkaline pH (pH 8.2-10.0) and high surface area (S(BET) 157.81-267.84 m(2)/g), they have the potential to be used as soil amendments. It is noteworthy that water washing increased the pore surface area of biochar, but torrefaction reduced the pore surface area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cold plasma as an antimicrobial intervention for fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables: an ERRC research update

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Contamination of fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables by foodborne pathogens has prompted research at the Eastern Regional Research Center into novel interventions. Cold plasma is a nonthermal food processing technology which uses energetic, reactive gases to inactivate contaminating microbes. ...

  14. Immobilization of MSWI fly ash through geopolymerization: effects of water-wash.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lei; Wang, Chengwen; Wang, Wei; Shi, Yunchun; Gao, Xingbao

    2011-02-01

    The present research explored the role played by water-wash on geopolymerization for the immobilization and solidification of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash. The water-wash pretreatment substantially promoted the early strength of geopolymer and resulted in a higher ultimate strength compared to the counterpart without water-wash. XRD pattern of water-washed fly ash (WFA) revealed that NaCl and KCl were nearly eliminated in the WFA. Aside from geopolymer, ettringite (Ca(6)Al(2)(SO(4))(3)(OH)(12)·26H(2)O) was formed in MSWI fly ash-based geopolymer (Geo-FA). Meanwhile, calcium aluminate hydrate (Ca(2)Al(OH)(7)·3H(2)O), not ettringite, appeared in geopolymer that was synthesized with water-washed fly ash (Geo-WFA). Leached Geo-WFA (Geo-WFA-L) did not exhibit any signs of deterioration, while there was visual cracking on the surface of leached Geo-FA (Geo-FA-L). The crack may be caused by the migration of K(+), Na(+), and Cl(-) ions outside Geo-FA and the negative effect from crystallization of expansive compounds can not be excluded. Furthermore, transformation of calcium aluminate hydrate in Geo-WFA to ettringite in Geo-WFA-L allowed the reduction of the pore size of the specimen. IR spectrums suggested that Geo-WFA can supply more stable chemical encapsulation for heavy metals. Static monolithic leaching tests were conducted for geopolymers to estimate the immobilization efficiency. Heavy metal leaching was elucidated using the first-order reaction/diffusion model. Combined with the results from compressive strength and microstructure of samples, the effects of water-wash on immobilization were inferred in this study.

  15. Toxin production and growth of pathogens subjected to temperature fluctuations simulating consumer handling of cold cuts.

    PubMed

    Røssvoll, Elin; Rønning, Helene Thorsen; Granum, Per Einar; Møretrø, Trond; Hjerpekjøn, Marianne Røine; Langsrud, Solveig

    2014-08-18

    It is crucial for the quality and safety of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods to maintain the cold chain from production to consumption. The effect of temperature abuse related to daily meals and elevated refrigerator temperatures on the growth and toxin production of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus weihenstephanensis and Staphylococcus aureus and the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica was studied. A case study with temperature loggings in the domestic environment during Easter and Christmas holidays was performed to select relevant time and temperature courses. A model for bacterial surface growth on food using nutrient agar plates exposed to variations in temperatures was used to simulate food stored at different temperatures and exposed to room temperature for short periods of time. The results were compared with predicted growth using the modeling tool ComBase Predictor. The consumers exposed their cold cuts to room temperatures as high as 26.5°C with an average duration of meals was 47 min daily for breakfast/brunch during the vacations. Short (≤ 2 h) daily intervals at 25°C nearly halved the time the different pathogens needed to reach levels corresponding to the levels associated with human infection or intoxication, compared with the controls continuously stored at refrigerator temperature. Although the temperature fluctuations affected growth of both B. weihenstephanensis and S. aureus, toxin production was only detected at much higher cell concentrations than what has been associated with human intoxications. Therefore, growth of L. monocytogenes and Y. enterocolitica was found to be the limiting factor for safety. In combination with data on temperature abuse in the domestic environment, modeling programs such as ComBase Predictor can be efficient tools to predict growth of some pathogens but will not predict toxin production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Neutron-diffraction measurement of residual stresses in Al-Cu cold-cut welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiori, F.; Marcantoni, M.

    Usually, when it is necessary to join different materials with a large difference in their melting points, welding should be avoided. To overcome this problem we designed and built a device to obtain cold-cut welding, which is able to strongly decrease oxidation problems of the surfaces to be welded. Thanks to this device it is possible to achieve good joining between different pairs of materials (Al-Ti, Cu-Al, Cu-Al alloys) without reaching the material melting point. The mechanical and microstructural characterisation of the joining and the validation of its quality were obtained using several experimental methods. In particular, in this work neutron-diffraction experiments for the evaluation of residual stresses in Cu-Al junctions are described, carried out at the G5.2 diffractometer of LLB, Saclay. Neutron-diffraction results are presented and related to other experimental tests such as microstructural characterisation (through optical and scanning electron microscopy) and mechanical characterisation (tensile-strength tests) of the welded interface.

  17. Adhesive properties of water washed cottonseed meal on four types of wood

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The interest in natural product-based wood adhesives has been steadily increasing due to the environmental and sustainable concerns of petroleum-based adhesives. In this work, we reported our research on the utilization of water washed cottonseed meal (WCM) as wood adhesives. The adhesive strength a...

  18. Adhesive properties of water washed cottonseed meal on poplar, douglas fir, walnut, and white oak

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The interest in natural product-based wood adhesives has been steadily increasing due to the environmental and sustainable concerns of petroleum-based adhesives. In this work, we reported our research on utilization of water washed cottonseed meal (WCM) as wood adhesives. The adhesive strength and w...

  19. Cold plasma technologies for the inactivation of human pathogens on fresh and fresh-cut produce

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Research in cold plasma processing at the USDA’s Eastern Regional Research Center is focused on developing this technology into an effective tool to improve the safety of a variety of foods. Cold plasma applied to outbreak strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Stanley inoculated on the ...

  20. Predictive modeling for growth of non- and cold-adapted Listeria Monocytogenes on fresh-cut cantaloupe at different storage temperatures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The aim of this study was to determine the growth kinetics of Listeria monocytogenes, with and without cold-adaption, on fresh-cut cantaloupe under different storage temperatures. Fresh-cut samples, spot inoculated with a four-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes (about 3.2 log CFU/g), were exposed t...

  1. Sesquiterpene lactone content and overall quality of fresh-cut witloof chicory (Cichorium intybus L. var. foliosum Hegi) as affected by different washing procedures.

    PubMed

    Wulfkuehler, Sabine; Gras, Claudia; Carle, Reinhold

    2013-08-14

    Fresh-cut chicory was produced by four different processing lines testing cold and warm water (4/45 °C, 120 s) and cold water containing cysteine (0.5 mM) against an unwashed control. Levels of sesquiterpene lactones (SLs), sensory, and color attributes as well as O2 and CO2 levels in the modified atmosphere of the fresh-cut produce stored in consumer-sized bags (4 °C, 10 days) were monitored. All washing procedures applied significantly reduced the SL contents and bitterness in fresh-cut chicory. Warm water washing was most effective, reducing the total SL levels by 60.9-64.5%. Sensory and color attributes were also retained best by warm water washing, suggesting such treatments to be suitable measures to improve the quality and reduce the bitterness of fresh-cut chicory. SL profiles changed substantially in all samples during storage, revealing lactucopicrin to be the major SL directly after processing, whereas 11(S),13-dihydrolactuin prevailed at the end of storage.

  2. Sedimentation on the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa: cleaning efficiency from natural sediments and drill cuttings.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Ann I; Purser, Autun

    2011-06-01

    Anthropogenic threats to cold-water coral reefs are trawling and hydrocarbon drilling, with both activities causing increased levels of suspended particles. The efficiency of Lophelia pertusa in rejecting local sediments and drill cuttings from the coral surface was evaluated and found not to differ between sediment types. Further results showed that the coral efficiently removed deposited material even after repeated exposures, indicating an efficient cleaning mechanism. In an experiment focusing on burial, fine-fraction drill cuttings were deposited on corals over time. Drill cutting covered coral area increased with repeated depositions, with accumulation mainly occurring on and adjacent to regions of the coral skeleton lacking tissue cover. Tissue was smothered and polyp mortality occurred where polyps became wholly covered by material. Burial of coral by drill cuttings to the current threshold level used in environmental risk assessment models by the offshore industry (6.3mm) may result in damage to L. pertusa colonies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Intakes of cold cuts in the elderly are predicted by olfaction and mood, but not by flavor type or intensity of the products.

    PubMed

    Koskinen, Sari; Nenonen, Aino; Tuorila, Hely

    2005-06-30

    Means to boost food intake of the elderly (n = 60, age range 61-86 years) varying in olfactory and mood status were studied during home-use of cold cuts. Enhancement group (n = 28) received regular smoked ham and smoked ham flavored with extra strong smoke aroma or with pepper mix, and Variety group (n = 32) received four different cold cuts: smoked ham, cooked ham, pepper ham and bologna. Both groups participated in two successive home-use periods, each over 6 days. Before and after home-use, the cold cuts were rated for odor and flavor intensity and liking, and in home-use only for liking. Cold cuts, 600 g per period, were to be consumed ad libitum, and the returned left-overs were weighed. Scandinavian Odor Identification Test and Profile of Mood States (bi-polar) were used in dividing subjects into normosmics and hyposmics (SOIT, cut-off score: 11) and into mood groups (POMS, depressed-elated, cut-off score: median). Enhancement group liked both the regular and the ham enhanced with pepper mix similarly, while added smoke aroma decreased liking. Regardless of the olfactory capabilities, the subjects >74 years of age were less responsive to the flavor changes in their ratings than those aged 61-74 years. Poor olfactory status increased the intakes regardless of the flavor level or type of cold cuts. Path analysis suggested that in the Enhancement group, poor health, depressed mood and high age predicted a poor olfactory performance which, along with ratings of liking, increased the consumed amounts of cold cuts.

  4. Evaluation of different water-washing treatments effects on wheat straw combustion properties.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qiulin; Han, Lujia; Huang, Guangqun

    2017-09-08

    A series of experiments was conducted to explore the effects of various water-washing solid-liquid ratios (1:50 and 1:10) and the stirring on wheat straw (WS) combustion properties. Comparing different solid-liquid ratio groups, a 16% increment in the higher heating value was obtained for 1:50 groups and only 5% for 1:10 groups relative to the raw material. Moreover, energy was lost 4-26 times greater in 1:10 groups than 1:50 groups. While water-washing reduced the comprehensive combustibility index by 14.89%-32.09%, the index values of washed WS were all higher than 2, indicating good combustion performance. The combustion activation energy of four washed WS were 175, 172, 186, and 176kJ/mol, which were all higher than the 160kJ/mol of WS. The fouling/slagging propensity of washed WS reduced to a lower possibility compared to medium of untreated WS. Overall, the recommended condition for washing WS before combustion is 1:50 ratio without stirring. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Monitoring strategies for drill cutting discharge in the vicinity of cold-water coral ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Purser, Autun; Thomsen, Laurenz

    2012-11-01

    Cold-water coral reefs represent some of the most biodiverse and biomass rich ecosystems in the marine environment. Despite this, ecosystem functioning is still poorly understood and the susceptibility of key species to anthropogenic activities and pollutants is unknown. In European waters, cold-water corals are often found in greatest abundance on the continental margin, often in regions rich in hydrocarbon reserves. In this viewpoint paper we discuss some of the current strategies employed in predicting and minimizing exposure of cold-water coral reef ecosystems on the Norwegian margin to waste materials produced during offshore drilling operations by the oil and gas industry. In the light of recent in situ and experimental research conducted with the key reef species Lophelia pertusa, we present some possible improvements to these strategies which may be utilized by industry and managers to further reduce the likelihood of exposure. We further highlight important outstanding research questions in this field. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ultrasound treatment on phenolic metabolism and antioxidant capacity of fresh-cut pineapple during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Yeoh, Wei Keat; Ali, Asgar

    2017-02-01

    Ultrasound treatment at different power output (0, 25 and 29W) and exposure time (10 and 15min) was used to investigate its effect on the phenolic metabolism enzymes, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of fresh-cut pineapple. Following ultrasound treatment at 25 and 29W, the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) was increased significantly (P<0.05) by 2.0 and 1.9-fold, when compared to control. Meanwhile, both the activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and polyphenol peroxidase (POD) in fresh-cut pineapple was significantly (P<0.05) lower than control upon subjected to ultrasound treatment. In the present study, induction of PAL was found to significantly (P<0.001) correlate with higher total phenolic content and thus higher antioxidant capacity in fresh-cut pineapple. Results suggest that hormetic dosage of ultrasound treatment can enhance the activity of PAL and total phenolic content and hence the total antioxidant capacity to encounter with oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Shelf-life prediction models for ready-to-eat fresh cut salads: Testing in real cold chain.

    PubMed

    Tsironi, Theofania; Dermesonlouoglou, Efimia; Giannoglou, Marianna; Gogou, Eleni; Katsaros, George; Taoukis, Petros

    2017-01-02

    The aim of the study was to develop and test the applicability of predictive models for shelf-life estimation of ready-to-eat (RTE) fresh cut salads in realistic distribution temperature conditions in the food supply chain. A systematic kinetic study of quality loss of RTE mixed salad (lollo rosso lettuce-40%, lollo verde lettuce-45%, rocket-15%) packed under modified atmospheres (3% O2, 10% CO2, 87% N2) was conducted. Microbial population (total viable count, Pseudomonas spp., lactic acid bacteria), vitamin C, colour and texture were the measured quality parameters. Kinetic models for these indices were developed to determine the quality loss and calculate product remaining shelf-life (SLR). Storage experiments were conducted at isothermal (2.5-15°C) and non-isothermal temperature conditions (Teff=7.8°C defined as the constant temperature that results in the same quality value as the variable temperature distribution) for validation purposes. Pseudomonas dominated spoilage, followed by browning and chemical changes. The end of shelf-life correlated with a Pseudomonas spp. level of 8 log(cfu/g), and 20% loss of the initial vitamin C content. The effect of temperature on these quality parameters was expressed by the Arrhenius equation; activation energy (Ea) value was 69.1 and 122.6kJ/mol for Pseudomonas spp. growth and vitamin C loss rates, respectively. Shelf-life prediction models were also validated in real cold chain conditions (including the stages of transport to and storage at retail distribution center, transport to and display at 7 retail stores, transport to and storage in domestic refrigerators). The quality level and SLR estimated after 2-3days of domestic storage (time of consumption) ranged between 1 and 8days at 4°C and was predicted within satisfactory statistical error by the kinetic models. Teff in the cold chain ranged between 3.7 and 8.3°C. Using the validated models, SLR of RTE fresh cut salad can be estimated at any point of the cold chain

  8. Continuous circulation water wash apparatus and method for cleaning radioactively contaminated garments

    SciTech Connect

    Sewter, B.R.; Clemons, L. Jr.; Battaglia, J.A.; DeBarber, T.A.

    1992-02-25

    This patent describes an apparatus for water washing fabrics and removing particulate radioactive contaminants. It comprises: a washing machine means for washing and rinsing the fabrics having a wash-water inlet, rinse water inlet, a circulation inlet, and a water outlet; a particulate removal system connected between the circulation inlet and the water outlet for continuously circulating water introduced into the washing machine means through a particulate removal means while the machine means washes and rinses the fabric, and a hydraulically closed wash-water system and rinse water inlet and the rinse water inlet, respectively, for supplying polished wash-water and polished rinse water to the washing machine means, wherein each system includes it won separate water polisher.

  9. 40 CFR 429.160 - Applicability; description of the wood furniture and fixture production without water wash spray...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability; description of the wood... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) TIMBER PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wood Furniture and... Applicability; description of the wood furniture and fixture production without water wash spray booth(s)...

  10. 40 CFR 429.170 - Applicability; description of the wood furniture and fixture production with water wash spray...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability; description of the wood... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) TIMBER PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wood Furniture and... Applicability; description of the wood furniture and fixture production with water wash spray booth(s) or...

  11. Potential of water-washing of rape straw on thermal properties and interactions during co-combustion with bituminous coal.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qiulin; Han, Lujia; Huang, Guangqun

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this work was to study the thermal properties and interactions during co-combustion of rape straw (RS) before and after water-washing with bituminous coal. A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the properties and interactions during co-combustion of RS with bituminous coal (at 10, 20, 40 and 60% RS). The feasibility and potential of water-washing as an RS pre-treatment was also explored. Reactivity and the amount of heat released followed a quadratic trend, while changes to the degree of interactions between the fuels conformed to a cosine curve. Water-washing increased the ignition and burn-out temperatures and slightly decreased reactivity. Demineralization negatively affected the previously synergistic co-firing relationship, nevertheless, the amount of heat released increased by 10.28% and the average activation energy (146kJ/mol) was lower than that of the unwashed blend (186kJ/mol). Overall, water-washing of RS could prove a useful pre-treatment before co-combustion with bituminous coal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 40 CFR 429.160 - Applicability; description of the wood furniture and fixture production without water wash spray...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the wood... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TIMBER PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wood Furniture and Fixture... Applicability; description of the wood furniture and fixture production without water wash spray booth(s)...

  13. 40 CFR 429.170 - Applicability; description of the wood furniture and fixture production with water wash spray...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the wood... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TIMBER PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wood Furniture and Fixture...; description of the wood furniture and fixture production with water wash spray booth(s) or with...

  14. 40 CFR 429.160 - Applicability; description of the wood furniture and fixture production without water wash spray...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability; description of the wood... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TIMBER PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wood Furniture and Fixture... Applicability; description of the wood furniture and fixture production without water wash spray booth(s) or...

  15. 40 CFR 429.170 - Applicability; description of the wood furniture and fixture production with water wash spray...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability; description of the wood... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TIMBER PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wood Furniture and Fixture...; description of the wood furniture and fixture production with water wash spray booth(s) or with laundry...

  16. 40 CFR 429.170 - Applicability; description of the wood furniture and fixture production with water wash spray...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability; description of the wood... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) TIMBER PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wood Furniture and... Applicability; description of the wood furniture and fixture production with water wash spray booth(s) or with...

  17. 40 CFR 429.160 - Applicability; description of the wood furniture and fixture production without water wash spray...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability; description of the wood... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) TIMBER PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wood Furniture and... Applicability; description of the wood furniture and fixture production without water wash spray booth(s) or...

  18. 40 CFR 429.160 - Applicability; description of the wood furniture and fixture production without water wash spray...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability; description of the wood... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) TIMBER PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wood Furniture and... Applicability; description of the wood furniture and fixture production without water wash spray booth(s) or...

  19. 40 CFR 429.170 - Applicability; description of the wood furniture and fixture production with water wash spray...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability; description of the wood... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) TIMBER PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wood Furniture and... Applicability; description of the wood furniture and fixture production with water wash spray booth(s) or with...

  20. Chlorine inactivation of coliphage MS2 on strawberries by industrial-scale water washing units.

    PubMed

    Casteel, Michael J; Schmidt, Charles E; Sobsey, Mark D

    2009-06-01

    Fruits and vegetables (produce) intended for minimal processing are often rinsed or washed in water. Chlorine and other sanitizers are used during washing to inactivate produce spoilage microbes, but such procedures may also inactivate pathogens epidemiologically linked to produce, such as hepatitis A virus (HAV). However, no information exists on the efficacy of chlorinated wash water to inactivate HAV and other viruses on produce in actual practice, because of obvious safety concerns. In contrast, coliphage MS2 (a bacterial virus) is commonly used as a surrogate for some pathogenic viruses and may be safely used in field studies. In the present investigation, strawberries seeded with MS2 were passed through industrial-scale water washing units operated with or without added sodium hypochlorite. MS2 on strawberries was inactivated by 68%, 92% and 96% at free chlorine (FC) concentrations of < or = 2, 20 and 200 ppm in wash water, respectively. MS2 was detected in wash water containing < or = 2 ppm FC in one trial, but was not detected in water containing 20 or 200 ppm FC. The presence and absence of MS2 in wash water containing various levels of FC highlight the importance of controlling sanitizer levels to prevent viral cross contamination of strawberries.

  1. Use of hypereutectoid high-speed steel 11M5F for the production of cutting and cold-stamping tools in the Avtovaz Joint-Stock Company

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malakhov, V. V.; Yartsev, A. N.; Buyanskaya, T. A.; Matveev, S. V.; Berdnikova, L. N.

    1997-05-01

    The development of low-alloy high-speed steels that reduce the production cost of cutting tools and dies can present practical interest for plants and small enterprises manufacturing tools for their special purposes. The present paper gives the results of an investigation of hypereutectoid low-alloy high-speed steel 11M5F and a widely used steel of grade R6M5. The basic and technological properties of these steels are compared, and the results of industrial tests of cutting, thread-rolling, cold-stamping tools and tools for semihot deformation operating under various conditions are described.

  2. Predictive modeling for growth of non- and cold-adapted Listeria monocytogenes on fresh-cut cantaloupe at different storage temperatures.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yoon-Ki; Yoon, Won Byong; Huang, Lihan; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the growth kinetics of Listeria monocytogenes, with and without cold-adaption, on fresh-cut cantaloupe under different storage temperatures. Fresh-cut samples, spot inoculated with a 4-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes (∼3.2 log CFU/g), were exposed to constant storage temperatures held at 10, 15, 20, 25, or 30 °C. All growth curves of L. monocytogenes were fitted to the Baranyi, modified Gompertz, and Huang models. Regardless of conditions under which cells grew, the time needed to reach 5 log CFU/g decreased with the elevated storage temperature. Experimental results showed that there were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the maximum growth rate k (log CFU/g h(-1) ) and lag phase duration λ (h) between the cultures of L. monocytogenes with or without previous cold-adaption treatments. No distinct difference was observed in the growth pattern among 3 primary models at various storage temperatures. The growth curves of secondary modeling were fitted on an Arrhenius-type model for describing the relationship between k and temperature of the L. monocytogenes on fresh-cut cantaloupe from 10 to 30 °C. The root mean square error values of secondary models for non- and cold-adapted cells were 0.018, 0.021, and 0.024, and 0.039, 0.026, and 0.017 at the modified Gompertz, Baranyi, and Huang model, respectively, indicating that these 3 models presented the good statistical fit. This study may provide valuable information to predict the growth of L. monocytogenes on fresh-cut cantaloupes at different storage conditions. Listeriosis has occurred and increased along with the increased demand of fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. This study was conducted to predict the growth of non- and cold-adapted L. monocytogenes on fresh-cut cantaloupe at different temperature using mathematical model. These results can be helpful for risk assessments of L. monocytogenes in fresh-cut cantaloupe. This study provides valuable

  3. Effect of hot water surface pasteurization of whole fruit on shelf life and quality of fresh-cut cantaloupe.

    PubMed

    Fan, X; Annous, B A; Beaulieu, J C; Sites, J E

    2008-04-01

    Cantaloupes are associated with recent outbreaks of foodborne illnesses and recalls. Therefore, new approaches are needed for sanitization of whole and cut fruit. In the present study, whole cantaloupes were submerged into water in the following 3 conditions: 10 degrees C water for 20 min (control), 20 ppm chlorine at 10 degrees C for 20 min, and 76 degrees C water for 3 min. Populations of microflora were measured on the rinds of the whole cantaloupes. Quality and microbial populations of fresh-cut cantaloupes prepared from whole fruit were analyzed after 1, 6, 8, 10, 13, 16, and 20 d of storage at 4 degrees C. The hot water significantly reduced both total plate count (TPC) and yeast and mold count on rind of whole fruits while chlorine or cold water wash did not result in a significant reduction of microbial population. Fresh-cut pieces prepared from hot water-treated cantaloupes had lower TPC than the other 2 treatments in the later storage periods (days 13 to 20) in 2 of 3 trials. The hot water treatment of whole fruits was inconsistent in reducing yeast and mold count of fresh-cut pieces. Soluble solids content, ascorbic acid content, fluid loss, and aroma and appearance scores were not consistently affected by either hot water or chlorine treatment. Our results suggested that hot water pasteurization of whole cantaloupes frequently resulted in lower TPCs of fresh-cut fruit during storage and did not negatively affect quality of fresh-cut cantaloupes.

  4. Effects of water-washing pretreatment on bioleaching of heavy metals from municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qunhui; Yang, Jie; Wang, Qi; Wu, Tingji

    2009-03-15

    Previous studies demonstrated that the bioleaching of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash by Aspergillus niger was an efficient "green technology" for heavy metals removal, however, it demanded a long operational period. In this study, water-washing was used as a fly ash pretreatment before the bioleaching process (one-step and two-step). This pretreatment extracted 50.6% of K, 41.1% of Na, 5.2% of Ca and 1% of Cr from the fly ash. Due to the dissolution of alkali chlorides which hold particles together, fly ash particles were smashed into smaller granules by the hydraulic flushing action caused by vibration. After the pretreatment, the lag phase and bioleaching period were reduced by 45 and 30%, respectively, in one-step bioleaching of 1% (w/v) fly ash. Meanwhile, the metals extraction yield both in one-step and two-step bioleaching was increased markedly, e.g. in two-step bioleaching, 96% Cd, 91% Mn, 73% Pb, 68% Zn, 35% Cr and 30% Fe was extracted from 1% water-washed fly ash, respectively. The reduction of the bioleaching period and improvement of metals extraction yield will likely allow the practical application of the bioleaching technology for heavy metals removal from fly ash.

  5. Effect of water-washing on the co-removal of chlorine and heavy metals in air pollution control residue from MSW incineration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhenzhou; Tian, Sicong; Ji, Ru; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2017-10-01

    The present study systemically investigated the effect of a water-washing process on the removal of harmful chlorides, sulfates, and heavy metals in the air pollution control (APC) residue from municipal solid wastes incineration (MSWI), for sake of a better reuse and disposal of this kind of waste. In addition, the kinetic study was conducted to reveal the releasing mechanism of relevant element in the residue. The results show that, over 70wt.% of chlorides and nearly 25wt.% of sulfates in the residue could be removed by water washing. Based on an economical consideration, the optimal operation conditions for water washing of APC residue was at liquid/solid (L/S) ratio of 3mL:1g and extracting time of 5min. As expected, the concentrations of Co, Cr, Fe, Ni, V and Cu in the washing effluent increased with time during the washing process. However, the extracting regime differs among different heavy metals. The concentrations of Ba and Mn increased firstly but declined afterwards, and concentrations of Pb and Zn gradually declined while Cd and As kept constant with the increase of extracting time. It is worth mentioning that the bubbling of CO2 into the washing effluent is promisingly effective for a further removal of Pb, Cu and Zn. Furthermore, kinetic study of the water washing process reveals that the extracting of heavy metals during water washing follows a second-order model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A specific group of genes respond to cold dehydration stress in cut Alstroemeria flowers whereas ambient dehydration stress accelerates developmental senescence expression patterns

    PubMed Central

    Wagstaff, Carol; Bramke, Irene; Breeze, Emily; Thornber, Sarah; Harrison, Elizabeth; Thomas, Brian; Buchanan-Wollaston, Vicky; Stead, Tony; Rogers, Hilary

    2010-01-01

    Petal development and senescence entails a normally irreversible process. It starts with petal expansion and pigment production, and ends with nutrient remobilization and ultimately cell death. In many species this is accompanied by petal abscission. Post-harvest stress is an important factor in limiting petal longevity in cut flowers and accelerates some of the processes of senescence such as petal wilting and abscission. However, some of the effects of moderate stress in young flowers are reversible with appropriate treatments. Transcriptomic studies have shown that distinct gene sets are expressed during petal development and senescence. Despite this, the overlap in gene expression between developmental and stress-induced senescence in petals has not been fully investigated in any species. Here a custom-made cDNA microarray from Alstroemeria petals was used to investigate the overlap in gene expression between developmental changes (bud to first sign of senescence) and typical post-harvest stress treatments. Young flowers were stressed by cold or ambient temperatures without water followed by a recovery and rehydration period. Stressed flowers were still at the bud stage after stress treatments. Microarray analysis showed that ambient dehydration stress accelerates many of the changes in gene expression patterns that would normally occur during developmental senescence. However, a higher proportion of gene expression changes in response to cold stress were specific to this stimulus and not senescence related. The expression of 21 transcription factors was characterized, showing that overlapping sets of regulatory genes are activated during developmental senescence and by different stresses. PMID:20457576

  7. A specific group of genes respond to cold dehydration stress in cut Alstroemeria flowers whereas ambient dehydration stress accelerates developmental senescence expression patterns.

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, Carol; Bramke, Irene; Breeze, Emily; Thornber, Sarah; Harrison, Elizabeth; Thomas, Brian; Buchanan-Wollaston, Vicky; Stead, Tony; Rogers, Hilary

    2010-06-01

    Petal development and senescence entails a normally irreversible process. It starts with petal expansion and pigment production, and ends with nutrient remobilization and ultimately cell death. In many species this is accompanied by petal abscission. Post-harvest stress is an important factor in limiting petal longevity in cut flowers and accelerates some of the processes of senescence such as petal wilting and abscission. However, some of the effects of moderate stress in young flowers are reversible with appropriate treatments. Transcriptomic studies have shown that distinct gene sets are expressed during petal development and senescence. Despite this, the overlap in gene expression between developmental and stress-induced senescence in petals has not been fully investigated in any species. Here a custom-made cDNA microarray from Alstroemeria petals was used to investigate the overlap in gene expression between developmental changes (bud to first sign of senescence) and typical post-harvest stress treatments. Young flowers were stressed by cold or ambient temperatures without water followed by a recovery and rehydration period. Stressed flowers were still at the bud stage after stress treatments. Microarray analysis showed that ambient dehydration stress accelerates many of the changes in gene expression patterns that would normally occur during developmental senescence. However, a higher proportion of gene expression changes in response to cold stress were specific to this stimulus and not senescence related. The expression of 21 transcription factors was characterized, showing that overlapping sets of regulatory genes are activated during developmental senescence and by different stresses.

  8. Effects of water washing and torrefaction on the pyrolysis behavior and kinetics of rice husk through TGA and Py-GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuping; Dong, Qing; Zhang, Li; Xiong, Yuanquan

    2016-01-01

    The effects of water washing and torrefaction on the pyrolysis behavior and kinetics of rice husk were investigated through TGA and Py-GC/MS in this study. Two iso-conversional methods, i.e. Starink and FWO methods were applied for determination of the activation energy of original and pretreated rice husk samples at three different heating rates. It was found that activation energy of water washed rice husk was lower than that of original rice husk. Whereas, the activation energy increased with the increase of torrefaction temperature. The result of Py-GC/MS analysis indicated that both water washing and torrefaction pretreatments decreased the contents of acids, ketones, aldehydes and furans, while significantly increased the contents of sugars, especially levoglucosan. The relative content of released levoglucosan from pyrolysis of rice husk sample with combined water washing and 280°C torrefaction pretreatment is almost 9 times of that from original rice husk, which is about 3%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of wood bonding performance of water-washed cottonseed meal-based adhesives with high solid contents and low press temperatures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Water-washed cottonseed meal (WCSM) has been shown as a promising bio-based wood adhesive. Recently, we prepared WCSM on a pilot scale for promotion of its industrial application. In this work, we tested the bonding strength of WCSM slurries with high solid contents and low press temperatures per i...

  10. Adhesive strength of pilot-scale-produced water-washed cottonseed meal in comparison with a synthetic glue for non-structural interior application

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Water-washed cottonseed meal (WCSM) has been shown the potential to be used as renewable and environment-friendly adhesives in wood products industry. Recently, WCSM was produced from defatted meal in a pilot scale. In this study, we initially compare the adhesive strength of the pilot-produced WCSM...

  11. Microbial growth on pall rings: a problem when upgrading biogas with the water-wash absorption technique.

    PubMed

    Tynell, Asa; Börjesson, Gunnar; Persson, Margareta

    2007-01-01

    Biogas is upgraded using an absorption with water-wash technique by 11 of a total of 14 upgrading plants in Sweden. However, problems with microbial growth on the pall rings in the absorption column, and in one case in the desorption column, have a negative impact on the upgrading of raw gas to vehicle gas. Five of the nine biogas plants studied here have experienced problems with microbial growth. The objectives of this study were to identify such microbial growth and to determine possible factors for its control, in order to provide recommendations for process management. A questionnaire was sent out and visits were made to the upgrading plants to collect information about the upgrading process. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis was performed to determine microbial biomass and community structure in samples from four upgrading plants. In samples from two of the plants, methane-oxidizing bacteria (type I methanotrophs) were indicated, while samples from one of the other plants showed biomarkers indicating actinomycetes. Factors affecting development of microbial growth were found to be water quality and the pH and temperature of the process water. Plants that used wastewater in the upgrading process experienced far more problems than those using clean water of drinking quality.

  12. Tolerance to long-term exposure of suspended benthic sediments and drill cuttings in the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Ann I; van Oevelen, Dick; Purser, Autun; Thomsen, Laurenz

    2013-05-15

    The cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa was exposed to suspended particles (<63 μm) for 12 weeks. Skeletal growth was significantly lower under exposure concentrations of ∼25 mg l⁻¹ than ∼5 mg l⁻¹ and there was a trend of lower growth rates when exposed to water-based drill cuttings than to natural benthic sediment. Polyp extension was less in corals exposed to higher material concentrations, which provides a possible explanation for observed skeletal growth differences between particle concentrations. Particle exposure had no significant impact on respiration or proportions of tissue and fatty acids in corals. The volume of additional cleaning mucus released by exposed corals was low and release did not significantly affect coral energy expenditure. Our results indicate that L. pertusa polyps can deal comparatively well with enhanced particle deposition rates and suspended matter concentrations. However, a small pilot experiment indicated that coral larvae might be particularly vulnerable to high particle concentrations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bipolar plasma vaporization using plasma-cutting and plasma-loop electrodes versus cold-knife transurethral incision for the treatment of posterior urethral stricture: a prospective, randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Wansong; Chen, Zhiyuan; Wen, Liping; Jiang, Xiangxin; Liu, Xiuheng

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the efficiency and safety of bipolar plasma vaporization using plasma-cutting and plasma-loop electrodes for the treatment of posterior urethral stricture. Compare the outcomes following bipolar plasma vaporization with conventional cold-knife urethrotomy. METHODS: A randomized trial was performed to compare patient outcomes from the bipolar and cold-knife groups. All patients were assessed at 6 and 12 months postoperatively via urethrography and uroflowmetry. At the end of the first postoperative year, ureteroscopy was performed to evaluate the efficacy of the procedure. The mean follow-up time was 13.9 months (range: 12 to 21 months). If re-stenosis was not identified by both urethrography and ureteroscopy, the procedure was considered “successful”. RESULTS: Fifty-three male patients with posterior urethral strictures were selected and randomly divided into two groups: bipolar group (n=27) or cold-knife group (n=26). Patients in the bipolar group experienced a shorter operative time compared to the cold-knife group (23.45±7.64 hours vs 33.45±5.45 hours, respectively). The 12-month postoperative Qmax was faster in the bipolar group than in the cold-knife group (15.54±2.78 ml/sec vs 18.25±2.12 ml/sec, respectively). In the bipolar group, the recurrence-free rate was 81.5% at a mean follow-up time of 13.9 months. In the cold-knife group, the recurrence-free rate was 53.8%. CONCLUSIONS: The application of bipolar plasma-cutting and plasma-loop electrodes for the management of urethral stricture disease is a safe and reliable method that minimizes the morbidity of urethral stricture resection. The advantages include a lower recurrence rate and shorter operative time compared to the cold-knife technique. PMID:26872076

  14. Bipolar plasma vaporization using plasma-cutting and plasma-loop electrodes versus cold-knife transurethral incision for the treatment of posterior urethral stricture: a prospective, randomized study.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wansong; Chen, Zhiyuan; Wen, Liping; Jiang, Xiangxin; Liu, Xiuheng

    2016-01-01

    Evaluate the efficiency and safety of bipolar plasma vaporization using plasma-cutting and plasma-loop electrodes for the treatment of posterior urethral stricture. Compare the outcomes following bipolar plasma vaporization with conventional cold-knife urethrotomy. A randomized trial was performed to compare patient outcomes from the bipolar and cold-knife groups. All patients were assessed at 6 and 12 months postoperatively via urethrography and uroflowmetry. At the end of the first postoperative year, ureteroscopy was performed to evaluate the efficacy of the procedure. The mean follow-up time was 13.9 months (range: 12 to 21 months). If re-stenosis was not identified by both urethrography and ureteroscopy, the procedure was considered "successful". Fifty-three male patients with posterior urethral strictures were selected and randomly divided into two groups: bipolar group (n=27) or cold-knife group (n=26). Patients in the bipolar group experienced a shorter operative time compared to the cold-knife group (23.45±7.64 hours vs 33.45±5.45 hours, respectively). The 12-month postoperative Qmax was faster in the bipolar group than in the cold-knife group (15.54±2.78 ml/sec vs 18.25±2.12 ml/sec, respectively). In the bipolar group, the recurrence-free rate was 81.5% at a mean follow-up time of 13.9 months. In the cold-knife group, the recurrence-free rate was 53.8%. The application of bipolar plasma-cutting and plasma-loop electrodes for the management of urethral stricture disease is a safe and reliable method that minimizes the morbidity of urethral stricture resection. The advantages include a lower recurrence rate and shorter operative time compared to the cold-knife technique.

  15. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA clone encoding an auxin influx carrier in carnation cuttings. Expression in different organs and cultivars and its relationship with cold storage.

    PubMed

    Oliveros-Valenzuela, María Del Rocío; Reyes, David; Sánchez-Bravo, José; Acosta, Manuel; Nicolás, Carlos

    2008-12-01

    Polar auxin transport (PAT) is necessary for the formation of adventitious roots in the base of leafy stem cuttings, as has been demonstrated in several studies in which the application of PAT inhibitors strongly inhibited the rooting of cuttings. However, unlike in the case of lateral roots, there is almost no information on the molecular mechanism that controls PAT in the formation of adventitious roots. A novel cDNA encoding an auxin influx carrier has been isolated and characterized from carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) cuttings. The full length of DcAUX1 was obtained and the deduced aminoacid sequence revealed a high degree of identity with the corresponding auxin carrier proteins from several species. The expression of this gene depended on the organ, the carnation cultivar and the length of time cuttings had been stored in a cold chamber. As a rule, expression was higher in stem than in leaves, in the basal than in the first internode and in mature than in young leaves irrespective of the cultivar and the duration of the storage. This pattern of expression agrees with the results of a previous study showing that auxin from mature leaves was essential for rooting, while exogenous auxin applied to mature leaves was polarly transported in the stem and accumulated in the basal internode (the rooting zone). Variations in the expression observed during storage (depending of the cultivar) might be related to the variation in PAT and rooting reported in previous studies.

  16. Photons and electrons: advances in using cold plasma, irradiation, UV and other energy-based treatments for fresh and fresh-cut produce

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Conventional antimicrobial treatments for fresh produce rely on chemical compounds and physical contact to inactivate and remove bacterial contamination. Recent research has identified a number of energy-based alternative technologies to improve the safety of fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetable...

  17. Effect of pH on the rheological and structural properties of gels of water-washed chicken-breast muscle at physiological ionic strength.

    PubMed

    Feng, Y; Hultin, H O

    2001-08-01

    Adjustment of pH from 6.4 to neutrality improved gelling ability and water-holding capacity of twice water-washed, minced chicken-breast muscle significantly at physiological ionic strength, at which the majority of the myofibrillar proteins, including myosin, are not soluble. A strain value of 2.2 was obtained at neutral pH. Myofibrils were the main components of the gel network at both pH 6.4 and 7.0; however, the myofibrillar distribution varied with the pH value. At pH 6.4, myofibrils formed a network of localized aggregates leaving large voids between, whereas at neutral pH, an evenly distributed network of myofibrils was formed. In addition, at neutral pH, a network of fine strands was found within the network of myofibrils. The network was much less developed at pH 6.4. The thin and thick filaments within each myofibrillar structure were disorganized at both pH values. The intramyofibrillar spaces were larger at neutral pH than at pH 6.4. It was proposed that adjustment of pH to neutrality increased electrostatic repulsion leading to a more even distribution of the myofibrillar proteins, a key factor responsible for the improved gel strength and water-holding capacity.

  18. Long-term effect of alkaline, organic acid, or hot water washes on the microbial profile of refrigerated beef contaminated with bacterial pathogens after washing.

    PubMed

    Dorsa, W J; Cutter, C N; Siragusa, G R

    1998-03-01

    The effect of 2% (vol/vol) lactic acid, 2% (vol/vol) acetic acid, 12% (wt/vol) trisodium phosphate, water at 72 degrees C and water at 32 degrees C washes on bacterial populations introduced onto beef carcass surfaces after treatment was determined for up to 21 days at 4 degrees C storage in vacuum packaging. Beef carcass short plates were collected from cattle immediately after slaughter and subjected to the above treatments or left untreated (C). Short plates were then inoculated with low levels (ca. < 2 log10) of Listeria innocua Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Clostridium sporogenes cells contained in a bovine fecal cocktail. In general, growth of these four bacteria and of aerobic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and pseudomonads was suppressed or not observed when lactic acid or acetic acid treatments were used. Bacteria introduced to trisodium phosphate-treated tissue underwent some growth suppression, but to a lesser extent than on acid-treated tissue, and in some cases grew as well as on untreated beef surfaces. Water washes at 72 or 32 degrees C offered little growth suppression of pathogens during subsequent storage when these bacteria were introduced to beef tissue after treatment. The use of a final lactic or acetic acid wash during the processing of beef carcasses offers some residual efficacy in suppressing pathogen proliferation during the refrigerated storage, should these bacteria be introduced immediately after carcass processing.

  19. Distribution of phenols related to self-heating and water washing on coal-waste dumps and in coaly material from the Bierawka river (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nádudvari, Ádám; Fabiańska, Monika J.; Misz-Kennan, Magdalena

    2015-06-01

    Several types of coal waste (freshly-dumped waste, self-heated waste and waste eroded by rain water), river sediments and river water were sampled. The aim was to identify the types of phenols present on the dumps together with their relative abundances. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses of a large number of samples (234) statistically underpin the phenol distributions in the sample sets. The largest average relative contents (1.17-13.3%) of phenols occur in the self-heated samples. In these, relatively high amounts of phenol, C1- and C2-phenols reflect the thermal destruction of vitrinite. In fresh coal waste, C2- and C3-phenols that originated from the bacterial/fungal degradation and oxidation of vitrinite particles are the most common (0.6 rel.%). Water-washed coal waste and water samples contain lower quantities of phenols. In the river sediments, the phenols present are the result of bacterial- or fungal decay of coaly organic matter or are of industrial origin.

  20. Cutting Frozen Ground with Disc Saws

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-01

    a (actor ot 5. taking a depth widtli ratio toi the uncut nbs ol 2. Axle torces on the cutter wheel depend on the design ol the cutting teeth and on...position. If the shoulder of the cutting tool behind the cutting edge is exactly tangential, it will grind against uncut material and...AD-A012 114 CUTTING FROZEN GROUND UITH DISC SAWS Mai colm Mel lor Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory Hanover, New

  1. Laser Cutting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    lasers that are optically modified to produce high beam quality at reduced power levels for precision drilling and trepanning. * Nd:YAG lasers with...a smooth, dross-free cut face while the marking consists of a series of precisely placed shallow pits where surface finish and dross are not usually...neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) pulsed cutting data because the technique is considered vital in meeting the detailed precision cutting

  2. Cold Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COLD STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Workers who ... cold environments may be at risk of cold stress. Extreme cold weather is a dangerous situation that ...

  3. Bone cutting.

    PubMed

    Giraud, J Y; Villemin, S; Darmana, R; Cahuzac, J P; Autefage, A; Morucci, J P

    1991-02-01

    Bone cutting has always been a problem for surgeons because bone is a hard living material, and many osteotomes are still very crude tools. Technical improvement of these surgical tools has first been their motorization. Studies of the bone cutting process have indicated better features for conventional tools. Several non-conventional osteotomes, particularly ultrasonic osteotomes are described. Some studies on the possible use of lasers for bone cutting are also reported. Use of a pressurised water jet is also briefly examined. Despite their advantages, non-conventional tools still require improvement if they are to be used by surgeons.

  4. Cutting assembly

    DOEpatents

    Racki, Daniel J.; Swenson, Clark E.; Bencloski, William A.; Wineman, Arthur L.

    1984-01-01

    A cutting apparatus includes a support table mounted for movement toward and away from a workpiece and carrying a mirror which directs a cutting laser beam onto the workpiece. A carrier is rotatably and pivotally mounted on the support table between the mirror and workpiece and supports a conduit discharging gas toward the point of impingement of the laser beam on the workpiece. Means are provided for rotating the carrier relative to the support table to place the gas discharging conduit in the proper positions for cuts made in different directions on the workpiece.

  5. Improvement Cut

    Treesearch

    J. W. Johnson

    1950-01-01

    Early, effects of partial cutting on diameter growth in bottomland hardwood forests have been measured recently near Vance, Mississippi, according to a report by J. W. Johnson of the Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, LA.

  6. Cutting Candles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranucci, Ernest R.

    1973-01-01

    Different regular-polygon-shaped candles wound with a sheet of paper are cut through obliquely. When the papers are unwound, unique patterns are revealed. Investigation of these patterns leads to the discovery of geometric concepts. (JP)

  7. Rooting of carnation cuttings

    PubMed Central

    Oliveros-Valenzuela, M Rocío; Nicolás, Carlos; Sánchez-Bravo, José

    2009-01-01

    The rooting of stem cuttings is a common vegetative propagation practice in many ornamental species. Among other signals, auxin polarly transported through the stem plays a key role in the formation and growth of adventitious roots. Unlike in other plant species, auxin from mature leaves plays a decisive role in the rooting of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus. L) cuttings. The gene DcAUX1, which codifies an auxin influx carrier involved in polar auxin transport, has now been cloned and characterized in carnation. The expression pattern of this gene was seen to depend on the organ, the cultivar and the time of cold storage. The variations observed in its expression could be related with the rooting ability of different carnation cultivars. PMID:19721760

  8. Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest Drinking ...

  9. Cold Urticaria

    MedlinePlus

    ... throat when consuming cold food or drink Severe reactions may include: A whole-body response (anaphylaxis), which ... to cold water. The majority of cold urticaria reactions occur when skin is exposed to temperatures lower ...

  10. Hair cut

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-10

    ISS033-E-018986 (10 Nov. 2012) --- Russian cosmonaut Evgeny Tarelkin, Expedition 33 flight engineer, trims the hair of Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy, flight engineer, in the Tranquility node of the International Space Station. Tarelkin used hair clippers fashioned with a vacuum device to garner freshly cut hair. NASA astronaut Kevin Ford, flight engineer, is visible in the background.

  11. Hair cut

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-10

    ISS033-E-018991 (10 Nov. 2012) --- Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy, Expedition 33 flight engineer, trims the hair of Russian cosmonaut Evgeny Tarelkin, flight engineer, in the Tranquility node of the International Space Station. Novitskiy used hair clippers fashioned with a vacuum device to garner freshly cut hair.

  12. Cold adaptations.

    PubMed

    Launay, Jean-Claude; Savourey, Gustave

    2009-07-01

    Nowdays, occupational and recreational activities in cold environments are common. Exposure to cold induces thermoregulatory responses like changes of behaviour and physiological adjustments to maintain thermal balance either by increasing metabolic heat production by shivering and/or by decreasing heat losses consecutive to peripheral cutaneous vasoconstriction. Those physiological responses present a great variability among individuals and depend mainly on biometrical characteristics, age, and general cold adaptation. During severe cold exposure, medical disorders may occur such as accidental hypothermia and/or freezing or non-freezing cold injuries. General cold adaptations have been qualitatively classified by Hammel and quantitatively by Savourey. This last classification takes into account the quantitative changes of the main cold reactions: higher or lower metabolic heat production, higher or lesser heat losses and finally the level of the core temperature observed at the end of a standardized exposure to cold. General cold adaptations observed previously in natives could also be developed in laboratory conditions by continuous or intermittent cold exposures. Beside general cold adaptation, local cold adaptation exists and is characterized by a lesser decrease of skin temperature, a more pronounced cold induced vasodilation, less pain and a higher manual dexterity. Adaptations to cold may reduce the occurrence of accidents and improve human performance as surviving in the cold. The present review describes both general and local cold adaptations in humans and how they are of interest for cold workers.

  13. Cold machining of high density tungsten and other materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziegelmeier, P.

    1969-01-01

    Cold machining process, which uses a sub-zero refrigerated cutting fluid, is used for machining refractory or reactive metals and alloys. Special carbide tools for turning and drilling these alloys further improve the cutting performance.

  14. Common cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000678.htm Common cold To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The common cold most often causes a runny nose, nasal congestion, ...

  15. First Cut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morring, Frank, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Lockheed Martin and a Northrop Grumman/Boeing team expect the Crew Exploration Vehicle proposals they submitted last week to change, given the new top-down push at NASA to close the gap between space shuttle retirement and launch of the new crew carrier. Still, delivery of the proposals gives a first glimpse of at least one of the concepts for a space shuttle replacement. Instead of the ballistic capsule approach put forward in some early CEV concept work, Lockheed Martin proposed a lifting body shape with a two-stage thermal protection system, coupled with a cylindrical mission module to give crews of four to six extra room on trips to the Moon, and a trans-Earth injection module (TEIM) for the return powered-at least in the first cut-by a couple of Pratt & Whitney RL10 rocket engines.

  16. Cold Sore

    MedlinePlus

    ... genitals. Most people who are infected with the virus that causes cold sores never develop signs and symptoms. Cold sores ... an infection — test positive for evidence of the virus that causes cold sores. People who have weakened immune systems are ...

  17. Washington Seafood Companies Agree to Cut Ozone-Depleting and Greenhouse Gas Refrigerant Releases

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (Seattle - March 8, 2016) Two seafood processing and cold storage companies, Ocean Gold Seafoods Inc. and Ocean Cold LLC, have agreed to cut their releases of ozone-depleting and greenhouse gases from leaking refrigeration equipment at their facilities in

  18. Mechanism study on the wear of polycrystalline cubic boron nitride cutting tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yunhai; Li, Jiangang

    2010-12-01

    The samples of bearing steel, alloy cold-die steel, cold-harden cast iron were continuous machined by polycrystalline cubic boron nitride(PcBN) cutting tools dry turning. After the machining, the phases of cutting tools blade-edge were analyzed by X-ray diffraction analyzer and cutting tools blade-edge microstructure were observed by scanning electronic microscope. And then, the wear mechanism of PcBN cutting tools in turing process was studied. The result showed that the oxidation wear and felt wear were main invalidation factors using PcBN cutting tools dry turning bearing steel and alloy cold-die steel samples; chemical wear and oxidation wear were main invalidation factors using PcBN cutting tools dry turning cold-harden cast iron. In turning process, the granularity of cBN, the heated-stability and chemical characteristic of felt material have key function to cutting tools wear.

  19. Cold injuries.

    PubMed

    Kruse, R J

    1995-01-01

    There are two categories of cold injury. The first is hypothermia, which is a systemic injury to cold, and the second is frostbite, which is a local injury. Throughout history, entire armies, from George Washington to the Germans on the Russian Front in World War II, have fallen prey to prolonged cold exposure. Cold injury is common and can occur in all seasons if ambient temperature is lower than the core body temperature. In the 1985 Boston Marathon, even though it was 76 degrees and sunny, there were 75 runners treated for hypothermia. In general, humans adapt poorly to cold exposure. Children are at particular risk because of their relatively greater surface area/body mass ratio, causing them to cool even more rapidly than adults. Because of this, the human's best defense against cold injury is to limit his/her exposure to cold and to dress appropriately. If cold injury has occurred and is mild, often simple passive rewarming such as dry blankets and a warm room are sufficient treatment.

  20. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, WITH CUT TO LENGTH LEVELING LINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, WITH CUT TO LENGTH LEVELING LINE MACHINE FOR GALVANIZED, COLD ROLLED, STAINLESS STEEL AND ALUMINUM AND CUT TO LENGTH LINE OPERATOR WILLIE NATHAN WHO HAS OPERATED FOR 16 YEARS. - O'Neal Steel, Incorporated, Fabrication Shop, 744 Forty-first Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  1. Effect of ozonolysis parameters on the inhibitory compound generation and on the production of ethanol by Pichia stipitis and acetone-butanol-ethanol by Clostridium from ozonated and water washed sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Travaini, Rodolfo; Barrado, Enrique; Bolado-Rodríguez, Silvia

    2016-10-01

    Sugarcane bagasse (SCB) was ozone pretreated and detoxified by water washing, applying a L9(3)(4) orthogonal array (OA) design of experiments to study the effect of pretreatment parameters (moisture content, ozone concentration, ozone/oxygen flow and particle size) on the generation of inhibitory compounds and on the composition of hydrolysates of ozonated-washed samples. Ozone concentration resulted the highest influence process parameter on delignification and sugar release after washing; while, for inhibitory compound formation, moisture content also had an important role. Ozone expended in pretreatment related directly with sugar release and inhibitory compound formation. Washing detoxification was effective, providing non-inhibitory hydrolysates. Maximum glucose and xylose release yields obtained were 84% and 67%, respectively, for ozonated-washed SCB. Sugar concentration resulted in the decisive factor for biofuels yields. Ethanol production achieved an 88% yield by Pichia stipitis, whereas Clostridium acetobutylicum produced 0.072gBUTANOL/gSUGAR and 0.188gABE/gSUGAR, and, Clostridium beijerinckii 0.165gBUTANOL/gSUGAR and 0.257gABE/gSUGAR.

  2. Portable cutting apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, R.F.

    1984-07-17

    A remotely operable, portable cutting apparatus detachably secured to the workpiece by laterally spaced clamp assemblies engagable with the workpiece on opposite sides of the intended line of cut. A reciprocal cutter head is mounted between the clamp assemblies and is provided with a traveling abrasive cutting wire adapted to sever the workpiece normal to the longitudinal axis thereof. Dust and debris are withdrawn from the cutting area by a vacuum force through a nozzle mounted on the cutting head.

  3. Portable cutting apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, Richard F.

    1986-01-01

    A remotely operable, portable cutting apparatus detachably secured to the workpiece by laterally spaced clamp assemblies engageable with the workpiece on opposite sides of the intended line of cut. A reciprocal cutter head is mounted between the clamp assemblies and is provided with a traveling abrasive cutting wire adapted to sever the workpiece normal to the longitudinal axis thereof. Dust and debris are withdrawn from the cutting area by a vacuum force through a nozzle mounted on the cutting head.

  4. Portable cutting apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, Richard F.

    1986-04-01

    A remotely operable, portable cutting apparatus detachably secured to the workpiece by laterally spaced clamp assemblies engageable with the workpiece on opposite sides of the intended line of cut. A reciprocal cutter head is mounted between the clamp assemblies and is provided with a traveling abrasive cutting wire adapted to sever the workpiece normal to the longitudinal axis thereof. Dust and debris are withdrawn from the cutting area by a vacuum force through a nozzle mounted on the cutting head.

  5. Cold intolerance

    MedlinePlus

    Some causes of cold intolerance are: Anemia Anorexia nervosa Blood vessel problems, such as Raynaud phenomenon Chronic severe illness General poor health Underactive thyroid ( hypothyroidism ) Problem with the hypothalamus (a part ...

  6. Cutting state identification

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, B.S.; Minis, I.; Rokni, M.

    1997-12-31

    Cutting states associated with the orthogonal cutting of stiff cylinders are identified through an analysis of the singular values of a Toeplitz matrix of third order cumulants of acceleration measurements. The ratio of the two pairs of largest singular values is shown to differentiate between light cutting, medium cutting, pre-chatter and chatter states. Sequences of cutting experiments were performed in which either depth of cut or turning frequency was varied. Two sequences of experiments with variable turning frequency and five with variable depth of cut, 42 cutting experiments in all, provided a database for the calculation of third order cumulants. Ratios of singular values of cumulant matrices find application in the analysis of control of orthogonal cutting.

  7. Simulation of Laser Cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Wolfgang; Nießen, Markus; Eppelt, Urs; Kowalick, Kerstin

    Laser cutting is a thermal separation process widely used in shaping and contour cutting applications. There are, however, gaps in understanding the dynamics of the process, especially issues related to cut quality. This work describes the advances in fundamental physical modelling and process monitoring of laser cutting, as well as time varying processes such as contour cutting. Diagnosis of ripple and dross formation is advanced to observe the melt flow and its separation simultaneously as well as the spatial shape of the cut kerf.

  8. Cold injuries.

    PubMed

    Long, William B; Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to cold can produce a variety of injuries that occur as a result of man's inability to adapt to cold. These injuries can be divided into localized injury to a body part, systemic hypothermia, or a combination of both. Body temperature may fall as a result of heat loss by radiation, evaporation, conduction, and convection. Hypothermia or systemic cold injury occurs when the core body temperature has decreased to 35 degrees C (95 degrees F) or less. The causes of hypothermia are either primary or secondary. Primary, or accidental, hypothermia occurs in healthy individuals inadequately clothed and exposed to severe cooling. In secondary hypothermia, another illness predisposes the individual to accidental hypothermia. Hypothermia affects multiple organs with symptoms of hypothermia that vary according to the severity of cold injury. The diagnosis of hypothermia is easy if the patient is a mountaineer who is stranded in cold weather. However, it may be more difficult in an elderly patient who has been exposed to a cold environment. In either case, the rectal temperature should be checked with a low-reading thermometer. The general principals of prehospital management are to (1) prevent further heat loss, (2) rewarm the body core temperature in advance of the shell, and (3) avoid precipitating ventricular fibrillation. There are two general techniques of rewarming--passive and active. The mechanisms of peripheral cold injury can be divided into phenomena that affect cells and extracellular fluids (direct effects) and those that disrupt the function of the organized tissue and the integrity of the circulation (indirect effects). Generally, no serious damage is seen until tissue freezing occurs. The mildest form of peripheral cold injury is frostnip. Chilblains represent a more severe form of cold injury than frostnip and occur after exposure to nonfreezing temperatures and damp conditions. Immersion (trench) foot, a disease of the sympathetic nerves and blood

  9. Cold urticaria.

    PubMed

    Claudy, A

    2001-11-01

    Cold urticaria is one form of urticaria that may be associated with other forms of physical urticarias. Frequency is generally estimated at two or three per 100. The triggering effect of cold is found at history taking in most of the cases. The urticaria is usually superficial, and more rarely associated with deep and/or mucosal urticaria. The diagnosis is based on history taking and the ice cube test. An exhaustive search for an etiologic factor is often unfruitful, and the presence of a cryopathy should lead to a complete work-up. Therapy of cold urticaria may prove to be difficult. In patients with secondary cold urticaria, underlying disease must be treated in order to resolve the skin symptoms. H1-antihistamines can be used but the clinical responses are highly variable. Short-time treatment with low concentration corticosteroids suppresses the symptoms only partially and temporarily. In patients who do not respond to previous treatments, induction of cold tolerance may be proposed but the procedure is difficult to carry out in daily life over an extended period. Key word: cryoglobulins.

  10. COLD TRAP

    DOEpatents

    Milleron, N.

    1963-03-12

    An improved linear-flow cold trap is designed for highvacuum applications such as mitigating back migration of diffusion pump oil moiecules. A central pot of liquid nitrogen is nested within and supported by a surrounding, vertical, helical coil of metai sheet, all enveloped by a larger, upright, cylindrical, vacuum vessel. The vertical interstices between successive turns of the coil afford lineal, axial, high-vacuum passages between open mouths at top and bottom of said vessel, while the coil, being cold by virtue of thermal contact of its innermost turn with the nitrogen pot, affords expansive proximate condensation surfaces. (AEC)

  11. Cold Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes oral herpes, or cold sores. Type 1 herpes virus infects more than half of the U.S. population by the time they reach their 20s. Type 2 usually affects the genital area Some people have no symptoms from the ...

  12. Cold Hands

    MedlinePlus

    ... you have a problem with the nerves or blood circulation or a problem with tissue damage in your hands or fingers. ... of causes. Having cold hands could signal a problem with your blood circulation or the blood vessels in your hands. Make ...

  13. Project COLD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazanjian, Wendy C.

    1982-01-01

    Describes Project COLD (Climate, Ocean, Land, Discovery) a scientific study of the Polar Regions, a collection of 35 modules used within the framework of existing subjects: oceanography, biology, geology, meterology, geography, social science. Includes a partial list of topics and one activity (geodesic dome) from a module. (Author/SK)

  14. Device for cutting protrusions

    DOEpatents

    Bzorgi, Fariborz M [Knoxville, TN

    2011-07-05

    An apparatus for clipping a protrusion of material is provided. The protrusion may, for example, be a bolt head, a nut, a rivet, a weld bead, or a temporary assembly alignment tab protruding from a substrate surface of assembled components. The apparatus typically includes a cleaver having a cleaving edge and a cutting blade having a cutting edge. Generally, a mounting structure configured to confine the cleaver and the cutting blade and permit a range of relative movement between the cleaving edge and the cutting edge is provided. Also typically included is a power device coupled to the cutting blade. The power device is configured to move the cutting edge toward the cleaving edge. In some embodiments the power device is activated by a momentary switch. A retraction device is also generally provided, where the retraction device is configured to move the cutting edge away from the cleaving edge.

  15. Hot, Cold, and Really Cold.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Describes a physics experiment investigating temperature prediction and the relationship between the physical properties of heat units, melting, dissolving, states of matter, and energy loss. Details the experimental setup, which requires hot and cold water, a thermometer, and ice. Notes that the experiment employs a deliberate counter-intuitive…

  16. Hot, Cold, and Really Cold.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Describes a physics experiment investigating temperature prediction and the relationship between the physical properties of heat units, melting, dissolving, states of matter, and energy loss. Details the experimental setup, which requires hot and cold water, a thermometer, and ice. Notes that the experiment employs a deliberate counter-intuitive…

  17. Laser cutting plastic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Van Cleave, R.A.

    1980-08-01

    A 1000-watt CO/sub 2/ laser has been demonstrated as a reliable production machine tool for cutting of plastics, high strength reinforced composites, and other nonmetals. More than 40 different plastics have been laser cut, and the results are tabulated. Applications for laser cutting described include fiberglass-reinforced laminates, Kevlar/epoxy composites, fiberglass-reinforced phenolics, nylon/epoxy laminates, ceramics, and disposable tooling made from acrylic.

  18. Ultrasonic Cutting of Foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Yvonne; Zahn, Susann; Rohm, Harald

    In the field of food engineering, cutting is usually classified as a mechanical unit operation dealing with size reduction by applying external forces on a bulk product. Ultrasonic cutting is realized by superpositioning the macroscopic feed motion of the cutting device or of the product with a microscopic vibration of the cutting tool. The excited tool interacts with the product and generates a number of effects. Primary energy concentration in the separation zone and the modification of contact friction along the tool flanks arise from the cyclic loading and are responsible for benefits such as reduced cutting force, smooth cut surface, and reduced product deformation. Secondary effects such as absorption and cavitation originate from the propagation of the sound field in the product and are closely related to chemical and physical properties of the material to be cut. This chapter analyzes interactions between food products and ultrasonic cutting tools and relates these interactions with physical and chemical product properties as well as with processing parameters like cutting velocity, ultrasonic amplitude and frequency, and tool design.

  19. Cold plasma technology close-up

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This month’s column discusses cold plasma, an emerging technology that has potential applications as an antimicrobial process for fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables, low-moisture foods, and food contact surfaces. Brendan A. Niemira, the coauthor of this month’s column, is the research leader ...

  20. Cold plasma: Quality control and regulatory considerations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In recent years, cold plasma has emerged as a promising antimicrobial treatment for fresh and fresh-cut produce, nuts, spices, seeds, and other foods. Research has demonstrated effective control of human pathogens such as Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, norovirus, and o...

  1. COLD TRAPS

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, W.I.

    1958-09-30

    A cold trap is presented for removing a condensable component from a gas mixture by cooling. It consists of a shell, the exterior surface of which is chilled by a refrigerant, and conductive fins welded inside the shell to condense the gas, and distribute the condensate evenly throughout the length of the trap, so that the trap may function until it becomes completely filled with the condensed solid. The contents may then be removed as either a gas or as a liquid by heating the trap. This device has particuinr use as a means for removing uranium hexafluoride from the gaseous diffusion separation process during equipment breakdown and repair periods.

  2. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  3. Starting Trees from Cuttings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, David C.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a procedure for starting tree cuttings from woody plants, explaining "lag time," recommending materials, and giving step-by-step instructions for rooting and planting. Points out species which are likely candidates for cuttings and provides tips for teachers for developing a unit. (JM)

  4. When Students Cut Themselves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malikow, Max

    2006-01-01

    Masochism, the irrational self-infliction of pain, is more easily defined than understood. Once, a teacher used the word "cutting" only reference to a student skipping class. But, in recent years, it has taken on additional meaning. Cutting, or self-injury, is a deliberate self-harming behavior but without conscious suicidal ideation. To define…

  5. When Students Cut Themselves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malikow, Max

    2006-01-01

    Masochism, the irrational self-infliction of pain, is more easily defined than understood. Once, a teacher used the word "cutting" only reference to a student skipping class. But, in recent years, it has taken on additional meaning. Cutting, or self-injury, is a deliberate self-harming behavior but without conscious suicidal ideation. To define…

  6. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  7. Cold Urticaria

    PubMed Central

    Wasserman, Stephen I.; Soter, Nicholas A.; Center, David M.; Austen, K. Frank

    1977-01-01

    Sera were obtained from the venous effluents of cold-challenged arms of patients with idiopathic cold urticaria without plasma or serum cryoproteins; these sera exhibited increased neutrophil chemotactic activity without alterations of the complement system. A two- to fourfold augmentation of the base-line neutrophil chemotactic activity of serum from the immersed extremity began within 1 min, peaked at 2 min, and returned to base-line levels within 15 min, whereas there was no change in the serum chemotactic activity in the control arm. The augmented chemotactic activity in the serum specimens from the challenged arm of each patient appeared in a high molecular-weight region, as assessed by the difference in activity recovered after Sephadex G-200 gel filtration of the paired lesional and control specimens. Sequential purification of this high molecular-weight activity by anion- and cation-exchange chromatography revealed a single peak of activity at both steps. The partially purified material continued to exhibit a high molecular weight, being excluded on Sepharose 4B, and had a neutral isoelectric point. The partially purified material showed a preferential chemotactic activity for neutrophilic polymorphonuclear leukocytes, required a gradient for expression of this function, and exhibited a capacity to deactivate this cell type. This active principle, termed high molecular-weight neutrophil chemotactic factor, exhibited a time-course of release that could be superimposed upon that of histamine and the low molecular-weight eosinophil chemotactic factor and may represent another mast cell-derived mediator. PMID:874083

  8. Fundamentals of cutting

    PubMed Central

    Williams, J. G.; Patel, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The process of cutting is analysed in fracture mechanics terms with a view to quantifying the various parameters involved. The model used is that of orthogonal cutting with a wedge removing a layer of material or chip. The behaviour of the chip is governed by its thickness and for large radii of curvature the chip is elastic and smooth cutting occurs. For smaller thicknesses, there is a transition, first to plastic bending and then to plastic shear for small thicknesses and smooth chips are formed. The governing parameters are tool geometry, which is principally the wedge angle, and the material properties of elastic modulus, yield stress and fracture toughness. Friction can also be important. It is demonstrated that the cutting process may be quantified via these parameters, which could be useful in the study of cutting in biology. PMID:27274798

  9. Fundamentals of cutting.

    PubMed

    Williams, J G; Patel, Y

    2016-06-06

    The process of cutting is analysed in fracture mechanics terms with a view to quantifying the various parameters involved. The model used is that of orthogonal cutting with a wedge removing a layer of material or chip. The behaviour of the chip is governed by its thickness and for large radii of curvature the chip is elastic and smooth cutting occurs. For smaller thicknesses, there is a transition, first to plastic bending and then to plastic shear for small thicknesses and smooth chips are formed. The governing parameters are tool geometry, which is principally the wedge angle, and the material properties of elastic modulus, yield stress and fracture toughness. Friction can also be important. It is demonstrated that the cutting process may be quantified via these parameters, which could be useful in the study of cutting in biology.

  10. Genetic parameters for carcass cut weight in Irish beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Pabiou, T; Fikse, W F; Näsholm, A; Cromie, A R; Drennan, M J; Keane, M G; Berry, D P

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for the weights of different wholesale cuts, using an experimental and a commercial data set. The experimental and commercial data sets included 413 and 635 crossbred Belgian Blue, Charolais, Limousin, Angus, Holstein, and Simmental animals, respectively. Univariate analyses using a mixed linear animal model with relationships were undertaken to estimate the heritability of cold carcass weight, carcass conformation and fat, and the cut weights, whereas a series of bivariate analyses was used to estimate the phenotypic and genetic correlations between carcass weight, carcass conformation, carcass fat, and the major primal cuts. Heritability estimates for cold carcass weight in both data sets were moderate (>0.48), whereas heritability estimates for carcass conformation and fat grading were greater in the commercial data set (>0.63) than in the experimental study (>0.33). Across both data sets, heritability estimates for wholesale cut weight in the forequarter varied from 0.03 to 0.79, whereas heritability estimates of carcass cut weight in the hindquarter varied from 0.14 to 0.86. Heritability estimates for cut weights expressed as a proportion of the entire carcass weight varied from 0.04 to 0.91. Genetic correlations were strong among the different carcass cut weights within the experimental and the commercial studies. Genetic correlations between the weights of selected carcass cuts and carcass weight were moderate to high (minimum 0.45; maximum 0.88) in both data sets. Positive genetic correlations were observed in the commercial data set between the different wholesale cut weights and carcass conformation, whereas these were positive and negative in the experimental data set. Selection for increased carcass weight will, on average, increase the weight of each cut. However, the genetic correlations were less than unity, suggesting a benefit of more direct selection on high value cuts.

  11. INTERNAL CUTTING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Russell, W.H. Jr.

    1959-06-30

    A device is described for removing material from the interior of a hollow workpiece so as to form a true spherical internal surface in a workpiece, or to cut radial slots of an adjustable constant depth in an already established spherical internal surface. This is accomplished by a spring loaded cutting tool adapted to move axially wherein the entire force urging the tool against the workpiece is derived from the spring. Further features of importance involve the provision of a seal between the workpiece and the cutting device and a suction device for carrying away particles of removed material.

  12. Effect of cutting parameters on the chip formation in orthogonal cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M'hamdi, M.; BenSalem, S.; Boujelbene, M.; Katundi, D.; Bayraktar, E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to study the chip formation to obtain the optimal cutting conditions by observing the different chip formation mechanisms. Analysis of machining of a hardened alloy, X160CrMoV12-1 (cold work steel: AISI D2 with a ferritic and cementite matrix and coarse primary carbides), showed that there are relationships between the chip geometry, cutting conditions and the different micrographs under different metallurgical states. For the experimental study here, various cutting speeds and feed rates have been applied on the work material. The "saw-tooth type chips" geometry has been examined and the chip samples were metallographically processed and observed under scanning electronic microscope (SEM) to determine if white layers are present.

  13. Testing Of Choiced Ceramics Cutting Tools At Irregular Interrupted Cut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyncl, Ladislav; Malotová, Šárka; Nováček, Pavel; Nicielnik, Henryk; Šoková, Dagmar; Hemžský, Pavel; Pitela, David; Holubjak, Jozef

    2015-12-01

    This article discusses the test of removable ceramic cutting inserts during machining irregular interrupted cut. Tests were performed on a lathe, with the preparation which simulated us the interrupted cut. By changing the number of plates mounted in a preparation it simulate us a regular or irregular interrupted cut. When with four plates it was regular interrupted cut, the remaining three variants were already irregular cut. It was examined whether it will have the irregular interrupted cutting effect on the insert and possibly how it will change life of inserts during irregular interrupted cut (variable delay between shocks).

  14. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth > For Teens > Cough & Cold ... tos y el resfriado Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ...

  15. Cold symptoms (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Colds are caused by a virus and can occur year-round. The common cold generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing. Other symptoms include sore throat, cough, and headache. A cold usually lasts ...

  16. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth > For Teens > Cough & Cold ... Someone Quit? Avoiding DXM Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ...

  17. Cuts and puncture wounds

    MedlinePlus

    ... severely, call your local emergency number such as 911. Minor cuts and puncture wounds can be treated ... arrives. When to Contact a Medical Professional Call 911 or your local emergency number if: The bleeding ...

  18. INFINITY ribbon-cutting

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-11

    'Astronaut' Patrick Johnston, 8, is interviewed by Heath Allen, a reporter with WDSU-TV in New Orleans, about his experience at the INFINITY at NASA Stennis Space Center facility during ribbon-cutting activities April 11, 2012.

  19. Laser cutting system

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, Thomas J

    2015-03-03

    A workpiece cutting apparatus includes a laser source, a first suction system, and a first finger configured to guide a workpiece as it moves past the laser source. The first finger includes a first end provided adjacent a point where a laser from the laser source cuts the workpiece, and the first end of the first finger includes an aperture in fluid communication with the first suction system.

  20. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2003-01-30

    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year-4 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between October 1, 2002 and December 30, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks. (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System, Task 4: Addition of a Pipe Rotation System. (b) New research project (Task 9b): ''Development of a Foam Generator/Viscometer for Elevated Pressure and Elevated Temperature (EPET) Conditions''. (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions''. (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), and Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b). (f) New Research project (Task 13): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions''. (g) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (h) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  1. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Lei Zhou

    2002-01-30

    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year 3 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between Oct 1, 2001 and Dec. 31, 2001. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Collection System), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), and Foam properties while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), (f) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  2. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Lei Zhou

    2000-01-30

    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year 2 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in Flow Loop development and research during the period of time between Oct 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 2: Addition of a foam generation and breaker system), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 7): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Research project (Task 8): ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (g) Research on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), and Foam properties while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), (h) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (i) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members. The tasks Completed During This Quarter are Task 7 and Task 8.

  3. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Evren Ozbayoglu; Lei Zhou

    2002-04-30

    This is the third quarterly progress report for Year 3 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between Jan. 1, 2002 and Mar. 31, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 9b): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), and Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b); (f) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop, progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S); and (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  4. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Evren Ozbayoglu; Lei Zhou

    2002-07-30

    This is the fourth quarterly progress report for Year-3 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between April 1, 2002 and June 30, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)''; (c) Research project (Task 9b): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions''; (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions''; (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), and Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b); (f) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S); (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  5. Cold confusion

    SciTech Connect

    Chapline, G.

    1989-07-01

    On March 23 two chemists, Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons startled the world with a press conference at the University of Utah where they announced that they had achieved nuclear fusion at room temperatures. As evidence they cited the production of ''excess'' amounts of heat in an electrochemical apparatus and observation of neutron production. While the production of heat in a chemical apparatus is not in itself unusual the observation of neutrons is certainly extraordinary. As it turned out, though, careful measurements of the neutron production in electrochemical apparatus similar to that used by Fleischmann and Pons carried out at dozens of other laboratories has shown that the neutron production fails by many orders of magnitude to support the assertion by Fleischmann and Pons that their discovery represents a new and cheap source of fusion power. In particular, independent measurements of the neutron production rate suggest that the actual rate of fusion energy production probably does not exceed 1 trillionth of a watt. This paper discusses the feasibility that cold fusion is actually being achieved. 7 refs.

  6. Power cuts and EPI vaccine storage.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, M P; Perera, A S; De Silva, T U

    1997-06-01

    To study the integrity of EPI vaccine storage during interruptions to the power supply. Health centres in Colombo District. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on staff compliance with regulations of the expanded program of immunisation (EPI) and alternative facilities available for refrigeration during power failure. The refrigerator and storage conditions were inspected. The stored vaccines were tagged with thermosensitive cold chain monitors, which were read on revisiting the clinic 14 days later. During the study period, power cuts of 2 hours' duration were in force daily. A control study was carried out when there was no interruption to power supply. Diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT) and measles vaccines had been exposed to temperatures outside the prescribed range during power cuts. Oral polio vaccine had adequate storage with power cuts of 2 hours' duration. Alternative facilities for vaccine storage during power cuts were not available and the potency of DPT and measles vaccines were compromised with interruptions to power of 2 hours' duration or more.

  7. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mengjiao Yu; Ramadan Ahmed; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Aimee Washington; Crystal Redden

    2003-09-30

    The Quarter began with installing the new drill pipe, hooking up the new hydraulic power unit, completing the pipe rotation system (Task 4 has been completed), and making the SWACO choke operational. Detailed design and procurement work is proceeding on a system to elevate the drill-string section. The prototype Foam Generator Cell has been completed by Temco and delivered. Work is currently underway to calibrate the system. Literature review and preliminary model development for cuttings transportation with polymer foam under EPET conditions are in progress. Preparations for preliminary cuttings transport experiments with polymer foam have been completed. Two nuclear densitometers were re-calibrated. Drill pipe rotation system was tested up to 250 RPM. Water flow tests were conducted while rotating the drill pipe up to 100 RPM. The accuracy of weight measurements for cuttings in the annulus was evaluated. Additional modifications of the cuttings collection system are being considered in order to obtain the desired accurate measurement of cuttings weight in the annular test section. Cutting transport experiments with aerated fluids are being conducted at EPET, and analyses of the collected data are in progress. The printed circuit board is functioning with acceptable noise level to measure cuttings concentration at static condition using ultrasonic method. We were able to conduct several tests using a standard low pass filter to eliminate high frequency noise. We tested to verify that we can distinguish between different depths of sand in a static bed of sand. We tested with water, air and a mix of the two mediums. Major modifications to the DTF have almost been completed. A stop-flow cell is being designed for the DTF, the ACTF and Foam Generator/Viscometer which will allow us to capture bubble images without the need for ultra fast shutter speeds or microsecond flash system.

  8. Cold energy

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, John P.

    2015-12-04

    Deviations in Q for resonant superconducting radio frequency niobium accelerator cavities are generally correlated with resistivity loss mechanisms. Field dependent Qs are not well modeled by these classical loss mechanisms, but rather can represent a form of precision cavity surface thermometry. When the field dependent Q variation shows improvement with increasing B field level the classical treatment of this problem is inadequate. To justify this behavior hydrogen as a ubiquitous impurity in niobium, which creates measurable property changes, even at very low concentrations is typically considered the cause of such anomalous behavior. This maybe the case in some instances, but more importantly any system operating with a highly coherent field with a significant time dependent magnetic component at near 2° K will have the ability to organize the remaining free spins within the London penetration depth to form a coupled energy reservoir in the form of low mass spin waves. The niobium resonant cavities are composed of a single isotope with a large nuclear spin. When the other loss mechanisms are stripped away this may be the gain medium activated by the low level residual magnetic fields. It was found that one resonant cavity heat treatment produced optimum surface properties and then functioned as a MASER extracting energy from the 2° K thermal bath while cooling the cavity walls. The cavity operating in this mode is a simulator of what can take place in the wider but not colder universe using the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as a thermal source. The low mass, long lifetimes, and the scale of the magnetic spin waves on the weakly magnetized interstellar medium allows energy to be stored that is many orders of magnitude colder than the cosmic microwave background. A linear accelerator cavity becomes a tool to explore the properties of the long wave length magnetic spin waves that populate this cold low energy regime.

  9. Cold energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, John P.

    2015-12-01

    Deviations in Q for resonant superconducting radio frequency niobium accelerator cavities are generally correlated with resistivity loss mechanisms. Field dependent Qs are not well modeled by these classical loss mechanisms, but rather can represent a form of precision cavity surface thermometry. When the field dependent Q variation shows improvement with increasing B field level the classical treatment of this problem is inadequate. To justify this behavior hydrogen as a ubiquitous impurity in niobium, which creates measurable property changes, even at very low concentrations is typically considered the cause of such anomalous behavior. This maybe the case in some instances, but more importantly any system operating with a highly coherent field with a significant time dependent magnetic component at near 2° K will have the ability to organize the remaining free spins within the London penetration depth to form a coupled energy reservoir in the form of low mass spin waves. The niobium resonant cavities are composed of a single isotope with a large nuclear spin. When the other loss mechanisms are stripped away this may be the gain medium activated by the low level residual magnetic fields. It was found that one resonant cavity heat treatment produced optimum surface properties and then functioned as a MASER extracting energy from the 2° K thermal bath while cooling the cavity walls. The cavity operating in this mode is a simulator of what can take place in the wider but not colder universe using the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as a thermal source. The low mass, long lifetimes, and the scale of the magnetic spin waves on the weakly magnetized interstellar medium allows energy to be stored that is many orders of magnitude colder than the cosmic microwave background. A linear accelerator cavity becomes a tool to explore the properties of the long wave length magnetic spin waves that populate this cold low energy regime.

  10. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira

    2000-10-30

    This is the first quarterly progress report for Year 2 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in Flow Loop development and research during the period of time between July 14, 2000 and September 30, 2000. This report presents information on the following specific tasks: (a) Progress in Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility design and development (Task 2), (b) Progress on research project (Task 8): ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (c) Progress on research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Progress on research project (Task 7): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (e) Progress on research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Initiate research on project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (g) Progress on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution (Tasks 11), and Foam properties (Task 12), (h) Initiate a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. Since the previous Task 1 has been completed, we will now designate this new task as: (Task 1S). (i) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  11. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk, Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2002-10-30

    This is the first quarterly progress report for Year-4 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between July 1, 2002 and Sept. 30, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System, Task 4: Addition of a Pipe Rotation System, (b) New Research project (Task 9b): ''Development of a Foam Generator/Viscometer for Elevated Pressure and Elevated Temperature (EPET) Conditions'', (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings (Task 12), Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b). (f) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  12. Colds and the Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2014October 2014familydoctor.org editorial staff OverviewWhat is the common cold and the flu?The common cold and the flu are viral infections of the ... have a cold or the flu?Although the common cold and the flu share many similar symptoms, they ...

  13. Cold remedies (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Sore throat, cough, stuffy nose, sneezing, runny nose, fever, chills, and muscle aches are all symptoms associated with the common cold. Over-the-counter medicines for a cold only alleviate cold symptoms but do not shorten the duration of a cold. As always, ...

  14. Facts about the Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > Influenza Facts About The Common Cold What Is a Cold? Colds are minor infections ... for 10 to 40 percent of colds. Other common cold viruses include coronavirus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) . ...

  15. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Len Volk; Mark Pickell; Evren Ozbayoglu; Barkim Demirdal; Paco Vieira; Affonso Lourenco

    1999-10-15

    This report includes a review of the progress made in ACTF Flow Loop development and research during 90 days pre-award period (May 15-July 14, 1999) and the following three months after the project approval date (July15-October 15, 1999) The report presents information on the following specific subjects; (a) Progress in Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility design and development, (b) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (c) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (e) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Progress report on the instrumentation tasks (Tasks 11 and 12) (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with oil and service company members.

  16. Radial cutting torch

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, M.C.

    1997-01-08

    The project`s aim is to complete development of the Radial Cutting Torch, a pyrotechnic cutter, for use in all downhole tubular cutting operations in the petroleum industry. Project objectives are to redesign and pressure test nozzle seals to increase product quality, reliability, and manufacturability; improve the mechanical anchor to increase its temperature tolerance and its ability to function in a wider variety of wellbore fluids; and redesign and pressure test the RCT nozzle for operation at pressures from 10 to 20 ksi. The proposal work statement is included in the statement of work for the grant via this reference.

  17. Cutting assembly. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Treuhaft, M.B.; Oser, M.S.

    1981-06-25

    A mining auger comprises a cutting head carried at one end of a tubular shaft and a plurality of wall segments which in a first position thereof are disposed side by side around said shaft and in a second position thereof are disposed oblique to said shaft. A vane projects outwardly from each wall segment. When the wall segments are in their first position, the vanes together form a substantially continuous helical wall. A cutter is mounted on the peripheral edge of each of the vanes. When the wall segments are in their second position, the cutters on the vanes are disposed radially outward from the perimeter of the cutting head.

  18. Cryogenic ribbon-cutting

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-30

    NASA cut the ribbon on a new cryogenics control center at John C. Stennis Space Center on March 30. The new facility is part of a project to strengthen Stennis facilities to withstand the impacts of future storms like hurricane Katrina in 2005. Participants in the ribbon-cutting included (l to r): Jason Zuckerman, director of project management for The McDonnel Group; Keith Brock, director of the NASA Project Directorate at Stennis; Stennis Deputy Director Rick Gilbrech; Steve Jackson of Jacobs Technology; and Troy Frisbie, Cryo Control Center Construction project manager for NASA Center Operations at Stennis.

  19. Cryogenic ribbon-cutting

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-30

    NASA cut the ribbon on a new cryogenics control center at John C. Stennis Space Center on March 30. The new facility is part of a project to strengthen Stennis facilities to withstand the impacts of future storms like hurricane Katrina in 2005. Participants in the ribbon-cutting included (l to r): Jason Zuckerman, director of project management for The McDonnel Group; Keith Brock, director of the NASA Project Directorate at Stennis; Stennis Deputy Director Rick Gilbrech; Steve Jackson, outgoing program manager of the Jacobs Technology NASA Test Operations Group; and Troy Frisbie, Cryo Control Center Construction project manager for NASA Center Operations at Stennis.

  20. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan Miska; Troy Reed; Ergun Kuru

    2004-09-30

    The Advanced Cuttings Transport Study (ACTS) was a 5-year JIP project undertaken at the University of Tulsa (TU). The project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and JIP member companies. The objectives of the project were: (1) to develop and construct a new research facility that would allow three-phase (gas, liquid and cuttings) flow experiments under ambient and EPET (elevated pressure and temperature) conditions, and at different angle of inclinations and drill pipe rotation speeds; (2) to conduct experiments and develop a data base for the industry and academia; and (3) to develop mechanistic models for optimization of drilling hydraulics and cuttings transport. This project consisted of research studies, flow loop construction and instrumentation development. Following a one-year period for basic flow loop construction, a proposal was submitted by TU to the DOE for a five-year project that was organized in such a manner as to provide a logical progression of research experiments as well as additions to the basic flow loop. The flow loop additions and improvements included: (1) elevated temperature capability; (2) two-phase (gas and liquid, foam etc.) capability; (3) cuttings injection and removal system; (4) drill pipe rotation system; and (5) drilling section elevation system. In parallel with the flow loop construction, hydraulics and cuttings transport studies were preformed using drilling foams and aerated muds. In addition, hydraulics and rheology of synthetic drilling fluids were investigated. The studies were performed under ambient and EPET conditions. The effects of temperature and pressure on the hydraulics and cuttings transport were investigated. Mechanistic models were developed to predict frictional pressure loss and cuttings transport in horizontal and near-horizontal configurations. Model predictions were compared with the measured data. Predominantly, model predictions show satisfactory agreements with the measured data. As a

  1. Think before You Cut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettifor, Ann

    2010-01-01

    With the main political parties set on reducing public spending, one might be forgiven for supposing that "savage" cuts are the only way forward. However, the author believes there are alternatives, and that is why public education about the financial system is so important. Today, UK is trying to clear up a mess--a mess made by the…

  2. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Len Volk; Mark Pickell; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Neelima Godugu; Sri Suresh Kumar Thiroveedhula

    2000-04-30

    ACTS flow loop is now operational under elevated pressure and temperature. Currently, experiments with water under pressure and temperature are being conducted. Based on the analysis of Fann 70 data, empirical correlations defining the shear stress as a function of temperature, pressure and the shear rate have been developed for Petrobras synthetic drilling fluids. PVT equipment has been modified for testing Synthetic drilling fluids. Initial calibration tests have been conducted by using water. Currently, the base oil of the Petrobras synthetic drilling fluid is being tested. Foam flow experiments have been conducted. Currently, more experiments are being conducted while data are being analyzed to characterize the rheology of the foam. Cuttings transport experiments have been conducted using air, water and cuttings. Preliminary results have shown that it may not be possible to avoid cuttings bed deposition under any practical combination of air and water flow rates. Foam stability analyses have been conducted. Effects of salt and oil concentration on the foam stability have been investigated. A software for controlling the data sampling and data storage during cuttings monitoring process have been developed.

  3. Cutting Cakes Carefully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Theodore P.; Morrison, Kent E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper surveys the fascinating mathematics of fair division, and provides a suite of examples using basic ideas from algebra, calculus, and probability which can be used to examine and test new and sometimes complex mathematical theories and claims involving fair division. Conversely, the classical cut-and-choose and moving-knife algorithms…

  4. Think before You Cut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettifor, Ann

    2010-01-01

    With the main political parties set on reducing public spending, one might be forgiven for supposing that "savage" cuts are the only way forward. However, the author believes there are alternatives, and that is why public education about the financial system is so important. Today, UK is trying to clear up a mess--a mess made by the…

  5. A Cut below

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2010-01-01

    Today, thousands of California students worry about vanishing college affordability and access, especially for historically under-represented and marginalized populations. The author reports on how students and faculty throughout California are grappling with the effects of draconian state cuts to postsecondary education that have topped more than…

  6. INFINITY ribbon-cutting

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-11

    Clare Johnston, 10, and Eden Landis, 3, stare in wonder at the moon rock on display at the INFINITY at NASA Stennis Space Center visitor center and museum. The children toured INFINITY exhibits during ribbon-cutting activities for the facility April 11, 2012.

  7. Classroom Cut Ups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Stacy

    2011-01-01

    Discovering identity can be a lifelong challenge for some people, while others seem to figure it out right away. During the middle school years, finding one's identity can be a daunting task. Most students will spend a considerable amount of time during these middle years looking for it. This lesson on cut-paper self-portraits lets students delve…

  8. Cutting Cakes Carefully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Theodore P.; Morrison, Kent E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper surveys the fascinating mathematics of fair division, and provides a suite of examples using basic ideas from algebra, calculus, and probability which can be used to examine and test new and sometimes complex mathematical theories and claims involving fair division. Conversely, the classical cut-and-choose and moving-knife algorithms…

  9. Kids Who Cut.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Doris Rhea; Simpson, Chris

    2002-01-01

    Regardless of whether it is cutting, burning or some other form of self-harm, self-injury is a serious problem requiring serious solutions. This article reviews the various types of self-harm, descriptions of self-mutilators, common myths about self-mutilation, and effective treatment methods. (GCP)

  10. Collaborating To Cut Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strosnider, Kim

    1998-01-01

    Private colleges across the country are collaborating to cut costs, streamline services, and increase efficiency. An ambitious Ohio project, involving 35 colleges, to redesign business operations hopes to save $20-25 million. Other efforts include joint classes using interactive television, shared library resources, cross-registration, jointly…

  11. Electron beam cutting

    DOEpatents

    Mochel, Margaret E.; Humphreys, Colin J.

    1985-04-02

    A method for the cutting of holes 20 Angstroms in diameter, or lines 20 Angstroms wide in a material having positive ionic conduction by the use of a focused electron probe is described. The holes and lines are stable under ambient conditions.

  12. Electron beam cutting

    DOEpatents

    Mochel, M.E.; Humphreys, C.J.

    1985-04-02

    A method for the cutting of holes 20 Angstroms in diameter, or lines 20 Angstroms wide in a material having positive ionic conduction by the use of a focused electron probe is described. The holes and lines are stable under ambient conditions. 2 figs.

  13. Kids Who Cut.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Doris Rhea; Simpson, Chris

    2002-01-01

    Regardless of whether it is cutting, burning or some other form of self-harm, self-injury is a serious problem requiring serious solutions. This article reviews the various types of self-harm, descriptions of self-mutilators, common myths about self-mutilation, and effective treatment methods. (GCP)

  14. Machinability of Al 6061 Deposited with Cold Spray Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldwell, Barry; Kelly, Elaine; Wall, Ronan; Amaldi, Andrea; O'Donnell, Garret E.; Lupoi, Rocco

    2017-10-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques such as cold spray are translating from research laboratories into more mainstream high-end production systems. Similar to many additive processes, finishing still depends on removal processes. This research presents the results from investigations into aspects of the machinability of aluminum 6061 tubes manufactured with cold spray. Through the analysis of cutting forces and observations on chip formation and surface morphology, the effect of cutting speed, feed rate, and heat treatment was quantified, for both cold-sprayed and bulk aluminum 6061. High-speed video of chip formation shows changes in chip form for varying material and heat treatment, which is supported by the force data and quantitative imaging of the machined surface. The results shown in this paper demonstrate that parameters involved in cold spray directly impact on machinability and therefore have implications for machining parameters and strategy.

  15. Machinability of Al 6061 Deposited with Cold Spray Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldwell, Barry; Kelly, Elaine; Wall, Ronan; Amaldi, Andrea; O'Donnell, Garret E.; Lupoi, Rocco

    2017-06-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques such as cold spray are translating from research laboratories into more mainstream high-end production systems. Similar to many additive processes, finishing still depends on removal processes. This research presents the results from investigations into aspects of the machinability of aluminum 6061 tubes manufactured with cold spray. Through the analysis of cutting forces and observations on chip formation and surface morphology, the effect of cutting speed, feed rate, and heat treatment was quantified, for both cold-sprayed and bulk aluminum 6061. High-speed video of chip formation shows changes in chip form for varying material and heat treatment, which is supported by the force data and quantitative imaging of the machined surface. The results shown in this paper demonstrate that parameters involved in cold spray directly impact on machinability and therefore have implications for machining parameters and strategy.

  16. Cutting thread at flexible endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Gong, F; Swain, P; Kadirkamanathan, S; Hepworth, C; Laufer, J; Shelton, J; Mills, T

    1996-12-01

    New thread-cutting techniques were developed for use at flexible endoscopy. A guillotine was designed to follow and cut thread at the endoscope tip. A new method was developed for guiding suture cutters. Efficacy of Nd: YAG laser cutting of threads was studied. Experimental and clinical experience with thread-cutting methods is presented. A 2.4 mm diameter flexible thread-cutting guillotine was constructed featuring two lateral holes with sharp edges through which sutures to be cut are passed. Standard suture cutters were guided by backloading thread through the cutters extracorporeally. A snare cutter was constructed to retrieve objects sewn to tissue. Efficacy and speed of Nd: YAG laser in cutting twelve different threads were studied. The guillotine cut thread faster (p < 0.05) than standard suture cutters. Backloading thread shortened time taken to cut thread (p < 0.001) compared with free-hand cutting. Nd: YAG laser was ineffective in cutting uncolored threads and slower than mechanical cutters. Results of thread cutting in clinical studies using sewing machine (n = 77 cutting episodes in 21 patients), in-vivo experiments (n = 156), and postsurgical cases (n = 15 over 15 years) are presented. New thread-cutting methods are described and their efficacy demonstrated in experimental and clinical studies.

  17. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2003-04-30

    Experiments on the flow loop are continuing. Improvements to the software for data acquisition are being made as additional experience with three-phase flow is gained. Modifications are being made to the Cuttings Injection System in order to improve control and the precision of cuttings injection. The design details for a drill-pipe Rotation System have been completed. A US Patent was filed on October 28, 2002 for a new design for an instrument that can generate a variety of foams under elevated pressures and temperatures and then transfer the test foam to a viscometer for measurements of viscosity. Theoretical analyses of cuttings transport phenomena based on a layered model is under development. Calibrations of two nuclear densitometers have been completed. Baseline tests have been run to determine wall roughness in the 4 different tests sections (i.e. 2-in, 3-in, 4-in pipes and 5.76-in by 3.5-in annulus) of the flow loop. Tests have also been conducted with aerated fluids at EPET conditions. Preliminary experiments on the two candidate aqueous foam formulations were conducted which included rheological tests of the base fluid and foam stability reports. These were conducted after acceptance of the proposal on the Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under Elevated Pressure and Elevated Temperature Conditions. Preparation of a test matrix for cuttings-transport experiments with foam in the ACTF is also under way. A controller for instrumentation to measure cuttings concentration and distribution has been designed that can control four transceivers at a time. A prototype of the control circuit board was built and tested. Tests showed that there was a problem with radiated noise. AN improved circuit board was designed and sent to an external expert to verify the new design. The new board is being fabricated and will first be tested with static water and gravel in an annulus at elevated temperatures. A series of viscometer tests to measure foam properties have

  18. Strip edge cracking simulation in cold rolling

    SciTech Connect

    Hubert, C.; Dubar, L.; Dubar, M.; Dubois, A.

    2011-01-17

    This research work focuses on a specific defect which occurs during cold rolling of steel strips: edge-serration. Investigations on the industrial processes have led to the conclusion that this defect is the result of the edge-trimming and cold rolling sequences. The aim of this research work is to analyze the effect of the cutting process and the cold rolling on cracks occurrence, especially on strip edges.This study is performed using an experimental testing stand called Upsetting Rolling Test (URT). It allows to reproduce cold rolling contact parameters such as forward slip, reduction ratio and friction coefficients. Specimens sampled near trimmed industrial strip edges are deformed using the URT stand. Two sets of specimens with different stress states, obtained by annealing, are submitted to two reduction passes with extreme forward slips.Scanning electron microscopy observations added to 3D optical surface profiler topographies show that on one hand, forward slip has a major effect on cracks opening. On the other hand, cracks opening decreases according to high roll strip speed gradient. Concerning the heat-treated specimens, no crack appeared after all reduction passes, showing a large influence of the cutting process and consequently of the local stress state in the vicinity of the burnish and fracture regions.

  19. Strip edge cracking simulation in cold rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, C.; Dubar, L.; Dubar, M.; Dubois, A.

    2011-01-01

    This research work focuses on a specific defect which occurs during cold rolling of steel strips: edge-serration. Investigations on the industrial processes have led to the conclusion that this defect is the result of the edge-trimming and cold rolling sequences. The aim of this research work is to analyze the effect of the cutting process and the cold rolling on cracks occurrence, especially on strip edges. This study is performed using an experimental testing stand called Upsetting Rolling Test (URT). It allows to reproduce cold rolling contact parameters such as forward slip, reduction ratio and friction coefficients. Specimens sampled near trimmed industrial strip edges are deformed using the URT stand. Two sets of specimens with different stress states, obtained by annealing, are submitted to two reduction passes with extreme forward slips. Scanning electron microscopy observations added to 3D optical surface profiler topographies show that on one hand, forward slip has a major effect on cracks opening. On the other hand, cracks opening decreases according to high roll strip speed gradient. Concerning the heat-treated specimens, no crack appeared after all reduction passes, showing a large influence of the cutting process and consequently of the local stress state in the vicinity of the burnish and fracture regions.

  20. Cold Stress and the Cold Pressor Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverthorn, Dee U.; Michael, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Temperature and other environmental stressors are known to affect blood pressure and heart rate. In this activity, students perform the cold pressor test, demonstrating increased blood pressure during a 1- to 2-min immersion of one hand in ice water. The cold pressor test is used clinically to evaluate autonomic and left ventricular function. This…

  1. Cold Stress and the Cold Pressor Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverthorn, Dee U.; Michael, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Temperature and other environmental stressors are known to affect blood pressure and heart rate. In this activity, students perform the cold pressor test, demonstrating increased blood pressure during a 1- to 2-min immersion of one hand in ice water. The cold pressor test is used clinically to evaluate autonomic and left ventricular function. This…

  2. Laser cutting nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Ramos, Terry J.

    1984-01-01

    A laser cutting nozzle for use with a laser cutting apparatus directing a focused beam to a spot on a work piece. The nozzle has a cylindrical body with a conical tip which together have a conically shaped hollow interior with the apex at a small aperture through the tip. The conical hollow interior is shaped to match the profile of the laser beam, at full beamwidth, which passes through the nozzle to the work piece. A plurality of gas inlet holes extend through the body to the hollow interior and are oriented to produce a swirling flow of gas coaxially through the nozzle and out the aperture, aligned with the laser beam, to the work piece. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

  3. Laser cutting nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Ramos, T.J.

    1982-09-30

    A laser cutting nozzle for use with a laser cutting apparatus directing a focused beam to a spot on a work piece. The nozzle has a cylindrical body with a conical tip which together have a conically shaped hollow interior with the apex at a small aperture through the tip. The conical hollow interior is shaped to match the profile of the laser beam, at full beamwidth, which passes through the nozzle to the work piece. A plurality of gas inlet holes extend through the body to the hollow interior and are oriented to produce a swirling flow of gas coaxially through the nozzle and out the aperture, aligned with the laser beam, to the work piece.

  4. Cutting Through Multiyear Ice

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    ICESCAPE scientists watched from the deck of the Healy as it cut a path through thick multiyear ice on July 6, 2011. Cutting the path is key for getting researchers to remote research sites amid the sea ice. Credit: NASA/Kathryn Hansen The ICESCAPE mission, or "Impacts of Climate on Ecosystems and Chemistry of the Arctic Pacific Environment," is a NASA shipborne investigation to study how changing conditions in the Arctic affect the ocean's chemistry and ecosystems. The bulk of the research took place in the Beaufort and Chukchi seas in summer 2010 and 2011. Credit: NASA/Kathryn Hansen NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  5. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Neelima Godugu

    2000-07-30

    ACTS flow loop is now operational under elevated pressure and temperature. Currently, experiments with synthetic based drilling fluids under pressure and temperature are being conducted. Based on the analysis of Fann 70 data, empirical correlations defining the shear stress as a function of temperature, pressure and the shear rate have been developed for Petrobras synthetic drilling fluids. PVT equipment has been modified for testing Synthetic oil base drilling fluids. PVT tests with Petrobras Synthetic base mud have been conducted and results are being analyzed Foam flow experiments have been conducted and the analysis of the data has been carried out to characterize the rheology of the foam. Comparison of pressure loss prediction from the available foam hydraulic models and the test results has been made. Cuttings transport experiments in horizontal annulus section have been conducted using air, water and cuttings. Currently, cuttings transport tests in inclined test section are being conducted. Foam PVT analysis tests have been conducted. Foam stability experiments have also been conducted. Effects of salt and oil concentration on the foam stability have been investigated. Design of ACTS flow loop modification for foam and aerated mud flow has been completed. A flow loop operation procedure for conducting foam flow experiments under EPET conditions has been prepared Design of the lab-scale flow loop for dynamic foam characterization and cuttings monitoring instrumentation tests has been completed. The construction of the test loop is underway. As part of the technology transport efforts, Advisory Board Meeting with ACTS-JIP industry members has been organized on May 13, 2000.

  6. Manual bamboo cutting tool.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Mariana Pereira; Correia, Walter Franklin Marques; da Costa Campos, Fabio Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the development of a cutting tool guide, specifically for the harvest of bamboo. The development was made based on precepts of eco-design and ergonomics, for prioritizing the physical health of the operator and the maintenance of the environment, as well as meet specific requirements of bamboo. The main goal is to spread the use of bamboo as construction material, handicrafts, among others, from a handy, easy assembly and material available tool.

  7. Cold Weather Pet Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... accordingly. You will probably need to shorten your dog’s walks in very cold weather to protect you ... slipping and falling. Long-haired or thick-coated dogs tend to be more cold-tolerant, but are ...

  8. Cold and Cough Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... What can you do for your cold or cough symptoms? Besides drinking lots of fluids and getting ... medicines. There are lots of different cold and cough medicines, and they do different things. Nasal decongestants - ...

  9. Vitamin C and colds

    MedlinePlus

    ... belief is that vitamin C can cure the common cold . However, research about this claim is conflicting. Although ... Fashner J, Ericson K, Werner S. Treatment of the common cold in children and adults. Am Fam Physician. 2012; ...

  10. Cold medicines and children

    MedlinePlus

    ... aspx . Accessed July 26, 2016. Cherry JD. The common cold. In: Cherry JD, Harrison GJ, Kaplan SL, Steinbach ... 2014:chap 7. Miller EK, Williams JV. The common cold. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, ...

  11. Skin Reactions to Cold

    PubMed Central

    Talpash, Orest

    1976-01-01

    Although skin reactions to cold are seen surprisingly infrequently in Canada, it is important to manage them correctly when they do occur. Frostbite, cold urticarias, Raynaud's disease and phenomenon, and several miscellaneous changes are discussed. PMID:21308019

  12. Cold knife cone biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... biopsy; Pap smear - cone biopsy; HPV - cone biopsy; Human papilloma virus - cone biopsy; Cervix - cone biopsy; Colposcopy - cone biopsy Images Female reproductive anatomy Cold cone biopsy Cold cone removal References American ...

  13. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2003-07-30

    This Quarter has been divided between running experiments and the installation of the drill-pipe rotation system. In addition, valves and piping were relocated, and three viewports were installed. Detailed design work is proceeding on a system to elevate the drill-string section. Design of the first prototype version of a Foam Generator has been finalized, and fabrication is underway. This will be used to determine the relationship between surface roughness and ''slip'' of foams at solid boundaries. Additional cups and rotors are being machined with different surface roughness. Some experiments on cuttings transport with aerated fluids have been conducted at EPET. Theoretical modeling of cuttings transport with aerated fluids is proceeding. The development of theoretical models to predict frictional pressure losses of flowing foam is in progress. The new board design for instrumentation to measure cuttings concentration is now functioning with an acceptable noise level. The ultrasonic sensors are stable up to 190 F. Static tests with sand in an annulus indicate that the system is able to distinguish between different sand concentrations. Viscometer tests with foam, generated by the Dynamic Test Facility (DTF), are continuing.

  14. Vortex cutting in superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasko-Vlasov, Vitalii K.; Koshelev, Alexei E.; Glatz, Andreas; Welp, Ulrich; Kwok, Wai-K.

    2015-03-01

    Unlike illusive magnetic field lines in vacuum, magnetic vortices in superconductors are real physical strings, which interact with the sample surface, crystal structure defects, and with each other. We address the complex and poorly understood process of vortex cutting via a comprehensive set of magneto-optic experiments which allow us to visualize vortex patterns at magnetization of a nearly twin-free YBCO crystal by crossing magnetic fields of different orientations. We observe a pronounced anisotropy in the flux dynamics under crossing fields and the filamentation of induced supercurrents associated with the staircase vortex structure expected in layered cuprates, flux cutting effects, and angular vortex instabilities predicted for anisotropic superconductors. At some field angles, we find formation of the vortex domains following a type-I phase transition in the vortex state accompanied by an abrupt change in the vortex orientation. To clarify the vortex cutting scenario we performed time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau simulations, which confirmed formation of sharp vortex fronts observed in the experiment and revealed a left-handed helical instability responsible for the rotation of vortices. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division.

  15. Reagan Administration Prepares Budget Cuts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Colin

    1981-01-01

    Describes tentative federal budget cuts affecting science education in the National Science Foundation, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Department of Energy, National Institutes of Health, and the specific areas these budget cuts will affect. (DS)

  16. Dealing with Cuts (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Cellulitis First Aid: Cuts Staph Infections Bites and Scratches ... Animal Bites Blood Childproofing and Preventing Household Accidents Cellulitis Stitches Scars Cuts, Scratches, and Abrasions What's a ...

  17. Fresh-cut product sanitation and wash water disinfection: problems and solutions.

    PubMed

    Gil, Maria I; Selma, Maria V; López-Gálvez, Francisco; Allende, Ana

    2009-08-31

    It is well known that fresh-cut processors usually rely on wash water sanitizers to reduce microbial counts in order to maintain quality and extend shelf-life of the end product. Water is a useful tool for reducing potential contamination but it can also transfer pathogenic microorganisms. Washing with sanitizers is important in fresh-cut produce hygiene, particularly removing soil and debris, but especially in water disinfection to avoid cross-contamination between clean and contaminated product. Most of the sanitizing solutions induce higher microbial reduction after washing when compared to water washing, but after storage, epiphytic microorganisms grow rapidly, reaching similar levels. In fact, despite the general idea that sanitizers are used to reduce the microbial population on the produce, their main effect is maintaining the microbial quality of the water. The use of potable water instead of water containing chemical disinfection agents for washing fresh-cut vegetables is being advocated in some European countries. However, the problems of using an inadequate sanitizer or even none are considered in this manuscript. The need for a standardized approach to evaluate and compare the efficiency of sanitizing agents is also presented. Most new alternative techniques accentuate the problems with chlorine suggesting that the industry should move away from this traditional disinfection agent. However, the use of chlorine based sanitizers are presented as belonging to the most effective and efficient sanitizers when adequate doses are used. In this review improvements in water disinfection and sanitation strategies, including a shower pre-washing step and a final rinse of the produce, are suggested.

  18. Characterizing convective cold pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drager, Aryeh J.; van den Heever, Susan C.

    2017-06-01

    Cold pools produced by convective storms play an important role in Earth's climate system. However, a common framework does not exist for objectively identifying convective cold pools in observations and models. The present study investigates convective cold pools within a simulation of tropical continental convection that uses a cloud-resolving model with a coupled land-surface model. Multiple variables are assessed for their potential in identifying convective cold pool boundaries, and a novel technique is developed and tested for identifying and tracking cold pools in numerical model simulations. This algorithm is based on surface rainfall rates and radial gradients in the density potential temperature field. The algorithm successfully identifies near-surface cold pool boundaries and is able to distinguish between connected cold pools. Once cold pools have been identified and tracked, composites of cold pool evolution are then constructed, and average cold pool properties are investigated. Wet patches are found to develop within the centers of cold pools where the ground has been soaked with rainwater. These wet patches help to maintain cool surface temperatures and reduce cold pool dissipation, which has implications for the development of subsequent convection.

  19. The common cold.

    PubMed

    2009-02-01

    1) Most colds are due to viruses and resolve spontaneously after a few days. Available drugs do not modify the course of a viral cold; 2) Some drugs used to treat colds carry a risk of serious adverse effects. This includes nasal sprays, especially vasoconstrictors such as pseudo-ephedrine and, in young children, menthol, camphor, and terpene derivatives.

  20. Coping with Cold Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... found inside the mouth.) What Causes Cold Sores? Cold sores are caused by a virus called herpes (say: HUR-peez). Herpes is one ... the world. The medical name for the specific virus that causes cold sores is herpes simplex. There are two types ...

  1. ALPS yield optimization cutting program

    Treesearch

    P. Klinkhachorn; J.P. Franklin; Charles W. McMillin; H.A. Huber

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports ongoing work on a series of computer programs developed to automate hardwood lumber processing in a furniture roughmill. The program computes the placement of cuttings on lumber, based on a description of each board in terms of shape and defect location, and a cutting bill. These results are suitable for use with a high-power laser to cut the parts...

  2. CUTTING AND WEDGING JACKET REMOVER

    DOEpatents

    Freedman, M.; Raynor, S.

    1959-04-01

    A tool is presented for stripping cladded jackets from fissionable fuel elements. The tool is a tube which fits closely around the jacket and which has two cutting edges at opposite sides of one end. These cutting edges are adjusted to penetrate only the jacket so that by moving the edges downward the jacket is cut into two pieces.

  3. Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Publications » DrugFacts » Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Revised ... syrup is sometimes diverted for abuse. How Are Cough and Cold Medicines Abused? Cough and cold medicines ...

  4. Maximal cuts in arbitrary dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosma, Jorrit; Sogaard, Mads; Zhang, Yang

    2017-08-01

    We develop a systematic procedure for computing maximal unitarity cuts of multiloop Feynman integrals in arbitrary dimension. Our approach is based on the Baikov representation in which the structure of the cuts is particularly simple. We examine several planar and nonplanar integral topologies and demonstrate that the maximal cut inherits IBPs and dimension shift identities satisfied by the uncut integral. Furthermore, for the examples we calculated, we find that the maximal cut functions from different allowed regions, form the Wronskian matrix of the differential equations on the maximal cut.

  5. Drilling cost-cutting

    SciTech Connect

    Capuano, L.E. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation by Louis E. Capuano, Jr., President, ThermaSource, Inc., discusses cost-cutting in the drilling phase of geothermal energy exploration and production. All aspects of a geothermal project including the drilling must be streamlined to make it viable and commercial. If production could be maximized from each well, there would be a reduction in drilling costs. This could be achieved in several ways, including big hole and multi-hole completion, directional drilling, better knowledge of the resource and where to penetrate, etc.

  6. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi

    2004-07-31

    We have tested the loop elevation system. We raised the mast to approximately 25 to 30 degrees from horizontal. All went well. However, while lowering the mast, it moved laterally a couple of degrees. Upon visual inspection, severe spalling of the concrete on the face of the support pillar, and deformation of the steel support structure was observed. At this time, the facility is ready for testing in the horizontal position. A new air compressor has been received and set in place for the ACTS test loop. A new laboratory has been built near the ACTS test loop Roughened cups and rotors for the viscometer (RS300) were obtained. Rheologies of aqueous foams were measured using three different cup-rotor assemblies that have different surface roughness. The relationship between surface roughness and foam rheology was investigated. Re-calibration of nuclear densitometers has been finished. The re-calibration was also performed with 1% surfactant foam. A new cuttings injection system was installed at the bottom of the injection tower. It replaced the previous injection auger. A mechanistic model for cuttings transport with aerated mud has been developed. Cuttings transport mechanisms with aerated water at various conditions were experimentally investigated. A total of 39 tests were performed. Comparisons between the model predictions and experimental measurements show a satisfactory agreement. Results from the ultrasonic monitoring system indicated that we could distinguish between different sand levels. We also have devised ways to achieve consistency of performance by securing the sensors in the caps in exactly the same manner as long as the sensors are not removed from the caps. A preliminary test was conducted on the main flow loop at 100 gpm flow rate and 20 lb/min cuttings injection rate. The measured bed thickness using the ultrasonic method showed a satisfactory agreement with nuclear densitometer readings. Thirty different data points were collected after the test

  7. INFINITY ribbon-cutting

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-11

    Ceremony participants prepare to cut the ribbon on the INFINITY at NASA Stennis Space Center facility April 11, 2012. Participating in the ceremony were (l to r): Gulfport Mayor and INFINITY Science Center Inc. Chairman George Schloegel; U.S. Rep. Steven Palazzo, R-Miss.; U.S. Sen. Roger Wicker, R-Miss.; Roy S. Estess granddaughter Lauren McKay; Mississippi Gov. Phil Bryant; Leo Seal Jr. grandson Leo Seal IV; Stennis Director Patrick Scheuermann; U.S. Sen. Thad Cochran, R-Miss.; NASA Chief of Staff David Radzanowski; and Apollo 13 astronaut and INFINITY Science Center Inc. Vice Chairman Fred Haise.

  8. Photochemical cutting of fabrics

    DOEpatents

    Piltch, Martin S.

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus for the cutting of garment patterns from one or more layers of fabric. A laser capable of producing laser light at an ultraviolet wavelength is utilized to shine light through a pattern, such as a holographic phase filter, and through a lens onto the one or more layers of fabric. The ultraviolet laser light causes rapid photochemical decomposition of the one or more layers of fabric, but only along the pattern. The balance of the fabric of the one or more layers of fabric is undamaged.

  9. Cutting the Cord-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This animation shows the view from the rear hazard avoidance cameras on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as the rover turns 45 degrees clockwise. This maneuver is the first step in a 3-point turn that will rotate the rover 115 degrees to face west. The rover must make this turn before rolling off the lander because airbags are blocking it from exiting from the front lander petal. Before this crucial turn took place, engineers instructed the rover to cut the final cord linking it to the lander. The turn took around 30 minutes to complete.

  10. Cutting the Cord

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This animation shows the view from the front hazard avoidance cameras on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as the rover turns 45 degrees clockwise. This maneuver is the first step in a 3-point turn that will rotate the rover 115 degrees to face west. The rover must make this turn before rolling off the lander because airbags are blocking it from exiting off the front lander petal. Before this crucial turn could take place, engineers instructed the rover to cut the final cord linking it to the lander. The turn took around 30 minutes to complete.

  11. Cross-Cutting Faults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    16 May 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows cross-cutting fault scarps among graben features in northern Tempe Terra. Graben form in regions where the crust of the planet has been extended; such features are common in the regions surrounding the vast 'Tharsis Bulge' on Mars.

    Location near: 43.7oN, 90.2oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Summer

  12. Cutting the Cord

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This animation shows the view from the front hazard avoidance cameras on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as the rover turns 45 degrees clockwise. This maneuver is the first step in a 3-point turn that will rotate the rover 115 degrees to face west. The rover must make this turn before rolling off the lander because airbags are blocking it from exiting off the front lander petal. Before this crucial turn could take place, engineers instructed the rover to cut the final cord linking it to the lander. The turn took around 30 minutes to complete.

  13. Cross-Cutting Faults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    16 May 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows cross-cutting fault scarps among graben features in northern Tempe Terra. Graben form in regions where the crust of the planet has been extended; such features are common in the regions surrounding the vast 'Tharsis Bulge' on Mars.

    Location near: 43.7oN, 90.2oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Summer

  14. Cutting the Cord-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This animation shows the view from the rear hazard avoidance cameras on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as the rover turns 45 degrees clockwise. This maneuver is the first step in a 3-point turn that will rotate the rover 115 degrees to face west. The rover must make this turn before rolling off the lander because airbags are blocking it from exiting from the front lander petal. Before this crucial turn took place, engineers instructed the rover to cut the final cord linking it to the lander. The turn took around 30 minutes to complete.

  15. How cold is cold dark matter?

    SciTech Connect

    Armendariz-Picon, Cristian; Neelakanta, Jayanth T. E-mail: jtneelak@syr.edu

    2014-03-01

    If cold dark matter consists of particles, these must be non-interacting and non-relativistic by definition. In most cold dark matter models however, dark matter particles inherit a non-vanishing velocity dispersion from interactions in the early universe, a velocity that redshifts with cosmic expansion but certainly remains non-zero. In this article, we place model-independent constraints on the dark matter temperature to mass ratio, whose square root determines the dark matter velocity dispersion. We only assume that dark matter particles decoupled kinetically while non-relativistic, when galactic scales had not entered the horizon yet, and that their momentum distribution has been Maxwellian since that time. Under these assumptions, using cosmic microwave background and matter power spectrum observations, we place upper limits on the temperature to mass ratio of cold dark matter today (away from collapsed structures). These limits imply that the present cold dark matter velocity dispersion has to be smaller than 54 m/s. Cold dark matter has to be quite cold, indeed.

  16. Dual effectiveness of sodium chlorite for enzymatic browning inhibition and Escherichia coli inactivation on fresh-cut apples

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study investigated the dual effectiveness of sodium chlorite (SC) for browning inhibition and microbial inactivation on fresh-cut apples. The SC treatment exhibited a strong inhibition on browning reaction of fresh-cut Red Delicious apples during cold storage. Test results from examination of t...

  17. Study Cold-Soaking Treatment of Posts of Delta Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    G. M. Furnival

    1954-01-01

    In 1953, a study was begun at the Delta Branch of the Southern Forest Experiment Station to determine whether fence posts cut from Delta hardwoods can be treated satisfactorily by cold-soaking in pentacholorophenol. Species included in the test were overcup oak, red oak (water oaks) sweetgum, tupelo, privet, boxelder, hackberry, hickory, cedar elm, American elm, and...

  18. Cold Plasma: an emerging antimicrobial intervention to improve food safety

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Contamination of fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables by foodborne pathogens has prompted research into novel interventions. Cold plasma is a nonthermal food processing technology which uses energetic, reactive gases to inactivate contaminating microbes. This flexible sanitizing method uses ele...

  19. Cold Plasma as a nonthermal food processing technology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Contamination of fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables by foodborne pathogens has prompted research into novel interventions. Cold plasma is a nonthermal food processing technology which uses energetic, reactive gases to inactivate contaminating microbes. This flexible sanitizing method uses ele...

  20. Cold plasma as a nonthermal food processing technology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Contamination of meats, seafood, poultry, eggs, and fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables is an ongoing concern. Although well-established in non-food applications for surface treatment and modification, cold plasma is a relatively new food safety intervention. As a nonthermal food processing te...

  1. Vibrator improves spark erosion cutting process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thrall, L. R.

    1966-01-01

    Variable frequency mechanical vibrator improves spark erosion cutting process. The vibration of the cutting tip permits continual flushing away of residue around the cut area with nondestructive electric transformer oil during the cutting process.

  2. Vortex cutting in superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glatz, A.; Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.; Kwok, W. K.; Crabtree, G. W.

    2016-08-01

    Vortex cutting and reconnection is an intriguing and still-unsolved problem central to many areas of classical and quantum physics, including hydrodynamics, astrophysics, and superconductivity. Here, we describe a comprehensive investigation of the crossing of magnetic vortices in superconductors using time dependent Ginsburg-Landau modeling. Within a macroscopic volume, we simulate initial magnetization of an anisotropic high temperature superconductor followed by subsequent remagnetization with perpendicular magnetic fields, creating the crossing of the initial and newly generated vortices. The time resolved evolution of vortex lines as they approach each other, contort, locally conjoin, and detach, elucidates the fine details of the vortex-crossing scenario under practical situations with many interacting vortices in the presence of weak pinning. Our simulations also reveal left-handed helical vortex instabilities that accompany the remagnetization process and participate in the vortex crossing events.

  3. Cut By Troughs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    1 September 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an impact crater cut by troughs which formed after the crater formed. The crater and troughs have large windblown ripples on their floors. The ripples, troughs, craters, and other surfaces in this scene have all been mantled by dust. Dark streaks on slopes indicate areas where avalanches of dry dust have occurred. These features are located on Sacra Mena, a large mesa in the Kasei Valles region.

    Location near: 25.4oN, 66.8oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  4. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi

    2004-01-31

    Final design of the mast was completed (Task 5). The mast is consisting of two welded plate girders, set next to each other, and spaced 14-inches apart. Fabrication of the boom will be completed in two parts solely for ease of transportation. The end pivot connection will be made through a single 2-inch diameter x 4 feet-8 inch long 316 SS bar. During installation, hard piping make-ups using Chiksan joints will connect the annular section and 4-inch return line to allow full movement of the mast from horizontal to vertical. Additionally, flexible hoses and piping will be installed to isolate both towers from piping loads and allow recycling operations respectively. Calibration of the prototype Foam Generator Cell has been completed and experiments are now being conducted. We were able to generate up to 95% quality foam. Work is currently underway to attach the Thermo-Haake RS300 viscometer and install a view port with a microscope to measure foam bubble size and bubble size distribution. Foam rheology tests (Task 13) were carried out to evaluate the rheological properties of the proposed foam formulation. After successful completion of the first foam test, two sets of rheological tests were conducted at different foam flow rates while keeping other parameters constant (100 psig, 70F, 80% quality). The results from these tests are generally in agreement with the previous foam tests done previously during Task 9. However, an unanticipated observation during these tests was that in both cases, the frictional pressure drop in 2 inch pipe was lower than that in the 3 inch and 4 inch pipes. We also conducted the first foam cuttings transport test during this quarter. Experiments on aerated fluids without cuttings have been completed in ACTF (Task 10). Gas and liquid were injected at different flow rates. Two different sets of experiments were carried out, where the only difference was the temperature. Another set of tests was performed, which covered a wide range of

  5. Making the cut

    PubMed Central

    Millard, Chris

    2013-01-01

    ‘Deliberate self-harm’, ‘self-mutilation’ and ‘self-injury’ are just some of the terms used to describe one of the most prominent issues in British mental health policy in recent years. This article demonstrates that contemporary literature on ‘self-harm’ produces this phenomenon (to varying extents) around two key characteristics. First, this behaviour is predominantly performed by those identified as female. Second, this behaviour primarily involves cutting the skin. These constitutive characteristics are traced back to a corpus of literature produced in the 1960s and 1970s in North American psychiatric inpatient institutions; analysis shows how pre-1960 works were substantially different. Finally, these gendered and behavioural assertions are shown to be the result of historically specific processes of exclusion and emphasis. PMID:23741086

  6. Cutting ice: nanowire regelation.

    PubMed

    Hynninen, Teemu; Heinonen, Vili; Dias, Cristiano L; Karttunen, Mikko; Foster, Adam S; Ala-Nissila, Tapio

    2010-08-20

    Even below its normal melting temperature, ice melts when subjected to high pressure and refreezes once the pressure is lifted. A classic demonstration of this regelation phenomenon is the passing of a thin wire through a block of ice when sufficient force is exerted. Here we present a molecular-dynamics study of a nanowire cutting through ice to unravel the molecular level mechanisms responsible for regelation. In particular, we show that the transition from a stationary to a moving wire due to increased driving force changes from symmetric and continuous to asymmetric and discontinuous as a hydrophilic wire is replaced by a hydrophobic one. This is explained at the molecular level in terms of the wetting properties of the wire.

  7. Vortex cutting in superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Glatz, A.; Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.; Kwok, W. K.; Crabtree, G. W.

    2016-08-09

    Vortex cutting and reconnection is an intriguing and still-unsolved problem central to many areas of classical and quantum physics, including hydrodynamics, astrophysics, and superconductivity. Here, in this paper, we describe a comprehensive investigation of the crossing of magnetic vortices in superconductors using time dependent Ginsburg-Landau modeling. Within a macroscopic volume, we simulate initial magnetization of an anisotropic high temperature superconductor followed by subsequent remagnetization with perpendicular magnetic fields, creating the crossing of the initial and newly generated vortices. The time resolved evolution of vortex lines as they approach each other, contort, locally conjoin, and detach, elucidates the fine details of the vortex-crossing scenario under practical situations with many interacting vortices in the presence of weak pinning. Finally, our simulations also reveal left-handed helical vortex instabilities that accompany the remagnetization process and participate in the vortex crossing events.

  8. Vortex cutting in superconductors

    DOE PAGES

    Glatz, A.; Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.; Kwok, W. K.; ...

    2016-08-09

    Vortex cutting and reconnection is an intriguing and still-unsolved problem central to many areas of classical and quantum physics, including hydrodynamics, astrophysics, and superconductivity. Here, in this paper, we describe a comprehensive investigation of the crossing of magnetic vortices in superconductors using time dependent Ginsburg-Landau modeling. Within a macroscopic volume, we simulate initial magnetization of an anisotropic high temperature superconductor followed by subsequent remagnetization with perpendicular magnetic fields, creating the crossing of the initial and newly generated vortices. The time resolved evolution of vortex lines as they approach each other, contort, locally conjoin, and detach, elucidates the fine details ofmore » the vortex-crossing scenario under practical situations with many interacting vortices in the presence of weak pinning. Finally, our simulations also reveal left-handed helical vortex instabilities that accompany the remagnetization process and participate in the vortex crossing events.« less

  9. Cross-Cutting Relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 25 August 2003

    The several linear cross-cutting grabens and collapse features observed in this THEMIS image illustrate the relative timing of a series of complex geologic processes as more recent events produce features that overlap and intersect older ones. Some impact craters are observed to be cut grabens, suggesting an older impact event compared to impact craters that appear fresh and unmodified.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 14.1, Longitude 236.3 East (123.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  10. Cross-Cutting Relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 25 August 2003

    The several linear cross-cutting grabens and collapse features observed in this THEMIS image illustrate the relative timing of a series of complex geologic processes as more recent events produce features that overlap and intersect older ones. Some impact craters are observed to be cut grabens, suggesting an older impact event compared to impact craters that appear fresh and unmodified.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 14.1, Longitude 236.3 East (123.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  11. [Cold-induced urticaria].

    PubMed

    Delorme, N; Drouet, M; Thibaudeau, A; Verret, J L

    2002-09-01

    Cold urticaria is characterized by the development of urticaria, usually superficial and/or angioedematous reaction after cold contact. It was found predominantly in young women. The diagnosis is based on the history and ice cube test. Patients with a negative ice cube test may have represented systemic cold urticaria (atypical acquired cold urticaria) induced by general body cooling. The pathogenesis is poorly understood. Cold urticaria can be classified into acquired and familial disorders, with an autosomal dominant inheritance. Idiopathic cold urticaria is most common type but the research of a cryopathy is necessary. Therapy is often difficult. It is essential that the patient be warned of the dangers of swimming in cold water because systemic hypotension can occur. H1 antihistamines can be used for treatment of cold urticaria but the clinical responses are highly variable. The combination with an H2 antagonists is more effective. Doxepin may be useful in the treatment. Leukotriene receptor antagonists may be a novel, promising drug entity. In patients who do not respond to previous treatments, induction of cold tolerance may be tried.

  12. Cold fusion, Alchemist's dream

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, E.D.

    1989-09-01

    In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalysed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalysed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D{sub 2} molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D{sub 2} fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into {sup 4}He; secondary D+T fusion within the hydrogenated metal lattice; {sup 3}He to {sup 4}He ratio within the metal lattice; shock induced fusion; and anomalously high isotopic ratios of {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He.

  13. Cold Antimatter Plasmas, and Aspirations for Cold Antihydrogen

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-24

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP012494 TITLE: Cold Antimatter Plasmas, and Aspirations for Cold...part numbers comprise the compilation report: ADP012489 thru ADP012577 UNCLASSIFIED Cold Antimatter Plasmas, and Aspirations for Cold Antihydrogen G...and positrons. The antiprotons come initially from the new Antiproton Decel- erator facility at CERN. Good control of such cold antimatter plasmas is

  14. Mechanically cut mitotic spindles: clean cuts and stable microtubules.

    PubMed

    Nicklas, R B; Lee, G M; Rieder, C L; Rupp, G

    1989-11-01

    We have discovered an easy way to cut through the mitotic spindle at any desired place. Spindles of demembranated cricket or grasshopper spermatocytes were severed with a microneedle between the chromosomes and one pole, and the cut-off polar piece was swept away. Spindle structure and microtubule dynamics in cut spindles were studied by anti-tubulin immunostaining and electron microscopy. The cut is clean: all microtubules are severed and only a few extend beyond the others. This provides the basis for a clear test of whether traction fibers pull chromosomes to the pole in anaphase, because the putative traction fiber is cleanly severed. Cutting creates new plus ends on microtubules in the cut-off polar piece and new minus ends on microtubules in the main spindle body. The microtubules with new plus ends are unstable, as expected from the dynamic instability of microtubules. However, the microtubules with new minus ends are as stable as uncut microtubules in the same spindle. Our mechanical method of cutting microtubules very likely creates native, reactive ends, and therefore the surprising stability of new minus ends is genuinely interesting, not an artifact of cutting.

  15. Cold stress and the cold pressor test.

    PubMed

    Silverthorn, Dee U; Michael, Joel

    2013-03-01

    Temperature and other environmental stressors are known to affect blood pressure and heart rate. In this activity, students perform the cold pressor test, demonstrating increased blood pressure during a 1- to 2-min immersion of one hand in ice water. The cold pressor test is used clinically to evaluate autonomic and left ventricular function. This activity is easily adapted to an inquiry format that asks students to go to the scientific literature to learn about the test and then design a protocol for carrying out the test in classmates. The data collected are ideal for teaching graphical presentation of data and statistical analysis.

  16. Effect of native microflora, waiting period, and storage temperature on Listeria monocytogenes serovars transferred from cantaloupe rind to fresh-cut pieces during preparation.

    PubMed

    Ukuku, Dike O; Olanya, Modesto; Geveke, David J; Sommers, Christopher H

    2012-11-01

    The most recent outbreak of listeriosis linked to consumption of fresh-cut cantaloupes indicates the need to investigate the behavior of Listeria monocytogenes in the presence of native microflora of cantaloupe pieces during storage. Whole cantaloupes were inoculated with L. monocytogenes (10(8)-CFU/ml suspension) for 10 min and air dried in a biosafety cabinet for 1 h and then treated (unwashed, water washed, and 2.5% hydrogen peroxide washed). Fresh-cut pieces (∼3 cm) prepared from these melons were left at 5 and 10°C for 72 h and room temperature (20°C) for 48 h. Some fresh-cut pieces were left at 20°C for 2 and 4 h and then refrigerated at 5°C. Microbial populations of fresh-cut pieces were determined by the plate count method or enrichment method immediately after preparation. Aerobic mesophilic bacteria, yeast and mold of whole melon, and inoculated populations of L. monocytogenes on cantaloupe rind surfaces averaged 6.4, 3.3, and 4.6 log CFU/cm(2), respectively. Only H(2)O(2) (2.5%) treatment reduced the aerobic mesophilic bacteria, yeast and mold, and L. monocytogenes populations to 3.8, 0.9, and 1.8 log CFU/cm(2), respectively. The populations of L. monocytogenes transferred from melon rinds to fresh-cut pieces were below detection but were present by enrichment. Increased storage temperatures enhanced the lag phases and growth of L. monocytogenes. The results of this study confirmed the need to store fresh-cut cantaloupes at 5°C immediately after preparation to enhance the microbial safety of the fruit.

  17. Chilling Out With Colds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your head hurts. You don't have the energy to even get out of bed. And you can't breathe out of your nose. What's wrong? You may have a cold! Having a cold is the #1 reason kids visit the doctor and stay home from school. Kids can get six to ten ...

  18. Exercise in the Cold

    PubMed Central

    Fudge, Jessie

    2016-01-01

    Context: Hypothermia and frostbite injuries occur in cold weather activities and sporting events. Evidence Acquisition: A PubMed search was used to identify original research and review articles related to cold, frostbite, and hypothermia. Inclusion was based on their relevance to prevention and treatment of cold-related injuries in sports and outdoor activities. Dates of review articles were limited to those published after 2010. No date limit was set for the most recent consensus statements or original research. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 5. Results: Frostbite and hypothermia are well-documented entities with good prevention strategies and prehospital treatment recommendations that have changed very little with time. A layered approach to clothing is the best way to prevent injury and respond to weather changes. Each athlete, defined as a participant in a cold weather sport or activity, will respond to cold differently depending on anthropometric measurements and underlying medical risk factors. An understanding of wind-chill temperatures, wetness, and the weather forecast allows athletes and event coordinators to properly respond to changing weather conditions. At the first sign of a freezing cold injury, ensure warm, dry clothes and move to a protected environment. Conclusion: Cold injuries can be prevented, and cold weather activities are safe with proper education, preparation, and response to changing weather conditions or injury. PMID:26857732

  19. Hot and cold fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    This article presents an overview of research in cold fusion research and development in cold fusion at the Tokomak Fusion Test Reactor at the Princeton Plasma Physics Lab, and at the inertial containment facility at Lawrence Livermore National Lab. is described.

  20. Cold Sores (HSV-1)

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cold Sores (HSV-1) KidsHealth > For Teens > Cold Sores (HSV-1) A A A What's in this article? ... or around a person's lips, are caused by herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) . But they don't ...

  1. Liquid metal cold trap

    DOEpatents

    Hundal, Rolv

    1976-01-01

    A cold trap assembly for removing impurities from a liquid metal being provided with a hole between the incoming impure liquid metal and purified outgoing liquid metal which acts as a continuous bleed means and thus prevents the accumulation of cover gases within the cold trap assembly.

  2. Cold-Weather Sports

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sport for You Healthy School Lunch Planner Cold-Weather Sports KidsHealth > For Teens > Cold-Weather Sports Print A A A What's in this ... Equipment Ahh, winter! Shorter days. Frigid temperatures. Foul weather. What better time to be outdoors? Winter sports ...

  3. Cold fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    1989-11-01

    I am pleased to forward to you the Final Report of the Cold Fusion Panel. This report reviews the current status of cold fusion and includes major chapters on Calorimetry and Excess Heat, Fusion Products and Materials Characterization. In addition, the report makes a number of conclusions and recommendations, as requested by the Secretary of Energy.

  4. Improvement Cutting in Bottomland Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    J. W. Johnson

    1951-01-01

    Do bottomland hardwood forests respond to improvement cuts? Do growth rate and stand quality increase enough to make up for the extra effort and, sometimes, outright expense of improvement cutting? Ten years of growth on some plots on the Delta Experimental Forest near Stoneville, Mississippi, indicates that the answer to both questions is "yes".

  5. Composite structure for cutting tools

    SciTech Connect

    Radd, F.J.; Haden, E.L.

    1984-01-01

    A cutting tool comprises a compact bundle of elongated, substantially cylindrical fibers or rods formed from a cemented metal carbide material. The bundle of fibers is shrink-fitted within a metal collar to form a long-wearing cutting tool.

  6. Corner-cutting mining assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bradley, John A.

    1983-01-01

    A mining assembly includes a primary rotary cutter mounted on one end of a support shaft and four secondary rotary cutters carried on the same support shaft and positioned behind the primary cutters for cutting corners in the hole cut by the latter.

  7. How to Cut Publications Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Virginia L., Ed.; Alberger, Patricia A., Ed.

    This handbook on how to cut costs in college publications contains the following articles: "Stretching Your Publications Dollar: The Basics," by Kelvin J. Arden and William J. Whalen; "How to Print Cheaper," by M. Frederic Volkmann; "How Your Colleagues Cut Costs," by Robert S. Topor; "Printing Specifications: Writing Them Right," by M. Frederic…

  8. Minimum Cuts and Related Problems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The paper is concerned with an integer programming characterization of a cut in a network. This characterization provides a fundamental equivalence...between directed pseudosummetric networks and undirected networks. It also identifies a class of problems which can be solved as minimum cut problems on a network. (Author)

  9. Cutting Head for Ultrasonic Lithotripsy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angulo, Earl D. (Inventor); Goodfriend, Roger (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A cutting head for attachment to the end of the wire probe of an ultrasonic kidney stone disintegration instrument. The cutting head has a plurality of circumferentially arranged teeth formed at one end thereof to provide a cup-shaped receptacle for kidney stones encountered during the disintegration procedure. An integral reduced diameter collar diminishes stress points in the wire and reduces breakage thereof.

  10. Cutting and Self-Harm

    MedlinePlus

    ... sad Cutting and self-harm Cutting and self-harm Self-harm, sometimes called self-injury, is when a person ... about how one girl helps herself not self-harm. What are signs of self-injury in others? ...

  11. Dominus for cut flower production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fumigation with methyl bromide was the principal method of soilborne pest control in cut flower production. Many cut flower growers in Florida have ceased production, but those that remain are restricted in the fumigants that they are able to utilize due to proximity to potable water sources and oc...

  12. How to Cut Publications Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Virginia L., Ed.; Alberger, Patricia A., Ed.

    This handbook on how to cut costs in college publications contains the following articles: "Stretching Your Publications Dollar: The Basics," by Kelvin J. Arden and William J. Whalen; "How to Print Cheaper," by M. Frederic Volkmann; "How Your Colleagues Cut Costs," by Robert S. Topor; "Printing Specifications: Writing Them Right," by M. Frederic…

  13. The common cold.

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, Terho; Järvinen, Asko

    2003-01-04

    Despite great advances in medicine, the common cold continues to be a great burden on society in terms of human suffering and economic losses. Of the several viruses that cause the disease, the role of rhinoviruses is most prominent. About a quarter of all colds are still without proven cause, and the recent discovery of human metapneumovirus suggests that other viruses could remain undiscovered. Research into the inflammatory mechanisms of the common cold has elucidated the complexity of the virus-host relation. Increasing evidence is also available for the central role of viruses in predisposing to complications. New antivirals for the treatment of colds are being developed, but optimum use of these agents would require rapid detection of the specific virus causing the infection. Although vaccines against many respiratory viruses could also become available, the ultimate prevention of the common cold seems to remain a distant aim.

  14. Tubing and cable cutting tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcsmith, D. D.; Richardson, J. I. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A hand held hydraulic cutting tool was developed which is particularly useful in deactivating ejection seats in military aircraft rescue operations. The tool consists primarily of a hydraulic system composed of a fluid reservoir, a pumping piston, and an actuator piston. Mechanical cutting jaws are attached to the actuator piston rod. The hydraulic system is controlled by a pump handle. As the pump handle is operated the actuator piston rod is forced outward and thus the cutting jaws are forced together. The frame of the device is a flexible metal tubing which permits easy positioning of the tool cutting jaws in remote and normally inaccessible locations. Bifurcated cutting edges ensure removal of a section of the tubing or cable to thereby reduce the possibility of accidental reactivation of the tubing or cable being severed.

  15. Cutting forces in orthogonal cutting of unidirectional GFRP composites

    SciTech Connect

    Caprino, G.; Nele, L.

    1996-07-01

    The results of orthogonal cutting tests carried out on unidirectional glass fiber reinforced plastic composites, using HSS tools, are presented and discussed. During the tests, performed on a milling machine at very low cutting speed to avoid thermal effects, the cutting speed was held constant and parallel to the fiber direction. Three parameters, namely the tool rake angle {alpha}, the tool relief angle {gamma}, and the depth of cut t, were varied. According to the experimental results, the horizontal force per unit width, F{sub hu}, undergoes a dramatic decrease, never verified for metals, with increasing {alpha}. Besides, F{sub hu} is only negligibly affected by the relief angle, and linearly increases with t. Similarly to metals, an effect of the depth of cut on the specific energy (size effect) is found also for composites. However, the presented results indicate that the size effect can be analytically modeled in a simple way in the case of composites. The vertical force per unit width, F{sub vu}, exhibits a marked reduction when the relief angle is increased. F{sub vu} is also very sensitive to the rake angle: the lower {alpha}, the higher is F{sub vu}. It is shown that this behavior probably reflects a strong influence of the rake angle on the forces developing at the flank. A linear dependence of the vertical force on the depth of cut is also demonstrated. Finally, the experimental data are utilized to obtain empirical formulae, allowing an approximate evaluation of cutting forces.

  16. Heat strain in cold.

    PubMed

    Rintamäki, Hannu; Rissanen, Sirkka

    2006-07-01

    In spite of increased environmental cold stress, heat strain is possible also in a cold environment. The body heat balance depends on three factors: environmental thermal conditions, metabolic heat production and thermal insulation of clothing and other protective garments. As physical exercise may increase metabolic heat production from rest values by ten times or even more, the required thermal insulation of clothing may vary accordingly. However, in most outdoor work, and often in indoor cold work, too, the thermal insulation of clothing is impractical, difficult or impossible to adjust according to the changes in physical activity. This is especially true with whole body covering garments like chemical protective clothing. As a result of this imbalance, heat strain may develop. In cold all the signs of heat strain (core temperature above 38 degrees C, warm or hot thermal sensations, increased cutaneous circulation and sweating) may not be present at the same time. Heat strain in cold may be whole body heat strain or related only to torso or core temperature. Together with heat strain in torso or body core, there can be at the same time even cold strain in peripheral parts and/or superficial layers of the body. In cold environment both the preservation of insulation and facilitation of heat loss are important. Development of clothing design is still needed to allow easy adjustments of thermal insulation.

  17. Quality of cut lettuce treated by heat shock: prevention of enzymatic browning, repression of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity, and improvement on sensory evaluation during storage.

    PubMed

    Murata, Masatsune; Tanaka, Eriko; Minoura, Emiko; Homma, Seiichi

    2004-03-01

    Stored cut lettuce gradually turns brown on the cut section after several days of storage, because cutting induces phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity, the biosynthesis of polyphenol is promoted, and the polyphenols are oxidized by polyphenol oxidase. Here, the effect of heat shock treatment at 50 degrees C for 90 s on the quality of cut lettuce during cold storage was examined. The heat shock treatment significantly repressed the induction of PAL activity and phenolics accumulation in cut lettuce during storage, and prevented the browning of cut lettuce. Ascorbic acid content was not affected by the heat shock treatment. The sensory analysis showed that the organoleptic quality of cut lettuce treated by heat shock was significantly better than that of the control cut lettuce. These results show that heat shock treatment is useful for prolonging the shelf life of cut lettuce.

  18. Cold subcutaneous abscesses.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, R.; Stephens, L.; Kelly, A. P.

    1990-01-01

    Cold abscesses are defined as having no associated erythema, heat, or tenderness. They may be present in immunodeficiency disorders, deep mycoses, and other infectious diseases. As there is a dearth information on this subject in the dermatology, surgery, and infectious disease literature, we present a case of cold abscesses secondary to coccidioidomycosis and discuss the possible role of humoral immunity, cell-mediated immunity, prostaglandins, T cells, and other mediators in cold abscess pathogenesis. In addition, therapeutic guidelines for abscesses are reviewed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2280425

  19. Miniature cold gas thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bzibziak, R. J., Sr.

    1992-07-01

    Cold gas thrusters provide a safe, inexpensive, lightweight and reliable means of propulsive control for small satellites, projectiles and maneuvering control systems. Moog Inc. has designed and developed a family of miniature cold gas thrusters for use on Strategic Defense Iniative flight simulation experiments, sounding rockets, small satellite applications, astronaut control systems, and close proximity maneuvering systems for Space System. Construction features such as coil assembly, core assembly, armature assembly, external housing and valve body are discussed. The design approach, performance characteristics and functional description of cold gas thrusters designed for various applications are presented.

  20. Observational study on the upper tropospheric cold lows in Brazilian south and west Atlantic subtropical latitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, M. A.

    1983-03-01

    Upper tropospheric cold lows in the subtropics are studied. From satellite imagery it is observed that the moist lows (those having significant cloudiness) form in the period of May to September. The formation of these cyclones is preceded by the intensification of a ridge to the southwest. The cold lows are observed to move eastward when they are embedded in the mid latitude flow. When they are cut off from this flow, the advection of planetary vorticity dominates and, therefore, the cold lows drift to the west. A possible explanation for their maintenance is the infusion of cold air from upper air troughs at higher latitudes.

  1. Doubly Rotated Cut SAW Devices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    A O-AIIO 663 NOTO AOI.A INC SCOTTS A LEJ AZ S0V RNmF.NT ELECTRONICS DV F/S WI1 DOUBLY ROTATED CUT SAV DEVICES.(U) JAN 82 D F WIL.IANMS F T CHO DAK20...quartz substrates for the purpose of locating promising angular ranges with properties superior to the singly rotated cuts now in existence More...detailed calculations follow to refine the angular coordinates in order to specify cuts for experimental erification in Task I1. In Task II, sets of

  2. Doubly Rotated Cut SAW Devices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    AD-AO 545 MOTOROLA INC SCOTTSDALE AZ GOVERNMENT ELECTRONICS DIV F/O 20/2 DOUBLY ROTATED CUT SAW DEVICES.( U) APR 81 0 F WILLIAMS, F Y CHO DAAK2O 79...f we Ma. he0 _TL ft . *VM or seu3f? 6 090100 cove mis interim Report.~arch 198 ’ Doubly Rotated Cut SAW Devices .r etme 9 9. SInFY T ON 6MNY mUUUUf L...exploratory development of doubly rotated cuts of quartz possessing superior Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) properties for applications involving

  3. Doubly Rotated Cut SAW Devices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    A0-AI03 -728 MOTOROLA INC SCOTTSDALE AZ GOVERNMENT ELECTRONICS DIV FIG 20/2 DOUBLY ROTATED CUT SAW DEVICES. U P AUG 81 0 F WILLIAMS, F Y CHO OAAK20...79-C-0275 UNCLASSIFIED DELET-TR-79-0275-3 ML wIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII illlllllllllr: K8 MMR UNCLASSIFIED / JZ R-79-0273 Doubly Rotated Cut SAW Devices...towme. e *#* tooeeeimp md fallp p, uh9lbme The objective of this program is the exploratory development of doubly rotated cuts of quartz possessing

  4. Cutting Head for Ultrasonic Lithotripsy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angulo, E. D.; Goodfriend, R.

    1987-01-01

    Kidney stones lodged in urinary tract disintegrated with increased safety and efficiency by cutting head attached to end of vibrated wire probe. Aligns probe with stone and enables probe to vibrate long enough to disintegrate stone. Design of cutting head reduces risk of metal-fatigue-induced breakage of probe tip leaving metal fragments in urinary tract. Teeth of cutting head both seat and fragment kidney stone, while extension of collar into catheter lessens mechanical strain in probe wire, increasing probe life and lessening danger of in situ probe breakage.

  5. Homeostatic Responses to Prolonged Cold Exposure: Human Cold Acclimatization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    cold acclimatization resulting from living and working in cold environments, and cold acclimation induced by unusual or experimental alterations in...reflects a greater thermal conductance resulting from increased metabolism, altered vasomotor responses, decreased physical insulation associated with low...vasoconstrictor response to cold is altered in circumpolar residents. For example, Brown and Page (9) measured hand blood flow in Inuits and

  6. Cold hardiness in molluscs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansart, Armelle; Vernon, Philippe

    2003-05-01

    Molluscs inhabit all types of environments: seawater, intertidal zone, freshwater and land, and of course may have to deal with subzero temperatures. Ectotherm animals survive cold conditions by avoiding it by extensive supercooling (freezing avoidant species) or by bearing the freezing of their extracellular body fluids (freezing tolerant species). Although some studies on cold hardiness are available for intertidal molluscs, they are scarce for freshwater and terrestrial ones. Molluscs often exhibit intermediary levels of cold hardiness, with a moderate or low ability to supercool and a limited survival to the freezing of their tissues. Several factors could be involved: their dependence on water, their ability to enter dormancy, the probability of inoculative freezing in their environment, etc. Size is an important parameter in the development of cold hardiness abilities: it influences supercooling ability in land snails, which are rather freezing avoidant and survival to ice formation in intertidal organisms, which generally tolerate freezing.

  7. The cold reading technique.

    PubMed

    Dutton, D L

    1988-04-15

    For many people, belief in the paranormal derives from personal experience of face-to-face interviews with astrologers, palm readers, aura and Tarot readers, and spirit mediums. These encounters typically involve cold reading, a process in which a reader makes calculated guesses about a client's background and problems and, depending on the reaction, elaborates a reading which seems to the client so uniquely appropriate that it carries with it the illusion of having been produced by paranormal means. The cold reading process is shown to depend initially on the Barnum effect, the tendency for people to embrace generalized personality descriptions as idiosyncratically their own. Psychological research into the Barnum effect is critically reviewed, and uses of the effect by a professional magician are described. This is followed by detailed analysis of the cold reading performances of a spirit medium. Future research should investigate the degree to which cold readers may have convinced themselves that they actually possess psychic or paranormal abilities.

  8. Coping with Colds

    MedlinePlus

    ... re hungry. And you might have heard that chicken soup can cure a cold. There's no real ... you have strep throat and need treatment with antibiotics. If your doctor does prescribe antibiotics, be sure ...

  9. Colds and flus - antibiotics

    MedlinePlus

    Fashner J, Ericson K, Werner S. Treatment of the common cold in children and adults. Am Fam Physician. 2012; ... gov/pubmed/22962927 . Melio FR, Berge LR. Upper respiratory tract infections. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ...

  10. Growth of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes on fresh-cut cantaloupe under different temperature abuse scenarios

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Effective cold chain management is a critical component of food safety practice. In this study, we examined the impact of commonly encountered temperature abuse scenarios on the proliferation of Salmonela enterica and Listeria monocytogenes on fresh-cut cantaloupe. During one week of storage, Salmon...

  11. How Can I Stop Cutting?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Help You Express the Pain and Deep Emotion Some people cut because the emotions that ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  12. Dealing with Cuts (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Cellulitis First Aid: Cuts Staph Infections Bites and Scratches ... Animal Bites Blood Childproofing and Preventing Household Accidents Cellulitis How Stitches Help Kids Heal The Story on ...

  13. Laser cutting of energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, T.; Muenchausen, R.; Sanchez, J.

    1998-12-01

    The authors have demonstrated the feasibility of safely and efficiently cutting and drilling metal cases containing a variety of high explosives (HE) using a Nd:YAG laser. Spectral analysis of the optical emission, occurring during the laser-induced ablation process, is used to identify the removed material. By monitoring changes in the optical emission during the cutting process, the metal-He interface can be observed in real time and the cutting parameters adjusted accordingly. For cutting the HE material itself, the authors have demonstrated that this can be safely and efficiently accomplished by means of a ultraviolet (UV) laser beam obtained from the same Nd:YAG laser using the third or fourth harmonics. They are currently applying this technology to UXO identification and ordnance demilitarization.

  14. Cutting thin sections of bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashley, W. W.

    1972-01-01

    Medical equipment for obtaining repetitive planoparallel sections of bone to study healing of bone structure under high gravity stress is described. Device consists of modified saw with diamond cutting edges. Construction of device and manner of use are explained.

  15. How Can I Stop Cutting?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Help You Express the Pain and Deep Emotion Some people cut because the emotions that ... Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  16. Refrigerated cutting tools improve machining of superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, G. M.

    1971-01-01

    Freon-12 applied to tool cutting edge evaporates quickly, leaves no residue, and permits higher cutting rate than with conventional coolants. This technique increases cutting rate on Rene-41 threefold and improves finish of machined surface.

  17. Microwave assisted hard rock cutting

    DOEpatents

    Lindroth, David P.; Morrell, Roger J.; Blair, James R.

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus for the sequential fracturing and cutting of subsurface volume of hard rock (102) in the strata (101) of a mining environment (100) by subjecting the volume of rock to a beam (25) of microwave energy to fracture the subsurface volume of rock by differential expansion; and , then bringing the cutting edge (52) of a piece of conventional mining machinery (50) into contact with the fractured rock (102).

  18. Interactive cutting path analysis programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiner, J. M.; Williams, D. S.; Colley, S. R.

    1975-01-01

    The operation of numerically controlled machine tools is interactively simulated. Four programs were developed to graphically display the cutting paths for a Monarch lathe, Cintimatic mill, Strippit sheet metal punch, and the wiring path for a Standard wire wrap machine. These programs are run on a IMLAC PDS-ID graphic display system under the DOS-3 disk operating system. The cutting path analysis programs accept input via both paper tape and disk file.

  19. Underwater welding, cutting and inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, C.L. . Ohio Underwater Welding Center)

    1995-02-01

    Underwater welding, cutting and inspection of offshore, inland waterway and port facilities are becoming a requirement for both military and industrial communities, as maintenance and repair costs continue to escalate, and as many of the facilities are in operation well beyond their intended design life. In nuclear applications, underwater welding, cutting and inspection for repair and modification of irradiated nuclear power plant components are also a requirement. This article summarizes recent developments in this emerging underwater technology.

  20. Cutting head for ultrasonic lithotripsy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anguluo, E. D.; Goodfriend, R. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A cutting head for attachment to the end of the wire probe of an ultrasonic kidney stone disintegration instrument is described. The cutting head has a plurality of circumferentially arranged teeth formed at one end thereof to provide a cup shaped receptacle for kidney stones encountered during the disintegration procedure. An integral reduced diameter collar diminishes stress points in the wire and reduce breakage thereof.

  1. Teaching in a Cold Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert, Alan

    Instructors who teach outdoors in an environment so cold as to cause injury must satisfy program objectives while avoiding cold injury to themselves and students, help students focus on learning instead of discomfort, and alleviate some students' intense fear of the cold. Dealing with the cold successfully requires a thorough knowledge of:…

  2. Teaching in a Cold Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert, Alan

    1979-01-01

    Designed to help teachers deal with students in a cold environment, this article explains cold physiology and fundamental laws of heat; describes 14 common cold injuries and their current treatment; and lists a number of useful teaching techniques for cold environments. (SB)

  3. Teaching in a Cold Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert, Alan

    1979-01-01

    Designed to help teachers deal with students in a cold environment, this article explains cold physiology and fundamental laws of heat; describes 14 common cold injuries and their current treatment; and lists a number of useful teaching techniques for cold environments. (SB)

  4. Supersonic Particle Deposition (Cold Spray)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-26

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 26th Replacement of Hard Chrome and Cadmium Plating Program Review Meeting, January 24-26, 2006, San Diego, CA. Sponsored by SERDP...Spray Cu-W ( clad powder) 197 89-90 HRB Cold Spray Ta 256 21 HRC Cold Spray Ni 403 40-41 HRC Hardness of Various Cold Spray Coatings -Cold Spray

  5. Understanding Colds: Anatomy of the Nose

    MedlinePlus

    ... Colds Prevention Treatment Children Complications Special Features References Common Cold Understanding Colds Anatomy of the Nose The nose ... cm (3/8 inch) per minute. What a Common Cold Is A common cold is an illness caused ...

  6. Cold moderators at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, A. T.

    1997-09-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) cold moderators were not an 'Oak Ridge first', but would have been the largest both physically and in terms of cold neutron flux. Two cold moderators were planned each 410 mm in diameter and containing about 30L of liquid deuterium. They were to be completely independent of each other. A modular system design was used to provide greater reliability and serviceability. When the ANS was terminated, up–grading of the resident High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) was examined and an initial study was made into the feasibility of adding a cold source. Because the ANS design was modular, it was possible to use many identical design features. Sub-cooled liquid at 4 bar abs was initially chosen for the HFIR design concept, but this was subsequently changed to 15 bar abs to operate above the critical pressure. As in the ANS, the hydrogen will operate at a constant pressure throughout the temperature range and a completely closed loop with secondary containment was adopted. The heat load of 2 kW made the heat flux comparable with that of the ANS. Subsequent studies into the construction of cryogenic moderators for the proposed new Synchrotron Neutron source indicated that again many of the same design concepts could be used. By connecting the two cold sources together in series, the total heat load of 2 kW is very close to that of the HFIR allowing a very similar supercritical hydrogen system to be configured. The two hydrogen moderators of the SNS provide a comparable heat load to the HFIR moderator. It is subsequently planned to connect the two in series and operate from a single cold loop system, once again using supercritical hydrogen. The spallation source also provided an opportunity to re-examine a cold pellet solid methane moderator operating at 20K.

  7. Cold Ion Escape from the Martian Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fränz, Markus; Dubinin, Eduard; Andrews, David; Nilsson, Hans; Fedorov, Andrei

    2014-05-01

    It has always been challenging to observe the flux of ions with energies of less than 10eV escaping from the planetary ionospheres. We here report on new measurements of the ionospheric ion flows at Mars by the ASPERA-3 experiment on board Mars Express. The ion sensor IMA of this experiment has in principle a low-energy cut-off at 10eV but in negative spacecraft charging cold ions are lifted into the range of measurement but the field of view is restricted to about 4x360 deg. In a recent paper Nilsson et al. (Earth Planets Space, 64, 135, 2012) tried to use the method of long-time averaged distribution functions to overcome these constraints. In this paper we first use the same method to show that we get results consistent with this when using ASPERA-3 observations only. But then we can show that these results are inconsistent with observations of the local plasma density by the MARSIS radar instrument on board Mars Express. We demonstrate that the method of averaged distribution function can deliver the mean flow speed of the plasma but the low-energy cut-off does usually not allow to reconstruct the density. We then combine measurements of the cold ion flow speed with the plasma density observations of MARSIS to derive the cold ion flux. In an analysis of the combined nightside datasets we show that the main escape channel is along the shadow boundary on the tailside of Mars. At a distance of about 0.5 Martian radii the flux settles at a constant value which indicates that about half of the transterminator ionospheric flow escapes from the planet. Possible mechanism to generate this flux can be the ionospheric pressure gradient between dayside and nightside or momentum transfer from the solar wind via the induced magnetic field since the flow velocity is in the Alfvénic regime.

  8. Cut Front Geometry Characterization in Cutting Applications of Brass with Abrasive Water Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkurt, Adnan

    2010-06-01

    Abrasive water jet (AWJ) cutting is an advanced manufacturing process for machining hard to cut materials. In this study, brass-353 samples of different thicknesses were cut by AWJ using different feed rates to identify the relationships between depth of cut (material thickness), feed rate, and deflection of cutting edge geometry. The effects of material thickness on the AWJ cut surface roughness were investigated and discussed. Deflection of cutting edge geometry in AWJ cutting process was assessed. Cutting edge geometry was characterized by analyzing the surface properties of cut samples.

  9. Obesity-inducing hypothalamic knife cuts: effects on lipolysis and blood insulin levels.

    PubMed

    Bray, G A; Sclafani, A; Novin, D

    1982-09-01

    The effect of two experimental manipulations designed to mobilize lipids from adipose tissue have been investigated in rats with parasagittal knife cuts in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH). Those animals which displayed hyperphagia during the initial 5 days VMH knife cuts were then restricted in food intake to reduce body weights to levels comparable to that of the sham-operated controls. Two weeks following the knife-cut lesions, or sham operations, animals in the first experiment were exposed to the cold for 60 min, and those in the second experiment were injected with 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG). The injections of 2-DG increased the level of glycerol in the control animals but not in the animals with VMH knife cuts. Both groups showed a rise in glucose. Plasma insulin and triglycerides were the same in both groups. Exposure to the cold increased the level of glycerol in both groups. The insulin levels were lower in the corresponding groups with knife cuts. These studies show that VMH knife cuts do not produce hyperinsulinemia in pair-gained rats.

  10. Cold sea survival.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veghte, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    Two prototype three-man life rafts were evaluated during the winter months in Arctic waters off Kodiak Island, Alaska, to assess potential survival problems and determine tolerance limits. Each raft incorporated thermal characteristics specifically designed for cold water. Water and air temperatures varied from 0 to +2 C and -5 to +4 C respectively. All subjects were removed upon reaching subjective tolerance. The results showed that none of the clothing assemblies was adequate to maintain a person in comfort even with dry boarding. No significant biochemical shifts in the blood or urine were found. The TUL raft was found to be superior in its thermal characteristics and afforded better subject protection. General tolerance for cold water immersion, wet and dry, and cold water raft exposures are depicted graphically, based on previously reported data.

  11. Doubly Rotated Cut SAW Devices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    A D A O S G 7 3 A M T O R A I N C S C O T T S A L E A R I Z G V E R N M E N T E L C T R O N I C S I V F / B 2 0 / 2 DOUBLY ROTATED CUT SAW DEVICES...IEEEEI-/ II//E///III I jjj 5.1 -I I II II II F~ ~ 2, I UUGLASSIF1 U100TVw CLAMOGmeIawor OU I lulP&g EWhm oe ae & oubly Rotated Cut SAW Devices& . r...doubly rotated cuts of quartz possessing speri r Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) properties for applications involving environmentally hardened devices. The

  12. AK-cut Crystal Resonators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    AK- cut C r y s t a l Resonators A l f r e d Kahan and Ferdinand K. Eu le r S o l i d S t a t e Sciences D i v i s i o n Rome A i r b v e l...l e s s s e n s i t i v e t o angu la r mis- o r i e n t a t i o n than comparable AT- o r BT- cuts . We have a r b i t r a r i - l y...designated these c r y s t a l s as t h e AK- cut . We r e p o r t exper- imenta l da ta f o r seven o r i e n t a t i o n s , +-angle v a r i a t i

  13. The Nichols Wing Cutting Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, James B

    1923-01-01

    Described here is wing cutting equipment for the economical production of metal wings for wind tunnel models. The machine will make any size of constant-section wing or strut up to one-sixth inch chord by 36-inch span and up to a thickness of one and one-quarter inches. It cuts a smooth, true model that is accurate to within two-thousandths of an inch on any ordinate. The holding jaws are so designed as to leave the model free of chip marks, and the only hand finishing necessary after the cutting is a rub with amunite to remove burrs. The actual change on ordinate in this finishing rub is less than .0002 inches.

  14. Stresses in ultrasonically assisted bone cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, K.; Mitrofanov, A. V.; Bäker, M.; Silberschmidt, V. V.

    2009-08-01

    Bone cutting is a frequently used procedure in the orthopaedic surgery. Modern cutting techniques, such as ultrasonic assisted drilling, enable surgeons to perform precision operations in facial and spinal surgeries. Advanced understanding of the mechanics of bone cutting assisted by ultrasonic vibration is required to minimise bone fractures and to optimise the technique performance. The paper presents results of finite element simulations on ultrasonic and conventional bone cutting analysing the effects of ultrasonic vibration on cutting forces and stress distribution. The developed model is used to study the effects of cutting and vibration parameters (e.g. amplitude and frequency) on the stress distributions in the cutting region.

  15. Microbiopsy/precision cutting devices

    DOEpatents

    Krulevitch, P.A.; Lee, A.P.; Northrup, M.A.; Benett, W.J.

    1999-07-27

    Devices are disclosed for performing tissue biopsy on a small scale (microbiopsy). By reducing the size of the biopsy tool and removing only a small amount of tissue or other material in a minimally invasive manner, the risks, costs, injury and patient discomfort associated with traditional biopsy procedures can be reduced. By using micromachining and precision machining capabilities, it is possible to fabricate small biopsy/cutting devices from silicon. These devices can be used in one of four ways (1) intravascularly, (2) extravascularly, (3) by vessel puncture, and (4) externally. Additionally, the devices may be used in precision surgical cutting. 6 figs.

  16. Female genital cutting: nursing implications.

    PubMed

    Goldenstein, Rachel A

    2014-01-01

    Female genital cutting (FGC) is a practice that affects millions of girls and women worldwide. This deeply rooted practice has cultural, religious, and psychosexual meaning to its practitioners, but it also carries long-term physical and mental complications. Decried as a human rights violation, nonetheless this practice is still carried out today. Nurses are in a unique position to contact and educate women who have been cut or are at risk for mutilation. To advocate for these women, a thorough understanding of the practice of FGC, its cultural overtones, religious implications, and psychosexual effects is needed.

  17. Document segmentation via oblique cuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svendsen, Jeremy; Branzan-Albu, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel solution for the layout segmentation of graphical elements in Business Intelligence documents. We propose a generalization of the recursive X-Y cut algorithm, which allows for cutting along arbitrary oblique directions. An intermediate processing step consisting of line and solid region removal is also necessary due to presence of decorative elements. The output of the proposed segmentation is a hierarchical structure which allows for the identification of primitives in pie and bar charts. The algorithm was tested on a database composed of charts from business documents. Results are very promising.

  18. Hypervelocity cutting machine and method

    DOEpatents

    Powell, James R.; Reich, Morris

    1996-11-12

    A method and machine 14 are provided for cutting a workpiece 12 such as concrete. A gun barrel 16 is provided for repetitively loading projectiles 22 therein and is supplied with a pressurized propellant from a storage tank 28. A thermal storage tank 32,32A is disposed between the propellant storage tank 28 and the gun barrel 16 for repetitively receiving and heating propellant charges which are released in the gun barrel 16 for repetitively firing projectiles 22 therefrom toward the workpiece 12. In a preferred embodiment, hypervelocity of the projectiles 22 is obtained for cutting the concrete workpiece 12 by fracturing thereof.

  19. Hypervelocity cutting machine and method

    DOEpatents

    Powell, J.R.; Reich, M.

    1996-11-12

    A method and machine are provided for cutting a workpiece such as concrete. A gun barrel is provided for repetitively loading projectiles therein and is supplied with a pressurized propellant from a storage tank. A thermal storage tank is disposed between the propellant storage tank and the gun barrel for repetitively receiving and heating propellant charges which are released in the gun barrel for repetitively firing projectiles therefrom toward the workpiece. In a preferred embodiment, hypervelocity of the projectiles is obtained for cutting the concrete workpiece by fracturing thereof. 10 figs.

  20. Microbiopsy/precision cutting devices

    DOEpatents

    Krulevitch, Peter A.; Lee, Abraham P.; Northrup, M. Allen; Benett, William J.

    1999-01-01

    Devices for performing tissue biopsy on a small scale (microbiopsy). By reducing the size of the biopsy tool and removing only a small amount of tissue or other material in a minimally invasive manner, the risks, costs, injury and patient discomfort associated with traditional biopsy procedures can be reduced. By using micromachining and precision machining capabilities, it is possible to fabricate small biopsy/cutting devices from silicon. These devices can be used in one of four ways 1) intravascularly, 2) extravascularly, 3) by vessel puncture, and 4) externally. Additionally, the devices may be used in precision surgical cutting.

  1. [Water jet cutting for bones and bone cement--parameter study of possibilities and limits of a new method].

    PubMed

    Honl, M; Rentzsch, R; Lampe, F; Müller, V; Dierk, O; Hille, E; Louis, H; Morlock, M

    2000-09-01

    Water jet techniques have been used in industrial cutting, drilling and cleaning applications for more than 30 years. Plain water is typically used for the cutting of non-metallic materials. The addition of abrasive substances to the stream allows almost any material to be cut. The first medical applications were reported in the early 1980s, when the water jet was used to cut organs. The present study investigates the use of water jet cutting technology for endoprosthesis revision surgery. Bone and PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate) samples were cut at different pressures using an industrial water jet cutting device. Using plain water at 400 bar, PMMA was cut selectively without damaging the bone; above 400 bar, bone was also cut, but the cutting depths in PMMA were significantly greater (p < 0.05). Adding a water-soluble abrasive disaccharide to the water results in a significantly higher removal rate for both materials (p < 0.05), but selectivity is lost, although the differences in cutting depth between the two materials was significant (p < 0.05). With an abrasive, the quality of the cut was better for both materials. The water jet technology--in particular the abrasive technique--can be used to cut biomaterials such as bone and bone cement. The diameter of the jet is a great advantage when working in the confined area at the prosthesis interface. The cutting process is essentially cold, thus eliminating a thermal effect, and the jet reaction forces are relatively low. Accurate manipulation of the hydro jet nozzle is possible both manually and by robot. The results obtained show that it is possible to remove prostheses with this cutting technique, rapidly and with little damage to the surrounding tissue. Problem areas are the development of sterile pumps and the "depth control" of the jet.

  2. Wedge cutting of mild steel by CO 2 laser and cut-quality assessment in relation to normal cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Karatas, C.; Uslan, I.; Keles, O.; Usta, Y.; Yilbas, Z.; Ahsan, M.

    2008-10-01

    In some applications, laser cutting of wedge surfaces cannot be avoided in sheet metal processing and the quality of the end product defines the applicability of the laser-cutting process in such situations. In the present study, CO 2 laser cutting of the wedge surfaces as well as normal surfaces (normal to laser beam axis) is considered and the end product quality is assessed using the international standards for thermal cutting. The cut surfaces are examined by the optical microscopy and geometric features of the cut edges such as out of flatness and dross height are measured from the micrographs. A neural network is introduced to classify the striation patterns of the cut surfaces. It is found that the dross height and out of flatness are influenced significantly by the laser output power, particularly for wedge-cutting situation. Moreover, the cut quality improves at certain value of the laser power intensity.

  3. Recent Cold War Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pineo, Ronn

    2003-01-01

    Cold War historiography has undergone major changes since the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union. For two years (1992-1993) the principal Soviet archives fell open to scholars, and although some of the richest holdings are now once again closed, new information continues to find its way out. Moreover, critical documentary information has become…

  4. ``Cold'' Leidenfrost effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourrianne, Philippe; Clanet, Christophe; Quere, David

    2015-11-01

    An evaporating Leidenfrost drop placed on a hot substrate can levitate on its own vapor if the temperature of the substrate is high enough. We discuss the possibility to decrease this critical Leidenfrost temperature using a super-hydrophobic coating. Measuring adhesion and observing the liquid-solid interface, we suggest a possible explanation for this ``cold'' regime of levitation.

  5. Cold fusion coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Wachtler, W.R.

    1993-12-31

    Historically, fusion of metals was accomplished through the use of heat. Cold fusion has become a reality with metal to metal fusion occurring at room temperature. The basics of this new technology which can be done in tank, brush or solid form is covered in this paper.

  6. Out in the cold.

    PubMed

    Bates, Jane

    2016-05-04

    Every now and then, you say something to a patient and wonder whether you should have kept quiet. On this occasion, a female patient and I were indulging in a moment of shared empathy over an annoying symptom we both experience - permanently cold feet.

  7. Teaching "In Cold Blood."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berbrich, Joan D.

    1967-01-01

    The Truman Capote nonfiction novel, "In Cold Blood," which reflects for adolescents the immediacy of the real world, illuminates (1) social issues--capital punishment, environmental influence, and the gap between the "haves" and "have-nots," (2) moral issues--the complexity of man's nature, the responsibility of one…

  8. Cold Facts about Viruses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pea, Celeste; Sterling, Donna R.

    2002-01-01

    Provides ways for students to demonstrate their understanding of scientific concepts and skills. Describes a mini-unit around the cold in which students can relate humans to viruses. Includes activities and a modified simulation that provides questions to guide students. Discusses ways that allows students to apply prior knowledge, take ownership…

  9. Cold and Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... 400;font-style:normal;font-size:14px;}h1,.impact-text,.impact-text-large{font-family:"Source Sans Pro";line- ... Acute Chest Pain, Chronic Cold and Flu Cough Diarrhea Ear Problems Elimination Problems Elimination Problems in Infants ...

  10. Chilling Out With Colds

    MedlinePlus

    ... some feel-better tips if you get a cold: Bring on the heat. Hot drinks soothe coughs and sore throats while also clearing mucus. So eat (or drink) your chicken soup! Get steamed up. A steamy shower helps stuffy or irritated noses. Or run a ...

  11. Protecting against cold damage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fertilizer application rates, nutrient source or type, method of application, and timing of application can differentially influence plant nutrient status therefore have implications to plant quality in terms of their ability to tolerate stresses (e.g. disease, drought, cold, salinity). Unpredictabl...

  12. Recent Cold War Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pineo, Ronn

    2003-01-01

    Cold War historiography has undergone major changes since the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union. For two years (1992-1993) the principal Soviet archives fell open to scholars, and although some of the richest holdings are now once again closed, new information continues to find its way out. Moreover, critical documentary information has become…

  13. Cold War Propaganda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Paul W.

    1988-01-01

    Briefly discusses the development of Cold War propaganda in the United States, Canada, and the USSR after 1947. Presents two movie reviews and a Canadian magazine advertisement of the period which illustrate the harshness of propaganda used by both sides in the immediate postwar years. (GEA)

  14. Cold Facts about Viruses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pea, Celeste; Sterling, Donna R.

    2002-01-01

    Provides ways for students to demonstrate their understanding of scientific concepts and skills. Describes a mini-unit around the cold in which students can relate humans to viruses. Includes activities and a modified simulation that provides questions to guide students. Discusses ways that allows students to apply prior knowledge, take ownership…

  15. Cold spray nozzle design

    DOEpatents

    Haynes, Jeffrey D.; Sanders, Stuart A.

    2009-06-09

    A nozzle for use in a cold spray technique is described. The nozzle has a passageway for spraying a powder material, the passageway having a converging section and a diverging section, and at least the diverging section being formed from polybenzimidazole. In one embodiment of the nozzle, the converging section is also formed from polybenzimidazole.

  16. Expert Cold Structure Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkins, T.; Demuysere, P.

    2011-05-01

    The EXPERT Program is funded by ESA. The objective of the EXPERT mission is to perform a sub-orbital flight during which measurements of critical aero- thermodynamic phenomena will be obtained by using state-of-the-art instrumentation. As part of the EXPERT Flight Segment, the responsibility of the Cold Structure Development Design, Manufacturing and Validation was committed to the Belgian industrial team SONACA/SABCA. The EXPERT Cold Structure includes the Launcher Adapter, the Bottom Panel, the Upper Panel, two Cross Panels and the Parachute Bay. An additional Launcher Adapter was manufactured for the separation tests. The selected assembly definition and manufacturing technologies ( machined parts and sandwich panels) were dictated classically by the mass and stiffness, but also by the CoG location and the sensitive separation interface. Used as support for the various on-board equipment, the Cold Structure is fixed to but thermally uncoupled from the PM 1000 thermal shield. It is protect on its bottom panel by a thermal blanket. As it is a protoflight, analysis was the main tool for the verification. Low level stiffness and modal analysis tests have also been performed on the Cold Structure equipped with its ballast. It allowed to complete its qualification and to prepare SONACA/SABCA support for the system dynamic tests foreseen in 2011. The structure was finally coated with a thermal control black painting and delivered on time to Thales Alenia Space-Italy end of March 201.

  17. Characterizing convective cold pools: Characterizing Convective Cold Pools

    DOE PAGES

    Drager, Aryeh J.; van den Heever, Susan C.

    2017-05-09

    Cold pools produced by convective storms play an important role in Earth's climate system. However, a common framework does not exist for objectively identifying convective cold pools in observations and models. The present study investigates convective cold pools within a simulation of tropical continental convection that uses a cloud-resolving model with a coupled land-surface model. Multiple variables are assessed for their potential in identifying convective cold pool boundaries, and a novel technique is developed and tested for identifying and tracking cold pools in numerical model simulations. This algorithm is based on surface rainfall rates and radial gradients in the densitymore » potential temperature field. The algorithm successfully identifies near-surface cold pool boundaries and is able to distinguish between connected cold pools. Once cold pools have been identified and tracked, composites of cold pool evolution are then constructed, and average cold pool properties are investigated. Wet patches are found to develop within the centers of cold pools where the ground has been soaked with rainwater. These wet patches help to maintain cool surface temperatures and reduce cold pool dissipation, which has implications for the development of subsequent convection.« less

  18. The Cutting-Edge Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Share, Joani

    2005-01-01

    In a time of educational budget cuts, the arts seem to take the major brunt of the financial ax. Fine arts programs are often pitted against one another for survival. The music industry and supporting corporations, such as American Express, campaign to have instruments donated or purchased to keep educational programs alive. The visual arts do not…

  19. Automated internal pipe cutting device

    DOEpatents

    Godlewski, William J.; Haffke, Gary S.; Purvis, Dale; Bashar, Ronald W.; Jones, Stewart D.; Moretti, Jr., Henry; Pimentel, James

    2003-01-21

    The invention is a remotely controlled internal pipe cutting device primarily used for cutting pipes where the outside of the pipe is inaccessible at the line where the cut is to be made. The device includes an axial ram within a rotational cylinder which is enclosed in a housing. The housing is adapted for attachment to an open end of the pipe and for supporting the ram and cylinder in cantilever fashion within the pipe. A radially movable cutter, preferably a plasma arc torch, is attached to the distal end of the ram. A drive mechanism, containing motors and mechanical hardware for operating the ram and cylinder, is attached to the proximal end of the housing. The ram and cylinder provide for moving the cutter axially and circumferentially, and a cable assembly attached to a remote motor provide for the movement of the cutter radially, within the pipe. The control system can be adjusted and operated remotely to control the position and movement of the cutter to obtain the desired cut. The control system can also provide automatic standoff control for a plasma arc torch.

  20. Model aids cuttings transport prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Gavignet, A.A. ); Sobey, I.J. )

    1989-09-01

    Drilling of highly deviated wells can be complicated by the formation of a thick bed of cuttings at low flow rates. The model proposed in this paper shows what mechanisms control the thickness of such a bed, and the model predictions are compared with experimental results.

  1. The Cutting-Edge Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Share, Joani

    2005-01-01

    In a time of educational budget cuts, the arts seem to take the major brunt of the financial ax. Fine arts programs are often pitted against one another for survival. The music industry and supporting corporations, such as American Express, campaign to have instruments donated or purchased to keep educational programs alive. The visual arts do not…

  2. Brazilian science faces swingeing cuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanissevich, Alicia

    2017-05-01

    A number of “big-science” projects in Brazil could be hit if the government pushes through a 44% cut to the R5bn (£1.28bn) budget of the Ministry of Science, Technology, Innovations and Communications (MCTIC).

  3. Flu and Colds: In Depth

    MedlinePlus

    ... hospitalization. No vaccine can protect you against the common cold, but vaccines can protect you against the flu. ... agencies and health-related organizations. Information on the common cold Information on flu Web site: www.medlineplus.gov ...

  4. Thermoregulatory modeling for cold stress.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaojiang; Tikuisis, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Modeling for cold stress has generated a rich history of innovation, has exerted a catalytic influence on cold physiology research, and continues to impact human activity in cold environments. This overview begins with a brief summation of cold thermoregulatory model development followed by key principles that will continue to guide current and future model development. Different representations of the human body are discussed relative to the level of detail and prediction accuracy required. In addition to predictions of shivering and vasomotor responses to cold exposure, algorithms are presented for thermoregulatory mechanisms. Various avenues of heat exchange between the human body and a cold environment are reviewed. Applications of cold thermoregulatory modeling range from investigative interpretation of physiological observations to forecasting skin freezing times and hypothermia survival times. While these advances have been remarkable, the future of cold stress modeling is still faced with significant challenges that are summarized at the end of this overview.

  5. CO2-Laser Cutting Fiber Reinforced Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, R.; Nuss, Rudolf; Geiger, Manfred

    1989-10-01

    Guided by experimental investigations laser cutting of glass fiber reinforced reactive injection moulded (RRIM)-polyurethanes which are used e.g. in car industry for bumpers, spoilers, and further components is described. A Comparison with other cutting techniques as there are water jet cutting, milling, punching, sawing, cutting with conventional knife and with ultrasonic excited knife is given. Parameters which mainly influence cutting results e.g. laser power, cutting speed, gas nature and pressure will be discussed. The problematic nature in characterising micro and macro geometry of laser cut edges of fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) is explained. The topography of cut edges is described and several characteristic values are introduced to specify the obtained working quality. The surface roughness of laser cut edges is measured by both, an optical and a mechanical sensor and their reliabilities are compared.

  6. X-Z-Theta cutting method

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, L.F.

    1993-01-12

    A method for machining a workpiece. The method includes the use of a rotary cutting tool mounted on the end of a movable arm. The arm is adapted to move in a plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the cutting tool. The cutting tool has cutting teeth to cut chips of material off of the workpiece in a predetermined size and shape to facilitate better removal of the chips from the workpiece. The teeth can be of different type and length to permit the tool to both rough cut and finish cut the workpiece during machining. The total depth of cut is divided by the number of tool teeth, so that the longest tool always performs the finishing cut.

  7. Knife and impact cutting of lamb bone.

    PubMed

    King, M J

    1999-05-01

    The forces and hence fracture energies required to cut bone are presented in this paper and the merits of cutting with a high speed blade are considered. A plain knife blade was used to cut cancellous and compact lamb bone using three different methods. A microtome was used to produce a range of cut thicknesses which enabled the fracture energy to be separated into friction, surface fracture and plastic deformation energies. A tensile test machine was used to produce thicker off-cuts so that the energy required to cut through full sections of bone could be determined. A high speed rail gun was used to cut at speeds up to 130 m/s. The energy required to cut bone did not change with blade speed. However, the energies measured during the cutting varied over a wide range. In situations in which the surface of the cut bone exhibited a very uneven surface high energy was required, whereas when the resulting cut surface was planar the cutting energy was low. A light weight blade which impacts the bone at high speed will transmit a small impulse to the carcass which may be absorbed without transmitting strain to the muscle/connective tissue. This may allow the development of a high speed knife which will cut bone without excessively damaging the meat surrounding the cut.

  8. Remedies for Common Cold Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Penny F.

    1991-01-01

    Individuals suffering from intolerable symptoms of the common cold can now be advised of safe and effective products for symptomatic relief. This article describes and discusses four categories of drugs used to treat the common cold. To simplify the product selection process for family physicians, suggestions are included for possible ingredients for treatments of specific cold symptoms. PMID:21234087

  9. Human whole body cold adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Daanen, Hein A.M.; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced vasodilation in fingers and toes compared to Caucasians and Inuit. About 40,000 y after humans left Africa, natives in cold terrestrial areas seems to have developed not only behavioral adaptations, but also physiological adaptations to cold. Dedicated studies show that repeated whole body exposure of individual volunteers, mainly Caucasians, to severe cold results in reduced cold sensation but no major physiological changes. Repeated cold water immersion seems to slightly reduce metabolic heat production, while repeated exposure to milder cold conditions shows some increase in metabolic heat production, in particular non-shivering thermogenesis. In conclusion, human cold adaptation in the form of increased metabolism and insulation seems to have occurred during recent evolution in populations, but cannot be developed during a lifetime in cold conditions as encountered in temperate and arctic regions. Therefore, we mainly depend on our behavioral skills to live in and survive the cold. PMID:27227100

  10. Evaluation of the hemostatic and coagulation effects of AUTO CUT and DRY CUT using a computer-controlled cutting system.

    PubMed

    Szyrach, Mara N I; Tolba, Rene H; Voigtländer, Matthias; Neugebauer, Alexander; Enderle, Markus D

    2010-05-01

    To evaluate a newly developed computer-controlled cutting system for the generation of standardized resections and to systematically compare the hemostatic properties and tissue effect of 2 cutting modes, namely, AUTO CUT and DRY CUT used in urologic procedures. An isolated perfused kidney model was used to assess blood loss and coagulation depth after resection of tissue specimens of standardized geometry, size, and cutting velocity with a resection loop. Three different effect settings (E1, E3, and E6; 200 W) of the electrosurgical modes AUTO CUT and DRY CUT were compared. Blood loss was determined semiquantitatively by weighing a swab before and after placing it onto the resection area. The coagulation depth was estimated microscopically on cross sections. The computer-controlled cutting system creates resections of standardized geometry and size with a high reproducibility. An effect level-dependent increase in hemostasis and coagulation depth could be demonstrated with the cutting modes DRY CUT and AUTO CUT using this computer-controlled cutting system. The hemostatic effect with DRY CUT is significantly more pronounced than with AUTO CUT (E1, E3: P < .0001, E6: P = .004), and the coagulation is significantly deeper (E1, E3, E6: P < .0001). The computer-controlled cutting system creating reproducible resections in combination with the isolated perfused kidney model offers the possibility to systematically investigate bleeding rate and coagulation depth. The stronger hemostatic properties of the DRY CUT mode are more favorable for urologic interventions requiring a higher hemostatic effect than the AUTO CUT mode. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Measurement of Cut Front Properties in Laser Cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thombansen, Ulrich; Hermanns, Torsten; Molitor, Thomas; Pereira, Milton; Schulz, Wolfgang

    Cut-front properties are a key variable in laser-cutting and thus of major importance for self-optimization. Within the Cluster of Excellence at RWTH Aachen University, several achievements were made in setting up sensor-systems that provide information on the operating-point of this melt-based manufacturing process. These achievements contribute to a gradual increase in system-transparency which is seen as an enabler for self-optimization. Instead of searching for a single measurand to characterize the course of the process, an approach is being presented which establishesa surrogate criterion to allow determination of the current operating-point. In the depicted area, this is done by joining sources of information from process observation, determining boundary-conditions such as actual feed-rate and modeling of process-variables. Although process-variables like properties of the cutting-front are influenced through more than one process parameter, a concept for a sensor-system is reported showing the correlation between properties of the melt-front and the current feed-rate. The results are compared to a solution derived from process-simulation.

  12. Laser Cutting of Thin Nickel Bellows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, C. L.

    1986-01-01

    Laser cutting technique produces narrow, precise, fast, and repeatable cuts in thin nickel-allow bellows material. Laser cutting operation uses intense focused beam to melt material and assisting gas to force melted material through part thickness, creating void. When part rotated or moved longitudinally, melting and material removal continuous and creates narrow, fast, precise, and repeatable cut. Technique used to produce cuts of specified depths less than material thickness. Avoids distortion, dents, and nicks produced in delicate materials during lathe trimming operations, which require high cutting-tool pressure and holding-fixture forces.

  13. CO2 laser cutting of natural granite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riveiro, A.; Mejías, A.; Soto, R.; Quintero, F.; del Val, J.; Boutinguiza, M.; Lusquiños, F.; Pardo, J.; Pou, J.

    2016-01-01

    Commercial black granite boards (trade name: "Zimbabwe black granite") 10 mm thick, were successfully cut by a 3.5 kW CO2 laser source. Cutting quality, in terms of kerf width and roughness of the cut wall, was assessed by means of statistically planned experiments. No chemical modification of the material in the cutting walls was detected by the laser beam action. Costs associated to the process were calculated, and the main factors affecting them were identified. Results reported here demonstrate that cutting granite boards could be a new application of CO2 laser cutting machines provided a supersonic nozzle is used.

  14. Cutting

    MedlinePlus

    ... dealing with feelings that seem too difficult to bear or bad situations they think can't change. ... rejection and helplessness she felt she couldn't bear. "I never looked at it as anything that ...

  15. Cutting

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parents for Kids for Teens Search Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... to do. But you can't get your mind off feeling upset, and your body has this knot of emotional pain. Before you ...

  16. Spectral discrimination between healthy people and cold patients using spontaneous photon emission

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Meina; Pang, Jiangxiang; Liu, Junyan; Liu, Yanli; Fan, Hua; Han, Jinxiang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) was used to distinguish cold patients from healthy subjects. The UPE intensity of fingertips of two hands from healthy subjects and cold patients was measured using a two-hand UPE detecting system and a group of cut-off filters. We found a significant difference in the maximum spectral peak and photon emission ratio between the filter of 550nm and 495nm, which can be used in distinguish cold patients from healthy people. Methods and results in this work could be useful for developing a new optical diagnostic tool for early disease diagnosis in the future. PMID:25909016

  17. Radial cold trap

    DOEpatents

    Grundy, B.R.

    1981-09-29

    The radial cold trap comprises a housing having a plurality of mesh bands disposed therein. The mesh bands comprise concentrically arranged bands of mesh with the mesh specific surface area of each band increasing from the outermost mesh band to the innermost mesh band. An inlet nozzle is attached to the outside section of the housing while an outlet nozzle is attached to the inner portion of the housing so as to be concentrically connected to the innermost mesh band. An inlet baffle having orifices therein may be disposed around the outermost mesh band and within the housing for directing the flow of the fluid from the inlet nozzle to the outermost mesh band in a uniform manner. The flow of fluid passes through each consecutive mesh band and into the outlet nozzle. The circular pattern of the symmetrically arranged mesh packing allows for better utilization of the entire cold trap volume. 2 figs.

  18. Radial cold trap

    DOEpatents

    Grundy, Brian R.

    1981-01-01

    The radial cold trap comprises a housing having a plurality of mesh bands disposed therein. The mesh bands comprise concentrically arranged bands of mesh with the mesh specific surface area of each band increasing from the outermost mesh band to the innermost mesh band. An inlet nozzle is attached to the outside section of the housing while an outlet nozzle is attached to the inner portion of the housing so as to be concentrically connected to the innermost mesh band. An inlet baffle having orifices therein may be disposed around the outermost mesh band and within the housing for directing the flow of the fluid from the inlet nozzle to the outermost mesh band in a uniform manner. The flow of fluid passes through each consecutive mesh band and into the outlet nozzle. The circular pattern of the symmetrically arranged mesh packing allows for better utilization of the entire cold trap volume.

  19. Energy balance in disk and CO2 laser beam inert gas fusion cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scintilla, Leonardo Daniele; Tricarico, Luigi; Wetzig, Andreas; Beyer, Eckhard

    2012-03-01

    Experimental, numerical and analytical investigations were performed to give a possible explanation of the differences in cutting quality detected for inert gas laser beam cutting process performed with disk and CO2 laser sources. Cutting experiments were carried out at maximum cutting speed on cold work steel test specimens with different sheet thicknesses. The particular feature of the applied experimental setup was the similar geometry of both the CO2 and the disk laser beam with comparable values of the focus diameter and the Rayleigh length. The thermodynamic analysis was based on experimentally primary losses evaluation by means of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) blocks, on numerical computation of conductive power losses and analytical calculation of the remaining terms of energy balance. Energy balance allowed the evaluation of secondary losses and proportion of vaporized kerf volume used for justifying the lower quality of disk laser cuts. The lower proportion of vaporized kerf volume detected for disk laser cuts results in an increased process temperature, thus an increase of viscosity of molten material and the subsequent more difficult ejection of the melted material from the cut kerf.

  20. Cold Climate Heat Pump

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    central heating , cooling, and air conditioning (HVAC) system . Both buildings had two zones for heating and cooling, which allowed for a direct...section calls for improved efficiency of mechanical systems as well as an increase of renewable resource usage. Current heating technologies in cold... heated refrigerant is injected into a mixing chamber between the two compressors. The injection leads to a gain in performance of the system through

  1. Clumpy cold dark matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph; Stebbins, Albert

    1993-01-01

    A study is conducted of cold dark matter (CDM) models in which clumpiness will inhere, using cosmic strings and textures suited to galaxy formation. CDM clumps of 10 million solar mass/cu pc density are generated at about z(eq) redshift, with a sizable fraction surviving. Observable implications encompass dark matter cores in globular clusters and in galactic nuclei. Results from terrestrial dark matter detection experiments may be affected by clumpiness in the Galactic halo.

  2. Clumpy cold dark matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph; Stebbins, Albert

    1993-01-01

    A study is conducted of cold dark matter (CDM) models in which clumpiness will inhere, using cosmic strings and textures suited to galaxy formation. CDM clumps of 10 million solar mass/cu pc density are generated at about z(eq) redshift, with a sizable fraction surviving. Observable implications encompass dark matter cores in globular clusters and in galactic nuclei. Results from terrestrial dark matter detection experiments may be affected by clumpiness in the Galactic halo.

  3. Cold nuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Tsyganov, E. N.

    2012-02-15

    Recent accelerator experiments on fusion of various elements have clearly demonstrated that the effective cross-sections of these reactions depend on what material the target particle is placed in. In these experiments, there was a significant increase in the probability of interaction when target nuclei are imbedded in a conducting crystal or are a part of it. These experiments open a new perspective on the problem of so-called cold nuclear fusion.

  4. Engine Cold Start

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    have a high surface to volume ratio for the combustion chamber , and high gas velocities during compression that results in high heat transfer rates...into the pre- chambers during the injection event to augment ignition. Except for a thermostatically controlled cold start advance, the mechanical fuel...Kistler Cylinder Pressure Transducer, 6052B (Main- Chamber ) • Kistler 5018 Charge Amplifiers • Kistler Fuel Line Pressure Transducer, 4065A1000 with

  5. Electronic Equipment Cold Plates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-04-01

    equations for such a flow regiae. For laainar flow and Moderate teaperature differwwe« between the well «nd coolant, a aodifled Sieder -Tate...con- figuration. The heat-transfer coefficients, therefore, were determined by using both the Sieder -Tate and McAdams equations and the coaputed...values used In the analytical predictions. As with th* previous cold Plates, the Sieder -Tate equation gave too low of values for the heat- transfer

  6. AK-cut crystal resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahan, A.; Euler, F. K.

    1983-01-01

    Calculations have predicted the existence of crystallographically doubly rotated quartz orientations with turnover temperatures which are considerably less sensitive to angular misorientation then comparable AT- or BT-cuts. These crystals are arbitrarily designated as the AK-cut. Experimental data is given for seven orientations, phi-angle variations between 30-46 deg and theta-angle variations between 21-28 deg measured on 3.3-3.4 MHz fundamental mode resonators vibrating in the thickness shear c-mode. The experimental turnover temperatures of these resonators are between 80 C and 150 C, in general agreement with calculated values. The normalized frequency change as a function of temperature has been fitted with a cubic equation.

  7. NASA budget, EOS face cuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    The hefty FY 1992 increase for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration proposed by President George Bush has begun to attract Congressional budget-cutting axes, as predicted. The first cuts, however, have come from an unexpected ax-wielder—the space subcommittee of the House Committee on Space, Science, and Technology—normally a cheerleader for NASA in recent years.The subcommittee trimmed $488 million from NASA's budget request of $15.8 billion on April 11, according to a staff member of the space subcommittee. Notably, the panel did not touch the allotment for Space Station Freedom. The subcommittee has submitted the NASA authorization bill to the full committee, which is slated to act on it by the end of April, according to the Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report.

  8. Cold Stowage Flight Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campana, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) provides a test bed for researchers to perform science experiments in a variety of fields, including human research, life sciences, and space medicine. Many of the experiments being conducted today require science samples to be stored and transported in a temperature controlled environment. NASA provides several systems which aide researchers in preserving their science. On orbit systems provided by NASA include the Minus Eighty Laboratory freezer for ISS (MELFI), Microgravity Experiment Research Locker Incubator (MERLIN), and Glacier. These freezers use different technologies to provide rapid cooling and cold stowage at different temperature levels on board ISS. Systems available to researchers during transportation to and from ISS are MERLIN, Glacier, and Coldbag. Coldbag is a passive cold stowage system that uses phase change materials. Details of these current technologies will be provided along with operational experience gained to date. With shuttle retirement looming, NASA has protected the capability to provide a temperature controlled environment during transportation to and from the ISS with the use of Glacier and Coldbags, which are compatible with future commercial vehicles including SpaceX's Dragon Capsule, and Orbital s Cygnus vehicle. This paper will discuss the capability of the current cold stowage hardware and how it may continue to support NASA s mission on ISS and in future exploration missions.

  9. Cold Stowage Flight Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campana, Sharon E.; Melendez, David T.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) provides a test bed for researchers to perform science experiments in a variety of fields, including human research, life sciences, and space medicine. Many of the experiments being conducted today require science samples to be stored and transported in a temperature controlled environment. NASA provides several systems which aid researchers in preserving their science. On orbit systems provided by NASA include the Minus Eighty Laboratory freezer for ISS (MELFI), Microgravity Experiment Research Locker Incubator (MERLIN), and Glacier. These freezers use different technologies to provide rapid cooling and cold stowage at different temperature levels on board ISS. Systems available to researchers during transportation to and from ISS are MERLIN, Glacier, and Coldbag. Coldbag is a passive cold stowage system that uses phase change materials to maintain temperature. Details of these current technologies are provided along with operational experience gained to date. This paper discusses the capability of the current cold stowage hardware and how it may continue to support NASA s mission on ISS and in future exploration missions.

  10. Reservoir management cost-cutting

    SciTech Connect

    Gulati, M.S.

    1996-12-31

    This article by Mohinder S. Gulati, Chief Engineer, Unocal Geothermal Operations, discusses cost cutting in geothermal reservoir management. The reservoir engineer or geoscientist can make a big difference in the economical outcome of a project by improving well performance and thus making geothermal energy more competitive in the energy marketplace. Bringing plants online in less time and proving resources to reduce the cycle time are some of the ways to reduce reservoir management costs discussed in this article.

  11. Expedition 33 Crew Hair Cut

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-21

    Expedition 33 Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin gets his hair cut at the Cosmonaut Hotel, on Sunday, October 21, 2012, at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Launch of the Soyuz rocket is scheduled for October 23 and will send Expedition 33/34 Flight Engineer Kevin Ford of NASA, Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy and Flight Engineer Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin of ROSCOSMOS on a five-month mission aboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. Expedition 33 Crew Hair Cut

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-21

    Expedition 33 Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy gets his hair cut at the Cosmonaut Hotel, on Sunday, October 21, 2012, at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Launch of the Soyuz rocket is scheduled for October 23 and will send Expedition 33/34 Flight Engineer Kevin Ford of NASA, Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy and Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin of ROSCOSMOS on a five-month mission aboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. Expedition 33 Crew Hair Cut

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-21

    Expedition 33 Flight Engineer Kevin Ford gets his hair cut at the Cosmonaut Hotel, on Sunday, October 21, 2012, at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Launch of the Soyuz rocket is scheduled for October 23 and will send Expedition 33/34 Flight Engineer Kevin Ford of NASA, Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy and Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin of ROSCOSMOS on a five-month mission aboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Drill cuttings mount formation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teh, Su Yean; Koh, Hock Lye

    2014-07-01

    Oil, Gas and Energy sector has been identified as an essential driving force in the Malaysian Economic Transformation Programs (ETP). Recently confirmed discovery of many offshore oil and gas deposits in Malaysian waters has ignited new confidence in this sector. However, this has also spurred intense interest on safeguarding the health and environment of coastal waters in Malaysia from adverse impact resulting from offshore oil and gas production operation. Offshore discharge of spent drilling mud and rock cuttings is the least expensive and simplest option to dispose of large volumes of drilling wastes. But this onsite offshore disposal may have adverse environmental impacts on the water column and the seabed. It may also pose occupational health hazards to the workers living in the offshore platforms. It is therefore important to model the transport and deposition of drilling mud and rock cuttings in the sea to enable proper assessment of their adverse impacts on the environment and the workers. Further, accumulation of drill particles on the seabed may impede proper operation of pipelines on the seabed. In this paper, we present an in-house application model TUNA-PT developed to cater to local oil and gas industry needs to simulate the dispersion and mount formation of drill cuttings by offshore oil and gas exploration and production platforms. Using available data on Malaysian coastal waters, simulation analyses project a pile formation on the seabed with a maximum height of about 1 m and pile radius of around 30 to 50 m. Simulated pile heights are not sensitive to the heights of release of the cuttings as the sensitivity has been mitigated by the depth of water.

  15. Quantitative laser cutting of plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schou, Juergen; Heisel, Torben; Nordskov, Arne; Christensen, Svend; Jensen, Peter S.; Thestrup, Birgitte; Toftmann, Bo

    2002-09-01

    It is possible to quantify cutting of plant stems by a laser beam in contrast to mechanical cutting. The biomass of the plants after a certain period under standard green house conditions was used to measure the effect of partial or complete cutting with a laser. Continuous laser irradiation at 10.6 micrometers of the plant stem turned out to be very efficient at values of the energy per width unit above 6 J/mm. The effect of laser irradiation at 355 nm or 1064 nm is less pronounced, but also at these wavelengths the re- growth or continuous growth are reduced. A monocotyledon- type, winter what (Triticum vulgare L), is substantially more resistant than a dicotyledon-type, charlock (Chenopodium album L.) against radiation. The exposure limits for laser light in living plants have been explored as well. The limit in terms of re-growth of the irradiated plants exceeds the MPE (maximum permissible exposure) of human skin by several orders of magnitude. The consequence is that very powerful (unfocused) lasers can be used in any environment without significant impact on living plants.

  16. Aqueous cutting fluid for machining fissionable materials

    DOEpatents

    Duerksen, Walter K.; Googin, John M.; Napier, Jr., Bradley

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a cutting fluid for machining fissionable material. The cutting fluid is formed of glycol, water and boron compound in an adequate concentration for effective neutron attenuation so as to inhibit criticality incidents during machining.

  17. Relationship between directions of wave and energy propagation for cold plasma waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musielak, Zdzislaw E.

    1986-01-01

    The dispersion relation for plasma waves is considered in the 'cold' plasma approximation. General formulas for the dependence of the phase and group velocities on the direction of wave propagation with respect to the local magnetic field are obtained for a cold magnetized plasma. The principal cold plasma resonances and cut-off frequencies are defined for an arbitrary angle and are used to establish basic regimes of frequency where the cold plasma waves can propagate or can be evanescent. The relationship between direction of wave and energy propagation, for cold plasma waves in hydrogen atmosphere, is presented in the form of angle diagrams (angle between group velocity and magnetic field versus angle between phase velocity and magnetic field) and polar diagrams (also referred to as 'Friedrich's diagrams') for different directions of wave propagation. Morphological features of the diagrams as well as some critical angles of propagation are discussed.

  18. Relationship between directions of wave and energy propagation for cold plasma waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musielak, Zdzislaw E.

    1986-01-01

    The dispersion relation for plasma waves is considered in the 'cold' plasma approximation. General formulas for the dependence of the phase and group velocities on the direction of wave propagation with respect to the local magnetic field are obtained for a cold magnetized plasma. The principal cold plasma resonances and cut-off frequencies are defined for an arbitrary angle and are used to establish basic regimes of frequency where the cold plasma waves can propagate or can be evanescent. The relationship between direction of wave and energy propagation, for cold plasma waves in hydrogen atmosphere, is presented in the form of angle diagrams (angle between group velocity and magnetic field versus angle between phase velocity and magnetic field) and polar diagrams (also referred to as 'Friedrich's diagrams') for different directions of wave propagation. Morphological features of the diagrams as well as some critical angles of propagation are discussed.

  19. High Pressure Waterjet Cutting Industrial Needs Survey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-25

    Report No. LO High Pressure Waterjet Cutting Industrial Needs Survey N Contract Number N00140-88-C-RC21 I John Klavuhn and Bruce Baker Metalworking...NO. NO ACCESSION NO. Washington, DC 20360-5100 1I TITLE (Include Security Classification) High Pressure Waterjet Cutting Industrial Needs Survey 12...block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP FIELD__ GROUP____UB-GROUP Waterjet cutting , abrasive waterjet cutting ’. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if

  20. Performance of Uncoated Carbide Cutting Tool when Machining Cast Iron in Dry Cutting Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaharah, A. G.; Che Hassan, C. H.; Ghazali, M. J.; Sulong, A. B.; Omar, M. Z.; Nuawi, M. Z.; Ismail, A. R.

    This paper presents the performance of uncoated carbide cutting tool when machining cast iron in dry cutting conditions. Experiments were conducted at various cutting speeds, feed rates, and depths of cut according to Taguchi method design of experiment using a standard orthogonal array L9(34). The effects of cutting speeds (100-146 m/min), feed rates (0.20-0.35 mm/tooth) and depths of cut (1.0-2.0 mm) on the tool life, surface roughness and cutting forces were evaluated using ANOVA. Results showed that the effects of cutting speed, depth of cut and the feed rate were similar affecting the failure of the carbide cutting tools within the range of tested machining parameters. The contribution of cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut in controlling the tool life were 32.12%, 38.56% and 29.32% respectively. Whereas, the cutting speed was the main factor influencing the average surface roughness (Ra) value followed by feed rate. These factors contribute 60.53% and 35.59% respectively to the Ra value. On the other hand, cutting forces generated were greatly influenced by the depth of cut (66.52%) and the feed rate (32.6%). Cutting speed was found insignificant in controlling the generated cutting forces.

  1. Hardwood Regeneration After Seed Tree Cutting

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Johnson; R. M. Krinard

    1976-01-01

    Seed trees left at two sites did not appear to influence the establishment or development of reproduction . Seed trees were mainly sweetgum and red oaks. Most reproduction was from sprouting of the stumps and roots of cut trees or from advanced seedlings present in the understory at the time of cutting. Eighteen years after cutting, dominant trees of the reproduction...

  2. Teaching Budget Cuts to Third Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Dale

    2011-01-01

    As a teacher in the Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) for the past 16 years, this author has grown used to dismal budget cut news arriving each February. Although cuts are always frustrating and their results burdensome, his school has been able to "hang on" reasonably well. This year, however, the budget cuts were extreme. The school's…

  3. Sensitivity of allowable cuts to intensive management.

    Treesearch

    Roger D. Fight; Dennis L. Schweitzer

    1974-01-01

    A sensitivity analysis of allowable cuts on two BLM master units shows that even-flow allowable cuts depend primarily on: (1) assumed long-term growth potential, (2) period that growth increases must be cumulated before they can be removed from the stands on which they occur, and (3) amount and age-class distribution of the initial inventory. Current allowable cut...

  4. Teaching Budget Cuts to Third Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Dale

    2011-01-01

    As a teacher in the Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) for the past 16 years, this author has grown used to dismal budget cut news arriving each February. Although cuts are always frustrating and their results burdensome, his school has been able to "hang on" reasonably well. This year, however, the budget cuts were extreme. The school's…

  5. 27 CFR 6.92 - Newspaper cuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Newspaper cuts. 6.92 Section 6.92 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.92 Newspaper cuts. Newspaper cuts, mats, or...

  6. 27 CFR 6.92 - Newspaper cuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Newspaper cuts. 6.92 Section 6.92 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.92 Newspaper cuts. Newspaper cuts, mats, or...

  7. SET OF CUT SETS AND OPTIMUM FLOW,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    maintain the same terminal flow. The method presented stems from the work of Ford and Fulkerson which relates maximum terminal flow to the cut set...separating the terminals. A new set of cut sets called a ’set of M- cut sets’ is introduced from which it is possible to improve edge flows while maintaining maximum terminal flow.

  8. 27 CFR 6.92 - Newspaper cuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Newspaper cuts. 6.92 Section 6.92 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.92 Newspaper cuts. Newspaper cuts, mats, or...

  9. 27 CFR 6.92 - Newspaper cuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Newspaper cuts. 6.92 Section 6.92 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.92 Newspaper cuts. Newspaper cuts, mats, or...

  10. Raise cutting diameters for increased returns

    Treesearch

    H. Clay Smith; G. R., Jr. Trimble; Paul S. DeBald

    1979-01-01

    Diameter-limit cutting is widely used to harvest logs in eastern hardwoods. Studies show that cutting limits are often set so low that they sacrifice financial returns. The value of lumber cut from logs is largely dependent on the diameter, grade, and tree species. As tree size increases so does the proportion of higher grade lumber, and this is reflected in improved...

  11. 27 CFR 6.92 - Newspaper cuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Newspaper cuts. 6.92 Section 6.92 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.92 Newspaper cuts. Newspaper cuts, mats, or...

  12. Antivirals for the common cold.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, T O; Tyrrell, D

    2001-01-01

    The common cold is a ubiquitous short and usually mild illness for which preventive and treatment interventions have been under development since the mid-40s. As our understanding of the disease has increased, more experimental antivirals have been developed. This review attempts to draw together experimental evidence of the effects of these compounds. To identify, assemble, evaluate and (if possible) synthesise the results of published and unpublished randomised controlled trials of the effects of antivirals to prevent or minimise the impact of the common cold. We searched electronic databases, corresponded with researchers and handsearched the archives of the MRC's Common Cold Unit (CCU). We included original reports of randomised and quasi-randomised trials assessing the effects of antivirals on volunteers artificially infected and in individuals exposed to colds in the community. We included 241 studies assessing the effects of Interferons, interferon-inducers and other antivirals on experimental and naturally occurring common colds, contained in 230 reports. We structured our comparisons by experimental or community setting. Although intranasal interferons have high preventive efficacy against experimental colds (protective efficacy 46%, 37% to 54%) and to a lesser extent against natural colds (protective efficacy 24%, 21% to 27%) and are also significantly more effective than placebo in attenuating the course of experimental colds (WMD 15.90, 13.42 to 18.38), their safety profile makes compliance with their use difficult. For example, prolonged prevention of community colds with interferons causes blood-tinged nasal discharge (OR 4.52, 3.78 to 5.41). Dipyridamole (protective efficacy against natural colds 49%, 30% to 62%), ICI 130, 685 (protective efficacy against experimental colds 58%, 35% to 74% ), Impulsin (palmitate) (protective efficacy against natural colds 44%, CI 35% to 52% ) and Pleconaril (protective efficacy against experimental colds 71%, 15% to

  13. Cold Plasma as a novel intervention against food-borne pathogens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Contamination of meats, seafood, fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables and other foods by foodborne pathogens has prompted research into novel interventions. Cold plasma is a nonthermal food processing technology which uses energetic, reactive gases to inactivate contaminating microbes. This fle...

  14. Cold plasma inactivation of human pathogens on foods and regulatory status update

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Contamination of foods with human pathogens such as Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, norovirus, and other pathogens is an ongoing challenge for growers and processors. In recent years, cold plasma has emerged as a promising antimicrobial treatment for fresh and fresh-cut...

  15. Cold plasma - a non-thermal processing technology to inactivate human pathogens on foods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cold plasma is a novel non-thermal food processing technology, suitable for application to fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. Reductions of 3-5 logs have been achieved against human pathogens such as Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 on fresh produce and against phytopathogens and spoilage orga...

  16. Cold plasma reduces Salmonella on sliced roma tomatoes: efficacy of air versus nitrogen

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A rapid, waterless, contact-free method of decontamination for tomatoes and tomato slices is of interest to processors and the food service industry. Cold plasma is a novel antimicrobial treatment for fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. Slices of Roma tomatoes were spot inoculated with three ...

  17. The Isis cold moderators

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, G. M.; Broome, T. A.; Burridge, R. A.; Cragg, D.; Hall, R.; Haynes, D.; Hirst, J.; Hogston, J. R.; Jones, H. H.; Sexton, J.; Wright, P.

    1997-09-01

    ISIS is a pulsed spallation neutron source where neutrons are produced by the interaction of a 160 kW proton beam of energy 800 MeV in a water-cooled Tantalum Target. The fast neutrons produced are thermalized in four moderators: two ambient water, one liquid methane operating at 100K and a liquid hydrogen moderator at 20 K. This paper gives a description of the construction of both cold moderator systems, details of the operating experience and a description of the current development program.

  18. Dense cold baryonic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavinskiy, A. V.

    2017-09-01

    A possibility of studying cold nuclear matter on the Nuclotron-NICA facility at baryonic densities characteristic of and higher than at the center of a neutron star is considered based on the data from cumulative processes. A special rare-event kinematic trigger for collisions of relativistic ions is proposed for effective selection of events accompanied by production of dense baryonic systems. Possible manifestations of new matter states under these unusual conditions and an experimental program for their study are discussed. Various experimental setups are proposed for these studies, and a possibility of using experimental setups at the Nuclotron-NICA facility for this purpose is considered.

  19. Cold Fusion Verification.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    published work, talking with others in the field, and attending conferences, that CNF probably is chimera and will go the way of N-rays and polywater ...way of N-rays and polywater . To date, no one, including Pons and Fleischmann, has been able to construct a so-called CNF electrochemical cell that...Cold Nuclear Fusion (CNF), as originally reported in 1989. The conclusion is that CNF probably is chimera and will go the way of N-rays and polywater

  20. Peregrinations on cold fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, L.

    1989-01-01

    Attention is focused on the possibility of resonance-enhanced deuteron Coulomb barrier penetration. Because of the many-body nature of the interactions of room-temperature deuterons diffusing through a lattice possessing deuterons in many of the interstitial positions, the diffusing deuterons can resonate on the atomic scale in the potential wells bounded by the ascending walls of adjacent Coulomb barriers and thereby penetrate the Coulomb barriers in a fashion vastly underestimated by two-body calculations in which wells for possible resonance are absent. Indeed, perhaps the lack of robust reproducibility in cold fusion originates from the narrowness of such transmission resonances. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria.

    PubMed

    Shanbhag, Satish; Spivak, Jerry

    2015-06-01

    Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria is a rare cause of autoimmune hemolytic anemia predominantly seen as an acute form in young children after viral illnesses and in a chronic form in some hematological malignancies and tertiary syphilis. It is a complement mediated intravascular hemolytic anemia associated with a biphasic antibody against the P antigen on red cells. The antibody attaches to red cells at colder temperatures and causes red cell lysis when blood recirculates to warmer parts of the body. Treatment is mainly supportive and with red cell transfusion, but immunosuppressive therapy may be effective in severe cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Automated Laser Cutting In Three Dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, Lisa T.; Yvanovich, Mark A.; Angell, Terry R.; Bishop, Patricia J.; Dai, Weimin; Dobbs, Robert D.; He, Mingli; Minardi, Antonio; Shelton, Bret A.

    1995-01-01

    Computer-controlled machine-tool system uses laser beam assisted by directed flow of air to cut refractory materials into complex three-dimensional shapes. Velocity, position, and angle of cut varied. In original application, materials in question were thermally insulating thick blankets and tiles used on space shuttle. System shapes tile to concave or convex contours and cuts beveled edges on blanket, without cutting through outer layer of quartz fabric part of blanket. For safety, system entirely enclosed to prevent escape of laser energy. No dust generated during cutting operation - all material vaporized; larger solid chips dislodged from workpiece easily removed later.

  3. Cutting of bent vortex lines

    SciTech Connect

    Wagenleithner, P.

    1982-07-01

    One of the major problems in the application of type II superconductors is the appearance of resistivity in case where a current-carrying specimen is in a longitudinal magnetic field. This is explained by the onset of flux-line cutting events, followed by cross-joining of the line parts. The calculation given here shows the amount of repulsive force and energy between two curved vortex lines and examines the general stability of the vortex-vortex system. First, the actual interaction potential between curved vortices is computed. It includes all electromagnetic and core overlap terms of interactions and self-interaction, and allows computation of the system energy under all curved vortex-line configurations. A computer program is used to find the form of lowest free energy. To do this, special trial functions are established to describe the three-dimensional form of the vortex-vortex system. In these functions parameters determine the qualitative and quantitative form. The asymptotic boundary conditions are built into the nature of the trial functions. The computer program now minimizes the free energy with respect to these parameters. The resulting repulsive energy and force are more than ten times less than the known results for straight flux lines, especially for small asymptotic cutting angles. There is no sharp maximum in the plot of repulsive force versus flux-line separation. A remarkable results is the loss of general stability below a separation distance of several London penetration depths, depending on the cutting angle and the Ginzburg-Landau parameter. The explanation lies in the local attraction of central sections of the vortices as a result of configurational adaption. This explains the onset of resistance at small currents and small magnetic fields.

  4. Cutting costs without drawing blood.

    PubMed

    Copeland, T

    2000-01-01

    When looking for ways to cut costs, most managers reach for the head-count hatchet, and the markets usually roar with approval. But a company can almost always create far more sustainable value by rigorously evaluating the small-ticket capital items that often get rubber-stamped. Drawing on his experience as a consultant and providing numerous anecdotes, the author contends that those "little" requests often prove to be gold plated or unnecessary. A disciplined evaluation involves asking only eight questions and conducting postmortems--regular audits of units' capital spending. But the payoff is enormous. Because cutting the capital budget increases cash flow, the author argues that a permanent cut of just 15% in the planned level of capital spending could boost some companies' market capitalization by as much as 30%. The first three questions--Is this your investment to make? Does it really have to be new? How are our competitors meeting compliance needs?--are asked of operating managers as they assemble capital project requests. The next three are asked by senior managers of themselves and their colleagues as they examine proposals: Is the left hand duplicating investments made by the right? Are trade-offs between profit and capital spending well understood? Are there signs of budget massage? At the end of the review process, senior managers ask: Are we fully using shared assets? How fine-grained are our capacity measures? The author's suggestions for the postmortem include searching for systematic problems with whole classes of expenditures and making sure audit teams come up with specific recommendations for change.

  5. BP pledges to cut emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    British Petroleum (BP), one of the world's biggest oil companies that could become even bigger if a merger with Amoco is approved, announced on September 18 that it will cut its emissions of greenhouse gases by 10% from a 1990 baseline of 40 million tons of carbon dioxide between now and the year 2010.The target, which is double the amount of emissions reductions that industrialized nations agreed to under the Kyoto protocol on climate change, will now stand next to BP's financial targets, said John Browne, group chief executive of BP.

  6. Clinically lean; "cutting the crap".

    PubMed

    Caldwell, G

    2012-01-01

    Proponents of Lean Philosophy believe that successful businesses must reduce waste in working time and resources to a minimum, and maximise their use in productive work. The productive work of the Acute Medical Unit is to provide effective clinical management to a daily cohort of acutely ill patients. Many Clinicians are cynical about Lean. In this article, Dr Caldwell discusses how many clinicians complain of too much crap in the workplace, which gets in the way of swift, safe high quality clinical care. He argues that "Cutting the Crap" in the Acute Medical Unit is entirely consistent with Lean approaches to management of complex systems.

  7. Free-piston cutting machine

    DOEpatents

    Ciccarelli, Gaby; Subudhi, Manomohan; Hall, Robert E.

    2000-01-01

    A cutting machine includes a gun barrel for receiving a projectile. A compression tube is disposed in flow communication with the barrel and includes a piston therein. A reservoir is disposed in flow communication with the tube and receives a first gas under pressure. A second gas fills the compression tube on a front face of the piston. And, the pressurized first gas is discharged into the tube on a back face of the piston to accelerate the piston through the tube for compressing the second gas, and in turn launching the projectile through the barrel to impact a workpiece.

  8. Cardiovascular responses to cold exposure

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhongjie

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertension is increased in winter and in cold regions of the world. Cold temperatures make hypertension worse and trigger cardiovascular complications (stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure, etc.). Chronic or intermittent exposure to cold causes hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy in animals. The purpose of this review is to provide the recent advances in the mechanistic investigation of cold-induced hypertension (CIH). Cold temperatures increase the activities of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). The SNS initiates CIH via the RAS. Cold exposure suppresses the expression of eNOS and formation of NO, increases the production of endothelin-1 (ET-1), up-regulates ETA receptors, but down-regulates ETB receptors. The roles of these factors and their relations in CIH will be reviewed. PMID:20036896

  9. Cardiovascular responses to cold exposure.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhongjie

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertension is increased in winter and in cold regions of the world. Cold temperatures make hypertension worse and trigger cardiovascular complications (stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure, etc.). Chronic or intermittent exposure to cold causes hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy in animals. The purpose of this review is to provide the recent advances in the mechanistic investigation of cold-induced hypertension (CIH). Cold temperatures increase the activities of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). The SNS initiates CIH via the RAS. Cold exposure suppresses the expression of eNOS and formation of NO, increases the production of endothelin-1 (ET-1), up-regulates ETA receptors, but down-regulates ETB receptors. The roles of these factors and their relations in CIH will be reviewed.

  10. Hot and Cold

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-16

    This view shows Mercury's north polar region, colored by the maximum biannual surface temperature, which ranges from >400 K (red) to 50 K (purple). As expected for the Solar System's innermost planet, areas of Mercury's surface that are sunlit reach high temperatures, and hence most of this image is colored red! In contrast, some craters near Mercury's poles have regions that remain permanently in shadow, and in these regions even the maximum temperatures can be extremely low. Evidence from MESSENGER and Earth-based observations indicate that water ice deposits are present in these cold craters. The craters nearest Mercury' poles have surface temperatures less than 100 K (-173°C, -280°F), and water ice is stable on the surface, such as in Prokofiev. However, many craters near but somewhat farther from Mercury's poles have cold, permanently shadowed interiors, but the maximum temperature is too high for water ice to persist at the surface. In these craters, water ice is present but is buried beneath a thin, low-reflectance volatile layer likely consisting of organic-rich material, such as in Berlioz crater. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19247

  11. Idiopathic cold urticaria and anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Işk, Sakine; Arkan-Ayyldz, Zeynep; Sozmen, Sule Caglayan; Karaman, Özkan; Uzuner, Nevin

    2014-01-01

    Cold urticaria (CU) is a subtype of physical urticaria characterized by the development of urticaria and angioedema after cold exposure. Symptoms typically occur minutes after skin exposure to cold air, liquids, and objects. Most common method to confirm the diagnosis of CU is through ice cube challenge test, but 20% of patients with CU have negative ice cube challenge test results. The greatest risk with this kind of urticaria is the development of systemic reaction resulting in a hemodynamic collapse during generalized cold exposure. We report a case of a patient who developed CU and anaphylaxis during swimming and diving in the sea.

  12. Circulation characteristics of persistent cold spells in central-eastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhenhua; Manson, Alan H.; Li, Yanping; Meek, Chris

    2017-02-01

    The circulation patterns of persistent cold weather spells with durations longer than 10 days in central-eastern North America (United States and Canada; 32°-52°N, 95°-65°W) are investigated by using NCEP reanalysis data from 1948 to 2014. The criteria for the persistent cold spells are: (1) three-day averaged temperature anomalies for the regional average over the central-eastern United States and Canada must be below the 10th percentile, and (2) such extreme cold spells must last at least 10 days. The circulation patterns associated with these cold spells are examined to find the common signals of these events. The circulation anomaly patterns of these cold spells are categorized based on the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, Arctic Oscillation (AO), and other climate indices. The atmospheric circulation patterns that favor the cold spells are identified through composites of geopotential height maps for the cold spells. Negative AO phases favor persistent cold spells. Phases of sea surface temperature (SST) modes that are associated with warm SSTs in the eastern extratropical Pacific also favor persistent cold events in the study region. Stratospheric polar vortex breakdown alone is not a good predictor for the regional extreme cold spells in central-eastern North America. The meridional dispersions of quasi-stationary Rossby waves in the Pacific-North America sector in terms of cut-off zonal wavenumber modulated by background flow are analyzed to provide insight into the difference in evolution of the cold spells under different mean AO phases. The waveguide for AO > 1 is in a narrow latitudinal band centered on 40°N, whereas the waveguide for AO <-1 is in a broader latitudinal band from 40° to 65°N. The circulation patterns and lower boundary conditions favorable for persistent cold spells identified by this study can be a stepping-stone for improving winter subseasonal forecasting in North America.

  13. Chemical scissors cut phosphorene nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xihong; Wei, Qun

    2014-12-01

    Phosphorene, a recently fabricated two-dimensional puckered honeycomb structure of phosphorus, showed promising properties for applications in nano-electronics. In this work, we report a chemical scissors effect on phosphorene, using first-principles method. It was found that chemical species, such as H, OH, F, and Cl, can act as scissors to cut phosphorene. Phosphorus nanochains and nanoribbons can be obtained. The scissors effect results from the strong bonding between the chemical species and phosphorus atoms. Other species such as O, S and Se fail to cut phosphorene nanostructures due to their weak bonding with phosphorus. The electronic structures of the produced P-chains reveal that the hydrogenated chain is an insulator while the pristine chain is a one-dimensional Dirac material, in which the charge carriers are massless fermions travelling at an effective speed of light ˜8 × 105 m s-1. The obtained zigzag phosphorene nanoribbons show either metallic or semiconducting behaviors, depending on the treatment of the edge phosphorus atoms.

  14. The center-cut solution.

    PubMed

    Firnstahl, T W

    1993-01-01

    Timothy Firnstahl owns five successful restaurants in Seattle, but he recently came very close to owning none. In the early 1990s, he found himself, like so many restauranteurs, facing rising costs, inefficient management, and a recession. Confronting financial annihilation, Firnstahl had to act quickly: since he had no peripherals to trim, he cut off the head of his company. Remarkably, it worked. Firnstahl's problem was his new and innovative restaurant, Sharps Fresh Roasting. The heart of the Sharps concept was a unique long-roasting technique that made lean, inexpensive meats taste as juicy and delicious as fattier, expensive cuts. The process also lent itself to faster service and lower labor costs. But it wasn't working. Sharps wasn't breaking even, and his other restaurants couldn't make up the difference. He needed a solution fast. Firnstahl got his answer from Mikhail Gorbachev: slash the centralized command and liberate the company. In doing so, he would also transfer virtually all power and responsibility to his line managers. And after five months of intensive study and planning, he accomplished what he set out to do. He fired most of his corporate staff, empowered his restaurant managers with "100% Power and Responsibility," and, finally, undertook a massive promotion campaign. A year later, Sharps Fresh Roasting is the gold mine Firnstahl always believed it could be. He's done away with bureaucracy and turned business around in a down market. All this because his managers are managing themselves.

  15. Minimum cut and shear bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tordesillas, Antoinette; Cramer, Andrew; Walker, David M.

    2013-06-01

    We explore the efficacy of network optimisation theory for minimum cut to quantify the evolution of granular fabric and its functionality as a transmission medium in deforming dense granular media. Our focus here is on force transmission in a sheared assembly of polydisperse particles, in a biaxial compression test under constant confining pressure. The granular fabric is examined with respect to the material's force-bearing contact network over that regime when the material has reached its residual strength, and is deforming under a near constant volume in the presence of a fully developed shear band. The structural evolution of the fabric is quantitatively characterized using a representative weighted-directed network that is similarly evolving as the sample deforms. The edges or links, representing the interparticle contacts, are each weighted by the capacity of the contact to transmit force: a scalar that depends solely on the relative motion of the contacting grains. In the large strain failure regime, the minimum cut which represents the bottleneck in force transmission is found to lie in the persistent shear band. This study paves the way for the future analysis of flows and force transmission through an evolving contact network and, in turn, the characterisation of the relationship between the material's contact topology and its capacity to transmit forces through its contact network.

  16. Fibre laser cutting stainless steel: Fluid dynamics and cut front morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pocorni, Jetro; Powell, John; Deichsel, Eckard; Frostevarg, Jan; Kaplan, Alexander F. H.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the morphology of the laser cut front generated by fibre lasers was investigated by observation of the 'frozen' cut front, additionally high speed imaging (HSI) was employed to study the fluid dynamics on the cut front while cutting. During laser cutting the morphology and flow properties of the melt film on the cut front affect cut quality parameters such as cut edge roughness and dross (residual melt attached to the bottom of the cut edge). HSI observation of melt flow down a laser cutting front using standard cutting parameters is experimentally problematic because the cut front is narrow and surrounded by the kerf walls. To compensate for this, artificial parameters are usually chosen to obtain wide cut fronts which are unrepresentative of the actual industrial process. This paper presents a new experimental cutting geometry which permits HSI of the laser cut front using standard, commercial parameters. These results suggest that the cut front produced when cutting medium section (10 mm thick) stainless steel with a fibre laser and a nitrogen assist gas is covered in humps which themselves are covered by a thin layer of liquid. HSI observation and theoretical analysis reveal that under these conditions the humps move down the cut front at an average speed of approximately 0.4 m/s while the covering liquid flows at an average speed of approximately 1.1 m/s, with an average melt depth at the bottom of the cut zone of approximately 0.17 mm.

  17. Effects of heat on cut mark characteristics.

    PubMed

    Waltenberger, Lukas; Schutkowski, Holger

    2017-02-01

    Cut marks on bones provide crucial information about tools used and their mode of application, both in archaeological and forensic contexts. Despite a substantial amount of research on cut mark analysis and the influence of fire on bones (shrinkage, fracture pattern, recrystallisation), there is still a lack of knowledge in cut mark analysis on burnt remains. This study provides information about heat alteration of cut marks and whether consistent features can be observed that allow direct interpretation of the implemented tools used. In a controlled experiment, cut marks (n=25) were inflicted on pig ribs (n=7) with a kitchen knife and examined using micro-CT and digital microscopy. The methods were compared in terms of their efficacy in recording cut marks on native and heat-treated bones. Statistical analysis demonstrates that floor angles and the maximum slope height of cuts undergo significant alteration, whereas width, depth, floor radius, slope, and opening angle remain stable. Micro-CT and digital microscopy are both suitable methods for cut mark analysis. However, significant differences in measurements were detected between both methods, as micro-CT is less accurate due to the lower resolution. Moreover, stabbing led to micro-fissures surrounding the cuts, which might also influence the alteration of cut marks.

  18. Highspeed laser ablation cutting of metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullmann, F.; Loeschner, U.; Hartwig, L.; Szczepanski, D.; Schille, J.; Gronau, S.; Knebel, T.; Drechsel, J.; Ebert, R.; Exner, H.

    2013-02-01

    In laser ablation cutting, irradiation of high-intense laser beams causes ejection of molten and evaporated material out of the cutting zone as a result of high pressure gradients, induced by expanding plasma plumes. This paper investigates highspeed laser ablation cutting of industrial grade metal sheets using high-brilliant continuous wave fiber lasers with output powers up to 5 kW. The laser beam was deflected with scan speeds up to 2700 m/min utilizing both a fast galvanometer scan system and a polygon scan system. By sharp laser beam focusing using different objectives with focal lengths ranging between 160 mm and 500 mm, small laser spot diameters between 16.5 μm and 60 μm were obtained, respectively. As a result high peak intensities between 3*108 W/cm² and 2.5*109 W/cm² were irradiated on the sample surface, and cutting kerfs with a maximum depth of 1.4 mm have been produced. In this study the impact of the processing parameters laser power, laser spot diameter, cutting speed, and number of scans on both the achievable cutting depth and the cutting edge quality was investigated. The ablation depths, the heights of the cutting burr, as well as the removed material volumes were evaluated by means of optical microscope images and cross section photographs. Finally highspeed laser ablation cutting was studied using an intensified ultra highspeed camera in order to get useful insights into the cutting process.

  19. Cold tolerance in Arabidopsis kamchatica.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Jessica J; Takebayashi, Naoki; Sformo, Todd; Wolf, Diana E

    2015-03-01

    Cold tolerance is a critically important factor determining how plants will be influenced by climate change, including changes in snowcover and extreme weather events. Although a great deal is known about cold tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana, it is not highly cold tolerant. This study examined cold tolerance and its genetic diversity in an herbaceous subarctic relative, Arabidopsis kamchatica, which generally occurs in much colder climates.• Thermal analysis and electrolyte leakage were used to estimate supercooling points and lethal temperatures (LT50) in cold-acclimated and nonacclimated families from three populations of A. kamchatica.• Arabidopsis kamchatica was highly cold tolerant, with a mean LT50 of -10.8°C when actively growing, and -21.8°C when cold acclimated. It also was able to supercool to very low temperatures. Surprisingly, actively growing plants supercooled more than acclimated plants (-14.7 vs. -12.7°C). There was significant genetic variation for cold tolerance both within and among populations. However, both cold tolerance and genetic diversity were highest in the midlatitude population rather than in the far north, indicating that adaptations to climate change are most likely to arise in the center of the species range rather than at the edges.• Arabidopsis kamchatica is highly cold tolerant throughout its range. It is far more freeze tolerant than A. thaliana, and supercooled to lower temperatures, suggesting that A. kamchatica provides a valuable complement to A. thaliana for cold tolerance research. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  20. Cold isopressing method

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Jack C.; Stawisuck, Valerie M.; Prasad, Ravi

    2003-01-01

    A cold isopressing method in which two or more layers of material are formed within an isopressing mold. One of the layers consists of a tape-cast film. The layers are isopressed within the isopressing mold, thereby to laminate the layers and to compact the tape-cast film. The isopressing mold can be of cylindrical configuration with the layers being coaxial cylindrical layers. The materials used in forming the layers can contain green ceramic materials and the resultant structure can be fired and sintered as necessary and in accordance with known methods to produce a finished composite, ceramic structure. Further, such green ceramic materials can be of the type that are capable of conducting hydrogen or oxygen ions at high temperature with the object of utilizing the finished composite ceramic structure as a ceramic membrane element.

  1. Experiments in cold fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E.P.

    1986-03-28

    The work of Steve Jones and others in muon-catalyzed cold fusion of deuterium and hydrogen suggests the possibility of such fusion catalyzed by ions, or combinations of atoms, or more-or-less free electrons in solid and liquid materials. A hint that this might occur naturally comes from the heat generated in volcanic action in subduction zones on the earth. It is questionable whether the potential energy of material raised to the height of a midocean ridge and falling to the depth of an ocean trench can produce the geothermal effects seen in the volcanoes of subduction zones. If the ridge, the trench, the plates, and the asthenosphere are merely visible effects of deeper density-gradient driven circulations, it is still uncertain that observed energy-concentration effects fit the models.

  2. Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... people's heart. How does cold weather affect the heart? Many people aren't conditioned to the physical stress of vigorous outdoor activities and don't know the potential dangers of being outdoors in cold weather. Winter sports enthusiasts who don't take certain precautions can ...

  3. Simplifier cut core inductor design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1976-01-01

    Advantages of specifying C cores and cut toroids fabricated from grain oriented silicon steels for use in high frequency power converters and pulse width modulated switching regulators are discussed. A method for rating cores assigns to each core a number which is the product of its window and core cross section area, called 'Area Product A sub p.' A correlation between the A sub p numbers and current density for a given temperature rise was developed. Also, straight line relationships were developed for A sub p and volume, A sub p and surface area, and A sub p and weight. These relationships can be used to simplify and standardize the process of inductor design. They also make it possible to design inductors of small bulk and volume or to optimize efficiency.

  4. Cut performance levels and testing.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Bill; Moreland, Jeff

    2011-11-01

    While the ISEA performance levels and general recommendations detailed above can help tp provide guidance when selecting hand protection products, the responsibility for testing products for specific end-user applications still rests with the end user. We can indicate, for example, that a medium-weight, uncoated Kevlar glove will typically have an ISEA cut rating of 3, but we cannot say the glove will provide the level of protection needed for the range of jobs on an automobile assembly line. Another Level 3 glove might be better suited to an application the require the worker to have an oil grip. As glove manufacturers, we know gloves. We do not know the details about every workplace. We therefore, must look to our customers to provide us the properties they need for hand protection products that will sufficiently protect their workers on the job.

  5. SLSL Ribbon-cutting Ceremony

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-11-19

    The Honorable Toni Jennings, lieutenant governor of the state of Florida, speaks at a dedication and ribbon-cutting ceremony for the Space Life Sciences Lab hosted by NASA-Kennedy Space Center and the state of Florida at the new lab. Completed in August, the facility encompasses more than 100,000 square feet and was formerly known as the Space Experiment Research and Processing Laboratory or SERPL. The state, through the Florida Space Authority, built the research lab which is host to NASA, NASA’s Life Sciences Services contractor Dynamac Corp., Bionetics Corp., and researchers from the University of Florida. Dynamac Corp. leases the facility. The Florida Space Research Institute is responsible for gaining additional tenants from outside the NASA community.

  6. Demonstration project cuts red tape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    Results from a demonstration project aimed at cutting red tape in federal grants for basic research at universities are "very encouraging" so far, according to Don I. Phillips, executive director of the Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable. The roundtable is coordinating the experimental effort, with the participation of five major federal agencies as well as the Florida state university system and the University of Miami (a private institution in Coral Gables, Fla.).Under the project, special conditions apply to grants from the participating agencies to individual researchers at the participating universities: Investigators do not have to ask the agency's permission for changes in budget allocations, purchases of permanent equipment, or foreign travel. Grant money can be spent up to a year after the grant ends without a special request. Under this plan, researchers, with agency approval, can also ask to have their entire research program covered as a single administrative entity, rather than as several individual projects.

  7. Drag blade bit with diamond cutting elements

    SciTech Connect

    Radtke, R. P.; Morris, W. V.

    1985-02-19

    A drag blade bit for connection on a drill string has a hollow body on which there are welded a plurality of cutting or drilling blades. The blades extend longitudinally and radially of the bit body and terminate in relatively flat, radially extending cutting edges. A plurality of cutters are positioned in and spaced along the cutting edges and consists of cylindrical sintered carbide inserts with polycrystalline diamond cutting elements mounted thereon. Hardfacing is provided on the cutting edges between the cutters and on the other surfaces of the blades and the bit body subject to abrasive wear. One or more nozzles are positioned in passages from the interior of the bit body for directing flow of drilling fluid for flushing cuttings from the well bore and for cooling the bit.

  8. New Modelling Strategies For Metal Cutting

    SciTech Connect

    Rosa, Pedro A. R.; Martins, Paulo A. F.; Atkins, Anthony G.

    2007-05-17

    This paper draws from the 'plasticity and friction only' view of metal cutting to the presentation of new modelling strategies based on the interaction between finite elements and modern ductile fracture mechanics. The overall presentation is supported by specially designed orthogonal metal cutting experiments that were performed on Lead test specimens under laboratory-controlled conditions. Comparisons between theoretical predictions and experimental results comprise a wide range of topics such as material flow, cutting forces and specific cutting pressure. The paper demonstrates that while material flow and chip formation can be successfully modelled by traditional 'plasticity and friction only' analyses, the contribution of the fracture work involved in the formation of new surfaces is essential for obtaining good estimates of cutting forces and of the specific cutting pressure.

  9. Models of warm and cold regimes of the winter stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guryanov, Vladimir

    Research of fields of geopotential height, temperature, zonal and meridional wind in stratosphere was carried out using the Met Office data for winter seasons from 1991/1992 to 2006-2007. The above analyzes shows that change within season thermodynamic values at high latitudes during the winter is higher than seasonal or longitudinal change. Hence the average models of the cold periods of high latitudes and average monthly values have a limited applicability. In 1982 International Standard Organization (ISO) also acknowledged the necessity for creating of special models for "warm" and "cold" regimes of the high latitude winter stratosphere. Warm and cold stratosphere states were distinguished by the presence or absence of stratospheric warmings of variable intensity exceeding 10 hPa. Special maps and latitude-longitude cuts of mean values and mean square deviations of the geopotential height, temperature, zonal and meridional wind have been created for these regimes. Models of "warm" and "cold" regimes also included zonal harmonics with wave numbers 1 and 2 for all observed meteorological fields

  10. THE COLD AND DARK PROCESS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmour, J; William Austin, W; Cathy Sizemore, C

    2007-01-31

    The deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of a facility exposes D&D workers to numerous hazards. One of the more serious hazards is coming into contact to hazardous energy sources (e.g. electrical, pressurized steam). At the Savannah River Site (SRS) a formal process for identifying and eliminating sources of hazardous energy was developed and is called ''Cold & Dark''. Several ''near miss'' events involving cutting of energized conductors during D&D work in buildings thought to be isolated identified the need to have a formal process to identify and isolate these potentially hazardous systems. This process was developed using lessons learned from D&D activities at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Rocky Flats) in Colorado. The Cold & Dark process defines an isolation boundary (usually a building perimeter) and then systematically identifies all of the penetrations through this boundary. All penetrations that involve hazardous energy sources are then physically air-gapped. The final product is a documented declaration of isolation performed by a team involving operations, engineering, and project management. Once the Cold & Dark declaration is made for a building work can proceed without the usual controls used in an operational facility (e.g. lockout/tagout, arc flash PPE). It is important to note that the Cold & Dark process does not remove all hazards from a facility. Work planning and controls still need to address hazards that can be present from such things as chemicals, radiological contamination, residual liquids, etc., as well as standard industrial hazards.

  11. COBE DMR-normalized open inflation cold dark matter cosmogony

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorski, Krzysztof M.; Ratra, Bharat; Sugiyama, Naoshi; Banday, Anthony J.

    1995-01-01

    A cut-sky orthogonal mode analysis of the 2 year COBE DMR 53 and 90 GHz sky maps (in Galactic coordinates) is used to determine the normalization of an open inflation model based on the cold dark matter (CDM) scenario. The normalized model is compared to measures of large-scale structure in the universe. Although the DMR data alone does not provide sufficient discriminative power to prefer a particular value of the mass density parameter, the open model appears to be reasonably consistent with observations when Omega(sub 0) is approximately 0.3-0.4 and merits further study.

  12. COBE DMR-normalized open inflation cold dark matter cosmogony

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorski, Krzysztof M.; Ratra, Bharat; Sugiyama, Naoshi; Banday, Anthony J.

    1995-01-01

    A cut-sky orthogonal mode analysis of the 2 year COBE DMR 53 and 90 GHz sky maps (in Galactic coordinates) is used to determine the normalization of an open inflation model based on the cold dark matter (CDM) scenario. The normalized model is compared to measures of large-scale structure in the universe. Although the DMR data alone does not provide sufficient discriminative power to prefer a particular value of the mass density parameter, the open model appears to be reasonably consistent with observations when Omega(sub 0) is approximately 0.3-0.4 and merits further study.

  13. Cutting sound enhancement system for mining machines

    DOEpatents

    Leigh, Michael C.; Kwitowski, August J.

    1992-01-01

    A cutting sound enhancement system (10) for transmitting an audible signal from the cutting head (101) of a piece of mine machinery (100) to an operator at a remote station (200), wherein, the operator using a headphone unit (14) can monitor the difference in sounds being made solely by the cutting head (101) to determine the location of the roof, floor, and walls of a coal seam (50).

  14. Control of red alder by cutting.

    Treesearch

    Dean S. DeBell; Thomas C. Turpin

    1989-01-01

    Effects of tree age, month of cut, and height and angle of cut on sprouting of red alder stumps were evaluated in a study designed to develop an effective method for controlling red alder in Douglas-fir plantations. Ninety-five percent or more of alder stumps cut in June or July died by the end of the next growing season; mortality was 88, 70, and 22 percent for stumps...

  15. Enclosed Cutting-And-Polishing Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossier, R. N.; Bicknell, B.

    1989-01-01

    Proposed apparatus cuts and polishes specimens while preventing contamination of outside environment or of subsequent specimens processed in it. Designed for use in zero gravity but also includes features useful in cutting and polishing of toxic or otherwise hazardous materials on Earth. Includes remote manipulator for handling specimens, cutting and polishing wire, inlets for gas and liquid, and outlets for waste liquid and gas. Replaceable plastic liner surrounds working space.

  16. Alternative Metal Hot Cutting Operations for Opacity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Distribution A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. TDS-NAVFAC-EXWC-EV-1509 October 2014 Alternative Metal Hot Cutting ...for oxy-fuel cutting of metal, to reduce opacity emissions during shipbreaking and recycling operations. When ships and submarines reach the end...vessels utilizes oxy-fuel metal cutting . However, this process generates visible particulate matter that has the potential to exceed local air

  17. Enclosed Cutting-And-Polishing Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossier, R. N.; Bicknell, B.

    1989-01-01

    Proposed apparatus cuts and polishes specimens while preventing contamination of outside environment or of subsequent specimens processed in it. Designed for use in zero gravity but also includes features useful in cutting and polishing of toxic or otherwise hazardous materials on Earth. Includes remote manipulator for handling specimens, cutting and polishing wire, inlets for gas and liquid, and outlets for waste liquid and gas. Replaceable plastic liner surrounds working space.

  18. Error analysis of corner cutting algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainar, E.; Peña, J. M.

    1999-10-01

    Corner cutting algorithms are used in different fields and, in particular, play a relevant role in Computer Aided Geometric Design. Evaluation algorithms such as the de Casteljau algorithm for polynomials and the de Boor-Cox algorithm for B-splines are examples of corner cutting algorithms. Here backward and forward error analysis of corner cutting algorithms are performed. The running error is also analyzed and as a consequence the general algorithm is modified to include the computation of an error bound.

  19. Machining Challenges: Macro to Micro Cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shunmugam, M. S.

    2016-04-01

    Metal cutting is an important machining operation in the manufacture of almost all engineering components. Cutting technology has undergone several changes with the development of machine tools and cutting tools to meet challenges posed by newer materials, complex shapes, product miniaturization and competitive environments. In this paper, challenges in macro and micro cutting are brought out. Conventional and micro end-milling are included as illustrative examples and details are presented along with discussion. Lengthy equations are avoided to the extent possible, as the emphasis is on the basic concepts.

  20. Advanced cryogenics for cutting tools. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarus, L.J.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of the investigation was to determine if cryogenic treatment improved the life and cost effectiveness of perishable cutting tools over other treatments or coatings. Test results showed that in five of seven of the perishable cutting tools tested there was no improvement in tool life. The other two tools showed a small gain in tool life, but not as much as when switching manufacturers of the cutting tool. The following conclusions were drawn from this study: (1) titanium nitride coatings are more effective than cryogenic treatment in increasing the life of perishable cutting tools made from all cutting tool materials, (2) cryogenic treatment may increase tool life if the cutting tool is improperly heat treated during its origination, and (3) cryogenic treatment was only effective on those tools made from less sophisticated high speed tool steels. As a part of a recent detailed investigation, four cutting tool manufacturers and two cutting tool laboratories were queried and none could supply any data to substantiate cryogenic treatment of perishable cutting tools.

  1. Cold-Weather Sports and Your Family

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cold-Weather Sports and Your Family KidsHealth > For Parents > Cold-Weather ... kids while being active. Types of Cold-Weather Sports Skiing, snowboarding, ice skating, and snowshoeing are just ...

  2. Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth > For Parents > Cough ... cough and cold medicine. Why Do Kids Abuse Cough and Cold Remedies? Before the U.S. Food and ...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome is a condition that causes episodes ...

  4. Cold-Weather Sports and Your Family

    MedlinePlus

    ... for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Cold-Weather Sports and Your Family KidsHealth > For Parents > Cold- ... once the weather turns frosty. Beating the Cold-Weather Blahs Once a chill is in the air, ...

  5. Understanding Colds: Anatomy of the Nose

    MedlinePlus

    ... at least one-half of colds. (5) Cold viruses can only multiply when they are inside of living cells. When on an environmental surface, cold viruses cannot multiply. However, they are still infectious if ...

  6. Vaccines for the common cold.

    PubMed

    Simancas-Racines, Daniel; Guerra, Claudia V; Hidalgo, Ricardo

    2013-06-12

    The common cold is a spontaneously remitting infection of the upper respiratory tract, characterised by a runny nose, nasal congestion, sneezing, cough, malaise, sore throat and fever (usually < 37.8˚C). The widespread morbidity it causes worldwide is related to its ubiquitousness rather than its severity. The development of vaccines for the common cold has been difficult because of antigenic variability of the common cold virus and the indistinguishable multiple other viruses and even bacteria acting as infective agents. There is uncertainty regarding the efficacy and safety of interventions for preventing the common cold in healthy people. To assess the clinical effectiveness and safety of vaccines for preventing the common cold in healthy people. We searched CENTRAL (2012, Issue 12), MEDLINE (1948 to January week 1, 2013), EMBASE (1974 to January 2013), CINAHL (1981 to January 2013) and LILACS (1982 to January 2013). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of any virus vaccines to prevent the common cold in healthy people. Two review authors independently evaluated methodological quality and extracted trial data. Disagreements were resolved by discussion or by consulting a third review author. This review included one RCT with 2307 healthy participants; all of them were analysed. This trial compared the effect of an adenovirus vaccine against a placebo. No statistically significant difference in common cold incidence was found: there were 13 events in 1139 participants in the vaccines group and 14 events in 1168 participants in the placebo group; risk ratio (RR) 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.45 to 2.02, P = 0.90). No adverse events related to the live vaccine were reported. This Cochrane review has found a lack of evidence on the effects of vaccines for the common cold in healthy people. Only one RCT was found and this did not show differences between comparison groups; it also had a high risk of bias. There are no conclusive data to support the use of

  7. Laser fusion cutting using supersonic nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Jun

    This research takes a systematic approach to study the flow patterns of gas jets from the conventional conical (subsonic) nozzle and the newly designed supersonic nozzle under a high-pressure gas regime by a three-dimensional mathematical model. Computer simulation was then confirmed by experimental shadowgraphic technique. The relationships between the type of nozzles, nozzle dimensions, stand-off distance, inlet stagnation pressure and the flow field distribution, incident shock and normal shock have been established. Compared with that of the subsonic nozzle, the gas jet from a supersonic nozzle possesses the desired dynamic characteristics such as uniform distribution, maximum and even momentum thrust and parallel jet boundary under the condition of the designed pressures. Then, a model calculating the three-dimensional stationary geometric shape of the cutting front obtained in the high-pressure laser fusion cutting regime was developed using numerical solution of energy balance. In this model, the energy absorbed by the workpiece includes not only the energy from the laser beam but also the energy from the multiple reflections generated by the beam impinging at the cutting front. The effects of the laser power, cutting speed, focus position, multiple reflections and inert gas pressure on the geometric shape of the cutting front have been analyzed systemically. The geometric shape of the cutting front was then used as boundary conditions in subsequent calculation of the gas flow field distribution inside a laser cut kerf. Finally, a third mathematical model was developed to calculate the distribution of the gas flow field at the entrance of the cut kerf, inside the cut kerf and at the exit of a cut kerf under the condition of a gas jet from a supersonic nozzle and the inlet stagnation pressure ≥5 bar. A two-dimensional analytical method was adopted to locate approximately the position and shape of the detached shock above the cut kerf. A method of two

  8. Laser cutting of triangular geometries in aluminum foam: Effect of cut size on thermal stress levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Akhtar, S. S.; Keles, O.

    2013-06-01

    Laser cutting of triangle shaped geometries in aluminum foam is carried out and the influence of triangle size on temperature and stress fields is examined. ABAQUS finite element code is used to simulate temperature and stress fields in the cut sections in line with the experimental conditions. Laser cut sections are examined incorporating optical and scanning electron microscopes, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. It is found that small size triangle cut results in relatively higher temperatures around the cut edges as compared to large size triangle cut; however, opposite is true for von Mises stress. This is attributed to the slow cooling rate in the case of the small size triangle cuts. Laser cut surfaces are free from large defects and locally scattered small dross attachment are found at the kerf exit.

  9. Effect of Cutting Angle and Depth of Cut on the Occurrence of Chipped Grain on Sycamore

    Treesearch

    Harold A. Stewart

    1970-01-01

    Sycamore specimens were planned with various combinations of depths of cut and rake angles. Depths of cut up to 1/16 inch had no significant effect on the occurrence of chipped grain in sycamore but rake angle did.

  10. The effect of cutting speed on residual stresses when orthogonal cutting TC4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chaofeng; Wang, Zengqiang; Zhang, Guang; Liu, Lei

    2015-09-01

    As one of the most important parameters in mental cutting, cutting speed has a significant influence on residual stress. Finite element method and experiment method are used to study the relationship between cutting speed and residual stress when orthogonal cutting TC4 titanium alloy. The result of simulation and experiment shows that: when the cutting speed is low, the residual stress in axial direction is compressive stress and gradually converts to tensile stress with the increase of cutting speed, but it will convert to compressive stress again if the cutting speed continues to increase; the residual stress in tangential direction is constant to compressive stress and it will decrease with the increase of cutting speed.

  11. Cold urticaria and celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Pedrosa Delgado, M; Martín Muñoz, F; Polanco Allué, I; Martín Esteban, M

    2008-01-01

    Cold urticaria can be associated with blood and thyroid disorders, drugs, or infections. Celiac disease is an autoimmune enteropathy caused by permanent gluten intolerance. It is often associated with other autoimmune diseases, such as chronic idiopathic urticaria. Nevertheless, association with cold urticaria has not yet been described. A boy aged 3 years 8 months presented local urticaria-angioedema when exposed to cold temperatures. An ice cube test was positive and iron deficiency anemia was demonstrated. He later developed legume intolerance, rhinoconjunctivitis related to pollen sensitization, and asthma. Due to persistence of cold urticaria symptoms and refractory anemia, a test for immunoglobulin A autoantibodies to tissue transglutaminase and an intestinal biopsy were performed. Results of both tests were compatible with celiac disease.A study of human leukocyte antigen indicated a high risk phenotype (HLA, DR6/DR7; DQA 0501, 0201; DQB 0301, 0201). After 7 months of a gluten-free diet, the boy's anemia resolved and he is free of symptoms when exposed to cold. This is a first description of the possibility of an association between celiac disease and cold urticaria. A poor course of cold urticaria in the absence of evidence of another underlying condition should lead to suspicion of celiac disease.

  12. Cold Fusion, A Journalistic Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivit, Steven B.

    2005-03-01

    Author of the recent book, The Rebirth of Cold Fusion, and founder of New Energy Times, Steven B. Krivit presents a summary of cold fusion's, past, present and possible future. This talk will briefly review five highlights of the recent New Energy Times investigation into cold fusion research:1. Analysis of early studies that supposedly disproved cold fusion.2. Key early corroborations that supported the claims of Fleischmann and Pons.3. The evolving understanding of cold fusion reaction paths and by-products.4. A look at volumetric power density.5. Brief comparison of the progress in hot fusion research as compared to cold fusion research.New Energy Times, founded in 2000, is an independent communications company which currently specializes in reporting on cold fusion researchootnotetextReferences and copies of the presentation are available at www.newenergytimes.com/reports/aps2005.htmhttp://www.newenergytimes.com/reports/aps2005.htm. It has no affiliations with any organization, entity or party which invests in these technologies, nor any individual researcher or research facility.

  13. Cold plasma decontamination of foods.

    PubMed

    Niemira, Brendan A

    2012-01-01

    Cold plasma is a novel nonthermal food processing technology that uses energetic, reactive gases to inactivate contaminating microbes on meats, poultry, fruits, and vegetables. This flexible sanitizing method uses electricity and a carrier gas, such as air, oxygen, nitrogen, or helium; antimicrobial chemical agents are not required. The primary modes of action are due to UV light and reactive chemical products of the cold plasma ionization process. A wide array of cold plasma systems that operate at atmospheric pressures or in low pressure treatment chambers are under development. Reductions of greater than 5 logs can be obtained for pathogens such as Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus. Effective treatment times can range from 120 s to as little as 3 s, depending on the food treated and the processing conditions. Key limitations for cold plasma are the relatively early state of technology development, the variety and complexity of the necessary equipment, and the largely unexplored impacts of cold plasma treatment on the sensory and nutritional qualities of treated foods. Also, the antimicrobial modes of action for various cold plasma systems vary depending on the type of cold plasma generated. Optimization and scale up to commercial treatment levels require a more complete understanding of these chemical processes. Nevertheless, this area of technology shows promise and is the subject of active research to enhance efficacy.

  14. Laser cutting of pressed explosives: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Roeske, F., Jr.; Banks, R.E.; Armstrong, J.P.; Feit, M.D.; Lee, R.S.; Perry, M.D.; Stuart, B.C.

    1998-05-04

    We have used a femtosecond laser beam to make cuts through small pressed pellets of six common explosives. The laser system, which produces 100 fs pulses of 820 nm light at a repitition rate of 1 kHz, was intitially developed for cutting metal. The advantage of using a femtosecond laser for cutting is that the cutting process transfers virtually no heat to the material that is being cut and produces almost no waste. We used LX-16 explosive (96% PETN/4% FPC 461 binder) for out intial experiments because PETN is one of the most sensitve of the secondary explosives. In some of the experiments the beam first cut through the HE pellet and then through a stainless steel substrate and in other experiments the beam first cut through the stainless steel and then through the pellet. We also cut through pellets that were not backed by a substrate. No evidence of reaction was observed in any of the LX-16 pellets. In addition to LX-16 we cut pellets of LX-14 (95.5% HMX/4.5% Estane), LX-15 (95% HNS/5% Kel-F), LX-17 (92.5% TATB/7.5% Kel-F), PBX-9407 (94% RDX/6% Exon 461), and pressed TNT with no evidence of reaction. The HE was easily cut at low power levels with one or two sweeps at 0.5 W average power sufficing to cut most of the pellets. There is obvioulsy much more work to be done before laser machining of explosives becomes a reality, but the results of these intitial experiments indicate that laser machining of explosives may be an attractive option for explosives processing.

  15. Therapeutic opportunities for targeting cold pain pathways.

    PubMed

    Yin, Kathleen; Zimmermann, Katharina; Vetter, Irina; Lewis, Richard J

    2015-01-15

    Cold pain is a frequent symptom in neuropathic pain. Compared to other pain modalities, such as heat pain, the mechanisms behind physiological and pathological cold pain remain elusive. Moreover, it is becoming increasingly evident that cold pain pharmacology differs between various neuropathic pain conditions, making mechanism-directed treatment based on an understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms imperative to achieving clinical success. Here we review the processes of physiological and abnormal cold sensing, the pharmacology of cold nociception, cold hyperalgesia and cold allodynia, and provide an overview of cold pain syndromes and their current and potential treatments. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. All Bright Cold Classical KBOs are Binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noll, Keith S.; Parker, Alex H.; Grundy, William M.

    2014-11-01

    When sorted by absolute magnitude as seen in ground based observations, an extremely high fraction of the brightest Cold Classical (CC) Kuiper Belt objects (KBO) are, in fact resolved as binaries when observed at higher angular resolution. Of the 22 CCs brighter than H=6.1 observed by HST, 16 have been found to be binary yielding a binary fraction of 73±10%. When low inclination interlopers from the hot population and close binaries are considered, this very high fraction is consistent with 100% of bright CCs being binary. At fainter absolute magnitudes, this fraction drops to ~20%. Such a situation is a natural outcome of a broken size distribution with a steep drop-off in the number of CCs with individual component diameters larger than 150 km (for an assumed albedo of 0.15). A sharp cutoff in the size distribution for CCs is consistent with formation models that suggest that most planetesimals form at a preferred modal size of order 100 km.The very high fraction of binaries among the largest CCs also serves to limit the separation distribution of KBO binaries. At most, 27% of the brightest CCs are possible unresolved binaries. The apparent power law distribution of binary separation must cut off near the current observational limits of HST ( 1800 km at 43 AU). It is worth noting, however, that this observation does not constrain how many components of resolved binaries may themselves be unresolved multiples like 47171 1999 TC36. Finally, it is important to point out that, when sorted by the size of the primary rather than absolute magnitude of the unresolved pair, the fraction of binaries is relatively constant with size (Nesvorny et al. 2011, AJ 141, 159) eliminating observational bias as cause of the pile up of binaries among the brightest Cold Classical Kuiper Belt objects.The very high fraction of binaries among the brightest CCs appears to be an effect of the underlying CC size distribution.

  17. Cold fusion verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    North, M. H.; Mastny, G. F.; Wesley, E. J.

    1991-03-01

    The objective of this work to verify and reproduce experimental observations of Cold Nuclear Fusion (CNF), as originally reported in 1989. The method was to start with the original report and add such additional information as became available to build a set of operational electrolytic CNF cells. Verification was to be achieved by first observing cells for neutron production, and for those cells that demonstrated a nuclear effect, careful calorimetric measurements were planned. The authors concluded, after laboratory experience, reading published work, talking with others in the field, and attending conferences, that CNF probably is chimera and will go the way of N-rays and polywater. The neutron detector used for these tests was a completely packaged unit built into a metal suitcase that afforded electrostatic shielding for the detectors and self-contained electronics. It was battery-powered, although it was on charge for most of the long tests. The sensor element consists of He detectors arranged in three independent layers in a solid moderating block. The count from each of the three layers as well as the sum of all the detectors were brought out and recorded separately. The neutron measurements were made with both the neutron detector and the sample tested in a cave made of thick moderating material that surrounded the two units on the sides and bottom.

  18. Cold fusion studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hembree, D. M.; Burchfield, L. A.; Fuller, E. L., Jr.; Perey, F. G.; Mamantov, G.

    1990-06-01

    A series of experiments designed to detect the by-products expected from deuterium fusion occurring in the palladium and titanium cathodes of heavy water, D2O, electrolysis cells is reported. The primary purpose of this account is to outline the integrated experimental design developed to test the cold fusion hypothesis and to report preliminary results that support continuing the investigation. Apparent positive indicators of deuterium fusion were observed, but could not be repeated or proved to originate from the electrochemical cells. In one instance, two large increases in the neutron count rate, the largest of which exceeded the background by 27 standard deviations, were observed. In a separate experiment, one of the calorimetry cells appeared to be producing approximately 18 percent more power that the input value, but thermistor failure prevented an accurate recording of the event as a function of time. In general, the tritium levels in most cells followed the slow enrichment expected from the electrolysis of D2O containing a small amount of tritium. However, after 576 hours of electrolysis, one cell developed a tritium concentration approximately seven times greater than expected level.

  19. Cold-Adapted Enzymes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georlette, D.; Bentahir, M.; Claverie, P.; Collins, T.; D'amico, S.; Delille, D.; Feller, G.; Gratia, E.; Hoyoux, A.; Lonhienne, T.; Meuwis, M.-a.; Zecchinon, L.; Gerday, Ch.

    In the last few years, increased attention has been focused on enzymes produced by cold-adapted micro-organisms. It has emerged that psychrophilic enzymes represent an extremely powerful tool in both protein folding investigations and for biotechnological purposes. Such enzymes are characterised by an increased thermosensitivity and, most of them, by a higher catalytic efficiency at low and moderate temperatures, when compared to their mesophilic counterparts. The high thermosensitivity probably originates from an increased flexibility of either a selected area of the molecular edifice or the overall protein structure, providing enhanced abilities to undergo conformational changes during catalysis at low temperatures. Structure modelling and recent crystallographic data have allowed to elucidate the structural parameters that could be involved in this higher resilience. It was demonstrated that each psychrophilic enzyme adopts its own adaptive strategy. It appears, moreover, that there is a continuum in the strategy of protein adaptation to temperature, as the previously mentioned structural parameters are implicated in the stability of thermophilic proteins. Additional 3D crystal structures, site-directed and random mutagenesis experiments should now be undertaken to further investigate the stability-flexibility-activity relationship.

  20. Versatile cold atom target apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Goetz, Simone; Hoeltkemeier, Bastian; Hofmann, Christoph S.; Litsch, Dominic; DePaola, Brett D.; Weidemueller, Matthias

    2012-07-15

    We report on a compact and transportable apparatus that consists of a cold atomic target at the center of a high resolution recoil ion momentum spectrometer. Cold rubidium atoms serve as a target which can be operated in three different modes: in continuous mode, consisting of a cold atom beam generated by a two-dimensional magneto-optical trap, in normal mode in which the atoms from the beam are trapped in a three-dimensional magneto-optical trap (3D MOT), and in high density mode in which the 3D MOT is operated in dark spontaneous optical trap configuration. The targets are characterized using photoionization.

  1. Versatile cold atom target apparatus.

    PubMed

    Götz, Simone; Höltkemeier, Bastian; Hofmann, Christoph S; Litsch, Dominic; DePaola, Brett D; Weidemüller, Matthias

    2012-07-01

    We report on a compact and transportable apparatus that consists of a cold atomic target at the center of a high resolution recoil ion momentum spectrometer. Cold rubidium atoms serve as a target which can be operated in three different modes: in continuous mode, consisting of a cold atom beam generated by a two-dimensional magneto-optical trap, in normal mode in which the atoms from the beam are trapped in a three-dimensional magneto-optical trap (3D MOT), and in high density mode in which the 3D MOT is operated in dark spontaneous optical trap configuration. The targets are characterized using photoionization.

  2. Plants in a cold climate.

    PubMed Central

    Smallwood, Maggie; Bowles, Dianna J

    2002-01-01

    Plants are able to survive prolonged exposure to sub-zero temperatures; this ability is enhanced by pre-exposure to low, but above-zero temperatures. This process, known as cold acclimation, is briefly reviewed from the perception of cold, through transduction of the low-temperature signal to functional analysis of cold-induced gene products. The stresses that freezing of apoplastic water imposes on plant cells is considered and what is understood about the mechanisms that plants use to combat those stresses discussed, with particular emphasis on the role of the extracellular matrix. PMID:12171647

  3. Simplified cut core inductor design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1974-01-01

    Although filter inductor designers have routinely tended to specify molypermalloy powder cores for use in high frequency power converters and pulse-width modulated switching regulators, there are sigificant advantages in specifying C cores and cut toroids fabricated from grain oriented silicon steels which should not be overlooked. Such steel cores can develop flux densities of 1.6 tesla, with useful linearity to 1.2 tesla, whereas molypermalloy cores carrying d.c. current have useful flux density capabilities only to about 0.3 tesla. The use of silicon steel cores thus makes it possible to design more compact cores, and therefore inductors of reduced volume, or conversely to provide greater load capacity in inductors of a given volume. Information is available which makes it possible to obtain quick and close approximations of significant parameters such as size, weight and temperature rise for silicon steel cores for breadboarding. Graphs, nomographs and tables are presented for this purpose, but more complete mathematical derivations of some of the important parameters are also included for a more rigorous treatment.

  4. SLSL Ribbon-cutting Ceremony

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-11-19

    Representatives of the NASA-Kennedy Space Center and the state of Florida prepare to cut the ribbon officially opening the Space Life Sciences Lab at a ceremony at the new lab. In the front row, from left, are Dr. Samuel Durrance, executive director of the Florida Space Research Institute; Jim Kennedy, director of the Kennedy Space Center; Frank T. Brogan, president of the Florida Atlantic University; The Honorable Toni Jennings, lieutenant governor of the state of Florida; and Catherine and Grier Kirkpatrick, children of the late Sen. George Kirkpatrick. In the back row, from left, are Debra Holliday, director for Facilities and Construction, Florida Space Authority; Dan LeBlanc, president and chief operating officer of Delaware North Companies Parks and Resorts at KSC, Inc.; Jose Perez-Morales, NASA Project Manager for the Space Life Sciences Lab; and Capt. Winston E. Scott, executive director of the Florida Space Authority. Completed in August, the facility encompasses more than 100,000 square feet and was formerly known as the Space Experiment Research and Processing Laboratory or SERPL. The state, through the Florida Space Authority, built the research lab which is host to NASA, NASA’s Life Sciences Services contractor Dynamac Corp., Bionetics Corp., and researchers from the University of Florida. Dynamac Corp. leases the facility. The Florida Space Research Institute is responsible for gaining additional tenants from outside the NASA community.

  5. Corner-cutting mining assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bradley, J.A.

    1981-07-01

    This invention resulted from a contract with the United States Department of Energy and relates to a mining tool. More particularly, the invention relates to an assembly capable of drilling a hole having a square cross-sectional shape with radiused corners. In mining operations in which conventional auger-type drills are used to form a series of parallel, cylindrical holes in a coal seam, a large amount of coal remains in place in the seam because the shape of the holes leaves thick webs between the holes. A higher percentage of coal can be mined from a seam by a means capable of drilling holes having a substantially square cross section. It is an object of this invention to provide an improved mining apparatus by means of which the amount of coal recovered from a seam deposit can be increased. Another object of the invention is to provide a drilling assembly which cuts corners in a hole having a circular cross section. These objects and other advantages are attained by a preferred embodiment of the invention.

  6. Cutting fluid for machining fissionable materials

    SciTech Connect

    Duerksen, W.K.; Googin, J.M.; Napier, B. Jr.

    1982-01-28

    The present invention is directed to a cutting fluid for machining fissionable material. The cutting fluid is formed of glycol, water and a boron compound in an adequate concentration for effective neutron attenuation so as to inhibit criticality incidents during machining.

  7. Cut Next Winter's Heating Bill Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Presents specific steps that help make schools energy efficient and cut costs. Four basic strategies are suggested that include creating a database of energy usage that can also catch the occasional billing error, investigating less obvious ways of cutting energy use, such as applying cellulose commercial spray as an insulation choice, and…

  8. Cut Next Winter's Heating Bill Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Presents specific steps that help make schools energy efficient and cut costs. Four basic strategies are suggested that include creating a database of energy usage that can also catch the occasional billing error, investigating less obvious ways of cutting energy use, such as applying cellulose commercial spray as an insulation choice, and…

  9. Microwave interferometer controls cutting depth of plastics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heisman, R. M.; Iceland, W. F.

    1969-01-01

    Microwave interferometer system controls the cutting of plastic materials to a prescribed depth. The interferometer is mounted on a carriage with a spindle and cutting tool. A cross slide, mounted on the carriage, allows the interferometer and cutter to move toward or away from the plastic workpiece.

  10. Cutting Watermelon: Lessons in Instructional Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandstead, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Literacy coordinator Martha Sandstead finds inspiration for her coaching work in a quote from civil rights organizer Lawrence Guyot: "Let's say you're riding past a picnic, and people are cuttin' watermelons. You don't immediately go and say, "stop the watermelon cutting" and let's talk. … You cut some watermelons, or you help…

  11. Cutting Watermelon: Lessons in Instructional Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandstead, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Literacy coordinator Martha Sandstead finds inspiration for her coaching work in a quote from civil rights organizer Lawrence Guyot: "Let's say you're riding past a picnic, and people are cuttin' watermelons. You don't immediately go and say, "stop the watermelon cutting" and let's talk. … You cut some watermelons, or you help…

  12. Scissors: More than a Cut Above

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suzanne, Teri

    2005-01-01

    Scissors are a unique interactive tool when successfully used, allowing teachers and students to recognize and explore each other's creative ability while nurturing mutual communication. Freehand cutting gives children freedom to create as they cut. Scissors have the power to improve fine motor skills, stimulate creative imagination, reinforce…

  13. 33 CFR 117.143 - Bishop Cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bishop Cut. 117.143 Section 117.143 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.143 Bishop Cut. The draw of the San Joaquin...

  14. 33 CFR 117.161 - Honker Cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Honker Cut. 117.161 Section 117.161 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.161 Honker Cut. The draw of the San Joaquin...

  15. 33 CFR 117.143 - Bishop Cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bishop Cut. 117.143 Section 117.143 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.143 Bishop Cut. The draw of the San Joaquin...

  16. 33 CFR 117.161 - Honker Cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Honker Cut. 117.161 Section 117.161 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.161 Honker Cut. The draw of the San Joaquin...

  17. CUTTING PLANE METHODS WITHOUT NESTED CONSTRAINT SETS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    General conditions are given for the convergence of a class of cutting -plane algorithms without requiring that the constraint sets for the... cutting -planes include that of Kelley and a generalization of that used by Zoutendisk and Veinott. For algorithms with nested constraint sets, these

  18. 33 CFR 117.143 - Bishop Cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bishop Cut. 117.143 Section 117.143 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.143 Bishop Cut. The draw of the San Joaquin...

  19. Millimeter-Wave Cut-Off Switch.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A millimeter-wave cut -off switch in a dielectric waveguide having a semi-insulating core and a semi-conducting epitaxial layer. A controller affixed...When the waveguide is properly dimensioned such that the operating frequency lies in the high-loss section near the cut -off frequency on the loss vs

  20. 33 CFR 117.143 - Bishop Cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bishop Cut. 117.143 Section 117.143 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.143 Bishop Cut. The draw of the San Joaquin...

  1. 33 CFR 117.161 - Honker Cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Honker Cut. 117.161 Section 117.161 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.161 Honker Cut. The draw of the San Joaquin...

  2. 33 CFR 117.161 - Honker Cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Honker Cut. 117.161 Section 117.161 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.161 Honker Cut. The draw of the San Joaquin...

  3. 33 CFR 117.161 - Honker Cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Honker Cut. 117.161 Section 117.161 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.161 Honker Cut. The draw of the San Joaquin...

  4. 33 CFR 117.143 - Bishop Cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bishop Cut. 117.143 Section 117.143 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.143 Bishop Cut. The draw of the San Joaquin...

  5. Vegetative Propagation of Aspen by Greenwood Cuttings

    Treesearch

    Robert E. Farmer

    1963-01-01

    Greenwood stem cuttings taken from root suckers of Populus tremuloides and P. grandidentata were rooted in coarse sand under both intermittent mist and polyethylene sheeting in a greenhouse and under mist in an outdoor propagation bed. Prerooting treatment of cuttings with aqueous solutions of lBA (20-100 p.p.m. ) stimulated...

  6. Meat Cutting Classes--Popular with Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostad, James; Carpentier, Dale

    1976-01-01

    Presents a session by session description of a "meats" class, which is offered to high school students (9-week period) and adults (8-week period). The classes cover identification of cuts (beef, sheep, hogs, and veal; grades and grading of live animals and carcasses; economics of butchering and cutting your own meat; actual slaughtering; and the…

  7. Surface sterilization of hybrid poplar cuttings

    Treesearch

    Alma M. Waterman

    1954-01-01

    Fungus diseases of hybrid poplars may be spread by spores that lodge in the resinous coating of buds of dormant cuttings, and in the lenticels. Surface sterilization by dipping the cuttings in fungicides was tested to determine whether such treatment would prevent the germination of spores of the canker-producing fungi Septoria musiva and Dothichiza populea and the...

  8. Scissors: More than a Cut Above

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suzanne, Teri

    2005-01-01

    Scissors are a unique interactive tool when successfully used, allowing teachers and students to recognize and explore each other's creative ability while nurturing mutual communication. Freehand cutting gives children freedom to create as they cut. Scissors have the power to improve fine motor skills, stimulate creative imagination, reinforce…

  9. Postharvest: Cut flowers and potted plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the past fifty years, the cut flower market has changed dramatically, from a local market with growers located on city outskirts, to a global one; flowers and cut foliage sourced from throughout the world are sold as bunches or combined into arrangements and bouquets in the major target markets. ...

  10. Vee-notch tool cuts specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spier, R. A.

    1970-01-01

    Triangular cutting tool uses carbide tips for notching heat-treated or abrasive materials, and alloys subjected to high structural stresses. The tool is rigidly mounted in a slot of mating contour to prevent deflection during cutting of tensile specimens. No other expensive machine equipment is required.

  11. Gluebond strength of laser cut wood

    Treesearch

    Charles W. McMillin; Henry A. Huber

    1985-01-01

    The degree of strength loss when gluing laser cut wood as compared to conventionally sawn wood and the amount of additional surface treatment needed to improve bond quality were assessed under normal furniture plant operating conditions. The strength of laser cut oak glued with polyvinyl acetate adhesive was reduced to 75 percent of sawn joints and gum was reduced 43...

  12. Meat Cutting Classes--Popular with Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostad, James; Carpentier, Dale

    1976-01-01

    Presents a session by session description of a "meats" class, which is offered to high school students (9-week period) and adults (8-week period). The classes cover identification of cuts (beef, sheep, hogs, and veal; grades and grading of live animals and carcasses; economics of butchering and cutting your own meat; actual slaughtering; and the…

  13. College Students Tell Why They Cut Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gladstone, Roy; Pope, Deborah Rose

    1979-01-01

    Students were asked to indicate why they cut class. While instructors came in for their share of the blame, the students attributed a large percentage of their cuts to causes for which the teachers were not at all responsible. Many of the most frequently given reasons suggest a simple carefree attitude on the part of the student. (Author)

  14. Drilling subsurface wellbores with cutting structures

    DOEpatents

    Mansure, Arthur James; Guimerans, Rosalvina Ramona

    2010-11-30

    A system for forming a wellbore includes a drill tubular. A drill bit is coupled to the drill tubular. One or more cutting structures are coupled to the drill tubular above the drill bit. The cutting structures remove at least a portion of formation that extends into the wellbore formed by the drill bit.

  15. Cutting tool form compensaton system and method

    DOEpatents

    Barkman, William E.; Babelay, Jr., Edwin F.; Klages, Edward J.

    1993-01-01

    A compensation system for a computer-controlled machining apparatus having a controller and including a cutting tool and a workpiece holder which are movable relative to one another along a preprogrammed path during a machining operation utilizes a camera and a vision computer for gathering information at a preselected stage of a machining operation relating to the actual shape and size of the cutting edge of the cutting tool and for altering the preprogrammed path in accordance with detected variations between the actual size and shape of the cutting edge and an assumed size and shape of the cutting edge. The camera obtains an image of the cutting tool against a background so that the cutting tool and background possess contrasting light intensities, and the vision computer utilizes the contrasting light intensities of the image to locate points therein which correspond to points along the actual cutting edge. Following a series of computations involving the determining of a tool center from the points identified along the tool edge, the results of the computations are fed to the controller where the preprogrammed path is altered as aforedescribed.

  16. Cutting tool form compensation system and method

    DOEpatents

    Barkman, W.E.; Babelay, E.F. Jr.; Klages, E.J.

    1993-10-19

    A compensation system for a computer-controlled machining apparatus having a controller and including a cutting tool and a workpiece holder which are movable relative to one another along a preprogrammed path during a machining operation utilizes a camera and a vision computer for gathering information at a preselected stage of a machining operation relating to the actual shape and size of the cutting edge of the cutting tool and for altering the preprogrammed path in accordance with detected variations between the actual size and shape of the cutting edge and an assumed size and shape of the cutting edge. The camera obtains an image of the cutting tool against a background so that the cutting tool and background possess contrasting light intensities, and the vision computer utilizes the contrasting light intensities of the image to locate points therein which correspond to points along the actual cutting edge. Following a series of computations involving the determining of a tool center from the points identified along the tool edge, the results of the computations are fed to the controller where the preprogrammed path is altered as aforedescribed. 9 figures.

  17. [Cutting and incision tools: the scalpel: handles].

    PubMed

    Illana Esteban, Emilio

    2006-10-01

    In its current version, a scalpel is the best known cutting tool. It comes with a versatile metallic handle, available in a variety of models having differentiated characteristics. With a few simple movements, all models enable you to articulate and extract multiple cutting blades.

  18. Application of high-rate cutting tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriarty, John L., Jr.

    1989-03-01

    Widespread application of the newest high-rate cutting tools to the most appropriate jobs is slowed by the sheer magnitude of developments in tool types, materials, workpiece applications, and by the rapid pace of change. Therefore, a study of finishing and roughing sizes of coated carbide inserts having a variety of geometries for single point turning was completed. The cutting tools were tested for tool life, chip quality, and workpiece surface finish at various cutting conditions with medium alloy steel. An empirical wear-life data base was established, and a computer program was developed to facilitate technology transfer, assist selection of carbide insert grades, and provide machine operating parameters. A follow-on test program was implemented suitable for next generation coated carbides, rotary cutting tools, cutting fluids, and ceramic tool materials.

  19. Changing cultural attitudes towards female genital cutting.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Sonja; Mohmmed Zaid, Nadia Ahmed; El Fadil Ahmed, Hilal; Fehr, Ernst; Efferson, Charles

    2016-10-27

    As globalization brings people with incompatible attitudes into contact, cultural conflicts inevitably arise. Little is known about how to mitigate conflict and about how the conflicts that occur can shape the cultural evolution of the groups involved. Female genital cutting is a prominent example. Governments and international agencies have promoted the abandonment of cutting for decades, but the practice remains widespread with associated health risks for millions of girls and women. In their efforts to end cutting, international agents have often adopted the view that cutting is locally pervasive and entrenched. This implies the need to introduce values and expectations from outside the local culture. Members of the target society may view such interventions as unwelcome intrusions, and campaigns promoting abandonment have sometimes led to backlash as they struggle to reconcile cultural tolerance with the conviction that cutting violates universal human rights. Cutting, however, is not necessarily locally pervasive and entrenched. We designed experiments on cultural change that exploited the existence of conflicting attitudes within cutting societies. We produced four entertaining movies that served as experimental treatments in two experiments in Sudan, and we developed an implicit association test to unobtrusively measure attitudes about cutting. The movies depart from the view that cutting is locally pervasive by dramatizing members of an extended family as they confront each other with divergent views about whether the family should continue cutting. The movies significantly improved attitudes towards girls who remain uncut, with one in particular having a relatively persistent effect. These results show that using entertainment to dramatize locally discordant views can provide a basis for applied cultural evolution without accentuating intercultural divisions.

  20. Corn stalk orientation effect on mechanical cutting

    SciTech Connect

    Igathinathane, C.; Womac, A.R.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine

    2010-07-01

    Research efforts that increase the efficiency of size reduction of biomass can lead to a significant energy saving. This paper deals with the determination of the effect of sample orientation with respect to cutting element and quantify the possible cutting energy reduction, utilising dry corn stalks as the test material (15%e20% wet basis). To evaluate the mechanical cutting characteristics of corn stalks, a Warnere Bratzler device was modified by replacing its blunt edged cutting element with one having a 30_ single bevel sharp knife edge. Cutting force-deformation characteristics obtained with a universal testing machine were analysed to evaluate the orientation effects at perpendicular (90o), inclined (45o), and parallel (0o) orientations on internodes and nodes for cutting force, energy, ultimate stress, and specific energy of corn stalks. The corn stalks cutting force-displacement characteristics were found to differ with orientation, and internode and node material difference. Overall, the peak failure force, and the total cutting energy of internodes and nodes varied significantly (P < 0.05) with stalk cross-sectional area. The specific energy values (total energy per unit cut area) of dry corn stalk internodes ranged from 11.3 to 23.5 kN m_1, and nodes from 8.6 to 14.0 kN m_1. The parallel orientation (along grain) compared to perpendicular (across grain) produced a significant reduction of the cutting stress and the specific energy to one tenth or better for internodes, and to about one-fifth for nodes.

  1. EFFECT OF COLD PLASMA TREATMENT ON THE FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF FRESH-CUT APPLES.

    PubMed

    Ramazzina, Ileana; Tappi, Silvia; Rocculi, Pietro; Sacchetti, Giampiero; Berardinelli, Annachiara; Marseglia, Angela; Rizzi, Federica

    2016-10-06

    The atmospheric double barrier discharge (DBD) plasma technology is a promising tool in food industry as an alternative to traditional food preservation methods. However, the effect of the reactive chemical species generated during the treatment on the qualitative and quantitative content of bioactive compounds in food is still little studied, as well as there are no data concerning potential deleterious effects of DBD treated foods on human cells. We measured antioxidants content and antioxidant capacity of DBD-treated minimally processed Pink Lady® apples in comparison with untreated matched samples. Moreover, we compared the effects of polyphenols extracts obtained from DBD-treated apples on cell viability, reactive oxygen species production and phase II enzyme activation. The results show that the plasma treatment causes a slight reduction of antioxidant content and antioxidant capacity. Noteworthy, apple treated polyphenols extracts do not reduce cell viability and do not suppress the beneficial physiological cell response to oxidative stress.

  2. Plasma fusion and cold fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Hideo, Kozima

    1996-12-31

    Fundamental problems of plasma fusion (controlled thermonuclear fusion) due to the contradicting demands of the magnetic confinement of plasma and suppression of instabilities occurring on and in plasma are surveyed in contrast with problems of cold fusion. Problems in cold fusion due to the complicated constituents and types of force are explained. Typical cold fusion events are explained by a model based on the presence of trapped neutrons in cold fusion materials. The events include Pons-Fleishmann effect, tritium anomaly, helium 4 production, and nuclear transmutation. Fundamental hypothesis of the model is an effectiveness of a new concept--neutron affinity of elements. The neutron affinity is defined and some bases supporting it are explained. Possible justification of the concept by statistical approach is given.

  3. ANS cold source neutronics analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lillie, R.A.

    1994-06-01

    This paper describes the calculational procedures employed in the ongoing neutronics analysis of the ANS cold source and presents in chronological order some of the more important results from the one- and two-dimensional discrete calculations performed to date in support of the ANS cold source design. In particular, cold neutron currents from cryostat shapes which can be adequately modeled with two-dimensional geometries are compared with and without reentrant cavities. Also, results are presented from one-dimensional comparative liquid hydrogen vs liquid deuterium calculations in which the density, placement, and para-ortho mixture of liquid hydrogen is investigated. In addition, the evolution of the ANS conceptual design cold source from an initial short cylindrical cryostat with hemispherical upper and lower heads employing a natural convection liquid deuterium circulation system to the final spherical design employing a pumped system is described. Finally, performance data and heating rates are presented for some possible alternate ANS cryostat and vacuum jacket materials.

  4. Cold nuclear fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsyganov, E. N.; Bavizhev, M. D.; Buryakov, M. G.; Dabagov, S. B.; Golovatyuk, V. M.; Lobastov, S. P.

    2015-07-01

    If target deuterium atoms were implanted in a metal crystal in accelerator experiments, a sharp increase in the probability of DD-fusion reaction was clearly observed when compared with the reaction's theoretical value. The electronic screening potential, which for a collision of free deuterium atoms is about 27 eV, reached 300-700 eV in the case of the DD-fusion in metallic crystals. These data leads to the conclusion that a ban must exist for deuterium atoms to be in the ground state 1s in a niche filled with free conduction electrons. At the same time, the state 2p whose energy level is only 10 eV above that of state 1s is allowed in these conditions. With anisotropy of 2p, 3p or above orbitals, their spatial positions are strictly determined in the lattice coordinate system. When filling out the same potential niches with two deuterium atoms in the states 2p, 3p or higher, the nuclei of these atoms can be permanently positioned without creating much Coulomb repulsion at a very short distance from each other. In this case, the transparency of the potential barrier increases dramatically compared to the ground state 1s for these atoms. The probability of the deuterium nuclei penetrating the Coulomb barrier by zero quantum vibration of the DD-system also increases dramatically. The so-called cold nuclear DD-fusion for a number of years was registered in many experiments, however, was still rejected by mainstream science for allegedly having no consistent scientific explanation. Finally, it received the validation. Below, we outline the concept of this explanation and give the necessary calculations. This paper also considers the further destiny of the formed intermediate state of 4He∗.

  5. Cold urticaria and HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Lin, R Y; Schwartz, R A

    1993-10-01

    Three patients, all seropositive for HIV antibody, complained of swelling and pruritus on the head and limbs when exposed to the cold. All three had received zidovudine for significant CD4 cell depletion, but had no AIDS-defining illnesses. An ice-cube test was positive on each individual. There was no evidence of cold agglutinins, cryoglobulins, syphilis, or other concurrent diseases in any of the patients. This association may represent yet another allergic manifestation in HIV infection.

  6. Cold regions hydrology and hydraulics

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, W.L. ); Crissman, R.D. )

    1990-01-01

    This monograph addresses a narrow aspect of cold regions engineering, namely the effects of cold weather on the traditional civil engineering disciplines of hydrology and hydraulics. Hydrologic and hydraulic considerations in the design, construction, and operation of civil works are very important. Many of the problems encountered in the design and construction of buildings, transportation systems, water supply facilities, waste treatment facilities, and hazardous waste disposal facilities, for example are closely tied to the characteristics of the site hydrology.

  7. Laser cutting of Kevlar laminates and thermal stress formed at cutting sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Akhtar, S. S.

    2012-02-01

    Laser cutting of Kevlar laminates is carried out and thermal stress field developed in the cutting region is predicted using the finite element code. Temperature predictions are validated through the thermocouple data. The morphological changes in the cutting section are examined by incorporating optical and scanning electron microscopes. It is found that temperature predictions agree well with the thermocouple data. High values of von Mises stress are observed at the cutting edges and at the mid-thickness of the Kevlar laminate due to thermal compression formed in this region. The laser cut edges are free from whiskers; however, striation formation and some small sideways burning is observed at the kerf edges.

  8. Portable propellant cutting assembly, and method of cutting propellant with assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, Roger A. (Inventor); Hoskins, Shawn W. (Inventor); Payne, Brett D. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A propellant cutting assembly and method of using the assembly to cut samples of solid propellant in a repeatable and consistent manner is disclosed. The cutting assembly utilizes two parallel extension beams which are shorter than the diameter of a central bore of an annular solid propellant grain and can be loaded into the central bore. The assembly is equipped with retaining heads at its respective ends and an adjustment mechanism to position and wedge the assembly within the central bore. One end of the assembly is equipped with a cutting blade apparatus which can be extended beyond the end of the extension beams to cut into the solid propellant.

  9. Canada cuts export gas price to $4. 40; further cuts eyed

    SciTech Connect

    Slaff, J.

    1983-04-18

    Canada's plan to follow its April 54-cent cut in exported gas price for utilities with an additional cut to $3.30 per thousand cubic feet (mcf) will have the greatest impact on California and Pacific Northwest users. Northwest Pipeline, which currently imports 42% from Canada, assumes that the price cut is aimed at attracting a larger market share. Others question whether the second cut will occur because of internal political pressure between western energy developers who want higher prices and the Ottawa government. Both the US and Canadian governments see the first price cut as a token gesture since Canadian gas accounts for only 4% of the US market. (DCK)

  10. Dark exposure of petunia cuttings strongly improves adventitious root formation and enhances carbohydrate availability during rooting in the light.

    PubMed

    Klopotek, Yvonne; Haensch, Klaus-Thomas; Hause, Bettina; Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza; Druege, Uwe

    2010-05-01

    The effect of temporary dark exposure on adventitious root formation (ARF) in Petuniaxhybrida 'Mitchell' cuttings was investigated. Histological and metabolic changes in the cuttings during the dark treatment and subsequent rooting in the light were recorded. Excised cuttings were exposed to the dark for seven days at 10 degrees C followed by a nine-day rooting period in perlite or were rooted immediately for 16 days in a climate chamber at 22/20 degrees C (day/night) and a photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) of 100micromolm(-2)s(-1). Dark exposure prior to rooting increased, accelerated and synchronized ARF. The rooting period was reduced from 16 days (non-treated cuttings) to 9 days (treated cuttings). Under optimum conditions, despite the reduced rooting period, dark-exposed cuttings produced a higher number and length of roots than non-treated cuttings. An increase in temperature to 20 degrees C during the dark treatment or extending the cold dark exposure to 14 days caused a similar enhancement of root development compared to non-treated cuttings. Root meristem formation had already started during the dark treatment and was enhanced during the subsequent rooting period. Levels of soluble sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose) and starch in leaf and basal stem tissues significantly decreased during the seven days of dark exposure. This depletion was, however, compensated during rooting after 6 and 24h for soluble sugars in leaves and the basal stem, respectively, whereas the sucrose level in the basal stem was already increased at 6h. The association of higher carbohydrate levels with improved rooting in previously dark-exposed versus non-treated cuttings indicates that increased post-darkness carbohydrate availability and allocation towards the stem base contribute to ARF under the influence of dark treatment and provide energy for cell growth subject to a rising sink intensity in the base of the cutting. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Cold Spray Technology for DOD Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    Distribution Unlimited Mechanical Mixing at Interface • .. Sm-in ,, aluminum Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Cold Spray vs...of Corrosion Damage on Fielded Parts and Subsequent to Cold Spray Repair Before After 15 Cold Spray HP- Aluminum Fill...Unlimited Development and Implementation of Commercially Pure (CP) Aluminum and 6061 Aluminum Alloy Cold Spray Coatings for the Repair of Magnesium

  12. Performance House -- A Cold Climate Challenge Home

    SciTech Connect

    Puttagunta, S.; Grab, J.; Williamson, J.

    2013-08-01

    Working with builder partners on a test homes allows for vetting of whole-house building strategies to eliminate any potential unintended consequences prior to implementing these solution packages on a production scale. To support this research, CARB partnered with Preferred Builders Inc. on a high-performance test home in Old Greenwich, CT. The philosophy and science behind the 2,700 ft2 'Performance House' was based on the premise that homes should be safe, healthy, comfortable, durable, efficient, and adapt with the homeowners. The technologies and strategies used in the 'Performance House' were not cutting-edge, but simply 'best practices practiced'. The focus was on simplicity in construction, maintenance, and operation. When seeking a 30% source energy savings targets over a comparable 2009 IECC code-built home in the cold climate zone, nearly all components of a home must be optimized. Careful planning and design are critical. To help builders and architects seeking to match the performance of this home, a step-by-step guide through the building shell components of DOE's Challenge Home are provided in a pictorial story book. The end result was a DOE Challenge Home that achieved a HERS Index Score of 20 (43 without PV, the minimum target was 55 for compliance). This home was also awarded the 2012 HOBI for Best Green Energy Efficient Home from the Home Builders & Remodelers Association of Connecticut.

  13. Assessment of cold neutron radiography capability

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, T.E. Jr.; Roberts, J.A.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors goals were to demonstrate and assess cold neutron radiography techniques at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), Manual Lujan Neutron Scattering Center (Lujan Center), and to investigate potential applications of the capability. The authors have obtained images using film and an amorphous silicon detector. In addition, a new technique they have developed allows neutron radiographs to be made using only a narrow range of neutron energies. Employing this approach and the Bragg cut-off phenomena in certain materials, they have demonstrated material discrimination in radiography. They also demonstrated the imaging of cracks in a sample of a fire-set case that was supplied by Sandia National Laboratory, and they investigated whether the capability could be used to determine the extent of coking in jet engine nozzles. The LANSCE neutron radiography capability appears to have applications in the DOE stockpile maintenance and science-based stockpile stewardship (SBSS) programs, and in industry.

  14. Characterization of metal cutting dynamics. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, B.S.; Minis, I.

    1997-11-01

    A Hardinge CNC lathe has been fitted with sensors and a data acquisition system for the measurement, processing and storage of accelerations and forces associated with orthogonal cutting. This system has been completely validated. Orthogonal cutting experiments were designed in order to study the effects of critical cutting parameters on machining dynamics. Three major experimental sets were conducted. In the first set the depth of cut was increased in a stepwise fashion, while the workpiece surface speed, the spindle speed, and the tool feedrate were maintained invariant. In the second and third sets, the spindle speed and feedrate were varied, respectively, while maintaining all the other parameters invariant. In total over two hundred orthogonal cutting experiments were performed. In each experiment, the two non-zero components of the tool acceleration and the two non-zero components of the cutting force were measured. Despite high noise levels, mutual information calculations with smoothing kernels and false nearest neighbor algorithms proved to be sufficiently robust to provide upper bounds on attractor dimension for all fifty data sets studied. These results prove that the infinite dimensional cutting process has an associated attractor of dimension {le} 4. This result is important as a guide to model construction. An analysis of the power spectral sideband structure proved that sideband spacing is identical to the turning frequency. This result was further substantiated through envelope detection techniques. A linear delay model was shown to emulate the experimental power spectrum and possess predictive capacity.

  15. Process monitoring during CO2 laser cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgensen, Henning; Olsen, Flemming O.

    1991-05-01

    On-line process control equipment for CO2 laser cutting is not available for industrial applications today. The majority of the industrial cutting machines are regulated off-line by highly-educated staffs. The quality inspection of the samples often is visual, and referred to different quality scales. Due to this lack of automatization, potential laser users hesitate to implement the cutting method and hereby to benefit from the advantages offered by the method. The first step toward an automatization of the process is development of a process monitoring system, and the investigation described in this paper is concentrated in the area of on-line quality detection during CO2 laser cutting. The method is based on detection of the emitted light from the cut front by photo diodes. The detection is made co-axial with the laser beam to assure independence of the chosen processing direction. ZnSe mirrors have been placed in the beam path, reflecting the laser beam but transmitting the visible light emitted from the process. Cut series of 2, 6 and 8 mm mild steel have been performed. Fourier Analyses and statistical analyses of the signals have been undertaken, and from these analyses it is possible to estimate the surface roughness in the cut kerf, dross attachment at the backside of the work piece and the penetration of the laser beam.

  16. Deferment cutting in Appalachian hardwoods: the what, whys, and hows

    Treesearch

    H. Clay Smith; Gary W. Miller

    1991-01-01

    Deferment cutting is a regeneration practice that resembles a seed-tree or shelterwood cutting. The difference is that residual trees are not cut when the reproduction becomes established. Instead, residual trees are left until new reproduction matures to sawtimber size, and another regeneration cut is the silvicultural objective. Hence, with deferment cutting specific...

  17. Garlic for the common cold.

    PubMed

    Lissiman, Elizabeth; Bhasale, Alice L; Cohen, Marc

    2014-11-11

    Background Garlic is alleged to have antimicrobial and antiviral properties that relieve the common cold, among other beneficial effects. There is widespread usage of garlic supplements. The common cold is associated with significant morbidity and economic consequences. On average, children have six to eight colds per year and adults have two to four.Objectives To determine whether garlic (Allium sativum) is effective for the prevention or treatment of the common cold, when compared to placebo, no treatment or other treatments.Search methods We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 7),OLDMEDLINE (1950 to 1965),MEDLINE (January 1966 to July week 5, 2014), EMBASE(1974 to August 2014) and AMED (1985 to August 2014).Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of common cold prevention and treatment comparing garlic with placebo, no treatment or standard treatment.Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently reviewed and selected trials from searches, assessed and rated study quality and extracted relevant data.Main results In this updated review, we identified eight trials as potentially relevant from our searches. Again, only one trial met the inclusion criteria.This trial randomly assigned 146 participants to either a garlic supplement (with 180 mg of allicin content) or a placebo (once daily)for 12 weeks. The trial reported 24 occurrences of the common cold in the garlic intervention group compared with 65 in the placebo group (P value < 0.001), resulting in fewer days of illness in the garlic group compared with the placebo group (111 versus 366). The number of days to recovery from an occurrence of the common cold was similar in both groups (4.63 versus 5.63). Only one trial met the inclusion criteria, therefore limited conclusions can be drawn. The trial relied on self reported episodes of the common cold but was of reasonable quality in terms of randomisation and allocation concealment. Adverse effects included rash and odour. Authors' conclusions

  18. Garlic for the common cold.

    PubMed

    Lissiman, Elizabeth; Bhasale, Alice L; Cohen, Marc

    2012-03-14

    Garlic is alleged to have antimicrobial and antiviral properties that relieve the common cold, among other beneficial effects. There is widespread usage of garlic supplements. The common cold is associated with significant morbidity and economic consequences. On average, children have six to eight colds per year and adults have two to four. To determine whether garlic (allium sativum) is effective for either the prevention or treatment of the common cold, when compared to placebo, no treatment or other treatments. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2011, Issue 4), which includes the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group Specialised Register, OLDMEDLINE (1950 to 1965), MEDLINE (January 1966 to November week 3, 2011), EMBASE (1974 to December 2011) and AMED (1985 to December 2011). Randomised controlled trials of common cold prevention and treatment comparing garlic with placebo, no treatment or standard treatment. Two review authors independently reviewed and selected trials from searches, assessed and rated study quality and extracted relevant data. Of the six trials identified as potentially relevant from our searches, only one trial met the inclusion criteria. This trial randomly assigned 146 participants to either a garlic supplement (with 180 mg of allicin content) or a placebo (once daily) for 12 weeks. The trial reported 24 occurrences of the common cold in the garlic intervention group compared with 65 in the placebo group (P < 0.001), resulting in fewer days of illness in the garlic group compared with the placebo group (111 versus 366). The number of days to recovery from an occurrence of the common cold was similar in both groups (4.63 versus 5.63). Only one trial met the inclusion criteria, therefore limited conclusions can be drawn. The trial relied on self reported episodes of the common cold but was of reasonable quality in terms of randomisation and allocation concealment. Adverse effects included rash and

  19. Cold Fusion at Hotspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natland, J. H.

    2009-12-01

    with average melt temperature of ~1100C, the same temperature as given by Ca-in-orthopyroxene of the harzburgites. Cold ambient mantle draws heat from ascending magma, forcing differentiation at depth. Magma with TP greater by 200C than primitive basalt at spreading ridges does not exist at any of these places. TP does not constrain temperature of the mantle below the depth of melt extraction. High and variable 3He/4He at all these places may result from volatile incorporation from old harzburgite through which magmas must ascend. Poustovetov, A., and Roeder, P.L., 2000. Canad. Min. 39: 309-317.

  20. Effect of cold acclimatization on exercise economy in the cold.

    PubMed

    Muller, Matthew D; Kim, Chul-Ho; Bellar, David M; Ryan, Edward J; Seo, Yongsuk; Muller, Sarah M; Glickman, Ellen L

    2012-02-01

    We sought to determine if cold acclimatized men display higher economy (i.e. lower oxygen consumption at a given workload) during graded cycle ergometry in the cold (5°C). After completing a familiarization trial 1 week prior, five cold weather athletes (CWA) and eight physically active men (NON) underwent graded exercise tests to volitional fatigue in 5°C. The protocol always started at 60 W and increased by 20 W each minute. Oxygen consumption (VO(2)), respiration rate (RR), tidal volume (TV), and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were determined via open circuit spirometry. Individuals were matched for body size and minutes of weekly physical activity. Repeated measures analyses of variance were conducted across time (workload) and cold acclimatization was entered as a between subjects factor. VO(2) peak was not different between groups but CWA had lower VO(2) at 60 and 240 W. CWA also had lower RR at 180 and 260 W as well as lower RER at 240 and 260 W. At submaximal workloads, cold acclimatized men have higher exercise economy than non-acclimatized men. This could have implications for those who work in this context.

  1. Making the cut: lattice kirigami rules.

    PubMed

    Castle, Toen; Cho, Yigil; Gong, Xingting; Jung, Euiyeon; Sussman, Daniel M; Yang, Shu; Kamien, Randall D

    2014-12-12

    In this Letter we explore and develop a simple set of rules that apply to cutting, pasting, and folding honeycomb lattices. We consider origami-like structures that are extrinsically flat away from zero-dimensional sources of Gaussian curvature and one-dimensional sources of mean curvature, and our cutting and pasting rules maintain the intrinsic bond lengths on both the lattice and its dual lattice. We find that a small set of rules is allowed providing a framework for exploring and building kirigami—folding, cutting, and pasting the edges of paper.

  2. Making the Cut: Lattice Kirigami Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castle, Toen; Cho, Yigil; Gong, Xingting; Jung, Euiyeon; Sussman, Daniel M.; Yang, Shu; Kamien, Randall D.

    2014-12-01

    In this Letter we explore and develop a simple set of rules that apply to cutting, pasting, and folding honeycomb lattices. We consider origami-like structures that are extrinsically flat away from zero-dimensional sources of Gaussian curvature and one-dimensional sources of mean curvature, and our cutting and pasting rules maintain the intrinsic bond lengths on both the lattice and its dual lattice. We find that a small set of rules is allowed providing a framework for exploring and building kirigami—folding, cutting, and pasting the edges of paper.

  3. Imaging, cutting, and collecting instrument and method

    DOEpatents

    Tench, Robert J.; Siekhaus, Wigbert J.; Balooch, Mehdi; Balhorn, Rodney L.; Allen, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    Instrumentation and techniques to image small objects, such as but not limited to individual human chromosomes, with nanometer resolution, to cut-off identified parts of such objects, to move around and manipulate such cut-off parts on the substrate on which they are being imaged to predetermined locations on the substrate, and to remove the cut-off parts from the substrate. This is accomplished using an atomic force microscope (AFM) and by modification of the conventional cantilever stylus assembly of an AFM, such that plural cantilevers are used with either sharp-tips or knife-edges thereon. In addition, the invention can be utilized for measuring hardness of materials.

  4. Laser cutting with chemical reaction assist

    SciTech Connect

    Gettemy, D.J.

    1991-04-08

    This invention is comprised of a method for cutting with a laser beam where an oxygen-hydrocarbon reaction is used to provide auxiliary energy to a metal workpiece to supplement the energy supplied by the laser. Oxygen is supplied to the laser focus point on the workpiece by a nozzle through which the laser beam also passes. A liquid hydrocarbon is supplied by coating the workpiece along the cutting path with the hydrocarbon prior to laser irradiation or by spraying a stream of hydrocarbon through a nozzle aimed at a point on the cutting path which is just ahead of the focus point during irradiation.

  5. Laser cutting with chemical reaction assist

    DOEpatents

    Gettemy, D.J.

    1992-11-17

    A method is described for cutting with a laser beam where an oxygen-hydrocarbon reaction is used to provide auxiliary energy to a metal workpiece to supplement the energy supplied by the laser. Oxygen is supplied to the laser focus point on the workpiece by a nozzle through which the laser beam also passes. A liquid hydrocarbon is supplied by coating the workpiece along the cutting path with the hydrocarbon prior to laser irradiation or by spraying a stream of hydrocarbon through a nozzle aimed at a point on the cutting path which is just ahead of the focus point during irradiation. 1 figure.

  6. Laser cutting with chemical reaction assist

    DOEpatents

    Gettemy, Donald J.

    1992-01-01

    A method for cutting with a laser beam where an oxygen-hydrocarbon reaction is used to provide auxiliary energy to a metal workpiece to supplement the energy supplied by the laser. Oxygen is supplied to the laser focus point on the workpiece by a nozzle through which the laser beam also passes. A liquid hydrocarbon is supplied by coating the workpiece along the cutting path with the hydrocarbon prior to laser irradiation or by spraying a stream of hydrocarbon through a nozzle aimed at a point on the cutting path which is just ahead of the focus point during irradiation.

  7. Reconfigurable manufacturing execution system for pipe cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Y. H.; Xie, J. Y.

    2011-08-01

    This article presents a reconfigurable manufacturing execution system (RMES) filling the gap between enterprise resource planning and resource layer for pipe-cutting production with mass customisation and rapid adaptation to dynamic market, which consists of planning and scheduling layer and executive control layer. Starting from customer's task and process requirements, the cutting trajectories are planned under generalised mathematical model able to reconfigure in accordance with various intersecting types' joint, and all tasks are scheduled by nesting algorithm to maximise the utilisation rate of rough material. This RMES for pipe cutting has been effectively implemented in more than 100 companies.

  8. Enhanced dental cutting through chemomechanical effects.

    PubMed

    von Fraunhofer, J A; Siegel, S C

    2000-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that certain surface-active agents--compounds that reduce interfacial tension--in a dental handpiece's irrigation water can enhance cutting rates, or CRs. This study evaluated these effects under test conditions simulating dental practice. The authors used a self-contained cutting system with a digitally controlled handpiece speed, torque and water flow rate to cut machinable glass ceramic (Macor, Corning Inc.) with medium-grit diamond burs and cross-cut fissure carbide burs under a load of 147.5 grams and 22 milliliters per minute coolant flow rate using water with mouthwash (Scope, Procter & Gamble) additions. They used six burs for each irrigant mixture to make three 5-millimeter edge cuts through 13 mm of Macor; CRs were quantified as the time necessary to transect the Macor cutting substrate. Additions of small amounts of mouthwash to the coolant water accelerated the CR for both carbide and diamond burs. The CRs for carbide burs in millimeters per second were distilled water, 0.21; 1:2.5 mouthwash:distilled water mixture, 0.12; 1:5 mixture, 0.64; and 1:10 mixture, 0.66. The CR differences for the 1:5 and 1:10 mixtures were significant (P < .001). The CRs for diamond burs in millimeters per second were distilled water, 0.09; 1:1 mouthwash:distilled water mixture, 0.13; 1:2.5 mixture, 0.16; 1:5 mixture, 0.21; and 1:10 mixture, 0.18. When it came to the diamond burs, the CR differences between water and the mouthwash:distilled water mixtures were significant (P < .001). The authors found that the mouthwash additions ensured higher CRs compared with those for water alone over the entire cutting regimen; that is, while the CRs for both carbide and diamond burs dropped with prolonged cutting with water irrigation, the addition of mouthwash resulted in the burs' cutting faster and for longer than with water alone. Adding small amounts of mouthwash to the coolant water significantly enhanced cutting by diamond and carbide burs and

  9. Relationship between the enzymatic browning and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity of cut lettuce, and the prevention of browning by inhibitors of polyphenol biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Hisaminato, H; Murata, M; Homma, S

    2001-05-01

    Cut lettuce stored at 4 degrees C gradually turned brown on the cut section after several days of storage. Three factors for enzymatic browning, the polyphenol content, polyphenol oxidase activity, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity, were examined during the cold storage of cut lettuce. A relationship between the browning and PAL activity was apparent. We tried to prevent this browning by using the two enzyme inhibitors, 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid (AIP), an inhibitor of the phenylpropanoid pathway, and glyphosate, an inhibitor of the shikimate pathway. AIP and glyphosate significantly inhibited the browning of cut lettuce. The polyphenol content and PAL activity were both reduced by the treatment with AIP. These results show that regulating the biosynthesis of polyphenols is essential to prevent the browning of cut lettuce.

  10. Auditing to the cutting edge

    SciTech Connect

    Good, L.; Wirdzek, P.

    1999-07-01

    Equipment? System? Building? Campus? Neighborhood? Community? Region? What is to be audited and what needs to be corrected? Can the energy management professional decide, or should the customer? Over the last few decades, energy professionals have been evaluating energy use in order to balance clients' expenditures with acceptable levels of service. Traditionally, professional expertise and creativity have been limited more by budget than any other single element. Today, energy and the environment are tightly intertwined. In the future, effective energy management may not be possible without considering the relationships between them. Conversely, environmental protection cannot be achieved without considering energy production, distribution, and use. To this end, two powerful federal organizations, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Department of Energy (DOE), have been engaged in defining the interrelationships of these areas and fashioning national energy policies aimed at awakening Americans to these facts. Environmental demands are becoming a factor in efficiency equations. Energy management professionals should prepare a response. They will face demands for cutting-edge audits that reach further than giving utility power just a trim in the energy barber shop. Survival in the business of energy management will require a broader perspective. One need only look to current advertisements by national and international corporations which praise the environmental benefits of their products and even their places of business as cleaner than their competitors'. For the energy management professional then, energy diversity and source versus site considerations are opportunities to be identified in the audit process, in addition to replacement of inefficient equipment. The country is rich with technology choices, with documented experience, and with the knowledge to create systems that can mine deep savings. True, some have niche applications, which

  11. Recycling of cold-stable microtubules: evidence that cold stability is due to substoichiometric polymer blocks.

    PubMed

    Job, D; Rauch, C T; Fischer, E H; Margolis, R L

    1982-02-02

    A substantial subpopulation of mammalian brain crude extract microtubules is resistant to cold-temperature disassembly. We propose here that microtubules are rendered cold stable by rare substoichiometric blocks. Mild shearing of rat brain cold-stable microtubules makes them largely cold labile. In addition, cold-stable microtubules can be destabilized by exposure to low concentrations of calmodulin (5 microM) in the presence of calcium at 0 degree C. Cold-disassembled microtubule protein, obtained from sheared or calmodulin-treated cold-stable preparations, re-forms a cold-stable subpopulation upon reassembly. These observations allow strategies for the recycling purification of cold-stable microtubules. Comparison of purified cold-labile and cold-stable material by gel electrophoresis shows enrichment for a few unique polypeptides, of 135, 70-82, and 56 kilodaltons, in the cold-stable preparation. The 64-kilodalton "switch protein", previously identified as uniquely dephosphorylated in cold-stable microtubules, is equally represented in recycled cold-stable and cold-labile microtubule preparations. Furthermore, when disassembled, cold-stable microtubule proteins are passed through a calmodulin affinity column on which the polypeptides characteristic of cold-stable microtubules are specifically retained, the breakthrough (unbound) material repolymerizes into cold-labile microtubules only. Based on the above data, a model is presented in which microtubules are rendered cold stable by the presence of substoichiometric, calmodulin-sensitive blocks that randomly reshuffle upon reassembly of cold-stable microtubules.

  12. Primary (idiopathic) cold urticaria and cholinergic urticaria.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gene

    2004-11-30

    A 76-year-old man with a longstanding history of cold sensitivity developed wheals after the application of an ice cube. Cold urticaria is a type of physical urticaria that is characterized urticaria and angioedema after exposure to cold. It may be idiopathic or secondary to hematologic or infectious diseases. Treatment of primary cold urticaria includes antihistamines; however, ketotifen, doxantrazole, zafirlukast, cyclosporine, and cold-tolerance induction may be tried in refractory cases.

  13. Definition of fine cutting features for laser fusion cutting of stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seebach, J.; Norman, S.; Harrison, P.

    2015-07-01

    Laser fusion cutting of stainless steel is often considered in a material range from 0,3mm up to 4mm and laser powers up to 2kW. For a given material thickness, different optimum beam and process parameters can be determined empirically, leading to a dross-free cut for high tool travel speeds. Realising sharp 90-degree corners, dross formation is observed and leads to a deteriorated cutting quality. With reorientation at small radii, the speed-dependent change in the cutting process is superimposed by the existing beam to nozzle misalignment and contributes to the stability of a cut. The feature radius R on the stability of the cutting process is being determined by reducing feature radius R. In this paper, cutting of different radii for different sized conventional nozzles is considered and analysed. Based on cutting quality evaluation, fine feature cutting is defined by discussing thickness-dependent finest cutting feature for a given gas dynamic input.

  14. An FMS Dynamic Production Scheduling Algorithm Considering Cutting Tool Failure and Cutting Tool Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiawan, A.; Wangsaputra, R.; Martawirya, Y. Y.; Halim, A. H.

    2016-02-01

    This paper deals with Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) production rescheduling due to unavailability of cutting tools caused either of cutting tool failure or life time limit. The FMS consists of parallel identical machines integrated with an automatic material handling system and it runs fully automatically. Each machine has a same cutting tool configuration that consists of different geometrical cutting tool types on each tool magazine. The job usually takes two stages. Each stage has sequential operations allocated to machines considering the cutting tool life. In the real situation, the cutting tool can fail before the cutting tool life is reached. The objective in this paper is to develop a dynamic scheduling algorithm when a cutting tool is broken during unmanned and a rescheduling needed. The algorithm consists of four steps. The first step is generating initial schedule, the second step is determination the cutting tool failure time, the third step is determination of system status at cutting tool failure time and the fourth step is the rescheduling for unfinished jobs. The approaches to solve the problem are complete-reactive scheduling and robust-proactive scheduling. The new schedules result differences starting time and completion time of each operations from the initial schedule.

  15. Laser Cutting of Leather: Tool for Industry or Designers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, Alexander; Manninen, Matti; Pärnänen, Inni; Hirvimäki, Marika; Salminen, Antti

    Currently technologies which are applied for leather cutting include slitting knifes, die press techniques and manual cutting. Use of laser technology has grown significantly during recent years due to number of advantages over conventional cutting methods; flexibility, high production speed, possibility to cut complex geometries, easier cutting of customized parts, and less leftovers of leather makes laser cutting more and more economically attractive to apply for leather cutting. Laser technology provides advantages in cutting complex geometries, stable cutting quality and possibility to utilize leather material in economically best way. Constant quality is important in industrial processes and laser technology fulfills this requirement: properly chosen laser cutting parameters provides identical cuts. Additionally, laser technology is very flexible in terms of geometries: complex geometries, individual designs, prototypes and small scale products can be manufactured by laser cutting. Variety of products, which needed to be cut in small volumes, is also the application where laser cutting can be more beneficial due to possibility to change production from one product to another only by changing geometry without a need to change cutting tool. Disadvantages of laser processing include high initial investment costs and some running costs due to maintenance and required gas supply for the laser. Higher level of operator's expertise is required due to more complicated machinery in case of laser cutting. This study investigates advantages and disadvantages of laser cutting in different areas of application and provides comparison between laser cutting and mechanical cutting of leather.

  16. Repeatability of a cold stress test to assess cold sensitization.

    PubMed

    House, C M; Taylor, R J; Oakley, E H N

    2015-10-01

    Non-freezing cold injury (NFCI) is a syndrome in which damage to peripheral tissues occurs without the tissues freezing following exposure to low ambient temperatures. To assess the test-retest reliability of a cold stress test (CST) used to assess cold sensitization. Volunteers with no self-reported history of NFCI undertook the CST on three occasions. Thermal images were taken of the foot and hand before, immediately after and 5min after immersion of the limb in cold water for 2min. Cold sensitization was graded by the two clinicians and the lead author. Spot temperatures from the toe and finger pads were recorded. There were 30 white and 19 black male participants. The ratings indicated substantial agreement [a Cohen's kappa (κ) value of 0.61-0.8] to within ± one grading category for the hands and feet of the white volunteers and the hands of the black volunteers. Limits of agreement (LoA) analysis for toe and finger pad temperatures indicated high agreement (absolute 95% LoA < 5.5°C). Test-retest reliability for the feet of the black volunteers was not supported by the gradings (κ = 0.38) and toe pad temperatures (absolute 95% LoA = 9.5°C and coefficient of variation = 11%). The test-retest reliability of the CST is considered adequate for the assessment of the cold sensitization of the hands and feet of white and the hands of black healthy non-patients. The study should be repeated with patients who have suffered a NFCI. © Crown copyright 2015.

  17. Garlic for the common cold.

    PubMed

    Lissiman, Elizabeth; Bhasale, Alice L; Cohen, Marc

    2009-07-08

    Garlic is alleged to have antimicrobial and antiviral properties that relieve the common cold, among other beneficial effects. There is widespread usage of garlic supplements. The common cold is associated with significant morbidity and economic consequences. On average, children have six to eight colds per year, and adults have two to four. To determine whether garlic (allium sativum) is effective for either the prevention or treatment of the common cold, when compared to placebo, no treatment or other treatments. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2009, issue 1), which includes the Acute Respiratory Infections Group Specialised Register; OLDMEDLINE (1950 to 1965); MEDLINE (January 1966 to March Week 3, 2009); EMBASE (1974 to March 2009); and AMED (1985 to March 2009). Randomised controlled trials of common cold prevention and treatment comparing garlic with placebo, no treatment or standard treatment. Two review authors independently reviewed and selected trials from searches, assessed and rated study quality, and extracted relevant data. Of the five trials identified as potentially relevant from our searches, only one trial met the inclusion criteria. This trial randomly assigned 146 volunteer participants to either a garlic supplement (with 180 mg of allicin content) or a placebo (once daily) for 12 weeks. The trial reported 65 occurrences of the common cold in the placebo group compared with 24 in the garlic intervention group (P < 0.001). The number of days of illness was lower in the garlic group compared with the placebo group (111 versus 366). The number of days to recovery was similar in both groups (4.63 versus 5.63). Because only one trial met the inclusion criteria, limited conclusions can be drawn. The trial relied on self-reported episodes of the common cold, but was of reasonable quality in terms of randomisation and allocation concealment. Adverse effects included rash and odour. There is

  18. Making the Cut: Lattice Kirigami Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castle, Toen; Cho, Yigil; Gong, Xingting; Jung, Euiyeon; Sussman, Daniel; Yang, Shu; Kamien, Randall

    2015-03-01

    Complex 3D structures can be built by bending and folding a flat sheet, as is done in origami. This paradigm can be extended by cutting and gluing the sheet as well as folding. The principles manifest in manipulating a piece of paper can translate across many length scales, limited only by fabrication methods. We explore and develop a simple set of rules that apply to cutting, pasting, and folding honeycomb lattices. We consider origami-like structures that are extrinsically flat away from zero-dimensional sources of Gaussian curvature and one-dimensional sources of mean curvature, and our cutting and pasting rules maintain the intrinsic bond lengths on both the lattice and its dual lattice. We find that a small set of rules is allowed, providing a framework for exploring and building kirigami - folding, cutting, and pasting the edges of paper. Support from NSF DMR12-62047.

  19. Checking Out Cuts, Scratches, and Abrasions

    MedlinePlus

    ... to get rid of the infection. Luckily, most cuts, scratches, and abrasions will go away on their own, thanks to your body's amazing ability to heal ... Story on Scars Cellulitis Taking Care of Your Skin What's a Scab? ...

  20. Chevron cutting: Experiment with new runway mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyran, K. (Compiler)

    1978-01-01

    Chevron cutting is shown to occur in different forms depending on the type of tire and the rubber on the running surface. Hardest wear is shown by the main tires of the B-747. Four defects occurred, in the form of two rip separation and two breakouts of the running surface. Tires capped by Thompson are more affected than any of the other rubber-capping fabrics. For Thompson tires, Chevron Cutting is greatly reduced with a fiberglass-rubber mixture. For Goodyear tires, it is eliminated with spiral wrap rubbercapping; resistance to damages through cuts seems to be more positive for Goodyear tires. For Mader tires, the extent of Chevron Cutting is generally smaller than for Thompson cappings.